WorldWideScience

Sample records for thai organizations

  1. Organic acid production from potato starch waste fermentation by rumen microbial communities from Dutch and Thai dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palakawong Na Ayudthaya, Susakul; De Weijer, Van Antonius H.P.; Gelder, Van Antonie H.; Stams, Alfons J.M.; Vos, De Willem M.; Plugge, Caroline M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Exploring different microbial sources for biotechnological production of organic acids is important. Dutch and Thai cow rumen samples were used as inocula to produce organic acid from starch waste in anaerobic reactors. Organic acid production profiles were determined and microbial

  2. Organic acid production from potato starch waste fermentation by rumen microbial communities from Dutch and Thai dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palakawong Na Ayudthaya, Susakul; van de Weijer, Antonius H P; van Gelder, Antonie H; Stams, Alfons J M; de Vos, Willem M; Plugge, Caroline M

    2018-01-01

    Exploring different microbial sources for biotechnological production of organic acids is important. Dutch and Thai cow rumen samples were used as inocula to produce organic acid from starch waste in anaerobic reactors. Organic acid production profiles were determined and microbial communities were compared using 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene amplicon pyrosequencing. In both reactors, lactate was the main initial product and was associated with growth of Streptococcus spp. (86% average relative abundance). Subsequently, lactate served as a substrate for secondary fermentations. In the reactor inoculated with rumen fluid from the Dutch cow, the relative abundance of Bacillus and Streptococcus increased from the start, and lactate, acetate, formate and ethanol were produced. From day 1.33 to 2, lactate and acetate were degraded, resulting in butyrate production. Butyrate production coincided with a decrease in relative abundance of Streptococcus spp. and increased relative abundances of bacteria of other groups, including Parabacteroides , Sporanaerobacter , Helicobacteraceae, Peptostreptococcaceae and Porphyromonadaceae. In the reactor with the Thai cow inoculum, Streptococcus spp. also increased from the start. When lactate was consumed, acetate, propionate and butyrate were produced (day 3-4). After day 3, bacteria belonging to five dominant groups, Bacteroides, Pseudoramibacter _ Eubacterium , Dysgonomonas , Enterobacteriaceae and Porphyromonadaceae, were detected and these showed significant positive correlations with acetate, propionate and butyrate levels. The complexity of rumen microorganisms with high adaptation capacity makes rumen fluid a suitable source to convert organic waste into valuable products without the addition of hydrolytic enzymes. Starch waste is a source for organic acid production, especially lactate.

  3. Transition to Organic Tea Production in the Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam: Economic and Environmental Impacts

    OpenAIRE

    Nghia Dai Tran

    2009-01-01

    This study from Vietnam shows that a switch from conventional to organic tea productions would bring real environmental, health and economic benefits for the country's farmers and its society as a whole. In particular, the amount of agrochemical residue and waste produced by tea production would be reduced. Farmers would also be able to enjoy a better livelihood as they could command a premium price for their organic tea products. The study therefore recommends that organic tea production is ...

  4. Psychometric properties of the Thai version of the work ability index (Thai WAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Ratanasiripong, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Thai version of the Work Ability Index (WAI). Forward translation and back-translation of the WAI were performed by seven bilingual professionals to ensure that the Thai WAI was culturally relevant and conceptually accurate. To ensure generalizability of the Thai WAI, a sample of 2,744 Thai workers from 19 different enterprises in five regions of Thailand completed the Thai version of the WAI along with the General Health Questionnaire. The 19 enterprises were from the following industries: canned food, snack food, cooking oil, footwear, pharmaceutical, ceramics, toy, steel, petrochemical, and auto parts. The results from exploratory factor analysis supported a 3-factor model, accounting for 53.49% of the total variance. The results also provided evidence for adequate test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the Thai WAI. The internal consistency of the Thai WAI was found to be slightly low due to the newness of the concept of work ability, which is not a common term used in the Thai language; therefore, explanation of the meaning of work ability is needed to increase understanding of workers. By providing early recognition of workers' health risks as well as risks of early termination, the WAI can help Thai human resources managers respond better to the needs of workers and be proactive in their efforts to retain workers in their organizations. Occupational health professionals could also utilize the WAI to evaluate the work ability of Thai workers in order to help organizations recognize early signs of their workers' health risks and possible early terminations and respond appropriately.

  5. Thai Automatic Speech Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Suebvisai, Sinaporn; Charoenpornsawat, Paisarn; Black, Alan; Woszczyna, Monika; Schultz, Tanja

    2005-01-01

    .... We focus on the discussion of the rapid deployment of ASR for Thai under limited time and data resources, including rapid data collection issues, acoustic model bootstrap, and automatic generation of pronunciations...

  6. Mobile Technology in the Lives of Thai Immigrants in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirima Thongsawang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of mobile technology in the lives of Thai immigrants in Berlin. By using qualitative research methods, this research investigates how new digital and social media applications have affected the organization of Thai immigrants on both individual and institutional levels, with a particular focus on the Royal Thai Embassy in Berlin. Mobile technologies today are widely used in the diaspora, by both individuals and social institutions, to maintain relationships with the homeland and to promote national affairs. Both individual Thai immigrants and official staff of the embassy rely significantly on Internet sites, particularly on social networking sites such as Facebook, to gain information on Thailand and to expand their networks. This paper explores changes in communication and their implications for Thais and their respective institutions in Germany.

  7. The Changing Needs for Higher Education Organizations Structure in Vietnam: Evidence from Japanese, Taiwanese, and Thai Universities

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    Minh-Quang Duong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Organizational change is the process of changing the structure of the organization and the attitudes of members in the organization. During the last decade, both Vietnamese social and educational organizations have slowly changed in their organizational structure as a barrier to the development in the era of globalization and internationalization in Vietnam. This paper is an attempt to discuss the factors which affect Vietnamese higher educational organization. Discussions on the viewpoint of higher educational organization structure of Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand. Furthermore, this paper will contribute to improve educational management, and serve as a useful reference for future higher education’s school mergers.

  8. The Thai evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of the fluctuations of the Thai economy of the country's petroleum industry and the outlook for the future are discussed. Thailand witnessed enormous economic growth during the 1980s and the first part of the 1990s, but events since 1997 have caused it to stutter. However, the petroleum industry remains buoyant with measures to stimulate gas and oil production and moves to privatise and deregulate energy markets. Key statistics for Thailand, historical demand trends for petroleum, the impact of the 1997 Asian economic crisis, regulation of the Thai oil market, crude and condensate production levels, refinery capacity, new entrants to the refinery sector, the Thai refinery expansion programme, the product trade balance, the challenges of fuel reformulation and demand scenarios are considered

  9. The Thai evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, N.D.

    2001-08-01

    The effects of the fluctuations of the Thai economy of the country's petroleum industry and the outlook for the future are discussed. Thailand witnessed enormous economic growth during the 1980s and the first part of the 1990s, but events since 1997 have caused it to stutter. However, the petroleum industry remains buoyant with measures to stimulate gas and oil production and moves to privatise and deregulate energy markets. Key statistics for Thailand, historical demand trends for petroleum, the impact of the 1997 Asian economic crisis, regulation of the Thai oil market, crude and condensate production levels, refinery capacity, new entrants to the refinery sector, the Thai refinery expansion programme, the product trade balance, the challenges of fuel reformulation and demand scenarios are considered.

  10. Hopelessness and Suicidal Behavior among Chinese, Thai and Korean College Students and Predictive Effects of the World Health Organization's WHOQOL-BREF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Noy; Li, Kaigang; Xiao, Xia; Nokkaew, Nattiporn; Park, Bock-Hee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current status of suicide behavior and to examine the association between hopeless feelings, suicidal behavior and components of the WHO Quality-of-Life-BREF instrument among college students (n = 1,217) in China, Thailand, and Korea. Results showed 3.7% Thai, 10% Chinese, and 13.2% Korean students…

  11. English Borrowing in Thai as Reflected in Thai Journalistic Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapper, James

    A study investigated patterns of English loan words in various domains of journalistic discourse in Thai print media, to gain insight into economic, political, and social relationships of the languages and the role of English as a global language. Thai was chosen because Thailand was not subject to colonialism by Europeans and because some…

  12. An elaboration of Thai vocal instructors in Thai university classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantana Khochprasert

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents a qualitative investigation on the study of instructive methods of Thai traditional singing instructors in higher education in Thailand. The information was collected in the form of document analysis and interviews with Thai traditional music instructors from several universities across Thailand. The results of the analysis of Thai traditional singing instruction methods in higher education in Thailand revealed that there are 11 universities that offer Thai traditional singing instruction. The instruction is a part of curricula under four different governing bodies and four classifications of curriculum. The sets of practicum repertoires in every university were found to be almost identical. It was found that the instructors used several techniques. Some techniques were similar while some were different. All the techniques were transmitted orally. In order to successfully produce graduates of the desired standard, singing must be correctly taught from the basics, whether theory, pronunciation or rhyming. At the same time, creativity should also be encouraged

  13. Thai research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aramrattana, M.

    1987-01-01

    The Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) was established in 1962, as a reactor center, by the virtue of the Atomic Energy for Peace Act, under operational policy and authority of the Thai Atomic Energy for Peace Commission (TAEPC); and under administration of Ministry of Science, Technology and Energy. It owns and operates the only Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1). The TRR-1/M1 is a mixed reactor system constituting of the old MTR type swimming pool, irradiation facilities and cooling system; and TRIGA Mark III core and control instrumentation. The general performance of TRR-1/M1 is summarized in Table I. The safe operation of TRR-1/M1 is regulated by Reactor Safety Committee (RSC), established under TAEPC, and Health Physics Group of OAEP. The RCS has responsibility and duty to review of and make recommendations on Reactor Standing Orders, Reactor Operation Procedures, Reactor Core Loading and Requests for Reactor Experiments. In addition,there also exist of Emergency Procedures which is administered by OAEP. The Reactor Operation Procedures constitute of reactor operating procedures, system operating procedures and reactor maintenance procedures. At the level of reactor routine operating procedures, there is a set of Specifications on Safety and Operation Limits and Code of Practice from which reactor shift supervisor and operators must follow in order to assure the safe operation of TRR-1/M1. Table II is the summary of such specifications. The OAEP is now upgrading certain major components of the TRR-1/M1 such as the cooling system, the ventilation system and monitoring equipment to ensure their adequately safe and reliable performance under normal and emergency conditions. Furthermore, the International Atomic Energy Agency has been providing assistance in areas of operation and maintenance and safety analysis. (author)

  14. Treatment of Pelvic Organ Prolapse in a Patient with a Thermal Burn Wound Caused by Hot Stone Therapy, a Traditional Thai Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasivimol Srisukho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 72-year-old woman presented with a 1-month history of an incarcerated uterine prolapse along with an infected wound at the anterior uterine wall. She had previously undergone the traditional Thai practice Yue Fai, or “lying by the fire,” as performed by postpartum women. However, her uterus was burned by the extremely high temperature involved in the practice; it subsequently became infected and incarcerated. Pelvic examination revealed stage IV genitourinary prolapse according to the POP-Q classification. An ill-defined ulcer measuring 6.5 × 4.5 cm was present in the anterior wall of the uterus, and a 2.0 cm diameter ulcer was present in the right posterior wall of the uterus. The patient was treated symptomatically with broad-spectrum antibiotics, local estrogen therapy, analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents, and antiseptic dressing of the ulcerated area. After alleviation of all symptoms, the ulcer almost completely healed. She was advised to undergo definitive surgical treatment for the prolapsed uterus.

  15. Theravada Buddhism and Thai Luxury Fashion Consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Ning (Mao); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper reviews the Thai national character according to Hofstede’s cultural dimension theory and Komin’s nine values cluster (Psychology of the Thai people), analyses the social hierarchy of Thai consumers according to the Luxury 4P Taxonomy (Han et al., 2010), integrates the Theory

  16. Thai gas expansion plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.

    2001-01-01

    Demand for natural gas in Thailand is increasing significantly as the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand and the independent private power producers (IPPs) switch from oil to gas to fire their power stations in line with Government policy to reduce oil imports and use more gas from the Gulf of Thailand. The Petroleum Authority of Thailand (PTT) has the sole right to buy and sell natural gas and other petroleum products in Thailand. According to PTT, the surge in demand for natural gas in the first half of 2001 was matched by a fall in demand for refined oil products. The PTT has received Government approval to convert to a limited company ready for listing on the Thai Stock Exchange. This is expected to further increase gas consumption. Details of gas sales to power generation and other industrial sectors by PTT and Unocal, Thailand's largest producer, are given. PTT operations include work to extend its gas pipeline transmission system. A number of new pipeline schemes are planned, including one across southern Thailand to transfer offshore gas from the Joint Development Area gas field owned by Thailand and Malaysia. This has encountered protests over the proposed plant and pipeline route

  17. A study to determine whether the volume-weighted computed tomography dose index gives reasonable estimates of organ doses for thai patients undergoing abdomen and pelvis computed tomography examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supawitoo Sookpeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Values for the CTDIvol, which is displayed on scanner consoles, give doses relative to a phantom much larger than most Thai patients, and the CTDIvoldoes not take account of differences in patient size, which affect organ doses. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate relationships for size specific dose estimate (SSDE and volume weighted computed tomography (CT dose index (CTDIvol with patient size for CT scanners operating under automatic tube current modulation (ATCM. Methods: Retrospective data from 244 patients who had undergone abdomen and pelvis examination on GE and Siemens CT scanners were included in this study. The combination of anteroposterior (AP and lateral dimensions at the level of the first lumbar vertebra (L1 was used to represent patient size. Image noise within the liver was measured, and values of the absorbed dose for organs covered by the primary beam such as the liver, stomach and kidney were calculated using methods described in the literature. Values of CTDIvolwere recorded and SSDE calculated according to the American Association of Physics in Medicine (AAPM Report No.204. Linear regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between SSDE, CTDIvol, image noise and patient size. Results: SSDE is 20%-50% larger than the CTDIvol, with values for larger patients being more representative. Both the CTDIvoland image noise decreased with patient size for Siemens scanners, but the decline in SSDE was less significant. For the GE scanner, the CTDIvolwas a factor of 3-4 lower in small patients compared to larger ones, while the SSDE only decreased by a factor of two. Noise actually decreased slightly with patient size. Conclusion: Values of SSDE were similar to the doses calculated for the liver, stomach and kidney, which are covered by the primary beam, confirming that it provides a good estimate of organ-absorbed dose.

  18. Textiles of the Phu Thai of Laos

    OpenAIRE

    McIntosh, Linda Susan

    2009-01-01

    This thesis documents the hand-woven textiles that the Phu Thai ethnic group living in Savannakhet Province, Laos, produce. The various stages of textile production and the uses of textiles in Phu Thai society, especially as identity markers, are also examined. Textiles of neighboring groups are also investigated to how knowledge of textile technology, types, and aesthetics are transferred between the Phu Thai and other ethnicities, specifically the Lao and Katang. The study's field research ...

  19. Thai men's health and sexual attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongkanand, Apichat; Permpongkosol, Sompol; Tantiwongse, Kavirach

    2011-07-01

    Men's health awareness, including the research and study of quality of life, sexual desires and risk factors, has increased worldwide. In Thailand, this advancement is made possible by cooperation, research and sponsorship from the local Thai community. This article aims to illustrate the sexual attitudes of Thai people, to determine the degree of erectile dysfunction (ED) and to investigate how to manage and cope with ED in a Thai community. We reviewed the relevant literature from Thai-based articles and surveys in regard to men's health, sexual attitudes, the prevalence of ED and common risk factors in the Thai community. The primary risk factor for ED in Thai men was age-related health decline and the presence of vascular disease. Most Thai men will seek consultation from their partner in regard to ED. The main presentation of metabolic disease in Thai patients was dyslipidemia. New selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are not available for premature ejaculation in Thai communities. The debate in regard to malpractice compensation is an issue that should be closely monitored. There is currently a shortage of home care for the elderly in Thailand. The insights provided by the articles helped recruit the study patients and in turn, helped us gain knowledge that can be translated into improved men's health care in Thailand.

  20. Inner happiness among Thai elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Rossarin Soottipong; Rukumnuaykit, Pungpond; Kittisuksathit, Sirinan; Thongthai, Varachai

    2008-09-01

    This study, based on data collected in 2005 from Chai Nat province, examines the level of happiness of the Thai elderly population and its relationship to various external and internal factors. It was found that mean happiness was slightly above a feeling of "neutral." According to multiple regression analyses, external factors including economic hardship, living arrangements, functional ability, perceived social environment, and consumerism significantly influence the level of happiness. The strongest predictor of happiness is, however, the internal factor-that is, a feeling of relative poverty when compared to their neighbors. Controlling for demographic and all external factors, the respondents who do not feel poor show the highest level of happiness compared to those who feel as poor as or poorer than their neighbors. This is self-interpreted as a feeling of contentment with what one has, which has been influenced by Thai culture, which is pervaded by Buddhism.

  1. Thai petrochemical boom on track

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Thailand continues to mark progress on the ambitious expansion of its petrochemical industry. Among recent developments: The outlook for Thailand's troubled worldscale aromatics project has improved with a major cut in its estimated cost. In addition, the project apparently has drawn the interest of other companies seeking a possible equity stake. Amoco Chemical Co., which lost a tender to build a worldscale purified terephathalic acid (PTA) complex in Thailand to Taiwan's Tuntex Co., is reviving its bid with a proposal similar to its earlier one. Amoco contends there will be enough demand to warrant a second PTA plant in Thailand. Tuntex is negotiating with several business groups to take part in its $333 million, 350,000 ton/year PTA project in Thailand. Tuntex is soliciting interest from a number of Thai companies, including Bangkok Bank and the Saha Union industrial conglomerate to acquire portions of the 51% interest in the project earmarked for Thai shareholders. The firm also is negotiating with a number of Japanese companies with whom it has long trade ties, including Mitsui and Co. and Marubeni Corp. to acquire part of the 49% foreign shareholding in the project. Thai Olefins Co. (TOC) marked further progress with feedstock contracts and financing arrangements for its proposed $720 million olefins plant, part of Thailand's second worldscale petrochemical complex (NPC II). Indian industrial giant Birla proposed a $20 million ethylene glycol (EG) project in Thailand

  2. Comparison of Balance Performance Between Thai Classical Dancers and Non-Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krityakiarana, Warin; Jongkamonwiwat, Nopporn

    2016-01-01

    Thai classical dance is a traditional dramatic art, the technique of which has many features in common with South East Asian performing art. The choreographic patterns consist of various forms of balance control together with limb movements in slow rhythm. The grace and beauty of the dancer are dependent on how well the limb movements curve and angle. The relationship of whole body proportion and balance control in various patterns of support base is also important. The purpose of this study was to compare balance abilities between Thai classical dancers and non-dancers in different balance conditions. Twenty-five Thai classical dancers and 25 non-dancers performed the modified Sensory Organization Test (mSOT) and were further challenged by adding dynamic head tilts (DHTs) in four different directions during mSOT. Mixed model ANOVA was applied to determine the equilibrium score in each balance condition and also the interaction between dancer and non-dancer groups. It was found that Thai classical dancers achieved better equilibrium scores in all mSOT conditions except the least challenging one. Moreover, additional multitask conditions (mSOT+DHT) were revealed to profoundly affect differences between dancers and controls. In conclusion, Thai classical dancers demonstrated a better ability to maintain postural stability during different challenging postural tests. This information suggests various ways of putting the practice of Thai classical dance to use in the future.

  3. Theravada buddhism and thai luxury fashion consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. McAleer (Michael); N. Mao (Ning)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis paper reviews the Thai national character according to Hofstede's cultural dimension theory and Komin's nine values cluster, analyses the social hierarchy of Thai consumers according to the Luxury 4P Taxonomy, integrates the Theory of Cultural Capital, and expounds the features

  4. Enhancing Life Purpose amongst Thai Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balthip, Karnsunaphat; McSherry, Wilfred; Petchruschatachart, Usanee; Piriyakoontorn, Siriwan; Liamputtong, Pranee

    2017-01-01

    This article describes experiences that enhanced life purpose in 21 Thai adolescents living in Southern Thailand. Thailand is undergoing rapid change from technology, a globalizing economy, and shifting social norms. A phenomenological analysis of in-depth interviews and stories to better understand how Thai youth themselves experience and…

  5. U.S. Media and Thai Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongprayoon, Boonchan; Hill, L. Brooks

    A study investigated the effects of U.S. mass media on three dimensions of Thai society: lifestyles, social problems, and value conflict. A total of 100 two-part questionnaires were distributed to Thai students at southwestern public universities in the United States. Forty males and 28 females, whose lengths of stay in the United States varied…

  6. Formulation of Thai herbal Namprik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kijroongrojana, K.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Namprik is a typical Thai food containing various herbs. The diversity of Namprik depends on herb composition and content, cooking method, and flavor. The objective of this study was to develop a fine, driedand granular Namprik formula for eating with rice. The ingredients included many commonly found Thai herbs. The recipe of lemon grass Namprik produced by Satree Ban-Tung group, Khaokram district, AmphurMueang, Krabi province, Thailand, was reformulated. Mixture design was applied to optimize the amounts of black pepper (10-33%, garlic (10-66.67% and shallot (10-66.67%. Contour plot of hedonic scores andthe predictive regression models were calculated. Results showed that optimal formula should have 23.33% black pepper, 66.67% garlic and 10% shallot. Optimum levels of additional mixed herbs consisting of 5-25%kaffir lime leaves and 75-95% holy basil in the formula, using the mixture design, were also investigated. The results of sensory evaluation using 9-point hedonic scale showed no significant differences in appearance,taste and overall liking (p>0.05. However, the formula containing 4.2% kaffir lime leaves and 15.8% holy basil obtained the highest average score for aroma (p<0.05. Various amounts of dried African chili (7, 5,3% were added to determine an acceptable hot and spicy flavor, using just-about-right scale. The results revealed that the formula containing 7, 5 and 3% dried African chili were defined as just-about-right by 22, 32 and 42% of the panelists, respectively. The final product was given average hedonic scores of aroma, taste,spicy and overall liking ranging from like moderately to like very much. Appearance scores were in the range of like slightly to like moderately. This study indicated that a more nutrition and healthier Namprik containing some Thai herbs can be produced.

  7. Thua nao: Thai fermented soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekachai Chukeatirote

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thua nao is a traditionally fermented food in Thailand. It is manufactured by fermenting cooked soybeans with naturally occurring microbes. There are also similar products including natto in Japan, kinema in India, and chongkukjang in Korea. In Thailand, thua nao is widely consumed, especially by people in the northern part. The product is generally regarded as a protein supplement and widely used as a condiment. Two major types of thua nao can be distinguished; fresh and dried forms. To date, scientific information on thua nao is scarce and thus this article aims to document the updated knowledge of Thai thua nao.

  8. A prospective study of injuries sustained during competitive Muay Thai kickboxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, Sam; Malik, Mohammad Hammad; Lovell, Martyn

    2005-01-01

    To investigate prospectively the type and rate of injuries sustained during amateur Muay Thai competition. Prospective cohort study collection of data following clinical examination. Amateur Muay Thai competitions in the United Kingdom organized by the International Amateur Muay Thai Federation. Amateur Muay Thai boxers. Both sexes. Lightweight to super heavyweight. There were 92 participants, 12 females and 82 males. The average age was 17.3 years, and the average previous number of bouts was 3.9. A total of 588.5 minutes of competition time was assessed during a total of 10 events. Injury rates were 1.3 injuries per 100 minutes of competition in the lightweight category, 2.25 per 100 minutes of competition in the middleweight category, 30 per 100 minutes of competition in the heavyweight category, and 2.54 per 100 minutes of competition in the super heavyweight category. Compared with other reported martial arts, the injury rates are higher in Muay Thai. The head was shown to be the most common site of injury in amateur fighters, but there was an almost complete absence of lower limb injuries, which again is at variance with reported figures for other martial arts.

  9. Waiting for the right time: how and why young Thai women manage to avoid heterosexual intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supametaporn, Pinhatai; Stern, Phyllis Noerager; Rodcumdee, Branom; Chaiyawat, Waraporn

    2010-08-01

    Nineteen young Thai women were purposively selected from networks of nongovernmental organizations involving children and youths in Bangkok. Our grounded theory findings indicated that these young women used the basic social process they called "waiting for the right time" in order to maintain heterosexual abstinence. Waiting for the right time involved one overarching condition, honoring parental love, and included three overlapping properties: learning rules, planning life path, and ways of preserving virginity. The findings provide information that may lead to the development of culturally competent interventions for middle-class Thai youths to remain healthy and avoid pregnancy.

  10. The decision making on mutual investment of thai investors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The decision making on mutual investment of thai investors. ... Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences. Journal Home ... The study was a research survey that used questionnaires to collect data from 400 samples of Thai investors.

  11. Establishing Validity of the Thai Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matney, Gabriel; Jackson, Jack L., II.; Panarach, Yupadee

    2016-01-01

    This article presents our work in translating the Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (MTEBI) from English to Thai and our resulting investigation of validity with Thai preservice teachers. The translation process occurred over several meetings between two U.S. mathematics educators and one Thai mathematics educator. To check for…

  12. Reliability and validity of migraine disability assessment questionnaire-Thai version (Thai-MIDAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seethong, Piman; Nimmannit, Akarin; Chaisewikul, Rungsan; Prayoonwiwat, Naraporn; Chotinaiwattarakul, Wattanachai

    2013-02-01

    To assess the validity and test-retest reliability of a Thai translation of the Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) Questionnaire in Thai patients with migraine. Migraineurs from the Headache Clinic in Siriraj Hospital were recruited and asked to complete a 13-weeks diary and answered the Thai-MIDAS at once. Some participants were asked to provide the 2nd Thai-MIDAS in the next 2 weeks for test-retest reliability. Ninety-three patients had completed the 13-weeks diaries. Age range was 18-58 years with mean 37.69 +/- 9.60 years. All 5 items and the total score of Thai-MIDAS were moderately correlated with data from 13-weeks diary (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.32-0.62). The test-retest reliability of the total score of Thai-MIDAS in 30 patients demonstrated a highly reliable degree of intraclass correlation (ICC = 0.76, 95% CI 0.49-0.88). The present study reveals that the Thai-MIDAS has satisfactory validity and reliability in comparison with the original English MIDAS version.

  13. Validation of the Thai version of Bergen Facebook addiction scale (Thai-BFAS). .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phanasathit, Muthita; Manwong, Mereerat; Hanprathet, Nitt; Khumsri, Jiraporn; Yingyeun, Rungmanee

    2015-03-01

    To determine the validity ofthe Thai version ofthe Bergen FacebookAddiction Scale (Thai-BFAS) using Facebook addiction screening in Thai high school students. The original BFAS was authorized for translation and validation in Thai. After content validity and usability were approved by three Thai psychiatrists, the Thai-BFAS was adjusted again by the authors and back translated by an English expert. Thisfinal version was investigated using the internal consistency method among 874 high schools students in Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Ubon Ratchathani and Songkhla, and confirmatoy factor analysis (CFA) was employed to prove that the six-component model could be representative of addiction behaviors. In addition, test-retest reliability was performed separately among 30 pilot high school students in Bangkok. The Thai-BFAS has six items, which are each scored on a 5-point scale with total score ranges from 0 to 24; the cutoff score for Facebook addition stands at least 12 points. The Cronbach s alpha coefficient was 0.91 (95% CI; 0.90, 0.92) and the inter-class correlation coefficient was 0.80 (95% CI; 0.49, 0.92). The CFA showed that the six items accurately represent the six-component model of addiction such as salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal, relapse and conflict. The Thai-BFAS is consistent as a screening testfor Facebook addiction among high school students due to good reliability and validity. It also conforms well to the original version. The six items in the Thai-BFAS are a good representation of the addiction behaviors. Further studies should be undertaken in cases of sensitivity and specificity when compared with other similar tests of addiction as well as in various additional populations and circumstances.

  14. An Investigation into Aspects of Thai Culture and Its Impact on Thai Students in an International School in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveney, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    This article describes research undertaken to investigate aspects of Thai culture and its effects on Thai students in an international school in Thailand. Using a variety of data gathering methods, the investigation looks at how Thai culture manifests itself in the classroom in the form of student behaviour and attitudes. The research also…

  15. RISKY SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AMONG OUT-OF-SCHOOL THAI AND NON-THAI YOUTH IN URBAN CHIANG MAI, THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumari, Patou Masika; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Manoyosa, Veruree; Tarnkehard, Surapee; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Suguimoto, S Pilar; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro; Chariyalertsak, Suwat

    2017-01-01

    Out-of-school youth in Thailand engage in risky sexual behavior that puts them at risk for contracting HIV infection and can have other negative sexual reproductive health outcomes. No study has examined risky sexual behaviors and compared them between Thai and non-Thai out-of-school youth. The current study compares sexual risk behavior and HIV testing behavior between out-of-school Thai and non-Thai youth. We conducted face-to-face interviews in this study population in urban Chiang Mai during 2014. Participants were recruited through convenience sampling from two main sources: non-formal education centers (NFECs) and social meeting places. We recruited 924 youth, aged 15-24 years, of whom 424 (45.9%) were Thai and 500 (54.1%) were non-Thai. The majority were attending NFECs (82.3%). Of the sexually experienced participants (57.7%), 75.4% did not use condoms consistently, and 50.3% had at least 2 lifetime sexual partners. Among the study participants, the Thai studied youth had significantly higher odds of ever having had sex (AOR=2.33; 95% CI: 1.56-3.49; p<0.001), having an earlier sexual debut (AOR=5.52; 95% CI: 2.71-11.25; p<0.001) and having a larger number of lifetime sexual partners (AOR=2.31; 95% CI: 1.37-3.88; p=0.002) than non-Thai participants. There was no significant difference between the Thai and non-Thai participants in terms of having HIV testing. The Thai studied youth were more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior than the non-Thai youth. However, both groups displayed risky sexual behaviors. Future research should explore indepth the drivers of risky sexual behaviors among both Thai and non-Thai youth.

  16. Promoting Wellness for Thai College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasiripong, Paul; Rodriguez, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    There are few in-depth studies of Thai college student health and mental health behaviors that focus on the cultural influences that shape such behaviors. Thus, the purposes of this study are: (1) to conduct the needs assessment survey on health and mental health issues at a public university in Thailand in order to better understand the issues…

  17. Thai pediatricians' current practice toward childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalaporn, Harutai; Chawalitdamrong, Pongpan; Preutthipan, Aroonwan

    2018-04-01

    Childhood asthma is a substantial health burden in Thailand. Due to a lack of pediatric respiratory specialists (pediatric pulmonologists and allergists; RS), most Thai children are cared for by general pediatricians (pediatric primary care providers (PCP)). We investigated whether current practices of Thai pediatricians complied with asthma guidelines and compared practices (diagnosis and treatments) provided by PCP and RS. A cross-sectional study was conducted using electronic surveys including four case scenarios of different asthma phenotypes distributed to Thai pediatricians. Asthma diagnosis and management were evaluated for compliance with standard guidelines. The practices of PCP and RS were compared. From 800 surveys distributed, there were 405 respondents (51%). Most respondents (81%) were PCP, who preferred to use clinical diagnosis rather than laboratory investigations to diagnose asthma. For acute asthmatic attacks, 58% of the pediatricians prescribed a systemic corticosteroid. For uncontrolled asthma, 89% of the pediatricians prescribed at least one controller. For exercise-induced bronchospasm, 55% of the pediatricians chose an inhaled bronchodilator, while 38% chose a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA). For virus-induced wheeze, 40% of the respondents chose an LTRA, while 15% chose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). PCP prescribed more oral bronchodilators (31% vs. 18%, p = 0.02), antibiotics (20% vs. 6%, p attack. Most of the Thai pediatricians' practices toward diagnosis and treatment of acute asthmatic attack and uncontrolled asthma conform to the guidelines. PCP prescribed more oral bronchodilators, antibiotics, and antihistamines than RS.

  18. Inequality and Educational Investment in Thai Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattaravanich, Umaporn; Williams, Lindy B.; Lyson, Thomas A.; Archavanitkul, Kritaya

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we examine differences in upper secondary school attendance among subgroups of the population in Thailand. We ascertain where inequalities continue to exist and where they have been mediated. We analyze data from samples of the 1990 and 2000 Thai censuses. We find that the gender gap favoring boys has closed at the national level and…

  19. Communication Needs of Thai Civil Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewpet, Chamnong

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an examination of the communication needs of a group of Thai civil engineering students. Twenty-five stakeholders helped identify the communication needs of the students by participating in individual interviews. These included employers, civil engineers, civil engineering lecturers, ex-civil engineering students of the…

  20. Use of English in the Thai workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulaporn Hiranburana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of features of business discourse in English in a Thai workplace, for example, in e-mail memos, are integral to modern business operations. In this study, a questionnaire was used to find the important situations in which English is used in business communication. For this purpose, Thai businesses were requested to provide samples of written business correspondence—mostly e-mails in English. These e-mails were examined using genre analysis to identify typical moves and steps in order to understand the use of English at the linguistic and discourse levels. Genre can be defined as a class of communicative events, with the members sharing some set of communicative purposes. Interviews were also conducted to gather data in order to describe in-depth, the nature of English language communication and possible problems arising in a Thai business context. The findings showed that despite a large number of errors in usage in the English samples, they rarely caused problems with the running of the business as Thai communicators employed a move/step structure in their e-mails and other communications strategies including follow-up inquiries for clarification. Pedagogical implications are discussed.

  1. BAHASA MELAYU WAHANA KEDAMAIAN DI SELATAN THAI DAN NUSANTARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pahosan Jehwahe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Bahasa Melayu adalah bahasa yang sangat penting di nusantara. Bahasa Melayu berperanan sebagai bahasa penyebaran agama, bahasa politik, bahasa pendidikan, bahasa perdagangan dan lain-lain. Dengan dijadikannya bahasa Melayu sebagai bahasa resmi di negara Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei Darussalam dan Singgapura telah menjadikan bahasa yang menyampaikan pesan-pesan damai dan kebahagian. Bahasa Melayu tidak menjadi penghalang bahasa-bahasa lain berkembang bahkan mendukung memperkukuhkan perekonomian negara tersebut. Bahasa Melayu juga menjadi alat diplomasi diantara negara pengguna bahasa Melayu. Bahasa Melayu berupaya menjadi bahasa perdamaian di Selatan Thai, jika kerajaan Thai memberikan hak dan peluang kepada rakyat Selatan Thai dengan bebas mempelajari bahasa Melayu dan menjadikan bahasa yang wajib dikuasai oleh seluruh pegawai kerajaan Thai yang berkerja di Selatan Thai. Dengan menguasai bahasa Melayu diharapkan salah paham antara masyarakat Patani dan pegawai kerajaan Thai, tidak terjadi lagi sehingga tidak menjadi puncak konflik yang berkepanjangan dan memakan banyak korban nyawa.

  2. Atypical Eating Attitudes and Behaviors in Thai Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Jarurin Pitanupong; Chonnakarn Jatchavala

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence, and associated factors of atypical eating attitudes and behaviors in Thai medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey examined the eating abnormalities in Thai medical students, conducted in 2014. Research assistants collected data by using; self-reported questionnaires using The Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26 Thai Version). The statistical analysis used R-program for qualitative variables and logistic regression was applied to ...

  3. The Meanings of Sanskrit Loanwords in Thai and Javanese Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamam Supriyadi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Through history of nation building, Thai and Javanese people interacted with other language speakers. For example, they interacted with Indian mbrchants who also brought their literature and religions. In their contacts, Thai and Javanese speakers adopted Sanskrit words for enriching their own vocabularies. This article attempts to describe the meanings of Sanskrit loanwords. In comparison between the meanings of Sanskrit loanwords in Thai and Javanese languages, there are 14 categories of semantic adaptations which are found in both languages. These changes reflect the changes of the socio-cultural background of the Thai and Javanese speakers.

  4. The fluidity of Thai women's gendered and sexual subjectivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaweesit, Suchada

    2004-05-01

    This paper reports on an ethnographic study of gender and sexuality as factors within contemporary Thai factory women's subjectivities. Competing discourses of what it means to be a woman in contemporary Thai society make women's self-presentations fluid and incoherent. Data from participant-observation and open-ended interviews suggest that the fluidity and inconsistency of women's self-presentations reflect both their negative experiences and oppression within the Thai patriarchal system, and women's strength and resistance to the normative discourses that oppress them. By naming or reinterpreting experiences and desires in their own terms, Thai factory women can redraw elements of their own lives.

  5. Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1) Neutron Beam Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratanatongchai, Wichian

    2009-07-01

    Full text: Neutron beam tube of neutron radiography facility at Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1) Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (public organization) is a divergent beam. The rectangular open-end of the beam tube is 16 cm x 17 cm while the inner-end is closed to the reactor core. The neutron beam size was measured using 20 cm x 40 cm neutron imaging plate. The measurement at the position 100 cm from the end of the collimator has shown that the beam size was 18.2 cm x 19.0 cm. Gamma ray in neutron the beam was also measured by the identical position using industrial X ray film. The area of gamma ray was 27.8 cm x 31.1 cm with the highest intensity found to be along the neutron beam circumference

  6. PIXE study on Thai amulet. Phra Somdej Wat Rakhang

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won-in, K.

    2012-01-01

    Phra Somdej Wat Rakhang amulets which were one of the most famous Thai amulets created in an image of Lord Buddha meditation. They were made to explain the Dharma of Buddha and to bless every life in this world for good karma. Their compositions contained with both inorganic and organic materials such as shell lime, assorted flowers, ashes from incense urns, etc. Various molds were differed both types and compositions. In this work, it was the first time on advanced structural analysis using non-destructive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry methods; particle induced x-ray emission. Samples were selected by various molds to analyze theirs composition. Results revealed the presence of Ca, Al, K, Si and others such as Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn. It was also found that there were differences in concentration of composition. It can be concluded that their matrices were heterogeneous. Each mold may be characterized using the differences in its composition. (author)

  7. Pharmacokinetics and 48-week safety and efficacy of generic lopinavir/ritonavir in Thai HIV-infected patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramautarsing, Reshmie A.; van der Lugt, Jasper; Gorowara, Meena; Sophonphan, Jiratchaya; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Lange, Joep M. A.; Burger, David M.; Phanuphak, Praphan; Ruxthungtham, Kiat; Avihingsanon, Anchalee

    2013-01-01

    Background: Generic products reduce the costs of HIV treatment. Few generic second-line antiretroviral products are available. We assessed pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy of generic lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) produced by the Government Pharmaceutical Organization (GPO) of Thailand in Thai

  8. A Comparison of Rhetorical Move Structure of Applied Linguistics Research Articles Published in International and National Thai Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannaruk, Anchalee; Amnuai, Wirada

    2016-01-01

    The rhetorical organization of research articles has attracted extensive attention in genre study, and the focus of move-based analysis is on the textual function. The primary aim of the present study was the comparison of the rhetorical moves of English research articles in the field of Applied Linguistics written by Thai first authors and…

  9. Characterization of Thai Amulets A PIXE Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won-In, K.; Suksawang, S.; Intarasiri, S.; Thongleurm, Chom; Kamwanna, T.; Dararutana, P.

    2011-01-01

    The Thai amulets that created in an image of Lord Buddha meditation were made to explain the Dharma of Buddha and believed to bless every life in this world for good karma. Phra Somdej Wat Rakhang amulet is the top of the five most famous Thai amulets. There are many molds with various compositions. In this work, it was the first time that X-ray fluorescence spectrometry methods; scanning electron microscope cooperated with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (SEM/EDS) and particle induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) were carried out to analyze their compositions. Two samples were collected from different molds. Results revealed C, Ca and Si were main composition. The differences in their compositions have been used to identify and characterize for each molds

  10. Socioeconomic status and smoking among thai adults: results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitnarin, Nattinee; Kosulwat, Vongsvat; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Boonpraderm, Atitada; Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S C

    2011-09-01

    The authors examined the relationship between socioeconomic status and smoking in Thai adults. A nationally representative sample of 7858 Thais adults (18 years and older) was surveyed during 2004 to 2005. Four demographic/socioeconomic indicators were examined in logistic models: gender, education, occupational status, and annual household income. Overall, 22.2% of the participants were smokers. Men were more likely to be smokers across all age groups and regions. Compared with nonsmokers, current smokers were less educated, more likely to be employed, but had lower household income. When stratified by gender, education and job levels were strongly associated with smoking prevalence among males. A significant relationship was found between annual household income and smoking. Those who lived under the poverty line were more likely to smoke than persons who lived above the poverty line in both genders. The present study demonstrated that socioeconomic factors, especially education level and occupational class, have a strong influence on smoking behavior in Thai adults.

  11. Foot and ankle problems in Thai monks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaseenon, Tanawat; Wattanarojanaporn, Thongaek; Intharasompan, Piyapong; Theeraamphon, Nipon; Auephanviriyakul, Sansanee; Phisitkul, Phinit

    2015-01-01

    Foot and ankle problems in Thai monks have not been explored. This is an unshod population, and its members have a unique lifestyle living among others in our modern era. Beginning at their ordainment, they follow strict rules about barefoot walking, the amount of daily walking, and their sitting position, practices that theoretically can increase their risk of developing foot and ankle problems. To evaluate the prevalence ofcommon foot and ankle problems in Thai monks. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in combination with foot and ankle examinations of monks living in northern Thailand Foot morphology was examined using a Harris mat footprint. Results of the interviews and the foot and ankle examinations were evaluated. Two hundred and nine monks from 28 temples were included in this study. Common foot and ankle problems found included callosity (70.8%), toe deformities (18.2%), plantar fasciitis (13.4%), metatarsalgia (3.8%), and numbness (2.9%). Callosity and toe deformities were associated with prolonged barefoot walking over extended periods since ordainment (p < 0.05). The callosity was found on the forefoot (47.3%), lateral malleolus (40.7%), and heel (12%). Arch types were considered normal in 66.4% of cases, high in 21.6%, and low in 12%. No association was found between arch type and foot and ankle problems. Callosity and toe deformity were the most common foot and ankle problems found in Thai monks, especially those with prolonged period of barefoot walking and long-term duration ofordainment. The unique pattern of walking and sitting of Thai monks may have contributed to the development of those feet and ankle problems.

  12. Lessons Learnt of Thai Women Environmental Leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sittipong Dilokwanich

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past few decades, Thai women have learned how to extent their roles from a care taker of children and a household to natural resources and environmental protection and management in local and inter-regional communities. Due to the application of National Economic and Social Development Plans, rapid resource exploitation has brought in natural resource and environmental degradation all over the country threatening communal security. For this reason, there have been a number of emerging environmental leaders who want to correct directions of national development, especially Thai woman environmental leaders who are taking a successful role of environmental guardian in their communities. This research attempts to explore why they took leadership role in environment, how they work so successful as an environmental guardian, and what their next move is. During early 2013 till mid-2014, there are 28 Thai woman leaders who received the award of Thai Environmental Conservation Mother from the Faculty of Environment and Resource Studies, Mahidol University between 2004 and 2012. They were in-depth interviewed and collected data were preceded by content analysis. Their lessons learnt show that most leaders saved their communities' environment and natural resources from the intervention of new development activities. Most of them had their parents as a good role model in environmental management who provide knowledge of morals and environmental ethics as a good basic of leadership while some shared their husband's responsibility in the same matter. Significantly, teamwork is their working style with the assistance of public participation to hold teamwork and collaboration of the community. Almost all leaders had systematic working with talents of patience, gentleness and sensitivity. The working network also broadens their new information and knowledge between practitioners. In the same time, more than half of the leaders can prepare their

  13. Cosmetic preservative labelling on the Thai market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyavaree, Monthathip; Kasemsarn, Pranee; Boonchai, Waranya

    2016-04-01

    Preservatives are added to cosmetics and other consumer products to prevent microbial growth and product degradation. Many cosmetic preservatives are skin sensitizers and frequent causes of contact dermatitis. The use of preservatives may vary by country and/or region, according to legislation, and may be reflected in differences in the prevalence rates of preservative allergy worldwide. To examine the type and frequency of preservative use in cosmetics sold in Thai markets in metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand. Preservatives contained in 1000 different cosmetics sold in Thai markets were documented and analysed, based on the labelling of ingredients. Most of the cosmetic and skincare products sold in Thai markets were international brands, with only a small proportion of cosmetic products being produced in Thailand. International brand cosmetics were more likely to contain non-formaldehyde-releasing preservatives than domestically produced brands. Isothiazolinone-based preservatives, which are responsible for the current increase in the prevalence of contact allergy, were found at a significant frequency in domestically produced, leave-on cosmetic products. Preservatives in cosmetics were significantly different according to source of production and type of cosmetics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Determination of Trace Elements in Thai Cereal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permnamtip, Vorapot; Busamongkol, Arporn; Laoharojanaphand, Sirinart; Chaiyasith, Suwan

    2007-08-01

    Full text: Trace elements were analyzed in Thai cereal, e.g. rice and bean, by using neutron activation analysis (NAA). The selected cereals are major food items for Thai population. The data obtained from this work will be useful for nutrition and safety consumption of Thai cereal. Trace elements verified include Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, I, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Se, Sn, V and Zn. It was found that Al, As, Br, Cl, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ca, K and Mg are presented in the range of 2.2 to 35.7, 0.15 to 0.21, 0.44 to 13.5, 55.6 to 640.3, 16.3 to 16.5, 158.9 to 161.1, 12.2 to 55.7, 8.2 to 58.1 (g/g (ppm) , 0.02 to 0.28, 0.09 to 1.99 and 0.03 to 0.26 %, respectively. For Cd, Cr, I, Mo, Se, Sn and V were not found in sample because the concentrations were lower than detection limit. Precision and accuracy were determined by analyzing standard reference materials: NIST 1568a, NIST 8704, ACSP DORM-1, NIES No.9 and NMIJ 7302 to a

  15. The Development of Visionary Leadership Administrators in Thai Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordsala, Suwit; Tesaputa, Kowat; Sri-Ampai, Anan

    2014-01-01

    This research aimed: 1) to investigate the current situations and needs in developing visionary leadership of Thai primary school administrators; 2) to develop visionary leadership development program of Thai primary school administrators, and; 3) to evaluate the implementation of the developed program of administrators visionary leadership…

  16. Sustainable leadership in a Thai healthcare services provider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantabutra, Sooksan

    2011-01-01

    Rhineland leadership practices contrast sharply with the prevailing Anglo/US business model of short-term maximization of profitability, and are said to lead to greater corporate sustainability, at least in highly developed economies. However, the applicability of Rhineland leadership to less developed economies has not yet been demonstrated. This paper sets out to compare the business practices of a social enterprise that delivers healthcare services in Thailand and Avery's 19 sustainable leadership practices derived from Rhineland enterprises. Adopting a case study approach, multi-data collection methods included non-participant observations made during visits to the enterprise, and reference to internal and published documentation and information. Semi-structured interview sessions were held with many stakeholders, including top management, staff, patients and a former consultant. In the Thai healthcare organization studied, evidence was found for compliance with 15 of Avery's 19 sustainable leadership elements, but to varying degrees. The elements were grouped into six core sets of practices: adopting a long-term perspective, staff development, organizational culture, innovation, social responsibility, and ethical behavior. One element was found to be not applicable, and no evidence was found for conformity with Rhineland principles on the remaining three sustainable practices. The paper concludes that Avery's 19 Rhineland practices provide a useful framework for evaluating the corporate sustainability of this Thai enterprise. Healthcare enterprises in Thailand and possibly in other Asian countries that wish to sustain their organizational success could adopt Avery's 19 Sustainable Leadership Grid elements to examine their leadership practices, and adjust them to become more sustainable. The relevance of Rhineland sustainable leadership principles to enterprises in less developed economies remains to be investigated. This study attempts to uncover this unknown.

  17. The Characteristics of Thai Movies and Factors Contributing to Becoming Widely Known in International Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Tanyatorn Panyasopon

    2012-01-01

    Many Thai movies have been very popular domestically and internationally. Some movies were box office hits and receiving awards. However, there has not yet been research about how Thai movies can sell in international markets The objectives of the research were 1) To analyze the characteristics of Thai movies that can sell to world audiences; 2) To investigate the factors making Thai movies into foreign markets. Thai film professionals were interviewed. Their ideas were a...

  18. Evaluation and review of the safety management system implementation in the Royal Thai Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiwan, Sakkarin

    This study was designed to determine situation and effectiveness of the safety management system currently implemented in the Royal Thai Air Force. Reviewing the ICAO's SMS and the RTAF's SMS was conducted to identify similarities and differences between the two safety management systems. Later, the researcher acquired safety statistics from the RTAF Safety Center to investigate effectiveness of its safety system. The researcher also collected data to identify other factors affecting effectiveness of the safety system during conducting in-depth interviews. Findings and Conclusions: The study shows that the Royal Thai Air Force has never applied the International Civil Aviation Organization's Safety management System to its safety system. However, the RTAF's SMS and the ICAO's SMS have been developed based on the same concepts. These concepts are from Richard H. Woods's book, Aviation safety programs: A management handbook. However, the effectiveness of the Royal Thai Air Force's safety system is in good stance. An accident rate has been decreasing regularly but there are no known factors to describe the increasing rate, according to the participants' opinion. The participants have informed that there are many issues to be resolved to improve the RTAF's safety system. Those issues are cooperation among safety center's staffs, attitude toward safety of the RTAF senior commanders, and safety standards.

  19. Competencies of Thai expertise teacher and PCK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantaranima, Tarntip; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) was accepted by worldwide Educators that it is a ubiquitous word in the preparation of teachers in the past decade. This study uses Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) framework as a lens for classifying the guidelines and expectations for categorizing expertise teachers. Therefore, the paper tries to clarify the relationship between competencies of Thai expertise teacher and PCK elements. To promote skillful Thai teachers by offering them academic titles, the Office of the Teacher Civil Service and Education Personal Commission were developed to provide guidelines and expectations for categorizing expertise teachers (OTEPC, 2009). This article focuses on the guideline criteria which are three areas of consideration. The first area of consideration is teacher's disciplines including virtues and professional conducts. The second area of consideration is teacher's knowledge and teaching ability. The last area of consider is teacher's performance. It seemed that the OTEPC guideline pay too much attention on the first area. However, there are some issues of PCK appearing on the OTEPC teacher competency. The paper will discuss some suggestions of fill up PCK in the OTEPC guideline. The paper may have implication for Thailand teacher education.

  20. Trakun, politics and the Thai state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rangsivek, Katja

    accounts of Thai political history being simultaneously the accounts of the royal and other elite families, little research has aimed to understand the entanglement of families and the state. The literature on Thailand after 1932 offers even less insight into Thai kinship politics. Political trakun...... rise to the image of an organizational structure, which is recognized as the state. The praxis of government, however, is performed by an entangled mass of interlocking relationships between individuals and groups of individuals. One type of such relationships that is integral to the Thai state...

  1. Population structure of four Thai indigenous chicken breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekchay, Supamit; Supakankul, Pantaporn; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Wilantho, Alisa; Chareanchim, Wanwisa; Tongsima, Sissades

    2014-03-27

    In recent years, Thai indigenous chickens have increasingly been bred as an alternative in Thailand poultry market. Due to their popularity, there is a clear need to improve the underlying quality and productivity of these chickens. Studying chicken genetic variation can improve the chicken meat quality as well as conserving rare chicken species. To begin with, a minimal set of molecular markers that can characterize the Thai indigenous chicken breeds is required. Using AFLP-PCR, 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from Thai indigenous chickens were obtained by DNA sequencing. From these SNPs, we genotyped 465 chickens from 7 chicken breeds, comprising four Thai indigenous chicken breeds--Pradhuhangdum (PD), Luenghangkhao (LK), Dang (DA) and Chee (CH), one wild chicken--the red jungle fowls (RJF), and two commercial chicken breeds--the brown egg layer (BL) and commercial broiler (CB). The chicken genotypes reveal unique genetic structures of the four Thai indigenous chicken breeds. The average expected heterozygosities of PD=0.341, LK=0.357, DA=0.349 and CH=0.373, while the references RJF= 0.327, CB=0.324 and BL= 0.285. The F(ST) values among Thai indigenous chicken breeds vary from 0.051 to 0.096. The F(ST) values between the pairs of Thai indigenous chickens and RJF vary from 0.083 to 0.105 and the FST values between the Thai indigenous chickens and the two commercial chicken breeds vary from 0.116 to 0.221. A neighbour-joining tree of all individual chickens showed that the Thai indigenous chickens were clustered into four groups which were closely related to the wild RJF but far from the commercial breeds. Such commercial breeds were split into two closely groups. Using genetic admixture analysis, we observed that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds are likely to share common ancestors with the RJF, while both commercial chicken breeds share the same admixture pattern. These results indicated that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds may descend from the

  2. Investigating differences in light stable isotopes between Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukusamude, C.; Kongsri, S.

    2017-10-01

    We report the differences in light stable isotopes between two kinds of Thai rice (Thai jasmine and Sungyod rice). Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice were cultivated in the northeast and the south of Thailand. Light isotopes including 13C, 15N and 18O of Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice samples were carried out using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Thai jasmine rice (Khao Dawk Mali 105) was cultivated from Thung Kula Rong Hai area, whereas Sungyod rice was cultivated from Phathalung province. Hypothesis testing of difference of each isotope between Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice was also studied. The study was the feasibility test whether the light stable isotopes can be the variables to identify Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice. The result shows that there was difference in the isotope patterns of Thai jasmine rice and Sungyod rice. Our results may provide the useful information in term of stable isotope profiles of Thai rice.

  3. Summit delegates praise Thai SchoolNet initiative

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    ".. a team of over 55 Thai delegates led by ICT Minister Surapong Suebwonglee exchanged views and showcased Thailand's achievements that addressed bridging the digital divide at the UN conference that was attended by over 40 national leaders" (1 page).

  4. Injury and injury rates in Muay Thai kick boxing

    OpenAIRE

    Gartland, S; Malik, M; Lovell, M

    2001-01-01

    Objective—To determine the type and number of injuries that occur during the training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing and to compare the data obtained with those from previous studies of karate and taekwondo.

  5. Epidemiology of Muay Thai fight-related injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Strotmeyer, Stephen; Coben, Jeffrey H.; Fabio, Anthony; Songer, Thomas; Brooks, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Muay Thai is a combat sport of Thailand that uses stand-up striking along with various clinching techniques. Currently, little is known about the injuries and risk factors for injuries among Muay Thai fighters. Gaining more insight into the nature and frequency of injury in this sport provides part of the overall sports injury picture, within the larger burden of injury as a public health issue. Generating this information is a critical first step toward the broader goal of improvi...

  6. Developing of Thai Classical Music Ensemble in Rattanakosin Period

    OpenAIRE

    Pansak Vandee

    2013-01-01

    The research titled “Developing of Thai Classical Music Ensemble in Rattanakosin Period" aimed 1) to study the history of Thai Classical Music Ensemble in Rattanakosin Period and 2) to analyze changing in each period of Rattanakosin Era. This is the historical and documentary research. The data was collected by in-depth interview those musicians, and academic music experts and field study. The focus group discussion was conducted to analyze and conclude the findings. The research found that t...

  7. Foot and ankle problems in Muay Thai kickboxers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaseenon, Tanawat; Intharasompan, Piyapong; Wattanarojanapom, Thongaek; Theeraamphon, Nipon; Auephanviriyakul, Sansanee; Phisitkul, Phinit

    2015-01-01

    Muay Thai kickboxing is a common sport that uses the foot and ankle in fighting. Muay Thai kickboxing trainees usually receive training in Thailand Foot and ankle problems in this group ofpeople who usually train barefoot remain unexplored To evaluate the prevalence of common foot and ankle problems in Muay Thai kick boxers. The present study is a cross-sectional survey of Muay Thai kick boxers practicing in northern Thailand. Interviews were conducted and foot and ankle examinations were evaluated Foot morphology was examined using a Harris mat footprint. One hundred and twenty-three Muay Thai kickbox ersinnine training gyms were included in this study. Common foot and ankle problems found in the Muay Thai kick boxers were callosity (59%), gastrocnemius contracture (57%), toe deformities (49.3%), wounds (10%) and heel pain (9%). Callosity was most commonly found on the forefoot (77.5%), on the plantar first metatarsal (55.3%) and on the big toe (33.3%). An association was found between a tight heel cord and a history of foot injury with prolonged periods of weekly training. Toe deformities such as hallux rigidus (37.6%) were also associated with prolonged periods of training (p = 0.001). No correlation was found between type of foot arch and foot and ankle problems. Plantar forefoot callosities and wounds as well as toe deformities including tight heel cords are some of the foot and ankle problems commonly found in Muay Thai kick boxers. They are associated with prolonged periods of barefoot training. The unique pattern of training and of the kicks in Muay Thai might be a path mechanism, leading to the development of foot and ankle problems.

  8. GOLD IS EARNED FROM THE PRODUCTION OF THAI GOLD LEAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Bax

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Thai people like to cover sacred objects or things dear to them with gold leaf.. Statues of Buddha are sometimes covered with so many layers of gold leaf that they become formless figures, that can hardly be recognized. Portraits of beloved ancestors, statues of elephants and grave tombs are often covered with gold leaf. If one considers the number of Thai people and the popularity of the habit, the amount of gold involved could be considerable.

  9. The Military Coup and its Implications for the Thai Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The paper analyses the regional and international implications of the Thai military coup in September 2006. Focus is furthermore  attached to the economic consequences and the geo-political and geo-economic aspects related to the coup.......The paper analyses the regional and international implications of the Thai military coup in September 2006. Focus is furthermore  attached to the economic consequences and the geo-political and geo-economic aspects related to the coup....

  10. Expert system for skin problem consultation in Thai traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nopparatkiat, Pornchai; na Nagara, Byaporn; Chansa-ngavej, Chuvej

    2014-01-01

    This paper aimed to demonstrate the research and development of a rule-based expert system for skin problem consulting in the areas of acne, melasma, freckle, wrinkle, and uneven skin tone, with recommended treatments from Thai traditional medicine knowledge. The tool selected for developing the expert system is a software program written in the PHP language. MySQL database is used to work together with PHP for building database of the expert system. The system is web-based and can be reached from anywhere with Internet access. The developed expert system gave recommendations on the skin problem treatment with Thai herbal recipes and Thai herbal cosmetics based on 416 rules derived from primary and secondary sources. The system had been tested by 50 users consisting of dermatologists, Thai traditional medicine doctors, and general users. The developed system was considered good for learning and consultation. The present work showed how such a scattered body of traditional knowledge as Thai traditional medicine and herbal recipes could be collected, organised and made accessible to users and interested parties. The expert system developed herein should contribute in a meaningful way towards preserving the knowledge and helping promote the use of Thai traditional medicine as a practical alternative medicine for the treatment of illnesses.

  11. Regulation and competition issues in Thai electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisuttisak, Pornchai

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the issues related to regulatory reform and liberalisation leading toward competition in the Thai electricity sector, which is still under the monopoly control of state-owned enterprises (SOEs). Following an overview of the current market structure of the Thai electricity sector, the process of liberalisation and deregulation that contributes to the uncompetitive market structure under SOEs’ control is examined. The author asserts that there are problems within the Energy Commission and the Energy Industry Act BE 2550 (2007) that contribute to the continuance of an uncompetitive electricity supply. Possible reforms to the Thai electricity regulation are proposed with the aim of creating market competition and efficiency in the Thai electricity sector. - Highlights: ► Author studies on the regulatory reform and a development of liberalisation plans on Thai electricity sector. ► The paper presents that the liberalisation plan was affected by the government implementation on electricity corporatisation. ► The paper asserts that the current energy regulation will not lead to market reform and competition in electricity. ► The paper also discusses on the current monopoly structure of Thai electricity sector under state owned enterprises. ► The paper concludes that Thailand needs an appropriate regulatory reform for building competition in electricity sector.

