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Sample records for thalidomide

  1. Thalidomide neurotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, O J; Olsen, P Z; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    1984-01-01

    Of six patients treated with thalidomide for either prurigo nodularis or discoid lupus erythematosus, four had paresthesias in the hands and feet and one also complained of muscular pain and stiffness. Clinical neurological findings in all four patients were normal. Subsequent electrophysiological...

  2. Thalidomide and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It is recommended that two different and reliable methods of birth control be used if a woman is taking thalidomide. Thalidomide may decrease the effectiveness of oral contraceptives (birth control pills). The manufacturer developed the STEPS ( ...

  3. Thalidomide in dermatology: Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iffat Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of thalidomide in relation to dermatology is well- known and enough data is available in the literature about various aspects of thalidomide. Despite being an interesting and useful drug for many dermatoses, it is associated with many health hazards including the birth defects, phocomelia. We hereby present a comprehensive review about thalidomide and its application in dermatology.

  4. Thalidomide-associated thrombocytopenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duyvendak, M; Naunton, M.; Kingma, B.J; Brouwers, J.R.B.J.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To report thrombocytopenia in a patient prescribed thalidomide for multiple myeloma (MM). CASE SUMMARY: A 70-year-old woman was diagnosed in 2003 with MM. At diagnosis, melphalan 0.25 mg/kg/day and prednisolone 2 mg/kg/day were started; however, the patient became refractory to therapy.

  5. Forgive sins: rise of thalidomide

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    Yugandar Inakanti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Thalidomide was originally used as a Wonder Drug to treat morning sickness and insomnia in pregnant women in late 1950s. It became apparent in early 1960s that thalidomide treatment resulted in severe birth defects in thousands of children. Then it was banned in most of countries. Later on discovered anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties of Thalidomide proved to be useful for treatment of leprosy and multiple myeloma. A series of immunomodulatory drugs created by chemical modification of thalidomide have been developed to overcome the original devastating side effects. It’s being investigated extensively as a treatment for many other severe cutaneous disorders and advanced cancers. We briefly review pharmacological and the therapeutic profile of thalidomide.

  6. [Thalidomide teratogenicity and its direct target identification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takumi; Ando, Hideki; Handa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Half a century ago, thalidomide was developed as a sedative drug and was wildly used over 40 countries. However the drug has serious birth defects such as amelia and phocomelia. Now thalidomide is regarded as a clinically effective drug and used for the treatment of multiple myeloma under strict controls. The direct target of thalidomide had been a long-standing question. We identified cereblon as a primary direct target protein for thalidomide teratogenicity using new affinity bead technology in 2010. In this review, we introduce an overview of thalidomide teratogenicity, a story about how we identified cereblon, and recent advances in cereblon studies.

  7. Thalidomide increases human keratinocyte migration and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasca, M R; O'Toole, E A; Palicharla, P; West, D P; Woodley, D T

    1999-11-01

    Thalidomide is reported to have therapeutic utility in the treatment of pyoderma gangrenosum, Behçet's disease, aphthous ulcers, and skin wounds. We investigated the effect of thalidomide on human keratinocyte proliferation and migration, two early and critical events in the re-epithelialization of skin wounds. Thalidomide at concentrations less than 1 microM did not affect keratinocyte viability. Using a thymidine incorporation assay, we found that thalidomide, at therapeutic concentrations, induced more than a 2. 5-fold increase in the proliferative potential of the cells. Keratinocyte migration was assessed by two independent motility assays: a colloidal gold assay and an in vitro scratch assay. At optimal concentrations, thalidomide increased keratinocyte migration on a collagen matrix more than 2-fold in the colloidal gold assay and more than 3-fold in the scratch assay over control. Although pro-migratory, thalidomide did not alter the level of metalloproteinase-9 secreted into culture medium. Thalidomide did, however, induce a 2-4-fold increase in keratinocyte-derived interleukin-8, a pro-migratory cellular autocrine factor. Human keratinocyte migration and proliferation are essential for re-epithelialization of skin wounds. Interleukin-8 increases human keratinocyte migration and proliferation and is chemotactic for keratinocytes. Therefore, thalidomide may modulate keratinocyte proliferation and motility by a chemokine-dependent pathway.

  8. Stability of an extemporaneously prepared thalidomide suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Shawna; Johnson, Cary E; Tyler, Ryan P

    2012-01-01

    The short-term physical and chemical stability of an oral suspension of thalidomide 20 mg/mL was studied. An oral suspension of thalidomide 20 mg/mL was prepared by emptying the contents of 12 100-mg thalidomide capsules into a glass mortar; 30 mL of Ora-Plus and 30 mL of Ora-Sweet were mixed and added to the thalidomide powder to make a final volume of 60 mL. Three identical samples of the formulation were prepared and placed in 2-oz amber plastic bottles with child-resistant caps and stored under refrigeration (3-5 °C). A 1-mL sample was withdrawn from each of the three samples with a micropipette immediately after preparation and at 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days. After further dilution to an expected concentration of 20 μg/mL with acetonitrile-methanol and then dilution with mobile phase, the samples were assayed in duplicate using stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography. Stability was determined by evaluating the percentage of the initial concentration remaining at each time point; stability was defined as the retention of at least 90% of the initial concentration of thalidomide. At least 92% of the initial thalidomide concentration remained throughout the 35-day study period. There were no detectable changes in color, odor, or pH and no visible microbial growth in any sample. An extemporaneously prepared suspension of thalidomide 20 mg/mL in a 1:1 mixture of Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet was stable for at least 35 days when stored in 2-oz amber plastic bottles under refrigeration.

  9. Antitumorigenic Evaluation of Thalidomide Alone and in Combination with Cisplatin in DBA2/J Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Marie B. Ruddy

    2002-01-01

    thalidomide failed to inhibit cell proliferation. However, cisplatin treatment with or without thalidomide, significantly inhibited the multiplication of both cell lines in a dose dependent manner. Thalidomide does not appear to be a beneficial adjuvant to cisplatin treatment.

  10. Identification of a primary target of thalidomide teratogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takumi; Ando, Hideki; Suzuki, Takayuki; Ogura, Toshihiko; Hotta, Kentaro; Imamura, Yoshimasa; Yamaguchi, Yuki; Handa, Hiroshi

    2010-03-12

    Half a century ago, thalidomide was widely prescribed to pregnant women as a sedative but was found to be teratogenic, causing multiple birth defects. Today, thalidomide is still used in the treatment of leprosy and multiple myeloma, although how it causes limb malformation and other developmental defects is unknown. Here, we identified cereblon (CRBN) as a thalidomide-binding protein. CRBN forms an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex with damaged DNA binding protein 1 (DDB1) and Cul4A that is important for limb outgrowth and expression of the fibroblast growth factor Fgf8 in zebrafish and chicks. Thalidomide initiates its teratogenic effects by binding to CRBN and inhibiting the associated ubiquitin ligase activity. This study reveals a basis for thalidomide teratogenicity and may contribute to the development of new thalidomide derivatives without teratogenic activity.

  11. Defibrotide blunts the prothrombotic effect of thalidomide on endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echart, C L; Somaini, S; Distaso, M; Palumbo, A; Richardson, P G; Fareed, J; Iacobelli, M

    2012-01-01

    Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) are at relatively high risk of developing thromboembolic events such deep venous thrombosis (DVT) where thalidomide therapy has been identified to increase this risk. Defibrotide (DF), a polydisperse oligonucleotide, showed previously to counteract the alterations in endothelial cells (ECs) induced by lipopolysaccharide. It prompts us to investigate the impact of thalidomide on ECs and whether DF modulates changes in fibrinolysis induced by thalidomide. In this in vitro study, MM by itself alters the profibrinolytic potential of ECs decreasing the tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and increasing the plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) levels which is potentiated by thalidomide. Defibrotide was able to counteract these effects. Additionally, DF upregulated the t-PA and downregulated PAI-1 gene expression modulated by thalidomide. Defibrotide also protects ECs from thalidomide-mediated cell death without interfering with its antitumor effects. These findings support DF clinical use for the prevention of DVT induced by immunomodulatory drugs.

  12. Thalidomide induces apoptosis in undifferentiated human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachikawa, Saoko; Nishimura, Toshinobu; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Ohnuma, Kiyoshi

    2017-10-01

    Thalidomide, which was formerly available commercially to control the symptoms of morning sickness, is a strong teratogen that causes fetal abnormalities. However, the mechanism of thalidomide teratogenicity is not fully understood; thalidomide toxicity is not apparent in rodents, and the use of human embryos is ethically and technically untenable. In this study, we designed an experimental system featuring human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) to investigate the effects of thalidomide. These cells exhibit the same characteristics as those of epiblasts originating from implanted fertilized ova, which give rise to the fetus. Therefore, theoretically, thalidomide exposure during hiPSC differentiation is equivalent to that in the human fetus. We examined the effects of thalidomide on undifferentiated hiPSCs and early-differentiated hiPSCs cultured in media containing bone morphogenetic protein-4, which correspond, respectively, to epiblast (future fetus) and trophoblast (future extra-embryonic tissue). We found that only the number of undifferentiated cells was reduced. In undifferentiated cells, application of thalidomide increased the number of apoptotic and dead cells at day 2 but not day 4. Application of thalidomide did not affect the cell cycle. Furthermore, immunostaining and flow cytometric analysis revealed that thalidomide exposure had no effect on the expression of specific markers of undifferentiated and early trophectodermal differentiated cells. These results suggest that the effect of thalidomide was successfully detected in our experimental system and that thalidomide eliminated a subpopulation of undifferentiated hiPSCs. This study may help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying thalidomide teratogenicity and reveal potential strategies for safely prescribing this drug to pregnant women.

  13. [Current therapeutic indications of thalidomide and lenalidomide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordi-Ros, Josep; Cosiglio, Francisco Javier

    2014-04-22

    Thalidomide is a synthetic glutamic acid derivative first introduced in 1956 in Germany as an over the counter medications. It was thought to be one of the safest sedatives ever produced as it was effective in small doses, was not addictive, and did not have acute side-effects such as motor impairment, but was quickly removed from market after it was linked to cases of severe birth defects. The Food and Drug Administration approved use in the treatment of erythema nodosum leprosum. Further, it was shown its effectiveness in unresponsive dermatological conditions such as actinic prurigo, adult Langerhans cell hystiocytosis, aphthous stomatitis, Behçet syndrome, graft-versus-host disease, cutaneous sarcoidosis, erythema multiforme, Jessner-Kanof lymphocytic infiltration of the skin, Kaposi sarcoma, lichen planus, lupus erythematosus, melanoma, prurigo nodularis, pyoderma gangrenosum and others. In May 2006, it was approved for the treating multiple myeloma. New thalidomide analogues have been developed but lack clinical experience. This paper is a review of the history, pharmacology, mechanism of action, clinical applications and side effects of thalidomide and its analogues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. Thalidomide protects mice against LPS-induced shock

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    Moreira A.L.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Thalidomide has been shown to selectively inhibit TNF-a production in vitro by lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated monocytes. TNF-a has been shown to play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of endotoxic shock. Using a mouse model of LPS-induced shock, we investigated the effects of thalidomide on the production of TNF-a and other cytokines and on animal survival. After injection of 100-350 µg LPS into mice, cytokines including TNF-a, IL-6, IL-10, IL-1ß, GM-CSF and IFN-g were measured in the serum. Administration of 200 mg/kg thalidomide to mice before LPS challenge modified the profile of LPS-induced cytokine secretion. Serum TNF-a levels were reduced by 93%, in a dose-dependent manner, and TNF-a mRNA expression in the spleens of mice was reduced by 70%. Serum IL-6 levels were also inhibited by 50%. Thalidomide induced a two-fold increase in serum IL-10 levels. Thalidomide treatment did not interfere with the production of GM-CSF, IL-1ß or IFN-g. The LD50 of LPS in this model was increased by thalidomide pre-treatment from 150 µg to 300 µg in 72 h. Thus, at otherwise lethal doses of LPS, thalidomide treatment was found to protect animals from death

  15. A Novel Green Synthesis of Thalidomide and Analogs

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    Ellis Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thalidomide and its derivatives are currently under investigation for their antiangiogenic, immunomodulative, and anticancer properties. Current methods used to synthesize these compounds involve multiple steps and extensive workup procedures. Described herein is an efficient microwave irradiation green synthesis method that allows preparation of thalidomide and its analogs in a one-pot multicomponent synthesis system. The multicomponent synthesis system developed involves an array of cyclic anhydrides, glutamic acid, and ammonium chloride in the presence of catalytic amounts of 4-N,N-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP to produce thalidomide and structurally related compounds within minutes in good isolated yields.

  16. The Clinical Development of Thalidomide as an Angiogenesis Inhibitor Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dlaiani, Danai

    2002-01-01

    ...), assessed by wound healing and peri-operative bleeding; 2) Efficacy of neo-adjuvant thalidomide treatment, as measured by the rate of tumor reduction I PSA decline while on thalidomide therapy; 3...

  17. Thalidomide has a significant effect in patients with thalassemia intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, YunShuan; Ren, Quan; Zhou, Yali; Li, Pingping; Lin, Wanhua; Yin, Xiaolin

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the effect of thalidomide in patients with thalassemia intermedia. We observed the effect of thalidomide in seven patients with thalassemia intermedia requiring blood transfusion. Four of the patients were transfusion-independent, and three patients were transfusion-dependent. For the four transfusion-independent patients, hemoglobin concentration increased significantly (≥2 g/dl) in three and moderately (1-2 g/dl) in one. After 3 months of treatment, hemoglobin concentration increased 3.2 ± 1.2 g/dl compared to pretreatment. Among the three transfusion-dependent patients, transfusion was terminated after one month of treatment in one patient and decreased >50% in the other two patients, accompanied by an increase in the average hemoglobin concentration. Thalidomide had a significant effect in patients with thalassemia intermedia. Further studies of a larger scale and more rigorous design are warranted.

  18. Safety of thalidomide in newly diagnosed elderly myeloma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palumbo, Antonio; Waage, Anders; Hulin, Cyrille

    2013-01-01

    Background. Melphalan-prednisone-thalidomide (MPT) improves outcome in multiple myeloma (MM) patients, and it is now considered a standard of care for patients not eligible for transplantation. However, this treatment is a major source of morbidity. Design and Methods. An individual patient data...

  19. Elotuzumab in combination with thalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateos, Maria-Victoria; Granell, Miguel; Oriol, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Elotuzumab is an immunostimulatory, humanized immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody that selectively targets and kills signalling lymphocytic activation molecule family member 7-expressing myeloma cells. We evaluated the safety and tolerability of elotuzumab 10 mg/kg combined with thalidomide 50-...

  20. High-dose thalidomide increases the risk of peripheral neuropathy in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis

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    Hong-xia Xue

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thalidomide is an effective drug for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis but might induce peripheral neuropathy. This major adverse reaction has attracted much concern. The current study aimed to observe the incidence of thalidomide-induced peripheral neuropathy among ankylosing spondylitis patients for 1 year after treatment. In this study, 207 ankylosing spondylitis cases received thalidomide treatment, while 116 ankylosing spondylitis cases received other treatments. Results showed that the incidence of thalidomide-induced peripheral neuropathy in the thalidomide group was higher than that in the non-thalidomide group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of neuropathy between the < 6 months medication and ≥ 6 months medication groups. There were no differences in the mean age, gender, or daily dose between the two groups. The incidence of peripheral neuropathy among patients receiving 25, 50, 75, or 100 mg thalidomide per day was 4.6%, 8.5%, 17.1%, 21.7%, respectively. The incidence was significantly different between the groups receiving 25 mg and 100 mg thalidomide. In conclusion, thalidomide can induce peripheral neuropathy within 1 year after treatment of ankylosing spondylitis; however, age and gender have no obvious impact on the incidence of peripheral neuropathy. The incidence of peripheral neuropathy is associated with increasing daily doses of thalidomide.

  1. High-dose thalidomide increases the risk of peripheral neuropathy in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hong-Xia; Fu, Wen-Yi; Cui, Hua-Dong; Yang, Li-Li; Zhang, Ning; Zhao, Li-Juan

    2015-05-01

    Thalidomide is an effective drug for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis but might induce peripheral neuropathy. This major adverse reaction has attracted much concern. The current study aimed to observe the incidence of thalidomide-induced peripheral neuropathy among ankylosing spondylitis patients for 1 year after treatment. In this study, 207 ankylosing spondylitis cases received thalidomide treatment, while 116 ankylosing spondylitis cases received other treatments. Results showed that the incidence of thalidomide-induced peripheral neuropathy in the thalidomide group was higher than that in the non-thalidomide group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of neuropathy between the peripheral neuropathy among patients receiving 25, 50, 75, or 100 mg thalidomide per day was 4.6%, 8.5%, 17.1%, 21.7%, respectively. The incidence was significantly different between the groups receiving 25 mg and 100 mg thalidomide. In conclusion, thalidomide can induce peripheral neuropathy within 1 year after treatment of ankylosing spondylitis; however, age and gender have no obvious impact on the incidence of peripheral neuropathy. The incidence of peripheral neuropathy is associated with increasing daily doses of thalidomide.

  2. The Rise, Fall and Subsequent Triumph of Thalidomide: Lessons Learned in Drug Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Waqas; Arfons, Lisa M.; Lazarus, Hillard M.

    2011-01-01

    Perhaps no other drug in modern medicine rivals the dramatic revitalization of thalidomide. Originally marketed as a sedative, thalidomide gained immense popularity worldwide among pregnant women because of its effective anti-emetic properties in morning sickness. Mounting evidence of human teratogenicity marked a dramatic fall from grace and led to widespread social, legal and economic ramifications. Despite its tragic past thalidomide emerged several decades later as a novel and highly effective agent in the treatment of various inflammatory and malignant diseases. In 2006 thalidomide completed its remarkable renaissance becoming the first new agent in over a decade to gain approval for the treatment of plasma cell myeloma. The catastrophic collapse yet subsequent revival of thalidomide provides important lessons in drug development. Never entirely abandoned by the medical community, thalidomide resurfaced as an important drug once the mechanisms of action were further studied and better understood. Ongoing research and development of related drugs such as lenalidomide now represent a class of irreplaceable drugs in hematological malignancies. Further, the tragedies associated with this agent stimulated the legislation which revamped the FDA regulatory process, expanded patient informed consent procedures and mandated more transparency from drug manufacturers. Finally, we review recent clinical trials summarizing selected medical indications for thalidomide with an emphasis on hematologic malignancies. Herein, we provide a historic perspective regarding the up-and-down development of thalidomide. Using PubMed databases we conducted searches using thalidomide and associated keywords highlighting pharmacology, mechanisms of action, and clinical uses. PMID:23556097

  3. Inhibition of DNA synthesis and radiosensitization effects of thalidomide on esophageal carcinoma TE1 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Jingping; Sun Suping; Sun Zhiqiang; Sun Meiling; Liu Fenju

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the radiosensitization effect of thalidomide combined with X-ray on esophageal carcinoma TE1 cells. Methods: Cell scratch assay was used to detect the inhibition ability of different concentration of Thalidomide on cell invasion and metastasis. H 3 -TdR incorporation assay was used to investigate the inhibition of DNA synthesis in TE1 cells by treated with Thalidomide singly or combination with X-rays. The colony formation assay was used to analyze the radiosensitization of Thalidomide effect on TE1 cells. Results: Thalidomide had obvious inhibition effect on TE1 cell metastasis, DNA synthesis and colony formation, which were correlated with drug concentration. The values D 0 , D q and SF 2 in TE1 cells were gradually decreased with thalidomide concentration increased. When the concentration of thalidomide was 100μg/ml, the SER D 0 and SER D 0 and SER D q were (1.4±0.2) and (1.5±0.1), respectively, While the concentration of thalidomide was 150 μg/ml, the SER D 0 and SER D q were (1.5±0.2) and (1.8±0.2), respectively. Conclusions: Thalidomide could inhibit TE1 cell invasion, metastasis, DNA synthesis, and significantly enhance the radiosensitizing effect on esophageal carcinoma TE1 cells. (authors)

  4. Thalidomide for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting following highly emetogenic chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng Song

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Antiemetic guidelines recommend co-administration of agents to maximize the prevention of chemotherapyinduced nausea and vomiting (CINV, however, the control of delayed CINV is still not satisfactory. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of thalidomide in the prevention of CINV. Methods Of 89 patients enrolled, 83 chemotherapy-naïve patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy (cisplatin 70mg/m2 were randomized into two groups: standard therapy group (ondansetron on day 1, metoclopramide and dexamethasone on days one to five and thalidomide group (in addition to standard emesis prevention, patients received oral 100mg thalidomide on days one to five. Patients recorded nausea and vomiting episodes in a diary. The primary end point was the efficacy of thalidomide in controlling vomiting and nausea on days one to five post cisplatin, and the secondary end point was the safety of the thalidomide. Results No significant differences of complete response rates (no emesis, no use of rescue therapy and no nausea were observed between the two groups, while the percentages of patients with complete response of delayed vomiting on day four and day five were higher in the thalidomide group, furthermore, the complete response rate of delayed nausea for thalidomide group and standard therapy group showed significant differences. Thalidomide group showed a similar safety profile as standard emesis prevention group. Conclusion Addition of thalidomide was generally well tolerated and improved prevention of CINV in patients receiving cisplatinbased chemotherapy to some degree, especially for delayed nausea.

  5. Emerging role of thalidomide in the treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarlane, Michael; O'Flynn, Lauren; Ventre, Rachel; Disney, Benjamin R

    2018-04-01

    Thalidomide was initially synthesised in 1954 and marketed as a sedative and antiemetic for morning sickness. It was withdrawn in 1961 due to the realisation that it was teratogenic with over 10 000 children born with congenital abnormalities. Since then it has been used for treatment of dermatological and oncological conditions, including myeloma. In 1994, it was found to have a potent antiangiogenic effect via downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). This has led to its use in gastrointestinal bleeding, as vascular abnormalities such as angiodysplasia have been found to have elevated VEGF levels. This article will review the current evidence of the use of thalidomide in bleeding associated with gastrointestinal vascular malformations, including angiodysplasia, gastric cancer and radiation-induced proctitis.

  6. Effects of 5HPP-33,an antiangiogenic thalidomide analog, in mouse whole embryo culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalidomide is a well-known example of a teratogen which has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on angiogenesis. As a result of its targeted effect on immature blood vessels, anti-angiogenic specific chemical analogs were developed to maximize this mechanism of thalidomide e...

  7. Nitric oxide mediates the anticonvulsant effects of thalidomide on pentylenetetrazole-induced clonic seizures in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payandemehr, Borna; Rahimian, Reza; Gooshe, Maziar; Bahremand, Arash; Gholizadeh, Ramtin; Berijani, Sina; Ahmadi-Dastgerdi, Mohammad; Aminizade, Mehdi; Sarreshte-Dari, Ali; Dianati, Vahid; Amanlou, Massoud; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2014-05-01

    Thalidomide is an old glutamic acid derivative which was initially used as a sedative medication but withdrawn from the market due to the high incidence of teratogenicity. Recently, it has reemerged because of its potential for counteracting number of diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders. Other than the antiemetic and hypnotic aspects, thalidomide exerts some anticonvulsant properties in experimental settings. However, the underlying mechanisms of thalidomide actions are not fully realized yet. Some investigations revealed that thalidomide could elicit immunomodulatory or neuromodulatory properties by affecting different targets, including cytokines (such as TNF α), neurotransmitters, and nitric oxide (NO). In this regard, we used a model of clonic seizure induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) in male NMRI mice to investigate whether the anticonvulsant effect of thalidomide is affected through modulation of the l-arginine-nitric oxide pathway or not. Injection of a single effective dose of thalidomide (10 mg/kg, i.p. or higher) significantly increased the seizure threshold (P<0.05). On the one hand, pretreatment with low and per se noneffective dose of l-arginine [NO precursor] (10, 30 and 60 mg/kg) prevented the anticonvulsant effect of thalidomide. On the other hand, NOS inhibitors [l-NAME and 7-NI] augmented the anticonvulsant effect of a subeffective dose of thalidomide (1 and 5 mg/kg, i.p.) at relatively low doses. Meanwhile, several doses of aminoguanidine [an inducible NOS inhibitor] (20, 50 and 100 mg/kg) failed to alter the anticonvulsant effect of thalidomide significantly. In summary, our findings demonstrated that the l-arginine-nitric oxide pathway can be involved in the anticonvulsant properties of thalidomide, and the role of constitutive nNOS is prominent in the reported neuroprotective feature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Thalidomide for control delayed vomiting in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Z.; Sun, X.; Du, X.

    2016-01-01

    To explore the efficacy and safety of thalidomide for the treatment of delayed vomiting, induced by chemotherapy in cancer patients. Study Design: Randomized, double-blind controlled study. Place and Duration of Study: The Oncology Department of Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Jiangsu Xuzhou, China, from January 2012 to January 2014. Methodology: A total of 78 cancer patients, who had delayed vomiting observed from 24 hours to 1 week after chemotherapy, were included in the study. Patients were divided in a treatment group (40 patients, 51.28%) and a control group (38 patients, 48.71%). The treatment group received thalidomide at an oral dose of 100 mg per night; 50 mg was added daily up to a dose of 200 mg per night, if the curative effect was suboptimal and the medicine was tolerated. Both the treatment and the control groups received a drip of 10 mg azasetron 30 minutes before chemotherapy. The control group only proportions of antiemetic effects and adverse reactions were compared using the ?2 test. Antiemetic effects and adverse reactions were assessed from Odds Ratios (OR) with 95% Confidence Intervals(95% CI). Results: The effective control rate of delayed vomiting in the treatment group was significantly higher than that in the control group (?2=5.174, p=0.023). No significant difference was found between the two groups in other adverse effects of chemotherapy. Karnofsky scores or the overall self-evaluation of the patients (p>0.05). Conclusion: Thalidomide can effectively control the delayed vomiting of cancer patients receiving chemotherapy and the adverse reactions of the agent can be tolerated.

  9. Treatment of Hepatic Epithelioid Hemangioendothelioma: Finding Uses for Thalidomide in a New Era of Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Soape

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic epithelioid hemangioendothelioma (HEH is extremely rare, occurring in 1 to 2 per 100,000, with chemotherapy options not well defined. Our case involved a 49-year-old female who had hepatic masses and metastasis to the lungs with a liver biopsy revealing HEH. After developing a rash from sorafenib, thalidomide was started with the progression of disease stabilized. Resection is only an option in 10% of the cases; therefore, chemotherapy is the only line of treatment. Newer chemotherapy alternatives are targeting angiogenesis via the vascular endothelial growth factor. Thalidomide was first used as an antiemetic, but, sadly, soon linked to phocomelia birth defects. Given the mechanism of action against angiogenesis, thalidomide has a valid role in vascular tumors. In conclusion, the use of thalidomide as chemotherapy is novel and promising, especially in the setting of a rare vascular liver tumor such as HEH.

  10. Hypercoagulable states in patients with multiple myeloma can affect the thalidomide-associated venous thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamo, Giampaolo P; Ibrahim, Sulfi; Claxton, David; Tricot, Guido J; Fink, Louis M; Zangari, Maurizio

    2009-07-01

    The therapeutic use of thalidomide in patients with multiple myeloma is often complicated by the development of venous thromboembolism. The objective of the present study was to identify hypercoagulable states associated with development of venous thromboembolism in thalidomide-treated multiple myeloma patients. We screened 49 consecutive multiple myeloma patients treated with thalidomide at baseline for hypercoagulability. With a median follow-up of 11 months, 10 of 49 multiple myeloma patients developed a thrombotic episode. Laboratory assays revealed an underlying abnormality in nine of the 10 patients; hypercoagulable screenings were normal in 36 of the 39 patients who did not develop venous thromboembolism (P < 0.0001). Our retrospective study results suggest that the multiple myeloma patients with thromboembolic complications during treatment with thalidomide have a frequent concomitant underlying thrombophilic state.

  11. Thalidomide induced early gene expression perturbations indicative of human embryopathy in mouse embryonic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xiugong; Sprando, Robert L.; Yourick, Jeffrey J.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental toxicity testing has traditionally relied on animal models which are costly, time consuming, and require the sacrifice of large numbers of animals. In addition, there are significant disparities between human beings and animals in their responses to chemicals. Thalidomide is a species-specific developmental toxicant that causes severe limb malformations in humans but not in mice. Here, we used microarrays to study transcriptomic changes induced by thalidomide in an in vitro model based on differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). C57BL/6 mESCs were allowed to differentiate spontaneously and RNA was collected at 24, 48, and 72 h after exposure to 0.25 mM thalidomide. Global gene expression analysis using microarrays revealed hundreds of differentially expressed genes upon thalidomide exposure that were enriched in gene ontology (GO) terms and canonical pathways associated with embryonic development and differentiation. In addition, many genes were found to be involved in small GTPases-mediated signal transduction, heart development, and inflammatory responses, which coincide with clinical evidences and may represent critical embryotoxicities of thalidomide. These results demonstrate that transcriptomics in combination with mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation is a promising alternative model for developmental toxicity assessment. - Highlights: • Studied genomic changes in mouse embryonic stem cells upon thalidomide exposure • Identified gene expression changes that may represent thalidomide embryotoxicity • The toxicogenomic changes coincide well with known thalidomide clinical outcomes. • The mouse embryonic stem cell model is suitable for developmental toxicity testing. • The model has the potential for high-throughput screening of a multitude of compounds

  12. Thalidomide induced early gene expression perturbations indicative of human embryopathy in mouse embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xiugong, E-mail: xiugong.gao@fda.hhs.gov; Sprando, Robert L.; Yourick, Jeffrey J.

    2015-08-15

    Developmental toxicity testing has traditionally relied on animal models which are costly, time consuming, and require the sacrifice of large numbers of animals. In addition, there are significant disparities between human beings and animals in their responses to chemicals. Thalidomide is a species-specific developmental toxicant that causes severe limb malformations in humans but not in mice. Here, we used microarrays to study transcriptomic changes induced by thalidomide in an in vitro model based on differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). C57BL/6 mESCs were allowed to differentiate spontaneously and RNA was collected at 24, 48, and 72 h after exposure to 0.25 mM thalidomide. Global gene expression analysis using microarrays revealed hundreds of differentially expressed genes upon thalidomide exposure that were enriched in gene ontology (GO) terms and canonical pathways associated with embryonic development and differentiation. In addition, many genes were found to be involved in small GTPases-mediated signal transduction, heart development, and inflammatory responses, which coincide with clinical evidences and may represent critical embryotoxicities of thalidomide. These results demonstrate that transcriptomics in combination with mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation is a promising alternative model for developmental toxicity assessment. - Highlights: • Studied genomic changes in mouse embryonic stem cells upon thalidomide exposure • Identified gene expression changes that may represent thalidomide embryotoxicity • The toxicogenomic changes coincide well with known thalidomide clinical outcomes. • The mouse embryonic stem cell model is suitable for developmental toxicity testing. • The model has the potential for high-throughput screening of a multitude of compounds.

  13. Thalidomide and the Titanic: reconstructing the technology tragedies of the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, G J; Elias, S

    1999-01-01

    The Titanic has become a metaphor for the disastrous consequences of an unqualified belief in the safety and invincibility of new technology. Similarly, the thalidomide tragedy stands for all of the "monsters" that can be inadvertently or negligently created by modern medicine. Thalidomide, once banned, has returned to the center of controversy with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) announcement that thalidomide will be placed on the market for the treatment of erythema nodosum leprosum, a severe dermatological complication of Hansen's disease. Although this indication is very restricted, thalidomide will be available for off-label uses once it is on the market. New laws regarding abortion and a new technology, ultrasound, make reasonable the approval of thalidomide for patients who suffer from serious conditions it can alleviate. In addition, the FDA and the manufacturer have proposed the most stringent postmarketing monitoring ever used for a prescription drug, including counseling, contraception, and ultrasonography in the event of pregnancy. The Titanic/thalidomide lesson for the FDA and public health is that rules and guidelines alone are not sufficient to guarantee safety. Continuous vigilance will be required to ensure that all reasonable postmarketing monitoring steps are actually taken to avoid predictable and preventable teratogenic disasters.

  14. Thalidomide and the Titanic: reconstructing the technology tragedies of the twentieth century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annas, G J; Elias, S

    1999-01-01

    The Titanic has become a metaphor for the disastrous consequences of an unqualified belief in the safety and invincibility of new technology. Similarly, the thalidomide tragedy stands for all of the "monsters" that can be inadvertently or negligently created by modern medicine. Thalidomide, once banned, has returned to the center of controversy with the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) announcement that thalidomide will be placed on the market for the treatment of erythema nodosum leprosum, a severe dermatological complication of Hansen's disease. Although this indication is very restricted, thalidomide will be available for off-label uses once it is on the market. New laws regarding abortion and a new technology, ultrasound, make reasonable the approval of thalidomide for patients who suffer from serious conditions it can alleviate. In addition, the FDA and the manufacturer have proposed the most stringent postmarketing monitoring ever used for a prescription drug, including counseling, contraception, and ultrasonography in the event of pregnancy. The Titanic/thalidomide lesson for the FDA and public health is that rules and guidelines alone are not sufficient to guarantee safety. Continuous vigilance will be required to ensure that all reasonable postmarketing monitoring steps are actually taken to avoid predictable and preventable teratogenic disasters. PMID:9987477

  15. Anti-inflammatory thalidomide improves islet grafts survival and functions in a xenogenic environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunguang Chen

    Full Text Available Thalidomide possesses both anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic properties. This study investigates its potential application in islet transplantation with a xenogenic transplantation model. Transplantation was performed using C57Bl/6 mice and NMRI nu/nu mice as recipients of porcine islets. Moreover, islet graft vasculature and inflammation were investigated to identify the mechanisms of thalidomide action. In the immunocompetent environment of C57Bl/6 mice, a fast graft rejection was observed. The group treated with thalidomide 200 mg/kg BW per day achieved and maintained euglycemia in the complete observation period for 42 days. The treated mice had more functional islet graft mass with less leukocyte infiltration. The pro-inflammatory TNF-alpha and VEGF content in islet grafted kidneys was significantly lowered by the treatment. By comparison, thalidomide was not effective in improving graft survival in immunocompromised nude mice. It strongly inhibited the VEGF and TNF-alpha-induced endothelial proliferation of isolated pig islets in a dose dependent manner. The magnitude of thalidomide's inhibitory effect was nearly identical to the effect of VEGF- receptor 2 inhibitor SU416 and anti-TNF-receptor 1 neutralizing antibody, and was reversed by sphingosine-1-phosphate. In conclusion, the anti-inflammatory effect of thalidomide improved islet graft survival and function in a transplantation model with a maximum immune barrier.

  16. Melphalan, prednisone, and lenalidomide versus melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide in untreated multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zweegman, Sonja; van der Holt, Bronno; Mellqvist, Ulf-Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The combination of melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide (MPT) is considered standard therapy for newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma who are ineligible for stem cell transplantation. Long-term treatment with thalidomide is hampered by neurotoxicity. Melphalan, prednisone, and lenalid......The combination of melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide (MPT) is considered standard therapy for newly diagnosed patients with multiple myeloma who are ineligible for stem cell transplantation. Long-term treatment with thalidomide is hampered by neurotoxicity. Melphalan, prednisone......, and lenalidomide, followed by lenalidomide maintenance therapy, showed promising results without severe neuropathy emerging. We randomly assigned 668 patients between nine 4-week cycles of MPT followed by thalidomide maintenance until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity (MPT-T) and the same MP regimen...... with thalidomide being replaced by lenalidomide (MPR-R). This multicenter, open-label, randomized phase 3 trial was undertaken by Dutch-Belgium Cooperative Trial Group for Hematology Oncology and the Nordic Myeloma Study Group (the HOVON87/NMSG18 trial). The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS...

  17. Thalidomide Induces Limb Anomalies by PTEN Stabilization, Akt Suppression, and Stimulation of Caspase-Dependent Cell Death▿

    OpenAIRE

    Knobloch, Jürgen; Schmitz, Ingo; Götz, Katrin; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Rüther, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Thalidomide, a drug used for the treatment of multiple myeloma and inflammatory diseases, is also a teratogen that causes birth defects, such as limb truncations and microphthalmia, in humans. Thalidomide-induced limb truncations result from increased cell death during embryonic limb development and consequential disturbance of limb outgrowth. Here we demonstrate in primary human embryonic cells and in the chicken embryo that thalidomide-induced signaling through bone morphogenetic proteins (...

  18. Thalidomide ameliorates portal hypertension via nitric oxide synthase independent reduced systolic blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorakis, Nicholas G; Wang, Yining N; Korshunov, Vyacheslav A; Maluccio, Mary A; Skill, Nicholas J

    2015-04-14

    Portal hypertension is a common complication of liver cirrhosis and significantly increases mortality and morbidity. Previous reports have suggested that the compound thalidomide attenuates portal hypertension (PHT). However, the mechanism for this action is not fully elucidated. One hypothesis is that thalidomide destabilizes tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) mRNA and therefore diminishes TNFα induction of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and the production of nitric oxide (NO). To examine this hypothesis, we utilized the murine partial portal vein ligation (PVL) PHT model in combination with endothelial or inducible NOS isoform gene knockout mice. Wild type, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)(-/-) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)(-/-) mice received either PVL or sham surgery and were given either thalidomide or vehicle. Serum nitrate (total nitrate, NOx) was measured daily for 7 d as a surrogate of NO synthesis. Serum TNFα level was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. TNFα mRNA was quantified in liver and aorta tissue by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. PHT was determined by recording splenic pulp pressure (SPP) and abdominal aortic flow after 0-7 d. Response to thalidomide was determined by measurement of SPP and mean arterial pressure (MAP). SPP, abdominal aortic flow (Qao) and plasma NOx were increased in wild type and iNOS(-/-) PVL mice when compared to sham operated control mice. In contrast, SPP, Qao and plasma NOx were not increased in eNOS(-/-) PVL mice when compared to sham controls. Serum TNFα level in both sham and PVL mice was below the detection limit of the commercial ELISA used. Therefore, the effect of thalidomide on serum TNFα levels was undetermined in wild type, eNOS(-/-) or iNOS(-/-) mice. Thalidomide acutely increased plasma NOx in wild type and eNOS(-/-) mice but not iNOS(-/-) mice. Moreover, thalidomide temporarily (0-90 min) decreased mean arterial pressure, SPP and Qao in wild type, e

  19. Time to spare newly diagnosed non transplant eligible myeloma (ENDMM) from thalidomide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demarquette, H.; Guidez, S.; Jurczyszyn, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    group, all patients had bortezomib upfront, patients received Vd, VCd or VMP upfront; lenalidomide was then given at first relapse to all patients. The median dose administered of bortezomib was 1.3mg/m2, for a median of 5 cycles (2-9). Results. Overall, the median age was 73 years (range, 65 - 85......), with 35% aged >75. The M/F ratio was 1.1, 38% were ISS 3, the median b2m was 5.5mg/L, 26% had an ECOG score > 2, 42% had renal insufficiency, 11% had elevated LDH, 8% presence of plasmacytoma, and 14% had adverse FISH (del17p, t(4;14) and or t(14;16)). There was no difference in patients' characteristics......,2% were in the thalidomide upfront exposed arm and 53,8% had never been exposed to thalidomide. Patients were required to be aged >65 years, NDMM treated with either thalidomide upfront or never been exposed to thalidomide upfront or later in the myeloma disease course. If not exposed to thalidomide...

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging for monitoring the effects of thalidomide on experimental human breast cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyran, Clemens C.; Sennino, Barbara; McDonald, Donald M.; Chaopathomkul, Bundit; Fu, Yanjun; Rogut, Victor S.; Shames, David M.; Wendland, Michael F.; Brasch, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    Thalidomide, which inhibits angiogenesis in certain tumor types, reduced extravasation of a macromolecular contrast medium (MMCM) in a human breast cancer model as assayed by MMCM-enhanced dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescence microscopy in the same tumors. After a 1-week, three-dose course of thalidomide, the mean MRI-assayed endothelial transfer coefficient, K PS , decreased significantly (p 3 . Correspondingly, microscopic measurements of extravasated MMCM, expressed as fractional area of streptavidin staining, were significantly (p PS values correlated significantly (r 2 =0.55, p<0.05) with microscopic measures of MMCM extravasation. However, no significant differences were observed between saline- and thalidomide-treated tumors with respect to rate of growth, vascular richness, or amount of VEGF-containing cells. Because of its sensitivity to the detection of changes in vascular leakage in tumors, this MMCM-enhanced MRI assay could prove useful for monitoring the effects of thalidomide on an individual patient basis. The significant correlation between MRI and fluorescence microscopic measures of MMCM extravasation supports the utility of the non-invasive MRI approach for assessing the action of thalidomide on tumor blood vessels. (orig.)

  1. Follow-up of Thalidomide treatment in patients with Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosman, A; Westermann, C J J; Snijder, R; Disch, F; Mummery, C L; Mager, J J

    2015-12-01

    Patients with a hereditary vascular disorder called Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome (Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia, HHT) haemorrhage easily due to weak-walled vessels. Haemorrhage in lungs or brain can be fatal but patients suffer most from chronic and prolonged nosebleeds (epistaxis), the frequency and intensity of which increases with age. Several years ago, it was discovered serendipitously that the drug Thalidomide had beneficial effects on the disease symptoms in several of a small group of HHT patients: epistaxis and the incidence of anaemia were reduced and patients required fewer blood transfusions. In addition, they reported a better quality of life. However, Thalidomide has significant negative side effects, including neuropathy and fatigue. We followed up all HHT patients in the Netherlands who had been taking Thalidomide at the time the original study was completed to find out (i) how many had continued taking Thalidomide and for how long (ii) the nature and severity of any side-effects and (iii) whether side-effects had influenced their decision to continue taking Thalidomide. Only a minority of patients had continued taking the drug despite its beneficial effects on their symptoms and that the side effects were the primary reason to stop. Despite symptom reduction, alternative treatments are still necessary for epistaxis in HHT patients and a large-scale clinical trial is not justified although incidental use in the most severely affected patients can be considered.

  2. The Molecular Mechanisms of Thalidomide Teratogenicity and Implications for Modern Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, J; Jungck, D; Koch, A

    2017-01-01

    Thalidomide is a teratogen that affects many organs but primarily induces limb truncations like phocomelia. Rodents are thalidomide resistant. In the 1950s, this has led to misinterpretations of animal tests and to the fatal assumption that the drug was safe for pregnant women to use against morning sickness. The result was one of the biggest scandals in medical history: 10.000 and more infants with birth defects in Europe. Nonetheless, thalidomide still has its place in modern medicine as it has strong therapeutic potential: it has been approved by the FDA for multiple myeloma and erythema nodosum leprosum, and its anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antiangiogenic activities are considered in many other refractory diseases. The aim is to develop derivatives that are not teratogenic but maintain the therapeutic potential. This requires detailed knowledge about the underlying molecular mechanisms. Much progress has been made in deciphering the teratogenic mechanisms in the last decade. Here, we summarize these mechanisms, explain thalidomide resistance of rodents, and discuss possible mechanisms that could explain why the drug primarily targets the developing limb in the embryo. We also summarize the most important therapeutic mechanisms. Finally, we discuss which therapeutic and teratogenic mechanisms do and do not overlap, and if there is a chance for the development of non-teratogenic thalidomide derivatives with therapeutic potential. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  3. Preventive and therapeutic anti-inflammatory effects of systemic and topical thalidomide on endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Gustavo Büchele; Passos, Giselle Fazzioni; Di Giunta, Gabriella; Figueiredo, Cláudia Pinto; Rodrigues, Eduardo Büchele; Grumman, Astor; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Calixto, João B

    2007-03-01

    The present study examined the outcomes of systemic or topical treatment with thalidomide, a compound that possesses anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-angiogenic properties, in rats subjected to endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU). The effects of thalidomide were evaluated on endotoxin-induced leucocyte and protein infiltration and also on the production of interleukin (IL)-1beta and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in rat aqueous humour (AqH). Moreover, the actions of thalidomide were assessed on the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression in retinal tissue. EIU was produced by a hindpaw injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), in male Wistar rats. Thalidomide (5, 25 and 50 mg/kg) was administered orally 1 h before LPS injection. In another set of experiments, to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy, 5% thalidomide was applied topically to both eyes at 6, 12 and 18 h after LPS administration. The oral pre-treatment with thalidomide decreased, in a dose-dependent manner, the number of inflammatory cells, the protein concentration, and the levels of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha in the AqH. Similar results were found in the AqH of rats that received a topical application of thalidomide. Furthermore, oral (50 mg/kg) and local (5%) thalidomide treatment also reduced expression of the pro-inflammatory proteins COX-2 and iNOS in the posterior segment of the eye. Thalidomide exhibited marked preventive and curative ocular effects in EIU in rats, a property that might be associated with its ability to inhibit the production of inflammatory cytokines and the expression of COX-2 and iNOS. This assembly of data provides additional molecular and functional insights into beneficial effects of thalidomide as an agent for the management of ocular inflammation.

  4. A Phase II dose titration study of thalidomide for cancer-associated anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mellar; Lasheen, Wael; Walsh, Declan; Mahmoud, Fade; Bicanovsky, Leslie; Lagman, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Sixty-five percent of people with advanced cancer suffers from loss of appetite. Several inflammatory cytokines appear to cause appetite loss in animal models. Thalidomide is an immunomodulatory drug that has been associated with improved appetite in those with HIV infections and cancer. We completed a two-stage Phase II dose titration study of thalidomide, the primary purpose of which was to assess appetite response to thalidomide in cancer-associated anorexia. Individuals older than 18 years of age with active cancer, loss of appetite by numerical rating scale (NRS), life expectancy of at least four weeks, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-3 were entered into the study. Pretreatment screening included medical history, neurologic examination, and symptoms by NRS and categorical scale (CAT). Patients received 50mg of thalidomide by mouth at bedtime for two weeks. Individuals who did not respond were dose escalated to 100mg at night for two weeks. Assessment of appetite, early satiety, fatigue, insomnia, night sweats, pain, and quality of life (QOL) occurred at two-week intervals. Toxicity also was assessed. The primary outcome was appetite response defined as a two-point reduction in the NRS or a one-point improvement in the CAT. Thirty-five patients entered the study; 33 completed 14 days of therapy and were analyzed for efficacy and toxicity. Sixty-four percent who completed at least two weeks of thalidomide had improved appetite. The CAT scores for appetite, insomnia, and QOL improved significantly. The 95% confidence intervals did not overlap. Five participants dropped out because of toxicity: two before two weeks and three later. Thalidomide reduced multiple symptoms commonly associated with cancer-related anorexia and improved QOL. Our findings confirmed and validated a previously published single-arm trial. A recent randomized trial demonstrated greater benefits when thalidomide is used combined with other agents to treat cancer

  5. The role of maintenance thalidomide therapy in multiple myeloma: MRC Myeloma IX results and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth J; Gregory, Walter M; Davies, Faith E; Bell, Sue E; Szubert, Alexander J; Brown, Julia M; Coy, Nuria N; Cook, Gordon; Russell, Nigel H; Rudin, Claudius; Roddie, Huw; Drayson, Mark T; Owen, Roger G; Ross, Fiona M; Jackson, Graham H; Child, J Anthony

    2012-01-05

    Thalidomide maintenance has the potential to modulate residual multiple myeloma (MM) after an initial response. This trial compared the effect of thalidomide maintenance and no maintenance on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in MM patients. After intensive or nonintensive induction therapy, 820 newly diagnosed MM patients were randomized to open-label thalidomide maintenance until progression, or no maintenance. Interphase FISH (iFISH) analysis was performed at study entry. Median PFS was significantly longer with thalidomide maintenance (log-rank P < .001). Median OS was similar between regimens (log-rank P = .40). Patients with favorable iFISH showed improved PFS (P = .004) and a trend toward a late survival benefit. Patients with adverse iFISH receiving thalidomide showed no significant PFS benefit and worse OS (P = .009). Effective relapse therapy enhanced survival after progression, translating into a significant OS benefit. Meta-analysis of this and other studies show a significant late OS benefit (P < .001, 7-year difference hazard ratio = 12.3; 95% confidence interval, 5.5-19.0). Thalidomide maintenance significantly improves PFS and can be associated with improved OS. iFISH testing is important in assessing the clinical impact of maintenance therapy. Overview analysis demonstrated that thalidomide maintenance was associated with a significant late OS benefit. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.org as #ISRCTN68454111.

  6. Assessing the ability of the antiangiogenic and anticytokine agent thalidomide to modulate radiation-induced lung injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anscher, Mitchell S.; Garst, Jennifer; Marks, Lawrence B.; Larrier, Nicole; Dunphy, Frank; Herndon, James E.; Clough, Robert B.S.; Marino, Christine R.N.; Vujaskovic, Zeljko; Zhou, Sumin; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Shafman, Timothy D.; Crawford, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Thalidomide has broad anticytokine properties, which might protect normal tissues in patients undergoing chemoradiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to determine the maximal tolerated dose of thalidomide when used in combination with vinorelbine plus thoracic radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had inoperable Stage III non-small-cell lung cancer, a Karnofsky Performance Status ≥70, and life expectancy ≥6 months. Patients underwent pretreatment evaluation of lung function. Radiotherapy consisted of 66 Gy in 6.5 weeks. Vinorelbine was administered i.v. (5 mg/m 2 ) 3 times per week just before radiotherapy. Thalidomide was begun at 50 mg, p.o., on day 1 of chemoradiotherapy and continued once daily for 6 months. Side effects were scored using National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria. Results: Ten patients were enrolled. Of the first 6 patients, 2 developed major thrombotic events that were believed to be possibly related to thalidomide. The study was suspended and modified to require prophylactic anticoagulation. Of the last 4 patients, 2 developed dose-limiting toxicity attributable to thalidomide; both patients required a dose reduction of thalidomide to <50 mg/day. Because the drug is not available in an oral product providing <50 mg/day, the study was closed. Conclusions: The combination of thalidomide concurrently with thoracic radiotherapy and vinorelbine resulted in excessive toxicity

  7. Solid dispersions enhance solubility, dissolution, and permeability of thalidomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barea, Silvana A; Mattos, Cristiane B; Cruz, Ariadne C C; Chaves, Vitor C; Pereira, Rafael N; Simões, Claudia M O; Kratz, Jadel M; Koester, Letícia S

    2017-03-01

    Thalidomide (THD) is a BCS class II drug with renewed and growing therapeutic applicability. Along with the low aqueous solubility, additional poor biopharmaceutical properties of the drug, i.e. chemical instability, high crystallinity, and polymorphism, lead to a slow and variable oral absorption. In this view, we developed solid dispersions (SDs) containing THD dispersed in different self-emulsifying carriers aiming at an enhanced absorption profile for the drug. THD was dispersed in lauroyl macrogol-32 glycerides (Gelucire ® 44/14) and α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol succinate (Kolliphor ® TPGS), in the presence or absence of the precipitation inhibitor polyvinylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP K30), by means of the solvent method. Physicochemical analysis revealed the formation of semicrystalline SDs. X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy analyses suggest that the remaining crystalline fraction of the drug in the SDs did not undergo polymorphic transition. The impact of the solubility-enhancing formulations on the THD biopharmaceutical properties was evaluated by several in vitro techniques. The developed SDs were able to increase the apparent solubility of the drug (up to 2-3x the equilibrium solubility) for a least 4 h. Dissolution experiments (paddle method, 75 rpm) in different pHs showed that around 80% of drug dissolved after 120 min (versus 40% of pure crystalline drug). Additionally, we demonstrated the enhanced solubility obtained via SDs could be translated into increased flux in a parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA). In summary, the results demonstrate that SDs could be considered an interesting and unexplored strategy to improve the biopharmaceutical properties of THD, since SDs of this important drug have yet to be reported.

