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Sample records for thailand tropical dipterocarpacean

  1. Two mycoheterotrophic orchids from Thailand tropical dipterocarpacean forests associate with a broad diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mélanie; Watthana, Santi; Stier, Anna; Richard, Franck; Vessabutr, Suyanee; Selosse, Marc-André

    2009-08-14

    Mycoheterotrophic plants are considered to associate very specifically with fungi. Mycoheterotrophic orchids are mostly associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi in temperate regions, or with saprobes or parasites in tropical regions. Although most mycoheterotrophic orchids occur in the tropics, few studies have been devoted to them, and the main conclusions about their specificity have hitherto been drawn from their association with ectomycorrhizal fungi in temperate regions. We investigated three Asiatic Neottieae species from ectomycorrhizal forests in Thailand. We found that all were associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi, such as Thelephoraceae, Russulaceae and Sebacinales. Based on 13C enrichment of their biomass, they probably received their organic carbon from these fungi, as do mycoheterotrophic Neottieae from temperate regions. Moreover, 13C enrichment suggested that some nearby green orchids received part of their carbon from fungi too. Nevertheless, two of the three orchids presented a unique feature for mycoheterotrophic plants: they were not specifically associated with a narrow clade of fungi. Some orchid individuals were even associated with up to nine different fungi. Our results demonstrate that some green and mycoheterotrophic orchids in tropical regions can receive carbon from ectomycorrhizal fungi, and thus from trees. Our results reveal the absence of specificity in two mycoheterotrophic orchid-fungus associations in tropical regions, in contrast to most previous studies of mycoheterotrophic plants, which have been mainly focused on temperate orchids.

  2. Village-based tropical pasture seed production in Thailand and Laos – a success story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Hare

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed of 6 forage species, Mulato II hybrid brachiaria (Brachiaria ruziziensis x B. decumbens x B. brizantha, Cayman hybrid brachiaria (B. ruziziensis x B. decumbens x B. brizantha, Mombasa guinea (Panicum maximum, Tanzania guinea (P. maximum, Ubon stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis var. vulgaris x var. pauciflora and Ubon paspalum (Paspalum atratum, is currently being produced by more than 1,000 smallholder farmers in villages in northeast Thailand and northern Laos, under contract to Ubon Forage Seeds, Faculty of Agriculture, Ubon Ratchathani University, Thailand. The seed is mainly exported (95%, with the remainder sold within Thailand. Tropical Seeds LLC, a subsidiary of a Mexican seed company, Grupo Papalotla, employs Ubon Forage Seeds to manage seed production, seed sales and export, and to conduct research on new forage species. This paper details how the development of a smallholder-farmer seed-production program in Thailand and Laos produced positive social and economic outcomes for the village seed-growers. In addition, the strong emphasis on seed quality, high purity, high vigor and high germination enabled pasture growers in more than 20 tropical countries in Asia, Africa, the Pacific and Central and South America, to establish more than 20,000 ha of pastures over the past 3 years. 

  3. Conducting model ecosystem studies in tropical climate zones: lessons learned from Thailand and way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daam, Michiel A; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2011-04-01

    Little research has been done so far into the environmental fate and side effects of pesticides in the tropics. In addition, those studies conducted in tropical regions have focused almost exclusively on single species laboratory tests. Hence, fate and effects of pesticides on higher-tier levels have barely been studied under tropical conditions. To address this lack of knowledge, four outdoor aquatic model ecosystem experiments using two different test systems were conducted in Thailand evaluating the insecticide chlorpyrifos, the herbicide linuron and the fungicide carbendazim. Results of these experiments and comparisons of recorded fate and effects with temperate studies have been published previously. The present paper discusses the pros and cons of the methodologies applied and provides indications for i) possible improvements; ii) important aspects that should be considered when performing model ecosystem experiments in the tropics; iii) future research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Conducting model ecosystem studies in tropical climate zones: Lessons learned from Thailand and way forward

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daam, Michiel A., E-mail: mdaam@isa.utl.pt [Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Technical University of Lisbon, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisbon (Portugal); Van den Brink, Paul J., E-mail: Paul.vandenbrink@wur.nl [Alterra, Wageningen University and Research centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Wageningen University, Department of Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management, Wageningen University and Research centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2011-04-15

    Little research has been done so far into the environmental fate and side effects of pesticides in the tropics. In addition, those studies conducted in tropical regions have focused almost exclusively on single species laboratory tests. Hence, fate and effects of pesticides on higher-tier levels have barely been studied under tropical conditions. To address this lack of knowledge, four outdoor aquatic model ecosystem experiments using two different test systems were conducted in Thailand evaluating the insecticide chlorpyrifos, the herbicide linuron and the fungicide carbendazim. Results of these experiments and comparisons of recorded fate and effects with temperate studies have been published previously. The present paper discusses the pros and cons of the methodologies applied and provides indications for i) possible improvements; ii) important aspects that should be considered when performing model ecosystem experiments in the tropics; iii) future research. - Research highlights: > Methodologies used overall seemed adequate to evaluate pesticide stress. > Identification and sampling of tropical macroinvertebrates should be improved. > Additional studies needed for different compounds and greater geographical scale. > Different exposure regimes and ecosystem types should be simulated. > Trophic interrelationship and recovery potential need to be evaluated. - Methodologies for conducting model ecosystem studies in the tropics.

  5. CO2 efflux from subterranean nests of ant communities in a seasonal tropical forest, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasin, Sasitorn; Ohashi, Mizue; Yamada, Akinori; Hashimoto, Yoshiaki; Tasen, Wattanachai; Kume, Tomonori; Yamane, Seiki

    2014-10-01

    Many ant species construct subterranean nests. The presence of their nests may explain soil respiration "hot spots", an important factor in the high CO2 efflux from tropical forests. However, no studies have directly measured CO2 efflux from ant nests. We established 61 experimental plots containing 13 subterranean ant species to evaluate the CO2 efflux from subterranean ant nests in a tropical seasonal forest, Thailand. We examined differences in nest CO2 efflux among ant species. We determined the effects of environmental factors on nest CO2 efflux and calculated an index of nest structure. The mean CO2 efflux from nests was significantly higher than those from the surrounding soil in the wet and dry seasons. The CO2 efflux was species-specific, showing significant differences among the 13 ant species. The soil moisture content significantly affected nest CO2 efflux, but there was no clear relationship between nest CO2 efflux and nest soil temperature. The diameter of the nest entrance hole affected CO2 efflux. However, there was no significant difference in CO2 efflux rates between single-hole and multiple-hole nests. Our results suggest that in a tropical forest ecosystem the increase in CO2 efflux from subterranean ant nests is caused by species-specific activity of ants, the nest soil environment, and nest structure.

  6. Impact of tropical forage seed development in villages in Thailand and Laos: Research to village farmer production to seed export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Hare

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Seed of 6 forage varieties, Mulato II hybrid brachiaria, Cayman hybrid brachiaria, Mombasa guinea, Tanzania guinea, Ubon stylo and Ubon paspalum, are currently being produced by more than 1000 smallholder farmers in villages in northeast Thailand and northern Laos, under contract to Ubon Forage Seeds, Faculty of Agriculture, Ubon Ratchathani University, Thailand. The seed is mainly exported overseas (95% and the remainder is sold within Thailand. Tropical Seeds LLC, a subsidiary of the Mexican seed company, Grupo Papalotla, employs the seed producing and seed research group, Ubon Forage Seeds, to manage seed production, seed sales and export, and to conduct research on new forage species. This paper discusses in detail how the development in villages of a smallholder farmer seed production program has had positive social and economic outcomes for the village seed growers and enabled farmers in other countries to receive high quality forage seeds. The strong emphasis on seed quality, high purity, high vigor and high germination, has had a large impact on tropical pastures in more than 20 tropical countries in Asia, Africa, the Pacific and Central and South America.

  7. Characterization of Exopolysaccharides Produced by Thermophilic Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Tropical Fruits of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthavee, Wanchai; Noda, Masafumi; Danshiitsoodol, Narandalai; Kumagai, Takanori; Sugiyama, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we have obtained two exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing thermophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that were isolated from tropical fruits of Thailand. The two strains, designated LY45 and PY45, were identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactobacillus amylovorus, respectively. Both plant-derived LAB strains, which produce neutral EPSs together with the acidic one, can grow vigorously at 45°C and even at 50°C. Hyaluronidase (EC 3.2.1.35), which catalyzes the degradation of hyaluronic acid, activates an inflammatory reaction. Interestingly, EPSs produced by the LY45 and PY45 strains were found to inhibit hyaluronidase activity at the same order of IC50 values as did sodium cromoglicate and dipotassium glycyrrhizinate, which are well-known as anti-inflammatory agents. The LY45-derived neutral EPS consists of glucose and mannose as monosaccharide components, whereas the acidic one contains mainly mannose, together with glucose and galactose. On the other hand, although Lactobacillus amylovorus PY45 also produces neutral and acidic EPSs, the main monosaccharide in both EPSs is mannose, and glucose is a minor component. Furthermore, the PY45 strain may be probiotically and industrially useful because the microorganism can utilize starch and glycogen as carbon sources.

  8. Field measurements for evaluating the RZWQM and PESTFADE models for the tropical zone of Thailand.

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    Shrestha, Sangam; Datta, Avishek

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of the field scale agricultural non-point source (NPS) simulation model against field experimental data is an important step that must be considered before a model can be used as a management tool. Therefore, the present study focuses on the testing of two NPS models known as the RZWQM (Root Zone Water Quality Model) and the PESTFADE (PESTicide Fate And Dynamics in the Environment). These models are used to predict the soil water content, metribuzin fate, and transport in a sprinkler-irrigated soybean field located at the experimental farm of the Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) in the Pathumthani Province, Thailand. Field soil water content and metribuzin residue adsorbed at soil profile depths of 0-10, 10-20, and 30-40 cm at different time periods were intensively measured by the gravimetric method and Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), respectively. When comparing the field measured data, it was observed that the RZWQM performed better in simulating the soil water fcontent, whereas the performance of the PESTFADE model was better at simulating the metribuzin residue in the soil. Specifically, a reasonable agreement existed between the measured soil water content and that predicted by the RZWQM for 0-10 and 30-40 cm soil depths. The model slightly overpredicted the metribuzin residue at 0-10 cm soil depth one day after herbicide application, whereas the prediction of metribuzin residue at 10-20 and 30-40 cm soil depths was in accordance with the measured values. The PESTFADE model performed relatively well in simulating the soil water content at 10-20 cm and metribuzin residue concentration at 0-10 and 10-20 cm soil profile depths. However, the model performed relatively poorly at 30-40 cm soil profile depth. These results indicate that when properly calibrated, both the RZWQM and PESTFADE models can be used to predict the movement of water and metribuzin residue in the soil of tropical zones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd

  9. Conducting model ecosystem studies in tropical climate zones: lessons learned from Thailand and way forward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daam, M.A.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2011-01-01

    Little research has been done so far into the environmental fate and side effects of pesticides in the tropics. In addition, those studies conducted in tropical regions have focused almost exclusively on single species laboratory tests. Hence, fate and effects of pesticides on higher-tier levels

  10. Incidence and Clinical Outcome of Acute Liver Failure Caused by Dengue in a Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kye Mon, Khin; Nontprasert, Apichart; Kittitrakul, Chatporn; Tangkijvanich, Pisit; Leowattana, Wattana; Poovorawan, Kittiyod

    2016-12-07

    Acute liver failure is an atypical manifestation of dengue with a high mortality. We performed a retrospective cohort study at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Bangkok, Thailand. In total, 1,926 patients with serologically confirmed dengue were enrolled in the study from 2011 to 2015. Of these, six patients presented with acute liver failure, four died, and two survived. The incidence of dengue-associated acute liver failure was 0.31%. Dengue-associated acute liver failure was most common among young adults (median age, 29 years). The median duration from onset of fever to development of acute liver failure was 7.5 days. Patients with the severe stage of dengue had a higher risk of developing acute liver failure (P acute liver failure were an age of ≤ 40 years (odds ratio [OR] = 1.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-2.0, P 10% ratio of atypical lymphocytes (OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.8-3.0, P acute liver failure in patients with dengue was quite low, but its impact on morbidity, mortality, and poor clinical outcomes was significant. In summary, this study indicates that various baseline risk factors are associated with acute liver failure in patients with dengue. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. NPP Tropical Forest: Khao Chong, Thailand, 1962-1965, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains one net primary productivity (NPP) data file and three climate data files (.txt format) for a fully closed tropical rainforest in the Khao...

  12. Decadal scale droughts over northwestern Thailand over the past 448 years: links to the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckley, Brendan M. [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Tree-Ring Laboratory, Palisades, NY (United States); Palakit, Kritsadapan; Duangsathaporn, Khwanchai [Kasetsart University Faculty of Forestry, Laboratory of Tropical Dendrochronology, Bangkok (Thailand); Sanguantham, Prasong; Prasomsin, Patsi [Kasetsart University Faculty of Forestry, Department of Forest Management, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2007-07-15

    A 448-year teak chronology from northwestern Thailand is used to assess past changes in the strength of the summer monsoon. The chronology is based on 30 living trees that extend from 1604 to 2005, and a 47-stump chronology that spans from 1558 to 1903. We used methods of cross dating and chronology building that address problems specifically found in teak. The result is a robust chronology with strong signal strength back to 1600 ad, and with variability retained at the multi-decadal scale. Variability in annual growth in teak from this area is dependent on rainfall and soil moisture availability at both the beginning and end of the monsoon season as confirmed by comparisons with temperature, rainfall and PDSI data. These correlation analyses confirm that our record is a proxy for summer monsoon strength and/or duration, and highlight the importance of soil moisture availability in the seasons of transition. The chronology reveals two prominent periods of decadal-scale drought in the early and mid 1700s that correspond to persistently warm sea surface temperature anomalies in the tropical Pacific as derived from Galapagos Island coral records. Speleothem data from central India also indicate protracted periods of drought for the 1700s. While these broad-scale eighteenth-century persistent droughts may be related to protracted El Nino-like conditions in the tropical Pacific, regional climate forcing over the Indian Ocean and western Pacific sectors appears to be a strong contributor as well. Spectral analyses reveal power in the ENSO range of variability from 2.2 to 4 years, and at the multi-decadal scale at 48.5 years. (orig.)

  13. Reconstruction of pollution history of organic contaminants in the upper Gulf of Thailand by using sediment cores: first report from Tropical Asia Core (TACO) project.

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    Boonyatumanond, Ruchaya; Wattayakorn, Gullaya; Amano, Atsuko; Inouchi, Yoshio; Takada, Hideshige

    2007-05-01

    This paper reports the first reconstruction of a pollution history in tropical Asia from sediment cores. Four sediment core samples were collected from an offshore transect in the upper Gulf of Thailand and were analyzed for organic micropollutants. The cores were dated by measurement of (137)Cs and geochronometric molecular markers (linear alkylbenzenes, LABs; and tetrapropylene-type alkylbenzenes, TABs). Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) concentrations showed a subsurface maximum in layers corresponding to the 1970s, indicating the effectiveness of regulation of PCBs in Thailand. LAB concentrations increased over time, indicating the increase in input of sewage into the Gulf during the last 30 years. Hopanes, biomarkers of petroleum pollution, also increased over time, indicating that the inputs of automobile-derived hydrocarbons to the coastal zone has been increasing owing to the increased number of cars in Thailand since the 1950s. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) increased in the layers corresponding to the 1950s and 1960s, probably because of the increased inputs of automobile-derived PAHs. PAH concentrations in the upper layers corresponding to the 1970s and later remained constant or increased. The absence of a subsurface maximum of PAHs contrasts with results observed in industrialized countries. This can be explained by the facts that the Thai economy did not depend on coal as an energy source in the 1960s and that economic growth has continued since the 1970s to the present. The deposition flux of PAHs and hopanes showed a dramatic offshore decrease, whereas that of LABs was uniform.

  14. Carbon Dynamics of Surface Soil after Land Use Change in a Seasonal Tropical Forest in North-eastern Thailand: Application of a Stable Carbon Isotope Mixing Model

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    Sakai, M.; Visaratana, T.; Sukchan, S.; Thaingam, R.; Okada, N.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, soil is vital to the mitigation of climate change. In tropical forests, the soil contains an estimated 216 Gt of carbon, equivalent to half of the total carbon in the tropical forest ecosystem. Little is known regarding changes in soil carbon following land use changes in tropical regions. We examined the differences in carbon dynamics in a chronosequence of Acacia mangium plantations established on grasslands following the deforestation of natural forest in north-eastern Thailand. The study site was located at the Sakaerat Silvicultural Research Station (14º28'06.1″N, 101º54'15.0″E; altitude 420 m asl), Nakhon Rachasima Province, north-eastern Thailand. Mean annual air temperature was 26ºC, and annual precipitation was 1,100 mm, with a dry (November-April) and wet (May-October) season. Soil carbon and the stable carbon isotope ratio (d13C) in the surface soil (0-5 and 5-10 cm deep) were determined at 12 and 24 years following establishment of A. mangium plantations, as well as for secondary forest and grassland. Using the stable carbon isotope mixing model based on differences in the natural abundance of d13C in plants with C3 (i.e., trees) and C4 (i.e., grasses) pathways for CO2 fixation, the amount of soil carbon derived from the plantations, forest, and grassland was calculated. Soil carbon at a depth of 10 cm was higher in the secondary forest (1,929 gCm-2) and grassland (2,508 gCm-2) than in the plantations (1,703 gCm-2 at 12 years, 1,673gCm-2 at 24 years). Soil carbon derived from A. mangium was 67% (0-5 cm deep) and 62% (5-10 cm deep) of total soil carbon at 12 years, and was 100% (0-5 cm deep) and 90% (5-10 cm deep) at 24 years in the plantations. We found that most of the soil carbon at a depth of 0-5 cm in the young plantation changed from grass-derived to tree-derived carbon within a relatively short period of 24 years. Because of changes in soil carbon, exotic, fast growing plantations like those of A. mangium are needed to quickly

  15. Application of the IPCC Waste Model to solid waste disposal sites in tropical countries: case study of Thailand.

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    Wangyao, Komsilp; Towprayoon, Sirintornthep; Chiemchaisri, Chart; Gheewala, Shabbir H; Nopharatana, Annop

    2010-05-01

    Measurements of landfill methane emission were performed at nine solid waste disposal sites in Thailand, including five managed sanitary landfills (four deep and one shallow landfills) and four unmanaged landfills (three deep and one shallow dumpsites). It was found that methane emissions during the rainy season were about five to six times higher than those during the winter and summer seasons in the case of managed landfills and two to five times higher in the case of unmanaged landfills. Methane emission estimate using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Waste Model was compared with the actual field measurement from the studied disposal sites with methane correction factors and methane oxidation factors that were obtained by error function analysis with default values of half-life parameters. The methane emissions from the first-order decay model from the IPCC Waste Model yielded fair results compared to field measurements. The best fitting values of methane correction factor were 0.65, 0.20, 0.15, and 0.1 for deep landfills, shallow landfills, deep dumpsites, and shallow dumpsites, respectively. Using these key parameters in the case of Thailand, it was estimated that 89.22 Gg of methane were released from solid waste disposal sites into the atmosphere in 2006.

  16. Subsidence and soil CO2 efflux in tropical peatland in southern Thailand under various water table and management conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nagano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available At the Bacho peatland in southern Thailand, peat subsidence was measured at four locations on abandoned agricultural land (degraded peat swamp forest and at one location in a conservation zone, at monthly intervals over a period of more than 20 years. Average peat subsidence rates during the observation period were 3.1–5.2 cm y−1 on the degraded peatland, reducing to 1.8–2.6 cm y−1 when peat loss due to field fires was discounted, and 1.0 cm y−1 reducing to 0.7 cm y-1 in the conservation zone. Due to martial law restrictions on access to the Bacho site, measurements of the peat soil respiration rate under various water table conditions were made mostly at other sites in Thailand with similar climate. During these measurements the position of the water table ranged from 0.92 m above the peat surface to more than one metre below it, and daily mean respiration rates ranged from 0.57 to 8.20 μmol CO2 m−2 s−1. The CO2 efflux attributed to peat respiration was 13.7–18.9 Mg ha−1 y−1 on the degraded peatland but only 7.5 Mg ha−1 y−1 in the conservation zone. To simulate the CO2 efflux resulting from soil respiration at Bacho on the basis of data collected elsewhere, we developed an empirical three-stage model (NAIS Peat Model that treats the position of the water table as a proxy variable. The observed values of peat subsidence were in good agreement with simulated values of CO2 efflux in two tests. The implications for peatland management are considered.

  17. Effects of phosphorus addition on nitrogen cycle and fluxes of N2O and CH4 in tropical tree plantation soils in Thailand

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    Taiki Mori

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An incubation experiment was conducted to test the effects of phosphorus (P addition on nitrous oxide (N2O emissions and methane (CH4 uptakes, using tropical tree plantation soils in Thailand. Soil samples were taken from five forest stands—Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia mangium, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Hopea odorata, and Xylia xylocarpa—and incubated at 80% water holding capacity. P addition stimulated N2O emissions only in Xylia xylocarpa soils. Since P addition tended to increase net ammonification rates in Xylia xylocarpa soils, the stimulated N2O emissions were suggested to be due to the stimulated nitrogen (N cycle by P addition and the higher N supply for nitrification and denitrification. In other soils, P addition had no effects on N2O emissions or soil N properties, except that P addition tended to increase the soil microbial biomass N in Acacia auriculiformis soils. No effects of P addition were observed on CH4 uptakes in any soil. It is suggested that P addition on N2O and CH4 fluxes at the study site were not significant, at least under laboratory conditions.

  18. Is Your Ethics Committee Efficient? Using “IRB Metrics” as a Self-Assessment Tool for Continuous Improvement at the Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Pornpimon; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Limphattharacharoen, Chanthima; Prakobtham, Sukanya; Pengsaa, Krisana; Khusmith, Srisin

    2014-01-01

    Tensions between researchers and ethics committees have been reported in several institutions. Some reports suggest researchers lack confidence in the quality of institutional review board (IRB) reviews, and that emphasis on strict procedural compliance and ethical issues raised by the IRB might unintentionally lead to delays in correspondence between researchers and ethics committees, and/or even encourage prevarication/equivocation, if researchers perceive committee concerns and criticisms unjust. This study systematically analyzed the efficiency of different IRB functions, and the relationship between efficiency and perceived quality of the decision-making process. The major purposes of this study were thus (1) to use the IRB Metrics developed by the Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Thailand (FTM-EC) to assess the operational efficiency and perceived effectiveness of its ethics committees, and (2) to determine ethical issues that may cause the duration of approval process to be above the target limit of 60 days. Based on a literature review of definitions and methods used and proposed for use, in assessing aspects of IRB quality, an “IRB Metrics” was developed to assess IRB processes using a structure-process-outcome measurement model. To observe trends in the indicators evaluated, data related to all protocols submitted to the two panels of the FTM-EC (clinical and non-clinical), between January 2010–September 2013, were extracted and analyzed. Quantitative information based on IRB Metrics structure-process-outcome illuminates different areas for internal-process improvement. Ethical issues raised with researchers by the IRB, which were associated with the duration of the approval process in protocol review, could be considered root causes of tensions between the parties. The assessment of IRB structure-process-outcome thus provides a valuable opportunity to strengthen relationships and reduce conflicts between IRBs and researchers, with

  19. Estimation of pathways of the production of greenhouse gases in the tropical swamp forest in Thailand by stable isotope investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boontanon, Narin; Ueda, Shingo; Wada, Eitaro

    2008-09-01

    Dynamics of greenhouse gases (N(2)O and CH(4)) with the dry-wet cycle along with the variation of oxidation-reduction boundaries were investigated in the tropical wetland in monsoon Asia. It was clarified that the production of N(2)O and CH(4) was closely related to the development of a redox boundary in the Bang Nara River systems. An intermittent increase in N(2)O was observed at the beginning of the rainy season, when a large amount of easily decomposable organic matter was introduced into the river. After 10 days, when dissolved oxygen was consumed completely at the middle reaches, the emission of CH(4) became maximal due to the possible occurrence of denitrification. The distribution of stable isotope ratios in N(2)O clearly demonstrated that nitrification is the major process for its production. Furthermore, the production of N(2)O in this study area was found to vary in time and space with changes in the redox boundary along the water flow.

  20. Photoprotection of evergreen and drought-deciduous tree leaves to overcome the dry season in monsoonal tropical dry forests in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Atsushi; Yamazaki, Jun-Ya; Harayama, Hisanori; Yazaki, Kenichi; Ladpala, Phanumard; Nakano, Takashi; Adachi, Minaco; Yoshimura, Kenichi; Panuthai, Samreong; Staporn, Duriya; Maeda, Takahisa; Maruta, Emiko; Diloksumpun, Sapit; Puangchit, Ladawan

    2014-01-01

    In tropical dry forests, uppermost-canopy leaves of evergreen trees possess the ability to use water more conservatively compared with drought-deciduous trees, which may result from significant differences in the photoprotective mechanisms between functional types. We examined the seasonal variations in leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and the amounts of photosynthetic pigments within lamina of the uppermost-canopy leaves of three drought-deciduous trees (Vitex peduncularis Wall., Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.) W. Theob., Shorea siamensis Miq.), a semi-deciduous tree (Irvingia malayana Miq.) and two evergreen trees (Hopea ferrea Lanessan and Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels) in Thailand. Area-based maximum carbon assimilation rates (Amax) decreased during the dry season, except in S. siamensis. The electron transport rate (ETR) remained unchanged in deciduous trees, but decreased during the dry season in evergreen and semi-deciduous trees. In the principal component analysis, the first axis (Axis 1) accounted for 44.3% of the total variation and distinguished deciduous from evergreen trees. Along Axis 1, evergreen trees were characterized by a high Stern-Volmer non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ), high xanthophyll cycle pigments/chlorophyll and a high de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle, whereas the deciduous trees were characterized by a high ETR, a high quantum yield of PSII (ΦPSII = (Fm(') -F)/Fm(')) and a high mass-based Amax under high-light conditions. These findings indicate that drought-deciduous trees showing less conservative water use tend to dissipate a large proportion of electron flow through photosynthesis or alternative pathways. In contrast, the evergreens showed more conservative water use, reduced Amax and ETR and enhanced NPQ and xanthophyll cycle pigments/chlorophyll during the dry season, indicating that down-regulated photosynthesis with enhanced thermal dissipation of excess light energy played an important role in

  1. Elsholtzia (Lamiaceae) in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongcheewin, B.; Chantaranotha, P.; Paton, A.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Elsholtzia (Lamiaceae) in Thailand is revised in preparation for the Flora of Thailand treatment. Eight species are found in Thailand, three of which, E. blanda, E. kachinensis and E. pilosa, are lectotypified. Elsholtzia griffithii and E. penduliflora are recorded for Thailand for the first

  2. Bone marrow leishmaniasis: a review of situation in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2011-10-01

    Leishmaniasis is an important tropical vector-borne disease. This infection can be seen in tropical area and it is considered to be one of the most important vector-borne infections at present. The general situation of the leishmaniasis in Thailand is hereby reviewed. Although Thailand is a tropical country, the leishmaniasis is not endemic but sporadic. The imported cases are documented in some literatures. The serious form of leishmaniasis, the visceral leishmaniasis is also detectable in Thailand. Also, the author performed an in depth literature review of the reports of bone marrow leishmaniasis, a specific kind of visceral leishmaniasis, in Thailand in order to summarize the characteristics of this infection among Thai patients. According to this review, there have been at least 5 reports in the literature of 6 cases of bone marrow leishmaniasis in the Thai population, of which no case was lethal. Concerning the clinical manifestations, all except had prolonged fever with unknown origin. From physical examination, all had hepatosplenomegaly. The striking findings were active hemophagocytosis with increased proliferation of lymphoidplasma cell line in the bone marrow and amastigotes of Leishmania donovani was demonstrated. Considering the treatment, pantavalent antimony compound was used and the excellent improvement and complete recovery. Finally, the author also discussed on the importance of leishmaniasis in Thailand relating to the present globalization and good traveling system. Copyright © 2011 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Influenza-associated mortality in Thailand, 2006?2011

    OpenAIRE

    Aungkulanon, Suchunya; Cheng, Po-Yung; Kusreesakul, Khanitta; Bundhamcharoen, Kanitta; Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Margaret, McCarron; Olsen, Sonja

    2015-01-01

    Background Influenza-associated mortality in subtropical or tropical regions, particularly in developing countries, remains poorly quantified and often underestimated. We analyzed data in Thailand, a middle-income tropical country with good vital statistics and influenza surveillance data. Methods We obtained weekly mortality data for all-cause and three underlying causes of death (circulatory and respiratory diseases, and pneumonia and influenza), and weekly influenza virus data, from 2006 t...

  4. Smart disaster mitigation in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimmanee, S.; Ekkawatpanit, C.; Asanuma, H.

    2016-04-01

    Thailand is notoriously exposed to several natural disasters, from heavy thunder storms to earthquakes and tsunamis, since it is located in the tropical area and has tectonic cracks underneath the ground. Besides these hazards flooding, despite being less severe, occurs frequently, stays longer than the other disasters, and affects a large part of the national territory. Recently in 2011 have also been recorded the devastating effects of major flooding causing the economic damages and losses around 50 billion dollars. Since Thailand is particularly exposed to such hazards, research institutions are involved in campaigns about monitoring, prevention and mitigation of the effects of such phenomena, with the aim to secure and protect human lives, and secondly, the remarkable cultural heritage. The present paper will first make a brief excursus on the main Thailand projects aimed at the mitigation of natural disasters, referring to projects of national and international relevance, being implemented, such as the ESCAP1999 (flow regime regulation and water conservation). Adaptable devices such as foldable flood barriers and hydrodynamically supported temporary banks have been utilized when flooding. In the second part of the paper, will be described some new ideas concerning the use of smart and biomimicking column structures capable of high-velocity water interception and velocity detection in the case of tsunami. The pole configuration is composite cylindrical shell structure embedded with piezoceramic sensor. The vortex shedding of the flow around the pole induces the vibration and periodically strains the piezoelectric element, which in turn generates the electrical sensorial signal. The internal space of the shell is filled with elastic foam to enhance the load carrying capability due to hydrodynamic application. This more rigid outer shell inserted with soft core material resemble lotus stem in nature in order to prolong local buckling and ovalization of column

  5. Mid-Tertiary paleoenvironments in Thailand: pollen evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sepulchre

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Only few well-dated records document the evolution of Southeast Asian paleoenvironments during the Cenozoic. Here we analyse continental pollen assemblages from Late Oligocene and Miocene fossil sites of Thailand. In agreement with previous studies, palynoflora from the Oligocene suggests warm temperate forested habitats at 24–26 Ma, whereas Middle Miocene assemblages are made of thermophilous taxa. This change can be linked to the major climate reorganization that brought warmer and wetter conditions over Southeast Asia around 22 Ma. This study also provides the first submillional records from the Middle Miocene of Thailand. Thirteen samples of lignite layers from the sivaladapid-bearing Mae Moh site, dated between 13.3 and 13.1 Ma, and six samples from the hominoid-bearing Chiang Muan deposit, dated between 12.4 and 12.2 Ma, document oscillations between tropical woodlands and grasslands in northern Thailand. These pollen records likely reflect climate variations linked to insolation variations. Late Miocene palynological assemblages from Khorat, northeastern Thailand, document fluviolacustrine paleoenvironments alternatively covered by thermophilous trees and grasslands. These records show that both sivaladapids and early hominoids from Thailand have evolved in tropical environments with high variability in the vegetation cover.

  6. A new species of Lecanorchis (Orchidaceae from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somran Suddee

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Lecanorchis betongensis, a new species from tropical rain forest in southern peninsular Thailand, is described and illustrated. The combination of semicircular column wings and a labellum with an odd number of major veins (but devoid of calli places the new species in sect. Lecanorchis. However, the lack of any fusion between the labellum and the column readily distinguishes L. betongensis from all other species of the genus. The new species seems morphologically closest to L. malaccensis from Thailand, Malaysia and Sumatra.

  7. Thailand: refining cultural values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanakul, P

    1990-01-01

    In the second of a set of three articles concerned with "bioethics on the Pacific Rim," Ratanakul, director of a research center for Southeast Asian cultures in Thailand, provides an overview of bioethical issues in his country. He focuses on four issues: health care allocation, AIDS, determination of death, and euthanasia. The introduction of Western medicine into Thailand has brought with it a multitude of ethical problems created in part by tension between Western and Buddhist values. For this reason, Ratanakul concludes that "bioethical enquiry in Thailand must not only examine ethical dilemmas that arise in the actual practice of medicine and research in the life sciences, but must also deal with the refinement and clarification of applicable Thai cultural and moral values."

  8. Forensic forest ecology : unraveling the stand history of tropical forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlam, M.

    2014-01-01

    Tropical forests are occasionally hit by intense disturbances like hurricanes or droughts that kill many trees. We found evidence for such intense disturbances in a tree-ring study on tropical forests in Bolivia, Cameroon and Thailand. To reconstruct past disturbances we applied ‘forensic

  9. Improving Dengue Virus Capture Rates in Humans and Vectors in Kamphaeng Phet Province, Thailand, Using an Enhanced Spatiotemporal Surveillance Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-18

    THOMAS AND OTHERS ENHANCED SURVEILLANCE FOR DENGUE Improving Dengue Virus Capture Rates in Humans and Vectors in Kamphaeng Phet Province...of Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand. Abstract. Dengue is of public health importance in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Dengue virus (DENV...with confirmed dengue (initiates) and associated cluster individuals (associates) with entomologic sampling. A total of 438 associates were enrolled

  10. IDRC in Thailand

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    New knowledge about complex issues such as pension plans has improved rural employment, especially for women. IDRCinternAtionAl develoPMent reSeArCh Centre. IDRC in Thailand. IDRC support is helping: □ Children experience less pain from illness. □ Small poultry producers survive bird flu control measures.

  11. Copyright Perspectives from Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereebenjapol, Piyathida

    2010-01-01

    Foreign students often have different conceptions of copyright than do American students. This article summarizes Thailand's Copyright Act B.E. 2537 (1994). Also included are guidelines for fair use from a Thai university, as well as a literature review discussing copyright issues in Taiwan and Japan.

  12. Thailand power profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breeze, Paul.

    1988-01-01

    After briefly outlining the recent political history in Thailand, the organization of the electricity supply system is described. The growth in power plants and the variety of their fuels are discussed. The government is currently pursuing an energy policy with an emphasis on indigenous resources and the electricity generators are encouraged to use natural gas.

  13. Sex tourism in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerkwijk, C

    1992-01-01

    Many foreigners visit Thailand in search of sex. While long-distance tourism was long enjoyed by members of more privileged social classes, even the lower economical classes of Japan, Malaysia, Europe, America, and Australia can now afford to travel over long distances. This relatively new breed of tourist is more likely to be of lower socioeconomic and educational status and less likely to use condoms when having sex. An estimated 30,000 sex workers are active in Bangkok, of whom 7000/10,000 are females who work specifically in the tourism sector. 1/2-1/3 of the 600 commercial sex establishments in the city are visited by foreigners. Phuket, Pattaya, Koh Samui, and Chiangmai are also well-frequented by sex tourists. Overall, a large, diverse, inexpensive, and accessible commercial sex market exists in Thailand. One may meet sex workers quasi-ubiquitously and be assured to find someone capable of meeting one's sexual needs. With these attributes, Thailand strongly attracts tourists in search of sex. A certain degree of recklessness also prevails among those on vacation. Away from the peers and social mores of their native lands, tourists may engage in sexually activities without criticism. Likewise, Thai sex workers who cater to foreigners, especially females, enjoy more freedom and control in sexual relations than their peers who work among nationals. Neither single nor married women in Thailand are allowed much sexual freedom and are traditionally expected to be obliging docile, and submissive. The greater than normal personal latitude enjoyed by both sex worker and foreigner lead to more negotiation on condom use and overall lower use. As such, Thailand's commercial sex market with foreigners' involvement therein threatens to spread HIV to many other countries throughout the world.

  14. Sulfur cycling and sulfide intrusion in mixed Southeast Asian tropical seagrass meadows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer, Marianne; Pedersen, Ole; Ikejima, Kou

    2006-01-01

    Seagrass distribution and sediment biogeochemical conditions were measured around Libong Island in the Andaman Sea, Thailand. Seagrass diversity was moderate for a tropical site (four species found: Cymodocea rotundata, Enhalus acoroides, Halophila ovalis and Thalassia hemprichii), with the dimin......Seagrass distribution and sediment biogeochemical conditions were measured around Libong Island in the Andaman Sea, Thailand. Seagrass diversity was moderate for a tropical site (four species found: Cymodocea rotundata, Enhalus acoroides, Halophila ovalis and Thalassia hemprichii...

  15. Oligarchy in Thailand?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Rhoden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern conception of oligarchy, which can be housed under an authoritarian regime as easily as it can under a liberal democratic one, can affect our understanding of the potential national political repercussions of extreme inequalities of wealth. This article has two goals: (1 to conceptually analyse the meaning of oligarchy; and (2 to make a descriptive case for its use in the Thai context. The test case of contemporary Thailand shows what exactly an oligarch or oligarchy means under a military regime and the potential effects for national politics of an oligarchy based on material wealth. Utilizing Jeffrey A. Winters’ Aristotelian-grounded conception of oligarchy for the contemporary world, this article argues that some political outcomes in Thailand are inexplicable without recourse to a modern variant of oligarchic theory and analysis.

  16. Village power in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of the electric power system in Thailand. 99% of the country is electrified, but much of this is with diesel generators which leaves high costs but a high level of service. The paper discusses renewable energy projects which have been sited in the country, and examples of hybrid systems which have been retrofit into existing diesel generator systems. Photovoltaic and hydroelectric power projects are described. Dedicated systems have been installed for water pumping and battery charging applications.

  17. Thailand: AIDS crisis looms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D G

    1990-03-31

    Although Thailand's Ministry of Public Health has recorded slightly under 15,000 cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to date, an independent team of health and medical experts has estimated that 200,000-300,000 Thais are infected. Moreover, the team has predicted that 1.6 million people--2.5% of the population--will be infected by 1995 in the absence of an aggressive, immediate prevention campaign. When AIDS 1st emerged in Thailand in the mid-1980s, it was largely restricted to homosexual prostitutes who came into contact with foreign men in gay bars. Soon, however, HIV infections was spreading rapidly among intravenous drug abusers and the infection rate among this group is currently estimated to be 45%. Another heavily affected group has been poorly paid prostitutes who work in Thailand's brothels; rates of 44-70% infectivity have been recorded among these women. Most recently, HIV infection has shown signs of entering the general population. Of the recorded cases of HIV infection in Chiang Mai, 59% involve prostitutes, 17% are workers, 6% are civil servants, 7% are students, and 2% are housewives. The sex ratio of HIV-infected persons has changed from 17 males per 1 female in 1986 to 5 males for every 1 female in 1989. Since the change in government in 1988, Thailand has stepped up AIDS education and information dissemination activities and condom use has increased by as much as 70%. Given the gravity of the situation, however, assistance from the World Bank and United Nations agencies in addition to the World Health Organization are needed.

  18. Urologic cancer in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lojanapiwat, Bannakij

    2015-11-01

    Cancer is a major health burden among non-communicable diseases, which has had a high impact on the healthcare system in Thailand. Based on GLOBOCAN, the prevalence of urologic cancer is increasing in Thailand. Prostate, bladder and kidney cancers are 6th, 15th and 22nd most common cancers, respectively, in both males and females. Prostate cancer is the fourth most common cancer in male. Cancer in the lower socioeconomic groups is a challenging problem due to greater exposure to the risk factors and more limited access to the healthcare service. The cancers are usually detected in advanced stages of the cancer. The most common histopathological finding of kidney cancer is a renal cell carcinoma. Transitional cell carcinoma is the most common histopathology of bladder. There is a trend of stage migration to earlier stages at first presentation, probably due to public awareness and laboratory screening. Patients with early stage are treated with minimally invasive modalities such as endoscopic, laparoscopic or robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery. Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy and robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy is the mainstay treatment of localized prostate cancer with the better outcome and less complication. Androgen deprivation therapy is usually for elderly or unfit patients. The strategy for early detection of early cancer is the important role of Thai urologists to manage these three common urologic cancers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Knowledge in Goats in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Winai PRALOMKARN; Supakorn, China; Dolrudee BOONSANIT

    2012-01-01

    The goat population in Thailand is relatively small. However the past 10 years, has seen a marked increase due to an increased demand for goat meat and milk. In the past, the numbers of research publications concerning goats in Thailand were small, especially dairy goats compared with those in other economical livestock such as swine, cattle and poultry. However, the numbers have gradually increased owning to the promotion of goat production by the government. Major research areas have been f...

  20. Education for development in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasidhorn, N

    1981-06-01

    In the future freedom for Thailand and for other developing countries will depend more than ever on political stability and economic expansion. Both of these factors are critically tied to education. For nearly 50 years Thailand has struggled to make democracy in Southeast Asia a reality but with little success. If democracy in Thailand is to withstand the encroachment of communism from the east, the people need to be educated to assume their civic responsibilities. 80% of the 46 million Thai citizens live in rural areas, and agriculture is their primary occupation. Yet, if agricultural production is to keep pace with demand, the already fast growing agriculturally related services and industries must expand and move into the rural areas. This means that education must spread to a larger segment of the population in these areas. The emphasis on reading and writing must remain in education, but the aims toward which these skills are directed need to change to reflect the new purpose of education in Thailand, i.e., socioeconomic and political development. Education leaders in Thailand must replace the purely personal goals of traditional practices with social and national goals that promote development. Education for life--Thailand's new goal--focuses on the political and economic problems of the country by initially concentrating on basic literacy. Possibly the most underdeveloped resource in Thailand is the human resources of the rural population. The structure of Thai education must also change if the rural people are to be served. Additionally, education in Thailand must be spread over a longer time; it must become a lifelong experience.

  1. Tropical Rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigh, Ronald B.; Nations, James D.

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a summary of scientific knowledge about the rainforest environment, a tropical ecosystem in danger of extermination. Topics include the current state of tropical rainforests, the causes of rainforest destruction, and alternatives of rainforest destruction. (BT)

  2. Toxicity of lead and cadmium to tropical marine phytoplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne Dal; Panutrakul, Suwanna; Nyholm, Niels

    2000-01-01

    Toxicity of Pb and Cd to three tropical, marine phytoplankton species isolated from the Andaman Sea off Phuket Thailand were determined. The phytoplankton species included one diatom, Chaetoceros calcitrans, one green alga, Chlorella sp., and one chrysophyte, Dunaliella tertiolecta. The test method...

  3. Outbreak of chickenpox in a refugee camp of northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camélique Olivier

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although chickenpox is a generally mild, self-limited illness of children, it can cause fatal disease in adults. Accumulating reports from tropical countries showed a high prevalence of seronegativity among the adults, implying that varicella diseases could become a heavy burden in tropical countries. However, in the situation of humanitarian emergencies in tropical areas, chickenpox has largely been ignored as a serious communicable disease, due to lack of data regarding varicella mortality and hospital admissions in such a context. This is the first report describing an outbreak of chickenpox in a refugee camp of tropical region. In 2008, we experienced a varicella outbreak in ethnic Lao Hmong refugee camp in Phetchabun Province, northern Thailand. The attack rate was 4.0% (309/7,815 and this caused 3 hospitalizations including one who developed severe varicella pneumonia with respiratory failure. All hospitalizations were exclusively seen in adults, and the proportion of patients ≥15 years old was 13.6% (42/309. Because less exposure to varicella-zoster virus due to low population density has previously been suggested to be one of the reasons behind higher prevalence of susceptible adults in tropics, the influx of displaced people from rural areas to a densely populated asylum might result in many severe adult cases once a varicella outbreak occurs. Control interventions such as vaccination should be considered even in refugee camp, if the confluence of the risk factors present in this situation.

  4. Thailand discovers the wind power; Thailand entdeckt die Windkraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dombrowski, Katja

    2013-04-15

    In Thailand, the monsoon supplies a constant wind for months. This monsoon can be used for the power generation. The currently two wind farms in Thailand deliver contiguously an output of 207 megawatts. The utilization of wind energy is to be expanded to 1,200 megawatts up to the year 2021. Thailand's area (761 square kilometers) supplies good to excellent wind conditions for large wind power plants. Small wind power plants are suitable for the local power consumption and particularly useful in remote areas or on islands. In Southeast Asia, Vietnam has the greatest potential for the utilization of wind energy. The 3,444 km long coast of Vietnam, its mountains and the monsoon provide particularly good wind conditions. In Asia, the wind energy market is a great growth market. At this, the People's Republic of China is the world's number 1.

  5. Improving Flood Management Planning in Thailand | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Improving Flood Management Planning in Thailand. Thailand experienced its worst flooding disaster in half a century in 2011, inundating large areas of Bangkok. According to World Bank estimates, this disaster caused US$46.5 billion in damage and reduced Thailand's economic growth potential. It also raised important ...

  6. Isu Perkawinan Minoritas di Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Triyono

    2016-06-01

    Masyarakat dalam sebuah negara biasanya terbagi dalam dua kelompok besar, kelompok mayoritas dan kelompok minoritas. Kelompok mayoritas biasanya memegang kendali dalam setiap kebijakan yang akan dilaksanakan dalam lingkungan masyarakat tersebut, sementara kelompok minoritas terkadang dapat ikut berperan di dalamnya dan terkadang juga tidak mendapatkan peran apapun dalam melaksanakan sebuah kebijakan di lingkungan tersebut. Negara Thailand merupakan memiliki keunikan tersendiri, karena selain tetap memegang kebijakan dalam melaksanakan perkawinan adat ketimuran yang kental dengan nilai-nilai budaya Thailand, negara gajah putih ini juga memberikan ruang kepada perkawinan kelompok minoritas yang ada di negara itu. Perkawinan minoritas yang terjadi di negara ini antara lain adalah isu perkawinan sejenis yang dilakukan oleh kelompok minoritas LGBT dan isu perkawinan beda agama yang umumnya terjadi antara mereka yang beragama Islam dan Buddha di wilayah Thailand Selatan.

  7. Managing School Safety in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pachernwaat Srichai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Child injuries are replacing infectious disease as the leading cause of mortality in developing countries. As school is one of the environments where children spend significant time during their formative years, school safety should be effectively managed, promoted, and prioritized. In Thailand however, school safety is considered to be of low priority compared with other educational issues, lacking effective policy, and with schools struggling to justify safety costs. This article proposes a novel application of lean thinking to control the cost, bureaucracy, and waste associated with managing and administering a safe school. Through a case study in northern Thailand, one primary school’s current safety scenario is reviewed with regard to people, finance, and operations, before applying a lean framework to improve the handling of safety suggestions. Results show significant capacity to improve the management of school safety, along with management implications and potential to expand the framework beyond Thailand.

  8. Pleistocene microvertebrates from fissure-fillings in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Suteethorn, Varavudh

    Microvertebrates (and among them specially, rodents) have contributed to the elaboration of precise biochronological time scales and to the reconstitution of Pleistocene paleoenvironments in several parts of the world (North America, Africa, Europe and Japan). They have been demonstrated to be highly sensitive to climatic changes since they are very sensitive to vegetation changes. Up to now, no data is available for Southeast Asia and very few information is available concerning the nature of climatic changes which affected that part of the tropical world during the Pleistocene. In the past few years, we have discovered several fissure fillings in Thailand yielding numerous remains of microvertebrates which have been extracted by dissolution in acetic acid solution. These deposits are the result of the feeding activity of predators, like owls or diurnal raptors, whose pellets are accumulated in caves or fissures. Eleven localities, located in Central (2), Eastern (1), Western (2) and Peninsular Thailand (6) have been investigated so far. Several rodent species, belonging to 9 genera of Murinae (rats and mice) and 9 genera of Sciuridae (squirrels) have been identified in these localities. The most important differences with the extant representatives often concern the size of the teeth of these fossil species. The meaning of these size differences is not yet clearly understood since they can be attributed either to significant time differences between localities (microevolution) or as the result of size variations related to climatic changes (clinical variations). More data will have to be collected to calibrate the temporal frame. Already, important modification of the geographic distribution of some species have been discovered which testify that during the Pleistocene, significative climatic changes have affected Southeast Asia. For example, Exilisciurus, a squirrel which is presently restricted to Borneo has been recognized in Peninsular Thailand. Also, Iomys

  9. Health problems among international travellers: from a subtropical region to tropical and non-tropical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Hsiu-Hua; Lai, Jin-Lin

    2008-07-01

    International travel may be associated with the risk of a wide range of infectious diseases. This study was designed to obtain information on the health problems among international travellers from a subtropical region to the neighbouring tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions. Health problems among international travellers from Taiwan to the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Vietnam, Thailand (tropical group), Hong Kong, Macao, China and Japan (non-tropical group) were surveyed through the telephone. Of 649 travellers surveyed, 8.2% had one or more health problems and insect bite (3.4%) and coughing or sore throats (3.2%) were the most important symptoms. The rate of coughing or sore throats was significantly higher among those returned from the non-tropical regions. However, no associations were found between health problems and the demographic factors, travel style or travelling duration of travel.

  10. Southeast Asian tropical medicine and parasitology network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waikagul, Jitra

    2006-01-01

    The SEAMEO TROPMED Network is a regional cooperative network established in 1967 for education, training and research in tropical medicine and public health under the Southeast Asia Ministers of Education Organization. The Network operates through four Regional Centers with respective areas of specialization and host institutions: Community Nutrition/Tropmed Indonesia; Microbiology, Parasitology and Entomology/Tropmed Malaysia; Public Health/Tropmed Philippines; and Tropical Medicine/Tropmed Thailand. To train health workers, to support research on endemic and newly emerging diseases, and to advocate relevant health policies are the main functions of these centers. SEAMEO TROPMED Network in collaboration with the Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University and other institutions has regularly organized the Seminar on Food-borne Parasitic Zoonoses every 3-5 years over the past 15 years. The Faculty of Tropical Medicine has organized the annual Joint International Tropical Medicine Meeting since 1996. Full papers of the presentations at these two meetings have been published as supplementary issues to the Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, an in-house journal of SEAMEO TROPMED Network. Recently, the Parasitology Association of ASEAN Countries has rotated the hosting of the ASEAN Congress of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine. These institutional and conference networks will enable closer links, to promote the health of people in the Southeast Asian region.

  11. Tropical Veterinarian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TROPICAL VETERINARIAN is an international journal devoted to all aspects of veterinary science as practiced in the tropics, including livestock production and management, animal disease (domestic and wild), various aspects of preventive medicine and public health and basic and applied research in these areas.

  12. Apodida (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) of Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mucharin, Arom

    Systematics of Apodida (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea), with emphasis on Thai species was studied by means of adult morphology and anatomy, ossicle morphology, and phylogenetic analysis (COI). Over 300 Apodida specimens of Apodida were found in different parts of Thailand. The order comprises 25 s...

  13. Galeommatid bivalves from Phuket, Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-seven species of galeommatid bivalves from six genera have been collected at intertidal reef flats near Phuket Marine Biological Center, Thailand (Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean). Fourteen of the species are new to science and a new genus (Nudiscintilla gen. nov.) has been established. The spec......Twenty-seven species of galeommatid bivalves from six genera have been collected at intertidal reef flats near Phuket Marine Biological Center, Thailand (Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean). Fourteen of the species are new to science and a new genus (Nudiscintilla gen. nov.) has been established...... crustacean, the remainder hide under shale, rocks and coral blocks, often in small intra- or interspecific family flocks. The behaviour was also noted for some of the species. It is presumed that galeommatid species go through a lengthy planktonic phase....