  12. Serum antinuclear antibody in adult Thais.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapinjumrune, Chanwit; Prucktrakul, Chalakorn; Sooktonglarng, Trakarn; Thongprasom, Kobkan

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the presence of antinuclear antibody (ANA) in older Thais compared with middle-age and younger participants. Antinuclear antibody represents the first step in the diagnostic testing for lupus erythematosus (LE) and other autoimmune diseases. Due to the lack of reference ANA levels in older, middle-age and younger Thais healthy participants, this study will be useful for determining the proper diagnostic and treatment criteria. There were 28 older (60-76 years), 17 middle-age (41-59 years) and 13 younger (24-40 years) participants in this study. Immunofluorescence was performed to analyse the ANA staining pattern and titre levels in the participants' blood samples. The presence of serum ANA was found in 18 of 28 cases (64.3%), four of 17 (23.5%) and one of 13 cases (7.7%) of the older, middle-age and younger participants, respectively. The difference in the number of serum ANA-positive participants between the older, middle-age and younger groups was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Interestingly, the ANA positive in older participants presented more than one staining pattern. The speckled pattern was the most commonly detected ANA staining pattern in the older group, being found in 12 cases followed by cytoplasmic pattern (10 cases), homogeneous pattern (nine cases) and nucleolar pattern (five cases). In the middle-age group, the speckled pattern was found in four cases, whereas one younger participant presented a nucleolar pattern. Serum ANA positive was significantly higher in the older group compared with the middle-age and younger groups. There were variations of the serum ANA staining patterns in the older group. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Special aspects for forming the interiors of thai shopping malls through the use of the biological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Iryna O.; Rosliakova, Ljubov V.; Zakharchuk, Viktorija L.; Samosudova, Natalia

    2017-10-01

    This study reviews the biological approach to Thai shopping mall’s interior design planning. The authors defined the principles of the mall’s design optimization in Thailand on the basis of the imitation of biological samples at constructive, art-compositional, organizational and ecological levels. The analysis of forming the shopping malls interiors and space-planning solutions is based on the imitation of eight basic levels of organization of living things: molecules, cells, tissues, organs, organisms, populations, ecosystem and biosphere. The examples of the direct and implicit application of biological analogues were demonstrated in the architecture and design of Thai shopping malls. In the study, the shopping mall is regarded as an open self-sufficient system with a high level of autonomy and a fortified structural organization that includes various functional components. On the basis of the analysis of existing Thai shopping malls, a list of the basic requirements for the design of the malls was compiled. This corresponds to the needs and desires of the modern customer and ensures the competitiveness of the establishment. The phenomenon of multisensory design approach that enhances the psychophysical comfort of the shopping mall visitors is described. Socio-cultural and geographical factors were identified which determine the development of biodesign in Thailand. The article reveals the potential for a combination of biology and design to enhance the aesthetics, ergonomics and efficiency of the shopping malls. The prospects within the development of this field and the possibility of applying the solutions in practice were explored.

  14. A cross-sectional examination of growth indicators from Thai adolescent girls: evidence of obesity among Thai youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawloski, Lisa R; Ruchiwit, Manyat; Pakapong, Yothaka

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined growth data from adolescent girls in Southeast Asia and almost none have been carried out in Thailand. Thus this study examines growth data from Thai adolescent girls. Cross-sectional growth data from a sample of Thai girls were compared to reference data from healthy well-nourished girls. It is hypothesized that the reference girls will be taller and heavier than the Thai girls; however, the growth indicators will also indicate that obesity is present among Thai girls. Anthropometric and age at menarche data were collected from a sample of 319 adolescent girls ages 11-17 years living in suburban Thailand. Thai girls are heavier than the reference girls at ages 11-13 years yet are shorter and lighter than the reference girls at ages 14-17 years. The data also reveal that 18.4% of the girls are overweight or obese as classified by the CDC BMI-for-age percentile growth curves. The findings suggest the presence of overweight and obesity among this adolescent Thai population. These data may reflect the impact of the improved economic situation of Thailand as well as the impact of body image concerns among these young girls.

  15. The Thai Anesthesia Incidents Study (THAI Study) of anesthetic outcomes: I. Description of methods and populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charuluxananan, Somrat; Suraseranivongse, Suwannee; Punjasawadwong, Yodying; Somboonviboon, Wanna; Nipitsukarn, Thana; Sothikarnmanee, Thepakorn; Vasinanukorn, Mayuree; Werawatganon, Thewarug; Tanudsintum, Surasak; Lekprasert, Varinee; Hintong, Thanoo

    2005-11-01

    Since anesthesia, unlike medical or surgical specialties, does not constitute treatment, The Royal College of Anesthesiologists of Thailand host the Thai Anesthesia Incidents Study (THAI Study) of anesthetic outcomes to determine factors related to anesthesia related adverse events. A prospective descriptive study of occurrence screening was conducted in 20 hospitals comprised of 7 university, 4 general and 4 district hospitals across Thailand. Anesthesia personnels were required to fill up patient-related, surgical-related, anesthesia-related variables and adverse outcomes on a strutured data entry form. The data included preanesthetic evaluation intraoperative period and 24 hr postoperative period. Adverse events specific form was recorded when adverse events occurred. All data were keyed in data management unit with double entry technique and descriptive statistics was used in the first phase of this study. A total of 163403 consecutive cases were recorded in one year. The mean (S.D.) of age, weight and height of patients were 38.6(2.3) yrs, 53.9(17.7) kgs and 153.4(22.7) cm respectively. There were more female (52.9%) than male (47. 1%) patients with ASA PS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 = 50.8%, 36.3%, 10.7%, 2.0%, 0.2% respectively. Hypertension (11.6%), anemia (7.7%) and diabetes melitus (6.8%) were the three most common abnormalities in preanesthetic history taking. Mallampati score of 111870 patients grade 1, 2, 3, 4 were 54.0%, 39.7%, 5.6%, 0.7% and laryngoscopic grade 1, 2, 3, 4 of 74888 patients were 81.0%, 15.5%, 3.0% and 0.5% respectively. The first phase of THAI study epidemiological project can represent both the anesthesia and surgical profiles in Thailand. The collected data available should be useful for the improvement of the quality of anesthesia, guidelines for clinical practices, medical education and for further research.

  16. Lived Experience of Thai Women with Alcohol Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanpatchaiyakul, Kulnaree; Eriksson, Henrik; Kijsomporn, Jureerat; Östlund, Gunnel

    2017-12-01

    This study explored the lived experiences of Thai women in relation to alcohol addiction in treatment. Twelve women aged 20 to 65 years, were participated. The participants were recruited from two special hospitals and one outpatient clinic in a general hospital. Descriptive phenomenology was applied to analyze the transcripts of the individual interviews. The explored phenomenon of Thai women experiencing alcohol addiction included four essential aspects, (1) feeling inferior and worthless (2) feeling physically and emotionally hurt, (3) fearing physical deterioration and premature death, and (4) feeling superior and powerful. Through these different aspects of Thai women's lived experiences, the following essence was synthesized. The essence of the lived experience of alcohol addiction among the studied Thai women was ambivalence between feeling inferior and worthless and feeling superior and powerful when acting as a man. Drinking alcohol lessened life's difficulties and fears; for example, of violence, bodily demolition, premature death and marginalization from family and society. Thai women who experience alcohol addiction are treated with gender-related double standards when trying to undo gender traditional roles. Their marginalization from family and society deepens making them even more vulnerable to the positive side effects of alcohol drinking. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Lived Experience of Thai Women with Alcohol Addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulnaree Hanpatchaiyakul, Ph.D., RN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Purpose: This study explored the lived experiences of Thai women in relation to alcohol addiction in treatment. Methods: Twelve women aged 20 to 65 years, were participated. The participants were recruited from two special hospitals and one outpatient clinic in a general hospital. Descriptive phenomenology was applied to analyze the transcripts of the individual interviews. Result: The explored phenomenon of Thai women experiencing alcohol addiction included four essential aspects, (1 feeling inferior and worthless (2 feeling physically and emotionally hurt, (3 fearing physical deterioration and premature death, and (4 feeling superior and powerful. Through these different aspects of Thai women's lived experiences, the following essence was synthesized. The essence of the lived experience of alcohol addiction among the studied Thai women was ambivalence between feeling inferior and worthless and feeling superior and powerful when acting as a man. Drinking alcohol lessened life's difficulties and fears; for example, of violence, bodily demolition, premature death and marginalization from family and society. Conclusion: Thai women who experience alcohol addiction are treated with gender-related double standards when trying to undo gender traditional roles. Their marginalization from family and society deepens making them even more vulnerable to the positive side effects of alcohol drinking. Keywords: alcoholism, alcohol drinking, gender identity, violence

  18. Thai Electoral Campaigning: Vote-Canvassing Networks and Hybrid Voting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anyarat Chattharakul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on evidence gathered through participant observation, this article illuminates the nature of vote-canvassing, previously a black box in Thai electoral studies. Offering a close-up study of the internal mechanisms of an individual Thai election campaign, this article reveals that vote-canvasser networks are underpinned by long-term dyadic relationships, both hierarchical and horizontal, between the candidate, vote-canvassers and voters. These networks continue to be the most important factor in winning elections. This article documents how candidates draw up an election campaign map and identify voters along residential lines to maximise their vote-canvassing strategy. The findings of this article challenge Anek’s 1996 concept of “two democracies”, which argues that rural voters are influenced by money, local leaders, political factions and corrupt politicians while more well-educated, urban, middle-class voters are more oriented toward the alternative policies offered by competing parties. The case study of Kom’s election campaign showed that the role of the much-vaunted middle-class voters is not decisive, even in suburban areas of Bangkok. While political marketing has grown in importance in Thai elections, it has not displaced traditional electoral practices. Thai society is, in fact, deeply fragmented and diverse – too complex to be divided in such a simplistic manner. This article suggests that rather than undergoing a linear transformation, political hybridisation is a key trend in Thai election campaigns.

  19. The influence of Thai culture on diabetes perceptions and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowattanangoon, Napaporn; Kotchabhakdi, Naipinich; Petrie, Keith J

    2009-06-01

    To explore the way Thai patients perceive and manage their diabetes. Using a focused ethnographic approach, face-to-face interviews were conducted at two public hospitals in Bangkok. All interviews (n=27) were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Analysis of the interview transcripts was completed thematically. The findings showed that Thai patients manage their diabetes according to their beliefs about diabetes. These beliefs are constructed using both modern and traditional knowledge. For example, some patients explained the cause of their illness as being due to biomedical factors such as genetics, and also cultural factors such as karma from either previous or current lifetimes. The analysis also revealed that some aspects of Thai life facilitate diabetes self-management while other aspects hamper good control of the illness. For example, Buddhist values of moderation contribute positively to dietary change, while, on the other hand, the importance of rice in the Thai diet can impede successful self-management strategies. The results of this research indicate that Thai culture influences diabetes perceptions and management. Culturally appropriate treatment guidelines should be established for diabetes management that give special consideration to the significance and meaning of food and to Buddhist beliefs.

  20. Pengelaman Sastra Melayu di Patani, Selatan Thai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phaosan Jehwae

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pengelaman sastra Melayu di Patani Selatan Thai di bawah pemerintahan yang bukan Melayu terjadi lebih dari 100 tahun lamanya. Dasar Siamisasi yang pelopori oleh Phibul Songkram dalam menyatukan seluruh bangsa jajahannya dengan dasar 1 Siam, 1 bahasa dan 1 budaya telah membunuh kekayaan seni budaya dan keindahan kesusasteraan Melayu. Namun kesusasteraan Melayu sangat penting bagi bangsa Melayu Patani kerana bahasa dan sastra merupakan jati diri dan identitas bangsa Melayu Islam di Patani. Masyarakat Patani sendiri tidak membedakan antara bahasa dan sastra. Apabila bicara tentang sastra di Patani secara tidak langsung akan membicarakan tentang bahasa Melayu. Dalam setiap upacara dan acara baik keagamaan maupun perkawinan, sastra menjadi menu wajib baik di tingkat rendah maupun di tingkat yang besar. Sastra tidak dapat dipisahkan dari hidup masyarakat Melayu di Patani sehingga sastra merupakan sebahagian keyakinan dan kehidupan orang Melayu Patani. Walaupun orang-orang Melayu Patani sudah kehilangan negeri yang berkerajaan dan mengamalkan Melayu tetapi orang Patani masih teguh dengan bahasa dan kesusastraan Melayu.

  1. Radio protectors from Thai edible plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thongphasuk, Jarunee; Thongphasuk, Piyanuch

    2005-11-01

    Antioxidants have been used as radioprotectors in cosmetics and radiation therapy to protect normal tissues in cancer patients. The objective of this study is to determine the activities of antioxidants in Thai edible plants (holy basil, sesame (white and black). durian (Chanee and Monthong), parsley, morning glory, guava, chilies, pepper, sweet pepper, ash pumpkin, pumpkin, tomato, peppermint, and sweet basil) by using I, I-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical and to determine their capability to inhibit radiation-induced hemolysis. Gamma rays (10 KGy) from cobalt-60 was used to induce hemolysis of human red blood cells, and ascorbic acid was used as standard antioxidant. The extracts from all samples showed antioxidant activities. However, only the extracts (0.1-1,000 μg/8 x 10 9 red blood cells) from parsley, guava, peppermint, and sweet basil could significantly inhibit (p<0.05) radiation-induced hemolysis. Although ascorbic acid is a strong antioxidant, its ability to inhibit radiation-induced hemolysis was lower than the extracts. This maybe due to its hydrophilic property which limits its ability to penetrate cell membrane

  2. Karyotype of some Thai Hypoxidaceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladda Eksomtramage

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Somatic chromosome numbers and karyotypes of nine species in three genera of Thai Hypoxidaceae were determinedin root tips. All species are diploid with 2n = 18 and asymmetrical karyotypes including metacentric (m submetacentric (smsubtelocentric (st and also telocentric (t in some species. Satellite chromosomes (SAT were observed in all species studiedexcept in C. latifolia. The karyotypes of Curculigo ensifolia 4m+8sm+6st(2SAT, C. latifolia 2m+14sm+2st, C. megacarpa2m+12sm+4st(2SAT, C. villosa 4m+10sm(2SAT+4st, Hypoxis aurea 2m+8sm+8st(2SAT, Molineria capitulata 2m+10sm+2st (2SAT+4t, M. trichocarpa 2m+10sm+6st(2SAT, M. gracilis and M. latifolia 4m+8sm+4st (2SAT+2t are reported forthe first time. The chromosome relative length of Curculigo, Hypoxis and Molineria range between 3.44-9.55, 4.03-8.12 and3.64-8.97, respectively.

  3. Illness perspectives of Thais diagnosed with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanseeha, Ladda; Chontawan, Ratanawadee; Sethabouppha, Hunsa; Disayavanish, Chamlong; Turale, Sue

    2009-09-01

    This study explored the perceptions of 18 people diagnosed with schizophrenia from 1-10 years to uncover how they perceived themselves and their illness. It also involved 12 family members who added their perceptions. The data were collected using in-depth interviews, reflective journaling, and observations. The data were analyzed through the lens of Heidegger's hermeneutic phenomenology. Four themes emerged: perceptions of mental illness, perceptions of the causes of illness, perceptions of discrimination, and attempting to live with schizophrenia. The findings included strong underlying cultural and spiritual beliefs, and attitudes unique to the Thai participants, including the causation of schizophrenia by supernatural powers, black magic, and bad karma stemming from past deeds. Understanding the perceptions of the participants might help health-care providers to be more sensitive to those living with schizophrenia in Thailand and elsewhere. In particular, the findings could be useful in informing psychiatric careproviders about developing better caring systems for clients diagnosed with schizophrenia. This should help the sufferers of schizophrenia to live their lives to their own satisfaction and as normally as possible.

  4. Moisture sorption of Thai red curry powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudathip Inchuen

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moisture sorption study was conducted on Thai red curry powder prepared by two different drying methods, viz. microwave and hot-air drying. Moisture sorption isotherms of the red curry powder at 30 C and water activity in the range of 0.113-0.970 were determined by a static gravimetric method. The isotherms exhibited Type III behaviour. The moisture sorption data were fitted to several sorption models and a non-linear regression analysis method was used to evaluate the constants of the sorption equations. The fit was evaluated using the coefficient of determination (R2, the reduced chi-square (2 and the root mean square error (RMSE. The GAB model followed by the Lewiski-3 model gave the best fit to the experimental data. The monolayer moisture content, taken as the safe minimum moisture level in the red curry powder, was determined using the BET equation and was found to range between 0.080 - 0.085 gram water per gram dry matter.

  5. An Elderly Employment Model For The Thai Automotive Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornrat Sadangharn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at studying an elderly employment model for the Thai automotive industry. Mixed methods with a sequential exploratory strategy were utilized. Grounded theory was employed by using in-depth interviews to investigate the characteristics of elderly employment in the Thai automotive industry. For this stage of the research, theoretical and purposive sampling was used to select 32 key informants from four groups of stakeholders: (1 elderly workers, (2 employers or human resource managers, (3 government officers, and (4 academics. The findings were then validated using a quantitative approach with structural equation modelling (SEM. A total of 308 elderly workers and human resource managers were surveyed regarding their opinion about elderly employment. Based on the survey, the elderly employment model in the Thai automotive industry, which is comprised of the approach to elderly employment, elderly employment preparation, and key success factors for elderly employment, was revealed to be a good fit. 

  6. Mechanical Model of Traditional Thai Massage for Integrated Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salinee Rattanaphan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a mechanical model was developed, aiming to provide standardized and programmable traditional Thai massage (TTM therapy to patients. The TTM was modeled and integrated into a mechanical hand (MH system, and a prototype massage chair was built and tested for user satisfaction. Three fundamental principles of Thai massage were integrated: pull, press, and pin. Based on these principles, the mechanics of Thai massage was studied and a mathematical model was developed to describe the dynamics and conditions for the design and prototyping of an MH. On average, it was found that users were satisfied with the treatment and felt that the treatment was similar to that performed by human hands. According to the interview results, users indicated that they were likely to utilize the MH as an alternative to traditional massage. Therefore, integrated TTM with an MH may help healthcare providers deliver standardized, programmable massage therapy to patients as opposed to variable, inconsistent human massage.

  7. Perception of injury risk among amateur Muay Thai fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strotmeyer, Stephen; Lystad, Reidar P

    2017-12-01

    Muay Thai is a style of kickboxing that allows full-contact blows to an unprotected head, torso and legs, and, as in any combat sport, there is an inherent risk of injury. Previous observational studies have shown there is a substantial risk of injury in competitive kickboxing. None of these studies, however, have investigated the potential role of psychological risk factors and, consequently, little is known about the perception of injury risk among these athletes. Notwithstanding the important role risk perception may play in the occurrence and prevention of sports injuries, there is very limited empirical data pertaining to athletes in full-contact combat sports such as Muay Thai. Because the development and successful implementation of effective injury prevention policies for combat sports are likely to benefit from an increased understanding of the perception of injury risk and sport safety attitudes and behavior of its participants, further study is warranted. Muay Thai fighters were invited to complete an online survey in which they rated the perceived risk of injury in a range of different sports, including Muay Thai kickboxing. Perceived comparative risk was obtained indirectly by subtracting perceived risk of injury to oneself from perceived risk of injury to a peer. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, comparison of means, and ordinal logistic regression. Contrary to the best available epidemiological evidence, Muay Thai fighters perceived the risk of injury in their own sport to be average and significantly lower than that in other collision and contact sports, including popular combat sports such as boxing and mixed martial arts. On average, Muay Thai fighters perceived their own risk injury to be significantly lower compared to their peers (p injury risk perception and actual risk among Muay Thai fighters. Moreover, these athletes also exhibit a slight degree comparative optimism or unrealistic optimism. Because behavior is determined by

  8. The Possibilities of Using Organization Development Technologies in Thai Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    four r.gions: the moun-ai- ous Worth, wher temperatures in the winter are cool .nouah to Dirmir cultivation of temperate fruits such as apples and...tims cff aftler a difficult period, and Offering swot :)-al support and understanding may help. d. Negotiaticn and Agreement_ Another technique Is

  9. Cloning and comparative analysis of zinc-finger protein gene on Y-chromosome (ZFY between Thai Bangkaew dog and other Thai canids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ukadej Boonyaprakob

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Thai Bangkaew dog is a Spitz-type dog that originated in Thailand. Legend has it that the dog is descended from hybrids between a native female dog and a male wild canid. To examine the mysterious story about the ancestry of the Thai Bangkaew dog's paternal lineage, sequence variation was examined for the last intron of the Y-chromosome-specific zinc-finger gene, ZFY, and its X homolog for male Thai Bangkaew dogs and other male Thai canids, including the Thai ridgeback and mixed breed dogs, Asiatic jackals (Canis aureus and a dhole (Cuon alpinus. A 1075-bp ZFY segment from DNA samples of Thai Bangkaew dogs was found to be 100% identical to the domestic dog ZFY and (if gaps are allowed showed 81% and 92% identity to jackal ZFY and dhole ZFY, respectively. However, if gaps were treated as missing data, the 1045-bp ZFY sequence for the Thai Bangkaew dogs was 100% identical to domestic dog ZFY and 99.5% to jackal ZFY and dhole ZFY, respectively. In addition, the 959-bp Thai Bangkaew ZFX fragments were identical and showed 100% identity to domestic dog ZFX. These genetic data suggest that the Thai Bangkaew dogs still present today share a common male ancestor with modern dogs, rather than being the descendants of dhole or jackal/dog hybrids.

  10. Effect of essential oils prepared from Thai culinary herbs on sessile Candida albicans cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovijitra, Ray S; Choonharuangdej, Suwan; Srithavaj, Theerathavaj

    2016-01-01

    Although medicinal herbs with fungicidal effects have been ubiquitously employed in traditional medicine, such effects of culinary herbs and spices still have to be elucidated. Therefore, it is noteworthy to determine the antifungal efficacy of some edible herbs used in Thai cuisine against sessile Candida albicans cultures, and to inquire if they can be further utilized as naturally-derived antifungals. Fourteen essential oils extracted from Thai culinary herbs and spices were tested for their antifungal activity against C. albicans using the agar disk diffusion method followed by broth micro-dilution method for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration. The oils with potent antifungal effects against planktonic fungi were then assessed for their effect against sessile fungus (adherent organisms and established biofilm culture). MIC of the oils against sessile C. albicans was evaluated by 2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide reduction assay. All selected culinary herbs and spices, except galangal, garlic, and turmeric, exhibited inhibitory effects on planktonic yeast cells. Cinnamon bark and sweet basil leaf essential oils exhibited potent fungicidal effect on planktonic and sessile fungus. Sessile MICs were 8-16 times higher than planktonic MICs. Consequently, both cinnamon bark and sweet basil leaf herbal oils seem to be highly effective anti-Candida choices. (J Oral Sci 58, 365-371, 2016).

  11. The Development of Morbhasa Innovations for Solving Problems in Thai Language Pronunciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriwan Intrakamhaeng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to solve the problems of Thai pronunciation by studying the conditions, factors and settings of language therapist (Morbhasa learning activities. The findings are that institutions are driven by different factors when setting learning activities and transmitting Morbhasa innovations. Morbhasa youth projects are aimed at developing leadership in students, particularly those students lacking adequate interpersonal skills. This is the biggest problem because the students have many other activities and burdens that make it difficult for project organizers to arrange schedules. The curriculum is inflexible in accommodating additional subjects, so the teachers have to implement activities after normal class time. They also lack budget, teaching materials, learning media and innovations for motivating students to attend the activities continuously. The teachers lack opportunities to develop their knowledge and understanding of implementation techniques and there is a lack of working staff and reinforcements. The research finds four methods of setting activities. Eight ways of transmitting the innovations were found: 1 by transmitting among friends; 2 by working together; 3 by working with a sense of beliefs and respect; 4 by creating a variety of activities; 5 by using a peer network; 6 by assignments from leaders; 7 by practicing the learning process; and 8 by integrating the seven strategies. The institutions should select appropriate ways for their own context, readiness and limitations. It is believed that the innovations of the language therapist Morbhasa should be widely transmitted in the educational circle to tackle critical problems of Thai language usage.

  12. The Use of Pocket Electronic Dictionaries by Thai University Students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rbr

    Ed.). 1998. Using. Dictionaries. Studies of Dictionary Use by Language Learners and Translators: 83-122. Lexicogra- phica. Series Maior 88. Tübingen: Max Niemeyer. Boonmoh, A. and H. Nesi. 2008. A Survey of Dictionary Use by Thai ...

  13. Cytotoxic activity and apoptotic induction of some edible Thai local ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate eight edible Thai local plant extracts (Camellia sinensis, Careya sphaerica, Cratoxylum formosum, Eleutherococcus trifoliatus, Ficus auriculata, Persicaria odorata, Schima wallichii, and Vaccinium sprengelii) against colon and liver cancer cell lines. Methods: The 80 % ethanol plant extracts were ...

  14. Shortage of Mathematics Teachers in Thai Basic Education Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puncreobutr, Vichian; Rattanatumma, Tawachai

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the reasons for shortage of Mathematics teachers at Thai Basic Education level. This research is both quantitative and qualitative in nature. For the purpose of study, survey was conducted with senior high school students, in order to find out their willingness to pursue mathematics in Bachelor of…

  15. Expert system for skin problem consultation in Thai traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This paper aimed to demonstrate the research and development of a rule-based expert system for skin problem consulting in the areas of acne, melasma, freckle, wrinkle, and uneven skin tone, with recommended treatments from Thai traditional medicine knowledge. Materials and Methods: The tool selected ...

  16. Androgen Receptor Expression in Thai Breast Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suthat Chottanapund

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence and related factors of androgen receptor (AR expression in Thai breast cancer patients. A descriptive study was done in 95 patients, who were admitted to Charoenkrung Pracharak Hospital, Bangkok (2011–2013. Statistical relationships were examined between AR protein expression, tumor status, and patient characteristics. Compared with those from Western countries, ethnic Thai patients were younger at age of diagnosis and had a higher proliferative index (high Ki-67 expression, which indicates unfavorable prognosis. In addition, 91% of the Thai breast tumors that were positive for any of the following receptors, estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 also expressed the AR protein, while in triple negative breast tumors only 33% were AR positive. ER and PR expression was positively related with AR expression, while AR expression was inversely correlated to Ki-67 expression. AR status was strongly correlated with ER and PR status in Thai patients. There is an inverse relationship between Ki-67 and AR, which suggests that AR may be a prognostic factor for breast cancer.

  17. English Grammar and Thai University Students: An Insurmountable Linguistic Battle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengboon, Saksit

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at investigating English grammar knowledge of a group of Thai university students. The three main research questions revolved around their knowledge of English grammar, the kinds of difficulties they had encountered in using the grammar as well as their perceptions of the roles of grammar in using English. The participants were…

  18. Human Capital Linkages to Labour Productivity: Implications from Thai Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukumnuaykit, Pungpond; Pholphirul, Piriya

    2016-01-01

    Human capital investment is a necessary condition for improving labour market outcomes in most countries. Empirical studies to investigate human capital and its linkages on the labour demand side are, however, relatively scarce due to limitations of firm-level data-sets. Using firm-level data from the Thai manufacturing sector, this paper aims to…

  19. Towards a Curriculum for the Thai Lao of Northeast Thailand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, John

    2015-01-01

    This article considers a fundamental issue in language planning, namely, whether or not to introduce a curriculum for the mother tongue (MT), in the wider context of a complex language planning situation in Thailand. It details recent moves in the consideration of this issue for the Thai Lao (Isan) of Northeast Thailand, Thailand's largest…

  20. The Use of Pocket Electronic Dictionaries by Thai University Students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article reports on a small-scale study of Thai-speaking learners using pocket electronic dictionaries (PEDs) to read an English news article. It investigates how the subjects use their PEDs for reading comprehension. Thirty-nine undergraduate students completed a questionnaire survey. Of these, four were chosen to ...

  1. Street and State Discrimination: Thai Transgender Women in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pravattiyagul, Jutathorn

    2018-01-01

    The large number of Thai transgender women (Kathoey) in Thailand and their visible roles in society often lead casual visitors to believe that Thailand is open and accepting of LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender) culture. Hence, it is common to hear Thailand described as gender tolerant and

  2. Perception and Production of Thai Learners on English Prepositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruangjaroon, Sugunya

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I adopt Best's (2001) Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM) to account for how Thai learners acquire English prepositions in prepositional phrases and propose the ranking order of English preposition acquisition into three different categories. The ranking is as follows: Category A is a one-to-one semantic mapping between English and…

  3. Providing Business English Instruction: Thai Instructors' Practices and Students' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratoomrat, Panadda; Rajprasit, Krich

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine how Business English courses are conducted in the Thai Higher Education, and to investigate students' perceptions toward the instructional management of the courses in their universities. The participants were four instructors, and one hundred and forty students enrolling in the courses of four universities in…

  4. The great power game and Thai military rule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2007-01-01

    There are a variety of suggestions trying to explain why the Thai military decided, in 2006, to stage the 18th coup in 75 years. Some point to corruption and declining growth and investment rates, others to the security problems in the South. A third explanation has tried to relate the coup...

  5. Atypical Eating Attitudes and Behaviors in Thai Medical Students

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    Jarurin Pitanupong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence, and associated factors of atypical eating attitudes and behaviors in Thai medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey examined the eating abnormalities in Thai medical students, conducted in 2014. Research assistants collected data by using; self-reported questionnaires using The Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26 Thai Version. The statistical analysis used R-program for qualitative variables and logistic regression was applied to determine the correlation and P-value. Results: 141 Thai, medical students (15.9% were reported to have atypical attitudes towards eating, and displayed abnormal eating behaviors. There was no statistically significant correlation of attitude towards eating, and their current eating behaviors according to the medical students’ gender, year of studying and Grade Point Average. However, their eating attitudes and behaviors were, associated with Body Mass index. Normal weight (BMI 18.5- 23.49 and overweight (BMI 23.5-39.9 groups could increase by 2.2 (95% CI =1.2, 4.3 and 2.3 (95% CI=1.1, 4.8 times risk depending on atypical eating attitudes and abnormal eating behaviors respectively, when compared with the underweight group (BMI<18.5. Conclusion: There was no correlated difference in concerns to the Thai medical student’s abnormal eating habits, with gender, years of their study and Grade Point Average. Only normal to over-weight BMI were associated. Overweight male, medical students significantly represented more atypical attitudes towards eating and behaviors than other groups in this population. These results may reveal the changing trends of eating attitudes and behaviors due to the current ideal body image of being more muscular. However, prospective studies are still needed.

  6. Combination Welding Technical Terms. English-Thai Lexicon. Introduction to Combination Welding. Thai Version. Multi-Cultural Competency-Based Vocational/Technical Curricula Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Masako T.

    This English-Thai lexicon and program introduction for combination welding is one of eight documents in the Multicultural Competency-Based Vocational/Technical Curricula Series. It is intended for use in postsecondary, adult, and preservice teacher and administrator education. The first two sections provide Thai equivalencies of English…

  7. Automotive Mechanics Technical Terms. English-Thai Lexicon. Introduction to Automotive Mechanics. Thai Version. Multi-Cultural Competency-Based Vocational/Technical Curricula Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Masako T.

    This English-Thai lexicon and program introduction for automotive mechanics is one of eight documents in the Multicultural Competency-Based Vocational/Technical Curricula Series. It is intended for use in postsecondary, adult, and preservice teacher and administrator education. The first two sections provide Thai equivalencies of English…

  8. Baseline characteristics of depressive disorders in Thai outpatients: findings from the Thai Study of Affective Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongpakaran T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinakon Wongpakaran,1 Nahathai Wongpakaran,1 Manee Pinyopornpanish,1 Usaree Srisutasanavong,1 Peeraphon Lueboonthavatchai,2 Raviwan Nivataphand,2 Nattaporn Apisiridej,3 Donruedee Petchsuwan,3 Nattha Saisavoey,4 Kamonporn Wannarit,4 Ruk Ruktrakul,5 Thawanrat Srichan,5 Sirina Satthapisit,6 Daochompu Nakawiro,7 Thanita Hiranyatheb,7 Anakevich Temboonkiat,8 Namtip Tubtimtong,9 Sukanya Rakkhajeekul,9 Boonsanong Wongtanoi,10 Sitthinant Tanchakvaranont,11 Putipong Bookkamana121Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 2Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 3Trang Hospital, Trang, 4Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 5Lampang Hospital, Lampang, 6KhonKaen Hospital, Khon Kaen, 7Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 8Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok, 9Faculty of Medicine Naresuan University, Pitsanulok, 10Srisangwal Hospital, Mae Hong Son, 11Queen Savang Vadhana Memorial Hospital, Chonburi, 12Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai Kingdom of ThailandBackground: The Thai Study of Affective Disorders was a tertiary hospital-based cohort study developed to identify treatment outcomes among depressed patients and the variables involved. In this study, we examined the baseline characteristics of these depressed patients.Methods: Patients were investigated at eleven psychiatric outpatient clinics at tertiary hospitals for the presence of unipolar depressive disorders, as diagnosed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The severity of any depression found was measured using the Clinical Global Impression and 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD clinician-rated tools, with the Thai Depression Inventory (a self-rated instrument administered alongside them. Sociodemographic and psychosocial variables were collected, and quality of life was also captured using the health-related quality of life (SF-36v2

  9. Thai Language Sentence Similarity Computation Based on Syntactic Structure and Semantic Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongbin; Feng, Yinhan; Cheng, Liang

    2018-03-01

    Sentence similarity computation plays an increasingly important role in text mining, Web page retrieval, machine translation, speech recognition and question answering systems. Thai language as a kind of resources scarce language, it is not like Chinese language with HowNet and CiLin resources. So the Thai sentence similarity research faces some challenges. In order to solve this problem of the Thai language sentence similarity computation. This paper proposes a novel method to compute the similarity of Thai language sentence based on syntactic structure and semantic vector. This method firstly uses the Part-of-Speech (POS) dependency to calculate two sentences syntactic structure similarity, and then through the word vector to calculate two sentences semantic similarity. Finally, we combine the two methods to calculate two Thai language sentences similarity. The proposed method not only considers semantic, but also considers the sentence syntactic structure. The experiment result shows that this method in Thai language sentence similarity computation is feasible.

  10. THE KEY ACTIVITIES OF GREEN LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT IN THE THAI AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Thanyaphat Muangpan; Mana Chaowarat; Jutaporn Neamvonk

    2016-01-01

    Thai automotive industry needs to be developed for understanding activities management on inbound logistics that is an essential element of business operations for a manufacturing firm. The purpose of research is to study the main activities of green logistics management (inbound logistics) in the Thai automotive industry. Survey research was used in this study to collect data by sampling from the people in the field of logistics and environmental management of Thai automotive industry to exa...

  11. Attitude of Farmers towards Thai Koi Farming in Selected Upazila of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farruk Ahmed

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The main purposes of the study were to determine the attitude of farmers towards Thai Koi farming in a selected area of Mymensingh district. Attempt was also made to identify the problems faced by the farmers in Thai Koi farming. Data were obtained from randomly selected 70 Thai Koi farmers of Shaiod and Ahmedpur villages in Kheruajani Union under Muktagachha Upazila of Mamensingh district during April, 2015. Attitude of the farmers was measured in respect of different aspects of Thai koi production. A three-point rating scale was used to indicate the Thai koi farmers’ response against each statement. The possible score for each respondent could range from 15 to 45 and observed score ranged from 31 to 41. It is evident that ‘I believe that Thai koi farming in pond can supply protein and nutrition to the family members ranked first as a statement in attitude scale of Thai Koi farmers. Second is ‘I like Thai Koi farming because it has higher growth rate than that of other local Koi’. Most of the Thai Koi farmers had highly favourable attitude. Among the problems, ‘high sensitivity to disease of Thai Koi’ got the highest problem confrontation score and stood the first ranked problem and other problem were ‘High price of Thai koi feed’, High price of drugs’ and ‘High price of farm labour’ etc. Farmers suggested from their experiences that there should have need-based spot training on effective management of Thai Koi farming. In achieving this target, Department of Fisheries and allied NGOs may play a crucial role.

  12. SYSTEMATICITY OF L1 THAI LEARNERS' ENGLISH INTERLANGUAGE OF DEPENDENT PREPOSITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyaboot Sumonsriworakun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates systematicity in English interlanguage of dependent prepositions among L1 Thai learners of L2 English. It is hypothesized that Thai learners show non-random use of English dependent prepositions in their English interlanguage, and that the systematicity is largely attributable to cross-linguistic influence and certain cognitive factors. To test the hypothesis, 30 L1 Thai undergraduate students of L2 English at elementary, intermediate, and advanced proficiency levels took two tests: a Thai–English translation test and a cloze test. The tests involved four types of relationship between English and Thai dependent prepositions: (1 [–prep] in English but [+prep] in Thai, (2 [+prep] in English but [–prep] in Thai, (3 [+prep1] in English but [+prep2] in Thai, and (4 [+prep] in English and [+prep] in Thai. The findings demonstrate that systematicity occurred in the learners’ English usage of prepositions of all such types, possibly due to negative transfer from the learners’ native language. Also, the L2 learners tended to exhibit such systematicity irrespective of their English proficiency level. It may be assumed that the cognitive aspect of L2 learners’ working memory is involved in processing the usage of the four types of English dependent prepositions. The results of the study are expected to shed light on the problems of L2 English interlanguage of dependent prepositions among L1 Thai learners.

  13. The impact of the Thai motorcycle transition on road traffic injury: Thai Cohort Study results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Kelly, Matthew; McClure, Roderick; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of motorcycle to car transitioning and urbanisation on traffic injury rates in Thailand. Analysis of two consecutive surveys of a large national cohort study. Thailand. The data derived from 57,154 Thai Cohort Study (TCS) participants who provided relevant data on both the 2005 and 2009 surveys. Motorcycle and car traffic crash injury self-reported in 2009, with twelve months' recall. In 2009, 5608(10%) participants reported a traffic crash injury. Most crashes involved a motorcycle (74%). Car access increased and motorcycle use decreased between 2005 and 2009. Among those who used a motorcycle at both time points, traffic injury incidence was 2.8 times greater compared to those who did not use a motorcycle at either time point. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to test longitudinal and cross sectional factors associated with traffic crash injury: in the adjusted model, cars were negatively and motorcycles positively associated with injury. Living in an urban area was not injury protective in the adjusted model of traffic crash injury. Ongoing urbanisation in Thailand can be expected to lead to further reductions in road traffic injuries based on transition from motorcycles to cars in urban areas. Cities, however, do not provide an intrinsically safer traffic environment. To accommodate a safe transition to car use in Thailand, traffic infrastructural changes anticipating the growing car density in urban areas is warranted.

  14. Preliminary Screening a Potential AChE Inhibitor in Thai Golden Shower (Leguminosae mimosoideae Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakkaphun Nanuam

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are used to control pests of agriculture products in many countries including Thailand. Since they can exert harmful effects not only on target pests but also on other useful organisms, alternative agents are investigated. We studied the capacity of the Thai golden shower (Leguminosae mimosoideae extracts (root and pod to inhibit acetyl cholinestarese (AChE in the golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata as a pest representative. The results showed that the percentage of AChE inhibition increased with increasing in exposure times. The inhibition expressed the same trend in both male and female apple snails. AChE inhibition was higher in extracts from root than from pod. Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS chromatograms demonstrated anthraquinone, an AChE inhibitor, in extracts of golden shower. Our data indicate that a potential AChE inhibitor tends to accumulate more in the root part than in the pod.

  15. Investigation of Organizational Work-Life Imbalance of Thai Software Developers in a Multinational Software Development Firm using Fishbone Diagram for Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    N. Mantalay; N. Chakpitak; W. Janchai; P. Sureepong

    2012-01-01

    Work stress causes the organizational work-life imbalance of employees. Because of this imbalance, workers perform with lower effort to finish assignments and thus an organization will experience reduced productivity. In order to investigate the problem of an organizational work-life imbalance, this qualitative case study focuses on an organizational work-life imbalance among Thai software developers in a German-owned company in Chiang Mai, Thailand. In terms of knowledge...

  16. Testing a model of depression among Thai adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatanasin, Duangjai; Thapinta, Darawan; Thompson, Elaine Adams; Thungjaroenkul, Petsunee

    2012-11-01

    This predictive correlational study was designed to test a comprehensive model of depression for Thai adolescents. This sample included 800 high school students in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Data were collected using self-reported measures of depression, negative automatic thoughts, effective social problem solving, ineffective social problem solving, rumination, parental care, parental overprotection, and negative life events. Structural equation modeling revealed that negative automatic thoughts, effective and ineffective social problem solving mediated the effects of rumination, negative life events, and parental care and overprotection on adolescent depression. These findings provide new knowledge about identified factors and the mechanisms of their influence on depression among Thai adolescents, which are appropriate for targeting preventive interventions. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The effect of kefir starter on Thai fermented sausage product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Jatupornpipat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of kefir starter from Wilderness Family Naturals Company on the initial formulation of Thai fermented sausage were evaluated. The differences found among batches in the main microbial populations and pH were not significant. Only, the total acid of batch D (added the kefir starter 15 ml was significantly higher (P0.05. It is concluded that the addition of kefir starter (7 ml could be useful to improve the final quality of Thai fermented sausages. The addition of kefir starter that initiates rapid acidification of the raw meat and that leads to a desirable sensory quality of the end-product are used for the production of fermented sausages, and represents a way of improving and optimizing the sausage fermentation process and achieving tastier, safer, and healthier products.

  18. Psychometric properties of the Thai Spiritual Well-Being Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiviboontham, Suchira; Phinitkhajorndech, Noppawan; Hanucharurnkul, Somchit; Noipiang, Thaniya

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the modified Thai Spiritual Well-Being Scale in patients with advanced cancer. This cross-sectional study was employed to investigate psychometric properties. Some 196 participants from three tertiary hospitals in Bangkok and suburban Thailand were asked to complete a Personal Information Questionnaire (PIQ), The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS), and the Spiritual Well-Being Scale (SWBS). Validity was determined by known-group, concurrent, and constructs validity. Reliability was estimated using internal consistency by Cronbach's α coefficients. Three factors were extracted: so-called existential well-being, religious well-being, and peacefulness accounted for 71.44% of total variance. The Cronbach's α coefficients for total SWB, EWB, RWB, and peacefulness were 0.96, 0.94, and 0.93, respectively. These findings indicate that the Thai SWBS is a valid and reliable instrument, and it presented one more factor than the original version.

  19. Health risk behavior among Thai youth: national survey 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirirassamee, Tawima; Sirirassamee, Buppha

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to establish the prevalence of risky health behaviors among Thai youth and to characterize the prevalence of these behaviors by gender, age group, educational status, and region. We analyzed data from a population-based, nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of 938 youth aged between 13 and 24 years, sampled from Bangkok and 4 regions of Thailand. The 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System questionnaire was used to measure youth risk behaviors. This study finds that 15.9% of respondents had engaged in physical fights, and 8.1% had been cyber bullied. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking, alcohol, and marijuana use were 22.3%, 27.9%, and 2.3%, respectively. The prevalence of risky behaviors among Thai youth were found to be high, including behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence, unsafe sexual behaviors, and cigarette and alcohol consumption. © 2014 APJPH.

  20. Gamma irradiation versus microbial contamination of Thai medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wannipa Phianphak

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen species of herbs established in Thai traditional remedies were microbially decontaminated by gamma-irradiation doses of 7.7 and 8.8 kGy. The herb samples were randomly collected four times from producers in Chiangmai during a 1-year period. These were tested, qualitatively and quantitatively, for total aerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp., coliform bacteria, and fungi before and after gamma treatment. No microorganisms were found after gamma treatment; and the color, aroma, and texture of the herbs remained normal. The applied dose of gamma irradiation was within the regulatory limits in Thailand (<10 kGy and the main export country (USA< 30 kGy. Gamma irradiation is an effective treatment for microbial decontamination of Thai export herbs.

  1. LEADERSHIP STYLES: A STUDY OF AUSTRALIAN AND THAI PUBLIC SECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nattavud Pimpa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leadership is deeply attached to culture. This study compares leadership styles in Thai and Australian public sectors. The data were collected from staff in public sector settings in Australia and Thailand. The results confirm four leadership styles that suit the public sector culture in both countries: communication-oriented, strategic thinking and planning, relationship building, and conflict management. In the Thai public sector system, leadership that focuses on goal orientation is ranked most highly: Australian public sector organisations focus on leadership that fosters equity among organisational members, creates a supportive environment in the workplace, and facilitates participation. It is evident from this study that significant distinctions between the organisational cultures of Thailand and Australia are matched by marked dissimilarities of preferred leadership styles. Thus, an understanding of local organisational culture is important for effective leadership at all levels.

  2. Perception of injury risk among amateur Muay Thai fighters

    OpenAIRE

    Strotmeyer, Stephen; Lystad, Reidar P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Muay Thai is a style of kickboxing that allows full-contact blows to an unprotected head, torso and legs, and, as in any combat sport, there is an inherent risk of injury. Previous observational studies have shown there is a substantial risk of injury in competitive kickboxing. None of these studies, however, have investigated the potential role of psychological risk factors and, consequently, little is known about the perception of injury risk among these athletes. Notwithstanding...

  3. Market Discipline at Thai Banks before the Asian Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Jiranyakul, Komain; Opiela, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    This paper tests the effect of systemic risk on deposit market discipline by interacting proxies for systemic risk with bank-specific default-risk variables. Discipline is measured by estimating a supply of deposit funds function at Thai banks from 1992 to 1997. The results show that supply decreases as bank-specific risk increases. Also, the sensitivity of funds to changes in bank-specific risk increases as systemic risk rises. Additionally, depositors decrease their sensitivity to deposit r...

  4. Professionalization influences on Thai family SMEs internationalization activities

    OpenAIRE

    Kotanut, Varitha

    2012-01-01

    Professionalisation is what has occurred in many family businesses. Recently, Thai family SMEs has become more and more internationalised. My dissertation studied how professionalisation influence firms' internationalisation process, including personnel from whom they acquired relevant skills, specific market knowledge, and experiences that enable growth of the company. These personnel may also affect the firm's managerial system. Each firm may change their governance, strategy, and control s...

  5. Marketing Strategy Analysis of Thai Asia Pacific Brewery Company

    OpenAIRE

    Sinee Sankrusme

    2013-01-01

    The study was a case study analysis about Thai Asia Pacific Brewery Company. The purpose was to analyze the company’s marketing objective, marketing strategy at company level, and marketing mix before liquor liberalization in 2000. Methods used in this study were qualitative and descriptive research approach which demonstrated the following results of the study demonstrated as follows: (1) Marketing objective was to increase market share of Heineken and Amtel, (2) the com...

  6. Probiotic Properties of Lactobacilli Isolated from Thai Traditional Food

    OpenAIRE

    KLAYRAUNG, Srikanjana; VIERNSTEIN, Helmut; SIRITHUNYALUG, Jakkapan; OKONOGI, Siriporn

    2008-01-01

    Certain properties relevant to probiotic action, e.g. resistance to acid, bile tolerance, adhesive properties, antibacterial activity, and antibiotic susceptibility were investigated of lactobacilli isolated from four kinds of Thai traditional fermented foods. Media of pH = 2.0–7.0 and bile salt concentrations of 0.3–1.0% were used as stress conditions. The adhesive properties were assessed by determination of bacterial hydrophobicity. Antibacterial activity of the probiotic lactobacilli was ...

  7. Thalassemia and Hemoglobin E in Southern Thai Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Nuinoon, Manit; Kruachan, Kwanta; Sengking, Warachaya; Horpet, Dararat; Sungyuan, Ubol

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemia and hemoglobin E (Hb E) are common in Thailand. Individuals with thalassemia trait usually have a normal hemoglobin concentration or mild anemia. Therefore, thalassemic individuals who have minimum acceptable Hb level may be accepted as blood donors. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of α-thalassemia 1 trait, β-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes in Southern Thai blood donors. One hundred and sixteen voluntary blood donors, Southern Thailand origin, were ...

  8. Iodine oxides in large-scale THAI tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funke, F.; Langrock, G.; Kanzleiter, T.; Poss, G.; Fischer, K.; Kühnel, A.; Weber, G.; Allelein, H.-J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Iodine oxide particles were produced from gaseous iodine and ozone. ► Ozone replaced the effect of ionizing radiation in the large-scale THAI facility. ► The mean diameter of the iodine oxide particles was about 0.35 μm. ► Particle formation was faster than the chemical reaction between iodine and ozone. ► Deposition of iodine oxide particles was slow in the absence of other aerosols. - Abstract: The conversion of gaseous molecular iodine into iodine oxide aerosols has significant relevance in the understanding of the fission product iodine volatility in a LWR containment during severe accidents. In containment, the high radiation field caused by fission products released from the reactor core induces radiolytic oxidation into iodine oxides. To study the characteristics and the behaviour of iodine oxides in large scale, two THAI tests Iod-13 and Iod-14 were performed, simulating radiolytic oxidation of molecular iodine by reaction of iodine with ozone, with ozone injected from an ozone generator. The observed iodine oxides form submicron particles with mean volume-related diameters of about 0.35 μm and show low deposition rates in the THAI tests performed in the absence of other nuclear aerosols. Formation of iodine aerosols from gaseous precursors iodine and ozone is fast as compared to their chemical interaction. The current approach in empirical iodine containment behaviour models in severe accidents, including the radiolytic production of I 2 -oxidizing agents followed by the I 2 oxidation itself, is confirmed by these THAI tests.

  9. Injury and injury rates in Muay Thai kick boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartland, S; Malik, M H; Lovell, M E

    2001-10-01

    To determine the type and number of injuries that occur during the training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing and to compare the data obtained with those from previous studies of karate and taekwondo. One to one interviews using a standard questionnaire on injuries incurred during training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing were conducted at various gyms and competitions in the United Kingdom and a Muay Thai gala in Holland. A total of 152 people were questioned, 132 men and 20 women. There were 19 beginners, 82 amateurs, and 51 professionals. Injuries to the lower extremities were the most common in all groups. Head injuries were the second most common in professionals and amateurs. Trunk injuries were the next most common in beginners. The difference in injury distribution among the three groups was significant (pinjury in the three groups. Fractures were the second most common in professionals, and in amateurs and beginners it was sprains and strains (pinjury rates were: beginners, 13.5/1000 participants; amateurs, 2.43/1000 participants; professionals, 2.79/1000 participants. For beginners, 7% of injuries resulted in seven or more days off training; for amateurs and professionals, these values were 4% and 5.8% respectively. The results are similar to those found for karate and taekwondo with regard to injury distribution, type, and rate. The percentage of injuries resulting in time off training is less.

  10. Antecedents affecting Thai auto parts enterprise organizational performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somyos Phoosawad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Thailand is ranked 12th in the world in automotive production, with 57 of the world’s top 100 auto parts manufacturers having factories in Thailand. The industry employs 525,000 workers and represents 12% of Thailand’s gross domestic production (GDP. The automotive industry has also been identified as a core industry in the transition to Thailand 4.0, with digitally enabled, knowledge workers key to its success. This study, therefore, undertook structural equation modeling to conduct an analysis of variables affecting Thai auto parts industry enterprises organizational performance. Using purposive sampling, 320 executives in the Thai automotive industry were selected whose responses to the question constructs were captured using a five-point Likert type agreement scale. Results determined that leadership skills have a significant effect on management skills, and that management skills have a direct and positive effect on management innovation. Additionally, innovation thus far has been viewed as an external process, primarily in response to customer demands or ‘home office’ requirements. Research findings, therefore, suggest that the Thai auto parts industry must develop innovative leadership management which is crucial to sustaining a competitive, domestic capability.

  11. Perspectives on healthy aging among Thai elderly: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanakwang, Kattika; Soonthorndhada, Kusol; Mongkolprasoet, Jiraporn

    2012-12-01

    In this qualitative study, we provide an in-depth understanding of the views of healthy aging among Thai elderly and explore the ways that contribute to healthy aging. Data were collected using focus groups and in-depth interviews in four selected provinces of Thailand, and were analyzed using content analysis. The results revealed that Thai elderly described being healthy as the result of multiple components involving physical, mental, and social well-being. Healthy aging was viewed as an absence of serious diseases, having functional independence, a positive psycho-emotional outlook, and making a social contribution. The factors considered to contribute to healthy aging included activities promoting physical and psychological health, as well as active engagement in social activities. Understanding how the elderly define healthy aging and identifying the most important components and factors that contribute to being healthy provides insight into possible policy implications and interventions to promote health and well-being among Thai elderly. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. The sacred foodscapes of Thai Buddhist temples in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Plank

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thai Buddhist communities are by far the fastest-growing Buddhist establishments in Sweden, and – contrary to other Buddhist congregations that are mainly clustered in the cities – Thai Buddhist temples can be found in sparsely-populated areas and rural parts of Sweden. This article aims to document and analyse the ‘foodscape’ of diasporic Thai Buddhism in Sweden. In particular the article identifies and discusses five different strategies used by local communities- in order to support their temples in urban as well as rural areas: 1 local support, 2 pre-cooking and freezing, 3 pre-organised almsgiving in nearby cities, 4 change of food gifts, 5 change of the nikaya. A temple’s location in a rural area can drive forward a reinterpretation and adaptation of the monk’s rules, and contribute to a changing composition of food gifts. Food performs several functions. In addition to the religious functions that are associated with almsgiving, food can also serve as a means of generating bonding and bridging civic social capital, and providing economic income to temples.

  13. Applying Conjoint Analysis to Study Attitudes of Thai Government Organisations

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    Natee Suriyanon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the application of choice-based conjointanalysis to analyse the attitude of Thai government organisationstowards the restriction of the contractor’s right to claimcompensation for unfavourable effects from undesirable events.The analysis reveals that the organisations want to restrict only 6out of 14 types of the claiming rights that were studied. The rightthat they want to restrict most is the right to claim for additionaldirect costs due to force majeure. They are willing to pay between0.087% - 0.210% of the total project direct cost for restricting eachtype of contractor right. The total additional cost for restrictingall six types of rights that the organisations are willing to pay is0.882%. The last section of this article applies the knowledgegained from a choice based conjoint analysis experiment to theanalysis of the standard contract of the Thai government. Theanalysis reveals three types of rights where Thai governmentorganisations are willing to forego restrictions, but the presentstandard contract does not grant such rights.

  14. Risk factors for an anxiety disorder comorbidity among Thai patients with bipolar disorder: results from the Thai Bipolar Disorder Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paholpak S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Suchat Paholpak,1 Ronnachai Kongsakon,2 Wasana Pattanakumjorn,3 Roongsang Kanokvut,4 Wiroj Wongsuriyadech,5 Manit Srisurapanont6 On behalf of the Thai Bipolar Disorder Registry Study Group1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 3Department of Psychiatry, Ratchaburi Hospital, Ratchaburi, 4Department of Psychiatry, Buddhachinaraj Hospital, Phitsanulok, 5Department of Psychiatry, Udonthani Hospital, Udonthani, 6Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Background: The aim of the study was to determine in a clinical setting the risk factors for current anxiety disorder (AD comorbidity among Thai patients with bipolar disorder (BD, being treated under the Thai Bipolar Disorder Registry Project (TBDR. Methods: The TBDR was a multisite naturalistic study conducted at 24 psychiatric units (ie, at university, provincial mental, and government general hospitals between February 2009 and January 2011. Participants were in- or out-patients over 18 years of age who were diagnosed with BD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Instruments used in this study included the Thai Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview version 5; Thai Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS; Thai Young Mania Rating Scale; Clinical Global Impression of Bipolar Disorder-Severity (CGI-BP-S, CGI-BP-S-mania, CGI-BP-S-depression, and CGI-BP-S-overall BP illness; and the Thai SF-36 quality of life questionnaire. Results: Among the 424 BD patients, 404 (95.3% had BD type I. The respective mean ± standard deviation of age of onset of mood disturbance, first diagnosis of BD, and first treatment of BD was 32.0±11.9, 36.1±12.2, and 36.2±12.2 years. The duration of illness was 10.7±9.0 years. Fifty-three (12.5% of the 424 participants had

  15. The development of the Pictorial Thai Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phattharayuttawat, Sucheera; Ngamthipwatthana, Thienchai; Pitiyawaranun, Buncha

    2005-11-01

    "Quality of life" has become a main focus of interest in medicine. The Pictorial Thai Quality of Life (PTQL) was developed in order to measure the Thai mental illness both in a clinical setting and community. The purpose of this study was to develop the Pictorial Thai Quality of Life (PTQL), having adequate and sufficient construct validity, discriminant power, concurrent validity, and reliability. To develop the Pictorial Thai Quality of Life Test, two samples groups were used in the present study: (1) pilot study samples: 30 samples and (2) survey samples were 672 samples consisting of normal, and psychiatric patients. The developing tests items were collected from a review of the literature in which all the items were based on the WHO definition of Quality of Life. Then, experts judgment by the Delphi technique was used in the first stage. After that a pilot study was used to evaluate the testing administration, and wording of the tests items. The final stage was collected data from the survey samples. The results of the present study showed that the final test was composed 25 items. The construct validity of this test consists of six domains: Physical, Cognitive, Affective, Social Function, Economic and Self-Esteem. All the PTQL items have sufficient discriminant power It was found to be statistically significant different at the. 001 level between those people with mental disorders and normal people. There was a high level of concurrent validity association with WHOQOL-BREF, Pearson correlation coefficient and Area under ROC curve were 0.92 and 0.97 respectively. The reliability coefficients for the Alpha coefficients of the PTQL total test was 0.88. The values of the six scales were from 0.81 to 0:91. The present study was directed at developing an effective psychometric properties pictorial quality of life questionnaire. The result will be a more direct and meaningful application of an instrument to detect the mental health illness poor quality of life in

  16. Risk Factors for Overweight and Obesity among Thai Adults: Results of the National Thai Food Consumption Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker S.C. Poston

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the associations between overweight and obesity and socio-economic status (SES, behavioral factors, and dietary intake in Thai adults. A nationally representative sample of 6,445 Thais adults (18–70 years was surveyed during 2004–2005. Information including demographics, SES characteristics, dietary intake, and anthropometrics were obtained. Overall, 35.0% of men, and 44.9% of women were overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2 using the Asian cut-points. Regression models demonstrated that age was positively associated with being overweight in both genders. In gender-stratified analyses, male respondents who were older, lived in urban areas, had higher annual household income, and did not smoke were more likely to be classified as overweight and obese. Women who were older, had higher education, were not in a marriage-like relationship and were in semi-professional occupation were at greater risk for being overweight and obese. High carbohydrate and protein intake were found to be positively associated with BMI whereas the frequent use of dairy foods was found to be negatively associated with BMI among men. The present study found that SES factors are associated with being classified as overweight and obese in Thai adults, but associations were different between genders. Health promotion strategies regarding obesity and its related co-morbidity are necessary.

  17. Risk factors of future smoking among Thai youth: a secondary analysis of the Thai Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gyeongsil; Lee, Joann; Lee, Sungkyu

    2015-03-01

    The study aimed to identify the risk factors for future smoking among Thai youth aged 13 to 15 years (seventh to ninth grade). Data from the nationally representative 2005 Thai Global Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 15 774) were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Among nonsmoking Thai youth, boys were much more likely to have intention of future smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.37-0.84). Younger youth were more likely to be cigarette smokers in the future (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.56-0.88). Youth having the intention of smoking from a friend's cigarette offer were 5.29 times more likely to have intention of future smoking, compared with those who did not (95% CI = 3.75-7.46). Understanding and targeting youth at higher risk for future smoking can provide for a lowering of the youth smoking rate in Thailand and contribute to the country's continued efforts in effective youth tobacco control. © 2013 APJPH.

  18. "When Meeting 'Khun' Teacher, Each Time We Should Pay Respect": Standardizing Respect in a Northern Thai Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Kathryn M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines how Northern Thai (Muang) children are socialized into the discourses and practices of respect in school, a process that indexically links Standard Thai to images of polite and respectful Thai citizenship. Focusing on the socialization of politeness particles, the paper examines how cultural models of conduct are taken up,…

  19. Variable Production of English Past Tense Morphology: A Case Study of a Thai-Speaking Learner of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prapobaratanakul, Chariya; Pongpairoj, Nattama

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated variable production of English past tense morphology by an L1 Thai-speaking learner of English. Due to the absence of the past tense inflectional morphology in the Thai language, production of English past tense morphemes poses a persistent problem for L1 Thai-speaking learners of English. Hypotheses have been made in…

  20. Microsomal detoxication enzyme responses of the marine snail, Thais haemastoma, to laboratory oil exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livingstone, D.R.; Stickle, W.B.; Kapper, M.; Wang, S.