  8. Efficacy of thalidomide in a girl with inflammatory calcinosis, a severe complication of juvenile dermatomyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inayama Yoshiaki

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We report a 14-year-old girl with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM complicated by severe inflammatory calcinosis successfully treated with thalidomide. She was diagnosed as JDM when she was 4 years old after a few months of increasing lethargy, muscle pain, muscle weakness, and rash. During three months, clinical manifestations and abnormal laboratory findings were effectively treated with oral prednisolone. However, calcinosis was recognized 18 months after disease onset. Generalized calcinosis rapidly progressed with high fever, multiple skin/subcutaneous inflammatory lesions, and increased level of CRP. Fifty mg/day (1.3 mg/kg day of oral thalidomide was given for the first four weeks, and then the dose was increased to 75 mg/day. Clinical manifestations subsided, and inflammatory markers had clearly improved. Frequent high fever and local severe pain with calcinosis were suppressed. The levels of FDP-E, IgG, and tryglyceride, which were all elevated before the thalidomide treatment, were gradually returned to the normal range. Over the 18 months of observation up to the present, she has had no inflammatory calcinosis, or needed any hospitalization, although established calcium deposits still remain. Her condition became painless, less extensive and less inflammatory with the CRP level below 3.08 mg/dL. Recent examination by whole-body 18F-FDG-PET-CT over the 15 months of thalidomide treatment demonstrated fewer hot spots around the subcutaneous calcified lesions.

  9. Phase II Study of Temozolomide and Thalidomide in Patients with Unresectable or Metastatic Leiomyosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle S. Boyar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the efficacy of combined temozolomide and thalidomide in patients with unresectable or metastatic leiomyosarcoma in a phase II single-institution trial. Twenty-four patients were enrolled. Temozolomide (150 mg/m2/day for 7 days every other week was administered with concomitant thalidomide (200 mg/day, and continued until unacceptable toxicity or disease progression. There were no complete responses and two (10% partial responses. Five patients (24% had stable disease for at least six months. Fourteen patients (67% progressed after a median of two-month treatment. The median overall survival (twenty-two assessable patients was 9.5 months [95% CI 7–28 months]. There were no treatment-related deaths or CTC grade 4 toxicities. Thirteen patients were dose-reduced or discontinued thalidomide due to toxicity. In conclusion, this combination of temozolomide and thalidomide provided disease stabilization in a subset of patients with advanced leiomyosarcoma. We hypothesize that temozolomide is the active agent in this regimen, and should be further studied.

  10. Bortezomib, melphalan, prednisone (VMP) versus melphalan, prednisone, thalidomide (MPT) in elderly newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morabito, Fortunato; Bringhen, Sara; Larocca, Alessandra

    2014-01-01

    Novel agents in combination with melphalan and prednisone (MP) significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in multiple myeloma (MM). Randomized trials comparing MP plus bortezomib (VMP) versus MP plus thalidomide (MPT) are lacking. Nine hundred and fifty-six e...

  11. Thalidomide for Epistaxis in Patients with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jia; Chen, Xiaomeng; Zhu, Bijun; Ye, Haibo; Zhang, Weitian; Guan, Jian; Su, Kaiming

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of thalidomide for epistaxis in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), 7 HHT patients with recurrent epistaxis were treated with thalidomide at an initial dose of 50 mg/d, gradually increasing to 100 mg/d if needed. The Epistaxis Severity Score (ESS) was used to evaluate the treatment effects. Patients reported that epistaxis improved 1 to 3 weeks after starting thalidomide. The mean ESS before treatment, at the end of treatment, and 3 months after stopping treatment was 5.03 ± 2.05, 0.90 ± 0.84 ( P = .003), and 1.98 ± 1.33 ( P = .006), respectively. Four patients reported mild to moderate side effects, including drowsiness, dizziness, constipation, nausea, and peripheral neuropathy. Two patients stopped the treatment because of adverse effects. Those results showed that thalidomide may be a treatment choice for recurrent epistaxis in HHT patients, although the side effects should be considered. Further study should focus on guidelines for dosing and course and investigate how to reduce the adverse effects.

  12. O renascimento de um fármaco: talidomida The rebirth of a drug: thalidomide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lídia Moreira Lima

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Thalidomide, first synthesized in 1953, was widely prescribed for morning sickness of pregnant women from 1957 to 1961, when it was found to be seriously teratogenic, having caused serious birth defect. Nowadays, a quarter of a century later, it appears that it may be a miracle drug for such diseases as leprosy, AIDS, cancer and tuberculosis.

  13. Phase II Study of Concomitant Thalidomide During Radiotherapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ch’ang, Hui-Ju; Hsu, Chiun; Chen, Chien-Hung; Chang, Ya-Hui; Chang, Jeffrey S.; Chen, Li-Tzong

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Thalidomide has been demonstrated to possess antitumor activity in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The objective of the present study was to determine whether the combined treatment of thalidomide with radiotherapy (RT) is associated with acceptable toxicity and an improved clinical outcome in HCC patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 24 patients were enrolled to receive RT combined with thalidomide. A total dose of 50 Gy was delivered in 2-Gy fractions within 5 weeks. Thalidomide was administered 100 mg twice daily starting 3 days before RT until the development of unacceptable toxicity or disease progression. Blood samples were collected before, during, and after treatment to measure the levels of angiogenic factors and cytokines. The results of patients receiving the combined therapy were compared with those from 18 HCC patients receiving RT only. Results: No significant difference in the clinical parameters was noted between the two groups, except for the baseline interleukin-6 level, which was greater in the concomitant group (p = .05). The most common toxicities related to thalidomide use were skin rash (54.2%), somnolence (37.5%), and constipation (33.3%). No significant differences were seen in the response rate (55.6% vs. 58.3%, p = .48), median progression-free survival (182 ± 48.9 vs. 148 ± 6.2 days, p = .15), or median overall survival (258 ± 45.6 vs. 241 ± 38.6, p = .16) between those who received concomitant therapy and those who received RT alone. Thalidomide suppressed the serum basic fibroblast growth factor level significantly during RT (p = .03) and, to a lesser extent, the interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α levels. After adjusting for other potential prognostic factors in the multivariate analysis, only the baseline interleukin-6 level and stem cell-derived factor-1 during RT independently predicted the progression-free survival. A decreased serum stem cell-derived factor-1 level 1 month after RT

  14. Phase II Study of Concomitant Thalidomide During Radiotherapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ch' ang, Hui-Ju, E-mail: hjmc@nhri.org.tw [National Institute of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institutes, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Chiun [Department of Oncology, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Hung [Department of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Ya-Hui; Chang, Jeffrey S. [National Institute of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institutes, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Chen, Li-Tzong [National Institute of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institutes, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Department of Internal Medicine, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: Thalidomide has been demonstrated to possess antitumor activity in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The objective of the present study was to determine whether the combined treatment of thalidomide with radiotherapy (RT) is associated with acceptable toxicity and an improved clinical outcome in HCC patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 24 patients were enrolled to receive RT combined with thalidomide. A total dose of 50 Gy was delivered in 2-Gy fractions within 5 weeks. Thalidomide was administered 100 mg twice daily starting 3 days before RT until the development of unacceptable toxicity or disease progression. Blood samples were collected before, during, and after treatment to measure the levels of angiogenic factors and cytokines. The results of patients receiving the combined therapy were compared with those from 18 HCC patients receiving RT only. Results: No significant difference in the clinical parameters was noted between the two groups, except for the baseline interleukin-6 level, which was greater in the concomitant group (p = .05). The most common toxicities related to thalidomide use were skin rash (54.2%), somnolence (37.5%), and constipation (33.3%). No significant differences were seen in the response rate (55.6% vs. 58.3%, p = .48), median progression-free survival (182 {+-} 48.9 vs. 148 {+-} 6.2 days, p = .15), or median overall survival (258 {+-} 45.6 vs. 241 {+-} 38.6, p = .16) between those who received concomitant therapy and those who received RT alone. Thalidomide suppressed the serum basic fibroblast growth factor level significantly during RT (p = .03) and, to a lesser extent, the interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} levels. After adjusting for other potential prognostic factors in the multivariate analysis, only the baseline interleukin-6 level and stem cell-derived factor-1 during RT independently predicted the progression-free survival. A decreased serum stem cell-derived factor-1 level 1

  15. Prophylactic low-dose aspirin is effective antithrombotic therapy for combination treatments of thalidomide or lenalidomide in myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niesvizky, Ruben; Martínez-Baños, Déborah; Jalbrzikowski, Jessica; Christos, Paul; Furst, Jessica; De Sancho, Maria; Mark, Tomer; Pearse, Roger; Mazumdar, Madhu; Zafar, Faiza; Pekle, Karen; Leonard, John; Jayabalan, David; Coleman, Morton

    2007-12-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) patients have a propensity for thromboembolic events (TE), and treatment with thalidomide/dexamethasone or lenalidomide/dexamethasone increases this risk. This report describes the use of low-dose aspirin (81 mg) as primary thromboprophylaxis in three series of MM patients receiving thalidomide or lenalidomide with other drugs. In the first regimen (clarithromycin, thalidomide, dexamethasone), initiation of low-dose aspirin negated the occurrence of any further TE. In a second study, prophylactic aspirin given with thalidomide/dexamethasone resulted in a rate of TE similar to that seen with dexamethasone alone (without aspirin). A third study (n = 72) evaluated thrombosis rates with aspirin and a lenalidomide-containing regimen (clarithromycin, lenalidomide, dexamethasone). Of nine occurrences of thromboembolism, five were associated with aspirin interruption or poor compliance. Low-dose aspirin appears to reduce the incidence of thrombosis with these regimens. Routine use of aspirin as antithrombotic prophylaxis in MM patients receiving immunomodulatory drugs with corticosteroids is warranted.

  16. A Phase III Study of Conventional Radiation Therapy Plus Thalidomide Versus Conventional Radiation Therapy for Multiple Brain Metastases (RTOG 0118)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knisely, Jonathan P.S.; Berkey, Brian; Chakravarti, Arnab; Yung, Al W.K.; Curran, Walter J.; Robins, H. Ian; Movsas, Benjamin; Brachman, David G.; Henderson, Randall H.; Mehta, Minesh P.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To compare whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) with WBRT combined with thalidomide for patients with brain metastases not amenable to resection or radiosurgery. Patients and Methods: Patients with Zubrod performance status 0-1, MRI-documented multiple (>3), large (>4 cm), or midbrain brain metastases arising from a histopathologically confirmed extracranial primary tumor, and an anticipated survival of >8 weeks were randomized to receive WBRT to a dose of 37.5 Gy in 15 fractions with or without thalidomide during and after WBRT. Prerandomization stratification used Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RPA) Class and whether post-WBRT chemotherapy was planned. Endpoints included overall survival, progression-free survival, time to neurocognitive progression, the cause of death, toxicities, and quality of life. A protocol-planned interim analysis documented that the trial had an extremely low probability of ever showing a significant difference favoring the thalidomide arm given the results at the time of the analysis, and it was therefore closed on the basis of predefined statistical guidelines. Results: Enrolled in the study were 332 patients. Of 183 accrued patients, 93 were randomized to receive WBRT alone and 90 to WBRT and thalidomide. Median survival was 3.9 months for both arms. No novel toxicities were seen, but thalidomide was not well tolerated in this population. Forty-eight percent of patients discontinued thalidomide because of side effects. Conclusion: Thalidomide provided no survival benefit for patients with multiple, large, or midbrain metastases when combined with WBRT; nearly half the patients discontinued thalidomide due to side effects

  17. A framework to identify gene expression profiles in a model of inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide after treatment with thalidomide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paiva Renata T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thalidomide is an anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic drug currently used for the treatment of several diseases, including erythema nodosum leprosum, which occurs in patients with lepromatous leprosy. In this research, we use DNA microarray analysis to identify the impact of thalidomide on gene expression responses in human cells after lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation. We employed a two-stage framework. Initially, we identified 1584 altered genes in response to LPS. Modulation of this set of genes was then analyzed in the LPS stimulated cells treated with thalidomide. Results We identified 64 genes with altered expression induced by thalidomide using the rank product method. In addition, the lists of up-regulated and down-regulated genes were investigated by means of bioinformatics functional analysis, which allowed for the identification of biological processes affected by thalidomide. Confirmatory analysis was done in five of the identified genes using real time PCR. Conclusions The results showed some genes that can further our understanding of the biological mechanisms in the action of thalidomide. Of the five genes evaluated with real time PCR, three were down regulated and two were up regulated confirming the initial results of the microarray analysis.

  18. Mullerian agenesis associated with in-utero thalidomide exposure: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Dotters-Katz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Thalidomide is a well-known teratogen, which is experiencing resurgence as new uses are identified. Exposure is classically associated with limb deformities, such as: dysmelia, phocomelia, preaxial hypoplasia and polydactyly, in addition to visceral anomalies that have been documented as well. We report a case of a 38 year-old nulligravid female, who was previously evaluated for primary amenorrhea, and given the presumptive false diagnosis of an imperforate hymen. On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI exam, she was noted to have uterovaginal agenesis. The implications of thalidomide on women’s health extend beyond external birth defects. Although, most commonly associated with limb deformities, there may also be gynecologic implications of in utero exposure. As this medication is increasingly used for various medical conditions, obstetricians/gynecologists need to remain aware of this potential mullerian teratogenic effect.

  19. Does low-molecular-weight heparin influence the antimyeloma effects of thalidomide?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beksac, Meral; Waage, Anders; Bringhen, Sara

    2015-01-01

    of thalidomide treatment, response rate was higher among those receiving LMWH vs. none vs. other anticoagulants (58.1 vs. 44.9 vs. 50.4%, p = 0.01). PFS was significantly longer (median 32 vs. 21 and 17 vs. 17 months, p = 0.004) only among international scoring system (ISS) I patients receiving MPT ± LMWH vs. MP...... ± LMWH. The group of MPT patients who also received LMWH had a better OS compared to those who did not [45 months, 95% confidence interval (CI) 27.7-62.3, vs. 32 months, 95% CI 26.1-37.9; p = 0.034]. When multivariate analysis was repeated in subgroups, thalidomide was no longer a significant factor...

  20. Pharmacovigilance of patients with multiple myeloma being treated with bortezomib and/or thalidomide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B.M. Castro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the main adverse effects of drug protocols using bortezomib and/or thalidomide for the treatment of multiple myeloma, we conducted a prospective study. Data were collected through interviews, clinical observation, and from hospital records. A total of 59 patients were included. There was a predominance of females, 36 (61% vs 23 (39% males, and of whites, 49 (83.1% vs 10 (16.9% blacks. Age ranged from 40 to 94 years, with a median of 65 years (SD=11.6. Regarding staging at diagnosis, 27 (45.7% patients were in stage III-A, with 12 (20.3% patients having serum creatinine ≥2 mg/dL. The main adverse effects in the bortezomib treatment group (n=40 were: neutropenia (42.5%, diarrhea (47.5%, and peripheral neuropathy in 60% of cases, with no difference between the iv (n=26 and sc (n=14 administration routes (P=0.343. In the group treated with thalidomide (n=19, 31.6% had neutropenia, 47.4% constipation, and 68.4% peripheral neuropathy. Neutropenia was associated with the use of alkylating agents (P=0.038. Of the 3 patients who received bortezomib in combination with thalidomide, only 1 presented peripheral neuropathy (33.3%. Peripheral neuropathy was the main adverse effect of the protocols that used bortezomib or thalidomide, with a higher risk of neutropenia in those using alkylating agents. Improving the identification of adverse effects is critical in multiple myeloma patient care, as the patient shows improvements during treatment, and requires a rational and safe use of medicines.

  1. Results of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and thalidomide for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Wei-Chung; Chung, Na-Na; Wang, Po-Ming; Ying, Kung-Shih; Shin, Jeng-Shiann; Chao, Che-Jen; Lin, Gau-De; Chan, Sue-Ching; Ting, Lai-Lei

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and thalidomide in the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Between 1999 and 2003, 121 patients (mean age, 54.4±12.4 years; range, 20-81 years) with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma received three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy and thalidomide. Radiation was delivered in 1.5 Gy fractions twice daily for 5 days a week, for a total dose of 45-75 Gy. Mean treatment volume was 429.52±408.50 cm 3 (range, 26.89-2284.82 cm 3 ). Thalidomide was given concomitantly: 200 mg/day in 109 patients, 300 mg/day in 8 patients and 400 mg/day in 4 patients. Treatment responses, survival rates and factors affecting survival were analyzed. Treatment responses were observed in 61% of the patients. Liver cirrhosis (P=0.001) and tumor size (P=0.001) significantly affected the tumor responses. Overall survival at 6, 12 and 24 months was 84.8, 60.0 and 44.6%, respectively. On univariate analysis, liver cirrhosis (P=0.003), Karnofsky performance status (P=0.007), tumor size (P<0.001), portal vein tumor thrombosis (P<0.001) and alpha-fetoprotein level (P=0.003) were shown to significantly affect survival. On multivariate analysis, only thrombosis (P=0.039) and alpha-fetoprotein level (P=0.006) were shown to be factors affecting survival. Three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy with thalidomide seems to be effective in the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. (author)

  2. Synthesis and evaluation of 4-[F-18]fluoro thalidomide for the in vivo studies of angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D. H.; Choi, Y. S.; Jeong, K. H.; Lee, K. H.; Choi, Y.; Kim, B. T.

    2005-01-01

    Thalidomide has been recently rediscovered for its possible utility as an antitumor agent, although it was marketed as a sedative in the 1950s and later found to be a potent teratogen. In this study, therefore, F-18 labeled thalidomide was synthesized and evaluated for the in vivo studies of angiogenesis. 4-[F-18]Fluoro thalidomide ([F-18]1) was prepared by labeling of 4-trimethylammonium thalidomide triflate with TBA[F-18]F in DMSO (90 .deg. C, 10 min) and purified by HPLC. The triflate salt was prepared from 3-fluoro phthalic anhydride in 3 steps. [F-18]1 was incubated with HUVEC cells at 37 .deg. C for 15, 30, 60, and 120 min, respectively. Dynamic PET images of [F-18]1 was obtained in mice implanted with LLC cells. In vitro metabolism study of [F-18]1 was carried out using mouse, rabbit, or human liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH, and the metabolites obtained from the mouse liver microsomal incubation of 1 were analyzed using LC-MS. Radiochemical yield of [F-18]1 was 50-60%, and the specific activity was 42-120 GBq/imol. The HUVEC cell uptake of [F-18]1 increased with time (100% at 15 min and 241% at 120 min). PET images showed that the radioactivity was accumulated in the liver, the kidneys and the bladder of the mice, and brain uptake was shown from 40 min postinjection. However, there was low level of radioactivity uptake in tumor. [F-18]1 was not metabolized by mouse, rabbit, or human liver microsomes but was hydrolyzed significantly at physiological pH. The hydrolyzed product was further analyzed by LC-MS, showing a mass peak corresponding to that of 4-fluoro-N-(o-carboxybenzoyl)glutamic acid imide. This result suggests that [F-18]1 is easily hydrolyzed at physiological pH and thus may not be suitable for the in vivo studies of tumor angiogenesis at least in rodents, although it was reported that the hydrolysis product of thalidomide may be responsible for its angiogenesis activity in humans

  3. Resolving a double standard for risk management of thalidomide: an evaluation of two different risk management programmes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooba, Nobuhiro; Sato, Tsugumichi; Watanabe, Hikaru; Kubota, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Thalidomide, once withdrawn because of its teratogenicity, has now been re-launched worldwide. In Japan, thalidomide has been imported by individual doctors since around the year 2000. In October 2008, it was approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare (MHLW) on the condition that the manufacturer implemented a risk management programme termed the Thalidomide Education and Risk Management System (TERMS). It is likely that the imports of thalidomide will be used off-label to treat diseases other than MM. Thus, the MHLW is also planning to introduce a web-based registration system, referred to as the Safety Management System for Unapproved Drugs (SMUD), for thalidomide imported by individual doctors. To evaluate the difference between TERMS and SMUD and establish a way to resolve the 'double standard' for risk management of thalidomide treatment in Japan. The fraction of patients with disorders other than MM was estimated by the volume of annual imports obtained from the MHLW and records of the imports for patients with MM, other oncological diseases (ODs) and non-ODs in 2007 through a major supplier covering 63% of the total imported thalidomide. The information for TERMS was obtained from web pages of the manufacturer and the MHLW. The components of TERMS were compared with those in SMUD. Provided that the distribution of the indication for thalidomide (MM) in 2007, estimated from the records of imports through the major supplier, is representative of the entire nation, it is estimated that on average 866 patients, including 851 (98.3%) with MM, are using thalidomide on any one day. However, if the major supplier's imports, which account for 63% of the total imports, are not representative of the nation as a whole, possibly only half of the patients treated with thalidomide in Japan have MM. This would be the case in a scenario where the remaining 37% of imports are exclusively used to treat disorders other than

  4. No influence of the polymorphisms CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 on the efficacy of cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, and bortezomib in patients with Multiple Myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, A. J.; Soeby, K.; Klausen, T.W.

    2010-01-01

    . We found no association between the number of functional CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 alleles and outcome of treatment with cyclophosphamide or thalidomide. Neither was the number of functional CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 alleles associated with neurological adverse reactions to thalidomide and bortezomib. Conclusion...

  5. Thalidomide for previously untreated elderly patients with multiple myeloma: meta-analysis of 1685 individual patient data from 6 randomized clinical trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fayers, Peter M; Palumbo, Antonio; Hulin, Cyrille

    2011-01-01

    or better was 59% on MPT and 37% on MP). Although the trials differed in terms of patient baseline characteristics and thalidomide regimens, there was no evidence that treatment affected OS differently according to levels of the prognostic factors. We conclude that thalidomide added to MP improves OS...

  6. Thalidomide is Associated With Increased T Cell Activation and Inflammation in Antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected Individuals in a Randomised Clinical Trial of Efficacy and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia R.C. Vergara

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Short-term use of thalidomide led to an intense transient increase in T cell activation and inflammation, with a decrease in the CD4+ cell count without changes to the CD8+ cell count. We confirmed that thalidomide acts in vitro as a latency reversal agent and speculate that the in vivo results obtained were due to an increase in HIV replication.

  7. Double-blind trial of the efficacy of pentoxifylline vs thalidomide for the treatment of type II reaction in leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Sales

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Type II reaction in leprosy, or erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL, is often characterized by severe clinical symptoms together with nerve function impairment leading to permanent disabilities. Thalidomide has been shown to be a highly effective drug for the treatment of ENL. It is, however, contraindicated for women of childbearing age due to its teratogenicity. On the other hand, pentoxifylline, used to treat hypercoagulable states, is not teratogenic and, like thalidomide, can inhibit the synthesis of tumor necrosis factor-a and other cytokines. In the present randomized double-blind clinical study we compared the effectiveness of orally administered pentoxifylline vs thalidomide in treating type II reaction in 44 patients. Daily doses of 300 mg thalidomide or 1.2 g pentoxifylline were administered for 30 days to multibacillary leprosy patients undergoing type II reaction. Randomly chosen patients were included in the study before, during, and after specific multidrug therapy. Clinical evaluations were performed on the 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st, and 30th days of treatment and laboratory tests were carried out on the 1st and 30th days. As expected, overall, thalidomide proved to be more effective in the treatment of type II leprosy reaction. Nevertheless, continuous treatment with pentoxifylline was effective in relieving the clinical signs of ENL, especially limb edema and systemic symptoms, in 62.5% of the patients.

  8. Combination of thalidomide and cisplatin in an head and neck squamous cell carcinomas model results in an enhanced antiangiogenic activity in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasvari, Gergely P; Dyckhoff, Gerhard; Kashfi, Farzaneh; Lemke, Britt; Lohr, Jennifer; Helmke, Burkhard M; Schirrmacher, Volker; Plinkert, Peter K; Beckhove, Philipp; Herold-Mende, Christel C

    2007-10-15

    Thalidomide is an immunomodulatory, antiangiogenic drug. Although there is evidence that it might be more effective in combination with chemotherapy the exact mechanism of action is unclear. Therefore, we investigated its effect in combination with metronomically applied cisplatin in a xenotransplant mouse model characteristic for advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, its possible synergistic action in vitro, and which tumor-derived factors might be targeted by thalidomide. Although thalidomide alone was ineffective, a combined treatment with low-dose cisplatin inhibited significant tumor growth, proliferation and angiogenesis in vivo as well as migration and tube formation of endothelial cells in vitro. Noteworthy, the latter effect was enhanced after coapplication of cisplatin in nontoxic doses. An inhibitory effect on tumor cell migration was also observed suggesting a direct antitumor effect. Although thalidomide alone did not influence cell proliferation, it augmented antiproliferative response after cisplatin application emphasizing the idea of a potentiated effect when both drugs are combined. Furthermore, we could show that antiangiogenic effects of thalidomide are related to tumor-cell derived factors including vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor and Il-8 some known and with, granulocyte colony stimulating growth factor and granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating growth factor, some new target molecules of thalidomide. Altogether, our findings reveal new insights into thalidomide-mediated antitumor and antiangiogenic effects and its interaction with cytostatic drugs. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Thalidomide inhibits UVB-induced mouse keratinocyte apoptosis by both TNF-α-dependent and TNF-α-independent pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, K.Q.; Brenneman, S.; Burns Jr., R.; Vink, A.; Gaines, E.; Haake, A.; Gaspari, A.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Thalidomide is an anti-inflammatory pharmacologic agent that has been utilized as a therapy for a number of dermatologic diseases. Its anti-inflammatory properties have been attributed to its ability to antagonize tumor necrosis factor-alfa (TNF-α) production by monocytes. However, its

  10. After thalidomide - do we have the right balance between public health and intellectual property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldschreiber, Peter; Breckenridge, Alasdair

    2015-01-01

    The current European regulatory and consumer protection legal framework is the legacy of Thalidomide. The disaster led to the introduction of systematic biological and clinical data to endorse the safety and efficacy of new medicines. The European Medicines Directive outlined the pre-clinical, clinical data and product information to evaluate an appropriate benefit. Risk profile of new medicines and also allowed innovative companies to extend patent protection and data/marketing exclusivity periods to compensate for the cost for research and development. However in recent years it has become apparent that the costs and time for research and development are becoming increasingly burdensome, particularly for new drugs with recently discovered mechanisms of action for cancers and neurodegenerative disorders. The costs of development and the commercial uncertainty of such products is reducing commercialisation of these medicines. There is now considerable debate in the regulatory community as to how this regulatory burden may be eased by making earlier review of benefit risk and hence earlier access to authorised medicines. The Courts are moving away from the wide definition of medicinal product to a more nuanced view of the biological and clinical therapeutic mechanisms to satisfy the 'functional' limb definition in the Directive. This may be a move away from the rigorous scientific methodology generated after thalidomide. We discuss the ethical and public health implications of this shift in policy and the implications for intellectual property mechanisms currently available to protect the commercial needs of companies.

  11. Thalidomide, clarithromycin, lenalidomide and dexamethasone therapy in newly diagnosed, symptomatic multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Tomer M; Bowman, Isaac A; Rossi, Adriana C; Shah, Manan; Rodriguez, Melissa; Quinn, Ryann; Pearse, Roger N; Zafar, Faiza; Pekle, Karen; Jayabalan, David; Ely, Scott; Coleman, Morton; Chen-Kiang, Selina; Niesvizky, Ruben

    2014-12-01

    We studied T-BiRD (thalidomide [Thalomid(®)], clarithromycin [Biaxin(®)], lenalidomide [Revlimid(®)] and dexamethasone) in symptomatic, newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. In 28-day cycles, patients received dexamethasone 40 mg/day on days 1, 8, 15, 22, clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily on days 1-28; lenalidomide 25 mg/day on days 1-21; and thalidomide 100 mg/day (50 mg/day on days 1-7 of cycle 1 only) on days 1-28. Twenty-six patients received a median of 6 cycles (range 0-41). Overall response rate (ORR) was 80% for the group and 100% in 11 patients who underwent autologous stem cell transplantation as part of first-line therapy. The 4-year overall survival rate was 74.9%, and the median progression-free survival was 35.6 months. Eight patients discontinued due to regimen toxicity. Grade 3 non hematologic toxicity affected 12 patients (46.2%). T-BiRD is a highly active regimen with potential toxicity limitations. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00538733.

  12. Synergistic Inhibition of Thalidomide and Icotinib on Human Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinomas Through ERK and AKT Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiang; Xu, Yang; Wang, Yi; Chen, Qian; Liu, Liu; Bao, Yangyi

    2018-05-15

    BACKGROUND Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) have been widely used in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with sensitive EGFR mutations. However, the survival of patients with EGFR-TKI administration is limited by the inevitable development of acquired drug resistance. Recently, multi-targeted drugs combination has been shown to be a promising strategy to improve the efficacy of EGFR-TKI treatment and enable the reduction of drug resistance in NSCLC. MATERIAL AND METHODS Humanized NSCLC cell lines PC9 and A549 were co-cultured with thalidomide and/or icotinib to test for anti-tumor efficiency. Cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay, cell apoptosis by flow cytometry and cell migration by wound healing assay. Western blot was performed to determine the expression of caspase-3, -8, -9, Bax, EGFR, VEGF-R, AKT, ERK, MMP2, MMP9, and NF-κB. The xenograft mouse model was used to explore the effects of thalidomide and icotinib in vivo. Immunohistochemical testing was used to determine the expression of Ki-67 and TUNEL staining in tumor tissues. RESULTS Treatments of thalidomide and/or icotinib reduced cell viability, induced apoptosis, and suppressed migration. Attenuation of pEGFR and pVEGF-R resulted in deactivation of ERK and AKT pathways, which eventually increased the anti-proliferative response. In PC9 xenograft model, combined administration of thalidomide and icotinib restrained tumor growth with remarkable reduced Ki-67 index and increased TUNEL positive cells. CONCLUSIONS Thalidomide sensitizes icotinib to increase apoptosis and prevent migration, and it may be a potentially promising anti-tumor drug in lung cancer multi-modality therapy.

  13. Thalidomide versus active supportive care for maintenance in patients with malignant mesothelioma after first-line chemotherapy (NVALT 5): an open-label, multicentre, randomised phase 3 study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buikhuisen, Wieneke A.; Burgers, Jacobus A.; Vincent, Andrew D.; Korse, Catharina M.; van Klaveren, Rob J.; Schramel, Franz M. N. H.; Pavlakis, Nick; Nowak, Anna K.; Custers, Frank L. J.; Schouwink, J. Hugo; Gans, Steven J. M.; Groen, Harry J. M.; Strankinga, Wim F. M.; Baas, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Standard chemotherapy does not lead to long-term survival in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. Malignant pleural mesothelioma is strongly dependent on vasculature with high vessel counts and high concentrations of serum vascular growth factors. Thalidomide has shown antiangiogenic

  14. Long-term treatment of thalidomide ameliorates amyloid-like pathology through inhibition of β-secretase in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping He

    Full Text Available Thalidomide is a tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα inhibitor which has been found to have abilities against tumor growth, angiogenesis and inflammation. Recently, it has been applied in clinic for the treatment of multiple myeloma as well as some inflammatory diseases. However, whether thalidomide has any therapeutic effects on neurodegenerative disorders, i.e. Alzheimer's disease (AD is not clear. AD is characterized by excessive amount of amyloid β peptides (Aβ, which results in a significant release of inflammatory factors, including TNFα in the brain. Studies have shown that inhibition of TNFα reduces amyloid-associated pathology, prevents neuron loss and improves cognition. Our recent report showed that genetic inhibition of TNFα/TNF receptor signal transduction down-regulates β amyloid cleavage enzyme 1 (BACE1 activity, reduces Aβ generation and improves learning and memory deficits. However, the mechanism of thalidomide involving in the mitigation of AD neuropathological features remains unclear. Here, we chronically administrated thalidomide on human APPswedish mutation transgenic (APP23 mice from 9 months old (an onset of Aβ deposits and early stage of AD-like changes to 12 months old. We found that, in addition of dramatic decrease in the activation of both astrocytes and microglia, thalidomide significantly reduces Aβ load and plaque formation. Furthermore, we found a significant decrease in BACE1 level and activity with long-term thalidomide application. Interestingly, these findings cannot be observed in the brains of 12-month-old APP23 mice with short-term treatment of thalidomide (3 days. These results suggest that chronic thalidomide administration is an alternative approach for AD prevention and therapeutics.

  15. Talidomida, contextos históricos y éticos Thalidomide, historical and ethical contexts

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    José Ángel Chávez Viamontes

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A finales de la década del 50, en Europa, Australia, Japón y varios países africanos, la talidomida provocó más de 10 000 casos de defectos congénitos en hijos de madres que la consumieron durante el embarazo. En 1962, es retirada del mercado. Tres décadas después, se reivindica su prescripción en el manejo de enfermedades de pronóstico desfavorable. Sus propiedades antiangiogénicas e inmunorreguladoras la hacen diferente al fármaco de los años 50 en gran medida. A pesar de poseer las mismas propiedades farmacológicas y riesgos teratogénicos, la molécula talidomida tiene otras las indicaciones, dosis, campos de aplicación y condiciones legales de uso. Esta revisión tiene como objetivo reseñar los contextos históricos y éticos que condicionaron la proscripción de la talidomida a principios de los años 60, así como las actuales condiciones clínicas en que se usan o ensayan actualmente sus efectos terapéuticos.In Europe, Australia, Japan, and some African countries in the late 50's, Thalidomide caused more than 10 000 cases of congenital defects in children whose mothers consumed it during pregnancy. In 1962, it was withdrawn from market. Thirty years later, it is used for the management diseases with unfavorable prognosis. Its antiangiogenic and immunoregulatory characteristics distinguish it from the drug of 1950. Although containing the same pharmacological features and teratogenic risks, the molecule thalidomide does have other prescriptions, doses, application fields, and lawful conditions of use. This revision points out both the historical and ethical contexts, which conditioned the banning of Thalidomide in the early 60's, and the clinical conditions in which its therapeutic effects are used and studied today.

  16. Living with thalidomide: health status and quality of life at 40 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, N; Tennant, A; Neumann, V; Chamberlain, M A

    2007-06-01

    Thalidomide was first synthesized in 1953 and was subsequently marketed as a mild hypnotic and sedative in more than 20 countries. By 2001 it was estimated that there were 5,000 survivors from the 10,000 - 12,000 babies who were, as a result, born with severe abnormalities. For these survivors, recent concerns have emerged about their physical state, in particular their levels of pain and their ability to maintain independence. It was therefore wished to ascertain health status and current concerns amongst a sample of survivors living in the UK. A combination of qualitative and quantitative methodologies was employed. Qualitative interviews were undertaken with a sample drawn from the population affected by thalidomide known to the Thalidomide Trust. Selection of participants was based upon a theoretical sample frame. Postal questionnaires to examine health status and various psychosocial aspects concerned with living with the consequences of thalidomide were sent subsequently to these same participants and to a random sample of those not originally drawn for the qualitative interviews. For the qualitative interviews, 28 agreed to take part; two refused and the remainder did not respond. Those agreeing to interview were representative of the original compensation bands (Chi-Square = 3.929; p = 0.416). Several themes emerged from these interviews, including the effects on work and career; coping in terms of attitude to life, self-image, confidence, self-esteem, stress and emotion; relationships, independent living issues and emergent problems such as pain, quality of life, and anxiety about the future. A postal questionnaire was then sent to those who had agreed to interview (28), plus a random sample of the remaining group who were not initially chosen for the qualitative interviews. In total 82 people were sent the questionnaire, of whom 41 (50%) responded. Two-thirds of responders were female. Seven out of ten lived with a partner, and over half (56%) had

  17. Scleromyxedema with Subcutaneous Nodules: Successful Treatment with Thalidomide and Intravenous Immunoglobulin

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    M. Dolenc-Voljč

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Scleromyxedema is a rare cutaneous mucinosis, usually presenting with generalized papular eruption and sclerodermoid induration, monoclonal gammopathy and systemic manifestations. An atypical clinical presentation with cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules has been reported rarely. In recent years, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg appears to be the therapy of choice for scleromyxedema. Treatment experiences in atypical manifestations with mucinous nodules are limited to sporadic reports. We report the case of male patient with atypical scleromyxedema without underlying paraproteinemia, presenting with generalized papular and sclerodermoid skin eruption and multiple nodular mucinous lesions on the fingers and face as well as on the eyelids, and associated systemic symptoms. Complete regression of all cutaneous lesions and extracutaneous symptoms with sustained remission was achieved by combined treatment with thalidomide and IVIg.

  18. Scleromyxedema with Subcutaneous Nodules: Successful Treatment with Thalidomide and Intravenous Immunoglobulin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc-Voljč, M.; Jurčić, V.; Hočevar, A.; Tomšič, M.

    2013-01-01

    Scleromyxedema is a rare cutaneous mucinosis, usually presenting with generalized papular eruption and sclerodermoid induration, monoclonal gammopathy and systemic manifestations. An atypical clinical presentation with cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules has been reported rarely. In recent years, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) appears to be the therapy of choice for scleromyxedema. Treatment experiences in atypical manifestations with mucinous nodules are limited to sporadic reports. We report the case of male patient with atypical scleromyxedema without underlying paraproteinemia, presenting with generalized papular and sclerodermoid skin eruption and multiple nodular mucinous lesions on the fingers and face as well as on the eyelids, and associated systemic symptoms. Complete regression of all cutaneous lesions and extracutaneous symptoms with sustained remission was achieved by combined treatment with thalidomide and IVIg. PMID:24348379

  19. Indeterminate cell histiocytosis in a pediatric patient: successful treatment with thalidomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Béla; Katona, Mária; Hársing, Judit; Szepesi, Agota; Kárpáti, Sarolta

    2012-04-01

    The 15-year-old male patient presented several 2-6 mm large livid reddish-yellowish, shiny, compact papules on the head, trunk and extremities, which had developed within the last 4 months. Histology showed normal epidermis with dense dermal infiltrate of histiocytes accompanied by few eosinophils, Touton or foamy giant cells. The histiocytes were S100 positive, CD1a negative and did not contain Birbeck granules ultrastructurally. Chest X ray, EEG, skull MRI did not show pathology. Opthalmology, neurology, oto-rhino-laryngology did not reveal alterations. Based upon the clinical symptoms and the histopathology, the diagnosis of indeterminate cell histiocytosis was confirmed. Cryotherapy and cauterization did not stop the progression of the disease, however, under thalidomide treatment no new symptoms developed and the lesions healed with pigmentation.

  20. Cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, and dexamethasone as induction therapy for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients destined for autologous stem-cell transplantation: MRC Myeloma IX randomized trial results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth J.; Davies, Faith E.; Gregory, Walter M.; Bell, Sue E.; Szubert, Alexander J.; Navarro Coy, Nuria; Cook, Gordon; Feyler, Sylvia; Johnson, Peter R.E.; Rudin, Claudius; Drayson, Mark T.; Owen, Roger G.; Ross, Fiona M.; Russell, Nigel H.; Jackson, Graham H.; Child, J. Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Background Thalidomide is active in multiple myeloma and is associated with minimal myelosuppression, making it a good candidate for induction therapy prior to high-dose therapy with autologous stem-cell transplantation. Design and Methods Oral cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, and dexamethasone was compared with infusional cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Results The post-induction overall response rate (≥ partial response) for the intent-to-treat population was significantly higher with cyclophosphamide-thalidomide-dexamethasone (n=555) versus cyclophosphamide-vincristine-doxorubicin-dexamethasone (n=556); 82.5% versus 71.2%; odds ratio 1.91; 95% confidence interval 1.44–2.55; P<0.0001. The complete response rates were 13.0% with cyclophosphamide-thalidomide-dexamethasone and 8.1% with cyclophos-phamide-vincristine-doxorubicin-dexamethasone (P=0.0083), with this differential response being maintained in patients who received autologous stem-cell transplantation (post-transplant complete response 50.0% versus 37.2%, respectively; P=0.00052). Cyclophosphamide-thalidomide-dexamethasone was non-inferior to cyclophosphamide-vincristine-doxorubicin-dexamethasone for progression-free and overall survival, and there was a trend toward a late survival benefit with cyclophosphamide-thalidomide-dexamethasone in responders. A trend toward an overall survival advantage for cyclophosphamide-thalidomide-dexamethasone over cyclophosphamide-vincristine-doxorubicin-dexamethasone was also observed in a subgroup of patients with favorable interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization. Compared with cyclophosphamide-vincristine-doxorubicin-dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide-thalidomide-dexamethasone was associated with more constipation and somnolence, but a lower incidence of cytopenias. Conclusions The cyclophosphamide-thalidomide-dexamethasone regimen showed improved response rates and was not inferior

  1. Peripheral Nerve Dysfunction in Middle-Aged Subjects Born with Thalidomide Embryopathy.

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    Alessia Nicotra

    Full Text Available Phocomelia is an extremely rare congenital malformation that emerged as one extreme of a range of defects resulting from in utero exposure to thalidomide. Individuals with thalidomide embryopathy (TE have reported developing symptoms suggestive of peripheral nervous system dysfunction in the mal-developed limbs in later life.Case control study comparing TE subjects with upper limb anomalies and neuropathic symptoms with healthy controls using standard neurophysiological testing. Other causes of a peripheral neuropathy were excluded prior to assessment.Clinical examination of 17 subjects with TE (aged 50.4±1.3 [mean±standard deviation] years, 10 females and 17 controls (37.9±9.0 years; 8 females demonstrated features of upper limb compressive neuropathy in three-quarters of subjects. Additionally there were examination findings suggestive of mild sensory neuropathy in the lower limbs (n = 1, L5 radiculopathic sensory impairment (n = 1 and cervical myelopathy (n = 1. In TE there were electrophysiological changes consistent with a median large fibre neuropathic abnormality (mean compound muscle action potential difference -6.3 mV ([-9.3, -3.3], p = 0.0002 ([95% CI], p-value and reduced sympathetic skin response amplitudes (-0.8 mV ([-1.5, -0.2], p = 0.0089 in the affected upper limbs. In the lower limbs there was evidence of sural nerve dysfunction (sensory nerve action potential -5.8 μV ([-10.7, -0.8], p = 0.0232 and impaired warm perception thresholds (+3.0°C ([0.6, 5.4], p = 0.0169.We found a range of clinical features relevant to individuals with TE beyond upper limb compressive neuropathies supporting the need for a detailed neurological examination to exclude other treatable pathologies. The electrophysiological evidence of large and small fibre axonal nerve dysfunction in symptomatic and asymptomatic limbs may be a result of the original insult and merits further investigation.

  2. Talidomida: indicações em Dermatologia Thalidomide: indications in Dermatology

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    Rubem David Azulay

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A talidomida, descoberta na Alemanha Oriental, em 1954, mostrou vários efeitos terapêuticos: antiemético, sedativo e hipnótico. De 1959 a 1961, foram descritas cerca de 12.000 crianças nascidas com defeitos teratogênicos. Seu uso foi, conseqüentemente, suspenso. Sheskin, entretanto, recomeçou a usar a droga e verificou efeito benéfico no eritema nodoso leprótico. A talidomida é derivada do ácido glutâmico. Sua eliminação urinária é mínima (1%. Tem ações: antiinflamatória, imunomoduladora e antiangiogênica. Tem sido usada, com certo êxito terapêutico, em algumas entidades mais adiante estudadas. O principal efeito adverso é teratogênico: alterações nos membros, orelhas, olhos e órgãos internos. Supõe-se que esses efeitos teratogênicos decorram da ação antiangiogênica. Outros efeitos adversos: cefaléia, secura da pele e da mucosa da boca, prurido, erupção cutânea, aumento de peso, hipotireoidismo, neutropenia, bradicardia ou taquicardia e hipotensão. Interage com outros fármacos: barbitúrico, clorpromazina, reserpina, álcool, acetaminofen, histamina, serotonina e prostaglandina.Thalidomide was discovered in East Germany in 1954. It presented with several therapeutic effects: antiemetic, sedative and hypnotic. From 1959 to 1961, roughly 12,000 children born with teratogenic defects were described. Its use was consequently halted. Sheskin started using the drug again and observed its beneficial effect on erythema nodosa leprosum. Thalidomide is derived from glutamic acid. Its urinary elimination is minimal (1%. It has the following actions: anti-inflammatory, immunomodulary and antiangiogenic. It has been used with a successful therapeutic outcome on some entities, which have been studied further. The main side effect is teratogenic: limb alterations, ears, eyes and internal organs. The teratogenic effects are assumed to result from antiangiogenic action. Other side effects are cephalea, dry skin and mouth

  3. Habilitation of Patients with Congenital Malformations Associated with Thalidomide: Prosthetic Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilpin, R. E.

    1963-01-01

    The types of prostheses available for treatment of congenital amputations in children, and the assistance in habilitation which can be expected from their use, are described in this communication. The limb deformities in children commonly associated with the drug thalidomide are phocomelia and amelia. Prosthetic treatment of these is difficult, but in almost every case some assistance can be offered. The degree of this assistance will depend to a large extent on (1) the number of limbs involved, (2) the site of the deformity, (3) the intellectual capacity of the child. These factors are evaluated by a clinic team, consisting of a prosthetist, a therapist, a social worker, and a doctor, who acts as the clinical chief. They are also embodied into a prescription for a prosthesis and into a program of management. Subsequently, the clinic team also carry out an assessment of the result. The prosthetist makes available his knowledge of present-day appliances, and assures that the way is left open for use of new, and perhaps revolutionary prostheses, in the future. ImagesFig. 1(a)-1(b)Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:13947980

  4. Habilitation of Patients with Congenital Malformations Associated with Thalidomide: Surgery of Limb Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John E.

    1963-01-01

    The deformities commonly seen in “thalidomide babies” are described. These vary from relatively uncomplicated radial-ray defects to complete phocomelia of all four extremities. It is suggested that the care of these children is best carried out in a clinic accustomed to dealing with juvenile amputee problems. A plea is made for very early fitting of upper-extremity prostheses (at approximately three months of age) in cases of unilateral upper-limb deficiencies. A “bucket” for sitting should be supplied for children with quadrilateral phocomelia to sit in when they reach seven or eight months of age. Children with severe upper-limb malformations will be candidates for some form of externally powered prostheses. ImagesFig. 1a and 1bFig. 2a and 2bFig. 3a and 3bFig. 4a and 4bFig. 5a, b and cFig. 6a and 6bFig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9a and 9bFig. 10a,bFig. 10c and d PMID:13952105

  5. Real-time measurement of blood pressure with Nexfin in a patient with thalidomide-related phocomelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, Rosie; Vaghadia, Himat; Shanahan, Enda; Tang, Raymond; Sawka, Andrew

    2016-11-01

    We report the novel application of photoplethysmographic technology with the Nexfin HD monitor for real-time measurement of blood pressure (BP) in a patient with tetraamelia. The patient was a 58-year-old man with tetraamelia secondary to thalidomide exposure in utero, who presented for surgical excision of a maxillary schwannoma. Because difficulty of cuff use on rudimentary limbs and failure to gain invasive arterial access due to abnormalities of limb vasculature, this population is known to pose some unique challenges for BP measurement. Nexfin may offer an alternative noninvasive method to detect BP in patients with phocomelia during the perioperative period. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Thalidomide for treatment of gastrointestinal bleedings due to angiodysplasia : a case report in acquired von Willebrand syndrome and review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelen, E T; van Galen, K P M; Schutgens, R E G

    INTRODUCTION: Acquired von Willebrand syndrome is a rare bleeding disorder and treatment of the associated gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding due to angiodysplasia is challenging. AIM: The aim of this study was to present a new case on the successful use of thalidomide in a patient with acquired von

  7. Mucosal healing with thalidomide in refractory Crohn's disease patients intolerant of anti-TNF-α drugs: report of 3 cases and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribano, Maria Lia; Cantoro, Laura; Marrollo, Marzia; Cosintino, Rocco; Kohn, Anna

    2014-07-01

    Thalidomide is an oral immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory drug with antitumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) activity. Several case reports and some clinical trials have demonstrated its efficacy in the treatment of refractory Crohn's disease (CD). We report the effect and tolerability of thalidomide in 3 patients with moderate-to-severe CD who were not responsive to anti-TNF-α therapies, and review the relevant literature. The first case is of a 28-year-old female affected by Crohn's colitis complicated by a severe fistulizing perianal disease; she was treated with infliximab, adalimumab, and certolizumab pegol, which were stopped because of intolerance. The second case is of a 39-year-old female with fistulizing ileocolitis complicated by severe arthralgias and perianal disease with loss of response to infliximab and intolerance of certolizumab pegol. The third case is of a 39-year-old male with gastric and ileocolonic CD refractory to immunosuppressors and intolerant of infliximab. All the 3 cases achieved complete clinical remission and endoscopic healing of mucosal lesions at a low dose of thalidomide (50 to 150 mg/d). In our CD patients who experienced loss of response or were unable to tolerate anti-TNF-α drugs, thalidomide was an effective and well-tolerated therapy for inducing and maintaining long-term remission.

  8. No influence of the polymorphisms CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 on the efficacy of cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, and bortezomib in patients with Multiple Myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vangsted, Annette J; Rasmussen, Henrik B; Søeby, Karen; Klausen, Tobias W; Abildgaard, Niels; Andersen, Niels F; Gimsing, Peter; Gregersen, Henrik; Vogel, Ulla; Werge, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The response to treatment varies among patients with multiple myeloma and markers for prediction of treatment outcome are highly needed. Bioactivation of cyclophosphamide and thalidomide, and biodegradation of bortezomib, is dependent on cytochrome P450 metabolism. We explored the potential influence of different polymorphisms in the CYP enzymes on the outcome of treatment. Data was analyzed from 348 patients undergoing high-dose treatment and stem cell support in Denmark in 1994 to 2004. Clinical information on relapse treatment in 243 individual patients was collected. The patients were genotyped for the non-functional alleles CYP2C19*2 and CYP2D6*3, *4, *5 (gene deletion), *6, and CYP2D6 gene duplication. In patients who were treated with bortezomib and were carriers of one or two defective CYP2D6 alleles there was a trend towards a better time-to-next treatment. We found no association between the number of functional CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 alleles and outcome of treatment with cyclophosphamide or thalidomide. Neither was the number of functional CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 alleles associated with neurological adverse reactions to thalidomide and bortezomib. There was no association between functional CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 alleles and treatment outcome in multiple myeloma patients treated with cyclophosphamide, thalidomide or bortezomib. A larger number of patients treated with bortezomib are needed to determine the role of CYP2D6 alleles in treatment outcome

  9. Thalidomide in induction treatment increases the very good partial response rate before and after high-dose therapy in previously untreated multiple myeloma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokhorst, H.M.; Schmidt-Wolf, I.; Sonneveld, P.; Holt, B. van der; Martin, H.; Barge, R.; Bertsch, U.; Schlenzka, J.; Bos, G.M.; Croockewit, S.; Zweegman, S.; Breitkreutz, I.; Joosten, P.; Scheid, C.; Marwijk-Kooy, M. van; Salwender, H.J.; Oers, M.H. van; Schaafsma, R.; Naumann, R.; Sinnige, H.A.M.; Blau, I.; Delforge, M.; Weerdt, O. de; Wijermans, P.W.; Wittebol, S.; Duersen, U.; Vellenga, E.; Goldschmidt, H.

    2008-01-01

    In the prospective phase 3 HOVON-50/GMMG-HD3 trial, patients randomized to TAD (thalidomide, doxorubicin, dexamethasone) had a significantly higher response rate (at least PR) after induction compared with patients randomized to VAD (vincristine, adriamycin, dexamethasone, 72% vs. 54%, p<0.001).

