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Sample records for thailand combining econometrics

  1. Econometrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, C.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report of the Econometrics laboratory (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. Microeconomy is the main research field of the Center. The applications involve the market organization, the national development, the natural resources and the education. One of the research topics is the development of theorems which allow a relationship between economic equilibrium and optimization, for the increasing efficiency economies. Concerning industrial economy, the investigations are also based on the in situ studies and on the socio-economic factors. The research projects include land selling transactions and public regulation activities, the environment management and the obtention of educational means. The published papers, the congress communications and the thesis, are listed [fr

  2. BAYESIAN FORECASTS COMBINATION TO IMPROVE THE ROMANIAN INFLATION PREDICTIONS BASED ON ECONOMETRIC MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Simionescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many types of econometric models used in predicting the inflation rate, but in this study we used a Bayesian shrinkage combination approach. This methodology is used in order to improve the predictions accuracy by including information that is not captured by the econometric models. Therefore, experts’ forecasts are utilized as prior information, for Romania these predictions being provided by Institute for Economic Forecasting (Dobrescu macromodel, National Commission for Prognosis and European Commission. The empirical results for Romanian inflation show the superiority of a fixed effects model compared to other types of econometric models like VAR, Bayesian VAR, simultaneous equations model, dynamic model, log-linear model. The Bayesian combinations that used experts’ predictions as priors, when the shrinkage parameter tends to infinite, improved the accuracy of all forecasts based on individual models, outperforming also zero and equal weights predictions and naïve forecasts.

  3. Entropy Econometrics for combining regional economic forecasts: A Data-Weighted Prior Estimator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Vázquez, Esteban; Moreno, Blanca

    2017-10-01

    Forecast combination has been studied in econometrics for a long time, and the literature has shown the superior performance of forecast combination over individual predictions. However, there is still controversy on which is the best procedure to specify the forecast weights. This paper explores the possibility of using a procedure based on Entropy Econometrics, which allows setting the weights for the individual forecasts as a mixture of different alternatives. In particular, we examine the ability of the Data-Weighted Prior Estimator proposed by Golan (J Econom 101(1):165-193, 2001) to combine forecasting models in a context of small sample sizes, a relative common scenario when dealing with time series for regional economies. We test the validity of the proposed approach using a simulation exercise and a real-world example that aims at predicting gross regional product growth rates for a regional economy. The forecasting performance of the Data-Weighted Prior Estimator proposed is compared with other combining methods. The simulation results indicate that in scenarios of heavily ill-conditioned datasets the approach suggested dominates other forecast combination strategies. The empirical results are consistent with the conclusions found in the numerical experiment.

  4. Hemoglobin Q-Thailand and its combinations with other forms of thalassemia or hemoglobinopathies in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyasai, Sitthichai; Pornprasert, Sakorn

    2014-01-01

    There have been no reports for the frequency of Hb Q-Thailand [alpha 74(EF3)Asp --> His, GAC > CAC] and its combinations either with other forms of thalassemia or hemoglobinopathies in Northern Thailand. The aims of this study were to search for Hb Q-Thailand and its combinations in Northern Thai population and to analyze fractions of hemoglobin in Hb Q-Thailand and its combinations on high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) chromatograms and/or capillary electrophoresis (CE) electrophoregrams. Blood samples from public and private hospitals in 7 northern provinces of Thailand were analyzed for thalassemia and hemoglobinopathy diagnoses using HPLC and/or CE and DNA analysis techniques at the Thalassemia Laboratory, Associated Medical Sciences Clinical Service Center, Chiang Mai, Thailand. Hb Q-Thailand was found in 13 of 13,596 (0.10%) samples; 6 were heterozygous Hb Q-Thailand, 4 were compound Hb Q-Thailand/alpha-thalassemia-1 Southeast Asian (SEA) type deletion and 3 with combinations of Hb Q-Thailand/beta(0)-thalassemia, Hb Q-Thailand/Hb E and Hb Q-Thailand/Hb E/alpha-thalassemia-1 SEA type deletion. The fractions of hemoglobin on HPLC chromatograms and CE electrophoregrams were observed based on types of combinations. Hb Q-Thailand and its combinations could be found in northern Thai population with the frequency of 0.10%. Thus, the better understanding of HPLC chromatogram and/or CE electrophoregram patterns of Hb Q-Thailand and its combination is essential for diagnosis and genetic counseling of thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies in this area.

  5. Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    This economical study summarizes the energy situation of Thailand: energy institutions and policy, energy companies (oil, gas, electricity), energy supplies (gas reserves, oil, power production, coal, lignite, renewable energies), prices, consumption, economical stakes and perspectives (energy consumption, power production, projects, contracts, agreements, investments). Economical data for the 1971-1999 period are summarized in graphs and tables. (J.S.)

  6. What drives the change in China's energy intensity: Combining decomposition analysis and econometric analysis at the provincial level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Feng; Zheng, Xinye

    2012-01-01

    We employ decomposition analysis and econometric analysis to investigate the driving forces behind China's changing energy intensity using a provincial-level panel data set for the period from 1995 to 2009. The decomposition analysis indicates that: (a) all of the provinces except for a few experienced efficiency improvement, while around three-fourths of the provinces' economics became more energy intensive or remained unchanged; (b) consequently the efficiency improvement accounts for more than 90% of China's energy intensity change as opposed to the economic structural change. The econometric analysis shows that the rising income plays a significant role in the reduction of energy intensity while the effect of energy price is relatively limited. The result may reflect the urgency of deregulating the price and establishing a market-oriented pricing system in China's energy sector. The implementation of the energy intensity reduction policies in the Eleventh Five-Year Plan (FYP) has helped reverse the increasing trend of energy intensity since 2002. Although the Chinese Government intended to change the industry-led economic growth pattern, it seems that most of the policy effects flow through the efficiency improvement as opposed to the economic structure adjustment. More fundamental changes to the economic structure are needed to achieve more sustainable progress in energy intensity reduction. - Highlights: ► We examine the determinants of China's energy intensity change at provincial level. ► Rising income plays a significant role in reducing China's energy intensity. ► Policy effects mainly flow through the efficiency improvement. ► Fundamental structure changes are needed to further reduce China's energy intensity.

  7. Thailand; Thailande

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    This economical study summarizes the energy situation of Thailand: energy institutions and policy, energy companies (oil, gas, electricity), energy supplies (gas reserves, oil, power production, coal, lignite, renewable energies), prices, consumption, economical stakes and perspectives (energy consumption, power production, projects, contracts, agreements, investments). Economical data for the 1971-1999 period are summarized in graphs and tables. (J.S.)

  8. Applied econometrics with R

    CERN Document Server

    Kleiber, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Offers an introduction to the R system for users with a background in economics. This book covers a variety of regression models, regression diagnostics and robustness issues, the nonlinear models of microeconomics, time series and time series econometrics.

  9. Predicting prices of agricultural commodities in Thailand using combined approach emphasizing on data pre-processing technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thoranin Sujjaviriyasup

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research, a combined approach emphasizing on data pre-processing technique is developed to forecast prices of agricultural commodities in Thailand. The future prices play significant role in decision making to cultivate crops in next year. The proposed model takes ability of MODWT to decompose original time series data into more stable and explicit subseries, and SVR model to formulate complex function of forecasting. The experimental results indicated that the proposed model outperforms traditional forecasting models based on MAE and MAPE criteria. Furthermore, the proposed model reveals that it is able to be a useful forecasting tool for prices of agricultural commodities in Thailand

  10. Robustness in econometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Sriboonchitta, Songsak; Huynh, Van-Nam

    2017-01-01

    This book presents recent research on robustness in econometrics. Robust data processing techniques – i.e., techniques that yield results minimally affected by outliers – and their applications to real-life economic and financial situations are the main focus of this book. The book also discusses applications of more traditional statistical techniques to econometric problems. Econometrics is a branch of economics that uses mathematical (especially statistical) methods to analyze economic systems, to forecast economic and financial dynamics, and to develop strategies for achieving desirable economic performance. In day-by-day data, we often encounter outliers that do not reflect the long-term economic trends, e.g., unexpected and abrupt fluctuations. As such, it is important to develop robust data processing techniques that can accommodate these fluctuations.

  11. Econometrics of risk

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik; Sriboonchitta, Songsak; Suriya, Komsan

    2015-01-01

    This edited book contains several state-of-the-art papers devoted to econometrics of risk. Some papers provide theoretical analysis of the corresponding mathematical, statistical, computational, and economical models. Other papers describe applications of the novel risk-related econometric techniques to real-life economic situations. The book presents new methods developed just recently, in particular, methods using non-Gaussian heavy-tailed distributions, methods using non-Gaussian copulas to properly take into account dependence between different quantities, methods taking into account imprecise ("fuzzy") expert knowledge, and many other innovative techniques. This versatile volume helps practitioners to learn how to apply new techniques of econometrics of risk, and researchers to further improve the existing models and to come up with new ideas on how to best take into account economic risks.

  12. Behavioral Econometrics for Psychologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten

    We make the case that psychologists should make wider use of structural econometric methods. These methods involve the development of maximum likelihood estimates of models, where the likelihood function is tailored to the structural model. In recent years these models have been developed...

  13. Convolution copula econometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Cherubini, Umberto; Mulinacci, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a novel approach to time series econometrics, which studies the behavior of nonlinear stochastic processes. This approach allows for an arbitrary dependence structure in the increments and provides a generalization with respect to the standard linear independent increments assumption of classical time series models. The book offers a solution to the problem of a general semiparametric approach, which is given by a concept called C-convolution (convolution of dependent variables), and the corresponding theory of convolution-based copulas. Intended for econometrics and statistics scholars with a special interest in time series analysis and copula functions (or other nonparametric approaches), the book is also useful for doctoral students with a basic knowledge of copula functions wanting to learn about the latest research developments in the field.

  14. Parameterized examination in econometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, Anna; Kyurkchiev, Vesselin; Spasov, Georgi

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents a parameterization of basic types of exam questions in Econometrics. This algorithm is used to automate and facilitate the process of examination, assessment and self-preparation of a large number of students. The proposed parameterization of testing questions reduces the time required to author tests and course assignments. It enables tutors to generate a large number of different but equivalent dynamic questions (with dynamic answers) on a certain topic, which are automatically assessed. The presented methods are implemented in DisPeL (Distributed Platform for e-Learning) and provide questions in the areas of filtering and smoothing of time-series data, forecasting, building and analysis of single-equation econometric models. Questions also cover elasticity, average and marginal characteristics, product and cost functions, measurement of monopoly power, supply, demand and equilibrium price, consumer and product surplus, etc. Several approaches are used to enable the required numerical computations in DisPeL - integration of third-party mathematical libraries, developing our own procedures from scratch, and wrapping our legacy math codes in order to modernize and reuse them.

  15. Causal inference in econometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik; Sriboonchitta, Songsak

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to the analysis of causal inference which is one of the most difficult tasks in data analysis: when two phenomena are observed to be related, it is often difficult to decide whether one of them causally influences the other one, or whether these two phenomena have a common cause. This analysis is the main focus of this volume. To get a good understanding of the causal inference, it is important to have models of economic phenomena which are as accurate as possible. Because of this need, this volume also contains papers that use non-traditional economic models, such as fuzzy models and models obtained by using neural networks and data mining techniques. It also contains papers that apply different econometric models to analyze real-life economic dependencies.

  16. Study protocol: combining experimental methods, econometrics and simulation modelling to determine price elasticities for studying food taxes and subsidies (The Price ExaM Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterlander, Wilma E; Blakely, Tony; Nghiem, Nhung; Cleghorn, Christine L; Eyles, Helen; Genc, Murat; Wilson, Nick; Jiang, Yannan; Swinburn, Boyd; Jacobi, Liana; Michie, Jo; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona

    2016-07-19

    There is a need for accurate and precise food price elasticities (PE, change in consumer demand in response to change in price) to better inform policy on health-related food taxes and subsidies. The Price Experiment and Modelling (Price ExaM) study aims to: I) derive accurate and precise food PE values; II) quantify the impact of price changes on quantity and quality of discrete food group purchases and; III) model the potential health and disease impacts of a range of food taxes and subsidies. To achieve this, we will use a novel method that includes a randomised Virtual Supermarket experiment and econometric methods. Findings will be applied in simulation models to estimate population health impact (quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]) using a multi-state life-table model. The study will consist of four sequential steps: 1. We generate 5000 price sets with random price variation for all 1412 Virtual Supermarket food and beverage products. Then we add systematic price variation for foods to simulate five taxes and subsidies: a fruit and vegetable subsidy and taxes on sugar, saturated fat, salt, and sugar-sweetened beverages. 2. Using an experimental design, 1000 adult New Zealand shoppers complete five household grocery shops in the Virtual Supermarket where they are randomly assigned to one of the 5000 price sets each time. 3. Output data (i.e., multiple observations of price configurations and purchased amounts) are used as inputs to econometric models (using Bayesian methods) to estimate accurate PE values. 4. A disease simulation model will be run with the new PE values as inputs to estimate QALYs gained and health costs saved for the five policy interventions. The Price ExaM study has the potential to enhance public health and economic disciplines by introducing internationally novel scientific methods to estimate accurate and precise food PE values. These values will be used to model the potential health and disease impacts of various food pricing policy

  17. Study protocol: combining experimental methods, econometrics and simulation modelling to determine price elasticities for studying food taxes and subsidies (The Price ExaM Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma E. Waterlander

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need for accurate and precise food price elasticities (PE, change in consumer demand in response to change in price to better inform policy on health-related food taxes and subsidies. Methods/Design The Price Experiment and Modelling (Price ExaM study aims to: I derive accurate and precise food PE values; II quantify the impact of price changes on quantity and quality of discrete food group purchases and; III model the potential health and disease impacts of a range of food taxes and subsidies. To achieve this, we will use a novel method that includes a randomised Virtual Supermarket experiment and econometric methods. Findings will be applied in simulation models to estimate population health impact (quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs] using a multi-state life-table model. The study will consist of four sequential steps: 1. We generate 5000 price sets with random price variation for all 1412 Virtual Supermarket food and beverage products. Then we add systematic price variation for foods to simulate five taxes and subsidies: a fruit and vegetable subsidy and taxes on sugar, saturated fat, salt, and sugar-sweetened beverages. 2. Using an experimental design, 1000 adult New Zealand shoppers complete five household grocery shops in the Virtual Supermarket where they are randomly assigned to one of the 5000 price sets each time. 3. Output data (i.e., multiple observations of price configurations and purchased amounts are used as inputs to econometric models (using Bayesian methods to estimate accurate PE values. 4. A disease simulation model will be run with the new PE values as inputs to estimate QALYs gained and health costs saved for the five policy interventions. Discussion The Price ExaM study has the potential to enhance public health and economic disciplines by introducing internationally novel scientific methods to estimate accurate and precise food PE values. These values will be used to model the potential

  18. Econometrics in R: Past, Present, and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achim Zeileis

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, computational methods and software have been receiving more attention in the econometrics literature, emphasizing that they are integral components of modern econometric research. This has also promoted the development of many new econometrics software packages written in R and made available on the Comprehensive R Archive Network. This special volume on "Econometrics in R" features a selection of these recent activities that includes packages for econometric analysis of cross-section, time series and panel data. This introduction to the special volume highlights the contents of the contributions and embeds them into a brief overview of other past, present, and future projects for econometrics in R.

  19. Combining Space-Based and In-Situ Measurements to Track Flooding in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Steve; Doubleday, Joshua; Mclaren, David; Tran, Daniel; Tanpipat, Veerachai; Chitradon, Royal; Boonya-aaroonnet, Surajate; Thanapakpawin, Porranee; Khunboa, Chatchai; Leelapatra, Watis; hide

    2011-01-01

    We describe efforts to integrate in-situ sensing, space-borne sensing, hydrological modeling, active control of sensing, and automatic data product generation to enhance monitoring and management of flooding. In our approach, broad coverage sensors and missions such as MODIS, TRMM, and weather satellite information and in-situ weather and river gauging information are all inputs to track flooding via river basin and sub-basin hydrological models. While these inputs can provide significant information as to the major flooding, targetable space measurements can provide better spatial resolution measurements of flooding extent. In order to leverage such assets we automatically task observations in response to automated analysis indications of major flooding. These new measurements are automatically processed and assimilated with the other flooding data. We describe our ongoing efforts to deploy this system to track major flooding events in Thailand.

  20. Frontiers in Time Series and Financial Econometrics : An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Ling (Shiqing); M.J. McAleer (Michael); H. Tong (Howell)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Two of the fastest growing frontiers in econometrics and quantitative finance are time series and financial econometrics. Significant theoretical contributions to financial econometrics have been made by experts in statistics, econometrics, mathematics, and time

  1. Frontiers in Time Series and Financial Econometrics: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Ling (Shiqing); M.J. McAleer (Michael); H. Tong (Howell)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Two of the fastest growing frontiers in econometrics and quantitative finance are time series and financial econometrics. Significant theoretical contributions to financial econometrics have been made by experts in statistics, econometrics, mathematics, and time

  2. Improving the teaching of econometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F. Hendry

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We recommend a major shift in the Econometrics curriculum for both graduate and undergraduate teaching. It is essential to include a range of topics that are still rarely addressed in such teaching, but are now vital for understanding and conducting empirical macroeconomic research. We focus on a new approach to macro-econometrics teaching, since even undergraduate econometrics courses must include analytical methods for time series that exhibit both evolution from stochastic trends and abrupt changes from location shifts, and so confront the “non-stationarity revolution”. The complexity and size of the resulting equation specifications, formulated to include all theory-based variables, their lags and possibly non-linear functional forms, as well as potential breaks and rival candidate variables, places model selection for models of changing economic data at the centre of teaching. To illustrate our proposed new curriculum, we draw on a large UK macroeconomics database over 1860–2011. We discuss how we reached our present approach, and how the teaching of macro-econometrics, and econometrics in general, can be improved by nesting so-called “theory-driven” and “data-driven” approaches. In our methodology, the theory-model’s parameter estimates are unaffected by selection when the theory is complete and correct, so nothing is lost, whereas when the theory is incomplete or incorrect, improved empirical models can be discovered from the data. Recent software like Autometrics facilitates both the teaching and the implementation of econometrics, supported by simulation tools to examine operational performance, designed to be feasibly presented live in the classroom.

  3. Frontiers in Time Series and Financial Econometrics

    OpenAIRE

    Ling, S.; McAleer, M.J.; Tong, H.

    2015-01-01

    __Abstract__ Two of the fastest growing frontiers in econometrics and quantitative finance are time series and financial econometrics. Significant theoretical contributions to financial econometrics have been made by experts in statistics, econometrics, mathematics, and time series analysis. The purpose of this special issue of the journal on “Frontiers in Time Series and Financial Econometrics” is to highlight several areas of research by leading academics in which novel methods have contrib...

  4. Glossary for econometrics and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekara, F Imlach; Carter, K; Blakely, T

    2008-10-01

    Epidemiologists and econometricians are often interested in similar topics-socioeconomic position and health outcomes-but the different languages that epidemiologists and economists use to interpret and discuss their results can create a barrier to mutual communication. This glossary defines key terms used in econometrics and epidemiology to assist in bridging this gap.

  5. Housing Price Volatility and Econometrics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sunega, Petr; Lux, Martin; Zemčík, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2014), s. 70-78 ISSN 2336-2839 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP404/12/1446 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 ; RVO:67985998 Keywords : econometrics * housing prices * price bubbles Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  6. A CASE STUDY OF COMBINED PEER-TEACHER FEEDBACK ON PARAGRAPH WRITING AT A UNIVERSITY IN THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Thuy Loan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Writing in English is challenging for ESL writers, so feedback is crucial in assisting them. Although several studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of peer and teacher-feedback in ESL writing, studies on the combined peer-teacher feedback model tend to be scarce. This study thus reported on the combined feedback model in two paragraph-writing classes of sixty students at a university in Thailand where English is taught as a foreign language, students are reported to be passive in class activities and most writing programs are still taught using the traditional method. Students’ peer comments (both valid and invalid ones, their revisions based on both their peers’ and teacher’s feedback (correct and incorrect revisions and their grades on each paragraph were recorded, and a five-point Likert scale survey and a focus group interview were conducted. The findings indicated its success in terms of students’ positive attitudes towards this feedback model, the usefulness of peer comments, high percentages of feedback incorporations and the high overall writing scores. This paper is thus expected to shed some light on how Thai university students with their passive style of learning English positively react to this interactive activity and partly reflect how in-service teachers adjust feedback strategies in their actual teaching situations.

  7. 7th International Conference of the Thailand Econometric Society

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik; Sriboonchitta, Songsak

    2014-01-01

    In economics, many quantities are related to each other. Such economic relations are often much more complex than relations in science and engineering, where some quantities are independence, and the relation between others can be well approximated by linear functions. As a result of this complexity, when we apply traditional statistical techniques -- developed for science and engineering -- to process economic data, the inadequate treatment of dependence leads to misleading models and erroneous predictions. Some economists even blamed such inadequate treatment of dependence for the 2008 financial crisis. To make economic models more adequate, we need more accurate techniques for describing dependence. Such techniques are currently being developed. This book contains description of state-of-the-art techniques for modeling dependence, and economic applications of these techniques. Most of these research developments are centered around the notion of a copula -- a general way of describing dependence in probabi...

  8. An Applied Physicist Does Econometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taff, L. G.

    2010-02-01

    The biggest problem those attempting to understand econometric data, via modeling, have is that economics has no F = ma. Without a theoretical underpinning, econometricians have no way to build a good model to fit observations to. Physicists do, and when F = ma failed, we knew it. Still desiring to comprehend econometric data, applied economists turn to mis-applying probability theory---especially with regard to the assumptions concerning random errors---and choosing extremely simplistic analytical formulations of inter-relationships. This introduces model bias to an unknown degree. An applied physicist, used to having to match observations to a numerical or analytical model with a firm theoretical basis, modify the model, re-perform the analysis, and then know why, and when, to delete ``outliers'', is at a considerable advantage when quantitatively analyzing econometric data. I treat two cases. One is to determine the household density distribution of total assets, annual income, age, level of education, race, and marital status. Each of these ``independent'' variables is highly correlated with every other but only current annual income and level of education follow a linear relationship. The other is to discover the functional dependence of total assets on the distribution of assets: total assets has an amazingly tight power law dependence on a quadratic function of portfolio composition. Who knew? )

  9. Crystal study and econometric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    An econometric model was developed that can be used to predict demand and supply figures for crystals over a time horizon roughly concurrent with that of NASA's Space Shuttle Program - that is, 1975 through 1990. The model includes an equation to predict the impact on investment in the crystal-growing industry. Actually, two models are presented. The first is a theoretical model which follows rather strictly the standard theoretical economic concepts involved in supply and demand analysis, and a modified version of the model was developed which, though not quite as theoretically sound, was testable utilizing existing data sources.

  10. Econometric analysis and energy substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, G.J.

    1981-09-01

    As part of its long-term assessment of new applications for nuclear energy, AECL is becoming acquainted with the techniques of mathematical modelling as used in the areas of energy and economics. Early in 1980, a contract was arranged with DataMetrics Limited of Calgary to prepare an econometric model of the manufacturing sector for Ontario, and to provide AECL with all the information necessary to understand the theory, derivation, and use of the model. This report summarizes the results of this exercise

  11. Combined chemoradiation of cisplatin versus carboplatin in cervical carcinoma: a single institution experience from Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tharavichitkul, Ekkasit; Lorvidhaya, Vicharn; Kamnerdsupaphon, Pimkhuan; Sukthomya, Vimol; Chakrabandhu, Somvilai; Klunklin, Pitchayaponne; Onchan, Wimrak; Supawongwattana, Bongkoch; Pukanhaphan, Nantaka; Galalae, Razvan; Chitapanarux, Imjai

    2016-01-01

    To report the results of combined chemoradiation (CCRT) with cisplatin versus carboplatin in locally advanced cervical carcinoma. From 2009 to 2013, 255 patients with stage IIB-IVA cervical carcinoma, according to FIGO staging were prospectively assigned to be treated with pelvic radiotherapy followed by brachytherapy given concurrently with cisplatin or carboplatin in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. Treatment outcomes and toxicitiy were evaluated. Two-hundred and thirteen patients could be evaluated. At a median follow-up time of 43 months (6–69 months), the 3-year local control, disease-free survival, metastasis-free survival and overall survival rates were 93, 80.8, 85.0 and 87.3 %, respectively. No statistical difference in terms of local control, disease-free survival, metastasis-free survival and overall survival rates between cisplatin and carboplatin treatments was observed in this study. Eighty-six percents of the patients in the carboplatin group could receive more than 4 cycles, while there were only 72 % in the cisplatin group who completed more than 4 cycles (p = 0. 02). In terms of acute toxicity, cisplatin caused significantly more anemia (p = 0.026), neutropenia (p = 0. 044) and nephrotoxicity (p = 0. 031) than carboplatin. No difference in late toxicity was observed in this study. Carboplatin yielded comparable results to cisplatin in concurrent chemo-radiation for locally advanced cervical cancer. In addition, carboplatin was associated with a better compliance rate and was associated with less of anemia, neutropenia and nephrotoxicity

  12. Econometric Analysis of Financial Derivatives : An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ One of the fastest growing areas in empirical finance, and also one of the least rigorously analyzed, especially from a financial econometrics perspective, is the econometric analysis of financial derivatives, which are typically complicated and difficult to analyze.

  13. Econometric Analysis of Financial Derivatives: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ One of the fastest growing areas in empirical finance, and also one of the least rigorously analyzed, especially from a financial econometrics perspective, is the econometric analysis of financial derivatives, which are typically complicated and difficult to analyze.

  14. Econometric simulation model of the US market for steam coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labys, W C; Paik, S; Liebenthal, A M

    1979-01-01

    An econometric investigation of the historical structure of the U.S. market for steam coal was made to forecast demand, supply, inventory, and price behavior. The structure of the steam coal market is examined and a corresponding theoretical model developed. Consideration is given to alternative simulation models based on various combinations of hypotheses about demand and supply. Results from the models are presented and interpreted. 19 references.

  15. Econometric models for biohydrogen development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Duu-Hwa; Lee, Duu-Jong; Veziroglu, Ayfer

    2011-09-01

    Biohydrogen is considered as an attractive clean energy source due to its high energy content and environmental-friendly conversion. Analyzing various economic scenarios can help decision makers to optimize development strategies for the biohydrogen sector. This study surveys econometric models of biohydrogen development, including input-out models, life-cycle assessment approach, computable general equilibrium models, linear programming models and impact pathway approach. Fundamentals of each model were briefly reviewed to highlight their advantages and disadvantages. The input-output model and the simplified economic input-output life-cycle assessment model proved most suitable for economic analysis of biohydrogen energy development. A sample analysis using input-output model for forecasting biohydrogen development in the United States is given. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Essays on nonparametric econometrics of stochastic volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zu, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Volatility is a concept that describes the variation of financial returns. Measuring and modelling volatility dynamics is an important aspect of financial econometrics. This thesis is concerned with nonparametric approaches to volatility measurement and volatility model validation.

  17. Econometrics of financial high-frequency data

    CERN Document Server

    Hautsch, Nikolaus

    2011-01-01

    This book covers major approaches in high-frequency econometrics. It discusses implementation details, provides insights into properties of high-frequency data as well as institutional settings and presents applications.

  18. Econometric Methodology of Monopolization Process Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrijs Skoruks

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The research “Econometric Methodology of Monopolization Process Evaluation” gives a perspective description of monopolization process’ nature, occurrence source, development procedure and internal conjuncture specifics, as well as providing an example of modern econometrical method application within a unified framework of market competition analysis for the purpose of conducting a quantitative competition evaluation on an industry level for practical use in both private and public sectors. The main question of the aforementioned research is the definition and quantitative analysis of monopolization effects in modern day globalized markets, while con- structing an empirical model of the econometric analysis, based on the use of in- ternational historical experience of monopoly formations standings, with the goal of introducing a further development scheme for the use of both econometrical and statistical instruments in line with the forecasting and business research need of enterprises and regulatory functions of the public sector. The current research uses a vast variety of monopolization evaluation ratios and their econometrical updates on companies that are involved in the study procedure in order to detect and scallar measure their market monopolizing potential, based on the implemented acquired market positions, turnover shares and competition policies.

  19. Econometric Methods within Romanian Quarterly National Accounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Marineta Drăguşin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present paper is to synthesise the main econometric methods (including the mathematical and statistical ones used in the Romanian Quarterly National Accounts compilation, irrespectively of Quarterly Gross Domestic Product (QGDP. These methods are adapted for a fast manner to operatively provide information about the country macroeconomic evolution to interested users. In this context, the mathematical and econometric methods play an important role in obtaining quarterly accounts valued in current prices and in constant prices, in seasonal adjustments and flash estimates of QGDP.

  20. Econometric methods for energy planning and policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, R.

    1989-01-01

    The paper reports on the following: econometric models are often used in energy planning and policy for energy demand analysis at the macro and sectorial levels; estimating income and price elasticities of demand which can be used to analyze effects of growth and price changes; assessing interfuel and interfactor substitutions; forecasting energy demand; and estimating cost functions and forecasting supply. The illustrations in the paper are confined to single equation systems estimated by least squares method as used in analyzing changes in aggregate energy demand and sectorial energy demand. The use of econometric methods is illustrated with the help of empirical studies from a few countries (notably India). 2 tabs

  1. Spatial Econometric data analysis: moving beyond traditional models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florax, R.J.G.M.; Vlist, van der A.J.

    2003-01-01

    This article appraises recent advances in the spatial econometric literature. It serves as the introduction too collection of new papers on spatial econometric data analysis brought together in this special issue, dealing specifically with new extensions to the spatial econometric modeling

  2. Micro Econometric Modelling of Household Energy Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2002-01-01

    Presents a micro econometric analysis of household electricity and natural gas demand for Danish households observed in 1996. Dependence between demand for gas and demand for electricity; Separability of demand for gas from demand for electricity; Relation between energy consumption and the age...

  3. Pulling Econometrics Students up by Their Bootstraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Although the concept of the sampling distribution is at the core of much of what we do in econometrics, it is a concept that is often difficult for students to grasp. The thought process behind bootstrapping provides a way for students to conceptualize the sampling distribution in a way that is intuitive and visual. However, teaching students to…

  4. Econometric Models for Forecasting of Macroeconomic Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhanova, Elena I.; Shirnaeva, Svetlana Y.; Mokronosov, Aleksandr G.

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of the research topic was stipulated by the necessity to carry out an effective controlled process by the economic system which can hardly be imagined without indices forecasting characteristic of this system. An econometric model is a safe tool of forecasting which makes it possible to take into consideration the trend of indices…

  5. Forecasting Inflation through Econometrics Models: An Empirical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article aims at modeling and forecasting inflation in Pakistan. For this purpose a number of econometric approaches are implemented and their results are compared. In ARIMA models, adding additional lags for p and/or q necessarily reduced the sum of squares of the estimated residuals. When a model is estimated ...

  6. Object-Oriented Econometrics with Ox

    OpenAIRE

    Kulaksizoglu, Tamer

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the object-oriented features of the Ox matrix programming language. We discuss object-oriented programming in general and give econometric examples coded in Ox. We also discuss some useful built-in classes that come with the Ox distribution.

  7. Country report of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonsuk, Manit

    2005-01-01

    At the Fast Neutron Research Facility (FNRF) of Chiang Mai University, the SURIYA project has been established in 2000 aiming to produce femtosecond electron pulses utilizing a combination of a S-band thermoionic rf-gun and an alpha-magnet as the buncher. The presently obtained results with the SURIYA project, the setup of a linear accelerator is reported. The research on hydrogel: (1) preparation of wound dressing of polyvinyl alcohol/silk fibroin hydrogel by gamma radiation, (2) water vapor permeability studies and bacterial growth suppression of irradiated PVA/SF blend hydrogels for wound-dressing, and (3) synthesis and characterization of PVP-grafted-starch hydrogels using gamma radiation, is introduced. Finally, the report describes the present situation of the air pollution problems in Thailand, including air pollution legislation, pollution emission amounts estimated, and sulfur oxides emission. Thailand has no plan of electron beam treatment of flue gas. (S. Ohno)

  8. Elsholtzia (Lamiaceae) in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongcheewin, B.; Chantaranotha, P.; Paton, A.

    2015-01-01

    The genus Elsholtzia (Lamiaceae) in Thailand is revised in preparation for the Flora of Thailand treatment. Eight species are found in Thailand, three of which, E. blanda, E. kachinensis and E. pilosa, are lectotypified. Elsholtzia griffithii and E. penduliflora are recorded for Thailand for the first

  9. The Econometric Procedures of Specific Transaction Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doszyń Mariusz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the econometric procedures of identifying specific transactions, in which atypical conditions or attributes may occur. These procedures are based on studentized and predictive residuals of the accordingly specified econometric models. The dependent variable is a unit transactional price, and explanatory variables are both the real properties’ attributes and accordingly defined artificial binary variables. The utility of the proposed method has been verified by means of a real market data base. The proposed procedures can be helpful during the property valuation process, making it possible to reject real properties that are specific (both from the point of view of the transaction conditions and the properties’ attributes and, consequently, to select an appropriate set of similar attributes that are essential for the valuation process.

  10. Characterization of water quality among direct and delayed wet -weather flows in an urban combined sewer catchment of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anootnara Talkul Kuster

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to compare five water quality parameters (BOD, TSS, total zinc, TKN, and fecal coliform in wet-weather flow of a combined sewer catchment against dry-weather flow, while making a distinction between direct and delayed inflow, which has often not been made. Correlations and event mean concentrations (EMCs were also calculated. A total of 38 samples were collected from Khon Kaen’s combined sewer system between March and August 2015. Concentrations in direct inflow of three parameters: total zinc ( x = 0.24 mg/L, IQR = 0.12-0.34, TSS (240 mg/L, 176-356, and BOD (59.7 mg/L, 42.4-77.8 were higher than delayed inflow ( x = 0.04 mg/L, 36 mg/L, and 23.7 mg/L, respectively. Concentrations of delayed inflow were similar to or lower than dry-weather flow. Pollutant concentrations for particulatebased pollutants were much higher during the direct inflow phase of rain events compared to the delayed inflow phase. Dissolved-phased nutrients, however, were not different.

  11. Epistemological shell of the econometric findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madžar Ljubomir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a continuation of the dialogue relating to the study cited as the first item in the reference list to this article. It contains further comments on that study as well as responses to the authors’ reply to the previously given comments, published in a special issue of the Ekonomski anali cited as the second item of the reference list. The principal issue of this exchange is the treatment of previous non-econometric work in the field of macroeconomic interrelationships and of the corresponding changes in the economy of Serbia. The postulate advanced in this text is the same as the one in the previous critical review of the study by Arsić et al. (2005a and consists in the statement that econometric analysis of empirical characteristics of the Serbian economy should respect and incorporate knowledge accumulated through the use of non-econometric techniques before the study was produced. Econometricians should do that by framing appropriately their maintained hypotheses, by selecting structural specification of the various relations in the model and through interpreting the results obtained in the form of econometric estimates. A number of critical observations are reiterated regarding the way some relations are structurally specified. Among such criticized relations are the model’s production function having imports as the only argument and the import function. Imports are judged as inappropriate in the role of the argument in the production function because they not only contribute to production through technological complementarities but also reduce it through the demand segment of the system, by capturing a good deal of domestic demand and stifling a number of sectors of domestic economy. Imports are financed, among other, by several ephemeral, short-lived sources such as donations, foreign indebtedness and privatization receipts. Imports are therefore not sustainable and their enormous increase within a limited time interval

  12. Long-term trends in mortality and AIDS-defining events after combination ART initiation among children and adolescents with perinatal HIV infection in 17 middle- and high-income countries in Europe and Thailand: A cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Judd

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Published estimates of mortality and progression to AIDS as children with HIV approach adulthood are limited. We describe rates and risk factors for death and AIDS-defining events in children and adolescents after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART in 17 middle- and high-income countries, including some in Western and Central Europe (W&CE, Eastern Europe (Russia and Ukraine, and Thailand.Children with perinatal HIV aged 6 months of cART death and progression to AIDS were assessed. Of 3,526 children included, 32% were from the United Kingdom or Ireland, 30% from elsewhere in W&CE, 18% from Russia or Ukraine, and 20% from Thailand. At cART initiation, median age was 5.2 (IQR 1.4-9.3 years; 35% of children aged 400 c/mL predicted late death. Predictors of early and late progression to AIDS were similar. Study limitations include incomplete recording of US Centers for Disease Control (CDC disease stage B events and serious adverse events in some countries; events that were distributed over a long time period, and that we lacked power to analyse trends in patterns and causes of death over time.In our study, 3,526 children and adolescents with perinatal HIV infection initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART in countries in Europe and Thailand. We observed that over 40% of deaths occurred ≤6 months after cART initiation. Greater early mortality risk in infants, as compared to older children, and in Russia, Ukraine, or Thailand as compared to W&CE, raises concern. Current severe immune suppression, being underweight, and unsuppressed viral load were associated with a higher risk of death at >6 months after initiation of cART.

  13. Development of a long term macro econometric model for strategic analysis and cost assessments in nuclear R and D fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankin, Shuichi; Yamazaki, Shigeki.

    1985-11-01

    A Long Term Macro Econometric Model (LTMEMO) has been developed for the purpose of generating economic scenarios for strategic analysis and for cost assessments of technologies in the field of nuclear research and development. The program system of the model is composed of such sub-programs as related social and economic statistic data base and its treatment program, identification and estimation programs of various econometric functions, simulation programs for future projections, and a reference econometric model program. The reference econometric model in the program system would be improved and modified easily by using data base and other sub-programs as the purpose of data retrieval, application of economic hypothesis, and scenario generation. The reference model belongs to a category of such standard types as macro-econometric, deterministic, and descriptive one, however, it was deviated based on the combination of Keynesian theories and Neo-classical theories and was modified by system engineering aspects. The model obtained good performances in such various econometric tests as statistical examinations in parameter estimation of each functions and so called partial tests, total tests, and final tests. Macro economic scenarios α and β, long term projections through 2030 of macro economy in our country were evaluated appropriately by this model. This report describes the process in the development of the model from needs of econometric model in nuclear fields to examples of economic scenarios generated by this model. Some consideration are taken into descriptions on the deviation of each functions and on the application of economic theories for practical use of this program system at the time of modification and improvements of the reference model. (author)

  14. Informatics, Data Mining, Econometrics and Financial Economics: A Connection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); M.J. McAleer (Michael); W.-K. Wong (Wing-Keung)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis short communication reviews some of the literature in econometrics and financial economics that is related to informatics and data mining. We then discuss some of the research on econometrics and financial economics that could be extended to informatics and data mining beyond the

  15. Does the Wagner’s Law hold for Thailand? A Time Series Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Dipendra

    2007-01-01

    Wagner’s Law suggests that as the GDP of a country increases, so does its government expenditure. We test for the Law for Thailand using recent advances in econometric techniques. Both total and per capita GDP and government expenditure are used. Ng-Perron unit root tests show that all variables are integrated of order 1. Toda-Yamamoto tests of Granger causality show that there is no causality flowing from either direction between GDP and government expenditure. Autoregressive Distributed Lag...

  16. Econometric models for predicting confusion crop ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umberger, D. E.; Proctor, M. H.; Clark, J. E.; Eisgruber, L. M.; Braschler, C. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    Results for both the United States and Canada show that econometric models can provide estimates of confusion crop ratios that are more accurate than historical ratios. Whether these models can support the LACIE 90/90 accuracy criterion is uncertain. In the United States, experimenting with additional model formulations could provide improved methods models in some CRD's, particularly in winter wheat. Improved models may also be possible for the Canadian CD's. The more aggressive province/state models outperformed individual CD/CRD models. This result was expected partly because acreage statistics are based on sampling procedures, and the sampling precision declines from the province/state to the CD/CRD level. Declining sampling precision and the need to substitute province/state data for the CD/CRD data introduced measurement error into the CD/CRD models.

  17. Forecasting space weather: Can new econometric methods improve accuracy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reikard, Gordon

    2011-06-01

    Space weather forecasts are currently used in areas ranging from navigation and communication to electric power system operations. The relevant forecast horizons can range from as little as 24 h to several days. This paper analyzes the predictability of two major space weather measures using new time series methods, many of them derived from econometrics. The data sets are the A p geomagnetic index and the solar radio flux at 10.7 cm. The methods tested include nonlinear regressions, neural networks, frequency domain algorithms, GARCH models (which utilize the residual variance), state transition models, and models that combine elements of several techniques. While combined models are complex, they can be programmed using modern statistical software. The data frequency is daily, and forecasting experiments are run over horizons ranging from 1 to 7 days. Two major conclusions stand out. First, the frequency domain method forecasts the A p index more accurately than any time domain model, including both regressions and neural networks. This finding is very robust, and holds for all forecast horizons. Combining the frequency domain method with other techniques yields a further small improvement in accuracy. Second, the neural network forecasts the solar flux more accurately than any other method, although at short horizons (2 days or less) the regression and net yield similar results. The neural net does best when it includes measures of the long-term component in the data.

  18. Appendix : airborne incidents : an econometric analysis of severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-19

    This is the Appendix for Airborne Incidents: An Econometric Analysis of Severity Report. : Airborne loss of separation incidents occur when an aircraft breaches the defined separation limit (vertical and/or horizontal) with another aircraft or terrai...

  19. Non-standard spatial statistics and spatial econometrics

    CERN Document Server

    Griffith, Daniel A

    2011-01-01

    Spatial statistics and spatial econometrics are recent sprouts of the tree "spatial analysis with measurement". Still, several general themes have emerged. Exploring selected fields of possible interest is tantalizing, and this is what the authors aim here.

  20. ECONOMIC FORECASTS BASED ON ECONOMETRIC MODELS USING EViews 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia TomescuDumitrescu,

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The forecast of evolution of economic phenomena represent on the most the final objective of econometrics. It withal represent a real attempt of validity elaborate model. Unlike the forecasts based on the study of temporal series which have an recognizable inertial character the forecasts generated by econometric model with simultaneous equations are after to contour the future of ones of important economic variables toward the direct and indirect influences bring the bear on their about exogenous variables. For the relief of the calculus who the realization of the forecasts based on the econometric models its suppose is indicate the use of the specialized informatics programs. One of this is the EViews which is applied because it reduces significant the time who is destined of the econometric analysis and it assure a high accuracy of calculus and of the interpretation of results.

  1. The SRI-WEFA Soviet Econometric Model: Phase One Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-03-01

    established prices. We also have an estimated equation for an end-use residual category which conceptually includes state grain reserves, other undis...forecasting. An important virtue of the econometric discipline is that it requires one first to conceptualize and estimate regularities of behavior...any de- scriptive analysis. Within the framwork of an econometric model, the analyst is able to discriminate among these "special events

  2. Econometric modeling of the balance of social security Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Isaac Figueiredo de Sousa

    2009-01-01

    This work aims to build models using econometrics techniques to explain the components of the balance of Social Security System, or in other words, the net value of tax revenues and the benefit values of the General Regime of Social Security. These models were subjected to statistic validations indicated in the theoretical reference of econometrics, to apply the method of ordinary least square from the classic model of linear regression. From an increasing longevity and the gradual decr...

  3. Potato production in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato production has increased dramatically in recent years in Thailand. Consumer demand for fresh and processed potatoes has driven this trend. Most potatoes are produced in northern Thailand in either double cropping highland zones or as a single winter crop following rice in lowland regions. Maj...

  4. IDRC in Thailand

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC support for research in Thailand began in 1971, and changed signifi- cantly as the country's economy grew. As Thailand became an upper- middle income country, IDRC shifted its emphasis toward supporting Thai institutions that serve as coordinators for regional research. One example is the forward-looking.

  5. Alley Farming in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerapol Silakul

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Poverty alleviation and environmental preservation are very important issues to many governments. Alley farming is beneficial to the environment because it conserves soil and sustains yields over time. Specifically, alley farming reduces soil erosion, which is a major problem in Thailand. Alley farming was conducted on a farmer’s field at Khaokwan Thong, a village in Uthaithani Province, Northern Thailand. We did a two-by-two factorial with and without alley farming, and with and without fertilizer. From this study, we observed that the two species used, Leucaena leucocephala and Acacia auriculiformis, grow well in Thailand, and that alley farming is suitable for Thailand. Few Thai farmers have heard about alley farming. However, it is nevertheless useful to know that there is potential for alley farming in Thailand using the two species. These plants, based upon the diameter and height measurements provided, grew well.

  6. Young people and alcohol: an econometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundborg, Petter

    2002-12-01

    To analyse the determinants of youth drinking behaviour within an economic -theoretical framework. The paper focuses especially on the effects of (a) having parents willing to supply alcohol, (b) living in a single-parent household, (c) having parents who are currently unemployed and (d) having received education about alcohol, narcotics and tobacco. A Swedish cross-sectional survey data on 833 individuals aged 12-18 years was used to analyse the effects of the above variables on participation in drinking, frequency of drinking, intensity of drinking and binge drinking. Separate analyses were conducted for beer, wine and spirits. Care was taken in using appropriate econometric methods for the questions posed (negative binomial regression, censored regression and probit regression). Having parents willing to supply alcohol increased frequency (P < 0.05) of beer, wine and spirits consumption, intensity (P < 0.05) of wine, spirits and illicit alcohol consumption, and increased probabilities (P < 0.10) of binge drinking and participation in drinking (P < 0.05). No effects were seen from living in a single-parent household. Having received education about alcohol, narcotics and tobacco had a negative association only with intensity (P < 0.10) of beer consumption. Having a father who was currently unemployed was associated with an increased (P < 0.05) probability of binge drinking but a reduced (P < 0.05) frequency of wine consumption. The positive effect of having parents willing to supply alcohol could reflect that these individuals face lower acquisition costs or lower psychological costs in consumption. It could also reflect a price effect, if the individual receives the alcohol free from his or her parents.

  7. News Competition: Physics Olympiad hits Thailand Report: Institute carries out survey into maths in physics at university Event: A day for everyone teaching physics Conference: Welsh conference celebrates birthday Schools: Researchers in Residence scheme set to close Teachers: A day for new physics teachers Social: Network combines fun and physics Forthcoming events

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Competition: Physics Olympiad hits Thailand Report: Institute carries out survey into maths in physics at university Event: A day for everyone teaching physics Conference: Welsh conference celebrates birthday Schools: Researchers in Residence scheme set to close Teachers: A day for new physics teachers Social: Network combines fun and physics Forthcoming events

  8. The need for econometric research in laboratory animal operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David G; Kearney, Michael T

    2015-06-01

    The scarcity of research funding can affect animal facilities in various ways. These effects can be evaluated by examining the allocation of financial resources in animal facilities, which can be facilitated by the use of mathematical and statistical methods to analyze economic problems, a discipline known as econometrics. The authors applied econometrics to study whether increasing per diem charges had a negative effect on the number of days of animal care purchased by animal users. They surveyed animal numbers and per diem charges at 20 research institutions and found that demand for large animals decreased as per diem charges increased. The authors discuss some of the challenges involved in their study and encourage research institutions to carry out more robust econometric studies of this and other economic questions facing laboratory animal research.

  9. Essays in financial economics and econometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Spada, Gabriele

    Chapter 1 (my job market paper) asks the following question: Do asset managers reach for yield because of competitive pressures in a low rate environment? I propose a tournament model of money market funds (MMFs) to study this issue. I show that funds with different costs of default respond differently to changes in interest rates, and that it is important to distinguish the role of risk-free rates from that of risk premia. An increase in the risk premium leads funds with lower default costs to increase risk-taking, while funds with higher default costs reduce risk-taking. Without changes in the premium, low risk-free rates reduce risk-taking. My empirical analysis shows that these predictions are consistent with the risk-taking of MMFs during the 2006--2008 period. Chapter 2, co-authored with Fabrizio Lillo and published in Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics and Econometrics (2014), studies the effect of round-off error (or discretization) on stationary Gaussian long-memory process. For large lags, the autocovariance is rescaled by a factor smaller than one, and we compute this factor exactly. Hence, the discretized process has the same Hurst exponent as the underlying one. We show that in presence of round-off error, two common estimators of the Hurst exponent, the local Whittle (LW) estimator and the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA), are severely negatively biased in finite samples. We derive conditions for consistency and asymptotic normality of the LW estimator applied to discretized processes and compute the asymptotic properties of the DFA for generic long-memory processes that encompass discretized processes. Chapter 3, co-authored with Fabrizio Lillo, studies the effect of round-off error on integrated Gaussian processes with possibly correlated increments. We derive the variance and kurtosis of the realized increment process in the limit of both "small" and "large" round-off errors, and its autocovariance for large lags. We propose novel estimators for the

  10. Thailand: utilisation programme set for massive expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.

    1991-01-01

    The US$360 million project to increase gas supplies to Eastern and Southern Thailand is discussed, and the use of international competitive bidding to purchase the line pipe and other facilities is reported. The government approved proposal for a gas fired combined-cycle power station and gas separation plant are discussed. (UK)

  11. Using non-parametric methods in econometric production analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard; Henningsen, Arne

    Econometric estimation of production functions is one of the most common methods in applied economic production analysis. These studies usually apply parametric estimation techniques, which obligate the researcher to specify the functional form of the production function. Most often, the Cobb...... results—including measures that are of interest of applied economists, such as elasticities. Therefore, we propose to use nonparametric econometric methods. First, they can be applied to verify the functional form used in parametric estimations of production functions. Second, they can be directly used...