    1986-01-01

    The cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase or mixed function oxidase (MFO) system is a widely distributed enzyme system involved in the detoxication of foreign organic compounds (xenobiotics) taken up by organisms. Increases in the activities of the MFO system, occur with exposure of the organism to organic xenobiotics and such responses in the field have been proposed as a means of identifying biological impact by organic pollution. The carnivorous marine gastropod Thais haemastoma, or southern oyster drill, rapidly accumulated polynuclear aromatic and other hydrocarbons from the environment, through both the food source and the water-column. In laboratory experiments T. haemastoma were exposed to the water soluble fraction (WSF) of South Louisiana crude oil and the responses of the MFO system examined. Preliminary characterization of the snail MFO system was carried out using methodology developed from studies on the common mussel Mytilus edulis. Microsomal benz[a]pyrene hydroxylase (BPH), NADH- and NADPH- dependent cytochrome c reductase (NAD(P)H-CYTCRED) and NADH-dependent ferricyanide reductase (NADH-FERRIRED) activities were measured but it was not possible to determine cytochrome P-450 or b 5

  1. Fumonisin B2 production by Aspergillus niger in Thai coffee beans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanakul, W.; Nielsen, K.F.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    During 2006 and 2007, a total of 64 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea arabica) from two growing sites in Chiangmai Province and 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea canephora) from two growing sites in Chumporn Province, Thailand, were collected and assessed for fumonisin contamination by

  2. Discourse Connector Usage in Argumentative Essays by American and Thai University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jangarun, Kamolphan; Luksaneeyanawin, Sudaporn

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the similarities and differences in the use of discourse connectors (DCs) in argumentative essays of American undergraduate students (AMs), Thai with high-English exposure (THHs) and Thai with low-English exposure (THLs). The data of these three groups were collected from 60 essays; 20 essays were from the corpus of…

  3. Thai Youths and Global Warming: Media Information, Awareness, and Lifestyle Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokriensukchai, Kanchana; Tamang, Ritendra

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the exposure of Thai youths to media information on global warming, the relationship between exposure to global warming information and awareness of global warming, and the relationship between that awareness and lifestyle activities that contribute to global warming. A focus group of eight Thai youths provided information that…

  4. The Sport Commitment Model: An Investigation of Structural Relationships with Thai Youth Athlete Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choosakul, Chairat; Vongjaturapat, Naruepon; Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Grounded in the conceptual framework of the Sport Commitment Model and previous empirical studies conducted in Western countries, this study was designed to (a) test and validate a Thai version of the Athlete Opinion Survey to assess components of the Sport Commitment Model in Thai youth athletes and (b) examine structural relationships among…

  5. Investigating Move Structure of English Applied Linguistics Research Article Discussions Published in International and Thai Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amnuai, Wirada; Wannaruk, Anchalee

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the rhetorical move structure of English applied linguistic research article Discussions published in Thai and international journals. Two corpora comprising of 30 Thai Discussions and 30 international Discussions were analyzed using Yang & Allison's (2003) move model. Based on the analysis, both similarities and…

  6. UNDERSTANDING THAI CULTURE AND ITS IMPACT ON REQUIREMENTS ENGINEERING PROCESS MANAGEMENT DURING INFORMATION SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theerasak Thanasankit

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of Thai culture on managing the decision making process in requirements engineering and contribution a better understand of its influence on the management of requirements engineering process. The paper illustrates the interaction of technology and culture and shows that rather than technology changing culture, culture can change the way technology is used. Thai culture is naturally inherent in Thai daily life and Thais bring that into their work practices. The concepts of power and uncertainty in Thai culture contribute toward hierarchical forms of communication and decision making process in Thailand, especially during requirements engineering, where information systems requirements need to be established for further development. The research shows that the decision making process in Thailand tends to take a much longer time, as every stage during requirements engineering needs to be reported to management for final decisions. The tall structure of Thai organisations also contributes to a bureaucratic, elongated decision-making process during information systems development. Understanding the influence of Thai culture on requirements engineering and information systems development will assist multinational information systems consulting organisations to select, adapt, better manage, or change requirements engineering process and information systems developments methodologies to work best with Thai organisations.

  7. THAI experimental programme for containment safety assessment under severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, S.; Freitag, M. [Becker Technologies GmbH, Eschborn (Germany); Poss, G.

    2016-05-15

    The THAI (THAI = Thermal hydraulics, Hydrogen, Aerosols, Iodine) experimental programme aims to address open questions concerning the behavior of hydrogen, iodine and aerosols in the containment of water cooled reactors. Since its construction in 2000, THAI programme is being performed in the frame of various national projects (sponsored by German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy, BMWi) and two international joint projects (under auspices of OECD/NEA). THAI experimental data have been widely used for the validation and further development of Lumped Parameter (LP) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes with 3D capabilities. Selected examples of code benchmark exercises performed based on the THAI data include; hydrogen distribution experiment (ISP-47 and OECD/NEA THAI code benchmark), hydrogen combustion behaviour (ISP-49), hydrogen mitigation by PARs (OECD/NEA THAI-2 code benchmark), iodine/surface interactions, iodine mass transfer, and iodine transport and multi-compartment behaviour (EU-SARNET and EU-SARNET2), thermal-hydraulic tests (German CFD-network). In the present paper, a brief overview on the THAI experiments and their role in the containment safety assessment is discussed.

  8. Compliment Responses of Thai and Punjabi Speakers of English in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachathep, Sukchai

    2014-01-01

    This variational pragmatics (VP) study investigates the similarities and differences of compliment responses (CR) between Thai and Punjabi speakers of English in Thailand, focusing on the strategies used in CR when the microsociolinguistic variables are integrated into the Discourse Completion Task (DCT). The participants were 20 Thai and 20…

  9. Thai migrant women in the Netherlands : cross-cultural marriages and families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suksomboon, Panitee

    2009-01-01

    This thesis has focused on the cross-cultural marriage of Thai migrant women in the Netherlands and the ups-and-downs of their everyday life of creating and maintaining their relationships with their Dutch husband, Dutch in-laws, Thai relatives and friends in the Netherlands as well as family and

  10. Education Course Syllabus Development, Thai Language Major According to Buddhism Way of Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waree, Chaiwat

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to develop Education Course Syllabus, Thai language major, according to Buddhism way of Thailand by using Taba's Approach and to evaluate the efficiency of Education Course Syllabus, Thai language major, according to Buddhism way of Thailand. This research was conducted according to research and development format and its…

  11. Correlates of current suicide risk among Thai patients with bipolar I disorder: findings from the Thai Bipolar Disorder Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suttajit S

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sirijit Suttajit,1 Suchat Paholpak,2 Somrak Choovanicvong,3 Khanogwan Kittiwattanagul,4 Wetid Pratoomsri,5 Manit Srisurapanont1On behalf of the Thai Bipolar Registry Group1Department of Psychiatry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 2Department of Psychiatry, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 3Srithanya Hospital, Nonthaburi, 4Khon Kaen Rajanagarindra Psychiatric Hospital, Khon Kaen, 5Chachoengsao Hospital, Chachoengsao, ThailandBackground: The Thai Bipolar Disorder Registry was a prospective, multisite, naturalistic study conducted in 24 hospitals across Thailand. This study aimed to examine the correlates of current suicide risk in Thai patients with bipolar I disorder.Methods: Participants were adult inpatients or outpatients with bipolar disorder, based on the Diagnosis and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition. All were assessed by using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI, version 5. The severity of current suicide risk was determined by using the total score of the MINI suicidality module. Mood symptoms were assessed by using the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale.Results: The data of 383 bipolar I disorder patients were included in the analyses. Of these, 363 (94.8% were outpatients. The mean (standard deviation of the MINI suicide risk score was 1.88 (5.0. The demographic/clinical variables significantly associated with the MINI suicide risk scores included age, number of overall previous episodes, the Young Mania Rating Scale score, the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale scores, and the Clinical Global Impression Severity of Illness Scale for Bipolar Disorder mania score, depression score, and overall score. The variables affecting the differences of suicide risk scores between or among groups were type of first mood episode, a history of rapid cycling, anxiety disorders, and alcohol use disorders. The stepwise multiple linear regression model revealed

  12. The Thai Business Initiative in Rural Development (TBIRD): a new dimension in rural development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viravaidya, M

    1990-04-01

    The Population and Community Development Association (PDA) promotes family planning (FP) throughout Thailand through a community-based approach. The Thai government actively supports rural development. In 1986, 80% of Thailand's people who lived below the poverty line were in rural areas. The poverty line in rural areas is an annual per capita income of 3823 baht, or US $153; in urban areas, it is more. Since 1984, Thailand's gross domestic product (GDP) has increased by more than 50%. Per capita GDP has risen dramatically, also, with the success of FP efforts. This economic achievement, however, has not been shared by most of the Thai population. Incomes in the agriculture sector are far below those in the nonagricultural sector. The government and the nonprofit organizations, however, do not have skills. The corporate sector does have these skills. The Thailand Business Initiative in Rural Development (TBIRD) helps companies sponsor villages and aids them in developing business skills, whereupon income levels and local living standards are improved. Companies thus help in the employment transfer from agriculture to nonagriculture. There is a "one-company-one- village" formula. Company employees have the skills needed in the villages. They are directly involved. Since 1988, PDA has been working with companies in Thailand to help villages develop business skills. In Saraburi province, PDA and Volvo Swedish Motors have been aiding villagers to grow saplings and sell them to golf course and housing developers. In Ayutthaya Province, PDA and the same company are helping the residents with needlepoint and embroidery to supply a wedding dress manufacturing operation. These programs have succeeded. PDA wants to expand the program by September 1990, to include 50 companies. It is hoped that once the companies are comfortable with their relationship to the village, they will start associations with additional villages. PDA has established the "Ten Steps to Adopt a Village."

  13. "Are Thai children and youth sufficiently active? prevalence and correlates of physical activity from a nationally representative cross-sectional study".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amornsriwatanakul, Areekul; Lester, Leanne; Bull, Fiona C; Rosenberg, Michael

    2017-05-30

    Children and youth gain multiple health benefits from regular participation in physical activity (PA). However, in Thailand there is limited national data on children and youth's PA behaviors and recent reports suggest that Thai children and youth have low levels of PA. Furthermore, there is almost no data on the factors associated with inactivity to support the development of a Thai National PA Plan. The purpose of this paper is to investigate Thai children and youth's participation in PA and its correlates across sociodemographic characteristics and different PA domains. This study applied a cross-sectional study design with a multi-stage stratified cluster sampling. A national representative sample of 13,255 children and youth aged 6-17 years were used for data analysis. A previously validated questionnaire was used to assess PA prevalence. Logistic regression was conducted to examine the relationships of socio-demographic factors, and participation in different PA domains with overall PA. Only 23.4% of Thai children and youth met recommended levels of PA and there were large gender and regional differences. PA levels generally declined with age, although the level observed in the 10-13 year group was slightly higher than other year groups. A majority of children and youth engaged in a large number of different activities across PA domains. Sex, age, BMI, geographical regions, organized sports, participation in sport and recreational activities were significant predictors of meeting the global PA guidelines, whereas participation in physical education, active transport, and the number of screen time activities had no association. Girls were less likely to achieve sufficient PA levels (OR = 0.49, 95%CI; 0.45-0.54, p Thai children and youth is low, despite the high levels of engagement in a large number of PA. The results indicate that policy and interventions aimed at increasing PA are needed with special attention required to address specific groups less

  14. Crazy for Ya Ba: methamphetamine use among northern Thai youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Anjalee

    2014-07-01

    Since the mid-1990s, Thailand has been one of the largest per capita consumers of methamphetamine pills (ya ba - "crazy drug") in the world and one of the leading consumers of methamphetamine in Southeast Asia, with its youth comprising the majority of users. This article examines the socio-cultural context of methamphetamine use among young Thai in order to understand its widespread appeal. The study is based on 18 months of ethnographic research in Chiang Mai, northern Thailand, between 2002 and 2006 and a follow-up field trip in 2011. In-depth interviews were carried out with 211 young people aged between 15 and 25 in institutional and non-institutional settings. Many of the findings derive from participant observation and informal interviews with a small sample of 20 people. Chiang Mai youth have transformed methamphetamine from a labourers' drug centred on economic utility to a multi-purpose youth drug primarily consumed for pleasure and performance. Ya ba appeals to many young Thai due to its positive image as a modern and fashionable consumer commodity, with confidence in these synthetic pills drawing on and mirroring a broader faith in modern (western) medicine. The growing demand for ya ba in northern Thailand is in part a reflection of the changing social values that have accompanied rapid urbanisation and modernisation in Thailand. In their overwhelming aspiration to be modern, young Thai are consuming ya ba not to rebel against the dominant culture, but to keep up with the demands and expectations of a modern capitalist society. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The performance of obesity screening tools among young Thai adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpawattana, Panita; Kengkijkosol, Thepkhachi; Assantachai, Prasert; Krairit, Orapitchaya; Pimporm, Jiraporn

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is a worldwide medical condition that leads to physical and psychological impairment. Specific ethnicity, gender and age group are related to different performances of anthropometric indices to predict obesity. The objectives of this study were to estimate the performance of the anthropometric indices for detecting obesity based on percentage of body fat (PBF), to study the correlation among those indices, and to determine the optimal cut-off point of the indices among young Thai adults. This is a cross-sectional study of healthy urban subjects in Khon Kaen, Thailand who were aged 20-39 years. Baseline characteristics and anthropometric measures were collected. PBF was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Demographic data and anthropometric variables were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare the performance of anthropometric measures as predictors of obesity. One-hundred men and 100 women were recruited for this study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-stature ratio (WSR) were significantly correlated to PBF. BMI demonstrated the best performance according to the area under the ROC curves in both sexes at cut-off points of 22.5 in women or 25 kg/m(2) in men. WC and WSR showed better performance than WHR to detect obesity. In conclusion, anthropometric indices in young Thai adults were correlated well with PBF to predict obesity as shown in prior reports. Different cut-off points of these indices to define obesity in young Thai adults are recommended. The global cut-off points of WSR in women regardless of ethnicity are supported.

  16. Astaxanthin production from sewage of traditional Thai rice vermicelli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujarit, Chutinut; Rittirut, Waigoon; Amornlerdpison, Doungporn; Siripatana, Chairat

    2017-03-01

    This research aimed to investigate an optimal condition for astaxanthin production by Phaffia rhodozyma TISTR 5730 in two different media: synthetic YM medium and the medium added with coconut water and diluted with sewage from Thai traditional rice vermicelli plant (coconut water: sewage of 1:0, 1:1, 1:3 and 1:5 ration respectively). The basic medium formulation was composed of 10 g/L glucose, 3 g/L yeast extract, 0.1 g/L K2HPO4, 0.01 g/L NaCl, 0.01 g/L MgSO4 and 0.01 g/L CaCl2 with initial pH 5.5. The cultures were cultivated on 200 rpm shaking bath at 50 °C for 120 hr. It was found that P. rhodozyma TISTR 5370 grew optimally when cultivated in a mixture of coconut water and Thai rice vermicelli sewage (ratio of 1:3), with growth of 3.23 g dry biomass/L and specific astaxanthin production of 680 μg/g dry cell respectively. When fan palm sugar was added to increase reducing sugar from 10 to 15, 20 and 25 g/L, it was demonstrated that the 15 g/L formulation produced highest both dry cell weight (9.66 g/L) and astaxanthin (810 μg/g dry cell weight). Furthermore, when 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/L citric acid was added as supplement, it was found that 1.0-g/L citric acid formulation gave the best result: 10.30 g/L dried cell weight and 930 μg/g dry cell weight astaxanthin. This study provides a promising alternative method of sewage reduction and valorization of wastewater from Thai traditional rice vermicelli plant.

  17. The external relations of the monarchy in Thai politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    The first part of the paper discusses the most important explanations of the coup. The second part is devoted to history and ideology of the king and the throne while the third develops an image of the Crown Property Bureau and the Privy council's role in Thai politics. The fourth and fifth...... sections look more squarely at the impact of the rivalry of the US and China and the regional security dimension in relation to the coup itself and more specifically the role of the king. Finally some concluding remarks are offered....

  18. Epidemiology of Muay Thai fight-related injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strotmeyer, Stephen; Coben, Jeffrey H; Fabio, Anthony; Songer, Thomas; Brooks, Maria

    2016-12-01

    Muay Thai is a combat sport of Thailand that uses stand-up striking along with various clinching techniques. Currently, little is known about the injuries and risk factors for injuries among Muay Thai fighters. Gaining more insight into the nature and frequency of injury in this sport provides part of the overall sports injury picture, within the larger burden of injury as a public health issue. Generating this information is a critical first step toward the broader goal of improving the health and safety of Muay Thai fighters engaged in competition. This study is based upon a survey of 195 Muay Thai fighters. Participants were asked to complete a retrospective web survey on fight-related injuries. Regression analyses were conducted to determine whether injuries during sanctioned fights were related to factors such as fight experience, use of protective equipment, and injury history. Participants were aged 18 to 47 years old (median 26), predominantly male (85.9%), and white (72.3%). Respondents were professional (n = 96, 49.2%) and amateur (n = 99, 50.8%). Fighters reported a mean fight experience of 15.8 fights. Of the 195 respondents, 108 (55.4%) reported sustaining an injury during the most recent fight. The primary body region injured was the extremities (58%) versus the head, with a lower amount of self-reported concussions (5.4%). Nearly 2/3 (66.7%) of all injured fighters reported that the injury did not interfere with the bout outcome. Nearly 25% reported they missed no training time as a result of the injury. Injuries were related to professional fighter status (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.4-4.5), fight experience (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.5-4.9), weight class (OR = 0.923 heavy versus light, 95% CI = .86-.99), age (OR = 0.90 > 26 versus ≤26, 95% CI = .85-.95), use of protective equipment (OR = .46, 95% CI = .26-.82) and previous injury (OR = 1.81, 95% CI = .98-3.3). Lighter, younger, and more experienced

  19. Low carbon society scenario 2050 in Thai industrial sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvakkumaran, Sujeetha; Limmeechokchai, Bundit; Masui, Toshihiko; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Matsuoka, Yuzuru

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thai industrial sector has been modelled using AIM/Enduse model. • Potential mitigation of CO 2 for 2050 is approximately 20% from Baseline scenario. • Abatement cost curves show that varied counter measures are practical in the industrial sector. • Energy security is enhanced due to CO 2 mitigation in the LCS scenario. - Abstract: Energy plays a dominant role in determining the individual competitiveness of a country and this is more relevant to emerging economies. That being said, energy also plays an important and ever expanding role in carbon emissions and sustainability of the country. As a developing country Thailand’s industrial sector is vibrant and robust and consumes majority of the energy. In addition, it also has the highest CO 2 emissions, provided the emissions of power generation are taken into account. Industry also accounts for the highest consumption of electricity in Thailand. The objective of this study is to model the Thai industrial energy sector and estimate the mitigation potential for the timeframe of 2010–2050 using the principles of Low Carbon Society (LCS). In addition, the paper would also evaluate emission tax as a key driver of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) mitigation along with Marginal Abatement Cost (MAC) analysis. Another secondary objective is to analyse the impact of mitigation on energy security of the industrial sector. The Thai industrial sector was modelled using AIM/Enduse model, which is a recursive dynamic optimisation model belonging to the Asia–Pacific Integrated Model (AIM) family. Thai industrial sector was divided into nine sub-sectors based on national economic reporting procedures. Results suggest that the mitigation potential in 2050, compared to the Baseline scenario, is around 20% with positive impacts on energy security. The Baseline emission will approximately be 377 Mt-CO 2 in the industrial sector. All four indicators of energy security, Primary Energy Intensity, Carbon Intensity, Oil

  20. STRATEGY IMPLEMENTATION STYLES OF MALAYSIAN, THAI AND HUNGARIAN MIDDLE MANAGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshkumar P. Joshi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need for more comparative empirical research that examines middle manager roles in strategic change. This paper reports a study of middle managers in two dynamic settings: the Asia/Pacific region – Malaysia and Thailand; and Central/Eastern Europe – Hungary. Results of 213 respondents across three countries indicate that middle managers from all three tend toward use of authoritarian management styles even in proactive strategic change situations. However, Hungarians are less likely to use these styles than Thai and Malaysian middle managers. For all three countries, managers with less work experience were found to have lower tendencies to use an authoritarian style of implementation. When top managers exhibit an aggressive strategic posture, middle-managers from all three countries are also less likely to use an authoritarian style.Firms that want to stay competitive in the global market place must continuously evolve by successfully accomplishing strategic change (Struckman & Yammarino 2003. Although senior managers are critical in leading the strategic change process, even the best-planned strategic changes will not achieve their full potential unless they are well implemented. Part of the strategic leadership responsibility, therefore, includes establishing a climate in which the organization's rank and file will experience both a positive attitude about change and the confidence to actively seek change opportunities (Kanter 2003. Research attention is bringing more insight into the important roles of middle-managers in this process of implementing strategic change (Balogun & Jenkins 2003; Floyd & Wooldridge, 1992, 1994; Wooldridge & Floyd 1990. Although there is little doubt that active support by middle managers is critical for the strategies to be well implemented (Guth & MacMillan 1986, there remain many important questions with regard to how middle managers participate in this process (Balogun 2003.The need for research

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Thai Internalized Stigma Scale (TIS-LCH) for Care Home Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosangwarn, Suhathai; Clissett, Philip; Blake, Holly

    2017-01-01

    Living in a care home is a source of stigma in Thai culture, although there is currently no measurement tool in the Thai language specifically designed to assess internalized stigma in care home residents. The Thai Version of Internalized Stigma of Living in a Care Home (TIS-LCH) scale was developed and tested for its psychometric properties among Thai older residents. The Thai version of Internalized Stigma of Mental Health Illness (ISMI) Scale was revised into the TIS-LCH by replacing the word of "mental health illness" to "living in a care home." Content validity of the TIS-LCH was determined through expert review (n = 6), and reliability testing was undertaken with older care home residents (n = 128). The TIS-LCH showed good internal consistency, with a Cronbach's alpha of .87. Test-retest reliability coefficient of TIS-LCH was excellent for the full scale (ICC = .90). The Thai version of IS-LCH (TIS-LCH) is a valid and reliable measurement tool for assessing internalized stigma in Thai care home residents. The IS-LCH will be a useful research tool to assess internalized stigma in older adults living in care settings. Understanding stigma will help health and social care professionals to plan interventions aimed at reducing or preventing negative emotional reactions and negative behavioural responses toward stigma, which are known to be associated with mental illness and particularly depression among this population.

  2. RELIABILITY OF THE DYNAMIC OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY COGNITIVE ASSESSMENT FOR CHILDREN (DOTCA-CH: THAI VERSION OF ORIENTATION, SPATIAL PERCEPTION, AND THINKING OPERATIONS SUBTESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchitporn Lersilp

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Dynamic Occupational Therapy Cognitive Assessment for Children (DOTCA-Ch is a tool for finding out about cognitive problems in school-aged children. However, the DOTCA-Ch was developed in English for Western children. For this reason, it’s not appropriate for Thai children because of the differences of culture and language. The objectives of this study were aimed at translating the DOTCA-Ch in Orientation, Spatial Perception, and Thinking Operations subtests to a Thai version with a World Health Organization back-translation process, and to examine its internal consistency, inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability. The participants consisted of 38 intellectually impaired and learning disabled individuals between the ages of 6–12. Results from this study revealed high internal consistency in the Orientation subtest (α=.83 Spatial Perception subtest (α=.82 and Thinking Operations subtest (α=.82, high inter-rater reliability in the Orientation subtest (ICC =.83, Spatial Perception subtest (ICC =.84 and Thinking Operations subtest (ICC =.74 and high test-retest reliability in the Orientation subtest (ICC =.84 Spatial Perception subtest (ICC =.86 and Thinking Operations subtest (ICC =.85. These results indicate that the Thai version of the DOTCA-Ch in Orientation, Spatial Perception, and Thinking Operations subtests  might be used as an appropriate assessment tool for Thai children, based on psychometric evidence including internal consistency, inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability. However, additional study of other psychometric properties, including, predictive validity, concurrent reliability, and inter-rater reliability during the mediation process of this assessment tool needs to be carried out.

  3. Emergent Literacy in Thai Preschoolers: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yampratoom, Ramorn; Aroonyadech, Nawarat; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Roongpraiwan, Rawiwan; Kositprapa, Jariya

    To investigate emergent literacy skills, including phonological awareness when presented with an initial phoneme-matching task and letter knowledge when presented with a letter-naming task in Thai preschoolers, and to identify key factors associated with those skills. Four hundred twelve typically developing children in their final kindergarten year were enrolled in this study. Their emergent reading skills were measured by initial phoneme-matching and letter-naming tasks. Determinant variables, such as parents' education and teachers' perception, were collected by self-report questionnaires. The mean score of the initial phoneme-matching task was 4.5 (45% of a total of 10 scores). The mean score of the letter-naming task without a picture representing the target letter name was 30.2 (68.6% of a total of 44 scores), which increased to 38.8 (88.2% of a total of 44 scores) in the letter-naming task when a picture representing the target letter name was provided. Both initial phoneme-matching and letter-naming abilities were associated with the mother's education and household income. Letter-naming ability was also influenced by home reading activities and gender. This was a preliminary study into emergent literacy skills of Thai preschoolers. The findings supported the importance of focusing on phonological awareness and phonics, especially in the socioeconomic disadvantaged group.

  4. Preliminary survey of radioactivity level in Thai medicinal herb plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kranrod, C; Chanyotha, S; Kritsananuwat, R; Ploykrathok, T; Pengvanich, P; Tumnoi, Y; Thumvijit, T; Sriburee, S

    2017-01-01

    In this research, the natural radioactivity concentrations and their respective annual effective dose of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K in selected medicinal herb plants were investigated. Seven kinds of popular Thai medicinal herb plants had been studied: turmeric, ginger, safflower, moringa, gotu kola, garlic and alexandria senna. The radiological risk associated with the use of these medicinal plants was assessed. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K were determined using the gamma-ray spectrometry technique. The radioactivity concentrations were found to range from less than 0.20 to 6.67 Bqkg -1 for 226 Ra, less than 0.10 to 9.69 Bqkg -1 for 228 Ra, and from 159.42 to 1216.25 Bqkg -1 for 40 K. Gotu kola showed the highest activity concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra, while ginger showed the highest activity concentration of 40 K. The total annual effective dose due to ingestion of these herb plants were found to range from 0.0028 to 0.0097 mSvy -1 with an average value of 0.0060±0.0001 mSvy -1 . The results conclude that the Thai medicinal herb plants samples from this research are considered safe in terms of the radiological hazard. (paper)

  5. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Thai medicinal plant (Capparis micracantha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laoprom, Nonglak; Sangprom, Araya; Chaisri, Patcharaporn

    2018-04-01

    This work aims to study the antioxidants capacity, Total phenolic content and antibacterial activity of Thai medicinal plant for the treatment of dermatitis-related inflammations, Capparis micracantha. Crude extract from stem of Thai medicinal plant was extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. The antioxidant activities (IC50) was evaluated with 1,1-diphenyl-1-princylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. Bacterial activities was tested with four human pathogenic bacteria; Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Stapylococcus epidermidis by using agar diffusion assay. Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were also determined by broth dilution method. For antioxidant activity, the methanol fraction from stem extract showed the highest activity with an IC50 of 2.4 mg/ml. Water extraction was the high TPC with 10,136.9 mg GAE/g dry weight. Methanol and water extraction showed the remarkable inhibition of bacterial growth was shown against L. monocytogenes and S. aureus. In addition, ethyl acetate, methanol and water fraction from stem extract against S. epidermidis. The present finding suggests that the extract of C. micracantha could be used to discover bioactive natural products that may serve as pharmaceutical products.

  6. Thai men's experiences of alcohol addiction and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulnaree Hanpatchaiyakul

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Men are overrepresented with regard to alcohol addiction and in terms of alcohol treatment worldwide. In Thailand, alcohol consumption continues to rise, but few of those afflicted with alcohol addiction attend alcohol treatment programs, even though there is universal care for all. No comprehensive studies have been done on men's experiences with addiction and alcohol treatment programs in Thailand. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore men's experiences in terms of the ‘pros and cons of alcohol consumption’ in order to identify the barriers that exist for Thai men with regard to alcohol addiction and the decision to stop drinking. Design: Purposive sampling was applied in the process of recruiting participants at an alcohol clinic in a hospital in Thailand. Thirteen men with alcohol addiction (aged 32–49 years were willing to participate and were interviewed in thematic interviews. The analysis of the data was done with descriptive phenomenology. Results: Through men's descriptions, three clusters of experiences were found that were ‘mending the body’, ‘drinking as payoff and doping related to work’, and ‘alcohol becoming a best friend’ as ways of describing the development of addiction. Conclusions: The results highlight the importance of addressing concepts of masculinity and related hegemonic ideas in order to decrease the influence of the barriers that exist for Thai men with alcohol addiction with regard to entering treatment and to stop drinking.

  7. TRANSFER OF MARKETING KNOWLEDGE IN THAI INTERNATIONAL JOINT VENTURE FIRMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Mohamad

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study is the transfer of marketing knowledge within Thai joint venture firms. The perspectives of Thai managers were surveyed using a structured instrument. The analysis identifies seven dimensions of marketing management knowledge: promotion management, price management, logistics management, product innovation management, strategic marketing management, cross-cultural management, and target marketing management. The incidence of transfer is highest for activities in strategic marketing management, followed by price management. Transfer in product innovation management and target marketing management tends to vary with the age of the joint venture. Joint venture firms with foreign partners originating from Western, advanced, industrialised nations recorded the highest incidence of knowledge transfer occurring within product innovation management. This trend also holds true for the management of promotion activities. The incidence of transfer in target marketing management is lowest among firms with foreign partners from neighbouring nations. The incidence of knowledge transfer within product innovation and target marketing also tends to vary with the age of the joint venture. An analysis based on industry classification revealed that the transfer of knowledge regarding logistics management occurs most for firms in the manufacturing sector. In the service sector, the highest incidence of knowledge transfer within the areas of promotion management and target marketing management occurred in the agricultural sector.

  8. Performance improvement tool for Thai make–to–order manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apichat Sopadang

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a framework to improve a performance of shop floor control for Thai make-to-order (MTO smalland medium enterprises (SMEs. Integrated definition for function modeling is exploited to explore activities and relate ofcomponents. In-depth interview with experts and practitioners in the case study is provided useful information. The empiricalstudy is evaluated to suit for using the finalized SHEN model as a benchmark. Factor analysis is performed to find simplifiedinformation from variables. The data are collected from experience respondents by using a designed questionnaire. Eachobserved variable is assigned to test validity and reliability by factor loading and Cronbach’s alpha, respectively. The resultsshow that finalized SHEN can use as a performance improvement tool for Thai MTO SMEs. For example principle 11 is tested.Each observed variable has covariance value between 0.380-0.873. The value of reliability Cronbach’s alpha for this factoris shown 0.869. Based on the scree plot, it is asserted that 5 observed variables are correctly formed in the same principle.

  9. The Thai Version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charernboon, Thammanard; Jaisin, Kankamol; Lerthattasilp, Tiraya

    2016-09-01

    The objective of our study was to assess the accuracy of the Thai version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III (ACE-T). We used the ACE-T to assess 107 participants aged 60 or over, divided into the following groups: early dementia, n=30; mild cognitive impairment (MCI), n=29; and normal controls (NC), n=48. The ACE-T exhibited good internal consistency (0.93) and inter-rater reliability (1.0). The optimal cut-off score for the ACE-T to differentiate MCI from NC was 75/76, giving a sensitivity of 0.9 and specificity of 0.86. At the optimal cut-off of 61/62, the ACE-T had excellent sensitivity (1.0) and specificity (0.97) to distinguish early dementia from non-dementia. The ACE-T had high diagnosis accuracy in the detection of the MCI and early dementia in the Thai population.

  10. The Thai-Canadian nuclear human resources development linkage project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumitra, Tatchai; Chankow, Nares; Bradley, K.; Bereznai, G.

    1998-01-01

    The Thai-Canadian Nuclear Human Resources Development Linkage Project (the P roject ) was initiated in 1994 in order to develop the engineering and scientific expertise needed for Thailand to decide whether and how the country can best benefit from the establishment of a nuclear power program. The Project was designed to upgrade current academics and people in industry, and to develop an adequate supply of new technical personnel for academic, industry, utility, regulatory and other government institutions. The key Project objectives included the establishment of a Chair in Nuclear Engineering at Chulalongkorn University, the upgrading of the current Masters level curriculum, the establishment of undergraduate and doctorate level curricula, development and delivery of an industrial training program for people in industry and government, exchanges of Thai and Canadian academics and industry experts to establish common research programs and teaching interests, and a public education program that was to test in Thailand some of the techniques that have been successfully used in Canada. (author)

  11. Respiratory and dermal symptoms in Thai nurses using latex products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supapvanich, C; Povey, A C; de Vocht, F

    2013-09-01

    Despite known health risks related to the use of powdered latex gloves (PLGs), they are still widely used in hospitals in developing countries due to the high cost of alternatives. To determine the prevalence of dermal and respiratory symptoms associated with latex glove use in nurses in Thailand and evaluate the influence of previously reported occupational risk factors in this population. A cross-sectional study in female nurses working in three Thai hospitals. Participants completed a questionnaire on demographics, occupational and personal history, use of latex products at work and dermal and respiratory symptoms attributed to occupational use of latex gloves. Of 899 nurses, 18% reported health effects attributed to the use of latex products. After adjustment for confounding, occupational risk factors associated with increased reporting of dermal symptoms included wearing more than 15 pairs of PLG per day (odds ratio (OR): 2.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): [1.32-3.34]), using chlorhexidine (OR: 2.07, 95% CI: [1.22-3.52]) and being an operating theatre nurse (OR: 2.46, 95% CI: [1.47-4.12]). Being a labour ward nurse (OR: 3.52, 95% CI: [1.26-9.85]) was the only factor associated with increased reporting of respiratory symptoms. Continuing use of PLGs in Thai nurses is associated with increased prevalence of dermal symptoms compared with data from developed countries. Measures to reduce such health effects are well established and should be considered. Additionally, replacement of chlorhexidine with an alternative detergent seems advisable.

  12. Carotenoids intake and asthma prevalence in Thai children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanguansak Rerksuppaphol

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Several antioxidant nutrients have been described to inversely correlate with asthma. In order to quantify the intake of these substances, it is possible to measure skin levels by Raman spectroscopy, a novel non-invasive technique that can also be used in children. This cross-sectional school-based study involved 423 children from a rural area of Thailand. Asthmatic children were diagnosed according to a Health Interview for Asthma Control questionnaire. Skin carotenoid levels were measured with Raman spectroscopy. Demographic data were obtained by directly interviewing children and their parents, whereas anthropometric parameters were measured by trained staff. Intake of carotenoids, vitamin A and C were evaluated by a food frequency questionnaire. Overall incidence of asthma in Thai schoolchildren (aged 3.5-17.8 years was 17.3%. There was no significant difference in dietary intake of carotenoids and vitamin A and C, and skin carotenoid level between asthmatic and nonasthmatic children. Skin carotenoid level significantly correlated with all carotenoids and vitamin A intake (P<0.05. Carotenoids and vitamin A and C intakes, and skin carotenoid levels were not associated with the risk of asthma in Thai children. Skin carotenoids correlated with all carotenoids and vitamin A intake in mild to moderate degrees. Raman spectroscopy was confirmed to be a useful tool to determine antioxidant skin levels.

  13. Preliminary survey of radioactivity level in Thai medicinal herb plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranrod, C.; Chanyotha, S.; Kritsananuwat, R.; Ploykrathok, T.; Pengvanich, P.; Tumnoi, Y.; Thumvijit, T.; Sriburee, S.

    2017-06-01

    In this research, the natural radioactivity concentrations and their respective annual effective dose of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K in selected medicinal herb plants were investigated. Seven kinds of popular Thai medicinal herb plants had been studied: turmeric, ginger, safflower, moringa, gotu kola, garlic and alexandria senna. The radiological risk associated with the use of these medicinal plants was assessed. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K were determined using the gamma-ray spectrometry technique. The radioactivity concentrations were found to range from less than 0.20 to 6.67 Bqkg-1 for 226Ra, less than 0.10 to 9.69 Bqkg-1 for 228Ra, and from 159.42 to 1216.25 Bqkg-1 for 40K. Gotu kola showed the highest activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra, while ginger showed the highest activity concentration of 40K. The total annual effective dose due to ingestion of these herb plants were found to range from 0.0028 to 0.0097 mSvy-1 with an average value of 0.0060±0.0001 mSvy-1. The results conclude that the Thai medicinal herb plants samples from this research are considered safe in terms of the radiological hazard.

  14. Dietary Pattern and Metabolic Syndrome in Thai Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Aekplakorn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the dietary patterns of middle-aged Thais and their association with metabolic syndrome (MetS. Methods. The Thai National Health Examination Survey IV data of 5,872 participants aged ≥30–59 years were used. Dietary patterns were obtained by factor analysis and their associations with Mets were examined using multiple logistic regression. Results. Three major dietary patterns were identified. The first, meat pattern, was characterized by a high intake of red meat, processed meat, and fried food. The second, healthy pattern, equated to a high intake of beans, vegetables, wheat, and dairy products. The third, high carbohydrate pattern, had a high intake of glutinous rice, fermented fish, chili paste, and bamboo shoots. Respondents with a healthy pattern were more likely to be female, higher educated, and urban residents. The carbohydrate pattern was more common in the northeast and rural areas. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of carbohydrate pattern was associated with MetS (adjusted odds ratio: 1.82; 95% CI 1.31, 2.55 in men and 1.60; 95% CI 1.24, 2.08 in women, particularly among those with a low level of leisure time physical activity (LTPA. Conclusion. The carbohydrate pattern with low level of LTPA increased the odds of MetS.

  15. Comparison of sensory characteristics of green tea in Thai Nguyen and Phu Tho, Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Thi Minh Luyen; Ha, Duyen Tu; Lebailly, Philippe; Nguyen, Duy Thinh; Tu, Viet Phu

    2013-01-01

    Green tea is a popular consumption product in Vietnam. Especially, tea which origins from Tan Cuong, Thai Nguyen has been known for long by its better quality than those coming from other regions on the country. The study aims at comparing and finding out if the difference between tea in Thai Nguyen and Phu Tho can be figured by sensory tasting. Two products picked from Tan Cuong, Thai Nguyen province and two others from Phu Ho district, Phu Tho are were evaluated by a panel of twelve judg...

  16. Identification of predominant odorants in thai desserts flavored by smoking with "Tian Op", a traditional Thai scented candle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watcharananun, Wanwarang; Cadwallader, Keith R; Huangrak, Kittiphong; Kim, Hun; Lorjaroenphon, Yaowapa

    2009-02-11

    "Tian Op", a traditional Thai scented candle, is used for the smoking and flavoring of sweets, cakes, and other desserts for the purpose of adding a unique aroma to the final product. Gas chromatography-olfactometry, aroma extract dilution analysis, and GC-MS were applied to identify the potent odorants in two types of traditional Thai desserts ("num dok mai" and "gleep lum duan") prepared using a Tian Op smoking process. On the basis of the results of AEDA and calculated odor-activity values, the predominant odorants in the Tian Op flavored desserts were vinyl ketones (C(5)-C(9)), n-aldehydes (C(5)-C(11)), (E)-2-unsaturated aldehydes (C(8)-C(11)), and omega-1-unsaturated aldehydes (C(8) and C(9)). Sensory studies of model mixtures confirmed the importance of n-aldehydes, omega-1-unsaturated aldehydes, and guaiacol as predominant odorants; however, the results showed that vinyl ketones and (E)-2-unsaturated aldehydes, despite having high odor-activity values, may be of only minor importance in the typical aroma profiles of traditional Tian Op smoked desserts.

  17. "The perfect business": human trafficking and Lao-Thai cross-border migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molland, Sverre

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few years some governments and development organizations have increasingly articulated cross-border mobility as "trafficking in persons". The notion of a market where traffickers prey on the "supply" of migrants that flows across international borders to meet the "demand" for labour has become a central trope among anti-trafficking development organizations. This article problematizes such economism by drawing attention to the oscillating cross-border migration of Lao sex workers within a border zone between Laos and Thailand. It illuminates the incongruity between the recruitment of women into the sex industry along the Lao-Thai border and the market models that are employed by the anti-trafficking sector. It discusses the ways in which these cross-border markets are conceived in a context where aid programming is taking on an increasingly important role in the politics of borders. The author concludes that allusions to ideal forms of knowledge (in the guise of classic economic theory) and an emphasis on borders become necessary for anti-trafficking programmes in order to make their object of intervention legible as well as providing post-hoc rationalizations for their continuing operation.

  18. Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noonim, Paramee; Mahakarnchanakul, Warapa; Varga, Janos

    2008-01-01

    Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans are described as Aspergillus aculeatinus sp. nov. and Aspergillus sclerotiicarbonarius sp. nov. Their taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles...

  19. Mechanical ventilators availability survey in Thai ICUs (ICU-RESOURCE I Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittawatanarat, Kaweesak; Bunburaphong, Thananchai; Champunot, Ratapum

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical ventilators (MV) have been progressing rapidly. New ventilator modes and supportive equipments have been developed. However; the MV status in Thai ICUs was not available. The objective of this report was to describe the MV supply and availability in Thai ICUs and review some important characteristics regarding of the availability of MV MATERIAL AND METHOD: The ICU RESOURCE I study (Mechanical ventilator part) database was used in the present study. Hospital types, MV brands and models were recorded. Statistically significant differences between and among groups were defined as p-value ventilators were also a high proportion of the MVs in Thai ICUs. Bennette and Hamilton were the most highly available MVin this survey. Advanced MV models were more available in academic ICUs (Thai Clinical Trial Registry: TCTR-201200005).

  20. "Thais" muusika on fenomenaalne / Veronika Džiojeva ; intervjueerinud Silja Joon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Džiojeva, Veronika

    2009-01-01

    Küsimustele vastab 22. mail Pärnu Endla teatris esietenduva Jules Massenet' ooperi "Thais" nimiosatäitja, 2007. aastal toimunud Klaudia Taevi nim. rahvusvahelise ooperilauljate konkursi laureaat Veronika Džiojeva

  1. Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanakul, W.; Varga, J.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans are described as Aspergillus aculeatinus sp. nov. and Aspergillus sclerotiicarbonarius sp. nov. Their taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles) and

  2. Gender differences in TBT accumulation and transformation in Thais clavigera after aqueous and dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhong; Fang, Chao; Hong, Huasheng; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2010-09-01

    In this study, female and male Thais clavigera whelks were exposed to aqueous and dietary (using oysters as the prey) tributyltin (TBT) for up to 45 days, followed by a 30-day depuration, in order to examine the gender differences in TBT accumulation and transformation. The metabolites of TBT [dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT)] were also measured in different tissues of the whelks (digestive, reproductive and remaining organs) during the exposure and depuration periods. By the end of the exposure period, all of the female whelks developed imposex after TBT exposure, and both the relative penis size index and the vas deferens sequence index were positively correlated with the tissue burden of TBT. However, biomagnification of TBT did not occur in the whelks. TBT was rapidly accumulated in their digestive and reproductive organs from both routes of exposure, and both elimination and biotransformation of TBT were also rapid. The redistribution of TBT among tissues was obvious during the exposure period but negligible during depuration. MBT was generally the major metabolite in each tissue, indicating a significant metabolism of TBT by the whelks. Accumulation, transformation, as well as elimination, were more significant following dietary exposure than following aqueous exposure. In particular, we observed gender-related differences in the biokinetics of TBT. Rapid biotransformation and elimination of TBT were detected in the male whelks, while the female whelks had higher bioaccumulation but lower elimination of TBT in their reproductive organs. Internal remobilization of TBT from digestive to reproductive organs was also more obvious in the females, indicating that the reproductive organs of females were the main targets of TBT accumulation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  4. Organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a…

  5. An Analysis of Behavioral Intention to use Thai Internet Banking with Quality Management and Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Namahoot KS; Laohavichien T

    2015-01-01

    This research explores the effects of quality management and trust towards behavioural intention of Thai consumers to use internet banking. It specifically investigates whether the quality management dimensions of information quality, system quality and service quality affect the level of trust of Thai consumers towards internet banking, and whether this trust correspondingly affect their intention to use the system. This study has been conducted in Thailand and focused on the users of intern...

  6. Repression, Civil Conflict and Leadership Tenure: The Thai Case Study: 2006-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-30

    has reported that the Thai military has helped Rohingya Muslims escape Myanmar , but in so doing have demanded bribes (Szep and Grudgings: 2013). The...Cobra Gold has traditionally included three main parts – field exercises, humanitarian exercises, and staff planning exercises (Parameswaran, 2/5...Report: Thai authorities Implicated in Rohingya Muslim Smuggling Network,” Reuters, 7/17/2013, http://www.reuters.com/article/2013/07/17/us- myanmar

  7. The Interplay Between the Thai and Several Other International Stock Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Valadkhani, Abbas; Chancharat, Surachai; Harvie, Charles

    2006-01-01

    The paper analyses the effect of various international stock market price indices and some relevant macroeconomic variables on the Thai stock market price index, using a GARCH-M model and monthly data from January 1988 to December 2004. It is found, inter alia, that (a) changes in stock market returns in Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia in the pre-1997 Asian crisis, and changes in Singapore, the Philippines and Korea in the post-1997 era instantaneously influenced returns in the Thai stock m...

  8. How can the Thai Foundation Garment Industry compete successfully in International Supply Networks?

    OpenAIRE

    Ngamdumrongkiat, Sumate

    2012-01-01

    The apparel industry is a significant income source for developing countries. Thailand is one of the largest textile and garment industries in South East Asia (Lotharukpong, nd) and it is the second most important industrial segment regarding to employment (SourceAsean.com, 2010). From the interviewing with TGMA, Thai Foundation garment industry is one of world-class industries in Asia and has potentially grown in the future. After the quota liberation in 2005, Thai foundation garment industr...

  9. Enhancing Customer Loyalty towards Corporate Social Responsibility of Thai Mobile Service Providers

    OpenAIRE

    Wichai Onlaor; Siriluck Rotchanakitumnuai

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop the understanding of corporate social responsibility (CSR) from consumers- perspective toward Thai mobile service providers. Based on the survey from 400 mobile customers, the result shows that four dimensions of CSR of Thai mobile service providers consist of economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic responsibility. These four CSR factors have positive impacts on enhancing customer satisfaction except one item of economic respon...

  10. Development of the Thai version of Mini-Cog, a brief cognitive screening test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trongsakul, Supaporn; Lambert, Rod; Clark, Allan; Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Cross, Jane

    2015-05-01

    Cognitive impairment, such as dementia, has emerged as the leading public health problem among the elderly. Therefore, early detection of the disorder and providing appropriate healthcare and management is important, particularly, for the patients with comorbid diabetes who require long-term treatment strategies. In Thailand, because of a large number of elderly patients with diabetes, and time constraints in primary care settings, a short and effective cognitive screening test is required. The Mini-Cog is a short and valid cognitive screening test that was specifically designed for use in primary care settings. The present study translated the English language version into a Thai language version, and then measured the interrater reliability and concurrent validity. The processes of cross-language translation were carried out to develop a Thai language version of the Mini-Cog. A total of 21 Thai older adults with type 2 diabetes with a mean aged of 69 ± 7 years were recruited into a study investigating the interrater reliability and concurrent validity of the Mini-Cog Thai version in one primary care center in Thailand. The Mini-Cog Thai version showed a good interrater reliability (K = 0.80, P validity (r = 0.47, P = 0.007, 95% CI 0.37,0.55) with the Mini-Mental State Examination Thai 2002. The findings show that the Thai version of the Mini-Cog is a reliable, performance-based tool in the screening for cognitive function in primary care settings in Thailand. It is recommended that it could be used as a new cognitive screening test for the aging population in the Thai community. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  11. Intimate partner violence and poor mental health among Thai women residing in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernbrant, Cecilia; Emmelin, Maria; Essén, Birgitta; Östergren, Per-Olof; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The current aim is to examine the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among Thai women residing in Sweden and its association with mental health. We also investigate the potential influence of social isolation and social capital regarding the association between IPV and mental health outcome. A public health questionnaire in Thai was distributed by post to the entire population of Thai women, aged 18-64, residing in two regions in Sweden since 2006. Items included aspects related to IPV (physical/sexual/emotional), sociodemographic background, physical health, mental health (GHQ-12), social isolation, and social capital (i.e. social trust/participation). The response rate was 62.3% (n=804). Prevalence of lifetime reported IPV was 22.1%, with 20.5% by a previous partner and 6.7% by a current partner. Previous IPV exposure was significantly related to current IPV exposure, and all IPV exposure measures were significantly related to poor mental health. However, Thai women experiencing IPV by a current partner were more at risk for poor mental health than Thai women with previous or without any experience of IPV. Also, among all women exposed to IPV, those with trust in others and without exposure to social isolation seemed to have partial protection against the adverse mental health consequences associated with IPV. Most Thai women had never been exposed to IPV, and after migrating to Sweden, women had lower IPV exposure than in Thailand. However, the increased risk for poor mental health among those Thai women exposed to IPV suggests the need for supportive measures and targeted interventions to prevent further injuries and adverse health consequences. Although poor mental health in Thai women represents an obstacle for integration, the potential resilience indicated in the group with high social trust and without exposure to social isolation suggests that such aspects be included in the program designed to facilitate integration.

  12. Developing Third Year Thai Major Students’ Researching Skill Using Coaching and Mentoring Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wimonrat Soonthornrojana

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of the study were (1 to develop third year Thai major students’ researching skill according to the criterion of 80 percent, and (2 to study third and fourth year Thai major students’ satisfaction in Coaching and Mentoring process. 95 participants were selected using purposive sampling from third year Thai major students. Five research instruments were used in this study ; (1 classroom research comprehension tests, (2 outline evaluation forms, lesson plan evaluation forms and achievement tests, teaching performance evaluation forms and research report evaluation forms, (3 research behavioral observation forms for third year Thai major students, (4 third year Thai major students interview forms, and (5 satisfaction questionnaire. Statistics used in the study were percentage average, and standard deviation. The result showed third year Thai major students who had taken research course using Coaching and Mentoring process scored 80% in researching skill according to the criterion and had positive satisfaction with average value of 4.54 or 90.79%. Moreover, the result found that fourth year students had positive satisfaction in counseling third year students with average value of 4.73 or 96.38%.

  13. Physical performance in recently aged adults after 6 weeks traditional Thai dance: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janyacharoen, Taweesak; Laophosri, Maneepun; Kanpittaya, Jaturat; Auvichayapat, Paradee; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2013-01-01

    Background Exercise has been shown to be effective in cardiovascular endurance in the elderly. We studied the effect of Thai dancing on physical performance of Thai elderly. Methods This was an open-labeled, randomized intervention study. The Thai dancing group exercised for 40 minutes three times a week for 6 weeks. Physical performance ability was the primary outcome, including a 6-minute walk test (6MWT), five-times sit-to-stand (FTSST), and a sit-and-reach test measured before and after 6 weeks of intervention. Results There were 42 subjects enrolled in the study, and 38 female subjects completed (20 in Thai dance group, 18 controls), with an average age of 65.8 ± 5.1 years. The Thai dance group had significantly better physical performance in all measurements at the end of the study. The 6MWT was longer (416.7 ± 58.7 versus 345.7 ± 55.1 m; P = 0.011), FTSST was quicker (10.2 ± 1.5 versus 14.4 ± 3.3 seconds; P dance group than the control group. Conclusion Thai dance can improve physical performance in recently aged (elderly) female adults. PMID:23950640

  14. Sex estimation from the scapula in a contemporary Thai population: Applications for forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckmann, Tanya R; Scott, Shelby; Meek, Susan; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk

    2017-07-01

    The impact of climate change is estimated to be particularly severe in Thailand. Overall, the country faces an increase in surface temperatures, severe storms and floods, and a possible increase in the number of mass disasters in the region. It is extremely important that forensic scientists have access to sex estimation methods developed for use on a Thai population. The goal of this project is to evaluate the accuracy of sex estimation discriminant functions, created using contemporary Mexican and Greek populations, when applied to a contemporary Thai sample. The length of the glenoid cavity (LGC) and breadth of the glenoid cavity (BGC) were measured. The sample included 191 individuals (95 males and 96 females) with age ranges from 19 to 96years old. Overall, when the Mexican and Greek discriminant functions were applied to the Thai sample they showed higher accuracy rates for sexing female scapulae (83% to 99%) than for sexing male scapulae (53% to 92%). Size comparisons were made to Chilean, Mexican, Guatemalan, White American, and Greek populations. Overall, in males and females of the Thai sample, the scapulae were smaller than in the Chilean, Mexican, White American, and Greek populations. However, the male and female Thai scapulae were larger than in the Guatemalan sample. Population-specific discriminant functions were created for the Thai population with an overall sex classification accuracy rate of 83% to 88%. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Prevalence of Facebook Addiction and Related Factors Among Thai High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumsri, Jiraporn; Yingyeun, Rungmanee; Mereerat Manwong; Hanprathet, Nitt; Phanasathit, Muthita

    2015-04-01

    To determine the prevalence ofFacebook (FB) addiction and its related factors among Thai high school students. This cross-sectional study was performed among 972 high school students in four provinces associated with high economic prosperity in Thailand: Bangkok, Ubon Ratchathani, Chiang Mai and Songkhla, utilizing a multistage cluster sampling technique. A self-administrative questionnaire was produced composing of three parts; demographic data, a Thai version of the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale (Thai-BFAS) and the Thai version of the General Health Questionnaire-28 items. Multivariate analysis was employed to analyze thefactors associated with FB addiction. The prevalence ofFB addiction amongst Thai adolescents was 41.8% (95% CI; 38.6, 45.2). Related factors included gender school location, sufficiency ofpersonalfinance, devices ofFB access, duration ofstaying online via FB, andFB usage during holidays. In addition, every 1-hour increase in usage enhanced the risk for FB addiction (OR = 1.12, 95% CI; 1.05, 1.19). The prevalence of FB addiction in Thai high school students was found to be higher than in many other countries. Relatedfactors should be controlled in order to reduce FB addiction and its detrimental impacts, such as behavior modification and the promotion of healthier free-time activities. Further studies are recommended to understand why FB addiction is so high in Thailand.

  16. Ethnic differences in stratum corneum functions between Chinese and Thai infants residing in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Tsutomu; Miyauchi, Yuki; Shima, Kyoko; Hotta, Mitsuyuki; Tsujimura, Hisashi; Kitahara, Takashi; Takema, Yoshinori; Palungwachira, Pakhawadee; Laohathai, Diane; Chanthothai, Jetchawa; Nararatwanchai, Thamthiwat

    2018-01-01

    Ethnic and racial differences in infant skin have not been well characterized. The purpose of this study was to establish whether there are ethnic differences and similarities in the stratum corneum (SC) functions of Thai and Chinese infants. Healthy infants 6 to 24 months of age (N = 60; 30 Thai, 30 Chinese) who resided in Bangkok, Thailand, were enrolled. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and SC hydration (capacitance) on the thigh, buttock, and upper arm were measured. Ceramide content was determined in the SC on the upper arm. SC hydration was not remarkably different between the two ethnicities at any site measured, but TEWL was significantly higher in Chinese infants than in Thai infants at all sites. Hydration of the SC was not significantly correlated with age in either ethnicity. TEWL had significant but weak correlations with age on the thigh and upper arm in Thai infants. Ceramide content was significantly higher in Chinese SC than in Thai SC. No relationship between ceramide content and TEWL or hydration was observed in either ethnicity. The significant differences in TEWL and ceramide contents between Chinese and Thai infant skin could prove useful in designing skin care and diapering products that are best suited for each ethnicity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Principles and indicators of green living families in Thai context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamkarn Yuranun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Green Living has been practiced in everyday life which is accepted worldwide. However, there is no concrete academic principles for Green Living. The understanding of Green Living is rather abstract. This study focuses on the academic principles and indicators of the Green Living Families in Thailand. The results from the studies will be used for further research.This qualitative study aims at proposing the principles and indicators of the Green Living Families in the Thai context. The research methodologies include the analysis and synthesis of various documents both from Thailand and foreign countries, interviews and observation of five Green Living Families. The results show that the principles consist of 1 production for one’s own consumption within the family 2 economical use of resources and 3 sharing with others and the society. The essential indicators comprise of 1 Knowledge, 2 Practice, and 3 Attitude on Green Living.

  18. Traditional Chinese and Thai medicine in a comparative perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ke

    2015-12-01

    The work presented in this paper compares traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Thai medicine, expounding on origins, academic thinking, theoretical system, diagnostic method and modern development. Based on a secondary analysis of available literature, the paper concentrates on two crucial historical developments: (1) the response to, and consequences of, the impact of the Western medicine; and (2) the revival of traditional medicine in these two countries and its prospects. From a comparative perspective, the analysis has led to the conclusion that the rise and fall of traditional medicine is an issue closely related with social and political issues; and the development of traditional medicines requires national policy and financial support from governments, human resource development, the improvement of service quality, and the dissemination of traditional medicine knowledge to the public. In addition, this paper also suggests deepening exchanges and cooperation between China and Thailand, strengthening cooperation between traditional medicine and medical tourism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Motivating talents in Thai and Malaysian service firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Sanne

    2009-01-01

    Talent development in Thailand and Malaysian service firms has become a prioritized human resource management practice as these societies move toward knowledge-based economies. This paper discusses talent management in the social, organizational and managerial context of firms in Thailand...... and Malaysia, and argues that such structures often counterbalance investments made in talent development. The paper concludes that new human resource management practices do not produce a difference per se. It is the mindset and attitude of various managers that makes the difference. The learning...... for practitioners is that they need to adapt existing social and organizational structures to their new human resource management practices. The paper is based mainly on qualitative interviews with human resource managers from Thai and Malaysian service firms....

  20. Modified relaxation technique for treating hypertension in Thai postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saensak S

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Suprawita Saensak,1,2 Teraporn Vutyavanich,3 Woraluk Somboonporn,4 Manit Srisurapanont5 1Academic Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mahasarakham University, Maha Sarakham, Thailand; 2Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University,Thailand; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 5Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Aim: To examine the effectiveness of a modified relaxation (MR technique in reducing blood pressure levels in Thai postmenopausal women with mild hypertension, compared with a control group who received health education. Methods: This is a 16-week, randomized, parallel, open-label, controlled trial in a menopausal clinic in a tertiary health care center in Northeastern Thailand. The intervention group received a 60-minute session of MR training and were encouraged to practice 15–20 minutes a day, at least 5 days a week. The control group received lifestyle education, including diet and exercise. The primary and secondary outcomes were systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP. Results: Of 432 participants, 215 and 217 were randomly allocated to the MR and control groups, respectively. Of those, 167 participants in the MR group and 175 participants in the control group completed the study. The SBP was significantly more reduced in the MR group, with a mean of 2.1 mmHg (P < 0.001. There was no significant difference between groups on the changed DBP. Conclusion: The MR technique may be effective in lowering SBP in Thai postmenopausal women visiting a menopause clinic. Its efficacy may be observed as soon as 4 weeks after start of treatment. Long-term and combined relaxation therapy and antihypertensive agents are warranted in a large cohort of this population. This trial is registered in clinicaltrials.gov (number

  1. Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatch, Mary Jo

    and considers many more. Mary Jo Hatch introduces the concept of organizations by presenting definitions and ideas drawn from the a variety of subject areas including the physical sciences, economics, sociology, psychology, anthropology, literature, and the visual and performing arts. Drawing on examples from......Most of us recognize that organizations are everywhere. You meet them on every street corner in the form of families and shops, study in them, work for them, buy from them, pay taxes to them. But have you given much thought to where they came from, what they are today, and what they might become...... prehistory and everyday life, from the animal kingdom as well as from business, government, and other formal organizations, Hatch provides a lively and thought provoking introduction to the process of organization....