  14. Atypical lymphocytes in malaria mimicking dengue infection in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polrat Wilairatana

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Polrat Wilairatana1, Noppadon Tangpukdee1, Sant Muangnoicharoen1, Srivicha Krudsood2, Shigeyuki Kano31Department of Clinical Tropical Medicine, 2Department of Tropical Hygiene, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 3Department of Tropical Medicine and Malaria, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Patients with uncomplicated falciparum or vivax malaria usually present with acute febrile illness and thrombocytopenia similar to dengue infection. We retrospectively studied atypical lymphocytes (AL and atypical lymphocytosis (ALO, defined as AL > 5% of total white blood cells in 1310 uncomplicated malaria patients. In 718 falciparum malaria patients, AL and ALO on day 0 were found in 53.2% and 5.7% of the patients, respectively, with median AL on admission of 1% (range 0%–10%, whereas in 592 vivax malaria patients, AL and ALO on day 0 were found in 55.4% and 9.5% of the patients, respectively, with median AL on admission of 1% (range 0%–14%. After antimalarial treatment, AL and ALO declined in both falciparum and vivax malaria. However, AL and ALO remained in falciparum malaria on days 7, 14, and 21, whereas AL and ALO remained in vivax malaria on days 7, 14, 21, and 28. In both falciparum and vivax malaria patients, there was a positive correlation between AL and total lymphocytes, but a negative correlation between AL and highest fever on admission, white blood cells, and neutrophils, eosinophils, and platelets (P < 0.05. In conclusion, AL or ALO may be found in uncomplicated falciparum and vivax malaria mimicking dengue infection. In tropical countries where both dengue and malaria are endemic, presence of AL or ALO in any acute febrile patients with thrombocytopenia (similar to the findings in dengue malaria could not be excluded. Particularly if the patients have risk of malaria infection, confirmative microscopic examination for malaria should be carried out

  15. Establishing species distributions in large tropical plant genera: insights from twelve new Thai records of Oberonia (Orchidaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bunpha, K.; Pedersen, H.Æ.; Sridith, K.

    2013-01-01

    Establishing species distributions is particularly challenging in large tropical genera of inconspicuous plants. One such genus is Oberonia (Orchidaceae) which we are currently revising for Thailand. When encountering material of a putatively new species, great care has been taken to make a wide geographic search for matching extra-Thai taxa. Against this background, we here record 12 species as new for Thailand: O. dissitiflora, O. evrardii, O. gracilis, O. insectifera, O. lotsyana, O. micro...

  16. [Leptospirosis in a family after whitewater rafting in Thailand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, C; Williams-Smith, J; Jaton, K; Asner, S; Cheseaux, J-J; Troillet, N; Manuel, O; Berthod, D

    2015-04-15

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis found worldwide, with an incidence that is approximately 10 times higher in the tropics than in temperate regions. The main reservoir of leptospirosis is the rat and human infection usually results from exposure to infected animal urine or tissues. Only 10% of cases are symptomatic. We present here two confirmed and two probable cases of leptospirosis in a family returning from whitewater rafting in Thailand, illustrating the wide variety of the clinical manifestations of this infection. Two of the patients were hospitalized and presented a probable Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction after initiation of beta-lactam therapy. The two others patients were treated empirically with doxycycline. We discuss here some relevant aspects of the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, therapy and the challenge of an early diagnosis of leptospirosis.

  17. Inclusive Education in Thailand: Practices and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorapanya, Sermsap; Dunlap, Diane

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, Thailand passed legislation on the educational provisions for students with disabilities to mandate the implementation of inclusive education. This article provides a historical overview of special education in Thailand and the emergence of inclusive education as it moves from policy to practice. To further identify the challenges faced…

  18. Differentiating between dengue fever and malaria using hematological parameters in endemic areas of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotepui, Manas; PhunPhuech, Bhukdee; Phiwklam, Nuoil; Uthaisar, Kwuntida

    2017-03-02

    Dengue fever (DF) and malaria are the two major public health concerns in tropical countries such as Thailand. Early differentiation between dengue and malaria could help clinicians to identify patients who should be closely monitored for signs of dengue hemorrhagic fever or severe malaria. This study aims to build knowledge on diagnostic markers that are used to discriminate between the infections, which frequently occur in malaria-endemic areas, such as the ones in Thailand. A retrospective study was conducted in Phop Phra Hospital, a hospital located in the Thailand-Burma border area, a malaria-endemic area, between 2013 and 2015. In brief, data on 336 patients infected with malaria were compared to data on 347 patients infected with DF. White blood cells, neutrophil, monocyte, eosinophil, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, and monocyte-lymphocyte ratio were significantly lower in patients with DF compared to patients with malaria (P dengue and malaria infection. This study concluded that several hematological parameters were different for diagnosing DF and malaria. A decision tree model revealed that using neutrophils, lymphocyte, MCHC, and gender was guided to discriminate patients with dengue and malaria infection. In addition, using these markers will thus lead to early detection, diagnosis, and prompt treatment of these tropical diseases.

  19. for Tropical

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The importance of local variations in patterns of health and disease are increasingly recognised, but, particularly in the case of tropical infections, available methods and resources for characterising disease clusters in time and space are limited. Whilst the Global Positioning System. (GPS) allows accurate and ...

  20. Tropical Deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raven, Peter H.

    1988-01-01

    Outlines the deforestation problem and some efforts for solving the problem. Considers the impact of population growth, poverty, and ignorance. Includes a discussion of the current rapid decline in tropical forests, the consequences of destruction, and an outlook for the future. (YP)

  1. A multivariate decision tree analysis of biophysical factors in tropical forest fire occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey S. Ofren; Edward Harvey

    2000-01-01

    A multivariate decision tree model was used to quantify the relative importance of complex hierarchical relationships between biophysical variables and the occurrence of tropical forest fires. The study site is the Huai Kha Kbaeng wildlife sanctuary, a World Heritage Site in northwestern Thailand where annual fires are common and particularly destructive. Thematic...

  2. Astronomical Network for Teachers in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer (Hutawarakorn), Busaba; Soonthornthum, Boonraksar; Poshyachinda, Saran

    We report the latest development of a pilot project in establishing the astronomical network for teachers in Thailand. The project has been recently granted by the Institute for the Promotion of Teaching Science and Technology Thailand and operated by Sirindhorn Observatory Chiangmai University. The objectives of the project are (1) to establish a16-inch semi-robotic telescope which can be accessed from schools nationwide; and (2) to establish an educational website in Thai language which contains electronic textbook of astronomy online encyclopedia of astronomy observing projects astronomical database and links to other educational websites worldwide. The network will play important role in the development of teaching and learning astronomy in Thailand.

  3. Marketing contraceptives in rural Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viravaidya, M

    1988-01-01

    It can be difficult to administer and motivate field workers in family planning programs. In the case of social marketing, the last distributors in the chain are small shopkeepers who keep part of the final sale price. Thus contraceptives become part and parcel of their routine business, and the margin becomes both their remuneration and their motivation. In Thailand and most other countries with social marketing programs, part of the selling price also returns to the program, providing some degree of cost recovery. As family planning succeeds and per capita incomes rise, individuals will be able to pay an increasing part of the total cost of family planning. In the interim, international agencies and governments will continue to provide subsidies. In rural countries like Thailand, social marketing programs can be initiated and expanded relatively rapidly because they build on an existing infrastructure; they can also reach the most distant parts of the country. Skills of local advertising agencies are available in practically all Third World countries. Sales are a reliable record of progress and can be used to suggest innovations or practical solutions to problems. Small shopkeepers often feel more comfortable vending contraceptives than many experts would expect and as members of the community, intuitively know what the community's standards are. Individuals handling oral contraceptives often require some training and supervision by full-time staff who can answer questions that arise; local physicians may also be notified of the program for referral of problem cases. If there is a problem with social marketing programs, it is that they are sometimes too successful--leading to large bills for contraceptive commodities. However, if evaluated in terms of cost-effectiveness, they are less expensive than their alternatives. Along with access to voluntary sterilization and community-based distribution programs, social marketing is a keystone in the arch of family

  4. Flooding in Thailand: flee, fight or float

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan S Sophonpanich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The severity of recent flooding in Thailand and the probability of future flooding have triggered a re-assessment of coping mechanisms employed by both the Thai population and the government.

  5. Why Thailand’s Military Stepped In

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Thailand’s society and economy have experienced rapid change, growth, and modernization as a result of embracing globalization and export -driven economic... Globalisation ,” in Political Change in Thailand: Democracy and Participation, ed. Kevin Hewison, 52 (London: Routledge, 1997). 40 E. IMMEDIATE CAUSES...Just Bypassed: The Military, Bureaucracy and Globalisation .” In Political Change in Thailand: Democracy and Participation, ed. Kevin Hewison, 52

  6. An educational VSAT system for Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Kunchaicharoenkul, Kanokporn

    1996-01-01

    Very small aperture terminal (VSA T) networks offer great opportunities to combine satellite technology and the needs of education in Thailand. An educational VSAT network for Thailand needs a central hub station in Bangkok and seven remote sites with VSAT equipment. The network supports two way compressed video, voice and data links between the central hub and VSAT sites. This thesis examines rain margin, system availability, VSAT antenna size and transponder power util...

  7. Distributed generation and centralized power system in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sukkumnoed, Decharut

    The paper examines and discusses conflicts between the development of distributed power and centralized power system in Thailand.......The paper examines and discusses conflicts between the development of distributed power and centralized power system in Thailand....

  8. How Thailand took on the transnational tobacco titans | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-04

    , anti-tobacco forces in Thailand and internationally had been re-energized, and Thailand ... The English-language publication of both books was aided by a grant from the International Development Research Centre (IDRC).

  9. Piomiosite tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Ghiotti de Siqueira

    Full Text Available A piomiosite tropical, apesar de ser uma patologia reconhecida em nosso meio há mais de cem anos, ainda é pouco divulgada no Brasil, e pode-se perder tempo e dinheiro em exames para afastar a possibilidade de tumores ou tratar sua incidência vem aumentando em regiões de clima temperado, devido à disseminação do Vírus da lmunodeticiência Humana e aos tratamentos imúnossupressivos. Apesar de realizado em instituições que muitas vezes não apresentam recursos diagnósticos de primeira linha, demonstramos que o tratamento pode ser adequado se houver experiência clínica e bom senso. São descritos quarenta casos de piomiosite tropical, atendidos consecutivamente por um mesmo cirurgião; a idade média dos pacientes foi de 16 anos e o sexo predominante o masculino. O diagnóstico foi clínico em 73% dos casos e o tratamento realizado foi drenagem por incisão direta sobre a massa, deixando dreno tubular, usado para irrigação do abscesso. O tempo médio de permanência do dreno no local foi de cinco dias, e a média de permanência hospitalar, sete dias. Dois casos (5% evoluíram para osteomielite e um caso foi a óbito. A evolução foi satisfatória em 93% dos pacientes.

  10. Establishing species distributions in large tropical plant genera: insights from twelve new Thai records of Oberonia (Orchidaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunpha, K.; Pedersen, H.Æ.; Sridith, K.

    2013-01-01

    Establishing species distributions is particularly challenging in large tropical genera of inconspicuous plants. One such genus is Oberonia (Orchidaceae) which we are currently revising for Thailand. When encountering material of a putatively new species, great care has been taken to make a wide

  11. US fossil fuel technologies for Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehring, W.A.; Dials, G.E.; Gillette, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.; Traczyk, P.A.

    1990-10-01

    The US Department of Energy has been encouraging other countries to consider US coal and coal technologies in meeting their future energy needs. Thailand is one of three developing countries determined to be a potentially favorable market for such exports. This report briefly profiles Thailand with respect to population, employment, energy infrastructure and policies, as well as financial, economic, and trade issues. Thailand is shifting from a traditionally agrarian economy to one based more strongly on light manufacturing and will therefore require increased energy resources that are reliable and flexible in responding to anticipated growth. Thailand has extensive lignite deposits that could fuel a variety of coal-based technologies. Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors could utilize this resource and still permit Thailand to meet emission standards for sulfur dioxide. This option also lends itself to small-scale applications suitable for private-sector power generation. Slagging combustors and coal-water mixtures also appear to have potential. Both new construction and refurbishment of existing plants are planned. 18 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. First middle Miocene sivaladapid primate from Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaimanee, Y.; Yamee, C.; Tian, P.; Chavasseau, O.; Jaeger, J.J. [Bureau for Paleontology & Museum, Bangkok (Thailand). Dept. for Mineral Resources

    2008-03-15

    Sivaladapids are a group of Asian adapiform primates that were previously documented from deposits dating to the middle Eocene through the late Miocene in Pakistan, India, Myanmar, Thailand, and China. The group is notable for the persistence of three genera, Sivaladapis, Indraloris and Sinoadapis, into the late Miocene. In Thailand, sivaladapids were previously documented only from late Eocene deposits of the Krabi mine. Here, we describe the first Southeast Asian Miocene sivaladapid, Siamoadapis maemohensis gen. et sp. nov. from a 13.3 to 13.1 Ma lignite layer from the Mae Moh coal mine, Thailand. It differs from other Miocene sivaladapids by its distinctly smaller size and in features of the dentition. This discovery enhances the paleoecological diversity of the middle Miocene primate fauna of Thailand, which now includes sivaladapids, a loris, tarsiids, and hominoids. In this respect, the fossil primate community from the middle Miocene of Thailand is similar in its composition to roughly contemporaneous assemblages from southern China, India, and Pakistan. However, the Thai fossils represent a distinct genus, suggesting a different biogeographic province with distinctive paleoenvironments.

  13. Princess of Thailand returns to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    On Tuesday, 17 November 2015, HRH Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn of Thailand visited CERN. Princess Sirindhorn was visiting the Laboratory for the fifth time, following her last visit in 2010.   Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn of Thailand (center) witnesses the signing of the collaboration agreement between CERN and SLRI, represented by Rolf Heuer (right) and Professor Sarawut Sujitjorn (left) respectively. The Princess was accompanied by a delegation that included the Director of the Synchrotron Light Research Institute (SLRI) in Thailand, Professor Sarawut Sujitjorn, and a large group of Thailand’s Diplomatic Representatives in Switzerland. Upon her arrival, Princess Sirindhorn was welcomed by CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer and the Director-General Designate, Fabiola Gianotti. At CERN, the Princess was given a brief update on the Laboratory’s activities since her last visit, in April 2010. Later on, she witnessed the signature of the f...

  14. Health Burden of Extreme Weather in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiraphan Plongmak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed and evaluated the variation of the health burden in response to extreme weather events that occurred in Thailand from 2006 to 2010. The health burden was assessed using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs lost and deaths from injuries as its indicators. Thailand has a DALYs lost of over 16,274 from extreme weather events. Extreme weather events include floods, flash floods, and severe storms, and most of the DALYs in Thailand were lost from floods (approximately 12,872 DALYs. The second most impactful weather event was severe storms, with losses of approximately 2,019 DALYs, followed by flash floods, which caused losses of about 1,383 DALYs. Climate change is a cause of extreme weather events, and a relationship betweenclimate and health has been found worldwide. Improved long-term, high-quality data sets are needed to better analyze and improve accuracy of the health burden.

  15. Palliative care nursing interventions in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorenbos, Ardith Z; Juntasopeepun, Phanida; Eaton, Linda H; Rue, Tessa; Hong, Elizabeth; Coenen, Amy

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to describe the nursing interventions that nurses in Thailand identify as most important in promoting dignified dying. This study used a cross-sectional descriptive design. A total of 247 Thai nurses completed a paper-and-pencil survey written in Thai. The survey included both demographic questions and palliative care interventions, listed with summative rating scales, from the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP) catalogue Palliative Care for Dignified Dying. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. The five most important nursing interventions to promote dignified dying, ranked by average importance rating, were (a) maintain dignity and privacy, (b) establish trust, (c) manage pain, (d) establish rapport, and (e) manage dyspnea. This research identified the palliative care nursing interventions considered most important by nurses in Thailand to promote dignified dying. The ICNP catalogue Palliative Care for Dignified Dying can be used for planning and managing palliative nursing care in Thailand.

  16. Capacity building for global health diplomacy: Thailand's experience of trade and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaiprayoon, Suriwan; Smith, Richard

    2015-11-01

    A rapid expansion of trade liberalization in Thailand during the 1990s raised a critical question for policy transparency from various stakeholders. Particular attention was paid to a bilateral trade negotiation between Thailand and USA concerned with the impact of the 'Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Rights (TRIPS) plus' provisions on access to medicines. Other trade liberalization effects on health were also concerning health actors. In response, a number of interagency committees were established to engage with trade negotiations. In this respect, Thailand is often cited as a positive example of a country that has proactively sought, and achieved, trade and health policy coherence. This article investigates this relationship in more depth and suggests lessons for wider study and application of global health diplomacy (GHD). This study involved semi-structured interviews with 20 people involved in trade-related health negotiations, together with observation of 9 meetings concerning trade-related health issues. Capacity to engage with trade negotiations appears to have been developed by health actors through several stages; starting from the Individual (I) understanding of trade effects on health, through Nodes (N) that establish the mechanisms to enhance health interests, Networks (N) to advocate for health within these negotiations, and an Enabling environment (E) to retain health officials and further strengthen their capacities to deal with trade-related health issues. This INNE model seems to have worked well in Thailand. However, other contextual factors are also significant. This article suggests that, in building capacity in GHD, it is essential to educate both health and non-health actors on global health issues and to use a combination of formal and informal mechanisms to participate in GHD. And in developing sustainable capacity in GHD, it requires long term commitment and strong leadership from both health and non-health sectors. Published by

  17. The status on contamination monitoring in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinakhom, Fookiat [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1997-06-01

    Thailand has embarked upon the development of nuclear energy for peaceful utilizations since 1961 when the Atomic Energy for Peace Act was enacted. The Atomic Energy Commission (Thai AEC) was established under section 5 of this Act having power and duty of carrying out matters concerning atomic energy for peace. The applications of nuclear energy in Thailand, at present are exclusively in medicine, education, research and industry. In this paper, the following items are described on contamination monitoring: controllable monitoring, uncontrollable monitoring, standardization of monitoring instruments, and decontamination and waste management. (G.K.)

  18. BULLYING AND CYBERBULLYING IN THAILAND: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruthaychonnee Sittichai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is a severe problem, especially in schools, including the relatively new phenomenon of cyberbullying (via mobile phones and the internet. Research in Western countries suggests that over the last decade, cyberbullying accounts for about one-quarter to one-third of all bullying. Here we review research on cyberbullying, and bullying in general, in an eastern culture, Thailand. Eight relevant reports were found; however only three explicitly discussed cyberbullying. Reports were mainly quantitative, and did not consistently distinguish (cyber bullying from general aggression. Suggestions are made for future research in this area, in Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries.

  19. OCCUPATIONAL CARBAMATE POISONING IN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongpoo, Achara; Sriapha, Charuwan; Wongvisawakorn, Sunun; Rittilert, Panee; Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Wananukul, Winai

    2015-07-01

    Carbamate insecticide is a leading cause of poisoning in Thailand. The objective of this study was to characterize the clinical manifestations and modes of occupational exposure in carbamate poisoning cases. We retrospectively studied all the cases of carbamate poisoning due to occupational exposure recorded in the Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance system during 2005 to 2010. Demographic data, clinical manifestations and severity were analyzed statistically. During the study period, 3,183 cases were identified, of which 170 (5.3%) were deemed to be due to occupational exposure. Ninety-six cases (56.5%) and 35 cases (20.6%) were poisoned by carbofuran and methomyl, respectively. Carbofuran is sold as a 3% grain and applied by sowing; methomyl is sold as a liquid and is applied by spraying. The majority of poisoned patients did not wear personal protective equipment (PPE) while applying the carbamates. The clinical manifestations of occupational carbofuran poisoning recorded were nausea and vomiting (82.3%), headaches (56.3%) and miosis (19.8%). The clinical manifestations of methomyl poisoning were nausea and vomiting (74.3%), headaches (57.1%) and palpitations (11.4%). Most patients in both groups had mild symptoms. Only one case in each group required endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation support. There were no deaths and the lengths of hospitalization ranged from 2 hours to 2 days. Occupational carbamate poisoning cases in our series were mostly mild and the patients recovered quickly. There were only rare cases of serious symptoms. Lack of knowledge and inadequate PPE were the major factors contributing to occupational poisoning. Educating agricultural workers about correct precautions and pesticide use could minimize this type of poisoning.

  20. Piomiosite tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio José de Araújo Torres

    1978-12-01

    Full Text Available O autor descreve 7 casos de piomiosite tropical, enfatizando a exceção que constituem, quando se considera a extrema raridade da supuração muscular em outras doenças e citando várias idéias existentes quanto à sua patogenia. O quadro clínico dos 7 casos é semelhante à maioria dos já relatados em outros trabalhos, aparecendo entretanto piodermite em 2 doentes, o que não é comum. A freqüência da eosinofilia e a normalidade de enzimas geralmente elevadas em outras miopatias, estão de acordo com as publicações existentes. Embora o tratamento seja basicamente cirúrgico, aceita a possibilidade de cura com antibióticos, cujo uso empírico poderia abortar inúmeros casos, contribuindo para o virtual desconhecimento da doença no meio brasileiro. Considera provável ser grande número de doentes tratado como portadores de abscessos como quaisquer outros, sem se atentar para a já referida resistência dos músculos esqueléticos à supuração. Dá importância ao desconhecimento da doença como causa de demora no diagnóstico, com possíveis repercussões no prognóstico. Esse fato, aliado a semelhanças climáticas de certas regiões brasileiras com zonas africanas onde a incidência é alta, justifica, segundo o autor, maior interesse pela doença.Seven cases of tropical pyomyositis are reported emphasizing the unique character of muscular suppuration, an exceedingly unusual occurrence in other diseases; possible explanations as to the pathogenical mechanismsare reviewed. Clinical aspects are similar to those of previously described cases but for pyodermitis, an unconmmon feature found in two cases. Eosinophila and normal leveis of serum enzymes usually altered in other muscle diseases are also in accordance to previous papers. Surgical drainage is the treatment of choice, but the early administration of antibiotics might abort the evolution of many cases; the empirical use of such drugs modifies clinical course and most patients

  1. Effect of global warming in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphat Vongvisessomjai

    2010-08-01

    scenarios reported relatively lower value of 18-59 cm per century. The North Atlantic thatis surrounded by glaciers might see a SLR due to ice melting related to an increase of the temperature in the Atlantic Ocean.Nevertheless, the lack of data on global warming in the tropics especially in the Pacific and the Indian Oceans, which haveno glaciers, might put a different view on the conclusions derived from temperature and arctic data. Six decades of comprehensiveinformation from the Gulf of Thailand regarding oceanographical and meteorological data is revealing a much lowerSLR. The mean monthly sea levels in six decades at Sattahip and Ko Lak showed no increasing trend, while those rises atSamut Prakan and Samut Sakhon are due to land subsidence from excessive groundwater pumping.

  2. Changes in Climate Extremes over North Thailand, 1960–2099

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Badrul Masud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes 24 climate extreme indices over North Thailand using observed data for daily maximum and minimum temperatures and total daily rainfall for the 1960–2010 period, and HadCM3 Global Climate Model (GCM and PRECIS Regional Climate Model simulated data for the 1960–2100 period. A statistical downscaling tool is employed to downscale GCM outputs. Variations in and trends of historical and future climates are identified using the nonparametric Mann-Kendall trend test and Sen’s slope. Temperature extreme indices showed a significant rising trend during the observed period and are expected to increase significantly with an increase in summer days and tropical nights in the future. A notable decline in the number of cool days and nights is also expected in the study area while the number of warm days and nights is expected to increase. There was an insignificant decrease in total annual rainfall, number of days with rainfall more than 10 and 20 mm. However, the annual rainfall is projected to increase by 9.65% in the future 2011–2099 period compared to the observed 1960–2010 period.

  3. Production, Consumption and Imagination in Rural Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigg, Jonathan; Ritchie, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Transformation of Thailand's rural areas from agricultural production to arenas of consumption of a constructed "rural idyll" is illustrated in cases of a hotel with a "working rice farm," and an elite school. The school (and companion resident "village") created an idealized rural past for rich consumers who wanted a…

  4. Approaches to Lao Minors Working in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.C. Huijsmans (Roy)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractRecent studies have observed in Thailand a growing number of working Lao minors. By law, these may be regarded as victims of human trafficking. This paper observes, however, that some older teenagers who are still under 18 may be seeking and finding legitimate working positions. The

  5. Urban asylum seekers and refugees in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera den Otter

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The difficulties faced by urban refugees are often different from those faced by refugees in camps but are no less serious. The Jesuit Refugee Service (JRS in Bangkok is struggling to support growing numbers of urban refugees in Thailand.

  6. Liver cancer mortality rate model in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwattanapongse, Wattanavadee; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon

    2013-09-01

    Liver Cancer has been a leading cause of death in Thailand. The purpose of this study was to model and forecast liver cancer mortality rate in Thailand using death certificate reports. A retrospective analysis of the liver cancer mortality rate was conducted. Numbering of 123,280 liver cancer causes of death cases were obtained from the national vital registration database for the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009, provided by the Ministry of Interior and coded as cause-of-death using ICD-10 by the Ministry of Public Health. Multivariate regression model was used for modeling and forecasting age-specific liver cancer mortality rates in Thailand. Liver cancer mortality increased with increasing age for each sex and was also higher in the North East provinces. The trends of liver cancer mortality remained stable in most age groups with increases during ten-year period (2000 to 2009) in the Northern and Southern. Liver cancer mortality was higher in males and increase with increasing age. There is need of liver cancer control measures to remain on a sustained and long-term basis for the high liver cancer burden rate of Thailand.

  7. Tourism Expenditures and Environment in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliga Sompholkrang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tourism activities affect the environment of different destinations, which is influenced by different tourists’ consumption. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between inbound tourist expenditures and three main environmental dimensions, which are carbon dioxide emission from transport, energy demand, and water usage, in Thailand. This paper employs Vector Autoregressive (VAR models to determine the relationship of variables. Data from Ministry of Energy, Bank of Thailand, Metropolitan Electricity Authority, Provincial Waterworks Authority, National Statistical Office, Department of Tourism, and Tourism Authority of Thailand between 1988 and 2012 have been applied in the model. Note that, energy demand is represented by total electricity consumption of hotel and accommodation sector in Thailand, while water usage is represented by the total water consumption of tourists. This study found the relationships among tourists’ expenditures, carbon dioxide emission from transport, energy demand, and water usage. Therefore, the policies recommendations may be essential to prepare the optimal schemes and budgets for encountering the environmental impacts from tourism business expansion.

  8. Children's Attitudes toward the Elderly in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, Carol; Keawkungwal, Sri-Reun

    1986-01-01

    Examined attitudes of 300 children toward the elderly in Thailand. Indicated no differences between rural and urban children's attitudes toward the elderly in terms of contact, knowledge, and feelings. Urban children, however, responded more positively about their own aging than did rural children. Concludes that Thai children view young people…

  9. Twee Nederlandse reizigers uit Thailand met cholera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A. A.; Kuijper, E. J.; Schultz, M. J.; Wieling, W.; Speelman, P.

    1994-01-01

    Cholera is a disease rarely imported in the Netherlands. Recently a 34-year-old woman who had returned from a trip through Thailand was admitted to our hospital with complaints of vomiting, watery stools and moderate dehydration. Vibrio cholerae OI serotype Ogawa biotype El Tor was isolated from the

  10. The Teaching Practicum in Thailand: Three Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phairee, Chatpong; Sanitchon, Nalinee; Suphanangthong, Irada; Graham, Steve; Prompruang, Jidapa; de Groot, Freek Olaf; Hopkins, Dave

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the teaching practicum in Thailand as it occurs in three settings: "Rajabhats"--four-year universities which offer an additional period of teaching practice, and where the vast majority of EFL teachers are educated; regular universities; and a TESOL short course certificate program for non-Thais preparing to teach…

  11. Implementing Results Based Management in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    Thailand has been pursuing the implementation of results based management techniques in the public sector for over a decade. Leading this task is the Office of the Public Sector Development Commission (OPDC) which has been supporting various agencies and departments in undertaking a wide variety of results based management reforms, including key performance indicators, balanced scorecards,...

  12. Public Domain System Modeling in Northern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vathananukij, Hansa

    2009-03-01

    Natural feature at northern region of Thailand has been regularly inundated and significantly encountered straight to central plain downstream. Rainy season in the year 1995, 2002, and 2006 caused land slide and serious flood damaged both northern and central plain of Thailand. It is important meaning for reducing these losses. This research adopted the public domain system model to simulate flood in northern Thailand. Public domain system models have been introduced to academic researchers in Thailand (RM-GIS Center/Engineering/KU) since 2001. SWAT model was one of them. It unified continuous time and basin scale together with geoinformatic system interface. The model could simulate daily, weekly, and monthly data for both pre-process and post-process. Base flow methodology was employed on stream flow hydrograph separation and analysis program which leashed by sliding interval methodology. Data access was approached by basic standard query language. Distant from the previous three prototype basins (Omkoi 1,500 km2, Upper Nan 10,000 km2, and Pasak 15,000 km2), a new research platform was on steep slope basin (Maewaang catchment in Chiangmai province). Drainage area was 533 square-kilometers, almost un-regulated with two observation stations. Results indicated that the most sensitive parameter to model simulation is curve number (CN) while more relative parameter to land surface interpreter is NDVI (from spatial assessment through multi-resolution of satellite imageries). NDVI has much significant applicability to environmental monitoring, particularly for terrestrial dynamics. Their relationships have been affined and affirmed to represent fundamental parameters in both global scale and local scale such as temperature, plantation, evapo-transpiration, etc. Assessment results on aspect and relative differences illustrated significant value for northern region of Thailand. Geoinformatic system structures on digital elevation model, basin delineation and model outputs

  13. Tropical Soil Chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borggaard, Ole K.

    and environmental protection. Tropical Soil Chemistry by Ole K. Borggaard provides an overview of the composition, occurrence, properties, processes, formation, and environmental vulnerability of various tropical soil types (using American Soil Taxonomy for classification). The processes and the external factors...... soil chemical issues are also presented to assess when, why, and how tropical soils differ from soils in other regions. This knowledge can help agricultural specialists in the tropics establish sustainable crop production. Readers are assumed to be familiar with basic chemistry, physics...

  14. Carbon budget of tropical forests in Southeast Asia and the effects of deforestation: an approach using a process-based model and field measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Adachi, M.; Ito, A.; Ishida, A.; W. R. Kadir; P. Ladpala; Yamagata, Y.

    2011-01-01

    More reliable estimates of the carbon (C) stock within forest ecosystems and C emission induced by deforestation are urgently needed to mitigate the effects of emissions on climate change. A process-based terrestrial biogeochemical model (VISIT) was applied to tropical primary forests of two types (a seasonal dry forest in Thailand and a rainforest in Malaysia) and one agro-forest (an oil palm plantation in Malaysia) to estimate the C budget of tropical ecosystems in Southeast Asia, including...

  15. Quality maintenance Tropical Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Moraes Dias

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The climatic characteristics of the country favor the cultivation of tropical flowers. The continued expansion of this market is due the beauty, exoticit nature and postharvest longevity of flower. However, little is known about the postharvest of tropical plants. Therefore, this paper provides information on harvest, handling and storage of cut tropical plantspostharvest, storage temperature, conditioning solution.

  16. Tropical Freshwater Biology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Freshwater Biology promotes the publication of scientific contributions in the field of freshwater biology in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. One issue is published annually but this number may be increased. Original research papers and short communications on any aspect of tropical freshwater ...

  17. A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae; tribe Desmodieae) from Thailand and Laos and two new distribution records and lectotypification for Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saisorn, Witsanu; Balslev, Henrik; Chantaranothai, Pranom

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae), D. brevipedicellatum from Thailand and Laos is described and illustrated. Two taxa, D. concinnum and D. laxiflorum subsp. lacei are reported as new for Thailand.......A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae), D. brevipedicellatum from Thailand and Laos is described and illustrated. Two taxa, D. concinnum and D. laxiflorum subsp. lacei are reported as new for Thailand....

  18. Ocean modelling and Early-Warning System for the Gulf of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima Rego, Joao; Yan, Kun; Sisomphon, Piyamarn; Thanathanphon, Watin; Twigt, Daniel; Irazoqui Apecechea, Maialen

    2017-04-01

    Storm surges associated with severe tropical cyclones are among the most hazardous and damaging natural disasters to coastal areas. The Gulf of Thailand (GoT) has been periodically affected by typhoon induced storm surges in the past (e.g. storm Harriet in 1962, storm Gay in 1989 and storm Linda in 1997). Due to increased touristic / economic development and increased population density in the coastal zone, the combined effect and risk of high water level and increased rainfall / river discharge has dramatically increased and are expected to increase in future due to climate change effects. This presentation describes the development and implementation of the first real-time operational storm surge, wave and wave setup forecasting system in the GoT, a joint applied research initiative by Deltares in The Netherlands and the Hydro and Agro Informatics Institute (HAII) in Thailand. The modelling part includes a new hydrodynamic model to simulate tides and storm surges and two wave models (regional and local). The hydrodynamic model is based on Delft3D Flexible Mesh, capable of simulating water levels and detailed flows. The regional and the recently-developed local wave model are based on the SWAN model, a third-generation wave model. The operational platform is based on Delft-FEWS software, which coordinates all the data inputs, the modelling tasks and the automatic forecast exports including overland inundation in the upper Gulf of Thailand. The main objective of the Gulf of Thailand EWS is to provide daily accurate storm surge, wave and wave setup estimates automatically with various data exports possibilities to support this task. It adds a coastal component to HAII's existing practice of providing daily reports on fluvial flood forecasts, used for decision-support in issuing flood warnings for inland water systems in Thailand. Every day, three-day coastal forecasts are now produced based on the latest regional meteorological predictions. Examples are given to

  19. Epidemiological Investigation of Salmonella enterica Serovar Kedougou in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pornruangwong, Srirat; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Salmonella enterica serovar Kedougou is among the top 10 serovars reported in northern Thailand. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with Salmonella Kedougou infection in Thailand and to compare the molecular types and antimicrobial resistance with Salmo......Objective: Salmonella enterica serovar Kedougou is among the top 10 serovars reported in northern Thailand. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with Salmonella Kedougou infection in Thailand and to compare the molecular types and antimicrobial resistance.......023), region (northern Thailand; p factors associated with Salmonella Kedougou infection compared to other nontyphoid Salmonella. Of the Salmonella Kedougou isolates of human origin, 84% exhibited resistance to at least three antimicrobial classes...... association, whereas the majority of the animal isolates from United Kingdom clustered separately. Conclusions: This study reveals Salmonella Kedougou as a major cause of human infections in northern Thailand especially during the hot period and suggests a global spread probably due to travel. The clonal...

  20. Extensive cutaneous larva migrans with folliculitis mimicking multimetameric herpes zoster presentation in an adult traveler returning from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malvy, Denis; Ezzedine, Khaled; Pistone, Thierry; Receveur, Marie-Catherine; Longy-Boursier, Maïté

    2006-01-01

    Hookworm-related cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) is a frequent cutaneous disease among travelers returning from the tropics. It can be misdiagnosed or treated incorrectly. We present a 42-year-old French patient who contracted the disease during a holiday in Thailand and who experienced an extensive CLM syndrome with a less frequent abdominal localization and a pseudo-multimetameric homolateral topography. The condition was late diagnosed and secondarily efficiently cured by a unique administration of ivermectin. Simple anamnestic information--often revealing beach activities--and clinical aspect of the creeping eruption allow to prevent diagnosis delay and to avoid aggressive or inadequate intervention.

  1. Thailand through travel writings in English: An evaluation and representation

    OpenAIRE

    Soranat Tailanga; Thongrob Ruenbanthoeng; Kulapa Kuldilok; Natthanai Prasannam

    2016-01-01

    This paper studied the impact and influence of travel writings on tourist decision making regarding traveling to Thailand, tourist conceptualizations of Thailand before traveling and their satisfaction after traveling. The research comprised two projects involving quantitative research and analytical research. The former studied the impact and influence of travel writings and the differences between the tourists' attitudes before and after traveling to Thailand and found that, among the top-f...

  2. A study of Swedish tourists going on vacation in thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Rong; PANTO, SITTHIPHON

    2010-01-01

    Date: 2010-05-25 Program: International Marketing Course Master Thesis International Marketing (EFO705) Authors Ms. RongPan Mr. Sitthiphon Panto Teacher Tobias Eltebrandt Title A study of Swedish tourist going on vacation in Thailand Research question Which factors affect Swedish travelers’ decision making in choosing Thailand as a traveling destination? Target audience This report could be beneficial for Tourism Authority of Thailand. The target audiences including Government sector who resp...

  3. 75 FR 17693 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... from Thailand: Notice of Determination Under Section 129 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act and...., Ltd Dextrans Worldwide (Thailand) Ltd Dragon International Furniture Co., Ltd Earth Food Manufacturing...

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-47 - Certain fruits from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... indica), mangosteen (Garcinia mangoestana L.), pineapple (Ananas comosus), and rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum L.) may be imported into the United States from Thailand only under the following conditions: (a...

  5. Utilization of trauma guidelines by ER nurses in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RN Krongdai Unhasuta

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Clinical nursing practice guidelines (CNPG have been developed in Thailand for resuscitation care of emergency room (ER trauma patients. However, many nurses do not use guidelines effectively.

  6. Ganoderma sichuanense (Ganodermataceae, Polyporales new to Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anan Thawthong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma sichuanense (Ganodermataceae is a medicinal mushroom originally described from China and previously confused with G. lucidum. It has been widely used as traditional medicine in Asia since it has potential nutritional and therapeutic values. We collected 8 specimens of Ganoderma species from Thailand and show that they represent the first record of G. sichuanenese for Thailand. In this paper, we describe our specimens of Ganoderma sichuanense based on fresh basidiomes, and provide line drawings and photographs. The data from macro- and microscopic features are consistent with the characteristics of the species. Analysis of ITS sequence data indicates that the Thai collections cluster in same species clade as the epitype of G. sichuanense.

  7. BULLYING AND CYBERBULLYING IN THAILAND: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Ruthaychonnee Sittichai; Smith, Peter K.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is a severe problem, especially in schools, including the relatively new phenomenon of cyberbullying (via mobile phones and the internet). Research in Western countries suggests that over the last decade, cyberbullying accounts for about one-quarter to one-third of all bullying. Here we review research on cyberbullying, and bullying in general, in an eastern culture, Thailand. Eight relevant reports were found; however only three explicitly discussed cyberbullying. Reports were mainl...

  8. Credit Card Usage and Knowledge in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sangsutisearee, Wanna

    1993-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the relationship between the characteristics of credit card holders and the extent of credit card usage, the level of credit card knowledge, and the consumer's choice perspectives. The characteristics of credit card holders studied were (a) gender, (b) age, (c) marital status, (d) education, (e) income, and (f) occupation. Data for this study were collected in Bangkok, Thailand by telephone interviews during July- August 1993. The sample consisted of 1...

  9. Palliative Care Nursing Interventions in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doorenbos, Ardith Z.; Juntasopeepun, Phanida; Eaton, Linda H.; Rue, Tessa; Hong, Elizabeth; Coenen, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to describe the nursing interventions that nurses in Thailand identify as most important in promoting dignified dying. Design This study used a cross-sectional descriptive design. Method A total of 247 Thai nurses completed a paper-and-pencil survey written in Thai. The survey included both demographic questions and palliative care interventions, listed with summative rating scales, from the International Classification for Nursing Practice (ICNP) catalogue Palliative Care for Dignified Dying. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Findings The five most important nursing interventions to promote dignified dying, ranked by average importance rating, were (a) maintain dignity and privacy, (b) establish trust, (c) manage pain, (d) establish rapport, and (e) manage dyspnea. Conclusions This research identified the palliative care nursing interventions considered most important by nurses in Thailand to promote dignified dying. Implications for Practice The ICNP catalogue Palliative Care for Dignified Dying can be used for planning and managing palliative nursing care in Thailand. PMID:24014487

  10. The effects of medical tourism: Thailand's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NaRanong, Anchana; NaRanong, Viroj

    2011-05-01

    To explore the positive and negative effects of medical tourism on the economy, health staff and medical costs in Thailand. The financial repercussions of medical tourism were estimated from commerce ministry data, with modifications and extrapolations. Survey data on 4755 foreign and Thai outpatients in two private hospitals were used to explore how medical tourism affects human resources. Trends in the relative prices of caesarean section, appendectomy, hernia repair, cholecystectomy and knee replacement in five private hospitals were examined. Focus groups and in-depth interviews with hospital managers and key informants from the public and private sectors were conducted to better understand stakeholders' motivations and practices in connection with these procedures and learn more about medical tourism. Medical tourism generates the equivalent of 0.4% of Thailand's gross domestic product but has exacerbated the shortage of medical staff by luring more workers away from the private and public sectors towards hospitals catering to foreigners. This has raised costs in private hospitals substantially and is likely to raise them in public hospitals and in the universal health-care insurance covering most Thais as well. The "brain drain" may also undermine medical training in future. Medical tourism in Thailand, despite some benefits, has negative effects that could be mitigated by lifting the restrictions on the importation of qualified foreign physicians and by taxing tourists who visit the country solely for the purpose of seeking medical treatment. The revenue thus generated could then be used to train physicians and retain medical school professors.

  11. Health informatics model for helminthiasis in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithikathkul, C; Trevanich, A; Wongsaroj, T; Wongsawad, C; Reungsang, P

    2017-09-01

    At the beginning of the new millennium, helminth infections continue to be prevalent, particularly among impoverished populations. This study attempts to create the first health informatics model of helminthiasis in Thailand. The authors investigate how a health informatics model could be used to predict the control and eradication in a national control campaign. Fish-borne helminthiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini remains a major public health problem in many parts of South-East Asia, including Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam and Cambodia. The epicentre of this disease is located in north-east Thailand, where high prevalence coexists with a high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma (CHCA). The current report was conducted to determine a mathematical model of surveillance for helminthiasis while also using a geographic information system. The fish-borne helminthiasis model or the predicted equation was Y1 = 3.028 + 0.020 (elevation) - 2.098 (clay). For soil-transmitted helminthiasis, the mathematical model or the predicted equation was Y2 = -1.559 + 0.005 (rainfall) + 0.004 (elevation) - 2.198 (clay). The Ministry of Public Health has concluded that mass treatment for helminthiasis in the Thai population, targeting high-risk individuals, may be a cost-effective way to allocate limited funds. This type of approach, as well as further study on the correlation of clinical symptoms with environmental and geographic information, may offer a novel strategy to the helminth crisis.

  12. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF WATER RESOURCES USAGE BY HOUSEHOLDS IN GEORGETOWN-MALAYSIA AND PATTAYA-THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. W. Chan

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia and Thailand are tropical countries relatively rich in water resources, but both suffer numerous water problems, chief of which is excessive domestic wastage. A lop-sided approach focusing on water supply management and neglecting water demand management have caused water problems to escalate in both countries in recent decades due to population explosion, rapid urbanization, industrial expansion and climate change. As the total quantity of available water is finite but demand increasing at geometrical rates, Malaysia and Thailand are facing water problems which have severe impacts, particularly on women. This study compares the main water issues faced by two cities, Georgetown in Malaysia and Pattaya in Thailand, both medium sized and major tourist destinations. This paper compares various water indicators for both cities, water use characteristics of consumers, and consumers’perception and willingness to pay. It also attempts to highlight the role of gender, documenting how women can manage water via water demand management in addressing water shortages. The paper concludes that water users need to be involved in a bottom-up approach in a sustained national water demand management initiative towards achieving sustainable management of water resources in both cities.

  13. Climatic factors and prevalence of Campylobacter in commercial broiler flocks in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prachantasena, S; Charununtakorn, P; Muangnoicharoen, S; Hankla, L; Techawal, N; Chaveerach, P; Tuitemwong, P; Chokesajjawatee, N; Williams, N; Humphrey, T; Luangtongkum, T

    2017-04-01

    Campylobacter are bacteria associated with human foodborne disease worldwide. Poultry and poultry products are generally considered as a main source of these organisms. Compared to temperate zones, baseline information on Campylobacter in tropical regions is limited. Thus, the objectives of the present study were 1) to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter in Thai broiler flocks and 2) to investigate the association between climatic factors (i.e., rainfall, ambient temperature, and relative humidity) and Campylobacter colonization status of broiler flocks in Thailand. A total of 442 commercial broiler flocks reared in the central and northeastern regions of Thailand during 2012 to 2014 were investigated. Campylobacter positive status was identified in 252 examined flocks (57.01%; 95% CI 52.39 to 61.63%). Prevalence of Campylobacter in the northeastern region (54.46%; 95% CI 44.76 to 63.83%) was slightly lower than that of the central region (57.77%; 95% CI 52.47 to 62.90%). More than 65% of Campylobacter positive flocks in the central and northeastern regions had within-flock prevalence higher than 75%. Generalized estimating equations (GEE) revealed that the increased rainfall and relative humidity were associated with the increase of Campylobacter colonization in broiler flocks (P ≤ 0.05), while no relationship between ambient temperature and Campylobacter colonization status was identified. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. PROFILE: "Low-Salt" Shrimp Aquaculture in Thailand: Goodbye Coastline, Hello Khon Kaen!

    Science.gov (United States)

    FLAHERTY; VANDERGEEST

    1998-11-01

    / Intensive shrimp culture has been confined to relatively narrow bands of land along the seashores of tropical developing nations due to the need for large volumes of saltwater for water exchange during the culture period. Recent developments in Thailand suggest, however, that this close association could soon be a thing of the past. Large numbers of Thai farmers are adopting low-salinity culture systems that rely upon sea or salt pan water that is trucked inland. This development greatly increases the potential for establishing shrimp cultivation much further from the coast than previously believed possible. The migration of intensive shrimp farming into freshwater environments, however, raises serious concerns over the disposal of pond effluents and the impact of saltwater intrusion on surrounding agricultural activities. In the absence of effective government regulation of the expansion and operation of the shrimp culture industry, supporting local nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and community initiatives may be the only means of minimizing the negative impacts of shrimp farming on rural communities.KEY WORDS: Aquaculture; Shrimp; Salinity; Thailand

  15. Spatial Diffusion of Influenza Outbreak-Related Climate Factors in Chiang Mai Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Souris

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Influenza is one of the most important leading causes of respiratory illness in the countries located in the tropical areas of South East Asia and Thailand. In this study the climate factors associated with influenza incidence in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand, were investigated. Identification of factors responsible for influenza outbreaks and the mapping of potential risk areas in Chiang Mai are long overdue. This work examines the association between yearly climate patterns between 2001 and 2008 and influenza outbreaks in the Chiang Mai Province. The climatic factors included the amount of rainfall, percent of rainy days, relative humidity, maximum, minimum temperatures and temperature difference. The study develops a statistical analysis to quantitatively assess the relationship between climate and influenza outbreaks and then evaluate its suitability for predicting influenza outbreaks. A multiple linear regression technique was used to fit the statistical model. The Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW interpolation and Geographic Information System (GIS techniques were used in mapping the spatial diffusion of influenza risk zones. The results show that there is a significance correlation between influenza outbreaks and climate factors for the majority of the studied area. A statistical analysis was conducted to assess the validity of the model comparing model outputs and actual outbreaks.

  16. The mangosteen flowering date model in Nakhon Si Thammarat province, southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poontarasa OUNLERT

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. is one of the economically important fruits of Thailand. Recent studies show that the climatic variability affects the flowering period of tropical fruit trees. The objectives of this study are: 1 to investigate the correlation between climatic factors (in particular with, rainfall, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, relative humidity, and dry period before flowering and mangosteen flowering date and 2 to develop the poisson regression model to predict the flowering date of mangosteen in Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, Thailand. This model is useful in guiding farmers to manage mangosteen orchards. The results showed that the rainfall, the maximum and minimum temperatures, the relative humidity, and the dry period before flowering dates affect mangosteen flowering dates. The model which will be used as a guideline for mangosteen flowering date prediction was log(μ=10.85+0.0001x1-0.0564x2-0.0634x3-0.0232x4+0.0003x5 where μ where is the mean of mangosteen flowering date, x1 is rainfall, x2 is maximum temperature, x3 is minimum temperature, x4 is relative humidity, and x5 is dry period before flowering date.

  17. Regional variation and determinants of vitamin D status in sunshine-abundant Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chailurkit La-or

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitamin D insufficiency is highly prevalent. Most of the studies concerning vitamin D status were generated from countries situated at temperate latitudes. It is less clear what the extent of vitamin D insufficiency is in countries situated in the tropics and how geographical regions within country would affect vitamin D status. In the present study, we investigated vitamin D status in Thais according to geographical regions and other risk factors. Methods Subjects consisted of 2,641 adults, aged 15 - 98 years, randomly selected from the Thai 4th National Health Examination Survey (2008-9 cohort. Serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D were measured by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Data were expressed as mean ± SE. Results Subjects residing in Bangkok, the capital city of Thailand, had lower 25(OHD levels than other parts of the country (Bangkok, central, northern, northeastern and southern regions: 64.8 ± 0.7, 79.5 ± 1.1, 81.7 ± 1.2, 82.2 ± 0.8 and 78.3 ± 1.3 nmol/L, respectively; p p p p = 0.001; south, 76.6 ± 20.5 nmol/L vs 85.2 ± 24.7 nmol/L, p Conclusions Vitamin D insufficiency is common and varies across geographical regions in Thailand.

  18. Antigenic Relationships among Human Pathogenic Orientia tsutsugamushi Isolates from Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L James

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a common cause of undiagnosed febrile illness in certain tropical regions, but can be easily treated with antibiotics. The causative agent, Orientia tsutsugamushi, is antigenically variable which complicates diagnosis and efforts towards vaccine development.This study aimed to dissect the antigenic and genetic relatedness of O. tsutsugamushi strains and investigate sero-diagnostic reactivities by titrating individual patient sera against their O. tsutsugamushi isolates (whole-cell antigen preparation, in homologous and heterologous serum-isolate pairs from the same endemic region in NE Thailand. The indirect immunofluorescence assay was used to titrate Orientia tsutsugamushi isolates and human sera, and a mathematical technique, antigenic cartography, was applied to these data to visualise the antigenic differences and cross-reactivity between strains and sera. No functional or antigen-specific analyses were performed. The antigenic variation found in clinical isolates was much less pronounced than the genetic differences found in the 56kDa type-specific antigen genes. The Karp-like sera were more broadly reactive than the Gilliam-like sera.Antigenic cartography worked well with scrub typhus indirect immunofluorescence titres. The data from humoral responses suggest that a Karp-like strain would provide broader antibody cross-reactivity than a Gilliam-like strain. Although previous exposure to O. tsutsugamushi could not be ruled out, scrub typhus patient serum antibody responses were characterised by strong homologous, but weak heterologous antibody titres, with little evidence for cross-reactivity by Gilliam-like sera, but a broader response from some Karp-like sera. This work highlights the importance of antigenic variation in O. tsutsugamushi diagnosis and determination of new serotypes.

  19. Imported pythium insidiosum keratitis after a swim in Thailand by a contact lens-wearing traveler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelievre, Lucie; Borderie, Vincent; Garcia-Hermoso, Dea; Brignier, Anne C; Sterkers, Margaret; Chaumeil, Christine; Lortholary, Olivier; Lanternier, Fanny

    2015-02-01

    A 30-year-old woman with a history of contact lens wear and exposure to swimming pool water in Thailand presented with a non-responsive, progressive corneal ulcer of the right eye. Confocal microscopy evidenced septate linear branching structures, raising suspicion of fungal keratitis. She was promptly treated with topical antibiotics and both topical and intravenous caspofungin plus voriconazole. Worsening of the clinical picture after 1 month of intensive medical therapy led to a large therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty being performed. Corneal cultures grew a mold-like organism, which was identified by sequencing as Pythium insidiosum, an aquatic oomycete. After 4 years of follow-up, the graft exhibits no infection relapse, but graft transparency has been lost after two rejection episodes. Keratoplasty combined with antifungal treatment may offer a cure to P. insidiosum keratitis, although long-term preservation of corneal transparency is difficult to obtain. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  20. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Rubber Industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jawjit, W.; Kroeze, C.; Rattanapan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Rubber production has been taking place in Thailand for many decades. Thailand is currently the world's largest natural rubber producer. We present emissions of greenhouse gases associated with the production of fresh latex, and three primary rubber products, including concentrated latex, block

  1. Outbreak of Trichinellosis Caused by Trichinella papuae, Thailand, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumjui, Chowalit; Choomkasien, Pravit; Dekumyoy, Paron; Kusolsuk, Teera; Kongkaew, Wandee; Chalamaat, Mutita

    2008-01-01

    In 2006, the Thailand Ministry of Public Health studied 28 patients from a village in northern Thailand. All had myalgia, edema, fever, and gastrointestinal symptoms; most had eaten wild boar. A muscle biopsy specimen from a patient showed nonencapsulated larvae with a cytochrome oxidase I gene sequence of Trichinella papuae. PMID:19046519

  2. Dietary Behaviour among Male Out-patients in Thailand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary Behaviour among Male Out-patients in Thailand. Apa Puckpinyo Youngpradith, Supa Pengpid, Karl Peltzer, Kawinarat Suthisukhon. Abstract. The aim of the study was to estimate associations between dietary behaviour, chronic conditions and health variables among male out-patients in central Thailand. As part of ...