  12. Thailand's growth rebalancing

    OpenAIRE

    Jitsuchon, Somchai; Sussangkarn, Chalongphob

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews Thailand's structural changes, the 1997 crisis experience, and recovery and lessons from the crisis. The paper then discusses the impacts of the subprime crisis on the Thai economy and the policy responses to date. The paper ends by discussing strategies to rebalance growth by reducing the dependence on exports as the main growth engine. The recovery from the 1997 crisis left Thailand more dependent than ever on exports as the main engine of growth, with the ratio of export...

  13. Are happiness and productivity lower among young people with newly-divorced parents? : an experimental and econometric approach

    OpenAIRE

    Proto, Eugenio; Sgroi, Daniel; Oswald, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    High rates of divorce in western society have prompted much research on the repercussions for well-being and the economy. Yet little is known about the important topic of whether parental divorce has deleterious consequences upon adult children. By combining experimental and econometric survey-based evidence, this study attempts to provide an answer. Under controlled conditions, it measures university students’ subjective well-being and productivity (in a standardized laboratory task). It fin...

  14. An econometric model of the hardwood lumber market

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold

    1982-01-01

    A recursive econometric model with causal flow originating from the demand relationship is used to analyze the effects of exogenous variables on quantity and price of hardwood lumber. Wage rates, interest rates, stumpage price, lumber exports, and price of lumber demanders' output were the major factors influencing quantities demanded and supplied and hardwood...

  15. The Status of Econometrics in the Economics Major: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bruce K.; Perry, John J.; Petkus, Marie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe the place of econometrics in undergraduate economics curricula in all American colleges and universities that offer economics majors as listed in the "U.S. News & World Report" "Best Colleges 2010" guide ("U.S. News & World Report" 2009). Data come from online catalogs, departmental Web sites, and online…

  16. An econometric model of the U.S. pallet market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert T. Schuler; Walter B. Wallin

    1979-01-01

    A need for quantitative information on demand and price has been expressed by the pallet industry. In response to this, an econometric model of the aggregate U.S. pallet market was developed. Demand was found to be affected by real pallet price, industrial and food production levels, and slipsheet prices. Supply was affected by real price, housing starts lagged 1 year...

  17. Predicting future forestland area: a comparison of econometric approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SoEun Ahn; Andrew J. Plantinga; Ralph J. Alig

    2000-01-01

    Predictions of future forestland area are an important component of forest policy analyses. In this article, we test the ability of econometric land use models to accurately forecast forest area. We construct a panel data set for Alabama consisting of county and time-series observation for the period 1964 to 1992. We estimate models using restricted data sets-namely,...

  18. Econometric Assessment of "One Minute" Paper as a Pedagogic Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Amaresh

    2010-01-01

    This paper makes an econometric testing of one-minute paper used as a tool to manage and assess instruction in my statistics class. One of our findings is that the one minute paper when I have tested it by using an OLS estimate in a controlled Vs experimental design framework is found to statistically significant and effective in enhancing…

  19. Moment Restriction-based Econometric Methods: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Kunitomo (Naoto); M.J. McAleer (Michael); Y. Nishiyama (Yoshihiko)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMoment restriction-based econometric modelling is a broad class which includes the parametric, semiparametric and nonparametric approaches. Moments and conditional moments themselves are nonparametric quantities. If a model is specified in part up to some finite dimensional parameters,

  20. Time Series Econometrics for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bruce E.

    2017-01-01

    The field of econometrics largely started with time series analysis because many early datasets were time-series macroeconomic data. As the field developed, more cross-sectional and longitudinal datasets were collected, which today dominate the majority of academic empirical research. In nonacademic (private sector, central bank, and governmental)…

  1. Possibly Ill-behaved Posteriors in Econometric Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.F. Hoogerheide (Lennart); H.K. van Dijk (Herman)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractHighly non-elliptical posterior distributions may occur in several econometric models, in particular, when the likelihood information is allowed to dominate and data information is weak. We explain the issue of highly non-elliptical posteriors in a model for the effect of education on

  2. ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF SHORT-RUN AND LONG-RUN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IBUKUN

    1Onoja, A. O. , 2Achike, A. I. and 3Ajibade, T. B.*. 1Department of ... Bank Data Base (1971-2011) which were subjected to econometric tests before applying the ... workforce is involved in agriculture and the sector makes up 32% of the continent‟s GDP. (Halilu ... solving the problems of unemployment and poverty. One of ...

  3. Recent Developments in Financial Economics and Econometrics: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); D.E. Allen (David); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractResearch papers in empirical finance and financial econometrics are among the most widely cited, downloaded and viewed articles in the discipline of Finance. The special issue presents several papers by leading scholars in the field on “Recent Developments in Financial Economics and

  4. CDM Project Opportunities in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Interview on Channel 2 UBC Thailand Fysisk medie: .dat mpeg video file Tidspunkt for udsendelse: 2003/06/28......Interview on Channel 2 UBC Thailand Fysisk medie: .dat mpeg video file Tidspunkt for udsendelse: 2003/06/28...

  5. Factors influencing crime rates: an econometric analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothos, John M. A.; Thomopoulos, Stelios C. A.

    2016-05-01

    The scope of the present study is to research the dynamics that determine the commission of crimes in the US society. Our study is part of a model we are developing to understand urban crime dynamics and to enhance citizens' "perception of security" in large urban environments. The main targets of our research are to highlight dependence of crime rates on certain social and economic factors and basic elements of state anticrime policies. In conducting our research, we use as guides previous relevant studies on crime dependence, that have been performed with similar quantitative analyses in mind, regarding the dependence of crime on certain social and economic factors using statistics and econometric modelling. Our first approach consists of conceptual state space dynamic cross-sectional econometric models that incorporate a feedback loop that describes crime as a feedback process. In order to define dynamically the model variables, we use statistical analysis on crime records and on records about social and economic conditions and policing characteristics (like police force and policing results - crime arrests), to determine their influence as independent variables on crime, as the dependent variable of our model. The econometric models we apply in this first approach are an exponential log linear model and a logit model. In a second approach, we try to study the evolvement of violent crime through time in the US, independently as an autonomous social phenomenon, using autoregressive and moving average time-series econometric models. Our findings show that there are certain social and economic characteristics that affect the formation of crime rates in the US, either positively or negatively. Furthermore, the results of our time-series econometric modelling show that violent crime, viewed solely and independently as a social phenomenon, correlates with previous years crime rates and depends on the social and economic environment's conditions during previous years.

  6. Thailand: Post-Crisis Rebalancing

    OpenAIRE

    Chalongphob Sussangkarn; Deunden Nikomborirak

    2012-01-01

    Since the Asian financial crisis in 1997, Thailand has become highly dependent on exports as the main engine of economic growth. In 2008, the ratio of export to GDP was about 76.5 percent. The global economic crisis triggered by the sub-prime loans debacle in the United States has prompted Thailand to rethink its high dependence on export. This paper examines the options for external and internal economic rebalancing strategies for Thailand. External rebalancing will require Thailand to rely ...

  7. Multi-criteria and econometric evaluation of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Pažek

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the multi-criteria assessment of four dairy products: “Pomursko mlejko” (Pomurje milk, “Lejko mleko” (light milk, “Fyto mleko” (Fyto milk and “Posneto mleko v prahu” (dried milk. The research was executed by using a multi-criteria methodology, DEX, which was complemented by an econometric analysis for light milk to estimate the trends in production and consumption before analyzed dairy products were implemented on the market. DEXi computer program results indicated that all analyzed milk products were ‘above average’. The econometric model was applied to examine changes in the demand for low-fat milk (light milk. Empirical results showed significant consumer re¬sponse to the increase in the prices of low-fat milk demonstrating income elasticity (1,15 unit.

  8. Using non-parametric methods in econometric production analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard; Henningsen, Arne

    2012-01-01

    by investigating the relationship between the elasticity of scale and the farm size. We use a balanced panel data set of 371~specialised crop farms for the years 2004-2007. A non-parametric specification test shows that neither the Cobb-Douglas function nor the Translog function are consistent with the "true......Econometric estimation of production functions is one of the most common methods in applied economic production analysis. These studies usually apply parametric estimation techniques, which obligate the researcher to specify a functional form of the production function of which the Cobb...... parameter estimates, but also in biased measures which are derived from the parameters, such as elasticities. Therefore, we propose to use non-parametric econometric methods. First, these can be applied to verify the functional form used in parametric production analysis. Second, they can be directly used...

  9. Econometric modelling of economic security in business operations management

    OpenAIRE

    Chagovets, L. О.; Nevezhin, V. P.; Zakharova, О. V.

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with econometric modeling of economic security. The model of evaluating transaction costs effect on the level of enterprise economic security is provided. The econometric models of evaluating economic security that are used in research are based on panel data. According to the results, the reserves for increasing the general level of economic security due to transaction costs reduction are revealed. Розглянуто питання економетричного моделювання економічної безпеки. Предс...

  10. Application of econometric and ecology analysis methods in physics software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Min Cheol; Hoff, Gabriela; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Kim, Sung Hun; Grazia Pia, Maria; Ronchieri, Elisabetta; Saracco, Paolo

    2017-10-01

    Some data analysis methods typically used in econometric studies and in ecology have been evaluated and applied in physics software environments. They concern the evolution of observables through objective identification of change points and trends, and measurements of inequality, diversity and evenness across a data set. Within each analysis area, various statistical tests and measures have been examined. This conference paper summarizes a brief overview of some of these methods.

  11. Econometrics in outcomes research: the use of instrumental variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, J P; McClellan, M

    1998-01-01

    We describe an econometric technique, instrumental variables, that can be useful in estimating the effectiveness of clinical treatments in situations when a controlled trial has not or cannot be done. This technique relies upon the existence of one or more variables that induce substantial variation in the treatment variable but have no direct effect on the outcome variable of interest. We illustrate the use of the technique with an application to aggressive treatment of acute myocardial infarction in the elderly.

  12. Teacher Salaries and Teacher Unions: A Spatial Econometric Approach

    OpenAIRE

    John V. Winters

    2011-01-01

    The author uses a spatial econometric framework to examine the determinants of teacher salaries in the United States, including union activity in the teachers' own and in neighboring districts, teacher salaries in nearby districts, and other school district characteristics such as size and student-teacher ratios. Using the 1999-2000 Schools and Staffing Survey as well as the School District Demographic System and Bureau of Labor Statistics data sets, he finds that union activity increases sal...

  13. Econometric model for age- and population-dependent radiation exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandquist, G.M.; Slaughter, D.M.; Rogers, V.C.

    1991-01-01

    The economic impact associated with ionizing radiation exposures in a given human population depends on numerous factors including the individual's mean economic status as a function age, the age distribution of the population, the future life expectancy at each age, and the latency period for the occurrence of radiation-induced health effects. A simple mathematical model has been developed that provides an analytical methodology for estimating the societal econometrics associated with radiation effects are to be assessed and compared for economic evaluation

  14. Central Bank Financial Strength and Policy Performance; An Econometric Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Stella; Ulrich H Klueh

    2008-01-01

    The financial health of central banks and its relation to policy outcomes has recently been recognized as an important policy issue. While case study evidence clearly indicates that weak central bank finances can hamper effective policy implementation, the question of whether central bank financial strength influences policy performance remains controversial. This is due, in part, to a lack of econometric evidence. The paper presents a first step toward filling this gap, by providing a quanti...

  15. Oil dependency of the Russian economy: an econometric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Benedictow, Andreas; Fjærtoft, Daniel; Løfsnæs, Ole

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: A macro econometric model of the Russian economy is developed, containing 13 estimated equations – covering major national account variables, government expenditures and revenues, interest rates, prices and the labour market. The model is tailored to analyze effects of changes in the oil price and economic policy variables. The model has good statistical properties and tracks history well over the estimation period, which runs from 1995Q1 to 2008Q1. Model simulations indicate tha...

  16. The impact of remittances on economic growth: An econometric model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Meyer

    2017-05-01

    In other words, the econometric analysis will be based on those six remittance receiving countries. The paper is then to review the empirical literature devoted to the impact of remittances on economic growth, in order, to identify empirically if there are significant relationships between remittances and growth in these countries. The results suggest that remittances have a positive impact on growth and that this impact increases at higher levels of remittances relative to GDP.

  17. Thailand. Radiation-Polymerization in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilubol, M.L. Anong; Greethong, Somkiart [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1968-10-15

    Wood-plastic composites produced by means of radiation-induced polymerization of monomers impregnated into the wood have been the subject of study in many laboratories throughout the world. In general the processes are similar, and the differences that occur are due to variations in technique applied to the particular species of wood available in each country. In Thailand, treatment to improve the quality of wood is being carried out by scientists at the Forest Products Research Division of the Royal Forest Department, Ministry of Agriculture, with the aim of obtaining products which can stand up to weathering and termite attack. On the basis of their experience, certain types of wood suitable for impregnation have been selected for our study. The Office of Atomic Energy for Peace began studying the impregnation-irradiation of certain types of Thai wood in the hope that it might result in better utilization of poor quality wood. The use of irradiated-impregnated wood in Thailand is not necessary at present, since many different varieties of hard wood are available. The production of plywood does not even meet the demand of the local market, thus the introduction of this new technique is not an attractive proposal for the time being.

  18. Oyster Fauna of Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussarawit, Somchai; Cedhagen, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Here, we describe 16 species of true oysters from Thai waters. They are widely distributed on various intertidal and subtidal substrates in the Gulf of Thailand and in the Andaman Sea. The different species were identified on the basis of their shell morphology, and their characteristic features...

  19. Thailand's unsung heroes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treerutkuarkul, Apiradee

    2008-01-01

    The success of primary health care programmes in Thailand over the past three decades can be attributed not only to medical advances but to the role of community health volunteers. Buddhist monks and their temples have been strongly involved in health promotion and education, particularly in remote, rural communities.

  20. Country Demographic Profiles: Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD. Population Div.

    This profile of the population of Thailand contains 35 tables of selected demographic information, including size of population and estimates of fertility and mortality, beginning in 1950. An adjusted distribution of the population by age and sex is given for the latest census year, as well as for 1976. Projections of the number of women of…

  1. Sex tourism in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kerkwijk, C

    1992-01-01

    Many foreigners visit Thailand in search of sex. While long-distance tourism was long enjoyed by members of more privileged social classes, even the lower economical classes of Japan, Malaysia, Europe, America, and Australia can now afford to travel over long distances. This relatively new breed of tourist is more likely to be of lower socioeconomic and educational status and less likely to use condoms when having sex. An estimated 30,000 sex workers are active in Bangkok, of whom 7000/10,000 are females who work specifically in the tourism sector. 1/2-1/3 of the 600 commercial sex establishments in the city are visited by foreigners. Phuket, Pattaya, Koh Samui, and Chiangmai are also well-frequented by sex tourists. Overall, a large, diverse, inexpensive, and accessible commercial sex market exists in Thailand. One may meet sex workers quasi-ubiquitously and be assured to find someone capable of meeting one's sexual needs. With these attributes, Thailand strongly attracts tourists in search of sex. A certain degree of recklessness also prevails among those on vacation. Away from the peers and social mores of their native lands, tourists may engage in sexually activities without criticism. Likewise, Thai sex workers who cater to foreigners, especially females, enjoy more freedom and control in sexual relations than their peers who work among nationals. Neither single nor married women in Thailand are allowed much sexual freedom and are traditionally expected to be obliging docile, and submissive. The greater than normal personal latitude enjoyed by both sex worker and foreigner lead to more negotiation on condom use and overall lower use. As such, Thailand's commercial sex market with foreigners' involvement therein threatens to spread HIV to many other countries throughout the world.

  2. Agri-aqua farming in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Buendia, R.Y.

    1997-01-01

    Integrated agriculture-aquaculture systems have been in existence in Thailand for centuries. This country has the most varied integrated farming operations in southeast Asia; pig, cattle, buffalo, chicken, duck, vegetable, aquatic plant, rice and orchard in combination with fish are practices. The systems most preferred by subsistence farmers are rice-fish, duck-fish and chicken-fish culture. A brief outline is given of these 3 systems.

  3. Integer-valued Lévy processes and low latency financial econometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole; Pollard, David G.; Shephard, Neil

    Motivated by features of low latency data in financial econometrics we study in detail integervalued Lévy processes as the basis of price processes for high frequency econometrics. We propose using models built out of the difference of two subordinators. We apply these models in practice to low...... latency data for a variety of different types of futures contracts.futures markets, high frequency econometrics, low latency data, negative binomial, Skellam, tempered stable...

  4. Econometric Analysis of 2003 Data on the Post-Service Earnings of Military Retirees: Methodology Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mackin, Patrick C; Darling, Kimberly L

    2004-01-01

    ...). This report details how the estimation datasets were constructed from these two data sources and describes the econometric methodology in detail, including the definition of alternative models...

  5. Child prostitution in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Carmen

    2008-06-01

    Child prostitution is an old, global and complex phenomenon, which deprives children of their childhood, human rights and dignity. Child prostitution can be seen as the commercial sexual exploitation of children involving an element of forced labour, and thus can be considered as a contemporary form of slavery. Globally, child prostitution is reported to be a common problem in Central and South America and Asia. Of all the south-east Asian nations, the problem is most prolific in Thailand. In Thailand, there appears to be a long history of child prostitution, and this article explores the factors that underpin the Thai child sex industry and the lessons and implications that can be drawn for health care and nursing around the world.

  6. Oligarchy in Thailand?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. F. Rhoden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A modern conception of oligarchy, which can be housed under an authoritarian regime as easily as it can under a liberal democratic one, can affect our understanding of the potential national political repercussions of extreme inequalities of wealth. This article has two goals: (1 to conceptually analyse the meaning of oligarchy; and (2 to make a descriptive case for its use in the Thai context. The test case of contemporary Thailand shows what exactly an oligarch or oligarchy means under a military regime and the potential effects for national politics of an oligarchy based on material wealth. Utilizing Jeffrey A. Winters’ Aristotelian-grounded conception of oligarchy for the contemporary world, this article argues that some political outcomes in Thailand are inexplicable without recourse to a modern variant of oligarchic theory and analysis.

  7. Some Boletes of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-chato, S.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to collect and identify some Boletes of Thailand. Through periodical excursions in woodland area in the north, northeast and south of Thailand, and regular visits to markets inthe areas during 1995-2005, 20 species of Boletes were collected and identified. These were Boletellus ananas (M.A.Curtis Murrill, Boletellus emodensis (Berk. Singer, Boletellus sp. 1, Boletellus sp. 2, Boletellus sp. 3,Boletinus sp., Boletus griseipurpureus Corner, Boletus bicolor Peck, Boletus nanus (Massee. Singer, Boletus sp. 1, Boletus sp. 2, Boletus sp. 3, Heimiella retispora (Pat. & C.F. Baker Boedijn, Phlebopus colossus (R.Heim Singer, Phylloporus pelletieri (Lev. Quel., Pulveroboletus ravenelii (Berk. & M.A.Curtis Murrill, Pulveroboletus sp., Strobilomyces confusus Singer, Strobilomyces floccopus (Vahl P. Karst., and Tylopilusalbo - ater (Schwein Murrill.

  8. Thailand and brain drain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Commins

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain drain has been the subject of research since the 1960s. This research has been hampered by a lack of accurate data from both source and receiving countries on migration and on the losses and gains to developing economies of skilled migration. However, despite these handicaps, research has been able to clearly show that trends are changing and the effect this is having is usually quite different for individual source countries.Thailand, as a developing economy, could be regarded as a source country. Fortunately, Thailand has never ranked highly in terms of brain drain when compared to other states in Asia and while it may not be a significant problem it nonetheless needs to be monitored. Thailand is also somewhat unique in that the migration that has occurred has been almost equally split between secondary and tertiary educated Thais. Thailand also ranks low in terms of tertiary educated population who have migrated when compared to other countries in the region. Globalisation is having a profound effect on the migration of skilled workers. As trade becomes increasingly free, barriers to the movement of services or people are also freed. As the better educated are encouraged to think globally, so too will they be inclined to move globally into the world community.This paper examines Thailand’s position with respect to brain drain, some of the lessons we have learned and some of the steps that are being taken to minimise the impact of the loss of skilled workers, with a particular focus on science and technology. The conclusion is that brain drain should not be viewed as an entirely negative development and that the positive outcomes should be recognised, encouraged and incorporated into policy.

  9. Thailand's reproductive revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knodel, J

    1987-01-01

    Thailand has achieved a remarkable population revolution in the past 15 years, resulting in a fertility decline of 44%, the 3rd greatest decline of the major developing countries. Thailand is quite distinct from either China or South Korea, the leaders in fertility decline. It has neither China's authoritarian power system to enforce population control nor the highly developed, Westernized outlook of South Korea. Instead it achieved its astounding fertility drop through a noncoercive family planning program operating within a context of rapid social change and a cultural setting. Thailand's drop in population growth has touched almost all segments of Thai society. The preferred number of children among couples married less than 5 years has dropped in both rural and urban families at almost exactly the same rate, from about 3.2 in 1969 to 2.3 in 1984. Religious groups represent the only substantial difference in family size preference; Moslem women married less than 5 years stated a desired average of 3.1 children versus 2.3 for Buddhist women. The direct case of the fertility drop is a national increase in contraceptive use. In 1984, 65% of Thai women reported using contraception. The Thai population, however, was ripe for using contraception when it became available due to 1) mass media creating a desire for consumer goods, 2) the increased costs of education to parents, 3) the willingness of parents to trade off "parent repayment" from many children for a few quality children, 4) couples' autonomy in fertility decision making, 5) the high status of women in Thailand, and 6) the fact that Buddhism poses no barriers to contraception. Current trends show no immediate sign of change.

  10. Village power in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents an overview of the electric power system in Thailand. 99% of the country is electrified, but much of this is with diesel generators which leaves high costs but a high level of service. The paper discusses renewable energy projects which have been sited in the country, and examples of hybrid systems which have been retrofit into existing diesel generator systems. Photovoltaic and hydroelectric power projects are described. Dedicated systems have been installed for water pumping and battery charging applications.

  11. Econometric Model – A Tool in Financial Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riana Iren RADU

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic situation in Romania requires from the trader a rigorous analysis of vulnerabilities and opportunities offered by the external environment and a careful analysis of internal environmental conditions in which the entity operates. In this context particular attention is paid to indicators presented in the financial statements. Many times they are a model for economic forecasts, future plans, basic business and businesses that use them with a good forecasting activity. In this paper we propose to analyze the comparative evolution of the main financial indicators highlighted in financial statements (profit and loss through a multi-equation econometric model, namely dynamic Keynesian model.

  12. Short-memory linear processes and econometric applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mynbaev, Kairat T

    2011-01-01

    This book serves as a comprehensive source of asymptotic results for econometric models with deterministic exogenous regressors. Such regressors include linear (more generally, piece-wise polynomial) trends, seasonally oscillating functions, and slowly varying functions including logarithmic trends, as well as some specifications of spatial matrices in the theory of spatial models. The book begins with central limit theorems (CLTs) for weighted sums of short memory linear processes. This part contains the analysis of certain operators in Lp spaces and their employment in the derivation of CLTs

  13. Credit Cycles: Econometric Analysis and Evidence for Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita V. Artamonov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the principal problem in contemporary macroeconomics is concerned with factors increasing or decreasing economic dynamics. The mainstream approach is based on neoclassical assumptions, but recently new approaches appear mostly based on new Keynesian concepts. In present time the influence of monetary market and credit instruments become more and more significant. Credit resources of banking and financial structures can affect and distort to reallocation of resources for national and even for global economic. In present paper an empiric and econometric analysis for some macroeconometric and monetary indices for Russian Federation is done. An econometrical models describing the influence of credit variables onto real GDP is estimated. It is shown that in short-term periods changes in credit variables do influence significantly onto GDP. It is shown that on short-term periods changes in money aggregate M2 brings influence (through credit variables onto national output. As well it is shown that changes in short-term interest rate brings significant negative influence onto real output. Impulse response functions for GDP on shocks of credit variables, monetary base and short-term interest rate are evaluated. For the present study of credit cycles and their impact to real business cycles statistical data (quarterly time series on the following factors for Russian Federation are collected: nominal and real GDP, monetary base M2, short-term interest rate, long-term interest rate (10-year treasuries bill rate, total debt outstanding. All time series are seasonally adjusted and collected for the period 2004 Q1 - 2013 Q2. All interest rates are adjusted for inflation (i.e. we deal with real interest rates. The investigation of long-term relationship for the factors under consideration are based on integration. It is important to note that in the present paper all econometric models are estimated on "pure" statistical data, while in many research

  14. Indirect Taxes in Romania – an Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Penu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indirect taxes have a significant weight in the GDP. Statistical data reveals that the new states that joined the EU in its funding sources to the greatest extent through indirect taxes. They reveal, on the one hand, reducing the tax burden on the producer, and on the other hand, the difficulty faced by the country in direct tax collection, but also some problems of social nature. This article proposes an econometric analysis of the relationship between indirect taxes and household final consumption expenditure.

  15. Combined Stable Carbon Isotope and C/N Ratios as Indicators of Source and Fate of Organic Matter in the Bang Pa kong River Estuary, Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonphakdee, Thanomsak; Kasai, Akihide; Fujiwara, Tateki; Sawangwong, Pichan; Cheevaporn, Voravit

    2007-08-01

    Full text: Stable carbon isotopes and C/N ratios of particulate organic matter (POM) in suspended solids and surficial sediment were used to define the spatial and temporal variability in an anthropogenic tropical river estuary, the Bang Pa kong River Estuary. Samples were taken along salinity gradients during the four different river discharges in the beginning, high river discharge and at the end of the wet season, and low river discharge during the dry season. The values of [C/N]a ratio and d13C in the river estuary revealed significant differences from those of the offshore station. Conservative behaviors of [C/N]a and d13C in the estuary during the wet season indicated major contribution of terrigenous C3 plants derived OM. By contrast, during the dry season, marine input mainly dominated OM contribution with an evidence of anthropogenic input to the estuary. These compositions of the bulk sedimentary OM were dominated by paddy rice soils and marine derived OM during the wet and dry seasons, respectively. These results show that the combined stable carbon isotopes and C/N ratios can be used to identify the source and fate of OM even in a river estuary. This tool will be useful to achieve sustainable management in coastal zone

  16. Ud eller over til Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmark, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Svar under rubrikken Sprogligheder på spørgsmål om brug af retningsadverbier i dansk ved Thailand og andre, fjernereliggende lokaliteter.......Svar under rubrikken Sprogligheder på spørgsmål om brug af retningsadverbier i dansk ved Thailand og andre, fjernereliggende lokaliteter....

  17. Implementation of Safeguards in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueanngoen, A.; Changkrueng, K.; Srijittawa, L.; Mungpayaban, H.; Wititteeranon, A.

    2015-01-01

    Thailand is a non-nuclear weapon state. The non-nuclear activities are mainly medical, agricultural, and industrial. Therefore, Thailand ratified the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) since 1972 and has been entry into force of the Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement (INFCIRC 241) since 1974. Based on the INFCIRC 153, Thailand established a system of accounting for and control of all nuclear material subject to safeguards under the Agreement. In order to ensure the peaceful use of nuclear in Thailand the Nuclear-Non- Proliferation Center of Office of Atoms for Peace (NPC, OAP) was established to act as State level Safeguards. NPC is responsible for keeping records and providing information under requirement of Comprehensive Safeguards Agreement. In addition, the strengthening of cooperation and good coordination between Thailand and IAEA are indeed important and necessary to implementation safeguards in country. Based on the report of IAEA safeguards statement, there is no indication of the diversion of nuclear materials or misuse of the facility or the items in Thailand. Up to present, nuclear activities in Thailand are peaceful without diversion of using. This paper reviews the current status of the implementation Safeguards in Thailand. (author)

  18. CDM Country Guide for Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Under the Integrated Capacity Strengthening for the CDM (ICS-CDM) programme, IGES presents the CDM Country Guides, a series of manuals on CDM project development for Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. These guidebooks aim at facilitating CDM project developments in Asia by providing essential information to both project developers and potential investors. This volume is on Thailand

  19. GENERATION AND COST OF THE MEGAWATTS USING ECONOMETRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Juan Lora-Freyre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was conducted at the Energy Plant "Antonio Maceo" (Renté, in the province of Santiago de Cuba, under the Ministry of Energy and Mining. Aims to study the improvement of the planning process and as field of action the econometric modeling applied to the production of electricity. The overall objective of this research is to develop estimates of electricity generation and its total costs, and the analysis of the influence of production factors, using econometric techniques. In order to fulfill the above objective was used and perfected the "Information System for the Calculation of Production Estimates" (SICEP, which determines the response functions, considering the main factors influencing the electricity generation and its total costs. The results allow to show that the most influential factor in the generation of electricity is the fuel, it appreciated by analyzing the standardized b coefficient that reflects the highest value (0,39. Furthermore, the most influential factor in the total cost of generation is the additive, which shows a coefficient b standardized 0,51. The estimates given show the standard error values almost coincide with the standard deviation obtained in the reporting of error normality. The results will be useful to the process of production planning and securing materials from it. 

  20. Technology trends in econometric energy models: Ignorance or information?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, G.; Kokkelenberg, E.; State Univ., of New York, Binghamton, NY; Ross, M.; Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI

    1991-01-01

    Simple time trend variables in factor demand models can be statistically powerful variables, but may tell the researcher very little. Even more complex specification of technical change, e.g. factor biased, are still the economentrician's ''measure of ignorance'' about the shifts that occur in the underlying production process. Furthermore, in periods of rapid technology change the parameters based on time trends may be too large for long run forecasting. When there is clearly identifiable engineering information about new technology adoption that changes the factor input mix, data for the technology adoption may be included in the traditional factor demand model to economically model specific factor biased technical change and econometrically test their contribution. The adoption of thermomechanical pulping (TMP) and electric are furnaces (EAF) are two electricity intensive technology trends in the Paper and Steel industries, respectively. This paper presents the results of including these variables in a tradition econometric factor demand model, which is based on the Generalized Leontief. The coefficients obtained for this ''engineering based'' technical change compares quite favorably to engineering estimates of the impact of TMP and EAF on electricity intensities, improves the estimates of the other price coefficients, and yields a more believable long run electricity forecast. 6 refs., 1 fig

  1. Synthesizing Econometric Evidence: The Case of Demand Elasticity Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCicca, Philip; Kenkel, Don

    2015-06-01

    Econometric estimates of the responsiveness of health-related consumer demand to higher prices are often key ingredients for risk policy analysis. We review the potential advantages and challenges of synthesizing econometric evidence on the price-responsiveness of consumer demand. We draw on examples of research on consumer demand for health-related goods, especially cigarettes. We argue that the overarching goal of research synthesis in this context is to provide policy-relevant evidence for broad-brush conclusions. We propose three main criteria to select among research synthesis methods. We discuss how in principle and in current practice synthesis of research on the price-elasticity of smoking meets our proposed criteria. Our analysis of current practice also contributes to academic research on the specific policy question of the effectiveness of higher cigarette prices to reduce smoking. Although we point out challenges and limitations, we believe more work on research synthesis in this area will be productive and important. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. The Dynamics of Associations and Foundations in Romania. Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelariu Gabriel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights the evolutionary trend of the associations and foundations in Romania in 1997 – 2015 period of time. We know that the NPO's activities come to cover the people's needs which cannot be supported by the state or by the private sector. More precisely, the major roles of the NPO sector are: supporting disadvantaged groups and the social causes, sustaining the role of "watchdog", and promoting the advocacy and public policy expertise. For this reason, we propose an econometric model that will be applied to establish the link between the number of the association and foundations, poverty rate, unemployment rate and the average monthly expenditure per household. We consider that the last three factors are relevant to the country’s social economy and, at the same time, they represent the main objectives of the EUROPE 2020 Strategy - a strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. The study is based on numerical data collected over a period of 12 years from 2003 to 2014. For the econometric model, we use IBM SPSS 22 software, in analyzing the collected data. After processing the data we will find a positive and significant relation between the number of associations and foundations (AF, the average monthly expenditure per household and the poverty rate. At the same time, we will find an insignificant relation between the number of associations and foundations and the unemployment rate.

  3. Thailand and brain drain

    OpenAIRE

    Terry Commins

    2009-01-01

    Brain drain has been the subject of research since the 1960s. This research has been hampered by a lack of accurate data from both source and receiving countries on migration and on the losses and gains to developing economies of skilled migration. However, despite these handicaps, research has been able to clearly show that trends are changing and the effect this is having is usually quite different for individual source countries.Thailand, as a developing economy, could be regarded as a sou...

  4. Why Thailand’s Military Stepped In

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    8 Craig J. Reynolds (ed.), National Identity and its Defenders: Thailand Today ( Chiang Mai : Silkworm Books, 2002). 9...and Authority in Thailand,” in National Identity and its Defenders: Thailand Today (rev. ed.), ed. Craig J. Reynolds ( Chiang Mai : Silkworm Books, 2002...Business of Politics in Thailand ( Chiang Mai : Silkworm Books, 2004), 230. 128 Ockey, “Thailand,” 199. 52 days of the military directly administering

  5. A national econometric forecasting model of the dental sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein, P J; Roehrig, C S

    1980-01-01

    The Econometric Model of the the Dental Sector forecasts a broad range of dental sector variables, including dental care prices; the amount of care produced and consumed; employment of hygienists, dental assistants, and clericals; hours worked by dentists; dental incomes; and number of dentists. These forecasts are based upon values specified by the user for the various factors which help determine the supply an demand for dental care, such as the size of the population, per capita income, the proportion of the population covered by private dental insurance, the cost of hiring clericals and dental assistants, and relevant government policies. In a test of its reliability, the model forecast dental sector behavior quite accurately for the period 1971 through 1977. PMID:7461974

  6. Computationally intensive econometrics using a distributed matrix-programming language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doornik, Jurgen A; Hendry, David F; Shephard, Neil

    2002-06-15

    This paper reviews the need for powerful computing facilities in econometrics, focusing on concrete problems which arise in financial economics and in macroeconomics. We argue that the profession is being held back by the lack of easy-to-use generic software which is able to exploit the availability of cheap clusters of distributed computers. Our response is to extend, in a number of directions, the well-known matrix-programming interpreted language Ox developed by the first author. We note three possible levels of extensions: (i) Ox with parallelization explicit in the Ox code; (ii) Ox with a parallelized run-time library; and (iii) Ox with a parallelized interpreter. This paper studies and implements the first case, emphasizing the need for deterministic computing in science. We give examples in the context of financial economics and time-series modelling.

  7. Approaches and methods for econometric analysis of market power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perekhozhuk, Oleksandr; Glauben, Thomas; Grings, Michael

    2017-01-01

    , functional forms, estimation methods and derived estimates of the degree of market power. Thereafter, we use our framework to evaluate several structural models based on PTA and GIM to measure oligopsony power in the Ukrainian dairy industry. The PTA-based results suggest that the estimated parameters......This study discusses two widely used approaches in the New Empirical Industrial Organization (NEIO) literature and examines the strengths and weaknesses of the Production-Theoretic Approach (PTA) and the General Identification Method (GIM) for the econometric analysis of market power...... in agricultural and food markets. We provide a framework that may help researchers to evaluate and improve structural models of market power. Starting with the specification of the approaches in question, we compare published empirical studies of market power with respect to the choice of the applied approach...

  8. Currency Crisis in Sudan in 2012: An Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alamedin Bannaga, Dr.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Sudan currency crisis in 2012 occurred when the Sudanese pound lost 66 percent of its value against the US dollar. In this article we adopt statistical methods such as the signal approach and econometric methods such as the Probit Model for identifying and evaluating the currency crisis. We utilize some economic indicators that have the ability to predict the crisis. We examined the capability of these indicators in generating an early warning system for Sudan currency crisis. The study confirms that the incidence of currency crisis in Sudan increases by increase in inflation rate, increase in import percentage of GDP, rise in claims against the central government, reduction in external reserves and existence of political crisis. Moreover, the study finds that the most important predictor of currency crisis in Sudan is decline in external reserves.

  9. A new species of Lecanorchis (Orchidaceae from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somran Suddee

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Lecanorchis betongensis, a new species from tropical rain forest in southern peninsular Thailand, is described and illustrated. The combination of semicircular column wings and a labellum with an odd number of major veins (but devoid of calli places the new species in sect. Lecanorchis. However, the lack of any fusion between the labellum and the column readily distinguishes L. betongensis from all other species of the genus. The new species seems morphologically closest to L. malaccensis from Thailand, Malaysia and Sumatra.

  10. Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of domesticated Asian elephants, Thailand.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Four Asian elephants were confirmed to be infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis by bacterial culture, other diagnostic procedures, and sequencing of 16S–23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer region, 16S rRNA, and gyrase B gene sequences. Genotyping showed that the infectious agents originated from 4 sources in Thailand. To identify infections, a combination of diagnostic assays is essential.

  11. Country watch: Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraksa, S

    1996-01-01

    Many of Thailand's 300,000 monks have only a rudimentary understanding of HIV/AIDS, and, in 1990, some senior monks debated about whether or not to ordain persons with AIDS as monks. Buddhism teaches that preparing for death is a way to gain enlightenment, however, and in 1991 a Buddhist monk was asked to develop a hospice care center for AIDS sufferers. After a difficult first year, the center expanded to include day care and home care facilities. In addition, a community care project was begun to raise HIV awareness. These centers have reduced the still widespread stigmatization of persons with AIDS, and three other monasteries have begun treating persons with AIDS with kindness, herbs, and meditation. As Buddhists begin to approach AIDS more seriously, the next step will be to find a way to convey information about the disease to the poverty-stricken population which will be most affected by it.

  12. Development of an expert system in econometrics. Application to energy demand modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauveau, A.

    1993-01-01

    The proper use of econometric softwares requires both statistical and economic skills. The main objective of this thesis is to provide the users of regression programs with assistance in the process of regression analysis by means of expert system technology. We first built an expert system providing general econometric strategy. The running principle of the program is based on a ''estimation - hypothesis check - specification improvement'' cycle. Its econometric expertise is a consistent set of statistical technics and analysis rules for estimating one equation. Then, we considered the inclusion of the economic knowledge required to produce a consistent analysis; we focused on energy demand modelling. The economic knowledge base is independent from the econometric rules, this allow us to update it easily. (author)

  13. Airborne incidents : an econometric analysis of severity, December 31, 2014 : technical summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-31

    This is a technical summary of the Airborne Incidents: An Econometric Analysis of Severity main report. : Airborne loss of separation incidents occur when an aircraft breaches the defined separation limit (vertical and/or horizontal) with anoth...

  14. Analytical-numerical solution of a nonlinear integrodifferential equation in econometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakhktsyan, V. M.; Khachatryan, A. Kh.

    2013-07-01

    A mixed problem for a nonlinear integrodifferential equation arising in econometrics is considered. An analytical-numerical method is proposed for solving the problem. Some numerical results are presented.

  15. Development and Application of Econometric Models for Forecasting and Analysis of Monetary Policy Scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Malugin, Vladimir; Demidenko , Mikhail; Kalechits, Dmitry; Miksjuk , Alexei; Tsukarev , Taras

    2009-01-01

    A system of econometric models designed for forecasting target monetary indicators as well as conducting monetary policy scenarios analysis is presented. The econometric models integrated in the system are represented in the error correction form and are interlinked by means of monetary policy instruments variables, common exogenous variables characterizing external shocks, and monetary policy target endogenous variables. Forecast accuracy estimates and monetary policy analysis results are pr...

  16. Econometric Forecasting Models for Air Traffic Passenger of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Suryan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major benefits of the air transport services operating in bigger countries is the fact that they provide a vital social economic linkage. This study is an attempt to establish the determinants of the passenger air traffic in Indonesia. The main objective of the study is to determine the economic variables that affect the number of airline passengers using the econometrics model of projection with an emphasis on the use of panel data and to determine the economic variables that affect the number of airline passengers using the econometrics model of projection with an emphasis on the use of time series data. This research also predicts the upcoming number of air traffic passenger until 2030. Air transportation and the economic activity in a country are interdependent. This work first uses the data at the country level and then at the selected airport level for review. The methodology used in this study has adopted the study for both normal regression and panel data regression techniques. Once all these steps are performed, the final equation is taken up for the forecast of the passenger inflow data in the Indonesian airports. To forecast the same, the forecasted numbers of the GDP (Gross Domestic Product and population (independent variables were chosen as a part of the literature review exercise are used. The result of this study shows the GDP per capita have significant related to a number of passengers which the elasticity 2.23 (time-series data and 1.889 for panel data. The exchange rate variable is unrelated to a number of passengers as shown in the value of elasticity. In addition, the total of population gives small value for the elasticity. Moreover, the number of passengers is also affected by the dummy variable (deregulation. With three scenarios: low, medium and high for GDP per capita, the percentage of growth for total number of air traffic passenger from the year 2015 to 2030 is 199.3%, 205.7%, and 320.9% respectively.

  17. Thailand: Background and U.S. Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chanlett-Avery, Emma

    2006-01-01

    U.S.-Thailand relations are of particular interest to Congress because of Thailand's status as a long-time military ally, a key country in the war against terrorism in Southeast Asia, and a significant...

  18. Undertreatment of pain in HIV+ adults in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Nathaniel M; Chaiklang, Kanokporn; Supparatpinyo, Khuanchai

    2013-06-01

    Chronic pain remains prevalent in HIV+ adults despite widespread antiretroviral use. Pain continues to be underrecognized and undertreated in this population. In Thailand, similar to the West, HIV care is transitioning toward chronic disease management. Despite the importance of pain management in chronic HIV, the prevalence of pain and adequacy of pain management is unknown in HIV+ adults in Thailand. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of chronic pain, the burden of inadequate analgesia, and risk factors for chronic pain in HIV+ adults in Thailand. A total of 254 HIV+ adults were recruited from an outpatient clinic in Thailand. Interviewers obtained information on demographics, clinical data, and pain characteristics. The burden of inadequate analgesia was assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory. Risk factors were identified with logistic regression analysis. Frequent pain was reported by 27% of participants; 22% reported chronic pain. Pain was significantly associated with education less than primary school, a positive depression screen, and the number of years on combined antiretroviral therapy. Eighty-six percent of patients with frequent pain were inadequately treated. Of 34 patients with moderate or severe pain, none received adequate analgesia. Inadequate analgesia was a significant risk factor for poorer quality of life. Despite widespread antiretroviral use, pain remains common and undertreated in HIV+ adults in Thailand. Undertreated pain negatively impacts quality of life. It is imperative that policy makers and HIV caregivers address this treatment gap to advance the care of people living with HIV in Thailand. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Empirical spatial econometric modelling of small scale neighbourhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerkman, Linda

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the paper is to model small scale neighbourhood in a house price model by implementing the newest methodology in spatial econometrics. A common problem when modelling house prices is that in practice it is seldom possible to obtain all the desired variables. Especially variables capturing the small scale neighbourhood conditions are hard to find. If there are important explanatory variables missing from the model, the omitted variables are spatially autocorrelated and they are correlated with the explanatory variables included in the model, it can be shown that a spatial Durbin model is motivated. In the empirical application on new house price data from Helsinki in Finland, we find the motivation for a spatial Durbin model, we estimate the model and interpret the estimates for the summary measures of impacts. By the analysis we show that the model structure makes it possible to model and find small scale neighbourhood effects, when we know that they exist, but we are lacking proper variables to measure them.

  20. Firing the furnace? An econometric analysis of utilities' fuel choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauchmann, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to estimate how the fuel mix of German electricity producers does react to fuel price changes. The empirical analysis is based on panel data (1968-1998) of major utilities. Two different aspects of fuel choice are distinguished: at the one hand, the construction of usually fuel-specific capacities for electric power generation, i.e. investment decisions that determine the fuel mix in the long run; at the other, fuel use conditional on existing generation capacities, i.e. short-run inter-fuel substitution. According to the results from panel unit root tests, both the econometric models which describe these two aspects are specified in changes rather than levels. The partly discrete nature of investment decisions is taken into account, by constructing a discrete model of capacity adjustment. Our estimation results suggest that the fuel mix of electric utilities is price inelastic either if long-term investment or short-term inter-fuel substitution is considered. Finally, the empirical results are used to predict the potential impacts of CO 2 emissions trading on fuel choice in the German electric power industry

  1. Firing the furnace? An econometric analysis of utilities' fuel choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauchmann, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to estimate how the fuel mix of German electricity producers does react to fuel price changes. The empirical analysis is based on panel data (1968-1998) of major utilities. Two different aspects of fuel choice are distinguished: at the one hand, the construction of usually fuel-specific capacities for electric power generation, i.e. investment decisions that determine the fuel mix in the long run; at the other, fuel use conditional on existing generation capacities, i.e. short-run inter-fuel substitution. According to the results from panel unit root tests, both the econometric models which describe these two aspects are specified in changes rather than levels. The partly discrete nature of investment decisions is taken into account, by constructing a discrete model of capacity adjustment. Our estimation results suggest that the fuel mix of electric utilities is price inelastic either if long-term investment or short-term inter-fuel substitution is considered. Finally, the empirical results are used to predict the potential impacts of CO 2 emissions trading on fuel choice in the German electric power industry. (Author)

  2. Econometric Model of Rice Policy Based On Presidential Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi Sembiring, Surya; Hutauruk, Julia

    2018-01-01

    The objective of research is to build an econometric model based on Presidential Instruction rice policy. The data was monthly time series from March 2005 to September 2009. Rice policy model specification using simultaneous equation, consisting of 14 structural equations and four identity equation, which was estimated using Two Stages Least Squares (2SLS) method. The results show that: (1) an increase of government purchasing price of dried harvest paddy has a positive impact on to increase in total rice production and community rice stock, (2) an increase community rice stock lead to decrease the rice imports, (3) an increase of the realization of the distribution of subsidized ZA fertilizers and the realization of the distribution of subsidized NPK fertilizers has a positive impact on to increase in total rice production and community rice stock and to reduce rice imports, (4) the price of the dried harvest paddy is highly responsive to the water content of dried harvest paddy both the short run and long run, (5) the quantity of rice imported is highly responsive to the imported rice price, both short run and long run.

  3. Econometric modeling of electricity consumption in post-war Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasr, G.E.; Badr, E.A.; Dibeh, G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper applies econometric models to investigate determinants of electrical energy consumption in post-war Lebanon. The impact of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), proxied by total imports (TI), and degree days (DD) on electricity consumption is investigated over different time spans covering the period from 1993 to 1997. The time spans are chosen according to the rationing level of electricity supply. For the 1993-1994 time span, TI is found to be a significant determinant of energy consumption, whereas, DD has a negative correlation. This inconsistency might be attributed to an extensive rationing policy followed during this period. For the 1995-1997 time span which includes reduced rationing period (1995), all electrical energy consumption determinants are found to be significant at the 5% significance level. Analysis results for the rationing free 1996-1997 time span also show the significance of TI and DD at the 5% level. Furthermore, cointegration analysis for the 1995-1997 and 1996-1997 subsets reveals the existence of a long-run relationship between all variables. In addition, error correction models for both subsets are developed to predict short-run dynamics. Finally, statistical performance measures such as mean square error, mean average deviation and mean average percentage error are presented for all models

  4. Tourism Economics in Sri Lanka: An Econometric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna-Perera Lalith Welgamage

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sri Lanka aims to transform its tourism sector into one of the largest foreign exchange earners in 2016 by attracting 2.5 million high spending tourists. Tourism was ranked as the fifth largest source of foreign exchange earnings in 2012, and third largest in 2013 contributing 5.2 percent to total foreign earnings of the country. Further to this, the Sri Lankan government also identified tourism as a major hub of the country’s economy. Given the multi-dimensional impact the sector has on the country’s economy, it has to be examined systematically. This paper develops an econometric model based on the Cobb-Douglas function to analyze the relation between foreign exchange earnings, tourist arrivals, tourist prices, and tourist spending and direct employment in tourism. These variables of tourism are estimated utilizing model parameters such as R-Studio based on data from the sample period from 2002 to 2013. The formula presented in this study can be used by policy makers to calculate future foreign exchange earnings, employment, arrivals and prices related to tourism in Sri Lanka.

  5. ECONOMETRIC FORECAST OF AGRICULTURAL SECTOR INVESTING IN LVOV REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostyslav Lytvyn

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of economic processes forecasting in agriculture is more relevant and urgent in recent years with application of applied econometric methods. In represented research paper, these methods are used to forecast investment and the main agricultural industry indicators of Lvov region of Ukraine. The linear trend model, the parabolic trend model and the exponential trend model were elaborated from the period from 2000 to 2009 in this scientific study using applied statistical tool STATGRAFICS and EXCEL spreadsheets. And with assistance of these models forecast for investment on the basis of data of essential indicators of agrarian sector of the region for 2010 and 2011 was made. All models with probability р=0,95 are adequate experimental data for 2000-2009 years, that allow to make the forecast of investments and main agricultural indicators of the researched region by these models for 2010 and 2011 years. Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that, because of small amount of input data analysis of regression equations coefficients have more qualitative than quantitative influence upon resulting variable y6.

  6. Oil price volatility: An Econometric Analysis of the WTI Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hache, Emmanuel; Lantz, Frederic

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to study the oil price volatility in West Texas Intermediate (WTI) market in the US. By using statistical and econometric tools, we first attempt to identify the long-term relationship between WTI spot prices and the prices of futures contracts on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX). Subsequently we model the short-term dynamic between these two prices and this analysis points up several breaks. On this basis, a short term Markov Switching Vectorial Error Correction model (MS-VECM) with two distinct states (standard state and crisis state) has been estimated. Finally we introduce the volumes of transactions observed on the NYMEX for the WTI contracts and we estimate the influence of the non-commercial players. We conclude that the hypothesis of an influence of noncommercial players on the probability for being in the crisis state cannot be rejected. In addition, we show that the rise in liquidity of the first financial contracts, as measured by the volume of open interest, is a key element to understand the dynamics in market prices. (authors)

  7. Investigation of international energy economics. [Use of econometric model EXPLOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deonigi, D.E.; Clement, M.; Foley, T.J.; Rao, S.A.