  2. Development of Neutron Imaging System for Neutron Tomography at Thai Research Reactor TRR-1/M1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonglee, S.; Khaweerat, S.; Channuie, J.; Picha, R.; Liamsuwan, T.; Ratanatongchai, W.

    2017-09-01

    The neutron imaging is a powerful non-destructive technique to investigate the internal structure and provides the information which is different from the conventional X-ray/Gamma radiography. By reconstruction of the obtained 2-dimentional (2D) images from the taken different angle around the specimen, the tomographic image can be obtained and it can provide the information in more detail. The neutron imaging system at Thai Research Reactor TRR-1/M1 of Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (Public Organization) has been developed to conduct the neutron tomography since 2014. The primary goal of this work is to serve the investigation of archeological samples, however, this technique can also be applied to various fields, such as investigation of industrial specimen and others. This research paper presents the performance study of a compact neutron camera manufactured by Neutron Optics such as speed and sensitivity. Furthermore, the 3-dimentional (3D) neutron image was successfully reconstructed at the developed neutron imaging system of TRR-1/M1.

  3. Screening of probiotic lactic acid bacteria from Thai fermented foods for human.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantachote, D.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Total of 327 strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from 179 samples of various Thai fermented foods. The strains were investigated for their probiotic properties based on stability in bile salt (0.15% and high acidity (pH 2, 3 and 4. Moreover, utilization of protein or fat or starch, growth in the absence of vitamin B12 and growth under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions with no significant difference were also considered. According to the above criteria, 67 strains were selected for antibiotics sensitivity test. The selected strains were susceptible to following antibiotics: ampicillin, cephalothin, cefoperazone, tetracycline andchloramphenicol; however the strains were resistant to vancomycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, norfloxacin and polymyxin B. Using agar spot method, only 5 strains were able to inhibit 13 strains of manifest by a bacteria indicator as clear zone greater than 10 mm. A further investigation using co-culture technique showed inhibition of the tested organisms was between 80 and 100 percent. The strains grew under media of MRS and SPY2 (no materials from animal over 36 hours with no significant difference. The strains were investigated for survival in condition of high acidity within 3 hours. It was found that at pH 4 almost 100% were maintained but at pH 2 and 3 the survival reduced approximately 1 log cycle. The strain LA71 which showed the highest survival was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum.

  4. The study of customer relationship management in Thai airline industry: A case of Thai travelers in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Law

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper offer marketing strategy suggestion to the airlines operating within the Thai aviation market. It identifies the recommended motivational factors that influence the airline customers’ decision to their airline choices. Airlines use different customer relationship management programs to attract returning customers.  This paper suggested the most attractive motivation factors for Thailand's air travel market. Design/methodology/approach: This research paper is an attempt to study and identify the factors, including loyalty program, distribution channel, customer services, promotions and other influence causes that affected the customer preference in the airline ticket purchasing behavior in Thailand. A questionnaire survey was conducted with the sample identified through unrestricted non probability sampling technique at four major airports in Thailand. The data collected are analyzed to identify the favorable drivers that lead to customer decision on airline choice. Findings: The result from the study has demonstrated that price, and promotion has a significant impact on customer preference and positively leads to repurchase intention for their future travel. Moreover, flight schedules are also a main factor influencing the travelers’ final decision on airline choice. However, when the promotional strategies and schedule are comparable between airlines, customers are attracted by the airline amenities and services. Loyalty program (frequent-flier program flier program is showing a less attractive motivator while distribution channel demonstrates the least important affecting the travelers’ choice of airline. Originality/value: The paper begins with an overview of previous research in the area of airlines customer relationship management and then moves on to what is currently being implemented by the airlines. The authors then propose several customer relationship strategies and identify the most attractive one that

  5. Development and psychometric testing of the active aging scale for Thai adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanakwang, Kattika; Isaramalai, Sang-Arun; Hatthakit, Urai

    2014-01-01

    Active aging is central to enhancing the quality of life for older adults, but its conceptualization is not often made explicit for Asian elderly people. Little is known about active aging in older Thai adults, and there has been no development of scales to measure the expression of active aging attributes. The aim of this study was to develop a culturally relevant composite scale of active aging for Thai adults (AAS-Thai) and to evaluate its reliability and validity. EIGHT STEPS OF SCALE DEVELOPMENT WERE FOLLOWED: 1) using focus groups and in-depth interviews, 2) gathering input from existing studies, 3) developing preliminary quantitative measures, 4) reviewing for content validity by an expert panel, 5) conducting cognitive interviews, 6) pilot testing, 7) performing a nationwide survey, and 8) testing psychometric properties. In a nationwide survey, 500 subjects were randomly recruited using a stratified sampling technique. Statistical analyses included exploratory factor analysis, item analysis, and measures of internal consistency, concurrent validity, and test-retest reliability. Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a final 36-item scale consisting of seven factors of active aging: 1) being self-reliant, 2) being actively engaged with society, 3) developing spiritual wisdom, 4) building up financial security, 5) maintaining a healthy lifestyle, 6) engaging in active learning, and 7) strengthening family ties to ensure care in later life. These factors explained 69% of the total variance. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the overall AAS-Thai was 0.95 and varied between 0.81 and 0.91 for the seven subscales. Concurrent validity and test-retest reliability were confirmed. The AAS-Thai demonstrated acceptable overall validity and reliability for measuring the multidimensional attributes of active aging in a Thai context. This newly developed instrument is ready for use as a screening tool to assess active aging levels among older

  6. Organization Structure and Coordination Mechanisms of a Japanese multinational company : a case study of Tokai Carbon Co., Ltd.

    OpenAIRE

    Techakajornpanya, Nalinee; Srikiatikul, Piyaporn

    2010-01-01

    Problem : How does Japanese company coordinate with its subsidiaries in Thai and Chinese markets? Purpose :  To describe organization structure of Japanese company as well as compare how headquarters coordinates with its subsidiaries in Thai and Chinese markets. Also, this thesis will give benefits for the academics and managers of other multinational corporations. Method :  Qualitative approach and comparative design are implemented in this thesis meanwhile secondary data from internet, docu...

  7. The Impact of Question-Answer Relationships on Thai Reading Comprehension of Economically Disadvantaged Students: A Mixed Methods Study in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mongkolrat, Raveema

    2017-01-01

    Thailand's education has not succeeded in meeting the Ministry of Education Thailand's goals for Thai language. The problem manifests in students' substandard Thai reading comprehension. Results of the Thailand's standardized national test showed that students, especially those with economical disadvantages, have performed poorly in Thai reading…

  8. Increasing Thai Catfish's Immunity (Pangasius hypophthalmus Fowler Using Ascorbic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    , Ilmiah

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAn experiment to determine Thai catfish's (Pangasius hypophthalmus Fowler immunity was carried out using different levels of ascorbic acid (0, 1.000, 2.000 and 3.000 mg/kg feed.  Fish of 15-20 g in weight were kept in aquaria for 6 weeks with density of 15 fish/aquaria.  Feed was given at 5-10 % of total biomass with frequency of three times a day.  The blood sampling was taken every week and the challenge test with Aeromonas hydrophila (106cells/mm3 injection intramuscular was done on the 30th day.   The result of this experiment shown that feed with ascorbic acid of 2.000 mg/kg was elevated the cellular responses such as: leucocyte total (34.850 cels/mm3, differential of leucocyte (lymphocyte: 72,2%, monocyte: 8,0%, neutrophyl: 7,8%, phagocytic index (13% and humoral response (titre antibody: 0.829 serum aglutination unit, which at the same time proves high level of survival rate against the artificial injection using A. hydrophila. Key words :  Ascorbic acid, fish immunity, Thai catfish, Pangasius hypophthalmus.   ABSTRAK Suatu penelitian telah dilakukan di laboratorium dengan menggunakan ikan jambal Siam (Pangasius hypophthalmus Fowler untuk melihat tingkat kekebalan ikan dengan menambahkan vitamin C pada pakan (0, 1.000, 2.000 dan 3.000 mg/kg pakan.  Ikan jambal Siam ukuran 15-20 g dipelihara dalam aquarium selama 6 minggu dengan kepadatan 15 ekor/wadah.  Pemberian pakan dilakukan 3 kali sehari sebanyak 5-10% dari bobot biomasa, pengambilan contoh darah dilakukan setiap minggu dan uji tantang dilakukan pada hari ke-30 dengan bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila (106 sel/mm3 secara intramuskular.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan vitamin C sebanyak 2.000 mg/kg pakan menyebabkan meningkatnya respon seluler antara lain: total lekosit (34.850 sel/mm3, jenis lekosit (limfosit: 72,2%, monosit: 8,0%, netrofil: 7,7% dan trombosit: 17,6% indeks fagositik 13% dan respon humoral (titer antibodi: 0,829 unit serum aglutinasi

  9. Tracking of Body Composition in Pre-Adolescent Thai Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thasanauwan, Wiyada; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Srichan, Weerachat; Judprasong, Kunchit; Wimonpeerapattana, Wanphen

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Background: Childhood obesity is one of the global malnutrition problem. To assess body composition, stable isotope has been widely used for total body water (TBW) and body fat assessments. In the year 2008, Thailand involved in the IAEA Technical Cooperation Project (TC project) which aimed to develop and validate tools for Thai children to assess obesity in 247 pre-adolescent children aged 8 to 10 years. Later in the year 2011, only 100 children were agreed to be tracked for their body composition assessment. Objective: To explore the changes of body composition and to compare the changes between gender in 3 years period. Materials and methods: A total of 100 children (49 boys and 51 girls), who involved the project in 2008 (P1) and later in 2011 (P2) were measured for their body composition. BMI for age using WHO 2007 cut off was used to identify their nutritional status. TBW was determined by deuterium oxide dilution technique. Fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) were estimated. Results: Out of 100 children, 87 children (41 boys and 46 girls) provided the completed data of TBW at P1 and P2. They all grew up with significantly increased in weight, height, BMI (p<0.001). Their body composition in terms of %TBW, %FEM and %FM were not changed in both genders. Boys had significant higher %FFM than girls in P1 (71.5% in boys and 67.4% in girls, p<0.05) while %FM were significant lower than girls (28.5% in boys and 32.6% in girls, p<0.05). However, after 3 years, no significant different between boys and girls was observed. Over the 3 years period, based on BMI for age, the proportion of overweight and obese children increased from 36.6% to 48.8% for boys, and from 32.6% to 41.3% for girls. Around 17% of normal boys became overweight and obese, and for girls only 8.7% was found. Less than 5% of overweight and obese boys became normal, and none for girls. Conclusion: The obesity problem was inevitably increased when children are advance in age. However for

  10. Reflection of Confucianism, Hinduism, and Buddhism on gender relations and gender specific occupation in Thai society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, M; Weber, K E

    1994-01-01

    It is posited that present-day Thai society is the product of different settlement patterns among Chinese Confucian followers and those ascribing to matrilocal practices. Chinese settled in urban areas and maintained Confucian dogma that barred women from high ranking positions and dictated a women's role of subservience to men. Matrilocal systems proliferated in rural areas. The village kinship system was egalitarian, until a class-state society was instituted and patriarchal systems dominated. At that time, women's status was reduced. Massive Chinese immigration occurred during the mid-19th century until World War II. Some Indians also migrated during this time period. The dominant use of the Thai language forced the Chinese to assimilate into Thai culture. Thai Buddhist practices were open and similar enough to Confucian ideology that religious assimilation also occurred. A small group of Chinese immigrants retained their ties to Chinese customs. The pattern of foreigners' involvement in the Thai economy was promoted by official policy. In the last several decades Thai policy shifted to an increasingly Thai-influenced economy. Other influences on gender patterns and Thai culture were the Hinduism of Indians who settled in Central Siam, the Mon aristocracy, and Brahmin cults. After the Khmers took over control of this region, the Indian caste system and the Hindu belief in Manu were integrated into Khmer culture. Women were considered the weaker and inferior sex and dependent upon men. The kings of Siam followed Brahmin rituals after the 15th century. Buddhism and the "sangha" became the central Thai religious institution. Even today Buddhist monks are given 3 months time off with pay for time spent as a monk, while maternity leave for women is limited to 45 days. The status of women is traced during the Sukothai period (1250-1350), the Ayudhaya period (1350-1767), and the Ratanakosin period (since 1782). Present occupational patterns reflect women's dominance in

  11. Use of irradiation to improve the safety and quality of Thai prepared meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noomhorm, A; Koomsanit, T; Biramontri, S; Sirisoontaralak, P; Srisawas, W; Vongsawasdi, P [Asian Institute of Technlogy, Food Engineering and Bioprocess Technology, Klongluang, Pathumthani (Thailand)

    2004-07-01

    Due to the change of life style of people in developed and developing countries, there is an increased economic growth of prepared meals. In Thailand, there is a dynamic growth of market for chilled prepared meals because of the growth of food services in supermarkets and convenient stores. However, the shelf-life for ready-to-eat chilled food including chilled prepared meals is quite short and sometimes insufficient to meet market requirements and it is implicated in a number of serious foodborne disease outbreaks. Irradiation could provide a potential to improve the microbiological safety and extend the shelf-life of chilled prepared meals. Therefore, the study about the possibility to use irradiation for extending shelf-life and ensure microbiological safety of chilled prepared meals should be conducted. Also, information relevant to the application of food safety control system like Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) should be gathered to ensure more safety of the irradiated prepared meals. Many traditional Thai dishes are popular in Thai restaurants over the world. Thai dishes are normally composed of herb and spicy with different types of meat. All dishes are eaten along with rice. Aromatic rice is the most preference for Thai consumers and foreigners. Thai spicy basil rice dish with selected meat such as chicken is selected as a prepared meal in this study due to its popularity and feasibility of commercial production.

  12. Reliability and Validity of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS): Thai Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongpakaran, Tinakon; Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Ruktrakul, Ruk

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the Thai version of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) for its psychometric properties. In total 462 participants were recruited - 310 medical students from Chiang Mai University and 152 psychiatric patients, and they completed the Thai version of the MSPSS, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and the Thai Depression Inventory (TDI). Test-retest reliability was conducted over a four week period. Factor analysis produced three-factor solutions for both patient (PG) and student groups (SG), and overall the model demonstrated adequate fit indices. The mean total score and the sub-scale score for the SG were statistically higher than those in the PG, except for 'Significant Others'. The internal consistency of the scale was good, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.91 for the SG and 0.87 for the PG. After a four week retest for reliability exercise, the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was found to be 0.84. The Thai-MSPSS was found to have a negative correlation with the STAI and the TDI, but was positively correlated with the RSES. The Thai MSPSS is a reliable and valid instrument to use.

  13. Use of irradiation to improve the safety and quality of Thai prepared meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noomhorm, A.; Koomsanit, T.; Biramontri, S.; Sirisoontaralak, P.; Srisawas, W.; Vongsawasdi, P.

    2004-01-01

    Due to the change of life style of people in developed and developing countries, there is an increased economic growth of prepared meals. In Thailand, there is a dynamic growth of market for chilled prepared meals because of the growth of food services in supermarkets and convenient stores. However, the shelf-life for ready-to-eat chilled food including chilled prepared meals is quite short and sometimes insufficient to meet market requirements and it is implicated in a number of serious foodborne disease outbreaks. Irradiation could provide a potential to improve the microbiological safety and extend the shelf-life of chilled prepared meals. Therefore, the study about the possibility to use irradiation for extending shelf-life and ensure microbiological safety of chilled prepared meals should be conducted. Also, information relevant to the application of food safety control system like Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) should be gathered to ensure more safety of the irradiated prepared meals. Many traditional Thai dishes are popular in Thai restaurants over the world. Thai dishes are normally composed of herb and spicy with different types of meat. All dishes are eaten along with rice. Aromatic rice is the most preference for Thai consumers and foreigners. Thai spicy basil rice dish with selected meat such as chicken is selected as a prepared meal in this study due to its popularity and feasibility of commercial production

  14. Translation and validation of the condom self-efficacy scale with Thai adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thato, Sathja; Hanna, Kathleen M; Rodcumdee, Branom

    2005-01-01

    To translate the 14-item Condom Self-Efficacy Scale (CSES) into Thai and to validate the Thai version of the Condom Self-efficacy Scale (CSES-T) among Thai adolescents and young adults. The CSES was translated using a back-translation technique and validated with a cluster-based sample of 425 participants aged 18 to 22 years from eight randomly selected private vocational schools in Bangkok. Participants completed anonymous self-administered scales. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was conducted to identify latent factors. Factor analysis indicated three factors: communication, correct use, and consistent use. Items loading on the original CSES also loaded on the same factors of the CSES-T except one item. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients were .85 for the total scale, .70 for consistent use, .79 for correct use, and .80 for communication. Based on psychometric properties, the CSES-T is a valid and reliable tool. It is culturally appropriate for Thai young adults. Thai researchers and health care providers can use the CSES-T to assess adolescents' and young adults' self-efficacy to use condoms as well as to further develop and evaluate interventions to increase condom use.

  15. Incidence of Clavicular Rhomboid Fossa in Northeastern Thais: An Anthropological Study

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    Ailadda Kaewma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The rhomboid fossa of clavicle is used to determine the age and sex in anthropology and forensic sciences. The variant types of rhomboid fossa on inferior surface have been reported in many races except in Thais. This study therefore was aimed at classifying the types of the rhomboid fossa in Northeastern Thais. The identified 476 Northeastern Thais dried clavicles (270 males and 206 females were observed and recorded for the types of rhomboid fossa. The results showed that Thai-rhomboid fossa could be classified into 4 types: Type 1: smooth; Type 2: flat; Type 3: elevated; and Type 4: depressed, respectively. The incidences of rhomboid fossa were as follows: Type 1: 0.21%; Type 2: 19.75%; Type 3: 76.26%; and Type 4: 3.78%, respectively. Additionally, it was found that the percentage of Type 4 (11.84% was much greater than that of female (1.94% compared to other types. This incidence of rhomboid fossa types especially Type 4 may be a basic knowledge to be used in sex identification. The high incidence of rhomboid fossa in both sexes of Northeastern Thai clavicles was Type 3 (elevated type.

  16. Differences in Taste Perception and Spicy Preference: A Thai-Japanese Cross-cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachootham, Dunyaporn; Satoh-Kuriwada, Shizuko; Lam-Ubol, Aroonwan; Promkam, Chadamas; Chotechuang, Nattida; Sasano, Takashi; Shoji, Noriaki

    2017-12-25

    Taste perception is influenced by several factors. However, the relation between taste perception and food culture is unclear. This study compared taste thresholds between populations with different food culture, i.e. Thai and Japanese. A matched case-control study was conducted in 168 adults (84 for each; aged between 50 and 90 years). The age, sex, systemic disease, medication, smoking, xerostomia, and oral hygiene of both groups were not different. Recognition thresholds (RTs) of sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami were measured using filter paper disc (FPD). Detection taste thresholds were measured using electrogustometry. Spicy preference was measured by calibrated questionnaires. Higher RTs of all tastes and higher detection taste thresholds were found in Thai as compared to those of Japanese (P differences between 2 countries. The average thresholds for sweet, salty, sour, and bitter in Thai and Japanese were 4 and 2, respectively. The average threshold for umami in Thai and Japanese was 5 and 3, respectively. Moreover, Thai population had stronger preference for spicy food (P culture on taste perception. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. A preliminary study on identification of Thai rice samples by INAA and statistical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongsri, S.; Kukusamude, C.

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to investigate the elemental compositions in 93 Thai rice samples using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and to identify rice according to their types and rice cultivars using statistical analysis. As, Mg, Cl, Al, Br, Mn, K, Rb and Zn in Thai jasmine rice and Sung Yod rice samples were successfully determined by INAA. The accuracy and precision of the INAA method were verified by SRM 1568a Rice Flour. All elements were found to be in a good agreement with the certified values. The precisions in term of %RSD were lower than 7%. The LODs were obtained in range of 0.01 to 29 mg kg-1. The concentration of 9 elements distributed in Thai rice samples was evaluated and used as chemical indicators to identify the type of rice samples. The result found that Mg, Cl, As, Br, Mn, K, Rb, and Zn concentrations in Thai jasmine rice samples are significantly different but there was no evidence that Al is significantly different from concentration in Sung Yod rice samples at 95% confidence interval. Our results may provide preliminary information for discrimination of rice samples and may be useful database of Thai rice.

  18. Effects of thai foot massage on balance performance in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy: a randomized parallel-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatchawan, Uraiwan; Eungpinichpong, Wichai; Plandee, Piyawan; Yamauchi, Junichiro

    2015-04-20

    BACKGROUND Peripheral neuropathy is the most common complications of diabetic patients and leads to loss of plantar cutaneous sensation, movement perception, and body balance. Thai foot massage is an alternative therapy to improve balance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Thai foot massage on balance performance in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy. MATERIAL AND METHODS Sixty patients with type-2 diabetes were recruited and randomly assigned into either the Thai foot massage or control groups. The Thai foot massage group received a modified Thai traditional foot massage for 30 min, 3 days per week for 2 weeks. We measured timed up and go (TUG), one leg stance: OLS), the range of motion (ROM) of the foot, and foot sensation (SWMT) before treatment, after the first single session, and after the 2-week treatment. RESULTS After the single treatment session, only the Thai foot massage group showed a significant improvement in TUG. After the 2-week treatment, both Thai foot massage and control groups showed a significant improvement of TUG and OLS (Pfoot massage group showed better improvement in TUG than the control group (pfoot massage group also showed significant improvements in ROM and SWMT after the 2-week treatment. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study suggest that Thai foot massage is a viable alternative treatment for balance performance, ROM of the foot, and the foot sensation in diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy.

  19. Thermal-hydraulic–iodine chemistry coupling: Insights gained from the SARNET benchmark on the THAI experiments Iod-11 and Iod-12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G., E-mail: gunter.weber@grs.de [GRS, Garching and Cologne (Germany); Herranz, L.E. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Bendiab, M. [AREVA NP, Erlangen (Germany); Fontanet, J. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Funke, F. [AREVA NP, Erlangen (Germany); Gonfiotti, B. [Università di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Ivanov, I. [TUS, Sofia (Bulgaria); Krajewski, S. [FZ-Jülich, Jülich (Germany); Manfredini, A.; Paci, S. [Università di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Pelzer, M. [GRS, Garching and Cologne (Germany); Sevón, T. [VTT, Espoo (Finland)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • The I{sub 2} transport in two multi-compartment THAI tests was analyzed. • In a benchmark 4 different codes were applied by 7 organizations. • The I{sub 2} concentrations were mostly overestimated, up to a factor 100. • Inadequate iodine models and inaccurate thermal-hydraulic parameters were detected. • The user effect on the quality of the iodine results was large. - Abstract: In the SARNET2 WP8.3 THAI Benchmark the capability of current accident codes to simulate the iodine transport and behavior in sub-divided containments has been assessed. In THAI test Iod-11 and Iod-12, made available for the benchmark, the distribution of molecular iodine (I{sub 2}) in the five compartments of the 60 m{sup 3} vessel under stratified and well mixed conditions was measured. The main processes addressed are the I{sub 2} transport with the atmospheric flows and the interaction of I{sub 2} with the steel surface. During test Iod-11 the surfaces in contact with the containment atmosphere were dry. In Iod-12, steam was released, which condensed on the walls. Nine post-test calculations were conducted for Iod-11 and eight for Iod-12 by seven organizations using four different codes: ASTEC-IODE (CIEMAT, GRS and TUS), COCOSYS-AIM (AREVA, FZ-Jülich and GRS), ECART (Pisa University) and MELCOR (Pisa University and VTT). Different nodalizations of the THAI vessel with 20–65 zones were applied. Generally, for both tests the analytical thermal-hydraulic results are in a fairly good agreement with the measurements. Only the calculated local relative humidity deviates significantly from the measured values in all calculations. The results in Iod-11 for the local I{sub 2} concentration in the gaseous phase are quite diverse. Three calculations show only minor deviations from the measurement, whereas the others are substantially different from the measured I{sub 2} concentrations. For Iod-12, no calculation delivers a satisfactory evolution of the I{sub 2

  20. Technical Efficiency of Thai Manufacturing SMEs: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teerawat Charoenrat

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available AbstractA major motivation of this study is to examine the factors that are the most important in contributing to the relatively poor efficiency performance of Thai manufacturing small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs. The results obtained will be significant in devising effective policies aimed at tackling this poor performance.This paper uses data on manufacturing SMEs in the North-eastern region of Thailand in 2007 as a case study, by applying a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA and a technical inefficiency effects model. The empirical results obtained indicate that the mean technical efficiency of all categories of manufacturing SMEs in theNorth-eastern region is 43%, implying that manufacturing SMEs have high levels of technical inefficiency in their production processes.Manufacturing SMEs in the North-eastern region are particularly labour-intensive. The empirical results of the technical inefficiency effects model suggest that skilled labour, the municipal area and ownership characteristics are important firm-specific factors affecting technical efficiency. The paper argues that the government should play a more substantial role in developing manufacturing SMEs in the North-eastern provinces through: providing training programs for employees and employers; encouraging a greater usage of capital and technology in the production process of SMEs; enhancing the efficiency of state-ownedenterprises; encouraging a wide range of ownership forms; and improving information and communications infrastructure.

  1. Changes in Thai sexual behavior lower HIV spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-06-02

    More than 700,000 people are thought to be HIV positive in Thailand. A booming sex industry and social attitudes which support the male patronage of prostitutes are major factors in the spread of disease in the country. A 4-day workshop on sexual behavior and AIDS in Thailand was attended by representatives from Burma, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. According to the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the percentage of military conscripts in northern Thailand who visited a brothel in the past year fell from 58% in 1991 to 23% in 1995, while the percentage of recruits using condoms during their most recent brothel visits increased from 60% to 90% over the same period. Statistics from the Thai Public Health Ministry indicate that the percentage of men in the general population who used condoms when visiting a brothel increased from 40% in 1990 to 90% in 1994. Furthermore, a nationwide survey among military conscripts found the prevalence of HIV infection fell from 3.7% in 1993 to 2.5% in 1995, with the downward trend continuing in 1996. This success in reducing the level of sexual risk behavior and the incidence of HIV infection in Thailand lends hope for the possibility of changing the course of the HIV/AIDS epidemic elsewhere.

  2. The Use of Pocket Electronic Dictionaries by Thai University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atipat Boonmoh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: This article reports on a small-scale study of Thai-speaking learners using pocket electronic dictionaries (PEDs to read an English news article. It investigates how the subjects use their PEDs for reading comprehension. Thirty-nine undergraduate students completed a questionnaire survey. Of these, four were chosen to participate in the experiment. Observations and interviews were utilized to ascertain how the subjects used their PEDs. The findings showed superficial and partial reading of the dictionary entries. It also revealed several factors that may hinder dictionary look-up success. On the basis of this research, guidelines for buying PEDs and for teaching PED skills are proposed.

    OPSOMMING: Die gebruik van sak- elektroniese woordeboeke deur Thaise universiteitstudente. Hierdie artikel doen verslag van 'n kleinskaalse studie van Thaisprekende aanleerders wat sak- elektroniese woordeboeke (SEW's gebruik om 'n Engelse nuusartikel te lees. Dit ondersoek hoe die proefpersone hul SAW's gebruik vir leesbegrip. Nege-en-dertig voorgraadse studente het 'n vraelysopname voltooi. Uit hulle is vier gekies om aan die eksperiment deel te neem. Waarnemings en onderhoude is aangewend om te bepaal hoe die proefpersone hul SEW's gebruik het. Die bevindings het oppervlakkige en gedeeltelike lees van die woordeboekinskrywings getoon. Dit het ook verskeie faktore uitgewys wat woordeboekopsoeksukses mag belemmer. Op grond van hierdie navorsing word riglyne vir die koop van SEW's en vir die onderrig van SEWvaardighede voorgestel.

    Sleutelwoorde: WOORDEBOEKGEBRUIK, SAK- ELEKTRONIESE WOORDEBOEK, WOORDEBOEKRAADPLEGING, EENTALIGE WOORDEBOEK, TWEETALIGE WOORDEBOEK

  3. Thai dental practitioners' knowledge and attitudes regarding patients with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungsiyanont, Sorasun; Lam-Ubol, Aroonwan; Vacharotayangul, Piamkamon; Sappayatosok, Kraisorn

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the knowledge and attitudes of Thai dental practitioners regarding patients with HIV, a cross-sectional study using self-administered questionnaires was conducted. The questionnaires requested demographic information and included questions evaluating the knowledge and attitude of dental practitioners towards HIV. The results were analyzed using Scheffe method for multiple comparisons at the 95 percent confidence level. Out of 1,200 questionnaires sent, 446 questionnaires were returned (response rate 37.2 percent). The subjects included final (sixth)-year dental students (11.9 percent), general dentists (29.1 percent), specialist dentists (15.5 percent), dental hygienists (30.5 percent), and dental assistants (13 percent). More than 80 percent of the dental practitioners correctly answered the questions testing their basic knowledge of HIV such as routes of transmission and common opportunistic infections. However, knowledge about HIV pathogenesis, complications, and advances in HIV management was lacking. Dental hygienists and dental assistants had statistically significant lower scores in knowledge about HIV than other groups. Sixty-seven percent of dental practitioners said they feel worried when treating patients with HIV, and 20.4 percent said they would deny treatment for patients with HIV if possible. While knowledge about HIV may be adequate among dental practitioners in Thailand, greater effort should be put into emphasizing positive attitudes towards patients with HIV.

  4. Thalassemia and Hemoglobin E in Southern Thai Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manit Nuinoon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thalassemia and hemoglobin E (Hb E are common in Thailand. Individuals with thalassemia trait usually have a normal hemoglobin concentration or mild anemia. Therefore, thalassemic individuals who have minimum acceptable Hb level may be accepted as blood donors. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of α-thalassemia 1 trait, β-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes in Southern Thai blood donors. One hundred and sixteen voluntary blood donors, Southern Thailand origin, were recruited for thalassemia and Hb E screening by red blood cell indices/dichlorophenolindophenol precipitation test. β-Thalassemia and Hb E were then identified by high performance liquid chromatography and 4 common α-thalassemia deletions were characterized by a single tube-multiplex gap-polymerase chain reaction. Overall frequency of hemoglobinopathies was 12.9%, classified as follows: homozygous α-thalassemia 2 (1.7%, heterozygous α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%, heterozygous β-thalassemia without α-thalassemia (0.9%, heterozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (5.2%, double heterozygotes for Hb E/α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%, homozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (0.9%, and homozygous Hb E with heterozygous α-thalassemia 2 (0.9%. The usefulness of thalassemia screening is not only for receiving highly effective red blood cells in the recipients but also for encouraging the control and prevention program of thalassemia in blood donors.

  5. Retrospective: animal attacks and rabies exposures in Thai children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriaroon, Chakrapol; Sriaroon, Panida; Daviratanasilpa, Svastijaya; Khawplod, Pakamatz; Wilde, Henry

    2006-09-01

    Over 50% of animal bites and potential rabies exposures in Thailand are in children and they also have the more severe injuries due to inexperience, smaller size and less ability to fend off attacks. Potential rabies exposures and animal bites are common in Thailand. Majority of these are in children where the extent of the injuries is also much more severe. The bitten areas correlate to the age of the children and level of the bitten animal head. These are areas noted for a higher risk of infection with rabies virus and shorter incubation periods. The vast majority of bites are due to dogs (86%) of which 74.6% are stray or community-owned animals. The prevalence of dog bites shows no seasonal variation in adults but there are two peaks during school vacation period for children. Extensive educational efforts directed at the Thai public are responsible for the rapid presentation of victims for post-exposure treatment. The dramatic reduction of human rabies deaths in Thailand during the last decades was achieved largely by the provision of expensive WHO standard post-exposure treatment, utilizing modern tissue culture vaccines and immunoglobulins. Canine and feline rabies is nevertheless still endemic and not likely to be controlled or eliminated till sustainable humane methods of dog population control and comprehensive countrywide canine rabies vaccination become possible through government policy.

  6. Examining Thai high school students' developing STEM projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teenoi, Kultida; Siripun, Kulpatsorn; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    Like others, Thailand education strongly focused on STEM education. This paper aimed to examine existing Thai high school students' integrated knowledge about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in their developing science project. The participants included 49 high school students were studying the subject of individual study (IS) in Khon Kaen wittayayon school, Khon Kaen, Thailand. The IS was provided to gradually enhance students to know how to do science project starting from getting start to do science projects, They enrolled to study the individual study of science project for three year in roll. Methodology was qualitative research. Views of students' integrated knowledge about STEM were interpreted through participant observation, interview, and students' science projects. The first author as participant observation has taught this group of students for 3 years. It found that 16 science projects were developed. Views of students' integrated knowledge about STEM could be categorized into three categories. These included (1) completely indicated integration of knowledge about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, (2) partial indicated integration of knowledge about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, and (3) no integration. The findings revealed that majority of science projects could be categorized as completely indicated integration of knowledge about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. The paper suggested some ideas of enhancing students to applying STEM for developing science projects.

  7. Energy Efficiency Tracking in Thai Manufacturing Sector by Decomposition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongsapai Wongkot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of energy saving and changes in energy intensities in Thai manufacturing sector by Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index decomposition technique. This method includes three effects consists of the energy intensity effect, the structural effect and the effect of the economic growth on the energy consumption in Thailand by using the 25-year annual data from 1990 to 2014, carried out in four phases; (i before National Energy Conservation law, (ii during the effect of the law, (iii Transition period of the law from first to second version, and (iv during the effect of the law (No.2. We found that the most effective intensity effect is in the third phase due to the effect of the implementation of new energy efficient equipment from the second phase by enforcement of the law, especially in non-metallic sector, while the first phase illustrates the lowest intensity effect due to the energy conservation law had not been occurred. However, due to the highest economic growth of the country and change from agricultural to industrial development direction, the first phase presents the most effective structural effect, then this effect continuously decreased by time. We also conclude that the energy conservation law have direct effect to energy efficiency of the country however, strictly individual regulation which have target to enforce to energy intensive industries is still required for sustainable energy efficiency improvement.

  8. Antityrosinase and antimicrobial activities from Thai medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dej-Adisai, Sukanya; Meechai, Imron; Puripattanavong, Jindaporn; Kummee, Sopa

    2014-04-01

    Various dermatological disorders and microbial skin infection can cause hyperpigmentation. Therefore, screenings for whitening and antimicrobial agents from Thai medicinal plants have been of research interest. Seventy-seven ethanol plant extracts were investigated for antityrosinase activity, eleven samples showed the tyrosinase inhibition more than 50 % were further preliminary screening for antimicrobial activity by agar disc diffusion and broth micro-dilution methods. Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr. (Moraceae) root extract, which showed the potential of tyrosinase inhibition with 90.57 ± 2.93 % and antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Propionibacterium acnes and Trichophyton mentagophytes with inhibition zone as 9.10 ± 0.00, 10.67 ± 0.09, 15.25 ± 0.05 and 6.60 ± 0.17 mm, respectively was selected for phytochemical investigation. Three pure compounds were isolated as artocarpin, cudraflavone C and artocarpanone. And artocarpanone exhibited anti-tyrosinase effect; artocarpin and cudraflavone C also showed the potential of antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. epidermidis and P. acnes with MIC at 2, 4 and 2 μg/ml, respectively and MBC at 32 μg/ml for these bacteria. So, these pure compounds are interesting for further study in order to provide possibilities of new whitening and antibacterial development. This will be the first report of phytochemical investigation of A. integer root.

  9. Antibacterial activity of Thai herbal extracts on acne involved microorganism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niyomkam, P; Kaewbumrung, S; Kaewnpparat, S; Panichayupakaranant, P

    2010-04-01

    Ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of 18 Thai medicinal plants were investigated for their antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium acnes, Stapylococcus aureus, and S. epidermidis. Thirteen plant extracts were capable of inhibiting the growth of P. acnes and S. epidermidis, while 14 plant extracts exhibited an inhibitory effect on S. aureus. Based on the broth dilution method, the ethyl acetate extract of Alpinia galanga (L.) Wild. (Zingiberaceae) rhizome showed the strongest antibacterial effect against P. acnes, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 156.0 and 312.0 microg/mL, respectively. On the basis of bioassay-guided purification, the ethyl acetate extract was isolated to afford the antibacterial active compound, which was identified as 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (1'-ACA). 1'-ACA had a strong inhibitory effect on P. acnes with MIC and MBC values of 62.0 and 250.0 microg/mL, respectively. Thus, 1'-ACA was used as an indicative marker for standardization of A. galanga extract using high performance liquid chromatography. These results suggest that A. galanga extract could be an interesting agent for further studies on an alternative treatment of acne.

  10. Successful strategy to improve glucose tolerance in Thai obese youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numbenjapon, Nawaporn; Nakavachara, Pairunyar; Santiprabhob, Jeerunda; Kiattisakthavee, Pornpimol; Wongarn, Renu; Likitmaskul, Supawadee

    2010-11-01

    Childhood obesity is an emerging national health problem in Thailand. Our previous study found that one third of obese children and adolescents had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 2.6 percent had already developed type 2 diabetes mellitus. An immediate strategy needs to be established in order to improve these metabolic problems. To determine whether diet and exercise education for lifestyle modification with or without metformin therapy in our diabetes clinic is enable to improve these metabolic problems. Twenty-six Thai obese children and adolescents with IGT, who received at least 6 months of treatment consisting of lifestyle modification alone or lifestyle modification and metformin (combined treatment) were enrolled into this study. Each patient underwent the second 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Plasma glucose, insulin levels, HbA1C and lipid profiles were measured. The results were compared with historical pre-treatment data. Approximately 1 year after intervention, 19 out of 26 patients with IGT completed the second 2-hour OGTT. Sixteen patients (84.2%) successfully reversed to be normal glucose tolerance whereas 3 patients (15.8%) remained IGT. Body mass index (BMI), BMISDS, 2-hour plasma glucose, basal insulin level, 2-hour insulin level were significantly decreased after treatment in normal OGTT group (Ps youth is a reversible abnormality by lifestyle modification with or without metformin.

  11. Phytoremediation potential of indigenous plants from Thai Nguyen province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Bui Thi Kim; Kim, Dang Dinh; Tua, Tran Van; Kien, Nguyen Trung; Anh, Do Tuan

    2011-03-01

    This study was focused on determining Arsenic (As), Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd) and Zinc (Zn) in 33 indigenous plants and 12 soil in-situ plant samples in Thai Nguyen Province, Vietnam. The results showed that the soils of surveyed mining areas contained 181.2- 6754.3 mg kg(-1) As, 235.5-4337.2 mg kg(-1) Pb, 0.8- 419 mg kg(-1) Cd and 361.8-17565.1 mg kg(-1) Zn depending on the characteristics of each mining site. These values are much higher than those typical for normal soil. The heavy metal uptake into shoots and roots of 33 indigenous plant species was also determined. Two species of the plants investigated, Pteris vittata L. and Pityrogramma calomelanos L. were As hyperaccumulators, containing more than 0.1% heavy metals in their shoots. Eleusine indica L., Cynodon dactylon L., Cyperus rotundus L. and Equisetum ramosissimum (Vauch) accumulate very high Pb (0.15-0.65%) and Zn (0.22-1.56%) concentration in their roots. Additional experiments to clarify the potential of six these plants as good candidates for phytoremediation of heavy metal pollution soil are being carried out in our laboratory.

  12. Acceptability of oral typhoid vaccine in Thai children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekmullica, Jutarat; Pancharoen, Chitsanu

    2003-06-01

    To determine the acceptability of oral typhoid vaccine to Thai children, 434 volunteers, aged 4-15 years (average age = 8.2 years), were assigned to take three capsules of oral typhoid vaccine (one capsule every other day). Success was defined as the subjects' being able to swallow all three capsules. Information concerning the subjects' level of education, eating habits, and ability to take medicines in a variety of preparations (syrups, tablets and capsules) was obtained. The overall success rate was 94.2%; the rates were 84.4%, 94.9%, and 100% in the age groups 4-6 years, 7-9 years, and 10-12 years respectively. The rates were 82%, 85.7%, 93.3%, 96.4%, 98.8%, 100% and 100% in the students of kindergarten 1, kindergarten 2, elementary grade 1, grade 2, grade 3, grade 4, and grade 5 respectively. There was a correlation between a child's prior ability to take tablets/capsules and his success in swallowing the oral typhoid vaccine.

  13. Thalassemia and Hemoglobin E in Southern Thai Blood Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruachan, Kwanta; Sengking, Warachaya; Horpet, Dararat; Sungyuan, Ubol

    2014-01-01

    Thalassemia and hemoglobin E (Hb E) are common in Thailand. Individuals with thalassemia trait usually have a normal hemoglobin concentration or mild anemia. Therefore, thalassemic individuals who have minimum acceptable Hb level may be accepted as blood donors. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of α-thalassemia 1 trait, β-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes in Southern Thai blood donors. One hundred and sixteen voluntary blood donors, Southern Thailand origin, were recruited for thalassemia and Hb E screening by red blood cell indices/dichlorophenolindophenol precipitation test. β-Thalassemia and Hb E were then identified by high performance liquid chromatography and 4 common α-thalassemia deletions were characterized by a single tube-multiplex gap-polymerase chain reaction. Overall frequency of hemoglobinopathies was 12.9%, classified as follows: homozygous α-thalassemia 2 (1.7%), heterozygous α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%), heterozygous β-thalassemia without α-thalassemia (0.9%), heterozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (5.2%), double heterozygotes for Hb E/α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%), homozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (0.9%), and homozygous Hb E with heterozygous α-thalassemia 2 (0.9%). The usefulness of thalassemia screening is not only for receiving highly effective red blood cells in the recipients but also for encouraging the control and prevention program of thalassemia in blood donors. PMID:25050123

  14. Low Sleeping Time, High TV Viewing Time, and Physical Inactivity in School Are Risk Factors for Obesity in Pre-Adolescent Thai Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thasanasuwan, Wiyada; Srichan, Weerachat; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Yamborisut, Uruwan; Wimonpeerapattana, Wanphen; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Khouw, Ilse Tan; Deurenberg, Pual

    2016-03-01

    Explore the association between physically active behavior and obesity in 7- to 12-years-old Thai children. As part of SEANUTS Thailand, information on anthropometry, physical activity, and sociodemographic variables were collected in 7- to 12-years-old urban and rural Thai children. Multi-stage sampling technique was used and 1,345 children (32% urban, and 50.3% boys) participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, and BMI-for-age Z-scores (BAZ) using World Health Organization Growth Reference. Obesity was defined as BAZ > 2SD. Physical activity was assessed using a validated physical activity questionnaire (PAQ). The PAQ provided an activity score, activity time in school, sleeping hours, and TV watching time as categorical variable, low, moderate, and high. Chi-square by likelihood ratio test and logistic regression were used to compare obese and non-obese groups. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 10.2 and 10.8% respectively, whereas 8.2% was classified as thin. Maternal education and religion did not differ between obese and non-obese children. However, obese children's family income was higher. After controlling for family income, maternal education, and religion, obese children were significantly less active during break times in school, slept less, and watched more TV than non-obese. However, there was no difference in the activity score of obese and non-obese children. The study showed that physical activity during break time in school, sleep duration, and hours of TV viewing were associated with obesity in pre-adolescent Thai children. It is important to note that activity score was not associated with obesity. One of the most important benefits to be physically active in childhood is the potential to maintain this behavior into adulthood. Therefore, programs that encourage healthy behaviors and address these modifiable risk factors should be incorporated in the school curriculum.

  15. The dementia and disability project in Thai elderly: rational, design, methodology and early results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senanarong Vorapun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A strong inverse relationship of functional limitation and socioeconomic status has been established in western ageing society. Functional limitation can be related to chronic diseases, disuse, cognitive decline, and ageing. Among chronic diseases in the Thai population, cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes, and arthritis are common. These factors are known to contribute to disability and poor quality of life in the elder population. Neuropsychiatric problems, cognitive decline, dementia, and cultural issues in elderly people also can alter the quality of life of the elderly. Methods The Dementia and Disability Project in Thai Elderly (DDP aims at comprehensively assessing community dwelling Thai elderly to understand the relationship between disability and motor function, neuropsychiatric symptoms, cognitive function, and chronic diseases. The DDP is the first study to look at the prevalence and etiology of dementia and of mild cognitive impairment (MCI in Thai elders and to explore the relationship of cognition, disability, small vessel diseases and cortical degeneration with neuroimaging in Thai elderly people. 1998 Thai elders were screened in 2004–2006 and diagnosed as having MCI or dementia. 223 elders with MCI or dementia and cognitively normal elderly had brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI or at baseline. 319 elders from the 3 groups had blood tests to investigate the risks and possible etiologies of dementia including genotyping at baseline. Results The mean age of elders in this study is 69.51(SD=6.71, min=60, max=95 years. 689(34.9% are men and 1284(65.1% are women. Mean body weight was 58.36(SD=11.20 kgs. The regression model reveals that performance on gait and balance and serum triglyceride predicts activity of daily living performance (adjusted r2 = 0.280, f=2.644, p=0.003. The majority of abnormal gait in Thai elders was lower level gait disturbance. Only 1.5% (29/1952 had highest level gait disorders. 39

  16. Fumonisin B2 production by Aspergillus niger in Thai coffee beans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanaku, W.; Nielsen, Kristian Fog

    2009-01-01

    During 2006 and 2007, a total of 64 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea arabica) from two growing sites in Chiangmai Province and 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea canephora) from two growing sites in Chumporn Province, Thailand, were collected and assessed for fumonisin contamination...... by black Aspergilli. No Fusarium species known to produce fumonisin were detected, but black Aspergilli had high incidences on both Arabica and Robusta Thai coffee beans. Liquid chromatography (LC) with high-resolution mass spectrometric (HRMS) detection showed that 67% of Aspergillus niger isolates from...... coffee beans were capable of producing fumonisins B2 (FB2) and B4 when grown on Czapek Yeast Agar with 5% NaCl. Small amounts (1-9.7 ng g-1) of FB2 were detected in seven of 12 selected coffee samples after ion-exchange purification and LC-MS/MS detection. Two samples also contained FB4...

  17. The Dementia and Disability Project in Thai Elderly: rational, design, methodology and early results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanarong, Vorapun; Harnphadungkit, Kamolthip; Poungvarin, Niphon; Vannasaeng, Sathit; Chongwisal, Samut; Chakorn, Tipa; Jamjumrus, Piyanuch; Raksthaput, Atthapon; Chaichanettee, Sinisa; Aoonkaew, Nattapol; Udompunthurak, Suthipol; Doody, Rachelle S; Cummings, Jeffrey L

    2013-01-10

    A strong inverse relationship of functional limitation and socioeconomic status has been established in western ageing society. Functional limitation can be related to chronic diseases, disuse, cognitive decline, and ageing. Among chronic diseases in the Thai population, cerebrovascular diseases, diabetes, and arthritis are common. These factors are known to contribute to disability and poor quality of life in the elder population. Neuropsychiatric problems, cognitive decline, dementia, and cultural issues in elderly people also can alter the quality of life of the elderly. The Dementia and Disability Project in Thai Elderly (DDP) aims at comprehensively assessing community dwelling Thai elderly to understand the relationship between disability and motor function, neuropsychiatric symptoms, cognitive function, and chronic diseases. The DDP is the first study to look at the prevalence and etiology of dementia and of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Thai elders and to explore the relationship of cognition, disability, small vessel diseases and cortical degeneration with neuroimaging in Thai elderly people. 1998 Thai elders were screened in 2004-2006 and diagnosed as having MCI or dementia. 223 elders with MCI or dementia and cognitively normal elderly had brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or at baseline. 319 elders from the 3 groups had blood tests to investigate the risks and possible etiologies of dementia including genotyping at baseline. The mean age of elders in this study is 69.51(SD=6.71, min=60, max=95) years. 689(34.9%) are men and 1284(65.1%) are women. Mean body weight was 58.36(SD=11.20) kgs. The regression model reveals that performance on gait and balance and serum triglyceride predicts activity of daily living performance (adjusted r2 = 0.280, f=2.644, p=0.003). The majority of abnormal gait in Thai elders was lower level gait disturbance. Only 1.5% (29/1952) had highest level gait disorders. 39.5% of 1964 subjects were free of chronic diseases

  18. The Thai version of the PSS-10: An Investigation of its psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Wongpakaran, Tinakon

    2010-06-12

    Among the stress instruments that measure the degree to which life events are perceived as stressful, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) is widely used. The goal of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Thai version of the PSS-10 (T-PSS-10) with a clinical and non-clinical sample. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, concurrent validity, and the factorial structure of the scale were tested. A total sample of 479 adult participants was recruited for the study: 368 medical students and 111 patients from two hospitals in Northern Thailand. The T-PSS-10 was used along with the Thai version of State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Thai Version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and the Thai Depression Inventory (TDI). Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) yielded 2 factors with eigenvalues of 5.05 and 1.60, accounting for 66 percent of variance. Factor 1 consisted of 6 items representing "stress"; whereas Factor 2 consisted of 4 items representing "control". The item loadings ranged from 0.547 to 0.881. Investigation of the fit indices associated with Maximum Likelihood (ML) estimation revealed that the two-factor solution was adequate [chi2 = 35.035 (df = 26, N = 368, p reliability. The Thai version of the PSS-10 demonstrated excellent goodness-of-fit for the two factor solution model, as well as good reliability and validity for estimating the level of stress perception with a Thai population. Limitations of the study are discussed.

  19. Comparison of factors affecting orthodontic treatment motivation of Taiwanese and Thai patients in two hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wariya Laothong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/purpose: Many factors, including economic, psychosocial statuses and ethnicity, affect patients' decision to seek orthodontic treatment. The present study compared orthodontic patients' motivation, attitude and the factors affecting this motivation in Taiwanese and Thai patients. We investigated the association between the aforementioned variables and patient characteristics. Materials and methods: We enrolled 250 Thai and 250 Taiwanese patients (age ≥ 20 years from Sunprasitthiprasong and Taipei Medical University Hospitals, respectively, by using self-administered questionnaires. Demographic characteristics were analyzed using Pearson's chi-square test, patients' motivation, attitude and the factors affecting this motivation were analyzed using the sample t-test. The association among the variables was investigated by multiple regression analysis. Results: In both hospitals, the main motivation for seeking orthodontic treatment was esthetic concerns; the patients believed that treatment could make them more beautiful. Taiwanese and Thai patients rejected treatment because of high treatment costs and long treatment periods, respectively. A significant association was observed between household income and Thai patients' motivation (p < 0.05. Sex was significantly associated with Thai patients' attitude (p < 0.05. Age, sex, active treatment duration, and marital status were associated with Taiwanese attitude toward treatment (p < 0.05. In addition, age, household income, and information resources were significantly associated with the factors affecting Taiwanese patients' motivation (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Ethnicity influenced patients' motivation. Economic status was the main factor affecting Thai patients, whereas many factors affected Taiwanese patients' decision to seek orthodontic treatment. However, esthetic concerns were a crucial motivation for both groups. Keywords: factors affecting

  20. The Thai version of the PSS-10: An Investigation of its psychometric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongpakaran Tinakon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among the stress instruments that measure the degree to which life events are perceived as stressful, the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS is widely used. The goal of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Thai version of the PSS-10 (T-PSS-10 with a clinical and non-clinical sample. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, concurrent validity, and the factorial structure of the scale were tested. Methods A total sample of 479 adult participants was recruited for the study: 368 medical students and 111 patients from two hospitals in Northern Thailand. The T-PSS-10 was used along with the Thai version of State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, the Thai Version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES, and the Thai Depression Inventory (TDI. Results Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA yielded 2 factors with eigenvalues of 5.05 and 1.60, accounting for 66 percent of variance. Factor 1 consisted of 6 items representing "stress"; whereas Factor 2 consisted of 4 items representing "control". The item loadings ranged from 0.547 to 0.881. Investigation of the fit indices associated with Maximum Likelihood (ML estimation revealed that the two-factor solution was adequate [χ2 = 35.035 (df = 26, N = 368, p r = 0.60, p r = 0.55, p r = -0.46, p Conclusions The Thai version of the PSS-10 demonstrated excellent goodness-of-fit for the two factor solution model, as well as good reliability and validity for estimating the level of stress perception with a Thai population. Limitations of the study are discussed.

  1. Patrones de consumo, estado nutricional y suplementos dietarios en el Muay Thai

    OpenAIRE

    Cañadas, Lucas

    2013-01-01

    El Muay Thai es un arte marcial tailandés considerado hoy uno de los mejores deportes de contacto en el mundo porque trabaja todas las extremidades del cuerpo, y permite un elevado desarrollo de la aptitud física, de concentración y la confianza. El objetivo del presente trabajo es determinar cuáles son los patrones de consumo alimentario, el estado nutricional y el consumo de suplementos dietarios en deportistas que practican la disciplina de Muay Thai en la ciudad de Mar del ...

  2. Physical performance in recently aged adults after 6 weeks traditional Thai dance: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janyacharoen T

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Taweesak Janyacharoen,1–3 Maneepun Laophosri,2,4 Jaturat Kanpittaya,3,5 Paradee Auvichayapat,6 Kittisak Sawanyawisuth71School of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Associated Medical Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 2Improvement of Physical Performance and Quality of Life Research Group, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 3Back, Neck and Other Joint Pain Research Group, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 4Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 5Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 6Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 7Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, ThailandBackground: Exercise has been shown to be effective in cardiovascular endurance in the elderly. We studied the effect of Thai dancing on physical performance of Thai elderly.Methods: This was an open-labeled, randomized intervention study. The Thai dancing group exercised for 40 minutes three times a week for 6 weeks. Physical performance ability was the primary outcome, including a 6-minute walk test (6MWT, five-times sit-to-stand (FTSST, and a sit-and-reach test measured before and after 6 weeks of intervention.Results: There were 42 subjects enrolled in the study, and 38 female subjects completed (20 in Thai dance group, 18 controls, with an average age of 65.8 ± 5.1 years. The Thai dance group had significantly better physical performance in all measurements at the end of the study. The 6MWT was longer (416.7 ± 58.7 versus 345.7 ± 55.1 m; P = 0.011, FTSST was quicker (10.2 ± 1.5 versus 14.4 ± 3.3 seconds; P < 0.001, and flexibility was higher (14.9 ± 3.5 versus 11.1 ± 5.7 cm; P = 0.002 in the Thai dance group than the control group.Conclusion: Thai dance can improve physical performance in recently aged (elderly female adults

  3. Contradictions in Learning how to be Thai: A Case Study of a Young Hmong Woman

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    Tracy Pilar Johnson-Messenger

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper comes from a three month period of fieldwork that I conducted in a green Hmong village in northern Thailand during the summer of 1998. During that time a crisis erupted between a local Thai government organization and the families of “Muban”1 in which one of my main informants, Ga, a 20 year old Hmong kindergarten teacher, played a major role. Although the conflict remained unresolved at the time I left Thailand, I believe that an analysis of the events, along with an analysis of Ga's role in the crisis, will illustrate the way in which education contributes to the production of new identities which social actors draw on to interpret ambiguous and contradictory social situations. I am not suggesting that Ga's project can ultimately be considered successful in effectively accomplishing such a transformation, but what I do believe her experience shows is the ways in which education, history and politics may impact the production and distribution of cultural meanings, which make such transformations possible. Moreover, the shifting identities members of a culture may craft out of different social discourses position them in and around such cultural meanings thus making it possible for them to pursue contradictory social aims within a cultural formation, and to possibly alter the way in which cultural resources are reproduced. After a brief introduction to the Hmong in northern Thailand and a discussion of some of the social reproduction theory as it has been considered within anthropology and more particularly educational anthropology, the paper will proceed to the crisis and its analysis.

  4. Effects of Thai piperaceae plant extracts on Neospora caninum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leesombun, Arpron; Boonmasawai, Sookruetai; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2017-06-01

    Neosporosis has a worldwide distribution and causes economic losses in farming, particularly by increasing the risk of abortion in cattle. This study investigated the effects of Thai piperaceae (Piper betle, P. nigrum, and P. sarmentosum) extracts on Neospora caninum infections in vitro and in vivo. In an in vitro parasite growth assay based on the green fluorescent protein (GFP) signal, P. betle was the most effective extract at inhibiting parasite growth in human foreskin fibroblast cells (IC 50 of GFP-expressing N. caninum parasites, 22.1μg/ml). The P. betle extract, at 25μg per ml, inhibited parasite invasion into host cells. Furthermore, in two independent experiments, treating N. caninum-infected mice with the P. betle extract for 7days post-infection increased their survival. In trial one, the anti-N. caninum effects of the P. betle extract reduced the mouse clinical scores for 30days post-infection (dpi). The survival rate of the mice treated with 400mg/kg was 100% compared with 66.6% for those treated with 100mg/kg and the non-treated controls. In trial two, treating the infected mice with the P. betle extract increased their survival at 50dpi. All mice in the non-treatment group died; however, the survival rates of the 400mg/kg-treated and 100mg/kg-treated mice were 83.3% and 33.3%, respectively. Also, a trend towards a reduced parasite burden was noted in the brains of the P. betle extract-treated mice, compared with the control mice. Therefore P. betle extract has potential as a medicinal plant for treating neosporosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cigarette smoking among Thai Buddhist monks, central and eastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaveepojnkamjorn, Wisit; Pichainarong, Natchaporn

    2005-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted from June to December, 2003 among Thai Buddhist monks in 4 provinces of the central region (Nonthaburi, Pathum Thani, Saraburi and Chai Nat) and in 4 provinces of the eastern region (Chachoengsao, Rayong, Trat, and Sa Kaeo) of Thailand. Data were collected using face to face interviews, questionnaires, and physical examination reports (weight, height, heart rate, blood pressure, etc) as the research tools. This study focused on sociodemographics, history of illness, and smoking behavior. The proportion of the cigarette smoking was 47.6% of the total of 920 Buddhist monks. The age group 20-34 years, Maha Nikaya section and Public temple were the majority of the study subjects. Multivariate analysis revealed that only four factors were related to smoking consumption: dharma education, Naktharm To (grade 2) (OR = 0.6, 95% Cl: 0.4-0.9), Naktharm Aek (grade 3) or above (OR = 0.4, 95% Cl: 0.2-0.6); Lay education, secondary school (OR = 0.7, 95% Cl: 0.5-0.9), bachelor degree or above (OR = 0.4, 95% Cl: 0.2-0.8); systolic blood pressure > or = 140 mmHg (OR = 1.8, 95% Cl: 1.1-2.8) and history of respiratory illness (OR = 3.2, 95% Cl: 1.5-6.9). As a result, dharma education and well educated persons were the crucial factors which led to success in decreasing cigarette smoking. Smoking cessation campaigns and education of the consequences of smoking are strongly recommended among risk groups.

  6. Thai venous stroke prognostic score: TV-SPSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poungvarin, Niphon; Prayoonwiwat, Naraporn; Ratanakorn, Disya; Towanabut, Somchai; Tantirittisak, Tassanee; Suwanwela, Nijasri; Phanthumchinda, Kamman; Tiamkoa, Somsak; Chankrachang, Siwaporn; Nidhinandana, Samart; Laptikultham, Somsak; Limsoontarakul, Sansern; Udomphanthuruk, Suthipol

    2009-11-01

    Prognosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) has never been studied in Thailand. A simple prognostic score to predict poor prognosis of CVST has also never been reported. The authors are aiming to establish a simple and reliable prognostic score for this condition. The medical records of CVST patients from eight neurological training centers in Thailand who received between April 1993 and September 2005 were reviewed as part of this retrospective study. Clinical features included headache, seizure, stroke risk factors, Glasgow coma scale (GCS), blood pressure on arrival, papilledema, hemiparesis, meningeal irritation sign, location of occluded venous sinuses, hemorrhagic infarction, cerebrospinal fluid opening pressure, treatment options, length of stay, and other complications were analyzed to determine the outcome using modified Rankin scale (mRS). Poor prognosis (defined as mRS of 3-6) was determined on the discharge date. One hundred ninety four patients' records, 127 females (65.5%) and mean age of 36.6 +/- 14.4 years, were analyzed Fifty-one patients (26.3%) were in the poor outcome group (mRS 3-6). Overall mortality was 8.4%. Univariate analysis and then multivariate analysis using SPSS version 11.5 revealed only four statistically significant predictors influencing outcome of CVST They were underlying malignancy, low GCS, presence of hemorrhagic infarction (for poor outcome), and involvement of lateral sinus (for good outcome). Thai venous stroke prognostic score (TV-SPSS) was derived from these four factors using a multiple logistic model. A simple and pragmatic prognostic score for CVST outcome has been developed with high sensitivity (93%), yet low specificity (33%). The next study should focus on the validation of this score in other prospective populations.