  3. Decentralisation And School-Based Management In Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamage, David T.; Sooksomchitra, Pacharapimon

    2004-01-01

    School-based management (SBM) in Thailand began in 1997 in the course of a reform aimed at overcoming a profound crisis in the education system. The present contribution reports on the introduction and institutionalisation of decentralisation and SBM with community participation in Thailand. The data reported here are based on an empirical survey…

  4. New records of Phacus and Monomorphina taxa (Euglenophyta for Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duangjan Kritsana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of Phacus and Monomorphina (Euglenophyta from northern Thailand was studied in various water bodies of Chiang Mai, Chiang Rai, Lamphun, Lampang and Phayao provinces. This paper presents 25 taxa of Phacus and 1 Monomorphina new for Thailand, including 3 Phacus taxa new for Southeast Asia. Several varieties and forms were recognized. All are briefly described, with original illustrations.

  5. Computing Tropical Varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Speyer, D.; Jensen, Anders Nedergaard; Bogart, T.

    2005-01-01

    The tropical variety of a d-dimensional prime ideal in a polynomial ring with complex coefficients is a pure d-dimensional polyhedral fan. This fan is shown to be connected in codimension one. We present algorithmic tools for computing the tropical variety, and we discuss our implementation...... of these tools in the Gröbner fan software Gfan. Every ideal is shown to have a finite tropical basis, and a sharp lower bound is given for the size of a tropical basis for an ideal of linear forms....

  6. Effects of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation on dengue epidemics in Thailand, 1996-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klinchan Suratsawadee

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite intensive vector control efforts, dengue epidemics continue to occur throughout Southeast Asia in multi-annual cycles. Weather is considered an important factor in these cycles, but the extent to which the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO is a driving force behind dengue epidemics remains unclear. Methods We examined the temporal relationship between El Niño and the occurrence of dengue epidemics, and constructed Poisson autoregressive models for incidences of dengue cases. Global ENSO records, dengue surveillance data, and local meteorological data in two geographically diverse regions in Thailand (the tropical southern coastal region and the northern inland mountainous region were analyzed. Results The strength of El Niño was consistently a predictor for the occurrence of dengue epidemics throughout time lags from 1 to 11 months in the two selected regions of Thailand. Up to 22% (in 8 northern inland mountainous provinces and 15% (in 5 southern tropical coastal provinces of the variation in the monthly incidence of dengue cases were attributable to global ENSO cycles. Province-level predictive models were fitted using 1996-2004 data and validated with out-of-fit data from 2005. The multivariate ENSO index was an independent predictor in 10 of the 13 studied provinces. Conclusion El Niño is one of the important driving forces for dengue epidemics across the geographically diverse regions of Thailand; however, spatial heterogeneity in the effect exists. The effects of El Niño should be taken into account in future epidemic forecasting for public health preparedness.

  7. Outbreak of cercarial dermatitis in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullavanijaya, P; Wongwaisayawan, H

    1993-02-01

    An epidemic of cercarial dermatitis caused by Schistosoma spindale cercaria occurred in November 1988 in a district called Chaiya, Surajthani province, in Southern Thailand. Fifty-eight Thai farmers in Chaiya, Surajthani gave a history of itch following immersion in water while planting rice. The area of rice field was flooded for 10 days before farmers started working. The duration of the disease ranged from 2 days to 1 month. Forty-one patients had the disease for the first time, seventeen had a history of previous manifestations. This epidemic was caused by S. spindale cercaria, which developed in the Indoplanorbis exustus snail, associated with flooding.

  8. Cutaneous Gnathostomiasis: A Case Report from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakunee Niranvichaiya

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gnathostomiasis is transmitted to humans via ingestion of third-stage larva of genus Gnathostoma. Thailand is considered an endemic area for the disease. We reported a 65-year-old Thai male patient with clinical presentation of a small number of nodular migratory swellings on the face and neck. The histopathology of skin biopsy revealed parasitic material surrounded by eosinophil infiltration and fibrosis in deep dermis. Therefore, we were able to confirm diagnosis of cutaneous gnathostomiasis. After treatment with ivermectin followed by albendazole, the lesions still persisted; thus, surgical excision of lesions may be the necessary curative treatment.

  9. Abnormal Taenia saginata tapeworms in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maipanich, Wanna; Sato, Megumi; Pubampen, Somchit; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Kusolsuk, Teera; Thaenkham, Urusa; Waikagul, Jitra

    2011-09-01

    Sixty-eight residents of Ban Luang and Ban Pang Kae villages, in Nan Province, northern Thailand, visited our mobile field station in September 2006 and March 2007, seeking treatment for taeniasis. After treatment, 22 cases discharged tapeworm strobila in their fecal samples and 17 scolices were recovered. Among these, 3 were morphologically abnormal, with six suckers on the scolex. To confirm the species of these tapeworms, the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was used as a molecular marker. The partial COI sequences (800 bp) of the abnormal tapeworms were identical to the sequences of Taenia saginata deposited in Genbank.

  10. The nutrition and health transition in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosulwat, Vongsvat

    2002-02-01

    To explore and describe the nutrition and health transition in Thailand in relation to social and economic changes, shifts in food consumption patterns and nutritional problems, as well as morbidity and mortality trends. This report reviews the nutrition and health situation and other related issues by compiling information from various reports and publications from several sources. Yearly statistics and reports from the National Statistical Office were used as well as data from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and national surveys on the nutrition and health situation of the Thai population. Thailand has undergone social and economic transitions during the past three decades and is approaching the post-demographic transitional period. These are evidenced by an increase in life expectancy at birth of the population, and declines in the total fertility and infant mortality rates. The economic structure has also moved from agricultural to industrial. Industrial growth has surpassed that of the agricultural sector as indicated by a steady rise in the share of the industrial sector in the gross domestic product, which is greater than that of other sectors. At the same time, results from several nation-wide surveys indicate that the food consumption pattern of the population has changed considerably; Thai staples and side dishes are being replaced by diets containing a higher proportion of fats and animal meat. A shift in the proportion of expenditure on food prepared at home and that expended on purchased, ready-to-eat food, in both rural and urban settings, gives another reflection of the change in food consumption of the Thai population. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents has increased dramatically during the past 20 years and is more pronounced in children from private schools and urban communities than in those from public schools or rural areas. Among adults, results from two national surveys in 1991 and 1996

  11. Violence against women migrant workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyanukij, Charnchao

    2004-10-01

    A paper on "Violence against Women Migrant Workers in Thailand" will show the situation of women migrant workers in Thailand, why they have to come to Thailand, what kind of job they do, how they are abused and exploited by employer in many types of violence and how the Thai government manages to solve the problems and assist them. The term or definition of "violence against women-VAW" and "discrimination against women" is provided and based on the definition stated in the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). Readers will see that violence against women is a form of discrimination committed on a basis of sex. In other words, VAW is a clear violation of women's inherent human rights including the rights to life, liberty, and security of person, equality, equal protection under the law and freedom from all forms of discrimination. More than one hundred thousands of women illegal migrant workers work in Thailand. They come from countries in the Mekong Sub-region namely Myanmar Lao PDR, Cambodia, Vietnam and China (Yunnan province). As they come illegally and have low level of education and working skills, they are vulnerable to exploitation, abuse or face violence. In general, they work in small factories, domestic work and restaurant. They are forced begging, forced prostitution or work in a slavery-like condition. Root causes of illegal migration and VAW are interrelated and occur in both sending and receiving countries of migrant workers. Poverty, demand and supply sides of labor, level of education, no knowledge of their own rights, impact of capitalism and gender issues, are mentioned as original factors of migration and VAW. The Thai government has national policy, plan, instrument and measures to cope with in- migration of illegal workers. Not only government agencies are active to solve the problems and assist the women migrant workers, but also non

  12. Tropical Diabetic Hand Syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Any adult with DM in the tropics with hand cellulitis, infection and gangrene qualifies for TDHS.[1-4] It is a terminology used to describe a specific acute symptom complex found in diabetic patients in the tropics usually follows minor trauma to the hand and associated with progressive synergistic form of gangrene.

  13. Tropical Real Hurwitz numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Markwig, Hannah; Rau, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we define tropical analogues of real Hurwitz numbers, i.e. numbers of covers of surfaces with compatible involutions satisfying prescribed ramification properties. We prove a correspondence theorem stating the equality of the tropical numbers with their real counterparts. We apply this theorem to the case of double Hurwitz numbers (which generalizes our result from arXiv:1409.8095).

  14. Tropical Veterinarian: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. 2012 Author Guidelines: Instructions to Authors: TROPICAL VETERINARIAN welcomes original work on all aspects of veterinary science as practiced in the Tropics, including livestock production and management, animal disease (domestic and wild), various aspects of preventive medicine and public ...

  15. Utilization of tropical rabbits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The productive performance of rabbits was evaluated on diets of alfalfa meal and tropical forages. The results showed that rabbits can utilize high forage diets wlth little or no cereal grain. Several tropical legumes (Desmodium distortum, Macrop tilium lathyroides, Clitoria ternata and Cassra tora) have the same feeding ...

  16. Introduction to tropical geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Maclagan, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Tropical geometry is a combinatorial shadow of algebraic geometry, offering new polyhedral tools to compute invariants of algebraic varieties. It is based on tropical algebra, where the sum of two numbers is their minimum and the product is their sum. This turns polynomials into piecewise-linear functions, and their zero sets into polyhedral complexes. These tropical varieties retain a surprising amount of information about their classical counterparts. Tropical geometry is a young subject that has undergone a rapid development since the beginning of the 21st century. While establishing itself as an area in its own right, deep connections have been made to many branches of pure and applied mathematics. This book offers a self-contained introduction to tropical geometry, suitable as a course text for beginning graduate students. Proofs are provided for the main results, such as the Fundamental Theorem and the Structure Theorem. Numerous examples and explicit computations illustrate the main concepts. Each of t...

  17. Colletotrichum spp. associated with anthracnose disease on Coffee in Vietnam and on some other major tropical crops

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Phuong

    2010-01-01

    The genus Colletotrichum consists of many economically important pathogenic fungi on a broad range of host plants world-wide. They cause significant economic losses to tropical crops: fruits, cereals, grasses, vegetables, etc., due to diseases at different stages of plant development. Several species of Colletotrichum cause anthracnose on coffee and other major crops, which are valuable trade commodities in Vietnam and Thailand. However, populations of these pathogens have been poorly studied...

  18. Illustrated keys to the mosquitoes of Thailand I. Background; geographic distribution; lists of genera, subgenera, and species; and a key to the genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanarithikul, Rampa; Harrison, Bruce A; Panthusiri, Prachong; Coleman, Russell E

    2005-01-01

    This is the first of a series of six sections that will cover 436 species of mosquitoes currently known to occur in Thailand. In this section we provide information on the background, geographic distribution, bionomics, lists of genera, subgenera, and specie of mosquitoes that occur in Thailand, and a key to the genera. The sections, listed below will be published as separate supplements in following issues of this journal: II. Key to the Culex; III. Key to the Aedeomyia, Ficalbia, Mimomyia, Hodgesia, Coquillettidia, Mansonia, and Uranotaenia. The additional 3 supplements consisting of the Key to the Tribe Aedini; Key to the Anopheles; and the Keys to the Armigeres, Heizmannia, Orthopodomyia, Malaya, Topomyia, Tripteroides, and Toxorhynchites will be published as they are completed. At the conclusion of this project, one large supplement to the Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health will be produced that includes all of these keys in a single document.

  19. Ergonomics studies in Thailand: a future prospect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intaranont, K

    1997-12-01

    Ergonomics studies in Thailand began in 1967 after Professor Kovit Satavuthi graduated from the University of Birmingham, where he worked with Professor Nigel Corlett. Ergonomics was offered as an elective in the IE curriculum at Chulalongkorn University. Professor Satavuthi was later invited to teach manufacturing process and system at the Department of Occupational Health and Safety, School of Public Health, Mahidol University. He then added the ergonomics concept to the class as part of his lectures. The first international conference was organized by the Central Coordinating Board of SEAMEO-TROPMED Project, and it was held in Bangkok from 19-23 June 1972, thus bringing ergonomics into public attention. Most participants came from medical science and public health fields, however. Ergonomics popularity has begun to gain momentum in the past 4-5 years. This could be the result of more universities paying serious consideration to provide ergonomics knowledge to their students. It is also well-accepted that ergonomics is a multidisciplined subject. It requires knowledge from medical sciences, sociology, psychology, public health, and engineering. The results of ergonomics studies will have greater chances of success if they are concluded from all disciplines of knowledge. This paper reports some previous studies in Thailand and discuss how to build up an ergonomics team and to produce reasonable results with a sound application plan.

  20. Doctors and society: a Northern Thailand study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H E

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a survey together with other observations to characterize the medical profession in Northern Thailand. Data were obtained in early 1976 using a self-administered questionnaire which was completed by 132 physicians in three Northern Thai provinces. Officially approved Thai medicine is 'Western' in nature and is predominantly an urban phenomenon. Practitioners of indigenous medicine are widespread and although illegal, they are tolerated. Training of doctors conforms very largely to Western standards. This plus the limited demand for private medical care results in a high proportion of the graduates of Thai medical schools migrating abroad. Results of the survey indicate that doctors in Northern Thailand were predominantly government employees or staff of a private hospital. Less than 5% were solely in self-employment. However, most 'employee' doctors had a private 'after hours' practice. Two types of medical professionals were identified: the 'cosmopolitan' and the 'local' doctor. Difficulties in communicating with patients were indicated by about 30% of the respondent doctors. The level of dissatisfaction expressed by the doctors surveyed was relatively high--43%. Items most often mentioned were: over-work, low compensation and lack of cooperation of patients. Satisfaction most often mentioned were: service to others, independent occupation and prestige with which doctors are regarded. In the analysis, the influence of several independent variables on type of professionalism and on satisfaction-dissatisfaction was determined.

  1. Road traffic injuries in Thailand: current situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadbunchachai, Witaya; Suphanchaimaj, Weraphan; Settasatien, Anuchar; Jinwong, Thanapong

    2012-07-01

    Road traffic injuries are a major public health problem in Thailand. The number of mortalities, morbidities and disabilities are huge, greatly affecting the individual victims, the families, society and the nation as a whole. To study the current situation regarding traffic injuries in Thailand. Retrospective study from multiple national data sources For over ten years, the annual death toll due to road accidents has been more than ten thousand Thais. The situation remains critical with a higher mortality and morbidity than many other low or middle income countries. Two-thirds of the victims were males: 80% were under 40 years of age. Most (80%) of the injured and dead were motorcyclists. The large number of traffic crashes, injuries, disabilities and deaths resulted in more than 168 thousand million Baht in economic losses in 2002. These losses are trending to increase. Traffic injuries are a persistent major public health concern primarily because of a lack of adherence to the use of safety restraints and obedience of traffic laws. The nation must not hesitate to increase efforts to address these problems, as they are costing life and limb of Thais every hour of every day, as well as adding a huge economic burden.

  2. Disaster management: vulnerability and resilience in disaster recovery in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busapathumrong, Pattamaporn

    2013-01-01

    This project explores disaster management in Thailand with a focus on the vulnerability and resilience of women, children, the elderly, and the disabled population and on the impact of disaster on these subpopulations. The 2 main findings deal with the major models of disaster management in Thailand and building resilience for social recovery. The selected 5 major models currently employed in disaster management in Thailand are the (a) model of royal project and international cooperation on disaster preparedness and response, (b) ASEAN Socio-Cultural Blueprint, (c) rights-based approach, (d) welfare mix model, and (e) knowledge management model.

  3. Genetic analysis of Thailand hantavirus in Bandicota indica trapped in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugot Jean-Pierre

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sixty one tissue samples from several rodent species trapped in five provinces of Thailand were examined for the presence of hantaviral markers by enzyme-immunoassay and immunoblotting. Four samples, all from the great bandicoot rat Bandicota indica, were confirmed positive for the hantaviral N-antigen. Two of them were trapped in Nakhon Pathom province, the other two in Nakhon Ratchasima province, approximately 250 km from the other trapping site. When analysed by RT-nested PCR, all four rodents were found positive for the hantaviral S- and M-segment nucleotide sequences. Genetic analysis revealed that the four newly described wild-type strains belong to Thailand hantavirus. On the phylogenetic trees they formed a well-supported cluster within the group of Murinae-associated hantaviruses and shared a recent common ancestor with Seoul virus.

  4. Tropical Cyclone Report, 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    picture) the comma shape of Tropical Storm Irma (15W). These two tropical cyclones were active with Tropical Storm Jeff (16W) and Typhoon Uleki (01C...DDGM (WF) ESCAP LIBRARY, BANGKOK JAPAN METEOROLOGY AGENCY FLENUMOCEANCEN MONTEREY MCAS IWAKUNI FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER, MIAMI...TY ULEKI ROGERS/SCOVIL 88 (03W) TD 03W PICKLE 40 (15W) TS IRMA CROSBY 93 (04W) TY THAD SCOVIL 44 (16W) TS JEFF PICKLE 94 (05W) TS VANESSA SCHULTZ 48

  5. An illustrated key to powder post beetles (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae) associated with rubberwood in Thailand, with new records and a checklist of species found in Southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Wisut Sittichaya; Roger Beaver; Lan-Yu Liu; Aran Ngampongsai

    2009-01-01

    An illustrated key to seventeen species of Bostrichidae recorded in association with rubberwood in Thailand is provided. A checklist is given of nine species infesting rubberwood sawn timber in sawmills in southern Thailand, with information on distribution, host trees and biology. Three species are recorded for the first time from Thailand: Cephalotoma tonkinea Lesne, Lyctoxylon dentatum (Pascoe), and Minthea reticulata Lesne.

  6. An illustrated key to powder post beetles (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae associated with rubberwood in Thailand, with new records and a checklist of species found in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisut Sittichaya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An illustrated key to seventeen species of Bostrichidae recorded in association with rubberwood in Thailand is provided. A checklist is given of nine species infesting rubberwood sawn timber in sawmills in southern Thailand, with information on distribution, host trees and biology. Three species are recorded for the first time from Thailand: Cephalotoma tonkinea Lesne, Lyctoxylon dentatum (Pascoe, and Minthea reticulata Lesne.

  7. GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The GARP Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE) was the first major international experiment of the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP). It was conducted over...

  8. Tropical Plant Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -colonial and early colonial periods. With the presentation by Cribb on the botany of the British Empire we were fully into the colonial period, focussing on the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. The situation in North America was treated by Funk, who illustrated the development of collections of tropical plants......The symposium Tropical Plant Collections: Legacies from the past? Essential tools for the future? was held on 19th–21st May 2015 with botanists from eighteen countries. Balslev and Friis introduced the themes and voiced their concern about negligence of tropical plant collections in many European...... and American institutions and the dire conditions of funding and staffing in many tropical herbaria and botanical gardens. This happens at the same time as the collections become increasingly important for a series of modern approaches to evolutionary and biodiversity research and the needs of the biodiversity...

  9. Improving pain relief for children in Thailand | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-21

    Apr 21, 2016 ... Ecohealth research helps prevent liver cancer in Southeast Asia. Thailand has the highest rates of the deadly liver cancer, cholangiocarinoma, in the world. View moreEcohealth research helps prevent liver cancer in Southeast Asia ...

  10. Handheld Standoff Mine Detection System (HSTAMIDS) Field Evaluation in Thailand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doheny, Robert C; Burke, Sean; Cresci, Roger; Ngan, Peter; Walls, Richard

    2005-01-01

    ...) and with participation from the International Test and Evaluation Project (ITEP) for Humanitarian Demining, conducted an in-country field evaluation of HSTAMIDS in the region of Humanitarian Demining Unit #1 (HMAU1) in Thailand...

  11. Reducing liver fluke transmission in northeastern Thailand | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-04-29

    Apr 29, 2016 ... A new model tested in northeastern Thailand shows that a multi-pronged approach—combining treatment, ecosystem monitoring, and community mobilization—can effectively tackle the transmission of liver flukes.

  12. Moving Thailand's mountain of alcohol-related harm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Apiradee Treerutkuarkul

    2017-01-01

    ... especially among young people. Today Thailand is one of the few developing countries with laws and policies aimed at preventing alcohol-related problems, such as liver disease, cancers and alcohol dependence as well as road...

  13. Invisible in Thailand: documenting the need for protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Green

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The International Rescue Committee (IRC has conducted asurvey to document the experiences of Burmese people livingin border areas of Thailand and assess the degree to whichthey merit international protection as refugees.

  14. Intellectual Property Creation of Japanese Companies in China and Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayasuki Kondo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the age of globalization, Japanese companies are globalizing their operations. They have recently been increasing the number of overseas R&D centers in Asia, especially in China and Thailand. Using the United States patent and industrial design data, the paper finds the following points quantitatively. Japanese companies are increasing the number of patents and industrial designs created in the two countries. They used local talents from the beginning in China for both patents and industrial designs. In Thailand, they used local talents for industrial designs from the beginning, while Japanese expertise in Thailand was used for patents in the beginning. In any case, the role of Japanese in Japan is important. Compared with multi-national companies (MNCs from other countries, the IP creation activities of Japanese companies are weak compared to their amount of foreign direct investment to China and Thailand.

  15. Additions to the Bopyrid Isopod Fauna Of Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Markham, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Previously, scattered accounts recorded 13 species of bopyrid isopods infesting decapod crustaceans in Thailand. Recent collections, mainly at Phuket, on the west coast, have turned up 18 more species in Thai waters. Asymmetrione asymmetrica (Shiino) infests Clibanarius spec. Bopyrissa liberorum

  16. Malaria Modeling and Surveillance in Thailand and Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Richard; Adimi, Farida; Soebiyanto, Radina

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the modeling of malaria transmission in Thailand and Indonesia to assist in the understanding and reducing the incidence of the deadly disease. Satellite observations are being integrated into this work, and this is described herein.

  17. The economics of catfish farming in central Thailand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Panayotou, T; Wattanutchariya, S; Isvilanonda, S; Tokrisna, R

    1982-01-01

    A recall survey of 41 catfish farms in the central plain of Thailand during 1979 was undertaken to ascertain why production has been falling since 1974, despite high and rising market prices for catfish...

  18. Tropical Amphi-Pacific disjunctions in the Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Van Damme

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tropical Amphi-Pacific and trans-Pacific disjunctions are among the most controversial distribution patterns in biogeography. A disjunct distribution pattern between SE Asia (in fact, Indochina-Assam and the Neotropics is rarely investigated in freshwater invertebrates. In the following, we give the first review on potential tropical Amphi-Pacific disjunctions in the Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda, a group of freshwater microcrustaceans. As a case study, we examine the littoral-benthic freshwater genus Leydigiopsis Sars, 1901 (Cladocera: Anomopoda: Chydoridae. The lineage has four known species in the Neotropics and we examine the status of Leydigiopsis records from Indochina and Assam (India. Our morphological study shows that the Oriental Leydigiopsis is not a humanmediated introduced species from South America. The populations belong to a distinct species, which we describe as new from Thailand and Vietnam. We discuss the biogeography of Leydigiopsis and examine possible hypotheses underlying the observed distribution pattern (e.g. transoceanic long-distance dispersal, boreotropical migration scenario, African extinction scenario. Our case study shows that a boreotropical origin seems the most plausible scenario for the current distribution of this tropical chydorid lineage. In the absence of a good fossil record, we propose that a comparison with biogeographical hypotheses of plants, may provide useful analogies when studying anomopod biogeography, because ephippia, the propagules for dispersal, functionally act as minute aquatic plant seeds. We list other examples of potential tropical Amphi-or trans-Pacific disjunctions in the Cladocera, based on phenotypes and we provide an updated key to the Leydigiopsis species of the world. Undersampling, taxonomical bias, the absence of molecular data and a poor fossil record, remain the most important obstacles for studying biogeography in non-planktonic tropical freshwater zooplankton.

  19. Development Trajectory, Emission Profile, and Policy Actions : Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Qwanruedee; Chotichanathawewong; Natapol Thongplew

    2012-01-01

    In Thailand climate change has been integrated into the formulation of several national plans and policies. Even though Thailand is not obligated to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, it voluntarily takes numerous actions to mitigate emissions. Both the public and private sector have been actively involved in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, with a series of measures and actions implemented in each sector. The development of renewable energy and the promotion of energy conservation and ...

  20. Development trajectory, emission profile, and policy actions: Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chotichanathawewong, Qwanruedee; Thongplew, Natapol

    2012-01-01

    In Thailand climate change has been integrated into the formulation of several national plans and policies. Even though Thailand is not obligated to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, it voluntarily takes numerous actions to mitigate emissions. Both the public and private sector have been actively involved in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, with a series of measures and actions implemented in each sector. The development of renewable energy and the promotion of energy conservation and effici...

  1. Thailand, A beauty hub for everyone? : Internationalizing Thai Aesthetic Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Sinhaneti, Kantara; Pullawan, Jitmanee

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Aesthetic surgery becomes another option of beauty. Interested Patients seeking for choices offered outside their homeland for more benefits. Thailand maybe one of those choices people is now interested in. Thai aesthetic industry may prove to be one of the most wanted destinations because of its expertise and relatively low cost with impressive service. Problem: “How should Thailand improve its Aesthetic service attractiveness to drive its potential to the level of internationa...

  2. Sustainable Solutions for Municipal Solid Waste Management in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Thaniya Kaosol

    2009-01-01

    General as well as the MSW management in Thailand is reviewed in this paper. Topics include the MSW generation, sources, composition, and trends. The review, then, moves to sustainable solutions for MSW management, sustainable alternative approaches with an emphasis on an integrated MSW management. Information of waste in Thailand is also given at the beginning of this paper for better understanding of later contents. It is clear that no one single method of MSW disposal can deal with all mat...

  3. Current Status of Taeniasis in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Taeniasis is prevalent in all regions of Thailand, except the South. Infections were more frequently found in males than females of any age from 7-83 years. Taenia saginata is the most common species throughout the country. Taenia asiatica was reported only in the province of Kanchanaburi in the Central region. Co-infections, with Taenia solium and T. asiatica or T. solium and T. saginata, were found. Hybridization between T. asiatica and T. saginata is evidence that co-infection is never found between these 2 species. Finding more than 1 worm in a single patient was not entirely rare. Genetic variation was found without correlation to its geographic distribution in T. saginata, whereas no variation was found in T. asiatica. PMID:23467328

  4. RVNRL and radiation processing in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siri-Upathum, C. [Department of Nuclear Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2000-03-01

    Industrial application of radiation processing in Thailand is gaining wide acceptance. The first private-owned radiation sterilization plant was established in 1984. Commercialization of protective rubber gloves from radiation vulcanized of natural rubber latex (RVNRL) started in 1993. Two new sterilization plants using electron beam accelerator and gamma irradiation were commissioned in 1997 and 1999 respectively. Another gamma sterilization plant is scheduled to operate in the year 2000. Additional electron accelerator is being installed in one operational gamma sterilization plant, for upgrading of gemstones. Research and development at Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) and universities has been focused on RVNRL, radiation treatment of sludge, grafting of cassava starch and utilization of irradiated silk protein. Except for RVNRL which has passed to commercial scale, pilot scale of radiation treatment of sludge has achieved its goal to be utilized as new resources for animal feed and fertilizer. (author)

  5. Pneumonia in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Tow Keang; Siow, Wen Ting

    2018-01-01

    Pneumonia in the tropics poses a heavy disease burden. The complex interplay of climate change, human migration influences and socio-economic factors lead to changing patterns of respiratory infections in tropical climate but also increasingly in temperate countries. Tropical and poorer countries, especially South East Asia, also bear the brunt of the global tuberculosis (TB) pandemic, accounting for almost one-third of the burden. But, as human migration patterns evolve, we expect to see more TB cases in higher income as well as temperate countries, and rise in infections like scrub typhus from ecotourism activities. Fuelled by the ease of air travel, novel zoonotic infections originating from the tropics have led to global respiratory pandemics. As such, clinicians worldwide should be aware of these new conditions as well as classical tropical bacterial pneumonias such as melioidosis. Rarer entities such as co-infections of leptospirosis and chikungunya or dengue will need careful consideration as well. In this review, we highlight aetiologies of pneumonia seen more commonly in the tropics compared with temperate regions, their disease burden, variable clinical presentations as well as impact on healthcare delivery. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  6. Controlling Dengue with Vaccines in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Dennis L.; Halstead, Scott B.; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that constitutes a growing global threat with the habitat expansion of its vectors Aedes aegyti and A. albopictus and increasing urbanization. With no effective treatment and limited success of vector control, dengue vaccines constitute the best control measure for the foreseeable future. With four interacting dengue serotypes, the development of an effective vaccine has been a challenge. Several dengue vaccine candidates are currently being tested in clinical trials. Before the widespread introduction of a new dengue vaccine, one needs to consider how best to use limited supplies of vaccine given the complex dengue transmission dynamics and the immunological interaction among the four dengue serotypes. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed an individual-level (including both humans and mosquitoes), stochastic simulation model for dengue transmission and control in a semi-rural area in Thailand. We calibrated the model to dengue serotype-specific infection, illness and hospitalization data from Thailand. Our simulations show that a realistic roll-out plan, starting with young children then covering progressively older individuals in following seasons, could reduce local transmission of dengue to low levels. Simulations indicate that this strategy could avert about 7,700 uncomplicated dengue fever cases and 220 dengue hospitalizations per 100,000 people at risk over a ten-year period. Conclusions/Significance Vaccination will have an important role in controlling dengue. According to our modeling results, children should be prioritized to receive vaccine, but adults will also need to be vaccinated if one wants to reduce community-wide dengue transmission to low levels. PMID:23145197

  7. Controlling dengue with vaccines in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis L Chao

    Full Text Available Dengue is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that constitutes a growing global threat with the habitat expansion of its vectors Aedes aegyti and A. albopictus and increasing urbanization. With no effective treatment and limited success of vector control, dengue vaccines constitute the best control measure for the foreseeable future. With four interacting dengue serotypes, the development of an effective vaccine has been a challenge. Several dengue vaccine candidates are currently being tested in clinical trials. Before the widespread introduction of a new dengue vaccine, one needs to consider how best to use limited supplies of vaccine given the complex dengue transmission dynamics and the immunological interaction among the four dengue serotypes.We developed an individual-level (including both humans and mosquitoes, stochastic simulation model for dengue transmission and control in a semi-rural area in Thailand. We calibrated the model to dengue serotype-specific infection, illness and hospitalization data from Thailand. Our simulations show that a realistic roll-out plan, starting with young children then covering progressively older individuals in following seasons, could reduce local transmission of dengue to low levels. Simulations indicate that this strategy could avert about 7,700 uncomplicated dengue fever cases and 220 dengue hospitalizations per 100,000 people at risk over a ten-year period.Vaccination will have an important role in controlling dengue. According to our modeling results, children should be prioritized to receive vaccine, but adults will also need to be vaccinated if one wants to reduce community-wide dengue transmission to low levels.

  8. REVIEW OF AQUACULTURE GENETIC RESEARCHES IN THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    UTHAIRAT NA-NAKORN

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture business has been well established in Thailand for more than 40 years. The most recent data indicated a total production of 260 380 tons. Sixty-five percent of the total production came from coastal aquaculture, mainly tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon culture. Other important species for coastal aquaculture are banana prawn (P. merguensis, cockle (Anadara granosa, green mussel (Perna viridis, oyster (Crassostrea belcheri, Saccostrea commercialis, sea bass (Lates calcarifer and grouper (Epinephelus tauvina. Freshwater aquaculture, although produced only 35% of the annual production, provides major protein source for people in rural areas. Important freshwater species are Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, tawes (Puntius gonionotus, sepat Siam (Trichogasterpectoralis, walking catfish (Glorias spp., stripped catfish (Pangasius sutchi and giant freshwater prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Optimum aquacultural practises, namely stocking density, nutrition requirement and water quality have been obtained in most cultured species. But genetic approach has not been considered, thus resulting in deterioration in economic traits which might be due to excessive inbreeding (reviewed by Uraiwan 1989 and/or negative selection (Wongsangchan 1985. The history of researches on genetics in aquaculture in Thailand started in 1982 when the aquaculture genetic programme in form of a network has been established at the National Inland Fisheries Institute, Department of Fisheries. This programme was supported by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC, Canada in cooperation with Dalhousie University, Canada (Uraiwan 1989. In the same year a genetic improvement programme aiming at improving economic characters of some economic fish species has been conducted at the Department of Aquaculture, Kasetsart University. Paralelly a course in Fish Genetics has been offered. Since then different approaches of genetics have been applied with final

  9. Labour Migration and the Economic Sustainability in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piriya Pholphirul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Migration is one of the top debate topics in terms of the national policy agendas of middle-income countries, and Thailand is no exception. The segmentation of its labour market explains why Thailand is experiencing large-scale immigration and a simultaneous emigration of low-skilled workers. Immigration inflows from its less-developed neighbour countries – namely, Laos, Cambodia and Myanmar – pose a challenge for Thailand. Wage differentials between Thailand and other migrant-receiving countries, which are mostly more economically developed than Thailand, also stimu-late emigration from there. Due to regional disparities within the country and to a lack of employment and educational opportunities in rural areas, internal migration is also common and encouraged. In this paper I first analyse the economic pros and cons of migration both to and within Thailand before formulating labour migration policies that aim to maximize beneficial outcomes while minimizing economic costs. The cost–benefit analysis of labour migration is key to addressing relevant gaps in formulating and implementing effective policies.

  10. A multi-country study of the economic burden of dengue fever: Vietnam, Thailand, and Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Seok Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is a major public health concern in many parts of the tropics and subtropics. The first dengue vaccine has already been licensed in six countries. Given the growing interests in the effective use of the vaccine, it is critical to understand the economic burden of dengue fever to guide decision-makers in setting health policy priorities.A standardized cost-of-illness study was conducted in three dengue endemic countries: Vietnam, Thailand, and Colombia. In order to capture all costs during the entire period of illness, patients were tested with rapid diagnostic tests on the first day of their clinical visits, and multiple interviews were scheduled until the patients recovered from the current illness. Various cost items were collected such as direct medical and non-medical costs, indirect costs, and non-out-of-pocket costs. In addition, socio-economic factors affecting disease severity were also identified by adopting a logit model. We found that total cost per episode ranges from $141 to $385 for inpatient and from $40 to $158 outpatient, with Colombia having the highest and Thailand having the lowest. The percentage of the private economic burden of dengue fever was highest in the low-income group and lowest in the high-income group. The logit analyses showed that early treatment, higher education, and better knowledge of dengue disease would reduce the probability of developing more severe illness.The cost of dengue fever is substantial in the three dengue endemic countries. Our study findings can be used to consider accelerated introduction of vaccines into the public and private sector programs and prioritize alternative health interventions among competing health problems. In addition, a community would be better off by propagating the socio-economic factors identified in this study, which may prevent its members from developing severe illness in the long run.

  11. A multi-country study of the economic burden of dengue fever: Vietnam, Thailand, and Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Seok; Mogasale, Vittal; Lim, Jacqueline K; Carabali, Mabel; Lee, Kang-Sung; Sirivichayakul, Chukiat; Dang, Duc Anh; Palencia-Florez, Diana Cristina; Nguyen, Thi Hien Anh; Riewpaiboon, Arthorn; Chanthavanich, Pornthep; Villar, Luis; Maskery, Brian A; Farlow, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    Dengue fever is a major public health concern in many parts of the tropics and subtropics. The first dengue vaccine has already been licensed in six countries. Given the growing interests in the effective use of the vaccine, it is critical to understand the economic burden of dengue fever to guide decision-makers in setting health policy priorities. A standardized cost-of-illness study was conducted in three dengue endemic countries: Vietnam, Thailand, and Colombia. In order to capture all costs during the entire period of illness, patients were tested with rapid diagnostic tests on the first day of their clinical visits, and multiple interviews were scheduled until the patients recovered from the current illness. Various cost items were collected such as direct medical and non-medical costs, indirect costs, and non-out-of-pocket costs. In addition, socio-economic factors affecting disease severity were also identified by adopting a logit model. We found that total cost per episode ranges from $141 to $385 for inpatient and from $40 to $158 outpatient, with Colombia having the highest and Thailand having the lowest. The percentage of the private economic burden of dengue fever was highest in the low-income group and lowest in the high-income group. The logit analyses showed that early treatment, higher education, and better knowledge of dengue disease would reduce the probability of developing more severe illness. The cost of dengue fever is substantial in the three dengue endemic countries. Our study findings can be used to consider accelerated introduction of vaccines into the public and private sector programs and prioritize alternative health interventions among competing health problems. In addition, a community would be better off by propagating the socio-economic factors identified in this study, which may prevent its members from developing severe illness in the long run.

  12. Disturbance History of a Seasonal Tropical Forest in Western Thailand: A Spatial Dendroecological Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middendorp, R.S.; Vlam, M.; Rebei, K.T.; Baker, P.J.; Bunyavejchewin, S.; Zuidema, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Disturbances play an important role in forest dynamics across the globe. Researchers have mainly focused on the temporal context of disturbances, but have largely ignored the spatial patterns of tree recruitment they create. Geostatistical tools enable the analysis of spatial patterns and

  13. Tropical Plant Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ’ collections for modern drug discovery. Bakker gave an account of the tantalising possibilities for molecular systematics and other research in the use of herbarium collections, which have opened up for a plethora of additional data to be extracted from dried plant collections. The final talk was Blackmore......The symposium Tropical Plant Collections: Legacies from the past? Essential tools for the future? was held on 19th–21st May 2015 with botanists from eighteen countries. Balslev and Friis introduced the themes and voiced their concern about negligence of tropical plant collections in many European......-colonial and early colonial periods. With the presentation by Cribb on the botany of the British Empire we were fully into the colonial period, focussing on the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. The situation in North America was treated by Funk, who illustrated the development of collections of tropical plants...

  14. Tropical Plant Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    is of importance to global change studies. Queenborough showed how herbarium collections can be used to study plant functional traits, and Antonelli documented the importance of herbarium voucher specimens for molecular phylogenetic studies and in comparative biogeography. Soberón gave a sobering account of ‘big......The symposium Tropical Plant Collections: Legacies from the past? Essential tools for the future? was held on 19th–21st May 2015 with botanists from eighteen countries. Balslev and Friis introduced the themes and voiced their concern about negligence of tropical plant collections in many European......-colonial and early colonial periods. With the presentation by Cribb on the botany of the British Empire we were fully into the colonial period, focussing on the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. The situation in North America was treated by Funk, who illustrated the development of collections of tropical plants...

  15. Tropical Plant Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The symposium Tropical Plant Collections: Legacies from the past? Essential tools for the future? was held on 19th–21st May 2015 with botanists from eighteen countries. Balslev and Friis introduced the themes and voiced their concern about negligence of tropical plant collections in many European......-colonial and early colonial periods. With the presentation by Cribb on the botany of the British Empire we were fully into the colonial period, focussing on the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew. The situation in North America was treated by Funk, who illustrated the development of collections of tropical plants...... in the USA over the past two hundred years. Sebsebe Demissew taked about the situation in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly problems related to building and maintaining plant collections in new and poor nations. Onana outlined the history of botanical collections in Cameroon, covering a colonial period...

  16. Climatology and Spatio-Temporal Variability of Wintertime Total and Extreme Rainfall in Thailand during 1970-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsamon Limsakul

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at examining wintertime (December-January-February; DJF climatology and spatio-temporal variability of Thailand’s total and extreme rainfall during 1970-2012. Analysis showed that the area along the Gulf of Thailand’s eastern coast not only received much amount of rainfall but also underwent great extremes and variances during the northeast monsoon (NEM winters. Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF analysis similarly revealed that the leading mode of each DJF total or extreme rainfall index was marked by maximum loadings concentrated at the stations located at the exposed area of the NEM flow. Correlation analysis indicated that the leading EOF mode of DJF total and extreme indices in Thailand tended to be higher (lower than normal during strong (weak East Asian Winter Monsoon (EAWM. On longer timescales, the recent decadal change observed in the leading EOF mode of all rainfall indices has been coincident with re-amplification of the EAWM taken place since the early/mid 2000. The leading EOF mode of DJF total and extreme rainfall indices in Thailand also exhibited strong correlations with the tropical-subtropical Pacific Ocean surface temperatures. It was characterized as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO/El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO-related boomerang-shaped spatial patterns, resembling the typical mature phases of the La Niña event and the PDO cool epoch. Based on our analysis, it is reasonable to believe that the anomalies of the NEM and other key EAWM-related circulations are likely to be the possible causes of DJF total and extreme rainfall variations in Thailand. In addition, the ENSO and PDO as the primary global atmospheric external forcing are likely to exert their influence on wintertime Thailand’s climate via modulating the EAWM/NEM-related circulations anomalies.

  17. The cost utility and budget impact of adjuvant racecadotril for acute diarrhea in children in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenberg, Tamlyn Anne; Zerwes, Ute

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the cost utility and the budget impact of adjuvant racecadotril for the treatment of acute diarrhea in children in Thailand. A cost utility model has been adapted to the context of Thailand to evaluate racecadotril plus oral rehydration solution (R+ORS) versus oral rehydration solution (ORS) alone for acute diarrhea in children racecadotril versus ORS alone is potentially cost-effective for children in Thailand and uptake could translate into savings for the Thailand public health care system.

  18. Export Supply of Electricity from Laos to Thailand: An Econometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Thongphet Lamphayphan; Toshihisa Toyoda; Chris Czerkawsk; Phouphet Kyophilavong

    2015-01-01

    Thailand, as the largest electricity market for Laos, has imported significant amounts of electricity from Laos since the operation of first hydropower plant in Laos. However, currently there have been a number of new power particularly nuclear power plants in Thailand being studied implying the possibility of reduction in Thailand’s electricity import from Laos. Since Thailand is the largest market of Laos’ electricity, the change in demand for electricity from Thailand has substantial impac...

  19. Tropical Cyclone Report, 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    1IW TS OFELIA 25 U0:. - 25 Jo., 12 45 (23) 99. 12W TY PERCY 27 Jl:. - 30 J(J. :2 6,5 (33) 9/6 13W TY ROBYN 0: AUG - ]C AUG 38 120 (6) 922 14W TY STEVE...westward very small tropical cyclones, Ofelia (llW) and track, and for its inability to intensify beyond 30 Percy (12W), formed in quick succession at...The monsoon gyre of July 1993 was associated with the formation of two and the motion of three very small tropical cyclones: Nathan, Ofelia (11W

  20. NOAA's Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Realtime El Nino and La Nina data from the tropical Pacific Ocean is provided by the Tropical Atmosphere Ocean / Triangle Trans-Ocean buoy network (TAO/TRITON) of...

  1. 78 FR 35643 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam..., Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in subheadings 0306.17.00, 1605.21... found to be subsidized by the Governments of China, India, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam and that are...

  2. 78 FR 764 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam..., Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in subheadings 0306.17.00, 1605.21... subsidized by the Governments of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. Unless...

  3. 75 FR 38978 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From the People's Republic of China, Malaysia, and Thailand...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-07

    ..., Malaysia, and Thailand: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Orders AGENCY: Import Administration...), Malaysia, and Thailand would likely lead to a continuation or recurrence of dumping and material injury to... from the PRC, Malaysia, and Thailand \\1\\ pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930, as...

  4. 77 FR 66078 - Hot-Rolled Steel Products From China, India, Indonesia, Taiwan, Thailand, and Ukraine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    ...-Rolled Steel Products From China, India, Indonesia, Taiwan, Thailand, and Ukraine; Institution of Five..., Indonesia, and Thailand and Antidumping Duty Orders on Hot-Rolled Steel Products From China, India... orders on hot-rolled steel products from China, India, Indonesia, Taiwan, Thailand, and Ukraine would be...

  5. Latent Profile Analysis of Good Citizenship of Rajabhat Universities' Students in the Northeast of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siphai, Sunan; Srisa-ard, Boonchoom

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was 1) to develop good citizenship indicators of Rajabhat Universities' Students in the Northeast of Thailand. 2) to classify latent profile of good citizenship of Rajabhat University's students in the northeast of Thailand. The sample was 800 Rajabhat University's students in the northeast of Thailand. Findings 1) there…

  6. 76 FR 18782 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam Determinations On the..., India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would not be likely to lead to...

  7. 75 FR 57501 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to...

  8. 75 FR 48724 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The... orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to...

  9. 75 FR 1078 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... (Review)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  10. Estimation of construction waste generation and management in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoworola, Oyeshola Femi; Gheewala, Shabbir H

    2009-02-01

    This study examines construction waste generation and management in Thailand. It is estimated that between 2002 and 2005, an average of 1.1 million tons of construction waste was generated per year in Thailand. This constitutes about 7.7% of the total amount of waste disposed in both landfills and open dumpsites annually during the same period. Although construction waste constitutes a major source of waste in terms of volume and weight, its management and recycling are yet to be effectively practiced in Thailand. Recently, the management of construction waste is being given attention due to its rapidly increasing unregulated dumping in undesignated areas, and recycling is being promoted as a method of managing this waste. If effectively implemented, its potential economic and social benefits are immense. It was estimated that between 70 and 4,000 jobs would have been created between 2002 and 2005, if all construction wastes in Thailand had been recycled. Additionally it would have contributed an average savings of about 3.0 x 10(5) GJ per year in the final energy consumed by the construction sector of the nation within the same period based on the recycling scenario analyzed. The current national integrated waste management plan could enhance the effective recycling of construction and demolition waste in Thailand when enforced. It is recommended that an inventory of all construction waste generated in the country be carried out in order to assess the feasibility of large scale recycling of construction and demolition waste.

  11. Article title - Potential evaluation of rolling stock manufacturing in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiprasit Koetniyom

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the capital city of Thailand, the first electric railway system so called Bangkok Mass Transit System (BTS has been established since 1999. And Thai Government has the master plan to develop the network for such mass transport system in order to reduce traffic congestion and pollution. However, experience and technology knowledge of the rolling stock are still unknown among Thai industries. Besides, the automotive industry in Thailand has shown robust growth despite the political conflict and economic situation. With contribution of component and material suppliers for automotive industry, Thailand has possibly high potential to develop and build the train with local contents based on the international railway industry standards, etc. For this reason, this research focuses on essential component structures for the train, international standards for railway industry and relevant technologies for product, production and testing. In addition, the questionnaire for the component and material suppliers in Thailand has been established under international standards and essential car train components. As a result, it reveals that there are high potential possibilities to support the rolling stock industries under the knowledge of relevant standards in some product modules of the body-strength-structure and auxiliary groups. However, the core knowledge and technologies for the product designs and testing in Thailand are the least in the least in the platformsuspension group.

  12. Economic Restructuring and Capital Inflow: Thailand and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Bong Ro

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available South Korea and Thailand which are receiving the financial support from IMF got similar international remarks on promoting the economic reform that has an exemplary effect. However, there are not only differences in the causes of the economic crisis, but also the status and effect of the economic reform. At present, Thailand gets a more ascendant status than South Korea in the "quo" status of attracting foreign investment. The reason is that the causes of the economic crisis in Thailand are relatively simple and the process of economic reform is also simple. Besides, Thailand is in the condition which made the effect came true easy. Meanwhile, since the procedures of firing the staff in Thailand are cut off, and the employees are easy to lose their jobs, it insures the flexibility of the labor market. Besides, the Thai government reduces the investment risk of foreigners by way of investing in stocks of the same value or remaining guarantee. South Korea also should insure the flexibility of the labor market and promote the flexibility of attracting foreign investment, which bases on the cooperation of the workers, employees and the government. If transfers the ill creditor’s rights to large bank, foreign investors should be encouraged by permitting an alternative of receiving the good asset or government warranty.

  13. Tropical African Agaricales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pegler, D.N.

    1966-01-01

    The paper presents a study of fifty-one species of agarics which have been collected within the tropical regions of Africa, particularly Uganda. Typestudies are made of species described by Beeli, Bresadola, Hennings, and Patouillard. The following eleven species are described as new: Agaricus

  14. Tropical Diabetic Hand Syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015 Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. 473. Introduction ... diabetes.[2,3] Tropical diabetic hand syndrome is a terminology ... 1Department of Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Ituku‑Ozalla, 2Department of Medicine, Enugu State. University of ...

  15. Securing tropical forest carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scharlemann, Jörn P. W.; Kapos, Valerie; Campbell, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Forest loss and degradation in the tropics contribute 6-17% of all greenhouse gas emissions. Protected areas cover 217.2 million ha (19.6%) of the world's humid tropical forests and contain c. 70.3 petagrams of carbon (Pg C) in biomass and soil to 1 m depth. Between 2000 and 2005, we estimate...... that 1.75 million ha of forest were lost from protected areas in humid tropical forests, causing the emission of 0.25-0.33 Pg C. Protected areas lost about half as much carbon as the same area of unprotected forest. We estimate that the reduction of these carbon emissions from ongoing deforestation...... in protected sites in humid tropical forests could be valued at USD 6,200-7,400 million depending on the land use after clearance. This is >1.5 times the estimated spending on protected area management in these regions. Improving management of protected areas to retain forest cover better may be an important...

  16. Tropical Montane Cloud Forests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramirez Correal, Beatriz; Teuling, Adriaan J.; Ganzeveld, Laurens; Hegger, Zita; Leemans, Rik

    2017-01-01

    Mountain areas are characterized by a large heterogeneity in hydrological and meteorological conditions. This heterogeneity is currently poorly represented by gauging networks and by the coarse scale of global and regional climate and hydrological models. Tropical Montane Cloud Forests (TMCFs)

  17. Feminine transformations: gender reassignment surgical tourism in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizura, Aren Z

    2010-10-01

    Every year, hundreds of transgendered people from the United States, Europe, Asia, Canada, and Australia travel to Thailand to undergo cosmetic and gender reassignment surgeries (GRS). Many GRS clinics market themselves almost exclusively to non-Thai trans women (people assigned a male sex at birth who later identify as female). This article draws on ethnographic research with patients visiting Thailand for GRS to explore how trans women patients related their experience of medical care in Thailand to Thai cultural traditions, in particular "traditional" Thai femininity and Theravada Buddhist rituals and beliefs. Foreign patients in Thai hospital settings engage not only with medical practices but also with their perceptions of Thai cultural traditions--which inflect their feminine identifications. I draw on two patients' accounts of creating personal rituals to mark their gender reassignment surgery, placing these accounts within the context of biomedical globalization and debates about the touristic appropriation of non-"Western" cultural practices.

  18. The diamond model analysis of ICT cluster in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danuvasin Charoen, Ph.D.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Information and Communication Technology (ICT has become an integral part of national competitiveness. Thailand was ranked 38th (out of 134 countries in the global competitiveness report conducted by the World Economic Forum. It also was ranked well below the world average on all of the factors related to technology, despite the fact that information technology and telecommunications had been a major factor driving the competitiveness of the country. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the various issues related to ICT cluster in Thailand. The diamond model was used to analyze the ICT cluster in Thailand. The results from this study can be used to guide the policy to enhance the competitiveness of ICT cluster.

  19. Population pressure and fertility in pre-transition Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanLandingham, M; Hirschman, C

    2001-11-01

    Before the demographic transition in Thailand, fertility was high, but not uniformly so. As in other pre-transition settings, Thai fertility responded to pressures and opportunities created by socioeconomic structure and land availability. Drawing upon provincial data from the 1947 and 1960 censuses of Thailand, we find a strong 'frontier effect' on Thai fertility in the 1950s. Fertility was higher in sparsely settled frontier provinces and lower in provinces with higher population density relative to cultivatable land. This finding is robust and holds up with controls for agricultural employment, land quality, and the sex ratio (an indicator of sex-selective migration). The effect of population pressure lowers the likelihood of marriage and of marital fertility. The findings from Thailand are consistent with the research of Easterlin on the nineteenth century United States and with other pre-transition societies. We suggest how demographic transition theory might be broadened to include fertility dynamics in pre-transition societies.