    1977-03-01

    The Division of International Affairs of the Energy Research and Development Administration is assessing the long-range economic effects of energy research and development programs in the U.S. and other countries, particularly members of the International Energy Agency (IEA). In support of this effort, a program was designed to coordinate the capabilities of five research groups--Rand, Virginia Polytechnic Institute, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The program could evaluate the international economics of proposed or anticipated sources of energy. This program is designed to be general, flexible, and capable of evaluating a diverse collection of potential energy (nuclear and nonnuclear) related problems. For example, the newly developed methodology could evaluate the international and domestic economic impact of nuclear-related energy sources, but also existing nonnuclear and potential energy sources such as solar, geothermal, wind, etc. Major items to be included would be the cost of exploration, cost of production, prices, profit, market penetration, investment requirements and investment goods, economic growth, change in balance of payments, etc. In addition, the changes in cost of producing all goods and services would be identified for each new energy source. PNL developed (1) a means of estimating the demands for major forms of energy by country, and (2) a means of identifying results or impacts on each country. The results for each country were then to be compared to assess relative advantages. PNL relied on its existing general econometric model, EXPLOR, to forecast the demand for energy by country. (MCW)

  8. ECONOMETRIC APPROACH TO DIFFERENCE EQUATIONS MODELING OF EXCHANGE RATES CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Arnerić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Time series models that are commonly used in econometric modeling are autoregressive stochastic linear models (AR and models of moving averages (MA. Mentioned models by their structure are actually stochastic difference equations. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to estimate difference equations containing stochastic (random component. Estimated models of time series will be used to forecast observed data in the future. Namely, solutions of difference equations are closely related to conditions of stationary time series models. Based on the fact that volatility is time varying in high frequency data and that periods of high volatility tend to cluster, the most successful and popular models in modeling time varying volatility are GARCH type models and their variants. However, GARCH models will not be analyzed because the purpose of this research is to predict the value of the exchange rate in the levels within conditional mean equation and to determine whether the observed variable has a stable or explosive time path. Based on the estimated difference equation it will be examined whether Croatia is implementing a stable policy of exchange rates.

  9. Econometric studies of urban population density: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, J F

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the 1st reasonably comprehensive survey of empirical research of urban population densities since the publication of the book by Edmonston in 1975. The survey summarizes contributions to empirical knowledge that have been made since 1975 and points toward possible areas for additional research. The paper also provides a brief interpretative intellectual history of the topic. It begins with a personal overview of research in the field. The next section discusses econometric issues that arise in the estimation of population density functions in which density is a function only of a distance to the central business district of the urban area. Section 4 summarizes the studies of a single urban area that went beyond the estimation of simple distance-density functions, and Section 5 discusses studies that sought to explain the variations across urban areas in population density patterns. McDonald refers to the standard theory of urban population density throughout the paper. This basic model is presented in the textbook by Mills and Hamilton and it is assumed that the reader is familiar with the model.

  10. Promising results. Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojanapithayakorn, W

    1998-01-01

    This article describes the Thailand Ministry of Health's program for promotion of condom use. Since 1984, findings indicate that AIDS has been a leading public health problem that is spread through heterosexual intercourse. Since 1989, the government has conducted IEC programs to increase knowledge and change attitudes and practices for controlling HIV infections, AIDS, and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). A variety of institutions dispense condoms. Condom use was promoted over a 25-year period. The 100% condom program, implemented in 1989, has been successful in promotion of condoms among sex workers and clients. IEC to prevent AIDS has been operating since 1984. Messages focus on prevention of sexually transmitted HIV infections and correct use of condoms. Family planning programs over the past 30 years have supplied condoms free of charge. Condoms are available for sale through pharmacies and convenience stores. Health service facilities also supply condoms. The 100% condom program began as a pilot in Ratchaburi province. All owners of sex establishments cooperated. The program was initiated jointly by government officials and owners of sex establishments. Owners instructed sex workers about use of condoms in all sexual encounters. Penalties were imposed on owners for noncompliance. Condom use increased gradually and STDs declined. In 1991, the program was expanded nationwide. In 1992, condom quality control measures were instituted. Water soluble lubricants for condoms were added to prevent breakage and increase customer satisfaction. This program needs to be expanded to other sectors of the population.

  11. Thailand's nuclear research centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamkate, P.

    2001-01-01

    The Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Thailand, is charged with three main tasks, namely, Nuclear Energy development Plan, Utilization of Nuclear Based technology Plan and Science and Technology Plan. Its activities are centred around the research reactor TRR-1/M1. The main areas of contribution include improvement in agricultural production, nuclear medicine and nuclear oncology, health care and nutrition, increasing industrial productivity and efficiency and, development of cadre competent in nuclear science and technology. The office also has the responsibility of ensuring nuclear safety, radiation safety and nuclear waste management. The office has started a new project in 1997 under which a 10 MWt research reactor, an isotope production facility and a waste processing and storage facility would be set up by General Atomic of USA. OAEP has a strong linkage with the IAEA and has been an active participant in RCA programmes. In the future OAEP will enhance its present capabilities in the use of radioisotopes and radiation and look into the possibility of using nuclear energy as an alternative energy resource. (author)

  12. Bat consumption in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokwan Suwannarong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human consumption of bats poses an increasing public health threat globally. Communities in which bat guano is mined from caves have extensive exposure to bat excreta, often harvest bats for consumption, and are at risk for bat-borne diseases. Methods: This rapid ethnographic study was conducted in four provinces of Thailand (Ratchaburi, Sakaeo, Nakorn Sawan, and Phitsanulok, where bat guano was mined and sold during the period April–August 2014. The aim of this study was to understand behaviors and risk perceptions associated with bat conservation, exposure to bats and their excreta, and bat consumption. Sixty-seven respondents playing various roles in bat guano mining, packaging, sale, and use as fertilizer participated in the study. Data were collected through interviews and/or focus group discussions. Results: In spite of a bat conservation program dating back to the 1980s, the benefits of conserving bats and the risks associated with bat consumption were not clear and infrequently articulated by study respondents. Discussion: Since bat consumption continues, albeit covertly, the risk of bat-borne diseases remains high. There is an opportunity to reduce the risk of bat-borne diseases in guano-mining communities by strengthening bat conservation efforts and raising awareness of the health risks of bat consumption. Further research is suggested to test behavior change strategies for reducing bat consumption.

  13. Bat consumption in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Schuler, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    Human consumption of bats poses an increasing public health threat globally. Communities in which bat guano is mined from caves have extensive exposure to bat excreta, often harvest bats for consumption, and are at risk for bat-borne diseases. This rapid ethnographic study was conducted in four provinces of Thailand (Ratchaburi, Sakaeo, Nakorn Sawan, and Phitsanulok), where bat guano was mined and sold during the period April-August 2014. The aim of this study was to understand behaviors and risk perceptions associated with bat conservation, exposure to bats and their excreta, and bat consumption. Sixty-seven respondents playing various roles in bat guano mining, packaging, sale, and use as fertilizer participated in the study. Data were collected through interviews and/or focus group discussions. In spite of a bat conservation program dating back to the 1980s, the benefits of conserving bats and the risks associated with bat consumption were not clear and infrequently articulated by study respondents. Since bat consumption continues, albeit covertly, the risk of bat-borne diseases remains high. There is an opportunity to reduce the risk of bat-borne diseases in guano-mining communities by strengthening bat conservation efforts and raising awareness of the health risks of bat consumption. Further research is suggested to test behavior change strategies for reducing bat consumption.

  14. Turning points in international labor migration: a case study of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasuprasat, P

    1994-01-01

    "This article describes the dynamics of the structural transformation of the Thai economy, labor migration and direct foreign investment and proposes an econometric model to explain the migration phenomenon. Though migration shifts have been significantly influenced by political factors such as the Gulf crisis and tensions with Saudi Arabia, economic factors such as the Thai government's liberalization of markets and the expansion of trade and direct foreign investment have contributed to changes in labor market needs. The economic conditions of a shift from net exporter to net importer for labor are posited in the model. The empirical results reveal a turning point in labor migration from Thailand and also confirm the contribution of commodity export in place of labor export in creating employment and income." excerpt

  15. Econometric models for distinguishing between market-driven and publicly-funded energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horowitz, Marvin J.

    2005-01-01

    Central to the problem of estimating energy program benefits is the necessity to differentiate between changes in energy use that would have occurred in the absence of public programs versus declines in energy use that would not have occurred but for public programs. The former changes are often referred to as naturally-occurring or market-driven effects. They occur due to a combination of one or more independent variables, such as changes in prices, incomes, weather, and technology. For a rigorous, scientifically-valid program evaluation, it is essential to first control for these variables before making statistical inferences related to public program effects. This paper describes the economic and statistical issues surrounding quantitative studies of energy use, energy efficiency, and public programs. To illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of different impact evaluation approaches, this paper describes three new studies related to electricity use in the U. S. commercial buildings sector. Specification and estimation of time series and cross section econometric models are discussed, as are their capabilities for obtaining long-run estimates of the net impacts of energy efficiency programs

  16. Consumers and experts. An econometric analysis of the demand for water heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Soest, A.; Bartels, R.; Fiebig, D.G.

    2003-01-01

    Consumers can accumulate product information on the basis of a combination of searching, product advertising and expert advice. Examples of experts who provide product information include doctors advising patients on treatments, motor mechanics diagnosing car problems and recommending repairs, accountants recommending investment strategies, and plumbers making recommendations on alternative water heaters. In each of these examples, the transactions involve the sale of goods and services where the seller is at the same time an expert providing advice on the amount and type of product or service to be purchased. In the case of water heaters, the plumber advising a consumer on their choice of water heater will most likely also install the appliance. Because of the information asymmetry there is potentially a strategic element in the transmission of information from expert to consumer. This paper reports on an econometric investigation of the factors that determine the choices made by consumers and the recommendations made by plumbers and the extent to which plumbers act in the best interests of their customers. The empirical work is made possible by the availability of stated preference data generated by designed experiments involving separate samples of Australian consumers and plumbers. We find some evidence that plumbers have higher preferences than consumers for heater characteristics that increase their profit margin

  17. Renewable energy in Thailand; Renewable Energy in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morstadt, Till [Lorenz and Partners, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2016-01-15

    The following article should represent an overview of the situation of the energy sector in Thailand (I), in particular is referred to the recent Energy Plan 2036 (II.). The focus of this plan - and, accordingly, this paper - is on renewable energy. In addition to the general importance of renewable energy for Thailand the article should deal in detail with the various funding opportunities that the Thai government makes available to investors (III). In addition, under IV. the foreign Investors restrictions in force and possible exemptions thereof are discussed. Finally, it should, as far as possible, a view be given to future developments (V.). [German] Der nachfolgende Beitrag soll einen Ueberblick ueber die Situation des Energiesektors in Thailand darstellen (1.), wobei insbesondere Bezug genommen wird auf den kuerzlich veroeffentlichten Energieplan 2036 (II.). Der Fokus dieses Planes - und dementsprechend dieses Beitrages - liegt auf erneuerbaren Energien. Neben der allgemeinen Bedeutung erneuerbarer Energien fuer Thailand soll detailliert auf die einzelnen Foerdermoeglichkeiten eingegangen werden, die die thailaendische Regierung Investoren zur Verfuegung stellt (111.). Zudem werden unter IV. die fuer auslaendische Investoren geltenden Beschraenkungen und moegliche Befreiungen hiervon eroertert. Abschliessend soll, soweit moeglich, ein Ausblick auf zukuenftige.Entwicklungen gegeben werden (V.).

  18. Energy efficiency and econometric analysis of broiler production farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidari, M.D.; Omid, M.; Akram, A.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the energy consumption per 1000 bird for the broiler production in Yazd province, Iran. The data were collected from 44 farms by using a face-to-face questionnaire method during January–February 2010. The collected information was analyzed using descriptive statistics, economic analysis and stochastic frontier production function. The production technology of the farmer was assumed to be specified by the Cobb–Douglas (CD) production function. Total input energy was found to be 186,885.87 MJ (1000 bird) −1 while the output energy was 27,461.21 MJ (1000 bird) −1 . The values of specific energy and energy ratio were calculated at 71.95 MJ kg −1 and 0.15, respectively. The sensitivity of energy inputs was estimated using the marginal physical productivity (MPP) method. The MPP value showed the high impact of human labor and machinery energy inputs on output energy. Returns to scale (RTS) values for broiler were found to be 0.96; thus, there prevailed a decreasing RTS for the estimated model. The net return was found positive, as 1386.53 $ (1000 bird) −1 and the benefit to cost ratio from broiler production was calculated to be 1.38. The study revealed that production of meat was profitable in the studied area. -- Highlights: ► We determined the energy use efficiency (EUE) for the broiler production as 0.15, indicating inefficiency use of energy in these farms. ► Total input and output energies were found to be 186,885.87 MJ (1000 bird) −1 and 27,461.21 MJ (1000 bird) −1 , respectively. ► Cobb–Douglas (CD) frontier production function was found useful in developing econometric model for broiler production. ► The results of budgetary analysis indicate production of meat in broiler farms is profitable in the studied area.

  19. Self-insurance and worksite alcohol programs: an econometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenkel, D S

    1997-03-01

    The worksite is an important point of access for alcohol treatment and prevention, but not all firms are likely to find offering alcohol programs profitable. This study attempts to identify at a conceptual and empirical level factors that are important determinants of the profitability of worksite alcohol programs. A central question considered in the empirical analysis is whether firms' decisions about worksite alcohol programs are related to how employee group health insurance is provided. The data used are from the 1992 National Survey of Worksite Health Promotion Activities (N = 1,389-1,412). The econometric analysis focuses on measures of whether the surveyed firms offer Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs), individual counseling, group classes and resource materials regarding alcohol and other substance abuse. Holding other factors constant, the probability that a self-insured firm offers an EAP is estimated to be 59%, compared to 51% for a firm that purchases market group health insurance for its employees. Unionized worksites and larger worksites are also found to be more likely to offer worksite alcohol programs, compared to nonunionized smaller worksites. Worksites with younger work-forces are less likely than those with older employees to offer alcohol programs. The empirical results are consistent with the conceptual framework from labor economics, since self-insurance is expected to increase firms' demand for worksite alcohol programs while large worksite is expected to reduce the average program cost. The role of union status and workforce age suggests it is important to consider workers' preferences for the programs as fringe benefits. The results also suggest that the national trend towards self-insurance may be leading to more prevention and treatment of worker alcohol-related problems.

  20. Econometrics as evidence? Examining the 'causal' connections between financial speculation and commodities prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James W; Cook, Nikolai M

    2016-10-01

    One of the lasting legacies of the financial crisis of 2008, and the legislative energies that followed from it, is the growing reliance on econometrics as part of the rulemaking process. Financial regulators are increasingly expected to rationalize proposed rules using available econometric techniques, and the courts have vacated several key rules emanating from Dodd-Frank on the grounds of alleged deficiencies in this evidentiary effort. The turn toward such econometric tools is seen as a significant constraint on and challenge to regulators as they endeavor to engage with such essential policy questions as the impact of financial speculation on food security. Yet, outside of the specialized practitioner community, very little is known about these techniques. This article examines one such econometric test, Granger causality, and its role in a pivotal Dodd-Frank rulemaking. Through an examination of the test for Granger causality and its attempts to distill the causal connections between financial speculation and commodities prices, the article argues that econometrics is a blunt but useful tool, limited in its ability to provide decisive insights into commodities markets and yet yielding useful returns for those who are able to wield it.

  1. Apodida (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) of Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mucharin, Arom

    Systematics of Apodida (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea), with emphasis on Thai species was studied by means of adult morphology and anatomy, ossicle morphology, and phylogenetic analysis (COI). Over 300 Apodida specimens of Apodida were found in different parts of Thailand. The order comprises 25...... locality. The genus Synaptula was found to live in symbiosis with sponges....

  2. Tourism destination development in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pongajarn, Chalermpat

    2017-01-01

    Informed by actor-network theory (ANT), this research aims at improving understanding of the nature of tourism destinations in Thailand and their development by investigating through three main notions: ordering, materiality and multiplicity. These notions enabled to study how tourism

  3. Potential of Wolfram technologies in construction and research of econometric models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A. Vlasov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the center of attention of article didactic, applied and research potentials of technologies of the modern knowledge base and a set of computing algorithms Wolfram in creation and a research of econometric models. Econometric models and methods traditionally play a special role in applied mathematical training of students of an economic bachelor degree in Plekhanov Russian University of Economics. Within this article experience of forming of content of applied mathematical training of future bachelor of economy and methodical features of use of information technologies in the course of econometric modeling of social and economic situations and teaching subject matters of «The econometrician (basic level» for students of an economic bachelor degree and «The econometrician (advanced level» for students of an economic magistracy is provided. The allocated sixteen tools fully allow to focus attention to development of innovative components of professional competence of future bachelors of economy.

  4. Survey on econometric analysis of oil substitute energy; Sekiyu daitai energy keiryo bunseki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    For the econometric analysis of petroleum substitution energy, a domestic econometric model was developed which can concretely and econometrically grasp and analyze effects of measures taken for environmental policies, energy conservation, promotion of new energy, etc. The model was made so synthetic as to catch a relationship between energy supply/demand and changes of econosocial structures in economic growth, industrial structure, life style, etc. which are extremely important elements for catching future energy demand. The model is composed of a secondary energy price model, a new energy introduction model, and an energy supply/demand model. As case parameters, selected were the price of crude oil, introduction of new energy, GDP and energy conservation, and the following cases were assumed: standard case, high price energy case, new energy introduction promotion case, low economic growth case, energy conservation case, and low energy demand case. The results of simulating each of these cases were indicated. 91 figs., 110 tabs.

  5. What is mLearning and How Can It Be Used to Support Learning and Teaching in Econometrics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The aim of case this study was to analyze the integration of mobile learning technologies in a postgraduate course in Finance (MSc in Finance) at Dublin Institute of Technology, where econometrics is an important course component. Previous experience with students undertaking econometrics modules supported this analysis, where the researcher…

  6. How to decode Unemployment Persistence: An econometric framework for identifying and comparing the sources of persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels Framroze

    2016-01-01

    Most econometric analyses of persistence focus on the existence of non-stationary unemployment but not the origin of this. The present research contains a multivariate econometric framework for identifying and comparing different sources of unemployment persistence (e.g. hysteresis versus a slowly...... moving equilibrium rate). A small example, considering historical data (1988-2006) for the UK, demonstrates how the method can be applied in practice. Although this primarily serves as an illustration, the evidence clearly suggests that persistence was due to a slowly moving equilibrium (driven...

  7. Econometric models of power prices. An approach to market monitoring in the Western US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barmack, Matthew; Kahn, Edward; Tierney, Susan; Goldman, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Given the limitations of data and resources available for market monitoring in electricity markets where regional transmission organizations (RTO) do not exist, we argue that econometric models of power prices could provide a useful screening tool for market monitoring. To explore its feasibility, we developed several econometric models of power prices at two major trading hubs in the West: Palo Verde and Mid-Columbia. We show that our models explain a large portion of the variation in power prices in Palo Verde and can establish a benchmark that can be used to identify outlier prices that are potentially the result of anti-competitive behavior. (author)

  8. Econometric Analysis on Developing Decision to Promote an Investment Object of Small Business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Gabriela ZAMFIR

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Econometric applications should be used for decision making on economic issues of the day. One of the most important is access to finance sources, a vital field to the country's economic activity. Accessing funding source involves feasibility studies for decision making on opening funding. Therefore, I decided to approach applied econometrics in the feasibility studies: I avoided advanced software applications, limiting to universally accepted methodology of the World Bank and the functions for calculating Excel spreadsheet-success of a feasibility study is correctness and depth of analysis and processing raw data, not in getting and keeping a reputable software.

  9. Galeommatid bivalves from Phuket, Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lützen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Claus

    2005-01-01

    Twenty-seven species of galeommatid bivalves from six genera have been collected at intertidal reef flats near Phuket Marine Biological Center, Thailand (Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean). Fourteen of the species are new to science and a new genus (Nudiscintilla gen. nov.) has been established. The spec......Twenty-seven species of galeommatid bivalves from six genera have been collected at intertidal reef flats near Phuket Marine Biological Center, Thailand (Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean). Fourteen of the species are new to science and a new genus (Nudiscintilla gen. nov.) has been established...... crustacean, the remainder hide under shale, rocks and coral blocks, often in small intra- or interspecific family flocks. The behaviour was also noted for some of the species. It is presumed that galeommatid species go through a lengthy planktonic phase....

  10. Nuclear data needs in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chongkum, S.

    1999-01-01

    The major nuclear facilities in Thailand are composed of nuclear research reactor, neutron generators, electron linear accelerators and 1 GeV Synchrotron facility, which is under construction. The other small facilities are radioisotope sources and X ray tubes for X ray diffraction and fluorescence studies. Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) is the function arm for nuclear institutions in Thailand. Its major roles are nuclear regulatory, coordinating for nuclear affairs and foreign relations, R and D for nuclear science and technology and giving nuclear services. Nuclear data activities concerning Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1) are for examples: neutronics and thermalhydraulics for reactor operation, neutron energy spectrum and neutron flux measurement for neutron activation analysis and isotope production, neutron and gamma doses, shielding and material testing for radiation safety, and neutron beam experiments. OAEP is taking part in the areas of regional cooperation on utilization of nuclear research reactors, education and training, sharing of research reactor experimental facilities, establishment of nuclear data program and information exchange. The nuclear data reports have been shared among institutions in Thailand through OAEP, which is served as a central nuclear data depository including e.g., INIS, IAEA-NDS, Joint Research Centre Commission of the European Communities and Japanese Nuclear Data Committee (JNDC). This report shows the nuclear facilities in Thailand, the roles of the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace on nuclear data depository and nuclear power development program. The main activities at the Thai Research Reactor TRR-1/M1 concerning nuclear data needs for specific uses in both theoretical and experimental aspects are also described. (J.P.N.)

  11. Clostridium difficile infection in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putsathit, Papanin; Kiratisin, Pattarachai; Ngamwongsatit, Puriya; Riley, Thomas V

    2015-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is the aetiological agent in ca. 20% of cases of antimicrobial-associated diarrhoea in hospitalised adults. Diseases caused by this organism range from mild diarrhoea to occasional fatal pseudomembranous colitis. The epidemiology of C. difficile infection (CDI) has changed notably in the past decade, following epidemics in the early 2000s of PCR ribotype (RT) 027 infection in North America and Europe, where there was an increase in disease severity and mortality. Another major event has been the emergence of RT 078, initially as the predominant ribotype in production animals in the USA and Europe, and then in humans in Europe. Although there have been numerous investigations of the epidemiology of CDI in North America and Europe, limited studies have been undertaken elsewhere, particularly in Asia. Antimicrobial exposure remains the major risk factor for CDI. Given the high prevalence of indiscriminate and inappropriate use of antimicrobials in Asia, it is conceivable that CDI is relatively common among humans and animals. This review describes the level of knowledge in Thailand regarding C. difficile detection methods, prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility profile, as well as the clinical features of, treatment options for and outcomes of the disease. In addition, antimicrobial usage in livestock in Thailand will be reviewed. A literature search yielded 18 studies mentioning C. difficile in Thailand, a greater number than from any other Asian country. It is possible that the situation in Thailand in relation to CDI may mirror the situation in other developing Asians countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  12. Country update report for Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jivacate, C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the status of geothermal energy development in Thailand. Topics covered include: present and planned production of electricity, utilization of geothermal energy for direct heat, geothermal localities, wells drilled for electrical utilization of geothermal resources from January 1, 1985 to January 1, 1990, wells drilled for direct heat utilization of geothermal resources from January 1, 1985 to January 1990 and allocation of professional personnel to geothermal activities

  13. Background radiation map of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angsuwathana, P.; Chotikanatis, P.

    1997-01-01

    The radioelement concentration in the natural environment as well as the radiation exposure to man in day-to-day life is now the most interesting topic. The natural radiation is frequently referred as a standard for comparing additional sources of man-made radiation such as atomic weapon fallout, nuclear power generation, radioactive waste disposal, etc. The Department of Mineral Resources commenced a five-year project of nationwide airborne geophysical survey by awarding to Kenting Earth Sciences International Limited in 1984. The original purpose of survey was to support mineral exploration and geological mapping. Subsequently, the data quantity has been proved to be suitable for natural radiation information. In 1993 the Department of Mineral Resources, with the assistance of IAEA, published a Background Radiation Map of Thailand at the scale of 1:1,000,000 from the existing airborne radiometric digital data. The production of Background Radiation Map of Thailand is the result of data compilation and correction procedure developed over the Canadian Shield. This end product will be used as a base map in environmental application not only for Thailand but also Southeast Asia region. (author)

  14. MODIS Hotspot Validation over Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerachai Tanpipat

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available To ensure remote sensing MODIS hotspot (also known as active fire products or hotspots quality and precision in forest fire control and management in Thailand, an increased level of confidence is needed. Accuracy assessment of MODIS hotspots utilizing field survey data validation is described. A quantitative evaluation of MODIS hotspot products has been carried out since the 2007 forest fire season. The carefully chosen hotspots were scattered throughout the country and within the protected areas of the National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries. Three areas were selected as test sites for validation guidelines. Both ground and aerial field surveys were also conducted in this study by the Forest Fire Control Division, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conversation Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Thailand. High accuracy of 91.84 %, 95.60% and 97.53% for the 2007, 2008 and 2009 fire seasons were observed, resulting in increased confidence in the use of MODIS hotspots for forest fire control and management in Thailand.

  15. Inherited metabolic disorders in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasant, Pornswan; Svasti, Jisnuson; Srisomsap, Chantragan; Liammongkolkul, Somporn

    2002-08-01

    The study of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) in Thailand is in its infancy. The majority are clinically diagnosed since there are only a handful of clinicians and scientists with expertise in inherited metabolic disorders, shortage of well-equipped laboratory facilities and lack of governmental financial support. Genetic metabolic disorders are usually not considered a priority due to prevalence of infectious diseases and congenital infections. From a retrospective study at the Medical Genetics Unit, Department of Pediatrics, Siriraj Hospital; estimated pediatrics patients with suspected IEM were approximately 2-3 per cent of the total pediatric admissions of over 5,000 annually. After more than 10 years of research and accumulated clinical experiences, a genetic metabolic center is being established in collaboration with expert laboratories both in Bangkok (Chulabhorn Research Institute) and abroad (Japan and the United States). Numerous inherited metabolic disorders were identified--carbohydrate, amino acids, organic acids, mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, peroxisomal, mucopolysaccharidoses etc. This report includes the establishment of genetic metabolic center in Thailand, research and pilot studies in newborn screening in Thailand and a multicenter study from 5 institutions (Children's National Center, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Pramongkutklao Hospital, Ramathibodi and Siriraj Hospitals). Inherited metabolic disorders reported are fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency, phenylketonuria, homocystinuria, nonketotic hyperglycinemia, urea cycle defect (arginino succinate lyase deficiency, argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency), Menkes disease, propionic acidemia and mucopolysaccharidoses (Hurler, Hurler-Scheie).

  16. Determinants of Educational Achievement in Morocco: A Micro-Econometric Analysis Applied to the TIMSS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibourk, Aomar

    2013-01-01

    Based on data from international surveys measuring learning (TIMSS), this article focuses on the analysis of the academic performance Moroccan students. The results of the econometric model show that the students' characteristics, their family environment and school context are key determinants of these performances. The study also shows that the…

  17. Econometric analysis of the factors influencing forest acreage trends in the southeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph J. Alig

    1986-01-01

    Econometric models of changes in land use acreages in the Southeast by physiographic region have been developed by pooling cross-section and time series data. Separate acreage equations have been estimated for the three major private forestland owner classes and the three major classes of nonforest land use. Observations were drawn at three or four different points in...

  18. The Anatomy of a Likely Donor: Econometric Evidence on Philanthropy to Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Christen; Johnson, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, philanthropic giving to higher education institutions totaled $30.3 billion, an 8.2% increase over the previous year. Roughly, 26% of those funds came from alumni donations. This article builds upon existing economic models to create an econometric model to explain and predict the pattern of alumni giving. We test the model using data…

  19. Econometric Methods for Causal Evaluation of Education Policies and Practices: A Non-Technical Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlotter, Martin; Schwerdt, Guido; Woessmann, Ludger

    2011-01-01

    Education policy-makers and practitioners want to know which policies and practices can best achieve their goals. But research that can inform evidence-based policy often requires complex methods to distinguish causation from accidental association. Avoiding econometric jargon and technical detail, this paper explains the main idea and intuition…

  20. An alternative to the standard spatial econometric approaches in hedonic house price models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Graevenitz, Kathrine; Panduro, Toke Emil

    2015-01-01

    Omitted, misspecified, or mismeasured spatially varying characteristics are a cause for concern in hedonic house price models. Spatial econometrics or spatial fixed effects have become popular ways of addressing these concerns. We discuss the limitations of standard spatial approaches to hedonic...

  1. Econometric Methods for Research in Education. NBER Working Paper No. 16003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghir, Costas; Rivkin, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the econometric methods that have been used in the economics of education. The focus is on understanding how the assumptions made to justify and implement such methods relate to the underlying economic model and the interpretation of the results. We start by considering the estimation of the returns to education both…

  2. Econometric analysis of the effects of subsidies on farm production in case of endogenous input quantities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Arne; Kumbhakar, Subal C.; Lien, Gudbrand

    The effect of subsidies on farm production has been a major topic in agricultural economics for several decades. We present a new approach for analyzing the effects of different types of coupled and decoupled subsidies on farm production with econometric methods. In contrast to most previous...

  3. Econometric analyses of microfinance credit group formation, contractual risks and welfare impacts in Northern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berhane Tesfay, G.

    2009-01-01

    Key words
    Microfinance, joint liability, contractual risk, group formation, risk-matching, impact evaluation, Panel data econometrics, dynamic panel probit, trend models, fixed-effects, composite counterfactuals, propensity score matching, farm households, Ethiopia.

    Lack of

  4. Heterogeneous trade agreements, WTO membership and international trade : an analysis using matching econometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohl, Tristan; Trojanowska, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the heterogeneous effects of trade agreements (TAs) and World Trade Organization (WTO) membership on the volume of international trade. We extend Baier and Bergstrand’s (2009a) application of matching econometrics by distinguishing between different types of TAs and WTO

  5. Essays on financial econometrics : modeling the term structure of interest rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, Kees Evert

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation bundles five studies in financial econometrics that are related to the theme of modeling the term structure of interest rates. The main contribution of this dissertation is a new arbitrage-free term structure model that is applied in an empirical analysis of the US term structure.

  6. An Initial Econometric Consideration of Supply and Demand in the Guaranteed Student Loan Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayus, Barry; Kendis, Kurt

    1982-01-01

    In this econometric model of the Guaranteed Student Loan Program (GSLP), supply is related to banks' liquidity and yield curves, all lenders' economic costs and returns, and Student Loan Marketing Association activity. GSLP demand is based on loan costs, family debt position, and net student need for financial aid. (RW)

  7. On the rise of Bayesian econometrics after Cowles Foundation Monographs 10, 14

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baştürk, N.; Çakmak, C.; Pinar Ceyhan, S.; van Dijk, H.K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper starts with a brief description of the introduction of the likelihood approach in econometrics as presented in Cowles Foundation Monographs 10 and 14. A sketch is given of the criticisms on this approach mainly from the first group of Bayesian econometricians. Publication and citation

  8. Econometric analysis of the effect of marketing costs on grain prices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Econometric analysis of the effect of marketing costs on grain prices in Kaduna State of Nigeria. JAL Effiong. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Agriculture and Social Research Vol. 6 (1) 2006: pp. 11-14. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  9. ECONOMETRICAL INTERPRETATION OF THE INTERDEPENDECE BETWEEN FISCALITY RATE- FISCAL INCOMES- GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT

    OpenAIRE

    POPA IONELA; PIETRARU ALINA; CODREANU DIANA

    2009-01-01

    Econometrics has come into being and grown as a result of the need to set up instruments of investigation and increase of the methods to organize, conduct and manage the economy, and on the other hand, due to the successful statistical and mathematical me

  10. Econometric Analysis of Bulk Shipping: implications for investment strategies and financial decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Tsolakis

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis provides an econometric analysis of the bulk shipping markets and the implications for shipping investment and financial decision making. Chapter 1 sets the scene by providing a historic analysis of bulk shipping markets over the last 55 years. From this analysis, four

  11. Complex Interaction of Hb Q-Thailand with α0- and β0-Thalassemia in a Chinese Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Sheng; Qin, Qian; Lin, Li; Chen, Qiuli; Yi, Shang; Wei, Honhwei; Du, Juan; Zheng, Chenguang; Qiu, Xiaoxia; Chen, Biyan

    2017-01-01

    Hb Q-Thailand [α74(EF3)Asp→His (α1); HBA1: c.223 G>C] is an abnormal hemoglobin (Hb), variant found mainly in China and Southeast Asian countries. The association of the α Q -Thailand allele with other globin gene disorders has important implications in diagnosis. Here, we report a hitherto undescribed condition of patients with a double heterozygosity for Hb Q-Thailand with α 0 -thalassemia (α 0 -thal) and in combination with β 0 -thalassemia (β 0 -thal) in a Chinese family. Our study will provide some clinical manifestations, laboratory diagnosis and genetic counseling for complex hemoglobinopathies.

  12. Thailand: gas import review takes on urgency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.

    1992-01-01

    The potential market for natural gas imports in Thailand as a result of the downgrading of gas reserves in the Nan Phong field is examined. Proposed pipelines, plans for gas-fired power plants, and the effects that the downgrading has had on Thailand's long-term plans for the development of gas utilisation are discussed. (UK)

  13. Inclusive Education in Thailand: Practices and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorapanya, Sermsap; Dunlap, Diane

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, Thailand passed legislation on the educational provisions for students with disabilities to mandate the implementation of inclusive education. This article provides a historical overview of special education in Thailand and the emergence of inclusive education as it moves from policy to practice. To further identify the challenges faced…

  14. Lexical Profiles of Thailand University Admission Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherngchawano, Wirun; Jaturapitakkul, Natjiree

    2014-01-01

    University Admission Tests in Thailand are important documents which reflect Thailand's education system. To study at a higher education level, all students generally need to take the University Admission Tests designed by the National Institute of Educational Testing Service (NIETS). For the English test, vocabulary and reading comprehension is…

  15. Present and future of astronomy in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soonthornthum, Boonrucksar

    2018-05-01

    Investments in national astronomical facilities and human resources through the National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand have led to the rapid growth of astronomy in Thailand. Ongoing activities in key research areas, education and outreach will lead to further sustainable development.

  16. Thailand's cash crisis hits Asian hydro plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, David

    1999-01-01

    This article highlights the impact of Thailand's economic crisis on the state run Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) hydroelectric power developments plans. The three economic scenarios (rapid, moderate, slow) used by EGAT, and the moderate recovery scenario that the Thai government has instructed EGAT to use are discussed. The predicted rising of energy consumption, the delay to EGAT power development programme, plans for constructing plants using renewable energy, the supply of electricity from Laos, and future developments are considered. The restructuring of Thailand's electricity sector is reviewed, and Thailand's decision to request the assistance of the International Monetary Fund is noted. Thailand's power capability is briefly explored, and a diagram showing the transmission system and existing and future hydroelectric power plants is presented. (UK)

  17. Smart disaster mitigation in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimmanee, S.; Ekkawatpanit, C.; Asanuma, H.

    2016-04-01

    Thailand is notoriously exposed to several natural disasters, from heavy thunder storms to earthquakes and tsunamis, since it is located in the tropical area and has tectonic cracks underneath the ground. Besides these hazards flooding, despite being less severe, occurs frequently, stays longer than the other disasters, and affects a large part of the national territory. Recently in 2011 have also been recorded the devastating effects of major flooding causing the economic damages and losses around 50 billion dollars. Since Thailand is particularly exposed to such hazards, research institutions are involved in campaigns about monitoring, prevention and mitigation of the effects of such phenomena, with the aim to secure and protect human lives, and secondly, the remarkable cultural heritage. The present paper will first make a brief excursus on the main Thailand projects aimed at the mitigation of natural disasters, referring to projects of national and international relevance, being implemented, such as the ESCAP1999 (flow regime regulation and water conservation). Adaptable devices such as foldable flood barriers and hydrodynamically supported temporary banks have been utilized when flooding. In the second part of the paper, will be described some new ideas concerning the use of smart and biomimicking column structures capable of high-velocity water interception and velocity detection in the case of tsunami. The pole configuration is composite cylindrical shell structure embedded with piezoceramic sensor. The vortex shedding of the flow around the pole induces the vibration and periodically strains the piezoelectric element, which in turn generates the electrical sensorial signal. The internal space of the shell is filled with elastic foam to enhance the load carrying capability due to hydrodynamic application. This more rigid outer shell inserted with soft core material resemble lotus stem in nature in order to prolong local buckling and ovalization of column

  18. U.S.-Thailand Relations: Analysis of U.S. Military Support to the Kingdom of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Chen, 1. 7 David K. Wyatt, Thailand: A Short History ( Chiang Mai , Thailand: Silkworm Books, 2003),278. 8 Wyatt, 277. 9 U.S. Department of State...westhawk.blogspot.com/2008/02/marine-corps-expeditionary-plan-is.html Wyatt, David K. Thailand: A Short History. Chiang Mai , Thailand: Silkworm Books

  19. Nuclear Power Project in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namwong, Ratanachai

    2011-01-01

    The Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT), the main power producer in Thailand, was first interested in nuclear power as an electricity option in 1967 when the electricity demand increased considerably for the first time as a result of the economic and industrial growth. Its viability had been assessed several times during the early seventies in relation to the changing factors. Finally in the late 1970s, the proceeding with nuclear option was suspended for a variety of reasons, for instance, public opposition, economic repercussion and the uncovering of the indigenous petroleum resources. Nonetheless, EGAT continued to maintain a core of nuclear expertise. During 1980s, faced with dwindling indigenous fossil fuel resources and restrictions on the use of further hydro as an energy source, EGAT had essentially reconsidered introducing nuclear power plants to provide a significant fraction to the long term future electricity demand. The studies on feasibility, siting and environmental impacts were conducted. However, the project was never implemented due to economics crisis in 1999 and strong opposition by environmentalists and activists groups. The 1986 Chernobyl disaster was an important cause. After a long dormant period, the nuclear power is now reviewed as one part of the solution for future energy supply in the country. Thailand currently relies on natural gas for 70 percent of its electricity, with the rest coming from oil, coal and hydro-power. One-third of the natural gas consumed in Thailand is imported, mainly from neighbouring Myanmar. According to Power Development Plan (PDP) 2007 rev.2, the total installed electricity capacity will increase from 28,530.3 MW in 2007 to 44,281 MW by the end of plan in 2021. Significantly increasing energy demand, concerns over climate change and dependence on overseas supplies of fossil fuels, all turn out in a favor of nuclear power. Under the current PDP (as revised in 2009), two 1,000- megawatt nuclear

  20. Thailand's Work and Health Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Matthew; Strazdins, Lyndall; Dellora, Tarie; Khamman, Suwanee; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian C

    2010-09-01

    Thailand has experienced a rapid economic transition from agriculture to industry and services, and from informal to formal employment. It has much less state regulation and worker representation relative to developed nations, who underwent these transitions more slowly and sequentially, decades earlier. We examine the strengthening of Thai government policy and legislation affecting worker's health, responding to international norms, a new democratic constitution, fear of foreign importer embargos and several fatal workplace disasters. We identify key challenges remaining for Thai policy makers, including legislation enforcement and the measurement of impacts on worker's mental and physical health.

  1. Econometric Estimates of Army Retention: Zones A, B, C, D and Retirement-Eligible, 1990-2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moore, Carole; Hogan, Paul; Kirchner, Christian; Macklin, Patrick C; Greenston, Peter M

    2007-01-01

    .... To improve fit, we generated new econometric estimates by MOS, CMF and Zone using the more recent years of data, and conducted out-of-sample prediction testing to confirm the validity of the updated model.

  2. Peat swamp forest of Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niyomdham, C.; Urapeepatanapong, C.; Pitayakajornwute, P. [Pikoolthong Royal Development Study Center, Bangkok (Thailand). Royal Forest Department

    1996-12-31

    Peat swamp forest in Thailand occurs extensively along coastal flatlands in the central and southern parts of the country and some small patches of topogenous peatland are present locally on several mountain tops of the northern region. Many have been deteriorated by recent extensive development programs. However, one large area, about 347.04 km{sup 2}, of ombrogenous peatland is still left intact in the Pru Toh Dang area where conservation activities are being strictly enforced under one of the Royal Initiative Projects. Pru Toh Dang peat consists of 5 metres of fibrous organic soil overlying pyritic marine clay. Despite an inhospitable, submerged and unstable forest floor, the floristic composition of the peat swamp forest is extremely complicated, consisting of 124 families and 470 species of which 109 families and 437 species of flowering plants, and 15 families and 33 species of ferns recorded between 1983-1989 by a team from the Forest Herbarium of the Royal Forest Department of Thailand. (orig.) (4 refs.)

  3. Assessing Independent Variables Used in Econometric Modeling Forest Land Use or Land Cover Change: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    J Jeuck; F. Cubbage; R. Abt; R. Bardon; J. McCarter; J. Coulston; M. Renkow

    2014-01-01

    : We conducted a meta-analysis on 64 econometric models from 47 studies predicting forestland conversion to agriculture (F2A), forestland to development (F2D), forestland to non-forested (F2NF) and undeveloped (including forestland) to developed (U2D) land. Over 250 independent econometric variables were identified from 21 F2A models, 21 F2D models, 12 F2NF models, and...

  4. A cost comparison of alternative regimens for treatment-refractory partial seizure disorder: an econometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won Chan; Hoffmann, Marc S; Arcona, Steve; D'Souza, Joseph; Wang, Qin; Pashos, Chris L

    2005-10-01

    Partial seizure disorder is typically treated by monotherapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). However, when the condition is refractory to the initial treatment regimen, patients may be switched to monotherapy with another AED or to combination therapy with the initial AED plus a second AED. The purpose of this study was to examine the economic costs associated with treatment-refractory partial seizure disorder and to compare the costs of 2 alternative approaches: a switch to oxcarbazepine (OXC) monotherapy or the addition to the regimen of another AED (AED add-on). Adult patients with a diagnosis of partial seizure disorder who received initial AED monotherapy between January 1, 2000, and March 31, 2003, were identified from the PharMetrics Patient-Centric Database, a health plan administrative claims database. The medical and pharmacy history of these patients was analyzed from 6 months before a change to either OXC monotherapy or AED add-on therapy through 12 months after the change in treatment. Total health care resource utilization and the associated costs were compared within each cohort before and after the change, as well as between cohorts, with statistical differences tested using Wilcoxon rank sum tests. Multivariate econometric analyses were performed to examine the impact of age, sex, geographic location, Charlson Comorbidity Index, and the presence of specific comorbidities. Demographic and clinical characteristics 102 were similar between the OXC monotherapy cohort (n = 259) and the AED add-on cohort (n = 795). Annual direct treatment costs increased in both groups in the period after the failure of initial monotherapy, increasing from 10,462 US dollars to 11,360 US dollars in the OXC cohort and from 10,137 US dollars to 12,201 US dollars in the AED add on cohort (P < 0.01). Increased pharmacy costs were the primary driver behind cost increases in both cohorts. Patients in the AED add-on cohort were significantly more likely to have an emergency

  5. ECONOMETRIC MODELLING OD THE INFLUENCE OF LAKE WATER QUALITY CHANGES ON FISHING ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Antoni Ramczyk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The econometric model can be a precise instrument for the analysis of the impact of the natural environment's degradation on fishing economy. This paper aims at analysing the influence of the water quality changes in lake Charzykowskie on the fishing economy. This dissertation present the results of a research on the lake water pollution's impact on fishing economy. The economic-ecological models have been constructed, explaining the changes of economic effects of the lake fishery in the conditions of an increasing water pollution in the epilimnion on the example of the catch of Rutilus rutilus, Abramis brama, Blicca bjoerkna, Coregonus albula, Coregonus lavaretus, Anguilla anguilla and Esox lucius in Lake Charzykowskie. Performed empirical research looked into the influence of the environmental factors on the size of fish catch. Calculations and analysis show clearly that though the habitat factors do influence the catch size of each studied fish species, they do it with different intensity and in various combinations. Both lake water quality and climate factors changes cause measurable effects on fishing industry of lake Charzykowskie. Among all the examined Rutilus rutilus, Abramis brama and Blicca bjoerkna the highest environmental requirements concerning water quality has Blicca bjoerkna. Whereas Abramis brama has slightly higher environmental requirements than Rutilus rutilus. Empirical calculations showed as well that Coregonus albula and Coregonus lavaretus have considerably higher water cleanness requirements than Rutilus rutilus, Abramis brama and Blicca bjoerkna. While when talking about Rutilus rutilus, Abramis brama and Blicca bjoerkna, most water characteristics still rather stimulated these species' development, when it comes to Coregonus albula and Coregonus lavaretus, in general they suppressed their development. The model has also proved quite high habitat requierements of Anquilla anquilla and correctness of the thesis that

  6. The Use of Nonparametric Kernel Regression Methods in Econometric Production Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czekaj, Tomasz Gerard

    and nonparametric estimations of production functions in order to evaluate the optimal firm size. The second paper discusses the use of parametric and nonparametric regression methods to estimate panel data regression models. The third paper analyses production risk, price uncertainty, and farmers' risk preferences...... within a nonparametric panel data regression framework. The fourth paper analyses the technical efficiency of dairy farms with environmental output using nonparametric kernel regression in a semiparametric stochastic frontier analysis. The results provided in this PhD thesis show that nonparametric......This PhD thesis addresses one of the fundamental problems in applied econometric analysis, namely the econometric estimation of regression functions. The conventional approach to regression analysis is the parametric approach, which requires the researcher to specify the form of the regression...

  7. Econometric comparisons of liquid rocket engines for dual-fuel advanced earth-to-orbit shuttles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    Econometric analyses of advanced Earth-to-orbit vehicles indicate that there are economic benefits from development of new vehicles beyond the space shuttle as traffic increases. Vehicle studies indicate the advantage of the dual-fuel propulsion in single-stage vehicles. This paper shows the economic effect of incorporating dual-fuel propulsion in advanced vehicles. Several dual-fuel propulsion systems are compared to a baseline hydrogen and oxygen system.

  8. Market Failure In African Agricultural Marketing Systems: An Econometric Testing And Analysis Of Market Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Gbolahan S. Osho

    2011-01-01

    The last few years have seen substantial revivals of interest in the determinants of economic growth in Africa, especially in the Sub-Saharan Africa. This paper provides an econometric model that help to examine the impact of market share, interest rate and non-economic factors such as external shocks, structural adjustment policies on the GDP of Sub-Saharan Africa. Economic development data covering the period of 1970 to 2004 was used in estimation with ordinary least square (OLS). The resul...

  9. Climate Change Adaptation via U.S. Land Use Transitions: A Spatial Econometric Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Sung Ju; McCarl, Bruce A.; Wu, Ximing

    2015-01-01

    Climate change, coupled with biofuels development and other factors may well be changing US land usage patterns. We use a spatial econometric approach to estimate the drivers of US land use transitions in recent years. We consider transitions between six major land uses: agricultural land, forest, grassland, water, urban, and other uses. To examine drivers, we use a two-step linearized, spatial, multinomial logit model and estimate land use transition probabilities. Our results indicate that ...

  10. DETERMINANTS OF INFLATION IN PAKISTAN: AN ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS USING JOHANSEN CO-INTEGRATION APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Furrukh Bashi; Shahbaz Nawaz; Kalsoom Yasi; Usman Khursheed; Jahanzeb Khan; Muhammad Junaid Qureshi

    2011-01-01

    Inflation is regarded as regressive taxation against the poor. The most visible impact of inflation in recent times is its effect on real output, relative prices, taxes and interest rates. The study focuses to examine demand side and supply side determinants of inflation in Pakistan on economic and econometric criterion and also to investigate causal relationships among some macroeconomic variables. For that purpose, study has undertaken time series data for the period from 1972 to 2010. Long...

  11. Estimation of the value-at-risk parameter: Econometric analysis and the extreme value theory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Zorica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper different aspects of value-at-risk estimation are considered. Daily returns of CISCO, INTEL and NASDAQ stock indices are analyzed for period: September 1996 - September 2006. Methods that incorporate time varying variability and heavy tails of the empirical distributions of returns are implemented. The main finding of the paper is that standard econometric methods underestimate the value-at-risk parameter if heavy tails of the empirical distribution are not explicitly taken into account. .

  12. Three essays on the econometric analysis of high frequency financial data

    OpenAIRE

    OOMEN, Roel C. A.

    2003-01-01

    Defence date: 13 June 2003 Examining Board: Prof. H. Peter Boswijk, University of Amsterdam ; Prof. Søren Johansen, University of Copenhagen, Supervisor ; Prof. Helmut Lütkepohl, EUI ; Prof. Stephen Taylor, Lancaster University This thesis is motivated by the observation that the time series properties of financial security prices can vary fundamentally with their sampling frequency. Econometric models developed for low frequency data may thus be unsuitable for high frequency data and v...