  7. Spirituality and Dignity of Thai Adolescents Living with HIV

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    Karnsunaphat Balthip

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: Adolescents are a key asset and resource for the social and economic development of any country, with the potential to make a significant contribution to their families, communities and countries. Healthy and educated adolescents are important. However, there are still significant rates of death, illness and disease among adolescents in some countries, where HIV is one of the most prevalent causes of death in this group. Adolescents living with HIV may experience and encounter social restrictions and physiological limitations. Therefore, this investigation explored whether the concepts of spirituality and dignity had any relevance to participants sense of meaning and purpose and whether these had any impact upon their health and well-being (2 Methods: A qualitative descriptive design was used involving twenty-two adolescents living with HIV attending one regional hospital in Southern Thailand. One to one interviews and descriptive diaries were used to collect the data and thematic analysis enabled the identification of attributes of spirituality and dignity. (3 Results: The findings revealed that spirituality and dignity were present in the lives of Thai adolescents living with HIV expressed in the main category of living life responsibly. This comprised of six themes: (a Understanding the disease and accepting the truth about life, (b Maintaining hope for a cure, (c Focusing on life’s purposes, (d Making life choices, (e Caring for oneself and (f Responsibility towards other. (4 Conclusions: The findings provide helpful insights for parents, nurses, and other health professionals supporting adolescents living with HIV to obtain a holistic, dignified approach to care that includes attention to the spiritual dimension.

  8. Major update of Safety Analysis Report for Thai Research Reactor-1/Modification 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tippayakul, Chanatip [Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2013-07-01

    Thai Research Reactor-1/Modification 1 (TRR-1/M1) was converted from a Material Testing Reactor in 1975 and it had been operated by Office of Atom for Peace (OAP) since 1977 until 2007. During the period, Office of Atom for Peace had two duties for the reactor, that is, to operate and to regulate the reactor. However, in 2007, there was governmental office reformation which resulted in the separation of the reactor operating organization from the regulatory body in order to comply with international standard. The new organization is called Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT) which has the mission to promote peaceful utilization of nuclear technology while OAP remains essentially the regulatory body. After the separation, a new ministerial regulation was enforced reflecting a new licensing scheme in which TINT has to apply for a license to operate the reactor. The safety analysis report (SAR) shall be submitted as part of the license application. The ministerial regulation stipulates the outlines of the SAR almost equivalent to IAEA standard 35-G1. Comparing to the IAEA 35-G1 standard, there were several incomplete and missing chapters in the original SAR of TRR1/M1. The major update of the SAR was therefore conducted and took approximately one year. The update work included detail safety evaluation of core configuration which used two fuel element types, the classification of systems, structures and components (SSC), the compilation of detail descriptions of all SSCs and the review and evaluation of radiation protection program, emergency plan and emergency procedure. Additionally, the code of conduct and operating limits and conditions were revised and finalized in this work. A lot of new information was added to the SAR as well, for example, the description of commissioning program, information on environmental impact assessment, decommissioning program, quality assurance program and etc. Due to the complexity of this work, extensive knowledge was

  9. Enteroendocrine, Musashi 1 and neurogenin 3 cells in the large intestine of Thai and Norwegian patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Patcharatrakul, Tanisa; Hatlebakk, Jan Gunnar; Hausken, Trygve; Gilja, Odd Helge; Gonlachanvit, Sutep

    2017-12-01

    The prevalence, gender distribution and clinical presentation of IBS differ between Asian and Western countries. This study aimed at studying and comparing enteroendocrine, Musashi 1 (Msi 1) and neurogenin 3 (neurog 3) cells in Thai and Norwegian IBS patients. Thirty Thai and 61 Norwegian IBS patients as well as 20 Thai and 24 Norwegian controls were included. Biopsy samples were taken from each of the sigmoid colon and the rectum during a standard colonoscopy. The samples were immunostained for serotonin, peptide YY, oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptide, somatostatin, Msi 1 and neurog 3. The densities of immunoreactive cells were determined with computerized image analysis. The densities of several enteroendocrine cell types were altered in both the colon and rectum of both Thai and Norwegian IBS patients. Some of these changes were similar in Thai and Norwegian IBS patients, while others differed. The findings of abnormal densities of the enteroendocrine cells in Thai patients support the notion that enteroendocrine cells are involved in the pathophysiology of IBS. The present observations highlight that IBS differs in Asian and Western countries, and show that the changes in large-intestine enteroendocrine cells in Thai and Norwegian IBS patients might be caused by different mechanisms.

  10. Safety dose of three commercially used growth promoters: nuricell- aqua, hepaprotect-aqua and rapid-grow on growth and survival of Thai pangas (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ariful Islam

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To optimize the dose of 3 commonly used growth promoters, viz., Nuricell-Aqua (composition: glucomannan complex and mannose polymer, Hepaprotect-Aqua (composition: β-glucan, mannose polymer and essential oil and Rapid-Grow (composition: organic acid and their salt, β-glucan, mannose oligosaccharide and essential oil, using Thai pangas (Pangasiandon hypophthalmus as cultured species. Methods: Thai pangas fingerlings with an average length and weight of 11 cm and 10 g were reared under laboratory condition and growth promoters were fed after incorporating them with a test diet at a ratio of 10% of their body weight for a period of 28 d. Estimation of data on growth such as weight gain (g, specific growth rate, survivability (% test in each aquarium were conducted and data were analyzed using statistical software. Results: After 28 d of feeding with Nutricell-Aqua, 10 mg/(20 g feed·day, which was the dose recommended by the manufacturer, was found better. When Hepaprotect-Aqua and Rapid-Grow were employed, performance was found to be better with the dose of 60 mg/(20 g feed·day which was 1.5 times higher than the dose recommended by the corresponding manufacturer. Conclusions: These results suggest that chemicals and feed additives marketed in Bangladesh Fish Feed Market need further testing under Bangladesh climatic condition before being marketed.

  11. Study on accumulation of Fe, Pb, Zn, Ni and Cd in Nerita lineata and Thais bitubercularis from Tanjung Harapan and Teluk Kemang, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tengku

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni, Fe, Al, Zn, Mn, Cr, and Sn were attributed to metal industries. Cu contamination was associated with piggery industry. Shipping activities contribute to elevated levels of Pb, Cu and As. Elevated levels of metals in the sediments are attributed to anthropogenic activities. Samples were collected in April 2012 and analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. Fe is the most abundant metal in the tissue and shell compared to the rest of the metals. The concentrations of heavy metals in the soft tissues of Nerita lineata taken from Tanjung Harapan follow this order: Fe > Zn > Ni > Cu > Cd while in Thais bitubercularis, the metal concentrations were higher following the order of Fe > Zn > Cu > Ni > Cd. The samples taken from Teluk Kemang were higher and exhibited different trend for both organisms. Results from this study are useful for further exploration of Thais bitubercularis as accumulators of Cu, Cd, and Zn. For recommendation, more studies on monitoring the concentration level of heavy metals in marine environment should be done regularly and increase numbers of samples use to biomonitor the heavy metals in marine environment as it is important to have information or data regarding the quality of marine environment in order to control pollution such as water pollution from being contaminated with heavy metals. This is essential as the pollutants emit in the marine environment may affect marine lives as well as human’s health

  12. Disseminated Penicillium marneffei sepsis in a HIV-positive Thai woman in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mens, Helene; Højlyng, Niels; Arendrup, Maiken Cavling

    2004-01-01

    We report the first case of disseminated Penicillium marneffei infection, in a 32-y-old HIV positive Thai woman, in Denmark. Untreated it is a life-threatening infection. Therefore it is extremely important to consider P. marneffei in patients who are immunocompromized and who have been travelling...

  13. An Effect of the Co-Operative Network Model for Students' Quality in Thai Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanthaphum, Udomsin; Tesaputa, Kowat; Weangsamoot, Visoot

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed: 1) to study the current and desirable states of the co-operative network in developing the learners' quality in Thai primary schools, 2) to develop a model of the co-operative network in developing the learners' quality, and 3) to examine the results of implementation of the co-operative network model in the primary school.…

  14. Critical Reading Skills and Translation Ability of Thai EFL Students: Pragmatic, Syntactic, and Semantic Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwantaneeyakul, Suttawan

    2018-01-01

    Translation ability requires many language skills to produce an accurate and complete text; however, one important skill, critical reading in the research, has been neglected. This research, therefore, employed the explanatory sequential mixed method to investigate the differences in Thai-English translation ability between students with a high…

  15. Understanding Personal Learning Environment Perspectives of Thai International Tourism and Hospitality Higher Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanyong, Siriwan; Sharafuddin, Mohamed Ali

    2016-01-01

    This paper is part of a periodic research conducted in developing a personal learning environment for Thailand's higher education students with English as medium of instruction. The objective of the first phase in this research was to understand the personal learning environment perspectives of Thai International tourism and hospitality higher…

  16. Association between Internet addiction and depression in Thai medical students at Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonvisudhi, Thummaporn; Kuladee, Sanchai

    2017-01-01

    To study the extent of Internet addiction (IA) and its association with depression in Thai medical students. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital. Participants were first- to fifth-year medical students who agreed to participate in this study. Demographic characteristics and stress-related factors were derived from self-rated questionnaires. Depression was assessed using the Thai version of Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). A total score of five or greater derived from the Thai version of Young Diagnostic Questionnaire for Internet Addiction was classified as "possible IA". Then chi-square test and logistic regression were used to evaluate the associations between possible IA, depression and associated factors. From 705 participants, 24.4% had possible IA and 28.8% had depression. There was statistically significant association between possible IA and depression (odds ratio (OR) 1.92, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34-2.77, P-value depression in possible IA group was 1.58 times of the group of normal Internet use (95% CI: 1.04-2.38, P-value = 0.031). Academic problems were found to be a significant predictor of both possible IA and depression. IA was likely to be a common psychiatric problem among Thai medical students. The research has also shown that possible IA was associated with depression and academic problems. We suggest that surveillance of IA should be considered in medical schools.

  17. Hospital Coding Practice, Data Quality, and DRG-Based Reimbursement under the Thai Universal Coverage Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpirul, Krit

    2011-01-01

    In the Thai Universal Coverage scheme, hospital providers are paid for their inpatient care using Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) reimbursement. Questionable quality of the submitted DRG codes has been of concern whereas knowledge about hospital coding practice has been lacking. The objectives of this thesis are (1) To explore hospital coding…

  18. A Comparative Analysis of PISA Scientific Literacy Framework in Finnish and Thai Science Curricula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sothayapetch, Pavinee; Lavonen, Jari; Juuti, Kalle

    2013-01-01

    A curriculum is a master plan that regulates teaching and learning. This paper compares Finnish and Thai primary school level science curricula to the PISA 2006 Scientific Literacy Framework. Curriculum comparison was made following the procedure of deductive content analysis. In the analysis, there were four main categories adopted from PISA…

  19. Clinical presentation and course of long QT syndrome in Thai children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankavipar Saprungruang, MD

    2015-10-01

    Conclusions: All 20 patients with LQTS were mostly symptomatic at presentation. Owing to the geographical region and ethnicity of the Thai population, we conclude that the ratio of patients who develop cardiac symptoms at rest or during sleep might be higher than in other Asian countries.

  20. Relations between educational research, policy, planning and implementation: The Thai experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketudat, Sippanondha; Fry, Gerald

    1981-06-01

    The relations between educational research, policy, planning and implementation in Thailand are the topic of this paper. The major focus is on the research/policy linkage. A complex educational administrative structure and a pluralistic informal power structure characterize the Thai research context. A tetrahedral model of linkages provides the conceptual framework for the analysis. Details are then provided with respect to the actual operationalization of the model in terms of the Thai approach in practice. Major elements in the Thai approach include the use of expert policy committees, joint committees involving both administrators and researchers, problem-oriented seminars, and commissioned research. Actual examples of research efforts described are an educational reform study, local level school mapping, a school cluster experiment, a budget exercise to improve the equity of primary school resource allocations, and a policy evaluation of sub-district secondary schools. Finally, lessons to be learned from the Thai experience are summarized. Thailand has experienced some success in building analytical educational research capacity and ensuring its utilization. Key elements in this success have been an emphasis on strengthening human capacities; judging political will in a timely, flexible manner; creatively utilizing bureaucratic forms such as committees; and remaining both politically detached and sensitive.

  1. Estimating Price Effects in an Almost Ideal Demand Model of Outbound Thai Tourism to East Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); T. Khamkaew (Tanchanok); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes the responsiveness of Thai outbound tourism to East Asian destinations, namely China, Hong Kong, Japan, Taiwan and Korea, to changes in effective relative price of tourism, total real total tourism expenditure, and one-off events. The nonlinear and linear Almost Ideal

  2. Thai Undergraduate Chemistry Practical Learning Experiences Using the Jigsaw IV Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansoon, Ninna; Somsook, Ekasith; Coll, Richard K.

    2008-01-01

    The research reported in this study consisted of an investigation of student learning experiences in Thai chemistry laboratories using the Jigsaw IV method. A hands-on experiment based on the Jigsaw IV method using a real life example based on green tea beverage was designed to improve student affective variables for studying topics related to…

  3. Development of the Thai healthy aging model: A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiamwong, Ladda; McManus, Michael S; Suwanno, Jom

    2013-06-01

    To develop a model of healthy aging from the perspective of Thais, a grounded theory approach, including in-depth interviews and focus groups, was used. A purposive sample of 39 community-dwelling adults aged 40-85 years old was interviewed. The Thai healthy aging model composed of three themes: normality, nature, and dharma. In Thai, they are called tham-ma-da, tham-ma-chat, and tham-ma, or "Thai 3Ts". The theme of normality encompasses subthemes of staying physically active by being involved in plenty of physical activities, and being mentally active with creative and thoughtful hobbies and work. The theme of nature encompasses subthemes of living simply and being careful with money. The theme of dharma encompasses subthemes of enjoyment through helping family and participating in community activities, staying away from stress and worries by talking openly and honestly with someone, making merit, and helping other people without expecting anything in return. A greater understanding of healthy aging is a benefit for older adults and healthcare providers in an intervention-design process. Research can contribute valuable information to shape policy for healthy aging as well. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Relationships between Psychological Wellbeing of Thai College Students, Goal Orientations, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosik, John J.; Chun, Jae Uk; Koul, Ravinder

    2017-01-01

    This paper examined the direct and interaction effects of students' learning and performance-avoidance goal orientations on their psychological wellbeing and a moderating role of students' gender in these relationships. Using 564 self-reports of freshman college students in a Thai university, we found students' psychological wellbeing to be…

  5. Modeling and Mapping Personal Learning Environment of Thai International Higher Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharafuddin, Mohamed Ali; Sawad, Buncha Panacharoen; Wongwai, Sarun

    2018-01-01

    This research article is part of a periodic study conducted to understand, model, map and to develop an integrated approach for effective and interactive self-learning phases of Thai International Hospitality and Tourism higher education students. Questionnaire containing both qualitative and quantitative questions was distributed at the beginning…

  6. The Experience Economy in Thai Hotels and Resort Clusters: The Role of Authentic Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanan Apivantanaporn

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Although hotels and other tourist institutions in Thailand have been making some sporadic attempts to incorporate specifically Thai food and beverage (F&B elements into their overall product offering, this has rarely been attempted in a thoughtful and systematic manner. This is despite the importance of F&B in determining overall levels of customer satisfaction and the recent importance attached to incorporating ‘Thainess’ into the hotel and tourism industry nationwide. It is, therefore, rather surprising that little if any sustained effort has been made to define authenticity with respect to Thai food (bearing in mind also regional variations or to incorporate certificates of quality to establishments providing such authentic dishes. This paper draws on qualitative research and personal observation undertaken in a wide range of Thai hotels with a view to identifying emergent value-adding clusters in the domestic hospitality sector. It describes and categorizes the uses of Thai F&B currently and identifies shortcomings in industry vision, which leads to recommendations for both hotel and resort managers and also to those responsible for national level tourism development efforts. The paper also recognizes the problematic nature of the concepts of ‘authenticity’ in this context and attempts to reconcile differing conceptions.

  7. The Effect of Guided Note Taking during Lectures on Thai University Students' Understanding of Electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narjaikaew, Pattawan; Emarat, Narumon; Cowie, Bronwen

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the implementation of a guided note taking strategy to promote Thai students' understanding of electromagnetism during a lecture course. The aim of the study was to enhance student learning of electromagnetism concepts. The developed guided notes contain quotations, diagrams, pictures, problems, and blank spaces to encourage…

  8. Perception and multimeaning analysis of graphic symbols for Thai picture-based communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chompoobutr, Sarinya; Potibal, Puttachart; Boriboon, Monthika; Phantachat, Wantanee

    2013-03-01

    Graphic symbols are a vital part of most augmentative and alternative communication systems. Communication fluency of graphic symbol user depends on how well the relationship between symbols and its referents are learnt. The first aim of this study is to survey the perception of the selected graphic symbols across seven age groups of participants with different educational background. Sixty-five individuals identified themselves as Thai and ranged in age from 10 to 50 years participated in the investigation used 64 graphic symbols. The last aim of this study is to demonstrate the analysis of multimeaning graphic symbols, which will be used in Thai Picture-based communication system. The twenty graphic symbols with 9-14 meanings are analyzed in both syntactic and semantic aspects. The meanings are divided into five categories: noun, verb/adjective, size, color and shape. Respect to the first aim, the results suggest that the participants under investigation with different sexes, age groups, as well as various educational levels perceive the features or inherent characteristics of such graphic symbols similarly. The results of the analysis of multimeaning of graphic symbols indicate that the foundation of Minspeak, polysemy and redundancy of the words illustrates the inherit meanings of the real-life objects, and it also conveys that the Thai graphic symbols are influenced by numerous factors in Thai circumstance such as ability, motivation, experience, worldview and culture.

  9. Forensic Applicability of Femur Subtrochanteric Shape to Ancestry Assessment in Thai and White American Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallman, Sean D; Winburn, Allysha P

    2015-09-01

    Ancestry assessment from the postcranial skeleton presents a significant challenge to forensic anthropologists. However, metric dimensions of the femur subtrochanteric region are believed to distinguish between individuals of Asian and non-Asian descent. This study tests the discriminatory power of subtrochanteric shape using modern samples of 128 Thai and 77 White American males. Results indicate that the samples' platymeric index distributions are significantly different (p≤0.001), with the Thai platymeric index range generally lower and the White American range generally higher. While the application of ancestry assessment methods developed from Native American subtrochanteric data results in low correct classification rates for the Thai sample (50.8-57.8%), adapting these methods to the current samples leads to better classification. The Thai data may be more useful in forensic analysis than previously published subtrochanteric data derived from Native American samples. Adapting methods to include appropriate geographic and contemporaneous populations increases the accuracy of femur subtrochanteric ancestry methods. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  10. The Implementation of Web 2.0 Technology for Information Literacy Instruction in Thai University Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawetrattanasatian, Oranuch

    2014-01-01

    Web 2.0 technology has drawn much attention recently as a fascinating tool for Information Literacy Instruction (ILI), especially in academic libraries. This research was aimed to investigate the implementation of Web 2.0 technology for ILI in Thai university libraries, in terms of information literacy skills being taught, types of Web 2.0…

  11. Quality of Work Life and Organizational Climate of Schools Located along the Thai-Cambodian Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitratporn, Poonsook; Puncreobutr, Vichian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to measure the Quality of Work Life and Organizational Climate of Schools located along the Thai-Cambodian borders. The study intended to measure the relationship between the two underlying variables quality of work life and organizational climate. Simple random sample of 384 respondents were administrators and teachers…

  12. Thai Pre-Service Science Teachers' Struggles in Using Socio-Scientific Issues (SSIs) during Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitiporntapin, Sasithep; Yutakom, Naruemon; Sadler, Troy D.

    2016-01-01

    In educational reform, teaching through socio-scientific issues (SSIs) is considered the best way to promote scientific literacy for citizenship as the goal of science teaching. To bring SSIs into the science classroom, Thai pre-service science teachers (PSTs) are expected to understand the concept of SSI-based teaching and to use it effectively…

  13. An Analysis of Textual Metafunction in Thai EFL Students' Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunsirot, Sudrutai

    2013-01-01

    As teaching English as a foreign language, it has become obvious that an average Thai is considered to have very low English proficiency. As a result, Thailand may find herself at a disadvantage because of inferior English skills towards globalization and forming of ASEAN community. Thus, the study is devoted to the exploration of English writing…

  14. Dengue infection during pregnancy and transplacental antibody transfer in Thai mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perret, Cecilia; Chanthavanich, Pornthep; Pengsaa, Krisana; Limkittikul, Kriengsak; Hutajaroen, Pornsom; Bunn, James E. G.; Brabin, Bernard J.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. The objectives of this study were to estimate dengue seroprevalence in a population of Thai pregnant women, Living in a highly endemic area and placental transfer of dengue antibodies. Methods. A cross-sectional seroprevalence study of 245 pregnant women at delivery. Results. Dengue HAI

  15. Selecting appropriate energy efficiency indicators for the Thai Energy Conservation Promotion Programme. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhammer, W.; Gruber, E.; Cremer, C.

    2000-06-01

    In 1992 the Thai Government passed the Energy Conservation Promotion (ECP) Act to improve energy efficiency in Thai industry and commerce. The Thai-German Energy Efficiency Promotion Project (ENEP) is supporting the Department of Energy Development and Promotion (DEDP) in its effort to implement the Energy Conservation Program for large buildings and designated factories. About 4000 buildings and factories under the Compulsory Program, have to report every 6 months their energy consumption data to DEDP. Every 3 years energy audits have to be conducted by registered energy consultants, to identify energy saving opportunities, to set saving targets and to recommend energy conservation measures. Investments in energy efficient technologies are subsidized from an Energy Conservation Fund. Data from the energy consumption reports and the energy audit reports are collected in DEDP's database for further processing. The database is structured according to the Thai Standard Industrial Classification. In order to exploit the wealth of information provided by the auditing procedure the objective of the present work carried out by the consultant FhG-ISI for DEDP/BERC on behalf of the German Gesellschaft fuer Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) was to recommend an appropriate set of energy efficiency indicators. This indicator set should allow DEDP to extract from the energy consumption reports, energy audit reports and other sources, useful statistical information to monitor and improve energy efficiency in Thailand. (orig.)

  16. Characterization of anti-listerial lactic acid bacteria isolated from Thai fermented fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Anya; Embarek, Peter Karim Ben; Wedell-Neergaard, C.

    1998-01-01

    Thai fermented fish products were screened for lactic acid bacteria capable of inhibiting Listeria sp. (Listeria innocua). Of 4150 assumed lactic acid bacteria colonies from MRS agar plates that were screened by an agar-overlay method 58 (1.4%) were positive. Forty four of these strains were...

  17. Orofacial pain and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in Finnish and Thai populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipilä, Kirsi; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Mitrirattanakul, Somsak; Sitthisomwong, Panupen; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Taanila, Anja; Anttonen, Vuokko; Lahti, Satu

    2015-07-01

    Cultural or ethnic factors may play an important role in subjects' pain reports. The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of orofacial pain symptoms between Finnish and Thai populations. The Finnish study population comprised the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966, of which 5696 subjects participated in the present study. The Thai sample consisted of 1501 randomly selected people living in 10 different districts in Bangkok. Data on orofacial pain was collected based on questionnaires. After adjusting for age, gender and education, the logistic regression analysis showed that Thai subjects had an increased risk for reporting oral pain (OR = 4.5, 95% CI = 3.7-5.4), tooth pain (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.8-2.4) and pain in the face (OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2-1.7). It can be concluded that Thai people report more orofacial pain symptoms than Finnish subjects. Cross-cultural factors exist in the background of reporting pain symptoms in the oral and facial area.

  18. Thai Adolescent Survivors 1 Year after the 2004 Tsunami: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuicomepee, Arunya; Romano, John L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of the 2004 Asian tsunami on 400 Thai adolescents 1 year after the disaster. Quantitative analyses showed that youth behavior problems were positively associated with tsunami experiences and negatively associated with positive family functioning. Tsunami exposure, school connectedness, religious beliefs and…

  19. Correlates of Precoital Behaviors, Intentions, and Sexual Initiation among Thai Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Katharine A.; Zimmerman, Rick; Cupp, Pamela K.; Fongkaew, Warunee; Miller, Brenda A.; Byrnes, Hilary F.; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Chaiphet, Nonthathorn; Rosati, Michael J.; Chookhare, Warunee

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the risk and protective factors associated with sexual behaviors among Thai youth ages 13-14 (N=420) living in Bangkok, Thailand. Cross-sectional data were collected using a random sample of households methodology. Three outcomes were assessed: (1) intention to engage in sexual intercourse, (2) pre-coital behaviors, and (3)…

  20. Thai High-School Students' Misconceptions about and Models of Light Refraction through a Planar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewkhong, Kreetha; Mazzolini, Alex; Emarat, Narumon; Arayathanitkul, Kwan

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the optics misconceptions of 220 year 11 Thai high-school students. These misconceptions became apparent when the students attempted to explain how an object submerged in a water tank is "seen" by an observer looking into the tank from above and at an angle. The two diagnostic questions used in the study probe…

  1. Married Thai Working Mothers: Coping with Initial Part-Time Doctoral Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinnam, Thanit

    2011-01-01

    Advanced educational attainment can "grow" a career. But acquiring a doctoral qualification adds study to existing work and family responsibilities, especially for women. This phenomenological research explores the experiences of eight Thai working mothers enrolled in the initial stage of part-time doctoral programs in Thailand. A…

  2. Sustainability and Productivity Indicators with Sensitivity Truth Table for Unskilled Thai Labour Reverse Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panaingvait, Poj; Chakpitak, Nopasit; Yodmongkol, Pitipong; Sureephong, Paradorn; Nimmonrat, Acrapol

    2014-01-01

    Thailand, a developing country, had labours migrating from the agriculture into the industrial due to higher pay in the past. However the economic force has made the government policy to focus on creativity and developing technology towards automatic production. Unskilled Thai labours are facing a big challenge after retirement, which is called…

  3. Magnetism Teaching Sequences Based on an Inductive Approach for First-Year Thai University Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narjaikaew, Pattawan; Emarat, Narumon; Arayathanitkul, Kwan; Cowie, Bronwen

    2010-01-01

    The study investigated the impact on student motivation and understanding of magnetism of teaching sequences based on an inductive approach. The study was conducted in large lecture classes. A pre- and post-Conceptual Survey of Electricity and Magnetism was conducted with just fewer than 700 Thai undergraduate science students, before and after…

  4. Thai Grade 11 Students' Alternative Conceptions for Acid-Base Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artdej, Romklao; Ratanaroutai, Thasaneeya; Coll, Richard Kevin; Thongpanchang, Tienthong

    2010-01-01

    This study involved the development of a two-tier diagnostic instrument to assess Thai high school students' understanding of acid-base chemistry. The acid-base diagnostic test (ABDT) comprising 18 items was administered to 55 Grade 11 students in a science and mathematics programme during the second semester of the 2008 academic year. Analysis of…

  5. Association between butyrylcholinesterase K variant and mild cognitive impairment in the Thai community-dwelling patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongthanaracht, Natsalil; Yanarojana, Somchai; Pinthong, Darawan; Unchern, Supeenun; Thithapandha, Amnuay; Assantachai, Prasert; Supavilai, Porntip

    2017-01-01

    To study the association of the butyrylcholinesterase K variant (BChE-K) and the plasma BChE activity with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in Thai community-dwelling patients. One hundred patients diagnosed with MCI and 100 control subjects were recruited from the community-dwelling setting in Bangkok, Thailand. The genotype and allele distributions of the BChE-K were determined by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent DNA sequencing. The BChE activity was measured in plasma according to the Ellman's method. The BChE-K allele frequencies in the Thai community-dwelling patients were in accordance with other ethnics. The BChE-K allele frequency in the control subjects (12%) was higher than that of MCI patients (5.5%), suggesting a protective role of BChE-K for MCI in the Thai community-dwelling patients. The BChE-K homozygotes were significantly associated with lower BChE activity. Our results suggested that the BChE-K may be implicated as a protective factor for MCI in the Thai community-dwelling patients, although a further study with a large sample size is warranted to confirm this.

  6. Greening consumption at the retail outlet: the case of the Thai appliance industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thongplew, N.; Spaargaren, G.; Koppen, van C.S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the decades, the Thai appliance industry has developed into a strong and export-oriented industry with rigorous strategies to improve the environmental performance of products and production. Leading producers have recently begun to develop greening strategies targeting the consumption behavior

  7. Femoral hip prosthesis design for Thais using multi-objective shape optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virulsri, Chanyaphan; Tangpornprasert, Pairat; Romtrairat, Parineak

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A multi-objective shape optimization was proposed to design hip prosthesis for Thais. • The prosthesis design was optimized in terms of safety of both cement and prosthesis. • The objective functions used the Soderberg fatigue strength formulations. • Safety factors of the cement and prosthesis are 1.200 and 1.109 respectively. • The newly designed prosthesis also fits well with chosen small-sized Thai femurs. - Abstract: The long-term success of Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA) depends largely on how well the prosthetic components fit the bones. The majority of cemented femoral hip prosthesis failures are due to aseptic loosening, which is possibly caused by cracking of the cement mantle. The strength of cement components is a function of cement mantles having adequate thickness. Since the size and shape of cemented femoral hip prostheses used in Thailand are based on designs for a Caucasian population, they do not properly conform to most Thai patients’ physical requirements. For these reasons, prostheses designed specifically for Thai patients must consider the longevity and functionality of both cement and prosthesis. The objective of this study was to discover a new design for femoral hip prostheses which is not only optimal and safe in terms of both cement and prosthesis, but also fits the selected Thai femur. This study used a small-sized Thai femoral model as a reference model for a new design. Biocompatible stainless steel 316L (SS316L) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) were selected as raw materials for the prosthesis and bone cement respectively. A multi-objective shape optimization program, which is an interface between optimization C program named NSGA-II and a finite element program named ANSYS, was used to optimize longevity of femoral hip prostheses by varying shape parameters at assigned cross-sections of the selected geometry. Maximum walking loads of sixty-kilograms were applied to a finite element model for stress and

  8. Physiological responses and energy cost during a simulation of a Muay Thai boxing match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisafulli, Antonio; Vitelli, Stefano; Cappai, Ivo; Milia, Raffaele; Tocco, Filippo; Melis, Franco; Concu, Alberto

    2009-04-01

    Muay Thai is a martial art that requires complex skills and tactical excellence for success. However, the energy demand during a Muay Thai competition has never been studied. This study was devised to obtain an understanding of the physiological capacities underlying Muay Thai performance. To that end, the aerobic energy expenditure and the recruitment of anaerobic metabolism were assessed in 10 male athletes during a simulation match of Muay Thai. Subjects were studied while wearing a portable gas analyzer, which was able to provide data on oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, and heart rate (HR). The excess of CO2 production (CO2 excess) was also measured to obtain an index of anaerobic glycolysis. During the match, group energy expenditure was, on average (mean +/- standard error of the mean), 10.75 +/- 1.58 kcal.min-1, corresponding to 9.39 +/- 1.38 metabolic equivalents. Oxygen uptake and HRs were always above the level of the anaerobic threshold assessed in a preliminary incremental test. CO2 excess showed an abrupt increase in the first round, and reached a value of 636 +/- 66.5 mL.min-1. This parameter then gradually decreased throughout the simulation match. These data suggest that Muay Thai is a physically demanding activity with great involvement of both the aerobic metabolism and anaerobic glycolysis. In particular, it appears that, after an initial burst of anaerobic glycolysis, there was a progressive increase in the aerobic energy supply. Thus, training protocols should include exercises that train both aerobic and anaerobic energetic pathways.

  9. Surviving in two worlds: social and structural violence of Thai female injecting drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haritavorn, Niphattra

    2014-01-01

    Thai females injecting drugs are ensnared in a web of problems arising from forms of prejudice that magnify their vulnerability. They are vulnerable, at risk, and exposed to a high degree of social suffering. This paper aims to elucidate how social production and structural violence combine to shape the lives of these women. Using a qualitative methodology, two focus groups with 5 key informants and in-depth interviews involving a total of 35 women injecting drugs were conducted in Bangkok. The findings reveal that the structural environment that directly impacts upon these women's lives becomes the reason for their suffering. The structural environment puts these women at risk of violence in numerous social settings in which these women engage as well as generating tension at a subjective level (i.e. the habitus) of these women. Thai female injecting drug users are trapped in a difficult tension between the demands for being Thai women seeking to exist in the masculine world of drug use but at the same time meeting Thai society's expectations of womanhood. Unequal gender relations are manifest in the everyday violence that women face in the drug community, culminating in the essential nature of women being questioned, undermined and threatened. Living in the drug community, women are subjected to violence and harassment, and gendered brutality by intimate partners. In conclusion, the social suffering that Thai female injecting drug users find themselves confronting is confined to dilemmas cause by tensions between drug use and the overriding gender habitus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Association between butyrylcholinesterase K variant and mild cognitive impairment in the Thai community-dwelling patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongthanaracht N

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Natsalil Pongthanaracht,1 Somchai Yanarojana,1 Darawan Pinthong,1 Supeenun Unchern,1 Amnuay Thithapandha,1 Prasert Assantachai,2 Porntip Supavilai11Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Science, 2Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, ThailandObjective: To study the association of the butyrylcholinesterase K variant (BChE-K and the plasma BChE activity with mild cognitive impairment (MCI in Thai community-dwelling patients.Methods: One hundred patients diagnosed with MCI and 100 control subjects were recruited from the community-dwelling setting in Bangkok, Thailand. The genotype and allele distributions of the BChE-K were determined by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent DNA sequencing. The BChE activity was measured in plasma according to the Ellman’s method.Results: The BChE-K allele frequencies in the Thai community-dwelling patients were in accordance with other ethnics. The BChE-K allele frequency in the control subjects (12% was higher than that of MCI patients (5.5%, suggesting a protective role of BChE-K for MCI in the Thai community-dwelling patients. The BChE-K homozygotes were significantly associated with lower BChE activity.Conclusion: Our results suggested that the BChE-K may be implicated as a protective factor for MCI in the Thai community-dwelling patients, although a further study with a large sample size is warranted to confirm this.Keywords: butyrylcholinesterase K variant, butyrylcholinesterase activity, mild cognitive impairment, Thai community-dwelling patients

  11. Assessment of HNA alloimmunisation risk in Northeastern Thais, Burmese and Karen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simtong, P; Puapairoj, C; Leelayuwat, C; Santoso, S; Romphruk, A V

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to determine human neutrophil antigen (HNA) frequency, estimate possible HNA incompatibilities and predict the risk of HNA alloimmunisation in the Northeastern Thai, Burmese and Karen populations. Alloantibodies against HNA are implicated in a number of clinical conditions, including immune-mediated neutropenia and transfusion reactions. A total of 400 unrelated healthy Thais, 261 Burmese and 249 Karen was included in this study. DNA samples were typed for HNA-1, -3, -4 and -5 systems using polymerase chain reactions with sequence-specific primers (PCR-SSP). In this cohort, HNA-1a was more prevalent than HNA-1b. Accordingly, the possible risk of HNA-1a alloimmunisation against HNA-1a is lower than HNA-1b (0·0802-0·1351 vs 0·2293-0·2497). This is in contrast to the situation reported in Caucasian and African populations. The predicted risk of HNA-3 incompatibility in Thais, Burmese and Karen were 28·09%, 30·66% and 22·77%, respectively. The possible risks of HNA-3a alloimmunisation were 0·0493 in Thais, 0·0608 in Burmese and 0·0196 in Karen, respectively. No individuals were found to be homozygous for HNA-4bb. The probability of developing alloantibodies against HNA-4a was low in these populations and every population in Asia. In contrast, the overall frequency of HNA-5bb homozygous individuals was high in this study, peaking at 0·192. This is the first study that reported the allele frequencies of HNA-1, -3, -4, and -5 in a large sample of healthy unrelated individuals from ethnic Thais, Burmese and Karen. Our results indicated the high possible risk of HNA-1, -3 and -5 alloimmunisation in these populations. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  12. Epidemiology and seroepidemiology of human enterovirus 71 among Thai populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Human enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an important pathogen caused large outbreaks in Asian-Pacific region with severe neurological complications and may lead to death in young children. Understanding of the etiological spectrum and epidemic changes of enterovirus and population’s immunity against EV71 are crucial for the implementation of future therapeutic and prophylactic intervention. Results A total of 1,182 patients who presented with the symptoms of hand foot and mouth disease (67.3%) or herpangina (HA) (16.7%) and admitted to the hospitals during 2008-2013 were tested for enterovirus using pan-enterovirus PCR targeting 5′-untranslated region and specific PCR for viral capsid protein 1 gene. Overall, 59.7% were pan-enterovirus positive comprising 9.1% EV71 and 31.2% coxsackievirus species A (CV-A) including 70.5% CV-A6, 27.6% CV-A16, 1.1% CV-A10, and 0.8% CV-A5. HFMD and HA occurred endemically during 2008-2011. The number of cases increased dramatically in June 2012 with the percentage of the recently emerged CV-A6 significantly rose to 28.4%. Co-circulation between different EV71 genotypes was observed during the outbreak. Total of 161 sera obtained from healthy individuals were tested for neutralizing antibodies (NAb) against EV71 subgenotype B5 (EV71-B5) using microneutralization assay. The seropositive rate of EV71-B5 was 65.8%. The age-adjusted seroprevalence for individuals was found to be lowest in children aged >6 months to 2 years (42.5%). The seropositive rate remained relatively low in preschool children aged > 2 years to 6 years (48.3%) and thereafter increased sharply to more than 80% in individuals aged > 6 years. Conclusions This study describes longitudinal data reflecting changing patterns of enterovirus prevalence over 6 years and demonstrates high seroprevalences of EV71-B5 NAb among Thai individuals. The rate of EV71 seropositive increased with age but without gender-specific significant difference. We identified

  13. Attitude towards New Packaging to Reduce Condom-carrying Embarrassment among Thai Youth, A Cross-sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Apinut Wongkietkachorn; Kunathip Nissaipan; Narin Hiransuthikul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) incidence has been increasing in Thai youth, mostly from unsafe sex. Embarrassment with carrying condom was one of the main reasons. This study aims to evaluate attitude towards condom use, sexual behavior and the new condom packaging that merges with daily life products in Thai youth. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among volunteers aged 15-24. New packaging were demonstrated and the volunteers were provided with questionnaire...

  14. What are the health needs, familial and social problems of Thai migrants in a local community in Australia? A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatcharavongvan, Pasitpon; Hepworth, Julie; Lim, Joanne; Marley, John

    2014-02-01

    This study explored the health needs, familial and social problems of Thai migrants in a local community in Brisbane, Australia. Five focus groups with Thai migrants were conducted. The qualitative data were examined using thematic content analysis that is specifically designed for focus group analysis. Four themes were identified: (1) positive experiences in Australia, (2) physical health problems, (3) mental health problems, and (4) familial and social health problems. This study revealed key health needs related to chronic disease and mental health, major barriers to health service use, such as language skills, and facilitating factors, such as the Thai Temple. We concluded that because the health needs, familial and social problems of Thai migrants were complex and culture bound, the development of health and community services for Thai migrants needs to take account of the ways in which Thai culture both negatively impacts health and offer positive solutions to problems.

  15. Early Detection of Breast Cancer and Barrier to Screening Programmes amongst Thai Migrant Women in Australia: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwankhong, Dusanee; Liamputtong, Pranee

    2018-04-27

    Background: Breast cancer screening programme is seen as the best practice to detect breast cancer early. However, there are circumstances that can prevent immigrant women from attending screening programmes. Little is known about Thai migrants and the barriers to their seeking breast cancer screening when living in a new homeland. This paper aimed to discuss the barriers to attending screening services among Thai migrant women living in Australia. Methods: This study adopted qualitative approach. Semi-structured in-depth interviewing and drawing methods were employed as data collection technique with 25 Thai migrant women who had not experienced breast cancer and were living in Metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Thematic analysis method was employed to analyse the data. Results: Basing on the Health Belief Model, most Thai migrant women did not perceive that they were at risk of breast cancer. Despite seeing a breast cancer screening programme as important, the women rarely paid attention to breast cancer screening and used the mammography services provided by the Australian health care system. The barriers included the location of the services, unfamiliar patterns of health care provision, and language difficulties. Conclusions: There are many barriers that that they encountered in Australia that prevent Thai migrant women living in Melbourne Australia to pay attention to mammographic screening service provided by Australia health system. Our findings suggest that health services and interventions need to be designed more sensitive to the needs and socio-cultural context of migrant women in general and Thai migrant women in particular. Creative Commons Attribution License

  16. Cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the reliability of the Thai version of the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trathitiphan, Warayos; Paholpak, Permsak; Sirichativapee, Winai; Wisanuyotin, Taweechok; Laupattarakasem, Pat; Sukhonthamarn, Kamolsak; Jeeravipoolvarn, Polasak; Kosuwon, Weerachai

    2016-10-01

    HOOS was developed as an extension of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities' Osteoarthritis Index questionnaire for measuring symptoms and functional limitations related to the hip(s) of patients with osteoarthritis. To determine the validity and reliability of the Thai version of the Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS) vis-à-vis hip osteoarthritis, the original HOOS was translated into a Thai version of HOOS, according to international recommendations. Patients with hip osteoarthritis (n = 57; 25 males) were asked to complete the Thai version of HOOS twice: once then again after a 3-week interval. The test-retest reliability was analyzed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Internal consistencies were analyzed using Cronbach's alpha, while the construct validity was tested by comparing the Thai HOOS with the Thai modified SF-36 and calculating the Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. The Thai HOOS produced good reliability (i.e., the ICC was greater than 0.9 in all five subscales). All of the Cronbach's alpha showed that the Thai HOOS had high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha greater than 0.8), especially for the pain and ADL subscales (0.89 and 0.90, respectively). The Spearman's rank correlation for all five subscales of the Thai HOOS had moderate correlation with the Bodily Pain subscale of the Thai SF-36. The pain subscale of the Thai HOOS had a high correlation with the Vitality and Social Function subscales of the Thai SF-36 (r = 0.55 and 0.54)-with which the symptom subscale had a moderate correlation. The Thai version of HOOS had excellent internal consistency, excellent test-retest reliability, and good construct validity. It can be used as a reliable tool for assessing quality of life for patients with hip osteoarthritis in Thailand.

  17. ?Are Thai children and youth sufficiently active? prevalence and correlates of physical activity from a nationally representative cross-sectional study?

    OpenAIRE

    Amornsriwatanakul, Areekul; Lester, Leanne; Bull, Fiona C.; Rosenberg, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background Children and youth gain multiple health benefits from regular participation in physical activity (PA). However, in Thailand there is limited national data on children and youth?s PA behaviors and recent reports suggest that Thai children and youth have low levels of PA. Furthermore, there is almost no data on the factors associated with inactivity to support the development of a Thai National PA Plan. The purpose of this paper is to investigate Thai children and youth?s participati...

  18. Poor quality of life among untreated Thai and Cambodian children without severe HIV symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunupuradah, Torsak; Puthanakit, Thanyawee; Kosalaraksa, Pope; Kerr, Stephen J; Kariminia, Azar; Hansudewechakul, Rawiwan; Kanjanavanit, Suparat; Ngampiyaskul, Chaiwat; Wongsawat, Jurai; Luesomboon, Wicharn; Chuenyam, Theshinee; Vonthanak, Saphonn; Vun, Mean Chhi; Vibol, Ung; Vannary, Bun; Ruxrungtham, Kiat; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2012-01-01

    There are limited data on quality of life (QOL) 1 in untreated HIV-infected children who do not have severe HIV symptoms. Moreover, such data do not exist for Asian children. Poor QOL could be a factor in deciding if antiretroviral therapy (ART) should be initiated. Thai and Cambodian children (n=294), aged 1-11 years, naïve to ART, with mild to moderate HIV symptoms and CD4 15-24% were enrolled. Their caregivers completed the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group QOL questionnaire prior to ART commencement. Six QOL domains were assessed using transformed scores that ranged from 0 to 100. Higher QOL scores indicated better health. Mean age was 6.1 (SD 2.8) years, mean CD4 was 723 (SD 369) cells/mm(3), 57% was female, and%CDC N:A:B was 2:63:35%. One-third knew their HIV diagnosis. Mean (SD) scores were 69.9 (17.6) for health perception, 64.5 (16.2) for physical resilience, 84.2 (15.6) for physical functioning, 77.9 (16.3) for psychosocial well-being, 74.7 (28.7) for social and role functioning, 90.0 (12.1) for health care utilization, and 87.4 (11.3) for symptoms domains. Children with CD4 counts above the 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) ART-initiation criteria (n=53) had higher scores in health perception and health care utilization than those with lower CD4 values. Younger children had poorer QOL than older children despite having similar mean CD4%. In conclusion, untreated Asian children without severe HIV symptoms had relatively low QOL scores compared to published reports in Western countries. Therapy initiation criteria by the WHO identified children with lower QOL scores to start ART; however, children who did not fit ART-initiation criteria and those who were younger also displayed poor QOL. QOL assessment should be considered in untreated children to inform decisions about when to initiate ART.

  19. Guideline for implementing Co-generation based on biomass waste from Thai industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lybaek, R.

    2005-07-01

    Due to the large-scale industrial development in Thailand the consumption of energy - primarily based on fossil fuels - has increased enormously, even though the economic growth has slowed down since the economic crisis in 1997. It is, therefore, important to reduce the environmental impact of this energy consumption, which can be achieved by energy conservation, higher efficiency in the production of energy, or by the use of different kinds of renewable energy. This thesis seeks to develop new strategies for the use of waste heat as a part of the industrial process heat, which can be supplied to industries by a district-heating network. By substituting process heat - produced by electricity or by boilers using fossil fuel in individual industries - with process heat, produced by a co-generation plant - using the industries own biomass waste as fuel - process heat can be supplied to industries participating in a small scale district heating network. Thus, an Industrial Materials Network can be created, which is environmentally as well as economically beneficial for both industry and society. On the basis of a case study of the industrial area, Navanakorn Industrial Promotion Zone in Thailand, such initiatives for efficient materials and energy uses have been conducted and proved successful, and industries - as well as local and national governmental agencies, NGOs and branch organizations etc. - have shown interest in supporting the implementation of such scheme. In this thesis, a Guideline for large-scale implementation of Industrial Materials Network in Thailand was developed. By following a series of actions, the Guideline defines the initiatives that must be taken in order to ensure correct implementation. Chronologically, the emphasis of the Guideline is on pointing to relevant stakeholders who can pursue the implementation, and then appropriate areas and types of industries for Industrial Materials Network implementation. Thereafter, guidance for the

  20. Potential of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria for safety improvements of traditional Thai fermented meat and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetwiwathana, Adisorn; Visessanguan, Wonnop

    2015-11-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are very important in converting of agricultural products into safe, delicious and shelf stable foods for human consumption. The preservative activity of LAB in foods is mainly attributed to the production of anti-microbial metabolites such as organic acids and bacteriocins which enables them to grow and control the growth of pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. Besides ensuring safety, bacteriocin-producing LAB with their probiotic potentials could also be emerging as a means to develop functional meat products with desirable health benefits. Nevertheless, to be qualified as a candidate probiotic culture, other prerequisite probiotic properties of bacteriocin-producing LAB have to be assessed according to regulatory guidelines for probiotics. Nham is an indigenous fermented sausage of Thailand that has gained popularity and acceptance among Thais. Since Nham is made from raw meat and is usually consumed without cooking, risks due to undesirable microorganisms such as Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes, are frequently observed. With an ultimate goal to produce safer and healthier product, our research attempts on the development of a variety of new Nham products are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Role of temperature in the reproductive cycle of Thais chocolata (Gastropoda, Muricidae in Chanavaya, Tarapacá, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Cantillanez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive condition of Thais chocolata (copulative aggregation establishment, clutch laying in capsules and specimen density, was studied monthly between February 2009 and January 2010, in the locality of Chanavaya (Tarapacá, Chile. Results showed that the specimens are mainly distributed in aggregations, and that their gonad development is asynchronous with the presence of mature females being registered during the entire year. Reproductive aggregations were found in the shallow stratus from late January to August 2009 and reappearing in January 2010. However, the larger ones (which sustained extraction occurred during June-July and January. An increase in specimen density in the 5 to 17 m stratum was registered in May-August and December-January, coinciding with the periods previous to, during and after the highest aggregation magnitudes registered. The aggregation periods coincided with temperatures over 15°C, with a lower reproductive activity associated to a decrease in temperature. We state that abrupt temperature changes occurring in short time periods could cause mature specimen to move, increasing their density in shallow waters for reproductive purposes. We suggest increasing protection for the resource during the reproductive aggregation processes given that extraction leaves the clutches unprotected and prone to predation from other organisms.

  2. Preliminary results of consequence assessment of a hypothetical severe accident using Thai meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, K.; Lawawirojwong, S.; Promping, J.

    2017-06-01

    Consequence assessment of a hypothetical severe accident is one of the important elements of the risk assessment of a nuclear power plant. It is widely known that the meteorological conditions can significantly influence the outcomes of such assessment, since it determines the results of the calculation of the radionuclide environmental transport. This study aims to assess the impacts of the meteorological conditions to the results of the consequence assessment. The consequence assessment code, OSCAAR, of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is used for the assessment. The results of the consequence assessment using Thai meteorological data are compared with those using Japanese meteorological data. The Thai case has following characteristics. Low wind speed made the radionuclides concentrate at the center comparing to the Japanese case. The squalls induced the peaks in the ground concentration distribution. The evacuated land is larger than the Japanese case though the relocated land is smaller, which is attributed to the concentration of the radionuclides near the release point.

  3. Use of model analysis to analyse Thai students’ attitudes and approaches to physics problem solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakkapao, S.; Prasitpong, S.

    2018-03-01

    This study applies the model analysis technique to explore the distribution of Thai students’ attitudes and approaches to physics problem solving and how those attitudes and approaches change as a result of different experiences in physics learning. We administered the Attitudes and Approaches to Problem Solving (AAPS) survey to over 700 Thai university students from five different levels, namely students entering science, first-year science students, and second-, third- and fourth-year physics students. We found that their inferred mental states were generally mixed. The largest gap between physics experts and all levels of the students was about the role of equations and formulas in physics problem solving, and in views towards difficult problems. Most participants of all levels believed that being able to handle the mathematics is the most important part of physics problem solving. Most students’ views did not change even though they gained experiences in physics learning.

  4. Thai information technology professionals’ intention to leave determinants: A conceptual perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinlapas Sagchaiwujtana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In Asia, voluntary intention to leave within the information technology sector is reaching epidemic proportions. In multiple ASEAN countries, HR professionals have stated that information technology professional ‘job hopping’ has become a culture with the cost to productivity and the corporate bottom line becoming enormous. The researchers have therefore undertaken a study to investigate the variables affecting Thai Information technology professionals’ intention to leave. Simple random sampling will be used to gather data through self-administrated questionnaires from an anticipated total of 340 respondents comprising IT managers, executives, and HR managers so as to study how work exhaustion, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment affect intention to leave. The importance of the study is significant as Thailand’s ICT market accounts for 11 percent of GDP and is the largest in Southeast Asia, with Thai government plans to make the Kingdom the hub for ASEAN’s new $US2.5 trillion GDP digital economy.

  5. Cultural care of Thai immigrants in Uppsala: a study of transcultural nursing in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, P C

    2000-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover and describe the meanings and expressions of cultural care of a group of Thai immigrants in Sweden. Participants included 15 key informants and 24 general informants living in and around the town of Uppsala. The conceptual framework was provided by Leininger's theory of cultural care diversity and universality. Use was made of the ethnonursing method and the Sunrise Model in the search for multiple and related dimensions that influenced the generic and professional care practices of the Thai immigrants. Four major themes were formulated. Thus, care (a) means family and kinship relationships as expressed in daily life, (b) is expressed in traditional gender roles, (c) means religious beliefs as expressed in the Buddhist worship, and (d) means support of traditional health care practices. These themes support the cultural care theory and also confirm the Sunrise Model.

  6. Nurse scheduling in a hospital emergency department: A case study at a Thai university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aussadavut Dumrongsiri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Common problems of Thai nurses are low quality of life, working long hours, and a high turnover rate. The workload imbalance among nurses also worsens the turnover rate. With careful schedule planning, nurses do not have to work in consecutive shifts and can rest more. We interviewed and collected data from an emergency department at a hospital administered by a Thai university, related to objectives and constraints of monthly nurse scheduling, and actual monthly schedules. A multi-objective mathematical model was developed using the open source “OpenSolver” software in MS-Excel for nurse schedulers to freely use. We tested the model using actual data collected from the department and found that the schedules created by the model tended to provide more balanced workloads and more days off compared to the schedules created manually by a real scheduler. The model also suggested an easy policy to increase the number of nurses for future expansion.

  7. Effect of an Empowerment Intervention on Antiretroviral Drug Adherence in Thai Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaihin, Ratchaneekorn; Kasatpibal, Nongyao; Chitreechuer, Jittaporn; Grimes, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted to determine effects of an empowerment intervention on antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence among Thai youth living with HIV/AIDS. It compared two groups of 23 young persons (15-24 years) who receive ART from AIDS clinics at two community hospitals. One hospital's patients served as the experimental group, and the other as a control group. The experimental groups attended five sessions that empowered them to take control of their own health. The control group received the standard of care. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square statistics. Before the empowerment, no one from the experimental group or the control group had ART adherence ≥ 95%. After the intervention, the 82.6% of the experimental group had ≥ 95% adherence compared to the control group, which had 21.7% adherence (p < .0001). The empowerment intervention resulted in a significant increase in ART adherence among Thai youth.

  8. A Two-Tier Multiple Choice Questions to Diagnose Thermodynamic Misconception of Thai and Laos Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamcharean, Chanwit; Wattanakasiwich, Pornrat

    The objective of this study was to diagnose misconceptions of Thai and Lao students in thermodynamics by using a two-tier multiple-choice test. Two-tier multiple choice questions consist of the first tier, a content-based question and the second tier, a reasoning-based question. Data of student understanding was collected by using 10 two-tier multiple-choice questions. Thai participants were the first-year students (N = 57) taking a fundamental physics course at Chiang Mai University in 2012. Lao participants were high school students in Grade 11 (N = 57) and Grade 12 (N = 83) at Muengnern high school in Xayaboury province, Lao PDR. As results, most students answered content-tier questions correctly but chose incorrect answers for reason-tier questions. When further investigating their incorrect reasons, we found similar misconceptions as reported in previous studies such as incorrectly relating pressure with temperature when presenting with multiple variables.

  9. Thai students and their reasons for choosing to study in United Kingdom universities

    OpenAIRE

    Tarry, Estelle F

    2008-01-01

    This thesis seeks to consider Thai students and their reasons for choosing to study in United Kingdom universities. Through the literature review it has been identified that higher education is globally expanding. Competing knowledgebased economies with higher education institutions have led education to be considered a market commodity and consequently the marketization of higher education in competitive world markets. This is exemplified by discussion of the United Kingdom higher education ...

  10. Halal Food : Thai Halal Food Products and International Market

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Noaman; Wanwang, Alisa

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to examine salient issues in the Halal food business with special focus on entering Thai Halal food products into international market. Market screening plays an important role in entering new market or setting up the business in the foreign country. In this paper we have analyzed the importance of Halal Food for the Muslims and explained the growth of Halal food in French markets. The study focuses attention on the identification of key areas in Halal food export and channel ...

  11. Understanding cancer and its treatment in Thai traditional medicine: An ethnopharmacological-anthropological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumlerdkij, Natchagorn; Tantiwongse, Jaturapat; Booranasubkajorn, Suksalin; Boonrak, Ranida; Akarasereenont, Pravit; Laohapand, Tawee; Heinrich, Michael

    2018-04-24

    Thai traditional medicine (TTM) is widely practiced in Thailand and continues to gain importance in cancer management, but little is known about the TTM practitioners' emic concepts and practice. With this study we firstly aim to document the practice of cancer treatment and prevention by TTM practitioners and, secondly, to evaluate how such traditional concepts and practices are correlated with biomedical ones. This in turn can form the basis for developing novel strategies for designing pharmacological experiments and longer term strategies to develop TTM practice. Semi-structured interviews with 33 TTM practitioners were performed in five provinces in different regions of Thailand. The following information were recorded; basic information of informants, descriptions of cancer (mareng in Thai), causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Plants used in the treatment and prevention of mareng were also collected. Using an in depth ethnographic approach four representative case studies to assist in a better understanding of the characteristics of mareng, its diagnosis, treatment, and prevention are reported here. Five characteristics of mareng - waste accumulation (khong sia), chronic illnesses (krasai), inflammation (kan aksep), bad blood (luead) and lymph (namlueang), and the imbalance of four basic elements (dhātu si) - have been identified. Explanatory models of cancer in TTM were linked with biomedical concepts and relevant pharmacological actions. Traditional uses and available scientific evidence of medicinal plants mentioned in the case studies for the treatment or prevention of mareng are presented and discussed. Here for the first time five main characteristics of cancer based on Thai traditional medical concepts are analysed. Our findings are relevant not only for the planning of clinical studies or pharmacological experiment in the search for novel compounds for cancer treatment and prevention, but also for the integration of Thai traditional

  12. Effects of Muay Thai training frequency on body composition and physical fitness in healthy untrained women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de S Rapkiewicz, Jeniffer A; Nunes, João P; Mayhew, Jerry L; Silva Ribeiro, Alex; Garcez Nabuco, Hellen C; Fávero, Maria T; Franchini, Emerson; Amarante do Nascimento, Matheus

    2017-11-07

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of different frequencies of Muay Thai training on body composition, and physical fitness in healthy untrained women. Twenty women were randomly assigned to one of two training groups: G2X (n = 9) performed Muay Thai twice a week, while G3X (n = 11) performed the same program three times a week, both for 13 weeks. Anthropometric dimensions, fat-free mass, fat mass, resting metabolic rate, VO2 max, upper-body and abdominal muscle endurance, explosive leg power, agility, flexibility, and dietary intake were measured at pre and post-training. Training intensity was estimated every training session by rating of perceived exertion with a Borg 10- point scale. Both groups significantly improved in all measured physical fitness variables, without any significant changes in body composition. G2X was not significantly different from G3X on any variable. Average relative changes for all performance variables in G2X and G3X were 28.5% and 27.5%, respectively. Thirteen-weeks of Muay Thai practice can improve physical fitness in women, regardless of weekly frequency (two or three times a week). This suggests that instructors and coaches can structure a Muay Thai training program based on a twice or three-times per week protocol in order to promote positive changes in several important outcomes related to health for healthy untrained women. Moreover, practitioners are able to choose their training frequency preference, since both frequencies provided similar adaptations.

  13. Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory and Childbirth Attitudes Questionnaire: psychometric properties of Thai language versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanglakmankhong, Kamonthip; Perrin, Nancy A; Lowe, Nancy K

    2011-01-01

    This paper is a report of the psychometric properties of the Thai language versions of the Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory and the Childbirth Attitudes Questionnaire, and the equivalence of the Thai and English versions of these instruments. The Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory and the Childbirth Attitudes Questionnaire were developed to measure women's abilities to cope with labour and fear of childbirth. Consistent with Bandura's Self-Efficacy Theory, women who have greater confidence in their ability to cope with labour have reported having less fear in childbirth. However, research is needed to validate the measures and this relationship in countries other than the United States of America, where the tools were developed. Back-translation was used. Content validity was examined by experts. The psychometric properties were estimated with internal consistency reliability, construct validity, contrasted groups and criterion-related validity with 148 pregnant women at a hospital in Thailand in 2008. Both measures were shown to have high internal consistency. Contrasting group and criterion-related validity were consistent with self-efficacy theory and findings in the United States. Differences between the stages of labour across expectancies in the Childbirth Self-Efficacy inventory were found only for second stage. Support for good validity and reliability of the instruments when used with Thai women was demonstrated. It may be appropriate for Thai women to use The Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory only in relation to the second stage of labour. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Breaking the Global Production Chain: Thai women's struggles for economic rights and justice

    OpenAIRE

    Junya Lek Yimprasert

    2006-01-01

    Junya Lek Yimprasert, founder of the Thai Labor Campaign, reviews workers’ rights in the context of today's fast moving global production chain. She asks women concerned with economic justice to look beyond just dialogue and build global solidarity based on worker's dignity, rights, hearts and lives. It is not short-term charity that is needed but solidarity that paves the way for self-determination, freedom of association and a share in the huge profits that are built on the exploitation of ...