  20. Venomous snakebite in Thailand. I: Medically important snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanhome, L; Cox, M J; Wilde, H; Jintakoon, P; Chaiyabutr, N; Sitprija, V

    1998-05-01

    Thailand has an abundance of venomous snakes. Among the neurotoxic family Elapidae, there are three species of the genus Naja (cobras), three of the genus Bungarus (kraits), and the king cobra of the genus Ophiophagus. Other Elapidae snakes in Thailand include sea snakes and Asian coral snakes of the genus Calliophis. They have potent venoms but rarely bite humans. Tissue and hemotoxic snakes are represented by family Viperidae, subfamilies Viperinae and Crotalinae. They remain an occupational hazard for farmers and rubber tappers, causing serious morbidity but only rare deaths, since competent treatment is now widely available throughout Thailand. Purified equine antivenin is manufactured locally for the monocled and Siamese spitting cobras (Naja kaouthia and N. siamensis), king cobra (Ophiophagus hannah), banded krait (Bungarus fasciatus), most green pit vipers (Trimeresurus sp.), Malayan pit viper (Calloselasma rhodostoma), and the Siamese Russell's viper (Daboia russelli siamensis).

  1. Energy and environmental market in industrial enterprises in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    This paper discusses markets related with energy conservation and environment preservation in industrial enterprises in Thailand. The present Thailand is not in a situation that investments are made into environmental businesses or energy saving businesses. However, the attitude of the government toward environment is that emphasis is placed on solving the environmental pollution problems. Laws and regulations are defined for assistance in environment preservation to corporations making efforts to increase export, resource protection and energy conservation. These measures lead to expectation on bright future in developing technologies and markets related to environment preservation and energy conservation. Control of wastes by using clean technologies and enhancement in productivity are very important issues for the export of Thailand partly because European countries and America set these requirements as a condition for transaction. The markets related to energy conservation and environment preservation are anticipated of participation from such businesses as consultants, device manufacturers, and inspection and analysis of environmental effects. (NEDO)

  2. Assessing Tropical Cyclone Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Done, J.; Czajkowski, J.

    2012-12-01

    Landfalling tropical cyclones impact large coastal and inland areas causing direct damage due to winds, storm-surge flooding, tornadoes, and precipitation; as well as causing substantial indirect damage such as electrical outages and business interruption. The likely climate change impact of increased tropical cyclone intensity, combined with increases in exposure, bring the possibility of increased damage in the future. A considerable amount of research has focused on modeling economic damage due to tropical cyclones, and a series of indices have been developed to assess damages under climate change. We highlight a number of ways this research can be improved through a series of case study analyses. First, historical loss estimates are revisited to properly account for; time, impacted regions, the source of damage by type, and whether the damage was direct/indirect and insured/uninsured. Second, the drivers of loss from both the socio-economic and physical side are examined. A case is made to move beyond the use of maximum wind speed to more stable metrics and the use of other characteristics of the wind field such as direction, degree of gustiness, and duration is explored. A novel approach presented here is the potential to model losses directly as a function of climate variables such as sea surface temperature, greenhouse gases, and aerosols. This work is the first stage in the development of a tropical cyclone loss model to enable projections of losses under scenarios of both socio-economic change (such as population migration or altered policy) and physical change (such as shifts in tropical cyclone activity one from basin to another or within the same basin).

  3. Visit of Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn, Thailand

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loïez

    2000-01-01

    Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn of Thailand (left) visiting DELPHI with Spokesman, Tiziano Camporesi, and Prapol Assavavirulhakarn, Pattaratorn Chirapravati, Claude Détraz, CERN Director for Fixed Target andFuture Programmes and Richard Breedon, University of California. No. 05: Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn and Daniel Treille, former spokesman of Delphi. No. 31: in Delphi experiment. No. 35: H.E. Mr. Virasakdi Futrakul, Ambassador, Permanent Representative ofThailand, Geneva with H.E. Dr. Ronarong Nopakun, Ambassador of the Thai Embassy in Bern

  4. Diffusion of photovoltaic systems for rural electrification in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sriwannawit, Pranpreya; Laestadius, Staffan [Department of Industrial Economics and Management, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Lindstedtsvagen 30, Stockholm 10044 (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    This paper studies a pilot project in which photovoltaic systems were installed in thirty-six places in the remote areas of Thailand with no access to electricity. One sub-project out of thirty-six was chosen for in-depth investigation. We discuss the appropriateness of solar energy for Thailand context. The diffusion process of PV systems is analyzed on four elements: innovation, communication channel, time and social system. This project is an extreme case as the PV systems and services were provided for free of charge. Even so, there are still some challenges to get acceptance for this sustainable form of energy.

  5. Thailand's Missing Marine Fisheries Catch (1950–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Derrick

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Overexploitation of marine resources has led to declining catches in many countries worldwide, and often also leads to fishing effort being exported to waters of neighboring countries or high seas areas. Thailand is currently under pressure to curb illegal fishing and human rights violations within its distant water fleets or face a European Union import ban. Simultaneously, Thailand is attempting to reduce fishing effort within its Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ. Crucial to these endeavors is a comprehensive knowledge of total fisheries catches over time. A reconstruction of fisheries catches within Thailand's EEZ and by Thailand's fleet in neighboring countries' EEZs was undertaken for 1950–2014 to derive a comprehensive historical time series of total catches. This includes landings and discards that were not accounted for in official, reported statistics. Reconstructed Thai catches from within Thailand's EEZ increased from approximately 400,000 t·year−1 in 1950 to a peak of 2.6 million t·year−1 in 1987, before declining to around 1.7 million t·year−1 in 2014. Catches taken by Thai vessels outside their own EEZ increased from 52,000 t·year−1 in 1965 to a peak of 7.6 million t·year−1 in 1996, before declining to around 3.7 million t·year−1 by 2014. In total, reconstructed catches were estimated to be nearly three times larger than data reported by Thailand to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO. Reconstructed Thai distant-water fleet catches were almost seven times higher than the comparable non-domestic catch deemed reported for Thailand. Thai landings from recreational fishing were conservatively estimated for the first time, and while they contributed less than 1% of current catch, they can be expected to grow in volume and importance with increasing tourism. As Thailand takes measures to reduce fishing effort within its EEZs and increases monitoring and enforcement of illegal and foreign

  6. The first reported case of Bartonella endocarditis in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orathai Pachirat

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bartonella species have been shown to cause acute, undifferentiated fever in Thailand. A study to identify causes of endocarditis that were blood culture-negative using routine methods led to the first reported case in Thailand of Bartonella endocarditis A 57 year-old male with underlying rheumatic heart disease presented with severe congestive heart failure and suspected infective endocarditis. The patient underwent aortic and mitral valve replacement. Routine hospital blood cultures were negative but B. henselae was identified by serology, PCR, immunohistochemistry and specific culture techniques.

  7. Implementing health insurance for migrants, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Thwin, Aye Aye; Patcharanarumol, Walaiporn

    2017-02-01

    Undocumented migrant workers are generally ineligible for state social security schemes, and either forego needed health services or pay out of pocket. In 2001, the Thai Ministry of Public Health introduced a policy on migrant health. Migrant health insurance is a voluntary scheme, funded by an annual premium paid by workers. It enables access to health care at public facilities and reduces catastrophic health expenditures for undocumented migrants and their dependants. A range of migrant-friendly services, including trained community health volunteers, was introduced in the community and workplace. In 2014, the government introduced a multisectoral policy on migrants, coordinated across the interior, labour, public health and immigration ministries. In 2011, around 0.3 million workers, less than 9% of the estimated migrant labour force of 3.5 million, were covered by Thailand's social security scheme. A review of the latest data showed that from April to July 2016, 1 146 979 people (33.7% of the total estimated migrant labourers of 3 400 787) applied, were screened and were enrolled in the migrant health insurance scheme. Health volunteers, recruited from migrant communities and workplaces are appreciated by local communities and are effective in promoting health and increasing uptake of health services by migrants. The capacity of the health ministry to innovate and manage migrant health insurance was a crucial factor enabling expanded health insurance coverage for undocumented migrants. Continued policy support will be needed to increase recruitment to the insurance scheme and to scale-up migrant-friendly services.

  8. Skin diseases during floods in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachiramon, Vasanop; Busaracome, Ploysyne; Chongtrakool, Piriyaporn; Puavilai, Siripen

    2008-04-01

    Floods are natural disasters that occur occasionally in Thailand. The most common form skin diseases due to floods are infectious dermatoses especially superficial fungal infection. However the microbiologic evidences have not been evaluated. To evaluate the most common skin diseases during floods and identify the organism that causes skin maceration at web space(s) of toes (Hong Kong foot). Patients who complained of skin problems were evaluated at the temporary outpatient clinic during October 2006. Skin specimens from all patients who had itches and skin maceration at web space(s) of toes were cultured. Ninety-six patients were evaluated (38 males and 58 females). Eczema was the most prevalent dermatosis, which accounted for 34.5% of the total skin problems and the great majority of these cases were irritant contact dermatitis. Sixteen cases presented with itch and skin maceration at web space(s) of toes. All of them were colonized with various microorganisms. Gram-negative bacilli were the most prevalent ones and were found in 14 out of 16 specimens. Fungal culture was positive in only two specimens. Eczema is the most common dermatosis during floods. Skin maceration at web space(s) of toes, which were thought to be fungal infection, are chronic irritant dermatitis with secondary bacterial colonization. Only a few cases were fungal infection. Microbiologic investigation should be done in these patients. Unfortunately, it is not practical in such a situation. Topical medications that have the combination of antiinflammatory, antibacterial and antifungal properties are the most suitable medications.

  9. Wood density and its radial variation in six canopy tree species differing in shade-tolerance in western Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nock, Charles A.; Geihofer, Daniela; Grabner, Michael; Baker, Patrick J.; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Hietz, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Wood density is a key variable for understanding life history strategies in tropical trees. Differences in wood density and its radial variation were related to the shade-tolerance of six canopy tree species in seasonally dry tropical forest in Thailand. In addition, using tree ring measurements, the influence of tree size, age and annual increment on radial density gradients was analysed. Methods Wood density was determined from tree cores using X-ray densitometry. X-ray films were digitized and images were measured, resulting in a continuous density profile for each sample. Mixed models were then developed to analyse differences in average wood density and in radial gradients in density among the six tree species, as well as the effects of tree age, size and annual increment on radial increases in Melia azedarach. Key Results Average wood density generally reflected differences in shade-tolerance, varying by nearly a factor of two. Radial gradients occurred in all species, ranging from an increase of (approx. 70%) in the shade-intolerant Melia azedarach to a decrease of approx. 13% in the shade-tolerant Neolitsea obtusifolia, but the slopes of radial gradients were generally unrelated to shade-tolerance. For Melia azedarach, radial increases were most-parsimoniously explained by log-transformed tree age and annual increment rather than by tree size. Conclusions The results indicate that average wood density generally reflects differences in shade-tolerance in seasonally dry tropical forests; however, inferences based on wood density alone are potentially misleading for species with complex life histories. In addition, the findings suggest that a ‘whole-tree’ view of life history and biomechanics is important for understanding patterns of radial variation in wood density. Finally, accounting for wood density gradients is likely to improve the accuracy of estimates of stem biomass and carbon in tropical trees. PMID:19454592

  10. Cyclone Driven Sediment Loads in a Tropical Mega-River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darby, Stephen; Leyland, Julian; Hackney, Christopher; Heasley, Eleanore; Kummu, Matti; Lauri, Hannu; Parsons, Daniel; Nicholas, Andrew; Aalto, Rolf; Best, Jim

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the links between environmental change and sediment transport in the mega-rivers that dominate the flux of terrestrial sediment to their deltas and oceans remains a major challenge. Many large river systems display significant seasonality in flow regime, which is affected to a greater or lesser degree by the influence of large tropical storms, which act to increase their variability and thus drive uncertainty in predicting the impacts associated with changes in future flow regimes. Here we demonstrate the significance of tropical storms in driving sediment flux from one of the world's largest rivers, the Mekong, to its delta. Data was collected at Kratie, Cambodia; this being the site of the Mekong's final reliable flow gauging station before the Mekong delta. Suspended sediment fluxes were estimated by calibrating acoustic backscatter returns from an acoustic Doppler current profiler to observed suspended sediment concentrations (SSCs) across a monsoon cycle. The retrieved SSCs were combined with flow velocity estimates to recover the sediment flux. These estimates of flux were then used to build sediment rating curves to predict suspended flux as a function of flow discharge. A hydrological model, VMod, was then used to estimate daily discharge values for the same historical period, but for a scenario in which the effects of tropical storms on the flow regime are isolated. This was achieved by forcing the hydrological model with daily precipitation values that account for precipitation anomalies associated with observed tropical storms. The difference in cumulative sediment transport estimated by combining the two flow discharge scenarios with the constructed sediment rating curves allowed the contribution of tropical storms to the Lower Mekong's suspended sediment transport regime to be isolated. It was found that sediment loads in the Mekong River attenuate downstream from approximately 120 MT in Laos and Thailand to ~80-90 MT in the alluvial

  11. A Satellite-Based Sky Luminance Model for the Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serm Janjai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a sky luminance model for the tropics. The model is mathematically expressed as a multiplication of two functions. These are φ, which is a function of the zenith angle of a sky element and solar zenith angle, and f, which is a function of the angle between the sky element and the sun. To obtain the analytical forms of these functions, the sky luminance data collected at Nakhon Pathom (13.82°N, 100.04°E, Thailand, during a four-year period were analyzed. Additionally, satellite-derived cloud index at the position of the sky luminance measurements during the same period was estimated. Based on values of the cloud index, the skies were classified into 10 types, from clear to overcast skies. By using appropriate grouping and mathematical operation of the sky luminance data, the values of the two functions were obtained and then fitted with empirical equations. The multiplication of these equations gives the final form of the sky luminance model. To validate the model, it was used to calculate the relative sky luminance at other three sites in the tropics. It was found that values of relative sky luminance calculated from the model and those obtained from the measurements were in reasonable agreement.

  12. Soil N Fluxes in Three Contrasting Dry Tropical Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoko Tokuchi

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study of N fluxes in soil among a dry dipterocarp forest (DDF, a dry evergreen forest (DEF, and a hill evergreen forest (HEF in Thailand was done. N fluxes in soil were estimated using an ion exchange resin core method and a buried bag method. Soil C and N pools were 38 C Mg/ha/30 cm and 2.5 N Mg/ha/30 cm in DDF, 82 C Mg/ha/30 cm and 6.2 N Mg/ha/30 cm in DEF, and 167 C Mg/ha/30 cm and 9.3 N Mg/ha/30 cm in HEF. Low C concentration in the DDF and DEF sites was compensated by high fine soil content. In the highly weathered tropical soil, fine soil content seemed to be important for C accumulation. Temporal and vertical fluctuations of N fluxes were different among the sites. The highest N flux was exhibited at the onset of the wet season in DDF, whereas inorganic N production and estimated uptake of N were relatively stable during the wet season in DEF and HEF. It is suggested that N cycling in soil becomes stable in dry tropical forests to intermediate in temperate forests. N deposition may result in large changes of N cycling in the DDF and DEF due to low accumulations of C and N.

  13. Melioidosis: Clinical impact and public health threat in the tropics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramar Perumal Samy

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This review briefly summarizes the geographical distribution and clinical impact of melioidosis, especially in the tropics. Burkholderia pseudomallei (a gram-negative bacterium is the major causative agent for melioidosis, which is prevalent in Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, and Northern Australia. Melioidosis patients are increasingly being recognized in other parts of the world. The bacteria are intrinsically resistant to many antimicrobial agents, but prolonged treatment, especially with combinations of antibiotics, may be effective. Despite therapy, the overall case fatality rate of septicemia in melioidosis remains significantly high. Intracellular survival of the bacteria within macrophages may progress to chronic infections, and about 10% of patients suffer relapses. In the coming decades, melioidosis will increasingly afflict travelers throughout many global regions. Clinicians managing travelers returning from the subtropics or tropics with severe pneumonia or septicemia should consider acute melioidosis as a differential diagnosis. Patients with open skin wounds, diabetes, or chronic renal disease are at higher risk for melioidosis and should avoid direct contact with soil and standing water in endemic regions. Furthermore, there are fears that B. pseudomallei may be used as a biological weapon. Technological advancements in molecular diagnostics and antibiotic therapy are improving the disease outcomes in endemic areas throughout Asia. Research and development efforts on vaccine candidates against melioidosis are ongoing.

  14. Temperature and rainfall strongly drive temporal growth variation in Asian tropical forest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlam, Mart; Baker, Patrick J; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Zuidema, Pieter A

    2014-04-01

    Climate change effects on growth rates of tropical trees may lead to alterations in carbon cycling of carbon-rich tropical forests. However, climate sensitivity of broad-leaved lowland tropical trees is poorly understood. Dendrochronology (tree-ring analysis) provides a powerful tool to study the relationship between tropical tree growth and annual climate variability. We aimed to establish climate-growth relationships for five annual-ring forming tree species, using ring-width data from 459 canopy and understory trees from a seasonal tropical forest in western Thailand. Based on 183/459 trees, chronologies with total lengths between 29 and 62 years were produced for four out of five species. Bootstrapped correlation analysis revealed that climate-growth responses were similar among these four species. Growth was significantly negatively correlated with current-year maximum and minimum temperatures, and positively correlated with dry-season precipitation levels. Negative correlations between growth and temperature may be attributed to a positive relationship between temperature and autotrophic respiration rates. The positive relationship between growth and dry-season precipitation levels likely reflects the strong water demand during leaf flush. Mixed-effect models yielded results that were consistent across species: a negative effect of current wet-season maximum temperatures on growth, but also additive positive effects of, for example, prior dry-season maximum temperatures. Our analyses showed that annual growth variability in tropical trees is determined by a combination of both temperature and precipitation variability. With rising temperature, the predominantly negative relationship between temperature and growth may imply decreasing growth rates of tropical trees as a result of global warming.

  15. Old tropical botanical collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2017-01-01

    The early history of botanical collections is reviewed, with particular emphasis on old collections from the tropics. The information available about older and newer botanical collections from the tropics was much improved after World War Two, including better lists of validly published names, more...... detailed description of literature and better information about collections and collectors. These improvements were initially made available as publications on paper, whereas now the information has become available on the Internet, at least in part. The changed procedures for handling botanical...... collections in connection with taxonomic research is sketched, from sending specimens on loan between institutions via publishing herbaria on microfiches to providing scanned images on the Internet. Examples from different institutions and organizations of how to make digitized images of specimens and other...

  16. Treating neglected tropical diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Director: Mectizan Donation Program, Georgia, USA. www.mectizan.org

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The name neglected tropical diseases (NTDs covers a range of diseases that cause disability, early death, and slowed physical and mental development. The first two in entries Table 1 are diseases that cause blindness. These diseases of neglected and impoverished peoples maintain a cycle of poverty and delayed development of the populations affected. The diseases themselves have been neglected in the push to control malaria, TB and AIDS.

  17. Malaria and Tropical Travel

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-05-15

    Malaria is a serious mosquito-borne disease that can lead to death. This podcast discusses malaria risk when traveling to tropical areas, as well as how to protect yourself and your family from malaria infection.  Created: 5/15/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 5/29/2008.

  18. TROPICAL COLLECTOR URCHIN, TRIPNEUSTES ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes a fertilization method to estimate the chronic toxicity of effluents and receiving waters to the gametes of the tropical sea urchin (Tripneustes gratilla). This toxicity test measures the fertilizing capacity of sperm following a static, non-renewal 60-minute exposure and a subsequent 20-minute exposure period following the addition of eggs. The purpose of the test is to determine the concentrations of a test substance diluted in sea water that reduce fertilization of exposed gametes relative to that of the control. This method was developed to provide an assessment of the toxicity of materials discharged into the marine environment, using biota indigenous to tropical Pacific regions, including Hawaii. This method provides an assessment of the toxicity to indigenous biota of materials discharged into the tropical Pacific marine environment. The use of this method contributes to risk based determinations, and the scientific foundation they provide for regulatory criteria at the state, regional or national levels. General impacts from this contribution include improved understanding by managers and scientists of links between human activities, natural dynamics, ecological stressors and ecosystem condition.

  19. Tropical arthritogenic alphaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, Carla-Ruth; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2017-03-29

    Tropical alphaviruses have special tropism for bone and joint tissue. Patients can develop chronic rheumatic disorders similar to rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. The prototype is Chikungunya virus, although other lesser known viruses in our environment such as Sindbis, Ross River, Mayaro, O'nyong nyong and Barmah Forest viruses have the potential to be sped through vectors and cause chronic rheumatic disease. International population movements have increased the numbers of patients diagnosed with these tropical viruses in areas in which they are not endemic. Since they can leave persistent symptoms and affect the quality of life of the patients, it is important that we be aware of them. Changes in ecosystems have favored the expansion of competent mosquitoes, making fears of local transmission in southern Europe a reality. The objective of this review is to provide a clinical approach to the different arthritogenic tropical alphaviruses, especially those in which chronic rheumatic disease is more frequent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  20. Structure diversity in three forest types of north-eastern Thailand (Sakaerat Reserve, Pak Tong Chai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaisse F.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to provide a basic knowledge in view of a better understanding of the global structure of threetropical forests at the Sakaerat Environmental Research Station (Pak Tong Chai district, Northeastern Thailand: a drydipterocarp forest (DDF, a dry evergreen forest (DEF and an intermediate stage (DDFwf, characterized by the absence offire since 29 years in a pyro-climax. These forest ecosystems were contrasted by the composition and floristic structure, thebasal area and the tree density. The species richness increases with the passage from the DDF, the most open environment, to the DDFwf, the most densely wooded. By these tree density and basal area, the DDF (602 trees/ha at DBH ³ 5 cm, 14.2 m2/ha and the DEF (992 trees/ha at DBH ³ 5 cm, 29.0 m2/ha studied belong to the typical tropical ecosytems of southeast Asia. The man-made fires and anarchic forest exploitations are a danger for the stability of these different ecosystems.

  1. Use, fate and ecological risks of antibiotics applied in tilapia cage farming in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Andreu; Oliveira, Rhaul; McDonough, Sakchai; Matser, Arrienne; Khatikarn, Jidapa; Satapornvanit, Kriengkrai; Nogueira, António J A; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Domingues, Inês; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2014-08-01

    The use, environmental fate and ecological risks of antibiotics applied in tilapia cage farming were investigated in the Tha Chin and Mun rivers in Thailand. Information on antibiotic use was collected through interviewing 29 farmers, and the concentrations of the most commonly used antibiotics, oxytetracycline (OTC) and enrofloxacin (ENR), were monitored in river water and sediment samples. Moreover, we assessed the toxicity of OTC and ENR on tropical freshwater invertebrates and performed a risk assessment for aquatic ecosystems. All interviewed tilapia farmers reported to routinely use antibiotics. Peak water concentrations for OTC and ENR were 49 and 1.6 μg/L, respectively. Antibiotics were most frequently detected in sediments with concentrations up to 6908 μg/kg d.w. for OTC, and 2339 μg/kg d.w. for ENR. The results of this study indicate insignificant short-term risks for primary producers and invertebrates, but suggest that the studied aquaculture farms constitute an important source of antibiotic pollution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Land Use and Natural Resources Planning for Sustainable Ecotourism Using GIS in Surat Thani, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Murayama

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the land use and natural resources for future sustainable ecotourism site planning using GIS as a tool. The study is based on 2007 land use land cover data and ecotourism suitability data which are then integrated with other GIS datasets to evaluate the land use and natural resources at a district level in Surat Thani province. The final step of this study was the prioritization of the area that is best suited for ecotourism in assessing ecotourism sustainability in Surat Thani province. The result is useful for tourism facilities development and ecotourism resource utilization where ecotourism could be more developed. Additionally, the results can be used for managers and planners working in local and central governments and other non-governmental organizations. These integrated approaches cover complex and universal issues such as sustainable development of ecotourism, biodiversity conservation and protected area management in a tropical and developing country such as Thailand. Moreover, it is believed that this study can be used as a basis for evaluating the suitability of other areas for ecotourism. In addition, it may also serve as a starting point for more complex studies in the future.

  3. The Academic Knowledge Management Model of Small Schools in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumtuma, Chamnan; Chantarasombat, Chalard; Yeamsang, Theerawat

    2015-01-01

    The Academic Knowledge Management Model of Small Schools in Thailand was created by research and development. The quantitative and qualitative data were collected via the following steps: a participatory workshop meeting, the formation of a team according to knowledge base, field study, brainstorming, group discussion, activities carried out…

  4. Planned sexual behaviour of young Australian visitors to Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhall, B P; Hu, M; Thompson, M; Lin, F; Lupton, D; Mills, D; Maund, M; Cass, R; Millar, D

    1993-04-19

    To research the knowledge of AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases among young Australian tourists to Thailand, and their intended sexual behaviour. A cross-sectional survey by anonymous, self-administered questionnaire, of persons seeking pre-travel medical advice in private clinics in five Australian cities. 213 consecutive patients travelling to Thailand without a spouse or partner. Only 34% of the sample reported a definite intention not to have sex in Thailand. Regarding choice of potential partners: 24.5% more men than women said they would have sex with a Thai national; 13.7% of men said they would have sex with a "bar girl"; and 21.7% more women than men said they would choose a fellow Australian traveller. Eighty-two per cent of the sample reported that they would use condoms 100% of the time, and there was no significant difference between the number of men and women who expressed this intention. Although not obviously "sex tourists", many young Australian travellers are likely to have sex while visiting Thailand. These data have important implications for education and prevention programs to control the spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted diseases.

  5. Phrasebook: a Way out for CLIL Teachers in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kewara, Punwalai

    2017-01-01

    Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL) is an alternative approach for English teaching and learning that is in focus in Thailand today. Preparing Thai content teachers to confidently use English as a means of instruction in the English integrated classroom just as they do in the Thai monolingual classroom takes time and long-term…

  6. Building climate resilience in Thailand's aquaculture industry | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-01-21

    Jan 21, 2015 ... People in Southeast Asia have been farming fish for centuries, and aquaculture is an important industry in Thailand. In 2010, the total yield of aquatic animal products was more than 3 million tons, with approximately 42% coming from freshwater and coastal aquaculture and the rest from wild capture ...

  7. Improving environmental sustainability of palm oil production in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, Kanokwam

    2017-01-01

    Demand for palm oil in Thailand has increased as a result of Thai policies promoting the use of biodiesel. This increased demand results in negative effects on ecosystem services and increases environment pollution. Most existing studies focus on global warming impact alone, while other

  8. Sub-Contracting in Rural Areas of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Mead, Donald C.

    1982-01-01

    This paper describes an arrangement where a producer undertakes certain steps in the production process done by individuals working in their own homes in Thailand. The paper also provides a description of how this system operates in four different industries, presents survey data on people engaged in subcontracting work, evaluates the subcontracting system, and determines the advantages and disadvantages of its operation.

  9. All projects related to Thailand | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sharing the Benefits from Transportation and Logistics Improvements in the GMS : a Study of the East-West and North-South Corridors. Project. The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) comprises Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, and Yunnan Province of China ¿ an area of about 2. Start Date: August 12, ...

  10. Education in Thailand: When Economic Growth Is No Longer Enough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    After fifty years of almost continuous economic growth in Thailand, it is now possible to reevaluate the developmental process of the education system. Until now, the structural indicators of education development that have been mainly used are the level and pace of the increases in public expenditure on education, the effect of increasing…

  11. Biogas Application Options within Milk Dairy Cooperatives in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybæk, Rikke; Sommart, Kritapon

    2016-01-01

    . Options for collecting manure and other types of relevant biomass residues within the area are identified. Manure and biomass residues are thus suggested treated in a multi-purpose & centralized biogas plant - the first in Thailand - established in connection to the dairy company, owned by the dairy...

  12. Geology and assessment of unconventional resources of Phitsanulok Basin, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) quantitatively assessed the potential for unconventional oil and gas resources within the Phitsanulok Basin of Thailand. Unconventional resources for the USGS include shale gas, shale oil, tight gas, tight oil, and coalbed gas. In the Phitsanulok Basin, only potential shale-oil and shale-gas resources were quantitatively assessed.

  13. Assessing E-Learning Acceptance by University Students in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Timothy; Wong, Su Luan; Thammetar, Thapanee; Chattiwat, Wisa

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess e-learning acceptance by students, using data collected from 377 students at three public universities in Thailand. Using the "E-learning Acceptance Measure" (Teo, 2010b), participants gave their responses to 21 statements on three factors hypothesised to measure e-learning: tutor quality, perceived…

  14. Research improves hospitals' approach to children's pain in Thailand

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    More than 200 global health researchers gathered in Ottawa to share research results from the 7-year Teasdale-Corti Global Health Research Partnership. Canadian and Thai researchers focused on treating children's pain. Research that has enabled hospitals in Thailand to better treat children's pain provides a valuable ...

  15. Sustainable Leadership: Honeybee Practices at Thailand's Oldest University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantabutra, Sooksan; Saratun, Molraudee

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to adopt Avery and Bergsteiner's 23 sustainable leadership practices derived from sustainable organizations as a framework to examine the leadership practices of Thailand's oldest university. Design/methodology/approach: Avery and Bergsteiner's principles were grouped into six categories for analysis: long-term…

  16. Thailand : tous les projets | Page 4 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: BIRDS, ZOONOSES, PROPHYLAXIS. Région: China, Far East Asia, Thailand, Viet Nam, Central Asia, South Asia, Cambodia. Programme: Alimentation, environnement et santé. Financement total : CA$ 874,349.00. Risque de grippe aviaire : caractérisation et dynamique de l'élevage de volaille dans les arrière-cours ...

  17. Genesis and solution chemistry of acid sulfate soils in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.

    1976-01-01

    To study short-term and long-term chemical processes in periodically flooded acid sulfate soils in the Bangkok Plain and in various smaller coastal plains along the Gulf of Thailand, 16 acid sulfate soils and one non-acid marine soil were examined for distribution of iron-sulfur compounds, elemental

  18. All projects related to Thailand | Page 5 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-08-12

    The Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) comprises Cambodia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, and Yunnan Province of China ¿ an area of about 2. Start Date: August 12, 2008. End Date: August 13, 2010. Topic: TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE, INTERNATIONAL TRANSPORT, REGIONAL INTEGRATION, TRADE ...

  19. Internationalizing Higher Education in Thailand: Government and University Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavankura, Pad

    2013-01-01

    Each country responds to internationalization differently and offers various interpretations of the concept. Thailand has incorporated the internationalization of higher education into its plans since 1990. This article aims to discuss the primary motivations of the government and of Thai universities in moving toward the goal of…

  20. Thailand's Student Loans Fund: Interest Rate Subsidies and Repayment Burdens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Bruce; Lounkaew, Kiatanantha; Polsiri, Piruna; Sarachitti, Rangsit; Sitthipongpanich, Thitima

    2010-01-01

    Government student loan schemes typically have implicit interest rate subsidies which, while these are a cost to taxpayers, they have the benefit of diminishing repayment burdens for graduates. Our goal is to illustrate the extent of both interest rate subsidies and repayment burdens with respect to Thailand's Student Loans Fund (SLF), using…

  1. English Camp: A Language Immersion Program in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugasken, Kris; Harris, Jacqueline A.

    2009-01-01

    A summer English camp language immersion program, which began in 2003, provided instruction by native English speakers to Thai college students via collaboration between Prince of Songkla University in Thailand and Ball State University in Indiana, USA. During this program, Thai students were exposed to English formally through classroom…

  2. Clinical and molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus argenteus infections in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Amornchai, Premjit; Nickerson, Emma K; Wongsuvan, Gumphol; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Peacock, Sharon J

    2015-03-01

    Molecular typing of 246 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from unselected patients in Thailand showed that 10 (4.1%) were actually Staphylococcus argenteus. Contrary to the suggestion that S. argenteus is less virulent than S. aureus, we demonstrated comparable rates of morbidity, death, and health care-associated infection in patients infected with either of these two species. Copyright © 2015, Thaipadungpanit et al.

  3. Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Staphylococcus argenteus Infections in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Amornchai, Premjit; Nickerson, Emma K.; Wongsuvan, Gumphol; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2015-01-01

    Molecular typing of 246 Staphylococcus aureus isolates from unselected patients in Thailand showed that 10 (4.1%) were actually Staphylococcus argenteus. Contrary to the suggestion that S. argenteus is less virulent than S. aureus, we demonstrated comparable rates of morbidity, death, and health care-associated infection in patients infected with either of these two species.

  4. Nutrition transition, food retailing and health equity in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Matthew; Banwell, Cathy; Dixon, Jane; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Sleigh, Adrian

    2010-12-01

    AIM: Here we examine the influence of changes in food retailing, the food supply and the associated nutrition transition on health equity in Thailand, a middle income country experiencing rapid economic development. METHODS: The dietary transition underway in Thailand is reviewed along with theories regarding convergence to a globalised energy dense obesogenic diet and subsequent socio-economically related dietary divergence along with the implications for health inequity. RESULTS: Thailand is part way through a dietary, nutrition and health transition. The food distribution and retailing system is now 50% controlled by modern supermarkets and convenience stores. The problem of increasing availability of calorie dense foods is especially threatening because a substantial proportion of the adult population is short statured due to child malnutrition. Obesity is an emerging problem and for educated Thai women has already developed an inverse relationship to socio-economic status as found in high income countries. CONCLUSIONS: Thailand has reached an important point in its nutrition transition. The challenge for the Thai government and population is to boost affordable healthy diets and to avoid the socio-economic inequity of nutritional outcomes observed in many rich countries.

  5. Two new species of Callerya Endl. (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae) from Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sirichamon, Yotsawate; Balslev, Henrik; Mathapa, Sawai

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Callerya (Endl.); C. chlorantha and C. tennaserimensis are illustrated and described. They are commonly found in dry deciduous or bamboo forest in Kanchanaburi and Ratchaburi province, South-western Thailand. It was also found that C. chlorantha might be associated wi...

  6. Clean technology for the crude palm oil industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavalparit, O.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the potential contribution of clean(er) technology to improve the environmental performance of the crude palm oil industry inThailand, to analyse implementation barriers for

  7. A survey of medicinal plants around upper Songkhla lake, Thailand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: It was found that the natural sources of medicinal plants were damaged by many human activities. Therefore, this compilation of medicinal plants will be the data evidence for further conservation of the plants. Keywords: Medicinal plant, Ethnobotany, Traditional medicine, Upper Songkhla Lake, Thailand ...

  8. All projects related to Thailand | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2007-05-03

    The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus H5N1 produces severe disease and high mortality in domestic poultry, waterfowl and other bird species. Start Date: May 3, 2007. End Date: April 8, 2011. Topic: BIRDS, ZOONOSES, INFECTIOUS DISEASES. Region: China, Far East Asia, Indonesia, Cambodia, Thailand, ...

  9. Evaluating environmental performance of concentrated latex production in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jawjit, W.; Pavasant, Prasert; Kroeze, Carolien

    2015-01-01

    Thailand is currently the world's largest natural rubber producer. To maintain a leadership position of natural rubber producer, it has been challenging for Thai rubber entrepreneurs to seek appropriate measures towards producing environmentally friendly rubber products. The objective of this

  10. Building climate resilience in Thailand's aquaculture industry | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    People in Southeast Asia have been farming fish for centuries, and aquaculture is an important industry in Thailand. In 2010, the total yield of aquatic animal products was more than 3 million tons, with approximately 42% coming from freshwater and coastal aquaculture and the rest from wild capture fisheries. As consumer ...

  11. Community projects and democratic planning in Thailand: Lessons ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper is based on field visits to community projects in Thailand as part of the learning processes of community initiatives and democratisation of planning practices at the community level. The principal objective of these studies is to analyse the mechanisms that communities use to initiate, implement, and manage ...

  12. Narrative Approach to Moral Education: A Case of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singsuriya, Pagorn; Aungsumalin, Wipada; Worapong, Seree

    2014-01-01

    In Thailand, according to, for instance, the National Education Act 1999, the National Plan of Education, Religion, Arts and Culture (2002--2013), and the Core Curriculum of Basic Education 2008, moral education is given an important role not only in human development but also in citizenship building and solution of socio-political problems.…

  13. Thailand : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: MIGRANT WORKERS, FOREIGN WORKERS, WORKING CONDITIONS, SOCIAL WELFARE, LEGAL PROTECTION. Région: Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Singapore. Programme: Emploi et croissance. Financement total : CA$ 499,100.00. Protection ...

  14. All projects related to Thailand | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Viet Nam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Brunei, Singapore. Program: Employment and Growth. Total Funding: CA$ 1,029,600.00. Urban Climate Resilience in Southeast Asia Partnership. Project. Planning for climate change is a daunting challenge for governments ...

  15. Foreign Language Anxiety in a New English Program in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanielian, Adam R.

    2014-01-01

    Thailand boasts a robust ESL system in both public and private schools, where students learn various subjects from native speakers in the English language. Foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA) is a subject that is relevant to ESL instruction and learning. This study assesses associations between FLCA and academic performance in English and…

  16. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Nuruzzaman Haque

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1 has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p<0.001. Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP, containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons’ active ageing level in Thailand.

  17. Caulokaempferia pubescens (Zingiberaceae - A New Species from Northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonmee Phokham

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Caulokaempferia K. Larsen (Zingiberaceae, C. pubescens Picheans. & Phokham, from Changwat Mae Hong Son in Northern Thailand is reported. Full descriptions, together with ink line–drawing with water color and photographic illustrations are given. Relationship of this new species with their phylogenetically closest related taxa, C. larsenii Suksathan & Triboun, is also discussed.

  18. Prospects for coal and clean coal technologies in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Kessels [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    This report examines the prospects for coal and clean coal technologies in Thailand. The country's existing coal reserves are examined and the probable need to import coal to meet the future coal is explained. A discussion on the generation capacity in Thailand examines the current and future prospects for coal-fired power generation. The role of the government in the coal sector is discussed along with the power development plan being implemented to meet increasing energy demand. Environmental issues related to coal are a major issue in Thailand particularly because of problems with SO{sub 2} emissions at the Mae Moh power station which have been solved by the use of flue gas desulphurisation. The report examines the role of international organisations such as the ADB, APEC, WB, ASEAN, IEA and USAID in clean coal technologies and how this could be improved. 70% of Thailand's power is generated from natural gas. The government recognises the need to diversify its energy sources since only 12 years of proven domestic gas reserves remain. Northern Thailand has around 2 Gt of coal reserves, mostly lignite of high sulphur content. It is estimated that 1 Gt of these could be used economically. Coal production in 2008 was between 18-19 Mt which was supplemented with 17-18 Mt of imports. In the future it is likely that all new coal-fired power stations will burn imported low sulphur coal with imports projected to rise to 48 Mt by 2021. Thailand is facing up to a challenge to develop and deploy clean coal technologies. This has begun with the first supercritical coal-fired power station being built, due to be operational by 2011. A key conclusion of this report is that a central organisation should be established in the public or private sector to undertake and promote clean coal technology research, education and deployment with domestic and international organisations as well as strengthen the sustainable use of coal in Thailand. 186 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Vasectomy reversal: experience in Ramathibodi Hospital, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratana-olarn, K; Gojaseni, P; Muangman, V; Visethsin, V; Ariyaprakai, W; Visuthikosol, V

    1982-05-01

    Vasectomy, as a fertility control measure, is appropriate for developing countries which face the problem of increasing population growth, such as Thailand. Vasectomy would be a much more attractive procedure if it could be easily reversed. Outcomes of vasectomy reversals using both conventional techniques and microsurgical methods are reported. From April 1973-January 1980, 34 vasectomy reversals were performed in Ramathibodi Hospital using conventional methods. 21 cases are available for analysis. Patient ages ranged from 25-51 years, with an average of 36.8 years. Vasectomies had been performed up to 17 years prior to reversal; in 14 cases, the procedures had taken place within the previous 10 years. The conventional method involved placing intravasal splints of nylon or other material and stitching the muscularis with interrupted sutures. Of the 21 cases, sperm reappearance was positive in 15 patients (71.4%) and pregnancy occurred in 11 cases (52.3%). The interval from reversal to pregnancy ranged from 2 to 12 months, and averaged 5.1 months. Of these patients whose vasectomies had been within the past 10 years, pregnancy occurred in 64.3%. For patients whose vasectomies had been performed more than 10 years prior to the reversal, only 28.5% achieved pregnancy. 16 vasectomy reversals using microsurgical techniques were performed from August 1978-January 1980 and 13 cases were available for analysis. The patients' ages ranged from 28-50 years with a mean of 38.7 years. In 6 cases, the vasectomy had been performed within the previous 10 years. The microscopic technique involved 2 layered anastomosis with 6 sutures in the mucosa and muscularis sutures for reinforcement. 9 of the 13 cases had sperm in the ejaculate and 4 achieved pregnancy. Sperm reappearance was 100% for patients whose vasectomies had been done within the previous 10 years, and 43% in the other cases. The average interval from reversal to pregnancy was 6.2 months. 1 case had postoperative

  20. Analysis of health promotion and prevention financing mechanisms in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watabe, Akihito; Wongwatanakul, Weranuch; Thamarangsi, Thaksaphon; Prakongsai, Phusit; Yuasa, Motoyuki

    2017-08-01

    In the transition to the post-2015 agenda, many countries are striving towards universal health coverage (UHC). Achieving this, governments need to shift from curative care to promotion and prevention services. This research analyses Thailand's financing system for health promotion and prevention, and assesses policy options for health financing reforms. The study employed a mixed-methods approach and integrates multiple sources of evidence, including scientific and grey literature, expenditure data, and semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders in Thailand. The analysis was underpinned by the use of a well-known health financing framework. In Thailand, three agencies plus local governments share major funding roles for health promotion and prevention services: the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH), the National Health Security Office, the Thai Health Promotion Foundation and Tambon Health Insurance Funds. The total expenditure on prevention and public health in 2010 was 10.8% of the total health expenditure, greater than many middle-income countries that average 7.0-9.2%. MOPH was the largest contributor at 32.9%, the Universal Coverage scheme was the second at 23.1%, followed by the local governments and ThaiHealth at 22.8 and 7.3%, respectively. Thailand's health financing system for promotion and prevention is strategic and innovative due to the three complementary mechanisms in operation. There are several methodological limitations to determine the adequate level of spending. The health financing reforms in Thailand could usefully inform policymakers on ways to increase spending on promotion and prevention. Further comparative policy research is needed to generate evidence to support efforts towards UHC. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  1. The first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saichin Isipradit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The majority of vision loss is preventable or treatable. Population surveys are crucial for planning, implementation, and monitoring policies and interventions to eliminate avoidable blindness and visual impairments. This is the first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB study in Thailand. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of a population in Thailand age 50 years old or over aimed to assess the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairments. Using the Thailand National Census 2010 as the sampling frame, a stratified four-stage cluster sampling based on a probability proportional to size was conducted in 176 enumeration areas from 11 provinces. Participants received comprehensive eye examination by ophthalmologists. RESULTS: The age and sex adjusted prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity (VA <20/400, severe visual impairment (VA <20/200 but ≥20/400, and moderate visual impairment (VA <20/70 but ≥20/200 were 0.6% (95% CI: 0.5-0.8, 1.3% (95% CI: 1.0-1.6, 12.6% (95% CI: 10.8-14.5. There was no significant difference among the four regions of Thailand. Cataract was the main cause of vision loss accounted for 69.7% of blindness. Cataract surgical coverage in persons was 95.1% for cut off VA of 20/400. Refractive errors, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and corneal opacities were responsible for 6.0%, 5.1%, 4.0%, and 2.0% of blindness respectively. CONCLUSION: Thailand is on track to achieve the goal of VISION 2020. However, there is still much room for improvement. Policy refinements and innovative interventions are recommended to alleviate blindness and visual impairments especially regarding the backlog of blinding cataract, management of non-communicative, chronic, age-related eye diseases such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy, prevention of childhood blindness, and establishment of a robust eye health information system.

  2. Cancer incidence trends in Thailand, 1989-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriplung, Hutcha; Wiangnon, Surapon; Sontipong, Sineenat; Sumitsawan, Yupa; Martin, Nimit

    2006-01-01

    Through 2004, five cancer registries in Thailand have collected data for more than ten years. Three-year cancer incidence in Thailand covering the years 1989-1997 has been regularly reported in three volumes of 'Cancer in Thailand. Since the data for the last decade of the 20th century have been collected, the trends in incidence of some cancer sites were analyzed. Data sources were registry data from Chiang Mai, Lampang, Khon Kaen, Bangkok, and Songkhla, which are representative of the four major geographic regions of Thailand. The data drawn in 2002 covered the years 1989 to 1997 for Bangkok, the other four registries drew data from 1989 to 2000. The population denominators were estimated from the two censuses in 1990 and 2000. Only cancers of the liver, lung, colon-rectum, female breast, uterine cervix, and all cancer sites were analyzed since cancers of these sites may have major public health impacts. Age-specific incidence rates of different 5-year age groups were projected through the period 2007-2009 using a linear regression model if the rates were increasing, and a log-linear model to prevent prediction of a negative rate if the rates were decreasing. During the past decade, colorectal and breast cancers showed a statistical significant increasing trend, while the trend was generally stable for cancer of other sites. The number of new cancer cases of all sites is expected to be approximately 125,000 by the year 2008, compared with 81,000 in 1999. However, the accuracy of projections depends very much on the quality of the cancer registries' data. The Bangkok registry significantly improved case ascertainment in recent years, while the Chiang Mai registry had a consistent drop in incidence of cancer at many sites. In-depth investigation of some cancer sites and age period cohort modeling are required for better understanding of cancer trends in Thailand.

  3. Tropical birds take small risks

    OpenAIRE

    Anders Pape Møller; Wei Liang

    2013-01-01

    The life history of tropical birds differs from that of their temperate counterparts by late start of reproduction, small clutch sizes, and high rates of adult survival. Thus, tropical species should have greater residual reproductive value than temperate species. Therefore, tropical birds can be predicted to take smaller risks than closely related temperate birds in order not to jeopardize their prospects of survival, which is the single most important component of fitness, and which is grea...

  4. Differences in the dynamic properties of rain fade between temperate and tropical regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodkaveekityada, Peeramed; Fukuchi, Hajime

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the dynamic properties of rain attenuation is important for designing effective attenuation mitigation methods, especially for Ka-band frequencies, which are particularly sensitive to degradation by rain attenuation. In this paper, the fade duration and fade slope are estimated using satellite data from Thailand and Japan, to investigate the characteristics of rain attenuation in tropical and temperate regions, respectively. For the tropical region, data from the Thaicom 2 and 3 satellites are used, and data from a Japanese communication satellite (CS) are used for the temperate area. Due to the different operating frequencies of the Thaicom 2 and 3 and the CS satellites, the scaling formula from the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) R P.618-12 is used to standardize the data. The Thaicom satellite frequencies of 12.57 (Thaicom 2) and 12.59 (Thaicom 3) GHz in the Ku-band are scaled up to 19.45 GHz, the operating frequency of the CS satellite. Finally, differences of the fade duration and fade slope property in tropical and temperate areas are found and it is confirmed that the rain attenuation effect in tropical areas is more serious than in temperate areas.

  5. A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae; tribe Desmodieae) from Thailand and Laos with two new distribution records and lectotypifications for Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saisorn, Witsanu; Balslev, Henrik; Chantaranothai, Pranom

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae), D. brevipedicellatum W. Saisorn, Chantar. & Balslev from Thailand and Laos is described and illustrated. Two taxa, D. concinnum DC. and D. laxiflorum DC. subsp. lacei (Schindl.) H. Ohashi, are reported as new for Thailand. Lectotypes of D. amoenum Wall. ex...

  6. Death In The Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Burnard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Mosquito Empires: Ecology and War in the Greater Caribbean, 1620-1914. J.R. Mcneill. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010. xvi + 371 pp. (Paper US$ 24.99 Medicine in an Age of Commerce and Empire: Britain and its Tropical Colonies 1660-1830. Mark Harrison. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. x + 353 pp. (Cloth £65.00 Death in the New World: Cross-Cultural Encounters, 1492-1800. Erik R. Seeman. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010. xii + 372 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00

  7. Tropical Cyclone Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    GUARD 160 (13-14W)TS KEN-LOLA BOUCHARD 86 (32W) TY GAY CRITTENDEN 166 (15W) TY MAC BOUCHARD 92 (33W) TY HUNT SHOEMAKER 172 (16W) TY OWEN CRITTENDEN 98...GURAL 188 TC 02A BOUCHARD 190 TC 32W ( GAY ) CRI’TTENDEN 166 4. SUMMARY OF SOUTH PACIFIC AND SOUTH INDIAN OCEAN TROPICAL CYCLONES ............. 193 4.1...Commander Naval ICAO International Civil Aviation AFB Air Force Base Oceanography Command Organization AFGWC Air Force Global Weather COSM or INIT Initial

  8. Tropical Cyclone Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, P. Peggy; Knosp, Brian W.; Vu, Quoc A.; Yi, Chao; Hristova-Veleva, Svetla M.

    2009-01-01

    The JPL Tropical Cyclone Infor ma tion System (TCIS) is a Web portal (http://tropicalcyclone.jpl.nasa.gov) that provides researchers with an extensive set of observed hurricane parameters together with large-scale and convection resolving model outputs. It provides a comprehensive set of high-resolution satellite (see figure), airborne, and in-situ observations in both image and data formats. Large-scale datasets depict the surrounding environmental parameters such as SST (Sea Surface Temperature) and aerosol loading. Model outputs and analysis tools are provided to evaluate model performance and compare observations from different platforms. The system pertains to the thermodynamic and microphysical structure of the storm, the air-sea interaction processes, and the larger-scale environment as depicted by ocean heat content and the aerosol loading of the environment. Currently, the TCIS is populated with satellite observations of all tropical cyclones observed globally during 2005. There is a plan to extend the database both forward in time till present as well as backward to 1998. The portal is powered by a MySQL database and an Apache/Tomcat Web server on a Linux system. The interactive graphic user interface is provided by Google Map.

  9. Tannins in tropical woods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doat, J.

    1978-01-01

    A preliminary study was made of the chemistry of pyrogallol- and catecholtannins, their general properties and methods of extraction and determination. Three methods of estimation - Lowenthal, powdered hide and spectrophotometry - were compared using two control solutions, four samples of wood and one of bark. Using the empirical powdered hide method, tannins of both types were estimated in wood and bark of various tropical species (some separately and some as a mixture), Moroccan oaks (Quercus suber and Q. ilex), and European oak 9Q. petraea). Further tests were made on the wood and bark of the two mangrove species, Rhizophora mangle and R. racemosa, by subjecting them to successive extraction with a range of solvents. None of the woods tested had as much as the 10% of tannins considered necessary in economic sources. The bark of the two mangroves, of Eucalyptus urophylla and of Prosopis africana had tannin contents over 10% and the latter two species had very favorable tannin/non-tannin ratios. All the tropical species, with the probable exception of E. urophylla, had only catecholtannins. Only the oaks and E. urophylla bark gave positive results when tested for gallotannins.

  10. Mycorrhizas and tropical soil fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cardoso, I.M.; Kuyper, T.W.

    2006-01-01

    Major factors that constrain tropical soil fertility and sustainable agriculture are low nutrient capital, moisture stress, erosion, high P fixation, high acidity with aluminium toxicity, and low soil biodiversity. The fragility of many tropical soils limits food production in annual cropping

  11. Botany, Chemistry, and Tropical Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headrick, Daniel R.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the role played by botany and chemistry in the development, exploitation, and later deterioration of tropical economies. Although near equals in 19th-century international trade, the development of synthetics by European scientists in the early 20th century crippled the tropical economies. Research, innovation, and investment protected…

  12. Integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Supaporn Sereerat

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative investigation had three research aims: 1) To study the history and background of the hotel industry in Isan; 2) To study the current situation and problems with using art in order to develop the tourism industry in Thailand; 3) To study the integration of art and culture to develop the hotel business in North-eastern Thailand. Nine hotels were selected from four provinces in North-eastern Thailand as the research population and the research sample was composed of ...