  13. Antimicrobial resistance and molecular epidemiology of Salmonella Rissen from animals, food products, and patients in Thailand and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Rene S.; Bangtrakulnonth, Aroon; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat

    2008-01-01

    Rissen isolates recovered from humans, food products, and animals in Denmark and Thailand. Additionally, risk factors due to travel and consumption of specific food products were analyzed and evaluated. A total of 112 Salmonella Rissen isolates were included in this study from Thailand and Denmark. Thai...... isolates were recovered from humans, uncooked food, and ready-to-eat food. Danish isolates were obtained from humans (with and without a history of travel to Thailand prior to the infection), Danish pig or pork products, imported pig or pork products, turkeys, and animal feed. A total of 63 unique Xba...... was detected in tetracycline-resistant isolates. Statistical analysis and molecular subtyping identified the combination of travel to Thailand and consumption of imported pig or pork products as well consumption of as pig or pork products produced in Denmark as risk factors for Salmonella Rissen infection...

  14. Hedonic approaches based on spatial econometrics and spatial statistics: application to evaluation of project benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Morito; Seya, Hajime

    2009-12-01

    This study discusses the theoretical foundation of the application of spatial hedonic approaches—the hedonic approach employing spatial econometrics or/and spatial statistics—to benefits evaluation. The study highlights the limitations of the spatial econometrics approach since it uses a spatial weight matrix that is not employed by the spatial statistics approach. Further, the study presents empirical analyses by applying the Spatial Autoregressive Error Model (SAEM), which is based on the spatial econometrics approach, and the Spatial Process Model (SPM), which is based on the spatial statistics approach. SPMs are conducted based on both isotropy and anisotropy and applied to different mesh sizes. The empirical analysis reveals that the estimated benefits are quite different, especially between isotropic and anisotropic SPM and between isotropic SPM and SAEM; the estimated benefits are similar for SAEM and anisotropic SPM. The study demonstrates that the mesh size does not affect the estimated amount of benefits. Finally, the study provides a confidence interval for the estimated benefits and raises an issue with regard to benefit evaluation.

  15. An assessment of econometric models applied to fossil fuel power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gracceva, F.; Quercioli, R.

    2001-01-01

    The main purpose of this report is to provide a general view of those studies, in which the econometric approach is applied to the selection of fuel in fossil fired power generation, focusing the attention to the key role played by the fuel prices. The report consists of a methodological analysis and a survey of the studies available in literature. The methodological analysis allows to assess the adequateness of the econometric approach, in the electrical power utilities policy. With this purpose, the fundamentals of microeconomics, which are the basis of the econometric models, are pointed out and discussed, and then the hypotheses, which are needed to be assumed for complying the economic theory, are verified in their actual implementation in the power generation sector. The survey of the available studies provides a detailed description of the Translog and Logit models, and the results achieved with their application. From these results, the estimated models show to fit the data with good approximation, a certain degree of interfuel substitution and a meaningful reaction to prices on demand side [it

  16. THE SIMON KUZNETS'S INFLUENCE ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMETRICS AND ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Chernyak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available S. Kuznets's empirical and theoretical researches of the economical growth and economical development, made in 1940 – 1960th, became a main source for upgrading the econometrical models of those processes. The ideas of S. Kuznets gave a beginning for two outstanding directions of the applied literature. The first one deals with the Kuznets's cycles, that have approximately 20 years length period. The second direction appeared after the Kuznets's hypothesis about the unequal allocation of income in a process of economical growth. Kuznets made an assumption, that this inequality growth first and then rolls off. This dependence was named "Kuznets curve". An appearance of new works is caused by creation of new econometrical methods and models (panel data, nonstationarity and by putting forward new theoretical explanations of the phenomenon. Similarly to the original Kuznets curve in the early 1990th "Environmental Kuznets curve" was suggested. After appearance of that concept plenty of econometrical researches were done. On our opinion, the Kuznets's scientific heritage includes great unsolved potential. The usage of this potential will promote a further progress of economical theory.

  17. Land-use change and carbon sinks: Econometric estimation of the carbon sequestration supply function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubowski, Ruben N.; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Stavins, Robert N.

    2001-01-01

    Increased attention by policy makers to the threat of global climate change has brought with it considerable interest in the possibility of encouraging the expansion of forest area as a means of sequestering carbon dioxide. The marginal costs of carbon sequestration or, equivalently, the carbon sequestration supply function will determine the ultimate effects and desirability of policies aimed at enhancing carbon uptake. In particular, marginal sequestration costs are the critical statistic for identifying a cost-effective policy mix to mitigate net carbon dioxide emissions. We develop a framework for conducting an econometric analysis of land use for the forty-eight contiguous United States and employing it to estimate the carbon sequestration supply function. By estimating the opportunity costs of land on the basis of econometric evidence of landowners' actual behavior, we aim to circumvent many of the shortcomings of previous sequestration cost assessments. By conducting the first nationwide econometric estimation of sequestration costs, endogenizing prices for land-based commodities, and estimating land-use transition probabilities in a framework that explicitly considers the range of land-use alternatives, we hope to provide better estimates eventually of the true costs of large-scale carbon sequestration efforts. In this way, we seek to add to understanding of the costs and potential of this strategy for addressing the threat of global climate change.

  18. Petroleum products price interactions on the world markets: an econometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maack, Laetitia de; Lantz, Frederic

    2012-09-01

    This study examines the relationship between crude oil and petroleum products prices in the European, Asian and North American markets. We develop an econometric model, based on the long term equilibrium between the prices, which takes into account the changes in the oil product demand trends. We explain price behaviors by the impact of the demand trends. Because the refining industry which transforms crude into petroleum products is a joint product industry, petroleum product pricing is affected by demand trends both in terms of quality and quantity. Consequently, the long term equilibrium between prices, estimated through a co-integration approach, are affected by several structural breaks. We also develop a panel econometric model which simultaneously takes into account the relative prices of ail world products towards one crude. Finally, the different results are compared to the marginal costs derived from an oil refining optimization model. This econometric modeling approach enables a better understanding of the long term equilibrium between prices of petroleum products and crude. (authors)

  19. Econometric model as a regulatory tool in electricity distribution - Case Network Performance Assessment Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honkapuro, S.; Lassila, J.; Viljainen, S.; Tahvanainen, K.; Partanen, J.

    2004-01-01

    Electricity distribution companies operate in the state of natural monopolies since building of parallel networks is not cost-effective. Monopoly companies do not have pressure from the open markets to keep their prices and costs at reasonable level. The regulation of these companies is needed to prevent the misuse of the monopoly position. Regulation is usually focused either on the profit of company or on the price of electricity. In this document, the usability of an econometric model in the regulation of electricity distribution companies is evaluated. Regulation method which determines allowed income for each company with generic computation model can be seen as an econometric model. As the special case of an econometric model, the method called Network Performance Assessment Model, NPAM (Naetnyttomodellen in Swedish), is analysed. NPAM is developed by Swedish Energy Agency (STEM) for the regulation of electricity distribution companies. Both theoretical analysis and calculations of an example network area are presented in this document to find the major directing effects of the model. The parameters of NPAM, which are used in the calculations of this research report, were dated on 30th of March 2004. These parameters were most recent available at the time when analysis was done. However, since NPAM is under development, the parameters have been constantly changing. Therefore slightly changes in the results can occur if calculations were made with latest parameters. However, main conclusions are same and do not depend on exact parameters. (orig.)

  20. Land-use change and carbon sinks: Econometric estimation of the carbon sequestration supply function; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubowski, Ruben N.; Plantinga, Andrew J.; Stavins, Robert N.

    2001-01-01

    Increased attention by policy makers to the threat of global climate change has brought with it considerable interest in the possibility of encouraging the expansion of forest area as a means of sequestering carbon dioxide. The marginal costs of carbon sequestration or, equivalently, the carbon sequestration supply function will determine the ultimate effects and desirability of policies aimed at enhancing carbon uptake. In particular, marginal sequestration conts are the critical statistic for identifying a cost-effective policy mix to mitigate net carbon dioxide emissions. We develop a framework for conducting an econometric analysis of land use for the forty-eight contiguous United States and employing it to estimate the carbon sequestration supply function. By estimating the opportunity costs of land on the basis of econometric evidence of landowners' actual behavior, we aim to circumvent many of the shortcomings of previous sequestration cost assessments. By conducting the first nationwide econometric estimation of sequestration costs, endogenizing prices for land-based commodities, and estimating land-use transition probabilities in a framework that explicitly considers the range of land-use alternatives, we hope to provide better estimates eventually of the true costs of large-scale carbon sequestration efforts. In this way, we seek to add to understanding of the costs and potential of this strategy for addressing the threat of global climate change

  1. Econometric model as a regulatory tool in electricity distribution. Case network performance assessment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honkapuro, S.; Lassila, J.; Viljainen, S.; Tahvanainen, K.; Partanen, J.

    2004-01-01

    Electricity distribution companies operate in the state of natural monopolies since building of parallel networks is not cost- effective. Monopoly companies do not have pressure from the open markets to keep their prices and costs at reasonable level. The regulation of these companies is needed to prevent the misuse of the monopoly position. Regulation is usually focused either on the profit of company or on the price of electricity. Regulation method which determines allowed income for each company with generic computation model can be seen as an econometric model. In this document, the usability of an econometric model in the regulation of electricity distribution companies is evaluated. As the special case of an econometric model, the method called Network Performance Assessment Model, NPAM (Naetnyttomodellen in Swedish), is analysed. NPAM is developed by Swedish Energy Agency (STEM) for the regulation of electricity distribution companies. Both theoretical analysis and calculations of an example network area are presented in this document to find the major directing effects of the model. The parameters of NPAM, which are used in the calculations of this research report, were dated on 30th of March 2004. These parameters were most recent ones available at the time when analysis was done. However, since NPAM have been under development, the parameters have been constantly changing. Therefore slight changes might occur in the numerical results of calculations if they were made with the latest set of parameters. However, main conclusions are same and do not depend on exact parameters

  2. A new species of Cladocroce Topsent, 1892 (Porifera, Haplosclerida) from the Gulf Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putchakarn, S.; de Weerdt, W.H.; van Soest, R.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    A new sponges species, Cladocroce burapha n.sp. (Chalinidae, Haplosclerida, Porifera) is described from Chonburi province, eastern coast of the Gulf of Thailand. The new species can be separated from other Cladocroce speices bya combination of characters, including growth form, form and size of the

  3. Leveraging Emerging Technologies in Southern Thailand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valentine, Albert R

    2005-01-01

    Since 2001, the Kingdom of Thailand has seen a resurgence of ethnic-religious (Malay-Muslim) violence that has killed approximately 800 people, causing obvious disruption within the nation and instability in the region...

  4. Leveraging Emerging Technologies in Southern Thailand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valentine, Albert

    2005-01-01

    Since 2001, the Kingdom of Thailand has seen a resurgence of ethno-religious (Malay-Muslim) violence that has killed approximately 800 people, causing obvious disruption within the nation and instability in the region...

  5. Transsexual emergence: gender variant identities in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocha, Witchayanee

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to understanding of emergent gender/sexual identities in Thailand. Thailand has become a popular destination for sex change operations by providing the medical technology for a complete transformation, with relatively few procedures and satisfactory results at a reasonable price. Data were gathered from 24 transsexual male-to-female sex workers working in Pattaya and Patpong, well-known sex-tourism hot spots in Thailand. Findings suggest the emergence of new understandings of gender/sexual identity. Sex-tourism/sex work significantly illuminates the process through which gender is contested and re-imagined. The coming together of cultures in Thailand's sex industry, coupled with advances in medical technology, has resulted in the emergence of new concepts of gender.

  6. Leveraging Emerging Technologies in Southern Thailand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valentine, Albert R

    2005-01-01

    .... This thesis examines the history of southern Thailand, including the political factors behind the Malay-Muslim rebellions of the past, the roots of this rebellion back to the era of Patani Raya...

  7. Revisions and key to the Vernonieae (Compositae) of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunwong, Sukhonthip; Chantaranothai, Pranom; Keeley, Sterling C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Seventeen genera and 48 species, in five subtribes, are recognized in Thailand. These include 15 endemic taxa, half of which are in the largest genus, Acilepis, with others in the genera Camchaya, Koyamasia, and Okia. A new monotypic genus, Pulicarioidea, is established with P. annamica, the new name for the species formerly known as Vernonia pulicarioides. New combinations are also made for Acilepis kerrii, Cyanthillium montanum, Koyamasia curtisii and Okia pseudobirmanica. Forty-six characters including habit, leaf, flower, achene and pollen morphology were analyzed using UPGMA. Five clusters of taxa were identified. Keys to genera, species and varieties, descriptions, vernacular names, ecological data and illustrations are provided. PMID:24843297

  8. Analisis determinan impor gula Indonesia dari Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Sartika, Novia Reni; Amril, Amril; Artis, Dearmi

    2018-01-01

    The research aims to analyze the influence of national income, exchange rate, inflation and domestic sugar prices on Indonesia sugar import from Thailand. The data used in this research is time series data by using descriptive analysis method and quantitative analysis method.The results showed that simultaneously the variable of GDP, exchange rate, inflation, and domestic sugar prices together had significant effect on Indonesia sugar import from Thailand. While the partial variable of GDP an...

  9. Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ampornrat, Pantip

    1999-01-01

    Thailand's neutron spectrometer has been installed soon after the startup of the reactor. The neutron scattering experiments have been done continuously, although there were some problems involving the neutron intensity and instruments. Development program has been planned for better experimental result. This paper reports the past and present status of neutron scattering equipment and experiments in Thailand. In addition, installation of a HRPD (High Resolution Powder Diffraction) system is included within the scope of the Ongkharak Nuclear Research Center project. (author)

  10. An econometric analysis of willingness-to-pay for sustainable development. A case study of the Volcji Potok landscape area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbic, Miroslav; Slabe-Erker, Renata

    2009-01-01

    When the market for a certain good is competitive enough, economic activities can be studied by the market pricing mechanism. Because this is usually not feasible in case of environmental goods with embodied natural and cultural heritage, particular methods for economic valuation of such goods have to be applied. The present article represents the economic valuation of the Landscape Development and Protection Area of Volcji Potok, which is an important Slovenian cultural landscape area with internationally recognized qualities. For this purpose we combined classical contingent valuation with a closed-version of discrete choice method, where the protest responses have been removed. By using econometric analysis we obtained the value of willingness-to-pay and established its determinants. We also made an attempt to control for different biases that arise in such analyses. At last, we used the adjusted average individual value of willingness-to-pay to calculate the aggregate willingness-to-pay. The present analysis represents one of the very few applications of the method to Central and Eastern European countries. (author)

  11. Pathways to a low-carbon economy for the UK with the macro-econometric E3MG model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagoumas, A.S.; Barker, T.S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines different carbon pathways for achieving deep CO 2 reduction targets for the UK using a macro-econometric hybrid model E3MG, which stands for Energy-Economy-Environment Model at the Global level. The E3MG, with the UK as one of its regions, combines a top-down approach for modeling the global economy and for estimating the aggregate and disaggregate energy demand and a bottom-up approach (Energy Technology subModel, ETM) for simulating the power sector, which then provides feedback to the energy demand equations and the whole economy. The ETM submodel uses a probabilistic approach and historical data for estimating the penetration levels of the different technologies, considering their economic, technical and environmental characteristics. Three pathway scenarios (CFH, CLC and CAM) simulate the CO 2 reduction by 40%, 60% and 80% by 2050 compared to 1990 levels respectively and are compared with a reference scenario (REF), with no reduction target. The targets are modeled as the UK contribution to an international mitigation effort, such as achieving the G8 reduction targets, which is a more realistic political framework for the UK to move towards deep reductions rather than moving alone. This paper aims to provide modeling evidence that deep reduction targets can be met through different carbon pathways while also assessing the macroeconomic effects of the pathways on GDP and investment.

  12. Micro-econometric Analysis of Impact of Remittances on Household’s Welfare: Empirical Evidence from District Peshawar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Waqar Hussain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been conducted in the year 2010 in district Peshawar to assess the impact of inflow of remittances on household’s welfare. The concept welfare was measured in terms of consumption expenditures of the household. A sample of 60 household was interviewed using snowball sampling combined with the convenient sampling technique. A regression model which was a mixture of direct elasticity and semi-elasticity was used to quantify the relationships. Apart from inflow of remittances (lnremt, three control variables (i.e. years of schooling of the household’s head – edu, age of household’s head – age & family size – fz were employed to standardize the impact. Controlling for edu, age & edu, this paper conclude that inflow of remittances enhance household’s welfare. All control variables have theoretically correct positive signs. These results were statistically significant and results showed no major econometric problems that can influence statistical inference derived from the model. So it is highly recommended, in light of the present study, that govt. of Pakistan should take all possible steps to export labors abroad. It has dual positive impacts, one enhancing household’s prosperity (welfare and other reducing unemployment at local level.

  13. An Econometric Model of Healthcare Demand With Nonlinear Pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Johannes S; Winkelmann, Rainer

    2017-06-01

    From 2004 to 2012, the German social health insurance levied a co-payment for the first doctor visit in a calendar quarter. We develop a new model for estimating the effect of such a co-payment on the individual number of visits per quarter. The model combines a one-time increase in the otherwise constant hazard rate determining the timing of doctor visits with a difference-in-differences strategy to identify the reform effect. An extended version of the model accounts for a mismatch between reporting period and calendar quarter. Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, we do not find an effect of the co-payment on demand for doctor visits. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Essays on the economics and econometrics of human capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosso, Stefano

    combines the methodological approaches of the literature on program evaluation, data combination and forecasting to develop estimators of the average treatment effects. This exercise allows a more complete cost-benefit evaluation of social programs accounting for benefits over the whole life cycle.

  15. Thailand--lighting up a dark market: British American tobacco, sports sponsorship and the circumvention of legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Ross; Collin, Jeff; Sriwongcharoen, Kobkul

    2007-01-01

    To examine how British American Tobacco (BAT) used sports sponsorship to circumvent restrictions on tobacco promotion in Thailand, both a key emerging market and a world leader in tobacco control. Analysis of previously confidential BAT company documents. Since its inception in 1987, BAT's sports sponsorship programme in Thailand has been politically sensitive and legally ambiguous. Given Thailand's ban on imported cigarettes, early events provided promotional support to smuggled brands. BAT's funding of local badminton, snooker, football and cricket tournaments generated substantial media coverage for its brands. After the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs decision that obliged Thailand to open its cigarette market to imports, Thailand's 1992 tobacco control legislation established one of the world's most restrictive marketing environments. BAT's sponsorship strategy shifted to rallying and motorbike racing, using broadcasts of regional competitions to undermine national regulations. BAT sought to dominate individual sports and to shape media coverage to maximise brand awareness. An adversarial approach was adopted, testing the limits of legality and requiring active enforcement to secure compliance with legislation. The documents show the opportunities offered by sports sponsorship to tobacco companies amid increasing advertising restrictions. Before the 1992 tobacco control legislation, sponsored events in Thailand promoted international brands by combining global and local imagery. The subsequent strategy of "regionalisation as defensibility" reflected the capacity of international sport to transcend domestic restrictions. These transnational effects may be effectively dealt with via the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, but will require the negotiation of a specific protocol.

  16. A survey of medicinal plants around upper Songkhla lake, Thailand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of medicinal plants around upper Songkhla lake, Thailand. ... method of preparation, route of administration and properties of plants. ... Keywords: Medicinal plant, Ethnobotany, Traditional medicine, Upper Songkhla Lake, Thailand ...

  17. The status of Thailand Y2K Progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srisanan, V.; Junlanan, M.; Malaivongs, K.

    1999-01-01

    This report divided into two parts deals with the general status of Y2K issues in Thailand and its effects in nuclear safeguards and physical protection and control of nuclear materials. It includes a description of safeguards in Thailand, Y2K action plan, contingency (emergency) plan, Thailand Y2K status report and the Thailand answer sheet about safeguards Y2K problem

  18. An Update on Ethanol Production and Utilization in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloyd, Cary N.

    2009-10-01

    Thailand has continued to promote domestic biofuel utilization. Production and consumption of biofuel in Thailand have continued to increase at a fast rate due to aggressive policies of the Thai government in reducing foreign oil import and increasing domestic renewable energy utilization. This paper focuses on ethanol production and consumption, and the use of gasohol in Thailand. The paper is an update on the previous paper--Biofuel Infrastructure Development and Utilization in Thailand--in August 2008.

  19. Sex reassignment surgery in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokrungvaranont, Prayuth; Tiewtranon, Preecha

    2004-11-01

    Many years ago Thai society considered transsexualism (Gender identity disorder or Gender dysphoria) which is commonly known as Kathoey (a word originally used to denote hermaphrodites), Sao Prapet Song or Tut (as in 'Tootsie') were low class citizens, dirty dressing and had to hide in a dark corner selling their services as prostitutes. This made us unwilling to do sex reassignment surgery for this group of people because the idea of eradicating normal sexual organs for the purpose that was not accepted by the society. Consequently the authors have experience in cases where these people wandered seeking doctors who had no competency nor enough experience to do the surgery. The authors could not inhibit the desire of these people who usually suffer from gender identity disorder from strongly wishing to change their genital sex to the sex they want. The outcome of the surgery was not satisfactory for the patients. There were complications and sequelae which caused the authors to correct them later which might be more difficult than doing the original surgery. In addition there were more studies about the etiology and affect of the disorder on these people that changed the social point of view. The women who wanted to be a him and men who would like to be a her should be considered as patients who need to be cured to set the harmony about their genetic sex and the desire to be the opposite sex and also to be regarded by others as a member of that other sex. The treatments of transsexualism usually begin with conventional psychiatric and endocrinological treatment to adjust the mind to the body. For those who failed conservative treatment in adjusting the mind to the body then sex reassignment surgery will be the only way to transform their body to their mind and give the best result in properly selected patients. Preecha Tiewtranon, the pioneer in sex reassignment surgery in Thailand, did his transsexualism case in 1975 together with Dr. Prakob Thongpeaw. Sex

  20. EXPLANATORY ECONOMETRIC METHOD FOR THE ANALYSIS OF THE BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT IN ORGANIZATIONS IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosca Constantin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Our paper, entitled "Explanatory Econometric Method for the Analysis of the Behaviour Management in Organizations in Romania" reflects the wide opening of econometric modelling to quantify the Romanian management issues, representing a practical guidance on multiple recovery plans to fund the huge data collected as part COMOR project launched by the Scientific Society of Management in Romania to characterize the behaviour of managers in the Romanian economic organizations. Construction of these models offers possibilities for complex analysis, descriptive and factorial sequence of firms, counties, geographical areas, but comprehensive summary of studies on the macroeconomic level. Scientific knowledge through a comprehensive assessment of managerial behaviour in the most representative types of business organizations of all geographical areas of the country are, in the context of globalization, one way to prevent surprises market economy. Thus, the results of this exploratory research will provide economic environment, and not only strong argument for anticipating decisions in order to choose the best economic policies, with beneficial effects as conclusive and with as few undesirable implications. Research based on the opinions of thousands of respondents approved, processed through a variety of instruments subject of extensive econometric and interdisciplinary interpretation, psycho-socio-economic management, is a modest contribution to the affirmation of local scientific research that aim for theoretical and applied Romanian school of management by defining: - knowledge of behaviour management in all types of business organizations in Romania; - identifying the Romanian space dimensions of organizational culture as a reflection of the peculiarities of national culture and especially of the main ethnic-specific subcultures; - profile defining effective manager and leader of excellence in terms of character traits and their behaviour.

  1. Econometrically calibrated computable general equilibrium models: Applications to the analysis of energy and climate politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schu, Kathryn L.

    Economy-energy-environment models are the mainstay of economic assessments of policies to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, yet their empirical basis is often criticized as being weak. This thesis addresses these limitations by constructing econometrically calibrated models in two policy areas. The first is a 35-sector computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the U.S. economy which analyzes the uncertain impacts of CO2 emission abatement. Econometric modeling of sectors' nested constant elasticity of substitution (CES) cost functions based on a 45-year price-quantity dataset yields estimates of capital-labor-energy-material input substitution elasticities and biases of technical change that are incorporated into the CGE model. I use the estimated standard errors and variance-covariance matrices to construct the joint distribution of the parameters of the economy's supply side, which I sample to perform Monte Carlo baseline and counterfactual runs of the model. The resulting probabilistic abatement cost estimates highlight the importance of the uncertainty in baseline emissions growth. The second model is an equilibrium simulation of the market for new vehicles which I use to assess the response of vehicle prices, sales and mileage to CO2 taxes and increased corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards. I specify an econometric model of a representative consumer's vehicle preferences using a nested CES expenditure function which incorporates mileage and other characteristics in addition to prices, and develop a novel calibration algorithm to link this structure to vehicle model supplies by manufacturers engaged in Bertrand competition. CO2 taxes' effects on gasoline prices reduce vehicle sales and manufacturers' profits if vehicles' mileage is fixed, but these losses shrink once mileage can be adjusted. Accelerated CAFE standards induce manufacturers to pay fines for noncompliance rather than incur the higher costs of radical mileage improvements

  2. Towards a Curriculum for the Thai Lao of Northeast Thailand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, John

    2015-01-01

    This article considers a fundamental issue in language planning, namely, whether or not to introduce a curriculum for the mother tongue (MT), in the wider context of a complex language planning situation in Thailand. It details recent moves in the consideration of this issue for the Thai Lao (Isan) of Northeast Thailand, Thailand's largest…

  3. Determinants of the distribution and concentration of biogas production in Germany. A spatial econometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    The biogas production in Germany is characterized by a heterogeneous distribution and the formation of regional centers. In the present study the determinants of the spatial distribution and concentration are analyzed with methods of spatial statistics and spatial econometrics. In addition to the consideration of ''classic'' site factors of agricultural production, the analysis here focuses on the possible relevance of agglomeration effects. The results of the work contribute to a better understanding of the regional distribution and concentration of the biogas production in Germany. [de

  4. Econometric modelling of certain nuclear power systems based on thermal and fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavelescu, M.; Pioaru, C.; Ursu, I.

    1988-01-01

    Certain known economic analysis models for a LMFBR fast breeder and CANDU thermal solitary reactors are presented, based on the concepts of discounting and levelization. These models are subsequently utilized as a basis for establishing an original model for the econometric analysis of certain thermal reactor systems or/and fast breeder reactors. Case studies are subsequently conducted with the systems: 1-CANDU, 2-LMFBR, 3-CANDU + LMFBR which enables us to draw certain interesting conclusions for a long range nuclear power policy. (author)

  5. Much ado about two: reconsidering retransformation and the two-part model in health econometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullahy, J

    1998-06-01

    In health economics applications involving outcomes (y) and covariates (x), it is often the case that the central inferential problems of interest involve E[y/x] and its associated partial effects or elasticities. Many such outcomes have two fundamental statistical properties: y > or = 0; and the outcome y = 0 is observed with sufficient frequency that the zeros cannot be ignored econometrically. This paper (1) describes circumstances where the standard two-part model with homoskedastic retransformation will fail to provide consistent inferences about important policy parameters; and (2) demonstrates some alternative approaches that are likely to prove helpful in applications.

  6. Prácticas para el aprendizaje de la econometría avanzada

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban González, María Victoria; Modroño Herrán, Juan Ignacio; Orbe Mandaluniz

    2014-01-01

    En este libro, los autores han recolectado y ordenado el material docente que han elaborado a lo largo de los últimos cursos académicos para la asignatura de Econometría, de la Licenciatura en Economía en la Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales de la UPV/EHU. Los autores han colaborado en distintos proyectos de innovación docente que han permitido desarrollar la asignatura con aprovechamiento de las TICs, y han participado, entre otras actividades, en programas de innovación docent...

  7. Modelling internal migration in Kenya: an econometric analysis with limited data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, G M; Milne, W J

    1988-09-01

    "In this paper the determinants of internal migration in Kenya are analyzed on the basis of a human capital model. Explanatory variables included in the specification are both economic (wage rates and employment rates) and noneconomic (for example, population density and educational attainment). Also incorporated are variables which reflect intervening opportunities.... The econometric results show that destination variables are important determinants of internal migration, as is distance between the districts. Further, the variables for the intervening opportunities add significantly to the explanatory power of the model." excerpt

  8. Energy demand, substitution and environmental taxation: An econometric analysis of eight subsectors of the Danish economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels Framroze

    2017-01-01

    in a more environmental-friendly direction. For eight subsectors of the Danish economy, time series (1966–2011) are modeled by means of partial Cointegrated VARs. Long-run demand relations are identified for all subsectors and robust price elasticities are supported in five cases. The results are used......This research contains an econometric analysis of energy demand in trade and industry which allows for substitution between electricity and other energy carriers when relative prices change. The presence of substitution suggests that taxation can be a means of changing the energy input mix...

  9. Modelling the world oil market: Assessment of a quarterly econometric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dees, Stephane; Karadeloglou, Pavlos; Kaufmann, Robert K.; Sanchez, Marcelo

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a structural econometric model of the world oil market that can be used to analyse oil market developments and risks. Oil demand depends on domestic economic activity and the real price of oil. Oil supply for non-OPEC producers, based on competitive behaviours, is constrained by geological and institutional conditions. Oil prices are determined by a 'price rule' that includes market conditions and OPEC behaviour. Policy simulations indicate that oil demand and non-OPEC supply are rather inelastic to changes in price, while OPEC decisions about quota and capacity utilisation have a significant, immediate impact on oil prices

  10. An alternative to the standard spatial econometric approaches in hedonic house price models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veie, Kathrine Lausted; Panduro, Toke Emil

    Hedonic models are subject to spatially correlated errors which are a symptom of omitted spatial variables, mis-specification or mismeasurement. Methods have been developed to address this problem through the use of spatial econometrics or spatial fixed effects. However, often spatial correlation is...... varying characteristics markedly. This suggests that omitted variable bias may remain an important problem. We advocate for an increased use of sensitivity analysis to determine robustness of estimates to different models of the (omitted) spatial processes....

  11. AN ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS ON THE ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENTS IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEVDA YAPRAKLI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is a relationship among foreign direct investment and some of the macroeconomics variables in Turkey. For this purpose for the period of 1970-2006, the relationships among foreign direct investment and GDP, labour cost, real exchange rate, openness and foreign trade deficit are econometrically analyzed by employing multivariate cointegration analysis and error correction model. According to the results, FDI is positively effected by GDP and openness, and negatively by labour cost, real exchange rate ve foreign trade deficit variables. Morever, bi-directional causality is observed among FDI and GDP and real exchange rate.

  12. The econometrics of violence, terrorism and scenarios for peace in Colombia from 1950 to 2019

    OpenAIRE

    Gomez-Sorzano, Gustavo

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: This paper continues a research born in 1993 as a consequence of the concern regarding the increase in Colombian violence, and especially for its escalation during the 1990’s, its objective is to create an econometric model capable of forecasting the path of terrorist murder under different policy options and helping the country in the design of a state policy drawing the lineaments for reaching the pacification of the country. In the first part I use The Beveridge and Nelson decom...

  13. US fossil fuel technologies for Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehring, W.A.; Dials, G.E.; Gillette, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.; Traczyk, P.A.

    1990-10-01

    The US Department of Energy has been encouraging other countries to consider US coal and coal technologies in meeting their future energy needs. Thailand is one of three developing countries determined to be a potentially favorable market for such exports. This report briefly profiles Thailand with respect to population, employment, energy infrastructure and policies, as well as financial, economic, and trade issues. Thailand is shifting from a traditionally agrarian economy to one based more strongly on light manufacturing and will therefore require increased energy resources that are reliable and flexible in responding to anticipated growth. Thailand has extensive lignite deposits that could fuel a variety of coal-based technologies. Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustors could utilize this resource and still permit Thailand to meet emission standards for sulfur dioxide. This option also lends itself to small-scale applications suitable for private-sector power generation. Slagging combustors and coal-water mixtures also appear to have potential. Both new construction and refurbishment of existing plants are planned. 18 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Role of nuclear energy in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chongkum, Somporn

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear energy in Thailand can be highlighted when the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) was established since 1961 for taking role of nuclear safety regulation, conducting research and promotion for peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Its main facilities were the 1 megawatt Thai Research Reactor-1 (TRR-1) and the Cobalt-60 Gamma Irradiator. Since then there have been substantial progress made on utilization of nuclear energy in various institutions and in private sectors. Nowaday, there are around 500 units of nuclear energy users in Thailand, i.e. 100 units in medicine, 150 units in education and 250 units in industry. In terms of nuclear power for electricity generation, the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) has conducted the activities to support the nuclear power plant project since 1972 however, because there is widespread public concerned about nuclear safety, waste disposal and recently economic problems in Thailand, nuclear energy option is not put in immediate plan for alternative energy resource. Within the short future, increased in economical, demand fir electricity and safe operation of nuclear plants will likely be demonstrated and recognized. Nuclear energy should remain as an option in the long-term energy strategies for Thailand. (author)

  15. Thailand: poverty, bright lights, dark alleys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-11-06

    Some rural farmers in northern Thailand earn as little as 500 Bahts (US$20) per month, while a factory worker earns an average of 3500 Bahts (US$140) and a private sector executive up to 200,000 Bahts (US$8000) per month. Millions of rural poor individuals in Thailand and elsewhere in Asia are flocking to urban centers in search of survival and better lives. Many, however, wind up working as prostitutes. More than one million children work as prostitutes in Asia, with possibly as many as 200,000 in Thailand alone. These men, women, boys, and girls are at high risk of contracting HIV. An estimated 2.5 million Asians have tested seropositive for infection with HIV, and the World Health Organization estimates that by the year 2000, one-third of the projected HIV cases worldwide will be in Asia, with India and Thailand taking the lead. Existing social services cannot handle the current influx of rural poor to urban areas. In the process, huge tracts of agricultural land are being abandoned, levels of rural and urban poverty are increasing, the extent of homelessness is increasing, and the gap between urban and rural areas grows wider. Thailand has the most inequitable distribution of wealth on the Asian continent.

  16. Knowledge base combinations and innovation performance in Swedish regions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grillitsch, M.; Martin, R.; Srholec, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 5 (2017), s. 458-479 ISSN 0013-0095 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : knowledge base * knowledge combination * region Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 5.344, year: 2016

  17. Knowledge base combinations and innovation performance in Swedish regions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grillitsch, M.; Martin, R.; Srholec, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 5 (2017), s. 458-479 ISSN 0013-0095 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : knowledge base * knowledge combination * region Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 5.344, year: 2016

  18. Marine Jurassic lithostratigraphy of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meesook, A.; Grant-Mackie, J. A.

    Marine Jurassic rocks of Thailand are well-exposed in the Mae Sot and Umphang areas and less extensively near Mae Hong Son, Kanchanaburi, Chumphon and Nakhon Si Thammarat, in the north, west, and south respectively. They are generally underlain unconformably by Triassic and overlain by Quaternary strata. Based mainly on five measured sections, fourteen new lithostratigraphic units are established: (in ascending order) Pa Lan, Mai Hung and Kong Mu Formations of the Huai Pong Group in the Mae Hong Son area; Khun Huai, Doi Yot and Pha De Formations of the Hua Fai Group in the Mae Sot area; Klo Tho, Ta Sue Kho, Pu Khloe Khi and Lu Kloc Tu Formations of the Umphang Group in the Umphang area; and the Khao Lak Formation in the Chumphon area. Mudstone, siltstone, sandstone, limestone and marl are the dominant lithologies. Mudstones, siltstones and sandstones are widespread; limestones are confined to the Mae Sot, Umphang, Kanchanaburi and Mae Hong Son areas; marls are found only in Mae Sot. The sequences are approximately 900 m thick in Mae Sot and 450 m thick in Umphang and are rather thinner in the other areas, particularly in the south. Based on ammonites, with additional data from bivalves and foraminifera, the marine Jurassic is largely Toarcian-Aalenian plus some Bajocian. Late Jurassic ages given previously for strata in the Mae Sot and Umphang areas have not been confirmed.

  19. Medical isotope uses in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-01-15

    In February 1959, the International Atomic Energy Agency sent an expert to Thailand to assist in the development of the medical application of radioisotopes, particularly in diagnosis and clinical research. The IAEA expert was to gave a series of lectures to groups of medical workers in order to provide them with an introductory account of the various applications of radioisotopes in medicine. Work with radioisotopes was already under way at the Radiology Department of Siriraj Hospital, where 15 to 20 patients were referred to the Department each week for tests with radioactive iodine used as a tracer. A number of cases had also been treated with therapeutic doses of radioiodine. The laboratory is well provided with nucleonic equipment and certain additional items of essential equipment were obtained under the IAEA expert's guidance. Certain delays were, however, experienced in obtaining supplies of radioisotopes from abroad because of customs and other import regulations, and the expert regarded the establishment of a simplified procedure. The existing facilities, techniques and organization of work at the laboratory were improved and a new diagnostic procedures was established on a routine basis. For example, the dispensing of routine tracer doses of radioiodine was simplified and reorganized. Again, a specialized system for measuring the output of the heart with the help of radioisotopes was established for the investigation of patients with cardiac disorders

  20. ECONOMETRIC METHODS AND MODELS USED IN THE ANALYSIS OF THE FACTORIAL INFLUENCE OF THE GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin ANGHELACHE

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Gross Domestic Product is the most representative synthetic indicator that expresses the evolution of the national economy. This macroeconomic indicator is used in the analysis of the level of the national economy, as well as the dynamic evolution of the national economy. In the forecast studies we rely on GDP evolution. In these situations, we might identify the factors of economic growth, and their influence. On the evolution of GDP have influence some factors: employees, labour productivity, the level of technology, investments and foreign direct investment, imports, exports or net exports, total consumption, and so on. We can analyze the data series and graphical representation. Detailed analysis is performed using econometric methods, parameters which express interdependence, meaning and intensity of correlation. Thus, we estimate the economic developments. The authors studied and proposed some econometric models for the analysis of economic growth/forecast. The novelty is that we adapt some econometric models to macroeconomic analysis.

  1. Princess of Thailand returns to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefania Pandolfi

    2015-01-01

    On Tuesday, 17 November 2015, HRH Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn of Thailand visited CERN. Princess Sirindhorn was visiting the Laboratory for the fifth time, following her last visit in 2010.   Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn of Thailand (center) witnesses the signing of the collaboration agreement between CERN and SLRI, represented by Rolf Heuer (right) and Professor Sarawut Sujitjorn (left) respectively. The Princess was accompanied by a delegation that included the Director of the Synchrotron Light Research Institute (SLRI) in Thailand, Professor Sarawut Sujitjorn, and a large group of Thailand’s Diplomatic Representatives in Switzerland. Upon her arrival, Princess Sirindhorn was welcomed by CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer and the Director-General Designate, Fabiola Gianotti. At CERN, the Princess was given a brief update on the Laboratory’s activities since her last visit, in April 2010. Later on, she witnessed the signature of the f...

  2. Melioidosis in Thailand: Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soawapak Hinjoy

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A recent modelling study estimated that there are 2800 deaths due to melioidosis in Thailand yearly. The Thailand Melioidosis Network (formed in 2012 has been working closely with the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH to investigate and reduce the burden of this disease. Based on updated data, the incidence of melioidosis is still high in Northeast Thailand. More than 2000 culture-confirmed cases of melioidosis are diagnosed in general hospitals with microbiology laboratories in this region each year. The mortality rate is around 35%. Melioidosis is endemic throughout Thailand, but it is still not uncommon that microbiological facilities misidentify Burkholderia pseudomallei as a contaminant or another organism. Disease awareness is low, and people in rural areas neither wear boots nor boil water before drinking to protect themselves from acquiring B. pseudomallei. Previously, about 10 melioidosis deaths were formally reported to the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (Report 506 each year, thus limiting priority setting by the MoPH. In 2015, the formally reported number of melioidosis deaths rose to 112, solely because Sunpasithiprasong Hospital, Ubon Ratchathani province, reported its own data (n = 107. Melioidosis is truly an important cause of death in Thailand, and currently reported cases (Report 506 and cases diagnosed at research centers reflect the tip of the iceberg. Laboratory training and communication between clinicians and laboratory personnel are required to improve diagnosis and treatment of melioidosis countrywide. Implementation of rapid diagnostic tests, such as a lateral flow antigen detection assay, with high accuracy even in melioidosis-endemic countries such as Thailand, is critically needed. Reporting of all culture-confirmed melioidosis cases from every hospital with a microbiology laboratory, together with final outcome data, is mandated under the Communicable Diseases Act B.E.2558. By enforcing this

  3. An econometrics view of worldwide fossil fuel consumption and the role of US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiee, Shahriar; Topal, Erkan

    2008-01-01

    Crude oil, coal and gas, known as fossil fuels, play a crucial role in the global economy. This paper proposes new econometrics modelling to demonstrate the trend of fossil fuels consumption. The main variables affecting consumption trends are: world reserves, the price of fossil fuels, US production and US net imports. All variables have been analysed individually for more than half a century. The research found that while the consumption of fossil fuels worldwide has increased trends in the US production and net imports have been dependent on the type of fossil fuels. Most of the US coal and gas production has been for domestic use, which is why it does not have a strong influence on worldwide fossil fuel prices. Moreover, the reserves of fossil fuels have not shown any diminution during the last couple of decades and predictions that they were about to run out are not substantiated. The nominal and real price of fossil fuels was found to change depending on the type. Finally, estimates of three econometric models for the consumption of fossil fuels from 1949 to 2006 are presented which identify the effects of significant variables

  4. Waste production and regional growth of marine activities an econometric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramati, Maria Caterina

    2016-01-01

    Coastal regions are characterized by intense human activity and climatic pressures, often intensified by competing interests in the use of marine waters. To assess the effect of public spending on the regional economy, an econometric model is here proposed. Not only are the regional investment and the climatic risks included in the model, but also variables related to the anthropogenic pressure, such as population, economic activities and waste production. Feedback effects of economic and demographic expansion on the pollution of coastal areas are also considered. It is found that dangerous waste increases with growing shipping and transportation activities and with growing population density in non-touristic coastal areas. On the other hand, the amount of non-dangerous wastes increases with marine mining, defense and offshore energy production activities. However, lower waste production occurs in areas where aquaculture and touristic industry are more exploited, and accompanied by increasing regional investment in waste disposal. - Highlights: • We use an econometric model as a tool for assessing the effects of regional policies on the development of economic activities related to the use of the sea and on the impact on the marine environment. • Through scenario simulation we provide strategic guidelines for policy makers and economic planners • The model features feedback effects of economic and demographic expansion on the pollution of coastal areas.

  5. A Micro-Econometric Analysis of Determinants of Unsustainable Consumption in The Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrer-i-Carbonell, A.; Van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, much attention has been given to the notion of 'sustainable consumption'. Whereas environmental economics traditionally has focused environmental policy analysis on producers, this new notion broadens the perspective to include environmental policies aimed at directly influencing consumer decisions regarding buying, using, and recycling products. This could suggest policies that link not only to price incentives, but also and especially to persuasive instruments, such as education and information provision. These policies might take into account certain characteristics of households, such as lifestyle and family size. This article presents a first econometric analysis of consumption in the context of environmental sustainability. Relationships between different types of household expenditures and a range of household characteristics are assessed, based on a large micro data set of households for the Netherlands. Use is made of various demand models and econometric techniques to adequately address theoretical and technical issues involved. The article ends with a discussion of the implications of the results for environmental policy directed at stimulating sustainable consumption

  6. Assessing the capital efficiency of healthcare information technologies investments: an econometric perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Rodolphe; Degoulet, Patrice

    2008-01-01

    To examine the different methods that can be used in the quantification of the added value of information technologies (IT) in the health care sector. This quantification represents a major issue for decision-makers and health care professionals when they have to plan an IT investment. Articles were chosen via Medline, internet and the University of Geneva bibliographic portal. Some of the papers were obtained directly from their authors. We examine the most current methods used to evaluate IT return on investment (ROI) in the general business and in the health care sector, drawing attention on methods traditionally used in macroeconomic studies that could reveal themselves disruptive for IT ROI impact evaluation in hospitals. Financial and accounting methods can provide interesting data on a specific IT project but are usually incomplete for revealing the global IT investment influence. Econometric methods tend to demonstrate the positive impact of health care IT (HIT) on hospital production and productivity. Hospitals having higher levels of IT investment tend to deliver a higher level of clinical quality and show improved hospital cost performances. Information technologies are so intermingled with people and processes that the identification of specific IT benefit remains questionable. Using macroeconomic tools could be the best way to analyze and compute IT ROI in health care. Econometric tools take into account all types investments (inputs) and all the returns (outputs) enabling the precise measurement of IT investments impact, breakeven points, and possible threshold levels, thus providing helpful intelligence to reach the higher levels of IT governance in hospitals.

  7. ECONOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF CEREAL DEMAND IN MOROCCO USING THE ALMOST IDEAL DEMAND SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Essaten

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Following up the agricultural policy in Morocco and enforcing it, the new strategy Green Morocco Plan (GMP launched in 2008 also stressed on the cereals’ supply. Meantime, despite their significant nutritional role, little attention has been paid to the demand side. This paper intends to perform an econometric analysis of the demand of five main cereals - Common wheat, Durum wheat, Barley, Corn and Rice- using a linear version of the flexible Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS model. A Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR approach has been applied to the demand system equations with annual data covering the period from 1980 to 2015. At the overall, regular econometric restrictions (stability, structural separability, validity, etc. have been respected our results suggest that the relations of complementarity or substitution are not determining in the cereal bundle in Morocco. Also, the Moroccan consumer behavior is characterized by a strong sensibility towards common wheat price’s changes and by a difficult access for the durum wheat as it is considered as luxury good.

  8. The status on contamination monitoring in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinakhom, Fookiat [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1997-06-01

    Thailand has embarked upon the development of nuclear energy for peaceful utilizations since 1961 when the Atomic Energy for Peace Act was enacted. The Atomic Energy Commission (Thai AEC) was established under section 5 of this Act having power and duty of carrying out matters concerning atomic energy for peace. The applications of nuclear energy in Thailand, at present are exclusively in medicine, education, research and industry. In this paper, the following items are described on contamination monitoring: controllable monitoring, uncontrollable monitoring, standardization of monitoring instruments, and decontamination and waste management. (G.K.)

  9. Curing and sociocultural separatism in South Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomb, L

    1985-01-01

    In much of Thailand animistic curing practices have lost ground to great tradition herbal medicine and modern scientific medicine as more people achieve literacy. Especially in urbanizing areas, Buddhist and Muslim Thais hold in the highest esteem traditional curers whose knowledge derives from patient experimentation and the study of ancient texts. However, among Malay-speaking Muslims in south Thailand, the most respected therapeutic knowledge is revelatory in nature. Southern Muslim curers are generally mystics or spirit-mediums whose direct channels of communication with the supernatural convey remedies for afflictions but also provide guidelines for maintaining sociocultural separatism.

  10. BULLYING AND CYBERBULLYING IN THAILAND: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruthaychonnee Sittichai

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bullying is a severe problem, especially in schools, including the relatively new phenomenon of cyberbullying (via mobile phones and the internet. Research in Western countries suggests that over the last decade, cyberbullying accounts for about one-quarter to one-third of all bullying. Here we review research on cyberbullying, and bullying in general, in an eastern culture, Thailand. Eight relevant reports were found; however only three explicitly discussed cyberbullying. Reports were mainly quantitative, and did not consistently distinguish (cyber bullying from general aggression. Suggestions are made for future research in this area, in Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries.

  11. The taxation of wealth transfers in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Rodthong, Ratichai

    2016-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the award of Doctor of Philosophy and was awarded by Brunel University London This thesis examines the case for a wealth transfer tax in Thailand, against the background, inter alia, of the failure of Thailand’s defunct tax law on estate and inheritance (the Estate and Inheritance Tax Act, 1933). Thailand has a significant problem with income and wealth distribution, with an increasing gulf between the rich and the poor—a root cause of the nation’s ongoing pol...

  12. EMergy analysis perspectives of Thailand and Mekong River dam proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.T.; McClanahan, T.R.

    1996-01-01

    Methods of EMergy analysis (a scientifically based measure of wealth with units of solar emjoules (sej)) are explained and illustrated, using the economy of Thailand and two proposed dams on the Mekong River. Thailand's EMergy/$ ratio is near the world average (3.46 ·10 12 sej/$), its EMergy per capita ratio (2.98·10 15 sej/capita) is low compared to developed economies (that of the United States is 29.3·10 15 sej/capita), and its EMergy balance of payments is negative (the EMergy in exports is almost twice the EMergy in imports). The calculated net yield ratios of the proposed dams were sensitive to the treatment of sediments. The analysis yielded high net yield ratios (12.3/1 and 20.3/1) if sediments were not included, but yielded ratios of only 1.4/1 and 1.3/1 if sediments were included. If the two dams were constructed as a cascade, the combined net yield ratio was 2.5/1 (sediments included). If compared to conventional fossil fuels as a primary source of energy to the economy, the net yield ratio of the electricity generated from the two-dam cascade expressed as fossil fuels was 7.4/1

  13. Portfolio assessments for future generation investment in newly industrializing countries – A case study of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vithayasrichareon, Peerapat; MacGill, Iain F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses future electricity generation portfolios in Thailand in 2030 given uncertain future fossil-fuel prices, carbon pricing policies, electricity demand, and capital costs. Thailand faces challenges for generation investment given its rapid socio-economic progress and fast growing demand. A novel generation investment and planning decision-support tool which incorporates a Monte Carlo extension to conventional optimal generation mix methods combined with portfolio-based analysis techniques, is used. The tool can formally assess tradeoffs between expected future generation costs, cost uncertainties, and CO 2 emissions for the range of different generation portfolios. Results highlight that different levels of future carbon pricing will have significant impacts on the most appropriate generation portfolios. The impact of carbon pricing, however, is not on the appropriate proportion of combined cycle gas turbines (CCGT) in the mix but, instead, on the future role of coal versus nuclear in Thailand. Compared with the current proposed 2030 generation mix, it is possible that there are other generation portfolios that offer lower expected costs, cost uncertainty, and CO 2 emissions depending on future carbon pricing. Results suggest that this investment decision-support approach may have value for electric utilities and policy-makers contemplating significant generation investments under high future uncertainty and conflicting policy objectives. -- Highlights: ► Assess Thailand's future generation portfolios in 2030 under uncertainties. ► Future carbon prices have significant impacts on the appropriate generation mixes. ► Carbon pricing affects the future role of coal versus nuclear in Thailand. ► There may be more appropriate alternatives than the proposed 2030 generation mix. ► This decision-support approach has value for utility and policy decision-making.