  15. Marketing within higher education institutions - A case study of two private Thai universities

    OpenAIRE

    Starck, Kristian; Zadeh, Shahriyar Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Date of final seminar: 2013-05-29. Academic level: Master Thesis in Business Administration, 15 ECTS. University: Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden. Institution: The School of Business, Science and Engineering. Authors: Kristian Starck and Shahriyar Hossein Zadeh. Title: Marketing within higher education institutions - A case study of two private Thai universities. Supervisor: Peter Ekman. Examiner: Eva Manninen Olsson. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to describe and analyze what ...

  16. Career Competencies And Career Success Of Thai Employees In Tourism And Hospitality Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Aurathai Lertwannawit; Sirivan Serirat; Siroj Pholpantin

    2011-01-01

    This research assesses the relationship between career competencies and career success of Thai employees in the tourism and hospitality sector. The authors distinguished and operationalized four career competencies, i.e. computer and language skills, work spirits and ethics, team working and leadership, and tourism and hospitality knowledge and skills, and two career successes, i.e. objective and subjective career successes. A quantitative study was performed using 800 employees in four indus...

  17. Use of irradiation to improve the safety and quality of Thai prepared meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noomhorm, A.; Koomsanit, T.; Pungsawat, K.; Theamhong, T.; Srisawas, W.; Sirisoontaralak, P.; Vongsawasdi, P.; Vitittheeranon, A.

    2009-01-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied to extend the shelf life of selected Thai prepared meals, which comprised rice, meats and vegetables and which were kept under chilled conditions. For Thai spicy chicken basil rice (kao ka pao kai), cooked rice was prepared so as to obtain a harder texture and irradiated at 2 kGy. Three components (cooked chicken, sauce and blanched basil leaf) were separately packed and irradiated at 2 kGy for chicken and sauce and 0.1 kGy for basil leaves. The shelf life of irradiated spicy chicken (2 kGy) separately packed (>4 weeks) was much longer than the control sample (2 weeks), considering sensory quality. However, this dose was not enough to kill entirely the inoculated Listeria monocytogenes in spicy cooked chicken. Likewise, there is a need to preserve basil leaf, since it was microbiologically spoiled by the second week of storage. For stir-fried rice noodle with dried shrimp (pad Thai), a dose of 4 kGy was recommended because the product was free from L. monocytogenes and Escherichia coli, safe from microbial spoilage and had acceptable sensory quality. Irradiation at 4 kGy could extend the shelf life of chilled pad Thai to more than 4 weeks compared with a normal chilled ready meal, which has a shelf life of 5-7 d. For steamed sticky rice, roasted chicken and papaya salad (kao neaw som tom), a dose of 3 kGy was enough to control L. monocytogenes and E. coli during chilled storage. The product irradiated at 3 kGy and upwards remained microbiologically safe after 8 weeks of chilled storage whereas the non-irradiated sample was spoiled after the second week. Panellists accepted irradiated steamed sticky rice and roasted chicken, which kept under chilled conditions for 8 weeks, but they rejected irradiated papaya salad owing to the soft texture and tainted taste. (author)

  18. Facebook Addiction and Its Relationship with Mental Health among Thai High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanprathet, Nitt; Manwong, Mereerat; Khumsri, Jiraporn; Yingyeun, Rungmanee; Phanasathit, Muthita

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between Facebook addiction and mental health among high school students. This cross-sectional analytic study was performed among 972 high school students from four provinces associated with high economic prosperity in Thailand: Bangkok, ChiangMai, Ubon Ratchathani and Songkhla, utilizing a multistage cluster sampling technique. Facebook addiction was assessed using the Thai version of the Bergen-Facebook Addiction Scale (Thai-BFAS), while a Thai version ofthe General Health Questionnaire (Thai GHQ-28) was used for mental health evaluation. The relationship between Facebook addiction and mental health was analyzed through multiple logistic regressions. The prevalence of Facebook addiction and abnormal mental health were 41.9% (95% CI; 38.6, 45.2), and 21.9% (95% CI; 19.2, 24.8), respectively. After adjustment for confounding factors (sufficiency of household income, school location, level of education, GPAX learning deficits and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder), the individuals identified as having Facebook addiction were discovered to be at a high risk of developing abnormal general mental health (ORadj = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.4), somatic symptoms (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 0.9, 1.7), anxiety and insomnia (ORadj = 1.3, 95% CI: 0.9, 1.8), social dysfunction (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.1, 2.1) and severe depression (ORadj = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0, 2.2). Moreover; there were pronounced trends of increasing risk according to the level of Facebook addiction (Ptrend students could be associated with abnormal, general mental health status, somatic symptoms, anxiety & insomnia, social dysfunction, and severe depression. Therefore, it is essential that the relevant authorities educate young people about the mental health impacts linked with Facebook addictive usage and impose appropriate public health policies by screening Facebook addiction and mental health issues in risk groups.

  19. Understanding Thai fansubbing: collaboration in fan Communities translating a Korean TV show

    OpenAIRE

    Wongseree, Thandao

    2017-01-01

    The present research seeks to shed light on collaboration in the largely unexplored area of Thai fansubbing practices with the main focus placed on fansubbers. The interrelationships within the fansubbing community, which develop in particular between fansubbers and non-translating fans, have generally been overlooked by scholars. Furthermore, the significant roles played by digital technologies in facilitating such interdependencies have not been fully discussed in the literature. In an atte...

  20. Television viewing in Thai infants and toddlers: impacts to language development and parental perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriweradechachai Suntree

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effects of television to language development in infants and toddlers, especially in the Asian children, are inconclusive. This study aimed to (a study time spent on television in Thai infants and toddlers (age Methods Two hundred and sixty children and their parents were recruited into the study. Time spent on television and parental perceptions on television viewing toward their child's development were recorded during face-to-face and telephone interviews. Language development was assessed at the age of 2 years using the Clinical Linguistic Auditory Milestone Scale (CLAMS, and parents' report. Association between delayed language development and time spent on television viewing, as well as other various parameters such as gender, maternal education and family income, were analysed using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results Most Thai infants and toddlers watched television at the age of 6 months, 1 year and 2 years old (98.0, 95.3 and 96.7%, respectively. On average, 1-year-old children watched television 1.23 ± 1.42 hours per day. This increased to 1.69 ± 1.56 hours per day when they were 2 years old. However, watching television longer than 2 hours per day did not associate with delayed language development. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, gender (male was the only significant factor associated with delayed language development (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.5–31.3. Moreover, 75%, 71%, and 66% of Thai parents believed that television viewing yielded benefits to children's developments. Conclusion Thai children commenced watching television at an early age and the amount of television viewing time increased by age. Most parents had positive perceptions to television viewing. The study found no association between time spent on television viewing (≥ 2 hours per day and delayed language development at the age of 2 years. Gender (male was the only variable associated with delayed language development.

  1. Accuracy of an equation for estimating age from mandibular third molar development in a Thai population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verochana, Karune; Prapayasatok, Sangsom; Janhom, Apirum; Mahasantipiya, Phattaranant May; Korwanich, Narumanas

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the accuracy of age estimates produced by a regression equation derived from lower third molar development in a Thai population. The first part of this study relied on measurements taken from panoramic radiographs of 614 Thai patients aged from 9 to 20. The stage of lower left and right third molar development was observed in each radiograph and a modified Gat score was assigned. Linear regression on this data produced the following equation: Y=9.309+1.673 mG+0.303S (Y=age; mG=modified Gat score; S=sex). In the second part of this study, the predictive accuracy of this equation was evaluated using data from a second set of panoramic radiographs (539 Thai subjects, 9 to 24 years old). Each subject's age was estimated using the above equation and compared against age calculated from a provided date of birth. Estimated and known age data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient and descriptive statistics. Ages estimated from lower left and lower right third molar development stage were significantly correlated with the known ages (r=0.818, 0.808, respectively, P≤0.01). 50% of age estimates in the second part of the study fell within a range of error of ±1 year, while 75% fell within a range of error of ±2 years. The study found that the equation tends to estimate age accurately when individuals are 9 to 20 years of age. The equation can be used for age estimation for Thai populations when the individuals are 9 to 20 years of age

  2. Accuracy of an equation for estimating age from mandibular third molar development in a Thai population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verochana, Karune; Prapayasatok, Sangsom; Janhom, Apirum; Mahasantipiya, Phattaranant May; Korwanich, Narumanas

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the accuracy of age estimates produced by a regression equation derived from lower third molar development in a Thai population. The first part of this study relied on measurements taken from panoramic radiographs of 614 Thai patients aged from 9 to 20. The stage of lower left and right third molar development was observed in each radiograph and a modified Gat score was assigned. Linear regression on this data produced the following equation: Y=9.309+1.673 mG+0.303S (Y=age; mG=modified Gat score; S=sex). In the second part of this study, the predictive accuracy of this equation was evaluated using data from a second set of panoramic radiographs (539 Thai subjects, 9 to 24 years old). Each subject's age was estimated using the above equation and compared against age calculated from a provided date of birth. Estimated and known age data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient and descriptive statistics. Ages estimated from lower left and lower right third molar development stage were significantly correlated with the known ages (r=0.818, 0.808, respectively, P≤0.01). 50% of age estimates in the second part of the study fell within a range of error of ±1 year, while 75% fell within a range of error of ±2 years. The study found that the equation tends to estimate age accurately when individuals are 9 to 20 years of age. The equation can be used for age estimation for Thai populations when the individuals are 9 to 20 years of age.

  3. Inhibition of Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilm Formation by Traditional Thai Herbal Recipes Used for Wound Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Chusri, S.; Sompetch, K.; Mukdee, S.; Jansrisewangwong, S.; Srichai, T.; Maneenoon, K.; Limsuwan, S.; Voravuthikunchai, S. P.

    2012-01-01

    Development of biofilm is a key mechanism involved in Staphylococcus epidermidis virulence during device-associated infections. We aimed to investigate antibiofilm formation and mature biofilm eradication ability of ethanol and water extracts of Thai traditional herbal recipes including THR-SK004, THR-SK010, and THR-SK011 against S. epidermidis. A biofilm forming reference strain, S. epidermidis ATCC 35984 was employed as a model for searching anti-biofilm agents by MTT reduction assay. The r...

  4. Supply chain collaboration and responsiveness : a comparison between Thai automotive and electronics industries

    OpenAIRE

    Ueki, Yasushi

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines factors that promote firms to develop supply chain collaborations (SCC) with their partners and relationships between SCC and supply chain operational performances (SCOP), using a questionnaire survey on Thai automotive and electronics industries in 2012. This paper also carries out a comparative study on these questions between the electronics and automotive industries. Two-stage least squares (2SLS) regressions verifY that supplier evaluation and audit is a foundation fo...

  5. Accuracy of an equation for estimating age from mandibular third molar development in a Thai population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verochana, Karune; Prapayasatok, Sangsom; Janhom, Apirum; Mahasantipiya, Phattaranant May; Korwanich, Narumanas [Faculty of Dentistry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand)

    2016-03-15

    This study assessed the accuracy of age estimates produced by a regression equation derived from lower third molar development in a Thai population. The first part of this study relied on measurements taken from panoramic radiographs of 614 Thai patients aged from 9 to 20. The stage of lower left and right third molar development was observed in each radiograph and a modified Gat score was assigned. Linear regression on this data produced the following equation: Y=9.309+1.673 mG+0.303S (Y=age; mG=modified Gat score; S=sex). In the second part of this study, the predictive accuracy of this equation was evaluated using data from a second set of panoramic radiographs (539 Thai subjects, 9 to 24 years old). Each subject's age was estimated using the above equation and compared against age calculated from a provided date of birth. Estimated and known age data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient and descriptive statistics. Ages estimated from lower left and lower right third molar development stage were significantly correlated with the known ages (r=0.818, 0.808, respectively, P≤0.01). 50% of age estimates in the second part of the study fell within a range of error of ±1 year, while 75% fell within a range of error of ±2 years. The study found that the equation tends to estimate age accurately when individuals are 9 to 20 years of age. The equation can be used for age estimation for Thai populations when the individuals are 9 to 20 years of age.

  6. Purchasing Intentions of Young Thai Male towards Men‟s Skin Care Products

    OpenAIRE

    Bumrungkitjareon, Tipaporn; Tanasansopin, Suveera

    2011-01-01

    Title: Purchasing Intentions of Young Thai Male towards Men's Skin Care Products Problem: Men concern more about their image than ever before. This behavior is becoming a new trend in cosmetic market. Moreover, Thailand is one of the fast growing cosmetics industry, particularly male skin care market within countries in Asia-Pacific region. However, most of the literatures have just studied on women cosmetic products. There are a few studies within male cosmetic market, despite the demands of...

  7. Screening for antibacterial and antibiofilm activity in Thai medicinal plant extracts against oral microorganisms

    OpenAIRE

    Teanpaisan, Rawee; Kawsud, Pajaree; Pahumunto, Nuntiya; Puripattanavong, Jindaporn

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the antibacterial activity of 12 ethanol extracts of Thai traditional herb against oral pathogens. The antibacterial activities were assessed by agar well diffusion, broth microdilution, and time-kill methods. Antibiofilm activity was investigated using a 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium-bromide (MTT) assay. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), thin layer chromatography (TLC) fingerprinting, and TLC-bioautography were used to determine the active ...

  8. Property improvement by gamma polymerization of methyl methacrylate impregnated local Thai wood Yang (Dipterocarpus Sp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saisomboon, S.; Sumitra, T.

    1990-01-01

    Property improvement of a local Thai wood (Yang-Dipterocarpus Sp.) was studied by impregnating with methyl methacrylate before polymerizing with gamma ray. The polymer loading were 126 and 68 percent for sapwood and heart wood, respectively. Significant improvements in impact, compressive and bending strength were observed in the wood polymer composite (WPC). In addition, the microstructure and the impact fractured-surfaces of WPC were also carried with a scanning electron-microscope

  9. Development and performance evaluation of air fine bubbles on water quality of thai catfish rearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhan, Ujang; Muthukannan, Vanitha; Azhary, Sundoro Yoga; Mulhadi, Muhammad Fakhri; Rochima, Emma; Panatarani, Camellia; Joni, I. Made

    2018-02-01

    The efficiency and productivity of aquaculture strongly depends on the development of advanced technology for water quality management system. The most important factor for the success of intensive aquaculture system is controlling the water quality of fish rearing media. This paper reports the design of fine bubbles (FBs) generator and performance evaluation of the system to improve water quality in thai catfish media (10 g/ind) with density (16.66 ind./L). The FBs generator was designed to control the size distribution of bubble by controlling its air flow rate entry to the mixing chamber of the generator. The performance of the system was evaluated based on the produced debit, dissolved oxygen rate and ammonia content in the catfish medium. The size distribution was observed by using a high speed camera image followed by processing using ImageJ. freeware application. The results show that air flow rate 0.05 L/min and 0.1 L/min received average bubble size of 29 µm and 31 µm respectively. The generator produced bubbles with capacity of 6 L/min and dissolved oxygen rate 0.2 ppm/min/L. The obtained DO growth was 0.455 ppm/second/L while the average decay rate was 0.20 ppm/second/L. (0.011/0.005 fold). In contrast, the recieved DO growth rate is faster compared to the DO consumption rate of the Thai catfish. This results indicated that the potential application of FBs enhanced the density of thai catfish seed rearing. In addition, ammonia can be reduced at 0.0358 ppm/hour/L and it is also observed that the inhibition of bacterial growth of air FBs is postive to Aeromonas hydrophila bacteria compared to the negative control. It is concluded that as-developed FBs system can be potentially applied for intensive thai catfish culture and expected to improve the feeding efficiency rate.

  10. Use of irradiation to improve the safety and quality of Thai prepared meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noomhorm, A [Food Engineering and Bioprocess Technology, Asian Institute of Technology (Thailand)

    2002-07-01

    There is a dynamic growth of market for chilled prepared meals in Thailand because of the growth of food services in supermarkets and convenient stores. However, the shelf life of this food is short furthermore it is implicated in a number of serious foodborne disease outbreaks. Irradiation could provide a potential to improve the microbiological safety and extend the shelf life of chilled prepared meals. It is possibly used alone or together with chilling. With the combination of irradiation and chilling, frozen condition could be replaced resulting to saving in energy and cost. However, there is a limitation of information about the application of irradiation on chilled prepared meals. Also, information relevant to the application of food safety control system like Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) should be gathered to ensure more safety of the irradiated prepared meals. For Thai dishes, they are normally composed of herb and spicy with different types of meat. All dishes are eaten along with rice. Both Thai aromatic rice and herb are susceptible to deterioration in quality by processing factors. Therefore, the study of the effect of irradiation on Thai dishes, which compose of these two components, is necessary.

  11. Acute neuromuscular responses to short and long roundhouse kick striking paces in professional Muay Thai fighters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimadoro, Giuseppe; Mahaffey, Ryan; Babault, Nicolas

    2018-04-04

    Muay Thai fighters strongly rely on the use of the roundhouse kick due to its effectiveness (i.e. power) and implications on the final score. Therefore, different striking tempos at full power are used during training as a method to enhance kicking power. However, the neuromuscular responses are unknown. Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate neuromuscular responses to a single bout of shorter (every second = H1) and longer (every 3s = H3) kick striking time intervals, measured with the countermovement jump (CMJ). Nine professional Muay Thai fighters participated in this randomized, cross-over trial. CMJs were measured on force plates before and after (post 0min, post 5min, post 10min, post 20min and post 30min) two striking (1set x 20reps) conditions (H1; H3). Although no difference was observed between H1 and H3 values, neuromuscular fatigue parameters displayed different patterns over time. CMJ height decreased immediately after H3 striking (PMuay Thai and conditioning coaches should focus on hard striking with both long and slow pacing during specific heavy bag or pad work.

  12. Relationships of family functioning, self-esteem, and resourceful coping of Thai adolescents with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preechawong, Sunida; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Heinzer, Marjorie M V; Musil, Carol M; Kercsmar, Carolyn; Aswinanonh, Rungtiwa

    2007-01-01

    Within the context of Rosenbaum's theory of learned resourcefulness, this correlational study examined the relationships among family functioning, self-esteem, and resourceful coping in Thai adolescents with asthma. A convenience sample of 132 Thai adolescents (aged 12-17 years) with asthma was recruited from the outpatient asthma clinics of four hospitals in Bangkok. Self-administered questionnaires included an assessment of demographic information and asthma status, the revised Family APGAR, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and the Children's Self-Control Scale. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationships among variables. Effective family functioning had a significant positive effect on self-esteem (beta = .27, p self-esteem was not significantly correlated with resourceful coping (beta = .15, p = .08). The findings suggest that nursing interventions should take into account the role of family functioning in promoting self-esteem and resourceful coping in Thai adolescents with asthma. Recommendations for future research include replication of the study with a larger sample of adolescents with asthma and with adolescents with other chronic illnesses.

  13. The Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Biochemical Parameters in Healthy Thai Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongsara, Sara; Boonpol, Sakulrat; Prompalad, Nussaree; Jeenduang, Nutjaree

    2017-09-01

    Although, the effect of Ramadan fasting on the risks for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) has been reported in several studies, the results were inconsistent. In addition, the effect of Ramadan fasting on biochemical parameters in Thai subjects has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Ramadan fasting on anthropometry, blood pressure, Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG), lipid profiles, and body composition in healthy Thai subjects. A total of 65 healthy subjects (21 men and 44 women) aged between 19-24 years were randomly recruited. Anthropometry, blood pressure, FBG, Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C), Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C), and body composition were measured before Ramadan, end of Ramadan and after one month of Ramadan. There were no changes in anthropometry, blood pressure, lipid profiles and body composition in both genders before Ramadan, end of Ramadan and after one month of Ramadan. Nevertheless, FBG levels were significantly increased after one month of Ramadan compared with baseline (5.09±0.50 versus 4.83±0.38 mmol/L, p=0.016, respectively) in women. The Ramadan fasting did not affect the lipid, anthropometric and body composition in healthy Thai subjects. However, the increased FBG levels after one month of Ramadan were observed in women. To improve the favourable biochemical parameters after Ramadan fasting, the lifestyle modifications such as, increased intake of healthy diets and increased physical activity should be recommended.

  14. Effectiveness of green tea on weight reduction in obese Thais: A randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvichayapat, Paradee; Prapochanung, Montira; Tunkamnerdthai, Oratai; Sripanidkulchai, Bung-orn; Auvichayapat, Narong; Thinkhamrop, Bandit; Kunhasura, Soontorn; Wongpratoom, Srisuda; Sinawat, Supat; Hongprapas, Pranithi

    2008-02-27

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effects of green tea on weight reduction in obese Thais. A randomized, controlled trial involving 60 obese subjects (body mass index, BMI > 25 kg/m2) was conducted. All subjects consumed a Thai diet containing 3 meals (8373.6 kJ/day) for 12 weeks, prepared by the Nutritional Unit at Srinagarind Hospital. The diet contained 65% carbohydrates, 15% protein, and 20% fat. Body weight, BMI, body composition, resting energy expenditure, and substrate oxidation were measured at baseline, and during weeks 4, 8, and 12 of the study. Serum levels of leptin and urine VMA were measured at baseline and during the 12th week. Differences over time and between the treatments (green tea or placebo) over time were determined using two-factor ANOVA with repeated measures. In comparing the two groups, differences in weight loss were 2.70, 5.10, and 3.3 kg during the 4th, 8th, and 12th weeks of the study, respectively. At the 8th and 12th weeks of the study, body weight loss was significantly different (P tea can reduce body weight in obese Thai subjects by increasing energy expenditure and fat oxidation.

  15. Determinants of Behavior Change Intention Among Heterosexual Thai Males Diagnosed with Sexually Transmitted Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thato, Ratsiri; Daengsaard, Ekkachai

    2016-11-01

    This study sought to identify factors associated with intention to change sexual practices among heterosexual Thai males diagnosed with sexually transmitted infections (STIs). STI clinic patients (n = 247) reported their sexual behaviors and condom use during the previous 3 months. STI and HIV knowledge, motivation to change sexual practices, and behavioral skills were assessed. Then, self-reported behavior change intention, including consistent condom use, reducing number of sexual partners, not using drugs and alcohol when having sex, and refusal of condomless sex, was examined. Consistent condom use in the past 3 months by Thai males diagnosed with STIs was low across all types of sexual partners (lover 13.8%, casual partner 14.9%, and sex worker 2.5%). Risk reduction self-efficacy (p behavior change intention. Significant predictors of behavior change intention were risk reduction self-efficacy (p behavior change intention variance. Intervention aimed at enhancing motivation and behavioral skills to adopt preventive behaviors should be developed to prevent recurrent STIs, including HIV infection, among heterosexual Thai males diagnosed with STIs.

  16. Modelling the impacts of CDM incentives for the Thai electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Philipp; Lefevre, Thierry; Moest, Dominik

    2008-01-01

    The CDM Executive Board recently took a positive decision on programmatic CDM, also known as a CDM Programme of Activities. This prompts the author to present a new tool that has been developed recently for the Thai electricity market. The Renewable Energy Development (RED) Model, initially developed in the framework of the DANIDA funded project: Promotion of Renewable Energy in Thailand (PRET), at the Ministry of Energy of Thailand, was designed for the modelling of different incentive schemes and their effects on the Thai power system for the promotion of renewable energy technologies (RETs). Within this article, an extension of the existing RED model, including the CDM as additional incentive measure, is presented (RED-CDM). Along with the project-based approach, also a sectoral and programmatic approach is included as well. Several scenarios developed with the RED-CDM model show the influence of different incentive mechanisms on the Thai power market and their potentials for reaching the policy targets stated in the Energy Strategy of Thailand for Competitiveness. The main results show that reaching the policy targets is possible, while the price can be extremely high if the targets are to be achieved on schedule. Another important result is that a sectoral CDM approach could help financing about 20% of the incentives needed for a shift towards a more sustainable power grid, if the certified emission reductions (CERs) are sold at a price of 15 Euro/ton

  17. Factors Related to Sexual Self-Efficacy among Thai Youth Living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viseskul, Nongkran; Fongkaew, Warunee; Settheekul, Saowaluck; Grimes, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    Studies of sexual behavior among HIV-infected Thai youth show conflicting results due to the different ages of the respondents. This study examined the relationships between sexual self-efficacy and risk behaviors among 92 HIV-positive Thai youth aged 14 to 21 years. A questionnaire previously validated in Thailand measured sexual self-efficacy. There were low levels of sexual activity with 13 respondents having sex in the last 6 months. The sexual self-efficacy scales were inversely related to the risk behaviors of having sex, having multiple partners, and drinking alcohol in the last 6 months. The scores of the sexual self-efficacy scale and its subscales were significantly lower in those aged 17 to 21 than in 14 to 16. Sexual risk behaviors were significantly higher in those aged 17 to 21 than in 14 to 16. These findings suggest that interventions to increase sexual self-efficacy should be emphasized as HIV-infected Thai youth reach late adolescence. © The Author(s) 2013.

  18. Type 2 diabetes: how do Thai Buddhist people with diabetes practise self-management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Pranee C; Thrakul, Supunnee

    2012-03-01

    This paper is a report of a study of how Thai Buddhist people with type 2 diabetes practice self-management. The importance of diabetes self-management is recognized in the literature. However, research on self-care management in Thailand, in particular concerning Buddhist people with type 2 diabetes, is scarce. A descriptive qualitative study was conducted. Purposive convenience sampling was used, and thirty men and women with diabetes, aged 28-79 years, participated. Data were collected from June to August 2009 and analysed by use of manifest and latent content analysis. Five themes of self-management among Thai Buddhist people with type 2 diabetes were identified: cultural influence on disease control, Buddhism and Thai culture, struggle for disease control, family support and economy a high priority. Even though the Buddhist people with diabetes had certain self-management capabilities, many had poor control of their blood sugar levels and needed assistance. Reference to Buddhist moderation can be an effective means of helping the people with diabetes better manage their disease and change their lifestyles. In addition to cultural and religious traditions, family, economy and social environment should be taken into account both in the care and in interventions aimed at helping people with diabetes cope and empowering them to control their disease. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Energy and Macronutrient Intakes and Food Sources in Preschool Children: Thai NHES IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satheannoppakao, Warapone; Kasemsup, Rachada; Nontarak, Jiraluck; Kessomboon, Pattapong; Putwatana, Panwadee; Taneepanichskul, Surasak; Sangthong, Rassamee; Chariyalertsak, Suwat; Aekplakorn, Wichai

    2015-10-01

    Examine intakes of energy and macronutrients, and identify their food sources, in Thai preschool children. Data from the Thai National Health Examination Survey (NHES) IV were used. Mothers/caregivers were interviewed regarding their children's 24-hour-dietary intake. Dietary data were analyzed for energy and macronutrients, and their food sources were investigated. Due to skewed data, Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare energy and macronutrient intake between sexes and age groups. Among 256 preschool children, more than 90% had protein intakes higher than the recommended level. Only 12.7 to 29.0% met the recommended intake for energy. Amounts of carbohydrate and fat consumed varied from below to above the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) recommendation. Intakes of carbohydrate in boys and fat in girls were statistically different between age groups (p energy came from dairy products, grains and starchy products. The major carbohydrate contributors were grains and starchy products. Dairy products were the main source of protein. Important food sources of fat were dairy products for one- to three-year-old children and fat and oils for four- to five-year-old children. Thai preschool children have inappropriate intakes of energy and macronutrients. Dairy products and grains and/or starchy products were the main sources of energy, carbohydrate, and protein. Dietary fat sources varied by age group.

  20. Introducing Union Representation and Its Complexities – A Case Study of the Royal Thai Civil Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Pontier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the result of the recognition under the ILO Conventions 87 and 98 of the freedom of association and subsequent introduction of union representation in the Royal Thai civil service. As a consequence, the Royal Thai Government has changed the Constitution to allow for union representation in its civil service. A decree has been drafted and focus groups have been interviewed to establish the views of a cross-section of civil servants on their expectations and desires in being allowed to form and join a union. The paper discusses the approach taken to union representation in terms of collective bargaining versus joint consultation and centralization versus decentralization and the discourse that has surfaced as a result of the interviews between the policy makers and civil servants, particularly with regard to its context of a high power distance culture. The analysis provides the best practice and effective approach to the introduction of union representation within the Thai Civil Service.

  1. Thai people living with tuberculosis and how they adhere to treatment: A grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choowong, Jiraporn; Tillgren, Per; Söderbäck, Maja

    2017-12-01

    To develop a conceptual framework of adherence to treatment among Thai people living with tuberculosis, a grounded theory approach was used. A purposive sample of 20 Thai people living with tuberculosis, aged from 23 to 85 years, was interviewed. From the participants' perspective, a core category of social belonging was highlighted, with three categories of conditions connected: personal barriers, personal resilience, and social facilitation. Personal barriers encompassed fear of stigma, concealing the illness, and lack of knowledge and motivation to complete the treatment regime. Personal resilience encompassed positive thinking and self-awareness. Social facilitation encompassed the ease of access to health services, continuity in the health service's ability to choose a directly-observed therapy observer, and social support. This study contributes a deeper understanding of the perspective of Thai people living with tuberculosis with regards to adherence to tuberculosis treatment. It might improve how local healthcare workers provide tuberculosis care, and inspire them to tailor care to people living with tuberculosis in a local community to increase personal resilience and reduce stigma. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. MELCOR simulation of steam condensation effect on hydrogen behavior in THAI HM-2 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seongnyeon; Lee, Jung-Jae; Cho, Yong-Jin [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Joong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In this study, MELCOR simulation was carried out for THAI HM-2 experiment of OECD. As a results, stratification of hydrogen cloud was reasonably captured in MELCOR simulation. Furthermore, the pressure from simulation results in cases where mass transfer coefficient of MELCOR condensation model was modified was good agreement with the experimental results. Containment Filtered Ventilation System (CFVS) has been introduced as facility to prevent containment failure during severe accident. However, possibility of hydrogen risk has been issued due to inflow of hydrogen, condensation and removal of steam and complicated inner structure in CFVS. Preferentially benchmark work for THAI HM-2 experiment of OECD was decided to validate the methodology before detailed assessment of hydrogen risk in CFVS. The objectives of THAI HM-2 experiment were evaluation of hydrogen behavior, verification of numerical analysis tools and so on. In this paper, therefore, MELCOR simulation was carried out in comparison with the experiment results. Additionally, steam condensation effect was considered for detailed simulation. Hydrogen concentration from MELCOR results was underestimated in comparison to the experimental results.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of Parkinson's disease in retired Thai traditional boxers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolekha, Praween; Phanthumchinda, Kammant; Bhidayasiri, Roongroj

    2010-09-15

    Boxing is often believed to be a frequent cause for parkinsonism caused by chronic repetitive head injury, with Muhammad Ali frequently cited as an example. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD) in retired Thai traditional boxers. Two standardized screening questionnaires were sent to all registered Thai traditional boxers. Subjects who screened positive for parkinsonism were invited for clinical examinations by two independent neurologists. Among 704 boxers (70%) who completed the questionnaires, 8 boxers (1.14%) had parkinsonism: 5 with PD, 1 with progressive supranuclear palsy and 2 with vascular parkinsonism. Boxers with PD were found to have an older mean age than those without PD (P = 0.003). The analysis of probable risk factors disclosed an association between the number of professional bouts (>100 times) and PD (P = 0.01). The crude prevalence of PD in Thai boxers was 0.71% (95% CI: 0.09-1.33), with a significant increase with age. The prevalence rate of PD in those aged 50 and above was 0.17% (95% CI: 0.15-0.20), age-adjusted to the USA 1970 census, which is comparable to that of the general populations. The analysis determined that the number of professional bouts is a risk factor among these boxers, supporting the notion that repetitive head trauma may pose an additional risk to certain individuals who are already susceptible to PD. © 2010 Movement Disorder Society.

  4. Patterns of Sexual Behavior in Lowland Thai Youth and Ethnic Minorities Attending High School in Rural Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurpibul, Linda; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Musumari, Patou Masika; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Tarnkehard, Surapee

    2016-01-01

    The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups. This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. From a total 1215 participants, 487 (40.1%) were lowland Thai and 728 (59.9%) were from ethnic minorities. Overall, 17.9% of respondents reported "ever had sex." Lowland Thai adolescents were more likely to have ever had sex compared with ethnic minority adolescents (AOR, 1.61; CI, 1.06-2.45; P< 0.01). A higher proportion of lowland Thai respondents reported having ≥ 2 lifetime sexual partners (51.9% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.003), or currently having a boy/girlfriend (59.9% vs. 45.3%, P< 0.001) compared to ethnic minority adolescents. Consistent condom use was low in both groups (22.6%). The common significant factors associated with "ever had sex" in both groups were "ever drunk alcohol in the past year" and "currently having a boy/girlfriend." Specifically, for lowland Thai youth, being around the age of 17 or 18 years and "ever used methamphetamine in the past year" were associated with increased odds of "ever had sex". For ethnic minority adolescents, being female and belonging to religions other than Buddhism were associated with decreased odds of "ever had sex". A substantially higher proportion of lowland Thai engage in risky sexual behaviors when compared to ethnic minorities. However, both groups remained vulnerable to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. To minimize sexual risks, education program and school-based interventions are warranted to increase awareness of young people about risky behaviors and to promote essential life skills.

  5. Diversity of bacterial communities on the facial skin of different age-group Thai males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilantho, Alisa; Deekaew, Pamornya; Srisuttiyakorn, Chutika; Tongsima, Sissades; Somboonna, Naraporn

    2017-01-01

    Skin microbiome varies from person to person due to a combination of various factors, including age, biogeography, sex, cosmetics and genetics. Many skin disorders appear to be related to the resident microflora, yet databases of facial skin microbiome of many biogeographies, including Thai, are limited. Metagenomics derived B-RISA and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was utilized to identify the culture-independent bacterial diversity on Thai male faces (cheek and forehead areas). Skin samples were categorized (grouped) into (i) normal ( teenage.hea ) and (ii) acne-prone ( teenage.acn ) young adults, and normal (iii) middle-aged ( middle.hea ) and (iv) elderly ( elderly.hea ) adults. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing was successful as the sequencing depth had an estimated >98% genus coverage of the true community. The major diversity was found between the young and elderly adults in both cheek and forehead areas, followed by that between normal and acne young adults. Detection of representative characteristics indicated that bacteria from the order Rhizobiales, genera Sphingomonas and Pseudoalteromonas , distinguished the elderly.hea microbiota, along the clinical features of wrinkles and pores. Prediction of the metabolic potential revealed reduced metabolic pathways involved in replication and repair, nucleotide metabolism and genetic translation in the elderly.hea compared with that in the teenage.hea . For young adults, some unique compositions such as abundance of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis , with a minor diversity between normal and acne skins, were detected. The metabolic potentials of the acne vs. normal young adults showed that teenage.acn was low in many cellular processes (e.g., cell motility and environmental adaptation), but high in carbohydrate metabolism, which could support acne growth. Moreover, comparison with the age-matched males from the US (Boulder, Colorado) to gain insight into the diversity across national biogeography

  6. THAI test facility for experimental research on hydrogen and fission product behaviour in light water reactor containments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, S., E-mail: gupta@becker-technologies.com [Becker Technologies GmbH, Koelner Strasse 6, 65760 Eschborn (Germany); Schmidt, E.; Laufenberg, B. von; Freitag, M.; Poss, G. [Becker Technologies GmbH, Koelner Strasse 6, 65760 Eschborn (Germany); Funke, F. [AREVA GmbH, P.O. Box 1109, 91001 Erlangen (Germany); Weber, G. [Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Forschungszentrum, Boltzmannstraße 14, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • Large scale facility for investigating representative LWR severe accident scenarios. • Coupled effect tests in the field of thermal-hydraulics, hydrogen, aerosol and iodine. • Measurement techniques improved and adapted for severe accident conditions. • Testing of passive mitigation systems (e.g. PAR) under accident conditions. • THAI data application for validation and development of CFD and LP codes. - Abstract: The test facility THAI (thermal-hydraulics, hydrogen, aerosol, and iodine) aims at addressing open questions concerning gas distribution, behaviour of hydrogen, iodine and aerosols in the containment of light water reactors during severe accidents. Main component of the facility is a 60 m{sup 3} stainless steel vessel, 9.2 m high and 3.2 m in diameter, with exchangeable internals for multi-compartment investigations. The maximal design pressure of the vessel is 14 bar which allows H{sub 2} combustion experiments at a severe accident relevant H{sub 2} concentration level. The facility is approved for the use of low-level radiotracer I-123 which enables the measurement of time resolved iodine behaviour. The THAI test facility allows investigating various accident scenarios, ranging from turbulent free convection to stagnant stratified containment atmospheres and can be combined with simultaneous use of hydrogen, iodine and aerosol issues. THAI experimental research also covers investigations related to mitigation systems employed in light water reactor containments by performing experiments on, e.g. pressure suppression pool hydrodynamics, performance behaviour of passive autocatalytic recombiners, and spray interaction with hydrogen–steam–air flames in phenomenon orientated and coupled-effects experiments. The THAI experimental data have been widely used for the validation and further development of Lumped Parameter and Computational Fluid Dynamics codes with 3D capabilities, e.g. International Standard Problems ISP-47 (thermal

  7. Prevention of Hb Bart's (γ4) Disease Associated with the - -(THAI) α(0)-Thalassemia Deletion in Mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong-Zhi; Li, Yan; Li, Jian; Li, Shu-Chen; Li, Ru

    2015-01-01

    α-Thalassemia (α-thal) is a common inherited disease in southern China. The severest form is Hb Bart's (γ4) disease, in which the affected fetuses almost always die in utero or shortly after birth, and the mothers are at high risk for severe morbidity. The most common type of α(0)-thalassemia (α(0)-thal) in southern China is Southeast Asian (- -(SEA)) deletion. Occasionally, Hb Bart's disease, caused by a compound heterozygosity for the - -(SEA) and - -(THAI) α(0)-thal deletions, can also be encountered. In this study, we report our experience with the prevention of Hb Bart's disease associated with the - -(THAI) α(0)-thal deletion. A total of 385 couples at risk for Hb Bart's disease, including seven who tested positive for the - -(SEA) deletion in one partner and the - -(THAI) deletion in the other, were found. Different prenatal procedures were offered, depending on the gestational age at presentation. Sixty-six affected fetuses were diagnosed prenatally; among these, two cases of Hb Bart's disease were compound heterozygotes for the - -(SEA) and - -(THAI) deletions. All affected pregnancies were terminated in time. We also presented a diagnostic protocol for identification of α(0)-thal trait that can reduce the number of samples for detection of the - -(THAI) deletion.

  8. 'The family is only one part …': understanding the role of family in young Thai women's sexual decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangpan, Mukdarut; Operario, Don

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to understand young Thai women's perspectives about family influences on their sexual decisions with the goal of informing the future development of HIV programmes and interventions for young Thai women in urban areas. Eight focus groups were conducted with 40 young single women aged 18-25 years, recruited through a peer network of key informants from four sites across Bangkok: universities, government offices, slums and garment factories. Predetermined topics relating to family, sexual decisions and HIV were discussed with 4-5 participants in each group. Qualitative thematic and framework-analysis techniques were used to explore participants' narratives. Findings suggest that young Thai women's sexual decisions are complex and take place under a wide range of personal, familial and social influences. Parents were perceived as a barrier to parent-child communication about sex and HIV. Young women regarded mothers as more supportive and receptive than fathers when discussing sensitive topics. Young Thai women described a tension between having a strong sense of self and modern sexual norms versus traditionally conservative relational orientations. Future HIV interventions could benefit by developing strategies to consider barriers to parent-child communication, strengthening family relationships and addressing the coexistence of conflicting sexual norms in the Thai context.

  9. Exploring science and mathematics teaching experiences in Thailand using reflective journals of an internship program between Vietnamese and Thai students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruekpramool, Chaninan; Kanyaprasith, Kamonwan; Phonphok, Nason; Diem, Huynh Thi Thuy

    2018-01-01

    An internship program between Vietnamese student teachers from Cantho University and Thai graduate students from Srinakharinwirot University has occurred in June 2016. There were six Vietnamese student teachers and four Thai graduate students participated in this program with the help of science teachers from two schools in Sa Kaeo and Chachoengsao Provinces of Thailand. To explore Vietnamese and Thai students' life experiences and their perceptions in science and Mathematics teaching, reflective journals were used to record their progress as team teaching in primary and lower secondary classrooms in the form of the online format via social media in English language. The data were collected from 54 reflective journals from their eight days experiences at the schools. The data were analyzed qualitatively using Van Manen's level of reflectivity which composed of three levels; 1) Technical Rationality (TR), 2) Practical Action (PA) and 3) Critical Reflection (CR). The results explicitly revealed that the three levels of reflectivity have appeared in the reflective journals. Besides, Vietnamese and Thai students have learned more from each other and can exchange their educational experiences and culture. Certainly, this was the first time for them to teach science and mathematics in English to Thai students. Moreover, they have shared their impressions toward schools, teachers and also students in the schools in their reflective journal as well.

  10. ‘For me… it’s a miracle’: injecting beauty among kathoeis in a provincial Thai city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poompruek, Panoopat; Boonmongkon, Pimpawun; Guadamuz, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Thai term kathoei refers to non-gender-normative females, males and intersexual individuals at different stages of the transitional spectrum with recognized social and cultural roles in society. Nevertheless, kathoeis are only tolerated in Thai society. Many kathoeis seek social acceptance through beauty and turn to the off-label injection of various ‘beauty drugs’. Methods The first author conducted an ethnographic study of injection parties at a wedding studio in a Central Thai provincial city between April and September 2011. Data were gathered through participant observation, focus group discussions and narrative interviews with six participants. All data were collected and analyzed in Thai, and later translated. Findings While injection parties provide opportunities for kathoeis to socialize, bond, and share experiential knowledge on chemically-assisted transformation, they also reproduce ideologies of gender, beauty and sexuality that reinforce the notion that if a kathoei is to maintain her beauty, she must use medicines more frequently and in higher doses. Conclusion Injection parties among Thai kathoeis feature drug use that is entirely reasonable in terms of their own lay knowledge. Empowering kathoeis, by providing accessible information on chemicals and health in a way that reflects the complexity and diversity of their practices, would be one way to reduce health risks. Society must give more long-term options to kathoeis to build their sense of self, based on things besides being beautiful. PMID:25047007

  11. Use of English Vocabulary Learning Strategies by Thai Tertiary-Level Students in Relation to Fields of Study and Language-Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonkongsaen, Nathaya; Intaraprasert, Channarong

    2014-01-01

    The present study was intended to examine the effects of 1) fields of study (arts, business and science-oriented); and 2) language-learning experiences (whether limited or non-limited to formal classroom instructions) on the use of VLSs among Thai tertiary-level students. The participants were 905 Thai EFL students studying in the Northeast of…

  12. In vitro anti-proliferative activity on colon cancer cell line (HT-29) of Thai medicinal plants selected from Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosroi, Aranya; Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Akihisa, Toshihiro; Jantrawut, Pensak; Kitdamrongtham, Worapong; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2015-02-23

    Thai/Lanna region has its own folklore wisdoms including the traditional medicinal plant recipes. Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III" has been developed by Prof. Dr. Jiradej Manosroi. It consists of over 200,000 recipes for all diseases including cancer. To investigate the anti-proliferative and apoptotic activities on human colon cancer cell line (HT-29) as well as the cancer cell selectivity of the methanolic extracts (MEs) and fractions of the 23 selected plants from the "MANOSROI III" database. The 23 selected plants were extracted with methanol under reflux and evaluated for their anti-proliferative activity by sulforhodamine B assay. The 5 plants (Gloriosa superba, Caesalpinia sappan, Fibraurea tinctoria, Ventilago denticulata and Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) with potent anti-proliferative activity were fractionated by liquid-liquid partition to give 4 fractions including each hexane (HF), methanol-water (MF), n-butanol (BF) and water (WF) fractions. They were tested for anti-proliferative activity and cancer cell selectivity. The ME and fractions of G. superba which showed potent anti-proliferative activity were further examined for morphological changes and apoptotic activities by acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) staining. The ME of G. superba root showed active with the highest anti-proliferative activity at 9.17 and 1.58 folds of cisplatin and doxorubicin, respectively. After liquid-liquid partition, HF of V. denticulata, MFs of F. tinctoria, V. denticulata and BF of P. tetragonolobus showed higher anti-proliferative activities than their MEs. The MF of G. superba indicated the highest anti-proliferative activity at 7.73 and 1.34 folds of cisplatin and doxorubicin, respectively, but only 0.86 fold of its ME. The ME and HF, MF and BF of G. superba and MF of F. tinctoria demonstrated high cancer cell selectivity. At 50 µg/ml, ME, HF, MF and BF of G. superba demonstrated higher apoptotic activities than the two standard drugs

  13. Sixth Conference on China-ASEAN People-to-People Friendship Organizations Held in Bangkok

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>With the theme of "Opportunities and Challenges of China-ASEAN Friendly Cooperation", the Sixth Conference on China-ASEAN People-to-People Friendship Organizations organized by the Thai-Chinese Friendship Association was held in Bangkok August 18 and 19. A delegation of China-ASEAN Association led by its president Gu Xiulian joined about 200 representatives from friendship-with-China organizations in 10 ASEAN countries.

  14. Effects of paliperidone extended release on hostility among Thai patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jariyavilas A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Apichat Jariyavilas,1 Nuntika Thavichachart,2 Ronnachai Kongsakon,3 Sunanta Chantakarn,4 Suwanna Arunpongpaisal,5 Vasu Chantarasak,6 Piyadit Jaroensook,7 Khanogwan Kittiwattanagul,8 Osot Nerapusee9 1Srithanya Hospital, Department of Mental Health, Ministry of Public Health, Bangkok, 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 3Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, 4Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok, 5Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 6Somdetchaopraya Institute of Psychiatry, Bangkok, 7Prasrimahabhodhi Hospital, Ubon Ratchathani, 8Khon Kaen Rajanagarindra Psychiatric Hospital, Khon Kaen, 9Medical Affairs, Janssen-Cilag, Bangkok, Thailand Objective: This open-label prospective study investigated the effects of paliperidone extended release (ER on hostility in Thai patients with schizophrenia. Background: Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia may be hostile or exhibit aggressive behavior, which can occasion their admission to psychiatric hospital. Antipsychotic medications are often used to treat hostility and aggression in such patients. Paliperidone ER is effective and well tolerated in the treatment of schizophrenia. However, there are no data available for paliperidone ER with regard to its efficacy on hostility and aggression among Thai patients. This study was a part of the PERFEcT study, a 6-month, open-label, multicenter, multicountry, prospective trial to explore the safety, efficacy, and functionality of paliperidone ER tablets. The current study included only the data obtained from Thai participants. Materials and methods: Flexible dosing of paliperidone ER in a range of 3–12 mg/day was used, allowing investigators to adjust the dosage of each subject individually. The 199 Thai patients had a stable Clinical Global Impression – severity score before enrollment. Demographic

  15. A Head-to-Head Comparison of UK SF-6D and Thai and UK EQ-5D-5L Value Sets in Thai Patients with Chronic Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthong, Phantipa; Munpan, Wipaporn

    2017-10-01

    Little was known about the head-to-head comparison of psychometric properties between SF-6D and EQ-5D-5L or the different value sets of EQ-5D-5L. Therefore, this study set out to compare the psychometric properties including agreement, convergent, and known-group validity between the SF-6D and the EQ-5D-5L using the real value sets from Thailand and the UK in patients with chronic diseases. 356 adults taking a medication for at least 3 months were identified from a university hospital in Bangkok, Thailand, between July 2014 and March 2015. Agreement was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman plots. Convergent validity was evaluated using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients between SF-6D and EQ-5D-5L and EQ-VAS and SF-12v2. For known-groups validity, the Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to examine the associations between SF-6D and EQ-5D-5L and patient characteristics. Agreements between the SF-6D and the EQ-5D-5L using Thai and UK value sets were fair, with ICCs of 0.45 and 0.49, respectively. Bland-Altman plots showed that the majority of the SF-6D index scores were lower than the EQ-5D-5L index scores. Both the EQ-5D-5L value sets were more related to the EQ-VAS and physical health, while the SF-6D was more associated with mental health. Both EQ-5D-5L value sets were more sensitive than the SF-6D in discriminating patients with different levels of more known groups except for adverse drug reactions. The SF-6D and both EQ-5D-5L value sets appeared to be valid but sensitive to different outcomes in Thai patients with chronic diseases.

  16. Potent anti-proliferative effects against oral and cervical cancers of Thai medicinal plants selected from the Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosroi, Aranya; Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Pattamapun, Kassara; Kitdamrongtham, Worapong; Akihisa, Toshihiro; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2015-07-01

    Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipes have been used for the treatment of several diseases including oral and cervical cancers. To investigate anti-proliferative activity on human cervical (HeLa) and oral (KB) cancer cell lines of medicinal plants selected from Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III". Twenty-three methanolic plant crude extracts were tested for phytochemicals and anti-proliferative activity on HeLa and KB cell lines for 24 h by the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay at the doses of 1 × 10(1)-1 × 10(-6 )mg/ml. The nine extracts with the concentrations giving 50% growth inhibition (GI50) lower than 100 µg/ml were further semi-purified by liquid/liquid partition in order to evaluate and enhance the anti-proliferative potency. All extracts contained steroids/triterpenoids, but not xanthones. The methanolic extracts of Gloriosa superba L. (Colchinaceae) root and Albizia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae) wood gave the highest anti-proliferative activity on HeLa and KB cell lines with the GI50 values of 0.91 (6.0- and 0.31-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin) and 0.16 µg/ml (28.78- and 82.29-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin), respectively. Hexane and methanol-water fractions of G. superba exhibited the highest anti-proliferative activity on HeLa and KB cell lines with the GI50 values of 0.15 (37- and 1.9-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin) and 0.058 µg/ml (77.45- and 221.46-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin), respectively. This study has demonstrated the potential of plants selected from MANOSROI III database especially G. superba and A. chinensis for further development as anti-oral and cervical cancer agents.

  17. Improving indoor conditions of a Thai-style mushroom house by means of an evaporative cooler and continuous ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thepa, S.; Kirtikara, K.; Hirunlabh, J.; Khedari, J. [King Mongkut' s Univ. of Technology, School of Energy and Materials, Bangkok (Thailand)

    1999-07-01

    The paper discusses the effect of an evaporative cooling process and continuous ventilation for improving the indoor conditions of a conventional Thai-style mushroom house. A numerical model describing the behaviour of the Thai-style mushroom house model was developed. It was validated by comparing its output with that of the experiment of a small model of a mushroom house. It was found that the combination of evaporative cooling and continuous ventilation reduced the temperature and increased the relative humidity of air inside a mushroom house that is suitable for growing Lentinus. (Author)

  18. International political socialization of sixth grade elementary children: What and how do Japanese and Thai children know about the world?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Jo Ann Cutler; Zandan, Peter A.

    1981-09-01

    This study investigates cognitive and affective components of Japanese and Thai children's attitudes toward international political socialization. The survey results report how children feel about people from other nations, international political institutions, and their country's involvement with the world community. An important concern of the study is the assessment of how much accurate knowledge Japanese and Thai elementary school children have about other nations. This study includes information on children's feelings about, and knowledge of such problems as warfare between nations, world government, stereotypic thinking about people not belonging to one's own culture and awareness of cross-cultural diffusion between Japan, Thailand and other nations.

  19. Patterns of Sexual Behavior in Lowland Thai Youth and Ethnic Minorities Attending High School in Rural Chiang Mai, Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Aurpibul, Linda; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Musumari, Patou Masika; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Tarnkehard, Surapee

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups. Methods and findings: This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. From a total 1...

  20. Effects of Dao De Xin Xi Exercise on Balance and Quality of Life in Thai Elderly Women

    OpenAIRE

    Intarakamhang, Patrawut; Chintanaprawasee, Pantipa

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week Dao De Xin Xi exercise, modified short forms of Tai Chi, on balance and quality of life in Thai elderly population. Quasi-Experimental research, pretest-posttest one group design was done at Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Department, Phramongkutklao Hospital. Thai healthy elderly women over the age of 60, requiring regular Dao De Xin Xi exercise were recruited from either patients or workers in the hospital. A 60-minut...

  1. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of Thai isolates of Plasmodium falciparum after an artemisinin resistance containment project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thita, Thunyapit; Jadsri, Pimrat; Thamkhantho, Jarupatr; Ruang-Areerate, Toon; Suwandittakul, Nantana; Sitthichot, Naruemon; Mahotorn, Kittiya; Tan-Ariya, Peerapan; Mungthin, Mathirut

    2018-05-15

    In Thailand, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has been used to treat uncomplicated falciparum malaria since 1995. Unfortunately, artemisinin resistance has been reported from Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries since 2003. Malarone ® , a combination of atovaquone-proguanil (ATQ-PG), has been used to cease artemisinin pressure in some areas along Thai-Cambodia border, as part of an artemisinin resistance containment project since 2009. This study aimed to determine genotypes and phenotypes of Plasmodium falciparum isolates collected from the Thai-Cambodia border after the artemisinin resistance containment project compared with those collected before. One hundred and nine of P. falciparum isolates collected from Thai-Cambodia border from Chanthaburi and Trat provinces during 1988-2016 were used in this study. Of these, 58 isolates were collected after the containment. These parasite isolates were characterized for in vitro antimalarial sensitivities including chloroquine (CQ), quinine (QN), mefloquine (MQ), piperaquine (PPQ), artesunate (AS), dihydroartemisinin (DHA), ATQ and PG and genetic markers for drug resistance including the Kelch13 (k13), Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt), P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) and cytochrome b (cytb) genes. Mean CQ, QN, MQ, PPQ and AS IC 50 s of the parasite isolates collected from 2009 to 2016 exhibited significantly higher than those of parasites collected before 2009. Approximately 57% exhibited in vitro MQ resistance. Approximately 94% of the isolates collected from 2009 to 2016 contained the pfmdr1 184F allele. Mutations of the k13 gene were detected in approximately 90% of the parasites collected from 2009 to 2016 which were significantly higher than the parasite isolates collected before. No ATQ-resistant genotype and phenotype of P. falciparum were found among the isolates collected after the containment project. Although the containment project had been

  2. Temporal analysis of national level Muay-Thai matches: Effects of competitive phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Boscolo Del Vecchio

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Temporal analysis of matches allows the study of fighting patterns in combat sports. With this procedure, we can recreate the efforts in specific training. However, up to date have no information concerning temporal analysis considering competitive level in Muay-Thai. Objective: To investigate temporal characteristics of Muay-Thai athletes in official competition from national level, considering round, and to compare preliminary combats with those that had medal disputes. Material and methods: Were recorded 65 matches in a Brazilian championship. We conducted in loco recording. To time-motion analysis, Software Kinovea™ was used. Were considered Observation, Preparation and Interaction periods, as well as high intensity and low intensity ratio (HI:LI. The average duration of the rounds between competitive phases (preliminary or finals was compared with a t test. A generalized linear model was applied considering effort duration as dependent variable and competitive level, round and effort type as independent. Significant level was set in 5%. Results: Were registered 7 to 8 s of Observation, near from 3 s of Preparation and 4 to 5.5 s of Interaction effort type, and the duration of Observation effort was significantly superior the others. Significant differences were observed in the Interaction between preliminary and finals (respectively 5.5 ± 0.3 s and 3.7 ± 0.5 s; p < 0.05. Pooling the Observation and Preparation time as low intensity (LI, and Interaction as high intensity (HI efforts, the HI:LI ratio was 1:2in eliminatory and 1:3 in the final matches. Conclusions: Muay-Thai is an intermittent combat sport, the duration of Interaction effort type is lower in final in comparison to preliminary matches.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of microalbuminuria in Thai nondiabetic hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsathorn Gojaseni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Pongsathorn Gojaseni1, Angkana Phaopha1, Worawon Chailimpamontree1, Thaweepong Pajareya1, Anutra Chittinandana21Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Bhumibol Adulyadej Hospital, Directorate of Medical Services, Royal Thai Air Force, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Department of Education, Directorate of Medical Services, Royal Thai Air Force, Bangkok, ThailandPurpose: To assess the prevalence and risk factors of microalbuminuria in nondiabetic hypertensive patients in Thailand.Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study was performed during January to December 2007 at outpatients departments of Bhumibol Adulyadej hospital. Nondiabetic hypertensive patients without a history of pre-existing kidney diseases participated in this study. A questionnaire was used for collecting information on demographics, lifestyle, and family history of cardiovascular and kidney disease. Spot morning urine samples were collected for albuminuria estimation. Albuminuria thresholds were evaluated and defined using albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR.Results: A total of 559 hypertensive patients (283 males, 276 females, aged 58.0 ± 11.6 years were enrolled in this study. Microalbuminuria (ACR 17 to 299 mg/g in males and 25 to 299 mg/g in females was found in 93 cases (16.6% [15.0%‑18.2%]. The independent determinants of elevated urinary albumin excretion in a multiple logistic regression model were; body mass index ≥30 (odds ratio (OR = 2.24, 95% confidence intervals (CI: 1.33–3.76 and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (DCCB use (OR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.22‑3.02.Conclusion: In Thai nondiabetic hypertensive patients, microalbuminuria was not uncommon. Obesity and use of dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker were found to be the important predictors. Prognostic value of the occurrence of microalbuminuria in this population remains to be determined in prospective cohort studies.Keywords: microalbuminuria, hypertension, obesity, calcium channel blocker, metabolic

  4. Thai and American doctors on medical ethics: religion, regulation, and moral reasoning across borders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grol-Prokopczyk, Hanna

    2013-01-01

    Recent scholarship argues that successful international medical collaboration depends crucially on improving cross-cultural understanding. To this end, this study analyzes recent writings on medical ethics by physicians in two countries actively participating in global medicine, Thailand and the United States. Articles (133; published 2004-2008) from JAMA, the New England Journal of Medicine, and the Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand are analyzed to inductively build a portrait of two discursive ethical cultures. Frameworks of moral reasoning are identified across and within the two groups, with a focus on what authority (religion, law, etc.) is invoked to define and evaluate ethical problems. How might similarities and differences in ethical paradigms reflect the countries' historical "semicolonial" relationship, shed light on debates about Eastern vs. Western bioethics, and facilitate or hinder contemporary cross-national communication? Findings demonstrate substantial overlap in Thai and American doctors' vocabulary, points of reference, and topics covered, though only Thai doctors emphasize national interests and identity. American authors display a striking homogeneity in styles of moral reasoning, embracing a secular, legalistic, deontological ethics that generally eschews discussion of religion, personal character, or national culture. Among Thai authors, there is a schism in ethical styles: while some hew closely to the secular, deontological model, others embrace a virtue ethics that liberally cites Buddhist principles and emphasizes the role of doctors' good character. These two approaches may represent opposing reactions-assimilation and resistance, respectively-to Western influence. The current findings undermine the stereotype of Western individualism versus Eastern collectivism. Implications for cross-national dialog are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. First sexual experience and current sexual behaviour among older Thai men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Kathleen; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat

    2009-09-01

    The focus of most studies of sexual behaviour has been on younger adults and adolescents, because they are perceived as having higher levels of sexual activity than older persons, and a consequently higher risk of HIV infection. Much less attention has been paid to the sexual behaviour of men and women in their forties and fifties. Using a life course framework, the objective of the present study is to examine AIDS knowledge, HIV testing and sexual risk behaviours among Thai men and women aged 40-59 years. The study also examines the influence of initial sexual experiences on later sexual behaviour. Data for the study are from the 2006 Thai National Survey of Sexual Behaviour, a national probability sample of 6048 individuals. Older Thai men and women were well informed about methods of HIV transmission, but many were unaware of antiretroviral (ARV) medications. Older adults were also less accepting of HIV positive persons than were younger adults. Fewer than half of the older adults had undergone HIV testing, with testing associated with medical checkups or undertaken before operations. Reported condom use was very low with regular partners, moderate with casual partners, and high with sex workers. While the age at first sex has not changed markedly, the type of partner has changed over time. Fewer men have their first sex with a commercial partner. In general, first sex with someone with strong ties to the respondent was related to lower levels of risk behaviour in late adulthood. Areas of concern for AIDS prevention programs include condom use with casual partners and paid partners, knowledge of ARV, and attitudes towards persons living with AIDS.