  10. Comparison of Thromboemboli Prophylactic Effect of Aspirin and Low Dose Warfarin in Standard Risk Multiple Myeloma Patients that Treated with Regimens Containing Thalidomide

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    Seyed Amir Dadkhahi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Most of the current regimens in the treatment of multiple myeloma include thalidomide. Thalidomide is a modulator of the immune system and according to several studies, its main complication is thromboembolism. The aim of this study is to compare the thromboemboli prophylactic effect of aspirin and low dose warfarin in standard risk multiple myeloma patients that treated with regimens containing thalidomide. Materials and Methods: In this double- blind clinical trial study, sixty-six patients with multiple myeloma under treatment with thalidomide-containing regimens with standard risk for thromboembolism who were admitted to Khansari hospital, entered the study according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The incidence of thromboembolism in these patients was evaluated. Results: Five patients in the warfarin group and 2 patients in the aspirin group had thromboemboli. Chi square analyses showed no significant difference between groups (p=0.635. Conclusion: The results showed that both drugs are effective in preventing thromboembolism and can be used as a prophylactic treatment.

  11. Significance of Fractionated Administration of Thalidomide Combined With γ-Ray Irradiation in Terms of Local Tumor Response and Lung Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masunaga, Shin-ichiro; Sanada, Yu; Moriwaki, Takahiro; Tano, Keizo; Sakurai, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Hiroki; Suzuki, Minoru; Kondo, Natsuko; Narabayashi, Masaru; Watanabe, Tsubasa; Nakagawa, Yosuke; Maruhashi, Akira; Ono, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of fractionated administration of thalidomide combined with γ-ray irradiation in terms of local tumor response and lung metastatic potential, referring to the response of intratumor quiescent (Q) cells. Methods B16-BL6 melanoma tumor-bearing C57BL/6 mice were continuously given 5-bromo-2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU) to label all proliferating (P) cells. The tumor-bearing mice then received γ-ray irradiation after thalidomide treatment through a single or two consecutive daily intraperitoneal administrations up to a total dose of 400 mg/kg in combination with an acute hypoxia-releasing agent (nicotinamide) or mild temperature hyperthermia (MTH). Immediately after the irradiation, cells from some tumors were isolated and incubated with a cytokinesis blocker. The responses of the Q and total (= P + Q) cell populations were assessed based on the frequency of micronuclei using immunofluorescence staining for BrdU. In other tumor-bearing mice, 17 days after irradiation, macroscopic lung metastases were enumerated. Results Thalidomide raised the sensitivity of the total cell population more remarkably than Q cells in both single and daily administrations. Daily administration of thalidomide elevated the sensitivity of both the total and Q cell populations, but especially the total cell population, compared with single administration. Daily administration, especially combined with MTH, decreased the number of lung metastases. Conclusion Daily fractionated administration of thalidomide in combination with γ-ray irradiation was thought to be more promising than single administration because of its potential to enhance local tumor response and repress lung metastatic potential. PMID:29147396

  12. Melphalan, prednisone, thalidomide and defibrotide in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma: results of a multicenter phase I/II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Antonio; Larocca, Alessandra; Genuardi, Mariella; Kotwica, Katarzyna; Gay, Francesca; Rossi, Davide; Benevolo, Giulia; Magarotto, Valeria; Cavallo, Federica; Bringhen, Sara; Rus, Cecilia; Masini, Luciano; Iacobelli, Massimo; Gaidano, Gianluca; Mitsiades, Constantine; Anderson, Kenneth; Boccadoro, Mario; Richardson, Paul

    2010-07-01

    Defibrotide is a novel orally bioavailable polydisperse oligonucleotide with anti-thrombotic and anti-adhesive effects. In SCID/NOD mice, defibrotide showed activity in human myeloma xenografts. This phase I/II study was conducted to identify the most appropriate dose of defibrotide in combination with melphalan, prednisone and thalidomide in patients with relapsed and relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma, and to determine its safety and tolerability as part of this regimen. This was a phase I/II, multicenter, dose-escalating, non-comparative, open label study. Oral melphalan was administered at a dose of 0.25 mg/kg on days 1-4, prednisone at a dose of 1.5 mg/kg also on days 1-4 and thalidomide at a dose of 50-100 mg/day continuously. Defibrotide was administered orally at three dose-levels: 2.4, 4.8 or 7.2 g on days 1-4 and 1.6, 3.2, or 4.8 g on days 5-35. Twenty-four patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma were enrolled. No dose-limiting toxicity was observed. In all patients, the complete response plus very good partial response rate was 9%, and the partial response rate was 43%. The 1-year progression-free survival and 1-year overall survival rates were 34% and 90%, respectively. The most frequent grade 3-4 adverse events included neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia and fatigue. Deep vein thrombosis was reported in only one patient. This combination of melphalan, prednisone and thalidomide together with defibrotide showed anti-tumor activity with a favorable tolerability. The maximum tolerated dose of defibrotide was identified as 7.2 g p.o. on days 1-4 followed by 4.8 g p.o. on days 5-35. Further trials are needed to confirm the role of this regimen and to evaluate the combination of defibrotide with new drugs.

  13. Poor Safety and Tolerability Hamper Reaching a Potentially Therapeutic Dose in the Use of Thalidomide for Alzheimer's Disease: Results from a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decourt, Boris; Drumm-Gurnee, Denise; Wilson, Jeffrey; Jacobson, Sandra; Belden, Christine; Sirrel, Sherye; Ahmadi, Michael; Shill, Holly; Powell, Jessica; Walker, Aaron; Gonzales, Amanda; Macias, Mimi; Sabbagh, Marwan N

    2017-01-01

    To date there is no cure for Alzheimer's disease (AD). After amyloid beta immunotherapies have failed to meet primary endpoints of slowing cognitive decline in AD subjects, the inhibition of the beta-secretase BACE1 appears as a promising therapeutic approach. Pre-clinical data obtained in APP23 mice suggested that the anti-cancer drug thalidomide decreases brainBACE1 and Aβ levels. This prompted us to develop an NIH-supported Phase IIa clinical trial to test the potential of thalidomide for AD. We hypothesized that thalidomide can decrease or stabilize brain amyloid deposits, which would result in slower cognitive decline in drug- versus placebo-treated subjects. This was a 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study with escalating dose regimen of thalidomide with a target dose of 400mg daily in patients with mild to moderate AD. The primary outcome measures were tolerability and cognitive performance assessed by a battery of tests. A total of 185 subjects have been pre-screened, out of which25 were randomized. Mean age of the sample at baseline was 73.64 (±7.20) years; mean education was 14.24 (±2.3) years; mean MMSE score was 21.00 (±5.32); and mean GDS score was 2.76 (±2.28).Among the 25 participants, 14 (56%) terminated early due to adverse events, dramatically decreasing the power of the study. In addition, those who completed the study (44%) never reached the estimated therapeutic dose of 400 mg/day thalidomide because of reported adverse events. The cognitive data showed no difference between the treated and placebo groups at the end of the trial. This study demonstrates AD patients have poor tolerability for thalidomide, and are unable to reach a therapeutic dose felt to be sufficient to have effects on BACE1. Because of poor tolerability, this study failed to demonstrate a beneficial effect on cognition. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Enantioseparation of thalidomide and its hydroxylated metabolites using capillary electrophoresis with various cyclodextrins and their combinations as chiral buffer additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyring, M; Chankvetadze, B; Blaschke, G

    1999-09-01

    The separation of thalidomide (TD) and its hydroxylated metabolites including their simultaneous enantioseparation was studied in capillary electrophoresis (CE) using four different randomly substituted charged cyclodextrin (CD) derivatives, the combinations of some of them with each other, and beta-CD. TD, as well as two metabolites recently found in incubations of human liver microsomes and human blood, 5-hydroxythalidomide (5-OH-TD) and one of the diastereomeric 5'-hydroxythalidomides (5'-OH-TD), are neutral compounds. Therefore, they were resolved using charged chiral selectors in CE. Two different separation modes (normal polarity and carrier mode) and two different capillaries (fused-silica and polyacrylamide-coated) were tested. Based on the behavior of the individual CDs, their designed combinations were selected in order to improve the separation selectivity and enantioselectivity. Under optimized conditions all three chiral compounds and their enantiomers were resolved simultaneously.

  15. Polyunsaturated fatty acids synergize with lipid droplet binding thalidomide analogs to induce oxidative stress in cancer cells

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    Madácsi Ramóna

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytoplasmic lipid-droplets are common inclusions of eukaryotic cells. Lipid-droplet binding thalidomide analogs (2,6-dialkylphenyl-4/5-amino-substituted-5,6,7-trifluorophthalimides with potent anticancer activities were synthesized. Results Cytotoxicity was detected in different cell lines including melanoma, leukemia, hepatocellular carcinoma, glioblastoma at micromolar concentrations. The synthesized analogs are non-toxic to adult animals up to 1 g/kg but are teratogenic to zebrafish embryos at micromolar concentrations with defects in the developing muscle. Treatment of tumor cells resulted in calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS, ER stress and cell death. Antioxidants could partially, while an intracellular calcium chelator almost completely diminish ROS production. Exogenous docosahexaenoic acid or eicosapentaenoic acid induced calcium release and ROS generation, and synergized with the analogs in vitro, while oleic acid had no such an effect. Gene expression analysis confirmed the induction of ER stress-mediated apoptosis pathway components, such as GADD153, ATF3, Luman/CREB3 and the ER-associated degradation-related HERPUD1 genes. Tumor suppressors, P53, LATS2 and ING3 were also up-regulated in various cell lines after drug treatment. Amino-phthalimides down-regulated the expression of CCL2, which is implicated in tumor metastasis and angiogenesis. Conclusions Because of the anticancer, anti-angiogenic action and the wide range of applicability of the immunomodulatory drugs, including thalidomide analogs, lipid droplet-binding members of this family could represent a new class of agents by affecting ER-membrane integrity and perturbations of ER homeostasis.

  16. Efficacy and safety of thalidomide for the treatment of severe recurrent epistaxis in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: results of a prospective phase II clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invernizzi, Rosangela; Quaglia, Federica; Klersy, Caherine; Pagella, Fabio; Ornati, Federica; Chu, Francesco; Matti, Elina; Spinozzi, Giuseppe; Plumitallo, Sara; Grignani, Pierangela; Olivieri, Carla; Bastia, Raffaella; Bellistri, Francesca; Danesino, Cesare; Benazzo, Marco; Balduini, Carlo L

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a genetic disease that leads to multiregional angiodysplasia. Severe recurrent epistaxis is the most common presentation, frequently leading to severe anemia. Multiple therapeutic approaches have been tried, but they are largely palliative with variable results.We aimed to assess the efficacy of thalidomide in reducing epistaxis in patients with HHT refractory to standard therapy. Methods HHT patients with severe recurrent epistaxis refractory to mini-invasive surgical procedures were included in an open label, phase II, prospective, non-randomized, single-centre study. Thalidomide was administered at a starting dose of 50 mg/day orally. In the event of no response, thalidomide dosage was increased by 50 mg/day every four weeks until response to a maximum dose of 200 mg/day. After response achievement, patients were treated for eight to16 additional weeks. Monthly follow-up was based on the epistaxis severity score and transfusion need, with adverse events being reported (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01485224). Findings Thirty-one patients, mean age 62∙6 (SD 11∙1) years, were enrolled (median follow-up 15∙9 months, 25th-75th 10∙1-22∙3). Treatment induced cessation of bleeding in three cases (9∙7%) and a significant decrease in all epistaxis parameters in 28 cases (90∙3%). Twenty-five patients (80∙7%) obtained remission with 50 mg/day of thalidomide, five (16∙1%) with 100 mg/day and one (3∙2%) with 150 mg/day. Treatment significantly increased hemoglobin levels (pepistaxis in HHT patients, allowing for a rapid, often durable clinical improvement. Funding Telethon Foundation PMID:26686256

  17. Synergistic Effect of Sodium Butyrate and Thalidomide in the Induction of Fetal Hemoglobin Expression in Erythroid Progenitors Derived from Cord Blood CD133 + Cells

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    Ali Dehghanifard

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of drugs with the ability to induce production of fetal hemoglobin as a novel therapeutic approach in treating β-Hemoglobinopathies is considered. γ-globin gene expression inducer drugs including sodium butyrate and thalidomide can reduce additional α-globin chains accumulation in erythroid precursors. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, MACS kit was used to isolate CD133+ cells of umbilical cord blood. Further, the effect of two drugs of thalidomide and sodium butyrate were separately and combined studied on the induction of quantitative expression of β-globin and γ-globin genes in erythroid precursor cells derived from CD133+ stem cells in-vitro. For this purpose, the technique SYBR green Real-time PCR was used.Results: Flow cytometry results showed that approximately 95% of purified cells were CD133+. Real-time PCR results also showed the increased levels of γ-globin mRNA in the cell groups treated with thalidomide, sodium butyrate and combination of drugs as 2.6 and 1.2 and 3.5 times respectively, and for β-globin gene, it is respectively 1.4 and 1.3 and 1.6 times compared with the control group (p<0.05.Conclusion: The study results showed that the mentioned drug combination can act as a pharmaceutical composition affecting the induction of fetal hemoglobin expression in erythroid precursor cells derived from CD133 + cells.

  18. Prediction of peripheral neuropathy in multiple myeloma patients receiving bortezomib and thalidomide: a genetic study based on a single nucleotide polymorphism array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sanz, Ramón; Corchete, Luis Antonio; Alcoceba, Miguel; Chillon, María Carmen; Jiménez, Cristina; Prieto, Isabel; García-Álvarez, María; Puig, Noemi; Rapado, Immaculada; Barrio, Santiago; Oriol, Albert; Blanchard, María Jesús; de la Rubia, Javier; Martínez, Rafael; Lahuerta, Juan José; González Díaz, Marcos; Mateos, María Victoria; San Miguel, Jesús Fernando; Martínez-López, Joaquín; Sarasquete, María Eugenia

    2017-12-01

    Bortezomib- and thalidomide-based therapies have significantly contributed to improved survival of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. However, treatment-induced peripheral neuropathy (TiPN) is a common adverse event associated with them. Risk factors for TiPN in MM patients include advanced age, prior neuropathy, and other drugs, but there are conflicting results about the role of genetics in predicting the risk of TiPN. Thus, we carried out a genome-wide association study based on more than 300 000 exome single nucleotide polymorphisms in 172 MM patients receiving therapy involving bortezomib and thalidomide. We compared patients developing and not developing TiPN under similar treatment conditions (GEM05MAS65, NCT00443235). The highest-ranking single nucleotide polymorphism was rs45443101, located in the PLCG2 gene, but no significant differences were found after multiple comparison correction (adjusted P = .1708). Prediction analyses, cytoband enrichment, and pathway analyses were also performed, but none yielded any significant findings. A copy number approach was also explored, but this gave no significant results either. In summary, our study did not find a consistent genetic component associated with TiPN under bortezomib and thalidomide therapies that could be used for prediction, which makes clinical judgment essential in the practical management of MM treatment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Elotuzumab in combination with thalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone: a phase 2 single-arm safety study in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, María-Victoria; Granell, Miguel; Oriol, Albert; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin; Blade, Joan; Hernandez, Miguel T; Martín, Jesus; Gironella, Mercedes; Lynch, Mark; Bleickardt, Eric; Paliwal, Prashni; Singhal, Anil; San-Miguel, Jesus

    2016-11-01

    Elotuzumab is an immunostimulatory, humanized immunoglobulin G1 monoclonal antibody that selectively targets and kills signalling lymphocytic activation molecule family member 7-expressing myeloma cells. We evaluated the safety and tolerability of elotuzumab 10 mg/kg combined with thalidomide 50-200 mg and dexamethasone 40 mg (with/without cyclophosphamide 50 mg) in patients with relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM). The primary endpoint was the proportion of grade ≥3 non-haematological adverse events (AEs); other endpoints included the number of dose reductions/discontinuations and efficacy. Forty patients were treated, who had a median of three previous therapies, including bortezomib (98%) and lenalidomide (73%). Grade ≥3 non-haematological AEs were reported in 63% of patients, most commonly asthenia (35%) and peripheral oedema (25%). Six (15%) patients had an infusion reaction. Twenty-six (65%) patients had ≥1 dose reduction/discontinuation due to an AE, none related to elotuzumab. Overall response rate was 38%; median progression-free survival was 3·9 months. Median overall survival was 16·3 months and the 1-year survival rate was 63%. Minimal incremental toxicity was observed with addition of elotuzumab to thalidomide/dexamethasone with or without cyclophosphamide, and efficacy data suggest clinical benefit in a highly pre-treated population. Elotuzumab combined with thalidomide may provide an additional treatment option for patients with RRMM. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Subcutaneous Administration of Bortezomib in Combination with Thalidomide and Dexamethasone for Treatment of Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma Patients

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    Shenghao Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the efficacy and safety of the treatment of the newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM patients with the therapy of subcutaneous (subQ administration of bortezomib and dexamethasone plus thalidomide (VTD regimen. Methods. A total of 60 newly diagnosed MM patients were analyzed. 30 patients received improved VTD regimen (improved VTD group with the subQ injection of bortezomib and the other 30 patients received conventional VTD regimen (VTD group.The efficacy and safety of two groups were analyzed retrospectively. Results. The overall remission (OR after eight cycles of treatment was 73.3% in the VTD group and 76.7% in the improved VTD group (P>0.05. No significant differences in time to 1-year estimate of overall survival (72% versus 75%, P=0.848 and progression-free survival (median 22 months versus 25 months; P=0.725 between two groups. The main toxicities related to therapy were leukopenia, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, asthenia, fatigue, and renal and urinary disorders. Grade 3 and higher adverse events were significantly less common in the improved VTD group (50% than VTD group (80%, P=0.015. Conclusions. The improved VTD regimen by changing bortezomib from intravenous administration to subcutaneous injection has noninferior efficacy to standard VTD regimen, with an improved safety profile and reduced adverse events.

  1. ¿Por qué se está usando otra vez la talidomida? Why is thalidomide back?

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    Emilio Sanín Pérez

    2004-02-01

    óxica ni en la Enfermedad crónica injerto contra huésped. Background: in 1998 the FDA approved the restricted commercialization of Thalidomide for the treatment of Erithema Nodosum Leprosum. Brazil and Mexico have also regulated its use. Because of the current use of this teratogenic drug in rheumatological, dermatological, infectious and neoplasic diseases, it is necessary to instruct General Practitioners and specialists on its most relevant topics, active principle, benefic and deleterious effects. We carried out a revision by reading and analyzing controlled clinical trials, randomized or not, case series and reviews about thalidomide and its potential uses, that appeared in Medline from January 1993 to December 2003, to draw indications and contraindications in light of the evidence found in them. Results: forty six randomized controlled studies were found and 22 (with at least 50 patients described were reviewed (complete articles and/or including design and end points measured – expressed abstracts, plus 10 reviews and 22 cases series. The analysis allowed us to inform potential or restricted and not indicated uses of thalidomide in humans, its pharmacokynetic principles which explain its benefic and deleterious effects, and recommendations to prevent teratogenesis. Conclusion: thalidomide is available, with restrictions, for the treatment of Erithema Nodosum Leprosum (first line and Multiple Myeloma (refractory to multiple chemotherapy. It appears to have beneficial effects in many other serious conditions refractory to first line treatments: AIDS, esophagus and prostate cancer and some severe dermatosis, rheumatological or not.

  2. Prolonged Suppression of Neuropathic Pain by Sequential Delivery of Lidocaine and Thalidomide Drugs Using PEGylated Graphene Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Tieying; Gu, Kunfeng; Wang, Wenli; Wang, Hong; Yang, Yunliang; Yang, Lijun; Ma, Pengxu; Ma, Xiaojing; Zhao, Jianhui; Yan, Ruyu; Guan, Jiao; Wang, Chunping; Qi, Yan; Ya, Jian

    2015-11-01

    The management of patients with neuropathic pain is challenging. Monotherapy with a single pain relief drug may encounter different difficulties, such as short duration of efficacy and hence too many times of drug administration, and inadequate drug delivery. Recently, nanocarrier-based drug delivery systems have been proved to provide promising strategies for efficient drug loading, delivery, and release. In the present study, we developed poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether functionalized graphene oxide (GO) bearing two commonly used drugs of lidocaine (LDC) and thalidomide (THD) as an agent for the treatment of neuropathic pain. The sequential drug release of LDC and THD from the developed LDC-THD-GO nanosheets exhibited a synergistic effect on neuropathic pain in vitro and in vivo, as evidenced by the increased pain threshold in mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesic response tests, and the improved inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and nitric oxide. We believed that the present study herein would hold promise for future development of a new generation of potent agents for neuropathic pain relief. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  3. Cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, and dexamethasone (CTD) as initial therapy for patients with multiple myeloma unsuitable for autologous transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Faith E.; Gregory, Walter M.; Russell, Nigel H.; Bell, Sue E.; Szubert, Alexander J.; Coy, Nuria Navarro; Cook, Gordon; Feyler, Sylvia; Byrne, Jenny L.; Roddie, Huw; Rudin, Claudius; Drayson, Mark T.; Owen, Roger G.; Ross, Fiona M.; Jackson, Graham H.; Child, J. Anthony

    2011-01-01

    As part of the randomized MRC Myeloma IX trial, we compared an attenuated regimen of cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, and dexamethasone (CTDa; n = 426) with melphalan and prednisolone (MP; n = 423) in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma ineligible for autologous stem-cell transplantation. The primary endpoints were overall response rate, progression-free survival, and overall survival (OS). The overall response rate was significantly higher with CTDa than MP (63.8% vs 32.6%; P < .0001), primarily because of increases in the rate of complete responses (13.1% vs 2.4%) and very good partial responses (16.9% vs 1.7%). Progression-free survival and OS were similar between groups. In this population, OS correlated with the depth of response (P < .0001) and favorable interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization profile (P < .001). CTDa was associated with higher rates of thromboembolic events, constipation, infection, and neuropathy than MP. In elderly patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (median age, 73 years), CTDa produced higher response rates than MP but was not associated with improved survival outcomes. We highlight the importance of cytogenetic profiling at diagnosis and effective management of adverse events. This trial was registered at International Standard Randomized Controlled Trials Number as #68454111. PMID:21652683

  4. Efficacy and safety of thalidomide for the treatment of severe recurrent epistaxis in hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia: results of a non-randomised, single-centre, phase 2 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invernizzi, Rosangela; Quaglia, Federica; Klersy, Catherine; Pagella, Fabio; Ornati, Federica; Chu, Francesco; Matti, Elina; Spinozzi, Giuseppe; Plumitallo, Sara; Grignani, Pierangela; Olivieri, Carla; Bastia, Raffaella; Bellistri, Francesca; Danesino, Cesare; Benazzo, Marco; Balduini, Carlo L

    2015-11-01

    Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia is a genetic disease that leads to multiregional angiodysplasia. Severe recurrent epistaxis is the most common presentation, frequently leading to severe anaemia. Several therapeutic approaches have been investigated, but they are mostly palliative and have had variable results. We aimed to assess the efficacy of thalidomide for the reduction of epistaxis in patients with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia that is refractory to standard therapy. We recruited patients aged 17 years or older with hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia who had severe recurrent epistaxis refractory to minimally invasive surgical procedures into an open-label, phase 2, non-randomised, single-centre study at IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Foundation (Pavia, Italy). We gave patients thalidomide at a starting dose of 50 mg/day orally. If they had no response, we increased the thalidomide dose by 50 mg/day increments every 4 weeks, until a response was seen, up to a maximum dose of 200 mg/day. After patients had achieved a response, they continued treatment for 8-16 additional weeks. The primary endpoint was the efficacy of thalidomide measured as the percentage of patients who had reductions of at least one grade in the frequency, intensity, or duration of epistaxis. We followed up patients each month to assess epistaxis severity score and transfusion need, and any adverse events were reported. We included all patients who received any study drug and who participated in at least one post-baseline assessment in the primary efficacy population. The safety population consisted of all patients who received any dose of study treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01485224. Between Dec 1, 2011, and May 12, 2014, we enrolled 31 patients. Median follow-up was 15·9 months (IQR 10·1-22·3). Three (10%, 95% CI 2-26) patients had a complete response, with bleeding stopped, 28 (90%, 95% CI 74-98) patients had partial responses

  5. The Applicability of the International Staging System in Chinese Patients with Multiple Myeloma Receiving Bortezomib or Thalidomide-Based Regimens as Induction Therapy: A Multicenter Analysis

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    Jing Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The International Staging System (ISS is the most important prognostic system for multiple myeloma (MM. It was identified in the era of conventional agents. The outcome of MM has significantly changed by novel agents. Thus the applicability of ISS system in the era of novel agents in Chinese patients needs to be demonstrated. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical outcomes and prognostic significance of ISS system in 1016 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma in Chinese patients between 2008 and 2012, who received bortezomib- or thalidomide-based regimens as first-line therapy. The median overall survival (OS of patients for ISS stages I/II/III was not reached/55.4 months/41.7 months (p<0.001, and the median progression-free survival (PFS was 30/29.5/25 months (p=0.072, respectively. Statistically significant difference in survival was confirmed among three ISS stages in thalidomide-based group, but not between ISS stages I and II in bortezomib-based group. These findings suggest that ISS system can predict the survival in the era of novel agents in Chinese MM patients, and bortezomib may have the potential to partially overcome adverse effect of risk factors on survival, especially in higher stage of ISS system.

  6. LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of thalidomide, lenalidomide, cyclophosphamide, bortezomib, dexamethasone and adriamycin in serum of multiple myeloma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Chang; Zeng, Tianmei; Gao, Shouhong; Xia, Tianyi; Huang, Lifeng; Zhang, Feng; Chen, Wansheng

    2016-08-15

    Multiple myeloma (MM), a malignant neoplastic serum-cell disorder, has been a serious threat to human health. The determination of 6 commonly used drug concentrations, including thalidomide, lenalidomide, cyclophosphamide, bortezomib, dexamethasone and adriamycin, in MM patients was of great clinical interest. Herein, we reported a method for the rapid and simultaneous measurement of the above therapeutics by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) method with solid phase extraction. Analysis was performed on a Waters XBridge(®) BEH C18 column (2.5μm, 2.1 mm×50mm), with formic acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile as the mobile phase at flow rate 0.3mL/min. All analytes showed good correlation coefficients (r>0.996), and LLOQ of thalidomide, lenalidomide, cyclophosphamide, bortezomib, dexamethasone and adriamycin were 4, 2, 2, 2, 2 and 2ng/mL, respectively. The inter- and intra-day precisions and stability were expressed as variation coefficients within 15% and relative error less than 15%. Dilution effect, carryover and incurred sample reanalysis were investigated according to the 2015 edition Chinese Pharmacopoeia guidelines, as US FDA (2013, revision 1) required. The LC-MS/MS based assay described in this article may improve future clinical studies evaluating common therapeutics for MM treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of phototransformation products of thalidomide and mixture toxicity assessment: an experimental and quantitative structural activity relationships (QSAR) approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Waleed M M; Toolaram, Anju P; Menz, Jakob; Leder, Christoph; Schneider, Mandy; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2014-02-01

    The fate of thalidomide (TD) was investigated after irradiation with a medium-pressure Hg-lamp. The primary elimination of TD was monitored and structures of phototransformation products (PTPs) were assessed by LC-UV-FL-MS/MS. Environmentally relevant properties of TD and its PTPs as well as hydrolysis products (HTPs) were predicted using in silico QSAR models. Mutagenicity of TD and its PTPs was investigated in the Ames microplate format (MPF) aqua assay (Xenometrix, AG). Furthermore, a modified luminescent bacteria test (kinetic luminescent bacteria test (kinetic LBT)), using the luminescent bacteria species Vibrio fischeri, was applied for the initial screening of environmental toxicity. Additionally, toxicity of phthalimide, one of the identified PTPs, was investigated separately in the kinetic LBT. The UV irradiation eliminated TD itself without complete mineralization and led to the formation of several PTPs. TD and its PTPs did not exhibit mutagenic response in the Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98, and TA 100 with and without metabolic activation. In contrast, QSAR analysis of PTPs and HTPs provided evidence for mutagenicity, genotoxicity and carcinogenicity using additional endpoints in silico software. QSAR analysis of different ecotoxicological endpoints, such as acute toxicity towards V. fischeri, provided positive alerts for several identified PTPs and HTPs. This was partially confirmed by the results of the kinetic LBT, in which a steady increase of acute and chronic toxicity during the UV-treatment procedure was observed for the photolytic mixtures at the highest tested concentration. Moreover, the number of PTPs within the reaction mixture that might be responsible for the toxification of TD during UV-treatment was successfully narrowed down by correlating the formation kinetics of PTPs with QSAR predictions and experimental toxicity data. Beyond that, further analysis of the commercially available PTP phthalimide indicated that transformation of

  8. Superiority of bortezomib, thalidomide, and dexamethasone (VTD) as induction pretransplantation therapy in multiple myeloma: a randomized phase 3 PETHEMA/GEM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosiñol, Laura; Oriol, Albert; Teruel, Ana Isabel; Hernández, Dolores; López-Jiménez, Javier; de la Rubia, Javier; Granell, Miquel; Besalduch, Joan; Palomera, Luis; González, Yolanda; Etxebeste, María Asunción; Díaz-Mediavilla, Joaquín; Hernández, Miguel T; de Arriba, Felipe; Gutiérrez, Norma C; Martín-Ramos, María Luisa; Cibeira, María Teresa; Mateos, María Victoria; Martínez, Joaquín; Alegre, Adrián; Lahuerta, Juan José; San Miguel, Jesús; Bladé, Joan

    2012-08-23

    The Spanish Myeloma Group conducted a trial to compare bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone (VTD) versus thalidomide/dexamethasone (TD) versus vincristine, BCNU, melphalan, cyclophosphamide, prednisone/vincristine, BCNU, doxorubicin, dexamethasone/bortezomib (VBMCP/VBAD/B) in patients aged 65 years or younger with multiple myeloma. The primary endpoint was complete response (CR) rate postinduction and post-autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT). Three hundred eighty-six patients were allocated to VTD (130), TD (127), or VBMCP/VBAD/B (129). The CR rate was significantly higher with VTD than with TD (35% vs 14%, P = .001) or with VBMCP/VBAD/B (35% vs 21%, P = .01). The median progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly longer with VTD (56.2 vs 28.2 vs 35.5 months, P = .01). In an intention-to-treat analysis, the post-ASCT CR rate was higher with VTD than with TD (46% vs 24%, P = .004) or with VBMCP/VBAD/B (46% vs 38%, P = .1). Patients with high-risk cytogenetics had a shorter PFS and overall survival in the overall series and in all treatment groups. In conclusion, VTD resulted in a higher pre- and posttransplantation CR rate and in a significantly longer PFS although it was not able to overcome the poor prognosis of high-risk cytogenetics. Our results support the use of VTD as a highly effective induction regimen prior to ASCT. The study was registered with http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00461747) and Eudra CT (no. 2005-001110-41).

  9. Efficacy and toxicity of the combination chemotherapy of thalidomide, alkylating agent, and steroid for relapsed/refractory myeloma patients: a report from the Korean Multiple Myeloma Working Party (KMMWP) retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jihyun; Min, Chang-Ki; Kim, Kihyun; Han, Jae-Joon; Moon, Joon Ho; Kang, Hye Jin; Eom, Hyeon-Seok; Kim, Min Kyoung; Kim, Hyo Jung; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Lee, Won Sik; Lee, Jae Hoon; Lee, Je-Jung; Choi, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yoon, Sung-Soo

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed the treatment responses, toxicities, and survival outcomes of patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who received daily thalidomide, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone (CTD) or daily thalidomide, melphalan, and prednisolone (MTP) at 17 medical centers in Korea. Three-hundred and seventy-six patients were enrolled. The combined chemotherapy of thalidomide, corticosteroid, and an alkylating agent (TAS) was second-line chemotherapy in 142 (37.8%) patients, and third-line chemotherapy in 135 (35.9%) patients. The response rate overall was 69.4%. Patients who were not treated with bortezomib and lenalidomide before TAS showed a higher response rate compared to those who were exposed to these agents. The estimated median progression-free survival and overall survival times were 10.4 months and 28.0 months, respectively. The adverse events during TAS were generally tolerable, but 39 (10.4%) patients experienced severe infectious complications. There were no differences in terms of efficacy between CTD and MTP, but infectious complications were more common in CTD group. TAS is an effective treatment regimen which induces a high response rate in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma patients. Due to the high incidence of grade 3 or 4 infection, proper management of infection is necessary during the TAS treatment, especially the CTD. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Updated survivals and prognostic factor analysis in myeloma treated by a staged approach use of bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone in transplant eligible patients

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    Chim Chor

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bortezomib, an NFkB inhibitor, is an active agent for the treatment of myeloma (MM. We have reported a promising complete remission (CR rate for newly diagnosed myeloma patients treated by a staged approach, in which chemosensitive patients underwent autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HSCT while less chemosensitive patients received salvage therapy with bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone prior to auto-HSCT. Methods Herein, with an additional 13 months of follow-up, we reported the updated survivals, and examined potential prognostic factors impacting event-free (EFS and overall survival (OS. Results With a median follow-up of 30 months, the projected OS was 73% and EFS was 50.2%. Age, gender, clinical stage and DAPK methylation could not account for the differential chemosensitivity. Advanced ISS stage and DAPK methylation adversely impacted OS whereas oligoclonal reconstitution predicted superior EFS. Conclusions Our staged approach illustrated an economical use of expensive targeted agents while preserving a good CR rate and OS. The comparable survivals of chemosensitive and less chemosensitive patients suggested the staged approach might have abolished the adverse prognostic impact of suboptimal chemosensitivity. Finally, the adverse impact of DAPK methylation and favorable impact of oligoclonal reconstitution in myeloma warrants further study.

  11. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the promoter region of the IL1B gene influence outcome in multiple myeloma patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy independently of relapse treatment with thalidomide and bortezomib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, Annette J.; Klausen, Tobias W.; Abildgaard, Niels

    2011-01-01

    the impact on outcome of HDT, INF-α maintenance treatment, and treatment with thalidomide and bortezomib at relapse, in relation to the major identified functional polymorphisms in the promoter region of IL1B. The wild-type C-allele of IL1B C-3737T and non-carriage of the IL1B promoter haplotype TGT (−3737T...... carrying the wild-type C-allele of IL1B C-3737T (HR, 1.6 (1.1–2.4)). Furthermore, among INF-α treated patients, gene–gene interaction studies on IL1B C-3737T and NFКB1-94ins/del ATTG revealed a fourfold increase in TTF for homozygous carriers of wild-type alleles at both loci as compared to variant allele...... carriers at both loci. No relation to genotype and outcome was found for relapse patients treated with thalidomide or bortezomib. Our results indicate that a subpopulation of myeloma patients carrying the wild-type C-allele of IL1B C-3737T and non-carriers of the promoter haplotype TGT (−3737T, −1464G...

  12. Prospective Evaluation of Quality of Life and Neurocognitive Effects in Patients With Multiple Brain Metastases Receiving Whole-Brain Radiotherapy With or Without Thalidomide on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) Trial 0118

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corn, Benjamin W.; Moughan, Jennifer M.S.; Knisely, Jonathan P.S.; Fox, Sherry W.; Chakravarti, Arnab; Yung, W.K. Alfred; Curran, Walter J.; Robins, H. Ian; Brachman, David G.; Henderson, Randal H.; Mehta, Minesh P.; Movsas, Benjamin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0118 randomized patients with multiple brain metastases to whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) ± thalidomide. This secondary analysis of 156 patients examined neurocognitive and quality of life (QOL) outcomes. Methods and Materials: Quality of life was determined with the Spitzer Quality of Life Index (SQLI). The Folstein Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE) assessed neurocognitive function. SQLI and MMSE were administered at baseline and at 2-month intervals. MMSE was scored with a threshold value associated with neurocognitive functioning (absolute cutoff level of 23) and with the use of corrections for age and educational level. Results: Baseline SQLI predicted survival. Patients with SQLI of 7-10 vs. <7 had median survival time (MST) of 4.8 vs. 3.1 months, p = 0.05. Both arms showed steady neurocognitive declines, but SQLI scores remained stable. Higher levels of neurocognitive decline were observed with age and education-level corrections. Of patients considered baseline age/educational level neurocognitive failures, 32% died of intracranial progression. Conclusions: Quality of life and neuropsychological testing can be prospectively administered on a Phase III cooperative group trial. The MMSE should be evaluated with adjustments for age and educational level. Baseline SQLI is predictive of survival. Despite neurocognitive declines, QOL remained stable during treatment and follow-up. Poor neurocognitive function may predict clinical deterioration. Lack of an untreated control arm makes it difficult to determine the contribution of the respective interventions (i.e., WBRT, thalidomide) to neurocognitive decline. The RTOG has developed a trial to study the role of preventative strategies aimed at forestalling neurocognitive decline in this population

  13. Agentes imunossupressores, talidomida e ácido valpróico nas síndromes mielodisplásicas Immunosuppressive agents, thalidomide and valproate acid in myelodysplastic syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira R. P. Velloso

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Agentes imunossupressores, como a globulina antitimocítica (GAL ou antilinfocítica (GAL e a ciclosporina A têm mostrado eficácia nas SMD, particularmente nos subtipos Anemias refratária (AR e nas SMD com fenótipo HLA-DR15, independente do grau de celularidade medular. Outras drogas disponíveis em nosso meio, de baixo custo, como a talidomida podem ser utilizada em pacientes refratários, e o ácido valpróico está sendo utilizado em ensaios clínicos. A quantificação da resposta a drogas deve utilizar os critérios de resposta do International Working Group (IWG. É proposto um fluxograma para uso de fatores de crescimento, agentes imunossupressores e talidomida em pacientes com SMD, de baixo risco, não candidatos a transplante de medula óssea (TMO.Patients with refractory anemia subtypes and HLA-DR15 with any degree of marrow cellularity have good responses to immunosuppressive agents, such as antithymocyte globulin, antilymphocyte globulin and cyclosporine A. Other cheaper drugs available in Brazil, including thalidomide may be useful in refractory patients. Valproate acid has started to be used in clinical trials. Response to treatment should be reported using the criteria proposed by the International Working Group. The use of growth factors, immunosuppressive agents and thalidomide in low risk patients with myelodysplastic syndromes who are not candidates for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is suggested at the end of this publication.

  14. Mucormycosis and chromoblastomycosis occurring in a patient with leprosy type 2 reaction under prolonged corticosteroid and thalidomide therapy Mucormicose e cromoblastomicose em um paciente com reação hansênica tipo II sob terapia prolongada com corticosteróide e talidomida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Machado Alves Basílio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycosis is an uncommon fungal infection caused by Mucorales. It frequently occurs in patients with neutropenia, diabetes, malignancy and on corticoid therapy. However, it is rare in patients with AIDS. Clinical disease can be manifested in several forms. The case reported illustrates the rare occurrence of chromoblastomycosis and mucormycosis in an immunosuppressed patient with multibacillary leprosy, under prolonged corticosteroid and thalidomide therapy to control leprosy type 2 reaction. Neutrophil dysfunction, thalidomide therapy and work activities are some of the risk factors in this case. Chromoblastomycosis was treated by surgical excision and mucormycosis with amphotericin B. Although the prognosis of mucormycosis is generally poor, in the reported case the patient recovered successfully. This case should alert dermatologists to possible opportunistic infections in immunosuppressed patients.Mucormicose é uma infecção fúngica incomum causada por Mucorales. Ocorre frequentemente em pacientes com neutropenia, diabetes, corticoterapia e condições malignas. Porém, é rara em pacientes com AIDS. A doença pode apresentar-se em diferentes formas. Este caso ilustra a rara ocorrência de mucormicose e cromoblastomicose em um paciente com hanseníase multibacilar, que estava sendo tratado com prednisona e talidomida devido a eritema nodoso (reação hansênica tipo II. Disfunção de neutrófilos, uso de talidomida e atividades profissionais são alguns fatores de risco neste caso. A cromoblastomicose foi tratada por excisão cirúrgica e a mucormicose com anfotericina B. Embora o prognóstico da mucormicose seja ruim, neste caso o tratamento foi bem sucedido. Este caso alerta dermatologistas para a possibilidade de infecções oportunistas em pacientes imunossuprimidos.

  15. TERATOLOGY SOCIETY 1998 PUBLIC AFFAIRS COMMITTEE SYMPOSIUM: THE NEW THALIDOMIDE ERA: DEALING WITH THE RISKS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Teratology Society Public Affairs Committee Symposium was held on June 21, 1998, during the Society's annual meeting in San Diego, California. The symposium was organized and chaired by Dr. Carole Kimmel. The sysmposium was designed to consider the medical, social, and ethi...

  16. Different aspects of thalidomide treatment and stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marion, A.M.W. van

    2006-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is an haematological malignancy caused by an unrestrained proliferation of plasma cells (monoclonally differentiated B-cells), and part of the white blood cell count. This proliferation infiltrates the blood forming skeletal bone marrow, producing osteoclastic factors, causing

  17. 77 FR 74669 - Draft and Revised Draft Guidances for Industry Describing Product-Specific Bioequivalence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... Phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride Q Quinine sulfate R Risedronate sodium T Tacrolimus Thalidomide Tinidazole For a... Gabapentin P Piroxicam S Sodium Phosphate, dibasic, anhydrous; sodium phosphate, monobasic, monohydrate [[Page 74670

  18. A tale of two citizens: a State Attorney General and a hematologist facilitate translation of research into US Food and Drug Administration actions--a SONAR report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Brian; Restaino, John; Norris, LeAnn; Xirasagar, Sudha; Qureshi, Zaina P; McKoy, June M; Lopez, Isaac S; Trenery, Alyssa; Murday, Alanna; Kahn, Adam; Mattison, Donald R; Ray, Paul; Sartor, Oliver; Bennett, Charles L

    2012-11-01

    Pharmaceutical safety is a public health issue. In 2005, the Connecticut Attorney General (AG) raised concerns over adverse drug reactions in off-label settings, noting that thalidomide was approved to treat a rare illness, but more than 90% of its use was off label. A hematologist had reported thalidomide with doxorubicin or dexamethasone was associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE) rates of 25%. We review US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and manufacturer responses to a citizen petition filed to address these thalidomide safety issues. Case study. The AG petitioned the FDA requesting thalidomide-related safety actions. Coincidentally, the manufacturer submitted a supplemental New Drug Approval (sNDA), requesting approval to treat multiple myeloma with thalidomide-dexamethasone. FDA safety officers reviewed the petition and the literature and noted that VTE risks with thalidomide were not appropriately addressed in the existing package insert. In the sNDA application, the manufacturer reported thalidomide-associated toxicities for multiple myeloma were primarily somnolence and neurotoxicity, and a proposed package insert did not focus on VTE risks. In October, the FDA informed the Oncology Drug Division that VTE risks with thalidomide were poorly addressed in the existing label. After reviewing this memorandum, an Oncology Drug Division reviewer informed the manufacturer that approval of the sNDA would be delayed until several thalidomide-associated VTE safety actions, including revisions of the package insert, were implemented. The manufacturer and FDA agreed on these actions, and the sNDA was approved. New approaches addressing off-label safety are needed. The conditions that facilitated the successful response to this citizen petition are uncommon.

  19. A Tale of Two Citizens: A State Attorney General and a Hematologist Facilitate Translation of Research Into US Food and Drug Administration Actions—A SONAR Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Brian; Restaino, John; Norris, LeAnn; Xirasagar, Sudha; Qureshi, Zaina P.; McKoy, June M.; Lopez, Isaac S.; Trenery, Alyssa; Murday, Alanna; Kahn, Adam; Mattison, Donald R.; Ray, Paul; Sartor, Oliver; Bennett, Charles L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Pharmaceutical safety is a public health issue. In 2005, the Connecticut Attorney General (AG) raised concerns over adverse drug reactions in off-label settings, noting that thalidomide was approved to treat a rare illness, but more than 90% of its use was off label. A hematologist had reported thalidomide with doxorubicin or dexamethasone was associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE) rates of 25%. We review US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and manufacturer responses to a citizen petition filed to address these thalidomide safety issues. Methods: Case study. Results: The AG petitioned the FDA requesting thalidomide-related safety actions. Coincidentally, the manufacturer submitted a supplemental New Drug Approval (sNDA), requesting approval to treat multiple myeloma with thalidomide-dexamethasone. FDA safety officers reviewed the petition and the literature and noted that VTE risks with thalidomide were not appropriately addressed in the existing package insert. In the sNDA application, the manufacturer reported thalidomide-associated toxicities for multiple myeloma were primarily somnolence and neurotoxicity, and a proposed package insert did not focus on VTE risks. In October, the FDA informed the Oncology Drug Division that VTE risks with thalidomide were poorly addressed in the existing label. After reviewing this memorandum, an Oncology Drug Division reviewer informed the manufacturer that approval of the sNDA would be delayed until several thalidomide-associated VTE safety actions, including revisions of the package insert, were implemented. The manufacturer and FDA agreed on these actions, and the sNDA was approved. Conclusion: New approaches addressing off-label safety are needed. The conditions that facilitated the successful response to this citizen petition are uncommon. PMID:23598851

  20. Central neurotoxicity of immunomodulatory drugs in multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmeel H. Patel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs currently used in the treatment of multiple myeloma, are thalidomide, lenalidomide and pomalidomide. One of the most common side effects of thalidomide is neurotoxicity, predominantly in the form of peripheral neuropathy. We report 6 cases of significant central neurotoxicity associated with IMiD therapy. Treatment with thalidomide (1 patient, lenalidomide (4 patients, and pomalidomide (1 patient was associated with various clinical manifestations of central neurotoxicity, including reversible coma, amnesia, expressive aphasia, and dysarthria. Central neurotoxicity should be recognized as an important side effect of IMiD therapy.

  1. Central neurotoxicity of immunomodulatory drugs in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Urmeel H; Mir, Muhammad A; Sivik, Jeffrey K; Raheja, Divisha; Pandey, Manoj K; Talamo, Giampaolo

    2015-02-24

    Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) currently used in the treatment of multiple myeloma, are thalidomide, lenalidomide and pomalidomide. One of the most common side effects of thalidomide is neurotoxicity, predominantly in the form of peripheral neuropathy. We report 6 cases of significant central neurotoxicity associated with IMiD therapy. Treatment with thalidomide (1 patient), lenalidomide (4 patients), and pomalidomide (1 patient) was associated with various clinical manifestations of central neurotoxicity, including reversible coma, amnesia, expressive aphasia, and dysarthria. Central neurotoxicity should be recognized as an important side effect of IMiD therapy.

  2. A TAD better for myeloma therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giralt, Sergio

    2010-02-11

    In this issue of Blood, Lokhorst and colleagues report on the results of HOVON-50, a phase 3 randomized trial designed to evaluate the effects of thalidomide during induction treatment and as maintenance in patients with multiple myeloma. There were 556 patients randomly assigned either to 3 cycles of VAD or to TAD. All patients were to receive high-dose melphalan with autologous stem cell support followed by maintenance with interferon for the VAD arm or thalidomide for the TAD arm.(1) This study together with other randomized and nonrandomized trials establish a definitive role for thalidomide as induction therapy in conjunction with dexamethasone, anthracyclines, and alkylating agents.

  3. Disease: H00546 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nylketonuria Maternal progestational diabetes Maternal f...588] Sulfasalazine [CPD:C07316] Thalidomide [CPD:C07910] Trimethoprim-sulfonamide [DR:D00285] Retinoic acid [CPD:C00777] Maternal phe

  4. Disease: H00547 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ylketonuria Maternal progestational diabetes Maternal febrile illness Maternal infl...16] Thalidomide [CPD:C07910] Trimethoprim-sulfonamide [DR:D00285] Retinoic acid [CPD:C00777] Maternal phen

  5. Analysis of a ToxCast™ HTS Toxicity Signature for putative Vascular Disruptor Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have shown the importance of blood vessel formation during embryo development and the strong correlation to developmental toxicity. Several developmental toxicants, such as thalidomide, have been identified which specifically target the forming embryonic vasculatur...

  6. Stages of Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer treatment is also called biotherapy or immunotherapy. Immunomodulators are a type of biologic therapy. Thalidomide , lenalidomide , and pomalidomide are immunomodulators used to treat multiple myeloma and other plasma ...

  7. Treatment Options for Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer treatment is also called biotherapy or immunotherapy. Immunomodulators are a type of biologic therapy. Thalidomide , lenalidomide , and pomalidomide are immunomodulators used to treat multiple myeloma and other plasma ...

  8. Discovery of the target for immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takumi; Ando, Hideki; Handa, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    Half a century ago, the sedative thalidomide caused a serious drug disaster because of its teratogenicity and was withdrawn from the market. However, thalidomide, which has returned to the market, is now used for the treatment of leprosy and multiple myeloma (MM) under strict control. The mechanism of thalidomide action had been a long-standing question. We developed a new affinity bead technology and identified cereblon (CRBN) as a thalidomide-binding protein. We found that CRBN functions as a substrate receptor of an E3 cullin-Ring ligase complex 4 (CRL4) and is a primary target of thalidomide teratogenicity. Recently, new thalidomide derivatives, called immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs), have been developed by Celgene. Among them, lenalidomide (Len) and pomalidomide (Pom) were shown to exert strong therapeutic effects against MM. It was found that Len and Pom both bind CRBN-CRL4 and recruit neomorphic substrates (Ikaros and Aiolos). More recently it was reported that casein kinase 1a (Ck1a) was identified as a substrate for CRBN-CRL4 in the presence of Len, but not Pom. Ck1a breakdown explains why Len is specifically effective for myelodysplastic syndrome with 5q deletion. It is now proposed that binding of IMiDs to CRBN appears to alter the substrate specificity of CRBN-CRL4. In this review, we introduce recent findings on IMiDs.

  9. Expression of CD64 on Circulating Neutrophils Favoring Systemic Inflammatory Status in Erythema Nodosum Leprosum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Schmitz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Erythema Nodosum Leprosum (ENL is an immune reaction in leprosy that aggravates the patient´s clinical condition. ENL presents systemic symptoms of an acute infectious syndrome with high leukocytosis and intense malaise clinically similar to sepsis. The treatment of ENL patients requires immunosuppression and thus needs to be early and efficient to prevent both disabilities and permanent nerve damage. Some patients experience multiple episodes of ENL and prolonged use of immunosuppressive drugs may lead to serious adverse effects. Thalidomide treatment is extremely effective at ameliorating ENL symptoms. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain the efficacy of thalidomide in ENL, including the inhibition of TNF production. Given its teratogenicity, thalidomide is prohibitive for women of childbearing age. A rational search for molecular targets during ENL episodes is essential to better understand the disease mechanisms involved, which may also lead to the discovery of new drugs and diagnostic tests. Previous studies have demonstrated that IFN-γ and GM-CSF, involved in the induction of CD64 expression, increase during ENL. The aim of the present study was to investigate CD64 expression during ENL and whether thalidomide treatment modulated its expression. Leprosy patients were allocated to one of five groups: (1 Lepromatous leprosy, (2 Borderline leprosy, (3 Reversal reaction, (4 ENL, and (5 ENL 7 days after thalidomide treatment. The present study demonstrated that CD64 mRNA and protein were expressed in ENL lesions and that thalidomide treatment reduced CD64 expression and neutrophil infiltrates-a hallmark of ENL. We also showed that ENL blood neutrophils exclusively expressed CD64 on the cell surface and that thalidomide diminished overall expression. Patient classification based on clinical symptoms found that severe ENL presented high levels of neutrophil CD64. Collectively, these data revealed that ENL neutrophils express CD64

  10. History, heresy and radiology in scientific discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCredie, J

    2009-10-01

    Nowadays, most drugs reach the market after research has established their pharmacology, safety and efficacy. That was not always the case 50 years ago. Thalidomide was used before its target cell or mode of action were known. Commencing with the thalidomide catastrophe--an epidemic of gross birth defects (1958-1962)--thalidomide's origins are revisited to show how this drug came to be made and sold in the 1950s. Thalidomide intersected with Australian radiology in the 1970s. The site and mode of action of the drug was deduced from X-rays of thalidomide-induced bone defects, which have classical radiological signs of sensory neuropathic osteoarthropathy. The longitudinal reduction deformities follow the distribution of segmental sensory innervation of the limb skeleton, indicating neural crest as the target organ. Injury to one level of neural crest halts normal neurotrophism and deletes the dependent segment--a previously unrecognised embryonic mechanism that explains most non-genetic birth defects. The final common pathway is neural crest injury and failure of normal neurotrophism to result in longitudinal reduction deformities, for example, phocomelia.