  14. Application of modern tests for stationarity to single-trial MEG data: transferring powerful statistical tools from econometrics to neuroscience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipiński, Lech; König, Reinhard; Sielużycki, Cezary; Kordecki, Wojciech

    2011-10-01

    Stationarity is a crucial yet rarely questioned assumption in the analysis of time series of magneto- (MEG) or electroencephalography (EEG). One key drawback of the commonly used tests for stationarity of encephalographic time series is the fact that conclusions on stationarity are only indirectly inferred either from the Gaussianity (e.g. the Shapiro-Wilk test or Kolmogorov-Smirnov test) or the randomness of the time series and the absence of trend using very simple time-series models (e.g. the sign and trend tests by Bendat and Piersol). We present a novel approach to the analysis of the stationarity of MEG and EEG time series by applying modern statistical methods which were specifically developed in econometrics to verify the hypothesis that a time series is stationary. We report our findings of the application of three different tests of stationarity--the Kwiatkowski-Phillips-Schmidt-Schin (KPSS) test for trend or mean stationarity, the Phillips-Perron (PP) test for the presence of a unit root and the White test for homoscedasticity--on an illustrative set of MEG data. For five stimulation sessions, we found already for short epochs of duration of 250 and 500 ms that, although the majority of the studied epochs of single MEG trials were usually mean-stationary (KPSS test and PP test), they were classified as nonstationary due to their heteroscedasticity (White test). We also observed that the presence of external auditory stimulation did not significantly affect the findings regarding the stationarity of the data. We conclude that the combination of these tests allows a refined analysis of the stationarity of MEG and EEG time series.

  15. Stakeholders' perceptions on challenges and opportunities for biodiesel and bioethanol policy development in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanthawong, Anuman; Dhakal, Shobhakar

    2016-01-01

    Thailand is Southeast Asia's largest promoter of biofuels. Although, Thailand promotes the use of biofuels, it has yet to achieve its policy targets. This paper focuses on the first generation biofuel development in Thailand and examines the perceptions of seven stakeholder groups to guide further policy development. These stakeholders were feedstock producers, biofuel producers, government agencies, car manufacturers, oil companies, non-profit organizations and end users. It combines a Strengths, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) framework with an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) framework and a TOWS Matrix for analysis of stakeholder's perceptions to propose priorities for policy development. Five policies were of high priority for development of biofuel. These are: (1) promoting biofuel production and use in long term through government policies, (2) revising government regulations to allow sale of biofuel products to other domestic industries while keeping retail prices of blended biofuels below those of regular ethanol and biodiesel, (3) improving farm management and promoting contract farming, (4) expanding cultivation area and yield without affecting food production and environmental sustainability, and (5) balancing biofuel feedstock use between the food and energy industries. - Highlights: •Integrated SWOT–AHP–TOWS analysis for first generation of biofuel. •Stakeholders' perceptions on biodiesel and bioethanol development in Thailand. •Biofuel promote energy security which reduce reliance on oil import. •Increasing yield and cultivation area are important for feedstock of biofuels.

  16. Twee Nederlandse reizigers uit Thailand met cholera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, A. A.; Kuijper, E. J.; Schultz, M. J.; Wieling, W.; Speelman, P.

    1994-01-01

    Cholera is a disease rarely imported in the Netherlands. Recently a 34-year-old woman who had returned from a trip through Thailand was admitted to our hospital with complaints of vomiting, watery stools and moderate dehydration. Vibrio cholerae OI serotype Ogawa biotype El Tor was isolated from the

  17. The Teaching Practicum in Thailand: Three Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phairee, Chatpong; Sanitchon, Nalinee; Suphanangthong, Irada; Graham, Steve; Prompruang, Jidapa; de Groot, Freek Olaf; Hopkins, Dave

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the teaching practicum in Thailand as it occurs in three settings: "Rajabhats"--four-year universities which offer an additional period of teaching practice, and where the vast majority of EFL teachers are educated; regular universities; and a TESOL short course certificate program for non-Thais preparing to teach…

  18. Return of IAEA assistance team from Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The document informs about the return from Thailand of the IAEA team sent (upon the request of the Thai Government under the Convention on Assistance in Case of a Nuclear Accident or Radiological Emergency) to Bangkok to help Thai counterparts in the wake of an accident involving a discarded radioactive cobalt 60 source used in hospitals

  19. Tourism Expenditures and Environment in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliga Sompholkrang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tourism activities affect the environment of different destinations, which is influenced by different tourists’ consumption. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between inbound tourist expenditures and three main environmental dimensions, which are carbon dioxide emission from transport, energy demand, and water usage, in Thailand. This paper employs Vector Autoregressive (VAR models to determine the relationship of variables. Data from Ministry of Energy, Bank of Thailand, Metropolitan Electricity Authority, Provincial Waterworks Authority, National Statistical Office, Department of Tourism, and Tourism Authority of Thailand between 1988 and 2012 have been applied in the model. Note that, energy demand is represented by total electricity consumption of hotel and accommodation sector in Thailand, while water usage is represented by the total water consumption of tourists. This study found the relationships among tourists’ expenditures, carbon dioxide emission from transport, energy demand, and water usage. Therefore, the policies recommendations may be essential to prepare the optimal schemes and budgets for encountering the environmental impacts from tourism business expansion.

  20. Community management of coastal resources, southern Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Chansnoh, P.

    1993-01-01

    The involvement of communities with the assistance and support of government and non government organizations on the management of the coastal resources in Southern Thailand are discussed. The 3 most important resources, mangrove, seagrass and coral, create a complex coastal ecology. Several man-made activities causing the deterioration of this resources are also presented.

  1. Gynostemma (Cucurbitaceae) in Thailand and Malesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.; Duyfjes, B.E.E.

    2007-01-01

    The genus Gynostemma is represented in Thailand and Malesia by four species of which the extremely variable G. pentaphyllum is widespread covering the whole area. Seven forms are recognized in G. pentaphyllum, of which three are new: forma fasciculare W.J. de Wilde & Duyfjes, forma grandiflorum W.J.

  2. Healthy Schools Promotion: An Experience in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erawan, Prawit

    2005-01-01

    The promotion of health education in schools has been operated continuously in Thailand with expecting to enhance a healthy society based on the definition of health under the new trend "A comprehensive and integrated health and social dimensions of body, mind and soul into a lifestyle linked and interrelated the human relationship with a…

  3. Sea Level Variations in Gulf of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    the astrono - mical tides alone. One purpose of thesis is to assess the importance of some of the non-astronomical factors in the Gulf of Thailand. 14...diurnal and diurnal tide components from the non-harmonic components of the hourly height. Then the non- astrono - mical part of the height change can be seen

  4. OUTLINE OF VOCATIONAL TRAINING IN THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Perth.

    THE 1964 POPULATION OF THAILAND WAS 30 MILLION. ITS ECONOMY IS LARGELY DEPENDENT ON AGRICULTURE, BUT RAPID INDUSTRIAL EXPANSION IS UNDERWAY. THE NATION IS DIVIDED INTO 12 EDUCATIONAL REGIONS CONTROLLED BY AN EDUCATION OFFICER. PRESCHOOL EDUCATION OF 1 TO 3 YEARS IS NONCOMPULSORY. ELEMENTARY EDUCATION OF 4 YEARS IS COMPULSORY, AND THIS REQUIREMENT…

  5. National data on stroke outcomes in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongbunkiat, Kannikar; Kasemsap, Narongrit; Thepsuthammarat, Kaewjai; Tiamkao, Somsak; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2015-03-01

    Stroke is a major public health problem worldwide. There are limited data on national stroke prevalence and outcomes after the beginning of the thrombolytic therapy era in Thailand. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and factors associated with mortality in stroke patients in Thailand using the national reimbursement databases. Clinical data retrieved included individuals under the universal coverage, social security, and civil servant benefit systems between 1 October 2009 and 30 September 2010. The stroke diagnosis code was based on the International Classification of Diseases 10th revision system including G45 (transient cerebral ischemic attacks and related syndromes), I61 (intracerebral hemorrhage), and I63 (cerebral infarction). The prevalence and stroke outcomes were calculated from these coded data. Factors associated with death were evaluated by multivariable logistic regression analysis. We found that the most frequent stroke subtype was cerebral infarction with a prevalence of 122 patients per 100,000 of population, an average length of hospital stay of 6.8 days, an average hospital charge of 20,740 baht (∼$USD 691), a mortality rate of 7%, and thrombolytic prescriptions of 1%. The significant factors associated with stroke mortality were septicemia, pulmonary embolism, pneumonia, myocardial infarction, status epilepticus, and heart failure. In conclusion, the prevalence and outcomes of stroke in Thailand were comparable with other countries. The era of thrombolytic therapy has just begun in Thailand. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Implementing Functional Behavior Assessment in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opartkiattikul, Watinee; Arthur-Kelly, Michael; Dempsey, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Thailand is aiming to improve special education practices, and inclusive education has been introduced and mandated by national laws in the past few years. However, inclusive practices are challenging for many Thai teachers and schools. Many teachers are unprepared to support students with diverse needs and to deal with behavior problems. To…

  7. reducing liver fluke transmission in northeastern Thailand

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A new model tested in northeastern Thailand shows that a multi-pronged ... MULTI-FUNDER INITIATIVE. T r o p ic a l D is e a s e r e s e a r c h l a b o r a. To r y, K h o ... research and capacity building collaboration in Southeast Asia. Eco EID is ...

  8. Outline of irradiated food control in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanasalit, P.

    1977-11-01

    In Thailand, the following laws govern food irradiation: the Food Quality Control Act BE 2507 (1964) and the Atomic Energy for Peace Act BE 2504 (1961). The competent body for approval of irradiated food is the subcommittee for irradiated food, which has been set up by the Ministry of Public Health, approved by the Board of Food Quality Control. (NEA) [fr

  9. Econometric Mediation Analyses: Identifying the Sources of Treatment Effects from Experimentally Estimated Production Technologies with Unmeasured and Mismeasured Inputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James; Pinto, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an econometric mediation analysis. It considers identification of production functions and the sources of output effects (treatment effects) from experimental interventions when some inputs are mismeasured and others are entirely omitted. JEL Code: D24, C21, C43, C38.

  10. Econometric modeling of health care costs and expenditures: a survey of analytical issues and related policy considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullahy, John

    2009-07-01

    Econometric modeling of healthcare costs and expenditures has become an important component of decision-making across a wide array of real-world settings. The objective of this article is to provide a brief summary of important conceptual and analytical issues involved in econometric healthcare cost modeling. To this end, the article explores: outcome measures typically analyzed in such work; the decision maker's perspective in econometric cost modeling exercises; specific analytical issues in econometric model specification; statistical goodness-of-fit testing; empirical implications of "upper tail" (or "high cost") phenomena; and issues relating to the reporting of findings. Some of the concepts explored here are illustrated in light of samples drawn from the 2005 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and the 2005 Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Analysts of healthcare cost data have at their disposal an increasingly sophisticated tool kit for analyzing such data that can in principle and in fact yield increasingly interesting insights into data structures. Yet for such analyses to usefully inform policy decisions, the manner in which such studies are designed, undertaken, and reported must accommodate considerations relevant to the decision-making community. The article concludes with some preliminary thoughts on how such bridges might be constructed.

  11. First-Year Study Success in Economics and Econometrics: The Role of Gender, Motivation, and Math Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Ivo J. M.; Rowaan, Wietske

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigate the relationships among gender, math skills, motivation, and study success in economics and econometrics. They find that female students have stronger intrinsic motivation, yet lower study confidence than their male counterparts. They also find weak evidence for a gender gap over the entire first-year…

  12. What is mLearning and how can it be used to support learning and teaching in Econometrics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Morales

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This research project analyzed the integration of mobile learning technologies in a postgraduate course in Finance (MSc in Finance at Dublin Institute of Technology, where econometrics is an important course component. Previous experience with students undertaking econometrics modules supported this analysis, where the researcher detected a clear need for learning support. Econometrics courses are heavily supported by the use of sophisticated statistical software, the availability of which is normally restricted to designated labs in the college. As a result, this project has developed an application that facilitates students’ access to econometrics course work, where a mobile device was used. The main objective of the project was to enable students to bring their course material home with them and use it anywhere, at any time, so that the basic material covered in class could be consulted and reviewed as many times as the students need. The results of this project are very encouraging, as evidence suggests mobile technologies can play a positive role in improving students’ learning experience. Teachers should consider using mobile technologies to support their work in the classroom. In this context, smart phones and PC tablets, the devices used during this study, have proved to be particularly effective. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v3i1.69

  13. Forecasting the EMU inflation rate: Linear econometric vs. non-linear computational models using genetic neural fuzzy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kooths, Stefan; Mitze, Timo Friedel; Ringhut, Eric

    2004-01-01

    This paper compares the predictive power of linear econometric and non-linear computational models for forecasting the inflation rate in the European Monetary Union (EMU). Various models of both types are developed using different monetary and real activity indicators. They are compared according...

  14. Evaluation of factors affecting prescribing behaviors, in iran pharmaceutical market by econometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi, Nima; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Prescribing behavior of physicians affected by many factors. The present study is aimed at discovering the simultaneous effects of the evaluated factors (including: price, promotion and demographic characteristics of physicians) and quantification of these effects. In order to estimate these effects, Fluvoxamine (an antidepressant drug) was selected and the model was figured out by panel data method in econometrics. We found that insurance and advertisement respectively are the most effective on increasing the frequency of prescribing, whilst negative correlation was observed between price and the frequency of prescribing a drug. Also brand type is more sensitive to negative effect of price than to generic. Furthermore, demand for a prescription drug is related with physician demographics (age and sex). According to the results of this study, pharmaceutical companies should pay more attention to the demographic characteristics of physicians (age and sex) and their advertisement and pricing strategies.

  15. Econometrics Models for Copper Recovery: A Case Study of North Waziristan-Copper Deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Khan, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Fourteen econometrics models have been developed to evaluate the effects of various flotation process variables like, Propyl xanthate (X/sub 1/g/tonne), pH (X/sub 2/,) Sodium Cyanide (X/sub 3/ g/tonne), Sodium sulphide (X/sub 4/ g/tonne), Frother (X/sub 5/ g/tonne), Pulp density (X/sub 6/ w/vol), and Conditioning time (X/sub 7/ minute) on the copper recovery YR North Waziristan-NWFP Pakistan. Ordinary Least Square OLS method has been applied as an analytical technique for regression analysis. It has been concluded in this study that model given in equation 7 is best model among all. This equation shows that with the increase of one unit of X/sub 1/, Y/sub R/ will increase 0.05 units keeping all other variables constant. (author)

  16. Waste production and regional growth of marine activities an econometric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramati, Maria Caterina

    2016-11-15

    Coastal regions are characterized by intense human activity and climatic pressures, often intensified by competing interests in the use of marine waters. To assess the effect of public spending on the regional economy, an econometric model is here proposed. Not only are the regional investment and the climatic risks included in the model, but also variables related to the anthropogenic pressure, such as population, economic activities and waste production. Feedback effects of economic and demographic expansion on the pollution of coastal areas are also considered. It is found that dangerous waste increases with growing shipping and transportation activities and with growing population density in non-touristic coastal areas. On the other hand, the amount of non-dangerous wastes increases with marine mining, defense and offshore energy production activities. However, lower waste production occurs in areas where aquaculture and touristic industry are more exploited, and accompanied by increasing regional investment in waste disposal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An econometric time-series analysis of global CO2 concentrations and emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.C.; Labys, W.C.; Eliste, P.

    2001-01-01

    This paper extends previous work on the econometric modelling of CO 2 concentrations and emissions. The importance of such work rests in the fact that models of the Cohen-Labys variety represent the only alternative to scientific or physical models of CO 2 accumulations whose parameters are inferred rather than estimated. The stimulation for this study derives from the recent discovery of oscillations and cycles in the net biospheric flux of CO 2 . A variety of time series tests is thus used to search for the presence of normality, stationarity, cyclicality and stochastic processes in global CO 2 emissions and concentrations series. Given the evidence for cyclicality of a short-run nature in the spectra of these series, both structural time series and error correction model are applied to confirm the frequency and amplitude of these cycles. Our results suggest new possibilities for determining equilibrium levels of CO 2 concentrations and subsequently revising stabilization policies. (Author)

  18. ECONOMETRIC APPROACH OF HETEROSKEDASTICITY ON FINANCIAL TIME SERIES IN A GENERAL FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FELICIA RAMONA BIRĂU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the diagnostic tests for detecting heteroskedasticity on financial time series. In financial econometrics, heteroskedasticity is generally associated with cross sectional data but can also be identified modeling time series data. The presence of heteroscedasticity in financial time series can be caused by certain specific factors, like a model misspecification, inadequate data transformation or as a result of certain outliers. Heteroskedasticity arise when the homoskedasticity assumption is violated. Testing for the presence of heteroskedasticity in financial time is performed by applying diagnostic test, such as : Breusch-Pagan LM test, White’s test, Glesjer LM test, Harvey-Godfrey LM test, Park LM test and Goldfeld-Quand test.

  19. Cyberspace Security Econometrics System (CSES) - U.S. Copyright TXu 1-901-039

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL; Sheldon, Frederick T [ORNL; Lantz, Margaret W [ORNL; Hauser, Katie R [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Information security continues to evolve in response to disruptive changes with a persistent focus on information-centric controls and a healthy debate about balancing endpoint and network protection, with a goal of improved enterprise/business risk management. Economic uncertainty, intensively collaborative styles of work, virtualization, increased outsourcing and ongoing compliance pressures require careful consideration and adaptation. The Cyberspace Security Econometrics System (CSES) provides a measure (i.e., a quantitative indication) of reliability, performance, and/or safety of a system that accounts for the criticality of each requirement as a function of one or more stakeholders interests in that requirement. For a given stakeholder, CSES accounts for the variance that may exist among the stakes one attaches to meeting each requirement. The basis, objectives and capabilities for the CSES including inputs/outputs as well as the structural and mathematical underpinnings contained in this copyright.

  20. Parallelization Experience with Four Canonical Econometric Models Using ParMitISEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalan Baştürk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the parallel computing implementation of the MitISEM algorithm, labeled Parallel MitISEM. The basic MitISEM algorithm provides an automatic and flexible method to approximate a non-elliptical target density using adaptive mixtures of Student-t densities, where only a kernel of the target density is required. The approximation can be used as a candidate density in Importance Sampling or Metropolis Hastings methods for Bayesian inference on model parameters and probabilities. We present and discuss four canonical econometric models using a Graphics Processing Unit and a multi-core Central Processing Unit version of the MitISEM algorithm. The results show that the parallelization of the MitISEM algorithm on Graphics Processing Units and multi-core Central Processing Units is straightforward and fast to program using MATLAB. Moreover the speed performance of the Graphics Processing Unit version is much higher than the Central Processing Unit one.

  1. THE ECONOMETRICS OF THE FORECASTING OF FINANCIAL RESOURCES, A MAIN COMPONENT OF THE FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper intends to emphasise the importance of budget resources forecasting for long periods of time, within thefinancial management. An as accurate as possible forecasting of the volume of financial resources will represent the basis forthe future projections of the expenditure of local communities, as they are regulated by law, knowing that one of the principlesrepresenting the basis of budget making is that of the balanced budget. To the same extent, the volume of the budget liquiditieswill depend on the rigorousness of the design of the volume of financial resources.. Beyond the abstract character of themathematic calculus made by specialists in econometrics, the financial manager is also interested to know the forecastingtechniques so that he/she can draw up the income and expenditure budget, the basis for the implementation of the economicsocialdevelopment strategies of the local communities. The financial management remains a fundamental component of thepublic management through the theoretical-methodological arsenal made available for the loan officer.

  2. On the non-convergence of energy intensities: evidence from a pair-wise econometric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Pen, Yannick; Sevi, Benoit

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates convergence of energy intensities for a group of 97 countries in the period 1971-2003. Convergence is tested using a recent method proposed by Pesaran (2007) [M.H. Pesaran. A pair- wise approach to testing for output and growth convergence. Journal of Econometrics 138, 312-355.] based on the stochastic convergence criterion. Main advantages of this method are that results do not depend on a benchmark against which convergence is assessed, and that it is more robust. Applications of several unit-root tests as well as a stationarity test uniformly reject the global convergence hypothesis. Locally, for Middle- East, OECD and Europe sub-groups, non-convergence is less strongly rejected. The introduction of possible structural breaks in the analysis only marginally provides more support to the convergence hypothesis. (authors)

  3. An econometric model on bilateral trade in education using an augmented gravity model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Tay

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Trade in education has become one of the most important trades for many economies. Yet, studies of education as a trade are scant owing to the conventional view of it being non-tradable. The purpose of this paper is to econometrically investigate trade in education using a nexus of international trade theories and the gravity model, one of the most widely used models in international trade in goods that has been scantly investigated on in studies on trade in education.Design/methodology/approach: A panel data analysis is broken down for 21 exporting countries and 50 importing countries, covering 1050 observations using new UNESCO database. A number of determinants of international trade including wealth of exporter & importer, domestic capacity of exporter & importer, transport costs, common religion, common language and trade restrictiveness of the importer are empirically tested on bilateral trade flows in education. An econometric model is formulated to test determinants of trade in education using an augmented gravity model.Findings: The augmented gravity model used in this study explains with high significance the determinants of trade in education including wealth of exporter & importer, domestic capacity of exporter & importer, transport costs, common religion, common language and trade restrictiveness of the importer.Research limitations/implications: Taking a macroscopic view of education as a trade may give us a myopic view of the elements important to determine what students or parents of students as well as institutions are concerned with. Nevertheless, the nexus of international trade theories and the gravity model used in this study that are largely and traditionally used on trade in goods and services, but scantly used in trade in education have been found to be highly significant and relevant in trade in education. Future studies on macro-level of analysis involving trade in education could include other determinants of

  4. ECONOMETRIC MODEL OF FIRM’S VALUE IN LIQUID MARKET: CASE OF INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Agus Ardiana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The research aims to investigate variables affecting Tobin’s Q which represents the value of public  companies listed on LQ45 Index on the Indonesia Stock Exchange by developing a  BLUE(Best Linear UnbiasedEstimators econometric model for cross-sectional data of 2007, 2008, and 2009 as well as panel data. The models vary across different data but there are important findings to note. Public companies listed  on LQ45 Index have experienced overliquidity problem during the period of observation leading to a decline in firm’s value. In addition, those public companies have low financial risk so they have chance to  increase their debts especially long-term debts.

  5. The carbon Kuznets curve: A cloudy picture emitted by bad econometrics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Martin [Institute for Advanced Studies, Stumpergasse 56, A-1060 Vienna (Austria)

    2008-08-15

    We discuss several major econometric problems that have been ignored in the empirical environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) literature thus far. These are: First, the use of nonlinear transformations of integrated regressors and second, in a panel context, cross-sectional dependence in the data. Both problems fundamentally invalidate the use of widely applied time series and panel unit root and cointegration techniques. We use the important special case of the relationship between GDP and CO{sub 2} (and SO{sub 2}) emissions to show and discuss in detail that the seemingly strong evidence for an inverted U-shaped relationship between these variables obtained with commonly used methods is entirely spurious and vanishes when resorting to estimation strategies that take the discussed problems into account. (author)

  6. An econometric study on China's economy, energy and environment to the year 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li ZhiDong [Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka City (Japan). Dept. of Management and Information System Science

    2003-09-01

    An integrated econometric model named the 3Es-Model, consisting of macroeconomic sub-model, energy sub-model and environment sub-model was developed and used to perform a long-term simulation study for China. In the coming 30 years, the potential of GDP growth will be around 7% annually and the continuation of rapid economic growth could result in insurmountable difficulties for energy security, air protection, and CO{sub 2} emission reductions. For the sustainable development, more comprehensive measures should be adopted, including improvements in energy efficiency, more rapid energy switching from coal to natural gas and renewable energy sources, imposing carbon tax, development of clean coal technology, establishment of strategic petroleum stockpiling, enforcement of air protection, etc. 17 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. An econometric study on China's economy, energy and environment to the year 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhidong

    2003-01-01

    An integrated econometric model consisting of macroeconomic sub-model, energy sub-model and environment sub-model was developed and used to perform a long-term simulation study for China. In the coming 30 years, the potential of GDP growth will be around 7% annually and the continuation of rapid economic growth could result in insurmountable difficulties for energy security, air protection, and CO 2 emission reductions. For the sustainable development, more comprehensive measures should be adopted, including improvements in energy efficiency, more rapid energy switching from coal to natural gas and renewable energy sources, imposing carbon tax, development of clean coal technology, establishment of strategic petroleum stockpiling, enforcement of air protection, etc

  8. Econometric model of intraurban location of emitters and receptors of industrial air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D. J.; Braid, R.

    1977-02-01

    An econometric model of air pollution for an intraurban location (the Chicago area) is constructed and estimated. The model treats employment and population as simultaneously determined. Exogenous variables are selected to represent transportation infrastructure investments resulting primarily from federal and state decisions. The exogenous variables account for the relative services provided by highways, commuter railroads, rail rapid transit, waterways, and airports. The employment location equations appear to be considerably more successful than those in previous studies. These equations indicate that waterway availability constrains the locational options of most major industrial air polluters; that highway accessibility is a more influential factor in industrial than services location choices; that rail rapid transit accessibility is more important to services than industrial locations; and that major airports attract light industrial development. The success of the employment location equations reflects the importance of disaggregating intraurban modes of transport and of adding to urban location models the local effects of interurban modes of transport such as water and air.

  9. A joint econometric analysis of seat belt use and crash-related injury severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluru, Naveen; Bhat, Chandra R

    2007-09-01

    This paper formulates a comprehensive econometric structure that recognizes two important issues in crash-related injury severity analysis. First, the impact of a factor on injury severity may be moderated by various observed and unobserved variables specific to an individual or to a crash. Second, seat belt use is likely to be endogenous to injury severity. That is, it is possible that intrinsically unsafe drivers do not wear seat belts and are the ones likely to be involved in high injury severity crashes because of their unsafe driving habits. The preceding issues are considered in the current research effort through the development of a comprehensive model of seat belt use and injury severity that takes the form of a joint correlated random coefficients binary-ordered response system. To our knowledge, this is the first instance of such a model formulation and application not only in the safety analysis literature, but in the econometrics literature in general. The empirical analysis is based on the 2003 General Estimates System (GES) data base. Several types of variables are considered to explain seat belt use and injury severity levels, including driver characteristics, vehicle characteristics, roadway design attributes, environmental factors, and crash characteristics. The results, in addition to confirming the effects of various explanatory variables, also highlight the importance of (a) considering the moderating effects of unobserved individual/crash-related factors on the determinants of injury severity and (b) seat belt use endogeneity. From a policy standpoint, the results suggest that seat belt non-users, when apprehended in the act, should perhaps be subjected to both a fine (to increase the chances that they wear seat belts) as well as mandatory enrollment in a defensive driving course (to attempt to change their aggressive driving behaviors).

  10. Econometría Espacial Aplicada a la Agricultura de Precisión

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Bongiovanni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available La agricultura de precisión se define como la “aplicación de tecnologías y principios de manejo de cultivos para manejar la variabilidad espacio-temporal asociada a la producción agrícola”.El artículo muestra cómo la econometría espacial se puede aplicar al estudio de los datos del monitor de rendimiento para estimar la respuesta del cultivo al fertilizante.En un estudio de caso de fertilización del maíz con nitrógeno en 1998-99 indican: hay autocorrelación espacial y heterocedasticidad en la respuesta del maíz; la respuesta al nitrógeno y las dosis óptimas de nitrógeno difieren en las distintas posiciones topográficas dentro del lote; la dosis variable de nitrógeno es rentable a un costo extra de USD 6 ha-1; la respuesta al nitrógeno y las dosis óptimas por posición en el lote difieren de año en año.Este resultado es interesante y alienta el uso de la econometría espacial en modelos espaciales, como una herramienta efectiva para determinar la rentabilidad de la dosis variable. Se debe tener en cuenta que se trata de un análisis “ex-post”, es decir, se asume que la respuesta del cultivo al N se conoce al momento de realizar la fertilización. A pesar de que la respuesta esperada nunca se va a conocer con certeza, un análisis económico de este tipo es el punto de partida que permite comenzar a comprender las implicaciones del manejo sitio-específico.

  11. Regional distribution of photovoltaic deployment in the UK and its determinants: A spatial econometric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balta-Ozkan, Nazmiye; Yildirim, Julide; Connor, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) panels offer significant potential for contributing to the UK's energy policy goals relating to decarbonisation of the energy system, security of supply and affordability. The substantive drop in the cost of panels since 2007, coupled with the introduction of the Feed-in Tariff (FiT) Scheme in 2010, has resulted in a rapid increase in installation of PV panels in the UK, from 26.5MWp in 2009 to over 5GW by the end of 2014. Yet there has been no comprehensive analysis of the determinants of PV deployment in the UK. This paper addresses this gap by employing spatial econometrics methods to a recently available data set at a fine geographical detail. Following a traditional regression analysis, a general to specific approach has been adopted where spatial variations in the relationships have been examined utilising the spatial Durbin model using the cross-sectional data relating to the UK NUTS level 3 data. Empirical results indicate that demand for electricity, population density, pollution levels, education level of households and housing types are among the factors that affect PV uptake in a region. Moreover Lagrange Multiplier test results indicate that the spatial Durbin model may be properly applied to describe the PV uptake relationship in the UK as there are significant regional spillover effects. - Highlights: • Spatial econometrics models applied to UK PV installation for the first time • Significant regional spillover effects are apparent. • Smaller households in highly polluted, less dense areas are the early adopters. • Strong substitution effect as high electricity spending induces PV installations. • Solar irradiation data are found to be significant.

  12. The Effect of Financial and Non-Financial Variables to Firm Performance: Comparison Between Indonesia and Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasni Yusrianti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to test the effect of financial and non-financial variables to firm performances between Indonesia and Thailand. The observation data used in this study is manufacturing companies from several sectors.  Secondary data was used, collected from Indonesia Stock Exchange and Stock Exchange of Thailand during 2011 - 2013. By combining 3 years research, there are 55 Indonesian companies and 50 Thailand companies that meet predetermined criteria.  Multiple Regression was used to analyze. This study uses Return on Equity, Earnings per Share, Market Value Added as financial variables and Earnings Quality, Institutional Ownership, Independent Commissioner, Audit Committee, Corporate Social Responsibility as non-financial variables. Test results show that both financial and non-financial variables can effect to firm performance.

  13. Geophysical logging for groundwater investigations in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phongpiyah Klinmanee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In Thailand the Department of Groundwater Resources is drilling to find vital aquifers. Sometimes groundwater formations cannot be identified clearly during drilling; therefore, geophysical logging was applied after drilling and before casing.The tool used here is measuring nine parameters in one run, natural gamma ray, spontaneous potential, single point resistance, normal resistivity (AM 8’’, 16’’, 32’’, and 64’’, mud temperature and resistivity. Cutting was used to support the geophysical interpretations. In many cases the groundwater bearing zones could be clearly identified. The combination of andthe possibility choosing from nine parameters measured provided the necessary data base to identify groundwater bearingzones in different environments. It has been demonstrated that in different wells different tools are favorable than others.Based on the conclusions of this study geophysical logging in groundwater exploration is recommended as a normalstandard technique that should be applied in every new well drilled.

  14. Fostering low-carbon growth initiatives in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criqui, Patrick; Peytral, Pierre-Olivier; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Valadier, Cecile

    2012-02-01

    The current debate on climate strategy and low-carbon economy has increased in complexity: negotiations on the international scene are lacking clear prospects, while the world economic context, international governance and growth prospects remain highly uncertain. In spite of these difficulties, contributors to this study consider that there is a major opportunity for Thailand to address climate change mitigation as part of its overall development strategy, within the 11. NESDP (2012-2016). We strongly believe that Thailand could maximize the benefits of proactive strategies to address climate change adaptation and mitigation by strengthening and expanding already substantial efforts and existing policies. It is also considered that climate policy can be seen as a relevant component of both sustainable development strategy and promotion of national competitiveness. Several key points can be stressed here regarding climate change mitigation strategies and policies in Thailand: - A set of existing policies has already been implemented, mostly focused on the energy sector. - Substantial experience of government departments and agencies has built up over the past two decades in identifying options, coordinating exchanges of views and implementing targeted policies. - A national scientific potential is already established, with a diversity of expertise and a capacity for nationwide field work. Coordinated initiatives of the private sector have been diverse and substantial in major sectors of activity. - Growing awareness in civil society, which is nevertheless combined with entrenched attitudes, resistance to change in everyday life, as in most other countries, whether developed or developing. Recent policy debate, backed by a strong corpus of scientific analysis, considers that a national strategy for Green Economy, or Low-Carbon Economy, should comprise both cross-sector policies and targeted sector-oriented policies. A preliminary analysis of the existing policy mix

  15. Quality Assurance of Rice and Paddy Moisture Measurements in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinhaneti, T.; Keawprasert, T.; Puuntharo, P.; Triarun, W.

    2017-10-01

    A bilateral comparison in moisture measurement between the National Institute of Metrology Thailand (NIMT) and the Central Bureau of Weights and Measures (CBWM) was organized for quality assuring of rice and paddy moisture measurement in Thailand. The bilateral comparison was conducted by using the same batch of sample and moisture meter as transfer device. It consisted of two parts: moisture measurement in rice and in paddy. A rice moisture meter belonging to CBWM and rice standards prepared at the nominal moisture content of 10 %, 12 %, 14 % and 16 % at NIMT, were used for rice moisture comparison, while a paddy moisture meter belonging to NIMT and paddy standards prepared at the nominal moisture content of 12 %, 14 %, 16 % and 18 % at CBWM, were used for paddy moisture comparison. Both laboratories measured the moisture content of a sample by using the standard method in ISO 712 and used that sample to calibrate a moisture meter by means of the method based on ISO 7700-1. Since the moisture content of the sample can change during the comparison, correction values in moisture content between the standard value and the reading value from the moisture meter are used as calibration results for the comparison evaluation. For the rice moisture comparison, differences in the correction value measured by the two laboratories vary from 0.18 % to 0.46 %, with their combined comparison uncertainty of 0.37 % (k= 2). The main contribution to the difference comes from the standard values from both laboratories differing from 0.27 % to 0.53 %, as the rice standard was found to drift in moisture content less than 0.05 %. Similarly to the rice moisture comparison, differences in the correction value for the paddy moisture measurement range from 0.08 % to 0.56 % with the combined comparison uncertainty of 0.38 % (k = 2), whereas the stability in moisture content of the paddy sample at NIMT was found to be within 0.12 %.

  16. The Capacity Building in the Natural Disaster Management of Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Eakarat Boonreang

    2015-01-01

    The past two decades, Thailand faced the natural disasters, for instance, Gay typhoon in 1989, tsunami in 2004, and huge flood in 2011. The disaster management in Thailand was improved both structure and mechanism for cope with the natural disaster since 2007. However, the natural disaster management in Thailand has various problems, for examples, cooperation between related an organizations have not unity, inadequate resources, the natural disaster management of public s...

  17. E-Learning Readiness in the Academic Sector of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laohajaratsang, Thanomporn

    2009-01-01

    As e-learning in the academic sector serves as a crucial driving force in the development of e-learning in Thailand, this article looks at e-learning readiness in Thailand with a focus on the academic sector. The article is divided into four parts: (1) a brief history of e-learning in Thailand; (2) the infrastructure related to e-learning…

  18. Progress of mutation breeding in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purivirojkul, Watchara; Vithayatherarat, Pradab [Pathumthani Rice Research Center (Thailand)

    2001-03-01

    The objectives in rice improvement in Thailand are to improve not only for high yielding and good grain quality but also for resistance to diseases and insects and tolerance to biotic stresses. Brief history of research and progress in rice mutation breeding in Thailand is presented. It includes the varieties of method such as using gamma rays, fast neutron and chemical mutagens, for example EMS (ethylmethane sulfonate) and EI (ethylene imine) for mutation works. Among all, improvements of Pathumthani 60 for short-statured plant type, RD23 for blast resistance, Basmati 370 for short-statured plant type, and Pra Doo Daeng for short-statured plant type and awnless grain are reported. To conclude, it is important to find the adequate doses of mutagen treatments that give maximum mutation frequencies, to know the optimal treatments or proper selection methods and to have well-defined objectives to create the success of mutation breeding. (S. Ohno)

  19. Progress of mutation breeding in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purivirojkul, Watchara; Vithayatherarat, Pradab

    2001-01-01

    The objectives in rice improvement in Thailand are to improve not only for high yielding and good grain quality but also for resistance to diseases and insects and tolerance to biotic stresses. Brief history of research and progress in rice mutation breeding in Thailand is presented. It includes the varieties of method such as using gamma rays, fast neutron and chemical mutagens, for example EMS (ethylmethane sulfonate) and EI (ethylene imine) for mutation works. Among all, improvements of Pathumthani 60 for short-statured plant type, RD23 for blast resistance, Basmati 370 for short-statured plant type, and Pra Doo Daeng for short-statured plant type and awnless grain are reported. To conclude, it is important to find the adequate doses of mutagen treatments that give maximum mutation frequencies, to know the optimal treatments or proper selection methods and to have well-defined objectives to create the success of mutation breeding. (S. Ohno)

  20. An insight into rheumatology in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louthrenoo, Worawit

    2015-01-01

    Despite the fact that rheumatic diseases constitute a common health care problem in Thailand, improvements in rheumatology education, research and health care are still required. Low numbers of rheumatologists, their uneven distribution, lack of time to perform both clinical and basic research, lack of patient compliance and restricted access to effective medication comprise some of the barriers that need to be overcome to establish rheumatology education, research and care with a Western-country benchmark. The annual academic activities provided by the Thai Rheumatism Association for rheumatologists, general practitioners, allied health professionals and patients can advance only some forms of education and health care. Better cooperation between the Thai Rheumatism Association, the Royal College of Physicians of Thailand, the Ministry of Public Health and the Thai government is needed to improve rheumatology training, care and research in the country.

  1. Supernaturalist curers and sorcery accusations in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomb, L

    1988-01-01

    Thailand's supernaturalist practitioners are both respected for their curative powers and feared as potential sorcerers. When sorcery is diagnosed, exorcists generally implicate other practitioners as the source of the supernatural aggression. Given the often grave nature of such accusations, how have supernaturalist curers been spared from persecution during times of adversity? This paper examines three different sets of restraints that have evolved in three different regions of Thailand to protect supernaturalist curers from excessive accusations that could lead to harassment. The unique local character of each set of restraints is shown to be shaped by such factors as the availability of modern medical facilities, local methods of conflict resolution, local spirit beliefs, and the presence or absence of ethnic outgroup practitioners.

  2. Improving food and agricultural production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snitwongse, P.; Lamm, C.G.

    1987-01-01

    In the early 1960s, the IAEA and FAO jointly initiated the first in a series of large-scale multi-faceted agricultural field projects using nuclear techniques in agricultural sciences. The first project, in Yugoslavia, served as a model for future ones in India, Brazil, Bangladesh, Republic of Korea, Venezuela, and Thailand. The Thailand project - for the time being the last one of this series - started in January 1986 for a 5-year period, the project carries major objectives centering on the use of isotopes, radiation, and related technologies in three particular areas: Mutation breeding. Scientists are aiming to generate new genetic sources of disease-resistant varieties of crops that are economically important; Soil Science. Aims are to help farmers make the best use of fertilizers, biofertilizers, and water, and to maximize biological nitrogen fixation and the use of local rock phosphates as sources of crop nutrients; Animal science. Project scientists are aiming to improve livestock productivity on small farms

  3. First lady meets AIDS patients in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-12-09

    First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton, during her tour of Thailand: 1) joined a panel discussion at New Life Center, a missionary shelter and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) hospice that houses and educates 151 girls from remote hill tribes who were rescued from being, or from becoming, brothel prostitutes or "restaurant hostesses"; 2) inspected a U.S. supported program in Chiang Rai province that provides scholarships, vocational training, and jobs to 1200 girls as income alternatives to their sale; and 3) toured a school that extends the education of girls beyond the mandatory age of 12, the age at which many are sold to Bangkok brothel middlemen. There are 500,000-700,000 prostitutes in Thailand; many die of AIDS. Girls can be sold for $1000 and send money home later; instead of poverty, the family has a new home, a motorcycle, and status. Mrs. Clinton emphasized the lifetime benefit available to a family when a girl is educated.

  4. Ganoderma sichuanense (Ganodermataceae, Polyporales new to Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anan Thawthong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma sichuanense (Ganodermataceae is a medicinal mushroom originally described from China and previously confused with G. lucidum. It has been widely used as traditional medicine in Asia since it has potential nutritional and therapeutic values. We collected 8 specimens of Ganoderma species from Thailand and show that they represent the first record of G. sichuanenese for Thailand. In this paper, we describe our specimens of Ganoderma sichuanense based on fresh basidiomes, and provide line drawings and photographs. The data from macro- and microscopic features are consistent with the characteristics of the species. Analysis of ITS sequence data indicates that the Thai collections cluster in same species clade as the epitype of G. sichuanense.

  5. Thailand: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    practices. However, hopes for a smooth transition back to representative government were dashed as the turmoil has continued to churn in Thailand since...sale of his family’s telecommunications firm to a Singapore state company in a $1.9 billion deal that many suspected was not taxed because of...editors were dismissed, and pointing to a libel suit against an outspoken editor filed by a telecommunications corporation that Thaksin founded.26 Shin

  6. Thailand Economic Monitor, April - June 2009

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    A solid financial armor could not protect Thailand against the impact of the global financial crisis on its real economy. Despite a sound banking system and low external vulnerabilities, the Thai economy contracted 5.7 percent between October 2008 and March 2009, as the magnitude and speed of the contraction in foreign demand, and resulting shock to the real economy, has been greater than ...

  7. Present status of radiation utilization in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chongkum, S.

    1994-01-01

    Present development of radiation utilization in Thailand covers two main areas, i.e. (1) production and utilization of radioisotopes and (2) radiation processing and technology. Radioisotope production from 2 megawatts Thai Research Reactor (TRR1/M1) is being studied, directed toward expanding the varieties of radioisotopes, improvement of quality, and technological development on quantity producing to meet the total national needs. However a large amount of radioisotopes is also imported mainly for industrial and medical applications. Radioisotopes and radiations are utilized in nuclear medicine for diagnosis and therapy from 30 hospitals and institutions. X-ray photographing, X-ray computer tomography and others are typical use for medical examination purposes, while Co-60 gamma rays and electron beam are in used for curing. Since 1972, Thailand has been participated to the IAEA/RCA Industrial Project, through the liaison of the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP), and increases the awareness of industry to the economic benefits through the uses of nuclear technology. More than 60 companies are using radioisotopes for gauging, examination purposes and production controls, while these radioisotopes are mostly imported. Nuclear techniques in agriculture are addressed concerns with optimizing fertilizer application, determination soil-water-nitrogen fixation relationships, improving animal health and reproduction, measurement of toxic residues, appropriated food preservation techniques and breeding plant for better yield and disease resistance. The eradication of fruit flies by Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) with gamma rays has been successfully applied in northern and middle part of Thailand. The progress and present status of radiation utilization and processing in Thailand will be introduced. (author)

  8. Tourism Expenditures and Environment in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Malliga Sompholkrang

    2014-01-01

    Tourism activities affect the environment of different destinations, which is influenced by different tourists’ consumption. The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between inbound tourist expenditures and three main environmental dimensions, which are carbon dioxide emission from transport, energy demand, and water usage, in Thailand. This paper employs Vector Autoregressive (VAR) models to determine the relationship of variables. Data from Ministry of Energ...

  9. A Survey of Pharmacy Education in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanakit, Teeraporn; Low, Bee Yean; Wongpoowarak, Payom; Moolasarn, Summana; Anderson, Claire

    2014-11-15

    To explore the current status of pharmacy education in Thailand. The International Pharmaceutical Federation of the World Health Organization's (FIP-WHO) Global Survey of Pharmacy Schools was used for this study. The survey instrument was distributed to the deans of the 19 faculties (colleges) of pharmacy in Thailand. More than half the colleges have been in existence less than 20 years, and the government owns 80% of them. There were 2 paths of admission to study pharmacy: direct admission and central admission system. The doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) programs can be divided into 4 types. Approximately 60% of all teaching staff holds a doctoral degree. Regarding the work balance among teaching staff, around 60% focus on teaching activities, 20% focus on research, and less than 20% focus on patient care services concurrent with real practice teaching. The proportion of student time dedicated to theory, practice, and research in PharmD programs is 51.5%, 46.7%, and 1.8%, respectively. Sites owned by the colleges or by others were used for student training. Colleges followed the Office of the National Education Standards' Internal Quality Assurance (IQA) and External Quality Assurance (EQA), and the Pharmacy Council's Quality Assessment (ONESQA). This study provides a picture of the current status of curriculum, teaching staff, and students in pharmacy education in Thailand. The curriculum was adapted from the US PharmD program with the aim of meeting the country's needs and includes industrial pharmacy and public health tracks as well as clinical tracks. However, this transition in pharmacy education in Thailand needs to be monitored and evaluated.

  10. Smoking prevalence among monks in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kungskulniti, Nipapun; Charoenca, Naowarut; Kengganpanich, Tharadol; Kusolwisitkul, Wilai; Pichainarong, Natchaporn; Kerdmongkol, Patcharaporn; Silapasuwan, Phimpan; Hamann, Stephen L; Arpawong, Thalida Em

    2012-09-01

    Previous studies among Buddhist monks in Thailand have reported smoking rates to be as high as 55%. Because 95% of Thais are Buddhist, monks are highly influential in establishing normative behavioral patterns. As the first population-based study on smoking among Buddhist monks in Thailand, this study aims to determine the smoking prevalence in six regions of the country, and to examine smoking knowledge, risk perceptions, behaviors, and associated demographics among full-fledged and novice monks (n = 6,213). Results demonstrated that the overall prevalence for current smoking monks is 24.4% (95% confidence interval [24.453, 24.464]), with regional differences ranging from 14.6% (North) to 40.5% (East). Findings suggest that integrating prevention and cessation programming into religious courses may be one avenue for reaching many incoming monks. Further, involving monks in tobacco control education and setting a nonsmoking standard among them is vital to the success of reducing smoking rates among the general population in Thailand.

  11. The effects of medical tourism: Thailand's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NaRanong, Anchana; NaRanong, Viroj

    2011-05-01

    To explore the positive and negative effects of medical tourism on the economy, health staff and medical costs in Thailand. The financial repercussions of medical tourism were estimated from commerce ministry data, with modifications and extrapolations. Survey data on 4755 foreign and Thai outpatients in two private hospitals were used to explore how medical tourism affects human resources. Trends in the relative prices of caesarean section, appendectomy, hernia repair, cholecystectomy and knee replacement in five private hospitals were examined. Focus groups and in-depth interviews with hospital managers and key informants from the public and private sectors were conducted to better understand stakeholders' motivations and practices in connection with these procedures and learn more about medical tourism. Medical tourism generates the equivalent of 0.4% of Thailand's gross domestic product but has exacerbated the shortage of medical staff by luring more workers away from the private and public sectors towards hospitals catering to foreigners. This has raised costs in private hospitals substantially and is likely to raise them in public hospitals and in the universal health-care insurance covering most Thais as well. The "brain drain" may also undermine medical training in future. Medical tourism in Thailand, despite some benefits, has negative effects that could be mitigated by lifting the restrictions on the importation of qualified foreign physicians and by taxing tourists who visit the country solely for the purpose of seeking medical treatment. The revenue thus generated could then be used to train physicians and retain medical school professors.

  12. SSDL for radiation protection of Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanitsuksombut, W.

    1995-01-01

    In Thailand, the Atomic Energy for Peace Act was enacted by the King in 1961, and Office of Atomic Energy for Peace was established to serve as the secretariat of the Atomic Energy for Peace Commission of Thailand. The import and export of radioactive materials, and the owners and users of radioactive materials must be licensed by the OAEP. The program for establishing the SSDL to calibrate radiation protection instruments started in 1981, and was completed in 1990. The calibration of survey meters and direct reading personnel dosimeters has been provided since 1986. The average number of the devices calibrated by the SSDL per month is shown. The categories of radiation utilization in Thailand are nucleonic gauging and control, nondestructive testing, oil and coal logging, radiation technology and research. The capability of the SSDL and the calibrated radiation measuring instruments for respective categories of utilization are reported. The number of the instruments used for radiography was 217, followed by 171 for nucleonic gauging and control. With the increasing use of radioactive materials, the work of radiation safety must be improved. Together with the license authority, the SSDL must expand its activity to assure the safe handling of radiation sources. (K.I.)