  6. Automatic Transformation of the Thai Categorial Grammar Treebank to Dependency Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rishøj, Christian; Ruangrajitpakorn, Taneth; Boonkwan, Prachya

    2011-01-01

    on a generic mapping of CG types in case of unknown words. Currently, all but a handful of the trees in the Thai CG bank can unambiguously be transformed into directed dependency trees. Dependency labels can optionally be assigned with a learned classifier, which in a preliminary evaluation with a very small...... training set achieves 76.5% label accuracy. In the process, a number of annotation errors in the CG bank were identified and corrected. Although rather limited in its coverage, excluding e.g. long-distance dependencies, topicalisations and longer sentences, the resulting treebank is believed to be sound...

  7. Differences among Thai Agricultural Workers' Health, Working Conditions, and Pesticide Use by Farm Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Mahaboonpeeti, Redeerat; Bootsikeaw, Sasivimol; Batsungnoen, Kiattisak; Hanchenlaksh, Chalalai; Tipayamongkholgul, Mathuros; Woskie, Susan

    2018-02-13

    More than 11 million Thai people (38%) work in agriculture, but since most are in the informal sector, government enforcement and support are very limited. As a result, working conditions on Thai farms vary greatly, putting the health of many agricultural workers at risk. A cross-sectional study in three Thai provinces collected information on the work activities and conditions of 424 farmers representing five farm types: rice, vegetable, flower, rice/vegetable, and flower/vegetable. The agricultural workers were mainly women (60%); their average age was 53 but ranged from 18 to 87 years. More than 64% worked more than 5 days/week. Seventy-four percent of them had only primary school education. A number of the health and hazardous working conditions surveyed were significantly different by farm type. Rice farmers were found to have the highest prevalence of allergies, nasal congestion, wheezing, and acute symptoms after pesticide use, while flower farmers had the lowest prevalence of these health outcomes. Rice farmers reported the highest prevalence of hazardous working conditions including high noise levels, working on slippery surfaces, sitting or standing on a vibrating machine, spills of chemicals/pesticides, and sharp injuries. The lowest prevalence of these working conditions (except noise) was reported by flower farmers. Vegetable farmers reported the highest prevalence knee problems, while rice farmers had the lowest prevalence. Among these farmers, more than 27 different types of pesticides were reported in use during the past year, with the majority reporting use once a month. The flower/vegetable farming group reported the highest frequency of good exposure prevention practices during pesticide use. They were the most likely to report using cotton or rubber gloves or a disposable paper masks during insecticide spraying. Those farmers who only grew vegetables had the lowest frequency of good exposure prevention practices, including use of personal

  8. Phenotype, genotype, and antibiotic susceptibility of Swedish and Thai oral isolates of Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Blomqvist

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study investigated phenotypes, virulence genotypes, and antibiotic susceptibility of oral Staphylococcus aureus strains in order to get more information on whether oral infections with this bacterium are associated with certain subtypes or related to an over-growth of the S. aureus variants normally found in the oral cavity of healthy carriers. Materials and methods: A total number of 157 S. aureus strains were investigated. Sixty-two strains were isolated from Swedish adults with oral infections, 25 strains were from saliva of healthy Swedish dental students, and 45 strains were from tongue scrapings of HIV-positive subjects in Thailand, and 25 Thai strains from non-HIV controls. The isolates were tested for coagulase, nitrate, arginine, and hemolysin, and for the presence of the virulence genes: hlg, clfA, can, sdrC, sdrD, sdrE, map/eap (adhesins and sea, seb, sec, tst, eta, etb, pvl (toxins. MIC90 and MIC50 were determined by E-test against penicillin V, oxacillin, amoxicillin, clindamycin, vancomycin, fusidic acid, and cefoxitin. Results: While the hemolytic phenotype was significantly (p<0.001 more common among the Thai strains compared to Swedish strains, the virulence genes were found in a similar frequency in the S. aureus strains isolated from all four subject groups. The Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL genotype was found in 73–100% of the strains. More than 10% of the strains from Swedish oral infections and from Thai HIV-positives showed low antibiotic susceptibility, most commonly for clindamycin. Only three methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA strains were identified, two from oral infections and one from a Thai HIV patient. Conclusions: S. aureus is occasionally occurring in the oral cavity in both health and disease in Sweden and Thailand. It is therefore most likely that S. aureus in opportunistic oral infections originate from the oral microbiota. S. aureus should be considered in case of oral

  9. Medicolegal aspects of the Thai Airbus crash near Kathmandu, Nepal: findings of the investigating pathologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, R; Vanezis, P

    1998-06-01

    A Thai Airbus, carrying 99 passengers and 14 crew members, traveling from Bangkok to Kathmandu, hit a mountain and crashed several minutes before landing. There were no survivors. Recovered human remains, none of which was easily identifiable, varied in size from a small piece of muscle to mutilated bodies. Of the 97 fragments, only 15 were sufficiently intact (albeit, only partially) to be designated as "bodies." Of the fragments and "bodies," only 11 were positively identified. Causes of death, although all traumatic, could not be stated accurately due to the degree of disintegration. Identification of human remains in these circumstances is a major problem for the pathologist.

  10. A study of essential elements in ancient Thai fighting swords by chemical and nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janposri, K.

    1980-01-01

    Four ancient Thai fighting swords from the Bangkok National Museum and iron ore from Kao Tab Kwai, Lopburi were studied by neutron activation analysis, metallography and chemical analysis. The results of these scientific studies show that all of these four swords are made of plain carbon steel, containing trace elements which have no effect on the physical and mechanical properties of the steel. The trace elements which were found in the iron ore are quite similar to those found in one of these swords. This means that the iron in one of the swords may have come from ore found at Kao Tab Kwai, Lopburi

  11. The Effect of English Language on Multiple Choice Question Scores of Thai Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phisalprapa, Pochamana; Muangkaew, Wayuda; Assanasen, Jintana; Kunavisarut, Tada; Thongngarm, Torpong; Ruchutrakool, Theera; Kobwanthanakun, Surapon; Dejsomritrutai, Wanchai

    2016-04-01

    Universities in Thailand are preparing for Thailand's integration into the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) by increasing the number of tests in English language. English language is not the native language of Thailand Differences in English language proficiency may affect scores among test-takers, even when subject knowledge among test-takers is comparable and may falsely represent the knowledge level of the test-taker. To study the impact of English language multiple choice test questions on test scores of medical students. The final examination of fourth-year medical students completing internal medicine rotation contains 120 multiple choice questions (MCQ). The languages used on the test are Thai and English at a ratio of 3:1. Individual scores of tests taken in both languages were collected and the effect of English language on MCQ was analyzed Individual MCQ scores were then compared with individual student English language proficiency and student grade point average (GPA). Two hundred ninety five fourth-year medical students were enrolled. The mean percentage of MCQ scores in Thai and English were significantly different (65.0 ± 8.4 and 56.5 ± 12.4, respectively, p English was fair (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.41, p English than in Thai language. Students were classified into six grade categories (A, B+, B, C+, C, and D+), which cumulatively measured total internal medicine rotation performance score plus final examination score. MCQ scores from Thai language examination were more closely correlated with total course grades than were the scores from English language examination (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.73 (p English proficiency score was very high, at 3.71 ± 0.35 from a total of 4.00. Mean student GPA was 3.40 ± 0.33 from a possible 4.00. English language MCQ examination scores were more highly associated with GPA than with English language proficiency. The use of English language multiple choice question test may decrease scores

  12. Search for a cure: narratives of Thai family caregivers living with a person with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilmanat, Kittikorn; Street, Annette

    2004-09-01

    Facing an incurable prognosis Thai families search for a cure for AIDS using all possible means available to them. This paper reports a longitudinal narrative case study of eight family caregivers caring for a relative with AIDS in rural Southern Thailand. The paper demonstrates how the caregivers living with a person with AIDS made sense of illness episodes, and how they chose and evaluated particular treatments and care. Caregivers moved between modern medicine, traditional/folk medicine, supernatural healing rites, religious performances, and home remedies in their search for a cure. The findings indicate that a more holistic and palliative approach is needed toward AIDS care.

  13. Differences between weekday and weekend levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in Thai adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konharn, Kurusart; Santos, Maria Paula; Ribeiro, José Carlos

    2015-03-01

    Attempts to reduce the decline in physical activity (PA) in adolescence have been the focus of many public health interventions. This study aimed to (1) determine differences in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) levels between weekdays and weekends and (2) identify adolescents meeting current PA guidelines (PAG). To meet these objectives, 186 Thai adolescents aged 13 to 18 years were asked to wear an ActiGraph accelerometer for 7 consecutive days. The results showed that MVPA levels were significantly higher in boys than girls on both weekdays (P youth. This study highlights the need to take weekend-weekday differences into account when developing PA interventions for adolescents. © 2012 APJPH.

  14. Electricity prices in a competitive market: a preliminary analysis of the deregulated Thai electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipattanasomporn, M.; Ongsakul, W.; Pacudan, R.; Lefevre, T.

    2000-01-01

    The electricity industry throughout the world is currently undergoing a significant transition towards restructuring and deregulation. Following this new legislation, Thailand has initiated an institutional and structural reform with a belief that this could be the best way forward for the Thai electricity supply industry (ESI) to improve efficiency, lower electricity prices, and tackle financial debts. This paper presents an analysis of the extent to which prices for generation services in a competitive market may differ from regulated electricity prices, if competitive prices are based on marginal costs and regulated prices are based on average costs, by using Thailand as a case study. (Author)

  15. Age at menopause and menopause-related symptoms in human immunodeficiency virus-infected Thai women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonyanurak, Pongrak; Bunupuradah, Torsak; Wilawan, Kittisak; Lueanyod, Aksorn; Thongpaeng, Parawee; Chatvong, Duangjai; Sophonphan, Jiratchaya; Saeloo, Siriporn; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Chaithongwongwatthana, Surasith

    2012-07-01

    There are limited data for age at menopause (AM) and menopause-related symptoms in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected Asian women. We investigated AM and menopause-related symptoms in HIV-infected Thai women. HIV-infected Thai women 40 years or older who did not receive any hormone therapy in the 8-week period preceding the study were enrolled. Participants completed the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life survey for their symptoms in the past 30 days. Menopause was defined as having the last menstrual period more than 1 year ago. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with menopause. Two hundred sixty-eight HIV-infected women were enrolled; their median age was 44.6 (41.8-48.7) years, and the ratio of their Centers for Disease Control and Prevention clinical classifications (A:B:C) was 53%:34%:13%; 95% were using highly active antiretroviral therapy. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) CD4 count was 575 (437-758) cells/μL, and 93% had HIV-RNA of less than 1.7log10 copies/mL. Among the 55 women who had reached menopause, the mean (SD) AM was 47.3 (5.1) years. The mean (SD) AM in our study was earlier than the previous report of 49.5 (3.6) years in non-HIV-infected Thai women (difference, -2.2 y; 95% CI, -3.2 to -1.2, P menopause were Centers for Disease Control and Prevention clinical classification B or C (hazard ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-3.03, P = 0.04), and no sexual act in the past month (hazard ratio, 4.9; 95% CI, 1.5-16.0, P = 0.01). No associations of later age of menarche, parity, marital status, educational level, income, body mass index, CD4 count, and HIV-RNA with menopause were found. AM in HIV-infected Thai women was 47.3 years, which is significantly earlier than the findings of a previous AM report on non-HIV-infected women. Postmenopausal HIV-infected women had more vasomotor and sexual symptoms. More studies are needed to investigate the cause and appropriate interventions for

  16. In vitro antimalarial drug susceptibility in Thai border areas from 1998–2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mungthin Mathirut

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Thai-Myanmar and Thai-Cambodia borders have been historically linked with the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum parasites resistant to antimalarial drugs. Indeed, the areas are often described as harbouring multi-drug resistant parasites. These areas of Thailand have experienced significant changes in antimalarial drug exposure patterns over the past decade. This study describes the in vitro antimalarial susceptibility patterns of 95 laboratory-adapted P. falciparum isolates, collected between 1998 and 2003,. Methods Ninety five P. falciparum isolates were collected from five sites in Thailand between 1998 and 2003. After laboratory adaptation to in vitro culture, the susceptibility of these parasites to a range of established antimalarial drugs (chloroquine [CQ], mefloquine [MQ], quinine [QN] and dihydroartemisinin [DHA] was determined by the isotopic microtest. Results Mefloquine (MQ sensitivity remained poorest in areas previously described as MQ-resistant areas. Sensitivity to MQ of parasites from this area was significantly lower than those from areas reported to harbour moderate (p = 0.002 of low level MQ resistance (p = 000001. Importantly for all drugs tested, there was a considerable range in absolute parasite sensitivities. There was a weak, but statistically positive correlation between parasite sensitivity to CQ and sensitivity to both QN and MQ and a positive correlation between MQ and QN. In terms of geographical distribution, parasites from the Thai-Cambodia were tended to be less sensitive to all drugs tested compared to the Thai-Myanmar border. Parasite sensitivity to all drugs was stable over the 6-year collection period with the exception of QN. Conclusion This study highlights the high degree of variability in parasite drug sensitivity in Thailand. There were geographical differences in the pattern of resistance which might reflect differences in drug usage in each area. In contrast to many

  17. The influence of liquidity on informational efficiency: The case of the Thai Stock Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bariviera, Aurelio Fernández

    2011-11-01

    The presence of long-range memory in financial time series is a puzzling fact that challenges the established financial theory. We study the effect of liquidity on the efficiency (measured by the Hurst’s exponent) of the Thai Stock Market. According to our study, we find that: (i) the R/S method could generate spurious long-range dependence, giving the DFA method more reliable estimates of the Hurst’s exponent and (ii) there is a weak relationship between market capitalization and the efficiency of the market, and that the latter is not significantly affected by the presence of foreign investors.

  18. Television viewing in Thai infants and toddlers: impacts to language development and parental perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Chuthapisith, Jariya; Mo-suwan, Ladda; Kriweradechachai, Suntree; Udomsubpayakul, Umaporn; Choprapawon, Chanpen

    2009-01-01

    Background Effects of television to language development in infants and toddlers, especially in the Asian children, are inconclusive. This study aimed to (a) study time spent on television in Thai infants and toddlers (age television (as recommended by the American Academy of Paediatrics (AAP), television toward their child's development. Methods Two hundred and sixty children and their parents were recruited into the study. Time spent on television and parental perceptions on television viewing toward their child's development were recorded during face-to-face and telephone interviews. Language development was assessed at the age of 2 years using the Clinical Linguistic Auditory Milestone Scale (CLAMS), and parents' report. Association between delayed language development and time spent on television viewing, as well as other various parameters such as gender, maternal education and family income, were analysed using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results Most Thai infants and toddlers watched television at the age of 6 months, 1 year and 2 years old (98.0, 95.3 and 96.7%, respectively). On average, 1-year-old children watched television 1.23 ± 1.42 hours per day. This increased to 1.69 ± 1.56 hours per day when they were 2 years old. However, watching television longer than 2 hours per day did not associate with delayed language development. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, gender (male) was the only significant factor associated with delayed language development (OR = 6.9, 95% CI = 1.5–31.3). Moreover, 75%, 71%, and 66% of Thai parents believed that television viewing yielded benefits to children's developments. Conclusion Thai children commenced watching television at an early age and the amount of television viewing time increased by age. Most parents had positive perceptions to television viewing. The study found no association between time spent on television viewing (≥ 2 hours per day) and delayed language development at the

  19. Correlations between Cervical Vertebral Maturation (CVM) and Dental Development in Thai Cleft Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chongcharueyskul, Pathomporn; Wangsrimonkol, Tasanee; Pisek, Poonsak; Pisek, Araya; Manosudprasit, Montian

    2015-08-01

    To examine correlations between cervical vertebral maturation stages (CVMs) and dental development stages, and cervical vertebral maturation (CVM) stage 6 and completion of root formation of mandibular third molar in Thai cleft patients. Lateral cephalograms of 366 cleft subjects aged 7-9 years were assessed for CVMs using Baccetti method. Calcication stages of all left mandibular teeth within each CVMs were assessed from panoramic films using Demirjian method. Spearman rank correlation coefficients comparing CVMs and teeth were 0.51-0.79 (pmaturation indicators.

  20. Traffic risk behavior and perceptions of Thai motorcyclists: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathurng Hongsranagon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate Thai motorcyclists' traffic risk behavior and their perceptions of it, information of value in the design and implementation of public health policies and campaigns for the reduction of road injuries. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire completed by 399 motorcyclists in Muang Krabi district, Krabi province, Thailand. The questionnaire focused on the respondents' perceptions of general traffic risks and the specific risks at 3 identified hazardous sites. The results of the survey indicated that the correct fastening of helmet straps had a relationship with responsible traffic risk perceptions.

  1. Simulation benchmark based on THAI-experiment on dissolution of a steam stratification by natural convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitag, M., E-mail: freitag@becker-technologies.com; Schmidt, E.; Gupta, S.; Poss, G.

    2016-04-01

    Highlights: . • We studied the generation and dissolution of steam stratification in natural convection. • We performed a computer code benchmark including blind and open phases. • The dissolution of stratification predicted only qualitatively by LP and CFD models during the blind simulation phase. - Abstract: Locally enriched hydrogen as in stratification may contribute to early containment failure in the course of severe nuclear reactor accidents. During accident sequences steam might accumulate as well to stratifications which can directly influence the distribution and ignitability of hydrogen mixtures in containments. An international code benchmark including Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Lumped Parameter (LP) codes was conducted in the frame of the German THAI program. Basis for the benchmark was experiment TH24.3 which investigates the dissolution of a steam layer subject to natural convection in the steam-air atmosphere of the THAI vessel. The test provides validation data for the development of CFD and LP models to simulate the atmosphere in the containment of a nuclear reactor installation. In test TH24.3 saturated steam is injected into the upper third of the vessel forming a stratification layer which is then mixed by a superposed thermal convection. In this paper the simulation benchmark will be evaluated in addition to the general discussion about the experimental transient of test TH24.3. Concerning the steam stratification build-up and dilution of the stratification, the numerical programs showed very different results during the blind evaluation phase, but improved noticeable during open simulation phase.

  2. Glutaminase-producing Meyerozyma (Pichia) guilliermondii isolated from Thai soy sauce fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryuman, Phichayaphorn; Lertsiri, Sittiwat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Niamsiri, Nuttawee; Bhumiratana, Amaret; Assavanig, Apinya

    2015-01-02

    In this study, 34 yeast isolates were obtained from koji and moromi samples of Thai soy sauce fermentation. However, the most interesting yeast strain was isolated from the enriched 2 month-old (M2) moromi sample and identified as Meyerozyma (Pichia) guilliermondii EM2Y61. This strain is a salt-tolerant yeast that could tolerate up to 20% (w/v) NaCl and produce extracellular and cell-bound glutaminases. Interestingly, its glutaminases were more active in 18% (w/v) NaCl which is a salt concentration in moromi. The extracellular glutaminase's activity was found to be much higher than that of cell-bound glutaminase. The highest specific activity and stability of the extracellular glutaminase were found in 18% (w/v) NaCl at pH4.5 and 37°C. A challenge test by adding partially-purified extracellular glutaminase from M. guilliermondii EM2Y61 into 1 month-old (M1) moromi sample showed an increased conversion of L-glutamine to L-glutamic acid. This is the first report of glutaminase producing M. guilliermondii isolated from the moromi of Thai soy sauce fermentation. The results suggested the potential application of M. guilliermondii EM2Y61 as starter yeast culture to increase l-glutamic acid during soy sauce fermentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effective mechanisms for environmental awareness enhancement of the Thai public company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilokwan, P.; Limjirakan, S.

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore effective mechanisms towards environmental awareness enhancement of the Thai public company. The environmental awareness has been strongly mentioned in the international agenda such as Agenda 21 to achieve sustainable development and be implemented at the global communities in all sectors. Thailand’s environmental awareness has been set up as the national policy and continuously promoted in the business sectors. The selected study area is one of Thai industrial public companies mainly utilizing natural resources for its business. Data collection was conducted by using questionnaires with a stratified sampling method comprising of 28 managerial and 134 operational levels. Descriptive statistics were be used for data analysis presented in terms of percentage. The study found that the effective mechanisms towards environmental awareness enhancement include employees’ participation in environmental friendly field trip, environmental knowledge provided by the company, supply chain involvement, law enforcement, and international environmental standard applied by the company. This study would recommend that public participation should be involved in order to make the mechanisms effectively.

  4. Longitudinal study of Thai people media exposure, knowledge, and behavior on dengue fever prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonchutima, Smith; Kachentawa, Kirati; Limpavithayakul, Manasanun; Prachansri, Anan

    Dengue hemorrhagic fever is transmitted through a bite by a dengue -infected Aedes aegypti mosquito. It was first reported in the mid -20th century in Thailand, and since then its epidemiology has been of great concern and has spread all across the country. The alarming incidence of dengue posed a serious threat to human health in all major cities of Thailand. This study was aimed at identifying the level of awareness of dengue fever in Thai population knowledge for prevention and control, and most importantly contribution of media in educating masses for dengue control measures. It is longitudinal in nature and was conducted in 25 provinces of Thailand during 2013-2015. Approximately 7772 respondents participated in this study, with the selection of provinces based on considerations like population, prevalence and demography. A pre-tested structured questionnaire was used to collect information relevant to study participants' demographic profile, pre-existing knowledge about dengue fever and its reinforcement through media, and population attitudes toward prevention and control. Over the period of three years, a positive trend was revealed relevant to the contribution of media in educating and reminding the Thai population of dengue, without any uniformity or powerful campaigns. Based on the results drawn from this study, we conclude that despite the measures undertaken to prevent dengue fever, there is insufficient media exposure. An interdisciplinary approach involving the community participation, media, and government is needed to overcome dengue threat in Thailand. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Volumen 6 Número 10: The Efficiency in Thai Financial Sector after the Financial Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supachet Chansarn

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the efficiency in Thai financial sector after the financial crisis (1998 – 2004 by looking at the total factor productivity (TFP growth. Furthermore, the study also investigate the efficiency in commercial bank sector, finance and securities company sector and insurance company sector, and the efficiency in domestic and foreign financial companies. Based on the sample of 12 commercial banks, 13 finance and securities companies and 20 insurance companies listed on the Stock Exchange of Thailand (SET over the period of 1998 – 2204, our finding reveals that the efficiency in Thai financial sector, commercial bank sector and finance and securities company sector was diminishing over the period of 1998 – 2004, while the efficiency in insurance company sector remained unchanged over the same period. However, the sharp decrease in efficiency in these three sectors occurred only over the period of 1998 – 1999, while the efficiency was decreasing very slightly over the period of 1999 – 2004. The study also suggests that, in overall, domestic financial companies are more efficient than foreign ones. Domestic finance and securities companies are also more efficient than foreign ones, whereas domestic and foreign commercial banks are not different in efficiency. Moreover, domestic and foreign insurance companies are not different in efficiency as well.

  6. Current status of the Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chueinta, Siripone; Julanan, Mongkol; Charncanchee, Decharchai

    2006-01-01

    The first Thai Research Reactor, TRR-1 went critical on 27 October 1962 at the maximum power of 1 MW. It was located at Office of Atoms for Peace (OAP) in Bangkok. Since then, TRR-1 was continuously operated and eventually shut down in 1975. Plate type, high-enriched uranium (HEU) and U 3 O 8 A1 cladding were used as the reactor fuel. Light water was used as moderator and coolant as well. In 1975, because of the problem from fuel supplier and also to supporting the Treaty of Non Proliferation of Nuclear Weapon or NPT, TRR-1 was shut down for modification. The reactor core and control system were disassembled and replaced by TRIGA Mark III. A new core was a hexagonal core shape designed by General Atomics (GA). Afterwards, TRR-1 was officially renamed to the Thai Research Reactor-1/Modification 1 (TRR-1/M1). TRR-1/M1 is a multipurpose swimming pool type reactor with nominal power of 2 MW. The TRR-1/M1 uses uranium enriched at 20% in U-235 (LEU) and ZrH alloy as fuel. Light water is also used as coolant and moderator. At present, the reactor is operating with core No.14. The reactor has been serving for various kinds of utilization namely, radioisotope production, neutron activation analysis, beam experiments and reactor physics experiments. (author)

  7. Thai nursing students' adaption to problem-based learning: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klunklin, Areewan; Subpaiboongid, Pornpun; Keitlertnapha, Pongsri; Viseskul, Nongkran; Turale, Sue

    2011-11-01

    Student-centred forms of learning have gained favour internationally over the last few decades including problem based learning, an approach now incorporated in medicine, nursing and other disciplines' education in many countries. However, it is still new in Thailand and being piloted to try to offset traditional forms of didactic, teacher-centred forms of teaching. In this qualitative study, 25 undergraduate nursing students in northern Thailand were interviewed about their experiences with problem-based learning in a health promotion subject. Content analysis was used to interrogate interview data, which revealed four categories: adapting, seeking assistance, self-development, and thinking process development. Initially participants had mixed emotions of confusion, negativity or boredom in the adaption process, but expressed satisfaction with creativity in learning, group work, and leadership development. They described increased abilities to problem solve and think critically, but struggled to develop questioning behaviours in learning. Socio-culturally in Thai education, students have great respect for teachers, but rarely question or challenge them or their learning. We conclude that problem-based learning has great potential in Thai nursing education, but educators and systems need to systematically prepare appropriate learning environments, their staff and students, to incorporate this within curricula. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Antiestrogenic constituents of the Thai medicinal plants Capparis flavicans and Vitex glabrata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecha, Prathan; Umehara, Kaoru; Miyase, Toshio; Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2009-11-01

    Antiestrogenic compounds were investigated from Thai indigenous plants for galactogogues since estrogen is reported to suppress lactation in breastfeeding women. The aerial parts of the Thai medicinal plant Capparis flavicans, which has traditionally been used to promote lactation, gave the new compound capparoside A (1), along with 28 known compounds. The leaves of Vitex glabrata belong to the same genus as the chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus), which is used traditionally to support lactation, and afforded the new compounds khainaoside A (14), khainaoside B (15), and khainaoside C (16), together with six known compounds. The isolates were tested for their biological activity using the estrogen-responsive human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and T47D. Syringaresinol (3) and principin (6), from C. flavicans, and khainaoside A (14) showed the most potent inhibitory effects on estrogen-enhanced cell proliferation among all compounds isolated. These results suggest that the lactation-promoting properties of C. flavicans might be related to the inhibitory effect on excess estrogen of women who experience insufficient breastfeeding and highlight the possibility of using V. glabrata leaves for their antiestrogenic properties.

  9. Breast Cancer Treatment: Experiences of Changes and Social Stigma Among Thai Women in Southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwankhong, Dusanee; Liamputtong, Pranee

    2016-01-01

    Women with breast cancer receive different forms of treatment. Although treatment can save the lives of women, they can result in adverse physical, psychological, and social effects that can impact the women's quality of life. The objective of this study was to describe the experiences of breast cancer treatment among Thai women in southern Thailand. This study used qualitative methods (in-depth interviewing and drawings) with 20 Thai women who had been diagnosed with breast cancer. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis methods. Three themes emerged: (a) being a breast cancer patient: visible signs and adverse effects of therapy, (b) experiencing emotional chaos, and (c) experiencing social dysfunction. The women had to deal with physical body changes, emotional burden, treatment-related social stigma, and being marginalized within their own social context. Women experienced changes including social stigma after receiving breast cancer treatments. They had to manage stigma and difficulties themselves without sufficient professional support. It is important for nurses to understand such experiences so that they may support appropriate coping strategies suited to each woman. Community health nurses need to view each woman with breast cancer as a unique person and appreciate how to provide appropriate care and support based on each woman's experience with her illness and treatment.

  10. Traditional Galactagogue Foods and Their Connection to Human Milk Volume in Thai Breastfeeding Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntuchai, Ganokwun; Pavadhgul, Patcharanee; Kittipichai, Wirin; Satheannoppakao, Warapone

    2017-08-01

    Thai traditional galactagogue consumption is still observed today. However, there are few scientific studies that describe this practice. Research aim: The aim of this study was to describe the connection between traditional galactagogue consumption and human milk volume. Self-reported maternal surveys ( N = 36) were conducted of mothers and their infants who breastfeed exclusively. The mothers were interviewed about traditional galactagogue consumption and intake of protein-rich foods using a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. They were also assessed for energy and nutrient intake using the 24-hr dietary recall method. Their infants were between 1 and 3 months of age and were test weighed for 24 hr to measure their mother's own milk volume. Partial correlation was used to test the relationship between galactagogue consumption and milk volume by controlling the infants' birth weight, weight-for-age, maternal energy, and carbohydrate intake. The results revealed that consumption of some traditional galactagogues was significantly correlated to human milk volume, including banana flower, lemon basil, Thai basil, bottle gourd, and pumpkin ( p traditional galactagogues and proteins are associated with human milk volume. However, studies related to the active ingredients in these galactagogues are required to secure a recommendation about use of traditional galactagogues among breastfeeding mothers.

  11. Highschool astronomy research workshop in Thailand and how it transforms Thai astronomy education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangmatitham, Matipon

    2017-01-01

    The National Astronomical Research Institute of Thailand (NARIT) have launched the program "Advance Teacher Training Workshop" that aims to introduce both the students and astronomy teacher alike to the nature of critical thinking in science via hands on experience in astronomy projects. Students and accompanying teachers are participated in 5 days workshop in which each of them must select an individual astronomy research project. The project is then carried out on their own for the next 6 months, after which their works are presented in a conference. Progress is monitored and extra aid is delivered as needed via the use of social media. Over a hundred projects have been completed under this program. Follow up study have suggests that this workshop has shown to be quite successful at improving critical thinking skills in participants. As the program became more popular, other schools began to follow. To support the growing interest, we have also launched the "Thai Astronomical Society: student session", a highschool astronomy conference for anyone who participated or interested in astronomy related projects. Via these stages we are able to secure a permanent foothold in Thai astronomy education and inspire new generations to participate in astronomy projects.

  12. Thai Finger-Spelling Recognition Using a Cascaded Classifier Based on Histogram of Orientation Gradient Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittasil Silanon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hand posture recognition is an essential module in applications such as human-computer interaction (HCI, games, and sign language systems, in which performance and robustness are the primary requirements. In this paper, we proposed automatic classification to recognize 21 hand postures that represent letters in Thai finger-spelling based on Histogram of Orientation Gradient (HOG feature (which is applied with more focus on the information within certain region of the image rather than each single pixel and Adaptive Boost (i.e., AdaBoost learning technique to select the best weak classifier and to construct a strong classifier that consists of several weak classifiers to be cascaded in detection architecture. We collected 21 static hand posture images from 10 subjects for testing and training in Thai letters finger-spelling. The parameters for the training process have been adjusted in three experiments, false positive rates (FPR, true positive rates (TPR, and number of training stages (N, to achieve the most suitable training model for each hand posture. All cascaded classifiers are loaded into the system simultaneously to classify different hand postures. A correlation coefficient is computed to distinguish the hand postures that are similar. The system achieves approximately 78% accuracy on average on all classifier experiments.

  13. An Analysis of Factors Affecting Thai Consumers’ Intention to Use Music Streaming Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pannawit Sanitnarathorn

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The growth of music streaming can best be understood by knowing that over one billion people worldwide use YouTube with 80 percent of YouTube’s billions of views per day coming from outside of the U.S. Digital music revenues, previously driven by purchases (downloads, now mostly derive from access-based consumption (streams. Thailand’s smartphone-enabled youthful consumers are in the top of most global statistics and lead many regional internet/digital related categories. This paper, therefore, investigated a multitude of factors including perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, and attitude, to determine the factors affecting Thai digital music streaming usage intention. From the 300 Thai music streaming users surveyed and analyzed by use of a structural equation model by SmartPLS software it was determined that attitude affects music streaming’s usage intention to the greatest extent with an intermediate input into perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. However, perceived ease of use also indirectly affects music streaming’s usage intention the most through perceived usefulness and attitude.

  14. Insulin dynamics and biochemical markers for predicting impaired glucose tolerance in obese Thai youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirabanchasak, Sirapassorn; Siripunthana, Sukumarn; Supornsilchai, Vichit; Wacharasindhu, Suttipong; Sahakitrungruang, Taninee

    2015-09-01

    Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease. The predictors of IGT in obese youth are not well described. We studied 115 obese Thai children who underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Plasma glucose and insulin levels were calculated for assessment of β-cell function. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), lipid profile, and clinical parameters were also used to determine predictors of IGT. We found that three patients had T2DM and 30 subjects had IGT. IGT patients had significantly higher fasting glucose (FG), 1-h postload glucose, 2-h postload insulin, and lower whole-body insulin sensitivity indices than in normal glucose tolerance subjects whereas other indices were comparable. By ROC curve analyses, 1-h postload glucose was the best predictor of IGT, but FG or HbA1c represented a poor diagnostic tool for prediabetes screening. Subjects with 1-h OGTT glucose > 155 mg/dL had significantly lower high-density lipoprotein levels, lower insulin sensitivity, and more insulin resistance than those with 1-h postload glucose of ≤ 155 mg/dL. Abnormal glucose tolerance is highly prevalent in obese Thai youth. Several fasting indices and HbA1c fail to predict IGT. An 1-h OGTT glucose of > 155 mg/dL appears to be more associated with adverse insulin dynamics and metabolic profile than 2-h postload glucose.

  15. Factors associated with sexual behavior and attitudes of never-married rural Thai youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isarabhakdi, P

    1999-07-01

    This study examined the factors associated with sexual behavior and attitudes of never-married youth in Thailand. Data obtained from 577 never married males and 517 never married females aged 15-24 years were analyzed. Multivariate analyses using a logistic regression revealed that there was a difference in male-female sexual attitudes and behavior bearing important consequences. More than half of the Thai male adolescents were sexually active and the majority of their sexual encounters appeared to be with commercial sex workers. In contrast, the majority of young sexually active Thai female adolescents engaged in sexual acts with their boyfriends. The results suggested that although family variables had no effect on never-married youths' sexual behaviors, it had an influence in the formation of their attitudes. The factors that were most likely to affect the probability of having premarital sex were related to loosening constraints, especially parental and community control. In terms of cultural norms pertaining to sexuality in Thailand, differences in attitude and behavior between males and females can be explained by the impact of early socialization on the patterns of sexual behavior. Young women in this study expressed more nonpermissive attitudes about premarital sexuality and had much lower rates not only of sexual intercourse but also of all types of sex-related behaviors compared to their male counterparts.

  16. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities of selected varieties of thai mango seed extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khammuang, Saranyu; Sarnthima, Rakrudee

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the antioxidant and antibacterial activities of four fresh mango seed extracts from Thai varieties. Total phenol contents determined by the Folin-ciocalteu method revealed the highest values to be in MKE, Chok-a-nan variety (399.8 mgGAE/g extract) and MSE of Nam-dok-mai variety (377.2 mgGAE/g extract). Both extracts showed potent ABTS˙+ radical and DPPH˙ radical scavenging activities with the lower half inhibition concentration (IC50) values than those of the reference compounds; vitamin C, trolox and BHA, respectively. Their antioxidant property of MSE and MKE is strongly correlated with the total phenol contents (r=0.98 and 0.98, respectively). When combined the MSE and MKE of the Fah-lun variety showed the strongest antioxidant activity. All mango seed extracts showed interesting antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria as determined by disc diffusion method. The most sensitive pathogenic strain inhibited by all extracts (especially Kaew variety) was Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. This work suggests potential applications for practical uses of mango seed extracts from Thai varieties, as sources of antioxidant and antibacterial agents.

  17. Changes in energy intensities of Thai industry between 1981 and 2000: a decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S.C.; Ussanarassamee, Arjaree

    2005-01-01

    Industrial demand accounts for about 30% of total final energy demand in Thailand, which experienced rapid increases in energy demand. This paper analyzes the changes in industrial energy intensities over a period of 20 years (1981-2000) and identifies the factors affecting the energy consumption using logarithmic mean Divisia decomposition technique. It is found that Thai industry has passed through four different phases of growth and energy consumption has closely followed the industrial growth pattern. Energy intensity of Thai industry decreased from 17.6 toe/million baht (constant 1988 prices) in 1981 to 15.8 toe/million baht (1988 prices) in 2000. Non-metallic mineral industry is the most intensive industry followed by basic metal, food and beverage, chemical and paper industries. The factor analysis indicates that both the structural effect and intensity effect contributed to a decline of aggregate intensity by 8% during 1981-1986 but in the rest of the periods, the two effects acted in opposite directions and thereby reducing the overall effect on aggregate intensity. Food and beverages, non-metallic mineral and chemical industries had significantly influenced the changes in aggregate intensity at sectoral level

  18. Antilisterial effects of ethanolic extracts of some edible Thai plants on refrigerated cooked pork

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siriporn Stonsaovapak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is a major foodborne pathogen responsible for the disease listeriosis.Effective methods for reducing L. monocytogenes in foods would reduce the likelihood of foodborneoutbreaks of listeriosis and decrease economic losses to the food industry. Crude ethanolic extracts from 50 edible Thai plants were screened for inhibitory effects on isolated strains and type strains of L.monocytogenes by the well assay technique. Ethanolic extracts of Micromelum minutum, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Piper retrofractum and Cucurbita moschata, which showed listerial growth inhibition,were applied to cooked pork to determine their antimicrobial activities against L. monocytogenes. Pork was cooked to an internal temperature of 85C, allowed to cool to 8C and then treated by surface application with the plant extracts. Low (102 cfu g-1 or high (105 cfu g-1 population of L.monocytogenes were applied and samples were stored at 4C for up to 7 days. M. minutum and A.heterophyllus extracts were most effective in inhibiting the growth of the pathogen. These results suggested that some edible Thai plant extracts might be useful as antimicrobials in cooked, ready-to-eatpork.

  19. USE AND PERCEPTIONS OF SEXUAL AND REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH SERVICES AMONG YOUNG NORTHERN THAI PEOPLE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Banwell, Cathy; Carmichael, Gordon; Utomo, Iwu Dwisetyani; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Kelly, Matthew; Sleigh, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    This study sheds light on obstacles to safe sexual health for young Thais and their need for appropriate sexual and reproductive health services. The study population was 1,745 unmarried adolescents aged 17-20 who resided or worked in Chiang Mai, the major city in northern Thailand. The study used quantitative and qualitative methods to explore the vulnerability of sexually active adolescents as well as the lack of support and care for them from parents and health providers. We found that young Thais still prefer pharmacies for self-medication and use government health care facilities as a last resort. Current health services are not suitable for young people in northern Thailand because they lack privacy and impose judgemental attitudes, especially towards sexually active adolescent females. Current programs for adolescent sexual and reproductive health focus on education and counselling and do not provide appropriate privacy or clinical care. There is a pressing need for advocacy, policy support for the development of youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services in Thailand. PMID:23082599

  20. Geography has more influence than language on maternal genetic structure of various northeastern Thai ethnicities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutanan, Wibhu; Ghirotto, Silvia; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Srithawong, Suparat; Srithongdaeng, Kanokpohn; Pontham, Nattapon; Kangwanpong, Daoroong

    2014-09-01

    Several literatures have shown the influence of geographic and linguistic factors in shaping genetic variation patterns, but their relative impact, if any, in the very heterogeneous northeastern region of Thailand has not yet been studied. This area, called Isan, is geographically structured in two wide basins, the Sakon Nakorn Basin and the Korat Basin, serving today as home to diverse ethnicities encompassing two different linguistic families, that is, the Austro-Asiatic; Suay (Kui), Mon, Chaobon (Nyahkur), So and Khmer, and the Tai-Kadai; Saek, Nyaw, Phu Tai, Kaleung and Lao Isan. In this study, we evaluated the relative role of geographic distance and barriers as well as linguistic differences as possible causes affecting the maternal genetic distances among northeastern Thai ethnicities. A 596-bp segment of the hypervariable region I mitochondrial DNA was utilized to elucidate the genetic structure and biological affinity from 433 individuals. Different statistical analyses agreed in suggesting that most ethnic groups in the Sakon Nakorn Basin are closely related. Mantel test revealed that genetic distances were highly associated to geographic (r = 0.445, P0.01) distances. Three evolutionary models were compared by Approximate Bayesian Computation. The posterior probability of the scenario, which assumed an initial population divergence possibly related to reduced gene flow among basins, was equal or higher than 0.87. All analyses exhibited concordant results supporting that geography was the most relevant factor in determining the maternal genetic structure of northeastern Thai populations.

  1. Inhibitory Effects of Thai Essential Oils on Potentially Aflatoxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantapan, Kittika; Poapolathep, Amnart; Imsilp, Kanjana; Poapolathep, Saranya; Tanhan, Phanwimol; Kumagai, Susumu; Jermnak, Usuma

    2017-01-01

     The antiaflatoxigenic and antifungal activities of essential oils (EOs) of finger root (Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf.), pine (Pinus pinaster), rosewood (Aniba rosaedora), Siam benzoin (Styrax tonkinensis), Thai moringa (Moringa oleifera), and ylang ylang (Cananga odorata) were tested for Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus in potato dextrose broth. Aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 ) was extracted from culture using a QuEChERS-based extraction procedure and analyzed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to a fluorescence detector. EO of pine showed the greatest inhibition of growth and AFB 1 production of A. parasiticus, followed by EOs of rosewood, finger root, Siam benzoin, and ylang ylang. EO of finger root gave the best inhibitory effects on A. flavus, followed by EOs of rosewood, pine, ylang ylang, and Siam benzoin. EO of Thai moringa did not show any significant inhibition of aflatoxigenic fungi. The antiaflatoxigenic activities of EOs correlated with their antifungal activities in the dosedependent manner. Comparison of the application of the five selected EOs in peanut pods by direct and vapor exposure indicated that the AFB 1 production inhibitory effects of the five EOs by direct exposure were faster and more effective than by vapor exposure. EO of finger root showed the best inhibition of AFB 1 production of A. flavus in peanut pods by direct exposure, followed by EOs of pine, rosewood, ylang ylang, and Siam benzoin.

  2. Communicative practices in talking about death and dying in the context of Thai cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilainuch, Pairote

    2013-01-01

    This article explores communicative practices surrounding how nurses, patients and family members engage when talking about death and dying, based on study conducted in a province in northern Thailand. Data were collected from three environments: a district hospital (nine cases), district public health centres (four cases), and in patients' homes (27 cases). Fourteen nurses, 40 patients and 24 family members gave written consent for participation. Direct observation and in-depth interviews were used for supplementary data collection, and 40 counselling sessions were recorded on video. The raw data were analysed using Conversation Analysis. The study found that Thai counselling is asymmetrical. Nurses initiated the topic of death by referring to the death of a third person--a dead patient--with the use of clues and via list-construction. As most Thai people are oriented to Buddhism, religious support is selected for discussing this sensitive topic, and nurses also use Buddhism and list-construction to help their clients confront uncertain futures. However, Buddhism is not brought into discussion on its own, but combined with other techniques such as the use of euphemisms or concern and care for others.

  3. Imposex in Thais rustica (Mollusca: Neogastropoda (Lamark, 1822 as an indicator of organotin compounds pollution at Maceio coast (Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Camillo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of OTC (organotin compounds as biocides in naval antifouling paints causes impacts on non-target organisms. One of these impacts is a syndrome called imposex in gastropod molluscs. Imposex is the imposition of male secondary sexual characteristics in female gastropods as result of endocrine disruption. In this preliminary study, imposex was observed in four out of ten sampled stations in Maceió: the city Port (100% females exhibited imposex, the Marine Emissary (23% females exhibited imposex, the Marine Terminal (35% females exhibited imposex and Saco da Pedra beach (12% females exhibited imposex. These stations were distributed in a NE-SW orientation from the Port southwards along the coastline, following the general circulation pattern of the area. The low values of VDSI, RPSI and RPLI indicate that Maceió Coast is a less contaminated area, probably because of low shipping activities together with the fact that the sampling zone is an open coastal system and not an enclosed bay. These results suggest that the imposex development in Thais rustica may be used as a biological indicator of OTC pollution.O uso de COE (compostos orgânicos de estanho como biocida em tintas antiincrustantes para embarcações causa impactos em organismos não-alvos. Um destes impactos é a síndrome chamada imposex, em moluscos gastrópodos. Imposex é a imposição de caracteres sexuais secundários masculinos em fêmeas de gastrópodos como resultado de desregulação endócrina. Neste estudo preliminar, o imposex foi observado em quatro de dez estações de amostragem em Maceió: o Porto de Maceió (100% de fêmeas imposexadas, o Emissário Submarino (23% de fêmeas imposexadas, o Terminal Marítimo (35% de fêmeas imposexadas e a praia do Saco da Pedra (12% de fêmeas imposexadas. Estas estações estão distribuídas no litoral no sentido NE/SW a partir do Porto, seguindo o padrão de circulação local. Os valores relativamente baixos dos

  4. Development of WebQuest Lesson Enhancing Thai Reading Skills for Students with Down Syndrome at Lower Elementary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaewchote, Nantawan; Chongchaikit, Maturos

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to enhancing the Thai language oral reading skills of lower elementary students with Down syndrome using WebQuest lesson. The sample groups were the 5 lower elementary students, purposively selected from Watnonsaparam public school under the Office of Saraburi Educational Service Area, Thailand. The research…

  5. Differential expression of interferon-gamma and interferon-gamma-inducing cytokines in Thai patients with scrub typhus or leptospirosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chierakul, Wirongrong; de Fost, Maaike; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Limpaiboon, Roongreung; Dondorp, Arjen; White, Nicholas J.; van der Poll, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-gamma plays an important role in the induction of a type 1 immune response against intracellular pathogens. We compared the plasma levels of IFN-gamma and IFN-gamma-inducing cytokines in adult Thai patients with scrub typhus, caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Orientia

  6. Use of Irradiation to Improve the Safety and Quality of Chilled Pad Thai (Stir Fry Rice Noodle with Dried Shrimp)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noomhorm, A.; Pungsawat, K.; Sirisoontaralak, P.; Vongsawasdi, P.

    2005-09-01

    Pad Thai, which is stir fried rice noodle with dried shrimp, was subjected to gamma irradiation. Two components (cooked rice noodle and spicy sauce with dried shrimp) were separately packed and inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli. D10 values of both pathogens were lower when pathogens were contaminated in cooked rice noodle. No survivors of both contaminated pathogens during 4 weeks of chilled storage when dose of 4 kGy was applied in the two components. After irradiation, texture of cooked rice noodle was softer and its color changed from white to yellow whereas redness of spicy sauce and dried shrimp decreased together with increase in pH of spicy sauce. During storage under chilled condition, all samples changed almost in the same pattern in term of harder texture and decrease in moisture content of cooked rice noodle, paler color of dried shrimp and spicy sauce and increase in pH of sauce. Panelists preferred non-irradiated Pad Thai at the beginning of storage but no difference was found at the end of storage. Dose of 4 kGy was recommended because chilled Pad Thai was free from pathogens, safe from microbial spoilage and acceptable sensory quality. Shelf life of chilled Pad Thai could be extended to more than 4 weeks compared to normal chilled ready meal, which has shelf life 5-7 days

  7. A Self-Study of a Thai Teacher Educator Developing a Better Understanding of PCK for Teaching about Teaching Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faikhamta, Chatree; Clarke, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    In this study, I, the first author as a Thai teacher educator employed self-study as a research methodology to investigate my own understandings, questions, and curiosities about pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) for teaching science student teachers and the ways I engaged student teachers in a field-based science methods course designed to help…

  8. The Intake of Energy and Selected Nutrients by Thai Urban Sedentary Workers: An Evaluation of Adherence to Dietary Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiya Ivanovitch

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid changes in Thailand’s nutrition and lifestyles have led to increasing diet-related pathologies among people with sedentary occupations. This study examines the extent to which the dietary intake of nutrients and energy by a sample of Thai sedentary workers conforms to the Thai Dietary Reference Intakes (Thai DRIs. The nutrients and energy intake estimates were based on self-reported information collected with a single 24-hour dietary recall and nonweighed 2-day food record. The study participants were Thai adults aged 20–50 years employed in sedentary occupations. A convenience sample of 215 healthy individuals (75 males and 140 females was based on four randomly selected worksites in the Bangkok metropolitan area. For male participants, the study found a median energy intake of 1,485 kcal/day, with 54.4% of energy coming from carbohydrate, 15.9% from protein, and 29.6% from fat. Females’ median energy intake was 1,428 kcal/day, 56% of which came from carbohydrate, 16.2% from protein, and 28.6% from fat. Both genders showed insufficient intake of fiber and most micronutrients. This study provides the material for preventive public health interventions focusing on nutrition-related diseases affecting Thailand’s rapidly growing sedentary workforce.

  9. Images as a Resource for Supporting Vocabulary Learning: A Multimodal Analysis of Thai EFL Tablet Apps for Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vungthong, Sompatu; Djonov, Emilia; Torr, Jane

    2017-01-01

    In 2011, the Thai government introduced a national project, One Tablet per Child (OTPC), with the aim of supporting students' learning in the digital world. The project commenced with Grade 1 in 2012 and Grade 2 in 2013. The applications embedded in the OTPC tablet given to each child feature multimedia teaching applications (apps) on various…

  10. Thai SF-36 health survey: tests of data quality, scaling assumptions, reliability and validity in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Lynette L-Y; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2008-07-18

    Since its translation to Thai in 2000, the SF-36 Health Survey has been used extensively in many different clinical settings in Thailand. Its popularity has increased despite the absence of published evidence that the translated instrument satisfies scoring assumptions, the psychometric properties required for valid interpretation of the SF-36 summated ratings scales. The purpose of this paper was to examine these properties and to report on the reliability and validity of the Thai SF-36 in a non-clinical general population. 1345 distance-education university students who live in all areas of Thailand completed a questionnaire comprising the Thai SF-36 (Version 1). Median age was 31 years. Psychometric tests recommended by the International Quality of Life Assessment Project were used. Data quality was satisfactory: questionnaire completion rate was high (97.5%) and missing data rates were low (Vitality scale correlated better with the Mental Health scale than with itself, possibly because a healthy mental state is central to the concept of vitality in Thailand. The summated ratings method can be used for scoring the Thai SF-36. The instrument was found to be reliable and valid for use in a general non-clinical population. Version 2 of the SF-36 could improve ceiling and floor effects in the role functioning scales. Further work is warranted to refine items that measure the concepts of social functioning, vitality and mental health to improve the reliability and discriminant validity of these scales.

  11. Healthy ageing in Isan-Thai culture--A phenomenographic study based on older persons' lived experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasatchakun, Pornpun; Chotiga, Pleumjit; Roxberg, Åsa; Asp, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Healthy ageing is a concept that concerns older persons' quality of life and is a key factor in promoting well-being. The older population in Thailand is growing. Isan (a region of north-eastern Thailand) has been reported as having one of the most rapidly increasing older populations in the country. In order to care for and promote the health of older people, healthcare providers should understand how healthy ageing is perceived by this target group. Although healthy ageing has been studied in different contexts as well as perspectives, no studies have previously focused on older persons' experiences of healthy ageing from a lifeworld perspective in Isan-Thai. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe older persons' qualitatively different conceptions of healthy ageing in Isan-Thai culture. A phenomenographic approach with an epistemological base in lifeworld theory was used to disclose the various ways to conceptualize healthy ageing. Individual, qualitative interviews were conducted with 17 people aged 60 and above who live in Isan-Thai. The findings of this study revealed three categories of descriptions: "being independent in dependence," "being at peace," and "being a valuable person." This study also found family members, friends, healthcare providers, and religion important to healthy ageing in the Isan-Thai culture. Understanding how older people conceptualize healthy ageing is valuable for healthcare providers. They can apply these findings regarding healthy ageing in their fieldwork when caring for older people.

  12. Thai SF-36 health survey: tests of data quality, scaling assumptions, reliability and validity in healthy men and women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sleigh Adrian

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since its translation to Thai in 2000, the SF-36 Health Survey has been used extensively in many different clinical settings in Thailand. Its popularity has increased despite the absence of published evidence that the translated instrument satisfies scoring assumptions, the psychometric properties required for valid interpretation of the SF-36 summated ratings scales. The purpose of this paper was to examine these properties and to report on the reliability and validity of the Thai SF-36 in a non-clinical general population. Methods 1345 distance-education university students who live in all areas of Thailand completed a questionnaire comprising the Thai SF-36 (Version 1. Median age was 31 years. Psychometric tests recommended by the International Quality of Life Assessment Project were used. Results Data quality was satisfactory: questionnaire completion rate was high (97.5% and missing data rates were low ( Conclusion The summated ratings method can be used for scoring the Thai SF-36. The instrument was found to be reliable and valid for use in a general non-clinical population. Version 2 of the SF-36 could improve ceiling and floor effects in the role functioning scales. Further work is warranted to refine items that measure the concepts of social functioning, vitality and mental health to improve the reliability and discriminant validity of these scales.

  13. Competencies Needed in Oral Communication in English among Thai Undergraduate Public Relations Students: A Substantial Gap between Expectations and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanapichet, Fasawang; Chinokul, Sumalee

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the competencies needed for oral communication in English among Thai undergraduate public relations students for handling public relations job interviews and performing entry-level public relations work. To identify these competencies, the study identified and involved all of the stakeholders in the data reliability…

  14. Adopting Thai Diagnosis Related Group for Vietnam Universal Health Coverage: A Case of Ba Vi District Hospital

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    Pham Le Tuan, M.D., Ph.D.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This studyaimedtoclassifyallhospitaldischargescoveredbyhealthinsurancesystem intodiagnosis relatedgroup (DRG to guideproviderpayment reforms of universalhealth coverage roadmap in Vietnam. Methods: Data from Ba Vi hospital from January to December 2012 were grouped into DRGs by Viet-DRG grouperversion1.0developedbasedon Thai-DRG version5methodologies. ThePearsoncorrelation(r wasused to assess the performance of Viet-DRG grouper as against Thai-DRG grouper. A 5-step trimming of individual inpatientdata to achieve thehighest correlations was performed. Results: Dataof12,220inpatientcases wereanalyzedbybothgroupers,84.4% of totalcases wereclassifiedinto 89 DRGs. Thefive mostcommon DRGs werevaginaldelivery withoutcomplicatingdiagnosis (14500; Respira- tory infection/inflammation, no complication and comorbidity (04520; Otitis media and URI, no complication andcomorbidity(03530; Viral illnessexceptdengue,child,nocomplicationandcomorbidity(18610; Bronchitis and asthma, no complication and comorbidity (04590. The performance of Viet-DRG grouper v1.0 compared with Thai-DRG grouper v5.0for 89 DRGs intermsof relative weights as of 0.4 andlength of stay as of 0.5. Conclusion: Validity of thefirst Viet-DRG was at moderate level compared to Thai-DRG due to the limitation ofdata availability andqualityat thehospital.

  15. Thai PhD Students and Their Supervisors at an Australian University: Working Relationship, Communication, and Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomnian, Singhanat

    2017-01-01

    PhD supervision is crucial for higher degree research students in western academic contexts. Despite an increasing body of literature regarding the international student-supervisor relationship, Thai students in Australian higher education are under-represented. This qualitative study aims to explore discursive practices that impact on Thai…

  16. The Roles of Perceived Neighborhood Disorganization, Social Cohesion, and Social Control in Urban Thai Adolescents' Substance Use and Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Cupp, Pamela K.; Atwood, Katharine A.; Fongkaew, Warunee; Rosati, Michael J.; Chookhare, Warunee

    2013-01-01

    Substance use and delinquency in Thai adolescents are growing public health concerns. Research has linked neighborhood characteristics to these outcomes, with explanations focused on neighborhood disorganization, social cohesion, and social control. This study examines the independent associations of these neighborhood constructs with Thai…

  17. The Influence of Parents' Backgrounds, Beliefs about English Learning, and a Dialogic Reading Program on Thai Kindergarteners' English Lexical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petchprasert, Anongnad

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated parents' backgrounds and their beliefs about English language learning, and compared the receptive English vocabulary development of three to six year-old-Thai children before and after participating in a parent-child reading program with the dialogic reading (DR) method. Fifty-four single parents of 54 children voluntarily…

  18. An Investigation into the Impact of Facebook Group Usage on Students' Affect in Language Learning in a Thai Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tananuraksakul, Noparat

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the way in which Facebook Group used as a learning management system can enhance Thai students' effective language learning (positive attitude and motivation) in a private university in the vicinity of Bangkok. These two variables are seen to influence learners' achievement in language learning, and they also interdependently…

  19. Thai Pre-Service Music Educators and Their Future in Music Education and Its Role in Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lindsey R.; Trakarnrung, Somchai

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to acquire a better understanding of the decision-making process of Thai pre-service music education students and their expectations of their post-graduation professional activities. Demographic data was gathered as well as self-reported participant influences regarding choosing to major in music education. A…

  20. Hematological, electrolyte and serum biochemical values of the Thai indigenous chickens (Gallus domesticus in northeastern, Thailand

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    Suchint Simaraks

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Thai indigenous chickens (Gallus domesticus have been domesticated in rural villages in Thailand for a long time. These birds are important to low-income people who live in the rural part of Thailand. However, health problems have been a major cause limiting their population. Hematological, electrolyte and serum biochemical values, which are important for diagnosis of clinical signs and symptoms when affected by diseases, are limited. Blood samples from 40 chickens (20 males and 20 females were used for hematological test while another 18 samples (from 10 males and 8 females were analysed for electrolyte and serum biochemical values. The samples were obtained from Khon Kaen, Kalasin, Roi - Et, Maha Sarakham and Nakhon Ratchasima provinces, northeastern region of Thailand. The results revealed the following information: total red blood cell count, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, total white blood cell count, lymphocyte, heterophil, monocyte, eosinophil, basophil, H:L ratio values of Thai native chickens were 2.26 ± 0.29 × 106 cells/μl, 8.89 ± 1.20 g/dl, 32.18 ± 4.46%, 144.63 ± 18.61 fl, 39.69 ± 4.96 pg, 27.86 ± 3.37 g/dl, 2.04 ± 0.45 × 104 cells/μl, 63.68 ± 9.36%, 23.70 ± 7.21%, 4.20 ± 3.20%, 5.83 ± 3.53%, 2.65 ± 2.09% and 0.40 ± 0.17, respectively. Potassium, sodium and chloride values of Thai native chickens were 5.3 ± 0.8 mmol/l, 155.9 ± 3.1 mmol/l and 116.9 ± 2.7 mmol/l, respectively. Furthermore, serum biochemistry values of Thai native chickens such as total protein, glucose, alkaline phosphatase, uric acid, calcium and cholesterol were 4.6 ± 1.0 mg/dl, 190.2 ± 29.8 mg/dl, 235.9 ± 68.6 U/L, 5.0 ± 1.9 mg/dl, 10.4 ± 1.2 mg/dl and 102.4 ± 30.8 mg/dl, respectively. Besides, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume and eosinophil inthe males were significantly higher than in the females Thai indigenous

  1. Diversity of bacterial communities on the facial skin of different age-group Thai males

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    Alisa Wilantho

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Skin microbiome varies from person to person due to a combination of various factors, including age, biogeography, sex, cosmetics and genetics. Many skin disorders appear to be related to the resident microflora, yet databases of facial skin microbiome of many biogeographies, including Thai, are limited. Methods Metagenomics derived B-RISA and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was utilized to identify the culture-independent bacterial diversity on Thai male faces (cheek and forehead areas. Skin samples were categorized (grouped into (i normal (teenage.hea and (ii acne-prone (teenage.acn young adults, and normal (iii middle-aged (middle.hea and (iv elderly (elderly.hea adults. Results The 16S rRNA gene sequencing was successful as the sequencing depth had an estimated >98% genus coverage of the true community. The major diversity was found between the young and elderly adults in both cheek and forehead areas, followed by that between normal and acne young adults. Detection of representative characteristics indicated that bacteria from the order Rhizobiales, genera Sphingomonas and Pseudoalteromonas, distinguished the elderly.hea microbiota, along the clinical features of wrinkles and pores. Prediction of the metabolic potential revealed reduced metabolic pathways involved in replication and repair, nucleotide metabolism and genetic translation in the elderly.hea compared with that in the teenage.hea. For young adults, some unique compositions such as abundance of Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis, with a minor diversity between normal and acne skins, were detected. The metabolic potentials of the acne vs. normal young adults showed that teenage.acn was low in many cellular processes (e.g., cell motility and environmental adaptation, but high in carbohydrate metabolism, which could support acne growth. Moreover, comparison with the age-matched males from the US (Boulder, Colorado to gain insight into the diversity across

  2. Promoting nuclear education and technology in Thai high schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keyes, W.