  11. EVALUATION OF TREATMENT FOR ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLEMYELOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amela Kobaklić

    2008-04-01

    The result of our study indicates that combination chemotherapy with thalidomide iseffective treatment for elderly patients with multiple myeloma. Thalidomide in combination with other medications significantly extended medial overall survival, thereforthalidomide should be the reference treatment for elderly patients with multiple myelomafor the time being.Compering overall survival among different treatment centers we observed better survivalin our clinic, nevertheless multiple myeloma is stil a disease with severe prognosis. Withthat in mind we have high hopes for treating multiple myeloma with introduction of newdrugs (bortezomib, lenalomid

  12. Successful treatment of myelodysplastic syndrome-induced pyoderma gangrenosum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, E; Duman, A E; Cetiner, D; Buyukasik, Y; Haznedaroglu, I C; Uner, A; Demirhan, B; Kerimoglu, U; Barista, I; Calguneri, M; Ozcebe, O I

    2006-12-01

    We report successful treatment of a refractory myelodysplastic syndrome-associated pyoderma gangrenosum with the combination of thalidomide and interferon-alpha2a in a single patient. A non-healing wound developed on a 40-year-old woman's left thumb after minor trauma. Massive ulcerovegetative lesions developed after reconstruction surgery. Histopathological examination of the bone marrow and cytogenetic studies revealed an atypical myeloproliferative/myelodysplastic syndrome. The skin lesions resolved dramatically after two months of thalidomide and interferon-alpha2a combination therapy and the haematological status improved.

  13. Child Friendly Medicines : Availability, Pharmaceutical design, Usability and patient outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nales, D.A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Child and maternal health are key to overall human life expectancy, implying an urgent need for medicines that keep (unborn) children and mothers healthy and alive. Unfortunately, medicines may bring harm as well. For example, limb malformation due to the use of thalidomide by pregnant

  14. CASE REPORT: Phocomelia Syndrome - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayatri S. Chakre

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Phocomelia is an extremely rare malformation in which babies are born with limbs that look like flippers on a seal. Although various factors can cause phocomelia, the prominent roots came from the drug use of thalidomide and from genetic inheritance. Phocomelia is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait with variable expressivity and malformation is linked to chromosome 8.

  15. CASE REPORT: Phocomelia Syndrome - A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Gayatri S. Chakre; S. U. Chakre; P. R. Kulkarni

    2012-01-01

    Phocomelia is an extremely rare malformation in which babies are born with limbs that look like flippers on a seal. Although various factors can cause phocomelia, the prominent roots came from the drug use of thalidomide and from genetic inheritance. Phocomelia is transmitted as an autosomal recessive trait with variable expressivity and malformation is linked to chromosome 8.

  16. Overall survival patterns in patients with multiple myeloma in the era of novel agents and the role of initial clinical presentation and comorbidities: A population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oortgiesen, Berdien; Van Roon, Eric N.; Joosten, Peter; Kibbelaar, Robby; Storm, Huib; Hovenga, Sjoerd; Van Rees, Bas P.; Woolthuis, Gerhard; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; Hoogendoorn, Mels

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Clinical trials have shown improved response rates, progression-free survival and overall survival (OS) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) when using the novel agents thalidomide, lenalidomide and bortezomib. However, outcome data provided by population-based registries, reflecting

  17. Pyoderma Gangranosum of the Penis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Heung; Oh, Seung Young

    2009-01-01

    We report a patient who developed pyoderma gangrenosum in the penis with invasion of the distal urethra. The patient was treated with prednisolone and thalidomide, followed by a reconstructive surgical repair using a scrotal island flap. We report this case with a brief review of the literature. PMID:19949683

  18. Drug safety in pregnancy - monitoring congenital anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgan, Margery; De Jong-Van Den Berg, Lolkje T. W.; Jordan, Sue

    Aim This paper outlines research into the causes of congenital anomalies, and introduces a pan-European study. The potential roles of nurses and midwives in this area are illustrated by a case report. Background Since the thalidomide disaster, use of drugs in pregnancy has been carefully monitored

  19. Case for diagnosis. Actinic prurigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daldon, Patricia Erica Christofoletti; Pascini, Mirella; Correa, Mariane

    2010-01-01

    A 13-year-old black boy had pruritic papular and nodular lesions on his forearms associated to edema of the lower lip, photophobia, conjunctivitis and pterygium. Skin biopsy of the lower lip revealed acanthosis, spongiosis with dermal perivascular mononuclear cell infiltration composed by lymphocytes, plasma cells and eosinophils consistent with actinic prurigo. Lesions improved considerably with the use of thalidomide 100mg/ day.

  20. Genetic variations in multiple myeloma II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, A.; Klausen, T.W.; Vogel, U.

    2012-01-01

    Association studies on genetic variation to treatment effect may serve as a predictive marker for effect of treatment and can also uncover biological pathways behind drug effect. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been studied in relation to high-dose treatment (HDT), thalidomide- and bo...

  1. Donor versus no-donor comparison of newly diagnosed myeloma patients included in the HOVON-50 multiple myeloma study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lokhorst, Henk M.; van der Holt, Bronno; Cornelissen, Jan J.; Kersten, Marie-José; van Oers, Marinus; Raymakers, Reinier; Minnema, Monique C.; Zweegman, Sonja; Janssen, Jeroen J.; Zijlmans, Mark; Bos, Gerard; Schaap, Nicolaas; Wittebol, Shulamiet; de Weerdt, Okke; Ammerlaan, Rianne; Sonneveld, Pieter

    2012-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) for myeloma as part of first-line therapy, a donor versus no-donor analysis was performed of patients treated in the HOVON-50 study, a study that was originally designed to examine thalidomide combined with intensive therapy.

  2. Dual inhibition of DNMTs and EZH2 can overcome both intrinsic and acquired resistance of myeloma cells to IMiDs in a cereblon-independent manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Søgaard Helbo, Alexandra; Fibiger Munch-Petersen, Helga

    2018-01-01

    Thalidomide and its derivatives, lenalidomide and pomalidomide (also known as IMiDs), have significantly changed the treatment landscape of multiple myeloma, and the recent discovery of cereblon (CRBN) as their direct biological target has led to a deeper understanding of their complex mechanism ...

  3. Immunomodulatory drugs disrupt the cereblon-CD147-MCT1 axis to exert antitumor activity and teratogenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eichner, Ruth; Heider, Michael; Fernández-Sáiz, Vanesa; van Bebber, Frauke; Garz, Anne-Kathrin; Lemeer, Simone|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/311474683; Rudelius, Martina; Targosz, Bianca-Sabrina; Jacobs, Laura; Knorn, Anna-Maria; Slawska, Jolanta; Platzbecker, Uwe; Germing, Ulrich; Langer, Christian; Knop, Stefan; Einsele, Herrmann; Peschel, Christian; Haass, Christian; Keller, Ulrich; Schmid, Bettina; Götze, Katharina S; Kuster, Bernhard; Bassermann, Florian

    Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs), such as thalidomide and its derivatives lenalidomide and pomalidomide, are key treatment modalities for hematologic malignancies, particularly multiple myeloma (MM) and del(5q) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Cereblon (CRBN), a substrate receptor of the CRL4 ubiquitin

  4. A study on limb reduction defects in six European regions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoll, C; Calzolari, E; Cornel, M; GarciaMinaur, S; Garne, E; Nevin, N

    1996-01-01

    Limb reduction defects (LRD) gained especial attention after the thalidomide tragedy in 1962, LRD are common congenital malformations which present as obvious congenital anomalies recognized at birth, Therefore it might be assumed that they are well documented, However classification of LRDs is

  5. Drug: D04687 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available genetic abnormality [DS:H01484] Mantle cell lymphoma [DS:H01464] ... Thalidomide [DR:... ... DG01936 ... TNF inhibitor ATC code: L04AX04 Chemical group: DG00744 myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) associated with a deletion 5q cyto

  6. LINKING ETIOLOGIES IN HUMANS AND ANIMAL MODELS: STUDIES OF AUTISM. (R824758)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractThalidomide has been shown to lead to a high rate of autism when exposure occurs during the 20th to 24th d of gestation. Both the critical period and the neurological deficits of the autistic cases indicate that they have sustained injuries to the cranial nerv...

  7. Outcomes of autologous transplantation for multiple myeloma according to different induction regimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvan de Queiroz Crusoe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Induction therapy followed by high-dose chemotherapy and autologous transplantation is the standard treatment for suitable patients with multiple myeloma. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess whether induction therapy with thalidomidecontaining regimens was associated with improved results compared to vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone, and whether cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, and dexamethasone were associated with better results than thalidomide and dexamethasone. Methods: The records of 152 patients who underwent autologous transplantation at this institution from August of 2004 to January of 2012 were reviewed, selecting those with at least partial response to a maximum of eight cycles of induction therapy and sufficient follow-up information for analysis. Results: This study included 89 patients; 44 were female, with a mean age of 55 years (there was a significant trend for increasing age over the years of the study.The median number of induction therapy cycles was four, again with a trend of increase over the years.At least a very good partial response to induction therapy was achieved more often in the cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, and dexamethasone group (61.1% and in the thalidomide and dexamethasone group (59.2% than in the vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone group (16.2%. The overall median progression-free survival was 34 months, with no statistically significant difference between the three groups. The overall median survival was not reached, and there was no significant difference between the three groups; the estimated five-year overall survival was 55%. Conclusion: Although the quality of responses appeared to be better with thalidomidecontaining regimens, these improvements did not translate into improved long-term outcomes. Given its track record, cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, and dexamethasone is currently considered the preferred regimen for first-line induction therapy in the

  8. Modulation of the toxicity of photons by non-conventional drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohm, L.; Theron, T.; Serafin, A.; Verheye, F.

    1997-01-01

    The 3 drugs under investigation Pentoxifylline, Ouabain and Thalidomide are non-conventional in the sense that they have a low toxicity and do not damage DNA. Pentoxifylline reduces blood viscosity ad enhances peripheral blood flow. When combined with irradiation in a mouse rhabdomyosarcoma model we found markedly enhanced tumour growth delay and in cultured cells dose modifying factors for SF2 and alpha in the region of 1.2-1.7 (Strahlentherapie 1995;170:595-01). The drug also alters cell regulation by inhibiting the radiation induced G2/M block and suppressing control of DNA synthesis (Theron and Boehm, unpubl.). When Thalidomide was added in the absence of irradiation to the myelo-blastic cell line K-562 we found characteristic changes of cell morphology and cell surface markers suggesting differentiation and expression of a megacaryocytic lineage (Leukemia Research 1991;15:129-136). A summary of the current state of research is given. (authors)

  9. Blood Vessel Normalization in the Hamster Oral Cancer Model for Experimental Cancer Therapy Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ana J. Molinari; Romina F. Aromando; Maria E. Itoiz; Marcela A. Garabalino; Andrea Monti Hughes; Elisa M. Heber; Emiliano C. C. Pozzi; David W. Nigg; Veronica A. Trivillin; Amanda E. Schwint

    2012-07-01

    Normalization of tumor blood vessels improves drug and oxygen delivery to cancer cells. The aim of this study was to develop a technique to normalize blood vessels in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer. Materials and Methods: Tumor-bearing hamsters were treated with thalidomide and were compared with controls. Results: Twenty eight hours after treatment with thalidomide, the blood vessels of premalignant tissue observable in vivo became narrower and less tortuous than those of controls; Evans Blue Dye extravasation in tumor was significantly reduced (indicating a reduction in aberrant tumor vascular hyperpermeability that compromises blood flow), and tumor blood vessel morphology in histological sections, labeled for Factor VIII, revealed a significant reduction in compressive forces. These findings indicated blood vessel normalization with a window of 48 h. Conclusion: The technique developed herein has rendered the hamster oral cancer model amenable to research, with the potential benefit of vascular normalization in head and neck cancer therapy.

  10. Phocomelia: Report of Three Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coodin, Fischel J.; Uchida, Irene A.; Murphy, Claude H.

    1962-01-01

    Three infants were born with phocomelia in Winnipeg during the period from May 1961 to May 1962. In one case thalidomide had been administered to the mother early in the pregnancy. No etiological agent was discovered in the other two, both of whom died. Known teratogenic agents capable of causing phocomelia are reviewed, but no clear association with the two cases described in this report is evident. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5 PMID:14022756

  11. Avascular necrosis of femoral and/or humeral heads in multiple myeloma: results of a prospective study of patients treated with dexamethasone-based regimens and high-dose chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamo, Giampaolo; Angtuaco, Edgardo; Walker, Ronald C; Dong, Li; Miceli, Marisa H; Zangari, Maurizio; Tricot, Guido; Barlogie, Bart; Anaissie, Elias

    2005-08-01

    To assess the prevalence, time of onset, risk factors, and outcome of avascular necrosis (AVN) of bone in patients with multiple myeloma undergoing antineoplastic therapy. A total of 553 consecutive assessable patients were enrolled onto a treatment protocol consisting of dexamethasone-containing induction chemotherapy, autologous stem-cell transplantation, consolidation chemotherapy, and maintenance with interferon alfa. Patients were randomly assigned to receive thalidomide (269 patients) or no thalidomide (284 patients) throughout the study period. With a median follow-up of 33 months (range, 5 to 114 months), AVN of the femoral head(s) developed in 49 patients (9%). Median time to onset of AVN was 12 months (range, 2 to 41 months). Three risk factors for AVN were identified by multivariate analysis: cumulative dexamethasone dose (odds ratio [OR], 1.028; 95% CI, 1.012 to 1.044; P = .0006 [per 40 mg dexamethasone]), male sex (OR, 0.390; 95% CI, 0.192 to 0.790; P = .009), and younger age (OR, 0.961; 95% CI, 0.934 to 0.991 per year; P = .0122). Thalidomide-treated patients had a prevalence of AVN similar to that of the control group (8% v 10%, respectively; P = .58). AVN-related pain and limited range of motion of the affected joint were present in only nine and four patients, respectively, and four patients underwent hip replacement because of AVN. Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography failed to detect abnormal uptake in the AVN-affected bones. AVN is a rare and usually asymptomatic complication during myeloma therapy. Cumulative dexamethasone dose, male sex, and younger age, but not thalidomide, increase the risk of AVN.

  12. THE JURISPRUDENCE OF PRODUCT LIABILITY IN NIGERIA: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAYAN_

    to establish a fault, as in the cases of manufacturing defects, it is an uphill task in cases of ... See thalidomide. .... especially in a part that is essential to the operation or safety of a product,23 .... class of person to whom it is owed or the damage to which a breach of it may ...

  13. Immunomodulation of multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohnya, Tanyifor M; Figg, William D

    2004-11-01

    Multiple myeloma is a multi-process disease, and these different processes are responsible for the reduced sensitivity to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, hence the relapse and refractory nature of multiple myeloma. Emphasis is now placed on the hypothesis that myeloma cell growth, inhibition of apoptosis and drug resistance are dependent on immunomodulatory cytokines such as IL-6 and pro-angiogenic factors such as VEGF. In addition to its anti-angiogenic effects, the immunomodulatory properties of thalidomide make it a possible therapy for patients with advanced multiple myeloma. This has lead to the clinical development of a number of immunomodulatory thalidomide analogues (IMiDs) which are more potent and have less side effects than the parent drug, thalidomide. In the August 15(th) issue of Journal of Clinical Oncology, Schey SA et al. suggested that an IMiD (CC-4047) maybe efficacious due to T-cell co-stimulation, and safe in patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma. This article demonstrates a supporting role for IMiDs as immunomodulatory adjuvant therapy.

  14. Effect of Immunoglobulin Therapy on the Rate of Infections in Multiple Myeloma Patients Undergoing Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation and or Treated with Immunomodulatory Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhossain A. Khalafallah

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available There are few data available regarding the prevalence of infection in multiple myeloma (MM patients in conjunction with newer generations of immunomodulatory drugs (thalidomide, bortezomib, lenalidomide or post autologous stem cell transplantation.  We retrospectively analyzed 47 patients with MM from March 2006 to June 2009 at our institution. All patients received thalidomide and steroid therapy for at least 6 months. Nine patients received bortezomib and 11 lenalidomide subsequently to thalidomide, because of disease progression and 22 patients underwent autologous stem cell transplantation.   The median age was 64 years (range 37-86, with a female–to-male ratio of 18:29. The median residual-serum IgG-level at time of infection was 3.2 g/L, IgA 0.3 g/L and IgM 0.2 g/L. Most patients suffered from recurrent moderate to severe infections. All patients except 3 received intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG therapy with a significant decline of the rate of infection thereafter. Our analysis shows that IVIG appears to be an effective strategy to prevent infection in MM patients. Further studies to confirm these findings are warranted.

  15. Standardization of a method to study angiogenesis in a mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAVID FEDER

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the adult organism, angiogenesis is restricted to a few physiological conditions. On the other hand, uncontrolled angiogenesis have often been associated to angiogenesis-dependent pathologies. A variety of animal models have been described to provide more quantitative analysis of in vivo angiogenesis and to characterize pro- and antiangiogenic molecules. However, it is still necessary to establish a quantitative, reproducible and specific method for studies of angiogenesis factors and inhibitors. This work aimed to standardize a method for the study of angiogenesis and to investigate the effects of thalidomide on angiogenesis. Sponges of 0.5 x 0.5 x 0.5 cm were implanted in the back of mice groups, control and experimental (thalidomide 200 mg/K/day by gavage. After seven days, the sponges were removed. The dosage of hemoglobin in sponge and in circulation was performed and the ratio between the values was tested using nonparametric Mann-Whitney test. Results have shown that sponge-induced angiogenesis quantitated by ratio between hemoglobin content in serum and in sponge is a helpful model for in vivo studies on angiogenesis. Moreover, it was observed that sponge-induced angiogenesis can be suppressed by thalidomide, corroborating to the validity of the standardized method.

  16. Metabolic profiles of pomalidomide in human plasma simulated with pharmacokinetic data in control and humanized-liver mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Makiko; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Mitsui, Marina; Shibata, Norio; Guengerich, F Peter; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2017-10-01

    1. Pomalidomide has been shown to be potentially teratogenic in thalidomide-sensitive animal species such as rabbits. Screening for thalidomide analogs devoid of teratogenicity/toxicity - attributable to metabolites formed by cytochrome P450 enzymes - but having immunomodulatory properties is a strategic pathway towards development of new anticancer drugs. 2. In this study, plasma concentrations of pomalidomide, its primary 5-hydroxylated metabolite, and its glucuronide conjugate(s) were investigated in control and humanized-liver mice. Following oral administration of pomalidomide (100 mg/kg), plasma concentrations of 7-hydroxypomalidomide and 5-hydroxypomalidomide glucuronide were slightly higher in humanized-liver mice than in control mice. 3. Simulations of human plasma concentrations of pomalidomide were achieved with simplified physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models in both groups of mice in accordance with reported pomalidomide concentrations after low dose administration in humans. 4. The results indicate that pharmacokinetic profiles of pomalidomide were roughly similar between control mice and humanized-liver mice and that control and humanized-liver mice mediated pomalidomide 5-hydroxylation in vivo. Introducing one aromatic amino group into thalidomide resulted in less species differences in in vivo pharmacokinetics in control and humanized-liver mice.

  17. A reevaluation of X-irradiation-induced phocomelia and proximodistal limb patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Jenna L; Delgado, Irene; Ros, Maria A; Tabin, Clifford J

    2009-07-16

    Phocomelia is a devastating, rare congenital limb malformation in which the long bones are shorter than normal, with the upper portion of the limb being most severely affected. In extreme cases, the hands or fingers are attached directly to the shoulder and the most proximal elements (those closest to the shoulder) are entirely missing. This disorder, previously known in both autosomal recessive and sporadic forms, showed a marked increase in incidence in the early 1960s due to the tragic toxicological effects of the drug thalidomide, which had been prescribed as a mild sedative. This human birth defect is mimicked in developing chick limb buds exposed to X-irradiation. Both X-irradiation and thalidomide-induced phocomelia have been interpreted as patterning defects in the context of the progress zone model, which states that a cell's proximodistal identity is determined by the length of time spent in a distal limb region termed the 'progress zone'. Indeed, studies of X-irradiation-induced phocomelia have served as one of the two major experimental lines of evidence supporting the validity of the progress zone model. Here, using a combination of molecular analysis and lineage tracing in chick, we show that X-irradiation-induced phocomelia is fundamentally not a patterning defect, but rather results from a time-dependent loss of skeletal progenitors. Because skeletal condensation proceeds from the shoulder to fingers (in a proximal to distal direction), the proximal elements are differentially affected in limb buds exposed to radiation at early stages. This conclusion changes the framework for considering the effect of thalidomide and other forms of phocomelia, suggesting the possibility that the aetiology lies not in a defect in the patterning process, but rather in progenitor cell survival and differentiation. Moreover, molecular evidence that proximodistal patterning is unaffected after X-irradiation does not support the predictions of the progress zone model.

  18. A Reevaluation of X-Irradiation Induced Phocomelia and Proximodistal Limb Patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Jenna L.; Delgado, Irene; Ros, Maria A.; Tabin, Clifford J.

    2009-01-01

    Phocomelia is a devastating, rare congenital limb malformation in which the long bones are shorter than normal, with the upper portion of the limb being most severely affected. In extreme cases, the hands or fingers are attached directly to the shoulder and the most proximal elements (those closest to the shoulder) are entirely missing. This disorder, previously known in both autosomal recessive and sporadic forms, showed a dramatic increase in incidence in the early 1960’s due to the tragic toxicological effects of the drug thalidomide, which had been prescribed as a mild sedative1, 2. This human birth defect is mimicked in developing chick limb buds exposed to X-irradiation3-5. Both X-irradiation5 and thalidomide-induced phocomelia5, 6 have been interpreted as patterning defects in the context of the Progress Zone Model, which states that a cell’s proximodistal (PD) identity is determined by the length of time spent in a distal limb region termed the “Progress Zone” 7. Indeed, studies of X-irradiation induced phocomelia have served as one of the two major experimental lines of evidence supporting the validity of the Progress Zone Model. Here, using a combination of molecular analysis and lineage tracing, we show that X-irradiation-induced phocomelia is fundamentally not a patterning defect, but rather results from a time-dependent loss of skeletal progenitors. As skeletal condensation proceeds from the shoulder to fingers (in a proximal to distal direction), the proximal elements are differentially affected in limb buds exposed to radiation at early stages. This conclusion changes the framework for considering the effect of thalidomide and other forms of phocomelia, suggesting the possibility that the etiology lies not in a defect in the patterning process, but rather in progenitor cell survival and differentiation. Moreover, molecular evidence that PD patterning is unaffected following X-irradiation does not support the predictions of the Progress Zone

  19. Treatment outcome and prognostic factor analysis in transplant-eligible Chinese myeloma patients receiving bortezomib-based induction regimens including the staged approach, PAD or VTD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chim Chor

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have reported promising outcomes using a staged approach, in which bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone was used only in 14 patients with suboptimal response to VAD (vincristine/adriamycin/dexamethasone before autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT. Here we compared the outcomes of the staged approach with frontline PAD (bortezomib/doxorubicin/dexamethasone or VTD (bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone induction, and analysed prognostic factors for outcome. Patients and methods Ninety-one transplant-eligible Chinese patients received three induction regimens prior to ASCT [staged approach (N = 25, PAD (N = 31, VTD (N = 35]. and received thalidomide maintenance for 2 years post-ASCT. Results 43 (47.3% patients had International Staging System (ISS III disease. By an intention-to-treat analysis, the overall CR/nCR rate were 37.4% post-induction, and 62.6% post-ASCT. Five-year overall (OS and event-free (EFS survivals were 66% and 45.1%. There was no difference of the post-induction CR/nCR rate, EFS or OS between patients induced by these three regimens. Moreover, ISS III disease did not affect CR/nCR rates. Multivariate analysis showed that ISS and post-ASCT CR/nCR impacted OS while ISS and post-induction CR/nCR impacted EFS. Conclusions These three induction regimens produced comparable and favorable outcomes in myeloma. The unfavorable outcome of ISS stage III persisted despite upfront/early use of bortezomib. CR/nCR predicted favorable survivals.

  20. [Wilson's principles--a base of modern teratology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdan, Franciszek; Bełzek, Artur; Szumiło, Justyna; Dudka, Jarosław; Korobowicz, Agnieszka; Tokarska, Edyta; Klepacz, Lidia; Bełzek, Marta; Klepacz, Robert

    2006-03-01

    Wilson's principles were formulated after thalidomide tragedy. They become a fundamental for teratological studies with drugs and other factors that may disturb fetal development. It is postulated that susceptibility to teratogen depends on the genotype and developmental stage of the conceptus. Teratogenic agents act in specific manner on developing cells and tissues. The exposition depends on the agent's nature and availability. Manifestations of deviant development depends on the dosage and exposure frequency. In case of abnormal development the final manifestations include death of embryo or fetus, malformation, growth retardation and functional disorder.

  1. Myeloma: making sense of a complex blood cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, Mary B

    2012-01-31

    Myeloma is a challenging blood cancer characterized by bone destruction, hypercalcaemia, renal insufficiency and anaemia. Although myeloma remains incurable, recent advancements in treatments have resulted in significant improvements in morbidity. The use of immunomodulatory drugs-thalidomide, lenalidomide, pomalidomide (in clinical trials)-and the proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, in conjunction with conventional chemotherapy and supportive therapies, have resulted in a significant shift in approaches to treatment and an improvement in patients\\' quality of life. Nurses must remain up-to-date with current treatments for myeloma and their related side-effects. In addition, nurses play a key role in the coordination of a multidisciplinary approach to care for myeloma patients.

  2. Pharmacovigilance in developing countries (part I): importance and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafie, Shaimaa; Zaghloul, Iman; Roberti, Anne Marie

    2017-12-16

    The thalidomide disaster was the significant historical event that acted as a catalyst for pharmacovigilance activity. Following this event developed countries initiated drug monitoring systems that evolved and now extend their scope to broader drug-related safety issues; however, this was not the case in developing countries. Pharmacovigilance is still a relatively new concept with low priority in developing countries although various issues are raising concerns that magnify the need for systems to monitor post marketing drug safety in these countries. This article analyzes the barriers to introducing robust pharmacovigilance systems in developing countries.

  3. Nephrogenic Diabetes Insipidus: A Rare Presentation in Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Dehghani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of multiple myeloma that presented with anorexia, fatigue, high erythrocyte sedimentation rate, bone marrow plasmacytosis of more than 30%, polyuria,and low urine specific gravity. This unusual presentation was diagnosed as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus secondary to a proximal tubular dysfunction. The tubular functional disturbance appeared to be related to thepresence of lambda-type light chains. The patient was treated withdesmopressine without response. After one month of treatment with thalidomide and dexamethasone for myeloma there was a dramatic response with decreased urine output.

  4. Recurrent hemorrhagic pericardial effusion in a child due to diffuse lymphangiohemangiomatosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhshi Sameer

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Recurrent hemorrhagic pericardial effusion in children with no identifiable cause is a rare presentation. Case presentation We report the case of a 4-year-old Indian girl who presented with recurrent hemorrhagic pericardial effusion. Diffuse lymphangiomatosis was suspected when associated pulmonary involvement, soft tissue mediastinal mass, and lytic bone lesions were found. Pericardiectomy and lung biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse lymphangiohemangiomatosis. Partial clinical improvement occurred with thalidomide and low-dose radiotherapy, but our patient died from progressive respiratory failure. Conclusion Diffuse lymphangiohemangiomatosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hemorrhagic pericardial effusion of unclear cause.

  5. Personalized therapy in multiple myeloma according to patient age and vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palumbo, Antonio; Bringhen, Sara; Ludwig, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Most patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) are aged > 65 years with 30% aged > 75 years. Many elderly patients are also vulnerable because of comorbidities that complicate the management of MM. The prevalence of MM is expected to rise over time because of an aging population. Most...... elderly patients with MM are ineligible for autologous transplantation, and the standard treatment has, until recently, been melphalan plus prednisone. The introduction of novel agents, such as thalidomide, bortezomib, and lenalidomide, has improved outcomes; however, elderly patients with MM are more......, occurrence of serious nonhematologic adverse events during treatment should be carefully taken into account to adjust doses and optimize outcomes....

  6. Personalized therapy in multiple myeloma according to patient age and vulnerability: a report of the European Myeloma Network (EMN)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palumbo, Antonio; Bringhen, Sara; Ludwig, Heinz

    2011-01-01

    Most patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) are aged > 65 years with 30% aged > 75 years. Many elderly patients are also vulnerable because of comorbidities that complicate the management of MM. The prevalence of MM is expected to rise over time because of an aging population. Most...... elderly patients with MM are ineligible for autologous transplantation, and the standard treatment has, until recently, been melphalan plus prednisone. The introduction of novel agents, such as thalidomide, bortezomib, and lenalidomide, has improved outcomes; however, elderly patients with MM are more......, occurrence of serious nonhematologic adverse events during treatment should be carefully taken into account to adjust doses and optimize outcomes....

  7. Atypical Primary Cutaneous Rosai Dorfman Disease: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinio, Anna E; Sawchuk, Michael A; Pratt, Melanie

    Rosai Dorfman disease (RDD) is a rare disorder that typically presents with bilateral cervical lymphadenopathy and follows a benign course. We present a case of late-onset atypical primary cutaneous RDD that is resistant to treatment modalities described in the literature. Case report. An 84-year-old woman presented with a 7-year history of cutaneous lesions histologically consistent with RDD. She later failed initial treatments of acitretin and thalidomide. Physicians must be aware of unusual presentations of RDD. Also, further treatment options must be explored for patients resistant to classical management of RDD.

  8. Biological Activity of Lenalidomide and Its Underlying Therapeutic Effects in Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Martiniani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lenalidomide is a synthetic compound derived by modifying the chemical structure of thalidomide. It belongs to the second generation of immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs and possesses pleiotropic properties. Even if lenalidomide has been shown to be active in the treatment of several hematologic malignancies, this review article is mostly focalized on its mode of action in multiple myeloma. The present paper is about the direct and indirect antitumor effects of lenalidomide on malignant plasmacells, bone marrow microenvironment, bone resorption and host’s immune response. The molecular mechanisms and targets of lenalidomide remain largely unknown, but recent evidence shows cereblon (CRBN as a possible mediator of its therapeutical effects.

  9. Cytogenetic Alterations in Multiple Myeloma: Prognostic Significance and the Choice of Frontline Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, Flavia; Pedrazzini, Estela; Agazzoni, Mara; Ballester, Oscar; Slavutsky, Irma

    2015-01-01

    Multiple myeloma tumor cells demonstrate multiple and often complex genetic lesions as evaluated by standard cytogenetic/FISH studies. Over the past decade, specific abnormalities have been associated with standard or high-risk clinical behavior and they have become strong prognostic indicators. Further, as evidenced by recent randomized clinical trials, the choice of front-line therapy (transplant vs. no transplant, inclusion of novel drugs such as bortezomib, thalidomide, and lenalidomide) may be able to overcome the adverse effect of high-risk genetic lesions.

  10. Therapeutic advancements in multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro eGozzetti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma survival has significantly improved in latest years, due to a broad spectrum of novel agents available for treatment. The introduction of thalidomide, bortezomib and lenalidomide together with autologous stem cell transplantation has dramatically prolonged complete remissions rate, progression free survivals resulting ultimately in prolonged survivals in myeloma patients. Moreover, novel strategies of treatment such as consolidation and maintenance are being used to implement responses. A number of new drugs such as carfilzomib and pomalidomide are already in clinical practice, and new kids on the block are entering, making the future of myeloma patients brighter.

  11. Placental perfusion - a human alternative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mose, Tina; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2006-01-01

    Foetal exposures to environmental and medicinal products have impact on the growth of the foetus (e.g. cigarette smoke) and development of organs (e.g. methylmercury and Thalidomide). Perfusion studies of the human term placenta enable investigation of placental transport of chemical substances...... between the mother and foetus. Dual perfusion of a single cotyledon in the human placenta can contribute to a better understanding of the placental barrier, transport rate and mechanisms of different substances and placental metabolism. The perfusion system has recently been established in Copenhagen...

  12. Imatinib mesylate induces responses in patients with liver metastases from gastrointestinal stromal tumor failing intra-arterial hepatic chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorentini Giammaria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Imatinib mesylate represents a real major paradigm shift in cancer therapy, targeting the specific molecular abnormalities, crucial in the etiology of tumor. Intra-arterial hepatic chemotherapy (IAHC followed by embolization, has been considered an interesting palliative option for patients with liver metastases from gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST, due to the typically hypervascular pattern of the tumor. Aims: We report our experience with IAHC followed by Imatinib mesylate, in order to show the superiority of the specific molecular approach in liver metastases from GIST. Materials and Methods: Three patients (pts with pretreated massive liver metastases from GIST, received IAHC with Epirubicin 50 mg/mq, every 3 weeks for 6 cycles. At the evidence of progression, they received Imatinib mesylate. Results: We observed progressive diseases in all cases. In 1998, one patient underwent Thalidomide at 150 mg orally, every day for 4 months, with evidence of stable disease and clinical improvement. In 2001, two patients received Imatinib mesylate at 400 mg orally, every day, with evidence of partial response lasting 18+ months and 16 months. One of them had grade 3 neutropenia, with suspension of therapy for 3 weeks. Conclusion: No patient treated with IAHC, reported objective responses, but two of them obtained partial response after the assumption of Imatinib mesylate and one showed temporary stabilization with thalidomide. Imatinib mesylate represents a new opportunity in GIST therapy, targeting the specific molecular alteration. It seems to be superior to conventional intra arterial hepatic chemotherapy.

  13. Immunomodulatory drugs disrupt the cereblon-CD147-MCT1 axis to exert antitumor activity and teratogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichner, Ruth; Heider, Michael; Fernández-Sáiz, Vanesa; van Bebber, Frauke; Garz, Anne-Kathrin; Lemeer, Simone; Rudelius, Martina; Targosz, Bianca-Sabrina; Jacobs, Laura; Knorn, Anna-Maria; Slawska, Jolanta; Platzbecker, Uwe; Germing, Ulrich; Langer, Christian; Knop, Stefan; Einsele, Herrmann; Peschel, Christian; Haass, Christian; Keller, Ulrich; Schmid, Bettina; Götze, Katharina S; Kuster, Bernhard; Bassermann, Florian

    2016-07-01

    Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs), such as thalidomide and its derivatives lenalidomide and pomalidomide, are key treatment modalities for hematologic malignancies, particularly multiple myeloma (MM) and del(5q) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Cereblon (CRBN), a substrate receptor of the CRL4 ubiquitin ligase complex, is the primary target by which IMiDs mediate anticancer and teratogenic effects. Here we identify a ubiquitin-independent physiological chaperone-like function of CRBN that promotes maturation of the basigin (BSG; also known as CD147) and solute carrier family 16 member 1 (SLC16A1; also known as MCT1) proteins. This process allows for the formation and activation of the CD147-MCT1 transmembrane complex, which promotes various biological functions, including angiogenesis, proliferation, invasion and lactate export. We found that IMiDs outcompete CRBN for binding to CD147 and MCT1, leading to destabilization of the CD147-MCT1 complex. Accordingly, IMiD-sensitive MM cells lose CD147 and MCT1 expression after being exposed to IMiDs, whereas IMiD-resistant cells retain their expression. Furthermore, del(5q) MDS cells have elevated CD147 expression, which is attenuated after IMiD treatment. Finally, we show that BSG (CD147) knockdown phenocopies the teratogenic effects of thalidomide exposure in zebrafish. These findings provide a common mechanistic framework to explain both the teratogenic and pleiotropic antitumor effects of IMiDs.

  14. radiochemical studies on the growth of myeloma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elshershaby, H.M.M.

    2008-01-01

    cancer is a disease of unregulated cell growth. humans of all ages develop cancer, and a wide variety of organs are affected. multiple myeloma is a cancer in which antibody-producing plasma cells grow in an uncontrolled and invasive (malignant) manner. melphalan (DNA cross-linker), is one of the most widely used and effective drugs in the treatment of multiple myeloma. thalidomide as an immunomodulatory agent is clinically useful in a number of cancers. antitumor activity may be related to a number of known properties, including antitumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and T-cell costimulatory and antiangiogenic effect. however, it may also involve direct antitumor effects. radiotherapy is an important modality in the treatment of cancer. the aim of radiotherapy is to deliver radiation doses and schedules that kill cancer cells, while preserving normal tissue function. the aim of these studies was to evaluate the therapeutic effects of some chemical substances (chemotherapy)such as melphalan and thalidomide and γ-radiation (radiotherapy)on the growth of myeloma cells. also some confirmatory tests such as β2-microglobulin, caspases enzymes 8 and 9 and flow cytometric analyses were performed for the obtained optimum doses.

  15. Real-world Outcomes of Multiple Myeloma: Retrospective Analysis of the Czech Registry of Monoclonal Gammopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hájek, Roman; Jarkovsky, Jiri; Maisnar, Vladimír; Pour, Ludek; Špička, Ivan; Minařík, Jiri; Gregora, Evžen; Kessler, Petr; Sýkora, Michal; Fraňková, Hana; Campioni, Marco; DeCosta, Lucy; Treur, Maarten; Gonzalez-McQuire, Sebastian; Bouwmeester, Walter

    2018-06-01

    Real-world data on patient outcomes and treatment patterns in multiple myeloma (MM) are limited. The present noninterventional, observational, retrospective analysis of prospectively collected Czech patient medical record data from the Registry of Monoclonal Gammopathies estimated real-world outcomes in adults with a diagnosis of symptomatic MM made between May 2007 and June 2014. In total, 2446 patients had initiated first-line treatment. The median overall survival since the diagnosis (primary endpoint) was 50.3 months (95% confidence interval, 46.1-54.5 months) and decreased with each successive treatment line. A similar trend was observed for progression-free survival and the depth of response. In line with European guidelines and clinical practice, bortezomib-, thalidomide-, and lenalidomide-based regimens were most commonly used across all treatment lines (42.3%, 28.9%, and 18.4%, respectively). In the first line, bortezomib and thalidomide were used most often, with lenalidomide the most commonly used agent in the relapse setting (second to fourth lines). Exploratory analyses revealed that younger age (≤ 65 years), lower international staging system stage, and previous stem cell transplantation were associated with significant improvements in overall and progression-free survival, especially in the early treatment lines. The present study is the first analysis of Czech data from the Registry of Monoclonal Gammopathies, and it provides important insights into the real-world management of MM for physicians and healthcare providers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical features and outcomes of plasma cell leukemia: a single-institution experience in the era of novel agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giampaolo Talamo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Plasma cell leukemia (PCL is a rare hematologic malignancy with aggressive clinical and biologic features. Data regarding its prognosis with the use of the novel agents, i.e., the immunomodulatory drugs thalidomide and lenalidomide, and the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, are limited. We retrospectively reviewed clinical outcomes, response to therapy, and survival of 17 patients seen at the Penn State Hershey Cancer Institute since the availability of novel agents (2006-2011. Twelve patients had primary PCL (pPCL, and 5 second- ary PCL (sPCL. PCL was associated with aggressive clinicobiological features, such as high-risk cytogenetics, elevated serum beta-2-microglobulin and lactate dehydrogenase, International Staging System stage III, and rapid relapse after therapy. With the use of thalidomide, lenalidomide, and bortezomib in 53%, 53%, and 88% patients, respectively, median overall survival (OS was 18 months in the whole group (95% confidence interval, 11-21 months, and 21 and 4 months in pPCL and sPCL, respectively (P=0.015. OS was inferior to that of 313 consecutive patients with multiple myeloma (MM treated in the same period, even when compared with a subset of 47 MM with high-risk cytogenetics. Although our data are limited by the small sample size, we conclude that novel agents may modestly improve survival in patients with PCL, when compared to historical controls. Novel therapies do not seem to overcome the negative prognosis of PCL as compared with MM.

  17. Clinical features and outcomes of plasma cell leukemia: a single-institution experience in the era of novel agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamo, Giampaolo; Dolloff, Nathan G; Sharma, Kamal; Zhu, Junjia; Malysz, Jozef

    2012-06-26

    Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) is a rare hematologic malignancy with aggressive clinical and biologic features. Data regarding its prognosis with the use of the novel agents, i.e., the immunomodulatory drugs thalidomide and lenalidomide, and the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, are limited. We retrospectively reviewed clinical outcomes, response to therapy, and survival of 17 patients seen at the Penn State Hershey Cancer Institute since the availability of novel agents (2006-2011). Twelve patients had primary PCL (pPCL), and 5 secondary PCL (sPCL). PCL was associated with aggressive clinicobiological features, such as high-risk cytogenetics, elevated serum beta-2-microglobulin and lactate dehydrogenase, International Staging System stage III, and rapid relapse after therapy. With the use of thalidomide, lenalidomide, and bortezomib in 53%, 53%, and 88% patients, respectively, median overall survival (OS) was 18 months in the whole group (95% confidence interval, 11-21 months), and 21 and 4 months in pPCL and sPCL, respectively (P=0.015). OS was inferior to that of 313 consecutive patients with multiple myeloma (MM) treated in the same period, even when compared with a subset of 47 MM with high-risk cytogenetics. Although our data are limited by the small sample size, we conclude that novel agents may modestly improve survival in patients with PCL, when compared to historical controls. Novel therapies do not seem to overcome the negative prognosis of PCL as compared with MM.

  18. Versican is a potential therapeutic target in docetaxel-resistant prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arichi, Naoko; Mitsui, Yozo; Hiraki, Miho; Nakamura, Sigenobu; Hiraoka, Takeo; Sumura, Masahiro; Hirata, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Dahiya, Rajvir; Yasumoto, Hiroaki; Shiina, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we investigated a combination of docetaxel and thalidomide (DT therapy) in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. We identified marker genes that predict the effect of DT therapy. Using an androgen-insensitive PC3 cell line, we established a docetaxel-resistant PC-3 cell line (DR-PC3). In DR-PC3 cells, DT therapy stronger inhibited proliferation/viability than docetaxel alone. Based on gene ontology analysis, we found versican as a selective gene. This result with the findings of cDNA microarray and validated by quantitative RT-PCR. In addition, the effect of DT therapy on cell viability was the same as the effect of docetaxel plus versican siRNA. In other words, silencing of versican can substitute for thalidomide. In the clinical setting, versican expression in prostate biopsy samples (before DT therapy) correlated with PSA reduction after DT therapy (p<0.05). Thus targeting versican is a potential therapeutic strategy in docetaxel-resistant prostate cancer. PMID:25859560

  19. Synthesis and Antiangiogenic Properties of Tetrafluorophthalimido and Tetrafluorobenzamido Barbituric Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrożak, Agnieszka; Steinebach, Christian; Gardner, Erin R; Beedie, Shaunna L; Schnakenburg, Gregor; Figg, William D; Gütschow, Michael

    2016-12-06

    The development of novel thalidomide derivatives as immunomodulatory and anti-angiogenic agents has revived over the last two decades. Herein we report the design and synthesis of three chemotypes of barbituric acids derived from the thalidomide structure: phthalimido-, tetrafluorophthalimido-, and tetrafluorobenzamidobarbituric acids. The latter were obtained by a new tandem reaction, including a ring opening and a decarboxylation of the fluorine-activated phthalamic acid intermediates. Thirty compounds of the three chemotypes were evaluated for their anti-angiogenic properties in an ex vivo assay by measuring the decrease in microvessel outgrowth in rat aortic ring explants. Tetrafluorination of the phthalimide moiety in tetrafluorophthalimidobarbituric acids was essential, as all of the nonfluorinated counterparts lost anti-angiogenic activity. An opening of the five-membered ring and the accompanying increased conformational freedom, in case of the corresponding tetrafluorobenzamidobarbituric acids, was well tolerated. Their activity was retained, although their molecular structures differ in torsional flexibility and possible hydrogen-bond networking, as revealed by comparative X-ray crystallographic analyses. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Update on the use of defibrotide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglielmelli, Tommasina; Bringhen, Sara; Palumbo, Antonio

    2012-03-01

    Defibrotide is a polydisperse oligonucleotide obtained from porcine intestinal mucosa and prepared by controlled depolymerization of DNA. It is a nucleic acid polymer, predominantly single-stranded, which has anti-ischemic and anti-thrombotic properties. The efficacy and safety of defibrotide in the treatment of veno-occlusive disease (VOD) occurring after high-dose chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation is now well established in Phase II - III trials. A recent randomized, Phase III trial in pediatric patients has also demonstrated its role in the prevention of VOD. Preclinical studies reported the inhibitory effects of defibrotide on myeloma cells' growth through an antiangiogenic action and a regulation of the tumor-microenvironment interactions. A recent Phase II trial underlines the efficacy and safety of defibrotide-thalidomide-melphalan combination in the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma. Defibrotide may be effective in the prophylaxis and the treatment of veno-occlusive disease. Recent experimental results suggest that defibrotide may belong to the new generation of anti-cancer drugs that can prevent tumor angiogenesis. In multiple myeloma, defibrotide may overcome the prothrombotic effect of thalidomide on endothelial cells. Further preclinical and clinical investigations are needed to assess the precise role of defibrotide in the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma.

  1. Dynamic MRI of the lumbar spine for the evaluation of microcirculation during anti-angiogenetic therapy in patients with myelodysplastics syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, A.; Wittsack; Strupp, C.; Engelbrecht, V.

    2002-01-01

    Material and Methods: In 20 healthy normal persons and 28 MDS patients a dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (d-MRI) of the lumbar spine was performed. After the initial d-MRI-investigation 24 of the 28 MDS patients received an antiangiogenetic therapy with thalidomide. With an average of 4.2 months after the beginning of therapy a d-MRI-follow-up examination in 9 of these patients was performed. The amplitude and exchange-rate constant were calculated and a statistical comparison of these values between healthy persons and MDS patients as well as a correlation with the clinical course was executed. Results: Compared with the normal controls the MDS patients showed a higher amplitude (normal persons: 14.4±5.2, MDS: 24.8±8.1) and exchange-rate constant (normal persons: 0.124±0.042, MDS: 0.136±0.036). In 7 of 9 MDS patients undergoing thalidomide therapy a reduction of the amplitude and exchange rate constant values was evident in the d-MRI follow-up examinations. Clinically these patients showed a therapy response with complete or partial disease remission. (orig.) [de

  2. Mycobacterium leprae induces NF-κB-dependent transcription repression in human Schwann cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Renata M.S.; Calegari-Silva, Teresa Cristina; Hernandez, Maristela O.; Saliba, Alessandra M.; Redner, Paulo; Pessolani, Maria Cristina V.; Sarno, Euzenir N.; Sampaio, Elizabeth P.; Lopes, Ulisses G.

    2005-01-01

    Mycobacterium leprae, the causative agent of leprosy, invades peripheral nerve Schwann cells, resulting in deformities associated with this disease. NF-κB is an important transcription factor involved in the regulation of host immune antimicrobial responses. We aimed in this work to investigate NF-κB signaling pathways in the human ST88-14 Schwannoma cell line infected with M. leprae. Gel shift and supershift assays indicate that two NF-κB dimers, p65/p50 and p50/p50, translocate to the nucleus in Schwann cells treated with lethally irradiated M. leprae. Consistent with p65/p50 and p50/p50 activation, we observed IκB-α degradation and reduction of p105 levels. The nuclear translocation of p50/p50 complex due to M. leprae treatment correlated with repression of NF-κB-driven transcription induced by TNF-α. Moreover, thalidomide inhibited p50 homodimer nuclear translocation induced by M. leprae and consequently rescues Schwann cells from NF-κB-dependent transcriptional repression. Here, we report for the first time that M. leprae induces NF-κB activation in Schwann cells and thalidomide is able to modulate this activation

  3. New drugs in the therapy of multiple myeloma Novas drogas na terapia do mieloma múltiplo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Palumbo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma and the mechanism of drug resistance have led to the development of novel targeted therapies that are able to overcome resistance and show additive or synergistic effects with old chemotherapeutic agents. Thalidomide, its immunomodulatory derivative lenalidomide, and the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, in combination with oral melphalan in the elderly and with intravenous melphalan in younger patients, are changing the traditional treatment paradigm of multiple myeloma. High-dose melphalan followed by autologous stem cell transplantation in the younger patients and oral melphalan-prednisone-thalidomide in the elderly are the standard of care for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. In younger patients, combinations incorporating thalidomide or lenalidomide or bortezomib significantly increase the pre-transplant response rate before high-dose melphalan and autologous transplantation, and may further improve the response rate and survival achieved after transplant. Prospective randomized studies incorporating new agents and stratifying patients based on cytogenetic abnormalities, are needed to define the therapeutic algorithm in high-risk disease.O avanço do conhecimento da patogênese do mieloma múltiplo e do mecanismo de resistência a drogas propiciou o desenvolvimento de novas terapias alvo que vençam a resistência e apresentem efeitos sinérgicos e aditivos aos velhos agentes quimioterápicos. A talidomida, e o seu derivado imonumodulador, lenalidomida, e o inibidor da proteasoma bortezomib, em combinação com o melfalano no idoso e intravenoso no jovem, estão mudando os paradigmas tradicionais de tratamento do mieloma múltiplo. Altas doses de melfalano seguidas do transplante de células-tronco autólogo no paciente jovem e o tratamento oral de melfalano-predimisona- talidomida no idoso são agora tratamentos padrões para os portadores de mieloma múltiplo rec

  4. Interferon-alpha in the treatment of multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoo, T.L.; Joshua, D.; Gibson, J.

    2011-01-01

    Interferons are soluble proteins produced naturally by cells in response to viruses. It has both anti-proliferative and immunomodulating properties and is one of the first examples of a biological response modifier use to treat the hematological malignancy multiple myeloma. Interferon has been used......-induction agent with other chemotherapy regimens, and as maintenance therapy after conventional chemotherapy or complete remission after autologous or allogeneic transplantation. Interferon as a single induction agent or co-induction agent with other chemotherapy agents appears only to have minimal benefit...... in myeloma. Its role as maintenance therapy in the plateau phase of myeloma also remains uncertain. More recently, the use of interferon must now compete with the "new drugs" - thalidomide, lenalidomide and bortezomib in myeloma treatment. Will there be a future role of interferon in the treatment...