  13. Mathematical modeling of diphtheria transmission in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornbundit, Kan; Triampo, Wannapong; Modchang, Charin

    2017-08-01

    In this work, a mathematical model for describing diphtheria transmission in Thailand is proposed. Based on the course of diphtheria infection, the population is divided into 8 epidemiological classes, namely, susceptible, symptomatic infectious, asymptomatic infectious, carrier with full natural-acquired immunity, carrier with partial natural-acquired immunity, individual with full vaccine-induced immunity, and individual with partial vaccine-induced immunity. Parameter values in the model were either directly obtained from the literature, estimated from available data, or estimated by means of sensitivity analysis. Numerical solutions show that our model can correctly describe the decreasing trend of diphtheria cases in Thailand during the years 1977-2014. Furthermore, despite Thailand having high DTP vaccine coverage, our model predicts that there will be diphtheria outbreaks after the year 2014 due to waning immunity. Our model also suggests that providing booster doses to some susceptible individuals and those with partial immunity every 10 years is a potential way to inhibit future diphtheria outbreaks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Health informatics model for helminthiasis in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nithikathkul, C; Trevanich, A; Wongsaroj, T; Wongsawad, C; Reungsang, P

    2017-09-01

    At the beginning of the new millennium, helminth infections continue to be prevalent, particularly among impoverished populations. This study attempts to create the first health informatics model of helminthiasis in Thailand. The authors investigate how a health informatics model could be used to predict the control and eradication in a national control campaign. Fish-borne helminthiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini remains a major public health problem in many parts of South-East Asia, including Thailand, Lao PDR, Vietnam and Cambodia. The epicentre of this disease is located in north-east Thailand, where high prevalence coexists with a high incidence of cholangiocarcinoma (CHCA). The current report was conducted to determine a mathematical model of surveillance for helminthiasis while also using a geographic information system. The fish-borne helminthiasis model or the predicted equation was Y1 = 3.028 + 0.020 (elevation) - 2.098 (clay). For soil-transmitted helminthiasis, the mathematical model or the predicted equation was Y2 = -1.559 + 0.005 (rainfall) + 0.004 (elevation) - 2.198 (clay). The Ministry of Public Health has concluded that mass treatment for helminthiasis in the Thai population, targeting high-risk individuals, may be a cost-effective way to allocate limited funds. This type of approach, as well as further study on the correlation of clinical symptoms with environmental and geographic information, may offer a novel strategy to the helminth crisis.

  15. Taeniasis, cysticercosis and echinococcosis in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waikagul, Jitra; Dekumyoy, Paron; Anantaphruti, Malinee T

    2006-01-01

    Taeniasis is one of the major food-borne parasitic zoonoses in Thailand. During the years 1957-1997, the prevalence was low in most parts of the country. Recent (2000-2005) country prevalence was lower than 1%. A high prevalence (5.9%) was found among 1450 villagers from 30 villages in the North, and among 1233 stool samples from 19 provinces in the Northeast (2.8%). Taenia saginata was the dominant species. Cysticercosis in Thailand is somewhat under-reported/recorded. During the period 1965-2005, diagnosis was based on techniques other than serodiagnosis, giving a total of cysticercosis cases of less than 500. However, an immunoblot technique using delipidized cyst antigen showed 314 positive cases out of 754 samples tested in 2000-2005. Reports of neurocysticercosis appeared more often than cutaneous cysticercosis. A total of 24 cases of echinococcosis, mostly hydatid cysts (only 2 cases of alveolar cysts), were recorded during 1936-2005. These records included 3 cases of foreigners seeking surgery in hospitals in Bangkok. Most Thai patients were migrant workers from the Middle East, and only a few cases were indigenous. The prevalence of cysticercosis and echinococcosis is increasing resulting from sensitive modern diagnostic tests. Taeniasis will persist in Thailand as the consumption of raw/half-cooked meat dishes is still a normal practice for Thai people.

  16. Characterization and genetic variation of vibrio cholerae isolated from clinical and environmental sources in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siriphap, Achiraya; Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Kaas, Rolf Sommer

    2017-01-01

    Cholera is still an important public health problem in several countries, including Thailand. In this study, a collection of clinical and environmental V. cholerae serogroup O1, O139, and non-O1/non-O139 strains originating from Thailand (1983 to 2013) was characterized to determine phenotypic...... and genotypic traits and to investigate the genetic relatedness. Using a combination of conventional methods and whole genome sequencing (WGS), 78 V. cholerae strains were identified. WGS was used to determine the serogroup, biotype, virulence, mobile genetic elements, and antimicrobial resistance genes using...... online bioinformatics tools. In addition, phenotypic antimicrobial resistance was determined by the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) test. The 78 V. cholerae strains belonged to the following serogroups O1: (n = 44), O139 (n = 16) and non-O1/non-O139 (n = 18). Interestingly, we found...

  17. Transportation and socioeconomic impacts of bypasses on communities : an integrated synthesis of panel data, multilevel, and spatial econometric models with case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    Title: Transportation and Socioeconomic Impacts of Bypasses on Communities: An Integrated Synthesis of Panel Data, Multilevel, and Spatial Econometric Models with Case Studies. The title used at the start of this project was Transportation and Soc...

  18. Overdose experiences among injection drug users in Bangkok, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood Evan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although previous studies have identified high levels of drug-related harm in Thailand, little is known about illicit drug overdose experiences among Thai drug users. We sought to investigate non-fatal overdose experiences and responses to overdose among a community-recruited sample of injection drug users (IDU in Bangkok, Thailand. Methods Data for these analyses came from IDU participating in the Mit Sampan Community Research Project. The primary outcome of interest was a self-reported history of non-fatal overdose. We calculated the prevalence of past overdose and estimated its relationship with individual, drug-using, social, and structural factors using multivariate logistic regression. We also assessed the prevalence of ever witnessing an overdose and patterns of response to overdose. Results These analyses included 252 individuals; their median age was 36.5 years (IQR: 29.0 - 44.0 and 66 (26.2% were female. A history of non-fatal overdose was reported by 75 (29.8% participants. In a multivariate model, reporting a history of overdose was independently associated with a history of incarceration (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 3.83, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 1.52 - 9.65, p = 0.004 and reporting use of drugs in combination (AOR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.16 - 5.33, p = 0.019. A majority (67.9% reported a history of witnessing an overdose; most reported responding to the most recent overdose using first aid (79.5%. Conclusions Experiencing and witnessing an overdose were common in this sample of Thai IDU. These findings support the need for increased provision of evidence-based responses to overdose including peer-based overdose interventions.

  19. An econometric method for estimating the tax elasticity and the impact on revenues of discretionary tax measures : applied to Malawi and Mauritius

    OpenAIRE

    Ehdaie, Jaber

    1990-01-01

    This paper develops an econometric technique that deals with shortcomings of existing methods for estimating the tax elasticity and the impact on revenues of discretionary tax measures. This model highlights the roles that discretionary tax measures and economic growth play in effecting the shift from the taxation of international trade to the taxation of domestic transactions. The objective of this study is twofold: first, to develop an econometric method of estimating built-in tax elasticit...

  20. Comparison of Macroeconomic Performance of Selected Asian Countries. An Econometric Analysis of China Economic Growth and Policy Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasret Benar Balcioglu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the key macroeconomics indicators for the selected countries: China, Malaysia, Indonesia, Korea, Rep. and India and also makes an econometric analysis for China for the period 1961-2007. These countries are chosen on the basis of comparability of data and time without measurement errors. This study also investigates six hypotheses considering the impact of several key macroeconomic variables such as domestic saving rate, domestic investment rate, and volatility of savings, volatility of inflation, growth rate of exports and growth rate of real GNP. By using suitable statistical and econometric tests, this paper finds that prevailing performance of China depends on its superior rates of domestic saving and exports. Policies are also suggested from the differentials between the economic performances of China and other chosen Asian countries.

  1. La teoría de la ciencia de Karl Popper y la econometría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redman Deborah A.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo mostraré que la teoría de la falsación ejerció su principalimpacto en los primeros desarrollos de la macroeconomía, quein fortunadamente su impacto a largo plazo no ha sido productivo y que el seguimiento de este desarrollo ayuda a explicar muchos de los actuales escándalos en la econometría y la macroeconomía. Dado que la literatura ha difundido muchos mitos sobre la teoría de la ciencia de Popper, primero revisaré sus teorías de las ciencias naturales y sociales y explicaré por qué la falsación fracasa en ambas ramas antes de exponer la conexión con la econometría.

  2. A spatial econometric analysis of land-use change with land cover trends data: an application to the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Lewis; Ralph J. Alig

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops a plot-level spatial econometric land-use model and estimates it with U.S. Geological Survey Land Cover Trends (LCT) geographic information system panel data for the western halves of the states of Oregon and Washington. The discrete-choice framework we use models plot-scale choices of the three dominant land uses in this region: forest, agriculture...

  3. Does having the right visitor mix do the job? Applying an econometric shift-share model to regional tourism developments

    OpenAIRE

    Firgo, Matthias; Fritz, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the first to apply an econometric shift-share model to tourism. The approach allows us to isolate the growth contributions of changes in regional touristic attractiveness from those induced by the structure of visitors, but does not share the caveats of the conventional shift-share approach. Our application to regional tourism in Austria reveals important results: First, differences in long-run performance between regions are mostly related to idiosyncratic changes in the touris...

  4. Status and problem of radiation education in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramrattana, Manoon

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge of radiation and its application and protection have been routinely taught, discussed and transferred to end users and the public. Limited resource and a strategic plan are identified to be the major obstacle to fully implementation of radiation education in Thailand. Current strategic planning on radiation education in Thailand will be discussed. (author)

  5. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Rubber Industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jawjit, W.; Kroeze, C.; Rattanapan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Rubber production has been taking place in Thailand for many decades. Thailand is currently the world's largest natural rubber producer. We present emissions of greenhouse gases associated with the production of fresh latex, and three primary rubber products, including concentrated latex, block

  6. Status and problem of radiation education in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aramrattana, Manoon [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Vibhavadee Rangsit Road, Chatuchak, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1999-09-01

    Knowledge of radiation and its application and protection have been routinely taught, discussed and transferred to end users and the public. Limited resource and a strategic plan are identified to be the major obstacle to fully implementation of radiation education in Thailand. Current strategic planning on radiation education in Thailand will be discussed. (author)

  7. Outbreaks of Tilapia Lake Virus Infection, Thailand, 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surachetpong, Win; Janetanakit, Taveesak; Nonthabenjawan, Nutthawan; Tattiyapong, Puntanat; Sirikanchana, Kwanrawee; Amonsin, Alongkorn

    2017-06-01

    During 2015-2016, several outbreaks of tilapia lake virus infection occurred among tilapia in Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus from Thailand grouped with a tilapia virus (family Orthomyxoviridae) from Israel. This emerging virus is a threat to tilapia aquaculture in Asia and worldwide.

  8. Outbreaks of Tilapia Lake Virus Infection, Thailand, 2015?2016

    OpenAIRE

    Surachetpong, Win; Janetanakit, Taveesak; Nonthabenjawan, Nutthawan; Tattiyapong, Puntanat; Sirikanchana, Kwanrawee; Amonsin, Alongkorn

    2017-01-01

    During 2015?2016, several outbreaks of tilapia lake virus infection occurred among tilapia in Thailand. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the virus from Thailand grouped with a tilapia virus (family Orthomyxoviridae) from Israel. This emerging virus is a threat to tilapia aquaculture in Asia and worldwide.

  9. The impact of tropospheric ozone pollution on trial plot winter wheat yields in Great Britain - An econometric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliakatsou, Evridiki; Bell, J. Nigel B.; Thirtle, Colin; Rose, Daniel; Power, Sally A.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous experiments have demonstrated reductions in the yields of cereal crops due to tropospheric O 3 , with losses of up to 25%. However, the only British econometric study on O 3 impacts on winter wheat yields, found that a 10% increase in AOT40 would decrease yields by only 0.23%. An attempt is made here to reconcile these observations by developing AOT40 maps for Great Britain and matching levels with a large number of standardised trial plot wheat yields from many sites over a 13-year period. Panel estimates (repeated measures on the same plots with time) show a 0.54% decrease in yields and it is hypothesised that plant breeders may have inadvertently selected for O 3 tolerance in wheat. Some support for this is provided by fumigations of cultivars of differing introduction dates. A case is made for the use of econometric as well as experimental studies in prediction of air pollution induced crop loss. - Econometric study of British winter wheat trial plot data suggests lower economic loss than predicted from experiments.

  10. MRTA Blue Line Bangkok: power supply for Thailand's first subway system; MRTA Blue Line Bangkok: Energieversorgung fuer die erste U-Bahn in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menter, F.E. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Thailand's first subway system has commenced revenue operation during summer of 2004. Since the system opening, the power supply system has provided traction and station power for the operation of this mass rapid transit system, which has been widely accepted by the public. The system combines service-proven and state-of-the-art components and subsystems from Europe and Asia. Highest consideration has been given to reliability, serviceability and availability. The project management successfully mastered several challenges, stemming from the immense time pressure, the nature of the project's stakeholders and the variety of the many, multinational interface partners. (orig.)

  11. Quality based payment program and milk quality in dairy cooperatives of Southern Brazil: an econometric analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Garcia Botaro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Programs designed to enhance milk quality have been used to motivate dairy farmers to improve the quality of the raw milk they produce. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between a milk quality payment program and four indicative variables of milk quality, by testing bulk tank somatic cell count (SCC, bulk tank total bacterial count (TBC, fat (FAT and protein (PROT percentages over three years in four dairy cooperatives in Southern Brazil. We used a multiple regression econometric model estimated from market data of milk delivered by farmers to the cooperatives. Bulk tank milk samples (n = 19,644 were monthly collected. The data set was analyzed for the effects of seasonality, average daily volume of milk, the award/penalty, producer, and cooperatives on SCC, TBC, FAT and PROT. Results suggested an association between the adoption of a payment program based on milk quality and the reduction of SCC and TBC. Nevertheless, the program seems to have not contributed to increase fat and protein milk percentages. This information may help the dairy industry in developing countries to conceive strategies to enhance overall milk quality.

  12. Spatial econometric model of natural disaster impacts on human migration in vulnerable regions of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña-Zorrilla, Sergio O; Sandberg, Krister

    2009-10-01

    Mexico's vast human and environmental diversity offers an initial framework for comprehending some of the prevailing great disparities between rich and poor. Its socio-economic constructed vulnerability to climatic events serves to expand this understanding. Based on a spatial econometric model, this paper tests the contribution of natural disasters to stimulating the emigration process in vulnerable regions of Mexico. Besides coping and adaptive capacity, it assesses the effects of economic losses due to disasters as well as the adverse production and trade conditions of the 1990s on emigration rates in 2000 at the municipality level. Weather-related disasters were responsible for approximately 80 per cent of economic losses in Mexico between 1980 and 2005, mostly in the agricultural sector, which continues to dominate many parts of the country. It is dramatic that this sector generates around only four per cent of gross domestic product but provides a livelihood to about one-quarter of the national population. It is no wonder, therefore, that most emigration from this country arises in vulnerable rural areas.

  13. The core determinants of health expenditure in the African context: some econometric evidence for policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Vasudeva N R; Okunade, Albert A

    2009-06-01

    This paper, using cross-sectional data from 44 (83% of all) African countries for year 2001, presents econometric model estimates linking real per-capita health expenditure (HEXP) to a host of economic and non-economic factors. The empirical results of OLS and robust LAE estimators indicate that real per-capita GDP (PRGDP) and real per-capita foreign aid (FAID) resources are both core and statistically significant correlates of HEXP. Our empirical results suggest that health care in the African context is technically, a necessity rather than a luxury good (for the OECD countries). This suggests that the goal of health system in Africa is primarily 'physiological' or 'curative' rather than 'caring' or 'pampering'. The positive association of HEXP with FAID hints that external resource inflows targeting health could be instrumental for spurring economic progress in good policy environments. Most African countries until the late 1990s experienced economic and political instability, and faced stringent structural adjustment mandates of the major international financial institution lenders for economic development. Therefore, our finding a positive effect of FAID on HEXP could suggest that external resource inflows softened some of the macroeconomic fiscal deficit impacts on HEXP in the 2000s. Policy implications of country-specific elasticity estimates are given.

  14. Global health worker salary estimates: an econometric analysis of global earnings data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serje, Juliana; Bertram, Melanie Y; Brindley, Callum; Lauer, Jeremy A

    2018-01-01

    Human resources are consistently cited as a leading contributor to health care costs; however the availability of internationally comparable data on health worker earnings for all countries is a challenge for estimating the costs of health care services. This paper describes an econometric model using cross sectional earnings data from the International Labour Organization (ILO) that the World Health Organizations (WHO)-Choosing Interventions that are Cost-effective programme (CHOICE) has used to prepare estimates of health worker earnings (in 2010 USD) for all WHO member states. The ILO data contained 324 observations of earnings data across 4 skill levels for 193 countries. Using this data, along with the assumption that data were missing not at random, we used a Heckman two stage selection model to estimate earning data for each of the 4 skill levels for all WHO member states. It was possible to develop a prediction model for health worker earnings for all countries for which GDP data was available. Health worker earnings vary both within country due to skill level, as well as across countries. As a multiple of GDP per capita, earnings show a negative correlation with GDP-that is lower income countries pay their health workers relatively more than higher income countries. Limited data on health worker earnings is a limiting factor in estimating the costs of global health programmes. It is hoped that these estimates will support robust health care intervention costings and projections of resources needs over the Sustainable Development Goal period.

  15. Adoption and compliance in second-hand smoking bans: a global econometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Richard; Neumayer, Eric

    2014-10-01

    We examine the determinants governing both countries' enactment of smoking bans in public places and their ability to successfully put these bans into effect. Using a large sample (N = 99-184) of low-, middle- and high-income countries, econometric techniques are used to estimate the influence of several variables on cross-national variations in the adoption and compliance of second-hand smoke laws (2010). We find similarities in the determinants of adoption and compliance. Yet more notable are the differences, with several political economy factors which have a statistically significant influence on countries' level of compliance with existing smoke-free laws in public places found not to consistently influence their propensity to adopt bans in the first place. Possible explanations for this discrepancy are that governments are motivated to adopt smoking bans for reasons other than protecting the health of their citizens and that the real costs of smoking bans are predominantly borne at the compliance stage. More effort needs to be made to ensure that governments realize their existing policy commitments through effective enforcement of bans.

  16. Explaining regional variations in health care utilization between Swiss cantons using panel econometric models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenzind, Paul A

    2012-03-13

    In spite of a detailed and nation-wide legislation frame, there exist large cantonal disparities in consumed quantities of health care services in Switzerland. In this study, the most important factors of influence causing these regional disparities are determined. The findings can also be productive for discussing the containment of health care consumption in other countries. Based on the literature, relevant factors that cause geographic disparities of quantities and costs in western health care systems are identified. Using a selected set of these factors, individual panel econometric models are calculated to explain the variation of the utilization in each of the six largest health care service groups (general practitioners, specialist doctors, hospital inpatient, hospital outpatient, medication, and nursing homes) in Swiss mandatory health insurance (MHI). The main data source is 'Datenpool santésuisse', a database of Swiss health insurers. For all six health care service groups, significant factors influencing the utilization frequency over time and across cantons are found. A greater supply of service providers tends to have strong interrelations with per capita consumption of MHI services. On the demand side, older populations and higher population densities represent the clearest driving factors. Strategies to contain consumption and costs in health care should include several elements. In the federalist Swiss system, the structure of regional health care supply seems to generate significant effects. However, the extent of driving factors on the demand side (e.g., social deprivation) or financing instruments (e.g., high deductibles) should also be considered.

  17. Does a hospital's quality depend on the quality of other hospitals? A spatial econometrics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravelle, Hugh; Santos, Rita; Siciliani, Luigi

    2014-11-01

    We examine whether a hospital's quality is affected by the quality provided by other hospitals in the same market. We first sketch a theoretical model with regulated prices and derive conditions on demand and cost functions which determine whether a hospital will increase its quality if its rivals increase their quality. We then apply spatial econometric methods to a sample of English hospitals in 2009-10 and a set of 16 quality measures including mortality rates, readmission, revision and redo rates, and three patient reported indicators, to examine the relationship between the quality of hospitals. We find that a hospital's quality is positively associated with the quality of its rivals for seven out of the sixteen quality measures. There are no statistically significant negative associations. In those cases where there is a significant positive association, an increase in rivals' quality by 10% increases a hospital's quality by 1.7% to 2.9%. The finding suggests that for some quality measures a policy which improves the quality in one hospital will have positive spillover effects on the quality in other hospitals.

  18. The Standard Model in the history of the Natural Sciences, Econometrics, and the social sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, W. P., Jr.

    2010-07-01

    In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, scientists appropriated Newton's laws of motion as a model for the conduct of any other field of investigation that would purport to be a science. This early form of a Standard Model eventually informed the basis of analogies for the mathematical expression of phenomena previously studied qualitatively, such as cohesion, affinity, heat, light, electricity, and magnetism. James Clerk Maxwell is known for his repeated use of a formalized version of this method of analogy in lectures, teaching, and the design of experiments. Economists transferring skills learned in physics made use of the Standard Model, especially after Maxwell demonstrated the value of conceiving it in abstract mathematics instead of as a concrete and literal mechanical analogy. Haavelmo's probability approach in econometrics and R. Fisher's Statistical Methods for Research Workers brought a statistical approach to bear on the Standard Model, quietly reversing the perspective of economics and the social sciences relative to that of physics. Where physicists, and Maxwell in particular, intuited scientific method as imposing stringent demands on the quality and interrelations of data, instruments, and theory in the name of inferential and comparative stability, statistical models and methods disconnected theory from data by removing the instrument as an essential component. New possibilities for reconnecting economics and the social sciences to Maxwell's sense of the method of analogy are found in Rasch's probabilistic models for measurement.

  19. Existing agricultural ecosystem in China leads to environmental pollution: an econometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongdou, Lei; Shiping, Li; Hao, Li

    2018-06-17

    Sustainable agriculture ensures food security and prevents starvation. However, the need to meet the increasing food demands of the growing population has led to poor and unsustainable agricultural practices, which promote environmental degradation. Given the contributions of agricultural ecosystems to environmental pollution, we investigated the impact of the agricultural ecosystem on environmental pollution in China using time series data from 1960 to 2014. We employed several methods for econometric analysis including the unit root test, Johansen test of cointegration, Granger causality test, and vector error correction model. Evidence based on the long-run elasticity indicates that a 1% increase in the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) equivalent to nitrous oxide from synthetic fertilizers will increase the emissions of CO 2 by 1.52% in the long run. Similarly, a 1% increase in the area of harvested rice paddy, cereal production, biomass of burned crop residues, and agricultural GDP will increase the carbon dioxide emissions by 0.85, 0.63, 0.37, and 0.22%, respectively. The estimated results indicate that there are long-term equilibrium relationships among the selected variables considered for the agricultural ecosystem and carbon dioxide emissions. In particular, we identified bidirectional causal associations between CO 2 emissions, biomass of burned crop residues, and cereal production. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  20. Determinants of Debt: An Econometric Analysis Based on the Cyprus Survey of Consumer Finances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis Petrides

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is based on the Cyprus Survey of Consumer Finances (CySCF and focuses on the investigation of home secured loans and consumer credit card outstanding balances among Cypriot families. The CySCF runs on a triennial basis with the first database created in 1999 (CySCF1999. According to CySCF1999 and CySCF2002, the overall participation in home secured debt among all families declined from 29.95% in 1999 and 29.77% in 2002 to 25.77% in 2005 (CySCF2005. Credit cards were introduced in the early 1980s and grew significantly during the 1990s. The overall percentage of Cypriot households holding credit cards is estimated at 41.7% for 1999, 50% for 2002, and 48% for 2005. This work deals with the econometric analysis of home secured loans and consumer credit card outstanding balances and it provides results based on logit models. The main variables selected for home secured loans are the age, family status, specific attitude toward credit, employment status, and income. The resulting model exhibits a polynomial behaviour of degree two with respect to age. The main variables for consumer credit card balances are the age, education, general attitude, income code, home secured loans and riskiness. Worth noting is the high probability of having credit card balances for those households where the economically dominant unit is of low age with a positive attitude towards credit.

  1. FORECAST PRODUCTION COSTS SUGAR IN THE PROVINCE OF SANTIAGO DE CUBA THROUGH ECONOMETRIC TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Rodríguez-Betancourt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The conformation at the present time, of an economic model renovated in Cuba, it should be based in the efficient use of the productive factors which it counts the country, with emphasis in the substitution of imports. In the chapter VII, article 184 of the Limits of the Economic and Social Politics of the Party and the Revolution it can be read: "To prioritize, in short term, the substitution of imports of those foods that can be produced efficiently in the country; also it will owe to multiply the application of the results of the science and the technique."1 In fact the objective of the present investigation, using econometrics technical to carry out presage of the cost of sugar production, using factors in the productive process: days of harvest, use of the potential, recovered capacity and industrial yield. The results indicate  that the factor with more influences in the decrease of the costs is the industrial yield. It is also obtained a cost presage for the county Santiago de Cuba in different harvest stages that oscillates between $372,45 and 517,52 and it stops extreme values of $ 303,21 and $ 777,6. 

  2. Analysis of Regional Unemployment in Russia and Germany: Spatial-Econometric Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vyacheslavovna Semerikova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was supported by the Government of the Russian Federation, grant No.11.G34.31.0059. This paper analyzes the regional unemployment in Russia and Germany in 2005-2010 and addresses issues of choosing the right specification of spatial-econometric models. The analysis based on data of 75 Russian and 370 German regions showed that for Germany the choice of the spatial weighting matrix has a more significant influence on the parameter estimates than for Russia. Presumably this is due to stronger linkages between regional labor markets in Germany compared to Russia. The authors also proposed an algorithm for choosing between spatial matrices and demonstrated the application of this algorithm on simulated Russian data. The authors found that 1 the deviation of the results from the true ones increases when the spatial dependence between regions is higher and 2 the matrix of inverse distances is more preferable than the boundary one for the analysis of regional unemployment in Russia (because of the lower value of the mean squared error. The authors are also planning to apply the proposed algorithm for simulated data of Germany. These results allow accounting the spatial dependence more correctly when modeling regional unemployment which is very important for making proper regional policy

  3. The impacts of surface ozone pollution on winter wheat productivity in China – An econometric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Fujin; Jiang, Fei; Zhong, Funing; Zhou, Xun; Ding, Aijun

    2016-01-01

    The impact of surface ozone pollution on winter wheat yield is empirically estimated by considering socio-economic and weather determinants. This research is the first to use an economic framework to estimate the ozone impact, and a unique county-level panel is employed to examine the impact of the increasing surface ozone concentration on the productivity of winter wheat in China. In general, the increment of surface ozone concentration during the ozone-sensitive period of winter wheat is determined to be harmful to its yield, and a conservative reduction of ozone pollution could significantly increase China's wheat supply. - Highlights: • We examine the impacts of the surface ozone exposure on winter wheat yield in China. • An econometric method is used to measure the ozone impacts. • The results conclude that surface ozone is harmful to winter wheat yield in China. • We confirm that stress conditions such as drought and air particles can mitigate the adverse effect of ozone. - Surface ozone pollution is harmful to winter wheat yield in China by considering socio-economic determinants, weather, and other stress conditions like drought and air particles.

  4. The Impact of the 2008 Credit Crisis on the Sugarcane Sector: A Study Econometric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia de Castro Camioto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The sugarcane industry contributes approximately 2% to the Brazilian GDP, and generates more than 600,000 jobs in nearly a thousand cities. This study aims to determine the main variables that affect the growth of the Brazilian sugarcane sector. For this, econometric techniques were used to quantify the impact of each variable studied in the growth of Gross Domestic Product in this sector from 1980 to 2013. A specific analysis of the impact of the 2008 credit crisis on growth this sector was also performed. The results showed that the variables that impact the growth of Brazilian sugarcane industry are: exchange rate, fuel alcohol consumption, and the average price of a barrel of petroleum. Moreover, it was found that the 2008 crisis contributed negatively to the GDP of this sector. It was possible to conclude that the crisis in this sector had its origin in the optimism in this sector, due to the growth of the sector in 2006 and the global factors in 2008, which was reflected in variables such as exchange rate and the consumption of alcohol fuel, that negatively impacted the sector.

  5. Testing the Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis for Biodiversity Risk in the US: A Spatial Econometric Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P. Berrens

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates whether the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC relationship is supported for a measure of biodiversity risk and economic development across the United States (US. Using state-level data for all 48 contiguous states, biodiversity risk is measured using a Modified Index (MODEX. This index is an adaptation of a comprehensive National Biodiversity Risk Assessment Index. The MODEX differs from other measures in that it is takes into account the impact of human activities and conservation measures. The econometric approach includes corrections for spatial autocorrelation effects, which are present in the data. Modeling estimation results do not support the EKC hypothesis for biodiversity risk in the US. This finding is robust over ordinary least squares, spatial error, and spatial lag models, where the latter is shown to be the preferred model. Results from the spatial lag regression show that a 1% increase in human population density is associated with about a 0.19% increase in biodiversity risk. Spatial dependence in this case study explains 30% of the variation, as risk in one state spills over into adjoining states. From a policy perspective, this latter result supports the need for coordinated efforts at state and federal levels to address the problem of biodiversity loss.

  6. An assessment of Japanese carbon tax reform using the E3MG econometric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soocheol; Pollitt, Hector; Ueta, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential economic and environmental effects of carbon taxation in Japan using the E3MG model, a global macroeconometric model constructed by the University of Cambridge and Cambridge Econometrics. The paper approaches the issues by considering first the impacts of the carbon tax in Japan introduced in 2012 and then the measures necessary to reduce Japan's emissions in line with its Copenhagen pledge of -25% compared to 1990 levels. The results from the model suggest that FY2012 Tax Reform has only a small impact on emission levels and no significant impact on GDP and employment. The potential costs of reducing emissions to meet the 25% reduction target for 2020 are quite modest, but noticeable. GDP falls by around 1.2% compared to the baseline and employment by 0.4% compared to the baseline. But this could be offset, with some potential economic benefits, if revenues are recycled efficiently. This paper considers two revenue recycling scenarios. The most positive outcome is if revenues are used both to reduce income tax rates and to increase investment in energy efficiency. This paper shows there could be double dividend effects, if Carbon Tax Reform is properly designed.

  7. An Assessment of Japanese Carbon Tax Reform Using the E3MG Econometric Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soocheol Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the potential economic and environmental effects of carbon taxation in Japan using the E3MG model, a global macroeconometric model constructed by the University of Cambridge and Cambridge Econometrics. The paper approaches the issues by considering first the impacts of the carbon tax in Japan introduced in 2012 and then the measures necessary to reduce Japan’s emissions in line with its Copenhagen pledge of −25% compared to 1990 levels. The results from the model suggest that FY2012 Tax Reform has only a small impact on emission levels and no significant impact on GDP and employment. The potential costs of reducing emissions to meet the 25% reduction target for 2020 are quite modest, but noticeable. GDP falls by around 1.2% compared to the baseline and employment by 0.4% compared to the baseline. But this could be offset, with some potential economic benefits, if revenues are recycled efficiently. This paper considers two revenue recycling scenarios. The most positive outcome is if revenues are used both to reduce income tax rates and to increase investment in energy efficiency. This paper shows there could be double dividend effects, if Carbon Tax Reform is properly designed.

  8. Kriging Methodology and Its Development in Forecasting Econometric Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Gajdoš

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the approaches for forecasting future values of a time series or unknown spatial data is kriging. The main objective of the paper is to introduce a general scheme of kriging in forecasting econometric time series using a family of linear regression time series models (shortly named as FDSLRM which apply regression not only to a trend but also to a random component of the observed time series. Simultaneously performing a Monte Carlo simulation study with a real electricity consumption dataset in the R computational langure and environment, we investigate the well-known problem of “negative” estimates of variance components when kriging predictions fail. Our following theoretical analysis, including also the modern apparatus of advanced multivariate statistics, gives us the formulation and proof of a general theorem about the explicit form of moments (up to sixth order for a Gaussian time series observation. This result provides a basis for further theoretical and computational research in the kriging methodology development.

  9. Econometric Analysis of Effects of Nitrogenous Fertilizer Usage on Tomato Yield in Tokat, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Gözener

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effects of nitrogen fertilizer application on tomato yield by using econometric models. The data obtained by questionnaire from 53 farmers who produce tomatoes in Tokat province constitute the main material of the study. The Simple Random Sampling Method was used to determine the sample size with a 90% confidence interval and 10% margin of error. Nine models were tried to determine the best model to explain the effect of nitrogenous fertilizer usage in tomato cultivation. The data in the models were used to calculate the growers’ optimal fertilizer amount of use (physical optimum and economical optimum values were calculated and the results were compared to the ones suggested by the experts. As a result, through the statistical studies, quadratic model was found to be the most suitable one. It has been determined that tomato farmers use less (10.54 kg da-1 or excess (23.48 kg da-1 N fertilizer than the level at which economic optimum is achieved.

  10. California demand and supply of crude oil: An econometric analysis with projections to 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibegbulam, B.N.

    1991-01-01

    Forecast of California domestic crude oil supply requires the forecasts of California crude oil production and supply from Alaska. Future California crude oil production is forecast with an econometric model that postulates production as a function of reserves and reserves as a function of crude oil prices and exploration and development costs. Future supplies from Alaska are obtained by subtracting forecasts of Alaskan crude oil demand and shipments to the States of Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington from Alaskan North Slope crude oil production forecasts. A two-stage process was used to forecast future California crude oil demand. In the first stage, the demand for refined crude oil products was predicted with a single-equation double logarithmic rational-expectations dynamic model. In the second stage, the total demands obtained in the first stage were converted into a crude oil equivalent. It was found that the current surplus of domestic crude oil in California will end in 1994. Thereafter, California crude oil imports will sharply increase

  11. An Assessment of Japanese Carbon Tax Reform Using the E3MG Econometric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soocheol; Pollitt, Hector; Ueta, Kazuhiro

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the potential economic and environmental effects of carbon taxation in Japan using the E3MG model, a global macroeconometric model constructed by the University of Cambridge and Cambridge Econometrics. The paper approaches the issues by considering first the impacts of the carbon tax in Japan introduced in 2012 and then the measures necessary to reduce Japan's emissions in line with its Copenhagen pledge of −25% compared to 1990 levels. The results from the model suggest that FY2012 Tax Reform has only a small impact on emission levels and no significant impact on GDP and employment. The potential costs of reducing emissions to meet the 25% reduction target for 2020 are quite modest, but noticeable. GDP falls by around 1.2% compared to the baseline and employment by 0.4% compared to the baseline. But this could be offset, with some potential economic benefits, if revenues are recycled efficiently. This paper considers two revenue recycling scenarios. The most positive outcome is if revenues are used both to reduce income tax rates and to increase investment in energy efficiency. This paper shows there could be double dividend effects, if Carbon Tax Reform is properly designed. PMID:23365531

  12. The Standard Model in the history of the Natural Sciences, Econometrics, and the social sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, W P Jr

    2010-01-01

    In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, scientists appropriated Newton's laws of motion as a model for the conduct of any other field of investigation that would purport to be a science. This early form of a Standard Model eventually informed the basis of analogies for the mathematical expression of phenomena previously studied qualitatively, such as cohesion, affinity, heat, light, electricity, and magnetism. James Clerk Maxwell is known for his repeated use of a formalized version of this method of analogy in lectures, teaching, and the design of experiments. Economists transferring skills learned in physics made use of the Standard Model, especially after Maxwell demonstrated the value of conceiving it in abstract mathematics instead of as a concrete and literal mechanical analogy. Haavelmo's probability approach in econometrics and R. Fisher's Statistical Methods for Research Workers brought a statistical approach to bear on the Standard Model, quietly reversing the perspective of economics and the social sciences relative to that of physics. Where physicists, and Maxwell in particular, intuited scientific method as imposing stringent demands on the quality and interrelations of data, instruments, and theory in the name of inferential and comparative stability, statistical models and methods disconnected theory from data by removing the instrument as an essential component. New possibilities for reconnecting economics and the social sciences to Maxwell's sense of the method of analogy are found in Rasch's probabilistic models for measurement.

  13. Quality competition in local hospital markets: some econometric evidence from the period 1982-1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirikos, T N

    1992-05-01

    This study examines whether American hospitals continued to engage in non-price or quality competition over the recent past as health care markets underwent fundamental structural changes and the economic incentives facing hospital managers were correspondingly altered. It also investigates the degree to which such rivalrous behavior contributes to losses in economic welfare. An econometric model of quality competition is specified that tests, among other things, for the effect of spending by the hospital to enhance the quality of output on annual changes in its share of the local (inpatient) market as well as the effects of competitive conditions in the local market on the annual sum spent on quality enhancement. The model is estimated with panel data on 195 acute care hospitals in the State of Florida for the years 1982-1988. The results suggest that quality competitive behavior continued unabated over this period and that it was stimulated as much by the growth in physician supply and alternative delivery mechanisms as it was by other competing hospitals in the local market. Furthermore, the results show that quality competition yields some inefficiency or waste, but much of it also meets the test of the market.

  14. 76 FR 70965 - Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Correction to the Amended Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Bags From Thailand: Correction to the Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review... bags from Thailand for the period August 1, 2009, through July 31, 2010. The notice did not include the... bags from Thailand. See Polyethylene Retail Carrier Bags From Thailand: Amended Final Results of...

  15. [AIDS research and prevention strategies in Thailand].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisch, H

    1997-04-01

    The first case of AIDS was registered in Thailand in 1984; this syndrome was deemed to be mainly a disease affecting homosexuals and foreigners. However, soon thereafter its incidence among prostitutes and intravenous drug users increased. According to 1995 data, the number of AIDS patients was about 20,000 and there were approximately 800,000 HIV-positive people. A 1991 map of the AIDS incidence showed that, after the Bangkok metropolitan area, the province of Chiang Mai in the north exhibited a particularly high rate of infection. According to a medium-range forecast, by the year 2010 there will be close to 2.3 million cumulative HIV infection cases and 1.2 million AIDS cases in Thailand. This corresponds to an infection rate of about 3.2% vs. the present 2%. It is estimated that about 20% of all mortality in the age range of 20-48 years in the year 2000 will be caused by AIDS. In 1995, the prime minister predicted that AIDS would cause a 20% drop of the GDP by 2000. The boom of the economy in the 1980s and the early 1990s led to migration to the cities, where prostitution and drug use are rampant, as well as to the emergence of sex tourism, mainly from Germany (40,000-60,000 Germans traveled to Thailand in 1990). The age-old tradition among married men of seeking out the services of prostitutes, lack of condom use (only 20% of men intend to use it, according to recent studies), and disregard for the AIDS problem among the populace are other factors contributing to the rapid spread of AIDS. UNAIDS has undertaken sex education and other information campaigns to counter the epidemic.

  16. Laboratory quality improvement in Thailand's northernmost provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitvittaya, S; Suksai, U; Suksripanich, O; Pobkeeree, V

    2010-01-01

    In Thailand nearly 1000 public health laboratories serve 65 million people. A qualified indicator of a good quality laboratory is Thailand Medical Technology Council certification. Consequently, Chiang Rai Regional Medical Sciences Center established a development program for laboratory certification for 29 laboratories in the province. This paper seeks to examine this issue. The goal was to improve laboratory service quality by voluntary participation, peer review, training and compliance with standards. The program consisted of specific activities. Training and workshops to update laboratory staffs' quality management knowledge were organized. Staff in each laboratory performed a self-assessment using a standard check-list to evaluate ten laboratory management areas. Chiang Rai Regional Medical Sciences Center staff supported the distribution of quality materials and documents. They provided calibration services for laboratory equipment. Peer groups performed an internal audit and successful laboratories received Thailand Medical Technology Council certification. By December 2007, eight of the 29 laboratories had improved quality sufficiently to be certified. Factors that influenced laboratories' readiness for quality improvement included the number of staff, their knowledge, budget and staff commitment to the process. Moreover, the support of each hospital's laboratory working group or network was essential for success. There was no clear policy for supporting the program. Laboratories voluntarily conducted quality management using existing resources. A bottom-up approach to this kind of project can be difficult to accomplish. Laboratory professionals can work together to illustrate and highlight outcomes for top-level health officials. A top-down, practical approach would be much less difficult to implement. Quality certification is a critical step for laboratory staff, which also encourages them to aspire to international quality standards like ISO. The

  17. Sustainability assessment of sugarcane biorefinery and molasses ethanol production in Thailand using eco-efficiency indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silalertruksa, Thapat; Gheewala, Shabbir H.; Pongpat, Patcharaporn

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Sugarcane biorefinery in Thailand is evaluated using the eco-efficiency concept. • Green cane along with cane trash use for electricity yields highest eco-efficiency. • Proposed biorefinery system increases eco-efficiency by 20–70%. - Abstract: The study aims to evaluate the sugarcane biorefinery and molasses ethanol production in Thailand using the combined environmental and economic sustainability indicator, so called “Eco-efficiency”. Four sugarcane biorefinery scenarios in Thailand are evaluated. The total output values (US$) and the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (kg CO_2eq) are selected as the indicators for characterizing economic and environmental performance, respectively. The results show that the biorefinery system of mechanized farming along with cane trash utilization for power generation yields the highest eco-efficiency. The benefits come from the increased value added of the biorefinery together with the decreased GHG emissions of the biorefinery system. As compared to the base case scenario, the new systems proposed result in the eco-efficiency improvement by around 20–70%. The biorefinery concept induces reduction of GHG emissions attributed to molasses ethanol. Green cane production and harvesting results in further lowering of the GHG emissions. Integration of sugarcane biomass utilization across the entire sugarcane complex would enhance the sustainability of the sugarcane production system.

  18. How bio-questionable are the different recombinant human erythropoietin copy products in Thailand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Liem Andhyk; Brinks, Vera; Jiskoot, Wim; Romeijn, Stefan; Praditpornsilpa, Kearkiat; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Schellekens, Huub

    2014-05-01

    The high prevalence of pure red cell aplasia in Thailand has been associated with the sharp increase in number of recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) copy products, based on a classical generic regulatory pathway, which have entered the market. This study aims to assess the quality of rhEPO copy products being used in Thailand. Twelve rhEPO copy products were purchased from pharmacies in Thailand, shipped under controlled cold chain conditions to the Netherlands and characterized using (1) high performance size-exclusion chromatography, (2) asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation, (3) sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in combination with (4) Western blotting and additionally tested for (5) host cell protein impurities as well as (6) endotoxin contamination. Some of the tested rhEPO copy products showed high aggregate levels and contained a substantial amount of protein fragments. Also, one of rhEPO copy products had a high endotoxin level, exceeding the FDA limit. Our observations show that some of the tested copy products on the Thai market differ significantly from the originator rhEPO product, Epogen®. This comparison study supports a link between the quality attributes of copy rhEPO products and their immunogenicity.

  19. [Are there irrationalities in the consumption of anti-obesity drugs in Brazil? A pharmaco-econometric analysis of panel datasets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Daniel Marques; de Oliveira, Márcia Gonçalves; Bovi, Rafael Filiacci; Silva, Sidarta Figueredo; Cunha, Jeane Araújo Fernandes; Divino, José Angelo

    2014-05-01

    The scope of this study is to analyze the determinants of the use of appetite suppressants (amfepramone, femproporex, mazindol and sibutramine) through the estimation of a dynamic panel dataset model for the Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District (DF) in the period from 2009 to 2011. The results show that consumption of appetite suppressants did not follow the geographic distribution of overweight and obese individuals across the capitals and DF. There is a recurrent consumption of appetite inhibitors, in which 79% of the current consumption of these drugs is explained by past consumption. Among the variables that explain the use of inhibitors, the percentage of obese adults, the percentage of adults who habitually consume fruit and vegetables, and the coverage rate of health plans stand out. The pharmaco-econometric analysis suggests that there are problems in the rational use of appetite suppressants in the Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District with respect to both the combined consumption of these drugs with other medicines - deemed illegal by the Federal Council of Medicine and ANVISA - and in the therapeutic prescription of these products.

  20. Refining cost-effectiveness analyses using the net benefit approach and econometric methods: an example from a trial of anti-depressant treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabes-Figuera, Ramon; McCrone, Paul; Kendricks, Antony

    2013-04-01

    Economic evaluation analyses can be enhanced by employing regression methods, allowing for the identification of important sub-groups and to adjust for imperfect randomisation in clinical trials or to analyse non-randomised data. To explore the benefits of combining regression techniques and the standard Bayesian approach to refine cost-effectiveness analyses using data from randomised clinical trials. Data from a randomised trial of anti-depressant treatment were analysed and a regression model was used to explore the factors that have an impact on the net benefit (NB) statistic with the aim of using these findings to adjust the cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. Exploratory sub-samples' analyses were carried out to explore possible differences in cost-effectiveness. Results The analysis found that having suffered a previous similar depression is strongly correlated with a lower NB, independent of the outcome measure or follow-up point. In patients with previous similar depression, adding an selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) to supportive care for mild-to-moderate depression is probably cost-effective at the level used by the English National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence to make recommendations. This analysis highlights the need for incorporation of econometric methods into cost-effectiveness analyses using the NB approach.

  1. Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ampornrat, Pantip

    2000-01-01

    The neutron scattering experiments in Thailand have been done continuously since the start up of the reactor. In 1977, Thai research reactor was modified into TRIGA MARK III core. After that, the neutron spectrometer was installed again under a development program. Installation of upgrading spectrometer was delayed because of some problems involving the neutron intensity and instruments. However, these problems were solved and the setup is almost completed. The paper reports the current status of neutron spectrometer, the problems and plans for the experiments. (author)

  2. Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornduangkaeo, Areeratt; Pongkasem, Somchai; Putchar, Suriya; Ampornrat, Pantip; Kajornrith, Varavuth; Chamchang, Jipawat

    2006-01-01

    The current neutron powder diffractometer at the Thai Research Reactor-1/Modification 1 (TRR-1/M1) has been modified from the obsolete neutron diffractometer which had been used during 1968-1975. The upgraded diffractometer has medium resolution and is appropriate for studying samples with small unit cell dimensions and training university students in the field of neutron scattering. This paper describes the current activities of neutron scattering research in Thailand, the current status of a new research reactor project at Ongkarak for enlarging the perspectives of its utilization in the future as well as the organizational reformation of the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP). (author)

  3. Current status of neutron scattering in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornduangkaeo, Areeratt; Pongkasem, Somchai; Putchar, Suriya; Ampornrat, Pantip; Kajornrith, Varavuth; Sangariyavanich, Archara

    2003-01-01

    The current neutron powder diffractometer at the Thai Research Reactor-1/M1 (TRR-1/M1) has been modified from the obsolete neutron diffractometer which had been used during 1968-1975. The upgraded diffractometer has medium resolution and is appropriate for studying samples with small unit cell dimensions and training university students in the field of neutron scattering. This paper describes the current activities of neutron scattering research in Thailand as well as a new research reactor for enlarging the perspectives of its utilization in the future. (author)

  4. Structural Transformation — How Does Thailand Compare?

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimir Klyuev

    2015-01-01

    Thailand stands out in international comparison as a country with a high dispersion of productivity across sectors. It has especially low labor productivity in agriculture—a sector that employs a much larger share of the population than is typical for a country at Thailand’s level of income. This suggests large potential productivity gains from labor reallocation across sectors, but that process—which made a significant contribution to Thailand’s growth in the past—appears to have stalled lat...

  5. Violence against women migrant workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyanukij, Charnchao

    2004-10-01

    A paper on "Violence against Women Migrant Workers in Thailand" will show the situation of women migrant workers in Thailand, why they have to come to Thailand, what kind of job they do, how they are abused and exploited by employer in many types of violence and how the Thai government manages to solve the problems and assist them. The term or definition of "violence against women-VAW" and "discrimination against women" is provided and based on the definition stated in the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence Against Women and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). Readers will see that violence against women is a form of discrimination committed on a basis of sex. In other words, VAW is a clear violation of women's inherent human rights including the rights to life, liberty, and security of person, equality, equal protection under the law and freedom from all forms of discrimination. More than one hundred thousands of women illegal migrant workers work in Thailand. They come from countries in the Mekong Sub-region namely Myanmar Lao PDR, Cambodia, Vietnam and China (Yunnan province). As they come illegally and have low level of education and working skills, they are vulnerable to exploitation, abuse or face violence. In general, they work in small factories, domestic work and restaurant. They are forced begging, forced prostitution or work in a slavery-like condition. Root causes of illegal migration and VAW are interrelated and occur in both sending and receiving countries of migrant workers. Poverty, demand and supply sides of labor, level of education, no knowledge of their own rights, impact of capitalism and gender issues, are mentioned as original factors of migration and VAW. The Thai government has national policy, plan, instrument and measures to cope with in- migration of illegal workers. Not only government agencies are active to solve the problems and assist the women migrant workers, but also non

  6. Cost-effectiveness of human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical cancer screening in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M; Ortendahl, J; van der Ham, E; Sy, S; Kim, J J

    2012-01-01

    To assess the health and economic outcomes of various screening and vaccination strategies for cervical cancer prevention. Cost-effectiveness analysis from a societal perspective. Thailand. Females aged 9 years and older. Using a mathematical model of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and cervical cancer, calibrated to epidemiological data from Thailand, we estimated the cost-effectiveness of pre-adolescent HPV vaccination, screening [visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA), HPV DNA testing, and cytology] between one and five times per lifetime in adulthood, and combined pre-adolescent vaccination and screening. Vaccine efficacy, coverage, cost, and screening frequency were varied in sensitivity analyses. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, expressed as cost per year of life saved (YLS). Assuming lifelong efficacy and 80% coverage, pre-adolescent HPV vaccination alone was projected to reduce the lifetime risk of cervical cancer by 55%, which was greater than any strategy of screening alone. When cost per vaccinated girl was I$10 (approximately $2 per dose) or less, HPV vaccination alone was cost saving. Pre-adolescent vaccination and HPV DNA testing five times per lifetime, starting at age 35 years, reduced the lifetime cervical cancer risk by 70%, and had a cost-effectiveness ratio less than Thailand's GDP per capita (I$8100), provided the cost per vaccinated girl was I$200 or less. Low cost pre-adolescent HPV vaccination followed by HPV screening five times per lifetime is an efficient strategy for Thailand. Costs may need to be lower, however, for this strategy to be affordable. If vaccination is not feasible, HPV DNA testing five times per lifetime is efficient. © 2011 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 RCOG.