  13. Three Dimensional Tropical Correspondence Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Brett

    2017-07-01

    A tropical curve in R3 contributes to Gromov-Witten invariants in all genus. Nevertheless, we present a simple formula for how a given tropical curve contributes to Gromov-Witten invariants when we encode these invariants in a generating function with exponents of {λ} recording Euler characteristic. Our main modification from the known tropical correspondence formula for rational curves is as follows: a trivalent vertex, which before contributed a factor of n to the count of zero-genus holomorphic curves, contributes a factor of {2sin(nλ/2)}. We explain how to calculate relative Gromov-Witten invariants using this tropical correspondence formula, and how to obtain the absolute Gromov-Witten and Donaldson-Thomas invariants of some 3-dimensional toric manifolds including {CP3}. The tropical correspondence formula counting Donaldson-Thomas invariants replaces n by {i^{-(1+n)}q^{n/2}+i^{1+n}q^{-n/2}}.

  14. Cricket farming as a livelihood strategy in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Roos, Nanna; Hanboonsong, Yupa

    2017-01-01

    While many important aspects of wild and farmed insects have been discussed by scholars, such as nutritional value, conservation and farming techniques, no study has addressed how insect farming contributes to rural livelihoods. Furthermore, the roles that interactions between insect farmers...... cricket farming contributes to rural livelihoods. This exploratory study investigates the following research questions: What are the characteristics of Thai cricket farmers and their farms? How do crickets contribute to the lives of rural farmers in Thailand? What role has social and human capital played......, their peers and institutions play in insect farming as a livelihood strategy are even less well understood. This paper presents a preliminary assessment of cricket farming as a livelihood strategy in Thailand. Fortynine cricket farmers participated in in-depth interviews designed to gain insight into how...

  15. Student adjustment problems in two dental schools in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjakul, P; Cheunarrom, C

    2000-05-01

    Adjustment problems and academic achievement among dental students at two universities, one located in Thailand's capital city (Mahidol University) and the other in southern Thailand (Prince of Songkla University), were studied. All first- to sixth-year students at each university completed the Mooney Problem Checklist Thai version, by Supapan, which covers eleven areas of adjustment problems. The most severe adjustment problems at both schools were related to adjustment to college work. Problems relating to health and physical development, social and recreational activities, and moral and religious adjustment of MU dental students were significantly higher than those of PSU dental students. The checklist showed that, in both universities, the most important adjustment problem was the need for advice from staff concerning clinical experience. Stepwise regression indicated that four variables--adjustment to college work, sex, secondary education system and university (MU or PSU)--were associated with the academic achievement of dental students.

  16. Towards regulation of similar biotherapeutic products: Thailand's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanaphollert, Prapassorn; Tungsanga, Kriang

    2011-09-01

    The implementation of universal health coverage scheme in Thailand allows quality, equitable and accessible health care for all. Patients with life threatening and chronic diseases can get access to biotherapeutic products to treat their ailments. This triggered a major impact on the need for specific guidelines in evaluation of similar biotherapeutic products in order to standardize the regulatory pathway to license this class of products ensuring that the products meet acceptable levels of quality, safety and efficacy. The development of similar biotherapeutic products (SBP) should be considered to ensure therapeutic equivalence of biotherapeutics products at more affordable prices. This will lead to greater ease and speed of approval and assurance of the quality, safety and efficacy of these products. Therefore, we report herein the SBP situation in Thailand. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. FLUORIDE CONTENT OF COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SOY MILK PRODUCTS IN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rirattanapong, Opas; Rirattanapong, Praphasri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. In Thailand, the consumption of soy milk products is common but there is limited data about their fluoride content. The purpose of this study was to es- timate the fluoride content of soy milk products available in Thailand. Fluoride content was determined for 76 brands of soy milk using a F-ion-specific electrode. The fluoride concentrations ranged from 0.01 to 3.78 μg/ml. The fluoride content was not related to sugar content, soy bean content or the sterilization process. Among 3 brands of soy milk containing tea powder extract, the fluoride content was high (1.25 to 3.78 μg/ml). Most brands of soy milk tested in our study had fluoride content below the optimal daily intake but brands containing tea powder extract if consumed by children may increase their risk for fluorosis.

  18. Potential of wind power for Thailand: an assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Commins

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the potential for wind-power generated electricity in Thailand by means of a wide-ranging literature survey. Proposed application at a university campus is used as a case study to demonstrate that wind power is unlikely to be economically competitive where grid-connected electricity is available. The need for improved low wind speed turbine performance for Thai applications is highlighted by comparing the output of commercially available wind turbines with the characteristics of Thai wind; the challenges of improving low wind speed turbine performance are discussed. It is concluded that for Thailand in the foreseeable future the benefits of economic wind power electricity generation will probably be confined to small remote isolated installations including traditional applications.

  19. Betwixt Droughts and Floods: Flood Management Politics in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Maier-Knapp

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attempting to create greater understanding of the political dynamics that influence domestic disaster relief and management (DRM in Thailand, this article takes a closer look at these dynamics by outlining the main actors involved in flood-related DRM. It acknowledges the importance of international and military actors but emphasises the role of national and subnational authorities. The article then identifies the central issues of DRM governance as capacity and bureaucracy and discusses these through a chronological assessment of the flood crisis in Thailand in 2011, interweaving the colourful domestic politics with various political cleavages and dichotomies, and thereby distinguishing between three main dichotomies which it considers as the central drivers of the political dynamics and institutional development of DRM. These issues can be summarised as old versus new institutions, technocracy versus bureaucracy and centralised (but with direct people-orientation through greater channels of citizenry participation versus decentralised bureaucracy with an indirect orientation towards people.

  20. An Analysis of Inequality of Economic Opportunity in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montchai Pinitjitsamut

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to understand the socioeconomic and family backgrounds that affect individual economic opportunity in term of labor income on and above average income in different regions of Thailand. The results present that both age and marital status have positive impact to individual’s economic opportunity. Because it related to the necessity in personal family life. People works in Bangkok not necessary to get economic opportunity greater than others. Most inequality indicators show the inequality situation in Thailand still not as high as expectation. However, ordinary person usually get only less than 50% (0.4855 opportunity to get earning equal or more the average. Also, the society should concern the inequality of economic opportunity in optimal level which make equality parameter not greater than 0.5. This will create the mechanism to minimize the level of inequality, as a whole.

  1. Two new species of Tylototriton from Thailand (Amphibia: Urodela: Salamandridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Kanto; Khonsue, Wichase; Pomchote, Porrawee; Matsui, Masafumi

    2013-11-20

    Three morphological groups are found in a salamandrid newt Tylototriton shanjing from Thailand. We describe two of them as new species, one from northern and the other from northeastern Thailand, based on molecular and morphological data, however we could not make a taxonomic decision on the remaining one group because of the lack of voucher specimens and sufficient genetic data. The northern species differs morphologically from all known congeners by having the combination of orange to reddish brown markings, narrow and sharply protruding dorsolateral bony ridges on head, weakly segmented vertebral ridge, and long and high tail. The northeastern species is characterized by having the combination of yellow, orange, or reddish brown markings, wide and moderately protruding dorsolateral bony ridges on head, smooth vertebral ridge, black limbs, and black tail except for edges. Validity of taxonomic subdivision of the genus Tylototriton is discussed.

  2. Philanthropy, politics and promotion: Philip Morris' "charitable contributions" in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Ross; Collin, Jeff

    2008-08-01

    The efforts of members of the tobacco industry to portray themselves as responsible corporations via ostensible commitment to improved labour practices and public philanthropy have attracted growing criticism. This is particularly true of corporate social responsibility (CSR) schemes undertaken in emerging nations that are designed to rehabilitate the tobacco industry's image among public, government and market opinions in North America and western Europe. In the case of Thailand, sponsorship of arts events and community groups has been one avenue of promoting the industry in a regulatory environment that severely curtails promotion and advertising. The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Art Award, sponsored by Philip Morris (PM) has provided one such outlet for 10 years. Analysis of PM funding announcements since the end of the ASEAN art programme in Thailand reveals that recent donations to tobacco-related community organisations reinforces the extent to which seemingly generous acts are driven by corporate self-interest rather than social responsibility.

  3. Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in Plankton, Rangsit Agricultural Area, Central Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwong, W.; Thirakhupt, K.; Sitticharoenchai, D.; Borjan, M.; Robson, M.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated organochlorine pesticide residue content in freshwater plankton communities in Thailand. As a result, this study looks to examine the concentration of organochlorine pesticide residues in plankton collected from Khlong 7 (canal) at Rangsit agricultural area, central Thailand from June 2006 to February 2007. The results from this study show that plankton communities were composed of microphytoplankton, microzooplankton, and mesozooplankton. The average method recoveries varied from 84% to 103% with a relative standard deviation between 0.20% and 3.72%. The concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues during a one-year-period were in the range of 0.10–3.65 ng/g wet wt and contained DDT and derivatives > Σ endosulfan > Σ HCH > Σ heptachlor > aldrin and dieldrin > endrin and endrin aldehyde > methoxychlor, respectively. Moreover, the residues of Σ HCH, DDT and derivatives, and methoxychlor were higher during wet season than dry season (t-test, p ≤ 0.05). PMID:18777151

  4. Current and future industrial application of electron accelerators in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siri-Upathum, Chyagrit [Chulalongkorn Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2003-02-01

    Industrial applications of electron accelerators in Thailand, first introduced in 1997 for radiation sterilized products such as doctor gown, pampas, feminine napkin etc followed by installation of accelerators, one with energies at 20 MV and the other at 5 MV to produce new value added products like gem stones, topaz, tourmaline and zircon. The machines operate in pulse mode and is also used for irradiation services for food and sterilized products treatment. The need for low and medium energy accelerators in radiation technology is stressed. They are to be used for crosslinking of electrical wire and cable, heat shrinkable materials, low protein concentrated rubber latex, rubber wood furniture and parts, and silk protein degradation. The role of governmental organizations like Nuclear Research Institute (OAEP) and universities in stimulating the utilization of radiation processing in Thailand is strengthened. (S. Ohno)

  5. Bangkok’s Fine Balance: Thailand’s China Debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-12-01

    territorial claim in the South China Sea or domestic tensions regard- ing its own ethnic Chinese population . Thailand’s strong relation- ship with the...The U.S.-China bilateral relationship will continue to be an influen- tial but not controlling variable in Thailand’s China debate. Thailand will...Kingdom where it will not have to choose strategically between the United States and China yet remain important and relevant to both. Asia -Pacific Center

  6. Population Growth and Economic Development: New Empirical Evidence from Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Fumitaka Furuoka

    2009-01-01

    Population growth has a substantial impact on economic development. There are two schools of thought regarding this issue. Some researchers maintain that population has a negative impact on economic development while others are convinced that the effect is positive. This paper aims to provide additional evidence by employing the bounds test (Pesaran et al., 2001) to analyse a long-run relationship between population growth and economic development in Thailand. The findings of this study indic...

  7. Medical tourism in Thailand: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noree, Thinakorn; Hanefeld, Johanna; Smith, Richard

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the magnitude and characteristics of medical tourism in Thailand and the impact of such tourism on the Thai health system and economy. In 2010, we checked the records of all visits to five private hospitals that are estimated to cover 63% of all foreign patients. We reviewed hospital records of foreign patients and obtained data on their countries of origin, diagnoses and interventions. We surveyed 293 medical tourists to collect demographic characteristics and information on their expenditure and travelling companions. To help understand the impact of medical tourism on the Thai health system, we also interviewed 15 hospital executives and 28 service providers from the private hospitals. We obtained 911,913 records of hospital visits, of which 324,906 came from 104,830 medical tourists. We estimated that there were 167,000 medical tourists in Thailand in 2010. Of the medical tourists who attended our study hospitals, 67,987 (64.8%) came from the eastern Mediterranean region or Asia and 109,509 (34%) of them were treated for simple and uncomplicated conditions - i.e. general check-ups and medical consultations. The mean self-reported non-medical expenditure was 2750 United States dollars. According to the hospital staff interviewed, medical tourism in 2010 brought benefits to - and apparently had no negative impacts on - the Thai health system and economy. We estimate that the total number of medical tourists visiting Thailand is about 10% of previous national government estimates of 1.2 million. Such tourists appear to bring economic benefits to Thailand and to have negligible effects on the health system.

  8. New Porcini (Boletus sect. Boletus) from Australia and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halling, Roy E; Desjardin, Dennis E; Fechner, Nigel; Arora, David; Soytong, Kasem; Dentinger, Bryn T M

    2014-01-01

    Boletus albobrunnescens and B. austroedulis are described as new species in section Boletus from Thailand and Australia respectively. The former is easily characterized by the pure white basidiomata that stain brown. Boletus austroedulis has a gray-brown, slightly rugulose pileus with hymeniform pileipellis producing pileocystidia, and the stipe is only apically reticulate if at all. These new species represent ancient lineages inferred from prior molecular phylogenetic analyses. © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

  9. Migrant Interactions with Elderly Parents in Rural Cambodia and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Zachary; Korinek, Kim; Knodel, John; Chayovan, Napaporn

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines interactions between older adults living in rural areas of Thailand and Cambodia and their adult children. Thai data come from the Survey of the Welfare of the Elderly (N = 3,202 older adults and 17,517 adult children). Cambodia data are from the Survey of the Elderly in Cambodia (N = 777 older adults and 3,751 adult children).…

  10. Spatial epidemiology of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Linard, Catherine; Pamaranon, Nutavadee; Kawkalong, Sarayuth; Noimoh, Tanom; Chanachai, Karoon; Parakgamawongsa, Tippawon; Gilbert, Marius

    2014-08-05

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) has become a worldwide endemic disease of pigs. In 2006, an atypical and more virulent PRRS (HP-PRRS) emerged in China and spread to many countries, including Thailand. This study aimed to provide a first description of the spatio-temporal pattern of PRRS in Thailand and to quantify the statistical relationship between the presence of PRRS at the sub-district level and a set of risk factors. This should provide a basis for improving disease surveillance and control of PRRS in Thailand. Spatial scan statistics were used to detect clusters of outbreaks and allowed the identification of six spatial clusters covering 15 provinces of Thailand. Two modeling approaches were used to relate the presence or absence of PRRS outbreaks at the sub-district level to demographic characteristics of pig farming and other epidemiological spatial variables: autologistic multiple regressions and boosted regression trees (BRT). The variables showing a statistically significant association with PRRS presence in the autologistic multiple regression model were the sub-district human population and number of farms with breeding sows. The predictive power of the model, as measured by the area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) plots was moderate. BRT models had higher goodness of fit the metrics and identified the sub-district human population and density of farms with breeding sows as important predictor variables. The results indicated that farms with breeding sows may be an important group for targeted surveillance and control. However, these findings obtained at the sub-district level should be complemented by farm-level epidemiological investigations in order to obtain a more comprehensive view of the factors affecting PRRS presence. In this study, the outbreaks of PRRS could not be differentiated from the potential novel HP-PPRS form, which was recently discovered in the country.

  11. Thailand : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les économies à faible revenu dépendent énormément de l'agriculture, et la croissance dans ce secteur est responsable d'une plus grande réduction de la pauvreté que dans tout autre secteur. Région: Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar, Viet Nam, Thailand, Canada. Programme: Employment and Growth. Financement total : CA$ ...

  12. A new species of Camchaya (Asteraceae, Vernonieae from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhonthip Bunwong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Camchaya thailandica Bunwong, Chantar. & S.C.Keeley, sp. nov. from Phu Phrabat Historical Park, Udon Thani, Thailand is described as a new species. Plant of this new species are similar to C. gracilis (Gagnep. Bunwong & H.Rob. but differ inovate phyllaries without margin spines, 10-ribbed achenes, and broadly ovate leaves. This species is a rare endemic known only from the type collection and probably confined to open areas of sandstone hills in Udon Thani province.

  13. Molecular Identification of Cryptosporidium Species from Pet Snakes in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Yimming, Benjarat; Pattanatanang, Khampee; SANYATHITISEREE, PORNCHAI; Inpankaew, Tawin; KAMYINGKIRD, Ketsarin; Pinyopanuwat, Nongnuch; Chimnoi, Wissanuwat; Phasuk, Jumnongjit

    2016-01-01

    Cryptosporidium is an important pathogen causing gastrointestinal disease in snakes and is distributed worldwide. The main objectives of this study were to detect and identify Cryptosporidium species in captive snakes from exotic pet shops and snake farms in Thailand. In total, 165 fecal samples were examined from 8 snake species, boa constrictor (Boa constrictor constrictor), corn snake (Elaphe guttata), ball python (Python regius), milk snake (Lampropeltis triangulum), king snake (Lampropel...

  14. DISTRIBUTION OF ENTOMOPATHOGENIC NEMATODES IN LOWER NORTHERN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitta, Apichat; Yimthin, Thatcha; Fukruksa, Chamaiporn; Wongpeera, Wichuda; Yotpanya, Waranan; Polseela, Raxsina; Thanwisai, Aunchalee

    2015-07-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are used successfully for biological control of subterranean larval pests leading to reduced environmental contamination if chemical control measures are employed. Their diversity and distribution in Thailand are unclear, so the present study sought to obtain a better understanding these EPN populations in the lower northern region of Thailand. We collected 930 soil samples from 186 sites of Kamphaeng Phet, Nakhon Sawan, Phetchabun, Phichit, Phitsanulok, Sukhothai, Tak, Uthai Thani, and Uttaradit Provinces, Thailand from December 2011 to November 2012. Galleria mellonella was used as host for isolating and propagating EPNs. Seventy soil samples (7.5%) yielded EPNs of two genera, Steinernema (3.0%) and Heterorhabditis (4.5%). The majority of the isolated EPNs were found in loam at 26°C-33°C and pH values of 5.0-7.0. Molecular identification from partial 28S rDNA sequences revealed S. websteri, isolated from soil samples from Nakhon Sawan and Uthai Thani. Phylogenetic analysis of these EPNs showed they are closely related to S. websteri JC1032. The identification that S. websteri was the predominant EPN should enable its application for biological control in the local prevailing soil conditions.

  15. Human Leptospirosis Trends: Northeast Thailand, 2001–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilawan Thipmontree

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the changing trend of leptospirosis over time in Thailand using two prospective hospital-based studies conducted amongst adult patients with acute undifferentiated fever (AUFI admitted to Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand between July 2001 to December 2002 and between July 2011 to December 2012. During the first period, leptospirosis (98 patients, 40% and scrub typhus (59 patients, 24.1% were the two major causes of AUFI. In the second period, scrub typhus (137 patients, 28.3% was found to be more common than leptospirosis (61 patients, 12.7%. Amongst patients with leptospirosis, the proportion of male patients and the median age were similar. Leptospira interrogans serogroup Autumnalis was the major infecting serogroup in both study periods. The case fatality rate of leptospirosis was significantly higher in 2011–2012 as compared with the case fatality rate in 2001–2002 (19.7% vs. 6.3%, p < 0.001. In summary, we found that number of leptospirosis cases had decreased over time. This trend is similar to reportable data for leptospirosis complied from passive surveillance by the Ministry of Public Health, Thailand. However, the case fatality rate of severe leptospirosis has increased. Severe lung hemorrhage associated with leptospirosis remained the major cause of death.

  16. A new checklist of lichenized fungi occurring in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawinnat Buaruang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A new revised checklist of lichenized fungi in Thailand is presented, including 1,292 species. Recent work on the taxonomy of these organisms in Thailand resulted in an enormous increase in our knowledge of the lichen biota of the country – the current checklist includes more than twice as many species as the previous catalogue published 15 years ago – and phylogenetic studies resulted in numerous changes in the generic classification of lichenized fungi. Hence, a new checklist is here presented summarizing the current knowledge of lichens in Thailand. Six new records are reported, viz. Acanthothecis salazinica, Bactrospora metabola, Buellia parastata, Diploschistes cinereocaesius, Rolfidium coccocarpioides, and Trapelia placodioides. Five previously recorded species, namely Lecanora carpinea, Platismatia glauca, P. lacunosa, P. tuckermanii and Roccella phycopsis are shown to be based on misidentifications and are excluded from the checklist. Three new combinations of species previously placed in Pertusaria to Lepra are proposed: L. bulolensis (A.W.Archer, Elix & Streimann Schmitt & Lumbsch, L. patellifera (A.W.Archer Schmitt & Lumbsch, and L. subventosa (Malme Schmitt & Lumbsch. Asia, biodiversity, lichens, new records, taxonomy

  17. Business leaders form alliance to fight AIDS. Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-11

    It is estimated that 33% of deaths among the working population in Thailand by the year 2000 will result from AIDS. AIDS mortality will bring decreased productivity, increased healthcare costs, a decline in tourism, reduced labor exports, and labor shortages. The AIDS epidemic in the country therefore has a direct impact upon companies' productivity and resulting profitability. Acknowledging this reality and the need for action, the Managing Director of Northwest Airlines for Thailand, Indochina, and West Asia, James P. Reinnoldt, and the General Manager of Bangkok's Regent Hotel, Bill Black, started the nonprofit Thailand Business Coalition on AIDS (TBCA) to combat AIDS. The TBCA will provide leadership, coordination, education, and resources to help companies and the business sector get a positive response to the AIDS dilemma. The organization was established to lead through and beyond the AIDS epidemic in the interest of business by promoting coherent HIV/AIDS policies and workplace education with help from nongovernmental organizations. The TBCA will be supported by membership dues, private contributions, and grants. Member companies will receive a manual and a quarterly newsletter and be allowed to join a training course on managing AIDS in the workplace. The organization's target of enlisting 250 member companies within the next 12 months means that help will be rendered in the training of 50,000 Thai workers.

  18. A striking new genus and species of cave-dwelling frog (Amphibia: Anura: Microhylidae: Asterophryinae from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatmongkon Suwannapoom

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on a discovery of Siamophryne troglodytes Gen. et sp. nov., a new troglophilous genus and species of microhylid frog from a limestone cave in the tropical forests of western Thailand. To assess its phylogenetic relationships we studied the 12S rRNA–16S rRNA mtDNA fragment with final alignment comprising up to 2,591 bp for 56 microhylid species. Morphological characterization of the new genus is based on examination of external morphology and analysis of osteological characteristics using microCT-scanning. Phylogenetic analyses place the new genus into the mainly Australasian subfamily Asterophryinae as a sister taxon to the genus Gastrophrynoides, the only member of the subfamily known from Sundaland. The new genus markedly differs from all other Asterophryinae members by a number of diagnostic morphological characters and demonstrates significant mtDNA sequence divergence. We provide a preliminary description of a tadpole of the new genus. Thus, it represents the only asterophryine taxon with documented free-living larval stage and troglophilous life style. Our work demonstrates that S. troglodytes Gen. et sp. nov. represents an old lineage of the initial radiation of Asterophryinae which took place in the mainland Southeast Asia. Our results strongly support the “out of Indo-Eurasia” biogeographic scenario for this group of frogs. To date, the new frog is only known from a single limestone cave system in Sai Yok District of Kanchanaburi Province of Thailand; its habitat is affected by illegal bat guano mining and other human activities. As such, S. troglodytes Gen. et sp. nov. is likely to be at high risk of habitat loss. Considering high ecological specialization and a small known range of the new taxon, we propose a IUCN Red List status of endangered for it.

  19. Unveiling cryptic diversity of the anemonefish genera Amphiprion and Premnas (Perciformes: Pomacentridae in Thailand with mitochondrial DNA barcodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradipunt Thongtam na Ayudhaya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The genera Amphiprion and Premnas comprise the common anemonefish that are widely distributed in tropical areas. Species identification of these two genera is difficult due to high, intraspecific, morphological variation. Recently, DNA barcoding has been employed as an efficient tool that uses a short genetic marker in an organism's DNA to enable the identification and recognition of cryptic species. This study applied three regions of mitochondrial DNA—cytochrome c oxidase I (COI, cytochrome b (Cytb and 16S rRNA—as DNA barcodes for species identification of seven species of Amphiprion and one species of Premnas in Thailand. Three species-delimitation methods—general mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC, automatic barcoding gap detection (ABGD and a Bayesian implementation of the Poisson tree processes model (bPTP—were also used to estimate the number of species. An overlap was found between the intra- and inter-specific genetic divergence values in Cytb and 16S rRNA, but not for the COI data. This indicated that COI was the most effective for identifying different anemonefish species. A three-gene phylogenetic analysis and species-delimitation methods based on both COI and Cytb data suggested cryptic diversity in Amphiprion clarkii, A. percula, A. ocellaris and Premnas biaculeatus. Different distributions were found also for two cryptic species of A. clarkia—one restricted to the Gulf of Thailand and the other to the Andaman Sea. The results confirmed the efficiency of COI as a suitable marker for species identification of anemonefish.

  20. Tropical Plant Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    that involved Germany, Britain and France, until independence, which was brightened by exemplary collaboration. Muasya focussed on South Africa, which is the most developed country in sub-Saharan Africa with a well-functioning network of herbaria that covers widely different biota. Sanjappa outlined the history...... course which he helped initiating in Manaus Brazil in the 1970s, and which still train researchers in that country. In a section on tropical plant collections and ‘big data’ Feeley demonstrated how dated herbarium records made it possible to trace elevational changes of species distributions, which...... is of importance to global change studies. Queenborough showed how herbarium collections can be used to study plant functional traits, and Antonelli documented the importance of herbarium voucher specimens for molecular phylogenetic studies and in comparative biogeography. Soberón gave a sobering account of ‘big...

  1. Tropical Plant Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    course which he helped initiating in Manaus Brazil in the 1970s, and which still train researchers in that country. In a section on tropical plant collections and ‘big data’ Feeley demonstrated how dated herbarium records made it possible to trace elevational changes of species distributions, which...... in the USA over the past two hundred years. Sebsebe Demissew taked about the situation in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly problems related to building and maintaining plant collections in new and poor nations. Onana outlined the history of botanical collections in Cameroon, covering a colonial period...... and colleagues described how Norway has had programs to train botanists from a number of African countries. Balslev and colleagues present a successful capacity building project in Ecuador, which has resulted in a world-class herbarium and a cadre of well-trained taxonomists. Prance described a successful MSc...

  2. Tropical Plant Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    course which he helped initiating in Manaus Brazil in the 1970s, and which still train researchers in that country. In a section on tropical plant collections and ‘big data’ Feeley demonstrated how dated herbarium records made it possible to trace elevational changes of species distributions, which...... is of importance to global change studies. Queenborough showed how herbarium collections can be used to study plant functional traits, and Antonelli documented the importance of herbarium voucher specimens for molecular phylogenetic studies and in comparative biogeography. Soberón gave a sobering account of ‘big......’ collections for modern drug discovery. Bakker gave an account of the tantalising possibilities for molecular systematics and other research in the use of herbarium collections, which have opened up for a plethora of additional data to be extracted from dried plant collections. The final talk was Blackmore...

  3. Towards a climate-driven dengue decision support system for Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Rachel; Cazelles, Bernard; Paul, Richard; Rodó, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    Dengue is a peri-urban mosquito-transmitted disease, ubiquitous in the tropics and the subtropics. The geographic distribution of dengue and its more severe form, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), have expanded dramatically in the last decades and dengue is now considered to be the world's most important arboviral disease. Recent demographic changes have greatly contributed to the acceleration and spread of the disease along with uncontrolled urbanization, population growth and increased air travel, which acts as a mechanism for transporting and exchanging dengue viruses between endemic and epidemic populations. The dengue vector and virus are extremely sensitive to environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity and precipitation that influence mosquito biology, abundance and habitat and the virus replication speed. In order to control the spread of dengue and impede epidemics, decision support systems are required that take into account the multi-faceted array of factors that contribute to increased dengue risk. Due to availability of seasonal climate forecasts, that predict the average climate conditions for forthcoming months/seasons in both time and space, there is an opportunity to incorporate precursory climate information in a dengue decision support system to aid epidemic planning months in advance. Furthermore, oceanic indicators from teleconnected areas in the Pacific and Indian Ocean, that can provide some indication of the likely prevailing climate conditions in certain regions, could potentially extend predictive lead time in a dengue early warning system. In this paper we adopt a spatio-temporal Bayesian modelling framework for dengue in Thailand to support public health decision making. Monthly cases of dengue in the 76 provinces of Thailand for the period 1982-2012 are modelled using a multi-layered approach. Environmental explanatory variables at various spatial and temporal resolutions are incorporated into a hierarchical model in order to

  4. Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisak Bhumiratana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world’s most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders.

  5. Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhumiratana, Adisak; Intarapuk, Apiradee; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa; Maneekan, Pannamas; Koyadun, Surachart

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR) malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world's most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders. PMID:23865048

  6. Developing health systems research capacities through north-south partnership: An evaluation of collaboration with South Africa and Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pitayarangsarit Siriwan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past ten years, calls to strengthen health systems research capacities in low and middle income countries have increased. One mechanism for capacity development is the partnering of northern and southern institutions. However, detailed case-studies of north-south partnerships, at least in the domain of health systems research, remain limited. This study aims to evaluate the partnerships developed between the Health Economics and Financing Programme of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and three research partners in South Africa and Thailand to strengthen health economics-related research capacity. Methods Data from programme documents were collected over five years to measure quantitative indicators of capacity development. Qualitative data were obtained from 25 in-depth interviews with programme staff from South Africa, Thailand and London. Results and Discussion Five years of formal partnership resulted in substantial strengthening of individual research skills and moderate instituonalised strengthening in southern partner institutions. Activities included joint proposals, research and articles, staff exchange and post-graduate training. In Thailand, individual capacities were built through post-graduate training and the partner institution developed this as part of a package aimed at retaining young researchers at the institution. In South Africa, local post-graduate teaching programs were strengthened, regular staff visits/exchanges initiated and maintained and funding secured for several large-scale, multi-partner projects. These activities could not have been achieved without good personal relationships between members of the partner institutions, built on trust developed over twenty years. In South Africa, a critical factor was the joint appointment of a London staff member on long-term secondment to one of the partner institutions. Conclusion As partnerships mature the needs of partners

  7. Floodplain sediment from a 100-year-recurrence flood in 2005 of the Ping River in northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Wood

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The tropical storm, floodwater, and the floodplain-sediment layer of a 100-year recurrence flood are examined to better understand characteristics of large monsoon floods on medium-sized rivers in northern Thailand. Storms producing large floods in northern Thailand occur early or late in the summer rainy season (May–October. These storms are associated with tropical depressions evolving from typhoons in the South China Sea that travel westward across the Indochina Peninsula. In late September, 2005, the tropical depression from Typhoon Damrey swept across northern Thailand delivering 100–200 mm/day at stations in mountainous areas. Peak flow from the 6355-km2 drainage area of the Ping River upstream of the city of Chiang Mai was 867 m3s−1 (river-gage of height 4.93 m and flow greater than 600 m3s−1 lasted for 2.5 days. Parts of the city of Chiang Mai and some parts of the floodplain in the intermontane Chiang Mai basin were flooded up to 1-km distant from the main channel. Suspended-sediment concentrations in the floodwater were measured and estimated to be 1000–1300 mg l−1.

    The mass of dry sediment (32.4 kg m-2, measured over a 0.32-km2 area of the floodplain is relatively high compared to reports from European and North American river floods. Average wet sediment thickness over the area was 3.3 cm. Sediment thicker than 8 cm covered 16 per cent of the area, and sediment thicker than 4 cm covered 44 per cent of the area. High suspended-sediment concentration in the floodwater, flow to the floodplain through a gap in the levee afforded by the mouth of a tributary stream as well as flow over levees, and floodwater depths of 1.2 m explain the relatively large amount of sediment in the measured area.

    Grain-size analyses and examination of the flood layer showed about 15-cm thickness of massive fine-sandy silt on the levee within 15

  8. Chinese culture and demographic trends in Thailand and Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbie, J

    1992-01-01

    The Chinese nationality contributes to over 5 million of 10% of the total population of Thailand and almost 35% of the total population of Malaysia. The aim of this paper is to summarize the nature and extent of Chinese influence on Thai and Malay culture. Migration of Chinese to southeast Asia dates back 2000 years; on the Malay peninsula, the first arrivals were in 1349. In Malaysia, arrivals began in the 15th century. The reasons were population pressure, floods, and famines. Social and political unrest also accounted for migration between 1855 and 1970. The Chinese in Malaysia are characterized as having a lower population growth rate than Malays and an abnormal sex ratio of 1000:930 in 1957, but severe ratios of 8 men to 1 woman in the 1820s. Islam forbids intermarriages. The Chinese have benefited from improvement in health care and had a low birth rate of 25/1000 in 1980. Migration has traditionally been from south China, and included migrations from Fujian, Hakkas, Guangdong, Chaozhou, and Hainan. The Chinese have maintained their own culture among the Muslim population. In Thailand, migrations occurred during the 13th century, following the collapse of Nan-Chao in 1253, but are first recorded during the Ming dynasty at the end of the 16th century. There are larger numbers of Chinese in Thailand than Malaysia. Chinese assimilated and the current rate of annual growth is estimated at 2%. The sex ratio was 1.4:1 in the late 1940s. 50% of the Chinese live in Bangkok and central Thailand. Older traditions are still maintained in Bangkok. There is the Chaozhou opera on Chinese New Year's Day and marriage is still preferred within one's own dialect. After 1946, the Chinese were not permitted to receive their education in their native language. By the third generation, there is greater assimilation. The minority of minorities in Malaysia were the Baba, who spoke better Malay than other Chinese. In Thailand, the comparable minority is the Yunnan who do not belong

  9. Tropical count of curves on abelian varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halle, Lars Halvard; Rose, Simon Charles Florian

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the problem of counting tropical genus g curves ing-dimensional tropical abelian varieties. We do this by studyingmaps from principally polarized tropical abelian varieties into afixed abelian variety. For g = 2, 3, we prove that the tropical countmatches the count provided in [Göt98...

  10. A Competitive Analysis on the Agricultural Products of China and Thailand in the U.S. Market

    OpenAIRE

    YAO, Aiping; WAN, Liping

    2014-01-01

    This paper selects China and Thailand as a reference object. Based on the U.S. market, it analyzes the export competitiveness of the agricultural products of China and Thailand by market share and growth rate, measures the agricultural products of China and Thailand export competition degree by export product similarity index and estimates the agricultural products of China and Thailand export competitiveness strength by shift share method. The results show that: At present, in the U.S. marke...

  11. Understanding tidal notch development: examples from tropical and Mediterranean coasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Cherith; Furlani, Stefano; Kazmer, Miklos

    2017-04-01

    It has been suggested that tropical rock coasts exhibit morphological features that are different compared to other climatic regimes. But tidal notches, recesses extending along marine cliffs, are common to both tropical and Mediterranean coasts, and develop because of higher erosion rates in the intertidal zone compared to the supratidal or subtidal zone. They are widely used as geomorphological indicators of sea level change and tectonic movement. For this purpose their formation is usually associated with wave erosion, although the role of bioerosion and weathering, e.g. solution, are sometimes given more importance. In some cases wave erosion may simply remove weathered materials rather than directly eroding the rock e.g. on granite and sandstone coasts. Rock type is also thought to be important in the development of tidal notches, with those developed on limestone coasts said to provide more reliable indicators than other rock types. As well as indicating the vertical position of former sea levels, tidal notches have also been used to estimate the duration of stillstands (e.g. on harder limestones) and to calculate the periodicity of cliff-falls (e.g. on softer limestones). Despite their importance, the genesis, rate of development and global variations in morphology of tidal notches are still not fully understood. We assess present understanding of the roles of climate, tidal range, wave conditions and rock type by reviewing studies of morphology, rates and modes of tidal notch development on Mediterranean and tropical coasts. There is a dearth of quantitative data and so we present notch erosion rates directly measured using the Micro Erosion Meter (MEM) and Traversing MEM (TMEM) on limestone on the Northern Adriatic and Andaman Sea coasts: the former collected over > 10 years on the Trieste and Istrian coasts and > 3 years on an experimental vertical slab in the Gulf of Trieste; the latter over a 10 year period at Krabi in Southern Thailand. We relate these

  12. 76 FR 19788 - Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... COMMISSION Carbon Steel Butt-Weld Pipe Fittings From Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand... fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand would be likely to lead to continuation or... Pipe Fittings from Brazil, China, Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand: Investigation Nos. 731-TA-308-310 and...

  13. Multiyear climate variability and dengue--El Niño southern oscillation, weather, and dengue incidence in Puerto Rico, Mexico, and Thailand: a longitudinal data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Michael A; Cummings, Derek A T; Glass, Gregory E

    2009-11-01

    The mosquito-borne dengue viruses are a major public health problem throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Changes in temperature and precipitation have well-defined roles in the transmission cycle and may thus play a role in changing incidence levels. The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a multiyear climate driver of local temperature and precipitation worldwide. Previous studies have reported varying degrees of association between ENSO and dengue incidence. We analyzed the relationship between ENSO, local weather, and dengue incidence in Puerto Rico, Mexico, and Thailand using wavelet analysis to identify time- and frequency-specific association. In Puerto Rico, ENSO was transiently associated with temperature and dengue incidence on multiyear scales. However, only local precipitation and not temperature was associated with dengue on multiyear scales. In Thailand, ENSO was associated with both temperature and precipitation. Although precipitation was associated with dengue incidence, the association was nonstationary and likely spurious. In Mexico, no association between any of the variables was observed on the multiyear scale. The evidence for a relationship between ENSO, climate, and dengue incidence presented here is weak. While multiyear climate variability may play a role in endemic interannual dengue dynamics, we did not find evidence of a strong, consistent relationship in any of the study areas. The role of ENSO may be obscured by local climate heterogeneity, insufficient data, randomly coincident outbreaks, and other, potentially stronger, intrinsic factors regulating transmission dynamics.

  14. Multiyear climate variability and dengue--El Niño southern oscillation, weather, and dengue incidence in Puerto Rico, Mexico, and Thailand: a longitudinal data analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Johansson

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mosquito-borne dengue viruses are a major public health problem throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Changes in temperature and precipitation have well-defined roles in the transmission cycle and may thus play a role in changing incidence levels. The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO is a multiyear climate driver of local temperature and precipitation worldwide. Previous studies have reported varying degrees of association between ENSO and dengue incidence. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed the relationship between ENSO, local weather, and dengue incidence in Puerto Rico, Mexico, and Thailand using wavelet analysis to identify time- and frequency-specific association. In Puerto Rico, ENSO was transiently associated with temperature and dengue incidence on multiyear scales. However, only local precipitation and not temperature was associated with dengue on multiyear scales. In Thailand, ENSO was associated with both temperature and precipitation. Although precipitation was associated with dengue incidence, the association was nonstationary and likely spurious. In Mexico, no association between any of the variables was observed on the multiyear scale. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence for a relationship between ENSO, climate, and dengue incidence presented here is weak. While multiyear climate variability may play a role in endemic interannual dengue dynamics, we did not find evidence of a strong, consistent relationship in any of the study areas. The role of ENSO may be obscured by local climate heterogeneity, insufficient data, randomly coincident outbreaks, and other, potentially stronger, intrinsic factors regulating transmission dynamics.

  15. Tropical Cyclone Ensemble Data Assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-30

    B.W. and R.S. Dunbar, 2010: A neural network technique for improving...in artifically higher winds. In high wind conditions (e.g., near the center of tropical cyclones), rain decreases the backscatter signal, because

  16. JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The JPL Tropical Cyclone Information System (TCIS) brings together satellite and in situ data sets from various sources to help you find information for a particular...

  17. Severe human influenza infections in Thailand: oseltamivir treatment and risk factors for fatal outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanna Hanshaoworakul

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza is often not recognized as an important cause of severe or fatal disease in tropical and subtropical countries in Southeast Asia. The extent to which Oseltamivir treatment may protect against a fatal outcome in severe influenza infections is not known. Thailand's National Avian Influenza Surveillance (NAIS system affords a unique opportunity to describe the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed severe and fatal human influenza infections. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: During January 2004 through December 2006, 11,641 notifications to the NAIS were investigated in 73 of 76 Thai provinces. Clinical and demographic data and respiratory swab specimens were collected and tested by PCR for influenza. Using the NAIS database, we identified all patients with laboratory confirmed human influenza (A/H3N2, A/H1N1 and Type B infection. A retrospective medical record review was conducted on all fatal cases with laboratory confirmed influenza and from a sample of hospitalized cases in 28 provinces. The association of underlying risk factors, Oseltamivir treatment and risk of a fatal outcome were examined. Human influenza infections were identified in 2,075 (18% cases. Twenty-two (1% deaths occurred including seven deaths in children less than ten years of age. Thirty-five percent of hospitalized human influenza infections had chest X-ray confirmed pneumonia. Current or former smoking; advanced age, hypertension and underlying cardiovascular, pulmonary or endocrine disease were associated with a fatal outcome from human influenza infection. Treatment with Oseltamivir was statistically associated with survival with a crude OR of .11 (95% CI: 0.04-0.30 and .13 (95% CI: 0.04-0.40 after controlling for age. CONCLUSIONS: Severe and fatal human influenza infections were commonly identified in the NAIS designed to identify avian A/H5N1 cases. Treatment with Oseltamivir is associated with survival in hospitalized human influenza pneumonia

  18. Severe human influenza infections in Thailand: oseltamivir treatment and risk factors for fatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanshaoworakul, Wanna; Simmerman, James Mark; Narueponjirakul, Ubolrat; Sanasuttipun, Wiwan; Shinde, Vivek; Kaewchana, Suchada; Areechokechai, Darin; Levy, Jens; Ungchusak, Kumnuan

    2009-06-25

    Influenza is often not recognized as an important cause of severe or fatal disease in tropical and subtropical countries in Southeast Asia. The extent to which Oseltamivir treatment may protect against a fatal outcome in severe influenza infections is not known. Thailand's National Avian Influenza Surveillance (NAIS) system affords a unique opportunity to describe the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed severe and fatal human influenza infections. During January 2004 through December 2006, 11,641 notifications to the NAIS were investigated in 73 of 76 Thai provinces. Clinical and demographic data and respiratory swab specimens were collected and tested by PCR for influenza. Using the NAIS database, we identified all patients with laboratory confirmed human influenza (A/H3N2, A/H1N1 and Type B) infection. A retrospective medical record review was conducted on all fatal cases with laboratory confirmed influenza and from a sample of hospitalized cases in 28 provinces. The association of underlying risk factors, Oseltamivir treatment and risk of a fatal outcome were examined. Human influenza infections were identified in 2,075 (18%) cases. Twenty-two (1%) deaths occurred including seven deaths in children less than ten years of age. Thirty-five percent of hospitalized human influenza infections had chest X-ray confirmed pneumonia. Current or former smoking; advanced age, hypertension and underlying cardiovascular, pulmonary or endocrine disease were associated with a fatal outcome from human influenza infection. Treatment with Oseltamivir was statistically associated with survival with a crude OR of .11 (95% CI: 0.04-0.30) and .13 (95% CI: 0.04-0.40) after controlling for age. Severe and fatal human influenza infections were commonly identified in the NAIS designed to identify avian A/H5N1 cases. Treatment with Oseltamivir is associated with survival in hospitalized human influenza pneumonia patients.

  19. Diversity of ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae in two rubber plantations in Songkhla Province, Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparoek Watanasit

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ants play important roles in tropical rainforest ecosystems. In southern Thailand, many such areas have been extensivelylogged and replaced by rubber plantations. Since changes to the environment can cause changes to the diversity offlora and fauna, the objectives of this study were to determine habitat influences on the ant composition between homogenousand heterogeneous rubber plantations, and to investigate if any environmental factors can be directly correlated withchanges in the ant community. Three 100 m–line-transects, spaced 100 m apart, were laid out at two study sites. Four samplingmethods, hand collecting (HC, leaf litter sampling (LL, honey bait (HB and soil sampling (SS, were used to sample ants.Temperature, humidity, and precipitation were recorded. Samples were collected every two months from June 2004 to April2005. The results showed that a total of six subfamilies (Aenictinae, Dolichoderinae, Formicinae, Myrmicinae, Ponerinaemand Pseudomyrmecinae, comprising 29 genera and 87 species were found in the two study sites. The dominant genera werePheidole and Crematogaster, followed by Pheidologeton and Pachycondyla. The sampling methods used in this studyindicated that LL and HC were most suitable for sampling ants, and any combination of sampling methods detected moreant species than a single method did. Detrended correspondence analysis (DCA grouped ant species between the two typesof rubber plantation, and also divided ant species into three groups by sampling method: HC group, SS group and LL+HBgroup. DCA did not group ant species by seasonal changes, however. Further, canonical correspondence analysis detectedno effect of temperature, humidity, or precipitation on the ant community.

  20. Thailand--Secondary Education for Employment, Volume I: A Policy Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelmann, Charles; Johanson, Richard; Kohtbantau, Achariya; Moock, Peter; Poshyananda, Tanaporn; Trivisvavet, Supamas

    In Thailand, the need for skills in the labor force will become even greater in the next decade as the country's industrial and service companies seek to increase productivity through technological and organizational change. Historically, the limited provision of secondary education was a major bottleneck in skills development in Thailand. Major…

  1. 78 FR 11221 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam... States is materially injured by reason of imports from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia... the Governments of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam.\\2\\ \\1\\ The...

  2. Greening production and consumption: the case of the appliance and dairy industries in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thongplew, N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Natapol Thongplew Thesis title: Greening production and consumption: The case of the appliance and dairy industries in Thailand This research looked into the greening of the appliance and dairy industries in globalizing Thailand from a

  3. Education Course Syllabus Development, Thai Language Major According to Buddhism Way of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waree, Chaiwat

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to develop Education Course Syllabus, Thai language major, according to Buddhism way of Thailand by using Taba's Approach and to evaluate the efficiency of Education Course Syllabus, Thai language major, according to Buddhism way of Thailand. This research was conducted according to research and development format and its…

  4. A survey of consumer’ opinion about consumption and health benefits of fermented plant beverages in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaiyavat CHAIYASUT

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fermented beverages are widely used all over the country. Fermented plant beverages (FPB are prevalent in Thailand and FPBs are believed to cure and prevent many health oriented problems. The people of Thailand produce many varieties of FPBs in small scale or large scale and consume them in their daily lives. This study is a survey conducted among the representative consumers of FPBs in Thailand to know the consumer's opinion on FPBs, effects and benefits of FPBs, and real status of consumer satisfaction in Thailand. This study revealed that the rationale for the consumption of respective FPBs was to treat their health issues and for the betterment of their health. Most of the consumers of FPBs benefited in case of improving their physical and mental health. The current survey revealed the opinion of the FPBs consumers in Thailand. This study concluded that FPBs are health promoting drink that is affordable in the daily life of Thai people. The FPBs prepared in Thailand did not report any massive adverse effects in Thailand. Till now the preparation and consumption of FPBs are followed in Thailand and not influenced by adverse effects; FPBs are considered safe for human consumption.

  5. Learning Innovative Maternal Instinct: Activity Designing Semantic Factors of Alcohol Modification in Rural Communities of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yodmongkol, Pitipong; Jaimung, Thunyaporn; Chakpitak, Nopasit; Sureephong, Pradorn

    2014-01-01

    At present, Thailand is confronting a serious problem of alcohol drinking behavior which needs to be solved urgently. This research aimed to identify the semantic factors on alcohol drinking behavior and to use maternal instinct driving for housewives as village health volunteers in rural communities, Thailand. Two methods were implemented as the…

  6. The genus Pothos (Araceae-Pothoideae-Potheae) of Thailand and Indochina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyce, Peter C.

    2000-01-01

    An account of Pothos for Thailand and Indochina [taken here to comprise Myanmar, Cambodia, Lao P.D.R, Vietnam, subtropical China (Guangxi, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Hong Kong, Hubei, Sichuan, Yunnan)] and Taiwan is presented as a precursor of the forthcoming Flora of Thailand treatment. Fourteen

  7. Bothid larvae (Pleuronectiformes - Pisces) of the Gulf of Thailand and South China Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.

    of Thailand and South China Sea formed the material for this presentation. The Naga Expedition organised by the United States of America during 1959-61 was a co- operative venture of the Government of the United States of America, Thailand and South...

  8. 78 FR 24435 - Hot-Rolled Steel Products From China, India, Indonesia, Taiwan, Thailand, and Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-25

    ...-Rolled Steel Products From China, India, Indonesia, Taiwan, Thailand, and Ukraine Scheduling of full five..., Indonesia, and Thailand and antidumping duty orders on hot-rolled steel products from China, India... and the revocation of the antidumping duty orders on hot-rolled steel products from China, India...

  9. 78 FR 37236 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... COMMISSION Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Determinations On the... injured by reason of imports from China, Mexico, and Thailand of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire... materially injured or threatened with material injury by reason of LTFV imports of prestressed concrete steel...

  10. Obesity and Lifestyle Factors in Male Hospital Out-patients in Thailand

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was exploring the prevalence of obesity and to determine the factors associated with obesity among male out-patients in Thailand. In a crosssectional survey consecutive male out-patients from four district hospitals in Nakhon Pathom Province in Thailand were assessed with various measures, ...

  11. 75 FR 22424 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with full reviews pursuant to... antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be...

  12. Options to reduce environmental impacts of palm oil production in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, Kanokwan; Kroeze, Carolien; Jawjit, Warit; Hein, Lars

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for palm oil worldwide. In Thailand, oil palm is being promoted by the government but this expansion is associated with several environmental impacts. We identified 26 options for reducing the environmental impact of palm oil production in Thailand, and assessed their

  13. Sympatric occurrence of Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantaphruti, Malinee T; Yamasaki, Hiroshi; Nakao, Minoru; Waikagul, Jitra; Watthanakulpanich, Dorn; Nuamtanong, Supaporn; Maipanich, Wanna; Pubampen, Somchit; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Muennoo, Chatree; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Sato, Marcello O; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehiro; Ito, Akira

    2007-09-01

    We confirmed sympatric occurrence of Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica in western Thailand. DNA analysis of morphologically identified T. saginata, in a dual infection with T. solium, indicated it was T. asiatica. To our knowledge, this report is the first of T. asiatica and a dual Taenia infection from Thailand.

  14. Sympatric Occurrence of Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Anantaphruti, MT; Yamasaki, H; Nakao, M; Waikagul, J; Watthanakulpanich, D; Nuamtanong, S; Maipanich, W; Pubampen, S; Sanguankiat, S; Muennoo, C; Nakaya, K; Sato, MO; Sako, Y; Okamoto, M; Ito, A

    2007-01-01

    We confirmed sympatric occurrence of Taenia solium, T. saginata, and T. asiatica in western Thailand. DNA analysis of morphologically identifi ed T. saginata, in a dual infection with T. solium, indicated it was T. asiatica. To our knowledge, this report is the first of T. asiatica and a dual Taenia infection from Thailand.

  15. Regional and International Networking to Support the Energy Regulatory Commission of Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavansiri, Direk; Bull, Trevor

    2010-09-15

    The Energy Regulatory Commission of Thailand is a new regulatory agency. The structure of the energy sector; the tradition of administration; and, the lack of access to experienced personnel in Thailand all pose particular challenges. The Commission is meeting these challenges through regional and international networking to assist in developing policies and procedures that allow it to meet international benchmarks.

  16. The Study Elements and Indicators of Risk Management System for Secondary Schools in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandee, Methenan; Sirisuthi, Chaiyuth; Leamvijarn, Subunn

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of this research aimed 1) to study the elements and indicators of risk management system for secondary schools in Thailand. 2) to study suitable the elements and indicators of the risk management system for secondary schools in Thailand. 3) to study the results of CFA (Confirmatory Factors Analysis) risk management process of risk…

  17. Salmonella serovars from humans and other sources in Thailand, 1993-2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangtrakulnonth, A.; Pornreongwong, S.; Pulsrikarn, C.

    2004-01-01

    We serotyped 44,087 Salmonella isolates from humans and 26,148 from other sources from 1993 through 2002. The most common serovar causing human salmonellosis in Thailand was Salmonella enterica Weltevreden. Serovars causing human infections in Thailand differ from those in other countries and seem...

  18. Siluriform Fishes and their Habitat in Small Rivers in Central Thailand

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Siluriform Fishes and their Habitat in Small Rivers in Central Thailand. F William, P Sa-ardrit. Abstract. Silurids were sampled, by electrofishing, from 159 sites on small rivers in four major watersheds across central Thailand, Eastern, Chao Phraya, Peninsula and Maeklong. Total abundance, estimated by the depletion ...

  19. 78 FR 45271 - Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... COMMISSION Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam Determination On the... injured by reason of imports from Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of welded stainless steel pressure pipe... the Department of Commerce (Commerce) of affirmative preliminary determinations in these...

  20. 78 FR 31574 - Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ...)] Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of Antidumping... materially retarded, by reason of imports from Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of welded stainless steel... value. Unless the Department of Commerce extends the time for initiation pursuant to section 732(c)(1)(B...