  5. On-line sources of toxicological information in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, William J.; Ecobichon, Donald J.; Baril, Marc

    2003-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the on-line resources available in toxicology in Canada. It will describe a brief history of The Society of Toxicology of Canada, with reference to other societies and also provide information on education, research and other resources related to toxicology. Toxicology in Canada emerged as a distinct and vibrant discipline following the thalidomide tragedy of the 1960s. In the pharmaceutical industry and government, toxicology was readily established as an essential component of drug development and safety, and as the need for toxicologists expanded, training programs were established, usually in collaboration with departments of pharmacology. In the last two to three decades other disciplines, environmental biology, analytical chemistry and epidemiology joined the ranks of toxicology. The on-line sources of toxicology information are rapidly expanding. This article describes those sources considered by the authors to be important from a national and international perspective. The majority of these sources are professional organizations and government agencies

  6. Emerging therapies in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Amm, Joelle; Tabbara, Imad A

    2015-06-01

    The treatment of multiple myeloma has evolved significantly over the past 2 decades due to the use of high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation, and the subsequent introduction of the immunomodulatory agents (thalidomide and lenalidomide) and the proteasome inhibitor (bortezomib). The median overall survival of multiple myeloma patients has increased significantly with patients younger than age 50 years experiencing a 10-year survival rate of around 40%. However, despite the increased effectiveness of the first-line agents, the majority of patients will eventually relapse and become drug resistant. Promising novel therapies have recently emerged and are being used to treat relapsed and refractory patients. This review will cover the clinical data regarding these emergent therapies that include new generation of proteasome inhibitors (carfilzomib, ixazomib, oprozomib, and marizomib), immunomodulatory drugs (pomalidomide), monoclonal antibodies (elotuzumab and daratumumab), signal transduction modulator (perifosine), and histone deacetylase inhibitors (vorinostat and panobinostat).

  7. Drug safety: withdrawn medications are only part of the picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Nigel S B

    2016-02-13

    In a research article published in BMC Medicine, Onakpoya and colleagues provide a historical review of withdrawals of medications for safety reasons. However, withdrawn medications are only one part of the picture about how regulatory agencies manage drug risks. Moreover, medications introduced before the increased pre-marketing regulations and post-marketing monitoring systems instituted after the thalidomide tragedy have little relevance when considering the present drug safety picture because the circumstances under which they were introduced were completely different. To more fully understand drug safety management and regulatory agency actions, withdrawals should be evaluated within the setting and timeframe in which the medications are approved, which requires information about approvals and safety warnings. Studies are needed that provide a more comprehensive current picture of the identification and evaluation of drug safety risks as well as how regulatory agencies deal with them. Please see related research article: http://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12916-016-0553-2.

  8. POLYMORPHOUS LIGHT ERUPTION – A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogeesh Hosahalli Rajaiah

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Polymprhouos light eruption is the most common idiopathic photodermatosis. It is a sun induced cutaneous reaction characterized by onset itchy erathematous papules, plaques, vesicles or erythema multiforme type of lesions after brief exposure to sunlight. Sun-exposed areas of the body or rarely the partially covered areas are commonly involved. PLE is more common in temperate climates than in tropics. It begins usually at the onset of summer and moderates as the summer progresses. In most patients it usually runs a benign course. Diagnosis is mainly on clinical grounds. Therapy involves avoidance of sun-exposure and use of sunscreens. Cases not responding to simple measures require PUVA (Psoralen and Ultraviolet A or UVB (ultraviolet B therapy. Other alternative suggested therapies with variable success include oral hydroxychloroquine, beta-carotene, thalidomide and nicotinamide.

  9. Histological variability and the importance of clinicopathological correlation in cutaneous Rosai-Dorfman disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameiro, Ana; Gouveia, Miguel; Cardoso, José Carlos; Tellechea, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Rosai-Dorfman disease is a benign histiocytic proliferative disorder of unknown etiology. The disease mainly affects lymph node tissue, although it is rarely confined to the skin. Here, we describe a 53-year-old woman with purely cutaneous Rosai-Dorfman disease. The patient presented with a large pigmented plaque on her left leg, and sparse erythematous papules on her face and arms. A complete clinical response was achieved with thalidomide, followed by recurrence at the initial site one year later. The histological examination displayed the typical features of Rosai-Dorfman disease in the recent lesions but not in the older lesions. In the setting of no lymphadenopathy, the histopathological features of Rosai-Dorfman disease are commonly misinterpreted. Therefore, awareness of the histological aspects present at different stages, not always featuring the hallmark microscopic signs of Rosai-Dorfman disease, is particularly important for a correct diagnosis of this rare disorder.

  10. IBD medications during pregnancy and lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Maxwell, Cynthia; Hendel, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    pregnancy and breast-feeding, alternatives to ciprofloxacin, natalizumab and sodium phosphate should also be considered for pregnant women. Breast-feeding is also discouraged while on treatment with ciclosporin, metronidazole and ciprofloxacin. However, therapy with 5-aminosalicylic acid preparations......IBD often affects patients during their peak reproductive years. Several drugs are available for the treatment of IBD and new drugs are continuously in the pipeline. As long-term administration of medications is often necessary, the safety of drug therapy during pregnancy and breast-feeding needs...... to be considered in daily clinical practice. The aim of this Review is to summarize the latest information concerning the safety of medications used to treat IBD during pregnancy and lactation, as well as their effect on fertility. Although only thalidomide and methotrexate are absolutely contraindicated during...

  11. Medical image of the week: acute encephalopathy in a multiple myeloma patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ateeli H

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. A 45-year-old man with new diagnosis of multiple myeloma waiting to start treatment presented with worsening dizziness, blurred vision that progressed to altered mental status over a week. His physical exam revealed confusion but no focal deficit. His extensive work up showed no abnormality except for mildly elevated serum viscosity. The patient was started immediately on plasmapheresis. He also received dexamethasone, thalidomide and cyclophosphamide. His symptoms resolved completely within a few days of therapy. Serum viscosity measurements do not correlate well with symptoms or the clinical findings of hypervicosity syndrome. Plasmapheresis promptly relieves the symptoms and should be performed in symptomatic patients regardless of the viscosity level (1,2.

  12. [Monitoring of pregnancies exposed to drugs in France: the experience of the registries of congenital malformations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doray, Bérénice

    2014-01-01

    Registries of congenital malformations were implemented in many industrialized countries following the drama of thalidomide. In 2013, four French registries of congenital malformations in France provide the systematic epidemiological surveillance of birth defects. All are part of international networks of registries, especially European surveillance of congenital anomalies (EUROCAT). If the development of prevention actions including prenatal diagnosis has gradually led the registries to play a key role of assessment on the impact of public health policies, one of the major roles of registries of congenital malformations remains early detection of clusters of malformations secondary to teratogenic effects. © 2014 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  13. A cybernetic theory of morality and moral autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, J

    2001-04-01

    Human morality may be thought of as a negative feedback control system in which moral rules are reference values, and moral disapproval, blame, and punishment are forms of negative feedback given for violations of the moral rules. In such a system, if moral agents held each other accountable, moral norms would be enforced effectively. However, even a properly functioning social negative feedback system could not explain acts in which individual agents uphold moral rules in the face of contrary social pressure. Dr. Frances Kelsey, who withheld FDA approval for thalidomide against intense social pressure, is an example of the degree of individual moral autonomy possible in a hostile environment. Such extreme moral autonomy is possible only if there is internal, psychological negative feedback, in addition to external, social feedback. Such a cybernetic model of morality and moral autonomy is consistent with certain aspects of classical ethical theories.

  14. Heavy atom enhanced room-temperature phosphorimetry for ultratrace determination of harmane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia F. de Carvalho Marques

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Harmane has been proposed for the treatment of epilepsy, AIDS and leshmaniosis. Its room-temperature phosphorescence was induced using either AgNO3 or TlNO3, enabling absolute limits of detection of 0.12 and 2.4 ng respectively, with linear dynamic ranges extending up to 456 ng (AgNO3 and 911 ng (TlNO3. Relative standard deviations around 3% were observed for substrates containing 46 ng of harmane. Such sensitivity and precision are needed because harmane intake must be strictly controlled to achieve proper therapeutic response. Interference studies were performed using thalidomide, reserpine and yohimbine. Recovery of 104±6% was achieved using solid surface room-temperature phosphorimetry. The result was comparable to the one obtained by micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

  15. [Pharmacokinetic alterations in pregnancy and use of therapeutic drug monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchaud, Alice; Weisskopf, Etienne; Winterfeld, Ursula; Baud, David; Guidi, Monia; Eap, Chin B; Csajka, Chantal; Widmer, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Following the thalidomide tragedy, pharmacological research in pregnant women focused primarily on drug safety for the unborn child and remains only limited regarding the efficacy and safety of treatment for the mother. Significant physiological changes during pregnancy may yet affect the pharmacokinetics of drugs and thus compromise its efficacy and/or safety. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) would maximize the potential effectiveness of treatments, while minimizing the potential risk of toxicity for the mother and the fetus. At present, because of the lack of concentration-response relationship studies in pregnant women, TDM can rely only on individual assessment (based on an effective concentration before pregnancy) and remains reserved only to unexpected situations such as signs of toxicity or unexplained inefficiency. © 2014 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  16. Recurrent Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Dilemmas and Success with Pharmacological Therapies. Case Series and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Almadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes three difficult cases of recurrent bleeding from obscure causes, followed by a review of the pitfalls and pharmacological management of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. All three patients underwent multiple investigations. An intervening complicating diagnosis or antiplatelet drugs may have compounded long-term bleeding in two of the cases. A bleeding angiodysplasia was confirmed in one case but was aggravated by the need for anticoagulation. After multiple transfusions and several attempts at endoscopic management in some cases, long-acting octreotide was associated with decreased transfusion requirements and increased hemoglobin levels in all three cases, although other factors may have contributed in some. In the third case, however, the addition of low-dose thalidomide stopped bleeding for a period of at least 23 months.

  17. The human placenta--an alternative for studying foetal exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myren, Maja; Mose, Tina; Mathiesen, Line

    2007-01-01

    Pregnant women are daily exposed to a wide selection of foreign substances. Sources are as different as lifestyle factors (smoking, daily care products, alcohol consumption, etc.), maternal medication or occupational/environmental exposures. The placenta provides the link between mother and foetus......, and though its main task is to act as a barrier and transport nutrients and oxygen to the foetus, many foreign compounds are transported across the placenta to some degree and may therefore influence the unborn child. Foetal exposures to environmental and medicinal products may have impact on the growth...... of the foetus (e.g. cigarette smoke) and development of the foetal organs (e.g. methylmercury and thalidomide). The scope of this review is to give insight to the placental anatomy, development and function. Furthermore, the compounds physical properties and the transfer mechanism across the placental barrier...

  18. A physical control interface with proprioceptive feedback and multiple degrees of freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creasey, G. H.; Gow, D.; Sloan, Y.; Meadows, B.

    1991-01-01

    The use of the drug thalidomide by pregnant mothers in Britain resulted in a variety of deformities including the birth of children having no arms. Such children were provided with powered artificial arms with up to five degrees of freedom simultaneously controlled in real time by shoulder movement. The physiological sense of proprioception was extended from the user into the device, reducing the need for visual feedback and conscious control. With the banning of thalidomide, this technique fell into disuse but it is now being re-examined as a control mechanism for other artificial limbs and it may have other medical applications to allow patients to control formerly paralyzed limbs moved by electrical stimulation. It may also have commercial applications in robotic manipulation or physical interaction with virtual environments. To allow it to be investigated further, the original pneumatic control system has recently been converted to an electrical analogue to allow interfacing to electronic and computer-assisted systems. A harness incorporates force-sensitive resistors and linear potentiomenters for sensing position and force at the interface with the skin, and miniature electric motors and lead screws for feeding back to the user the position of the robotic arm and the forces applied to it. In the present system, control is applied to four degrees of freedom using elevation/depression and protraction/reaction of each shoulder so that each collar bone emulates a joystick. However, both electrical and mechanical components have been built in modular form to allow rapid replication and testing of a variety of force and position control strategies.

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of 4-[18F]fluorothalidomide for the in vivo studies of angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Hyun; Choe, Yearn Seong; Jung, Kyoung-Ho; Lee, Kyung-Han; Choi, Yong; Kim, Byung-Tae

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we prepared 2-(2,6-dioxopiperidin-3-yl)-4-[ 18 F]fluoroisoindole-1,3-dione (4-[ 18 F]fluorothalidomide; [ 18 F]1) for the in vivo studies of angiogenesis. Radiochemical synthesis of [ 18 F]1 was carried out by labeling 4-trimethylammoniumthalidomide trifluoromethanesulfonate with nBu 4 N[ 18 F]F in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), followed by reverse-phase HPLC purification. Decay-corrected radiochemical yield of [ 18 F]1 was 50-60%, with an effective specific activity of 42-120 GBq/μmol (end of synthesis). Incubation of the radioligand with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC-C; American Type Culture Collection) showed a time-dependent increase in the uptake of the radioligand, and the uptake was inhibited by 8-11% in the presence of 10 μM thalidomide, indicating nonspecific binding of the radioligand. Positron emission tomography (PET) images of mice implanted with tumors in their right flanks revealed a marked accumulation of radioactivity in the livers, kidneys and bladders of the mice, and brain uptake appeared at approximately 40 min after injection. However, no radioactivity uptake was detected in the implanted tumor. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC), HPLC and LC-MS analyses of mouse liver microsomal metabolites of [ 18 F]1 and 1 with or without nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) clearly revealed that the radioligand did not go through metabolic activation but underwent nonenzymatic hydrolysis at physiological pH. Therefore, these results would appear to indicate that [ 18 F]1 may not be suitable for the in vivo studies of angiogenesis at least in mice, although it was reported that thalidomide and/or its hydrolysis products may be responsible for its activity in humans

  20. Complex Anatomic Abnormalities of the Lower Leg Muscles and Tendons Associated With Phocomelia: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodo, Thomas; Hamrick, Mark; Melenevsky, Yulia

    Musculoskeletal anatomy is widely known to have components that stray from the norm in the form of variant muscle and tendon presence, absence, origin, insertion, and bifurcation. Although these variant muscles and tendons might be deemed incidental and insignificant findings by most, they can be important contributors to pathologic physiology or, more importantly, an option for effective treatment. In the present case report, we describe a patient with phocomelia and Müllerian abnormalities secondary to in utero thalidomide exposure. The patient had experienced recurrent bilateral foot pain accompanied by numbness, stiffness, swelling, and longstanding pes planus. These symptoms persisted despite conservative treatment with orthotics, steroids, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Radiographic imaging showed dysmorphic and degenerative changes of the ankle and foot joints. Further investigation with magnetic resonance imaging revealed complex anatomic abnormalities, including the absence of the posterior tibialis and peroneus brevis, lateralization of the peroneus longus, and the presence of a variant anterior compartment muscle. The variant structure was likely a previously described anterior compartment variant, anterior fibulocalcaneus, and might have been a source of the recurrent pain. Also, the absence of the posterior tibialis might have caused the pes planus in the present patient, considering that posterior tibialis tendon dysfunction is the most common cause of acquired pes planus. Although thalidomide infrequently affects the lower extremities, its effects on growth and development were likely the cause of this rare array of anatomic abnormalities and resulting ankle and foot pathologic features. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nuclear cereblon modulates transcriptional activity of Ikaros and regulates its downstream target, enkephalin, in human neuroblastoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Takeyoshi; Asahi, Toru; Sawamura, Naoya

    2016-01-01

    The gene coding cereblon (CRBN) was originally identified in genetic linkage analysis of mild autosomal recessive nonsyndromic intellectual disability. CRBN has broad localization in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. However, the significance of nuclear CRBN remains unknown. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the role of CRBN in the nucleus. First, we generated a series of CRBN deletion mutants and determined the regions responsible for the nuclear localization. Only CRBN protein lacking the N-terminal region was localized outside of the nucleus, suggesting that the N-terminal region is important for its nuclear localization. CRBN was also identified as a thalidomide-binding protein and component of the cullin-4-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Thalidomide has been reported to be involved in the regulation of the transcription factor Ikaros by CRBN-mediated degradation. To investigate the nuclear functions of CRBN, we performed co-immunoprecipitation experiments and evaluated the binding of CRBN to Ikaros. As a result, we found that CRBN was associated with Ikaros protein, and the N-terminal region of CRBN was required for Ikaros binding. In luciferase reporter gene experiments, CRBN modulated transcriptional activity of Ikaros. Furthermore, we found that CRBN modulated Ikaros-mediated transcriptional repression of the proenkephalin gene by binding to its promoter region. These results suggest that CRBN binds to Ikaros via its N-terminal region and regulates transcriptional activities of Ikaros and its downstream target, enkephalin. - Highlights: • We found that CRBN is a nucleocytoplasmic shutting protein and identified the key domain for nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. • CRBN associates with the transcription factor Ikaros via the N-terminal domain. • CRBN modulates Ikaros-mediated transcriptional regulation and its downstream target, enkephalin.

  2. Effect of 13q deletion on IL-6 production in patients with multiple myeloma: a hypothesis may hold true.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neemat, Kassem; Rania, Khalifa; Tarek, Mohamed; Hamdy, Abdel Azim

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown a correlation between 13q deletion and poor prognosis in multiple myeloma (MM), but the mechanisms are not fully understood. Earlier studies suggest that this lesion involves large segments or the entire long arm involving the retinoblastoma (Rb) gene. In myeloma, Rb gene is believed to down regulate interleukin-6 (IL-6) which plays a central role in the pathogenesis of MM. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that loss of the Rb gene might be associated with very high expression of IL-6 and subsequent bad prognosis. Hence this study evaluates IL-6 production in MM patients with and without 13q deletions and assesses their response to conventional and new therapeutic regimens. Forty MM patients and 20 matched controls were included in this study. Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis was performed using LSI 13q14-specific probe. Serum levels of IL-6 were determined by ELISA. All patients received conventional chemotherapy. Refractory patients received other therapeutic regimens of Thalidomide or Bortezomib. Significant increase (p < 0.001) of IL-6 production was recorded in patients with a 13q deletion compared to patients with normal chromosome 13q status. These patients were also refractory to conventional chemotherapy but showed striking response to Thalidomide or Bortezomib. This study suggests that 13q deletions are associated with increased production of IL-6 in MM and this could be a possible cause of the associated bad prognosis. In addition, the results also show the potential to improve responses in patients with refractory MM with the introduction of novel therapies.

  3. BSG and MCT1 Genetic Variants Influence Survival in Multiple Myeloma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Łacina

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM is a haematologic malignancy characterized by the presence of atypical plasma cells. Basigin (BSG, CD147 controls lactate export through the monocarboxylic acid transporter 1 (MCT1, SLC16A1 and supports MM survival and proliferation. Additionally, BSG is implicated in response to treatment with immunomodulatory drugs (thalidomide and its derivatives. We investigated the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the gene coding for BSG and SLC16A1 in MM. Following an in silico analysis, eight SNPs (four in BSG and four in SLC16A1 predicted to have a functional effect were selected and analyzed in 135 MM patients and 135 healthy individuals. Alleles rs4919859 C, rs8637 G, and haplotype CG were associated with worse progression-free survival (p = 0.006, p = 0.017, p = 0.002, respectively, while rs7556664 A, rs7169 T and rs1049434 A (all in linkage disequilibrium (LD, r2 > 0.98 were associated with better overall survival (p = 0.021. Similar relationships were observed in thalidomide-treated patients. Moreover, rs4919859 C, rs8637 G, rs8259 A and the CG haplotype were more common in patients in stages II–III of the International Staging System (p < 0.05, while rs8259 A correlated with higher levels of β-2-microglobulin and creatinine (p < 0.05. Taken together, our results show that BSG and SLC16A1 variants affect survival, and may play an important role in MM.

  4. Management of Multiple Myeloma and Usage of Bortezomib: Perspective from India and Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amit; Morgunskyy, Mykhaylo; Belagali, Yogesh; Gupta, Namita; Akku, Shyam Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Novel treatment strategies have remarkably improved the multiple myeloma (MM) patients' survival, with associated increased costs. A joint panel meet of international experts from India and Ukraine was held in New Delhi on May 19, 2016 focusing on MM management, bortezomib role, unmet medical needs, and current challenges. The health-care system for oncology in India is majorly private vs. government-based in Ukraine. In India, electrophoresis, serum-free light chain assays, bone marrow tests, and X-rays are available modes of diagnosis. Despite of the numerous cancer centers and stem cell transplant centers, most patients do not prefer transplant owing to its high-cost and social stigma. Majority of the patients are treated with bortezomib or lenalidomide-based regimens. Most patients buy drug themselves. The expanding generic drugs market is a ray of hope for the affordable drugs. In Ukraine, immuno-fixation, bone marrow analysis, and magnetic resonance imaging are common diagnostic modalities. Due to high cost, only few patients undergo transplant. Bortezomib-based regimens are preferred in most of the patients; however, usage is limited due to high costs and lack of funds. Thalidomide-based regimens are used for maintenance therapy due to affordability. In case of relapsed MM, bortezomib is preferred in triple therapy; however, more affordable option is cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, and dexamethasone (CTD). Issues, such as cost containment, common treatment strategies, enhanced collaboration, and improved health-care access, need immediate attention. High-quality generics access will improve outcomes and support health-care cost containment. Pharmacoeconomic studies and head-to-head trials are warranted to determine the cost-effectiveness and benefit of novel therapies in MM.

  5. Clinical utility and patient consideration in the use of lenalidomide for multiple myeloma in Chinese patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang J

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Jing Wang, Hongfeng Guo, Xin Zhou Department of Hematology, Wuxi People’s Hospital, Nanjing Medical University, Wuxi, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Multiple myeloma (MM is an incurable hematologic malignancy caused by the autonomous growth of malignant plasma cells. In the last decade, the introduction of novel targeted agents such as thalidomide, bortezomib, and lenalidomide has dramatically improved the clinical outcome of MM patients in both the frontline and recurrent settings. Lenalidomide is a synthetic derivative of thalidomide, which has been shown to significantly improve overall survival, time to progression, and overall response rates in patients with MM. The China Food and Drug Administration approved the use of lenalidomide in patients with MM in 2013. In a Phase II trial, lenalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone was associated with a high response rate and acceptable safety profile in heavily pretreated Chinese patients with relapsed/refractory MM, including those with renal impairment and IgD subtype. However, lenalidomide will remain as a second-line antimyeloma drug in the near future because of its high price and the policy of health insurance reimbursement in People’s Republic of China. In this review, we summarize the clinical utility and patient considerations in the use of lenalidomide for MM in Chinese patients. Further studies with larger sample sizes are required to investigate the better quality, longer duration, and more clinically meaningful outcomes of lenalidomide in the treatment of MM in Chinese patients. Keywords: lenalidomide, multiple myeloma, clinical efficacy, Chinese patients

  6. Nuclear cereblon modulates transcriptional activity of Ikaros and regulates its downstream target, enkephalin, in human neuroblastoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Takeyoshi [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, TWIns, 2-2 Wakamatsu, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 162-8480 (Japan); Asahi, Toru [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, TWIns, 2-2 Wakamatsu, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 162-8480 (Japan); Research Organization for Nano & Life Innovation, Waseda University #03C309, TWIns, 2-2 Wakamatsu, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 162-8480 (Japan); Sawamura, Naoya, E-mail: naoya.sawamura@gmail.com [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, TWIns, 2-2 Wakamatsu, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 162-8480 (Japan); Research Organization for Nano & Life Innovation, Waseda University #03C309, TWIns, 2-2 Wakamatsu, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 162-8480 (Japan)

    2016-08-26

    The gene coding cereblon (CRBN) was originally identified in genetic linkage analysis of mild autosomal recessive nonsyndromic intellectual disability. CRBN has broad localization in both the cytoplasm and nucleus. However, the significance of nuclear CRBN remains unknown. In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the role of CRBN in the nucleus. First, we generated a series of CRBN deletion mutants and determined the regions responsible for the nuclear localization. Only CRBN protein lacking the N-terminal region was localized outside of the nucleus, suggesting that the N-terminal region is important for its nuclear localization. CRBN was also identified as a thalidomide-binding protein and component of the cullin-4-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Thalidomide has been reported to be involved in the regulation of the transcription factor Ikaros by CRBN-mediated degradation. To investigate the nuclear functions of CRBN, we performed co-immunoprecipitation experiments and evaluated the binding of CRBN to Ikaros. As a result, we found that CRBN was associated with Ikaros protein, and the N-terminal region of CRBN was required for Ikaros binding. In luciferase reporter gene experiments, CRBN modulated transcriptional activity of Ikaros. Furthermore, we found that CRBN modulated Ikaros-mediated transcriptional repression of the proenkephalin gene by binding to its promoter region. These results suggest that CRBN binds to Ikaros via its N-terminal region and regulates transcriptional activities of Ikaros and its downstream target, enkephalin. - Highlights: • We found that CRBN is a nucleocytoplasmic shutting protein and identified the key domain for nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. • CRBN associates with the transcription factor Ikaros via the N-terminal domain. • CRBN modulates Ikaros-mediated transcriptional regulation and its downstream target, enkephalin.

  7. Evaluation of antiangiogenic and antiproliferative potential of the organic extract of green algae chlorella pyrenoidosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyadari, Mahender; Fatma, Tasneem; Azad, Rajvardhan; Velpandian, Thirumurthy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: algae isolates obtained from fresh and marine resources could be one of the richest sources of novel bioactive secondary metabolites expected to have pharmaceutical significance for new drug development. This study was conducted to evaluate the antiangiogenic and antiproliferative activity of Chlorella pyrenoidosa in experimental models of angiogenesis and by MTT assay. Materials and Methods: lyophilized extract of C. pyrenoidosa was extracted using dichloromethane/methanol (2:1), concentrated and vacuum evaporated to obtain the dried extract. The crude extract was evaluated in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis in in ovo chick chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM) at various concentrations (n = 8) using thalidomide and normal saline as positive and untreated control groups, respectively. The crude extract was also subjected to the antiangiogenic activity in the silver nitrate/potassium nitrate cautery model of corneal neovascularization (CN) in rats where topical bevacizumab was used as a positive control. The vasculature was photographed and blood vessel density was quantified using Aphelion imaging software. The extract was also evaluated for its anti proliferative activity by microculture tetrazolium test (MTT) assay using HeLa cancer cell line (ATCC). Results: VEGF increased the blood vessel density by 220% as compared to normal and thalidomide treatment decreased it to 67.2% in in ovo assay. In the in-vivo CN model, the mean neovascular density in the control group, the C. pyrenoidosa extract and bevacizumab group were found to be 100%, 59.02%, and 32.20%, respectively. The Chlorella pyrenoidosa extract negatively affected the viability of HeLa cells. An IC50 value of the extract was 570 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: a significant antiangiogenic activity was observed against VEGF-induced neovascularization and antiproliferative activity by MTT assay. In this study, it could be attributed that the activity may be

  8. Molecular and biochemical mechanisms in teratogenesis involving reactive oxygen species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, Peter G.; Bhuller, Yadvinder; Chen, Connie S.; Jeng, Winnie; Kasapinovic, Sonja; Kennedy, Julia C.; Kim, Perry M.; Laposa, Rebecca R.; McCallum, Gordon P.; Nicol, Christopher J.; Parman, Toufan; Wiley, Michael J.; Wong, Andrea W.

    2005-01-01

    Developmental pathologies may result from endogenous or xenobiotic-enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which oxidatively damage cellular macromolecules and/or alter signal transduction. This minireview focuses upon several model drugs (phenytoin, thalidomide, methamphetamine), environmental chemicals (benzo[a]pyrene) and gamma irradiation to examine this hypothesis in vivo and in embryo culture using mouse, rat and rabbit models. Embryonic prostaglandin H synthases (PHSs) and lipoxygenases bioactivate xenobiotics to free radical intermediates that initiate ROS formation, resulting in oxidation of proteins, lipids and DNA. Oxidative DNA damage and embryopathies are reduced in PHS knockout mice, and in mice treated with PHS inhibitors, antioxidative enzymes, antioxidants and free radical trapping agents. Thalidomide causes embryonic DNA oxidation in susceptible (rabbit) but not resistant (mouse) species. Embryopathies are increased in mutant mice deficient in the antioxidative enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), or by glutathione (GSH) depletion, or inhibition of GSH peroxidase or GSH reductase. Inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout mice are partially protected. Inhibition of Ras or NF-kB pathways reduces embryopathies, implicating ROS-mediated signal transduction. Atm and p53 knockout mice deficient in DNA damage response/repair are more susceptible to xenobiotic or radiation embryopathies, suggesting a teratological role for DNA damage, consistent with enhanced susceptibility to methamphetamine in ogg1 knockout mice with deficient repair of oxidative DNA damage. Even endogenous embryonic oxidative stress carries a risk, since untreated G6PD- or ATM-deficient mice have increased embryopathies. Thus, embryonic processes regulating the balance of ROS formation, oxidative DNA damage and repair, and ROS-mediated signal transduction may be important determinants of teratological risk

  9. Management of Multiple Myeloma and Usage of Bortezomib: Perspective from India and Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    India and Ukraine Haemato-oncology Group

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Novel treatment strategies have remarkably improved the multiple myeloma (MM patients’ survival, with associated increased costs.A joint panel meet of international experts from India and Ukraine was held in New Delhi on 19th May 2016 focusing on: MM management, bortezomib role, unmet medical needs, and current challenges.The healthcare system for oncology in India is majorly private versus government-based in Ukraine. In India, electrophoresis, serum-free light chain assays, bone marrow tests, and X-rays are available modes of diagnosis. Despite of the numerous cancer centers and stem cell transplant centers, most patients do not prefer transplant owing to its high-cost and social stigma. Majority of the patients are treated with bortezomib or lenalidomide-based regimens. Most patients buy drug themselves. The expanding generic drugs market is a ray of hope for the affordable drugs.In Ukraine, immuno-fixation, bone-marrow analysis, and magnetic-resonance-imaging are common diagnostic modalities. Due to high-cost, only few patients undergo transplant. Bortezomib-based regimens are preferred in most of the patients, however usage is limited due to high costs and lack of funds. Thalidomide-based regimens are used for maintenance therapy due to affordability. In case of relapsed MM, bortezomib is preferred in triple therapy, however more affordable option is cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, and dexamethasone (CTD. Issues such as cost containment, common treatment strategies, enhanced collaboration, and improved healthcare access need immediate attention. High-quality generics access will improve outcomes and support healthcare cost containment. Pharmacoeconomic studies and head-to-head trials are warranted to determine the cost-effectiveness and benefit of novel therapies in MM.

  10. Induction regimens for transplant-eligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: a network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng ZH

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Zi-Hang Zeng,1,2 Jia-Feng Chen,1,2 Yi-Xuan Li,1,2 Ran Zhang,1,2 Ling-Fei Xiao,1,2 Xiang-Yu Meng1,2 1Center for Evidence-Based and Translational Medicine, Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University, 2Department of Evidence-Based Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology, Second Clinical College of Wuhan University, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the early efficacy and survivals of induction regimens for transplant-eligible patients with untreated multiple myeloma. Materials and methods: A comprehensive literature search in electronic databases was conducted for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Eligible studies were selected according to the predefined selection criteria, before they were evaluated for methodological quality. Basic characteristics and data for network meta-analysis (NMA were extracted from included trials and pooled in our meta-analysis. The end points were the overall response rate (ORR, progression-free survival (PFS, and overall survival (OS. Results: A total of 14 RCTs that included 4,763 patients were analyzed. The post-induction ORR was higher with bortezomib plus thalidomide plus dexamethasone (VTD regimens, and VTD was better than the majority of other regimens. For OS, VTD plus cyclophosphamide (VTDC regimens showed potential superiority over other regimens, but the difference was not statistically significant. The PFS was longer with thalidomide plus doxorubicin plus dexamethasone (TAD regimens for transplant-eligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM. Conclusion: The NMA demonstrated that the VTD, VTDC, and TAD regimens are most beneficial in terms of ORR, OS, and PFS for transplant-eligible patients with NDMM, respectively. Keywords: multiple myeloma, newly diagnosed, transplant-eligible, induction therapies, network meta-analysis

  11. Perception of teratogenic and foetotoxic risk by health professionals: a survey in Midi-Pyrenees area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damase-Michel C

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Counselling or prescribing drugs during pregnancy requires health professionals to assess risk/benefit ratio for women and their baby. A misperception of the risk may lead to inappropriate decisions for pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the present study was to assess teratogenic and/or foetotoxic risk perception of common medications by general practitioners (GPs and community pharmacists (CPs from the Midi-Pyrenees area.Methods: 103 GPs and 104 CPs were interviewed. For 21 given drugs, a visual-analogue scale was used to evaluate the risk to give birth to a malformed infant if the mother had taken the drug during first trimester of pregnancy. For 9 drugs, health professionals had to say if they thought there was a potential foetotoxic and/or neonatal risk when drugs were administered during late pregnancy.Results: 97% and 91% of GPs and CPs respectively thought that isotretinoin and thalidomide are teratogenic and more than 80% thought that amoxicillin and acetaminophen are safe in early pregnancy. However, 19% of the GPs and 33% of CPs answered there were no teratogenic risk for valproate. Around 11% of both GPs and CPs said that warfarin was safe during pregnancy. For 22% of GPs and for 13% and 27% of CPs respectively, ibuprofen and enalapril were safe on late pregnancy. For each drug, mean value of perceived teratogenic risk by health professionals was higher than values that can be found in scientific references. Concerning isotretinoin, thalidomide and metoclopramide, perceived teratogenic risk was higher for CPs.Conclusion: These data show that the potential teratogenic and foetotoxic risk of several commonly used drugs is unknown by health professionals. Conversely, GPs and CPs who think that a risk exists, overestimate it. This misperception can lead to inappropriate decisions for pregnancy outcomes.

  12. Glutarimides: Biological activity, general synthetic methods and physicochemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Đorđević Jelena B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutarimides, 2,6-dioxopiperidines are compounds that rarely occur in natural sources, but so far isolated ones exert widespread pharmacological activities, which makes them valuable as potential pharmacotherapeutics. Glutarimides act as androgen receptor antagonists, anti-inflammatory, anxiolytics, antibacterials, and tumor suppressing agents. Some synthetic glutarimide derivatives are already in use as immunosuppressive and sedative (e.g., thalidomide or anxiolytics (buspirone drugs. The wide applicability of this class of compounds, justify the interest of scientists to explore new pathways for its syntheses. General methods for synthesis of six-membered imide ring, are presented in this paper. These methods include: a reaction of dicarboxylic acids with ammonia or primary amine, b reactions of cyclization: amido-acids, diamides, dinitriles, nitrilo-acids, amido-nitriles, amido-esters, amidoacyl-chlorides or diacyl-chlorides, c adition of carbon-monoxide on a,b-unsaturated amides, d oxidation reactions, e Michael adition of active methylen compounds on methacrylamide or conjugated amides. Some of the described methods are used for closing glutarimide ring in syntheses of farmacological active compounds sesbanimide and aldose reductase inhibitors (ARI. Analyses of the geometry, as well as, the spectroscopic analyses (NMR and FT-IR of some glutarimides are presented because of their broad spectrum of pharmacological activity. To elucidate structures of glutarimides, geometrical parameters of newly synthesized tert-pentyl-1-benzyl-4-methyl-glutarimide-3-carboxylate (PBMG are analyzed and compared with the experimental data from X-ray analysis for glutarimide. Moreover, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP surface which is plotted over the optimized geometry to elucidate the reactivity of PBMG molecule is analyzed. The electronic properties of glutarimide derivatives are explained on the example of thalidomide. The Frontier Molecular Orbital

  13. Bortezomib in multiple myeloma and lymphoma: a systematic review and clinical practice guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, D; Imrie, K; Stevens, A; Smith, C A

    2006-10-01

    recommended as the preferred treatment option in patients with myeloma relapsing within 1 year of the conclusion of initial treatment; it may also be a reasonable option in patients relapsing at least 1 year after autologous stem-cell transplantation. This evidence-based series applies to adult patients with myeloma, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, or lymphoma of any type, stage, histology, or performance status. Based on the results of a large well-conducted rct, which represents the only published randomized study in relapsed myeloma, the Hematology Disease Site Group (dsg) offers the following recommendations: For patients with myeloma refractory to or relapsing within 1 year of the conclusion of initial or subsequent treatment or treatments, including autologous stem-cell transplantation, and who are candidates for further chemotherapy, bortezomib is recommended as the preferred treatment option.Bortezomib is also a reasonable option for patients relapsing at least 1 year after autologous stem-cell transplantation. The dsg is aware that thalidomide, alkylating agents, or repeat transplantation may also be options for these patients. However, evaluation of these other options is beyond the scope of this practice guideline.For patients with myeloma relapsing at least 1 year after the conclusion of alkylating agent-based chemotherapy who are candidates for further chemotherapy, further treatment with alkylating agent-based chemotherapy is recommended.Evidence is insufficient to support the use of bortezomib in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma or Waldenström macroglobulinemia outside of clinical trials. Limited evidence supports the appropriateness of a specific time-to-relapse period as being indicative of treatment-insensitive disease. The 1-year threshold provided in the foregoing recommendations is based on the opinion of the Hematology dsg. For specific details related to the administration of bortezomib therapy, the dsg suggests that clinicians refer to the protocols

  14. Radioprotective agents to reduce BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) induced mucositis in the hamster cheek pouch; Agentes radioprotectores para reducir la mucositis inducida por la terapia por captura neutrónica en boro (BNCT) en la bolsa de la mejilla del hámster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti Hughes, A. [Dpto. de Radiobiología, Gerencia de Química Nuclear y Ciencias de la Salud, GAATEN, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA) (Argentina); Pozzi, E. C.C. [Gerencia de Reactores de Investigación y Producción, GAATEN, CNEA (Argentina); Thorp, S., E-mail: andrea.monti@cnea.gov.ar [Sub-Gerencia Instrumentación y Control, GAEN, CNEA(Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    Introduction: BNCT is based on the capture reaction between boron, selectively targeted to tumor tissue, and thermal neutrons which gives rise to lethal, short-range high linear energy transfer particles that selectively damage tumor tissue, sparing normal tissue. We previously evidenced a remarkable therapeutic success of BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer and pre cancer model. Despite therapeutic efficacy, mucositis induced in premalignant tissue was dose limiting and favored, in some cases, tumor development. In a clinical scenario, oral mucositis limits the dose administered to head and neck tumors. Aim: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of the administration of different radioprotective agents, seeking to reduce BNCT-induced mucositis to acceptable levels in dose-limiting premalignant tissue; without compromising therapeutic effect evaluated as inhibition on tumor development in premalignant tissue; without systemic or local side effects; and without negative effects on the biodistribution of the boron compound used for treatment. Materials and methods: Cancerized hamsters with DMBA (dimethylbenzanthracene) were treated with BPA-BNCT 5 Gy total absorbed dose to premalignant tissue, at the RA-3 Nuclear Reactor, divided into different groups: 1-treated with FLUNIXIN; 2- ATORVASTATIN; 3-THALIDOMIDE; 4-HISTAMINE (two concentrations: Low -1 mg/ml- and High -5 mg/ml-); 5-JNJ7777120; 6-JNJ10191584; 7-SALINE (vehicle). Cancerized animals without any treatment (neither BNCT nor radioprotective therapy) were also analyzed. We followed the animals during one month and evaluated the percentage of animals with unacceptable/severe mucositis, clinical status and percentage of animals with new tumors post treatment. We also performed a preliminary biodistribution study of BPA + Histamine “low” concentration to evaluate the potential effect of the radioprotector on BPA biodistribution. Results: Histamine

  15. Radioprotective agents to reduce BNCT (Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) induced mucositis in the hamster cheek pouch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monti Hughes, A.; Pozzi, E.C.C.; Thorp, S.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: BNCT is based on the capture reaction between boron, selectively targeted to tumor tissue, and thermal neutrons which gives rise to lethal, short-range high linear energy transfer particles that selectively damage tumor tissue, sparing normal tissue. We previously evidenced a remarkable therapeutic success of BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer and pre cancer model. Despite therapeutic efficacy, mucositis induced in premalignant tissue was dose limiting and favored, in some cases, tumor development. In a clinical scenario, oral mucositis limits the dose administered to head and neck tumors. Aim: Our aim was to evaluate the effect of the administration of different radioprotective agents, seeking to reduce BNCT-induced mucositis to acceptable levels in dose-limiting premalignant tissue; without compromising therapeutic effect evaluated as inhibition on tumor development in premalignant tissue; without systemic or local side effects; and without negative effects on the biodistribution of the boron compound used for treatment. Materials and methods: Cancerized hamsters with DMBA (dimethylbenzanthracene) were treated with BPA-BNCT 5 Gy total absorbed dose to premalignant tissue, at the RA-3 Nuclear Reactor, divided into different groups: 1-treated with FLUNIXIN; 2- ATORVASTATIN; 3-THALIDOMIDE; 4-HISTAMINE (two concentrations: Low -1 mg/ml- and High -5 mg/ml-); 5-JNJ7777120; 6-JNJ10191584; 7-SALINE (vehicle). Cancerized animals without any treatment (neither BNCT nor radioprotective therapy) were also analyzed. We followed the animals during one month and evaluated the percentage of animals with unacceptable/severe mucositis, clinical status and percentage of animals with new tumors post treatment. We also performed a preliminary biodistribution study of BPA + Histamine “low” concentration to evaluate the potential effect of the radioprotector on BPA biodistribution. Results: Histamine

  16. [Expert consensus for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with renal impairment of multiple myeloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Renal impairment (RI) is a common complication of multiple myeloma (MM), which is presented as chronic kidney disease (CKD) or acute kidney injury (AKI). The typical pathological feature is cast nephropathy. Presently international system staging (ISS) is used in evaluating MM. Although the classic Durie-Salmon staging system could be still used in clinical practice, it may miss out some patients with renal impairment. For evaluations of RI in MM patients with CKD, it's recommended to assess the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by creatinine based formula CKD-epidemiology collaboration (EPI) or modification of diet in renal disease(MDRD) and to stage the renal injuries according to 2013 Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) CKD guidelines. For MM patients with AKI, KDIGO AKI guidelines is recommended for evaluation. Renal biopsy is not a routine procedure in all MM patients. It's necessary for patients presenting with glomerular injuries such as albuminuria > 1 g/24 h to eliminate immunoglobulin associated amyloidosis (AL) and monoclonal immunoglobulin deposition disease (MIDD). The effective treatment of MM can reduce serum light chain concentration and improve renal function. The basis of the RI treatment in MM is bortizomib-based regimen, which does not require dosage adjustment in patients with dialysis or renal insufficiency. Thalidomide and lenalidomide are two major immunomodulators in MM treatment. Thalidomide can be used effectively in RI patients without dosage adjustment while lenalidomide should be used cautiously in patients with mild or moderate RI with dosage adjustment and serum toxicity surveillance. High-dose therapy (HDT) and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (APBSCT) can be therapeutical options for RI patients younger than 65 y, and they should be considered more prudently in patients with severe renal insufficiency (GFRhydration (at least 3 litres of fluid intake a day or 2 L·m(-2)·d(-1)) and

  17. The Clinical Presentation and Management of Systemic Light-Chain Amyloidosis in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiang-Hua; Liu, Zhi-Hong

    2016-04-01

    Amyloidosis includes a group of diseases characterized by the extracellular deposition of various fibrillary proteins that can autoaggregate in a highly abnormal fibrillary conformation. The amyloid precursor protein of systemic light-chain (AL) amyloidosis is comprised of monoclonal light chains that are due to plasma cell dyscrasia. The clinical presentation of patients with AL amyloidosis varies from patient to patient. Current treatment strategies target the clone in order to decrease the production of the pathologic light chains. Recent advances in therapy have helped many patients with AL amyloidosis achieve hematologic and organ responses. AL amyloidosis is the most common type of systemic amyloidosis in China with increasing morbidity and a high mortality rate. The clinical presentation of AL amyloidosis is variable, and the median overall survival was found to be 36.3 months. The disease prognosis and risk stratification are linked to serialized measurement of cardiac biomarkers and free light chains. The treatment of AL amyloidosis is mainly based on chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT). The use of novel agents (thalidomide, lenalidomide, and bortezomib) alone and in combination with steroids and alkylating agents has shown efficacy and continues to be explored. AL amyloidosis is the most common type of systemic amyloidosis in China with increasing morbidity and a high mortality rate. The lack of prospective clinical trials using the current therapies is a challenge for evidence-based decision making concerning the treatment of AL amyloidosis. (1) AL amyloidosis is the most prevalent type of amyloidosis accounting for 65% of the amyloidosis-diagnosed patients in the UK and for 93% of the amyloidosis-diagnosed patients in China. The predisposition of men over women to develop AL amyloidosis might be higher in China than in Western countries (2:1 vs. 1.3:1). Both in the East and West, incidence increases with age. At

  18. Teratogens: a public health issue – a Brazilian overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Mazzu-Nascimento

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Congenital anomalies are already the second cause of infant mortality in Brazil, as in many other middle-income countries in Latin America. Birth defects are a result of both genetic and environmental factors, but a multifactorial etiology has been more frequently observed. Here, we address the environmental causes of birth defects – or teratogens – as a public health issue and present their mechanisms of action, categories and their respective maternal-fetal deleterious effects. We also present a survey from 2008 to 2013 of Brazilian cases involving congenital anomalies (annual average of 20,205, fetal deaths (annual average of 1,530, infant hospitalizations (annual average of 82,452, number of deaths of hospitalized infants (annual average of 2,175, and the average cost of hospitalizations (annual cost of $7,758. Moreover, we report on Brazilian cases of teratogenesis due to the recent Zika virus infection, and to the use of misoprostol, thalidomide, alcohol and illicit drugs. Special attention has been given to the Zika virus infection, now proven to be responsible for the microcephaly outbreak in Brazil, with 8,039 cases under investigation (from October 2015 to June 2016. From those cases, 1,616 were confirmed and 324 deaths occurred due to microcephaly complications or alterations on the central nervous system. Congenital anomalies impact life quality and raise costs in specialized care, justifying the classification of teratogens as a public health issue.

  19. Alternative temozolomide dosing regimens and novel combinations for the treatment of advanced metastatic melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jen Hwu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 30 years, there has been no significant improvement in treatment outcomes for patients with advanced stage IV metastatic melanoma, and prognosis remains poor. Melanoma is known to be responsive to immunomodulatory agents, to be a highly vascular tumor, and to be fairly resistant to standard cytotoxic chemotherapy. Ongoing research is attempting to find novel combinations that may have therapeutic synergy. Alternative dosedense schedules of temozolomide appear promising and are being actively investigated, based on their potential to overcome chemoresistance to alkylating agents and the proven activity of temozolomide in the brain. Outcomes of studies investigating single-agent temozolomide suggest that it has activity similar to single-agent dacarbazine. Other studies combining temozolomide with either interferon- alfa or thalidomide suggest that the addition of these immunomodulatory agents to temozolomide improves response rates and may improve overall survival. The best results have been achieved with the extended, daily, dosedense temozolomide regimen. Further research is needed to determine the optimal temozolomide regimen and best combination approach

  20. Systemic vasculitis and the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatemi, Ibrahim; Hatemi, Gulen; Çelik, Aykut F

    2017-01-01

    Gastrointestinal system can be involved in primary and secondary vasculitides. The recent data regarding the pathophysiology, clinical findings, diagnosis, management, and outcome of gastrointestinal involvement in different types of vasculitis are reviewed. Diagnosis of gastrointestinal vasculitis may be difficult and relies mostly on imaging, because biopsy samples are hard to obtain and superficial mucosal biopsies have a low yield. There are conflicting reports on the association of antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) type with the frequency of gastrointestinal involvement in ANCA-associated vasculitis. Pancreatitis is a rare but serious complication of ANCA-associated vasculitis. Terminal ileitis may be observed in immunoglobulin A vasculitis and can be hard to distinguish from Crohn's disease. High fecal calprotectin levels can indicate active gastrointestinal involvement in both immunoglobulin A vasculitis and Behçet's syndrome. Refractory gastrointestinal involvement in Behçet's syndrome can be treated with thalidomide and/or TNF-α antagonists. The outcome of mesenteric vasculitis in systemic lupus erythematosus can be improved with high-dose glucocorticoids and cyclophosphamide or rituximab. Gastrointestinal system can be commonly involved in immunoglobulin A vasculitis, ANCA-associated vasculitis, polyarteritis nodosa, and Behçet's syndrome and can be an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Treatment depends on the type of vasculitis and is usually with high-dose corticosteroids and immunosuppressives.

  1. Limb/pelvis hypoplasia/aplasia with skull defect (Schinzel phocomelia): distinctive features and prenatal detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olney, R S; Hoyme, H E; Roche, F; Ferguson, K; Hintz, S; Madan, A

    2001-11-01

    Schinzel phocomelia syndrome is characterized by limb/pelvis hypoplasia/aplasia: specifically, intercalary limb deficiencies and absent or hypoplastic pelvic bones. The phenotype is similar to that described in a related multiple malformation syndrome known as Al-Awadi/Raas-Rothschild syndrome. The additional important feature of large parietooccipital skull defects without meningocele, encephalocele, or other brain malformation has thus far been reported only in children with Schinzel phocomelia syndrome. We recently evaluated a boy affected with Schinzel phocomelia born to nonconsanguineous healthy parents of Mexican origin. A third-trimester fetal ultrasound scan showed severe limb deficiencies and an absent pelvis. The infant died shortly after birth. Dysmorphology examination, radiographs, and autopsy revealed quadrilateral intercalary limb deficiencies with preaxial toe polydactyly; an absent pelvis and a 7 x 3-cm skull defect; and extraskeletal anomalies including microtia, telecanthus, micropenis with cryptorchidism, renal cysts, stenosis of the colon, and a cleft alveolar ridge. A normal 46,XY karyotype was demonstrated, and autosomal recessive inheritance was presumed on the basis of previously reported families. This case report emphasizes the importance of recognizing severe pelvic and skull deficiencies (either post- or prenatally) in differentiating infants with Schinzel phocomelia from other multiple malformation syndromes that feature intercalary limb defects, including thalidomide embryopathy and Roberts-SC phocomelia. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. A review of supernumerary and absent limbs and digits of the upper limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaassen, Zachary; Choi, Monica; Musselman, Ruth; Eapen, Deborah; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios

    2012-03-01

    For years people have been enamored by anomalies of the human limbs, particularly supernumerary and absent limbs and digits. Historically, there are a number of examples of such anomalies, including royal families of ancient Chaldea, tribes from Arabia, and examples from across nineteenth century Europe. The development of the upper limbs in a growing embryo is still being elucidated with the recent advent of homeobox genes, but researchers agree that upper limbs develop between stages 12-23 through a complex embryological process. Maternal thalidomide intake during limb development is known to cause limb reduction and subsequent amelia or phocomelia. Additionally, a number of clinical reports have illustrated different limb anomaly cases, with each situation unique in phenotype and developmental abnormality. Supernumerary and absent limbs and digits are not unique to humans, and a number of animal cases have also been reported. This review of the literature illustrates the historical, anatomical, and clinical aspects of supernumerary and absent limbs and digits for the upper limb.

  3. Development of acute pulmonary hypertension after bortezomib treatment in a patient with multiple myeloma: a case report and the review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akosman, Cengiz; Ordu, Cetin; Eroglu, Elif; Oyan, Basak

    2015-01-01

    Bortezomib is widely used in treatment of multiple myeloma. In recent years, severe bortezomib-induced lung injury has been reported. The clinical course is generally characterized with fever and dyspnea, followed by respiratory failure with pulmonary infiltrates. Herein, we report a 57-year-old man with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma admitted with dyspnea, fever, and hypotension on the third day of the first dose of bortezomib therapy. He had bilateral jugular venous distention, crackles at the bases of the lungs and hepatomegaly. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed acute pulmonary hypertension (PH) with an estimated pressure of 70 mm Hg. The perfusion scintigraphy ruled out pulmonary embolism, and microbiological examination was negative. On his course, fever, dyspnea, hypoxia, and pulmonary vascular pressure subsided rapidly. The sudden onset of PH and its rapid decrement without any treatment suggests bortezomib as the underlying cause. Subsequently, the patient did not respond to vincristine-doxorubicin-dexamethasone regimen and thalidomide. Bortezomib treatment was repeated, and no pulmonary adverse reactions occurred. Follow-up echocardiographies revealed pulmonary arterial pressures to be maximally of 35 mm Hg. To our knowledge, this is the first case of acute PH after front-line bortezomib therapy. In this report, we review bortezomib-related pulmonary complications in the literature and possible underlying mechanisms.