  7. Capacity building for global health diplomacy: Thailand's experience of trade and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaiprayoon, Suriwan; Smith, Richard

    2015-11-01

    A rapid expansion of trade liberalization in Thailand during the 1990s raised a critical question for policy transparency from various stakeholders. Particular attention was paid to a bilateral trade negotiation between Thailand and USA concerned with the impact of the 'Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Rights (TRIPS) plus' provisions on access to medicines. Other trade liberalization effects on health were also concerning health actors. In response, a number of interagency committees were established to engage with trade negotiations. In this respect, Thailand is often cited as a positive example of a country that has proactively sought, and achieved, trade and health policy coherence. This article investigates this relationship in more depth and suggests lessons for wider study and application of global health diplomacy (GHD). This study involved semi-structured interviews with 20 people involved in trade-related health negotiations, together with observation of 9 meetings concerning trade-related health issues. Capacity to engage with trade negotiations appears to have been developed by health actors through several stages; starting from the Individual (I) understanding of trade effects on health, through Nodes (N) that establish the mechanisms to enhance health interests, Networks (N) to advocate for health within these negotiations, and an Enabling environment (E) to retain health officials and further strengthen their capacities to deal with trade-related health issues. This INNE model seems to have worked well in Thailand. However, other contextual factors are also significant. This article suggests that, in building capacity in GHD, it is essential to educate both health and non-health actors on global health issues and to use a combination of formal and informal mechanisms to participate in GHD. And in developing sustainable capacity in GHD, it requires long term commitment and strong leadership from both health and non-health sectors. Published by

  8. Assistance to Brazil, Pakistan and Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-04-15

    IAEA's technical assistance programme for the current year includes aid to atomic energy projects in Brazil, Pakistan and Thailand. It is proposed to establish a radiation measurement service in Brazil where radioactive isotopes are finding increasing use in medicine, industry and research. The assistance to be provided by IAEA will consist of equipment for the proposed service, and experts who would give courses in their respective specializations and co-operate in the testing of equipment, initiation of measurements and organization of working plans. The Agency is putting three specialists at the disposal of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission: one of them an expert on research reactors, another on radioisotopes and irradiation by gamma rays, and the third on health physics. The Pakistan Government has decided to set up an Institute of Nuclear Research and Reactor Technology, where it is planned to install a reactor with a power level of 1 MW to be increased later to 5 MW. The main purposes of the reactor project will be: training on reactor operation and reactor physics; training and research in neutron physics; research on radiation physics and nuclear chemistry; production of radioisotopes; biological research on the effects of radiation; radiation protection and shielding, and research in nuclear engineering and metallurgy. Under a third project, IAEA has sent an expert to Thailand to assist in the development of the medical applications of radioisotopes, particularly in diagnosis and clinical research

  9. An assessment of Thailand's biofuel development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, S.; Salam, P. Abdul; Shrestha, Pujan

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides an assessment of first generation biofuel (ethanol and biodiesel) development in Thailand in terms of feedstock used, production trends, planned targets and policies and discusses the biofuel sustainability issues-environmental, socio-economic and food security aspects. The pol......The paper provides an assessment of first generation biofuel (ethanol and biodiesel) development in Thailand in terms of feedstock used, production trends, planned targets and policies and discusses the biofuel sustainability issues-environmental, socio-economic and food security aspects...... to land and water use and food security are important considerations to be addressed for its large scale application. Second generation biofuels derived from agricultural residues perform favorably on environmental and social sustainability issues in comparison to first generation biofuel sources...... as transportation fuel. Alternatively, the same amount of residue could provide 0.8-2.1 billion liters per year of diesel (biomass to Fischer-Tropsch diesel) to potentially offset 6%-15% of national diesel consumption in the transportation sector....

  10. Assistance to Brazil, Pakistan and Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    IAEA's technical assistance programme for the current year includes aid to atomic energy projects in Brazil, Pakistan and Thailand. It is proposed to establish a radiation measurement service in Brazil where radioactive isotopes are finding increasing use in medicine, industry and research. The assistance to be provided by IAEA will consist of equipment for the proposed service, and experts who would give courses in their respective specializations and co-operate in the testing of equipment, initiation of measurements and organization of working plans. The Agency is putting three specialists at the disposal of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission: one of them an expert on research reactors, another on radioisotopes and irradiation by gamma rays, and the third on health physics. The Pakistan Government has decided to set up an Institute of Nuclear Research and Reactor Technology, where it is planned to install a reactor with a power level of 1 MW to be increased later to 5 MW. The main purposes of the reactor project will be: training on reactor operation and reactor physics; training and research in neutron physics; research on radiation physics and nuclear chemistry; production of radioisotopes; biological research on the effects of radiation; radiation protection and shielding, and research in nuclear engineering and metallurgy. Under a third project, IAEA has sent an expert to Thailand to assist in the development of the medical applications of radioisotopes, particularly in diagnosis and clinical research

  11. Thailand's role in updating ASEAN immigration policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palapan Kampan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This research examined how the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN can improve upon the common economic community through the revision of policies related to labor and migration. The literature review suggested that economic prosperity and growth are significantly related to national openness to naturalization and foreign investment. Citizenship laws from all 10 ASEAN states and several other nations were analyzed alongside economic indicators. Within ASEAN, Thailand is considered central to widespread immigration law changes due to its leadership role in the region. Human rights aspects of citizenship and migration were assessed and potential solutions posed for the high incidence of statelessness in Myanmar and Thailand. In order to support consistent, long-term economic growth and protection of human rights, the research recommends various statutory revisions and the implementation of an executive strategic plan to protect alien laborers. For the purposes of developing globally-competitive economies in ASEAN, the research supports expansive access to citizenship by descent, birthright, and by naturalization, with full recognition of multiple citizenship.

  12. The Impact of the Internet on Health Consultation Market Concentration: An Econometric Analysis of Secondary Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Zhang, Ya; Ma, Ling; Liu, Xuan

    2016-10-28

    Many markets have traditionally been dominated by a few best-selling products, and this is also the case for the health care industry. However, we do not know whether the market will be more or less concentrated when health care services are delivered online (known as E-consultation), nor do we know how to reduce the concentration of the E-consultation market. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentration of the E-consultation market and how to reduce its concentration through information disclosure mechanisms (online reputation and self-representation). We employed a secondary data econometric analysis using transaction data obtained from an E-consultation Website (haodf.com) for three diseases (infantile pneumonia, diabetes, and pancreatic cancer) from 2008 to 2015. We included 2439 doctors in the analysis. The E-consultation market largely follows the 20/80 principle, namely that approximately 80% of orders are fulfilled by nearly 20% of doctors. This is much higher than the offline health care market. Meanwhile, the market served by doctors with strong online reputations (beta=0.207, P<.001) or strong online self-representation (beta=0.386, P<.001) is less concentrated. When health care services are delivered online, the market will be more concentrated (known as the "Superstar" effect), indicating poor service efficiency for society as a whole. To reduce market concentration, E-consultation websites should provide important design elements such as ratings of doctors (user feedback), articles contributed by doctors, and free consultation services (online representation). A possible and important way to reduce the market concentration of the E-consultation market is to accumulate enough highly rated or highly self-represented doctors. ©Jia Li, Ya Zhang, Ling Ma, Xuan Liu. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 28.10.2016.

  13. Peer influences on drug self-administration: an econometric analysis in socially housed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitz, Geoffrey W; Strickland, Justin C; Pitts, Elizabeth G; Foley, Mark; Tonidandel, Scott; Smith, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    Social-learning theories of substance use propose that members of peer groups influence the drug use of other members by selectively modeling, reinforcing, and punishing either abstinence-related or drug-related behaviors. The objective of the present study was to examine the social influences on cocaine self-administration in isolated and socially housed rats, under conditions where the socially housed rats were tested simultaneously with their partner in the same chamber. To this end, male rats were obtained at weaning and housed in isolated or pair-housed conditions for 6 weeks. Rats were then implanted with intravenous catheters and cocaine self-administration was examined in custom-built operant conditioning chambers that allowed two rats to be tested simultaneously. For some socially housed subjects, both rats had simultaneous access to cocaine; for others, only one rat of the pair had access to cocaine. An econometric analysis was applied to the data, and the reinforcing strength of cocaine was measured by examining consumption (i.e. quantity demanded) and elasticity of demand as a function of price, which was manipulated by varying the dose and ratio requirements on a fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement. Cocaine consumption decreased as a function of price in all groups. Elasticity of demand did not vary across groups, but consumption was significantly lower in socially housed rats paired with a rat without access to cocaine. These data suggest that the presence of an abstaining peer decreases the reinforcing strength of cocaine, thus supporting the development of social interventions in drug abuse prevention and treatment programs.

  14. Food preparation patterns in German family households. An econometric approach with time budget data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möser, Anke

    2010-08-01

    In Germany, the rising importance of out-of-home consumption, increasing usage of convenience products and decreasing knowledge of younger individuals how to prepare traditional dishes can be seen as obvious indicators for shifting patterns in food preparation. In this paper, econometric analyses are used to shed more light on the factors which may influence the time spent on food preparation in two-parent family households with children. Two time budget surveys, carried out 1991/92 and 2001/02 through the German National Statistical Office, provide the necessary data. Time budget data analyses reveal that over the last ten years the time spent on food preparation in Germany has decreased. The results point out that time resources of a household, for example gainful employment of the parents, significantly affect the amount of time spent on food preparation. The analysis confirms further that there is a more equal allocation of time spent on cooking, baking or laying the table between women and men in the last ten years. Due to changing attitudes and conceivably adaption of economic conditions, differences in time devoted to food preparation seem to have vanished between Eastern and Western Germany. Greater time spent on eating out in Germany as well as decreasing time spent on food preparation at home reveal that the food provisioning of families is no longer a primarily private task of the households themselves but needs more public attention and institutional offers and help. Among other points, the possibility of addressing mothers' lack of time as well as growing "food illiteracy" of children and young adults are discussed. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Impact of the Internet on Health Consultation Market Concentration: An Econometric Analysis of Secondary Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Many markets have traditionally been dominated by a few best-selling products, and this is also the case for the health care industry. However, we do not know whether the market will be more or less concentrated when health care services are delivered online (known as E-consultation), nor do we know how to reduce the concentration of the E-consultation market. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the concentration of the E-consultation market and how to reduce its concentration through information disclosure mechanisms (online reputation and self-representation). Methods We employed a secondary data econometric analysis using transaction data obtained from an E-consultation Website (haodf.com) for three diseases (infantile pneumonia, diabetes, and pancreatic cancer) from 2008 to 2015. We included 2439 doctors in the analysis. Results The E-consultation market largely follows the 20/80 principle, namely that approximately 80% of orders are fulfilled by nearly 20% of doctors. This is much higher than the offline health care market. Meanwhile, the market served by doctors with strong online reputations (beta=0.207, Ponline self-representation (beta=0.386, Ponline, the market will be more concentrated (known as the “Superstar” effect), indicating poor service efficiency for society as a whole. To reduce market concentration, E-consultation websites should provide important design elements such as ratings of doctors (user feedback), articles contributed by doctors, and free consultation services (online representation). A possible and important way to reduce the market concentration of the E-consultation market is to accumulate enough highly rated or highly self-represented doctors. PMID:27793793

  16. Does China factor matter? An econometric analysis of international crude oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Gang; Zhang, Yue-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Whether China’s crude oil imports are the culprit of oil price volatility these years has not been quantitatively confirmed. Therefore, this paper empirically investigates the role of China’s crude oil net imports in Brent price changes from October 2005 to November 2013 based on an econometric analysis. The results indicate that, during the sample period, China’s crude oil imports do not significantly affect Brent price changes, no matter in the long run or short run. Therefore, the blame for China’s crude oil imports to cause the dramatic fluctuations of international oil price has no solid evidence. Also, there exists significant uni-directional causality running from the Brent price to China's crude oil imports at the 5% level. Besides, the response of the Brent price to China's crude oil imports is found positive but slight, and the Brent price responds more significantly to US dollar exchange rate and OECD commercial inventory than to China’s crude oil imports in the short run. Finally, the contribution of China's crude oil imports to Brent price movement is about 10%, which is less than that of US dollar exchange rate but larger than that of Indian crude oil imports or OECD commercial inventory. - Highlights: • The paper detects the role of China’s crude oil imports in Brent oil price changes. • China’s crude imports do not matter for oil prices in the long run or short run. • The blame for China’s crude imports on oil price changes has no solid evidence. • Significant causality runs from Brent prices to China's crude oil net imports. • China's crude imports contribute less to Brent prices than US dollar exchange rate

  17. A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae; tribe Desmodieae) from Thailand and Laos and two new distribution records and lectotypification for Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saisorn, Witsanu; Balslev, Henrik; Chantaranothai, Pranom

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Desmodium (Leguminosae), D. brevipedicellatum from Thailand and Laos is described and illustrated. Two taxa, D. concinnum and D. laxiflorum subsp. lacei are reported as new for Thailand....

  18. Thailand through travel writings in English: An evaluation and representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soranat Tailanga

    2016-01-01

    The analytical research studied representation of Thailand in travel writings in English through a stylistic approach, discourse analysis, and conceptions of Orientalism. It found that the writings provide a socio-cultural overview of Thailand and details of tourist attractions. The otherness of “Thainess” is constructed through Thailand's exotic beauty, dangers, social problems, political instability, inadequate freedom of expression, and ‘other habitus’ of Thais. These conceptualizations construct the readers' or tourists' identities as quality travelers and highly knowledgeable and moral individuals.

  19. Genetic analysis of Thailand hantavirus in Bandicota indica trapped in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugot Jean-Pierre

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sixty one tissue samples from several rodent species trapped in five provinces of Thailand were examined for the presence of hantaviral markers by enzyme-immunoassay and immunoblotting. Four samples, all from the great bandicoot rat Bandicota indica, were confirmed positive for the hantaviral N-antigen. Two of them were trapped in Nakhon Pathom province, the other two in Nakhon Ratchasima province, approximately 250 km from the other trapping site. When analysed by RT-nested PCR, all four rodents were found positive for the hantaviral S- and M-segment nucleotide sequences. Genetic analysis revealed that the four newly described wild-type strains belong to Thailand hantavirus. On the phylogenetic trees they formed a well-supported cluster within the group of Murinae-associated hantaviruses and shared a recent common ancestor with Seoul virus.

  20. An illustrated key to powder post beetles (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae associated with rubberwood in Thailand, with new records and a checklist of species found in Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisut Sittichaya

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available An illustrated key to seventeen species of Bostrichidae recorded in association with rubberwood in Thailand is provided. A checklist is given of nine species infesting rubberwood sawn timber in sawmills in southern Thailand, with information on distribution, host trees and biology. Three species are recorded for the first time from Thailand: Cephalotoma tonkinea Lesne, Lyctoxylon dentatum (Pascoe, and Minthea reticulata Lesne.

  1. Informing Ex Ante Event Studies with Macro-Econometric Evidence on the Structural and Policy Impacts of Terrorism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassios, Jason; Giesecke, James A

    2018-04-01

    Economic consequence analysis is one of many inputs to terrorism contingency planning. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) models are being used more frequently in these analyses, in part because of their capacity to accommodate high levels of event-specific detail. In modeling the potential economic effects of a hypothetical terrorist event, two broad sets of shocks are required: (1) physical impacts on observable variables (e.g., asset damage); (2) behavioral impacts on unobservable variables (e.g., investor uncertainty). Assembling shocks describing the physical impacts of a terrorist incident is relatively straightforward, since estimates are either readily available or plausibly inferred. However, assembling shocks describing behavioral impacts is more difficult. Values for behavioral variables (e.g., required rates of return) are typically inferred or estimated by indirect means. Generally, this has been achieved via reference to extraneous literature or ex ante surveys. This article explores a new method. We elucidate the magnitude of CGE-relevant structural shifts implicit in econometric evidence on terrorist incidents, with a view to informing future ex ante event assessments. Ex post econometric studies of terrorism by Blomberg et al. yield macro econometric equations that describe the response of observable economic variables (e.g., GDP growth) to terrorist incidents. We use these equations to determine estimates for relevant (unobservable) structural and policy variables impacted by terrorist incidents, using a CGE model of the United States. This allows us to: (i) compare values for these shifts with input assumptions in earlier ex ante CGE studies; and (ii) discuss how future ex ante studies can be informed by our analysis. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Econometric estimation of investment utilization, adjustment costs, and technical efficiency in Danish pig farms using hyperbolic distance functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsen, Arne; Fabricius, Ole; Olsen, Jakob Vesterlund

    2014-01-01

    Based on a theoretical microeconomic model, we econometrically estimate investment utilization, adjustment costs, and technical efficiency in Danish pig farms based on a large unbalanced panel dataset. As our theoretical model indicates that adjustment costs are caused both by increased inputs...... of investment activities by the maximum likelihood method so that we can estimate the adjustment costs that occur in the year of the investment and the three following years. Our results show that investments are associated with significant adjustment costs, especially in the year in which the investment...

  3. HIV-Related Risk Behaviors among Kathoey (Male-to-Female Transgender) Sex Workers in Bangkok, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Perngparn, Usaneya; Areesantichai, Chitlada; Kamitani, Emiko; Sakata, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Based on combined methods, this study investigated substance use and HIV risk behaviors among kathoey sex workers (KSWs) in Bangkok, Thailand. The study found that only half of the KSW participants reported having been tested for HIV, and that except for one participant, all others had not seen health care providers in the past 12 months. About one third of the participants reported having engaged in unprotected anal sex with customers in the past 6 months. Almost all participants reported al...

  4. HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and health and community systems in the Global South: Thailand case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Donn; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Vanichseni, Suphak; Ongwandee, Sumet; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Martin, Michael; Choopanya, Kachit; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; van Griensven, Frits

    2015-01-01

    Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended by the World Health Organization as an effective method of HIV prevention for individuals at risk for infection. In this paper, we describe the unique role that Thailand has played in the global effort to combat the HIV epidemic, including its role in proving the efficacy of PrEP, and discuss the opportunities and challenges of implementing PrEP in a middle-income country. Thailand was one of the first countries in the world to successfully reverse a generalized HIV epidemic. Despite this early success, HIV prevalence has remained high among people who inject drugs and has surged among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW). Two pivotal trials that showed that the use of oral antiretroviral medication as PrEP can reduce HIV transmission were conducted partially or entirely at Thai sites. Demonstration projects of PrEP, as well as clinical trials of alternative PrEP regimens, began or will begin in 2014-2015 in Thailand and will provide additional data and experience on how to best implement PrEP for high-risk individuals in the community. Financing of drug costs, the need for routine laboratory monitoring and lack of awareness about PrEP among at-risk groups all present challenges to the wider implementation of PrEP for HIV prevention in Thailand. Although significant challenges to wider use remain, PrEP holds promise as a safe and highly effective method to be used as part of a combined HIV prevention strategy for MSM and TGW in Thailand.

  5. Handheld Standoff Mine Detection System (HSTAMIDS) Field Evaluation in Thailand

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Doheny, Robert C; Burke, Sean; Cresci, Roger; Ngan, Peter; Walls, Richard

    2005-01-01

    ...) and with participation from the International Test and Evaluation Project (ITEP) for Humanitarian Demining, conducted an in-country field evaluation of HSTAMIDS in the region of Humanitarian Demining Unit #1 (HMAU1) in Thailand...

  6. Thailand : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Gestion de la migration internationale de la main-d'oeuvre dans les pays ... Asia, South Asia, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Singapore ... Région: Bangladesh, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia, India, Malaysia, ...

  7. Invisible in Thailand: documenting the need for protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Green

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The International Rescue Committee (IRC has conducted asurvey to document the experiences of Burmese people livingin border areas of Thailand and assess the degree to whichthey merit international protection as refugees.

  8. Notes on the Orchid Flora of Thailand (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Æ. Pedersen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Three orchid species are newly recorded for the flora of Thailand. The discovery of Macodes petola in the southern part of Peninsular Thailand, adjacent to known occurrences across the Malaysian border, was expected. On the other hand, the find of Cheirostylis octodactyla in Thailand considerably extended the known range of this species to the west, as it was previously known only from the northern part of the Philippines, Taiwan and (through a single collection from northern Vietnam. The recent discovery of populations of Zeuxine bidupensis in Thailand suggests that this species, hitherto considered endemic to Vietnam, does not only have morphological, but also geographic affintities to the little known Z. pantlingii from West Bengal.

  9. All projects related to Thailand | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Aquaculture is an important economic sector, source of livelihood, and contributor to ... Opportunities and Challenges of Doing Business in Burma's Special Economic Zones ... Nutrition and Food Security in Uplands of Vietnam and Thailand.

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-47 - Certain fruits from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... indica), mangosteen (Garcinia mangoestana L.), pineapple (Ananas comosus), and rambutan (Nephelium...) Growing conditions. Litchi, longan, mango, mangosteen, pineapple, and rambutan must be grown in a... Thailand. (b) Treatment. Litchi, longan, mango, mangosteen, pineapple, and rambutan must be treated for...

  11. Intellectual Property Creation of Japanese Companies in China and Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayasuki Kondo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the age of globalization, Japanese companies are globalizing their operations. They have recently been increasing the number of overseas R&D centers in Asia, especially in China and Thailand. Using the United States patent and industrial design data, the paper finds the following points quantitatively. Japanese companies are increasing the number of patents and industrial designs created in the two countries. They used local talents from the beginning in China for both patents and industrial designs. In Thailand, they used local talents for industrial designs from the beginning, while Japanese expertise in Thailand was used for patents in the beginning. In any case, the role of Japanese in Japan is important. Compared with multi-national companies (MNCs from other countries, the IP creation activities of Japanese companies are weak compared to their amount of foreign direct investment to China and Thailand.

  12. Building climate resilience in Thailand's aquaculture industry | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2015-01-21

    Jan 21, 2015 ... ... facing tilapia farmers is that they have limited scientific information about the fish ... as water chemistry, fish farmer decision-making, and government policies. ... Across Thailand, water management plans take into account ...

  13. Guest Editorial: Health financing lessons from Thailand for South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guest Editorial: Health financing lessons from Thailand for South Africa on the path towards universal health coverage. Mark Blecher, Anban Pillay, Walaiporn Patcharanarumol, Warisa Panichkriangkrai, Viroj Tangcharoensathien, Yot Teerawattananon, Supasit Pannarunothai, Jonatan Davén ...

  14. All projects related to Thailand | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Improving Flood Management Planning in Thailand ... the urgent need for evidence-based sustainable development research. ... The recently completed IDRC-supported project, 104904 Science and Technology Innovation for the Base of the ...

  15. A new species of Bauhinia L. (Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae) from Nakhon Phanom Province, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatan, Wannachai

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new liana species of the subfamily Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae), namely Bauhinia nakhonphanomensis, collected from the Phulangkha National Park, Nakhon Pranom Province, Thailand, is described and illustrated. It is easily recognized by the following combination of characters: tendrilled liana, entire leaves, acuminate or caudate leaf apices, oblong or elliptic floral bud, floral bud 25–35 mm long, raceme or panicle inflorescence, 10–13 mm long hypanthium, anther opening by longitudinal slits. Important comparative morphological characters with some closely related species are discussed. PMID:24194667

  16. A new species of Bauhinia L. (Caesalpinioideae, Leguminosae from Nakhon Phanom Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wannachai Chatan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A new liana species of the subfamily Caesalpinioideae (Leguminosae, namely Bauhinia nakhonphanomensis, collected from the Phulangkha National Park, Nakhon Pranom Province, Thailand, is described and illustrated. It is easily recognized by the following combination of characters: tendrilled liana, entire leaves, acuminate or caudate leaf apices, oblong or elliptic floral bud, floral bud 25–35 mm long, raceme or panicle inflorescence, 10–13 mm long hypanthium, anther opening by longitudinal slits. Important comparative morphological characters with some closely related species are discussed.

  17. Seismotectonics of the 2014 Chiang Rai, Thailand, earthquake sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pananont, P.; Herman, M. W.; Pornsopin, P.; Furlong, K. P.; Habangkaem, S.; Waldhauser, F.; Wongwai, W.; Limpisawad, S.; Warnitchai, P.; Kosuwan, S.; Wechbunthung, B.

    2017-08-01

    On 5 May 2014, a Mw 6.2 strike-slip earthquake occurred in the Mae Lao region of Chiang Rai province in Thailand. This earthquake took place in a region of known faults and caused substantial damage and injuries, although the region had been previously identified as having a relatively low earthquake hazard. Detailed field reconnaissance and deployment of a dense, temporary, network of broadband seismometers allowed details of the damage and its relationship to seismicity to be analyzed. The aftershock sequence associated with this main shock occurs on two well-defined trends, reflecting the two potential fault planes in earthquake mechanisms for the main shock and the majority of the aftershocks. The damage area was relatively large for an event of this magnitude, but building damage was largely limited to the primary rupture region, while liquefaction and other ground failure are spatially associated with the rupture area and along regional rivers. Stress modeling, combined with the time series and pattern of aftershock activity, leads us to propose that slip near the northern termination of the main shock rupture continued slightly onto a conjugate fault, helping to trigger the distinct pattern of two discrete, conjugate trends of aftershock activity that mirror the kinematics of the main shock fault mechanism.

  18. A report of three cases of AIDS in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanuphak, P; Locharernkul, C; Panmuong, W; Wilde, H

    1985-12-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been rarely reported as occurring primarily in Asia. We report here on first three cases of AIDS diagnosed at Chulalongkorn Hospital Medical School. One case was an American who had been in Thailand for two years; the other two were Thai. The American and one of the Thai patients were male homosexuals but they had no connection with one another. The latter Thai male homosexual had sexual contact with a German man who showed no evidence of the disease. The other Thai patients was the mistress of the male Thai patient, which underlies the importance of heterosexual transmission of the disease. The two male patients had opportunistic infections whereas the female patient had only generalised lymphadenopathy (Pre-AIDS). Delayed type hypersensitivity response, T-cell subsets enumeration and the in vitro T-cell mitogen response served as diagnostic tools when combined with the clinical history. The diagnosis was made even before the results of tests to determine the presence of antibodies to HTLV-III were known. The presence of anti-HTLV-III simply confirmed our diagnosis.

  19. Mental Health of Muslim Nursing Students in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Ratanasiripong, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to explore the mental health and well-being of Muslim nursing students in Thailand. Specifically, the study investigated the factors that impact anxiety and depression among Muslim nursing students. This cross-sectional research was conducted with a half sampling method of Muslim undergraduate students who were studying at a public nursing college in Thailand. From the 220 self-identified Muslim nursing students, 110 were sampled for this study, representing 1...

  20. The recent status of nuclear technology development in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laoharojanaphand, Sirinart; Cherdchu, Chainarong; Sumitra, Tatchai; Sudprasert, Wanwisa; Chankow, Nares; Tiyapan, Kanokrat; Onjun, Thawatchai; Bhanthumnavin, Duangduen

    2016-01-01

    Thailand has started the peaceful utilization of nuclear program in 1961. The program has developed considerably in various aspects. Laws and regulations were established while applications in medical, agriculture, industry as well as research and education have been accomplished successfully in the country. As for the energy production, Thailand has realized the importance of nuclear power generation several years back. However, the implementation has been delayed. (J.P.N.)

  1. International spillovers, productivity growth and openness in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Diao, Xinshen; Rattsø, Jørn; Stokke, Hildegunn Ekroll

    2002-01-01

    The present paper addresses the growth process of Thailand... After all the theoretical growth modeling and the cross-country growth regressions, we suggest to go back to the country level to understand the growth dynamics. The focus is on endogenous productivity growth in transition towards long run balanced growth. Thailand has had remarkable economic growth of about 6-7% and well above world averages for 40-50 years, in transformation from a ‘rice economy' to industrialization. Interesting...

  2. Impacts of Decentralization on Environmental Management in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soparatana Jarusombat

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the process, institutional and legal framework within which the environmental management operates in Thailand. It specifically focuses on the decentralization within central and local government’s role in environmental management. The methods of this research use literature review. The aim of the paper is to examine how interface between the central and local loci of power have affected pieces of legislation relating to management of the environment by central and local government in Thailand.

  3. Epidemiological investigation of Salmonella enterica serovar Kedougou in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pornruangwong, Srirat; Hendriksen, Rene S; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat; Bangstrakulnonth, Aroon; Mikoleit, Matthew; Davies, Rob H; Aarestrup, Frank M; Garcia-Migura, Lourdes

    2011-02-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Kedougou is among the top 10 serovars reported in northern Thailand. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with Salmonella Kedougou infection in Thailand and to compare the molecular types and antimicrobial resistance with Salmonella Kedougou isolates of human origin from United States and of animal origin from the United Kingdom. Data from 13,976 Salmonella infections of which 253 were Salmonella Kedougou collected in Thailand between 2002 and 2008 were analyzed by logistic regression. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed on selected Salmonella Kedougou strains causing infections in Thailand (n = 66), and compared to isolates from the United States (n = 5) and the United Kingdom (n = 20). Logistic analysis revealed season (hot/dry; p = 0.023), region (northern Thailand; p Thailand were resistant to third-generation cephalosporins: two harbored bla(CTX-M-63) and one bla(CMY-2). PFGE revealed 45 unique clusters. Isolates obtained from humans in Thailand and the United States presented identical PFGE profiles suggesting a travel association, whereas the majority of the animal isolates from United Kingdom clustered separately. This study reveals Salmonella Kedougou as a major cause of human infections in northern Thailand especially during the hot period and suggests a global spread probably due to travel. The clonal types causing infections in humans differed from those observed in animals in United Kingdom, which suggests the absence of an epidemiological link and could suggest differences in virulence. The high frequency of antimicrobial resistance, including emergence of resistance to fluoroquinolones and third-generation cephalosporins, might pose problems for treatment of infections.

  4. The curer as cultural intermediary in southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomb, L

    1984-01-01

    A glimpse at the life of an illustrious Buddhist monastic curer in Pattani, Thailand, reveals a significant multiethnic component of Southeast Asia's traditional medical systems. The prominence of this curer and the prosperity of his monastery derive in large part from his command of alien occult knowledge, which he uses to combat outside supernatural aggression. The paper concludes with a discussion of how centers of outside magical power are conceptualized among various groups in Thailand.

  5. Current status of Tc-99m production in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charoen, Sakda

    2003-01-01

    Technetium-99m is the workhorse of nuclear medicine and currently accounts for over 80% of all in vivo diagnostic procedures. In Thailand, Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) had experiences in production of Technetium-99m by solvent extraction process and alternative technology for Technetium-99m generator based on zirconium molybdate and titanium molybdate gel generators were also studied. The paper describes past experiences and future plan of Technetium-99m production in Thailand. (author)

  6. The Effect of Household Debt on Consumption in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Thitima Chucherd

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the quantitative influence of household debt and wealth on total consumption in Thailand during the recession and recovery periods after the 1997 financial crisis. The analysis of the consumption function was based on the Life-Cycle and Permanent Income Hypotheses and used household survey data in Thailand. This empirical study found that debt positively influences consumption similar to wealth effect with greater impact of the latter. Moreover, positive debt effect can b...

  7. Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Thanapongtharm, Weerapong

    2015-01-01

    This thesis, entitled “Modelling the distribution of pig production and diseases in Thailand”, presents many aspects of pig production in Thailand including the characteristics of pig farming system, distribution of pig population and pig farms, spatio-temporal distribution and risk of most important diseases in pig at present, and the suitability area for pig farming. Spatial distribution and characteristics of pig farming in Thailand were studied using time-series pig population data to des...

  8. Thailand: fertile ground for nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Innes, R.

    1990-01-01

    Thailand's Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) is bringing the benefits of food irradiation and nuclear-based agricultural techniques to the population. One of the most successful OAEP programs involves irradiating a popular Thai delicacy, 'nham' (fermented raw pork) which is otherwise often contaminated with salmonella, and sometimes with trichinella. Irradiated nham has proven popular with Thai consumers. Other nuclear techniques are being applied as follows: neutron densitometry and isotope tracer techniques are providing a better understanding of the relationships between soil, fertilizer and plants; radioimmunoassay of progesterone is improving breeding of cattle and buffaloes; seed irradiation is producing improved varieties of plants; irradiation is being used to sterilize control fruit flies

  9. Economic value of dengue vaccine in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bruce Y; Connor, Diana L; Kitchen, Sarah B; Bacon, Kristina M; Shah, Mirat; Brown, Shawn T; Bailey, Rachel R; Laosiritaworn, Yongjua; Burke, Donald S; Cummings, Derek A T

    2011-05-01

    With several candidate dengue vaccines under development, this is an important time to help stakeholders (e.g., policy makers, scientists, clinicians, and manufacturers) better understand the potential economic value (cost-effectiveness) of a dengue vaccine, especially while vaccine characteristics and strategies might be readily altered. We developed a decision analytic Markov simulation model to evaluate the potential health and economic value of administering a dengue vaccine to an individual (≤ 1 year of age) in Thailand from the societal perspective. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the effects of ranging various vaccine (e.g., cost, efficacy, side effect), epidemiological (dengue risk), and disease (treatment-seeking behavior) characteristics. A ≥ 50% efficacious vaccine was highly cost-effective [GDP) ($4,289)] up to a total vaccination cost of $60 and cost-effective [GDP ($12,868)] up to a total vaccination cost of $200. When the total vaccine series was $1.50, many scenarios were cost saving.

  10. RVNRL and radiation processing in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siri-Upathum, C.

    2000-01-01

    Industrial application of radiation processing in Thailand is gaining wide acceptance. The first private-owned radiation sterilization plant was established in 1984. Commercialization of protective rubber gloves from radiation vulcanized of natural rubber latex (RVNRL) started in 1993. Two new sterilization plants using electron beam accelerator and gamma irradiation were commissioned in 1997 and 1999 respectively. Another gamma sterilization plant is scheduled to operate in the year 2000. Additional electron accelerator is being installed in one operational gamma sterilization plant, for upgrading of gemstones. Research and development at Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) and universities has been focused on RVNRL, radiation treatment of sludge, grafting of cassava starch and utilization of irradiated silk protein. Except for RVNRL which has passed to commercial scale, pilot scale of radiation treatment of sludge has achieved its goal to be utilized as new resources for animal feed and fertilizer. (author)

  11. Neonatal screening for hypothyroidism in Southern Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukthomya, V.

    1985-08-01

    Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) determination by a radioimmunoassay on dried blood spots was selected as the screening method for congenital hypothyroidism in Southern Thailand. Blood from the infant's heel was obtained in 7814 newborns on the fifth day of life. Infants with TSH values greater than 25 mU/L were recalled for a more careful clinical examination and to have their T4 (thyroxine) and TSH re-estimated. Fifty-four infants with TSH values between 25 and 50 mU/L were found to be normal at re-evaluation. These are still being followed longitudinally for full confirmation. Two with values above 50 mU/L, although clinically euthyroid, were found to be hypothyroid by T3, T4, thyroid scintigraphy and bone age on roentgenography. Replacement therapy has been started. We have shown that a screening program for neonatal hypothyroidism can be done, and is probably worthwhile and perhaps even cost-effective

  12. RVNRL and radiation processing in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siri-Upathum, C. [Department of Nuclear Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2000-03-01

    Industrial application of radiation processing in Thailand is gaining wide acceptance. The first private-owned radiation sterilization plant was established in 1984. Commercialization of protective rubber gloves from radiation vulcanized of natural rubber latex (RVNRL) started in 1993. Two new sterilization plants using electron beam accelerator and gamma irradiation were commissioned in 1997 and 1999 respectively. Another gamma sterilization plant is scheduled to operate in the year 2000. Additional electron accelerator is being installed in one operational gamma sterilization plant, for upgrading of gemstones. Research and development at Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) and universities has been focused on RVNRL, radiation treatment of sludge, grafting of cassava starch and utilization of irradiated silk protein. Except for RVNRL which has passed to commercial scale, pilot scale of radiation treatment of sludge has achieved its goal to be utilized as new resources for animal feed and fertilizer. (author)

  13. Current status of taeniasis in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantaphruti, Malinee Thairungroj

    2013-02-01

    Taeniasis is prevalent in all regions of Thailand, except the South. Infections were more frequently found in males than females of any age from 7-83 years. Taenia saginata is the most common species throughout the country. Taenia asiatica was reported only in the province of Kanchanaburi in the Central region. Co-infections, with Taenia solium and T. asiatica or T. solium and T. saginata, were found. Hybridization between T. asiatica and T. saginata is evidence that co-infection is never found between these 2 species. Finding more than 1 worm in a single patient was not entirely rare. Genetic variation was found without correlation to its geographic distribution in T. saginata, whereas no variation was found in T. asiatica.

  14. Controlling dengue with vaccines in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis L Chao

    Full Text Available Dengue is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that constitutes a growing global threat with the habitat expansion of its vectors Aedes aegyti and A. albopictus and increasing urbanization. With no effective treatment and limited success of vector control, dengue vaccines constitute the best control measure for the foreseeable future. With four interacting dengue serotypes, the development of an effective vaccine has been a challenge. Several dengue vaccine candidates are currently being tested in clinical trials. Before the widespread introduction of a new dengue vaccine, one needs to consider how best to use limited supplies of vaccine given the complex dengue transmission dynamics and the immunological interaction among the four dengue serotypes.We developed an individual-level (including both humans and mosquitoes, stochastic simulation model for dengue transmission and control in a semi-rural area in Thailand. We calibrated the model to dengue serotype-specific infection, illness and hospitalization data from Thailand. Our simulations show that a realistic roll-out plan, starting with young children then covering progressively older individuals in following seasons, could reduce local transmission of dengue to low levels. Simulations indicate that this strategy could avert about 7,700 uncomplicated dengue fever cases and 220 dengue hospitalizations per 100,000 people at risk over a ten-year period.Vaccination will have an important role in controlling dengue. According to our modeling results, children should be prioritized to receive vaccine, but adults will also need to be vaccinated if one wants to reduce community-wide dengue transmission to low levels.

  15. Controlling Dengue with Vaccines in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Dennis L.; Halstead, Scott B.; Halloran, M. Elizabeth; Longini, Ira M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that constitutes a growing global threat with the habitat expansion of its vectors Aedes aegyti and A. albopictus and increasing urbanization. With no effective treatment and limited success of vector control, dengue vaccines constitute the best control measure for the foreseeable future. With four interacting dengue serotypes, the development of an effective vaccine has been a challenge. Several dengue vaccine candidates are currently being tested in clinical trials. Before the widespread introduction of a new dengue vaccine, one needs to consider how best to use limited supplies of vaccine given the complex dengue transmission dynamics and the immunological interaction among the four dengue serotypes. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed an individual-level (including both humans and mosquitoes), stochastic simulation model for dengue transmission and control in a semi-rural area in Thailand. We calibrated the model to dengue serotype-specific infection, illness and hospitalization data from Thailand. Our simulations show that a realistic roll-out plan, starting with young children then covering progressively older individuals in following seasons, could reduce local transmission of dengue to low levels. Simulations indicate that this strategy could avert about 7,700 uncomplicated dengue fever cases and 220 dengue hospitalizations per 100,000 people at risk over a ten-year period. Conclusions/Significance Vaccination will have an important role in controlling dengue. According to our modeling results, children should be prioritized to receive vaccine, but adults will also need to be vaccinated if one wants to reduce community-wide dengue transmission to low levels. PMID:23145197

  16. Residential water demand and water consumption: an econometric analysis on municipal panel data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musolesi, Antonio; Nosvelli, Mario

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on residential water demand estimation, a rather neglected issue in the Italian environmental economics literature as compared to other European countries and the USA. This may depend on the difficulties in gathering proper data and, most of all, panel data. In some cases statistical information are not suitably collected, while in other cases legal privacy ties put some obstacles to data set transfer. Our panel data set refers to 102 municipalities in Lombardy (Italy) for the period 1998-2002. When estimating the effect of water price, we control for other relevant variables such as: income, households demographical variables - (age structure, number of component for each family) number of firms in tertiary sector, water system length. In the considered period, the data show both an increase in population (1,5 %) and in the number of water consumers (7%) associated, on aggregate, with a slight reduction in water consumption (-1,1 %). Water demand models are estimated both in a static and in a dynamic framework. In the former, the emphasis is set on the sources of endogeneity in the average price by estimating a system of simultaneous equations and relevant variables for assessing consumer behaviour - such as socio demographic ones - are incorporated in the model. In the latter, econometric methods especially designed for endogeneity in panel data models (Arellano e Bond, 1991), are employed in order to estimate the long run elasticity of water demand with respect to average price. We find evidence both that consumers significantly respond to average price only in the long run with an elasticity of about - 0,3-0,4 and that income and demographic variables are crucial in explaining consumers' behaviour. Furthermore, water consumption presents a strong auto-regressive component, showing the emergence of inertia and path dependency in consumption habits. Such results suggest important implications for water policy planning. On one side demographic

  17. Selection bias in species distribution models: An econometric approach on forest trees based on structural modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-StPaul, N. K.; Ay, J. S.; Guillemot, J.; Doyen, L.; Leadley, P.

    2014-12-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) are widely used to study and predict the outcome of global changes on species. In human dominated ecosystems the presence of a given species is the result of both its ecological suitability and human footprint on nature such as land use choices. Land use choices may thus be responsible for a selection bias in the presence/absence data used in SDM calibration. We present a structural modelling approach (i.e. based on structural equation modelling) that accounts for this selection bias. The new structural species distribution model (SSDM) estimates simultaneously land use choices and species responses to bioclimatic variables. A land use equation based on an econometric model of landowner choices was joined to an equation of species response to bioclimatic variables. SSDM allows the residuals of both equations to be dependent, taking into account the possibility of shared omitted variables and measurement errors. We provide a general description of the statistical theory and a set of applications on forest trees over France using databases of climate and forest inventory at different spatial resolution (from 2km to 8km). We also compared the outputs of the SSDM with outputs of a classical SDM (i.e. Biomod ensemble modelling) in terms of bioclimatic response curves and potential distributions under current climate and climate change scenarios. The shapes of the bioclimatic response curves and the modelled species distribution maps differed markedly between SSDM and classical SDMs, with contrasted patterns according to species and spatial resolutions. The magnitude and directions of these differences were dependent on the correlations between the errors from both equations and were highest for higher spatial resolutions. A first conclusion is that the use of classical SDMs can potentially lead to strong miss-estimation of the actual and future probability of presence modelled. Beyond this selection bias, the SSDM we propose represents

  18. A review of Thailand's strategies for global climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonchalermkit, S.

    1994-01-01

    Thailand is greatly concerned about global climate change, which is caused primarily by the burning of fossil fuels, deforestation and the release of chlorofluorocarbons. The country itself is not currently a major contributor to global climate change. However, as Thailand's economy expands and its burning of fossil fuels increases, the country's contribution to global climate change could increase. Thailand's use of primary energy supplies grew at an average rate of 13.4 percent per year in the period 1985 to 1990. The rapid, sustained growth was due to the overall pace of growth in the economy and the expansion of industrial, construction, and transportation activities. The primary energy demand was approximately 31,600 kilotons of oil equivalent (KTOE) in 1990. The transportation sector accounted for the largest proportion of energy demand at 30 percent. Within the next 15 years, the power sector is expected to overtake the transportation sector as the largest consumer of energy. Petroleum is currently the predominant source of energy in Thailand, accounting for 56 percent of the primary energy demand. Thailand recognizes that it has an important part to play in finding solutions to minimizing emissions of greenhouse gases and identifying viable response strategies. Thus, in this paper the authors will present several policy strategies relevant to climate change in Thailand and discuss how they have been implemented and enforced. Policies concerning forestry, energy, and environment are reviewed in detail in this paper

  19. Labour Migration and the Economic Sustainability in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piriya Pholphirul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Migration is one of the top debate topics in terms of the national policy agendas of middle-income countries, and Thailand is no exception. The segmentation of its labour market explains why Thailand is experiencing large-scale immigration and a simultaneous emigration of low-skilled workers. Immigration inflows from its less-developed neighbour countries – namely, Laos, Cambodia and Myanmar – pose a challenge for Thailand. Wage differentials between Thailand and other migrant-receiving countries, which are mostly more economically developed than Thailand, also stimu-late emigration from there. Due to regional disparities within the country and to a lack of employment and educational opportunities in rural areas, internal migration is also common and encouraged. In this paper I first analyse the economic pros and cons of migration both to and within Thailand before formulating labour migration policies that aim to maximize beneficial outcomes while minimizing economic costs. The cost–benefit analysis of labour migration is key to addressing relevant gaps in formulating and implementing effective policies.

  20. Development and evaluation of teak (Tectona grandis L.f. taper equations in northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. Warner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Taper refers to the general decrease in the regular outline of a solid body from its base to its tip. Taper models are used to estimate the volume and value of wood products from harvesting trees. Teak (Tectona grandis L.f. is highly valued as one of the world's most preferred timbers and a teak taper equation is required to inform optimal harvesting strategies given the limited plantation resource available in Thailand. Teak taper equations were developed and evaluated based on 331 sample trees collected in 2014 from eight plantations in northern Thailand aged from 10 to 46 yr using two taper model formulations—the Kozak variable-exponent taper model and the Goodwin cubic polynomial model comprising hyperbolic and parabolic terms. Variants based on both model types were fitted using nonlinear regression analysis with diameter at breast height, total tree height and height of girth measurement as the independent variables to estimate diameter underbark at the nominated height. Goodness-of-fit and leave-one-out cross validation with lack-of-fit statistical testing combined with extensive graphical analysis of residuals were used to select the best model. A Goodwin model variant (named FIO-teak1 as the first plantation teak taper model known to be published in Thailand provided the best estimates of volume and diameter underbark. A simple case study confirmed that FIO-teak1 in combination with the Farm Forestry Toolbox software package could assist teak plantation managers in decision making associated with optimizing log grade value based on standing tree inventory data.

  1. An econometric investigation of the sunspot number record since the year 1700 and its prediction into the 22nd century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travaglini, Guido

    2015-09-01

    Solar activity, as measured by the yearly revisited time series of sunspot numbers (SSN) for the period 1700-2014 (Clette et al., 2014), undergoes in this paper a triple statistical and econometric checkup. The conclusions are that the SSN sequence: (1) is best modeled as a signal that features nonlinearity in mean and variance, long memory, mean reversion, 'threshold' symmetry, and stationarity; (2) is best described as a discrete damped harmonic oscillator which linearly approximates the flux-transport dynamo model; (3) its prediction well into the 22nd century testifies of a substantial fall of the SSN centered around the year 2030. In addition, the first and last Gleissberg cycles show almost the same peak number and height during the period considered, yet the former slightly prevails when measured by means of the estimated smoother. All of these conclusions are achieved by making use of modern tools developed in the field of Financial Econometrics and of two new proposed procedures for signal smoothing and prediction.

  2. The impact of tropospheric ozone pollution on trial plot winter wheat yields in Great Britain - an econometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliakatsou, Evridiki; Bell, J Nigel B; Thirtle, Colin; Rose, Daniel; Power, Sally A

    2010-05-01

    Numerous experiments have demonstrated reductions in the yields of cereal crops due to tropospheric O(3), with losses of up to 25%. However, the only British econometric study on O(3) impacts on winter wheat yields, found that a 10% increase in AOT40 would decrease yields by only 0.23%. An attempt is made here to reconcile these observations by developing AOT40 maps for Great Britain and matching levels with a large number of standardised trial plot wheat yields from many sites over a 13-year period. Panel estimates (repeated measures on the same plots with time) show a 0.54% decrease in yields and it is hypothesised that plant breeders may have inadvertently selected for O(3) tolerance in wheat. Some support for this is provided by fumigations of cultivars of differing introduction dates. A case is made for the use of econometric as well as experimental studies in prediction of air pollution induced crop loss. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. DETERMINATION OF THE YIELD OF COFFEE IN THE BASIC UNIT OF COOPERATIVE PRODUCTION (UBPC "LA JUBA" THROUGH ECONOMETRICS TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Rodríguez-Betancourt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Economic Program of the VI Congress of Comunist Party regarding the coffee agroindustry as agreement the following posittions: "To impel the development of the coffee activities to contribute to the gradual recovery of the traditional exportable funds". This sense, the process of planning the coffee harvest suggest the improvement of the fundamental indicators of this process. The coffee estimate is a primary indicator of harvest and other important indicators depend from him, among those the coffee production and the determination of other inputs of harvest. The objective of this work is to use econometrics technique, for the calculation of the coffee estimate in the Arabic variety in the UBPC "La Juba", belonging to the Coffee Company "Segundo Frente" It is demonstrated that using the econometrics technique the results comes closer to the real with more precision that the obtained by the  programmer, in 75 %. In a same way it is obtained as a result, the evaluation of the weight that it have in the yields the productive factors. In this case, when reconciling the analysis cost-benefit, with the study of the regression coefficients it was demonstrated that the most incident factor is the denominated Cultural Attentions. 

  4. Current and future market of UV/EB curing in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda Kiatkamjornwong; Aran Hanseubsai

    1999-01-01

    Current status and future market of UV/EB curing in Thailand were presented. Included number of printing houses, export, main export market and the role of radiation curing in printing and packaging industries of Thailand

  5. 78 FR 31574 - Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation Nos. 731-TA-1210-1212 (Preliminary)] Welded Stainless Steel Pressure Pipe From Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of Antidumping Duty..., by reason of imports from Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of welded stainless steel pressure pipe...