  1. 75 FR 54847 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand: Final Results and Partial Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ...--Antidumping Measure on Shrimp from Thailand: Notice of Determination Under Section 129 of the Uruguay Round...) Co., Ltd. Daiho (Thailand) Co., Ltd. Dynamic Intertransport Co., Ltd. Earth Food Manufacturing Co... Section 129 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act and Partial Revocation of the Antidumping Duty Order on...

  2. Land use change effects of oil palm expansion on ecosystem services in Tapi river basin, Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, K.; Hein, L.G.; Kroeze, C.; Jawjit, Warit

    2016-01-01

    The last decades have shown a strong increase in oil palm production in Thailand. This is increasingly leading to land conversion including loss of forest habitat. However the specific direct and indirect land use effects of oil palm expansion in Thailand are as yet insufficiently understood. We

  3. Uveitis in Thailand : emphasis on clinical patterns and novel developments in diagnostics using intraocular fluid analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pathanapitoon, K.

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis, we report on the so far unknown causes of uveitis in Thailand and describe their clinical manifestations. We found out that intraocular infections were the second most common cause of blindness and low vision in a tertiary center in northern Thailand. These infections predominantly

  4. 77 FR 19612 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ..., International Business ITC Ltd. Jagadeesh Marine Exports Jaya Satya Marine Exports Jaya Satya Marine Exports Pvt.... Gallant Ocean (Thailand) Co., Ltd. Gallant Seafoods Corporation Global Maharaja Co., Ltd. Golden Sea...., Ltd. Marine Gold Products Ltd. Merit Asia Foodstuff Co., Ltd. Merkur Co., Ltd. Ming Chao Ind Thailand...

  5. 76 FR 18157 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... subsidiaries are: Asia Pacific (Thailand) Company Ltd., Chaophraya Cold Storage Co., Ltd., Okeanos Co., Ltd... ITC Ltd ITC Limited, International Business Jagadeesh Marine Exports Jaya Satya Marine Exports Jaya... Ocean (Thailand) Co., Ltd Gallant Seafoods Corporation Global Maharaja Co., Ltd Golden Sea Frozen Foods...

  6. The Dynamics of Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-30

    interpreted and compared. Lectures on this work have been given by the PI at James Cook University in Townsville, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology Regional...continued to collaborate with Dr. Noel Davidson of the Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre (BMRC) to improve the Bureau’s Tropical Limited-Area Prediction...from the Tropical Cyclone Motion Experiment (TCM90), the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts, and the Australian Bureau of Meteorology (BoM

  7. Cyberdiversity: improving the informatic value of diverse tropical arthropod inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jeremy A; Miller, Joshua H; Pham, Dinh-Sac; Beentjes, Kevin K

    2014-01-01

    In an era of biodiversity crisis, arthropods have great potential to inform conservation assessment and test hypotheses about community assembly. This is because their relatively narrow geographic distributions and high diversity offer high-resolution data on landscape-scale patterns of biodiversity. However, a major impediment to the more widespread application of arthropod data to a range of scientific and policy questions is the poor state of modern arthropod taxonomy, especially in the tropics. Inventories of spiders and other megadiverse arthropods from tropical forests are dominated by undescribed species. Such studies typically organize their data using morphospecies codes, which make it difficult for data from independent inventories to be compared and combined. To combat this shortcoming, we offer cyberdiversity, an online community-based approach for reconciling results of independent inventory studies where current taxonomic knowledge is incomplete. Participating scientists can upload images and DNA barcode sequences to dedicated databases and submit occurrence data and links to a web site (www.digitalSpiders.org). Taxonomic determinations can be shared with a crowdsourcing comments feature, and researchers can discover specimens of interest available for loan and request aliquots of genomic DNA extract. To demonstrate the value of the cyberdiversity framework, we reconcile data from three rapid structured inventories of spiders conducted in Vietnam with an independent inventory (Doi Inthanon, Thailand) using online image libraries. Species richness and inventory completeness were assessed using non-parametric estimators. Community similarity was evaluated using a novel index based on the Jaccard replacing observed with estimated values to correct for unobserved species. We use a distance-decay framework to demonstrate a rudimentary model of landscape-scale changes in community composition that will become increasingly informative as additional

  8. Genetic characterization of measles viruses that circulated in Thailand from 1998 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattamadilok, Sirima; Incomserb, Patcha; Primsirikunawut, Athiwat; Lukebua, Atchariya; Rota, Paul A; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom

    2012-05-01

    During the period between 1998 and 2008, 48 representative measles viruses (MeVs) circulating in Thailand were subjected to genetic characterization. Three genotypes, G2, D5, and D9 were detected. The results suggested that measles genotype D5, which has been circulating since at least 1998, is the endemic genotype in Thailand. Genotype G2 was detected between 1998 and 2001. In addition, almost all of the MeVs detected throughout the country in 2008 were genotype D9. This is the first report of genotype D9 in Thailand. This report provides important baseline data about measles genotypes in Thailand and this information will be needed to help verify measles elimination in Thailand. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. An integrated lab-on-chip for rapid identification and simultaneous differentiation of tropical pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jeslin J L; Capozzoli, Monica; Sato, Mitsuharu; Watthanaworawit, Wanitda; Ling, Clare L; Mauduit, Marjorie; Malleret, Benoît; Grüner, Anne-Charlotte; Tan, Rosemary; Nosten, François H; Snounou, Georges; Rénia, Laurent; Ng, Lisa F P

    2014-01-01

    Tropical pathogens often cause febrile illnesses in humans and are responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality. The similarities in clinical symptoms provoked by these pathogens make diagnosis difficult. Thus, early, rapid and accurate diagnosis will be crucial in patient management and in the control of these diseases. In this study, a microfluidic lab-on-chip integrating multiplex molecular amplification and DNA microarray hybridization was developed for simultaneous detection and species differentiation of 26 globally important tropical pathogens. The analytical performance of the lab-on-chip for each pathogen ranged from 102 to 103 DNA or RNA copies. Assay performance was further verified with human whole blood spiked with Plasmodium falciparum and Chikungunya virus that yielded a range of detection from 200 to 4×105 parasites, and from 250 to 4×107 PFU respectively. This lab-on-chip was subsequently assessed and evaluated using 170 retrospective patient specimens in Singapore and Thailand. The lab-on-chip had a detection sensitivity of 83.1% and a specificity of 100% for P. falciparum; a sensitivity of 91.3% and a specificity of 99.3% for P. vivax; a positive 90.0% agreement and a specificity of 100% for Chikungunya virus; and a positive 85.0% agreement and a specificity of 100% for Dengue virus serotype 3 with reference methods conducted on the samples. Results suggested the practicality of an amplification microarray-based approach in a field setting for high-throughput detection and identification of tropical pathogens.

  10. Protozoan enteric infection in AIDS related diarrhea in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waywa, D; Kongkriengdaj, S; Chaidatch, S; Tiengrim, S; Kowadisaiburana, B; Chaikachonpat, S; Suwanagool, S; Chaiprasert, A; Curry, A; Bailey, W; Suputtamongkol, Y; Beeching, N J

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of enteric protozoa and other pathogens in AIDS patients with diarrhea in Bangkok, Thailand. Of 288 consecutive patients screened in the 10 month period between November 1999-August 2000 inclusive, 55 (19.2%) had Cryptosporidium spp, 13 (4.5%) had Isospora oocyst, 11 (3.8%) had Giardia lamblia, 3 (0.9%) had Entamoeba histolytica, and 1 (0.3%) had Iodamoeba butschlii infection. The prevalence of microsporidia was 11% in this study. Of 251 patients for whom stool culture for bacteria was performed, enteric bacterial pathogens isolated were Campylobacter spp in 18 (7.1%), Salmonella spp in 11 (4.3%), and Shigella spp in 1 (0.5%). Other pathogens found in these patients were Clostridium difficile in 16/102 (15.6%). Mycobacterium spp in 18/287 (6.2%), and Strongyloides stercoralis in 23/288 (8.0%). Overall, parasitic and bacterial pathogens were identified in 140 (48.6%) patients. These pathogens were identified by the routine simple wet smear technique in 32, formalin-ether concentration method in 46, culture for S. stercoralis in 5, and culture for bacteria in 30. Additional test, using modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining, identified cryptosporidial oocyst, isospora oocyst, and Mycobacterium spp in 72. The microsporidia, initially identified by modified trichrome blue staining, all were then determined to be Enterocytozoon bieneusi by thin sectioning electron microscopy. Protozoan and bacterial pathogens were confirmed to be important etiologic agents in diarrhea in AIDS in Thailand. They were all associated with increased mortality. Routine stool examination by simple wet smear detected only one-fourth of these pathogens. Therefore all diagnostic techniques for these organisms should be made more widely available in Thailand.

  11. Pioneering renewable energy options: Thailand takes up the challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-15

    Thailand’s support policies for renewable energy (RE) in the power sector have allowed individual small projects to add up to something substantial, attracting more investment and leading to faster growth in the sector than in most other Asian nations. Thai energy policy is complex, and the development of RE has not been without controversy. While this paper provides some elements of the context, it cannot cover all aspects of Thai energy policy. Instead it focuses on identifying factors that can explain the relative success of Thai policies and highlights some lessons for future development. Key messages include: Thailand was among the first countries in Asia to introduce incentive policies for the generation of electricity from renewable energy (RE) sources, leading to rapid growth, particularly in solar power; programmes for small and very small power producers created predictable conditions for RE investors to sell electricity to the grid. The 'Adder', a feed-in premium, guarantees higher rates for RE, making the investments profitable. Thailand also regularly updates technical regulations, provides preferential financing, and invests in research and training; civil society involvement strengthened and improved RE policies. In Thailand, outside expertise and links to international networks brought in by civil society experts were crucial for the design and approval of the incentive measures; and, the Thai Government is now adapting its policies to take account of recent technological progress and market growth. It is considering a sophisticated feed-in tariff to better control costs, while continuing to offer an enabling environment for RE investments.

  12. Value Investing in the Stock Market of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo “Gerry” Alfonso Perez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Value investment and growth investment have attracted a large amount of research in recent decades, but most of this research focuses on the U.S. and Europe. This article covers the Thai stock market which has very different characteristics compared to western markets and even South East Asian countries such as Indonesia or Malaysia. Among South East Asian countries, Thailand has one of the most dynamic capital markets. In order to see if some well-known trends in other markets exist in Thailand the performance of value and growth stocks in the Thai market were analyzed for a period of 17 years using existing style indexes (MSCI as well as creating portfolios using individual stocks. For this entire period, when using the indexes, returns are statistically significant superior for value stocks compared to growth stocks. However, when analyzing the performance of the market in any given calendar year from 1999 to 2016, the results are much more mixed with in fact growth stocks outperforming in several of those years. Interestingly, when building portfolios using criteria such as low P/E or low P/B the results are not statistically different. Suggesting perhaps that the classification into value or growth stocks is more complex than it would appear. One of the common assumptions of value investing is that those stocks outperform over long periods of time. It might well be that in the Thai case one year is not a long enough period for value stocks to outperform. While there have been some clear efforts over recent years to modernize the stock market of Thailand, it remains relatively underdeveloped, particularly when compared to markets such as the U.S. Hence, its behavior regarding value versus growth investment might be rather different.

  13. Modeling the hepatitis A epidemiological transition in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Effelterre, Thierry; Marano, Cinzia; Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    2016-01-20

    In most low- and middle-income countries, hepatitis A virus (HAV) is shifting or expected to shift from high endemicity to intermediate or low endemicity. A decreased risk of HAV infection will cause an increase in the average age at infection and will therefore increase the proportion of infections that results in severe disease. Mathematical models can provide insights into the factors contributing to this epidemiological transition. An MSLIR compartmental dynamic transmission model stratified by age and setting (rural and urban) was developed and calibrated with demographic, environmental, and epidemiological data from Thailand. HAV transmission was modeled as a function of urbanization and access to clean drinking water. The model was used to project various epidemiological measures. The age at midpoint of population immunity remains considerably younger in rural areas than in urban areas. The mean age of symptomatic hepatitis A infection in Thailand has shifted from childhood toward early adulthood in rural areas and is transitioning from early adulthood toward middle adulthood in urban areas. The model showed a significant decrease in incidence rates of total and symptomatic infections in rural and urban settings in Thailand over the past several decades as water access has increased, although the overall incidence rate of symptomatic HAV is projected to slightly increase in the coming decades. Modeling the relationship between water, urbanization, and HAV endemicity is a novel approach in the estimation of HAV epidemiological trends and future projections. This approach provides insights about the shifting HAV epidemiology and could be used to evaluate the public health impact of vaccination and other interventions in a diversity of settings. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Nurses’ Caring Behaviors for Dying Patients in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuleeporn Prompahakul

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, the end-of-life care becomes an indicator of the quality of care in a hospital. However, current nursing standards and quality of care related to the end of life do not meet the desired expectations of both dying patients and their families. Therefore, caring behaviors of nurses need to be described.Purpose: The purpose of this descriptive research was to describe the level of nurses’ caring behaviors for dying patients in southern Thailand. Method: Proportionate stratified random sampling was used to select 360 registered nurses who had been working in general hospitals and regional/university hospitals in southern Thailand for at least one year. Instruments used in the study included the Demographic Data Questionnaire (DDQ and the Nurse’s Caring Behavior for Dying Patients Questionnaire (NCBDQ. The questionnaires were content validated by three experts. The reliability of the NCBDQ was tested with 30 nurses yielding a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of .97. The data were analyzed by using frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation.Results: The level of nurses’ caring behaviors for dying patients was high (M = 2.12, SD = .43. The five dimensions of the nurses' caring behaviors including compassion, confidence, conscience, commitment and comportment were also at a high level. However, the competence dimension was at a moderate level (M = 1.82, SD = .51. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that nurses perceived themselves as having a moderate level of competency in taking care of dying patients. Therefore, educational intervention on enhancing nurses’ competency for end of life care is recommended. In addition, factors relating to nurses’ caring behavior for dying patients should be further explored.Keywords: caring behaviors, dying patients, nurses, southern Thailand

  15. Modifying homes for persons with physical disabilities in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongsiri, Sirinart; Ploylearmsang, Chanuttha; Hawsutisima, Katanyu; Riewpaiboon, Wachara; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj

    2017-02-01

    Thailand passed the Persons with Disabilities Empowerment Act in 2007. The Act, which is in compliance with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, ensures that registered persons with disabilities are entitled to home environment modifications' benefits up to a maximum of 20 000 baht (670 United States dollars); however, the Act's enforcement is still weak in Thailand. In 2013, researchers developed a home modification programme, consisting of a multidisciplinary team of medical and nonmedical practitioners and volunteers, to modify homes for persons with disabilities. The programme recruited participants with physical disabilities and assessed their functioning difficulties. Participants' homes were modified to address identified functioning difficulties. The project was implemented in four provinces in collaboration with staff from 27 district hospitals located in north-eastern Thailand. After the home modifications, all 43 recruited participants reported reduced difficulties in all areas, except for participants with severe degrees of difficulties, such as those reporting being unable to walk and unable to get up from the floor. The participants' quality of life had also improved. The average EQ-5D-5L score, measuring quality of life, increased by 0.203 - from 0.346 at baseline to 0.549 after the modifications. Home modifications in low-resourced settings are technically and financially feasible and can lead to reducing functioning difficulties and improving the quality of life of persons with disabilities. Implementation requires government subsidies to finance home modifications and the availability of technical guidelines and training on home modifications for implementing agents.

  16. Pattani central mosque in Southern Thailand as sanctuary from violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Ridwan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the real quality of  Pattani Central Mosque to depict another picture of mosques in southern Thailand that has been alleged as an arena for the spreading of Islamic radical ideas and the recruiting of young people into ‘martyrs’ against the Thai Government. It is not doubted, the 2004 Kru-ze Mosque incident reflects the failure of places of worship as a‘sanctuary from violence’. Consequently, there are questions about the kind of practices taking place in Islamic teaching, mosque management, and the views held by mosque stakeholders (Imam, the preachers, and congregation toward good governance, human rights and the anticipation of radicalism given the current situation in Pattani. In sum,  Pattani Central Mosque instead seems to be composed of a fairly equal mixture of moderate and more conservative believers rather than those with radical and extreme tendencies.   Artikel ini mendeskripsikan kualitas yang nyata dari Masjid Raya Pattani untuk mengilustrasikan gambaran lain tentang masjid-masjid di Thailand Selatan yang disinyalir sebagai arena penyebaran ide-ide Islam radikal dan rekruitmen orang–orang muda sebagai “martir” melawan Pemerintah Thailand. Tidak terbantahkan, insiden Masjid Kru-ze tahun 2004 merefleksikan kegagalan tempat-tempat ibadah sebagai ‘sanctuary from violence’. Akibatnya, terdapat sejumlah pertanyaan mengenai jenis-jenis praktik pengajaran, manajemen masjid dan pandangan dari para pengelola/takmir masjid (Imam, juru dakwah, and jemaah terhadap pemerintahan yang baik, hak asasi manusia dan antisipasi atas radikalisme di Pattani dewasa ini. Sebagai kesimpulan, Masjid Raya Pattani tampaknya lebih terbentuk oleh gabungan para pengikut yang moderat dan lebih konservatif dibandingkan mereka yang memiliki tendensi-tendensi radikal dan ekstrem.

  17. Fungal diversity on fallen leaves of Ficus in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Kai; Hyde, Kevin D; Soytong, Kasem; Lin, Fu-Cheng

    2008-10-01

    Fallen leaves of Ficus altissima, F. virens, F. benjamina, F. fistulosa and F. semicordata, were collected in Chiang Mai Province in northern Thailand and examined for fungi. Eighty taxa were identified, comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. Common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency of occurrence were Beltraniella nilgirica, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Ophioceras leptosporum, Periconia byssoides and Septonema harknessi. Colletotrichum and Stachybotrys were also common genera. The leaves of different Ficus species supported diverse fungal taxa, and the fungal assemblages on the different hosts showed varying overlap. The fungal diversity of saprobes at the host species level is discussed.

  18. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus across Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponlawat, Alongkot; Scott, Jeffrey G; Harrington, Laura C

    2005-09-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse), two important vectors of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever, were collected from Mae Sot, Nakhon Sawan, Nakhon Ratchasima, Surat Thani, and Phatthalung, Thailand, from July 2003 to April 2004. The patterns of insecticide susceptibility to temephos, malathion, and permethrin of both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus larvae were determined. Ae. aegypti from all study sites were resistant to permethrin, they but were susceptible to malathion. Resistance to temephos was detected in all strains of Ae. aegypti, except those from Nakhon Ratchasima. Ae. albopictus larvae had low levels of resistance to all three insecticides, except Mae Sot and Phatthalung strains, which were resistant to permethrin.

  19. Parasites of larval black flies (Diptera: Simuliidae in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanae Jitklang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Parasites of larval black flies are reported for the first time from Thailand, including mermithid nematodes(Mermithidae, microsporidian fungi (Zygomycota, and the fungus Coelomycidium simulii Debaisieux (Blastocladiomycetes.The following nine species of black flies were infected with one or more parasites: Simulium asakoae, S. chamlongi,S. chiangmaiense, S. fenestratum, S. feuerborni, S. nakhonense, S. nodosum, S. quinquestriatum, and S. tani. The prevalenceof patent infections per host species per season was 0.1–7.1% for mermithids, 0.1–6.0% for microsporidia, and 0.1–3.0% forC. simulii.

  20. PENGELOLAAN PENELITIAN DAN PENGEMBANGAN KESEHATAN DI THAILAND, MYANMAR, DAN INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anorital, SKM Anorital, SKM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Dalam bulan Januari 1991 yang lalu, Sdr. Anorital, SKM (Ka. Subbag. Pengumpulan dan PengolahanData Badan Litbangkes dan H. Syafwani Mirin, SKM (Ka. Bag. Keuangan Badan Litbangkes memperoleh fellowship dari WHO untuk melakukan studi perbandingan ke institusi-institusi penelitian kesehatan di Thailand,Myanmar, dan India.Berikut di bawah ini tulisan bersangkutan yang menggambarkan secara garis besar pengelolaan penelitian dan pengembangan kesehatan pada masing-masing negara obyek studi. Semoga informasi yang terkandung pada tulisan ini dapat bermanfaat bagi pengembangan Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan.

  1. Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-infected women in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Asavapiriyanont, Suvanna; Lolekha, Rangsima; Roongpisuthipong, Anuvat; Wiratchai, Amornpan; Kaoiean, Surasak; Suksripanich, Orapin; Chalermchockcharoenkit, Amphan; Ausavapipit, Jaruensook; Srifeungfung, Somporn; Pattanasin, Sarika; Katz, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Data on sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevalence among HIV-infected women in Thailand are limited. We studied, among HIV-infected women, prevalence of STI symptoms and signs; prevalence and correlates of having any STI; prevalence and correlates of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) or Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC) among women without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs; and number of women without CT and/or GC symptoms or signs needed to screen (NNS) to detect one woman with CT and/or GC ...

  2. Lessons Learned from Applying Safety Culture Maturity Model in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Bordin Vongvitayapirom; Punnamee Sachakamol; Hanna Kropsu-Vehkapera; Pekka Kess

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper it to provide practitioner and researcher lessons learned from applying a safety culture maturity model in the oil and gas industry in Thailand. It proposes a roadmap to improve safety culture maturity in an organization. Design/methodology/approach – A safety culture maturity of 5 levels was chosen (Hudson’s model) to be applied in oil and gas company, and a questionnaire survey was conducted with 2,251 employees or 74% of the target group across the compa...

  3. Material research for environmental sustainability in Thailand: current trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranatlumpong, Panadda; Ramangul, Nudjarin; Dulyaprapan, Pongsak; Nivitchanyong, Siriluck; Udomkitdecha, Werasak

    2015-06-01

    This article covers recent developments of material research in Thailand with a focus on environmental sustainability. Data on Thailand’s consumption and economic growth are briefly discussed to present a relevant snapshot of its economy. A selection of research work is classified into three topics, namely, (a) resource utilization, (b) material engineering and manufacturing, and (c) life cycle efficiency. Material technologies have been developed and implemented to reduce the consumption of materials, energy, and other valuable resources, thus reducing the burden we place on our ecological system. At the same time, product life cycle study allows us to understand the extent of the environmental impact we impart to our planet.

  4. Preliminary assessment of land–air energy transfers in tropical forest and agro-ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arika Bridhikitti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to show preliminary results of meteorology and surface energy transfers in tropical forests and agroecosystems and their associations with vegetation canopy and soil water content. Field observations were conducted at the selected vegetation sites and adjacent sparse vegetation sites in the Northeast of Thailand from the summer season to early rainy season. The study results showed that diurnal variations on spatial soil temperature gradient between bare soil and vegetation soil was significant but not much for air temperature and humidity. Influenced by season and cropping cycle, soil water content (SWC could induce greater spatial air temperature and humidity differences and moderated the spatial soil temperature gradient. Among various vegetation covers, diurnal patterns on energy transfers and associations between SWC and latent heat were clearly different and they suggest substantial microclimate changes associated with the conversion of forests into croplands.

  5. Climatic-Induced Shifts in the Distribution of Teak ( Tectona grandis) in Tropical Asia: Implications for Forest Management and Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Jiban Chandra; Phinn, Stuart; Butt, Nathalie; McAlpine, Clive A.

    2017-09-01

    Modelling the future suitable climate space for tree species has become a widely used tool for forest management planning under global climate change. Teak ( Tectona grandis) is one of the most valuable tropical hardwood species in the international timber market, and natural teak forests are distributed from India through Myanmar, Laos and Thailand. The extents of teak forests are shrinking due to deforestation and the local impacts of global climate change. However, the direct impacts of climate changes on the continental-scale distributions of native and non-native teak have not been examined. In this study, we developed a species distribution model for teak across its entire native distribution in tropical Asia, and its non-native distribution in Bangladesh. We used presence-only records of trees and twelve environmental variables that were most representative for current teak distributions in South and Southeast Asia. MaxEnt (maximum entropy) models were used to model the distributions of teak under current and future climate scenarios. We found that land use/land cover change and elevation were the two most important variables explaining the current and future distributions of native and non-native teak in tropical Asia. Changes in annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality and annual mean actual evapotranspiration may result in shifts in the distributions of teak across tropical Asia. We discuss the implications for the conservation of critical teak habitats, forest management planning, and risks of biological invasion that may occur due to its cultivation in non-native ranges.

  6. Maize, tropical (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assem, Shireen K

    2015-01-01

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is the third most important food crop globally after wheat and rice. In sub-Saharan Africa, tropical maize has traditionally been the main staple of the diet; 95 % of the maize grown is consumed directly as human food and as an important source of income for the resource-poor rural population. The biotechnological approach to engineer biotic and abiotic traits implies the availability of an efficient plant transformation method. The production of genetically transformed plants depends both on the ability to integrate foreign genes into target cells and the efficiency with which plants are regenerated. Maize transformation and regeneration through immature embryo culture is the most efficient system to regenerate normal transgenic plants. However, this system is highly genotype dependent. Genotypes adapted to tropic areas are difficult to regenerate. Therefore, transformation methods used with model genotypes adapted to temperate areas are not necessarily efficient with tropical lines. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation is the method of choice since it has been first achieved in 1996. In this report, we describe a transformation method used successfully with several tropical maize lines. All the steps of transformation and regeneration are described in details. This protocol can be used with a wide variety of tropical lines. However, some modifications may be needed with recalcitrant lines.

  7. Displacement and disease: The Shan exodus and infectious disease implications for Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwanvanichkij Voravit

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Decades of neglect and abuses by the Burmese government have decimated the health of the peoples of Burma, particularly along her eastern frontiers, overwhelmingly populated by ethnic minorities such as the Shan. Vast areas of traditional Shan homelands have been systematically depopulated by the Burmese military regime as part of its counter-insurgency policy, which also employs widespread abuses of civilians by Burmese soldiers, including rape, torture, and extrajudicial executions. These abuses, coupled with Burmese government economic mismanagement which has further entrenched already pervasive poverty in rural Burma, have spawned a humanitarian catastrophe, forcing hundreds of thousands of ethnic Shan villagers to flee their homes for Thailand. In Thailand, they are denied refugee status and its legal protections, living at constant risk for arrest and deportation. Classified as "economic migrants," many are forced to work in exploitative conditions, including in the Thai sex industry, and Shan migrants often lack access to basic health services in Thailand. Available health data on Shan migrants in Thailand already indicates that this population bears a disproportionately high burden of infectious diseases, particularly HIV, tuberculosis, lymphatic filariasis, and some vaccine-preventable illnesses, undermining progress made by Thailand's public health system in controlling such entities. The ongoing failure to address the root political causes of migration and poor health in eastern Burma, coupled with the many barriers to accessing health programs in Thailand by undocumented migrants, particularly the Shan, virtually guarantees Thailand's inability to sustainably control many infectious disease entities, especially along her borders with Burma.

  8. The Development of Sex Reassignment Surgery in Thailand: A Social Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokrungvaranont, Prayuth; Jindarak, Sirachai; Angspatt, Apichai; Pungrasmi, Pornthep; Suwajo, Poonpismai; Tiewtranon, Preecha

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of gender reassignment in Thailand during the period of 1975–2012, in terms of social attitude, epidemiology, surgical patients' profile, law and regulation, religion, and patients' path from psychiatric assessment to surgery. Thailand healthcare for transsexual patients is described. Figures related to the number of sex reassignment surgeries performed in Thailand over the past 30 years are reported. Transsexual individuals are only apparently integrated within the Thail society: the law system of Thailand in fact, does not guarantee to transsexuals the same rights as in other Western countries; the governmental healthcare does not offer free treatments for transsexual patients. In favor of the transsexual healthcare, instead, the Medical Council of Thailand recently published a policy entitled “Criteria for the treatment of sex change, Census 2009.” The goal of this policy was to improve the care of transsexual patients in Thailand, by implementing the Standards of Care of the World Professional Association of Transgender Health. Currently, in Thailand, there are 6 major private groups performing sex reassignment surgery, and mostly performing surgery to patients coming from abroad. Particularly, the largest of these (Preecha's group) has performed nearly 3000 vaginoplasties for male-to-female transsexuals in the last 30 years. PMID:24772010

  9. The Development of Sex Reassignment Surgery in Thailand: A Social Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prayuth Chokrungvaranont

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the development of gender reassignment in Thailand during the period of 1975–2012, in terms of social attitude, epidemiology, surgical patients’ profile, law and regulation, religion, and patients’ path from psychiatric assessment to surgery. Thailand healthcare for transsexual patients is described. Figures related to the number of sex reassignment surgeries performed in Thailand over the past 30 years are reported. Transsexual individuals are only apparently integrated within the Thail society: the law system of Thailand in fact, does not guarantee to transsexuals the same rights as in other Western countries; the governmental healthcare does not offer free treatments for transsexual patients. In favor of the transsexual healthcare, instead, the Medical Council of Thailand recently published a policy entitled “Criteria for the treatment of sex change, Census 2009.” The goal of this policy was to improve the care of transsexual patients in Thailand, by implementing the Standards of Care of the World Professional Association of Transgender Health. Currently, in Thailand, there are 6 major private groups performing sex reassignment surgery, and mostly performing surgery to patients coming from abroad. Particularly, the largest of these (Preecha’s group has performed nearly 3000 vaginoplasties for male-to-female transsexuals in the last 30 years.

  10. Orthogonius species and diversity in Thailand (Coleoptera, Caraboidea, Orthogoniini), a result from the TIGER project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mingyi; Deuve, Thierry; Felix, Ron

    2012-01-01

    The carabid genus Orthogonius MacLeay is treated, based mainly on materials collected in Thailand through the TIGER project (the Thailand Inventory Group for Entomological Research). Among 290 specimens, 20 species are identified in total, 10 of them are new species: Orthogonius taghavianaesp. n. (Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park), Orthogonius coomanioidessp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius similarissp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Loei: Phu Kradueng National Park), Orthogonius setosopalpigersp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius gracililamellasp. n. (Loei: Phu Kradueng National Park; Chaiyaphum: Tat Tone National Park), Orthogonius pseudochaudoirisp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park), Orthogonius constrictussp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius pinophilussp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius varisp. n. (Cambodia: Siem Reap; Thailand: Ubon Ratchathani: Pha Taem National Park; Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park) and Orthogonius variabilissp. n. (Thailand: Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park; Phetchabun: Nam Nao National Park; China: Yunnan). In addition, Orthogonius mouhoti Chaudoir, 1871 and Orthogonius kirirom Tian & Deuve, 2008 are recorded in Thailand for the first time. In total, 30 species of Orthogonius have been recorded from Thailand, indicating that Thailand holds one of the richest Orthogonius faunas in the world. A provisional key to all Thai species is provided. A majority of Thai Orthogonius species are endemic. Among the ten national parks in which orthogonine beetles were collected, Thung Salaeng Luang holds the richest fauna, including 16 species.

  11. Vietnamese Migrant Workers in Thailand - Implications for Leveraging Migration for Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy HUYEN NGUYEN

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A greater flow of people to and from each of the Mekong countries is catching the attention of the general public and academic researchers. As one of the fastest growing countries in the GMS, Thailand is attracting the majority of migrant workers from its neighbours. At a smaller scale, when compared with those from Lao PDR, Cambodia and Myanmar, Vietnamese workers are also joining this increasing trend in immigration to Thailand. By analyzing information from secondary data sources, this research paper attempts to provide further insights into the social and economic impacts generated by the Vietnamese migrant workers in Thailand both at home and the host country. The study discovers that moving to Thailand for work has eased the pressures of rural unemployment and underemployment that have plagued Vietnam recently. Meanwhile, Vietnamese workers are helping soothe the stress caused by the increasing demand for unskilled and low skilled labourers in Thailand. The study further learns that the long-established community of Vietnamese migrants in Thailand is encouraging the increasing movement of Vietnamese workers to Thailand. The study findings suggest meaningful implications for future policies in leveraging labour migration for development.

  12. An Update on Ethanol Production and Utilization in Thailand, 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloyd, Cary N.; Foster, Nikolas A.F.

    2014-09-01

    In spite of the recent political turmoil, Thailand has continued to develop its ethanol based alternative fuel supply and demand infrastructure. Its support of production and sales of ethanol contributed to more than doubling the production over the past five years alone. In April 2014, average consumption stood at 3.18 million liter per day- more than a third on its way to its domestic consumption goal of 9 million liters per day by 2021. Strong government incentives and the phasing out of non-blended gasoline contributed substantially. Concurrently, exports dropped significantly to their lowest level since 2011, increasing the pressure on Thai policy makers to best balance energy independency goals with other priorities, such as Thailand’s trade balance and environmental aspirations. Utilization of second generation biofuels might have the potential to further expand Thailand’s growing ethanol market. Thailand has also dramatically increased its higher ethanol blend vehicle fleet, with all new vehicles sold in the Thai market now being E20 capable and the number of E85 vehicles increasing three fold in the last year from 100,000 in 2013 to 300,000 in 2014.

  13. Deadly serious humour for the "go-go girls". Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, M

    1989-12-01

    13,600 people had been officially reported by 1989 as being infected with HIV in Thailand. Unofficial government projections, however, suggest that the true extent of HIV infection was closer to 30,000 cases, and that more than one million people will be infected by 1994. Thousands of tourists visit Thailand annually in search of sex. Empower is an association established in 1985 to help the estimated 4000 women who work in Patpong's bars and brothels. Empower produces the Honeybee Cabaret, performers who enact a series of comedy skits on safer sex targeted to go-go dancers, as part of its efforts against AIDS. Almost twenty shows have been staged throughout Patpong over the past four years with the goal of helping the female audience and their customers to overcome shyness in discussing and practicing safer sex. Responses vary. It is unfortunate that female prostitutes who insist that their customers use condoms are typically beaten by their clients and later by the brothel or bar owner. Customers and bar owners must be taught about the need to use condoms. Empower also runs a center located five minutes by foot from Patpong where the bar workers can obtain information on AIDS and other STDs through videos, counseling, pamphlets, and discussion. Women with HIV or AIDS are referred for treatment and counseling to local doctors who guarantee confidentiality.

  14. Social sychiatric implications of population control in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanaphum, S

    1976-01-01

    Several knowledge, attitude, and practice surveys in Thailand have shown that a majority of married women do not want more children because of the economic and physical difficulty of raising the children already born; the ideal number of children was about 3.8. However, population growth in Thailand is about 3.4% annually, one of the highest rates in Asia. The findings that women, particularly younger women, are in favor of family planning is offset by lack of knowledge and fears of side effects. The psychological approach to the prediction of contraceptive behavior, as studied at the Carolina Population Center, shows that, regardless of the method of measurement, intention always emerged with the highest coefficient in discriminating contraceptive users from nonusers. Emotional barriers have been considered 1 of the significant factors in contraceptive use, especially excessive dependency needs and passive-aggressive character. Unwanted pregnancy can also contribute to poor mental health. Since unregulated fertility, poverty, overpopulation, premarital pregnancy, and illegitimacy seriously impair mental health, contraceptive services should be considered a legitimate part of psychiatry and mental health personnel should consider referrals for patients in need.

  15. Colon and rectum cancer in Thailand: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuhaprema, Thiravud; Srivatanakul, Petcharin

    2008-04-01

    Cancers of the colon and rectum are rare in developing countries, in contrast to the high incidence rates in countries of Europe, North America, Australia and Japan. Significant differences also exist within continents. Colorectal cancer mortality and incidence rates have decreased in the USA. However, the incidence in Japan and Thailand is rising, probably due to the acquisition of Western lifestyle. Incidence also increases with age: carcinomas are rare before the age of 40 years except in individuals with genetic predisposition or predisposing conditions. The incidence rate of colorectal cancer in Thailand is low when compared with other countries. It is the third in frequency in males after liver and bile duct and lung cancers, and the fifth after cancers of the cervix, breast, liver and bile duct and lung for females. The highest incidence for both sexes is seen in Bangkok. The number of cases of colorectal cancer in both sexes is increasing and will probably exceed that of lung cancer in the next decade. Thus, we are planning to have colorectal cancer screening programme. We should pay more attention on primary and secondary prevention to control colorectal cancer in Asian countries.

  16. Finding Hidden Location Patterns of Two Competitive Supermarkets in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumsri, Jinattaporn; Fujihara, Akihiro

    There are two famous supermarkets in Thailand: Big C and Lotus. They are the highest competitive supermarkets whose hold the most market share by lots of promotions and also gather all convenience services including banking, restaurant, and others. In recent years, they gradually expand their stores and they take a similar strategy to determine where to locate a store. It is important for them to consider store allocation to obtain new customers efficiently. To consider this, we gather geographical locations of these supermarkets from Twitter using Twitter API. We gathered tweets having these supermarket names and geotags for seven months. To extract hidden location patterns from gathered data, we introduce location motif which is a directed subgraph whose edges are linked to every pair of the shortest-distance opponent node. We investigate every possible configuration of location motif when they have a small number of nodes and find that the configuration increases exponentially. We also visualize location motifs generated from gathered data on the map of Thailand and count the frequency of observed location motifs. As a result, we find that even if the possible location motifs exponentially increase as the number of nodes grows, limited location motifs can be observed. Using location motif, we successfully find an evidence of biased store allocation in reality.

  17. Biological and molecular characterization of tospoviruses in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiemsombat, Pissawan; Gajanandana, Oraprapai; Warin, Nuchanard; Hongprayoon, Ratchanee; Bhunchoth, Anjana; Pongsapich, Preyapan

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-eight isolates of tospoviruses associated with tomato, pepper, cucurbits, peanut, and Physalis plants collected from fields in different regions of Thailand were characterized. On the basis of N gene and protein sequence relationships, three tospoviruses were identified, namely Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV), Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV), and Melon yellow spot virus (MYSV). CLUSTAL analysis of selected N protein sequences showed different isolates of CaCV in three distinct clades. Based on necrosis symptoms on tomato and their 93% identity to CaCV isolates in the other two clades, CaCV-TD8, CaCV-AIT and CaCV-KS16-Thailand tomato tospovirus were designated as CaCV-tomato necrosis strain. A phylogenetic tree based on the 413-amino-acid Gc fragment of the CaCV-Pkk isolate supported the existence of three distinct CaCV clades. Vigna unguiculata produced concentric rings useful for discriminating the Thai CaCV peanut isolates from tomato or pepper isolates. By using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction with species-specific primers, the three tospoviruses could be detected in mixed infections in watermelon and Physalis, as well as in the bodies of thrips vectors, Thrips palmi and Scirtothrips dorsalis, collected from fields.

  18. Space-Based Sensorweb Monitoring of Wildfires in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Steve; Doubleday, Joshua; Mclaren, David; Davies, Ashley; Tran, Daniel; Tanpipat, Veerachai; Akaakara, Siri; Ratanasuwan, Anuchit; Mandl, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We describe efforts to apply sensorweb technologies to the monitoring of forest fires in Thailand. In this approach, satellite data and ground reports are assimilated to assess the current state of the forest system in terms of forest fire risk, active fires, and likely progression of fires and smoke plumes. This current and projected assessment can then be used to actively direct sensors and assets to best acquire further information. This process operates continually with new data updating models of fire activity leading to further sensing and updating of models. As the fire activity is tracked, products such as active fire maps, burn scar severity maps, and alerts are automatically delivered to relevant parties.We describe the current state of the Thailand Fire Sensorweb which utilizes the MODIS-based FIRMS system to track active fires and trigger Earth Observing One / Advanced Land Imager to acquire imagery and produce active fire maps, burn scar severity maps, and alerts. We describe ongoing work to integrate additional sensor sources and generate additional products.

  19. Puffer fish poisoning: summary of case reports from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beuy Joob

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Puffer fish poisoning is a common seafood poisoning. The problem is due to tetradotoxin in puffy fish meat. It can be seen in many countries with seacoasts. The problem is resulted from tetradotoxin (TTX in puffer fish meat. This toxin is an important natural toxin. Here, the authors report summary of case reports from Thailand. The authors use standard search engines (PubMed and Thai Index Medicus for searching on the reports on puffer fish poisoning from Thailand. According to this work, there are at least 3 reports on 55 cases of puffer fish poisoning. All cases visit to the physician within 30 min. Focusing on severity, stage 1, 2, 3 and 4 can be seen in 16%, 8%, 4% and 72%, respectively. In the present report, the summary of the cases presenting to the physician at hospital is shown. Of interest, most patients have severe intoxication and the respirator failure is an important problem to be managed. It is clearly shown in the present report that if good respiratory support is done, the full recovery without problem can be derived. It is no doubt that there is no death case in the present series since the present report focuses on the cases that are successfully delivered to the hospital for management.

  20. History, research and practice of forensic anthropology in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traithepchanapai, Pongpon; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Kranioti, Elena F

    2016-04-01

    Forensic anthropology is an increasingly developing discipline born about a century ago in the United States with the objective to contribute the knowledge of bone biology and physical anthropology to the emerging needs of the court of law. The development of research in biological and forensic anthropology has made rapid progress worldwide in the past few years, however, in most countries--with the exception of the United States--forensic anthropology work is still considered within the duties of the forensic pathologist. This paper attempts to summarise the history and development of forensic anthropology in Thailand by providing information on past and current research and practice that can help forensic practitioners to apply existing methods in forensic cases and mass disasters. It is hoped that the lessons learned from the tsunami catastrophe and the emerging need for positive identification in medicolegal settings will lead to rapid advances in education, training and professional engagement of anthropologists from the forensic departments and the law enforcement agencies in Thailand. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mercury Exposure among Garbage Workers in Southern Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Objectives 1) To determine mercury levels in urine samples from garbage workers in Southern Thailand, and 2) to describe the association between work characteristics, work positions, behavioral factors, and acute symptoms; and levels of mercury in urine samples. Methods A case-control study was conducted by interviewing 60 workers in 5 hazardous-waste-management factories, and 60 matched non-exposed persons living in the same area of Southern Thailand. Urine samples were collected to determine mercury levels by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometer mercury analyzer. Results The hazardous-waste workers' urinary mercury levels (10.07 µg/g creatinine) were significantly higher than the control group (1.33 µg/g creatinine) (p model was constructed. Significant predictors of urinary mercury levels included hours worked per day, days worked per week, duration of work (years), work position, use of PPE (mask, trousers, and gloves), and personal hygiene behavior (ate snacks or drank water at work, washed hands before lunch, and washed hands after work). Conclusion Changing garbage workers' hygiene habits can reduce urinary mercury levels. Personal hygiene is important, and should be stressed in education programs. Employers should institute engineering controls to reduce urinary mercury levels among garbage workers. PMID:23251842

  2. Antimicrobial resistance: from global agenda to national strategic plan, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Sattayawutthipong, Wanchai; Kanjanapimai, Sukhum; Kanpravidth, Wantanee; Brown, Richard; Sommanustweechai, Angkana

    2017-08-01

    In Thailand, antimicrobial resistance has formed a small component of national drug policies and strategies on emerging infectious diseases. However, poor coordination and a lack of national goals and monitoring and evaluation platforms have reduced the effectiveness of the corresponding national actions. On the basis of local evidence and with the strong participation of relevant stakeholders, the first national strategic plan on antimicrobial resistance has been developed in Thailand. Before the development of the plan, ineffective coordination meant that antimicrobial resistance profiles produced at sentinel hospitals were not used effectively for clinical decision-making. There was no integrated system for the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance, no system for monitoring consumption of antimicrobial drugs by humans, livestock and pets and little public awareness of antimicrobial resistance. In August 2016, the Thai government endorsed a national strategic plan on antimicrobial resistance that comprised six strategic actions and five targets. A national steering committee guides the plan's implementation and a module to assess the prevalence of household antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance awareness has been embedded into the biennial national health survey. A national system for the surveillance of antimicrobial consumption has also been initiated. Strong political commitment, national ownership and adequate multisectoral institutional capacities will be essential for the effective implementation of the national plan. A robust monitoring and evaluation platform now contributes to evidence-based interventions. An integrated system for the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance still needs to be established.

  3. Regional Rapid Growth in Cities and Urbanization in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanadorn Phuttharak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to investigate the driving forces affecting regional rapid growth in Thailand, along with its impact, to understand the dynamics of urbanization and how it affects cities. The study selected UdonThani Province, Thailand, as a case study. This study collected data from academic and semi-academic documents, semi-structured interviews, participatory and non-participatory observations, and group discussion. The informants were residents within municipalities, government, and private officers related to city development, and NGOs. The results found that the driving forces affecting regional rapid growth in UdonThani province include: 1 historic events from World War II to the Cold War; 2 events during the Vietnam War; 3 Capitalist policies; and 4 the establishment of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC. The study also found impacts of regional rapid growth in UdonThani province including 1 land use change; 2 economic and societal change; 3 road and traffic problems; and 4 waste disposal problems.

  4. Internal structure of event layers preserved on the Andaman Sea continental shelf, Thailand: tsunami vs. storm and flash flood deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuna-Schwartz, D.; Feldens, P.; Schwarzer, K.; Khokiattiwong, S.; Stattegger, K.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunami, storm and flash event layers, which have been deposited over the last century on the shelf offshore from Khao Lak (Thailand, Andaman Sea), are identified in sediment cores based on sedimentary structures, grain size compositions, Ti / Ca ratios and 210Pb activity. Individual offshore tsunami deposits are 12 to 30 cm in thickness and originate from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. They are characterized by (1) the appearance of sand layers enriched in shells and shell debris, (2) cross lamination and (3) the appearance of rip-up clasts. Storm deposits found in core depths between 5 and 82 cm could be attributed to individual storm events by using 210Pb dating in conjunction with historical data of typhoons and tropical storms and could thus be securely differentiated from tsunami deposits. Massive sand layers enriched in shells and shell debris characterize the storm deposits. The last classified type of event layer represents flash floods, which is characterized by a fining-upward sequence of muddy sediment. The most distinct difference between the storm and tsunami deposits is the lack of rip-up clasts, mud, and terrigenous material within the storm deposits. Terrigenous material transported offshore during the tsunami backwash is therefore an important indicator to distinguish between offshore storm and tsunami deposits.

  5. Fire and the production of Astraeus odoratus (Basidiomycetes sporocarps in deciduous dipterocarp-oak forests of northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keegan H. Kennedy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Astraeus (Diplocystidiaceae forms ectomycorrhizal associations with many tree species and is a common gasteromycete in tropical and temperate ecosystems worldwide. In Thailand, Astraeus is most prevalent in deciduous dipterocarp-oak forest (DOF in the north and north-east and its ecology is uniquely associated with fire. Rural villagers often burn the seasonally dry DOF ground vegetation causing significant environmental disturbance to promote the growth of Astraeus sporocraps—a local culinary delicacy and important source of household income. The purpose of this work is to investigate whether the practice of burning DOF stimulates the production of Astraeus sporocarps in DOF. Burned and unburned Astraeus habitat was surveyed over two years at two sites in Chiang Mai province and one site in Mae Hong Son province. Changes in soil fungi after a fire as well as vascular vegetation growing with Astraeus were studied. All sporocarps collected were identified as Astraeus odoratus. Astraeus sporocarps were found in both burned and unburned areas in 2010. In 2011, an unusually wet year, no sporocarps were found in burned or unburned areas. The top 2 cm of soil experienced high temperatures which killed fungi, but lower depths were well insulated from the heat. A wide range of vascular flora grew in Astraeus habitat, the most common tree species being Dipterocarpus tuberculatus var. tuberculatus and Dipterocarpus obtusifolius var. obtusifolius. This study shows that Astraeus can produce sporocarps without fire and future work can focus on more environmentally benign methods of harvesting this popular mushroom.

  6. Traveler's Diarrhea in Foreign Travelers in Southeast Asia: A Cross-Sectional Survey Study in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittitrakul, Chatporn; Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Kusolsuk, Teera; Olanwijitwong, Jutarmas; Tangkanakul, Waraluk; Piyaphanee, Watcharapong

    2015-09-01

    The effect of origin and destination country on traveler's diarrhea incidence rates in Southeast Asia is poorly understood, and research generally only addresses diarrhea in travelers from the developed world. This study evaluated the attack rate and effects of traveler's diarrhea by origin and destination and analyzed key risk factors. A self-administered questionnaire was provided to foreign travelers departing Southeast Asia from Suvarnabhumi Airport, Bangkok, Thailand. It evaluated traveler demographics, relevant knowledge and practices, experiences of diarrhea, and the details and consequences of each diarrheal episode. A total of 7,963 questionnaires were completed between April 2010 and July 2011. Respondents were 56% male (mean age 35) with a mean and median duration of stay of 28 days and 10 days, respectively. Most respondents were from Europe (36.8%) or East Asia (33.4%). The attack rate of traveler's diarrhea was 16.1%, with an incidence rate of 32.05 per 100 person months. Travelers' origin and destination countries significantly related to diarrhea risk. Oceanians had the highest risk (32.9%) and East Asians the lowest (2.6%). Vietnam and Indonesia were the highest risk destinations (19.3%). Other significant factors were youth, trip duration, number of countries visited, and frequently drinking beverages with ice. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  7. From comfort to kilowatts: An integrated assessment of electricity conservation in Thailand's commercial sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, J.F. Jr.

    1990-08-01

    Thailand serves as a case study of the potential to conserve electricity in the fast-growing commercial sectors of the tropical developing world. We performed a field study of over 1100 Thai office workers in which a questionnaire survey and simultaneous physical measurements were taken. Both air-conditioned and non-air-conditioned buildings were included. We analyzed Thai subjective responses on the ASHRAE, McIntyre and other rating scales, relating them to Effective Temperature, demographics, and to rational indices of warmth such as PMV and TSENS. These results suggest that without sacrificing comfort, significant energy conservation opportunities exist through the relaxation of upper space temperature limits. To investigate the potential for conserving energy in a cost-effective manner, we performed a series of parametric simulations using the DOE-2.1D computer program on three commercial building prototypes based on actual buildings in Bangkok; an office, a hotel, and a shopping center. We investigated a wide range of energy conservation measures appropriate for each building type, from architectural measures to HVAC equipment and control solutions. The best measures applied in combination into high efficiency cases can generate energy savings in excess of 50%. Economic analyses performed for the high efficiency cases, resulted in costs of conserved energy of less than and internal rates of return in excess of 40%. Thermal cool storage, cogeneration, and gas cooling technology showed promise as cost-effective electric load management strategies.

  8. Temperate and Tropical Plant Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2015-01-01

    increased that trend, requiring more specimens to allow the study of variation both within and between species. During the 19th and the 20th centuries larger botanical gardens and large public herbaria with tropical plants developed in European countries, particularly in countries with tropical colonies......The first botanical gardens and collections of preserved plants in the 16th century served didactic purposes and should ensure correct identification of medicinal, ornamental and other useful plants. Collections of preserved plants were nearly all book-herbaria, emulating illustrated books...... by easier travelling and growing interest in exploring the World’s biodiversity. New trends in the 21st century included a wider focus than the study of taxonomy and plant geography: for example conservation and climate change. Many factors may influence the future of tropical plant collections...

  9. Adrenaline and tropical pulmonary eosinophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, R K; Singh, H K; Sinha, R K; Saran, R

    1976-01-01

    Injections of adrenaline produced an immediate rise in peripheral absolute eosinophil count in cases of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia, but a fall or no change in other conditions with similar clinical manifestations. A similar early eosinophilic effect was noted in control guinea pigs as well as in Ascaris larvae-fed guinea pigs. The effect of adrenaline on eosinophil counts in cases of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia was not paralled by effects on total erythrocyte or leucocyte counts or on packed cell volumes. The early eosinophilic effects of adrenaline in guinea pigs was blocked by pehntolamine but no be propranalol. Adrenaline-induced changes on eosinophil counts may be used as a disgnostic test of tropical pulmonary eosinophilia.