  4. Drug safety in pregnancy: utopia or achievable prospect? Risk information, risk research and advocacy in Teratology Information Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Christof

    2011-03-01

    Even though from preclinical testing to drug risk labeling, the situation with drugs in pregnancy has improved substantially since the thalidomide scandal, there is still an increasing need to provide healthcare professionals and patients with updated individualized risk information for clinical decision making. For the majority of drugs, clinical experience is still insufficient with respect to their safety in pregnancy. There is often uncertainty in how to interpret the available scientific data. Based on 20 years of experience with Teratology Information Services (TIS) cooperating in the European Network of Teratology Information Services (ENTIS) methods of risk interpretation, follow-up of exposed pregnancies through the consultation process and their evaluation is discussed. Vitamin K antagonists, isotretinoin and angiotensin (AT) II-receptor-antagonists are presented as examples of misinterpretation of drug risks and subjects of research based on observational clinical data recorded in TIS. As many TIS are poorly funded, advocacy is necessary by establishing contacts with decision makers in health politics and administration, informing them of the high return in terms of health outcomes and cost savings provided by TIS as reference institutions in clinical teratology. © 2011 The Author. Congenital Anomalies © 2011 Japanese Teratology Society.

  5. A Review of the Teratogenic Factors Effect on Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzarbanoo Shojaei fard

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Teratology is a branch of embryology science that studies causes, mechanisms and abnormal pattern development. Embryo growth traumatic factors during pregnancy are called teratogens that some teratogens pass the placental barrier and cause adverse effect during development stages and malformation, however a drug may improve general health of the mother, but it might be poisonous for embryo and cause diverse malformation. Since study of embryo health and risk factor in this stage is important, the aim of this review article was the investigation of some types of teratosgens (such as radiation, infectious agents, heat disorders, maternal conditions and particularly the effect of teratogenic drugs on embryo including some legal drugs (such as acetaminophen, thalidomide, acyclovir, sedatives and anticonvulsants and illegal drugs (such as nicotine, alcohol, cocaine and marijuana. Conclusion: In general, teratogens depending on the type and duration of exposure in pregnancyperiod, adversely affect embryo and cause various disorders. A better understanding of these teratogens can contribute to prevent these defects, since many other drugs with similar effects and lower teratogenicity can be used to improve mothers’ health.

  6. In honor of the Teratology Society's 50th anniversary: The role of Teratology Society members in the development and evolution of in vivo developmental toxicity test guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyl, Rochelle W

    2010-06-01

    Members of the Teratology Society (established in 1960) were involved in the first governmental developmental and reproductive toxicity testing guidelines (1966) by FDA following the thalidomide epidemic, followed by other national and international governmental testing guidelines. The Segment II (developmental toxicity) study design, described in rodents and rabbits, has evolved with additional enhanced endpoints and better descriptions, mechanistic insights, range-finding studies, and toxico/pharmacokinetic ADME information (especially for pharmaceuticals). Society members were also involved in the development of the current screening assays and tests for endocrine disruptors (beginning in 1996) and are now involved with developing new testing guidelines (e.g., the extended one-generation protocol), and evaluating the current test guidelines and new initiatives under ILSI/HESI sponsorship. New initiatives include ToxCast from the U.S. EPA to screen, prioritize, and predict toxic chemicals by high throughput and high-content in vitro assays, bioinformation, and modeling to reduce (or eliminate) in vivo whole animal studies. Our Society and its journal have played vital roles in the scientific and regulatory accomplishments in birth defects research over the past 50 years and will continue to do so in the future. Happy 50th anniversary! (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Light chain (AL amyloidosis: update on diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenzweig Michael

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Light chain (AL amyloidosis is a plasma cell dyscrasia characterized by the pathologic production of fibrillar proteins comprised of monoclonal light chains which deposit in tissues and cause organ dysfunction. The diagnosis can be challenging, requiring a biopsy and often specialized testing to confirm the subtype of systemic disease. The goal of treatment is eradication of the monoclonal plasma cell population and suppression of the pathologic light chains which can result in organ improvement and extend patient survival. Standard treatment approaches include high dose melphalan (HDM followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT or oral melphalan with dexamethasone (MDex. The use of novel agents (thalidomide, lenalidomide and bortezomib alone and in combination with steroids and alkylating agents has shown efficacy and continues to be explored. A risk adapted approach to SCT followed by novel agents as consolidation reduces treatment related mortality with promising outcomes. Immunotherapeutic approaches targeting pathologic plasma cells and amyloid precursor proteins or fibrils are being developed. Referral of patients to specialized centers focusing on AL amyloidosis and conducting clinical trials is essential to improving patient outcomes.

  8. The impact of HIV infection on society's perception of clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, R J

    1994-06-01

    All international codes of research ethics and virtually all national legislation and regulation in the field of research involving human subjects project an attitude of protectionism. Written with the aim of avoiding a repetition of atrocities like those committed by the Nazi physician-researchers, calamities like the thalidomide experience, or ethical violations like those of the Tuskegee syphilis study, their dominant concerns are the protection of individuals from injury and from exploitation. In recent years, however, society's perception of clinical research has shifted dramatically. Now, largely as a consequence of the efforts of the AIDS activists, clinical research is widely perceived as benign and beneficial. Although this shift in attitude has resulted in some important improvements in research policies and practices, this new perception is just as wrong-headed as was the earlier excessive protectionism. It is necessary to maintain a balanced perspective; our policies should encourage the conduct of ethical research while maintaining the vigilance necessary to safeguard the rights and welfare of the subjects.

  9. Value of innovation in hematologic malignancies: a systematic review of published cost-effectiveness analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saret, Cayla J; Winn, Aaron N; Shah, Gunjan; Parsons, Susan K; Lin, Pei-Jung; Cohen, Joshua T; Neumann, Peter J

    2015-03-19

    We analyzed cost-effectiveness studies related to hematologic malignancies from the Tufts Medical Center Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry (www.cearegistry.org), focusing on studies of innovative therapies. Studies that met inclusion criteria were categorized by 4 cancer types (chronic myeloid leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma) and 9 treatment agents (interferon-α, alemtuzumab, bendamustine, bortezomib, dasatinib, imatinib, lenalidomide, rituximab alone or in combination, and thalidomide). We examined study characteristics and stratified cost-effectiveness ratios by type of cancer, treatment, funder, and year of study publication. Twenty-nine studies published in the years 1996-2012 (including 44 cost-effectiveness ratios) met inclusion criteria, 22 (76%) of which were industry funded. Most ratios fell below $50,000 per quality-adjusted life-years (QALY) (73%) and $100,000/QALY (86%). Industry-funded studies (n = 22) reported a lower median ratio ($26,000/QALY) than others (n = 7; $33,000/QALY), although the difference was not statistically significant. Published data suggest that innovative treatments for hematologic malignancies may provide reasonable value for money. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  10. [Classification and etiology of hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łacka, Katarzyna; Fraczek, Magdalena Maria

    2014-03-01

    The prevalence of hyperthyroidism in women is between 0.5-2% and it is 10 times less common in men. The most common causes are Graves' disease, toxic multinodular goiter, and autonomously functioning thyroid adenoma. Rare causes of hyperthyroidisms are as follow: pituitary adenoma, autoimmune thyroiditis (Hashitoxicosis), levothyroxine overdose, inadequate iodine supplementation (including amiodaron induced hyperthyroidism, iodine-based contrast media), hCG excess (pregnancy, gestational trophoblastic disease, germ-cell tumors), drug induced hyperthyroidism, differentiated thyroid carcinomas and/or their metastases, struma ovarii, and familial nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism. This article focuses on the current data of etiopathogenesis of hyperthyroidisms. Genetic factors (like HLA-DR3,CD40, CTLA-4, PTPN22, FOXP3 CD25) and thyroid specific genes (thyroglobulin, TSHR, G(s)alpha) and environmental and endogenous factors (such as age, iodine, selenium, emotional stress, smoking, gender, pregnancy, sex hormones, fetal microchimerism, fetal growth, bacterial infections, viral infections, allergies, drugs (alemtuzumab, interferon alpha, iplimumab/tremelimumab, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, denileukindiftitox, thalidomide/lenalidomide, exposition to fallout and radiotherapy) have been described.

  11. [Subcutaneous bortezomib as a new promising way to successful maintenance therapy in multiple myeloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosicki, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) despite the introduction to clinical practice of a new drugs in the last years, and still searching of new points of the handle for targeting treatment, remaining incurable disease. Even most intensive and most modern induction-consolidation regimens is not in the state to eradicate of the clone of myeloma, and even complete remission in immunofixation the most often after some time ends progression. Optimal way of maintenance treatment is still searching, which would be maximally effective near acceptable toxicity. Now hypothesis about possible successful maintenance therapy, which may prolong survival of MM patients became more actual in the face of the introduction to the studies with maintenance of a new drugs as: thalidomide, lenalidomide and bortesomib. The expectations on the essential progress to establish the optimal bortesomib-based regimen of the maintenance treatment in MM cause the results of the studies with its subcutaneous administration, which proved comparable efficacy with advantage in toxicity profile, especially neurological in comparison to classic intravenous way.

  12. The past, present and perhaps future of pharmacovigilance: homage to Folke Sjoqvist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Nicholas

    2013-05-01

    Over the years since 1961 and the identification of thalidomide as the common link in thousands of birth defects, daily pharmacovigilance activities and signal generation have evolved from the analysis of individual case reports and imputology, to case series and underreporting, to spontaneous report databases and disproportionality analyses, to data mining in population databases. Regulatory requirements have also changed from purely passive monitoring and reacting to alerts to a proactive approach that includes risk management plans and risk minimization, and from reporting only by healthcare professionals to patient reporting and exploration of social media. The emphasis only on risk assessment is changing towards assessment of the risk/benefit ratio and the exploration of real-life efficacy studies to complement the measure of real-life risk. The interactions between industry and regulators have been amplified and strengthened. However, most adverse reactions, including severe ones, are related to well-known and often pharmacological effects of the older drugs, possibly with genetic predispositions. Prevention is the next frontier for pharmacovigilance, beyond simply generating alerts, and it involves not only the removal of drugs from the market, but also promotion of proper drug prescribing by better trained physicians and the proper use of drugs by better informed patients.

  13. Intra-laboratory validation of a human cell based in vitro angiogenesis assay for testing angiogenesis modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jertta-Riina Sarkanen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The developed standardized human cell based in vitro angiogenesis assay was intra-laboratory validated to verify that the method is reliable and relevant for routine testing of modulators of angiogenesis e.g. pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals. This assay is based on the earlier published method but it was improved and shown to be more sensitive and rapid than the previous assay. The performance of the assay was assessed by using 6 reference chemicals, which are widely used pharmaceuticals that inhibit angiogenesis: acetyl salicylic acid, erlotinib, 2-methoxyestradiol, levamisole, thalidomide, and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor. In the intra-laboratory validation, the sensitivity of the assay (upper and lower limits of detection and linearity of response in tubule formation, batch to batch variation in tubule formation between different Master cell bank batches, and precision as well as the reliability of the assay (reproducibility and repeatability were tested. The pre-set acceptance criteria for the intra-laboratory validation study were met. The relevance of the assay in man was investigated by comparing the effects of reference chemicals and their concentrations to the published human data. The comparison showed a good concordance, which indicates that this human cell based angiogenesis model predicts well the effects in man and has the potential to be used to supplement and/or replace of animal tests.

  14. A Pilot Safety Study of Lenalidomide and Radiotherapy for Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drappatz, Jan; Wong, Eric T.; Schiff, David; Kesari, Santosh; Batchelor, Tracy T.; Doherty, Lisa; LaFrankie, Debra Conrad; Ramakrishna, Naren; Weiss, Stephanie; Smith, Sharon T.; Ciampa, Abigail; Zimmerman, Jennifer; Ostrowsky, Louis; David, Karly; Norden, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To define the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of lenalidomide, an analogue of thalidomide with enhanced immunomodulatory and antiangiogenic properties and a more favorable toxicity profile, in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) when given concurrently with radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed GBM received radiotherapy concurrently with lenalidomide given for 3 weeks followed by a 1-week rest period and continued lenalidomide until tumor progression or unacceptable toxicity. Dose escalation occurred in groups of 6. Determination of the MTD was based on toxicities during the first 12 weeks of therapy. The primary endpoint was toxicity. Results: Twenty-three patients were enrolled, of whom 20 were treated and evaluable for both toxicity and tumor response and 2 were evaluable for toxicity only. Common toxicities included venous thromboembolic disease, fatigue, and nausea. Dose-limiting toxicities were eosinophilic pneumonitis and transaminase elevations. The MTD for lenalidomide was determined to be 15 mg/m 2 /d. Conclusion: The recommended dose for lenalidomide with radiotherapy is 15 mg/m 2 /d for 3 weeks followed by a 1-week rest period. Venous thromboembolic complications occurred in 4 patients, and prophylactic anticoagulation should be considered

  15. Targeted therapy of multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolloff, Nathan G; Talamo, Giampaolo

    2013-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a plasma cell malignancy and the second most common hematologic cancer. MM is characterized by the accumulation of malignant plasma cells within the bone marrow, and presents clinically with a broad range of symptoms, including hypercalcemia, renal insufficiency, anemia, and lytic bone lesions. MM is a heterogeneous disease associated with genomic instability, where patients may express multiple genetic abnormalities that affect several oncogenic pathways. Commonly detected genetic aberrations are translocations involving immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) switch regions (chromosome 14q32) and oncogenes such as c-maf [t(14:16)], cyclin D1 [t(11:14)], and FGFR3/MMSET [t(4:14)]. Advances in the basic understanding of MM and the development of novel agents, such as the immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) thalidomide and lenalidomide and the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, have increased therapeutic response rates and prolonged patient survival. Despite these advances MM remains incurable in the majority of patients, and it is therefore critical to identify additional therapeutic strategies and targets for its treatment. In this chapter, we review the underlying genetic components of MM and discuss the results of recent clinical trials that demonstrate the effectiveness of targeted agents in the management of MM. In addition, we discuss experimental therapies that are currently in clinical development along with their molecular rationale in the treatment of MM.

  16. New Rising Infection: Human Herpesvirus 6 Is Frequent in Myeloma Patients Undergoing Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation after Induction Therapy with Bortezomib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netanel Horowitz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6 infection is a common complication during immunosuppression. Its significance for multiple myeloma (MM patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT after treatment with novel agents affecting immune system remains undetermined. Data on 62 consecutive MM patients receiving bortezomib-dexamethasone (VD (; 66% or thalidomide-dexamethasone (TD (, 34% induction, together with melphalan 200 mg/m2 autograft between 01.2005 and 09.2010, were reviewed. HHV-6 reactivation was diagnosed in patients experiencing postengraftment unexplained fever (PEUF in the presence of any level of HHHV-6 DNA in blood. There were no statistically significant differences in patient characteristics between the groups, excluding dexamethasone dosage, which was significantly higher in patients receiving TD. Eight patients in TD and 18 in VD cohorts underwent viral screening for PEUF. HHV-6 reactivation was diagnosed in 10 patients of the entire series (16%, accounting for 35% of those screened; its incidence was 19.5% ( in the VD group versus 9.5% ( in the TD group. All patients recovered without sequelae. In conclusion, HHV-6 reactivation is relatively common after ASCT, accounting for at least a third of PEUF episodes. Further studies are warranted to investigate whether bortezomib has an impact on HHV-6 reactivation development.

  17. Caso para diagnóstico Case for diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Erica Christofoletti Daldon

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Paciente do sexo masculino, negro, 13 anos, apresenta há dois anos lesões pruriginosas, pápulonodulares nos antebraços, associadas a edema do lábio inferior, fotofobia, conjuntivite e pterígio. O exame histopatológico do lábio inferior revelou acantose, espongiose e infiltrado inflamatório perivascular superficial, composto por linfócitos, plasmócitos e eosinófilos, compatível com o diagnóstico de prurigo actínico. As lesões regrediram com o uso de talidomida 100 mg/dia.A 13-year-old black boy had pruritic papular and nodular lesions on his forearms associated to edema of the lower lip, photophobia, conjunctivitis and pterygium. Skin biopsy of the lower lip revealed acanthosis, spongiosis with dermal perivascular mononuclear cell infiltration composed by lymphocytes, plasma cells and eosinophils consistent with actinic prurigo. Lesions improved considerably with the use of thalidomide 100mg/ day.

  18. Proinflammatory Factors Mediate Paclitaxel-Induced Impairment of Learning and Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemotherapeutic agent paclitaxel is widely used for cancer treatment. Paclitaxel treatment impairs learning and memory function, a side effect that reduces the quality of life of cancer survivors. However, the neural mechanisms underlying paclitaxel-induced impairment of learning and memory remain unclear. Paclitaxel treatment leads to proinflammatory factor release and neuronal apoptosis. Thus, we hypothesized that paclitaxel impairs learning and memory function through proinflammatory factor-induced neuronal apoptosis. Neuronal apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL assay in the hippocampus. Protein expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-1β (IL-1β in the hippocampus tissue were analyzed by Western blot assay. Spatial learning and memory function were determined by using the Morris water maze (MWM test. Paclitaxel treatment significantly increased the escape latencies and decreased the number of crossing in the MWM test. Furthermore, paclitaxel significantly increased the number of TUNEL-positive neurons in the hippocampus. Also, paclitaxel treatment increased the expression levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in the hippocampus tissue. In addition, the TNF-α synthesis inhibitor thalidomide significantly attenuated the number of paclitaxel-induced TUNEL-positive neurons in the hippocampus and restored the impaired spatial learning and memory function in paclitaxel-treated rats. These data suggest that TNF-α is critically involved in the paclitaxel-induced impairment of learning and memory function.

  19. Rational combination treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hideshima, T; Cottini, F; Ohguchi, H; Jakubikova, J; Gorgun, G; Mimura, N; Tai, Y-T; Munshi, N C; Richardson, P G; Anderson, K C

    2015-01-01

    Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) thalidomide, lenalidomide (Len) and pomalidomide trigger anti-tumor activities in multiple myeloma (MM) by targetting cereblon and thereby impacting IZF1/3, c-Myc and IRF4. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) also downregulate c-Myc. We therefore determined whether IMiDs with HDACi trigger significant MM cell growth inhibition by inhibiting or downregulating c-Myc. Combination treatment of Len with non-selective HDACi suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid or class-I HDAC-selective inhibitor MS275 induces synergic cytotoxicity, associated with downregulation of c-Myc. Unexpectedly, we observed that decreased levels of cereblon (CRBN), a primary target protein of IMiDs, was triggered by these agents. Indeed, sequential treatment of MM cells with MS275 followed by Len shows less efficacy than simultaneous treatment with this combination. Importantly ACY1215, an HDAC6 inhibitor with minimal effects on class-I HDACs, together with Len induces synergistic MM cytotoxicity without alteration of CRBN expression. Our results showed that only modest class-I HDAC inhibition is able to induce synergistic MM cytotoxicity in combination with Len. These studies may provide the framework for utilizing HDACi in combination with Len to both avoid CRBN downregulation and enhance anti-MM activities

  20. Rational combination treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs in multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hideshima, T; Cottini, F; Ohguchi, H; Jakubikova, J; Gorgun, G; Mimura, N; Tai, Y-T; Munshi, N C; Richardson, P G; Anderson, K C

    2015-05-15

    Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) thalidomide, lenalidomide (Len) and pomalidomide trigger anti-tumor activities in multiple myeloma (MM) by targetting cereblon and thereby impacting IZF1/3, c-Myc and IRF4. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) also downregulate c-Myc. We therefore determined whether IMiDs with HDACi trigger significant MM cell growth inhibition by inhibiting or downregulating c-Myc. Combination treatment of Len with non-selective HDACi suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid or class-I HDAC-selective inhibitor MS275 induces synergic cytotoxicity, associated with downregulation of c-Myc. Unexpectedly, we observed that decreased levels of cereblon (CRBN), a primary target protein of IMiDs, was triggered by these agents. Indeed, sequential treatment of MM cells with MS275 followed by Len shows less efficacy than simultaneous treatment with this combination. Importantly ACY1215, an HDAC6 inhibitor with minimal effects on class-I HDACs, together with Len induces synergistic MM cytotoxicity without alteration of CRBN expression. Our results showed that only modest class-I HDAC inhibition is able to induce synergistic MM cytotoxicity in combination with Len. These studies may provide the framework for utilizing HDACi in combination with Len to both avoid CRBN downregulation and enhance anti-MM activities.

  1. [Preparation of a "chronological table of main diseases in Japanese history" for pharmacy students of the 6-year program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Jun; Iida, Kotaro

    2005-01-01

    A chronological table of the main diseases that have appeared throughout Japanese history was prepared for pharmacy students, especially for students of clinical pharmacy in the new 6-year system. In ancient times (even in the 8th century), smallpox and measles prevailed in Japan. Japanese people prayed to gods and Buddha to cure the sick. New infectious diseases, like ruebella, pest, typhoid fever, dysentery, cholera, leprosy, etc., prevailed with the increasing exchange of culture from foreign countries. After the vaccines and the toxides were prepared, these infectious diseases were gradually stamped out in Japan early in the Meiji Era. While, public nuisances like the Minamata disease (CH3HgCl), Itaiitai disease (Cd), and atmospheric pollution with sulfurous acid gas, drug-induced suffering (Thalidomide, Sumon, AIDS, etc.) and toxin contaminations in foods have recently increased and produced new diseases. However, these diseases can be prevented if the workers in factories and government officers keep in mind the medical ethics and the ethics for pharmacists to protect the health of people from diseases. Today, cancer, diseases of cerebral vessels, heart diseases, and pneumonia are the four most important causes of death related to aging.

  2. Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation as first-line treatment in myeloma: a global perspective of current concepts and future possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catriona Elizabeth Mactier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Stem cell transplantation forms an integral part of the treatment for multiple myeloma. This paper reviews the current role of transplantation and the progress that has been made in order to optimize the success of this therapy. Effective induction chemotherapy is important and a combination regimen incorporating the novel agent bortezomib is now favorable. Adequate induction is a crucial adjunct to stem cell transplantation and in some cases may potentially postpone the need for transplant. Different conditioning agents prior to transplantation have been explored: high-dose melphalan is most commonly used and bortezomib is a promising additional agent. There is no well-defined superior transplantation protocol but single or tandem autologous stem cell transplantations are those most commonly used, with allogeneic transplantation only used in clinical trials. The appropriate timing of transplantation in the treatment plan is a matter of debate. Consolidation and maintenance chemotherapies, particularly thalidomide and bortezomib, aim to improve and prolong disease response to transplantation and delay recurrence. Prognostic factors for the outcome of stem cell transplant in myeloma have been highlighted. Despite good responses to chemotherapy and transplantation, the problem of disease recurrence persists. Thus, there is still much room for improvement. Treatments which harness the graft-versus-myeloma effect may offer a potential cure for this disease. Trials of novel agents are underway, including targeted therapies for specific antigens such as vaccines and monoclonal antibodies.

  3. Teratogens: a public health issue – a Brazilian overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzu-Nascimento, Thiago; Melo, Débora Gusmão; Morbioli, Giorgio Gianini; Carrilho, Emanuel; Vianna, Fernanda Sales Luiz; da Silva, André Anjos; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Congenital anomalies are already the second cause of infant mortality in Brazil, as in many other middle-income countries in Latin America. Birth defects are a result of both genetic and environmental factors, but a multifactorial etiology has been more frequently observed. Here, we address the environmental causes of birth defects – or teratogens – as a public health issue and present their mechanisms of action, categories and their respective maternal-fetal deleterious effects. We also present a survey from 2008 to 2013 of Brazilian cases involving congenital anomalies (annual average of 20,205), fetal deaths (annual average of 1,530), infant hospitalizations (annual average of 82,452), number of deaths of hospitalized infants (annual average of 2,175), and the average cost of hospitalizations (annual cost of $7,758). Moreover, we report on Brazilian cases of teratogenesis due to the recent Zika virus infection, and to the use of misoprostol, thalidomide, alcohol and illicit drugs. Special attention has been given to the Zika virus infection, now proven to be responsible for the microcephaly outbreak in Brazil, with 8,039 cases under investigation (from October 2015 to June 2016). From those cases, 1,616 were confirmed and 324 deaths occurred due to microcephaly complications or alterations on the central nervous system. Congenital anomalies impact life quality and raise costs in specialized care, justifying the classification of teratogens as a public health issue. PMID:28534929

  4. A phase II study of concurrent temozolomide and cis-retinoic acid with radiation for adult patients with newly diagnosed supratentorial glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butowski, Nicholas; Prados, Michael D.; Lamborn, Kathleen R.; Larson, David A.; Sneed, Patricia K.; Wara, William M.; Malec, Mary; Rabbitt, Jane; Page, Margaretta; Chang, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This Phase II study was designed to determine the median survival time of adults with supratentorial glioblastoma treated with a combination of temozolomide (TMZ) and 13-cis-retinoic acid (cRA) given daily with conventional radiation therapy (XRT). Methods and Materials: This was a single arm, open-labeled, Phase II study. Patients were treated with XRT in conjunction with cRA and TMZ. Both drugs were administered starting on Day 1 of XRT, and chemotherapy cycles continued after the completion of XRT to a maximum of 1 year. Results: Sixty-one patients were enrolled in the study. Time to progression was known for 55 patients and 6 were censored. The estimated 6-month progression-free survival was 38% and the estimated 1-year progression-free survival was 15%. Median time to progression was estimated as 21 weeks. The estimated 1-year survival was 57%. The median survival was 57 weeks. Conclusions: The combined therapy was relatively well tolerated, but there was no survival advantage compared with historical studies using XRT either with adjuvant nitrosourea chemotherapy, with TMZ alone, or with the combination of TMZ and thalidomide. Based on this study, cRA does not seem to add a significant synergistic effect to TMZ and XRT

  5. Plasmablastic Lymphoma: A Review of Current Knowledge and Future Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaleb Elyamany

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL is an aggressive subtype of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL, which frequently arises in the oral cavity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infected patients. PBL shows diffuse proliferation of large neoplastic cells resembling B-immunoblasts/plasmablasts, or with plasmacytic features and an immunophenotype of plasma cells. PBL remains a diagnostic challenge due to its peculiar morphology and an immunohistochemical profile similar to plasma cell myeloma (PCM. PBL is also a therapeutic challenge with a clinical course characterized by a high rate of relapse and death. There is no standard chemotherapy protocol for treatment of PBL. Cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP or CHOP-like regimens have been the backbone while more intensive regimens such as cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, high-dose methotrexate/ifosfamide, etoposide, high-dose cytarabine (CODOX-M/IVAC, or dose-adjusted etoposide, prednisone, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin (DA-EPOCH are possible options. Recently, a few studies have reported the potential value of the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib and thalidomide in PBL patients. The introduction of genes encoding artificial receptors called chimeric antigen receptors (CARs and CAR-modified T cells targeted to the B cell-specific CD19 antigen have demonstrated promising results in multiple early clinical trials. The aim of this paper is to review the recent advances in epidemiology; pathophysiology; clinical, pathologic, and molecular characteristics; therapy; and outcome in patients with PBL.

  6. Pathogenesis and therapeutic approaches for improved topical treatment in localized scleroderma and systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, I; Taylor, M; Rosenberg, A; Foldvari, M

    2009-03-01

    SSc is a chronic progressive disorder of unknown aetiology characterized by excess synthesis and deposition of collagen and other extracellular matrix components in a variety of tissues and organs. Localized scleroderma (LS) differs from SSc in that with LS only skin and occasionally subcutaneous tissues are involved. Although rarely life threatening, LS can be disfiguring and disabling and, consequently, can adversely affect quality of life. There is no known effective treatment for LS, and various options, including, as examples, corticosteroids and other immunomodulatory agents, ultraviolet radiation and vitamin D analogues, are of unproven efficacy. Clinical trials evaluating combination therapy such as corticosteroids with MTX or UVA1 exposure with psoralens have not been established as consistently effective. New immunomodulators such as tacrolimus and thalidomide are also being evaluated. A better understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of LS has led to evaluation of new treatments that modulate profibrotic cytokines such as TGF-beta and IL-4, regulate assembly and deposition of extracellular matrix components, and restore Th1/Th2 immune balance by administering IL-12 or IFN-gamma. IFN-gamma acts by directly inhibiting collagen synthesis and by restoring immune balance. In this review, we evaluate current and future treatment options for LS and cutaneous involvement in SSc. Recent advances in therapy focus mainly on anti-fibrotic agents. Delivery of these drugs into the skin as the target tissue might be a key factor in developing more effective and safer therapy.

  7. Reinduction of Bevacizumab in Combination with Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin in a Patient with Recurrent Glioblastoma Multiforme Who Progressed on Bevacizumab/Irinotecan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Almubarak

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM carries a dismal prognosis despite the current standard of multimodality treatments. Recent studies showed promising results to a regimen consisting of a VEGF inhibitor, (bevacizumab and a topoisomerase I inhibitor (irinotecan [BI] in recurrent GBM. However, those patients with GBM who progress on BI will succumb to their disease generally in a very short period of time. We report a case of a 56-year-old male patient with GBM who declined surgical resection and received chemoradiation with temozolomide. This treatment was withheld secondary to significant thrombocytopenia. Subsequently, he achieved stable disease for 10 months with a regimen consisting of thalidomide and tamoxifen before progressing. This was followed by bevacizumab with irinotecan [BI], for which he had a significant partial response for 8 months with subsequent progression. Reinducing the patient with bevacizumab in combination with a pegylated liposomal doxorubicin [PLD] (a topoisomerase II inhibitor demonstrated antitumor activity with significant shrinkage of contrast enhancing mass and peritumoral edema.

  8. From the bench to the bedside: emerging new treatments in multiple myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsiades, Constantine S.; Hayden, Patrick J.; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Richardson, Paul G.

    2012-01-01

    Within the last decade, several novel classes of anti-myeloma therapeutics have become available. The clinical successes achieved by thalidomide, lenalidomide, and the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib, and in particular the ability of these agents to lead to major clinical responses in patients resistant to conventional or high-dose chemotherapy, have highlighted the importance of expanding even further the spectrum of classes of agents utilized for the treatment of myeloma. Herein, we review the current state of the field of development of novel anti-myeloma agents, with emphasis on classes of therapeutics which have already translated into clinical trials or those in advanced stages of preclinical development. These include second-generation proteasome inhibitors (NPI-0052 and PR-171), heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) inhibitors, 2-methoxyestradiol, histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (e.g. SAHA, tubacin and LBH589), fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGF-R3) inhibitors, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) inhibitors, mTOR inhibitors, monoclonal antibodies, and agents targeting the tumor microenvironment, including defibrotide. PMID:18070720

  9. [Response and prognosis of patients with multiple myeloma induced by PAD/TAD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Tianmei; He, Haiyan; Shi, Haotian; Xi, Hao; Du, Juan; Zhang, Chunyang; Jiang, Hua; Fu, Weijun; Zhou, Fan; Hou, Jian

    2015-03-17

    To evaluate the impact of cytogenetic grouping and autologous stem cell transplantation on the prognosis of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) induced by PAD (velcade+epirubicin+dexamethasone) and TAD (thalidomide+epirubicin+dexamethasone). A total of 191 patients with a definite diagnosis of MM were enrolled from May 2008 to December 2013 into this prospective study. They were non-randomly induced by PAD (n = 132) or TAD (n = 59) plus autologous stem cell transplantation or chemotherapy. Response and survival rates were also analyzed between two groups. The overall response rates of PAD and TAD groups were 84.4% (108/128) and 69.5% (41/59) (P = 0.011) respectively. The very good partial remission (VGPR) rates were 70.3% (90/128) and 32.2% (19/59) (P TAD. After PAD induction, cytogenetic grouping may further distinguish the prognosis of MM patients. For FISH high-risk patients, their PFS is prolonged by autologous stem cell transplantation.

  10. [Drug surveillance and adverse reactions to drugs. The literature and importance of historical data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, L; Minora, T; Ventresca, G P

    1996-12-01

    The authors highlight the essential role of pharmacovigilance and the need for a simple, efficient and low-cost system of adverse reaction (AR) reporting which could cover the whole population and all marketed drugs, and suggest that the only one presently viable is based on spontaneous reporting. To support their proposal the authors provide a definition of AR and of the different monitoring system, and list as many drugs as possible to find in the literature that have been associated with a specific AR, together with the active molecule, the therapeutic indication, the features of the AR and the regulatory actions (withdrawal from the market, restriction of use). Moreover, by describing the "history" behind some of these drugs the authors highlight the contribution that pharmacovigilance and spontaneous reporting have had to the development of regulations for approval and marketing of new drugs. It is also highlighted how some of these unexpected events (thalidomide, DES) have had a significant and important contribution to pharmacological and toxicological knowledge.

  11. Clinical utility of dronabinol in the treatment of weight loss associated with HIV and AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badowski, Melissa E; Perez, Sarah E

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, weight loss has been a common complaint for patients. The use of various definitions defining HIV wasting syndrome has made it difficult to determine its actual prevalence. Despite the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, it is estimated that the prevalence of HIV wasting syndrome is between 14% and 38%. HIV wasting syndrome may stem from conditions affecting chewing, swallowing, or gastrointestinal motility, neurologic disease affecting food intake or the perception of hunger or ability to eat, psychiatric illness, food insecurity generated from psychosocial or economic concerns, or anorexia due to medications, malabsorption, infections, or tumors. Treatment of HIV wasting syndrome may be managed with appetite stimulants (megestrol acetate or dronabinol), anabolic agents (testosterone, testosterone analogs, or recombinant human growth hormone), or, rarely, cytokine production modulators (thalidomide). The goal of this review is to provide an in-depth evaluation based on existing clinical trials on the clinical utility of dronabinol in the treatment of weight loss associated with HIV/AIDS. Although total body weight gain varies with dronabinol use (-2.0 to 3.2 kg), dronabinol is a well-tolerated option to promote appetite stimulation. Further studies are needed with standardized definitions of HIV-associated weight loss and clinical outcomes, robust sample sizes, safety and efficacy data on chronic use of dronabinol beyond 52 weeks, and associated virologic and immunologic outcomes.

  12. Detection of immunotoxicity using T-cell based cytokine reporter cell lines ('Cell Chip')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringerike, Tove; Ulleraas, Erik; Voelker, Rene; Verlaan, Bert; Eikeset, Aase; Trzaska, Dominika; Adamczewska, Violetta; Olszewski, Maciej; Walczak-Drzewiecka, Aurelia; Arkusz, Joanna; Loveren, Henk van; Nilsson, Gunnar; Lovik, Martinus; Dastych, Jaroslaw; Vandebriel, Rob J.

    2005-01-01

    Safety assessment of chemicals and drugs is an important regulatory issue. The evaluation of potential adverse effects of compounds on the immune system depends today on animal experiments. An increasing demand, however, exists for in vitro alternatives. Cytokine measurement is a promising tool to evaluate chemical exposure effects on the immune system. Fortunately, this type of measurement can be performed in conjunction with in vitro exposure models. We have taken these considerations as the starting point to develop an in vitro method to efficiently screen compounds for potential immunotoxicity. The T-cell lymphoma cell line EL-4 was transfected with the regulatory sequences of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-γ or actin fused to the gene for enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in either a stabile or a destabilised form. Consequently, changes in fluorescence intensity represent changes in cytokine expression with one cell line per cytokine. We used this prototype 'Cell Chip' to test, by means of flow cytometry, the immunomodulatory potential of 13 substances and were able to detect changes in cytokine expression in 12 cases (successful for cyclosporine, rapamycin, pentamidine, thalidomide, bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide, house dust mite allergen (Der p I), 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, benzocaine, tolylene 2,4-diisocyanate, potassium tetrachloroplatinate, sodium dodecyl sulphate and mercuric chloride; unsuccessful for penicillin G). In conclusion, this approach seems promising for in vitro screening for potential immunotoxicity, especially when additional cell lines besides T-cells are included

  13. The importance of a sub-region on chromosome 19q13.3 for prognosis of multiple myeloma patients after high-dose treatment and stem cell support: a linkage disequilibrium mapping in RAI and CD3EAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, Annette Juul; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfeldt; Gimsing, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The gene RAI was originally described as an inhibitor of RelA/p65 subunit of nuclear factor ¿B (NF-¿B). Here, we analyse the association between genetic variation in the genes RAI and CD3EAP and outcome of 348 myeloma patients treated with high-dose treatment (HDT), 146 patients treated with inte......The gene RAI was originally described as an inhibitor of RelA/p65 subunit of nuclear factor ¿B (NF-¿B). Here, we analyse the association between genetic variation in the genes RAI and CD3EAP and outcome of 348 myeloma patients treated with high-dose treatment (HDT), 146 patients treated...... with interferon-a (INF-a) as maintenance treatment, 177 patients treated with thalidomide, and 74 patients treated with bortezomib at relapse and address if the effects of polymorphisms in CD3EAP and RAI are modified by a functional polymorphism in NF¿B1. By linkage disequilibrium mapping, we found that variant...... alleles of several polymorphisms in a sub-region of 19q13.3 spanning the regions RAI-intron1-1 to RAI intron1-3 and the region exon1 to exon3-6 in CD3EAP were associated with prolonged time-to-treatment failure (TTF; p¿=¿0.003) and overall survival (OS; p¿=¿0.02). Haplotype analyses revealed that none...

  14. The importance of a sub-region on chromosome 19q13.3 for prognosis of multiple myeloma patients after high-dose treatment and stem cell support: a linkage disequilibrium mapping in RAI and CD3EAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsted, Annette J.; Klausen, Tobias Wirenfeldt; Gimsing, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The gene RAI was originally described as an inhibitor of RelA/p65 subunit of nuclear factor κB (NF–κB). Here, we analyse the association between genetic variation in the genes RAI and CD3EAP and outcome of 348 myeloma patients treated with high-dose treatment (HDT), 146 patients treated with inte......The gene RAI was originally described as an inhibitor of RelA/p65 subunit of nuclear factor κB (NF–κB). Here, we analyse the association between genetic variation in the genes RAI and CD3EAP and outcome of 348 myeloma patients treated with high-dose treatment (HDT), 146 patients treated...... with interferon-α (INF-α) as maintenance treatment, 177 patients treated with thalidomide, and 74 patients treated with bortezomib at relapse and address if the effects of polymorphisms in CD3EAP and RAI are modified by a functional polymorphism in NFКB1. By linkage disequilibrium mapping, we found that variant...... alleles of several polymorphisms in a sub-region of 19q13.3 spanning the regions RAI-intron1-1 to RAI intron1-3 and the region exon1 to exon3–6 in CD3EAP were associated with prolonged time-to-treatment failure (TTF; p = 0.003) and overall survival (OS; p = 0.02). Haplotype analyses revealed that none...

  15. Reverse translation of adverse event reports paves the way for de-risking preclinical off-targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, Mateusz; Lounkine, Eugen; Whitebread, Steven; Farmer, Pierre; DuMouchel, William; Shoichet, Brian K; Urban, Laszlo

    2017-08-08

    The Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) remains the primary source for post-marketing pharmacovigilance. The system is largely un-curated, unstandardized, and lacks a method for linking drugs to the chemical structures of their active ingredients, increasing noise and artefactual trends. To address these problems, we mapped drugs to their ingredients and used natural language processing to classify and correlate drug events. Our analysis exposed key idiosyncrasies in FAERS, for example reports of thalidomide causing a deadly ADR when used against myeloma, a likely result of the disease itself; multiplications of the same report, unjustifiably increasing its importance; correlation of reported ADRs with public events, regulatory announcements, and with publications. Comparing the pharmacological, pharmacokinetic, and clinical ADR profiles of methylphenidate, aripiprazole, and risperidone, and of kinase drugs targeting the VEGF receptor, demonstrates how underlying molecular mechanisms can emerge from ADR co-analysis. The precautions and methods we describe may enable investigators to avoid confounding chemistry-based associations and reporting biases in FAERS, and illustrate how comparative analysis of ADRs can reveal underlying mechanisms.

  16. Vulvovaginal gingival lichen planus: report of two cases and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchese, A; Dolci, A; Minervini, G; Salerno, C; DI Stasio, D; Minervini, G; Laino, L; Silvestre, F; Serpico, R

    2016-01-01

    Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of skin and mucous membranes. Approximately 20% of women with oral lichen planus develops lesions in the genital mucosa. In 1982, Pelisse described a special form of lichen planus (LP), which consists of a triad of symptoms: vulval, vaginal and gingival (VVG)-LP lesions. Aim of the present report is to report two new cases and review the international literature. Two cases of VVG-LP are reported and a review of recent literature is performed. The onset of erosive or ulcerative mouth lesions may precede or follow by months or even years the onset of vulvovaginal lesions. Vaginal agglutination is associated with the postmenopausal state in conjunction with a dermatologic condition. Intra-lesional corticosteroids have a role in localized chronic ulceration, while systemic therapies such as corticosteroids, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, hydroxychloroquine, ciclosporin, methotrexate, retinoids, thalidomide and photo chemotherapy have been used in more severe cases with varying success. VVG-LP is rather a rare condition and has been documented in the literature mainly in the form of case reports. Lack of a precise diagnostic criteria of VVG-LP depends on the specialists.

  17. Management of mantle cell lymphoma in the elderly: current and potential strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignon, Marguerite; Venon, Marie-Dominique; Hermine, Olivier; Delarue, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma is a distinct subtype of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, accounting for 3-10 % of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma cases. The median age at diagnosis is nearly 70 years. The prognosis of patients is based on the Mantle Cell Lymphoma International Prognostic Index, which is calculated on the basis of four independent prognostic factors (age, performance status, serum lactate dehydrogenase and leukocyte count). Treatment of elderly patients with de novo untreated mantle cell lymphoma is based on rituximab combined with chemotherapy. The most commonly used regimen is the classical CHOP21 (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone) regimen. Bendamustine is also an option, especially for patients with cardiac comorbidities. In elderly patients who are relatively young and fit, an approach based on treatment usually used for younger patients, with cytarabine-based induction followed by autologous stem cell transplantation, should be discussed. Treatment of relapsing patients is based on the use of newer effective drugs, including bortezomib, lenalidomide and thalidomide, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, such as temsirolimus. These drugs are often combined with rituximab and can be prescribed in combination with chemotherapy. Promising new drugs are Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors and other inhibitors of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-mTOR-protein kinase B (AKT) pathway. Despite these new advances, mantle cell lymphoma remains an incurable disease, and further basic and clinical research is warranted.

  18. Drug repurposing in malignant pleural mesothelioma: a breath of fresh air?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Arnaud; Pasquier, Eddy; Tomasini, Pascale; Ciccolini, Joseph; Greillier, Laurent; Andre, Nicolas; Barlesi, Fabrice; Mascaux, Celine

    2018-03-31

    Drug repurposing is the use of known drugs for new indications. Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare cancer with a poor prognosis. So far, few treatments have been approved in this disease. However, its incidence is expected to increase significantly, particularly in developing countries. Consequently, drug repurposing appears as an attractive strategy for drug development in MPM, since the known pharmacology and safety profile based on previous approvals of repurposed drugs allows for faster time-to-market for patients and lower treatment cost. This is critical in low- and middle-income countries where access to expensive drugs is limited. This review assesses the published preclinical and clinical data about drug repurposing in MPM.In this review, we identified 11 therapeutic classes that could be repositioned in mesothelioma. Most of these treatments have been evaluated in vitro , half have been evaluated in vivo in animal models of MPM and only three ( i.e. valproate, thalidomide and zoledronic acid) have been investigated in clinical trials, with limited benefits so far. Efforts could be coordinated to pursue further investigations and test promising drugs identified in preclinical experiments in appropriately designed clinical trials. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  19. Flow Cytometry in Diagnosis of Myelomatous Pleural Effusion: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Parul; Gupta, Sanjeev Kumar; Mallik, Nabhajit; Mittal, Reena; Sharma, Om Dutt; Kumar, Lalit

    2016-06-01

    Plasma cell myeloma is a multifocal plasma cell neoplasm associated with increased monoclonal protein in serum and/or urine. Pleural effusions in patients with myeloma are uncommon (6 %). However, effusions due to direct infiltration of the pleura by plasma cells (myelomatous pleural effusion) are extremely rare (pleural fluid cytology, electrophoresis or pleural biopsy. We present a case of myelomatous pleural effusion diagnosed using flow cytometry immunophenotyping in addition to the pleural fluid cytology. A 45 year old female was diagnosed as plasma cell myeloma (IgG kappa) in 2007. She received multiple lines of therapy during the course of her treatment including thalidomide, dexamethasone, lenalidomide, bortezomib, and doxorubicin based regimens. However, the patient had progressive extramedullary disease and developed pleural effusion in 2014. Cytological examination of the pleural fluid showed degenerative changes. Few preserved areas showed mononuclear cells including morphologically abnormal plasma cells. Immunophenotyping of these cells by flow cytometry revealed a pattern indicating neoplastic plasma cells. There was expression of CD38, CD138, and CD56, with absence of CD19, CD10 and CD45. This confirmed the diagnosis of myelomatous pleural effusion. Subsequently, the patient was offered a dexamethasone, cyclophosphamide, etoposide and cisplatin based regimen but, she declined further treatment and succumbed to her disease 3 months later. Myelomatous pleural effusion is a rare complication of plasma cell myeloma. Flow cytometry can be used as an adjunctive technique in its diagnosis particularly in cases with equivocal cytology and electrophoresis findings.

  20. 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, a vitamin K3 analogue, suppresses STAT3 activation pathway through induction of protein tyrosine phosphatase, SHP-1: potential role in chemosensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandur, Santosh K; Pandey, Manoj K; Sung, Bokyung; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2010-01-01

    The activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) has been linked with carcinogenesis through survival, proliferation, and angiogenesis of tumor cells. Agents that can suppress STAT3 activation have potential not only for prevention but also for treatment of cancer. In the present report, we investigated whether 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (plumbagin), an analogue of vitamin K, and isolated from chitrak (Plumbago zeylanica), an Ayurvedic medicinal plant, can modulate the STAT3 pathway. We found that plumbagin inhibited both constitutive and interleukin 6-inducible STAT3 phosphorylation in multiple myeloma (MM) cells and this correlated with the inhibition of c-Src, Janus-activated kinase (JAK)1, and JAK2 activation. Vanadate, however, reversed the plumbagin-induced downregulation of STAT3 activation, suggesting the involvement of a protein tyrosine phosphatase. Indeed, we found that plumbagin induced the expression of the protein tyrosine phosphatase, SHP-1, and silencing of the SHP-1 abolished the effect of plumbagin. This agent also downregulated the expression of STAT3-regulated cyclin D1, Bcl-xL, and vascular endothelial growth factor; activated caspase-3; induced poly (ADP ribose) polymerase cleavage; and increased the sub-G(1) population of MM cells. Consistent with these results, overexpression of constitutive active STAT3 significantly reduced the plumbagin-induced apoptosis. When compared with AG490, a rationally designed STAT3/JAK2 inhibitor, plumbagin was found more potent in suppressing the proliferation of cells. Plumbagin also significantly potentiated the apoptotic effects of thalidomide and bortezomib in MM cells. Overall, these results suggest that the plumbagin inhibits STAT3 activation pathway through the induction of SHP-1 and this may mediate the sensitization of STAT3 overexpressing cancers to chemotherapeutic agents.

  1. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis: A Concise Review with a Comprehensive Summary of Therapeutic Interventions Emphasizing Supportive Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jeremy A; Cohen, Philip R

    2017-06-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are two of the most severe dermatologic conditions occurring in the inpatient setting. There is a lack of consensus regarding appropriate management of SJS and TEN. The scientific literature pertaining to SJS and TEN (subsequently referred to as SJS/TEN) is summarized and assessed. In addition, an interventional approach for the clinician is provided. PubMed was searched with the key words: corticosteroids, cyclosporine, etanercept, intravenous immunoglobulin, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis. The papers generated by the search, and their references, were reviewed. Supportive care is the most universally accepted intervention for SJS/TEN. Specific guidelines differ from the care required for patients with thermal burns. Adjuvant therapies are utilized in most severe cases, but the data are thus far underwhelming and underpowered. Using systemic corticosteroids as sole therapy is not supported. A consensus regarding combined corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has not been reached. Data regarding IVIG, currently the standard of care for most referral centers, is conflicting. Newer studies regarding cyclosporine and tumor necrosis factor inhibitors are promising, but not powered to provide definitive evidence of efficacy. Data regarding plasmapheresis is equivocal. Thalidomide increases mortality. Clinicians who manage SJS/TEN should seek to employ interventions with the greatest impact on their patients' condition. While supportive care measures may seem an obvious aspect of SJS/TEN patient care, providers should understand that these interventions are imperative and that they differ from the care recommended for other critically ill or burn patients. While adjuvant therapies are frequently discussed and debated for hospitalized patients with SJS/TEN, a standardized management approach is not yet clear based on the current data. Therefore, until further data

  2. Identification of a novel compound (β-sesquiphellandrene) from turmeric (Curcuma longa) with anticancer potential: comparison with curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Amit Kumar; Prasad, Sahdeo; Yuan, Wei; Li, Shiyou; Aggarwal, Bharat B

    2015-12-01

    Considering that as many as 80% of the anticancer drugs have their roots in natural products derived from traditional medicine, we examined compounds other than curcumin from turmeric (Curcuma longa) that could exhibit anticancer potential. Present study describes the isolation and characterization of another turmeric-derived compound, β-sesquiphellandrene (SQP) that exhibits anticancer potential comparable to that of curcumin. We isolated several compounds from turmeric, including SQP, α-curcumene, ar-turmerone, α-turmerone, β-turmerone, and γ-turmerone, only SQP was found to have antiproliferative effects comparable to those of curcumin in human leukemia, multiple myeloma, and colorectal cancer cells. While lack of the NF-κB-p65 protein had no effect on the activity of SQP, lung cancer cells that expressed p53 were more susceptible to the cytotoxic effect of SQP than were cells that lacked p53 expression. SQP was also found to be highly effective in suppressing cancer cell colony formation and inducing apoptosis, as shown by assays of intracellular esterase activity, plasma membrane integrity, and cell-cycle phase. SQP was found to induce cytochrome c release and activate caspases that lead to poly ADP ribose polymerase cleavage. SQP exposure was associated with downregulation of cell survival proteins such cFLIP, Bcl-xL, Bcl-2, c-IAP1, and survivin. Furthermore, SQP was found to be synergistic with the chemotherapeutic agents velcade, thalidomide and capecitabine. Overall, our results indicate that SQP has anticancer potential comparable to that of curcumin.