  6. 78 FR 764 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam; Institution of... States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia... the Governments of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam. Unless the...

  7. The recent status of nuclear technology development in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laoharojanaphand, Sirinart; Cherdchu, Chainarong; Sumitra, Tatchai; Sudprasert, Wanwisa; Chankow, Nares; Tiyapan, Kanokrat; Onjun, Thawatchai; Bhanthumnavin, Duangduen

    2016-01-01

    Thailand has started the peaceful utilization of nuclear program in 1961. The program has developed considerably in various aspects. Laws and regulations were established while applications in medical, agriculture, industry as well as research and education have been accomplished successfully in the country. As for the energy production, Thailand has realized the importance of nuclear power generation several years back. However, the implementation has been delayed. There are four main nuclear organizations namely The Thai Atomic Energy Commission - the country's policy holder, the Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) - the nuclear regulatory bodies, Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT: Public Organization) - the research and services provider in nuclear field and the Nuclear Society of Thailand the non-governmental organization. Major research in nuclear technology is actively carried out at TINT. Filed of research include medical and public health, agricultural, material and industrial, environmental and advanced technology like neutron scattering and nuclear fusion. Nuclear density gauge has been utilized in many industries including petrochemical production and refineries. TINT is also providing services on nuclear radiography to industrial and clients. Additionally, x-ray techniques have been utilized in many manufacturers for quality and process control. Nuclear applications for medical purpose have been utilized in Thailand several years back both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. To ensure safe and peaceful use of nuclear technology and for the safety of the general public in Thailand, OAP has launched laws, regulations and ministerial announcements. Thailand has only one multi-purposes nuclear research reactor and no NPP. Yet we have realized the importance of nuclear power generation several years back. (N.T.)

  8. Serotype- and virulence-associated gene profile of Streptococcus suis isolates from pig carcasses in Chiang Mai Province, Northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongsawan, Kanruethai; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Tharavichitkul, Prasit

    2015-02-01

    In this present study, the serotype of 40 Streptococcus suis isolates from submaxillary glands of pig carcasses sold in wet markets in Chiang Mai Province, northern Thailand, was investigated. Eleven serotypes, including types 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 17, 21, 22 and 31, were found in the isolates by a Multiplex PCR combined with serum agglutination. Of the eleven serotypes present, type 3 was the most prevalent, while types 2, 4, 5 and 21 were of primary interest due to their human isolate serotype. The mrp+/epf - /sly - genotype was found to be the most prevalent genotype. This study indicates the importance of effective control of human S. suis infection due to raw pork or pig carcass handling in northern Thailand.

  9. Molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in seagulls, pigeons, dogs, and cats in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koompapong, Khuanchai; Mori, Hirotake; Thammasonthijarern, Nipa; Prasertbun, Rapeepun; Pintong, Ai-rada; Popruk, Supaluk; Rojekittikhun, Wichit; Chaisiri, Kittipong; Sukthana, Yaowalark; Mahittikorn, Aongart

    2014-01-01

    Zoonotic Cryptosporidium spp., particularly C. meleagridis, C. canis, and C. felis, are enteric protozoa responsible for major public health concerns around the world. To determine the spread of this parasite in Thailand, we conducted molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. from animal samples around the country, by collecting and investigating the feces of seagulls (Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus and Chroicocephalus ridibundus), domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica), dogs, and cats. Seagull and pigeon samples were collected at the seaside and on the riverside to evaluate their potential for waterborne transmission. Ten pigeon samples were combined into one set, and a total of seven sets were collected. Seventy seagull samples were combined into one set, and a total of 13 sets were collected. In addition, 111 dog samples were collected from cattle farms, and 95 dog and 80 cat samples were collected from a temple. We identified C. meleagridis in pigeons, Cryptosporidium avian genotype III in seagulls, C. canis in dogs, and C. felis in cats. In the temple, the prevalence was 2.1% (2/95) for dogs and 2.5% (2/80) for cats. No Cryptosporidium was found in dog samples from cattle farms. These are the first findings of C. meleagridis in domestic pigeons, and Cryptosporidium avian genotype III in seagulls. Our study invites further molecular epidemiological investigations of Cryptosporidium in these animals and their environment to evaluate the public health risk in Thailand. K. Koompapong et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2014

  10. Molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. in seagulls, pigeons, dogs, and cats in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koompapong Khuanchai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Zoonotic Cryptosporidium spp., particularly C. meleagridis, C. canis, and C. felis, are enteric protozoa responsible for major public health concerns around the world. To determine the spread of this parasite in Thailand, we conducted molecular identification of Cryptosporidium spp. from animal samples around the country, by collecting and investigating the feces of seagulls (Chroicocephalus brunnicephalus and Chroicocephalus ridibundus, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica, dogs, and cats. Seagull and pigeon samples were collected at the seaside and on the riverside to evaluate their potential for waterborne transmission. Ten pigeon samples were combined into one set, and a total of seven sets were collected. Seventy seagull samples were combined into one set, and a total of 13 sets were collected. In addition, 111 dog samples were collected from cattle farms, and 95 dog and 80 cat samples were collected from a temple. We identified C. meleagridis in pigeons, Cryptosporidium avian genotype III in seagulls, C. canis in dogs, and C. felis in cats. In the temple, the prevalence was 2.1% (2/95 for dogs and 2.5% (2/80 for cats. No Cryptosporidium was found in dog samples from cattle farms. These are the first findings of C. meleagridis in domestic pigeons, and Cryptosporidium avian genotype III in seagulls. Our study invites further molecular epidemiological investigations of Cryptosporidium in these animals and their environment to evaluate the public health risk in Thailand.

  11. 78 FR 37236 - Prestressed Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Concrete Steel Rail Tie Wire From China, Mexico, and Thailand Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... imports from China, Mexico, and Thailand of prestressed concrete steel rail tie wire, provided for in... China, Mexico, and Thailand. Accordingly, effective April 23, 2013, the Commission instituted...

  12. 76 FR 18782 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam Determinations On the basis of the record... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and..., India, Thailand, and Vietnam would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material...

  13. 75 FR 48724 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-11

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States International Trade... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  14. 75 FR 57501 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-21

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States International Trade... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely to lead to continuation or...

  15. 75 FR 22424 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States International Trade... antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY... duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would be likely...

  16. Latent Profile Analysis of Good Citizenship of Rajabhat Universities' Students in the Northeast of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siphai, Sunan; Srisa-ard, Boonchoom

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was 1) to develop good citizenship indicators of Rajabhat Universities' Students in the Northeast of Thailand. 2) to classify latent profile of good citizenship of Rajabhat University's students in the northeast of Thailand. The sample was 800 Rajabhat University's students in the northeast of Thailand. Findings 1) there…

  17. 78 FR 11221 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam Determination On the basis... injured by reason of imports from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of... China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam.\\2\\ \\1\\ The record is defined in sec...

  18. Geographical Network Analysis and Spatial Econometrics as Tools to Enhance Our Understanding of Student Migration Patterns and Benefits in the U.S. Higher Education Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Canché, Manuel S.

    2018-01-01

    This study measures the extent to which student outmigration outside the 4-year sector takes place and posits that the benefits from attracting non-resident students exist regardless of sector of enrollment. The study also provides empirical evidence about the relevance of employing geographical network analysis (GNA) and spatial econometrics in…

  19. The Credibility Revolution in Empirical Economics: How Better Research Design is Taking the Con out of Econometrics. NBER Working Paper No. 15794

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrist, Joshua; Pischke, Jorn-Steffen

    2010-01-01

    This essay reviews progress in empirical economics since Leamer'rs (1983) critique. Leamer highlighted the benefits of sensitivity analysis, a procedure in which researchers show how their results change with changes in specification or functional form. Sensitivity analysis has had a salutary but not a revolutionary effect on econometric practice.…

  20. Physical Fitness For Futsal Referee Of Football Association In Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaweesub Koeipakvaen Acting Sub L., t.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the research to study physical fitness for futsal Referee of Football Association in Thailand and Compare of the Physical Fitness for first level, second and third futsal Referee of Football Association in Thailand. The population of first level, second and third level futsal Referee of Football Association in Thailand 107 person. The sample were futsal Referee of Football Association in Thailand 97 person. First level futsal Referee 22 person. Second level futsal Referee 11 person. Third level futsal Referee 64 person. The instrument used was futsal physical fitness test of Football Association in Thailand. Endurance Test (1,000 meter), Speed Test (4x10 meter) 2 time, and Agility Test (80 meter) 2 time. The statistic for data analysis were one way Anova, Percentage, Mean, Standard Deviation and F-test. The results were as the follow: (1) the result comparing F-test first level futsal referee with level second and first level futsal referee with third level. the statically significant different at the 0.05 level, and the result comparing Endurance as the follow the Physical Fitness for first level, second and third futsal Referee. the statically significant different at the 0.05 level.

  1. Mid-Tertiary paleoenvironments in Thailand: pollen evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sepulchre

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Only few well-dated records document the evolution of Southeast Asian paleoenvironments during the Cenozoic. Here we analyse continental pollen assemblages from Late Oligocene and Miocene fossil sites of Thailand. In agreement with previous studies, palynoflora from the Oligocene suggests warm temperate forested habitats at 24–26 Ma, whereas Middle Miocene assemblages are made of thermophilous taxa. This change can be linked to the major climate reorganization that brought warmer and wetter conditions over Southeast Asia around 22 Ma. This study also provides the first submillional records from the Middle Miocene of Thailand. Thirteen samples of lignite layers from the sivaladapid-bearing Mae Moh site, dated between 13.3 and 13.1 Ma, and six samples from the hominoid-bearing Chiang Muan deposit, dated between 12.4 and 12.2 Ma, document oscillations between tropical woodlands and grasslands in northern Thailand. These pollen records likely reflect climate variations linked to insolation variations. Late Miocene palynological assemblages from Khorat, northeastern Thailand, document fluviolacustrine paleoenvironments alternatively covered by thermophilous trees and grasslands. These records show that both sivaladapids and early hominoids from Thailand have evolved in tropical environments with high variability in the vegetation cover.

  2. Article title - Potential evaluation of rolling stock manufacturing in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiprasit Koetniyom

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the capital city of Thailand, the first electric railway system so called Bangkok Mass Transit System (BTS has been established since 1999. And Thai Government has the master plan to develop the network for such mass transport system in order to reduce traffic congestion and pollution. However, experience and technology knowledge of the rolling stock are still unknown among Thai industries. Besides, the automotive industry in Thailand has shown robust growth despite the political conflict and economic situation. With contribution of component and material suppliers for automotive industry, Thailand has possibly high potential to develop and build the train with local contents based on the international railway industry standards, etc. For this reason, this research focuses on essential component structures for the train, international standards for railway industry and relevant technologies for product, production and testing. In addition, the questionnaire for the component and material suppliers in Thailand has been established under international standards and essential car train components. As a result, it reveals that there are high potential possibilities to support the rolling stock industries under the knowledge of relevant standards in some product modules of the body-strength-structure and auxiliary groups. However, the core knowledge and technologies for the product designs and testing in Thailand are the least in the least in the platformsuspension group.

  3. Estimation of construction waste generation and management in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofoworola, Oyeshola Femi; Gheewala, Shabbir H

    2009-02-01

    This study examines construction waste generation and management in Thailand. It is estimated that between 2002 and 2005, an average of 1.1 million tons of construction waste was generated per year in Thailand. This constitutes about 7.7% of the total amount of waste disposed in both landfills and open dumpsites annually during the same period. Although construction waste constitutes a major source of waste in terms of volume and weight, its management and recycling are yet to be effectively practiced in Thailand. Recently, the management of construction waste is being given attention due to its rapidly increasing unregulated dumping in undesignated areas, and recycling is being promoted as a method of managing this waste. If effectively implemented, its potential economic and social benefits are immense. It was estimated that between 70 and 4,000 jobs would have been created between 2002 and 2005, if all construction wastes in Thailand had been recycled. Additionally it would have contributed an average savings of about 3.0 x 10(5) GJ per year in the final energy consumed by the construction sector of the nation within the same period based on the recycling scenario analyzed. The current national integrated waste management plan could enhance the effective recycling of construction and demolition waste in Thailand when enforced. It is recommended that an inventory of all construction waste generated in the country be carried out in order to assess the feasibility of large scale recycling of construction and demolition waste.

  4. The estimation of imported dengue virus from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polwiang, Sittisede

    2015-01-01

    Dengue fever is one of the important causes of illness among travelers returning from Thailand. The risk of infection depends on the length of stay, activities, and arrival time. Due to globalization, there is a concern that infected travelers may carry dengue virus (DENV) to their country of residence and cause an outbreak. To estimate the infective person-days of travelers returning from Thailand, we developed a model with the following parameters: the probability of travelers being infected, number of arrivals, length of stay of travelers, incubation period, and duration of the infective period. The data used in this study were the dengue incidences in Thailand during 2004-2013 and foreign traveler arrivals in 2013. We estimated the highest infective person-days for each country group. The highest value was from June to August during the rainy season in Thailand for all groups. Infective person-days ranged from 87 to 112 per 100,000 travelers each year. Our results provided a fundamental step toward estimation of the risk of the secondary transmission of DENV in non-epidemic countries via travelers, which can serve as an early warning of a dengue outbreak. The highest infective person-day is associated with the rainy season in Thailand. The increasing number of overseas travelers may increase the risk of global transmission of the DENV. Better understanding of the virus transmission dynamics will enable further quantitative predictions of epidemic risk. © 2015 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  5. The social context of the emergence of HIV in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, N

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews the developing pattern of HIV infection in Thailand with an introduction on basic principles of HIV transmission; a description of the emergence of HIV as a public health threat; a review of the social characteristics of HIV carriers in the context of the sexual culture in Thailand; and ends with a discussion of the dilemmas a developing country faces in dealing with HIV. Thailand is an example of a society where few people have many sex partners, a situation with a faster transmission of HIV than a case where most people have few partners. While Asia has lagged behind other regions in the spread of AIDS, in Thailand HIV has spread rapidly since 1988. Thailand has an illegal but tolerated commercial sex industry, with outlets very diverse in terms of STD control. This industry caters to tourists from other Asian countries, and is maintained by a strong male dominant culture, incomes averaging 25 times higher than other occupations pay, depression in outlying areas encouraging remittance of money back to families, and even status for sex workers in the marriage market. There is an entrenched subculture of intravenous drug injectors who also make up a nucleus of HIV carriers with high prevalence, 43% as of 1988. Some strategies open to the government to control spread of HIV include legalization and control of the sex industry, needle/syringe exchange and health care for drug injectors, social welfare for opium growers in the hills, and political solutions for the conflicts affecting drug traffic in Burma.

  6. Economic Restructuring and Capital Inflow: Thailand and Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Bong Ro

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available South Korea and Thailand which are receiving the financial support from IMF got similar international remarks on promoting the economic reform that has an exemplary effect. However, there are not only differences in the causes of the economic crisis, but also the status and effect of the economic reform. At present, Thailand gets a more ascendant status than South Korea in the "quo" status of attracting foreign investment. The reason is that the causes of the economic crisis in Thailand are relatively simple and the process of economic reform is also simple. Besides, Thailand is in the condition which made the effect came true easy. Meanwhile, since the procedures of firing the staff in Thailand are cut off, and the employees are easy to lose their jobs, it insures the flexibility of the labor market. Besides, the Thai government reduces the investment risk of foreigners by way of investing in stocks of the same value or remaining guarantee. South Korea also should insure the flexibility of the labor market and promote the flexibility of attracting foreign investment, which bases on the cooperation of the workers, employees and the government. If transfers the ill creditor’s rights to large bank, foreign investors should be encouraged by permitting an alternative of receiving the good asset or government warranty.

  7. Alcohol taxation policy in Thailand: implications for other low- to middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sornpaisarn, Bundit; Shield, Kevin D; Rehm, Jürgen

    2012-08-01

      Prevention of drinking initiation is a significant challenge in low- and middle-income countries that have a high prevalence of abstainers, including life-time abstainers. This paper aims to encourage a debate on an alternative alcohol taxation approach used currently in Thailand, which aims specifically to prevent drinking initiation in addition to reduce alcohol-attributable harms.   Theoretical evaluation, simulation and empirical analysis.   The taxation method of Thailand, 'Two-Chosen-One' (2C1) combines specific taxation (as a function of the alcohol content) and ad valorem taxation (as a function of the price), resulting in an effective tax rate that puts a higher tax both on beverages which are preferred by heavy drinkers and on beverages which are preferred by potential alcohol consumption neophytes, compared to either taxation system alone. As a result of these unique properties of the 2C1 taxation system, our simulations indicate that 2C1 taxation leads to a lower overall consumption than ad valorem or specific taxation alone. In addition, it puts a relatively high tax on beverages attractive to young people, the majority of whom are currently abstaining. Currently, the abstention rates in Thailand are higher than expected based on its economic wealth, which could be taken as an indication that the taxation strategy is successful.   'Two-chosen-one' (2C1) taxation has the potential to simultaneously reduce alcohol consumption and prevent drinking initiation among youth; however, additional empirical evidence is needed to assess its effectiveness in terms of the public health impact in low- and middle-income countries. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. Urban household energy consumption in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pongsapich, Amara; Wongsekiarttirat, Wathana (Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Social Research Inst.)

    1994-05-01

    This study was aimed at developing a better understanding of urban household energy consumption in Thailand through a series of in-depth household energy surveys. Households in urban areas used electricity, LPG, charcoal and fuelwood. Traditional biomass fuels such as husk and dung, as well as kerosene, were essentially not used in urban households. Nearly all households used electricity and most households used LPG. Some households used more than one fuel for cooking, particularly LPG and charcoal. There was a great difference in electricity used between the households in Bangkok and other urban areas. Most households in the study areas used LPG stove or burners for cooking. But charcoal stoves were also used by many households for specific culinary purposes. Electric rice-cookers are widely used for convenience. The study suggests that the number of households using charcoal stoves will decrease gradually and fuelwood use will disappear. Saturation rates for refrigerators and colour television sets were very high and air conditioners were common in Bangkok. Some users may be unaware of the benefits of LPG as a cooking fuel. To improve indoor air quality and cooking safety and reduce pressures on forests from commercial fuelwood use, measures to promote LPG should be undertaken. The government should also provide information about efficient appliances and electricity conservation. (Author)

  9. Estimated cost of overactive bladder in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasopsanti, Kriangsak; Santi-Ngamkun, Apirak; Pornprasit, Kanokwan

    2007-11-01

    To estimate the annual direct and indirect costs of overactive bladder (OAB) in indigenous Thai people aged 18 years and over in the year 2005. Economically based models using diagnostic and treatment algorithms from clinical practice guidelines and current disease prevalence data were used to estimate direct and indirect costs of OAB. Prevalence and event probability estimates were obtained from the literature, national data sets, and expert opinion. Costs were estimated from a small survey using a cost questionnaire and from unit costs of King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. The annual cost of OAB in Thailand is estimated as 1.9 billion USD. It is estimated to consume 1.14% of national GDP The cost includes 0.33 billion USD for direct medical costs, 1.3 billion USD for direct, nonmedical costs and 0.29 billion USD for indirect costs of lost productivity. The largest costs category was direct treatment costs of comorbidities associated with OAB. Costs of OAB medication accountedfor 14% of the total costs ofOAB.

  10. Resource Misallocation and Rice Productivity in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwapong Dheera - Aumpon

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Thailand’s manufacturing sector is characterised by considerable resource misallocation compared with this sector in other countries, and the problem may extend to its agricultural sector as well. Using detailed household-level data on rice production from the 2013 Agricultural Census, this paper examines resource misallocation across farms in Thailand and its effect on the country’s aggregate productivity in rice farming. I find that the marginal products of land and capital were largely dispersed, which is an indication of significant resource misallocation. I further estimate that reallocation of resources could increase aggregate output and productivity by approximately a factor of 1.67. This potential gain is not small, but it is smaller than that predicted in other studies for the Thai manufacturing sector and the Malawian agricultural sector, a result suggesting that the Thai rice farming sector is relatively less plagued by resource misallocation. Other developing countries may encounter similar degrees of misallocation in their agricultural sectors. I also find that an effective reallocation policy cannot involve simply reducing the landholdings of large landholders but rather supports highproductivity farmers to have more land and capital.

  11. Study of urban air pollution in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chueinta, W.; Bunprapob, S.; Suksamran, C.; Sirinuntavid, A.

    2004-01-01

    The Office of Atoms for Peace has conducted a monitoring study of urban air pollution in Thailand for years. The primary objective of the project was to support the use of nuclear-related techniques for research and monitoring studies on air pollution. The databases obtained have been analyzed and interpreted by statistical methods including source identification using receptor model. This paper reports the work of 2002 at a heavy traffic area in Bangkok. A Gent sampler was set at the curbside of a major road in Bangkok to collect fine and coarse particles routinely on a weekday for 24 hours, once a week. The filter samples were analyzed for elemental concentrations by use of instrumental neutron activation analysis. Black carbon was separately determined by means of the reflectance measurement of the filter sample. In the report, the methodologies and the results of analyses of fine and coarse particles on filters collected in 2002 are presented. The study of the applicability of certified reference material was done by analyses of two standard reference materials provided by JAERI, i.e., NIST 1632c and NIES No.8. The comparisons of the measured and certified values are also given in the paper. (author)

  12. The economic viability of value-based food chain for dairy farms in mountain regions: an econometric analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jernej Prišenk

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The attention of this paper is drawn to analyze the economic potential of involvement of farmers into the small-medium sized value-based food chain (VBFC. The survey represents a solid dana basis from which econometric modelling approach was further developed. Empirical results reveal the positive economic viability on a general level; this means more stable purchase price of raw milk for dairy farms, which are the part of value-based food chain. Results point at inelastic demand for milk and milk related products. Furthermore, there are some accompanying and underlying indirect social benefits, such as production of high-quality food products, more stable and constant demand for raw milk, steady payments and better social situation. The last one is especially important for the farms operating in less-favored mountain areas where the survey was actually conducted.

  13. How many times again will we examine the energy-income nexus using a limited range of traditional econometric tools?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karanfil, Fatih

    2009-01-01

    During the last three decades, following closely the developments in econometric theory, energy and environmental economists have empirically examined the energy-income nexus for different countries and time periods. However, today, in spite of the growing interest in this area, the state of knowledge is still controversial and unsettled. This viewpoint paper attempts to highlight some of the issues related to the existing literature on the long-run relationship and causality between energy consumption and economic growth. In particular, it discusses how it is difficult to make policy recommendations on the basis of inconsistent and conflicting results in the published literature on the subject. In order to do so, the paper first illustrates the increasing trend in the number of studies published in this area providing also a brief comparison of the conventional methods used to estimate the energy-income nexus. It then deals with new directions and different viewpoints on the same issue

  14. Demand for natural gas: residential and commercial markets in Ontario and British Columbia. [Econometric-model analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berndt, E R [Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver; Watkins, G C

    1977-02-01

    An econometric model is used to project natural gas demand in the residential and commercial market sectors. The model specification is a generalization of one developed by Balestra and Nerlove (Econometrica, 34: 585-612(1966)). Demand that is potentially variable because it is not committed to past investments (flexibe demand) is distinguished from demand that is inflexible because it is tied to existing equipment stocks (captive demand). Attention is focused on the effect of temperature variations on gas demand. The nonlinear equation system is estimated by a maximum-likelihood method, using annual data for British Columbia and Ontario during the period of 1959 to 1974. Results show that only in the long run does price have a significant impact on demand. The model is applicable for medium-term policy simulation, but is limited to natural gas fuel. 15 references.

  15. The Evaluation of Efficiency of Production Management at Forestry Enterprise: Experience with Discriminantal and Applied Econometric Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilko Andriy D.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The publication is aimed at coverage of the results of a study on existing approaches to the setting and solving the task of evaluation and analysis of efficiency of management of production processes at forestry enterprises, as well as implementation and development (in line with the industry specificity of the previously proposed approach to evaluating, analyzing and forecasting the efficiency of management of the production process by means of development and application of the economic-mathematical modeling capabilities. A study on the efficiency of the production process management and the usage of enterprise’s basic production assets has been conducted with application of discriminantal and simultative econometric models. Further development of the proposed approach could provide an additional methodical basis for planning activities to improve the management of production at forestry enterprises.

  16. An econometric study on long-term energy outlook and the implications of renewable energy utilization in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Peck Yean [Department of Engineering-Energy and Environment Science, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Li, ZhiDong [Department of Management and Information System Science, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan)

    2008-02-15

    We developed a comprehensive econometric model to study the long-term outlook of Malaysia's economy, energy and environment to 2030. Our projections under the reference scenario indicated that Malaysia's gross domestic production (GDP) is expected to average 4.6% from 2004 to 2030, and total primary energy consumption will triple by 2030. Coal import will increase following governmental policy of intensifying its use for power generation. Oil import is predicted to take place by 2013 and reach 45 Mtoe in 2030. Hence, in the near future, Malaysia's energy import dependency will rise. Carbon emissions will triple by 2030. On the other hand, our projections under an alternative renewable energy (RE) scenario showed that the utilization of RE is a strategic option to improve the long-term energy security and environmental performance of Malaysia. However, substantial governmental involvements and support, as well as the establishment of a regulatory framework are necessary. (author)

  17. An econometric study on long-term energy outlook and the implications of renewable energy utilization in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, Peck Yean; Li, ZhiDong

    2008-01-01

    We developed a comprehensive econometric model to study the long-term outlook of Malaysia's economy, energy and environment to 2030. Our projections under the reference scenario indicated that Malaysia's gross domestic production (GDP) is expected to average 4.6% from 2004 to 2030, and total primary energy consumption will triple by 2030. Coal import will increase following governmental policy of intensifying its use for power generation. Oil import is predicted to take place by 2013 and reach 45 Mtoe in 2030. Hence, in the near future, Malaysia's energy import dependency will rise. Carbon emissions will triple by 2030. On the other hand, our projections under an alternative renewable energy (RE) scenario showed that the utilization of RE is a strategic option to improve the long-term energy security and environmental performance of Malaysia. However, substantial governmental involvements and support, as well as the establishment of a regulatory framework are necessary. (author)

  18. Immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nitwara Wikan; Yupin Suputtamongkol; Sutee Yoksan; Duncan R. Smith; Prasert Auewarakul

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify immunological evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand. Methods: To undertake a preliminary serosurvey of possible exposure to Zika virus, 21 serum samples from cohort of acute undifferentiated fever patients were examined for immunoreactivity to Zika, Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya envelope antigens by Western blot analysis. Results: Twenty of the 21 serum samples showed immunoreactivity to at least one of the antigens, with seven samples showing immunoreactivity to all antigens. Of particular note, two serum samples showed immunoreactivity only to Zika envelope antigen, with no immunoreactivity to other envelope antigens. Conclusions: This study presents the first evidence of Zika virus transmission in Thailand, although as yet the relationship between transmission and possible cases of Zika fever in Thailand requires further investigation.

  19. Feminine transformations: gender reassignment surgical tourism in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizura, Aren Z

    2010-10-01

    Every year, hundreds of transgendered people from the United States, Europe, Asia, Canada, and Australia travel to Thailand to undergo cosmetic and gender reassignment surgeries (GRS). Many GRS clinics market themselves almost exclusively to non-Thai trans women (people assigned a male sex at birth who later identify as female). This article draws on ethnographic research with patients visiting Thailand for GRS to explore how trans women patients related their experience of medical care in Thailand to Thai cultural traditions, in particular "traditional" Thai femininity and Theravada Buddhist rituals and beliefs. Foreign patients in Thai hospital settings engage not only with medical practices but also with their perceptions of Thai cultural traditions--which inflect their feminine identifications. I draw on two patients' accounts of creating personal rituals to mark their gender reassignment surgery, placing these accounts within the context of biomedical globalization and debates about the touristic appropriation of non-"Western" cultural practices.

  20. Energy and environmental market in industrial enterprises in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    This paper discusses markets related with energy conservation and environment preservation in industrial enterprises in Thailand. The present Thailand is not in a situation that investments are made into environmental businesses or energy saving businesses. However, the attitude of the government toward environment is that emphasis is placed on solving the environmental pollution problems. Laws and regulations are defined for assistance in environment preservation to corporations making efforts to increase export, resource protection and energy conservation. These measures lead to expectation on bright future in developing technologies and markets related to environment preservation and energy conservation. Control of wastes by using clean technologies and enhancement in productivity are very important issues for the export of Thailand partly because European countries and America set these requirements as a condition for transaction. The markets related to energy conservation and environment preservation are anticipated of participation from such businesses as consultants, device manufacturers, and inspection and analysis of environmental effects. (NEDO)

  1. An evaluation of So language vitality in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M. Tehan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the vitality and endangerment of So [sss] speech communities in Thailand. Beginning with a review of sociolinguistic survey results for five So communities in Thailand to ascertain the likely need for vernacular language development in So, additional data to cover the rest of the So community are provided. The language vitality of the So communities in Thailand is then assessed using Expanded GIDS and the Sustainable Use Model (SUM, Lewis & Simons 20152, an expansion of the Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (GIDS, Fishman 1991. This vitality model indicates that many So villages display vigorous language vitality whereas other villages are threatened by language shift. Some initial efforts at revitalization and language development show promise. Several additional activities are suggested to enhance the vitality of the language and help the So to resist the regional trend towards language shift to Northeastern Thai (Isaan.

  2. Energy and nuclear power planning study for Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-08-01

    The present report describes the study conducted in co-operation with several agencies and organizations from Thailand and covers the energy and electricity requirements and the optimal expansion plans for the power generating system for this country up to year 2011. It is emphasized that the study was carried out by a team of experts from the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT), the National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB), the National Energy Administration (NEA) and the Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP), who were fully responsible for all phases of the study, including the production of the present report. The IAEA's responsibility was to provide overall co-ordination and general guidance during the conduct of the study, as well as training and assistance in the implementation and use of the IAEA's computerized planning methodologies on the computer facilities of Thailand. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Perspectives on econometric modelling to inform policy: a UK qualitative case study of minimum unit pricing of alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa V; Bond, Lyndal; Hilton, Shona

    2014-06-01

    Novel policy interventions may lack evaluation-based evidence. Considerations to introduce minimum unit pricing (MUP) of alcohol in the UK were informed by econometric modelling (the 'Sheffield model'). We aim to investigate policy stakeholders' views of the utility of modelling studies for public health policy. In-depth qualitative interviews with 36 individuals involved in MUP policy debates (purposively sampled to include civil servants, politicians, academics, advocates and industry-related actors) were conducted and thematically analysed. Interviewees felt familiar with modelling studies and often displayed detailed understandings of the Sheffield model. Despite this, many were uneasy about the extent to which the Sheffield model could be relied on for informing policymaking and preferred traditional evaluations. A tension was identified between this preference for post hoc evaluations and a desire for evidence derived from local data, with modelling seen to offer high external validity. MUP critics expressed concern that the Sheffield model did not adequately capture the 'real life' world of the alcohol market, which was conceptualized as a complex and, to some extent, inherently unpredictable system. Communication of modelling results was considered intrinsically difficult but presenting an appropriate picture of the uncertainties inherent in modelling was viewed as desirable. There was general enthusiasm for increased use of econometric modelling to inform future policymaking but an appreciation that such evidence should only form one input into the process. Modelling studies are valued by policymakers as they provide contextually relevant evidence for novel policies, but tensions exist with views of traditional evaluation-based evidence. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  4. Equitable Prices of Single-Source Drugs in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngorsuraches, Surachat; Chaiyakan, Kanokkan

    2015-08-01

    In Thailand, total drug expenditure has grown rapidly. Recently, the Thai government has addressed the issue of drug pricing, but the prices of single-source drugs remain a major challenge. To examine equitable prices of single-source drugs in Thailand. A total of 98 single-source and high-expenditure drugs were examined. Unit prices from the Drug and Medical Supplies Information Center (DMSIC) and National Average Drug Acquisition Cost (NADAC) were used to represent drug prices at the provider level in Thailand and the U.S., respectively. Data for measuring drug affordability, e.g., dose and poverty line, were obtained from Micromedex online and the National Statistical Office (NSO). The U.S. drug prices were adjusted by the Human Development Index (HDI) to be equitable prices for Thailand. Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) was used to convert US currency into Thai baht. All prices in this study were based on the year 2012. Catastrophic, Impoverishment, and WHO/Health Action International (HAI) approaches were used to determine Thai citizens' ability to afford the study drugs. Finally, uncertainty analyses were conducted. From all study drugs, 55 single-source drugs were priced higher than their equitable prices, ranging from 0.38 to 422.36% higher. Among these, 28 items were antineoplastic drugs. The prices of drugs outside the National List of Essential Medicines (NLEM), as well as the country's newer drugs, tended to be higher than their calculated equitable prices. The majority of drugs in Thailand priced higher than equitable prices were unaffordable for most Thai citizens. The uncertainty analyses revealed that almost all results were relatively robust. Most single-source drug prices in Thailand were higher than their equitable prices, and were likely to be unaffordable to Thai citizens.

  5. Dengue infections in non-immune travellers to Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, E; Rocklov, J; Wilder-Smith, A

    2013-02-01

    Dengue is the most frequent arboviral disease and is expanding geographically. Dengue is also increasingly being reported in travellers, in particular in travellers to Thailand. However, data to quantify the risk of travellers acquiring dengue when travelling to Thailand are lacking. Using mathematical modelling, we set out to estimate the risk of non-immune persons acquiring dengue when travelling to Thailand. The model is deterministic with stochastic parameters and assumes a Poisson distribution for the mosquitoes' biting rate and a Gamma distribution for the probability of acquiring dengue from an infected mosquito. From the force of infection we calculated the risk of dengue acquisition for travellers to Thailand arriving in a typical year (averaged over a 17-year period) in the high season of transmission. A traveller arriving in the high season of transmission and remaining for 7 days has a risk of acquiring dengue of 0·2% (95% CI 0·16-0·23), whereas the risk for travel of 15 and 30 days' duration is 0·46% (95% CI 0·41-0·50) and 0·81% (95% CI 0·76-0·87), respectively. Our data highlight that the risk of non-immune travellers acquiring dengue in Thailand is substantial. The incidence of 0·81% after a 1-month stay is similar to that reported in prospective seroconversion studies in Israeli travellers to Thailand, highlighting that our models are consistent with actual data. Risk estimates based on mathematical modelling offer more detailed information depending on various travel scenarios, and will help the travel medicine provider give better evidence-based advice for travellers to dengue-endemic countries.

  6. Visit of Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn, Thailand

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2000-01-01

    Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn of Thailand (left) visiting DELPHI with Spokesman, Tiziano Camporesi, and Prapol Assavavirulhakarn, Pattaratorn Chirapravati, Claude Détraz, CERN Director for Fixed Target andFuture Programmes and Richard Breedon, University of California. No. 05: Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn and Daniel Treille, former spokesman of Delphi. No. 31: in Delphi experiment. No. 35: H.E. Mr. Virasakdi Futrakul, Ambassador, Permanent Representative ofThailand, Geneva with H.E. Dr. Ronarong Nopakun, Ambassador of the Thai Embassy in Bern

  7. Tropical cyclone disasters in the Gulf of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suphat Vongvisessomjai

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The origin of tropical cyclones in the South China Sea is over a vast deep sea, southeast of the Philippines. The severetropical cyclones in summer with northerly tracks attack the Philippines, China, Korea and Japan, while the moderate ones inthe rainy season with northwesterly tracks pass Vietnam, Laos and northern Thailand. In October, November and December, the tropical cyclones are weakened and tracks shift to a lower latitude passing the Gulf of Thailand. Tropical cyclone disasters in the Gulf of Thailand due to strong winds causing storm surges and big waves or heavy rainfall over high mountains in causing floods and land slides result in moderate damages and casualties. Analyses are made of six decades of data of tropical cyclones from 1951-2006 having averaged numbers of 3 and 13 in Thailand and the South China Sea respectively. Detailed calculation of surges and wave heights of the 5 disastrous tropical cyclones in the Gulf of Thailand reveal that the Upper Gulf of Thailand with a limited fetch length of about 100 km in north/south direction and about 100 km width in the east/west direction, resulted in a limited maximum wave height of 2.3-2.5 m and maximum storm surge height of 1.2 m generated by Typhoon Vae (1952, while the east coast, with longer fetch lengthbut still limited by the existence of its shoreline, resulted in an increased maximum wave height of 4 m and maximum storm surge height of 0.6 m in the Upper Gulf of Thailand generated by Typhoon Linda (1997. These are the Probable Maximum Cyclones here.The southern shoreline, with unlimited fetch length on the east by tropical cyclones approaching from the South China Sea, generated maximum wave height of 6-11 m by Typhoon Gay (1989, resulting in more casualties and damages. Note that storm surges on the southern shorelines with steep slopes are small due to the short distance of shallow shorelines in receiving wind stresses for piling up sea levels. These disasters can be

  8. Sea Snake Harvest in the Gulf of Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Cao, Nguyen; Thien Tao, Nguyen; Moore, Amelia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Conservation of sea snakes is virtually nonexistent in Asia, and its role in human–snake interactions in terms of catch, trade, and snakebites as an occupational hazard is mostly unexplored. We collected data on sea snake landings from the Gulf of Thailand, a hotspot for sea snake harvest...... years), and the treatment of sea snake bites with rhinoceros horn. Emerging markets in Southeast Asia drive the harvest of venomous sea snakes in the Gulf of Thailand and sea snake bites present a potentially lethal occupational hazard. We call for implementation of monitoring programs to further...... address the conservation implications of this large-scale marine reptile exploitation....

  9. Corrosion of ancient glass beads found in Southern Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won-in, K; Thongkam, Y; Intarasiri, S; Kamwanna, T; Dararutana, P

    2012-01-01

    Glass has been used as ornaments and decorations in Thailand for several hundred years. The archaeological resources suggested that the ancient glass beads excavated in southern Thailand were made more than 1300 years ago. Initial findings revealed that there were number of difference in shade between the glass beads of difference colors. Energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) system attached with scanning electron microscope (SEM) and particle-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) were firstly used to study the surface corrosion of the samples. SEM micrographs showed more corroded and flaked microstructure. These were contributed to the interaction of both the ground water and its dissolved chemical compounds.

  10. Thailand's Missing Marine Fisheries Catch (1950–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany Derrick

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Overexploitation of marine resources has led to declining catches in many countries worldwide, and often also leads to fishing effort being exported to waters of neighboring countries or high seas areas. Thailand is currently under pressure to curb illegal fishing and human rights violations within its distant water fleets or face a European Union import ban. Simultaneously, Thailand is attempting to reduce fishing effort within its Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ. Crucial to these endeavors is a comprehensive knowledge of total fisheries catches over time. A reconstruction of fisheries catches within Thailand's EEZ and by Thailand's fleet in neighboring countries' EEZs was undertaken for 1950–2014 to derive a comprehensive historical time series of total catches. This includes landings and discards that were not accounted for in official, reported statistics. Reconstructed Thai catches from within Thailand's EEZ increased from approximately 400,000 t·year−1 in 1950 to a peak of 2.6 million t·year−1 in 1987, before declining to around 1.7 million t·year−1 in 2014. Catches taken by Thai vessels outside their own EEZ increased from 52,000 t·year−1 in 1965 to a peak of 7.6 million t·year−1 in 1996, before declining to around 3.7 million t·year−1 by 2014. In total, reconstructed catches were estimated to be nearly three times larger than data reported by Thailand to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO. Reconstructed Thai distant-water fleet catches were almost seven times higher than the comparable non-domestic catch deemed reported for Thailand. Thai landings from recreational fishing were conservatively estimated for the first time, and while they contributed less than 1% of current catch, they can be expected to grow in volume and importance with increasing tourism. As Thailand takes measures to reduce fishing effort within its EEZs and increases monitoring and enforcement of illegal and foreign

  11. Diffusion of photovoltaic systems for rural electrification in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sriwannawit, Pranpreya; Laestadius, Staffan [Department of Industrial Economics and Management, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Lindstedtsvagen 30, Stockholm 10044 (Sweden)

    2013-07-01

    This paper studies a pilot project in which photovoltaic systems were installed in thirty-six places in the remote areas of Thailand with no access to electricity. One sub-project out of thirty-six was chosen for in-depth investigation. We discuss the appropriateness of solar energy for Thailand context. The diffusion process of PV systems is analyzed on four elements: innovation, communication channel, time and social system. This project is an extreme case as the PV systems and services were provided for free of charge. Even so, there are still some challenges to get acceptance for this sustainable form of energy.

  12. Overview of Botanical Status in EU, USA, and Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weena Jiratchariyakul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The botanical status in EU, USA, and Thailand is different owing to the regulatory status, the progress of science, and the influence of culture and society. In the EU, botanicals are positioned as herbal medicinal products and food supplements, in the US they are regulated as dietary supplements but often used as traditional medicines, and in Thailand, they are regulated and used as traditional medicines. Information for some of the most popular botanicals from each country is included in this review.

  13. A new radioisotope facility for Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horlock, K.

    1997-01-01

    The Thai Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) is planning a new Nuclear Research Centre which will be located at Ongkharak, a greenfield site some 100 km North of Bangkok. General Atomics (GA) has submitted a bid for a turnkey contract for the core facilities comprising a Reactor to be supplied by GA, an Isotope Production Facility supplied by ANSTO and a Waste Processing and Storage Facility to be supplied by Hitachi through Marubeni. The buildings for these facilities will be provided by Raytheon, the largest constructor of nuclear facilities in the USA. The proposed Isotope Facility will consist of a 3000 m 2 building adjacent to the reactor with a pneumatic radioisotope transfer system. Hot cells, process equipment and clean rooms will be provided, as well as the usual maintenance and support services required for processing radiopharmaceutical and industrial products. To ensure the highest standards of product purity the processing areas will be supplied with clean air and operated at slightly positive pressure. The radioisotopes to be manufactured include Phosphorus 32 (S-32 [n,p]P-32), I-131(Te-130 [n,g]Te-131[p]I-131) for bulk, diagnostic capsules and therapeutic capsules, Iridium 192 (Ir-191[n,g]Ir-192) wire for radiotherapy and discs for industrial radiography sources and bulk Iodine 125 (Xe-124[n,g]Xe-125[β]I-125 for radioimmunoassay. The bid includes proposals for training OAEP staff during design and development at ANSTO's radioisotope facilities, and during construction and commissioning in Thailand. The entire project is planned to take four years with commencement anticipated in early 1997. The paper will describe the development of the design of the hot-cells, process equipment, building layout and ventilation and other services

  14. Molecular Epidemiology Reveals Genetic Diversity amongst Isolates of the Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii Species Complex in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaocharoen, Sirada; Ngamskulrungroj, Popchai; Firacative, Carolina; Trilles, Luciana; Piyabongkarn, Dumrongdej; Banlunara, Wijit; Poonwan, Natteewan; Chaiprasert, Angkana; Meyer, Wieland; Chindamporn, Ariya

    2013-01-01

    To gain a more detailed picture of cryptococcosis in Thailand, a retrospective study of 498 C. neoformans and C. gattii isolates has been conducted. Among these, 386, 83 and 29 strains were from clinical, environmental and veterinary sources, respectively. A total of 485 C. neoformans and 13 C. gattii strains were studied. The majority of the strains (68.9%) were isolated from males (mean age of 37.97 years), 88.5% of C. neoformans and only 37.5% of C. gattii strains were from HIV patients. URA5-RFLP and/or M13 PCR-fingerprinting analysis revealed that the majority of the isolates were C. neoformans molecular type VNI regardless of their sources (94.8%; 94.6% of the clinical, 98.8% of the environmental and 86.2% of the veterinary isolates). In addition, the molecular types VNII (2.4%; 66.7% of the clinical and 33.3% of the veterinary isolates), VNIV (0.2%; 100% environmental isolate), VGI (0.2%; 100% clinical isolate) and VGII (2.4%; 100% clinical isolates) were found less frequently. Multilocus Sequence Type (MLST) analysis using the ISHAM consensus MLST scheme for the C. neoformans/C. gattii species complex identified a total of 20 sequence types (ST) in Thailand combining current and previous data. The Thai isolates are an integrated part of the global cryptococcal population genetic structure, with ST30 for C. gattii and ST82, ST83, ST137, ST141, ST172 and ST173 for C. neoformans being unique to Thailand. Most of the C. gattii isolates were ST7 = VGIIb, which is identical to the less virulent minor Vancouver island outbreak genotype, indicating Thailand as a stepping stone in the global spread of this outbreak strain. The current study revealed a greater genetic diversity and a wider range of major molecular types being present amongst Thai cryptococcal isolates than previously reported. PMID:23861989

  15. The impact of Universal Health Coverage on health care consumption and risky behaviours: evidence from Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghislandi, Simone; Manachotphong, Wanwiphang; Perego, Viviana M E

    2015-07-01

    Thailand is among the first non-OECD countries to have introduced a form of Universal Health Coverage (UHC). This policy represents a natural experiment to evaluate the effects of public health insurance on health behaviours. In this paper, we examine the impact of Thailand's UHC programme on preventive activities, unhealthy or risky behaviours and health care consumption using data from the Thai Health and Welfare Survey. We use doubly robust estimators that combine propensity scores and linear regressions to estimate differences-in-differences (DD) and differences-in-DD models. Our results offer important insights. First, UHC increases individuals' likelihood of having an annual check-up, especially among women. Regarding health care consumption, we observe that UHC increases hospital admissions by over 2% and increases outpatient visits by 13%. However, there is no evidence that UHC leads to an increase in unhealthy behaviours or a reduction of preventive efforts. In other words, we find no evidence of ex ante moral hazard. Overall, these findings suggest positive health impacts among the Thai population covered by UHC.

  16. High-resolution melting analysis for prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia in northern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenkwan, Pimlak; Sirichotiyakul, Supatra; Phusua, Arunee; Suanta, Sudjai; Fanhchaksai, Kanda; Sae-Tung, Rattika; Sanguansermsri, Torpong

    2017-12-01

    High-resolution melting (HRM) analysis is a rapid mutation analysis which assesses the pattern of reduction of fluorescence signal after subjecting the amplified PCR product with saturated fluorescence dye to an increasing temperature. We used HRM analysis for prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia disease in northern Thailand. Five PCR-HRM protocols were used to detect point mutations in five different segments of the beta-globin gene, and one protocol to detect the 3.4 kb beta-globin deletion. We sought to characterize the mutations in carriers and to enable prenatal diagnosis in 126 couples at risk of having a fetus with beta-thalassemia disease. The protocols identified 18 common mutations causing beta-thalassemia, including the rare codon 132 (A-T) mutation. Each mutation showed a specific HRM pattern and all results were in concordance with those from direct DNA sequencing or gap-PCR methods. In cases of beta-thalassemia disease resulting from homozygosity for a mutation or compound heterozygosity for two mutations on the same amplified segment, the HRM patterns were different to those of a single mutation and were specific for each combination. HRM analysis is a simple and useful method for mutation identification in beta-thalassemia carriers and prenatal diagnosis of beta-thalassemia in northern Thailand.

  17. Consumers and Experts : An Econometric Analysis of the Demand for Water Heaters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, R.; Fiebig, D.G.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2003-01-01

    Consumers can accumulate product information on the basis of a combination of searching, product advertising and expert advice.Examples of experts who provide product information include doctors advising patients on treatments, motor mechanics diagnosing car problems and recommending repairs,

  18. How Thailand took on the transnational tobacco titans | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-02-04

    Feb 4, 2011 ... ... wealthy multinational tobacco companies and the powerful US trade office that ... in his back-cover endorsement, that the book "should be a source of ... While ruling that Thailand was indeed obligated to open its market to ...

  19. A new variety of Cryptocoryne crispatula Engl. (Araceae) from Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Niels; Bastmeijer, Jan; Bongcheewin, Bhanubong

    2015-01-01

    The narrow-leaved Cryptocoryne crispatula Engl. from the far eastern Thailand has proven to be different from the Vietnamese C. crispatula Engl. var. tonkinensis (Gagnep.) N. Jacobsen. It is characterized by having the most narrow leaves within C. crispatula, and a spathe with a very short tube...

  20. The first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isipradit, Saichin; Sirimaharaj, Maytinee; Charukamnoetkanok, Puwat; Thonginnetra, Oraorn; Wongsawad, Warapat; Sathornsumetee, Busaba; Somboonthanakij, Sudawadee; Soomsawasdi, Piriya; Jitawatanarat, Umapond; Taweebanjongsin, Wongsiri; Arayangkoon, Eakkachai; Arame, Punyawee; Kobkoonthon, Chinsuchee; Pangputhipong, Pannet

    2014-01-01

    The majority of vision loss is preventable or treatable. Population surveys are crucial for planning, implementation, and monitoring policies and interventions to eliminate avoidable blindness and visual impairments. This is the first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) study in Thailand. A cross-sectional study of a population in Thailand age 50 years old or over aimed to assess the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairments. Using the Thailand National Census 2010 as the sampling frame, a stratified four-stage cluster sampling based on a probability proportional to size was conducted in 176 enumeration areas from 11 provinces. Participants received comprehensive eye examination by ophthalmologists. The age and sex adjusted prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity (VA) blindness. Cataract surgical coverage in persons was 95.1% for cut off VA of 20/400. Refractive errors, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and corneal opacities were responsible for 6.0%, 5.1%, 4.0%, and 2.0% of blindness respectively. Thailand is on track to achieve the goal of VISION 2020. However, there is still much room for improvement. Policy refinements and innovative interventions are recommended to alleviate blindness and visual impairments especially regarding the backlog of blinding cataract, management of non-communicative, chronic, age-related eye diseases such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy, prevention of childhood blindness, and establishment of a robust eye health information system.