  10. Thailand's energy security: Strategic Petroleum Reserve and its economic impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leesombatpiboon, Poonpat

    This dissertation studies Thailand's energy security from three related perspectives, the role of oil on the Thai macroeconomy, the sectoral demand for oil in Thailand, and the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) policy for the Thai economy. The first part of my dissertation estimates an error correction model of aggregate production function for Thailand. Thai economic growth is modeled as a function of labor, capital, and oil consumption. Unlike previous studies that focus on testing the causal relationship between energy consumption and economic growth, I focus on measuring the elasticity of economic growth with respect to oil consumption and oil prices. I find a cointegration relationship between GDP, capital, labor, and oil consumption. The results suggest that there exists a constant-return-to-scale characteristic in Thailand's aggregate production function with the contribution of labor, oil, and capital to output around 68, 19, and 13 percent respectively. The long-run and short-run contribution of oil consumption to the economy appears to be fairly close, suggesting that oil has a critical role in the Thai economy. In the short run, oil shortages have a much more severe impact on Thai economy than the effects of an oil price shock. For example, a 10 percent shortfall in oil consumption might cause economic growth to shrink by 2 percent within the same year while a sharp10 percent rise in oil prices canlead output growth to a fall by about 0.5 percent. The response of output to increases and decreases in oil prices is found to be asymmetric in the short run. The second part of my dissertation examines the short-run and long-run determinants of final oil consumption in seven major economic sectors in Thailand. Two different approaches are compared. The first approach uses dynamic panel data estimation techniques taking into account oil consumption of the whole economy in an aggregate manner. The second approach employs the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ADL

  11. Foreign bodies injuries in children: analysis of Thailand data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotigavanich, Chanticha; Ballali, Simonetta; Foltran, Francesca; Passali, Desiderio; Bellussi, Luisa; Gregori, Dario

    2012-05-14

    Suffocation due to foreign bodies (FB) is a leading cause of death in children aged 0-3 and it is common also in older ages, up to 14 years old. Based on the RPA report the estimated number of incidents per year in children aged 0-14 is in European Union (EU) of approximately 50,000, 10% of which are fatal. The need of an improvement of knowledge led to the development of the pan European study ESFBI (European Survey on Foreign Bodies Injuries) that collected data on FB injuries in the aerodigestive tract in paediatric patients from 19 European Hospitals (Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Greece, Italy, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Swiss, Turkey and United Kingdom). Recognizing that the rapid management is one of the main goals in the presence of such injury the aim of this paper is to confront data coming from 4 ESFBI case series with a Thailand's case series, in order to broaden the knowledge on FBs injuries characteristics, knowing that features like shape, dimension, consistency are fundamental in determine the consequences that might occur. Data coming from the Siriraj Hospital, Thailand from June 2006 to 2010 were collected and compared with 4 case series chosen amongst the ESFBI study cases (Finland, Slovenia, Sweden and Turkey). 172 cases were collected from the Siriraj Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand. The chosen ESFBI members were Finland, Sweden, Slovenia and Turkey, with a sample numerosity respectively of 307, 235, 104 and 196 cases. All countries showed a male prevalence higher than the female one, and injuries occurred most frequently in children younger than 3 years old. The most frequent retrieval location was the digestive system (oesophagus) in Thailand data (97 cases, 56.40% of cases), whilst European cases involved more frequently the nose in Slovenia (58.65%), Finland (37.79% of cases) and Sweden (54.47%). In Turkey's case series, the highest prevalence of cases interested the

  12. APR-2 Tropical Cyclone Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durden, S. L.; Tanelli, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Second Generation Airborne Precipitation Radar (APR-2) participated in the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment in August and September of 2010, collecting a large volume of data in several tropical systems, including Hurricanes Earl and Karl. Additional measurements of tropical cyclone have been made by APR-2 in experiments prior to GRIP (namely, CAMEX-4, NAMMA, TC4); Table 1 lists all the APR-2 tropical cyclone observations. The APR-2 observations consist of the vertical structure of rain reflectivity at 13.4 and 35.6 GHz, and at both co-polarization and crosspolarization, as well as vertical Doppler measurements and crosswind measurements. APR-2 normally flies on the NASA DC-8 aircraft, as in GRIP, collecting data with a downward looking, cross-track scanning geometry. The scan limits are 25 degrees on either side of the aircraft, resulting in a roughly 10-km swath, depending on the aircraft altitude. Details of the APR-2 observation geometry and performance can be found in Sadowy et al. (2003).The multiparameter nature of the APR-2 measurements makes the collection of tropical cyclone measurements valuable for detailed studies of the processes, microphysics and dynamics of tropical cyclones, as well as weaker systems that are associated with tropical cyclone formation. In this paper, we give a brief overview of how the APR-2 data are processed. We also discuss use of the APR-2 cross-track winds to estimate various quantities of interest in in studies of storm intensification. Finally, we show examples of the standard products and derived information.

  13. Tropical rain forest: a wider perspective

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldsmith, F. B

    1998-01-01

    .... Barbier -- Can non-market values save the tropical forests? / D. Pearce -- The role of policy and institutions / James Mayers and Stephen Bass -- Modelling tropical land use change and deforestation...

  14. Archives: Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 50 of 95 ... Archives: Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. Journal Home > Archives: Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  15. Archives: Tropical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 33 of 33 ... Archives: Tropical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Journal Home > Archives: Tropical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  16. Year 2001 Tropical Cyclones of the World

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Year 2001 Tropical Cyclones of the World poster. During calendar year 2001, fifty tropical cyclones with sustained surface winds of at least 64 knots were observed...

  17. 2003 Tropical Cyclones of the World

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Year 2003 Tropical Cyclones of the World poster. During calendar year 2003, fifty-one tropical cyclones with sustained surface winds of at least 64 knots were...

  18. Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. Instructions for Authors (Last Updated December 2012). STATEMENT OF SCOPE. The Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology (formerly Journal of Tropical Microbiology) publishes papers and critical reviews in Medical Microbiology, Plant pathology, Public Health, Industrial Microbiology, ...

  19. Year 2000 Tropical Cyclones of the World

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Year 2000 Tropical Cyclones of the World poster. During calendar year 2000, forty-five tropical cyclones with sustained surface winds of at least 64 knots were...

  20. Tree height and tropical forest biomass estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.O. Hunter; M. Keller; D. Vitoria; D.C. Morton

    2013-01-01

    Tropical forests account for approximately half of above-ground carbon stored in global vegetation. However, uncertainties in tropical forest carbon stocks remain high because it is costly and laborious to quantify standing carbon stocks. Carbon stocks of tropical forests are determined using allometric relations between tree stem diameter and height and biomass....

  1. Natural and near natural tropical forest values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel H. Henning

    2011-01-01

    This paper identifies and describes some of the values associated with tropical rain forests in their natural and near-natural conditions. Tropical rain forests are moist forests in the humid tropics where temperature and rainfall are high and the dry season is short. These closed (non-logged) and broad-leaved forests are a global resource. Located almost entirely in...

  2. Black Swan Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, K.; Lin, N.

    2012-12-01

    Virtually all assessments of tropical cyclone risk are based on historical records, which are limited to a few hundred years at most. Yet stronger TCs may occur in the future and at places that have not been affected historically. Such events lie outside the realm of historically based expectations and may have extreme impacts. Their occurrences are also often made explainable after the fact (e.g., Hurricane Katrina). We nickname such potential future TCs, characterized by rarity, extreme impact, and retrospective predictability, "black swans" (Nassim Nicholas Taleb, 2007). As, by definition, black swan TCs have yet to happen, statistical methods that solely rely on historical track data cannot predict their occurrence. Global climate models lack the capability to predict intense storms, even with a resolution as high as 14 km (Emanuel et al. 2010). Also, most dynamic downscaling methods (e.g., Bender et al. 2010) are still limited in horizontal resolution and are too expensive to implement to generate enough events to include rare ones. In this study, we apply a simpler statistical/deterministic hurricane model (Emanuel et al. 2006) to simulate large numbers of synthetic storms under a given (observed or projected) climate condition. The method has been shown to generate realistic extremes in various basins (Emanuel et al. 2008 and 2010). We also apply a hydrodynamic model (ADCIRC; Luettich et al. 1992) to simulate the storm surges generated by these storms. We then search for black swan TCs, in terms of the joint wind and surge damage potential, in the generated large databases. Heavy rainfall is another important TC hazard and will be considered in a future study. We focus on three areas: Tampa Bay in the U.S., the Persian Gulf, and Darwin in Australia. Tampa Bay is highly vulnerable to storm surge as it is surrounded by shallow water and low-lying lands, much of which may be inundated by a storm tide of 6 m. High surges are generated by storms with a broad

  3. Factors influencing piglet pre-weaning mortality in 47 commercial swine herds in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuntapaitoon, Morakot; Tummaruk, Padet

    2017-09-24

    The present study aims to determine the occurrence of piglet pre-weaning mortality in commercial swine herds in Thailand in relation to piglet, sow, and environmental factors. Data were collected from the database of the computerized recording system from 47 commercial swine herds in Thailand. The raw data were carefully scrutinized for accuracy. Litters with a lactation length 28 days were excluded. In total, 199,918 litters from 74,088 sows were included in the analyses. Piglet pre-weaning mortality at the individual sow level was calculated as piglet pre-weaning mortality (%) = (number of littermate pigs - number of piglets at weaning) / number of littermate pigs. Litters were classified according to sow parity numbers (1, 2-5, and 6-9), average birth weight of the piglets (0.80-1.29, 1.30-1.79, 1.80-2.50 kg), number of littermate pigs (5-7, 8-10, 11-12, and 13-15 piglets), and size of the herd (small, medium, and large). Pearson correlations were conducted to analyze the associations between piglet pre-weaning mortality and reproductive parameters. Additionally, a general linear model procedure was performed to analyze the various factors influencing piglet pre-weaning mortality. On average, piglet pre-weaning mortality was 11.2% (median = 9.1%) and varied among herds from 4.8 to 19.2%. Among all the litters, 62.1, 18.1, and 19.8% of the litters had a piglet pre-weaning mortality rate of 0-10, 11-20, and greater than 20%, respectively. As the number of littermate pigs increased, piglet pre-weaning mortality also increased (r = 0.390, P pre-weaning mortality than litters with 5-7, 8-10, and 11-12 littermate pigs (20.8, 7.8, 7.2, and 11.2%, respectively; P pre-weaning mortality in large-sized herds was higher than that in small- and medium-sized herds (13.6, 10.6, and 11.2%, respectively; P pre-weaning mortality was increased almost two times when the number of littermates increased from 11-12 to 13-16 piglets. Furthermore, piglets with birth weights of

  4. The future of tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S Joseph

    2010-05-01

    Five anthropogenic drivers--land use change, wood extraction, hunting, atmospheric change, climate change--will largely determine the future of tropical forests. The geographic scope and intensity of these five drivers are in flux. Contemporary land use change includes deforestation (approximately 64,000 km(2) yr(-1) for the entire tropical forest biome) and natural forests regenerating on abandoned land (approximately 21,500 km(2) yr(-1) with just 29% of the biome evaluated). Commercial logging is shifting rapidly from Southeast Asia to Africa and South America, but local fuelwood consumption continues to constitute 71% of all wood production. Pantropical rates of net deforestation are declining even as secondary and logged forests increasingly replace old-growth forests. Hunters reduce frugivore, granivore and browser abundances in most forests. This alters seed dispersal, seed and seedling survival, and hence the species composition and spatial template of plant regeneration. Tropical governments have responded to these local threats by protecting 7% of all land for the strict conservation of nature--a commitment that is only matched poleward of 40 degrees S and 70 degrees N. Protected status often fails to stop hunters and is impotent against atmospheric and climate change. There are increasing reports of stark changes in the structure and dynamics of protected tropical forests. Four broad classes of mechanisms might contribute to these changes. Predictions are developed to distinguish among these mechanisms.

  5. of epilepsy in tropical countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OF EPILEPSY IN TROPICAL COUNTRIES. Institut d'Epidémiologie ... country or in different countries (up to 9999 subjects), and .... tal retardation when IQ is between 50 and 70 and severe men- tal retardation when IQ is below 50. The IQ system is not however indispensable and the doctor should do a global eva- luation of ...

  6. Equational theories of tropical sernirings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Esik, Zoltan; Ingolfsdottir, Anna

    2003-01-01

    examples of such structures are the (max,+) semiring and the tropical semiring. It is shown that none of the exotic semirings commonly considered in the literature has a finite basis for its equations, and that similar results hold for the commutative idempotent weak semirings that underlie them. For each...

  7. Tropical Journal of Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tropical Journal of Health Sciences (TJHS) is an international journal which provides a forum for exchange of ideas to those engaged in work in the Health Sciences and related fields. The journal intends to publish high quality papers on original research, case reports, short communications, commentary, review ...

  8. Ozone in the Tropical Troposphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Wouter

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the research presented here is to acquire knowledge of the past, present, and future composition, stability, sensitivity, and variability of the troposphere. We focus mostly on the tropical regions because it has received little attention so far, measurements here are scarce, and large

  9. Tropical Journal of Medical Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Medical Research publishes original research work, review articles, important case report, short communications, and innovations in medicine and related fields. Vol 16, No 2 (2012). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of Contents. Articles ...

  10. Colonial adventures in tropical agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buelens, Frans; Frankema, Ewout

    2016-01-01

    How profitable were foreign investments in plantation agriculture in the Netherlands Indies during the late colonial era? We use a new dataset of monthly quoted stock prices and dividends of international companies at the Brussels stock exchange to estimate the returns to investment in tropical

  11. Hydrology of inland tropical lowlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidayat, Hidayat; Teuling, Ryan; Vermeulen, Bart; Muh, Taufik; Kastner, Karl; Geertsema, Tjitske J.; Bol, Dinja C.C.; Hoekman, Dirk H.; Sri Haryani, Gadis; Lanen, van Henny A.J.; Delinom, Robert M.; Dijksma, Roel; Anshari, Gusti Z.; Ningsih, Nining S.; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Hoitink, Ton

    2017-01-01

    Wetlands are important reservoirs of water, carbon and biodiversity. They are typical landscapes of lowland regions that have high potential for water retention. However, the hydrology of these wetlands in tropical regions is often studied in isolation from the processes taking place at the

  12. Earthworm invasions in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizelle Gonzalez; Ching Yu Huang; Xiaoming Zou; Carlos Rodriguez

    2006-01-01

    The effects and implications of invasive species in belowground terrestrial ecosystems are not well known in comparison with aboveground terrestrial and marine environments. The study of earthworm invasions in the tropics is limited by a lack of taxonomic knowledge and the potential for loss of species in native habitats due to anthropogenic land use change. Alteration...

  13. The economic costs of alcohol consumption in Thailand, 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thitiboonsuwan Khannika

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is evidence that the adverse consequences of alcohol impose a substantial economic burden on societies worldwide. Given the lack of generalizability of study results across different settings, many attempts have been made to estimate the economic costs of alcohol for various settings; however, these have mostly been confined to industrialized countries. To our knowledge, there are a very limited number of well-designed studies which estimate the economic costs of alcohol consumption in developing countries, including Thailand. Therefore, this study aims to estimate these economic costs, in Thailand, 2006. Methods This is a prevalence-based, cost-of-illness study. The estimated costs in this study included both direct and indirect costs. Direct costs included health care costs, costs of law enforcement, and costs of property damage due to road-traffic accidents. Indirect costs included costs of productivity loss due to premature mortality, and costs of reduced productivity due to absenteeism and presenteeism (reduced on-the-job productivity. Results The total economic cost of alcohol consumption in Thailand in 2006 was estimated at 156,105.4 million baht (9,627 million US$ PPP or about 1.99% of the total Gross Domestic Product (GDP. Indirect costs outweigh direct costs, representing 96% of the total cost. The largest cost attributable to alcohol consumption is that of productivity loss due to premature mortality (104,128 million baht/6,422 million US$ PPP, followed by cost of productivity loss due to reduced productivity (45,464.6 million baht/2,804 million US$ PPP, health care cost (5,491.2 million baht/339 million US$ PPP, cost of property damage as a result of road traffic accidents (779.4 million baht/48 million US$ PPP, and cost of law enforcement (242.4 million baht/15 million US$ PPP, respectively. The results from the sensitivity analysis revealed that the cost ranges from 115,160.4 million baht to 214

  14. The economic costs of alcohol consumption in Thailand, 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavorncharoensap, Montarat; Teerawattananon, Yot; Yothasamut, Jomkwan; Lertpitakpong, Chanida; Thitiboonsuwan, Khannika; Neramitpitagkul, Prapag; Chaikledkaew, Usa

    2010-06-09

    There is evidence that the adverse consequences of alcohol impose a substantial economic burden on societies worldwide. Given the lack of generalizability of study results across different settings, many attempts have been made to estimate the economic costs of alcohol for various settings; however, these have mostly been confined to industrialized countries. To our knowledge, there are a very limited number of well-designed studies which estimate the economic costs of alcohol consumption in developing countries, including Thailand. Therefore, this study aims to estimate these economic costs, in Thailand, 2006. This is a prevalence-based, cost-of-illness study. The estimated costs in this study included both direct and indirect costs. Direct costs included health care costs, costs of law enforcement, and costs of property damage due to road-traffic accidents. Indirect costs included costs of productivity loss due to premature mortality, and costs of reduced productivity due to absenteeism and presenteeism (reduced on-the-job productivity). The total economic cost of alcohol consumption in Thailand in 2006 was estimated at 156,105.4 million baht (9,627 million US$ PPP) or about 1.99% of the total Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Indirect costs outweigh direct costs, representing 96% of the total cost. The largest cost attributable to alcohol consumption is that of productivity loss due to premature mortality (104,128 million baht/6,422 million US$ PPP), followed by cost of productivity loss due to reduced productivity (45,464.6 million baht/2,804 million US$ PPP), health care cost (5,491.2 million baht/339 million US$ PPP), cost of property damage as a result of road traffic accidents (779.4 million baht/48 million US$ PPP), and cost of law enforcement (242.4 million baht/15 million US$ PPP), respectively. The results from the sensitivity analysis revealed that the cost ranges from 115,160.4 million baht to 214,053.0 million baht (7,102.1 - 13,201 million US$ PPP

  15. Cultural and western influences on the nutrition transition in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craven, Katherine L; Hawks, Steven R

    2006-01-01

    The impact of economic development and urbanisation on nutrition and dietary changes in transitional countries has been well researched. It generally has been found that there is a positive correlation between economic development, urbanization, and negative nutrition transitions with the result of growing levels of obesity and diet related non-communicable diseases. However, the impact of Western influences and culture on specific eating styles associated with the nutrition transition has been less studied. There is limited information about cultural and Western influences on eating styles in Thailand. Recent findings suggest that Thailand may have progressed further along the nutrition transition model, in terms of unhealthy eating styles, than would be expected based on economic development. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of current eating styles and eating motivations among Thai university students. University students were chosen for evaluation as they are thought to represent the forefront of dietary trends and nutrition changes in a population. Convenience samples from four different universities in south-central and northern Thailand were selected. The following scales were used to assess eating and dieting styles and attitudes among 662 Thai undergraduate and graduate students: Motivation For Eating Scale (MFES), Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26), and Cognitive Dieting Behavior Scale (CBDS). All scales have been shown to be reliable and valid in previous research. For this study, scales were translated into Thai, reverse translated, and pilot tested to ensure cultural relevancy and the conveyance of intended meanings. Basic demographic information was also obtained, including age, gender, year in school, marital status, height and weight, and income. Results indicated that Thai students exhibit significant levels of dieting behaviour and extrinsic eating based on CBDS and MFES scores (with the exception of environmental eating). For

  16. Clinical characteristics of zinc phosphide poisoning in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trakulsrichai S

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Satariya Trakulsrichai,1,2 Natcha Kosanyawat,1 Pongsakorn Atiksawedparit,1 Charuwan Sriapha,2 Achara Tongpoo,2 Umaporn Udomsubpayakul,3 Panee Rittilert,2 Winai Wananukul2 1Department of Emergency Medicine, 2Ramathibodi Poison Center, 3Section for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Objective: The objectives of this study were to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of poisoning by zinc phosphide, a common rodenticide in Thailand, and to evaluate whether these outcomes can be prognosticated by the clinical presentation. Materials and methods: A 3-year retrospective cohort study was performed using data from the Ramathibodi Poison Center Toxic Exposure Surveillance System. Results: In total, 455 poisonings were identified. Most were males (60.5% and from the central region of Thailand (71.0%. The mean age was 39.91±19.15 years. The most common route of exposure was oral (99.3%. Most patients showed normal vital signs, oxygen saturation, and consciousness at the first presentation. The three most common clinical presentations were gastrointestinal (GI; 68.8%, cardiovascular (22.0%, and respiratory (13.8% signs and symptoms. Most patients had normal blood chemistry laboratory results and chest X-ray findings at presentation. The median hospital stay was 2 days, and the mortality rate was 7%. Approximately 70% of patients underwent GI decontamination, including gastric lavage and a single dose of activated charcoal. In all, 31 patients were intubated and required ventilator support. Inotropic drugs were given to 4.2% of patients. Four moribund patients also received hyperinsulinemia–euglycemia therapy and intravenous hydrocortisone; however, all died. Patients who survived and died showed significant differences in age, duration from taking zinc phosphide to hospital presentation, abnormal vital signs at presentation (tachycardia

  17. Tropical cyclogenesis in a tropical wave critical layer: easterly waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Dunkerton

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of tropical depressions within tropical waves over the Atlantic and eastern Pacific is usually preceded by a "surface low along the wave" as if to suggest a hybrid wave-vortex structure in which flow streamlines not only undulate with the waves, but form a closed circulation in the lower troposphere surrounding the low. This structure, equatorward of the easterly jet axis, is identified herein as the familiar critical layer of waves in shear flow, a flow configuration which arguably provides the simplest conceptual framework for tropical cyclogenesis resulting from tropical waves, their interaction with the mean flow, and with diabatic processes associated with deep moist convection. The recirculating Kelvin cat's eye within the critical layer represents a sweet spot for tropical cyclogenesis in which a proto-vortex may form and grow within its parent wave. A common location for storm development is given by the intersection of the wave's critical latitude and trough axis at the center of the cat's eye, with analyzed vorticity centroid nearby. The wave and vortex live together for a time, and initially propagate at approximately the same speed. In most cases this coupled propagation continues for a few days after a tropical depression is identified. For easterly waves, as the name suggests, the propagation is westward. It is shown that in order to visualize optimally the associated Lagrangian motions, one should view the flow streamlines, or stream function, in a frame of reference translating horizontally with the phase propagation of the parent wave. In this co-moving frame, streamlines are approximately equivalent to particle trajectories. The closed circulation is quasi-stationary, and a dividing streamline separates air within the cat's eye from air outside. The critical layer equatorward of the easterly jet axis is important to tropical cyclogenesis because its cat's eye provides (i a region of

  18. Tropical cyclogenesis in a tropical wave critical layer: easterly waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkerton, T. J.; Montgomery, M. T.; Wang, Z.

    2008-06-01

    The development of tropical depressions within tropical waves over the Atlantic and eastern Pacific is usually preceded by a "surface low along the wave" as if to suggest a hybrid wave-vortex structure in which flow streamlines not only undulate with the waves, but form a closed circulation in the lower troposphere surrounding the low. This structure, equatorward of the easterly jet axis, resembles the familiar critical layer of waves in shear flow, a flow configuration which arguably provides the simplest conceptual framework for tropical cyclogenesis resulting from tropical waves, their interaction with the mean flow, and with diabatic processes associated with deep moist convection. The critical layer represents a sweet spot for tropical cyclogenesis in which a proto-vortex may form and grow within its parent wave. A common location for storm development within the critical layer is given by the intersection of the wave's critical latitude and trough axis, with analyzed vorticity centroid nearby. The wave and vortex live together for a time, and initially propagate at approximately the same speed. In most cases this coupled propagation continues for a few days after a tropical depression is identified. For easterly waves, as the name suggests, the propagation is westward. It is shown that in order to visualize optimally this "marsupial paradigm" one should view the flow streamlines, or stream function, in a frame of reference translating horizontally with the phase propagation of the parent wave. This translation requires an appropriate "gauge" that renders translating streamlines and isopleths of translating stream function approximately equivalent to flow trajectories. In the translating frame, the closed circulation is stationary, and a dividing streamline effectively separates air within the critical layer from air outside. The critical layer equatorward of the easterly jet axis is important to tropical cyclogenesis because it provides (i) a region of

  19. Assessment of continuous gas resources in the Khorat Plateau Province, Thailand and Laos, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Le, Phuong A.; Drake, Ronald M.

    2017-05-25

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey assessed mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 2.3 trillion cubic feet of continuous gas in the Khorat Plateau Province of Thailand and Laos.

  20. The cost utility and budget impact of adjuvant racecadotril for acute diarrhea in children in Thailand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rautenberg TA; Zerwes U

    2017-01-01

    ...; 3Assessment in Medicine GmbH, Lörrach, Germany Objective: To evaluate the cost utility and the budget impact of adjuvant racecadotril for the treatment of acute diarrhea in children in Thailand. Methods...

  1. Comparative study of informal labor markets in the urbanization process: the Philippines and Thailand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nakanishi, T

    1996-01-01

    "Culturally, socially, and politically, the Philippines and Thailand are completely different, but in the economic sphere until the end of the 1970s, the two exhibited such similarity that they could...

  2. Evolving food retail environments in Thailand and implications for the health and nutrition transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, Cathy; Dixon, Jane; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Pangsap, S; Kelly, Matthew; Sleigh, Adrian

    2013-04-01

    To investigate evolving food retail systems in Thailand. Rapid assessment procedures based on qualitative research methods including interviews, focus groups discussions and site visits. Seven fresh markets located in the four main regions of Thailand. Managers, food specialists, vendors and shoppers from seven fresh markets who participated in interviews and focus group discussions. Fresh markets are under economic pressure and are declining in number. They are attempting to resist the competition from supermarkets by improving convenience, food diversity, quality and safety. Obesity has increased in Thailand at the same time as rapid growth of modern food retail formats has occurred. As fresh markets are overtaken by supermarkets there is a likely loss of fresh, healthy, affordable food for poorer Thais, and a diminution of regional culinary culture, women's jobs and social capital, with implications for the health and nutrition transition in Thailand.

  3. "Research in Cambodia, Half a Century Ago: An Address to the Thailand, Laos, Cambodia Studies Group"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    William E. Willmott

    2012-01-01

    Address to the Thailand, Laos, Cambodia Studies Association at the Association for Asian Studies Annual Conference in Toronto, March 16, 2012This event has given me the opportunity to return to almost...

  4. The Relationship between Foreign Direct Investment from Thailand and Export on the Economic Growth of Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanet Wattanakul

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between Laos’s GDP, Thailand’s direct investment to Laos and Laos’s export to Thailand by using 44 quarters of data from 2005 Q1 to 2015 Q4. All relationships were studied using the vector error correction model (VECM. The results presented long run relationship from Laos’ GDP and Laos’ export to Thailand as well as from Thailand’s direct investment to Laos’s GDP and Laos’s export to Thailand. In the short run, there was only unidirectional relationship from Laos’s GDP to Laos’s exports to Thailand. This study indicates that Laos’s exporters receive benefits from Thailand’s direct investment contribution to accelerate economic growth in the short term. Therefore, Laos’s government should distribute income from the exporters to other economy sectors or spread the types of export goods into a larger range.

  5. Broadcast spawning patterns of Favia species on the inshore reefs of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongjandtre, N.; Ridgway, T.; Ward, S.; Hoegh-Guldberg, O.

    2010-03-01

    To obtain a global perspective of coral reproductive patterns, there is a clear need for more descriptive studies from under-represented regions (e.g., Thailand). As such, this study provides the first data on the timing of gamete maturation and spawning of seven species of Favia from Thailand. Corals in the inner and eastern Gulf of Thailand (GOT) spawned following the full moons of February/March, whereas spawning in the southwestern GOT and the Andaman Sea occurred 1 month later following the full moons of March/April. Aquarium observations of five Favia species confirmed spawning between five and six nights after the respective full moon, with the time of release of gametes overlapping among species. Further research on gametogenesis in additional coral species is required to document whether the spawning patterns exhibited by Favia are typical of all coral species in Thailand.

  6. Avoidance behavior to essential oils by Anopheles minimus, a malaria vector in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excito-repellency tests were used to characterize behavioral responses of laboratory colonized Anopheles minimus, a malaria vector in Thailand, using four essential oils, citronella (Cymbopogom nadus), hairy basil (Ocimum americanum), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides), ...

  7. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis outbreak among US-bound Hmong refugees, Thailand, 2005

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Oeltmann, John E; Varma, Jay K; Ortega, Luis; Liu, Yecai; O'Rourke, Thomas; Cano, Maria; Harrington, Theresa; Toney, Sean; Jones, Warren; Karuchit, Samart; Diem, Lois; Rienthong, Dhanida; Tappero, Jordan W; Ijaz, Kashef; Maloney, Susan A

    2008-01-01

    In January 2005, tuberculosis (TB), including multidrug-resistant TB (MDR TB), was reported among Hmong refugees who were living in or had recently immigrated to the United States from a camp in Thailand...

  8. Chain Migration through Social Networks: Case Study of Vietnamese Migrants in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anh Tuan NGUYEN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to investigate the relationship between the recent increasingly pattern of Vietnamese migrants in Thailand and migration networks. By surveying 50 Vietnamese migrants in Bangkok, Thailand, the study confirms that migration networks have played a critical role in facilitating migration flows, especially irregular flows from Vietnam to Thailand over the years. It can be reflected by reducing the cost of migration, coping with new working environment and risks during working in Thailand and ensuring the return process for Vietnamese migrants. Moreover, forms of social networks includes personal networks (kinship and friendship networks, and community network (ngườidẫnđường’s network, social media has been also discussed. The study also implies that the người dẫn đường’s networks might contribute to recently emerging issues such as human trafficking and smugglings, which require further research.

  9. Learning Styles of Undergraduate Musical Students Attending Music College in Thailand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anchalee Tanwinit; Wichian Sittiprapaporn

    2010-01-01

    .... Students have preferences for the ways in which they receive information. One of the most challenges that music educator in Thailand face today is improving the level of music student satisfaction with the curriculum and learning environment...

  10. Universal coverage of renal dialysis in Thailand: promise, progress, and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantivess, Sripen; Werayingyong, Pitsaphun; Chuengsaman, Piyatida; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2013-01-31

    Thailand's experience in introducing renal replacement therapy as part of its universal health coverage scheme shows the importance of evidence and stakeholders' active participation in all phases of policy development, say Sripen Tantivess and colleagues:

  11. 78 FR 62583 - Welded Stainless Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Welded Stainless Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist...: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. DATES: October 22...

  12. The Preparation and Supervision of Teachers of English as a Foreign Language in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagarik, Panninee

    1973-01-01

    Paper contributed as Thailand's Country Report to the Eighth Regional Seminar on "The Training and Supervision of Teachers of English as a Second or Foreign Language," July 3-7, 1973, Regional English Language Centre, Singapore. (HW)

  13. 77 FR 40574 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ....38 Earth Food Manufacturing Co., Ltd 1.38 F.A.I.T. Corporation Limited (*) Far East Cold Storage Co... Antidumping Measure on Shrimp from Thailand: Notice of Determination under Section 129 of the Uruguay Round...

  14. Tropical sprue after travel to Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peetermans, W E; Vonck, A

    2000-01-01

    Tropical sprue (TS) is a diagnosis to consider in travelers with prolonged diarrhea and a malabsorption syndrome after return from tropical countries, particularly India and Southeast Asia. TS is an unusual condition in tropical Africa. Textbooks of tropical medicine indicate a low endemicity in Nigeria and a limited number of cases in South Africa and Zimbabwe. A Medline search from 1979 to mid 1998 using "Tanzania and tropical sprue" as key words disclosed no hits. We report herein a case of TS in a European traveler, who lived in Tanzania for 8 months.

  15. Tropical cyclone statistics in the Northeastern Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Vadillo, E; Zaitsev, Oleg; Morales Pérez., R

    2007-01-01

    The principal area of tropical cyclogenesis in the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean is offshore in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, between 8 and 15° N, and most of these cyclones move towards the west and northwest during their initial phase. Historical analysis of tropical cyclone data in the Northeastern (NE) Pacific over the last 38 years (from 1966 to 2004) shows a mean of 16.3 tropical cyclones per year, consisting of 8.8 hurricanes and 7.4 tropical storms. The analysis shows great geographical v...

  16. A new species of Pseudopyrochroa Pic, 1906 (Coleoptera: Pyrochroidae: Pyrochroinae) from the Mae Chaem District, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Daniel K

    2014-04-02

    A new species of the fire-colored beetle genus Pseudopyrochroa Pic, 1906, is described from the Mae Chaem District, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand. The new species, Pseudopyrochroa inthanonensis sp. nov., is superficially similar to Pseudopyrochroa basalis (Pic), Pseudopyrochroa cardoni (Fairmaire) and Pseudopyrochroa fainanensis (Pic) by virtue of body color, antennal form and prothoracic shape. It is the second species of the genus known from Thailand, the other being Pseudopyrochroa diversicornis (Blair).

  17. A Cross-Sectional Study on Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Rural Communities, Northeast Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Boonjaraspinyo, Sirintip; Boonmars, Thidarut; Kaewsamut, Butsara; Ekobol, Nuttapon; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Aukkanimart, Ratchadawan; Wonkchalee, Nadchanan; Juasook, Amornrat; Sriraj, Pranee

    2013-01-01

    Despite the existence of effective anthelmintics, parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in Southeast Asia, including Thailand. In rural communities, continuing infection is often reinforced by dietary habits that have a strong cultural basis and by poor personal hygiene and sanitation. This study presents a survey of the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the people in rural Thailand. The community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in villages in K...

  18. Religion as Non-religion: The Place of Chinese Temples in Phuket, Southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Kataoka, Tatsuki

    2012-01-01

    This paper, based on a case study of Chinese temples in Phuket, aims to demonstrate the importance of religious activities lying outside "religion" in the so-called "Buddhist" societies in Thailand, as well as to question the category of "religion" itself. In Thailand, most of the Chinese temples (called sanchao in Thai) are notrecognized as "religious places" by the religious administration (namely the Departmentof Religious Affairs), since they come under the supervision of the Ministryof t...

  19. CRITICAL OUTLOOK AT SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE IN ASIA: A COMPARISON BETWEEN INDONESIA, MALAYSIA, THAILAND AND CHINA

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuni, Sari; Astuti, Esther Sri; Utari, Karina Miaprajna

    2015-01-01

    Special Economic Zones (SEZ) have been proven to help countries in fostering economicgrowth. The aim of this research is to try to help the government to improve SEZ policies inIndonesia by providing a benchmark with other SEZ countries in China, Malaysia, andThailand. While China has the most established SEZ program, Malaysia and Thailand alsohave highly-regarded SEZs and investment incentives. These neighboring countries havedeveloped SEZs in significant quantities but the greatest returns ...

  20. Molecular epidemiology and geographical distribution of Nosema ceranae in honeybees, Northern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Vena Chupia; Surachai Pikulkaew; Patcharin Krutmuang; Supamit Mekchay; Prapas Patchanee

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the contamination levels of Nosema ceranae in honeybees and its molecular linkages in different geographical areas of Northern Thailand. Methods: Seventy-eight apiaries in Northern Thailand were chosen at random. The detection was accomplished both by microscopic examination and multiplex PCR. Nosema positive samples were evaluated by PCR sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Results: Of the samples subjected to microscopic examination, 11.54% were found...

  1. Barriers to Effective Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Rapidly Urbanizing Area in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Nachalida Yukalang; Beverley Clarke; Kirstin Ross

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on determining the barriers to effective municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in a rapidly urbanizing area in Thailand. The Tha Khon Yang Subdistrict Municipality is a representative example of many local governments in Thailand that have been facing MSWM issues. In-depth interviews with individuals and focus groups were conducted with key informants including the municipality staff, residents, and external organizations. The major influences affecting waste management w...

  2. Different Streams, Different Needs and Impacts: Managing International Labor Migration in ASEAN - Thailand (Emigration)

    OpenAIRE

    Chalamwong, Yongyuth; Labor Development Research Team

    2013-01-01

    For decades, Thailand has had a strong labor market in both supplying and demanding labor resources. Since the 1970s, Thailand has sent workers to the Middle East, Japan, Taiwan, Singapore, and Malaysia, among others. Based on the Socio-Economic Survey, emigrant workers come from households with low income and wealth; therefore they are heavily indebted. It can be concluded that poverty and indebtedness are push factors that had forced the migration of Thai labor, while higher income and bett...

  3. Identification key to species of the flying lizard genus Draco Linnaeus, 1758 (Squamata: Agamidae) in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Srichairat, Nattawut; Jantrarotai, Pattanee; Duengkae, Prateep; Chuaynkern, Yodchaiy

    2017-01-01

    A species identification key of flying lizards in the genus Draco from Thailand was constructed based on 521 preserved specimens from collections during 1967–2012 in the Natural History Museum (THNHM), National Science Museum, Technopolis, Pathum Thani, Thailand. Regardless of sexual characters, four characters were used to identify Draco spp. lizards: 1) nostril direction; 2) type of tympanum; 3) pattern of patagium; and 4) snout with or without a series of scales forming a Y-shaped figure. ...

  4. Private Contributions Towards the Provision of Public Goods: The Conservation of Thailand's Endangered Species

    OpenAIRE

    Orapan Nabangchang

    2009-01-01

    This paper looks at why people in Bangkok give money to wildlife charities, estimates how much people would be willing to pay for the conservation of some of Thailand's endangered animals and assesses what would be the best way to collect money for wildlife protection. The study used the Contingent Valuation Method (CVM) to determine the economic value of a group of Thailand's endangered animal species. Information was gathered through 955 face-to-face interviews conducted in Bangkok. The stu...

  5. [Analysis of the phenotype-genotype relationship of hemoglobin Q-Thailand in Guangxi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Youqiong; Chen, Zhizhong; Liang, Liang; Li, Ronghai; Liang, Yuhua

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the hematological and molecular characteristics of hemoglobin Q-Thailand in Guangxi, so as to provide reference data for hemoglobinopathy screening. A total of 51088 samples were screened by capillary electrophoresis. Samples suspected with Hb Q-Thailand were processed with blood cell count and DNA sequencing. Gap-PCR and PCR-reverse dot blotting were used for the detection of common mutations of alpha and beta thalassemia. The carrier rate of Hb Q-Thailand in Guangxi was 0.06%. The hematological phenotype index(HGB, MCV, MCH, Hb Q-Thailand, Hb A2, Hb QA2) of 28 Hb Q-Thailand heterozygous samples were (125.60±22.30) g/L, (78.22±4.81) fl, (25.79±2.14) pg, (27.37±2.72)%, (1.89±0.22)%, (0.69±0.16)%, respectively, and of 2 Hb Q-Thailand heterozygous combined with beta-thalassemia samples were (125.00±18.39) g/L, (69.65±5.02) fl, (22.00±0.0) pg, (14.80±0.71)%, (4.45±0.07)%, (0.95±0.71)%, respectively. A statistical difference was found in hematological phenotype index between the two groups except HGB (P<0.05). In Guangxi, the detected Hb Q-Thailands were mainly heterozygous. Part of Hb Q-Thailand heterozygotes had normal red blood cell parameters, but can still be detected by hemoglobin electrophoresis. When combined with other types of thalassemia, these heterozygotes may still exhibit reduced MCV and MCH or various degrees of anemia.

  6. Designing the distribution network in a cassava supply chain in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Witchayut Timaboot; Nanthi Suthikarnnarunai

    2017-01-01

    According to Thailand’s infrastructure development and investment plan, an efficient transportation network will take form over the next three to five years. Dual-track railway will be built to cover more areas of the country and will be offered more routes between central, north-eastern, and eastern Thailand. Therefore, rail transportation or train transportation will become a good choice or an important conveyance of goods from various origins to various destinations in Thailand due to its ...

  7. A Study of Marketing Information and Communication for Fresh Vegetable in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Treewannakul, Panamas; Fukuda, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    This study is dealt with the marketing information in role and provision in marketing information service. Including, identify marketing information needs for fresh vegetable market which brings about development of fresh vegetable marketing information and communication in Thailand. The results were as follows. 1)The role of marketing information for vegetables in Thailand was designed to: ①provide local producers and traders information on wholesale and retail prices of vegetable on a re...

  8. Prevalence and clinical manifestations of rotavirus diarrhea in children of rural area of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sanguansak Rerksuppaphol; Lakkana Rerksuppaphol

    2011-01-01

    Introduction/ Background: Rotavirus diarrhoea is a leading cause of child death. It is a major concern in emerging nations. Many studies and analysis were executed for genetic assessment of rotavirus, however, very few studies from Thailand focused on clinical manifestation.Aim: To estimate the prevalence and clinical manifestations of rotavirus diarrhoea among children of Ongkaluck district, Nakorn Nayok rural area of Thailand.Method: Children aged ≤ 7 with acute diarrhoea as presenting symp...

  9. The development of the edible cricket industry in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Roos, Nanna; Flore, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    additional themes in the development of the cricket industry in connection to the work of other scholars, as well as future considerations to maintain the positive impacts of the industry on rural economic development, entrepreneurship and employment. Eight types of actors in the cricket industry were...... opportunities and threats to the industry. Considering the edible cricket industry as a part of the rural entrepreneurship and development policy discourse may be beneficial to sustainable development.......Since cricket farming was introduced in Thailand in 1997, domestic, regional and international interest in the edible cricket industry has increased. This study aims to identify emerging themes related the development of the edible cricket industry over the past decades. It also discusses...

  10. ESCO Project for Buildings of Government Agencies in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prukvilailert Monchai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, Department of Alternative Energy Development and Efficiency (DEDE have organized the ESCO project to promote and encourage the use of machinery, materials and equipment having high efficiency for government buildings. ESCO company provides the invest and management for changing equipments in the buildings. In this paper, the evaluation of the project has been presented. The potential of electricity savings is about 77 million kwhr/year. It can reduce imports of crude oil about 6.58 thousand tons of crude oil (Ktoe/year. The budget to invest is BHT 1,504 million, with an average payback period of 4.85. However, we found that the establishment of the budget is the barriers. The recommendations and solutions using legal process have been presented to proceed the project in the future.

  11. CLIL Teacher Professional Development for Content Teachers in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punwalai Kewara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand, the new educational policy is mandated to encourage content teachers to integrate English in content classrooms. The policy has created tensions and misconceptions among content teachers, who must change the medium of instruction from Thai to English. This paper presents an attempt to foster teacher knowledge about the Content and Language Integrated Learning (CLIL approach in a teacher professional development program. Classroom language in English and CLIL classroom structure were provided for 15 teachers at a secondary school. Four volunteer teachers were observed to determine the extent to which teachers implemented CLIL. The findings revealed the teachers partly implemented classroom language in English and the provided CLIL structure was not evident. The contribution of this paper is to the literature of CLIL teacher professional development effectiveness and the implementation fidelity of a professional development program.

  12. Case reports: arsenic pollution in Thailand, Bangladesh, and Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Huw; Visoottiviseth, Pornsawan; Bux, M Khoda; Födényi, Rita; Kováts, Nora; Borbély, Gábor; Galbács, Zoltán

    2008-01-01

    Although arsenic contamination in the three countries described herein differs, a number of common themes emerge. In each country, the presence of arsenic is both long term and of geological origin. Moreover, in each of these countries, arsenic was only recently discovered to be a potential public health problem, having been first formally recognized in the 1980s or 1990s. In Bangledesh, exposure of the public to arsenic arose as a result of the search for microbially safe drinking water; this search resulted in the sinking of tube wells into aquifers. In Hungary, the natural bedrock geology was responsible for contamination of aquifer water. The genesis of arsenic contamination in Thailand arose primarily from small-scale alluvial mining activities, which mobilized geologically bound arsenic. Because of the complex chemistry of arsenic, and variability in where it is found and how it is bound, multiple mitigation methods must be considered for mitigating episodes of environmental contamination. The Ron Phibun region of Thailand has a 100-yr history of tin mining. A geological survey of the region was conducted in the mid-1990s by the Department of Mineral Resources and Department of Industry of Thailand, and was supported by the British Geological Society. Skin cancer in Thailand was first reported in 1987, in the southern part of the country; among other symptoms observed, there was evidence of IQ diminutions among the population. Arsenic water levels to 9,000 pg/L were reported; such levels are substantially above any guideline levels. A long-term plan to mitigate arsenic contamination was devised in 1998-2000. The plan involved removal of arsenic-contaminated land and improved management of mining wastes. However, at $22 million, the cost was deemed prohibitive for the regional Thai economy. An alternative solution of providing pipeline drinking water to the exposed population was also unsuccessful, either because arsenic contamination levels did not fall

  13. Organizational factors affecting safety implementation in food companies in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinda, Thanwadee

    2014-01-01

    Thai food industry employs a massive number of skilled and unskilled workers. This may result in an industry with high incidences and accident rates. To improve safety and reduce the accident figures, this paper investigates factors influencing safety implementation in small, medium, and large food companies in Thailand. Five factors, i.e., management commitment, stakeholders' role, safety information and communication, supportive environment, and risk, are found important in helping to improve safety implementation. The statistical analyses also reveal that small, medium, and large food companies hold similar opinions on the risk factor, but bear different perceptions on the other 4 factors. It is also found that to improve safety implementation, the perceptions of safety goals, communication, feedback, safety resources, and supervision should be aligned in small, medium, and large companies.

  14. Genesis of ion-adsorption type REE ores in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanematsu, K.; Yoshiaki, K.; Watanabe, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Ion-adsorption type REE deposits, which have been economically mined only in southern China, are predominant supply sources for HREE in the world. The ore bodies consist of weathered granites called ion-adsorption ores. The majority of REE (>50 %) are electrostatically adsorbed onto weathering products in the ores and they can be extracted by ion exchange using an electrolyte solution (e.g., ammonium sulfate solution). Recently the occurrences of ion-adsorption ores have been reported in Indochina, SE Asia. In this study, we discuss geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of parent granites and weathered granites in Thailand in order to reveal the genesis of ion-adsorption ores. Permo-Triassic and Cretaceous-Paleogene granite plutons are distributed from northern Thailand to western Indonesia through eastern Myanmar and Peninsular Malaysia. They are mostly ilmenite-series calcalkaline biotite or hornblende-biotite granites. REE contents of the granites range from 60 to 600 ppm and they are relatively high in Peninsula Thailand. REE-bearing minerals consist mainly of apatite, zircon, allanite, titanite, monazite and xenotime. Some I-type granites contain REE fluorocarbonate (probably synchysite-(Ce)) in cavities and cracks in feldspars and it is the dominant source of REE for ion-adsorption ores because the fluorocarbonate is easily soluble during weathering. In contrast, insoluble monazite and xenotime are not preferable for ion-adsorption ores although they are common ore minerals of placer REE deposits. Weathered granites show REE contents ranging from 60 to 1100 ppm in Thailand because REE are relatively immobile compared with mobile elements (e.g., Na, K, Ca). In the weathered granites, REE are contained in residual minerals and secondary minerals and are adsorbed onto the surface of weathering products. A weathering profile of granite with ion-adsorption type mineralization can be divided into upper and lower parts based on REE enrichment and Ce

  15. Overexploitation of Abalone at Libong Island, Trang Province, Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanyut Sudtongkong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abalone is generally known as a fishery resource of high economic value. The wild abalone from Libong Island iswidely known for its potential as a cocktail-size and high-quality broodstock for hatcheries. The high market price andexternal demand have encouraged local fisherman to catch the wild abalone without proper management, resulting in a nearextinction crisis in the abalone population in this area. The present evaluation of abalone management at Libong Island,Trang Province, Thailand, was conducted using local user perceptions. Sixteen performance indicators included effectiveness indicators, equity indicators, and sustainable indicators. These were measured to determine whether the abalonemanagement activities had achieved the set objectives in terms of better conditions for abalone cultivation and sustainability.The results revealed that the abalone population has undergone degrading and decline due to lack of proper managementmeasures in this area. The findings suggest that practical management is needed for the abalone population at Libong Island.

  16. Respiratory effects among rubberwood furniture factory workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriproed, Salakjit; Osiri, Pramuk; Sujirarat, Dusit; Chantanakul, Suttinun; Harncharoen, Kitiphong; Ong-artborirak, Parichat; Woskie, Susan R

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function were examined among 89 rubberwood furniture factory workers. Acute and chronic irritant symptoms were assessed, lung function was measured both pre- and post-shift and personal inhalable dust exposure determined. The only symptoms with a significant increase among high dust level-exposed workers (>1 mg/m(3)) were those related to nasal irritation. High dust level-exposed workers had a significant cross-shift decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second/forced vital capacity (FEV(1)/FVC) compared with low dust level-exposed workers and increases in inhalable dust concentration levels (mg/m(3)) were significantly associated with decreases in the peak expiratory flow (PEF) across the work shift. For percent predicted pulmonary function levels, a significant decrement in PEF was found for high versus low rubberwood dust level-exposed workers, after controlling for confounders. These findings suggest the need for an occupational standard for rubberwood dust in Thailand.

  17. Diversity, knowledge and use of leafy vegetables in northern Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turreira Garcia, Nerea; Vilkamaa, Anna M.; Byg, Anja

    2017-01-01

    , Thailand. The leafy vegetables collected from fresh food markets included 55 species, six of them with a total of 13 cultivars, belonging to 32 families. Structured interviews were made with 49 vegetable sellers. Semi-structured interviews were made with three Thai medicine practitioners and 100 residents...... knowledge and use was mainly maintained and transmitted by middle-aged and older residents. Knowledge and use of leafy vegetables was determined by age and level of education; gender, income and ownership of agricultural land were unrelated. The availability and use of exotic leafy vegetables in markets...... and dishes was prominent and the knowledge on exotic leafy vegetables was well-integrated in the local knowledge. Leafy vegetables were considered as healthy, quick to prepare and a praised source of food and medicine. However, differences in knowledge between younger and older generations could indicate...

  18. A Middle Miocene hominoid from Thailand and orangutan origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaimanee, Yaowalak; Jolly, Dominique; Benammi, Mouloud; Tafforeau, Paul; Duzer, Danielle; Moussa, Issam; Jaeger, Jean-Jacques

    2003-03-06

    The origin of orangutans has long been debated. Sivapithecus is considered to be the closest ancestor of orangutans because of its facial-palatal similarities, but its dental characteristics and postcranial skeleton do not confirm this phylogenetic position. Here we report a new Middle Miocene hominoid, cf. Lufengpithecus chiangmuanensis n. sp. from northern Thailand. Its dental morphology relates it to the Pongo clade, which includes Lufengpithecus, Sivapithecus, Gigantopithecus, Ankarapithecus and possibly Griphopithecus. Our new species displays striking dental resemblances with living orangutans and appears as a more likely candidate to represent an ancestor of this ape. In addition, it originates from the geographic area of Pleistocene orangutans. But surprisingly, the associated flora shows strong African affinities, demonstrating the existence of a temporary floral and faunal dispersal corridor between southeast Asia and Africa during the Middle Miocene, which may have played a critical role in hominoid dispersion.

  19. Informal Workers in Thailand: Occupational Health and Social Security Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Woskie, Susan; Slatin, Craig

    2015-08-01

    Informal workers in Thailand lack employee status as defined under the Labor Protection Act (LPA). Typically, they do not work at an employer's premise; they work at home and may be self-employed or temporary workers. They account for 62.6 percent of the Thai workforce and have a workplace accident rate ten times higher than formal workers. Most Thai Labor laws apply only to formal workers, but some protect informal workers in the domestic, home work, and agricultural sectors. Laws that protect informal workers lack practical enforcement mechanisms and are generally ineffective because informal workers lack employment contracts and awareness of their legal rights. Thai social security laws fail to provide informal workers with treatment of work-related accidents, diseases, and injuries; unemployment and retirement insurance; and workers' compensation. The article summarizes the differences in protections available for formal and informal sector workers and measures needed to decrease these disparities in coverage. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Health Insurance for Cancer Care in Asia: Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongpak Pittayapan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thailand has a universal multi-payer system with two main types of health insurance: National Health Security Office or public health insurance and private insurance. National health insurance is designed for people who are not eligible to be members of any employment-based health insurance program. Although private health insurance is also available, all Thai citizens are required to be enrolled in either national health insurance or employees′ health insurance. There are many differences between the public health insurance and private insurance. Public health insurance, therefore, initiates programs that offer many sets of benefit packages for high-cost care. For cancer care, cover screening, curative treatment such as surgery, chemotherapy, radiation together with supportive and palliative care.