  3. Lack of survival improvement with novel anti-myeloma agents for patients with multiple myeloma and central nervous system involvement: the Greek Myeloma Study Group experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katodritou, Eirini; Terpos, Evangelos; Kastritis, Efstathios; Delimpasis, Sossana; Symeonidis, Argiris S; Repousis, Panagiotis; Kyrtsonis, Marie-Christine; Vadikolia, Chrysa; Michalis, Eurydiki; Polychronidou, Genovefa; Michael, Michael; Papadaki, Sofia; Papathanasiou, Maria; Kokoviadou, Kyriaki; Kioumi, Anna; Vlachaki, Eythimia; Hadjiaggelidou, Christina; Kouraklis, Alexandra; Patsias, Ioannis; Gavriatopoulou, Maria; Kotsopoulou, Maria; Verrou, Evgenia; Gastari, Vasiliki; Christoulas, Dimitrios; Giannopoulou, Evlambia; Pouli, Anastasia; Konstantinidou, Pavlina; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles; Dimopoulos, Meletios-Athanasios

    2015-12-01

    Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) is a rare complication of multiple myeloma (MM). Herein, we have described the incidence, characteristics, prognostic factors for post CNS-MM survival, and outcome of CNS-MM and explored the efficacy of novel agents (NA) (thalidomide, bortezomib, lenalidomide) in this setting. Between 2000 and 2013, 31 (0.9 %) out of 3408 newly diagnosed symptomatic MM patients, consecutively diagnosed and treated during the same period in 12 Greek centers, developed CNS-MM (M/F 15/16, median age 59 years, range 20-96 years; newly diagnosed/relapsed-refractory 2/29; median time to CNS-MM diagnosis 29 months). Clinical and laboratory characteristics were retrospectively recorded. Twenty-six percent of patients had circulating plasma cells (PCs) or plasma cell leukemia (PCL) at CNS-MM and 39 % had skull-derived plasmacytomas, suggesting hematological and contiguous spread. Treatment for CNS-MM was offered in 29/31 patients and 11/29 responded (NA 18/29, additional radiotherapy 9/28, intrathecal chemotherapy 13/29). The median post CNS-MM survival was 3 months (95 % CI 1.9-4.1) and did not differ between patients treated with NA and/or radiotherapy vs. others. In the multivariate analysis, prior treatment of MM with NA, extramedullary disease (EMD) during MM course (i.e., plasmacytomas, circulating PCs, or documented PCL) and abnormally high LDH at MM diagnosis were independent prognostic factors, whereas treatment of CNS-MM with NA did not predict for post CNS-MM survival. Despite the relatively limited number of patients due to the rarity of CNS-MM, our results suggest that NA do not seem to improve post CNS-MM survival. Patients with EMD display shortened post CNS-MM survival and should be followed thoroughly.

  4. Radiotherapy and 'new' drugs-new side effects?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niyazi, Maximilian; Maihoefer, Cornelius; Krause, Mechthild; Rödel, Claus; Budach, Wilfried; Belka, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Targeted drugs have augmented the cancer treatment armamentarium. Based on the molecular specificity, it was initially believed that these drugs had significantly less side effects. However, currently it is accepted that all of these agents have their specific side effects. Based on the given multimodal approach, special emphasis has to be placed on putative interactions of conventional cytostatic drugs, targeted agents and other modalities. The interaction of targeted drugs with radiation harbours special risks, since the awareness for interactions and even synergistic toxicities is lacking. At present, only limited is data available regarding combinations of targeted drugs and radiotherapy. This review gives an overview on the current knowledge on such combined treatments. Using the following MESH headings and combinations of these terms pubmed database was searched: Radiotherapy AND cetuximab/trastuzumab/panitumumab/nimotuzumab, bevacizumab, sunitinib/sorafenib/lapatinib/gefitinib/erlotinib/sirolimus, thalidomide/lenalidomide as well as erythropoietin. For citation crosscheck the ISI web of science database was used employing the same search terms. Several classes of targeted substances may be distinguished: Small molecules including kinase inhibitors and specific inhibitors, antibodies, and anti-angiogenic agents. Combination of these agents with radiotherapy may lead to specific toxicities or negatively influence the efficacy of RT. Though there is only little information on the interaction of molecular targeted radiation and radiotherapy in clinical settings, several critical incidents are reported. The addition of molecular targeted drugs to conventional radiotherapy outside of approved regimens or clinical trials warrants a careful consideration especially when used in conjunction in hypo-fractionated regimens. Clinical trials are urgently needed in order to address the open question in regard to efficacy, early and late toxicity

  5. Multiple myeloma: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nau, Konrad C; Lewis, William D

    2008-10-01

    Multiple myeloma, the most common bone malignancy, is occurring with increasing frequency in older persons. Typical symptoms are bone pain, malaise, anemia, renal insufficiency, and hypercalcemia. Incidental discovery on comprehensive laboratory panels is common. The disease is diagnosed with serum or urine protein electrophoresis or immunofixation and bone marrow aspirate analysis. Skeletal radiographs are important in staging multiple myeloma and revealing lytic lesions, vertebral compression fractures, and osteoporosis. Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography or computed tomography are emerging as useful tools in the evaluation of patients with myeloma; magnetic resonance imaging is preferred for evaluating acute spinal compression. Nuclear bone scans and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry have no role in the diagnosis and staging of myeloma. The differential diagnosis of monoclonal gammopathies includes monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance, smoldering (asymptomatic) and symptomatic multiple myeloma, amyloidosis, B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, and rare plasma cell leukemia and heavy chain diseases. Patients with monoclonal gammopathy of uncertain significance or smoldering multiple myeloma should be followed closely, but not treated. Symptomatic multiple myeloma is treated with chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation, if possible. Melphalan, prednisolone, dexamethasone, vincristine, doxorubicin, bortezomib, and thalidomide and its analogue lenalidomide have been used successfully. It is important that family physicians recognize and appropriately treat multiple myeloma complications. Bone pain is treated with opiates, bisphosphonates, radiotherapy, vertebroplasty, or kyphoplasty; nephrotoxic nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs should be avoided. Hypercalcemia is treated with isotonic saline infusions, steroids, furosemide, or bisphosphonates. Because of susceptibility to infections

  6. Effects of hypoxia on human cancer cell line chemosensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Environment inside even a small tumor is characterized by total (anoxia) or partial oxygen deprivation, (hypoxia). It has been shown that radiotherapy and some conventional chemotherapies may be less effective in hypoxia, and therefore it is important to investigate how different drugs act in different microenvironments. In this study we perform a large screening of the effects of 19 clinically used or experimental chemotherapeutic drugs on five different cell lines in conditions of normoxia, hypoxia and anoxia. Methods A panel of 19 commercially available drugs: 5-fluorouracil, acriflavine, bortezomib, cisplatin, digitoxin, digoxin, docetaxel, doxorubicin, etoposide, gemcitabine, irinotecan, melphalan, mitomycin c, rapamycin, sorafenib, thalidomide, tirapazamine, topotecan and vincristine were tested for cytotoxic activity on the cancer cell lines A2780 (ovarian), ACHN (renal), MCF-7 (breast), H69 (SCLC) and U-937 (lymphoma). Parallel aliquots of the cells were grown at different oxygen pressures and after 72 hours of drug exposure viability was measured with the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA). Results Sorafenib, irinotecan and docetaxel were in general more effective in an oxygenated environment, while cisplatin, mitomycin c and tirapazamine were more effective in a low oxygen environment. Surprisingly, hypoxia in H69 and MCF-7 cells mostly rendered higher drug sensitivity. In contrast ACHN appeared more sensitive to hypoxia, giving slower proliferating cells, and consequently, was more resistant to most drugs. Conclusions A panel of standard cytotoxic agents was tested against five different human cancer cell lines cultivated at normoxic, hypoxic and anoxic conditions. Results show that impaired chemosensitivity is not universal, in contrast different cell lines behave different and some drugs appear even less effective in normoxia than hypoxia. PMID:23829203

  7. Donor-derived metastatic melanoma in a liver transplant recipient established by DNA fingerprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Muhammad; Eason, James D; Das, Kanak; Sylvestre, Pamela B; Dean, Amanda G; Vanatta, Jason M

    2013-10-01

    Metastatic melanoma is a donor-derived malignancy that has rarely been reported in liver allograft recipients. We present a case of a transmitted donor-derived melanoma to a liver allograft recipient in whom the diagnosis was established by polymerase chain reaction-based DNA fingerprinting. A 52-year-old African-American man underwent a successful orthotropic liver transplant for alcohol-induced cirrhosis. One year after the orthotropic liver transplant, he presented at our institution with diffuse abdominal pain, and a computed tomography scan of the abdomen and chest showed innumerable masses diffusely involving the liver and multiple subcutaneous nodules in the abdominal and chest wall. A liver biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic melanoma. The origin of melanoma was traced to the donor by DNA fingerprinting of the native liver, the donor liver, and the donor gallbladder. Chemotherapy was initiated with temozolomide (75 mg/m² daily) and thalidomide (50 mg daily), to which he responded within 8 weeks with radiologic improvement in metastatic lesions. Tacrolimus was switched to sirolimus because of renal insufficiency as well as reported effectiveness against melanoma. Our patient survived for 9 months after the diagnosis of metastatic melanoma. He ultimately died of brain metastases. Donor-derived metastatic melanoma is a rare cancer with the highest transmission and mortality rates, which requires better recognition. Prompt diagnosis of donor-derived melanoma is critical and can be achieved reliably with polymerase chain reaction-based DNA analysis. Management options after diagnosis include de-escalation of immunosuppression, with or without urgent organ removal or retransplant. The roles of chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and radiotherapy require further study.

  8. Specific features of medicines safety and pharmacovigilance in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Shanthi N.; Olsson, Sten; Dodoo, Alexander; Bencheikh, Rachida Soulayami

    2012-01-01

    The thalidomide tragedy in the late 1950s and early 1960s served as a wakeup call and raised questions about the safety of medicinal products. The developed countries rose to the challenge putting in place systems to ensure the safety of medicines. However, this was not the case for low-resource settings because of prevailing factors inherent in them. This paper reviews some of these features and the current status of pharmacovigilance in Africa. The health systems in most of the 54 countries of Africa are essentially weak, lacking in basic infrastructure, personnel, equipment and facilities. The recent mass deployment of medicines to address diseases of public health significance in Africa poses additional challenges to the health system with notable safety concerns. Other safety issues of note include substandard and counterfeit medicines, medication errors and quality of medicinal products. The first national pharmacovigilance centres established in Africa with membership of the World Health Organization (WHO) international drug monitoring programme were in Morocco and South Africa in 1992. Of the 104 full member countries in the programme, there are now 24 African countries with a further nine countries as associate members. The pharmacovigilance systems operational in African countries are based essentially on spontaneous reporting facilitated by the introduction of the new tool Vigiflow. The individual case safety reports committed to the WHO global database (Vigibase) attest to the growth of pharmacovigilance in Africa with the number of reports rising from 2695 in 2000 to over 25,000 in 2010. There is need to engage the various identified challenges of the weak pharmacovigilance systems in the African setting and to focus efforts on how to provide resources, infrastructure and expertise. Raising the level of awareness among healthcare providers, developing training curricula for healthcare professionals, provisions for paediatric and geriatric

  9. Clinical utility of dronabinol in the treatment of weight loss associated with HIV and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badowski ME

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Melissa E Badowski,1 Sarah E Perez2 1Department of Pharmacy Practice, Section of Infectious Diseases Pharmacotherapy, College of Pharmacy, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 2Infectious Diseases Clinic, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: Since the beginning of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, weight loss has been a common complaint for patients. The use of various definitions defining HIV wasting syndrome has made it difficult to determine its actual prevalence. Despite the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, it is estimated that the prevalence of HIV wasting syndrome is between 14% and 38%. HIV wasting syndrome may stem from conditions affecting chewing, swallowing, or gastrointestinal motility, neurologic disease affecting food intake or the perception of hunger or ability to eat, psychiatric illness, food insecurity generated from psychosocial or economic concerns, or anorexia due to medications, malabsorption, infections, or tumors. Treatment of HIV wasting syndrome may be managed with appetite stimulants (megestrol acetate or dronabinol, anabolic agents (testosterone, testosterone analogs, or recombinant human growth hormone, or, rarely, cytokine production modulators (thalidomide. The goal of this review is to provide an in-depth evaluation based on existing clinical trials on the clinical utility of dronabinol in the treatment of weight loss associated with HIV/AIDS. Although total body weight gain varies with dronabinol use (–2.0 to 3.2 kg, dronabinol is a well-tolerated option to promote appetite stimulation. Further studies are needed with standardized definitions of HIV-associated weight loss and clinical outcomes, robust sample sizes, safety and efficacy data on chronic use of dronabinol beyond 52 weeks, and associated virologic and immunologic outcomes. Keywords: dronabinol, weight loss, HIV/AIDS, HIV wasting syndrome, cachexia

  10. Generating Gene Ontology-Disease Inferences to Explore Mechanisms of Human Disease at the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan Peter Davis

    Full Text Available Strategies for discovering common molecular events among disparate diseases hold promise for improving understanding of disease etiology and expanding treatment options. One technique is to leverage curated datasets found in the public domain. The Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD; http://ctdbase.org/ manually curates chemical-gene, chemical-disease, and gene-disease interactions from the scientific literature. The use of official gene symbols in CTD interactions enables this information to be combined with the Gene Ontology (GO file from NCBI Gene. By integrating these GO-gene annotations with CTD's gene-disease dataset, we produce 753,000 inferences between 15,700 GO terms and 4,200 diseases, providing opportunities to explore presumptive molecular underpinnings of diseases and identify biological similarities. Through a variety of applications, we demonstrate the utility of this novel resource. As a proof-of-concept, we first analyze known repositioned drugs (e.g., raloxifene and sildenafil and see that their target diseases have a greater degree of similarity when comparing GO terms vs. genes. Next, a computational analysis predicts seemingly non-intuitive diseases (e.g., stomach ulcers and atherosclerosis as being similar to bipolar disorder, and these are validated in the literature as reported co-diseases. Additionally, we leverage other CTD content to develop testable hypotheses about thalidomide-gene networks to treat seemingly disparate diseases. Finally, we illustrate how CTD tools can rank a series of drugs as potential candidates for repositioning against B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and predict cisplatin and the small molecule inhibitor JQ1 as lead compounds. The CTD dataset is freely available for users to navigate pathologies within the context of extensive biological processes, molecular functions, and cellular components conferred by GO. This inference set should aid researchers, bioinformaticists, and

  11. Inhibition of Inflammation Mediated Through the Tumor Necrosis Factor α Biochemical Pathway Can Lead to Favorable Outcomes in Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Daniah; Laskowski, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) inhibitors have long been used as disease-modifying agents in immune disorders. Recently, research has shown a role of chronic neuroinflammation in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease, and interest has been generated in the use of anti-TNF agents and TNF-modulating agents for prevention and treatment. This article extensively reviewed literature on animal studies testing these agents. The results showed a role for direct and indirect TNF-α inhibition through agents such as thalidomide, 3,6-dithiothalidomide, etanercept, infliximab, exendin-4, sodium hydrosulfide, minocycline, imipramine, and atorvastatin. Studies were performed on mice, rats, and monkeys, with induction of neurodegenerative physiology either through the use of chemical agents or through the use of transgenic animals. Most of these agents showed an improvement in cognitive function as tested with the Morris water maze, and immunohistochemical and histopathological staining studies consistently showed better outcomes with these agents. Brains of treated animals showed significant reduction in pro-inflammatory TNF-α and reduced the burden of neurofibrillary tangles, amyloid precursor protein, and β-amyloid plaques. Also, recruitment of microglial cells in the central nervous system was significantly reduced through these drugs. These studies provide a clearer mechanistic understanding of the role of TNF-α modulation in Alzheimer disease. All studies in this review explored the use of these drugs as prophylactic agents to prevent Alzheimer disease through immune modulation of the TNF inflammatory pathway, and their success highlights the need for further research of these drugs as therapeutic agents.

  12. Long-Term Efficacy of Maintenance Therapy for Multiple Myeloma: A Quantitative Synthesis of 22 Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-Li Li

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to quantitatively synthesize data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs concerning maintenance for multiple myeloma (MM. We searched electronic literature databases and conference proceedings to identify relevant RCTs. We selected eligible RCTs using predefined selection criteria. We conducted meta-analysis comparing maintenance containing new agents and conventional maintenance, and subgroup analysis by transplantation status and mainstay agent as well. We performed trial sequential analysis (TSA to determine adequacy of sample size for overall and subgroup meta-analyses. We performed network meta-analysis (NMA to compare and rank included regimens. A total of 22 RCTs involving 9,968 MM patients and 15 regimens were included, the overall quality of which was adequate. Significant heterogeneity was detected for progression-free survival (PFS but not overall survival (OS. Meta-analyses showed that maintenance containing new agents significantly improved PFS but not OS [PFS: Hazard Ratio (HR = 0.59, 95% Confidence Interval (CI = 0.54 to 0.64; OS: HR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.87 to 1.00], compared with controls. Subgroup analyses revealed lenalidomide (Len-based therapies better than thalidomide-based ones (HR = 0.50 and 0.66, respectively; P = 0.001. NMA revealed that most of the maintenance regimens containing new agents were significantly better than simple observation in terms of PFS but not OS. Len single agent was the most effective, considering PFS and OS both. We concluded that conventional maintenance has very limited effect. Maintenance containing new agents is highly effective in improving PFS, but has very limited effect on OS. Maintenance with Len may have the largest survival benefits. Emerging strategies may further change the landscape of maintenance of MM.

  13. Prenatal exposure to environmental factors and congenital limb defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Peter G; Clark, Karen L; Tuan, Rocky S

    2016-09-01

    Limb congenital defects afflict approximately 0.6:1000 live births. In addition to genetic factors, prenatal exposure to drugs and environmental toxicants, represents a major contributing factor to limb defects. Examples of well-recognized limb teratogenic agents include thalidomide, warfarin, valproic acid, misoprostol, and phenytoin. While the mechanism by which these agents cause dymorphogenesis is increasingly clear, prediction of the limb teratogenicity of many thousands of as yet uncharacterized environmental factors (pollutants) remains inexact. This is limited by the insufficiencies of currently available models. Specifically, in vivo approaches using guideline animal models have inherently deficient predictive power due to genomic and anatomic differences that complicate mechanistic comparisons. On the other hand, in vitro two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures, while accessible for cellular and molecular experimentation, do not reflect the three-dimensional (3D) morphogenetic events in vivo nor systemic influences. More robust and accessible models based on human cells that accurately replicate specific processes of embryonic limb development are needed to enhance limb teratogenesis prediction and to permit mechanistic analysis of the adverse outcome pathways. Recent advances in elucidating mechanisms of normal development will aid in the development of process-specific 3D cell cultures within specialized bioreactors to support multicellular microtissues or organoid constructs that will lead to increased understanding of cell functions, cell-to-cell signaling, pathway networks, and mechanisms of toxicity. The promise is prompting researchers to look to such 3D microphysiological systems to help sort out complex and often subtle interactions relevant to developmental malformations that would not be evident by standard 2D cell culture testing. Birth Defects Research (Part C) 108:243-273, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Drug repurposing: translational pharmacology, chemistry, computers and the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Naiem T; Byers, Stephen W; Dakshanamurthy, Sivanesan

    2013-01-01

    The process of discovering a pharmacological compound that elicits a desired clinical effect with minimal side effects is a challenge. Prior to the advent of high-performance computing and large-scale screening technologies, drug discovery was largely a serendipitous endeavor, as in the case of thalidomide for erythema nodosum leprosum or cancer drugs in general derived from flora located in far-reaching geographic locations. More recently, de novo drug discovery has become a more rationalized process where drug-target-effect hypotheses are formulated on the basis of already known compounds/protein targets and their structures. Although this approach is hypothesis-driven, the actual success has been very low, contributing to the soaring costs of research and development as well as the diminished pharmaceutical pipeline in the United States. In this review, we discuss the evolution in computational pharmacology as the next generation of successful drug discovery and implementation in the clinic where high-performance computing (HPC) is used to generate and validate drug-target-effect hypotheses completely in silico. The use of HPC would decrease development time and errors while increasing productivity prior to in vitro, animal and human testing. We highlight approaches in chemoinformatics, bioinformatics as well as network biopharmacology to illustrate potential avenues from which to design clinically efficacious drugs. We further discuss the implications of combining these approaches into an integrative methodology for high-accuracy computational predictions within the context of drug repositioning for the efficient streamlining of currently approved drugs back into clinical trials for possible new indications.

  15. A novel phthalimide derivative, TC11, has preclinical effects on high-risk myeloma cells and osteoclasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiko Matsushita

    Full Text Available Despite the recent advances in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM, MM patients with high-risk cytogenetic changes such as t(4;14 translocation or deletion of chromosome 17 still have extremely poor prognoses. With the goal of helping these high-risk MM patients, we previously developed a novel phthalimide derivative, TC11. Here we report the further characterization of TC11 including anti-myeloma effects in vitro and in vivo, a pharmacokinetic study in mice, and anti-osteoclastogenic activity. Intraperitoneal injections of TC11 significantly delayed the growth of subcutaneous tumors in human myeloma-bearing SCID mice. Immunohistochemical analyses showed that TC11 induced apoptosis of MM cells in vivo. In the pharmacokinetic analyses, the Cmax was 2.1 μM at 1 h after the injection of TC11, with 1.2 h as the half-life. TC11 significantly inhibited the differentiation and function of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP-positive multinucleated osteoclasts in mouse osteoclast cultures using M-CSF and RANKL. We also revealed that TC11 induced the apoptosis of myeloma cells accompanied by α-tubulin fragmentation. In addition, TC11 and lenalidomide, another phthalimide derivative, directly bound to nucleophosmin 1 (NPM1, whose role in MM is unknown. Thus, through multiple molecular interactions, TC11 is a potentially effective drug for high-risk MM patients with bone lesions. The present results suggest the possibility of the further development of novel thalidomide derivatives by drug designing.

  16. Influence of Echinacea purpurea intake during pregnancy on fetal growth and tissue angiogenic activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Sommer

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of angiogenesis and control of blood vessels sprouting are fundamental to human health, as they play key roles in many physiological and pathological conditions. Intake of different pharmaceuticals with antiangiogenic activity by pregnant women may lead to severe developmental disturbances as it was described in case of thalidomide. It may also cause immunomodulatory effects as it was shown for antibiotics, theobromine, caffeic acid or catechins on the pregnant mice model. At present, Echinacea purpurea-based phytoceuticals are among the most popular herbals in the marketplace. Many compounds of Echinacea extracts (polysaccharides, alkamides, polyphenols, glycoproteins exert immunomodulatory, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activity. Echinacea is one of the most powerful and effective remedies against many kinds of bacterial and viral infections. In previous studies we shown significant inhibitory effect of the Echinacea purpurea based remedy on tumour angiogenic activity using cutaneous angiogenesis test, and an inhibitory effect on L-1 sarcoma growth was observed . The aim of the present study was to establish whether pharmaceuticals containing alcoholic extracts of Echinacea purpurea given to pregnant mice influence angiogenic activity and tissue VEGF and bFGF production of their fetuses. We showed that angiogenic activity of tissue homogenates was increased in Esberitox group and diminished in case of Immunal forte as compared to standard diet group. In case of Echinapur group we did not find significant differences in angiogenic activity. VEGF and bFGF concentration were lower in all groups compared to the control. In the case of Echinapur and Esberitox number of fetuses in one litter were slightly lower as compared to control group, but the difference is on the border of statistical significance. In conclusion, there is some possibility that pharmaceuticals containing Echinacea purpurea might influence fetal development in

  17. Final analysis of survival outcomes in the phase 3 FIRST trial of up-front treatment for multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facon, Thierry; Dimopoulos, Meletios A; Dispenzieri, Angela; Catalano, John V; Belch, Andrew; Cavo, Michele; Pinto, Antonello; Weisel, Katja; Ludwig, Heinz; Bahlis, Nizar J; Banos, Anne; Tiab, Mourad; Delforge, Michel; Cavenagh, Jamie D; Geraldes, Catarina; Lee, Je-Jung; Chen, Christine; Oriol, Albert; De La Rubia, Javier; White, Darrell; Binder, Daniel; Lu, Jin; Anderson, Kenneth C; Moreau, Philippe; Attal, Michel; Perrot, Aurore; Arnulf, Bertrand; Qiu, Lugui; Roussel, Murielle; Boyle, Eileen; Manier, Salomon; Mohty, Mohamad; Avet-Loiseau, Herve; Leleu, Xavier; Ervin-Haynes, Annette; Chen, Guang; Houck, Vanessa; Benboubker, Lotfi; Hulin, Cyrille

    2018-01-18

    This FIRST trial final analysis examined survival outcomes in patients with transplant-ineligible newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) treated with lenalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone until disease progression (Rd continuous), Rd for 72 weeks (18 cycles; Rd18), or melphalan, prednisone, and thalidomide (MPT; 72 weeks). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS; primary comparison: Rd continuous vs MPT). Overall survival (OS) was a key secondary endpoint (final analysis prespecified ≥60 months' follow-up). Patients were randomized to Rd continuous (n = 535), Rd18 (n = 541), or MPT (n = 547). At a median follow-up of 67 months, PFS was significantly longer with Rd continuous vs MPT (hazard ratio [HR], 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59-0.79; P < .00001) and was similarly extended vs Rd18. Median OS was 10 months longer with Rd continuous vs MPT (59.1 vs 49.1 months; HR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.67-0.92; P = .0023), and similar with Rd18 (62.3 months). In patients achieving complete or very good partial responses, Rd continuous had an ≈30-month longer median time to next treatment vs Rd18 (69.5 vs 39.9 months). Over half of all patients who received second-line treatment were given a bortezomib-based therapy. Second-line outcomes were improved in patients receiving bortezomib after Rd continuous and Rd18 vs after MPT. No new safety concerns, including risk for secondary malignancies, were observed. Treatment with Rd continuous significantly improved survival outcomes vs MPT, supporting Rd continuous as a standard of care for patients with transplant-ineligible NDMM. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00689936 and EudraCT as 2007-004823-39. © 2018 by The American Society of Hematology.

  18. Impact of prior treatment and depth of response on survival in MM-003, a randomized phase 3 study comparing pomalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone versus high-dose dexamethasone in relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Miguel, Jesus F.; Weisel, Katja C.; Song, Kevin W.; Delforge, Michel; Karlin, Lionel; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Moreau, Philippe; Banos, Anne; Oriol, Albert; Garderet, Laurent; Cavo, Michele; Ivanova, Valentina; Alegre, Adrian; Martinez-Lopez, Joaquin; Chen, Christine; Renner, Christoph; Bahlis, Nizar Jacques; Yu, Xin; Teasdale, Terri; Sternas, Lars; Jacques, Christian; Zaki, Mohamed H.; Dimopoulos, Meletios A.

    2015-01-01

    Pomalidomide is a distinct oral IMiD® immunomodulatory agent with direct antimyeloma, stromal-support inhibitory, and immunomodulatory effects. The pivotal, multicenter, open-label, randomized phase 3 trial MM-003 compared pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone vs high-dose dexamethasone in 455 patients with refractory or relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma after failure of bortezomib and lenalidomide treatment. Initial results demonstrated significantly longer progression-free survival and overall survival with an acceptable tolerability profile for pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone vs high-dose dexamethasone. This secondary analysis describes patient outcomes by treatment history and depth of response. Pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone significantly prolonged progression-free survival and favored overall survival vs high-dose dexamethasone for all subgroups analyzed, regardless of prior treatments or refractory status. Both univariate and multivariate analyses showed that no variable relating to either the number (≤ or > 3) or type of prior treatment was a significant predictor of progression-free survival or overall survival. No cross-resistance with prior lenalidomide or thalidomide treatment was observed. Patients achieving a minimal response or better to pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone treatment experienced a survival benefit, which was even higher in those achieving at least a partial response (17.2 and 19.9 months, respectively, as compared with 7.5 months for patients with less than minimal response). These data suggest that pomalidomide + low-dose dexamethasone should be considered a standard of care in patients with refractory or relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma regardless of prior treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01311687; EudraCT: 2010-019820-30. PMID:26160879

  19. Development and validation of ultra-performance liquid chromatographic method with tandem mass spectrometry for determination of lenalidomide in rabbit and human plasma

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    Iqbal Muzaffar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lenalidomide (LND is a potent novel thalidomide analog which demonstrated remarkable clinical activity in treatment of multiple myeloma disease via a multiple-pathways mechanism. Validated sensitive method with high throughput is required for the determination of lenalidomide for pharmacokinetics and toxicokinetic studies. Ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS is a preeminent analytical tool for rapid biomedical analysis. Results A simple, highly sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of LND in rabbit and human plasma. After a simple protein precipitation using methanol, LND and carbamazepine (IS were separated on Acquity UPLC BEH™ C18 column (50 × 2.1 mm, i.d. 1.7 μm, Waters, USA using a mobile phase consisted of acetonitrile:water:formic acid (65:35:0.1%, v/v/v pumped at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. LND and IS were eluted at 0.71 and 1.92 min, respectively. The mass spectrometric determination was carried out using an electrospray interface operated in the positive mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM mode. The precursor to product ion transitions of m/z 260.1 > 149.0 and m/z 237.0 > 179.0 were used to quantify LND and IS, respectively. The method was linear in the concentration range of 0.23–1000 ng/mL with a limit of quantitation of 0.23 ng/mL. All the validation parameters were in the ranges acceptable by the guidelines of analytical method validation. Conclusion The proposed UPLC-MS/MS method is simple, rapid and highly sensitive, and hence it could be reliable for pharmacokinetic and toxicokinetic study in both animals and humans.

  20. A missense mutation in the CRBN gene that segregates with intellectual disability and self-mutilating behaviour in a consanguineous Saudi family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheereen, Atia; Alaamery, Manal; Bawazeer, Shahad; Al Yafee, Yusra; Massadeh, Salam; Eyaid, Wafaa

    2017-04-01

    Autosomal-recessive non-syndromic intellectual disability (ARNS-ID) is an aetiologically heterogeneous disorder. Although little is known about the function of human cereblon (CRBN), its relationship to mild cognitive deficits suggests that it is involved in the basic processes of human memory and learning. We aim to identify the genetic cause of intellectual disability and self-mutilation in a consanguineous Saudi family with five affected members. Clinical whole-exome sequencing was performed on the proband patient, and Sanger sequencing was done to validate and confirm segregation in other family members. A missense variant (c. 1171T>C) in the CRBN gene was identified in five individuals with severe intellectual disability (ID) in a consanguineous Saudi family. The homozygous variant was co-segregating in the family with the phenotype of severe ID, seizures and self-mutilating behaviour. The missense mutation (p.C391R) reported here results in the replacement of a conserved cysteine residue by an arginine in the CULT (cereblon domain of unknown activity, binding cellular ligands and thalidomide) domain of CRBN, which contains a zinc-binding site. These findings thus contribute to a growing list of ID disorders caused by CRBN mutations, broaden the spectrum of phenotypes attributable to ARNS-ID and provide new insight into genotype-phenotype correlations between CRBN mutations and the aetiology of ARNS-ID. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Effective Drug Delivery in Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma: A Theoretical Model to Identify Potential Candidates

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    Fatma E. El-Khouly

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite decades of clinical trials for diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG, patient survival does not exceed 10% at two years post-diagnosis. Lack of benefit from systemic chemotherapy may be attributed to an intact bloodbrain barrier (BBB. We aim to develop a theoretical model including relevant physicochemical properties in order to review whether applied chemotherapeutics are suitable for passive diffusion through an intact BBB or whether local administration via convection-enhanced delivery (CED may increase their therapeutic potential. Physicochemical properties (lipophilicity, molecular weight, and charge in physiological environment of anticancer drugs historically and currently administered to DIPG patients, that affect passive diffusion over the BBB, were included in the model. Subsequently, the likelihood of BBB passage of these drugs was ascertained, as well as their potential for intratumoral administration via CED. As only non-molecularly charged, lipophilic, and relatively small sized drugs are likely to passively diffuse through the BBB, out of 51 drugs modeled, only 8 (15%—carmustine, lomustine, erlotinib, vismodegib, lenalomide, thalidomide, vorinostat, and mebendazole—are theoretically qualified for systemic administration in DIPG. Local administration via CED might create more therapeutic options, excluding only positively charged drugs and drugs that are either prodrugs and/or only available as oral formulation. A wide variety of drugs have been administered systemically to DIPG patients. Our model shows that only few are likely to penetrate the BBB via passive diffusion, which may partly explain the lack of efficacy. Drug distribution via CED is less dependent on physicochemical properties and may increase the therapeutic options for DIPG.

  2. A computational model predicting disruption of blood vessel development.

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    Nicole Kleinstreuer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Vascular development is a complex process regulated by dynamic biological networks that vary in topology and state across different tissues and developmental stages. Signals regulating de novo blood vessel formation (vasculogenesis and remodeling (angiogenesis come from a variety of biological pathways linked to endothelial cell (EC behavior, extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling and the local generation of chemokines and growth factors. Simulating these interactions at a systems level requires sufficient biological detail about the relevant molecular pathways and associated cellular behaviors, and tractable computational models that offset mathematical and biological complexity. Here, we describe a novel multicellular agent-based model of vasculogenesis using the CompuCell3D (http://www.compucell3d.org/ modeling environment supplemented with semi-automatic knowledgebase creation. The model incorporates vascular endothelial growth factor signals, pro- and anti-angiogenic inflammatory chemokine signals, and the plasminogen activating system of enzymes and proteases linked to ECM interactions, to simulate nascent EC organization, growth and remodeling. The model was shown to recapitulate stereotypical capillary plexus formation and structural emergence of non-coded cellular behaviors, such as a heterologous bridging phenomenon linking endothelial tip cells together during formation of polygonal endothelial cords. Molecular targets in the computational model were mapped to signatures of vascular disruption derived from in vitro chemical profiling using the EPA's ToxCast high-throughput screening (HTS dataset. Simulating the HTS data with the cell-agent based model of vascular development predicted adverse effects of a reference anti-angiogenic thalidomide analog, 5HPP-33, on in vitro angiogenesis with respect to both concentration-response and morphological consequences. These findings support the utility of cell agent-based models for simulating a

  3. Whole brain radiotherapy with radiosensitizer for brain metastases

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    Viani Gustavo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose To study the efficacy of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT with radiosensitizer in comparison with WBRT alone for patients with brain metastases in terms of overall survival, disease progression, response to treatment and adverse effects of treatment. Methods A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCT was performed in order to compare WBRT with radiosensitizer for brain metastases and WBRT alone. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and Cochrane Library databases, in addition to Trial registers, bibliographic databases, and recent issues of relevant journals were researched. Significant reports were reviewed by two reviewers independently. Results A total of 8 RCTs, yielding 2317 patients were analyzed. Pooled results from this 8 RCTs of WBRT with radiosensitizer have not shown a meaningful improvement on overall survival compared to WBRT alone OR = 1.03 (95% CI0.84–1.25, p = 0.77. Also, there was no difference in local brain tumor response OR = 0.8(95% CI 0.5 – 1.03 and brain tumor progression (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 0.9 – 1.3 when the two arms were compared. Conclusion Our data show that WBRT with the following radiosentizers (ionidamine, metronidazole, misonodazole, motexafin gadolinium, BUdr, efaproxiral, thalidomide, have not improved significatively the overall survival, local control and tumor response compared to WBRT alone for brain metastases. However, 2 of them, motexafin- gadolinium and efaproxiral have been shown in recent publications (lung and breast to have positive action in lung and breast carcinoma brain metastases in association with WBRT.

  4. Management of ß-thalassemia – Consensus and controversies!

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    Mamta V. Manglani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The mainstay of treatment of ß-Thalassemia major includes life-long regular packed red cell transfusions and iron chelation. With advances in understanding the molecular biology and its implications in the patients, newer modalities are now being explored to offer a better quality of life to transfusion dependent thalassemic patients. Improved safety of transfusions, newer chelator drugs and combination of chelators have improved outcomes in these patients. Amlodipine along with chelators may be a future option for preventing cardiac iron overload related complications. Drugs which improve HbF levels and thus ameliorate anemia such as hydroxyurea, butyrates azacytidine etc. have also been explored with little relief to transfusion dependent patients. HSCT, which is the only curative treatment available at present, has its own limitations as sibling donors may not be available to many. However, there has been extensive work done on improving outcomes with MUD and Haplo-identical HSCT in the recent times. Gene therapy using lentiviral vectors is also offering great hope to these children. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSC is a promising advance in the treatment of thalassemia. Several newer molecules targeting different pathophysiologic aspects are being explored and have met with good success. These include luspatercept, sotatercept, macrophage inhibition, JAK2 inhibition using ruxolitinib etc. Controversies regarding use of wheat grass and ESAs are relatively less worrisome. But use of thalidomide should be done with great caution. Despite its success reported in anecdotal reports, in the absence of adequate data with larger trials, its role in routine management of thalassemia syndromes remains to be ascertained.

  5. Application of stem cell derived neuronal cells to evaluate neurotoxic chemotherapy

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    Claudia Wing

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs and differentiation to cells composing major organs has opened up the possibility for a new model system to study adverse toxicities associated with chemotherapy. Therefore, we used human iPSC-derived neurons to study peripheral neuropathy, one of the most common adverse effects of chemotherapy and cause for dose reduction. To determine the utility of these neurons in investigating the effects of neurotoxic chemotherapy, we measured morphological differences in neurite outgrowth, cell viability as determined by ATP levels and apoptosis through measures of caspase 3/7 activation following treatment with clinically relevant concentrations of platinating agents (cisplatin, oxaliplatin and carboplatin, taxanes (paclitaxel, docetaxel and nab-paclitaxel, a targeted proteasome inhibitor (bortezomib, an antiangiogenic compound (thalidomide, and 5-fluorouracil, a chemotherapeutic that does not cause neuropathy. We demonstrate differential sensitivity of neurons to mechanistically distinct classes of chemotherapeutics. We also show a dose-dependent reduction of electrical activity as measured by mean firing rate of the neurons following treatment with paclitaxel. We compared neurite outgrowth and cell viability of iPSC-derived cortical (iCell® Neurons and peripheral (Peri.4U neurons to cisplatin, paclitaxel and vincristine. Goshajinkigan, a Japanese herbal neuroprotectant medicine, was protective against paclitaxel-induced neurotoxicity but not oxaliplatin as measured by morphological phenotypes. Thus, we have demonstrated the utility of human iPSC-derived neurons as a useful model to distinguish drug class differences and for studies of a potential neuroprotectant for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.

  6. Letter from the Editors: our first year

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    André Luís Gemal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We end 2013 having achieved some of our goals: we launched the four booklets scheduled in our Sanitary Surveillance in Debate and were awarded by Capes with the inclusion of the journal in the interdisciplinary area of the Qualis system. Among other outreach initiatives, these have led to an increasing number of hits to our website and more importantly a significant increase in the number of manuscripts submitted for publication. Thus, in principle, the future issues for 2014 are guaranteed, which allows us to envision the next step: starting the process of indexing in various databases! We are thus overcoming the difficult barrier of starting a new publication and advancing it within the current quality parameters. This issue on nanotechnology and regulation, which ends 2013, paves the way for one of the magazine’s proposals: the publishing of thematic issues which leads to a necessary debate about new technologies and innovations arising from them and about the transformation of this knowledge into a commodity. We seek to provide information that supplements our readers’ knowledge regarding the impact of new technologies on the production sector. We also seek to provide information to the users of this technology that will help them assess, understand, discuss, and defend the potential risks of this technology to the environment, the health of the workers directly involved with the production, and the population in general. To this end, gaining the attention of state authorities, who may have historical issues with safety as a result of previous experiences with DDT, thalidomide, non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, and genetically modified organisms, is important. Furthermore, these considera-tions contribute to the societal positions of these globally distributed products — nanotechnology or similar products — available to everyone through either commercialization or consumption.

  7. Review of pharmacological interactions of oral anticancer drugs provided at pharmacy department

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    E. Sánchez Gómez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: To identify the pharmacologic interactions of oral anti-cancer drugs provided at an outpatient clinic. Material and methods: Anti-cancer drugs included in the Phamacotherapeutic Guideline of the Hospital were identified. A literature search was carried out on the pharmacologic interactions in MEDLINE® and EMBASE® (with the filer language English or Spanish, and the descriptors: “name of the anti-cancer drug” AND (“drug interactions” OR “pharmacokinetic”, Up-to-date®, MICROMEDEX® and the drug information sheet for the EMA and the FDA. Information was also gathered from the abstract presented to European and Spanish scientific meetings for the last 4 years. When an interaction was analyzed and had clinical relevance, the best pharmacotherapeutic interaction-free alternative was sought. Results: Twenty-three drugs were identified, of which Chlorambucil, Fludarabine, Lenalidomide, Melphalan, and Thalidomide were the active compounds with the lowest likelihood of producing a pharmacologic interaction. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (particularly Erlotinib, Imatinib, Lapatinib, and Pazopanib are the drugs with highest number of pharmacologic interactions described, many of them with severe clinical consequences, with increases and decreases of the plasma levels of anti-cancer drugs. The active compounds identified that may have pharmacologic interactions with anticancer drugs were mainly: Allopurinol, Amiodarone, Carbamazepine, Dabigatran, Digoxin, Spironolactone, Phenytoin, Itraconazol, Repaglinide, Silodosin, Tamoxifen, Verapamil, and Warfarin. Pharmacologic interactions through the cytochrome P450 1A2, 2D6, 2C8, 2C9, 3A4 were the most important for tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Other non-pharmacologic compounds, with an important potential of producing relevant pharmacologic interaction were immunomodulators (Echinacea extracts and Hypericum perforatum. Conclusions: Oral anticancer drugs have numerous pharmacologic

  8. Preclinical studies in support of defibrotide for the treatment of multiple myeloma and other neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsiades, Constantine S; Rouleau, Cecile; Echart, Cinara; Menon, Krishna; Teicher, Beverly; Distaso, Maria; Palumbo, Antonio; Boccadoro, Mario; Anderson, Kenneth C; Iacobelli, Massimo; Richardson, Paul G

    2009-02-15

    Defibrotide, an orally bioavailable polydisperse oligonucleotide, has promising activity in hepatic veno-occlusive disease, a stem cell transplantation-related toxicity characterized by microangiopathy. The antithrombotic properties of defibrotide and its minimal hemorrhagic risk could serve for treatment of cancer-associated thrombotic complications. Given its cytoprotective effect on endothelium, we investigated whether defibrotide protects tumor cells from cytotoxic antitumor agents. Further, given its antiadhesive properties, we evaluated whether defibrotide modulates the protection conferred to multiple myeloma cells by bone marrow stromal cells. Defibrotide lacks significant single-agent in vitro cytotoxicity on multiple myeloma or solid tumor cells and does not attenuate their in vitro response to dexamethasone, bortezomib, immunomodulatory thalidomide derivatives, and conventional chemotherapeutics, including melphalan and cyclophosphamide. Importantly, defibrotide enhances in vivo chemosensitivity of multiple myeloma and mammary carcinoma xenografts in animal models. In cocultures of multiple myeloma cells with bone marrow stromal cells in vitro, defibrotide enhances the multiple myeloma cell sensitivity to melphalan and dexamethasone, and decreases multiple myeloma-bone marrow stromal cell adhesion and its sequelae, including nuclear factor-kappaB activation in multiple myeloma and bone marrow stromal cells, and associated cytokine production. Moreover, defibrotide inhibits expression and/or function of key mediators of multiple myeloma interaction with bone marrow stromal cell and endothelium, including heparanase, angiogenic cytokines, and adhesion molecules. Defibrotide's in vivo chemosensitizing properties and lack of direct in vitro activity against tumor cells suggest that it favorably modulates antitumor interactions between bone marrow stromal cells and endothelia in the tumor microenvironment. These data support clinical studies of defibrotide in

  9. Caspase-1 from Human Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells Can Promote T Cell-Independent Tumor Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qi; Fu, Juan; Korrer, Michael; Gorbounov, Mikhail; Murray, Peter J; Pardoll, Drew; Masica, David L; Kim, Young J

    2018-05-01

    Immunosuppressive myeloid-derived suppressive cells (MDSCs) are characterized by their phenotypic and functional heterogeneity. To better define their T cell-independent functions within the tumor, sorted monocytic CD14 + CD11b + HLA-DR low/- MDSCs (mMDSC) from squamous cell carcinoma patients showed upregulated caspase-1 activity, which was associated with increased IL1β and IL18 expression. In vitro studies demonstrated that mMDSCs promoted caspase-1-dependent proliferation of multiple squamous carcinoma cell lines in both human and murine systems. In vivo , growth rates of B16, MOC1, and Panc02 were significantly blunted in chimeric mice adoptively transferred with caspase-1 null bone marrow cells under T cell-depleted conditions. Adoptive transfer of wild-type Gr-1 + CD11b + MDSCs from tumor-bearing mice reversed this antitumor response, whereas caspase-1 inhibiting thalidomide-treated MDSCs phenocopied the antitumor response found in caspase-1 null mice. We further hypothesized that MDSC caspase-1 activity could promote tumor-intrinsic MyD88-dependent carcinogenesis. In mice with wild-type caspase-1, MyD88-silenced tumors displayed reduced growth rate, but in chimeric mice with caspase-1 null bone marrow cells, MyD88-silenced tumors did not display differential tumor growth rate. When we queried the TCGA database, we found that caspase-1 expression is correlated with overall survival in squamous cell carcinoma patients. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that caspase-1 in MDSCs is a direct T cell-independent mediator of tumor proliferation. Cancer Immunol Res; 6(5); 566-77. ©2018 AACR . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and pregnancy: potential adverse events and pregnancy outcomes

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    Bari O

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Omar Bari,1 Philip R Cohen2 1School of Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA; 2Department of Dermatology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA Abstract: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT is an autosomal dominant condition with a prevalence of ~1 in 5,000 individuals. The pathophysiology of this condition centers on the lack of capillary beds between arterioles and venules, leading to direct contact between these vessels. This results in telangiectases on characteristic locations such as the face, fingers, mouth, and nasal mucosa. Visceral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs are also observed in many patients, and these are most commonly seen in the brain, gastrointestinal tract, and lungs. Liver AVMs are present in many patients with HHT, though these individuals are usually asymptomatic; however, liver AVMs may lead to serious complications, such as high output cardiac failure. Diagnosis of HHT hinges upon fulfilling three out of four criteria: family history of the condition, mucocutaneous telangiectases, spontaneous and recurrent episodes of epistaxis, and visceral AVMs. Management is guided by international consensus guidelines and targets patients’ specific AVMs. Prognosis is good, though severe complications including hemorrhage and paradoxical emboli are possible. Novel therapeutics are being explored in clinical trials; bevacizumab and pazopanib inhibit angiogenesis, while thalidomide bolsters blood vessel maturation. Pregnancy in patients with HHT is considered high risk. While the majority of pregnancies proceed normally, severe complications have been reported in some women with HHT; these include heart failure, intracranial hemorrhage, pulmonary hemorrhage, and stroke. Such complications occur most often in the second and third trimesters when maternal changes such as peripheral vasodilation and increased cardiac output are at their maximum. Awareness of the diagnosis of HHT has

  11. Lucio's phenomenon: another case reported in Brazil Fenômeno de Lúcio: mais um caso relatado no Brazil

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    Rodrigo Monteiro

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Lucio's phenomenon is defined as a variant of type 2 leprosy reaction. It is a rare event, occurring in the evolution of leprosy of Lucio and other forms of lepromatous leprosy. It has an exacerbated proliferation of Hansen bacilli in its pathophysiology, which invade blood vessel walls and injure endothelial cells, causing endothelial proliferation and decreasing the vascular lumen. This fact, associated with inflammatory reactions and changes in the coagulation system causes vascular thrombosis, ischemia, infarction and tissue necrosis, leading to the histopathological characteristic of the phenomenon. We report a case of lepromatous leprosy with irregular treatment that developed Lucio's phenomenon. Treatment with multidrug therapy, antibiotics, steroids and thalidomide achieved a favorable outcome.Define-se o fenômeno de Lúcio como uma variante da reação hansênica do tipo 2. Evento raro, que ocorre na evolução da hanseníase de Lúcio e de outras formas de hanseníase virchowiana. Tem na sua fisiopatologia uma proliferação exacerbada dos bacilos de Hansen, que invadem a parede dos vasos sanguíneos e agridem as células endoteliais, causando proliferação endotelial e diminuição do lúmen vascular, fato este, que associado a reações inflamatórias e a alterações no sistema da coagulação, causa trombose vascular, isquemia, infarto e necrose tecidual, gerando as alterações histopatológicas características do fenômeno. Relatamos um caso de hanseníase virchowiana, com tratamento irregular, que desenvolveu o fenômeno de Lúcio. Recebeu tratamento com poliquimioterapia, antibióticos, corticosteróide e talidomida, evoluindo com desfecho clínico favorável.

  12. Preclinical Data on Efficacy of 10 Drug-Radiation Combinations: Evaluations, Concerns, and Recommendations

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    Helen B. Stone

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Clinical testing of new therapeutic interventions requires comprehensive, high-quality preclinical data. Concerns regarding quality of preclinical data have been raised in recent reports. This report examines the data on the interaction of 10 drugs with radiation and provides recommendations for improving the quality, reproducibility, and utility of future studies. The drugs were AZD6244, bortezomib, 17-DMAG, erlotinib, gefitinib, lapatinib, oxaliplatin/Lipoxal, sunitinib (Pfizer, Corporate headquarters, New York, NY, thalidomide, and vorinostat. METHODS: In vitro and in vivo data were tabulated from 125 published papers, including methods, radiation and drug doses, schedules of administration, assays, measures of interaction, presentation and interpretation of data, dosimetry, and conclusions. RESULTS: In many instances, the studies contained inadequate or unclear information that would hamper efforts to replicate or intercompare the studies, and that weakened the evidence for designing and conducting clinical trials. The published reports on these drugs showed mixed results on enhancement of radiation response, except for sunitinib, which was ineffective. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for improved experimental design, execution, and reporting of preclinical testing of agents that are candidates for clinical use in combination with radiation. A checklist is provided for authors and reviewers to ensure that preclinical studies of drug-radiation combinations meet standards of design, execution, and interpretation, and report necessary information to ensure high quality and reproducibility of studies. Improved design, execution, common measures of enhancement, and consistent interpretation of preclinical studies of drug-radiation interactions will provide rational guidance for prioritizing drugs for clinical radiotherapy trials and for the design of such trials.

  13. Hematological approaches to multiple myeloma: trends from a Brazilian subset of hematologists. A cross-sectional study

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    Lucila Nassif Kerbauy

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: For the last nine years, hematologists and oncologists have gathered annually at an educational symposium organized by a Brazilian and an American hospital. During the 2015 Board Review, a survey among the attendees evaluated the differences in management and treatment methods for multiple myeloma (MM. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study during an educational hematology symposium in São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: Hematologists present at the symposium gave responses to an electronic survey by means of mobile phone. RESULTS: Among the 350 attendees, 217 answered the questionnaire. Most of the participants believed that immunotargeting agents (iTA might be effective for slowing MM progression in heavily pretreated patients (67% and that continued exposure to therapy might lead to emergence of resistant clones in patients with MM (76%. Most of the physicians use maintenance therapy after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (95% and 45% of them would further restrict it to post-transplantation patients with underlying high-risk disease. The first-line drugs used for transplantation-ineligible patients (TI-MM were bortezomib-thalidomide-dexamethasone (31%, bortezomib-dexamethasone (28%, lenalidomide-dexamethasone (Rd; 17% and melphalan-based therapy (10%. Lenalidomide was the drug of choice for post-transplantation maintenance for half of the participants. No significant differences were observed regarding age or length of experience. CONCLUSION: The treatment choices for TI-MM patients were highly heterogenous and the melphalan-based regimen represented only 10% of the first-line options. Use of maintenance therapy after transplantation was a common choice. Some results from the survey were divergent from the evidence in the literature.

  14. Treatment of cachexia in oncology

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    E M Tazi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cachexia is a complex metabolic syndrome associated with many chronic or end-stage diseases, especially cancer, and is characterized by loss of muscle with or without loss of fat mass. The management of cachexia is a complex challenge that should address the different causes underlying this clinical event with an integrated or multimodal treatment approach targeting the different factors involved in its pathophysiology. Aims and Objectives : The purpose of this article was to review the current medical treatment of cancer-related cachexia, in particular focusing on combination therapy and ongoing research. Results : Among the treatments proposed in the literature for cancer-related cachexia, some proved to be ineffective, namely, cyproheptadine, hydrazine, metoclopramide, and pentoxifylline. Among effective treatments, progestagens are currently considered the best available treatment option for cancer-related cachexia, and they are the only drugs approved in Europe. Drugs with a strong rationale that have failed or have not shown univocal results in clinical trials so far include eicosapentaenoic acid, cannabinoids, bortezomib, and anti-TNF-alpha MoAb. Several emerging drugs have shown promising results but are still under clinical investigation (thalidomide, selective cox-2 inhibitors, ghrelin mimetics, insulin, oxandrolone, and olanzapine. Conclusions : To date, despite several years of coordinated efforts in basic and clinical research, practice guidelines for the prevention and treatment of cancer-related muscle wasting are lacking, mainly because of the multifactorial pathogenesis of the syndrome. From all the data presented, one can speculate that one single therapy may not be completely successful in the treatment of cachexia. From this point of view, treatments involving different combinations are more likely to be successful.

  15. VANTAGE 095: An International, Multicenter, Open-Label Study of Vorinostat (MK-0683) in Combination With Bortezomib in Patients With Relapsed and Refractory Multiple Myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, David S; Dimopoulos, Meletios; Jagannath, Sundar; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Durrant, Simon; Kaufman, Jonathan L; Leleu, Xavier; Nagler, Arnon; Offner, Fritz; Graef, Thorsten; Eid, Joseph E; Houp, Jennifer; Gause, Christine; Vuocolo, Scott; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2016-06-01

    The present global, open-label, single-arm, multicenter, phase IIb study was designed to determine the efficacy and tolerability of oral vorinostat combined with standard doses of bortezomib in patients with multiple myeloma considered refractory to novel myeloma agents. Eligible patients were age ≥ 18 years, had received ≥ 2 previous regimens, had disease refractory to ≥ 1 previous bortezomib-containing regimen, and had received ≥ 1 dose of an immunomodulatory drug (thalidomide or lenalidomide)-based regimen. The patients received 21-day cycles of bortezomib (1.3 mg/m(2) intravenously on days 1, 4, 8, and 11) plus oral vorinostat (400 mg/d on days 1-14). Oral dexamethasone, 20 mg, on the day of and the day after each dose of bortezomib could be added for patients with progressive disease after 2 cycles or no change after 4 cycles. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate. The objective response rate was 11.3% (95% confidence interval, 6.6%-17.7%), and the median duration of response was 211 days (range, 64-550 days). The median overall survival duration was 11.2 months (95% confidence interval, 8.5-14.4 months), with a 2-year survival rate of 32%. The frequently reported adverse events were thrombocytopenia (69.7%), nausea (57.0%), diarrhea (53.5%), anemia (52.1%), and fatigue (48.6%); the overall safety profile was consistent with that of bortezomib and vorinostat. The combination of vorinostat and bortezomib is active in patients with multiple myeloma refractory to novel treatment modalities and offers a new therapeutic option for this difficult-to-treat patient population (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT00773838). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A novel embryological theory of autism causation involving endogenous biochemicals capable of initiating cellular gene transcription: a possible link between twelve autism risk factors and the autism 'epidemic'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Chiara R

    2011-05-01

    Human alpha-fetoprotein is a pregnancy-associated protein with an undetermined physiological role. As human alpha-fetoprotein binds retinoids and inhibits estrogen-dependent cancer cell proliferation, and because retinoic acid (a retinol metabolite) and estradiol (an estrogen) can both initiate cellular gene transcription, it is hypothesized here that alpha-fetoprotein functions during critical gestational periods to prevent retinoic acid and maternal estradiol from inappropriately stimulating gene expression in developing brain regions which are sensitive to these chemicals. Prenatal/maternal factors linked to increased autism risk include valproic acid, thalidomide, alcohol, rubella, cytomegalovirus, depression, schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, autoimmune disease, stress, allergic reaction, and hypothyroidism. It will be shown how each of these risk factors may initiate expression of genes which are sensitive to retinoic acid and/or estradiol - whether by direct promotion or by reducing production of alpha-fetoprotein. It is thus hypothesized here that autism is not a genetic disorder, but is rather an epigenetic disruption in brain development caused by gestational exposure to chemicals and/or conditions which either inhibit alpha-fetoprotein production or directly promote retinoic acid-sensitive or estradiol-sensitive gene expression. This causation model leads to potential chemical explanations for autistic brain morphology, the distinct symptomatology of Asperger's syndrome, and the differences between high-functioning and low-functioning autism with regard to mental retardation, physical malformation, and sex ratio. It will be discussed how folic acid may cause autism under the retinoic acid/estradiol model, and the history of prenatal folic acid supplementation will be shown to coincide with the history of what is popularly known as the autism epidemic. It is thus hypothesized here that prenatal folic acid supplementation has contributed to the

  17. Anophthalmia and microphthalmia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Amit S; Fitzpatrick, David R

    2007-11-26

    Anophthalmia and microphthalmia describe, respectively, the absence of an eye and the presence of a small eye within the orbit. The combined birth prevalence of these conditions is up to 30 per 100,000 population, with microphthalmia reported in up to 11% of blind children. High-resolution cranial imaging, post-mortem examination and genetic studies suggest that these conditions represent a phenotypic continuum. Both anophthalmia and microphthalmia may occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome, as in one-third of cases. Anophthalmia/microphthalmia have complex aetiology with chromosomal, monogenic and environmental causes identified. Chromosomal duplications, deletions and translocations are implicated. Of monogenic causes only SOX2 has been identified as a major causative gene. Other linked genes include PAX6, OTX2, CHX10 and RAX. SOX2 and PAX6 mutations may act through causing lens induction failure. FOXE3 mutations, associated with lens agenesis, have been observed in a few microphthalmic patients. OTX2, CHX10 and RAX have retinal expression and may result in anophthalmia/microphthalmia through failure of retinal differentiation. Environmental factors also play a contributory role. The strongest evidence appears to be with gestational-acquired infections, but may also include maternal vitamin A deficiency, exposure to X-rays, solvent misuse and thalidomide exposure. Diagnosis can be made pre- and post-natally using a combination of clinical features, imaging (ultrasonography and CT/MR scanning) and genetic analysis. Genetic counselling can be challenging due to the extensive range of genes responsible and wide variation in phenotypic expression. Appropriate counselling is indicated if the mode of inheritance can be identified. Differential diagnoses include cryptophthalmos, cyclopia and synophthalmia, and congenital cystic eye. Patients are often managed within multi-disciplinary teams consisting of ophthalmologists, paediatricians and/or clinical geneticists

  18. Anophthalmia and microphthalmia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verma Amit S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Anophthalmia and microphthalmia describe, respectively, the absence of an eye and the presence of a small eye within the orbit. The combined birth prevalence of these conditions is up to 30 per 100,000 population, with microphthalmia reported in up to 11% of blind children. High-resolution cranial imaging, post-mortem examination and genetic studies suggest that these conditions represent a phenotypic continuum. Both anophthalmia and microphthalmia may occur in isolation or as part of a syndrome, as in one-third of cases. Anophthalmia/microphthalmia have complex aetiology with chromosomal, monogenic and environmental causes identified. Chromosomal duplications, deletions and translocations are implicated. Of monogenic causes only SOX2 has been identified as a major causative gene. Other linked genes include PAX6, OTX2, CHX10 and RAX. SOX2 and PAX6 mutations may act through causing lens induction failure. FOXE3 mutations, associated with lens agenesis, have been observed in a few microphthalmic patients. OTX2, CHX10 and RAX have retinal expression and may result in anophthalmia/microphthalmia through failure of retinal differentiation. Environmental factors also play a contributory role. The strongest evidence appears to be with gestational-acquired infections, but may also include maternal vitamin A deficiency, exposure to X-rays, solvent misuse and thalidomide exposure. Diagnosis can be made pre- and post-natally using a combination of clinical features, imaging (ultrasonography and CT/MR scanning and genetic analysis. Genetic counselling can be challenging due to the extensive range of genes responsible and wide variation in phenotypic expression. Appropriate counselling is indicated if the mode of inheritance can be identified. Differential diagnoses include cryptophthalmos, cyclopia and synophthalmia, and congenital cystic eye. Patients are often managed within multi-disciplinary teams consisting of ophthalmologists, paediatricians

  19. Stat1 activation attenuates IL-6 induced Stat3 activity but does not alter apoptosis sensitivity in multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimberg Lina Y

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple myeloma (MM is at present an incurable malignancy, characterized by apoptosis-resistant tumor cells. Interferon (IFN treatment sensitizes MM cells to Fas-induced apoptosis and is associated with an increased activation of Signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat1. The role of Stat1 in MM has not been elucidated, but Stat1 has in several studies been ascribed a pro-apoptotic role. Conversely, IL-6 induction of Stat3 is known to confer resistance to apoptosis in MM. Methods To delineate the role of Stat1 in IFN mediated sensitization to apoptosis, sub-lines of the U-266-1970 MM cell line with a stable expression of the active mutant Stat1C were utilized. The influence of Stat1C constitutive transcriptional activation on endogenous Stat3 expression and activation, and the expression of apoptosis-related genes were analyzed. To determine whether Stat1 alone would be an important determinant in sensitizing MM cells to apoptosis, the U-266-1970-Stat1C cell line and control cells were exposed to high throughput compound screening (HTS. Results To explore the role of Stat1 in IFN mediated apoptosis sensitization of MM, we established sublines of the MM cell line U-266-1970 constitutively expressing the active mutant Stat1C. We found that constitutive nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of Stat1 was associated with an attenuation of IL-6-induced Stat3 activation and up-regulation of mRNA for the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein family genes Harakiri, the short form of Mcl-1 and Noxa. However, Stat1 activation alone was not sufficient to sensitize cells to Fas-induced apoptosis. In a screening of > 3000 compounds including bortezomib, dexamethasone, etoposide, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA, geldanamycin (17-AAG, doxorubicin and thalidomide, we found that the drug response and IC50 in cells constitutively expressing active Stat1 was mainly unaltered. Conclusion We conclude that Stat1 alters IL-6

  20. Multiple myeloma in Niger Delta, Nigeria: complications and the outcome of palliative interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwabuko, Ogbonna Collins; Igbigbi, Elizabeth Eneikido; Chukwuonye, Innocent Ijezie; Nnoli, Martin Anazodo

    2017-01-01

    Background Multiple myeloma (MM) is one of the hematological malignancies that require palliative care. This is because of the life-threatening nature and the suffering associated with the illness. The aim of this study is to bring to the fore the complications experienced by people living with MM in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria and the outcome of various palliative interventions. Methods This was a 10-year multi-center retrospective study of 26 patients diagnosed and managed in three major centers in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria from January 2003 to December 2012. Information on the clinical, laboratory, radiological data, and palliative treatment was obtained at presentation and subsequently at intervals of 3 months until the patient was lost to follow-up. Result The mean duration from onset of symptoms to diagnosis was 13.12 months (95% CI, 6.65–19.58). A total of 16 (61.5%), eight (30.8%), and two subjects (7.7%) presented in Durie–Salmon (DS) stages III, II, and I, respectively. The complications presented by patients at diagnoses included bone pain (84.6%), anemia (61.5%), nephropathy (23.1%), and hemiplegia (35%). All the patients received analgesics, while 50.0% received blood transfusion, 56.7% had surgery performed, 19% had hemodialysis, and 3.8% received radiotherapy. A total of 10 (38%) patients benefited from bisphosphonates (BPs). A total of 57.6% of patients were on melphalan–prednisone (MP) double regimen, while 19% and 8% patients were on MP–thalidomide and MP–bortezomib triple regimens, respectively. A total of 3.8% of patients at DS stage IIIB disease had autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT). Only 7.6% of the myeloma patients survived up to 5 years post diagnosis. The overall mean survival interval was 39.7 months (95% CI, 32.1–47.2). Conclusion Late diagnosis and inadequate palliative care account for major complications encountered by MM patients in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria. This could be responsible for

  1. TNF-α protein synthesis inhibitor restores neuronal function and reverses cognitive deficits induced by chronic neuroinflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belarbi Karim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic neuroinflammation is a hallmark of several neurological disorders associated with cognitive loss. Activated microglia and secreted factors such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α are key mediators of neuroinflammation and may contribute to neuronal dysfunction. Our study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of a novel analog of thalidomide, 3,6'-dithiothalidomide (DT, an agent with anti-TNF-α activity, in a model of chronic neuroinflammation. Methods Lipopolysaccharide or artificial cerebrospinal fluid was infused into the fourth ventricle of three-month-old rats for 28 days. Starting on day 29, animals received daily intraperitoneal injections of DT (56 mg/kg/day or vehicle for 14 days. Thereafter, cognitive function was assessed by novel object recognition, novel place recognition and Morris water maze, and animals were euthanized 25 min following water maze probe test evaluation. Results Chronic LPS-infusion was characterized by increased gene expression of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β in the hippocampus. Treatment with DT normalized TNF-α levels back to control levels but not IL-1β. Treatment with DT attenuated the expression of TLR2, TLR4, IRAK1 and Hmgb1, all genes involved in the TLR-mediated signaling pathway associated with classical microglia activation. However DT did not impact the numbers of MHC Class II immunoreactive cells. Chronic neuroinflammation impaired novel place recognition, spatial learning and memory function; but it did not impact novel object recognition. Importantly, treatment with DT restored cognitive function in LPS-infused animals and normalized the fraction of hippocampal neurons expressing the plasticity-related immediate-early gene Arc. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that the TNF-α synthesis inhibitor DT can significantly reverse hippocampus-dependent cognitive deficits induced by chronic neuroinflammation. These results suggest that TNF-α is a

  2. Stat1 activation attenuates IL-6 induced Stat3 activity but does not alter apoptosis sensitivity in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimberg, Lina Y; Nilsson, Kenneth; Öberg, Fredrik; Wiklund, Helena Jernberg; Dimberg, Anna; Ivarsson, Karolina; Fryknäs, Mårten; Rickardson, Linda; Tobin, Gerard; Ekman, Simon; Larsson, Rolf; Gullberg, Urban

    2012-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is at present an incurable malignancy, characterized by apoptosis-resistant tumor cells. Interferon (IFN) treatment sensitizes MM cells to Fas-induced apoptosis and is associated with an increased activation of Signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat)1. The role of Stat1 in MM has not been elucidated, but Stat1 has in several studies been ascribed a pro-apoptotic role. Conversely, IL-6 induction of Stat3 is known to confer resistance to apoptosis in MM. To delineate the role of Stat1 in IFN mediated sensitization to apoptosis, sub-lines of the U-266-1970 MM cell line with a stable expression of the active mutant Stat1C were utilized. The influence of Stat1C constitutive transcriptional activation on endogenous Stat3 expression and activation, and the expression of apoptosis-related genes were analyzed. To determine whether Stat1 alone would be an important determinant in sensitizing MM cells to apoptosis, the U-266-1970-Stat1C cell line and control cells were exposed to high throughput compound screening (HTS). To explore the role of Stat1 in IFN mediated apoptosis sensitization of MM, we established sublines of the MM cell line U-266-1970 constitutively expressing the active mutant Stat1C. We found that constitutive nuclear localization and transcriptional activity of Stat1 was associated with an attenuation of IL-6-induced Stat3 activation and up-regulation of mRNA for the pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein family genes Harakiri, the short form of Mcl-1 and Noxa. However, Stat1 activation alone was not sufficient to sensitize cells to Fas-induced apoptosis. In a screening of > 3000 compounds including bortezomib, dexamethasone, etoposide, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), geldanamycin (17-AAG), doxorubicin and thalidomide, we found that the drug response and IC50 in cells constitutively expressing active Stat1 was mainly unaltered. We conclude that Stat1 alters IL-6 induced Stat3 activity and the expression of pro

  3. O uso de medicamentos na gravidez The use of drugs in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Garcia Serpa Osorio-de-Castro

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso de medicamentos na gravidez é cada vez mais intenso, enquanto a prática médica volta-se para a incorporação do conceito de risco. Embora a tragédia da talidomida tenha marcado o início da reflexão sobre a ocorrência de efeitos adversos de medicamentos usados durante a gestação, as percepções dos prescritores, no âmbito da terapêutica medicamentosa na gravidez, ainda oscilam entre a certeza de que tudo é nocivo e a relativa crença de que tudo é seguro até que se prove o contrário. Faz-se necessária a produção de evidências que substanciem as condutas clínicas. O ensaio clínico randomizado é considerado a pedra angular do paradigma da medicina baseada em evidências. Sugerem-se os contextos nos quais a aplicação dos diversos tipos de pesquisa clínica seriam apropriados na gestação e ainda o emprego ampliado da farmacoepidemiologia para a construção de evidências nessa população, por meio de estudos analíticos, em especial a coorte. Entende-se que estes estudos, desde que executados com rigor metodológico, possam oferecer informação balizada, geradora de hipóteses, essenciais para a prática clínica.Drug utilization during pregnancy is an increasing trend; meanwhile, medical practice incorporates risk as a concept. The thalidomide tragedy was a landmark example of the risks associated with drug use during pregnancy. Nevertheless, prescriber perceptions regarding pregnancy and drug use still oscillate between certainty of harm and belief that drugs are relatively safe (unless the contrary is proven. There is need for scientific evidence to support clinical decisions. The randomized clinical trial is regarded as the basis for the evidence-based medicine paradigm. This paper discusses the circumstances in which different types of clinical studies are appropriate in pregnancy. Expanded use of pharmacoepidemiology, mainly through analytical studies (such as cohort studies, can be a key complementary

  4. Ulcerated necrobiosis lipoidica to a teenager with diabetes mellitus and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pătraşcu, Virgil; Giurcă, Claudia; Ciurea, Raluca Niculina; Georgescu, Corneliu Cristian; Ciurea, Marius Eugen

    2014-01-01

    Many skin lesions are associated with diabetes mellitus (DM) type 1 or 2, due to the use of antidiabetics or to metabolic and endocrine disorders caused by this disease. Necrobiosis lipoidica (NL) occurs more frequently in patients with DM. Painful ulcerations may occur on NL areas in about 20-25% of the cases and usually they are related to trauma. We present the case of a teenager, male, 17-year-old, having NL with multiple plaques, some of them spontaneously ulcerated after about 33 months of onset. He is known with type 1 DM from 2.5 years and the NL preceding the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus with about six months, presented erythematous-infiltrative skin plaques, some ulcerated for about three months, interesting both shins. Based on clinical, histopathological and paraclinical examinations, we established the following diagnoses: ulcerated NL, type 1 DM, moderate mixed dyslipidemia, class I obesity; commissural candidiasis, juvenile acne. Under treatment with Pentoxifyllinum, Sulodexidum, Ketotifenum and topical therapy with 0.2% Hyaluronic acid two months later, we have managed to heal two of the three ulcerated plaques and of the third has become superficial. We applied 0.5% Fluocortolonum on non-ulcerated plaques recording an improvement after two weeks of treatment. NL is a skin disease with a predilection for the shins, more frequent in patients with diabetes and is a part of palisading granulomatous dermatitis, which leads to skin atrophy. NL is found in the 0.3-1.2% of diabetic patients and is rare in children with diabetes (0.006%). It is more common in the patients with type 1 DM. The onset is in the third decade in diabetic patients and in the fourth decade in non-diabetics. There is no consensus concerning the treatment of NL, and the results are often modest. Antiplatelet agents, corticosteroids (local and general), immunomodulatory drugs, cyclins, wide synthetic antipaludics, heparin, Thalidomide are used. NL treatment is very difficult

  5. Metronomic Chemotherapy vs Best Supportive Care in Progressive Pediatric Solid Malignant Tumors: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, Raja; Agarwala, Sandeep; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar; Thulkar, Sanjay; Vishnubhatla, Sreenivas; Batra, Atul; Dhawan, Deepa; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2017-09-01

    Although oral metronomic chemotherapy is often used in progressive pediatric solid malignant tumors, a literature review reveals that only small single-arm retrospective or phase 1 and 2 studies have been performed. Skepticism abounds because of the lack of level 1 evidence. To compare the effect of metronomic chemotherapy on progression-free survival (PFS) with that of placebo in pediatric patients with primary extracranial, nonhematopoietic solid malignant tumors that progress after at least 2 lines of chemotherapy. A double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial was conducted from October 1, 2013, through December 31, 2015, at the cancer center at All India Institute of Medical Sciences in children aged 5 to 18 years with primary extracranial, nonhematopoietic solid malignant tumors that progressed after at least 2 lines of chemotherapy and had no further curative options. One arm received a 4-drug oral metronomic regimen of daily celecoxib and thalidomide with alternating periods of etoposide and cyclophosphamide, whereas the other arm received placebo. Disease status was assessed at baseline, 9 weeks, 18 weeks, and 27 weeks or at clinical progression. The primary end point was PFS as defined by the proportion of patients without disease progression at 6 months, and PFS duration and overall survival (OS) were secondary end points. A total of 108 of the 123 patients screened were enrolled, with 52 randomized to the placebo group (median age, 15 years; 40 male [76.9%]) and 56 to the metronomic chemotherapy group (median age, 13 years; 42 male [75.0%]). At a median follow-up of 2.9 months, 100% of the patients had disease progression by 6 months in the placebo group vs 96.4% in the metronomic chemotherapy group (P = .24). Median PFS and OS in the 2 groups was similar (hazard ratio [HR], 0.69; 95% CI, 0.47-1.03 [P = .07] for PFS; and HR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.50-1.09 [P = .13] for OS). In post hoc subgroup analysis, cohorts receiving more than

  6. Intravenous Immunoglobulins Improve Survival in Monoclonal Gammopathy-Associated Systemic Capillary-Leak Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineton de Chambrun, Marc; Gousseff, Marie; Mauhin, Wladimir; Lega, Jean-Christophe; Lambert, Marc; Rivière, Sophie; Dossier, Antoine; Ruivard, Marc; Lhote, François; Blaison, Gilles; Alric, Laurent; Agard, Christian; Saadoun, David; Graveleau, Julie; Soubrier, Martin; Lucchini-Lecomte, Marie-Josée; Christides, Christine; Bosseray, Annick; Levesque, Hervé; Viallard, Jean-François; Tieulie, Nathalie; Lovey, Pierre-Yves; Le Moal, Sylvie; Bibes, Béatrice; Malizia, Giuseppe; Abgueguen, Pierre; Lifermann, François; Ninet, Jacques; Hatron, Pierre-Yves; Amoura, Zahir

    2017-10-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy-associated systemic capillary-leak syndrome, also known as Clarkson disease, is a rare condition characterized by recurrent life-threatening episodes of capillary hyperpermeability in the context of a monoclonal gammopathy. This study was conducted to better describe the clinical characteristics, natural history, and long-term outcome of monoclonal gammopathy-associated systemic capillary-leak syndrome. We conducted a cohort analysis of all patients included in the European Clarkson disease (EurêClark) registry between January 1997 and March 2016. From diagnosis to last follow-up, studied outcomes (eg, the frequency and severity of attacks, death, and evolution toward multiple myeloma) and the type of preventive treatments administered were monitored every 6 months. Sixty-nine patients (M/F sex ratio 1:1; mean ± SD age at disease onset 52 ± 12 years) were included in the study. All patients had monoclonal gammopathy of immunoglobulin G type, with kappa light chains in 47 (68%). Median (interquartile range) follow-up duration was 5.1 (2.5-9.7) years. Twenty-four patients (35%) died after 3.3 (0.9-8) years. Fifty-seven (86%) patients received at least one preventive treatment, including intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) n = 48 (73.8%), theophylline n = 22 (33.8%), terbutaline n = 22 (33.8%), and thalidomide n = 5 (7.7%). In the 65 patients with follow-up, 5- and 10-year survival rates were 78% (n = 35) and 69% (n = 17), respectively. Multivariate analysis found preventive treatment with IVIg (hazard ratio 0.27; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.70; P = .007) and terbutaline (hazard ratio 0.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.96; P = .041) to be independent predictors of mortality. We describe the largest cohort to date of patients with well-defined monoclonal gammopathy-associated systemic capillary-leak syndrome. Preventive treatment with IVIg was the strongest factor associated with survival, suggesting the use of IVIg as the first

  7. Avances en el tratamiento farmacológico de la hemorragia digestiva de origen oscuro Update on medical therapy for obscure gastrointestinal hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Molina Infante

    2007-08-01

    , octreotide LAR, a depot formulation administered once a month intramuscularly, and oral thalidomide, a powerful inhibitor of angiogenesis, have demonstrated their effectiveness and safety for long-term therapy in anecdotal case reports and deserve further investigation.

  8. Genetic Syndromes, Maternal Diseases and Antenatal Factors Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornoy, Asher; Weinstein-Fudim, Liza; Ergaz, Zivanit

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affecting about 1% of all children is associated, in addition to complex genetic factors, with a variety of prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal etiologies. In addition, ASD is often an important clinical presentation of some well-known genetic syndromes in human. We discuss these syndromes as well as the role of the more important prenatal factors affecting the fetus throughout pregnancy which may also be associated with ASD. Among the genetic disorders we find Fragile X, Rett syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, Timothy syndrome, Phelan-McDermid syndrome, Hamartoma tumor syndrome, Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes, and a few others. Among the maternal diseases in pregnancy associated with ASD are diabetes mellitus (PGDM and/or GDM), some maternal autoimmune diseases like antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) with anti-β2GP1 IgG antibodies and thyroid disease with anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies, preeclampsia and some other autoimmune diseases with IgG antibodies that might affect fetal brain development. Other related factors are maternal infections (rubella and CMV with fetal brain injuries, and possibly Influenza with fever), prolonged fever and maternal inflammation, especially with changes in a variety of inflammatory cytokines and antibodies that cross the placenta and affect the fetal brain. Among the drugs are valproic acid, thalidomide, misoprostol, and possibly SSRIs. β2-adrenergic receptor agonists and paracetamol have also lately been associated with increased rate of ASD but the data is too preliminary and inconclusive. Associations were also described with ethanol, cocaine, and possibly heavy metals, heavy smoking, and folic acid deficiency. Recent studies show that heavy exposure to pesticides and air pollution, especially particulate matter ASD. Finally, we have to remember that many of the associations mentioned in this review are only partially proven, and not all are "clean" of different confounding factors. The

  9. [Xanthoma disseminatum with asymptomatic multisystem involvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinoun, M; Hali, F; Marnissi, F; Lazaar, S; Benchikhi, H

    2015-04-01

    Xanthogranulomas belong to non-Langerhans histiocytosis of the second group in the Histiocyte Society classification. They comprise a heterogeneous group of rare entities frequently involving cutaneous tropism. Xanthoma disseminatum belongs to this group of non-Langerhans histiocytosis. We report a case of xanthoma disseminatum (XD) in which localized skin and mucous impairment revealed multisystem involvement. A 28-year-old man presented with a two-year history of progressive yellow-orange and infiltrated xanthomatous papulonodular lesions of the face. Lesions of the oral mucosa and genital region were seen, with no functional repercussions. No ophthalmic or other complications were found. Histopathology showed a dense histiocytic infiltrate within the dermis with Touton giant cells, foamy multinucleated giant cells and inflammatory cells, without necrobiosis. Histiocytes were positive for CD68 but negative for CD1a. Gastric and lung involvement was seen and was confirmed at histology. Bone scintigraphy showed suspicious left ulnar hyperfixation suggesting bone involvement. No monoclonal gammopathy or diabetes insipidus was seen. Our patient was treated with corticosteroids 1mg/kg/day and thalidomide 100 mg/day. The outcome was marked by regression and exfiltration of the cutaneous lesions from the second week of treatment, with subsidence continuing at 3 months. This case involves a very rare form of xanthoma disseminatum. The localized facial skin lesions revealed multifocal non-Langerhans histiocytosis that was in fact asymptomatic. The diagnosis of XD was based on clinical, histological and immunohistochemical criteria. Xanthoma disseminatum is a non-Langerhans histiocytic proliferation first described by Montgomery in 1938. This rare entity is characterized by skin and mucous membrane xanthomatosis in which the facial involvement is common, together with diabetes insipidus and normal lipid metabolism. The prognosis is determined by the presence of mucosal

  10. Management of oral lesions in HIV-positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccaglini, Lorena; Atkinson, Jane C; Patton, Lauren L; Glick, Michael; Ficarra, Giuseppe; Peterson, Douglas E

    2007-03-01

    HIV/AIDS is currently the leading cause of death in Africa and the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. This systematic review of the literature was conducted to evaluate the evidence for treatment of the most common oral lesions associated with HIV: oral candidiasis with or without oropharyngeal involvement (OPC), oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL), recurrent aphthous-like ulcerations (RAU), oral Kaposi's sarcoma (OKS), orolabial herpes simplex infection (HSV), oral herpes zoster infection (VZV), intraoral or perioral warts (HPV), and HIV-associated periodontal diseases. Treatment of HIV-associated salivary gland disease is addressed in a different section of this World Workshop. We found the largest body of evidence for treatment of OPC in HIV patients. Future trials will be needed to test drugs currently in development for treatment of Candida strains that are resistant to existing therapies. There were no double blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials (RCT) for topical treatment of OHL, and only one RCT for systemic treatment of the lesion with desciclovir. Systemic thalidomide was the only drug tested in RCT for treatment or prevention of RAU. Only 1 double-blind RCT comparing vinblastine and sodium tetradecyl sulfate was identified for localized treatment of OKS. Three drugs (famciclovir, acyclovir, and valaciclovir) were shown to be effective in randomized, double-blind trials for treatment or suppression of mucocutaneous HSV lesions in HIV patients. In all 3 trials, the effects of these medications on orolabial HSV lesions were not reported separately. There were no double-blind, placebo-controlled RCT testing topical treatments for orolabial HSV lesions in HIV patients. No trials testing treatments of oral VZV were identified. There were no double-blind, placebo-controlled RCT for treatment of HIV-associated intraoral or perioral warts or periodontal diseases. In conclusion, there is a need for well-designed RCTs to assess the safety and

  11. EVALUASI KHASIAT DAN KEAMANAN OBAT (UJI KLINIK

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    Rahmatini Rahmatini

    2010-05-01

    in humans because given of a drug. If clinical trials are not done then it can be evil in many people when directly used in general as once happened with thalidomide (1959-1962 and male contraceptive drugs (gossypol in China. Any drug that is found through experiments in vitro or animal is not guaranteed that the propertiesTINJAUAN PUSTAKA32will actually be seen in patients. Tests on humans themselves who can "guarantee" if the results of in vitro or animal similar to humans.Clinical trial consisted of 4 phases, namely phase I clinical trial, phase II clinical trial, phase III clinical trials, and phase IV clinical trial. Phase I clinical trial, performed on healthy humans, aims to determine an acceptable single-dose, phase II clinical trial, performed on 100-200 patiens to see whether the pharmacologic effects seen in Phase I is useful or not for treatment. Phase III clinical trials conducted on about 500 patients which aims to ensure that a new drug is really efficacy. Phase IV clinical trial is an observation of the drug has been marketed. This phase aims to determine patterns of drug use in society and patterns of effectiveness and safety in actual use.Good clinical trials conducted with procedures that have been outlined and its components prepared and thus the results can actually be used as a reference treatment. Key words : Efficacy – Safety - Clinical trial

  12. Conventional chemotherapy and long-term survival in multiple myeloma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraj, M; Poglod, R.; Sokolowska, U.; Kruk, B.; Maj, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. The study was especially focused on the estimation of real frequency of long-term survivals in patients with multiple myeloma and finding common clinical and laboratory features present in long-term surviving patients as possible good prognostic factors. Material and methods. The survey was carried out on 600 multiple myeloma patients diagnosed before the year 2000 and treated with conventional chemotherapy in the Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine in Warsaw in the years 1962-2009. All patients who had fulfilled the requirement of more than seven years of survival from the diagnosis and beginning of treatment for myeloma were included into the study group. Results. Out of 600 studied patients with multiple myeloma 88 (14.7%) survived over 7 years including 45 (7.5%) over 10 years, 11 (1.8 %) over 15 years and 7 (1.1%) over 20 years from the disease diagnosis and beginning of antitumor treatment. Patients with long survival were younger (median age 55 years) at the time of diagnosis than the whole studied group and had normal serum creatinine, calcium and beta2-microglobulin levels. Sixty eight percent of these patients had stage I or II clinical progression, 60% presented with IgG monoclonal protein and 58% with osteolysis. Treatment with melphalan only was given to 18 patients, 30 were treated with melphalan, followed by vincristine, cyclophosphamide, BCNU, doxorubicin and prednisone or dexamethasone. Polychemotherapy was given from the time of the diagnosis to 16 patients, 15 received radiotherapy or 60C o irradiation besides chemotherapy and 9 received new agents: thalidomide, bortezomib, lenalidomide. In 66% of the evaluated cases response to treatment was good and in another 34% stabilization of the proliferative process was achieved. The mean duration of treatment till the achievement of partial response was 10 months, range: 2 - 89 months. The mean duration of good therapeutic response was 70 months. Twelve patients are alive and

  13. The Prevalence and Management of Systemic Amyloidosis in Western Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nienhuis, Hans L A; Bijzet, Johan; Hazenberg, Bouke P C

    2016-04-01

    , evidence of systemic deposition, reliable typing, precursor assessment, severity of organ disease, risk assessment and prognosis, choice of treatment, and planned monitoring during follow-up. (1) AL amyloidosis is the most prevalent type of amyloidosis accounting for 65% of the amyloidosis-diagnosed patients in the UK and for 93% of the amyloidosis-diagnosed patients in China. The predisposition of men over women to develop AL amyloidosis might be higher in China than in Western countries (2:1 vs. 1.3:1). Both in the East and West, incidence increases with age. At the time of diagnosis, edema is twice as frequent and the proportion of renal involvement is higher in Chinese compared to Western patients. (2) Melphalan followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is the current standard therapy but is restricted to eligible patients. The efficacy and safety of bortezomib combined with dexamethasone were proven in Western patients and recently confirmed in a Chinese cohort. Recent studies in China and the US indicate that bortezomib induction prior to ASCT increases the response rate. Thalidomide and lenalidomide have shown benefit, but toxicity and lack of clinical evidence exclude these agents from first-line therapy. The green tea extract epigallocatechin-3-gallate is under investigation as an inhibitor of AL amyloid formation and a compound that might dissolve amyloid.

  14. [Recent development in research and management of cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Akio

    2005-06-01

    Cachexia is among the most debilitating and life-threatening aspects of cancer, and is more common in children and elderly patients. Associated with anorexia, fat and muscle tissue wasting, psychological distress, and a lower quality of life, cachexia arises from a complex interaction between the cancer and the host. This process results from a failure of the adaptive feeding response seen in simple starvation and includes cytokine production, release of lipid-mobilizing and proteolysis-inducing factors, and alterations in intermediary metabolism. Cytokines play a pivotal role in long-term inhibition of feeding by mimicking the hypothalamic effect of excessive negative feedback signaling from leptin, a hormone secreted by adipose tissue, which is an integral component of the homeostatic loop of body weight regulation. This could be done by persistent inhibition of feeding-stimulatory circuitry including neuropeptide Y. Cachexia should be suspected in patients with cancer if an involuntary weight loss of greater than five percent of premorbid weight occurs within a 3-6-month period. The two major options for pharmacological therapy have been either progestational agents or corticosteroids. However, knowledge of the mechanisms of cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome has led to, and continues to lead to, effective therapeutic interventions for several aspects of the syndrome. These include antiserotonergic drugs, gastroprokinetic agents, branched-chain amino acids, eicosapentanoic acid, cannabinoids, melatonin, and thalidomide-all of which act on the feeding-regulatory circuitry to increase appetite and inhibit tumor-derived catabolic factors to antagonize tissue wasting and/or host cytokine release. The outcomes of drug studies in cancer cachexia should focus on the symptomatic and quality-of-life advantages rather than simply on nutritional end points, since the survival of cachexia cancer patients may be limited to weeks or months due to the incurable nature of the

  15. Multiple myeloma in Niger Delta, Nigeria: complications and the outcome of palliative interventions

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    Nwabuko OC

    2017-05-01

    prednisone (MP double regimen, while 19% and 8% patients were on MP–thalidomide and MP–bortezomib triple regimens, respectively. A total of 3.8% of patients at DS stage IIIB disease had autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT. Only 7.6% of the myeloma patients survived up to 5 years post diagnosis. The overall mean survival interval was 39.7 months (95% CI, 32.1–47.2.Conclusion: Late diagnosis and inadequate palliative care account for major complications encountered by MM patients in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria. This could be responsible for the poor prognostic outcome and low survival interval of MM individuals in this region. There is, therefore, a need to improve the quality of palliative care received by myeloma patients in this region. This is achievable via provision of relevant and affordable health care facilities for diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Keywords: multiple myeloma, palliative care, melphalan-prednisone, bone marrow plasma cells, autologous stem-cell transplantation, Niger Delta

  16. Cost-effectiveness analysis of treating transplant-eligible multiple myeloma patients in Macedonia

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    Qerimi V

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Vjollca Qerimi,1,2 Aleksandra Kapedanovska Nestorovska,1 Zoran Sterjev,1 Sonja Genadieva-Stavric,3 Ljubica Suturkova1 1Faculty of Pharmacy, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, Skopje, Macedonia; 2Institute of Public Health, Medical Decision Making and Health Technology Assessment, Department of Public Health, Health Services Research and Health Technology Assessment, UMIT – University for Health Sciences, Medical Informatics and Technology, Hall in Tirol, Austria; 3Medical Faculty, University Hematology Clinic, Skopje, Macedonia Purpose: A decision-analytic model was developed to study the impact of induction regimens vincristine, adriamycin, dexamethasone (VAD; thalidomide, dexamethasone (TD; and bortezomib, dexamethasone (BorD, followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT for treating multiple myeloma (MM patients in Macedonia. Additionally, a cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA of treatment sequences to predict health effects and costs of different treatment sequences was performed.Methods: Model strategies were based on a previously published study for treating patients with MM in Macedonia. The data on disease progression and treatment effectiveness were obtained from the published reports of randomized clinical trials (GIMEMA M-B02005, IFM 2005-01. Utility parameters were extracted from the literature. To compare treatment combinations, a decision tree model was developed. Additionally, a cost analysis for one-time per-protocol costs was performed from a Macedonian national health care perspective. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs/quality-adjusted life years (QALYs gained for 1-, 10-, and 20-year time horizons were determined. Costs and health outcomes were discounted to evaluate the effects of time in the model.Results: The one-time costs of BorD (EUR 5,656 were higher compared to VAD (EUR 303 and TD (EUR 329, increasing the overall costs for BorD. Thus, the BorD combination dominated in the baseline

  17. Comparative analysis of CD138 antigen targeting for the treatment of multiple myeloma with bismuth-213 and Melphalan chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouard, S.; Gaschet, J.; Maurel, C.; Barbet, J.; Davodeau, F.; Pallardy, A.; Faivre-Chauvet, A.; Kraeber-Bodere, F.; Bruchertseifer, F.; Morgenstern, A.; Cherel, M.

    2015-01-01

    alpha RIT 25 days after engraftment. Melphalan and alpha RIT association does not improve overall survival compared to RIT alone. In regard of toxicity, at 3.7 MBq of bismuth-213-labelled anti-mouse CD138 antibody, only slight and reversible haematological radiotoxicity was observed. Association of Melphalan and alpha RIT increases leukocyte and red blood cell toxicity. Conclusion: alpha RIT seems to be a good alternative to Melphalan. Association of these two treatments provides no benefit. The perspectives of this work would be to evaluate RIT impact in the regimens incorporating the novel agents bortezomide, thalidomide and lenalidomide and to evaluate the use of alpha RIT instead of high-dose melphalan therapy for autologous stem-cell transplant preparation. (authors)

  18. Brazilian blood donation eligibility criteria for dermatologic patients Critérios brasileiros de elegibilidade à doação de sangue para pacientes dermatológicos

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    Carlos Gustavo Wambier

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A focused and commented review on the impact of dermatologic diseases and interventions in the solidary act of donating blood is presented to dermatologists to better advise their patients. This is a review of current Brazilian technical regulations on hemotherapeutic procedures as determined by Ministerial Directive #1353/2011 by the Ministry of Health and current internal regulations of the Hemotherapy Center of Ribeirão Preto, a regional reference center in hemotherapeutic procedures. Criteria for permanent inaptitude: autoimmune diseases (>1 organ involved, personal history of cancer other than basal cell carcinoma, severe atopic dermatitis or psoriasis, pemphigus foliaceus, porphyrias, filariasis, leprosy, extra pulmonary tuberculosis or paracoccidioidomycosis, and previous use of etretinate. Drugs that impose temporary ineligibility: other systemic retinoids, systemic corticosteroids, 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors, vaccines, methotrexate, beta-blockers, minoxidil, anti-epileptic, and anti-psychotic drugs. Other conditions that impose temporary ineligibility: occupational accident with biologic material, piercing, tattoo, sexually transmitted diseases, herpes, and bacterial infections, among others. Discussion: Thalidomide is currently missing in the teratogenic drugs list. Although finasteride was previously considered a drug that imposed permanent inaptitude, according to its short halflife current restriction of 1 month is still too long. Dermatologists should be able to advise their patients about proper timing to donate blood, and discuss the impact of drug withdrawal on treatment outcomes and to respect the designated washout periods.Uma revisão centrada no impacto de doenças e intervenções dermatológicas no ato solidário de doar sangue é apresentada aos dermatologistas para melhor aconselhamento dos seus pacientes. Esta é uma revisão das atuais normas técnicas brasileiras sobre procedimentos hemoterápicos conforme

  19. The efficacy and safety of the PAD regimen (bortezomib, doxorubicin, dexamethasone) in the treatment of plasma cell leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraj, M.; Poglod, R.; Szpila, T.; Warzocha, K.

    2009-01-01

    Plasma cell leukemia (PCL) represents the most aggressive variant of multiple myeloma that requires establishing new treatment approaches. Here, we report 4 patients with PCL treated with bortezomib. In 3 patients primary PCL and in one - secondary PCL was diagnosed. Two patients had previously received 2 to 4 lines of chemotherapy, including thalidomide and two patients received only VAD treatment. Bortezomib was given according to the standard schedule of 1.3 mg/m 2 days 1,4,8,11 with an interval of 10 days between the cycles. Three patients received doxorubicin 9 mg/m2 and dexamethasone 40 mg on days 1-4 of cycle in combination with bortezomib (PAD regimen). In the first patient with primary PCL (with bone marrow plasma cell ratio - 80%, absolute peripheral blood plasma cell count- 3.7 x 10 9 /L cells, IgGλ serum monoclonal protein 8.5 g/dL and osteolysis) bortezomib was administered twice as an induction therapy and was re-administered in relapse. A near complete remission (disappearance of circulating and bone marrow plasma cells, disappearance of M-component at electrophoresis but positive immunofixation) was achieved subsequently to induction PAD treatment. In this patient herpes zoster and neurological grade 2 toxicity was observed. Following cyclophosphamide 4.9 g and G-CSF, peripheral blood stem cells were successfully (8.0 x 10 6 CD34 + cells/kg) harvested. After melphalan 200 mg/m 2 peripheral blood autologous stem cell transplantation (PBASCT) was performed. The time to neutrophil > 0.5 x 10 9 /L engraftment was 20 days and the time to platelet count > 20 x 10 9 /L was 17 days. PBASCT led to complete remission which lasted 7 months. Partial remission was achieved subsequently to PCL relapse retreatment with PAD which was accompanied by hematological toxicity, infections and aggravation of peripheral sensory neuropathy. The patient died of progressive disease 27 months from PCL diagnosis and 8 months from its recurrence. In the second case of primary

  20. Inside and Outside the Policy Consensus: Science in a Time of Policy Upheaval in Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2011-12-01

    A public policy consensus in the United States typically lasts fifty years, an epoch in politics. During periods of relative stability, Constitutional provisions protect the status quo and Congressional procedures favor incremental changes. The consensus breaks down when elections bring members into the institutions with fundamentally different assumptions about the purpose of government. The ensuing policy upheaval brings change that is likely to be transformational with the new policy resembling little of what existed before. The important determinants of potential for policy upheaval and subsequent innovation are the magnitude of the electoral victory, committee specialization and seniority of the members remaining in Congress. The late 19th century policy arc that created the USGS and other rationally based government agencies used scientists to depoliticize important development decisions - e.g. where and when to build irrigation projects or research facilities. The country flourished through the 20th century as politicians of both parties agreed to keep science as a neutral advisor to their decision process. This consensus began to fray after WWII when nuclear physicists, among others, questioned DOD nuclear weapons development plans; the Sierra Club challenged dams on the Colorado River; and tragic mistakes such as thalidomide and DES became well known. Science became vulnerable to politicization as the prior consensus was dismantled incrementally election by election. The late 20th century saw increasingly small majority party margins and divided government became a regular election result instead of a rarity. Divided government lasted for one election cycle before party realignments in 1860, 1896 and 1934. Coincident with the recurring periods of divided government since 1980 without a recognizable realignment was a transformation in the view of science from "collaborator" to "enemy" in the policy process. Geosciences have been caught in the legislative

  1. The juniper bush of autism spectrum disorder (ASD: metabolomics, microbiomics, acetaminophen. What else?

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    Vassilios Fanos

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, a very recent survey performed on children aged 8 years assessed an overall prevalence of 16.8 autistic children every 1,000 non-ASD children (equal to 1 child every 59, with a higher prevalence in boys (26.6 per 1,000 than in girls (6.6 per 1,000.  Actually, very few human diseases like ASD can be considered the result of interplay between a multitude of factors: genetics, epigenetics, environment, socioeconomic status, maternal and neonatal infections, prenatal nutrients (i.e. folic acid, immune system, gut microbiota composition, maternal exposure to potentially toxic drugs (e.g. thalidomide and environmental toxicants, and formula feeding (instead of breastfeeding. Taken individually, each of these factors may be considered a potential risk factor for developing ASD. However, the wide range of symptoms and disabilities depicting ASD as a “galaxy of social and communication difficulties” takes place through the combination of two or more factors cited above; notably, the role of each (e.g. genetics cannot be dissociated from the context of epigenetic mechanisms and specific interactions. Today, we can accurately explore the metabolome and its variations over time in various perinatal conditions involved in ASD etiology, for example perturbations of the gut-brain axis, due to gut dysbiosis, and to the lack of the intestinal mucosal barrier, caused by inflammation. This means a great opportunity to establish an early diagnosis of ASD, to assess the risk of developing postnatal ASD and to search for new highly sensitive and specific biomarkers especially in urine. Most of the performed studies have found abnormalities in gut bacterial-derived compounds, tryptophan, vitamin B6, and purine metabolic pathways, phenylalanine and tyrosine biosynthesis, unbalanced concentration of intermediary compounds of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA, also known as the citric-acid or Krebs cycle, and finally diet-derived metabolites

  2. Carcinoma do pulmão de pequenas células: Estado da arte e perspectivas futuras Small cell lung cancer: State of the art and future perspectives

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    Fernando J Barata

    2007-07-01

    as limited stage disease. The concurrent chemovalidation therapy is the best choice. Once daily thoracic radiation therapy to doses in the range of 50 Gy to 60 Gy would reflect an accepted standard of care in daily practice. Because of the increase toxicity associated with hyper fractionated radiation, this approach is often limited to select patients. Etoposide plus cisplatin are synergistic, well tolerated and result in equal or superior survival compared with other regimens. This is the standard regimen for concomitant therapy in limited stage and for extensive disease SCLC. Despite good chemo sensitivity and radio sensitivity, the prognosis of SCLC is very poor because of the early development of resistance and the associated high tendency to recurrence, making second line treatment of SCLC a problem of real medical relevance. Topotecan now offers an effective and well tolerated monosubstance for second line therapy of recurrent SCLC. There has been a significant increase in median survival for patients with SCLC receiving topotecan plus symptomatic therapy sversus symptomatic therapy. The efficacy of this drug is comparable to the efficacy of the three-drug combination CAV. The tolerability can be improved by means of toxicity-adapted dosing. In elderly and in patients with performance status 2, topotecan is also well tolerated and has good efficacy. Initial studies into weekly administration also demonstrate good efficacy. The combination of topotecan with cranial radiotherapy is well tolerated and effective in the treatment of cerebral metastases of SCLC. New classes of agents, such as antiangiogenic agents including bevacizumab, small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors and thalidomide are being evaluated with chemotherapy for patients with extensive stage SCLC.

  3. Leucemia mielóide aguda: o olhar dos anos 2000 no Serviço de Hematologia do Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre-RS Acute myeloid leukemia from the year 2000 point of view Hematology Service - Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre-RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane I. Bittencourt

    2008-01-01

    (ECOG. Patients with promyelocytic leukemia are treated using the AIDA (GIMEMA protocol with those older than 65 years receiving palliative therapy using hydroxyurea, oral etoposide, thalidomide, subcutaneous cytarabine or an association of drugs. Since October 2001 all our "de novo"AML patients aged 15 to 65 years with non-promyelocytic acute leukemia were prospectively followed up. At diagnosis we start a three phase treatment protocol: induction with a classical "7+3"therapy regimen, that is continuous infusion of 100 mg/m²/day cytarabine for 7 days, 60 mg/m²/day daunorubicin for 3 days and on day 1 an intrathecal cytarabine in AML M4 and M5 cases. After bone marrow recovery, if complete remission is achieved, follow ups involve an identical "7+3"consolidation phase followed by two or three high dose cycles of 6 g/m²/day cytarabine for 3 days. A group of 39 patients diagnosed between October 2001 and December 2005 was followed up until June 2006. Our objectives were to evaluate the effectiveness of the protocol for remission, relapse rates and overall survival. The rate of complete remission was 75%. Relapse occurred in 12/29 (40% patients and the overall survival rate at 56 months was 37%, showing an improvement on our results of previous decades.

  4. Carcinoma do pulmão de pequenas células – Estado da arte e perspectivas futuras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando J. Barata

    2007-07-01

    cell lung cancer (SCLC. At presentation, 25% to 30% of patients will have local or regional disease, classified as limited stage disease. The concurrent chemovalidation therapy is the best choice. Once daily thoracic radiation therapy to doses in the range of 50 Gy to 60 Gy would reflect an accepted standard of care in daily practice. Because of the increase toxicity associated with hyper fractionated radiation, this approach is often limited to select patients. Etoposide plus cisplatin are synergistic, well tolerated and result in equal or superior survival compared with other regimens. This is the standard regimen for concomitant therapy in limited stage and for extensive disease SCLC.Despite good chemo sensitivity and radio sensitivity, the prognosis of SCLC is very poor because of the early development of resistance and the associated high tendency to recurrence, making second line treatment of SCLC a problem of real medical relevance. Topotecan now offers an effective and well tolerated monosubstance for second line therapy of recurrent SCLC. There has been a significant increase in median survival for patients with SCLC receiving topotecan plus symptomatic therapy versus symptomatic therapy. The efficacy of this drug is comparable to the efficacy of the three-drug combination CAV. The tolerability can be improved by means of toxicity-adapted dosing. In elderly and in patients with performance status 2, topotecan is also well tolerated and has good efficacy. Initial studies into weekly administration also demonstrate good efficacy. The combination of topotecan with cranial radiotherapy is well tolerated and effective in the treatment of cerebral metastases of SCLC. New classes of agents, such as antiangiogenic agents including bevacizumab, small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors and thalidomide are being evaluated with chemotherapy for patients with extensive stage SCLC. Palavras-chave: Carcinoma pulmonar de pequenas células, CPPC, cancro do pulm