  1. Helminths in rodents from Wet Markets in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribas A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Only a few surveys have ever been carried out of the helminths of the commensal rodents found in the traditional wet markets that play such an important part of daily life in South-east Asia. The potential of rodents as reservoirs of zoonoses including helminths is of great interest since in these markets humans and rodents come into closer contact than in other environments and food may be indirectly contaminated via rodent faeces. Helminths in a total of 98 rats belonging to two species (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus exulans were surveyed in eight traditional wet markets in Udon Thani, Thailand. Thirteen species of helminths were recovered, seven of which are potentially zoo-notic, with an overall prevalence of 89.8 %. Our results show that rodents in wet markets could pose a threat to human health as potential reservoirs of zoonotic helminthiases.

  2. Sea Snake Harvest in the Gulf of Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Cao, Nguyen; Thien Tao, Nguyen; Moore, Amelia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Conservation of sea snakes is virtually nonexistent in Asia, and its role in human–snake interactions in terms of catch, trade, and snakebites as an occupational hazard is mostly unexplored. We collected data on sea snake landings from the Gulf of Thailand, a hotspot for sea snake harvest...... sell snakes to merchants who sort, package, and ship the snakes to various destinations in Vietnam and China for human consumption and as a source of traditional remedies. Annually, 82 t, roughly equal to 225,500 individuals, of live sea snakes are brought to ports. To our knowledge, this rate...... of harvest constitutes one of the largest venomous snake and marine reptile harvest activities in the world today. Lapemis curtus and Hydrophis cyanocinctus constituted about 85% of the snake biomass, and Acalyptophis peronii, Aipysurus eydouxii, Hydrophis atriceps, H. belcheri, H. lamberti, and H. ornatus...

  3. Mangroves and sediment dynamics along the coasts of southern Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thampanya, U.

    2006-01-01

    Mangroves inhabit tropical coastlines and are particularly abundant along deltas and bays where rivers bring freshwater and sediment to the sea. This habitat witnesses great variability in sedimentation and erosion rates, partly governed by variation in hydrodynamics of rivers as well as the sea.

  4. Mangroves and sediment dynamics along the coasts of southern Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thampanya, U.

    2006-01-01

    Mangroves are a specific type of evergreen forest that is found along the coastlines of tropical and subtropical regions, particularly along deltas and bays where rivers discharge freshwater and sediment to the sea. These mangroves provide important ecological and socio-economic functions to coastal

  5. Competencies Setup for Nuclear Regulatory Staff in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingish, Panupong; Siripirom, Lopchai; Nakkaew, Pongpan; Manuwong, Theerapatt; Wongsamarn, Vichian [Office of Atoms for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2010-05-15

    Competencies setup for regulatory bodies oversee a research reactor and nuclear power reactors in Thailand, concentrating on staff development in areas of review and assessment, inspection and enforcement, authorization, and development of regulations and guides. The regulatory body in Thailand is the Bureau of Nuclear Safety Regulation (BNSR) which belongs to the Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP). The BNSR is divided into 4 groups according to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). These groups are the nuclear safety administration group, nuclear safety technical support group, nuclear safety assessment and licensing group, and the nuclear installations inspection group. Each group is divided into senior and junior positions. The competencies model was used for implementation of staff qualification, career planning and professional progression by BNSR. Competencies are related to knowledge, skills and attitudes (KSAs) needed to perform their job. A key issue is obtaining competencies for the regulatory bodies. The systematic approach to training (SAT) has been used in several countries for improvement regulator performance. The SAT contains 5 steps, including analysis, design, development, implementation and evaluation, to achieve competencies. The SAT provides a logical progression from the identification of competencies required to perform a job to the design, development and implementation of training using the competencies model. In the first step, BNSR performs an operating analysis of training needs assessment (TNA) by using gap analysis technique, as suggested by IAEA. Individual regulatory bodies address the gap using appropriate training program, after comparing the actual and desired competency profiles to determine the gap. This paper examines competencies setup for regulatory staff of BNSR as a result of gaps analysis to establish a scheme for design characteristics of regulatory staff and training courses, thereby enhancing the regulatory

  6. Predictors of seasonal influenza vaccination among older adults in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabda Praphasiri

    Full Text Available In advance of a large influenza vaccine effectiveness (VE cohort study among older adults in Thailand, we conducted a population-based, cross-sectional survey to measure vaccine coverage and identify factors associated with influenza vaccination among older Thai adults that could bias measures of vaccine effectiveness.We selected adults ≥65 years using a two-stage, stratified, cluster sampling design. Functional status was assessed using the 10-point Vulnerable Elders Survey (VES; scores ≥3 indicated vulnerability. Questions about attitudes towards vaccination were based on the Health Belief Model. The distance between participants' households and the nearest vaccination clinic was calculated. Vaccination status was determined using national influenza vaccination registry. Prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using log-binomial multivariable models accounting for the sampling design.We enrolled 581 participants, of whom 60% were female, median age was 72 years, 41% had at least one chronic underlying illness, 24% met the criteria for vulnerable, and 23% did not leave the house on a daily basis. Influenza vaccination rate was 34%. In multivariable models, no variable related to functional status was associated with vaccination. The strongest predictors of vaccination were distance to the nearest vaccination center (PR 3.0, 95% CI 1.7-5.1 for participants in the closest quartile compared to the furthest, and high levels of a perception of benefits of influenza vaccination (PR 2.8, 95% CI 1.4-5.6 and cues to action (PR 2.7, 95% CI 1.5-5.1.Distance to vaccination clinics should be considered in analyses of influenza VE studies in Thailand. Strategies that emphasize benefits of vaccination and encourage physicians to recommend annual influenza vaccination could improve influenza vaccine uptake among older Thai adults. Outreach to more distant and less mobile older adults may also be required to improve influenza

  7. Quinolone Resistance Determinants of Clinical Salmonella Enteritidis in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utrarachkij, Fuangfa; Nakajima, Chie; Changkwanyeun, Ruchirada; Siripanichgon, Kanokrat; Kongsoi, Siriporn; Pornruangwong, Srirat; Changkaew, Kanjana; Tsunoda, Risa; Tamura, Yutaka; Suthienkul, Orasa; Suzuki, Yasuhiko

    2017-10-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis has emerged as a global concern regarding quinolone resistance and invasive potential. Although quinolone-resistant S. Enteritidis has been observed with high frequency in Thailand, information on the mechanism of resistance acquisition is limited. To elucidate the mechanism, a total of 158 clinical isolates of nalidixic acid (NAL)-resistant S. Enteritidis were collected throughout Thailand, and the quinolone resistance determinants were investigated in the context of resistance levels to NAL, norfloxacin (NOR), and ciprofloxacin (CIP). The analysis of point mutations in type II topoisomerase genes and the detection of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes showed that all but two harbored a gyrA mutation, the qnrS1 gene, or both. The most commonly affected codon in mutant gyrA was 87, followed by 83. Double codon mutation in gyrA was found in an isolate with high-level resistance to NAL, NOR, and CIP. A new mutation causing serine to isoleucine substitution at codon 83 was identified in eight isolates. In addition to eighteen qnrS1-carrying isolates showing nontypical quinolone resistance, one carrying both the qnrS1 gene and a gyrA mutation also showed a high level of resistance. Genotyping by multilocus variable number of tandem repeat analysis suggested a possible clonal expansion of NAL-resistant strains nationwide. Our data suggested that NAL-resistant isolates with single quinolone resistance determinant may potentially become fluoroquinolone resistant by acquiring secondary determinants. Restricted therapeutic and farming usage of quinolones is strongly recommended to prevent the emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates.

  8. Human body donation in Thailand: Donors at Khon Kaen University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techataweewan, N; Panthongviriyakul, C; Toomsan, Y; Mothong, W; Kanla, P; Chaichun, A; Amarttayakong, P; Tayles, N

    2018-03-01

    Culture, society and spirituality contribute to variability in the characteristics of human body donors and donation programmes worldwide. The donors and the body donation programme at Khon Kaen University, northeast Thailand, reflect all these aspects of Thailand, including the status accorded to the donors and the ceremonial acknowledgement of the donors and their families. Data from the programme records and from surveys of samples of currently registering donors and recently received donor bodies are analysed to define the characteristics of both registering and received donors, including motivation, demography, socio-economic status, health, and use of the bodies. The body donation programme at Khon Kaen University currently has a very high rate of registration of body donors, with gender and age differences in the patterns of donation. Registrants include more females than males, a long-standing pattern, and are an average age of 50 years. The bodies of 12% of registrants are received after death and include more males than females. Both sexes are of an average age of 69 years. Males had registered their donation eight years prior to death and females ten years prior. Current registrants identified altruistic motives for their decision to donate, although the coincidence of body donation by a highly revered monk with a surge in donations in 2015 suggests that Buddhism plays a primary role in motivation. The opportunity to make merit for donors and their families, and respect shown to donors and the nature of the ceremonies acknowledging the donors and their families, including the use of the Royal Flame at the cremation ceremony, all contribute to decisions to donate. The characteristics of body donors and the body donation programme at Khon Kaen University are reflective of Thai society and the centrality of Buddhism to Thai culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of Silafluofen-Based Termiticides in Japan and Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuda, Yoshio; Minamite, Yoshihiro; Vongkaluang, Charunee

    2011-12-08

    With the advancement from natural pyrethrins to synthetic pyrethroids, their applications have expanded from household insecticides for indoor use against sanitary pests to outdoor use for agriculture, forestry, animal health, termite control, and many other pest situations. However, high fish toxicity and development of pyrethroid resistance in some pests have been cited as common shortcomings of pyrethroids. To overcome these pyrethroid problems such as high fish toxicity, Katsuda and fellow scientists invented silafluofen by introducing a silicone atom into the pyrethroidal chemical structure in 1984. In addition to the high insecticidal activity and low mammalian toxicity, this compound features low fish toxicity, chemical stability under sunlight, in the soil and under alkaline environments. These features make silafluofen unique among pyrethroids. In Japan, silafluofen has been used as an agricultural insecticide for 15 years since 1995 for various plants, especially useful for paddy rice protection because of its low fish toxicity. Over the last 20 years, silafluofen-based termiticides including emulsifiable concentrate (EC) and oil formulations have been widely used in Japan for soil treatment and timber treatments. Additional silafluofen product lines include anti-termitic plastic sheets which are laid under buildings. In this paper, literature on the development of silafluofen and its use in Japan are reviewed. On the other hand, in Thailand, we proceeded with development works of silafluofen-based termiticides from 2005 by starting laboratory efficacy tests and field efficacy tests in Phuket. Both laboratory and field tests showed good efficacy as a soil termiticide, suggesting that the material will perform well for commercial use in high biological hazard environments such as Thailand and can be used in environments close to water where fish toxicity might be a concern with other pyrethroids.

  10. Malaria ecology along the Thailand-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Daniel M; Carrara, Verena I; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; McGready, Rose; Nosten, François H

    2015-10-05

    Malaria in Southeast Asia frequently clusters along international borders. For example, while most of Thailand is malaria free, the border region shared with Myanmar continues to have endemic malaria. This spatial pattern is the result of complex interactions between landscape, humans, mosquito vectors, and malaria parasites. An understanding of these complex ecological and socio-cultural interactions is important for designing and implementing malaria elimination efforts in the region. This article offers an ecological perspective on the malaria situation along the Thailand-Myanmar border. This border region is long (2000 km), mountainous, and the environment ranges from thick forests to growing urban settlements and wet-rice fields. It is also a biologically diverse region. All five species of malaria known to naturally infect humans are present. At least three mosquito vector species complexes, with widely varying behavioural characteristics, exist in the area. The region is also a hub for ethnic diversity, being home to over ten different ethnolinguistic groups, several of which have been engaged in conflict with the Myanmar government now for over half a century. Given the biological and ethnic diversity, as well as the complex socio-political context, malaria control and elimination in the region is challenging. Despite these complexities, multipronged approaches including collaborations with multiple local organizations, quick access to diagnosis and treatment, prevention of mosquito bites, radical cure of parasites, and mass drug administration appear to be drastically decreasing Plasmodium falciparum infections. Such approaches remain crucial as the region moves toward elimination of P. falciparum and potentially Plasmodium vivax.

  11. Nitrogen requirements of cassava in selected soils of Thailand

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    Jakchaiwat Kaweewong

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cassava (Manihot esculenta is one of the most important export crops in Thailand, yet the nitrogen requirement is unknown and not considered by growers and producers. Cassava requirements for N were determined in field experiments during a period of four years and four sites on the Satuk (Suk, Don Chedi (Dc, Pak Chong (Pc,and Ban Beung (BBg soil series in Lopburi, Supanburi, Nakhon Ratchasima, and Chonburi sites, respectively. The fertilizer treatment structure comprised 0, 62.5, 125, 187.5, 250 and 312.5 kg N ha^(-1 as urea. At each site cassava was harvested at nine months and yield parameters and the minimum datasets were taken. The fertilizer rate which resulted in maximum yield ranged from 187.5 kg N ha^(-1 in Supanburi and Chonburi (fresh weight yield of 47,500 and 30,000 kg ha^(-1 respectively to 250 kg N ha^(-1 in Lopburi and Nakhon Ratchasima (fresh weight yield of 64,100 and 46,700 kg ha^(-1 respectively. Yield appeared to decrease at the higher, 312 kg ha^(-1, at Supanburi and Lopburi, and 250 kg ha^(-1 (Chonburi fertilizer N rates. Net revenue was 70.4 and 72.9 % higher than where no N was appliedLopburi and Nakhon Ratchasima sites. Net revenue at the Supanburi and Chonburi sites were 53.8 and 211.0 % higher than that where no N was applied. This study suggests that at all sites improved cassava production and net revenue could be obtained with the judicious application of higher quantities of N. The results provide needed guidance to nitrogen fertilization of the important industrial crop cassava in Thailand.

  12. Hemoglobin Variants in Northern Thailand: Prevalence, Heterogeneity and Molecular Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyasai, Sitthichai; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Fucharoen, Supan

    2016-01-01

    There are limited data on hemoglobin (Hb) variants among peoples of northern Thailand. Hence, we determined the prevalence of Hb variants among a large cohort from this region. A study was done on 23,914 subjects recruited from eight provinces during June 2012-January 2014. Hb was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and capillary electrophoresis, and corresponding mutations were identified by polymerase chain reaction. Among 23,914 subjects examined, 211 (0.88%) were found to carry 14 different Hb variants. Five α-globin chain variants were identified: Hb Q-Thailand (n = 40; 19.0%), Hb Hekinan (n = 8, 3.8%), Hb Siam (n = 2, 0.9%), Hb Beijing (n = 1, 0.5%), and Hb Kawachi (n = 1, 0.5%), not previously described in the Thai population. Seven β-globin variants, including Hb Hope, Hb Tak, Hb S, Hb J-Bangkok, Hb G-Makassar, Hb C, and Hb Korle-Bu, were found in 115 (54.5%), 30 (14.2%), 3 (1.4%), 3 (1.4%), 1 (0.5%), 1 (0.5%), and 1 (0.5%) subjects, respectively. The remaining five subjects (2.4%) were carriers of two different δ-globin chain variants. A different spectrum and frequencies of Hb variants were noted compared to other geographical areas. Haplotype analysis demonstrated multiple origins for Hbs Hope and Tak and confirmed a non-African origin of Hb C. Several genetic interactions between these variants with other hemoglobinopathies were encountered. Associated hematological phenotypes and novel Hb derivatives formed were presented. The prevalence and molecular heterogeneities of the Hb variants found in this large cohort of the northern Thai people's should prove useful in developing a screening program, and for the performance of additional population genetics studies of hemoglobinopathy in the region.

  13. Population Engagement and Consultation at the Local Level: Thailand Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putthasri, Weerasak; Mathurapote, Nanoot; Srisookwattana, Orapan

    2017-01-01

    The World Health Organization handbook on Strategizing National Health in the 21st Century has emphasized the importance of the process of population consultation on needs and expectations. According to Thailand National Health Act 2007, three innovative social tools for participatory healthy public policy process were proposed, i.e., health assembly, health impact assessment and health system statute (charter). In practice, population consultation process is required in the process of the tools implementation. Therefore, this paper aims to illustrate how local health statute implementation supports population participation and consultation at the local level. The first local health statute owned by Cha-lae sub-district in Songkla Province had been introduced in 2009. So far, there are above 500 sub-districts or "Tambon" having their own health system statutes. Tambon Administrative Organization (TAO), health and non-health sectors, community leaders and civil society seemed to be key actors or a mechanism for the local health statute. This demonstrated three crucial elements or sectors for policy development, i.e., policy maker, evidence support and society. Contents of the local health statute are wide ranged, including social determinants, risks and diseases, life style, health services, health fund, to mental and social health in regard to the local problem and context. Therefore, it needs the process of discussion and consultation to seek their common interest and expectation. Local health statute in Thailand is an example of engagement and consultation of the population for health policy. This confirmed the process of population consultation on their needs and expectation that can be implemented both at national and local levels. This is also the strategy to improve the accountability of policy makers for health impacts at all levels of policy making. The challenges of local health statute include the mechanism to maintain and ensure the engagement and

  14. Sea snake harvest in the gulf of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cao, Nguyen; Thien Tao, Nguyen; Moore, Amelia; Montoya, Alfred; Redsted Rasmussen, Arne; Broad, Kenneth; Voris, Harold K; Takacs, Zoltan

    2014-12-01

    Conservation of sea snakes is virtually nonexistent in Asia, and its role in human-snake interactions in terms of catch, trade, and snakebites as an occupational hazard is mostly unexplored. We collected data on sea snake landings from the Gulf of Thailand, a hotspot for sea snake harvest by squid fishers operating out of the ports of Song Doc and Khanh Hoi, Ca Mau Province, Vietnam. The data were collected during documentation of the steps of the trading process and through interviewers with participants in the trade. Squid vessels return to ports once per lunar synodic cycle and fishers sell snakes to merchants who sort, package, and ship the snakes to various destinations in Vietnam and China for human consumption and as a source of traditional remedies. Annually, 82 t, roughly equal to 225,500 individuals, of live sea snakes are brought to ports. To our knowledge, this rate of harvest constitutes one of the largest venomous snake and marine reptile harvest activities in the world today. Lapemis curtus and Hydrophis cyanocinctus constituted about 85% of the snake biomass, and Acalyptophis peronii, Aipysurus eydouxii, Hydrophis atriceps, H. belcheri, H. lamberti, and H. ornatus made up the remainder. Our results establish a quantitative baseline for characteristics of catch, trade, and uses of sea snakes. Other key observations include the timing of the trade to the lunar cycle, a decline of sea snakes harvested over the study period (approximately 30% decline in mass over 4 years), and the treatment of sea snake bites with rhinoceros horn. Emerging markets in Southeast Asia drive the harvest of venomous sea snakes in the Gulf of Thailand and sea snake bites present a potentially lethal occupational hazard. We call for implementation of monitoring programs to further address the conservation implications of this large-scale marine reptile exploitation. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  15. Overdose experiences among injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Evan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although previous studies have identified high levels of drug-related harm in Thailand, little is known about illicit drug overdose experiences among Thai drug users. We sought to investigate non-fatal overdose experiences and responses to overdose among a community-recruited sample of injection drug users (IDU in Bangkok, Thailand. Methods Data for these analyses came from IDU participating in the Mit Sampan Community Research Project. The primary outcome of interest was a self-reported history of non-fatal overdose. We calculated the prevalence of past overdose and estimated its relationship with individual, drug-using, social, and structural factors using multivariate logistic regression. We also assessed the prevalence of ever witnessing an overdose and patterns of response to overdose. Results These analyses included 252 individuals; their median age was 36.5 years (IQR: 29.0 - 44.0 and 66 (26.2% were female. A history of non-fatal overdose was reported by 75 (29.8% participants. In a multivariate model, reporting a history of overdose was independently associated with a history of incarceration (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 3.83, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.52 - 9.65, p = 0.004 and reporting use of drugs in combination (AOR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.16 - 5.33, p = 0.019. A majority (67.9% reported a history of witnessing an overdose; most reported responding to the most recent overdose using first aid (79.5%. Conclusions Experiencing and witnessing an overdose were common in this sample of Thai IDU. These findings support the need for increased provision of evidence-based responses to overdose including peer-based overdose interventions.

  16. [Monkey malaria (Plasmodium knowlesi infection) after travelling to Thailand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroidl, Inge; Seilmaier, Michael; Berens-Riha, Nicole; Bretzel, Gisela; Wendtner, Clemens; Löscher, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    A case of malaria caused by Plasmodium knowlesi is described in a 52-year-old female German traveler after returning from Thailand. P. knowlesi is a parasite of macaques in Southeast Asia and has been recognized in recent years as an important and probably increasing cause of human malaria in some areas. At least 16 cases in international travelers have been published so far. This includes four cases imported to Germany. All German patients visited forested areas in Southern Thailand inhabited by the natural monkey host prior to their illness. Most cases diagnosed in endemic areas present as mild disease. However in some patients P. knowlesi may take a severe and life-threatening course. Diagnosis is usually is based on microscopy whereas rapid tests are not reliable. However, microscopic differentiation of P. knowlesi from other plasmodium species (eg, P. malariae, P. falciparum) is difficult, especially when parasitemia is low. Thus PCR methods are required for definite species determination. Changing endemicity as well as changing tourism patterns such as the trend towards eco-tourism might increase the risk of infection for travelers even in areas which are considered as low endemic for malaria. Malaria has to be considered in all febrile patients returning from endemic areas. In Southeast Asia this has to include Plasmodium knowlesi infection. Especially if microscopy suggests P. falciparum/P. malariae double infection, or when results indicate P. malariae but the clinical presentation differs from that of quartan malaria (eg, daily fever), diagnostic procedures for P. knowlesi should be initiated. Currently available rapid diagnostic tests are not reliable for the detection of P. knowlesi. The definite diagnosis of P. knowlesi infection usually requires PCR techniques Changing tourism patterns such as the trend towards eco-tourism might increase the risk of infection for travelers even in low prevalence areas. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. SOUND LABOR RELATIONS AT ENTERPRISE LEVEL IN THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vichai Thosuwonchinda

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the pattern of sound labor relations in Thailand in order to reduce conflicts between employers and workers and create cooperation. The research was based on a qualitative approach, using in-depth interview with 10 stakeholder groups of Thai industrial relations system. They were employees of non unionized companies at the shop floor level, employees of non unionized companies at the supervisor level, trade union leaders at the company level, trade union leaders at the national level, employers of non-unionized companies, employers’ organization leaders, and human resource managers, members of tripartite bodies, government officials and labor academics. The findings were presented in a model identifying 5 characteristics that enhance sound relations in Thailand, i.e. recognition between employer and workers, good communication, trust, data revealing and workers’ participation. It was suggested that all parties, employers, workers and the government should take part in the promotion of sound labor relations. The employer have to acknowledge labor union with a positive attitude, have good communication with workers , create trust with workers, disclose information, create culture of mutual benefits as well as accept sincerely the system that include workers’ participation. Workers need a strong labor union, good and sincere representatives for clear communication, trust, mutual benefits and seek conflict solutions with employer by win-win strategy. The government has a supporting role in adjusting the existing laws in the appropriate way, by creating policy for sound labor relations, and putting the idea of sound labor relations into practice.

  18. Environmental and health impact assessment for ports in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanchang, Chamchan; Sithisarankul, Pornchai; Supanitayanon, Thanawat

    2016-01-01

    Port development in Thailand is an essential part of the national maritime interest in connection with ship and shore activities. The growth of maritime industry and transportation has led to the expansion of ports' areas and capacity. Each port type causes different environmental impacts. Therefore, the Port Authority of Thailand has set up guidelines on ports' environmental management. This is divided into 3 major phases; namely, planning, construction and operation commencement periods. The Report of Environmental and Health Impact Assessment (EIA, HIA and EHIA) is regarded as the environmental management process in the planning period. It is a key tool to anticipate and prevent any adverse effects that might occur on the environment as well as community health resulting from the project implementation. This measure, in turn, creates advance preparation on both the preventive and problem-solving means before the project gets off the ground. At present, the majority of new projects on port development have still been in the process of information gathering for EHIA submission. Some cannot start to operate due to their EHIA failure. For example, the Tha-sala port which did not pass EHIA, mainly because emphasis had been focused on adhering to legal regulations without taking into consideration the in-depth analysis of data being conducted by community entities in the area. Thus caused the project to be finally abolished. Impact assessment on environment and health should be aimed at detailed understanding of the community in each particular area so that effective data of objective achievement in preventing environmental problems could actually be carried out and welcomed by the concerned society.

  19. Tourists’ attitudes towards ban on smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viriyachaiyo, V; Lim, A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Thailand is internationally renowned for its stringent tobacco control measures. In Thailand, a regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies was issued in late 2006, causing substantial apprehension within the hospitality industry. A survey of tourists’ attitudes toward the ban was conducted. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of 5550 travellers staying in various hotels in Bangkok, Surat Thani, Phuket, Krabi and Songkhla provinces, October 2005 to December 2006. Travellers aged 15 years or older with a check-in duration of at least one day and willing to complete the questionnaire were requested by hotel staff to fill in the 5-minute questionnaire at check-in or later at their convenience. Results: Secondhand cigarette smoke was recognised as harmful to health by 89.7% of respondents. 47.8% of travellers were aware of the Thai regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned restaurants. 80.9% of the respondents agreed with the ban, particularly female non-smokers. 38.6% of survey respondents indicated that they would be more likely to visit Thailand again because of the regulation, 53.4% that the regulation would not affect their decision and 7.9% that they would be less likely to visit Thailand again. Conclusion: Banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand is widely supported by tourists. Enforcement of the regulation is more likely to attract tourists than dissuade them from holidaying in Thailand. PMID:19364754

  20. Tourists' attitudes towards ban on smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viriyachaiyo, V; Lim, A

    2009-06-01

    Thailand is internationally renowned for its stringent tobacco control measures. In Thailand, a regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies was issued in late 2006, causing substantial apprehension within the hospitality industry. A survey of tourists' attitudes toward the ban was conducted. A cross-sectional survey of 5550 travellers staying in various hotels in Bangkok, Surat Thani, Phuket, Krabi and Songkhla provinces, October 2005 to December 2006. Travellers aged 15 years or older with a check-in duration of at least one day and willing to complete the questionnaire were requested by hotel staff to fill in the 5-minute questionnaire at check-in or later at their convenience. Secondhand cigarette smoke was recognised as harmful to health by 89.7% of respondents. 47.8% of travellers were aware of the Thai regulation banning smoking in air-conditioned restaurants. 80.9% of the respondents agreed with the ban, particularly female non-smokers. 38.6% of survey respondents indicated that they would be more likely to visit Thailand again because of the regulation, 53.4% that the regulation would not affect their decision and 7.9% that they would be less likely to visit Thailand again. Banning smoking in air-conditioned hotel lobbies in Thailand is widely supported by tourists. Enforcement of the regulation is more likely to attract tourists than dissuade them from holidaying in Thailand.

  1. The Evaluation of Feed-in Tariff Models for Photovoltaic System in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagulpongmalee Kangsadan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thailand is targeted to reach 6,000 MW of total installed PV capacity by 2036. Feed-in tariff (FIT was one of the most successful PV mechanisms of Thailand for promoting PV generated electricity. The evaluation of the FIT models for PV in Thailand which was designed 3 models such as premium price FIT model (Adder in the first FIT policy to motivate attention on investment in PV power plant. After that used fixed price FIT model for PV ground-mounted and front-end loaded FIT model for solar rooftop. In addition to, Thailand has project-specific tariff design which FIT rates are differentiated tariff payment levels by technology, capacity size, and quality of the resource. As result of FIT policies, the PV installation is 1,287 MW of cumulative capacity in 2014. Furthermore, the financial evaluation of FIT for PV project in Thailand found that Net Present Value (NPV 32.97 million Baht, Internal Rate of Return (IRR 13.22%, payback period 8.86 years and B/C ratio was 1.66 which must be implemented in conjunction with other financial support measures such as low interest loans, tax benefits, etc. The several incentives to promote PV in Thailand especially FIT shown as PV projects are to be profitable and incentives to investors.

  2. Historical occurrences of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in Manila Bay, Philippines, and in the upper Gulf of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Charita S; Takada, Hideshige; Boonyatumanond, Ruchaya; Kato, Yoshihisa; Mizukawa, Kaoruko; Ito, Maki; Dung, Le Quang; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Santiago, Evangeline C

    2014-02-01

    Historical trends of the accumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in a typical tropical Asian environment were investigated using radio-dated sediment cores from Manila Bay, the Philippines and from the upper Gulf of Thailand. Vertical profiles indicated earlier usage of PCBs than of PBDEs which coincided with their industrial production. The increasing concentrations of total PBDEs and PCBs toward the surface suggested an increased consumption of PBDEs; and possible leakage of PCBs from old machineries into the aquatic environment in recent years. Current input of PCBs to the catchment of Manila Bay was supported by the analyses of air samples and plastic resin pellets. The vertical profiles of total PBDEs in the cores (i.e., rapidly increasing concentrations corresponding to the mid-1980s until mid-1990s, followed by a decrease until the early 2000s, and increasing again toward the surface) likely corresponded to the rapid economic growth in Asia in the 1990s, the Asian financial crisis in 1997, and the economic recovery since early 2000s. BDE-209 was predominant especially on the surface layers. BDEs 47 and 99 generally decreased toward the surface, reflecting the phase-out of the technical penta-PBDE products and the regulation by the Stockholm Convention in recent years. Increasing ratios of BDE-202/209, 206/209, 207/209 and decreasing % of BDE-209 down the core layers may provide evidence for the anaerobic debromination of BDE-209 in the sediment cores. Inventories in ng/cm(2) of total PCBs were higher than total PBDEs (92 vs. 34 and 47 vs. 11 in the Philippines; 47 vs. 33 in Thailand). However, the doubling times indicated faster accumulation of total PBDEs (6-7 years) and BDE-209 (6-7.5 years) than of PCBs (8-11 years). Furthermore, the temporal increase in BDE-209 was comparable to or faster than those reported in other water bodies around the world. © 2013.

  3. Antimicrobial resistance: from global agenda to national strategic plan, Thailand/Resistance aux antimicrobiens: de l'agenda mondial au plan strategique national--Thailande/Resistencia a los antimicrobianos: de un programa mundial a un plan estrategico nacional, Tailandia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Sattayawutthipong, Wanchai; Kanjanapimai, Sukhum; Kanpravidth, Wantanee; Brown, Richard; Sommanustweechai, Angkana

    2017-01-01

    .... Approach On the basis of local evidence and with the strong participation of relevant stakeholders, the first national strategic plan on antimicrobial resistance has been developed in Thailand...

  4. Thailand's solar white elephants: an analysis of 15 yr of solar battery charging programmes in northern Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, D. [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy and Resources Group

    2004-04-01

    The use of decentralised renewable energy technologies to provide rural electrification in developing countries has been a common topic of analysis and policy debate for more than two decades. Unfortunately, a lack of empirical evidence about the field performance of these technologies is a significant barrier to making sound policy decisions about them. Compounded by minimal information sharing between stakeholders, this situation has frequently allowed duplication of inefficient policies. This issue is addressed here by providing empirical evidence gathered from field visits and interviews about the largest government subsidised solar battery charging programme in the world. This analysis highlights the different policies of departments responsible and discusses them with specific attention to their technical, social and economic components. Field study results from over 50 villages in the north of Thailand suggest about 60% of these systems are no longer operational. Many of the technical failures observed are attributed to social factors, as well as flawed implementation strategies. (author)

  5. Diphtheria outbreak in Thailand, 2012; seroprevalence of diphtheria antibodies among Thai adults and its implications for immunization programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanlapakorn, Nasamon; Yoocharoen, Pornsak; Tharmaphornpilas, Piyanit; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2014-09-01

    An age distribution shift in diphtheria cases during a 2012 outbreak in northeastern of Thailand suggests adults are increasingly at risk for infection in Thailand. Data regarding immunity against diphtheria among the adult Thai population is limited. We review a 2012 diphtheria outbreak in Thailand and conducted a nationwide seroepidemiological survey to determine the prevalence of diphtheria antibodies among Thai adults in order to inform immunization programs. A total of 41 confirmed cases, 6 probable cases and 101 carriers of diphtheria were reported from northeastern and upper southern Thailand. The diphtheria outbreak in northeastern Thailand occurred among adults aged > or =15 years; sporadic cases occurred among children from upper southern Thailand. We conducted a seroepidemiological survey of 890 Thai adults from 4 age groups (20-29, 30-39, 40-49 and 50-59 years) in 7 different geographical areas of Thailand (Chiang Mai, Ratchaburi, Chon Buri, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Phitsanulok, Khon Kaen and Songkhla). Diptheria toxin antibody levels were measured with a commercially available ELISA test. The seroprotection rate ranged from 83% to 99%, with the highest in eastern Thailand (Chon Buri, 99%) and the lowest in northern Thailand (Chiang Mai, 83%). Diphtheria antibodies declined with increasing age. We recommend one doseof diphtheria-tetanus toxoid (dT) vaccine once after 20 years of age in order to boost the antibody and revaccinations every 10 years to prevent future outbreaks.

  6. Cycad diversification and tropical biodiversity

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    Rull, V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent unexpected discovery that living Cycadales are not Jurassic-Cretaceous (200– 65 Mya relicts, as all their extant genera began to diversify during the Late Miocene (12 Mya, has challenged a classical evolutionary myth. This brief note shows how this finding may also provide new clues on the shaping of the high tropical biodiversity

    El reciente e inesperado descubrimiento de que las Cycadales actuales no son relictos Jurásico-Cretácicos (200-65 Mya, ya que todos sus géneros iniciaron su diversificación durante el Mioceno Tardío (12 Mya, ha puesto en entredicho un mito evolutivo clásico. En esta nota se expone como este hallazgo puede, además, proporcionar nuevas pistas sobre el origen de la elevada biodiversidad tropical.

  7. Colonial adventures in tropical agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Buelens, Frans; Frankema, Ewout

    2016-01-01

    How profitable were foreign investments in plantation agriculture in the Netherlands Indies during the late colonial era? We use a new dataset of monthly quoted stock prices and dividends of international companies at the Brussels stock exchange to estimate the returns to investment in tropical agriculture (1919–1938). We adopt the Dimson–March–Staunton method to compute real geometric annual average rates of return and assess our estimates in an international comparative perspective. We find...

  8. Viral exanthems in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Sueli Coelho da Silva; Cestari, Tania; Allen, Samuel H; Ramos e-Silva, Marcia

    2007-01-01

    Viral exanthems are a common problem in tropical regions, particularly affecting children. Most exanthems are transient and harmless, but some are potentially very dangerous. Pregnant women and malnourished or immunocompromised infants carry the greatest risk of adverse outcome. In this article, parvovirus B19; dengue and yellow fever; West Nile, Barmah Forest, Marburg, and Ebola viruses, and human herpesviruses; asymmetric periflexural exanthema of childhood; measles; rubella; enteroviruses; Lassa fever; and South American hemorrhagic fevers will be discussed.

  9. Hydrological connectivity and Burkholderia pseudomallei prevalence in wetland environments: investigating rice-farming community's risk of exposure to melioidosis in North-East Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, C Joon; Tan, Esther K H; Sermswan, Rasana W; Ziegler, Alan D

    2017-06-01

    In our analysis of 136 water samples from wetland environments (rice paddies, natural wetland sites, man-made water bodies) in rural areas of North-East Thailand, Burkholderia pseudomallei was most prevalent in rice paddies (15 of the 30 positive sites). The high prevalence in the water of rice fields is indicative of the inherent vulnerability of farmers in rural agricultural areas in this area of Thailand and likely other locations in the tropics. Nearly all B. pseudomallei-positive sites were found within the vicinity of a large wetland associated with the Chi River, in the month of July 2014. Positive samples were found in water ranging in pH from 5.9 to 8.7, salinity ranging from 0.04 to 1.58 ppt, nitrate ranging from 0 to 10.8 ppm, and iron ranging from 0.003 to 1.519 ppm. Of these variables, only iron content was statistically higher in B. pseudomallei-positive versus B. pseudomallei-negative sites, suggesting that increasing concentrations of iron may encourage the growth of this bacterium, which is responsible for melioidosis. Our results, when combined with data from other published studies, support the notion that B. pseudomallei can exist in a wide range of environmental conditions. Thus, we argue that health safety education is a more appropriate means of addressing farmer vulnerability than chemical or physical alterations to fields at large scales. Further, it may be important to investigate melioidosis through transdisciplinary approaches that consider the complex social and ecological contexts in which the disease occurs.

  10. How many tigers Panthera tigris are there in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand? An estimate using photographic capture-recapture sampling

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    Simcharoen, S.; Pattanavibool, A.; Karanth, K.U.; Nichols, J.D.; Kumar, N.S.

    2007-01-01

    We used capture-recapture analyses to estimate the density of a tiger Panthera tigris population in the tropical forests of Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand, from photographic capture histories of 15 distinct individuals. The closure test results (z = 0.39, P = 0.65) provided some evidence in support of the demographic closure assumption. Fit of eight plausible closed models to the data indicated more support for model Mh, which incorporates individual heterogeneity in capture probabilities. This model generated an average capture probability $\\hat p$ = 0.42 and an abundance estimate of $\\widehat{N}(\\widehat{SE}[\\widehat{N}])$ = 19 (9.65) tigers. The sampled area of $\\widehat{A}(W)(\\widehat{SE}[\\widehat{A}(W)])$ = 477.2 (58.24) km2 yielded a density estimate of $\\widehat{D}(\\widehat{SE}[\\widehat{D}])$ = 3.98 (0.51) tigers per 100 km2. Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary could therefore hold 113 tigers and the entire Western Forest Complex c. 720 tigers. Although based on field protocols that constrained us to use sub-optimal analyses, this estimated tiger density is comparable to tiger densities in Indian reserves that support moderate prey abundances. However, tiger densities in well-protected Indian reserves with high prey abundances are three times higher. If given adequate protection we believe that the Western Forest Complex of Thailand could potentially harbour >2,000 wild tigers, highlighting its importance for global tiger conservation. The monitoring approaches we recommend here would be useful for managing this tiger population.

  11. Evaluation of the process performance of a down-flow hanging sponge reactor for direct treatment of domestic wastewater in Bangkok, Thailand.

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    Miyaoka, Yuma; Yoochatchaval, Wilasinee; Sumino, Haruhiko; Banjongproo, Pathan; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Onodera, Takashi; Okadera, Tomohiro; Syutsubo, Kazuaki

    2017-08-24

    This study assesses the performance of an aerobic trickling filter, down-flow hanging sponge (DHS) reactor, as a decentralized domestic wastewater treatment technology. Also, the characteristic eukaryotic community structure in DHS reactor was investigated. Long-term operation of a DHS reactor for direct treatment of domestic wastewater (COD = 150-170 mg/L and BOD = 60-90 mg/L) was performed under the average ambient temperature ranged from 28°C to 31°C in Bangkok, Thailand. Throughout the evaluation period of 550 days, the DHS reactor at a hydraulic retention time of 3 h showed better performance than the existing oxidation ditch process in the removal of organic carbon (COD removal rate = 80-83% and BOD removal rate = 91%), nitrogen compounds (total nitrogen removal rate = 45-51% and NH4(+)-N removal rate = 95-98%), and low excess sludge production (0.04 gTS/gCOD removed). The clone library based on the 18S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene sequence revealed that phylogenetic diversity of 18S rRNA gene in the DHS reactor was higher than that of the present oxidation ditch process. Furthermore, the DHS reactor also demonstrated sufficient COD and NH4(+)-N removal efficiency under flow rate fluctuation conditions that simulates a small-scale treatment facility. The results show that a DHS reactor could be applied as a decentralized domestic wastewater treatment technology in tropical regions such as Bangkok, Thailand.

  12. Environmental and socio-economic change in Thailand: quantifying spatio-temporal risk factors of dengue to inform decision making

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    Rodo, X.; Lowe, R.; Karczewska-Gibert, A.; Cazelles, B.

    2013-12-01

    Dengue is a peri-urban mosquito-transmitted disease, ubiquitous in the tropics and the subtropics. The geographic distribution of dengue and its more severe form, dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), have expanded dramatically in the last decades and dengue is now considered to be the world's most important arboviral disease. Recent demographic changes have greatly contributed to the acceleration and spread of the disease along with uncontrolled urbanization, population growth and increased air travel, which acts as a mechanism for transporting and exchanging dengue viruses between endemic and epidemic populations. The dengue vector and virus are extremely sensitive to environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity and precipitation that influence mosquito biology, abundance and habitat and the virus replication speed. In order to control the spread of dengue and impede epidemics, decision support systems are required that take into account the multi-faceted array of factors that contribute to increased dengue risk. Due to availability of seasonal climate forecasts, that predict the average climate conditions for forthcoming months/seasons in both time and space, there is an opportunity to incorporate precursory climate information in a dengue decision support system to aid epidemic planning months in advance. Furthermore, oceanic indicators from teleconnected areas in the Pacific and Indian Ocean, that can provide some indication of the likely prevailing climate conditions in certain regions, could potentially extend predictive lead time in a dengue early warning system. In this paper we adopt a spatio-temporal Bayesian modelling framework for dengue in Thailand to support public health decision making. Monthly cases of dengue in the 76 provinces of Thailand for the period 1982-2012 are modelled using a multi-layered approach. Explanatory variables at various spatial and temporal resolutions are incorporated into a hierarchical model in order to make spatio

  13. Genetic diversity of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus based on two hypervariable effector genes in Thailand.

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    Thamrongjet Puttamuk

    Full Text Available Huanglongbing (HLB, also known as citrus greening, is one of the most destructive diseases of citrus worldwide. HLB is associated with three species of 'Candidatus Liberibacter' with 'Ca. L. asiaticus' (Las being the most widely distributed around the world, and the only species detected in Thailand. To understand the genetic diversity of Las bacteria in Thailand, we evaluated two closely-related effector genes, lasAI and lasAII, found within the Las prophages from 239 infected citrus and 55 infected psyllid samples collected from different provinces in Thailand. The results indicated that most of the Las-infected samples collected from Thailand contained at least one prophage sequence with 48.29% containing prophage 1 (FP1, 63.26% containing prophage 2 (FP2, and 19.38% containing both prophages. Interestingly, FP2 was found to be the predominant population in Las-infected citrus samples while Las-infected psyllids contained primarily FP1. The multiple banding patterns that resulted from amplification of lasAI imply extensive variation exists within the full and partial repeat sequence while the single band from lasAII indicates a low amount of variation within the repeat sequence. Phylogenetic analysis of Las-infected samples from 22 provinces in Thailand suggested that the bacterial pathogen may have been introduced to Thailand from China and the Philippines. This is the first report evaluating the genetic variation of a large population of Ca. L. asiaticus infected samples in Thailand using the two effector genes from Las prophage regions.

  14. Molecular epidemiological and serological studies of bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in Thailand cattle.

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    Lee, EunJung; Kim, Eun-Ju; Ratthanophart, Jadsada; Vitoonpong, Ratchaneekorn; Kim, Bo-Hye; Cho, In-Soo; Song, Jae-Young; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Shin, Yeun-Kyung

    2016-07-01

    BLV is the etiological agent of enzootic bovine leucosis. BLV has negative effects on animal health and causes economic losses worldwide. However, epidemiological studies on BLV are relatively unknown in many parts of Asian countries. Thus, this study sought to explore BLV infections in cattle in Thailand to determine the extent of the geographic distribution of BLV and to measure its prevalence rates. For this study, 744 cattle from 11 farms in 9 provinces of Thailand were screened in 2013 and 2014 by ELISA and nested PCR. Of those cattle, 41 BLVs were genetically characterized using 188 BLV gp51 env gene sequences available in GenBank. The BLV prevalence in Thailand was high, ranging from 5.3% to 87.8%, as determined by PCR and 11.0% to 100% as determined by ELISA, according to geographical region. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Thailand BLVs belonged to genotypes 1 and 6 and a new genotype 10, which are sporadically observed across Thailand with a prevalence of 31.7%, 19.5%, and 48.8%, respectively. A significant number of amino acid substitutions were also found in the gp51 sequences, of which unique changes in genotype 10 have not been reported previously. Briefly, the majority of substitutions were confined to CD4+/CD8+ T-cell epitopes, neutralizing domains, and E-D-A epitopes. Those observations indicate that BLV infections in Thailand cattle are prevalent and that the geographic distribution of BLV is dynamic, with a high level of genetic diversity. This distribution implies a long-term BLV infection in cattle populations and the movement of infected cattle. In sum, this study suggests that intensive surveillance and effective prevention strategies are required to determine the prevalence of BLV in Thailand and control continuous infections with BLVs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Orthogonius species and diversity in Thailand (Coleoptera, Caraboidea, Orthogoniini, a result from the TIGER project

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    Mingyi Tian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The carabid genus Orthogonius MacLeay is treated, based mainly on materials collected in Thailand through the TIGER project (the Thailand Inventory Group for Entomological Research. Among 290 specimens, 20 species are identified in total, 10 of them are new species: O. taghavianae sp. n. (Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park, O. coomanioides sp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park, O. similaris sp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Loei: Phu Kradueng National Park, O. setosopalpiger sp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park, O. gracililamella sp. n. (Loei: Phu Kradueng National Park; Chaiyaphum: Tat Tone National Park, O. pseudochaudoiri sp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park, O. constrictus sp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park, O. pinophilus sp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park, O. vari sp. n. (Cambodia: Siem Reap; Thailand: Ubon Ratchathani: Pha Taem National Park; Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park and O. variabilis sp. n. (Thailand: Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park; Phetchabun: Nam Nao National Park; China: Yunnan. In addition, O. mouhoti Chaudoir, 1871 and O. kirirom Tian & Deuve, 2008 are recorded in Thailand for the first time. In total, 30 species of Orthogonius have been recorded from Thailand, indicating that Thailand holds one of the richest Orthogonius faunas in the world. A provisional key to all Thai species is provided. A majority of Thai Orthogonius species are endemic. Among the ten national parks in which orthogonine beetles were collected, Thung Salaeng Luang holds the richest fauna, including 16 species.

  16. [Tropical pyomyositis. A report of 188 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe-Flores, Jesús Daniel; Hernández-Jácome, Mercedes

    2004-01-01

    Tropical pyomyositis, a bacterial muscular infection, has been reported frequently from tropical and subtropical zones. However, there are only a few reports from Mexico. We present a prospective study of tropical pyomyositis cases in three secondary- and tertiary-care hospitals in Veracruz, Mexico between August 1985 and December 2000. Tropical pyomyositis was more common in young adults, male-to-female ratio being 2.2:1. Principal features were muscle pains, fluctuanct muscular mass, and fever. Tropical pyomyositis was associated with recent muscular trauma and/or pyodermitis in 67% of cases. 60% of admissions presented invasive clinical stage of the disease, and fewer of 20% of cases presented multiple muscular involvement. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common etiologic agent. Most frequent complications were pleuropulmonaries. Only one patient, who had septicemia and multiple organ failure, died. Tropical pyomyositis is rare in healthy individuals and requires high clinical suspicion. Prognosis is generally favorable after surgical drainage and adequate antimicrobial therapy.

  17. Recent researches on prebiotics for gut health in Thailand

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    Santad Wichienchot

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the food industries, several oligosaccharides have received increasing attention as key components for functional foods and nutraceutical products. Prebiotics are non-digestible oligosaccharides which have been shown to have properties that can modulate gastrointestinal problems and improve gut health and well-being. Recent researches much pay attention to find alternative sources, improve specific properties and proof on health benefits of these prebiotics. Methods: This is the summary of research works have been done by our research group on prebiotics and gut health in Thailand. These works aimed to study sources of prebiotics from fruits and vegetables in Thailand, production by enzymatic synthesis of prebiotics, purification by microbial fermentation and membrane technology and applications of the prebiotics in nutraceuticals and functional foods. Results: Among the 30 parts of 14 plants, six appear to have the highest potential for commercialization based on extract yield and the amount and type of indigestible oligosaccharides. These include dragon fruit, palm flesh, palm embryo, jackfruit flesh, jackfruit seed, and okra pod. At least three of them, dragon fruit, jackfruit flesh and seed, were confirmed on their prebiotic property by selectively in vitro colonic microflora fermentation in an artificial colon system. Among 52 LAB isolates for production of GOS, BFP32 showed highest intracellular β-galactosidase activity and GOS yield. It was identified as Lactobacillus pentosus var. plantarum by 16S rDNA sequencing. Composition of GOS consisted of oligosaccharides with having DP of 3, 4 and 5. A mixture of GOS was purified successful by sequential bacterial and yeast fermentation whereas nanofiltration could be used for partial purification. Prebiotic index (PI of the GOS produced was1.19 in batch culture. A crude extract from tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. had transfructosylating activity for

  18. Abiotic factors influencing tropical dry forests regeneration

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    Ceccon Eliane

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical dry forests represent nearly half the tropical forests in the world and are the ecosystems registering the greatest deterioration from the anthropogenic exploitation of the land. This paper presents a review on the dynamics of tropical dry forests regeneration and the main abiotic factors influencing this regeneration, such as seasonal nature, soil fertility and humidity, and natural and anthropic disturbances. The main purpose is to clearly understand an important part of TDF succession dynamics.

  19. Occupational Risk Factors of Lymphohematopoietic Cancer in Rayong Province, Thailand.

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    Punjindasup, Apinya; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Ekpanyaskul, Chatchai

    2015-11-01

    The Lymphohematopoietic Cancer (LHC) incidence rate in Thailand has been rising over the past decade with unknown etiology, including Rayong province. One hypothesis of LHC risks is exposure to occupational carcinogens. To determine the association of occupational exposure and LHC risks in Rayong province, Thailand. This matched hospital-based case-control study was conducted in a Rayong provincial hospital from September 2009 to January 2013. One LHC case was matched with four controls in gender and age, ±5 years. Demographic data, residential factors, behavioral factors, and occupational exposure-including chemical exposure-were obtained by interviews and collected by occupational health care officers. The risk factor was analyzed by conditional logistic regression and reported in odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. This study found 105 LHC cases which met the inclusion criteria and were included in the study, yielding a 66% cover rate of cases reported in the database. The histology of LHC were 51 leukemia cases (47.7%), 43 lymphoma cases (42.0%), and 11 multiple myeloma cases (10.3%). The results revealed that occupational exposure to pesticide and smoke were statistically significantly associated with LHC with adjusted ORs 2.26 (95% CI 1.30-3.91) and 1.99 (95% CI = 1.13-3.51), respectively. When stratified to histological subtype of LHC by WHO 2000, leukemia was statistically significantly associated with occupational exposure to smoke, adjusted ORs 2.43 (95% CI 1.11-5.36), with occupational pesticide exposure a significant risk of lymphoma, adjusted ORs 4.69 (95% CI 2.01-10.96). However, neither fumes, wood dust, working outdoors, cleaners, contact with animals, petroleum products and chlorine; nor occupational exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as benzene or organic solvents, were statistically significant risk factors of LHC. In addition, there were no significant risks in the demographic data, residential factors, and behavioral

  20. Shifts in household demographics herald economic changes for Thailand.

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    Greenspan, A

    1993-06-01

    In Thailand, dramatic changes in households and the health status of the population have led to important implications for the economic sector. These changes affect health, education, housing, employment and transportation. A new book on the economic impact of demographic change by Andrew Mason and Burnham O. Campbell is referred to as a full discussion of the issues. National planning and projections must include household characteristics as well as numerical projections. The analysis of Mason and Campbell is summarized in this article. Important changes are occurring in the size, rate of growth, and age structure of Thailand's population. Life expectancy has risen to 63 years for men and 68 years for women. Fertility has fallen to 2 children/woman. Population growth was 1.9% in 1990. In 1990, there were only 1 in 3 under the age of 15, and these numbers are expected to shrink to 1 in 4 by the year 2000. 60% of the population is of working age; this is expected to increase to 65% by the year 2000. The 60 years old population is expected to be 7.5% of the total in the year 2000. The average household has 1.6 children. 96% of households live with a relative. The expectation is that household size will continue to decrease and the number of households will continue to grow. The number of elderly heads of households is expected to rise to 11% by 2010. Households will become "adultified." The policy implications for education are that the school age population will gradually decreases but the number enrolled will increase. Primary school enrollment will stabilize and then decline after 1995. Secondary school enrollment will increase and level off in 2005. Total enrollment will increase from 10.5 million in 1990 to 11.4 million in 2000 and decline to 10.7 in 2015. These changes will allow for improvements in the quality of education and expand educational attainment. In health care, the demand for maternal and child health services will decline; changes will occur in