    1998-01-01

    The public acceptance project which Thailand is undertaking through the Chulalongkorn University project is based on the awareness that increased public support of nuclear power is an essential precondition to the consideration of a nuclear power program for the country. By approaching public education on this matter via an independent and recognized authority such as Chulalongkorn University, the issue has remained as an education and information process rather than becoming a political issue and falling victim to all of the pitfalls of that process. The model of selecting independent partners and organizations to conduct public education and public acceptance activities appears to be more effective than for the utility itself to more directly address such issues. It is of course recognized that at some time there will be a public discussion and debate of the issue of nuclear power in Thailand. However the work done by such public education projects in advance of any public announcements on any project plans should help to ensure that the ensuing public discussion will take place amongst a better informed public

  3. Validity and reliability of an adapted Thai version of Scoliosis Research Society-22 questionnaire for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathira-Angkura, Vera; Pithankuakul, Kongkit; Sakulpipatana, Susana; Piyaskulkaew, Chaiwat; Kunakornsawat, Sombat

    2012-04-20

    Cross-sectional observational study to investigate psychometric properties of an adapted Thai version of the refined Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) questionnaire. To evaluate the reliability and validity of the adapted Thai version of the refined SRS-22 questionnaire. The SRS-22 questionnaire is a valid instrument for assessing the health-related quality of life for patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Recently, the questionnaire has been translated and validated in many languages for non-English-speaking countries. Translation/retranslation of the English version of the SRS-22 was conducted, and the cross-cultural adaptation process was performed. The Thai version SRS-22 and previously validated Thai version Short-Form survey version 2.0 (SF-36V2) questionnaires were administered to 77 patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis who had surgical treatment. Fifty-eight patients (52 adolescent girls) had filled out the first set of questionnaires. Thirty patients of the first-time responders completed the second set of questionnaires. The mean age at the time of operation was 14.6 years and the mean age at the time of the final follow-up was 18.7 years. The mean preoperative scoliosis curve magnitude was 55.4° (range, 30°-95°) and postoperative curve magnitude was 20.1° (range, 0°-60°). Internal consistency was determined with Cronbach α coefficient. Intraclass correlation coefficient was used for test-retest reliability. Concurrent validity was evaluated by comparing SRS-22 domains with relevant domains in the SF-36V2 questionnaire, using the Pearson correlation coefficient. The mean overall Cronbach α coefficient of the adapted Thai version SRS-22 was 0.76. The 2 of corresponding domains (mental health = 0.80 and self-image = 0.83) had satisfactory internal consistency and the remaining domains (pain = 0.78; function/activity = 0.74; and satisfaction = 0.76) were good. The intraclass correlation coefficient for 5 domains was ranged from

  4. Patterns of Sexual Behavior in Lowland Thai Youth and Ethnic Minorities Attending High School in Rural Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Aurpibul

    Full Text Available The rural areas of Northern Thailand are home to a large cultural diversity of ethnic minority groups. Previous studies have shown that young people in rural Thailand have low levels of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and high sexual risks. We compared sexual behaviors between the lowland Thai youth and the youth from ethnic minority groups.This is a cross-sectional quantitative study conducted among high-school Thai and ethnic students in Chiang Mai. From a total 1215 participants, 487 (40.1% were lowland Thai and 728 (59.9% were from ethnic minorities. Overall, 17.9% of respondents reported "ever had sex." Lowland Thai adolescents were more likely to have ever had sex compared with ethnic minority adolescents (AOR, 1.61; CI, 1.06-2.45; P< 0.01. A higher proportion of lowland Thai respondents reported having ≥ 2 lifetime sexual partners (51.9% vs. 33.3%, P = 0.003, or currently having a boy/girlfriend (59.9% vs. 45.3%, P< 0.001 compared to ethnic minority adolescents. Consistent condom use was low in both groups (22.6%. The common significant factors associated with "ever had sex" in both groups were "ever drunk alcohol in the past year" and "currently having a boy/girlfriend." Specifically, for lowland Thai youth, being around the age of 17 or 18 years and "ever used methamphetamine in the past year" were associated with increased odds of "ever had sex". For ethnic minority adolescents, being female and belonging to religions other than Buddhism were associated with decreased odds of "ever had sex".A substantially higher proportion of lowland Thai engage in risky sexual behaviors when compared to ethnic minorities. However, both groups remained vulnerable to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. To minimize sexual risks, education program and school-based interventions are warranted to increase awareness of young people about risky behaviors and to promote essential life skills.

  5. Development and validation of a screening instrument for bipolar spectrum disorder: The Mood Disorder Questionnaire Thai version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleeprakhon P

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Punjaporn Waleeprakhon,1 Pichai Ittasakul,1 Manote Lotrakul,1 Pattarabhorn Wisajun,1 Sudawan Jullagate,1 Terence A Ketter2 1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA Background: The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ has been translated to many languages and has been used in many countries as a screening instrument for bipolar disorder. The main objective of this study was to evaluate validity of the Thai version of the MDQ as a screening instrument for bipolar disorder in a psychiatric outpatient sample, and to determine its optimum question #1 item threshold value for bipolar disorder.Methods: The English language Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ was translated into Thai. The process involved back-translation, cross-cultural adaptation, field testing of the prefinal version, as well as final adjustments. Two hundred and fifty major depressive disorder outpatients were further assessed by the Thai version of the MDQ and the Thai version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI. During the assessment, reliability and validity analyses, and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC analysis were performed.Results: The Thai version of the MDQ screening had adequate internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha =0.791, omega total =0.68, and omega hierarchical =0.69. The optimal question #1 item threshold value was at least five positive items, which yielded adequate sensitivity (76.5%, specificity (72.7%, positive predictive value (74.3%, and negative predictive value (75.0%. The ROC area under the curve (AUC for this study was 0.82 (95% confidence interval: 0.70 to 0.90.Conclusion: The Thai version of the MDQ had some useful psychometric properties for screening for bipolar disorder in a mood disorder clinic setting, with a recommended question #1 item

  6. Salivary cotinine levels as a biomarker for green tobacco sickness in dry tobacco production among Thai traditional tobacco farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleeon, Thanusin; Siriwong, Wattasit; Maldonado-Pérez, Héctor Luis; Robson, Mark Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Dry Thai traditional tobacco (Nicotiana Tabacum L.) production involves a unique process: (a) picking tobacco leaves, (b) curing tobacco leaves, (c) removing stems of tobacco leaves, cutting leaves and putting on a bamboo rack, (d) drying in the sun, reversing a rack, spraying a tobacco extract to adjust the tobacco's color, storing dried tobacco and packaging. These processes may lead to adverse health effects caused by dermal absorption of nicotine such as Green Tobacco Sickness (GTS). The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between GTS resulting from dry Thai traditional tobacco production and salivary cotinine levels among Thai traditional tobacco farmers in Nan Province, Thailand. A prospective cohort study was conducted with 20 tobacco farmers and 20 non-tobacco farmers in Praputtabath Sub-District and Phatow Sub-District. The participants were randomly selected and interviewed using in person questionnaires with bi-weekly follow-up for 14 weeks. During each contact, the cotinine concentration was measured by NicAlert(TM) Saliva strip tests (NCTS). Descriptive statistics and Spearman's correlation (Spearman's rho) was used to examine the relationship between the variables at both 0.01 and 0.05 significant probability levels. This study indicated that GTS from dry tobacco production has the potential to be considered a common occupational disease. This study demonstrated the usefulness of salivary cotinine level measurements by NCTS. The levels were well correlated with farmers who were employed in the dry Thai tobacco production industry. Salivary cotinine levels were also significantly correlated with the prevalence of GTS in the group of tobacco farmers at any given time within a crop season. However, the production process of dry Thai traditional tobacco is different from that evaluated in our previous studies where GTS and salivary cotinine level were correlated in workers working in humid conditions. The long-term effects of such exposure

  7. Arthropod borne disease: the leading cause of fever in pregnancy on the Thai-Burmese border.

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    Rose McGready

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Fever in pregnancy is dangerous for both mother and foetus. In the 1980's malaria was the leading cause of death in pregnant women in refugee camps on the Thai-Burmese border. Artemisinin combination therapy has significantly reduced the incidence of malaria in the population. The remaining causes of fever in pregnancy are not well documented.Pregnant women attending antenatal care, where weekly screening for malaria is routine, were invited to have a comprehensive clinical and laboratory screen if they had fever. Women were admitted to hospital, treated and followed up weekly until delivery. A convalescent serum was collected on day 21. Delivery outcomes were recorded.Febrile episodes (n = 438 occurred in 5.0% (409/8,117 of pregnant women attending antenatal clinics from 7-Jan-2004 to 17-May-2006. The main cause was malaria in 55.5% (227/409. A cohort of 203 (49.6% of 409 women had detailed fever investigations and follow up. Arthropod-borne (malaria, rickettsial infections, and dengue and zoonotic disease (leptospirosis accounted for nearly half of all febrile illnesses, 47.3% (96/203. Coinfection was observed in 3.9% (8/203 of women, mostly malaria and rickettsia. Pyelonephritis, 19.7% (40/203, was also a common cause of fever. Once malaria, pyelonephritis and acute respiratory illness are excluded by microscopy and/or clinical findings, one-third of the remaining febrile infections will be caused by rickettsia or leptospirosis. Scrub and murine typhus were associated with poor pregnancy outcomes including stillbirth and low birth weight. One woman died (no positive laboratory tests.Malaria remains the leading cause of fever in pregnancy on the Thai-Burmese border. Scrub and murine typhus were also important causes of fever associated with poor pregnancy outcomes. Febrile pregnant women on the Thai-Burmese border who do not have malaria, pyelonephritis or respiratory tract infection should be treated with azithromycin, effective for typhus

  8. Hyperprolactinemia in Thai children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder treated with risperidone

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    Hongkaew Y

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yaowaluck Hongkaew,1,2 Nattawat Ngamsamut,3 Apichaya Puangpetch,1,2 Natchaya Vanwong,1,2 Pornpen Srisawasdi,4 Montri Chamnanphon,1,2 Bhunnada Chamkrachchangpada,3 Teerarat Tan-kam,3 Penkhae Limsila,3 Chonlaphat Sukasem1,2 1Division of Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, 2Laboratory for Pharmacogenomics, Somdech Phra Debaratana Medical Center (SDMC, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, 3Yuwaprasart Waithayopathum Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Hospital, Department of Mental Health Services, Ministry of Public Health, 4Division of Clinical Chemistry, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand Abstract: Hyperprolactinemia is a common adverse effect observed in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD during pharmacotherapy with risperidone. The main aim of this study was to investigate important clinical factors influencing the prolactin response in risperidone-treated Thai ASD. A total of 147 children and adolescents (127 males and 20 females aged 3–19 years with ASD received risperidone treatment (0.10–6.00 mg/day for up to 158 weeks. Prolactin levels were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay. The clinical data of patients collected from medical records – age, weight, height, body mass index, dose of risperidone, duration of treatment, and drug-use pattern – were recorded. Hyperprolactinemia was observed in 66 of 147 (44.90% subjects. Median prolactin level at the high doses (24.00, interquartile range [IQR] 14.30–29.20 of risperidone was significantly found to be higher than at the recommended (16.20, IQR 10.65–22.30 and low (11.70, IQR 7.51–16.50 doses of risperidone. There was no relationship between prolactin levels and duration of risperidone treatment. Dose-dependence is identified as a main factor associated with hyperprolactinemia in Thai children and adolescents with ASD treated with

  9. Human papilloma virus prevalence, genotype distribution, and pattern of infection in Thai women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suthipintawong, Cheepsumon; Siriaunkgul, Sumalee; Tungsinmunkong, Kobkul; Pientong, Chamsai; Ekalaksananan, Tipaya; Karalak, Anant; Kleebkaow, Pilaiwan; Vinyuvat, Songkhun; Triratanachat, Surang; Khunamornpong, Surapan; Chongsuwanich, Tuenjai

    2011-01-01

    The pattern of infection in cervical lesions with respect to HPV subtype has not been systematically studied in Thai women. The aim here was to determine HPV prevalence, genotype, and infection pattern in cervical lesions and to estimate the potential efficacy of an HPV prophylactic vaccine. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded cervical tissue blocks of 410 Thai patients from 8 institutes in 4 regions of Thailand (northern, southern, north-eastern, and central) were studied. The samples included 169 low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSILs), 121 high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs), and 120 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). HPV-DNA was amplified by PCR using consensus primers GP5+ and GP6+. The HPV genotype was then determined by reverse linear blot assay that included 37 HPV-specific 5'-amino-linked oligonucleotide probes. Patterns of infection were classified as single infection (one HPV type), double infection (two HPV types), and multiple infection (three or more HPV types). The mean age of the subjects was 42 years. The prevalence of HPV infection was 88.8%. The highest HPV prevalence was found in the southern region (97.1%) and the lowest in the central region (78.6%). HPV-DNA was detected in 84.6% of LSILs, 90.1% of HSILs, and 93.3% of SCCs. A total of 20 HPV genotypes were identified. The five most common high risk HPV were HPV16 (83.2%), HPV18 (59.3%), HPV58 (9.3%), HPV52 (4.1%), and HPV45 (3.8%). In double and multiple infection patterns, the most common genotypes were HPV16/18 (27.8%) and HPV11/16/18 (54.9%). HPV6 was found only in LSIL and never in combination with other subtypes. HPV11 was most common in LSIL. There is no difference of HPV type distribution in women from 4 regions of Thailand with prominent HPV16 and HPV18 in all cases. The bivalent and quadrivalent vaccines have the potential to prevent 48.6 % and 74.5% of cervical cancers in Thai women. The potential of cancer prevention would rise to 87.6% if other frequent HR

  10. Validity and reliability of Thai version of the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score in patients with arthritis of the foot and ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angthong, Chayanin

    2016-12-01

    Although the Foot and Ankle Outcome Score (FAOS) is commonly used in several languages for a variety of foot disorders, it has not been validated specifically for foot and ankle arthritic conditions. The aims of the present study were to translate the original English FAOS into Thai and to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Thai version of the FAOS for the foot and ankle arthritic conditions. The original FAOS was translated into Thai using forward-backward translation. The Thai FAOS and validated Thai Short Form-36 (SF-36 ® ) questionnaires were distributed to 44 Thai patients suffering from arthritis of the foot and ankle to complete. For validation, Thai FAOS scores were correlated with SF-36 scores. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency were also analyzed in this study. The Thai FAOS score demonstrated sufficient correlation with SF-36 total score in Pain (Pearson's correlation coefficient (r)=0.45, p=0.002), Symptoms (r=0.45, p=0.002), Activities of Daily Living (ADL) (r=0.47, p=0.001), and Quality of Life (QOL) (r=0.38, p=0.011) subscales. The Sports and Recreational Activities (Sports & Rec) subscale did not correlate significantly with the SF-36 ® (r=0.20, p=0.20). Cronbach's alpha, a measure of internal consistency, for the five subscales was as follows: Pain, 0.94 (pvalidity for the evaluation of foot and ankle arthritis. Although reliability was satisfactory for the major subscale ADL, it was not sufficient for the minor subscales. Our findings suggest that it can be used as a disease-specific instrument to evaluate foot and ankle arthritis and can complement other reliable outcome surveys. Copyright © 2015 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Two fatal cases of melioidosis on the Thai-Myanmar border [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2os

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    Cindy S. Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Melioidosis is endemic in areas of Southeast Asia, however, there are no published reports from the Thai-Myanmar border.  We report the first two cases of fatal melioidosis in this region. This is of great public health importance and highlights the need to increase clinical awareness of melioidosis on the Thai-Myanmar border and to assess the true burden of disease in the area through improved case detection and Burkholderia pseudomallei prevalence studies.

  12. Two fatal cases of melioidosis on the Thai-Myanmar border [v2; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/373

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    Cindy S. Chu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Melioidosis is endemic in areas of Southeast Asia, however, there are no published reports from the Thai-Myanmar border. We report the first two documented cases of fatal melioidosis in this region. This is of great public health importance and highlights the need to both increase clinical awareness of melioidosis on the Thai-Myanmar border, and to assess the true burden of disease in the area through improved case detection and Burkholderia pseudomallei prevalence studies.

  13. Validity and reliability of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale-Thai version as compared to the Self-Esteem Visual Analog Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piyavhatkul, Nawanant; Aroonpongpaisal, Suwanna; Patjanasoontorn, Niramol; Rongbutsri, Somchit; Maneeganondh, Somchit; Pimpanit, Wijitra

    2011-07-01

    To compare the validity and reliability of the Thai version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale with the Self-Esteem Visual Analog Scale. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was translated into Thai and its content-validity checked by bacA translation. The reliability of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale compared with the Self-Esteem Visual Analog Scale was ther tested between February and March 2008 on 270 volunteers, including 135 patients with psychiatric illness and 135 normal volunteers. The authors analyzed the internal consistency and factor structure of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale-Thai version and the correlation between it and the Visual Analog Scale. The Cronbach's Alpha for the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale-Thai version was 0.849 and the Pearson's correlation between it and the Self-Esteem Visual Analog Scale 0.618 (p = 0.01). Two factors, viz, the positively and negatively framea items, from the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale-Thai version accounted for 44.04% and 12.10% of the variance, respectively. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale-Thai version has acceptable reliability. The Self-Esteem Visual Analog Scale provides an effective measure of self-esteem.

  14. Oral melanin pigmentation in 467 Thai and Malaysian people with special emphasis on smoker's melanosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedin, C A; Axéll, T

    1991-01-01

    At the faculties of dentistry in Chiang Mai, Thailand (CM), and Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (KL), 234 and 233 consecutive out-patients were interviewed concerning tobacco and chewing habits and examined for the presence of oral melanin pigmentation. Tobacco was regularly used by 32% and 28% of the studied populations in CM and KL. Cigarette smoking was the predominant habit, but the chewing of betel and tea leaves (miang) and the smoking of banana leaf cigars (khi yo) was also registered. The genetically acquired pigmentation dominated. Although nearly all non-tobacco users in the Malay and Indian populations had oral melanin pigmentation, it was found that tobacco smokers had significantly more oral surfaces pigmented than non-tobacco users. Among Thais, the percentage of pigmented individuals was significantly higher among tobacco smokers. It was concluded that tobacco smoking stimulates oral melanocytes to a higher melanin production also in dark-skinned ethnic groups.

  15. Grade 1 to 6 Thai students' existing ideas about light: Across-age study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horasirt, Yupaporn; Yuenyong, Chokchai

    2018-01-01

    This paper aimed to investigate Grade 1 to 6 Thai (6 - 12 years old) students' existing ideas about light, sight, vision, source of light. The participants included 36 Grade 1 to 6 students (6 students in each Grade) who studying at a primary school in Khon Kaen. The method of this study is a descriptive qualitative research design. The tools included the two-tiered test about light and open-ended question. Students' responses were categorized the students' existing ideas about light. Findings indicated that young students held various existing ideas about light that could be categorized into 6 different groups relating to sight, vision, and source of light. The paper discussed these students' existing ideas for developing constructivist learning about light in Thailand context.

  16. Metabolomics and Integrative Omics for the Development of Thai Traditional Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoomrung, Sakda; Wanichthanarak, Kwanjeera; Nookaew, Intawat; Thamsermsang, Onusa; Seubnooch, Patcharamon; Laohapand, Tawee; Akarasereenont, Pravit

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, interest in studies of traditional medicine in Asian and African countries has gradually increased due to its potential to complement modern medicine. In this review, we provide an overview of Thai traditional medicine (TTM) current development, and ongoing research activities of TTM related to metabolomics. This review will also focus on three important elements of systems biology analysis of TTM including analytical techniques, statistical approaches and bioinformatics tools for handling and analyzing untargeted metabolomics data. The main objective of this data analysis is to gain a comprehensive understanding of the system wide effects that TTM has on individuals. Furthermore, potential applications of metabolomics and systems medicine in TTM will also be discussed. PMID:28769804

  17. High resolution karyotype of Thai crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis

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    Fan Xiaobo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative chromosome banding analysis and/or fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH studies are established approaches to compare human and ape chromosomes. FISH banding is a relatively new and not routinely applied method very well suited to provide to a better understanding of the evolutionary history of primate and human phylogeny. Here multicolor banding (MCB-applying probes derived from Homo sapiens were used to analyze the chromosomes of Thai crab-eating macaque (Macaca fascicularis. The results agree with those of previous studies in other macaques, e.g. Macaca sylvanus or Macaca nemestrina. This result highlights that morphological differences within the Cercopithecoidea must be found rather in subchromosomal changes or even in epigenetics than in gross structural alterations.

  18. Effects of intellectual capital and knowledge management on Thai food industry organizational performance: A conceptual perspective

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    Pimsara Yaklai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to rising urbanization and an expanding middle class, Thailand will rely more on processed foods. This is combined with a 22% export market to other Southeast Asian nations, as well as China and Japan. With an abundance of natural resources combined with significant investments in technology, food safety, R&D, and more efforts at adhering to international quality standards, Thailand has become the ‘Kitchen of the World’, becoming the largest sole net food exporter in Asia. Therefore, the researchers aspire to develop a structural equation model of factors affecting intellectual capital and knowledge management on the Thai food industry organizational performance using both quantitative and qualitative research methods. Questionnaires using a 7-point Likert scale are to be analysed using SEM techniques, with focus being given to financial performance, internal processes and learning and growth and their contributions in enhancing the industry’s global competitiveness and sustainability.

  19. Effect of post-harvest treatment on bioactive phytochemicals of Thai black rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkaew, Orranuch; Boontakham, Pittayaporn; Dumri, Kanchana; Noenplab, Acharaporn Na Lampang; Sookwong, Phumon; Mahatheeranont, Sugunya

    2017-02-15

    Because black rice is rich in antioxidants, appropriate methods of post-harvest treatment are necessary for maintaining these bioactive phytochemicals. Drying methods, storage temperatures, storage duration, and packaging methods affected the contents of some bioactive compounds in the two varieties of Thai black rice used in this research. Sun drying reduces the loss of anthocyanins and γ-oryzanols more than does hot air drying. Glutinous black rice stored as paddy at cool room temperature retains more anthocyanins, γ-oryzanols, and vitamin E than does paddy stored at room temperature. Nylon/LLDPE pouches containing N2 are the most suitable packaging for preserving the key aroma compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline (2AP), total phenolic, and anthocyanin contents of unpolished aromatic black rice. These pouches also retard the formation of some common off-flavor compounds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Application of Irradiated Chitosan on Thai Chili s Growth and Productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suwanmala, Phiriyatorn; Tangthong, Theeranan; Hemvichian, Kasinee; Pongpat, Suchada; Charoen, Saovapong

    2011-06-01

    Full text: Effects of oligo chitosan on growth and productivity of Thai chili plants were investigated. The foliar spraying of oligo chitosan was applied. The growth and productivity of these oligo chitosan-treated chili plants were compared with those of untreated chili plants. The results showed that the application of oligo chitosan, at the concentration of 80 ppm, displayed significant effects, statistically, on chili plant height, total weight of chili, total number of chilies, total number of green chilies, total number of red chilies and weight per chili. The results also showed that productivity increased up to 34%. The oligo chitosan exhibited not only the ability to protect aphid infection but also the ability to shorten the harvest time of chili plants. The treatment of chili plants by oligo chitosan clearly displayed positive effects on chili s growth and productivity

  1. The study of Thai stock market across the 2008 financial crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanjamapornkul, K.; Pinčák, Richard; Bartoš, Erik

    2016-11-01

    The cohomology theory for financial market can allow us to deform Kolmogorov space of time series data over time period with the explicit definition of eight market states in grand unified theory. The anti-de Sitter space induced from a coupling behavior field among traders in case of a financial market crash acts like gravitational field in financial market spacetime. Under this hybrid mathematical superstructure, we redefine a behavior matrix by using Pauli matrix and modified Wilson loop for time series data. We use it to detect the 2008 financial market crash by using a degree of cohomology group of sphere over tensor field in correlation matrix over all possible dominated stocks underlying Thai SET50 Index Futures. The empirical analysis of financial tensor network was performed with the help of empirical mode decomposition and intrinsic time scale decomposition of correlation matrix and the calculation of closeness centrality of planar graph.

  2. Media Usage and Consumption Practice in Shopping Malls Among Female Youth in Modern Thai Society

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    Kangwan Fongkaew

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the data derived from the longitudinal ethnographic study on media useage and consumption practice in shopping malls as everyday life practices among female youth in a modern society of Chiang Mai, Northern Thailand, which contributed to their distinctive sexual identity construction and expression. Applying Bourdieu’s theory of cultural capital and Friske’s idea on tactical practice, this paper revealed that the various tactics female youth employed in shopping malls were to express their distinctions from other youth groups belonged to lower classes, as well as to negotiate mechanisms of dominant school and state controls that aimed to regulate their sexual and cultural practices. Female youth in modern society were not only proper “consumers” but also “users” of shopping malls in modern Thai society. Their media usage and consumption practice sought to send the messages that they were the creators of their own selves.

  3. Nonisothermal Thermogravimetric Analysis of Thai Lignite with High CaO Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintana, Pakamon

    2013-01-01

    Thermal behaviors and combustion kinetics of Thai lignite with different SO3-free CaO contents were investigated. Nonisothermal thermogravimetric method was carried out under oxygen environment at heating rates of 10, 30, and 50°C min−1 from ambient up to 1300°C. Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) methods were adopted to estimate the apparent activation energy (E) for the thermal decomposition of these coals. Different thermal degradation behaviors were observed in lignites with low (14%) and high (42%) CaO content. Activation energy of the lignite combustion was found to vary with the conversion fraction. In comparison with the KAS method, higher E values were obtained by the FWO method for all conversions considered. High CaO lignite was observed to have higher activation energy than the low CaO coal. PMID:24250259

  4. Determination of Rare Earth Elements in Thai Monazite by Inductively Coupled Plasma and Nuclear Analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busamongkol, Arporn; Ratanapra, Dusadee; Sukharn, Sumalee; Laoharojanaphand, Sirinart

    2003-10-01

    The inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) for the determination of individual rare-earth elements (REE) was evaluated by comparison with instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). The accuracy and precision of INAA and ICP-AES were evaluated by using standard reference material IGS-36, a monazite concentrate. For INAA, the results were close to the certified value while ICP-AES were in good agreement except for some low concentration rare earth. The techniques were applied for the analysis of some rare earth elements in two Thai monazite samples preparing as the in-house reference material for the Rare Earth Research and Development Center, Chemistry Division, Office of Atoms for Peace. The analytical results obtained by these techniques were in good agreement with each other

  5. Molecular Docking Studies and Anti-Tyrosinase Activity of Thai Mango Seed Kernel Extract

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    Patchreenart Saparpakorn

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The alcoholic extract from seed kernels of Thai mango (Mangifera indica L. cv. ‘Fahlun’ (Anacardiaceae and its major phenolic principle (pentagalloylglucopyranose exhibited potent, dose-dependent inhibitory effects on tyrosinase with respect to L-DOPA. Molecular docking studies revealed that the binding orientations of the phenolic principles were in the tyrosinase binding pocket and their orientations were located in the hydrophobic binding pocket surrounding the binuclear copper active site. The results indicated a possible mechanism for their anti-tyrosinase activity which may involve an ability to chelate the copper atoms which are required for the catalytic activity of tyrosinase.

  6. Paleomagnetic results from the upper silurian of the Shan-Thai-Malay Block, southwest Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haihong; Zhong, Dalai; Heller, Friedrich; Dobson, Jon P.

    77 paleomagnetic samples from the Upper Silurian reddish limestone and marlstone of the Shan-Thai-Malay block near Baoshan ( 99.1°E, 24.8°N ), western Yunnan, China, reveal a pre-folding remnant magnetization, with a mean direction of D=49.6°, I= -3.2°, k=9.7, a95=5.5°, corresponding a paleopole at 207.0°E, 36.8°N. These results, unlike the upper Paleozoic data with steeper inclinations published earlier, suggest that the block was located at equatorial latitude during late Silurian time, probably adjacent to the northern margin of Gondwanaland.

  7. Validity and reliability of the Thai version of the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU

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    Pipanmekaporn T

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tanyong Pipanmekaporn,1 Nahathai Wongpakaran,2 Sirirat Mueankwan,3 Piyawat Dendumrongkul,2 Kaweesak Chittawatanarat,3 Nantiya Khongpheng,3 Nongnut Duangsoy31Department of Anesthesiology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 3Division of Surgical Critical Care and Trauma, Department of Surgery, Chiang Mai University Hospital, Chiang Mai, ThailandPurpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Thai version of the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU, when compared to the diagnoses made by delirium experts.Patients and methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in both surgical intensive care and subintensive care units in Thailand between February–June 2011. Seventy patients aged 60 years or older who had been admitted to the units were enrolled into the study within the first 48 hours of admission. Each patient was randomly assessed as to whether they had delirium by a nurse using the Thai version of the CAM-ICU algorithm (Thai CAM-ICU or by a delirium expert using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision.Results: The prevalence of delirium was found to be 18.6% (n=13 by the delirium experts. The sensitivity of the Thai CAM-ICU’s algorithms was found to be 92.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] =64.0%-99.8%, while the specificity was 94.7% (95% CI =85.4%-98.9%. The instrument displayed good interrater reliability (Cohen’s κ=0.81; 95% CI =0.64-0.99. The time taken to complete the Thai CAM-ICU was 1 minute (interquatile range, 1-2 minutes.Conclusion: The Thai CAM-ICU demonstrated good validity, reliability, and ease of use when diagnosing delirium in a surgical intensive care unit setting. The use of this diagnostic tool should be encouraged for daily, routine use, so as to promote the early detection

  8. Renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in Thai children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya, E-mail: swaddi@hotmail.com [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Mahasakpan, Pranee [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Jeekeeree, Wanpen [Department of Medical Technology, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Funkhiew, Thippawan [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Sanjum, Rungaroon; Apiwatpaiboon, Thitikarn [Department of Medical Technology, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand); Phopueng, Ittipol [Department of Community and Social Medicine, Mae Sot General Hospital, Tak 63110 (Thailand)

    2015-01-15

    Very few studies have shown renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. This population study examined associations between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and renal dysfunctions and blood pressure in environmentally exposed Thai children. Renal functions including urinary excretion of β{sub 2}-microglobulin, calcium (early renal effects), and total protein (late renal effect), and blood pressure were measured in 594 primary school children. Of the children studied, 19.0% had urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine. The prevalence of urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine was significantly higher in girls and in those consuming rice grown in cadmium-contaminated areas. The geometric mean levels of urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin, calcium, and total protein significantly increased with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. The analysis did not show increased blood pressure with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. After adjusting for age, sex, and blood lead levels, the analysis showed significant positive associations between urinary cadmium and urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin and urinary calcium, but not urinary total protein nor blood pressure. Our findings provide evidence that environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children. A follow-up study is essential to assess the clinical significance and progress of renal effects in these children. - Highlights: • Few studies show renal effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. • We report renal and blood pressure effects from cadmium exposure in Thai children. • Urinary β{sub 2}-microglobulin and calcium increased with increasing urinary cadmium. • The study found no association between urinary cadmium levels and blood pressure. • Environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children.

  9. Variation of lipid and fatty acid compositions in Thai Perilla seeds grown at different locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maitree Suttajit

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Perilla or Nga-Kee-Mon (Perilla frutescens seed has long been known as a rich source of α-linolenic acid (18:3, n-3. It is widely cultivated throughout Thailand. However, there are no data on the variation of lipid and fatty acid compositions among crops from different regions. The aim of this study was to examine the compositions of lipids and fatty acids in Thai perilla seed grown at different locations. Two different perilla seeds were harvested from Maehongsorn and Chiang Mai districts, and one commercial perilla was purchased from local market. Seeds were ground, lipid was extracted with chloroform: methanol (2:1, v/v and its composition determined by Iatroscan (TLC/FID. Fatty acid composition was analyzed with GLC using standard methods. Lipid content was between 34-36% (w/w. Triacylglycerol was a predominant lipid in perilla seed (97% of total lipids, and a minor component was phytosterol (3% of total lipids. The ratio of saturates: monounsaturates: polyunsaturates was approximately 1: 1: 8. Most predominant fatty acid was α-linolenic acid (18:3, n-3 (55-60% of total fatty acid. Seeds from Maehongsorn district had the highest concentration of α-linolenic acid, and commercial perilla had the lowest (P<0.05. Other two predominant fatty acids were linoleic acid (18:2, n-6 (18-22% of total fatty acid and oleic acid (18:1 (11-13% of total fatty acid. The results showed that the compositions of lipids and fatty acids in Thai perilla seeds varied significantly among samples from different locations.

  10. Influence of music training on academic examination-induced stress in Thai adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laohawattanakun, Janejira; Chearskul, Supornpim; Dumrongphol, Hattaya; Jutapakdeegul, Nuanchan; Yensukjai, Juntima; Khumphan, Nipaporn; Niltiean, Songwit; Thangnipon, Wipawan

    2011-01-10

    Several pieces of evidence suggest that academic examinations fulfill the classical requirement of a psychological stressor. Academic examinations represent a stressful challenge to many students, but studies on examination-dependent corticosteroid response, a sensitive physiological indicator of a stress response, are inconsistent. In addition, several studies showed that music can decrease cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, and other studies have found that music also may enhance a variety of cognitive functions, such as attention, learning, communication and memory. The present study investigated cortisol response in saliva of Thai adolescents taking academic examinations and analyzed the differences of the stress response between musician and control subjects. Also, we observed whether the academic examination-dependent corticosteroid response affected learning and memory in the test subjects, which comprised 30 musician and 30 control students, age ranging from 15 to 17 years. Mathematical examinations were used as the stressor. Pre- and post-academic examination saliva cortisol levels were measured including self-estimated stress levels. Results showed that the pre-academic examination saliva cortisol concentrations of the musician group are significantly lower than those of the control group, whereas there is no difference in the stress inventory scores. Interestingly, among students with grade point average (GPA) of >3.50, pre-academic examination cortisol levels are significantly lower in the musician compared with control group. This study suggests that under academic examination-induced stress condition, music training can reduce saliva cortisol level in Thai adolescents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The impact of medical tourism on Thai private hospital management: informing hospital policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Paul T J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to help consolidate and understand management perceptions and experiences of a targeted group (n=7) of Vice-Presidents of international Private Thai hospitals in Bangkok regarding medical tourism impacts. The method adopted uses a small-scale qualitative inquiry. Examines the on-going development and service management factors which contribute to the establishment and strengthening of relationships between international patients and hospital medical services provision. Develops a qualitative model that attempts to conceptualize the findings from a diverse range of management views into a framework of main (8) - Hospital Management; Hospital Processes; Hospital Technology; Quality Related; Communications; Personnel; Financial; and Patients; and consequent sub-themes (22). Outcomes from small-scale qualitative inquiries cannot by design be taken outside of its topical arena. This inevitably indicates that more research of this kind needs to be carried out to understand this field more effectively. The evidence suggests that Private Thai hospital management have established views about what constitutes the impact of medical tourism on hospital policies and practices when hospital staff interact with international patients. As the private health service sector in Thailand continues to grow, future research is needed to help hospitals provide appropriate service patterns and appropriate medical products/services that meet international patient needs and aspirations. Highlights the increasing importance of the international consumer in Thailand's health industry. This study provides insights of private health service providers in Bangkok by helping to understand more effectively health service quality environments, subsequent service provision, and the integrated development and impacts of new medical technology.

  12. Vitamin supplementation and related nutritional status in Thai children, aged 1-5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanachu-ek, Suntaree

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of vitamin supplementation in Thai children aged 1-5 years at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health (QSNICH), parental knowledge of vitamins, practices, and related factors such as nutritional status in vitamin supplementation. A cross-sectional study was performed at the Well Child Clinic, QSNICH, from 1-31 May 2005. Five hundred parents of young children, aged 1-5 years were interviewed by using the questionnaire to obtain information regarding knowledge and practices of vitamin supplementation. Weight and length/height were measured and nutritional status was assessed using the Thai growth reference. The relationships among vitamin supplement, nutritional status, and other related factors were analyzed using Chi-square test. The p-value vitamin supplementation was 76%, including vitamin C 62%, multi-vitamin (MTV) 35%, and cod-liver oil 20%. Regarding parental knowledge of vitamins, 57% of them knew the health benefits but 74% did not know the toxic effects of vitamins. The reasons for vitamin supplementation were poor feeding 63%, under-weight 23% and unhealthy status 14%. Vitamins were obtained from over-the-counter 59%, health services 40%, and friends 1%. Vitamin supplementation was significantly higher in children over 2 years of age, whose parents knew the benefits of vitamins, and in those children with malnutrition. The prevalence of vitamin supplementation was high in malnourished children, over 2 years of age whose parents had knowledge about benefits of vitamins. Parents should be warned about the dangers of high dose of vitamin consumption.

  13. A qualitative study of DRG coding practice in hospitals under the Thai Universal Coverage Scheme

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    Winch Peter J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Thai Universal Coverage health insurance scheme, hospital providers are paid for their inpatient care using Diagnosis Related Group-based retrospective payment, for which quality of the diagnosis and procedure codes is crucial. However, there has been limited understandings on which health care professions are involved and how the diagnosis and procedure coding is actually done within hospital settings. The objective of this study is to detail hospital coding structure and process, and to describe the roles of key hospital staff, and other related internal dynamics in Thai hospitals that affect quality of data submitted for inpatient care reimbursement. Methods Research involved qualitative semi-structured interview with 43 participants at 10 hospitals chosen to represent a range of hospital sizes (small/medium/large, location (urban/rural, and type (public/private. Results Hospital Coding Practice has structural and process components. While the structural component includes human resources, hospital committee, and information technology infrastructure, the process component comprises all activities from patient discharge to submission of the diagnosis and procedure codes. At least eight health care professional disciplines are involved in the coding process which comprises seven major steps, each of which involves different hospital staff: 1 Discharge Summarization, 2 Completeness Checking, 3 Diagnosis and Procedure Coding, 4 Code Checking, 5 Relative Weight Challenging, 6 Coding Report, and 7 Internal Audit. The hospital coding practice can be affected by at least five main factors: 1 Internal Dynamics, 2 Management Context, 3 Financial Dependency, 4 Resource and Capacity, and 5 External Factors. Conclusions Hospital coding practice comprises both structural and process components, involves many health care professional disciplines, and is greatly varied across hospitals as a result of five main factors.

  14. Fractional ablative and nonablative radiofrequency for skin resurfacing and rejuvenation of Thai patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanasarnaksorn, Wilai; Siramangkhalanon, Vorapot; Duncan, Diane Irvine; Belenky, Inna

    2018-04-01

    Fractional radiofrequency (RF) technology is often the preferable skin resurfacing treatment, especially among Asian patients. Second generation fractional RF technology has exclusive capability to produce separate biological responses (ablation, coagulation, or a combination of both) with 3 distinguished penetration depth programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a fractional RF handpiece such as this, on the Thai population. Fifty-five Thai patients were treated with a fractional RF handpiece. The clinical assessment included a pain score, satisfaction survey, physician assessment, a combined patient and physician's assessment of skin condition, and clinical photographic assessments. The wound healing response was evaluated according to 5-time points: immediately after applying a pulse, post 24 hours, post 7 days, post 1 month and post 8 weeks. The obtained patient satisfaction score was "very satisfied" among 74% of the patients, post 3 sessions. Positive correlation was found between patient satisfaction and the physician's assessment. The skin condition assessment showed an increase from an average of 4.2 to 7.9. All treated symptoms improved after each treatment and the clinical outcome lasted at least up to 3-5 months. No significant adverse events were recorded. The in vivo prospective study showed a dose-related response in the deepness of the coagulation injury. In addition, there was evidence for a progressive healing process beginning shortly after exposure and completed within a week. This study clinically and histologically supports the efficacy of fractional RF handpiece in question with a high safety profile. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in Thai children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Mahasakpan, Pranee; Jeekeeree, Wanpen; Funkhiew, Thippawan; Sanjum, Rungaroon; Apiwatpaiboon, Thitikarn; Phopueng, Ittipol

    2015-01-01

    Very few studies have shown renal and blood pressure effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. This population study examined associations between urinary cadmium excretion, a good biomarker of long-term cadmium exposure, and renal dysfunctions and blood pressure in environmentally exposed Thai children. Renal functions including urinary excretion of β 2 -microglobulin, calcium (early renal effects), and total protein (late renal effect), and blood pressure were measured in 594 primary school children. Of the children studied, 19.0% had urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine. The prevalence of urinary cadmium ≥1 μg/g creatinine was significantly higher in girls and in those consuming rice grown in cadmium-contaminated areas. The geometric mean levels of urinary β 2 -microglobulin, calcium, and total protein significantly increased with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. The analysis did not show increased blood pressure with increasing tertiles of urinary cadmium. After adjusting for age, sex, and blood lead levels, the analysis showed significant positive associations between urinary cadmium and urinary β 2 -microglobulin and urinary calcium, but not urinary total protein nor blood pressure. Our findings provide evidence that environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children. A follow-up study is essential to assess the clinical significance and progress of renal effects in these children. - Highlights: • Few studies show renal effects from environmental cadmium exposure in children. • We report renal and blood pressure effects from cadmium exposure in Thai children. • Urinary β 2 -microglobulin and calcium increased with increasing urinary cadmium. • The study found no association between urinary cadmium levels and blood pressure. • Environmental cadmium exposure can affect renal functions in children

  16. ThinPrep Pap-smear and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in reproductive-aged Thai women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugpao, S; Koonlertkit, S; Ruengkrist, T; Lamlertkittikul, S; Pinjaroen, S; Limtrakul, A; Werawatakul, Y; Sinchai, W

    2009-06-01

    To estimate the incidence of abnormal cervical cytology by ThinPrep Pap-tests and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in young adult reproductive-aged Thai women. A total of 1254 women distributed in all regions of Thailand were monitored from 2002 through 2004. Women were screened for abnormal cervical cytology using the ThinPrep method every 6 months. Interpretation of cervical cytology was based on the Bethesda system, version 2001. Women who had the ThinPrep Pap results as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse underwent colposcopic examination. The ThinPrep and all cervical tissue samples obtained from diagnostic or therapeutic procedures were analyzed and reviewed by Covance Central Laboratory Service, Inc., Indianapolis, USA. The cumulative incidence of abnormal ThinPrep Pap-tests was as follows: 15.3 per 100 woman years (WY) (95% confidence interval [CI] 12.3, 18.9) at 6 months; 12.3 per 100 WY (95% CI 10.3, 14.6) at 12 months; and 11.6 per 100 WY (95% CI 10.0, 13.5) at 18 months. Of 1448.6 woman years of follow up, the incidence of CIN1 was 4.1 per 100 WY (95% CI 3.2, 5.3); CIN2 0.8 per 100 WY (95% CI 0.4, 1.4); and CIN3 0.6 per 100 WY (95% CI 0.3, 1.2). The incidence of abnormal ThinPrep Pap-test and CIN in young adult Thai women had been reported. No comparable data is available.

  17. Comparative exploration of learning styles and teaching techniques between Thai and Vietnamese EFL students and instructors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supalak Nakhornsri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Learning styles have been a particular focus of a number of researchers over the past decades. Findings from various studies researching into how students learn highlight significant relationships between learners’ styles of learning and their language learning processes and achievement. This research focuses on a comparative analysis of the preferences of English learning styles and teaching techniques perceived by students from Thailand and Vietnam, and the teaching styles and techniques practiced by their instructors. The purposes were 1 to investigate the learning styles and teaching techniques students from both countries preferred, 2 to investigate the compatibility of the teaching styles and techniques practiced by instructors and those preferred by the students, 3 to specify the learning styles and teaching techniques students with high level of English proficiency preferred, and 4 to investigate the similarities of Thai and Vietnamese students’ preferences for learning styles and teaching techniques. The sample consisted of two main groups: 1 undergraduate students from King Mongkut’s University of Technology North Bangkok (KMUTNB, Thailand and Thai Nguyen University (TNU, Vietnam and 2 English instructors from both institutions. The instruments employed comprised the Students’ Preferred English Learning Style and Teaching Technique Questionnaire and the Teachers’ Practiced English Teaching Style and Technique Questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using arithmetic means and standard deviation. The findings can contribute to the curriculum development and assist teachers to teach outside their comfort level to match the students’ preferred learning styles. In addition, the findings could better promote the courses provided for students. By understanding the learning style make-up of the students enrolled in the courses, faculty can adjust their modes of content delivery to match student preferences and maximize

  18. New Thai herbal shampoos as pediculicides for killing head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirawut Sittichok

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of Thai herbal shampoos [Cartoxylum formosum (C. formosum + eucalyptus essential oil (EO, C. formosum + citrus EO, Solanum trilobatum + eucalyptus EO, Solanum trilobatum + citrus EO, Moringa oleifera + eucalyptus EO and Moringa oleifera + citrus EO] for killing all stages of Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera. Methods: A filter paper contact method was applied with three concentrations (0.05, 0.10 and 0.20 mL/cm2 of each Thai herbal shampoo as well as permethrin pediculicide (positive control and drinking water (negative control against eggs, nymphs and adults of Pediculus humanus capitis. Mortality rates of the eggs were recorded after 7 days of incubation while those of nymphs and adults were recorded after 5 minutes of contact. Results: All herbal shampoos at the high concentration were highly effective against nymphs and adults, but not effective against the eggs. C. formosum + eucalyptus EO and C. formosum + citrus EO shampoos at all concentrations exhibited the highest efficacy against nymphs and adults with 100% mortality rate at 5 min and LC50 values of 0.004 and 0.005 mL/cm2, respectively. All formulation of Solanum trilobatum and Moringa oleifera shampoos added with eucalyptus EO showed mortality rates against nymphs at 92.0%-100.0% and 76.0%-100.0% and against adults at 84.0%-100.0% and 20.0%-32.0%, respectively. Permethrin pediculicide was not effective against the eggs, but showed 68.0%-92.0% and 28.0%-60.0% mortality rates against nymphs and adults. Conclusions: These results indicate that C. formosum + eucalyptus EO shampoo can be used as an effective nymphicide and adulticide against Pediculus humanus capitis.

  19. Natural course and predictors of severe disability and death in Thai patients with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmasaroja, Pornpatr A; Lolekha, Praween; Kulkantrakorn, Kongkiat; Charernboon, Thammanard; Watcharakorn, Arvemas; Piyabhan, Pritsana

    2017-12-01

    More than half of patients with dementia lived in countries with low and middle incomes. However, there have been few studies on the natural course of disease in these countries. The purpose of this study was to study the natural course and the predictive factors of advanced stage and death in Thai patients with dementia. Patients with dementia who were treated in neurologic and psychiatric clinic from September 2004 to February 2016, were included. Data about natural course of diseases, behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD) and complications were studied. 207 patients were included. Mean age was 77years old. Mean Thai Mental State Examination (TMSE) was 17.5. Alzheimer's disease was the most common cause of dementia (55%). With the mean follow-up of 39months (range from 2 to 126months), 64% of the patients had BPSD. Sixty-two patients (30%) had complications required admission. Seven patients died. Fifty-four patients (29%) ended in the advanced stage of dementia. Mean duration from diagnosis to the advanced stage was 49months. Complications that required admission usually occurred in moderate to severe dementia and were strongly associated with the advanced stage or death (OR 6.1, 95%CI 2.57-14.49, p-valuedementia in the study. Most demented patients presented in moderate severity of dementia. Mean duration from diagnosis to the advanced stage of dementia was approximate 4-5years. Complications required admissions related to the progression to advanced stage or death. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Social Demography of Transitional Dietary Patterns in Thailand: Prospective Evidence from the Thai Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keren Papier

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, a health-risk transition with changes in diet and lifestyle in low and middle-income countries (LMICs led to an emergence of chronic diseases. These trends in Southeast Asian LMICs are not well studied. Here, we report on transitional dietary patterns and their socio-demographic predictors in Thai adults. Dietary data in 2015 were from a random sub-sample (N = 1075 of 42,785 Thai Cohort Study (TCS members who completed all three TCS surveys (2005, 2009, 2013. Principle Component Analysis identified dietary patterns and multivariable linear regression assessed associations (Beta estimates (ß and confidence intervals (CIs between socio-demographic factors and dietary intake pattern scores. Four dietary patterns emerged: Healthy Transitional, Fatty Western, Highly Processed, and Traditional. In women, higher income (≥30,001 Baht/month vs. ≤10,000 and managerial work (vs. office assistant was associated with lower scores for Traditional (ß = −0.67, 95% CI −1.15, −0.19 and Fatty Western diets (ß = −0.60, 95% CI −1.14, −0.05, respectively. University education associated with lower Highly Processed (ß = −0.57, 95% CI −0.98, −0.17 and higher Traditional diet scores (ß = 0.42, 95% CI 0.03, 0.81. In men and women, urban residence associated with higher Fatty Western and lower Traditional diets. Local policy makers should promote healthy diets, particularly in urban residents, in men, and in low-SEP adults.

  1. A qualitative study of DRG coding practice in hospitals under the Thai Universal Coverage scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpirul, Krit; Walker, Damian G; Winch, Peter J; Robinson, Courtland

    2011-04-08

    In the Thai Universal Coverage health insurance scheme, hospital providers are paid for their inpatient care using Diagnosis Related Group-based retrospective payment, for which quality of the diagnosis and procedure codes is crucial. However, there has been limited understandings on which health care professions are involved and how the diagnosis and procedure coding is actually done within hospital settings. The objective of this study is to detail hospital coding structure and process, and to describe the roles of key hospital staff, and other related internal dynamics in Thai hospitals that affect quality of data submitted for inpatient care reimbursement. Research involved qualitative semi-structured interview with 43 participants at 10 hospitals chosen to represent a range of hospital sizes (small/medium/large), location (urban/rural), and type (public/private). Hospital Coding Practice has structural and process components. While the structural component includes human resources, hospital committee, and information technology infrastructure, the process component comprises all activities from patient discharge to submission of the diagnosis and procedure codes. At least eight health care professional disciplines are involved in the coding process which comprises seven major steps, each of which involves different hospital staff: 1) Discharge Summarization, 2) Completeness Checking, 3) Diagnosis and Procedure Coding, 4) Code Checking, 5) Relative Weight Challenging, 6) Coding Report, and 7) Internal Audit. The hospital coding practice can be affected by at least five main factors: 1) Internal Dynamics, 2) Management Context, 3) Financial Dependency, 4) Resource and Capacity, and 5) External Factors. Hospital coding practice comprises both structural and process components, involves many health care professional disciplines, and is greatly varied across hospitals as a result of five main factors.

  2. Non-seatbelt use and associated factors among Thai drivers during Songkran festival

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Road traffic accidents are the second largest cause of burden of disease in Thailand, largely attributable to behavioural risk factors including drinking and driving, speeding, substance abuse and failure to use seatbelts. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of non-seatbelt use among drivers during Songkran festival in Thailand. Methods A cross-sectional survey has been performed to determine the prevalence of seatbelt use among Thai drivers (N=13722) during four days of the Songkran festival. For this sample the population of drivers was consecutively selected from 12 petrol stations in four provinces from each of the four main geographical regions of Thailand. The study was conducted at petrol stations at roads in town, outside town and highway at different time intervals when trained field staff administered a structured questionnaire and performed an observation checklist on seat belt use. Results An overall prevalence of 28.4% of non-seatbelt use among drivers was found. In multivariable analysis demographics (being male, younger age, coming from the Northern or Southern region in Thailand), environmental factors (earlier during the Songkran festival, in the morning and late evening and on main roads in town), seatbelt use experiences and attitudes (having been in an accident before, never having used a seatbelt, no intention to use a seatbelt, lack of awareness of danger of non-seatbelt use and lower perceived risk of being caught with non-seatbelt use) and lower exposure to road safety awareness (RSA) campaign (less frequent exposure to RSA campaign, less frequent following of RTI statistics and not talking with others about the RSA campaign) were associated with non-seatbelt use. Conclusion Rates of non-seatbelt use by Thai drivers during Songkran festival was 28.4%. Lower exposure to the RSA campaign was found to be associated with non-seatbelt use among drivers during the Songkran festival. PMID:22863275

  3. Thai restructuring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, David

    1999-01-01

    In preparation for its forthcoming privatization, the Petroleum Authority of Thailand (PTT) has announced its plans for restructuring and these are discussed. PTT is involved in exploration and production of natural gas for both the home and overseas markets, oil refining, oil marketing and sales, and petrochemicals. Statistical data on the company's activities are given. PTT operates about 1600 service stations in Thailand but present thinking is that greater profit will accrue from these sites through sales of 'non-oil products'. (UK)

  4. The efficacy and safety of on-demand Elonza; a generic product of sildenafil in Thai men with erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijitsettakul, Udomsak; Pempongkosol, Sompol

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Elonza (generic product of sildenafil) 100 mg, a phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitor, in Thai men with erectile dysfunction (ED). This prospective, Cohort study was conducted for eight weeks. Two hundred ten male patients, older than 20 years of age with ED were enrolled to receive generic product of sildenafil 100 mg taken as needed. Efficacy is evaluated through the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) scores for the five separate response domains, erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire, intercourse satisfaction, and overall satisfaction domain. After sildenafil administration, erectile function domain scores were significantly increased from baseline, 5.02 (p product of sildenafil, was an effective and well-tolerated treatment for ED in Thai men.

  5. Bioindicator Thais carinifera (mollusca, gastropoda: imposex response and consequences along the Pakistan coast during the period from 1993 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuzhat Afsar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Endocrine mediated "imposex" phenomenon was investigated and recorded in the muricoid gastropod species Thais carinifera during the two decades from 1993 to 2012 at three (3 sites out of six (6 localities investigated along the Sindh and Balochistan coast, Pakistan. The VDS stages 1 to 4 were apparent in Thais carinifera. The intensity of imposex has remained comparatively low in the populations of harbours in close proximity to port Mohammad Bin-Qasim, namely; Old Korangi Fish Harbour (OKFH and New Korangi Fish Harbour (NKFH where shipping activities are sporadic as compared to those in Manora Channel and the adjoining Karachi Port area where intensive shipping activity is rather frequent. Target species found to be good bioindicators have shown a marked decrease over the prolonged study period. Investigations show that this decrease is solely due to globally imposed effective bans on tributyltin (TBT based antifouling paints over the past decade.

  6. Construct validity of the Thai version of the job content questionnaire in a large population of heterogeneous occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phakthongsuk, Pitchaya

    2009-04-01

    To test the construct validity of the Thai version of the job content questionnaire (TJCQ). The present descriptive study recruited 10415 participants from all occupations according to the International Standard Classification of Occupations. The instrument consisted of a 48-item of the job content questionnaire. Eight items newly developed by the authors from in-depth interviews were added. Exploratory factor analysis showed six factor models of work hazards, decision latitude, psychological demand, social support, physical demand, and job security. However, supervisor and co-worker support were not distinguished into two factors and some items distributed differently along the factors extracted. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the construct of six latent factors, although the overall fit was moderately acceptable. Cronbach's alpha coefficients higher than 0.7, supported the internal consistency of TJCQ scales except for job security (0.55). These findings suggest that TJCQ is valid and reliable for assessing job stress among Thai populations.

  7. Effects of prosody on spoken Thai word perception in pre-attentive brain processing: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittipun Arunphalungsanti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of the unfamiliar stressed prosody on spoken Thai word perception in the pre-attentive processing of the brain evaluated by the N2a and brain wave oscillatory activity. EEG recording was obtained from eleven participants, who were instructed to ignore the sound stimuli while watching silent movies. Results showed that prosody of unfamiliar stress word perception elicited N2a component and the quantitative EEG analysis found that theta and delta wave powers were principally generated in the frontal area. It was possible that the unfamiliar prosody with different frequencies, duration and intensity of the sound of Thai words induced highly selective attention and retrieval of information from the episodic memory of the pre-attentive stage of speech perception. This brain electrical activity evidence could be used for further study in the development of valuable clinical tests to evaluate the frontal lobe function in speech perception.

  8. The Social Shaping of Environmental Mangement based on ISO 14001 in Danish and Thai Textile and Garment Sectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Chandrachai, A.; Bunbongkarn, C.

    2003-01-01

    The social shaping of ISO 14001 in Danish and Thai textile and garment sectors is discussed based on Danish case studies and evaluations and a Thai focus group interview. The precentage of ISO 14001 certified companies in the sectors are five times higher in Denmark, but covers only around 5...... about the interpretation of the regulation. In Denmark problems with the balance between consultant support and company-internal competence development are seen. The focus of ISO 14001 is more life cycle oriented in Denmark due to international policy and the manufacturing of textile and garment outside...... Denmark. A combined focus on ISO 14001 covering the interests of the companies in industrialised, developing and newly industrialised countries might be found through negotiations....

  9. Determination of acrylamide in Thai-conventional snacks from Nong Mon market, Chonburi using GC-MS technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komthong, P; Suriyaphan, O; Charoenpanich, J

    2012-01-01

    Acrylamide in Thai-conventional snacks was analysed by GC/MS with a linear response ranged of 5-50 µg and r² > 0.99. The limit of detection (s/n = 3) and limit of quantification (s/n = 10) were 4 and 15 µg kg⁻¹, respectively, and RSD Chinese wonton. Acrylamide was lowest (tourists indicate a daily intake of acrylamide <150 ng, well below a toxic dose.

  10. Cross-age comparison of meanings and motives toward luxury consumption among Thai baby boomer and generation Y consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Viriyopas, Khanitha

    2013-01-01

    The growth of luxury markets have been expanded worldwide since the past until today. It cannot be denied that Asian markets have been valuable markets for several global luxury brands as a significant rise in emerging markets of these Asian countries. Thailand has been one of them. With consequences of higher standard of living and more openness to globalisation trends, Thailand has become one of growing and profitable luxury market. These luxury brands have been attractive to various Thai c...

  11. Validity and Reliability of Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Thai Version (ASRS-V1.1 TH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiatrungrit, Komsan; Putthisri, Suwannee; Hongsanguansri, Sirichai; Wisajan, Pattaraporn; Jullagate, Sudawan

    2017-08-25

    The adult ADHD Self-Report Scale Thai version (ASRS-V1.1) (18 items) is a questionnaire for screening adult ADHD. To test the validity and reliability of the 18-question ASRS-V1.1 Thai version (ASRS-V1.1 TH) as a screening tool for adult ADHD. The original 18-question ASRS-V1.1 version was translated into Thai. The process was composed of forward-translation, synthesis of the translation, and back translation. Cross cultural adaptation, field testing, and final adjustment were completed consecutively. The 18-question ASRS-V1.1 TH were sent to 1,500 parents of kindergarten and elementary school students in Bangkok, Thailand. The diagnostic interview was randomly selected for 50 parents from the positive result group and 50 parents from the negative result group. The clinical interview for confirming diagnosis was run by 3 psychiatrists who were blinded to the results and used DSM-5 ADHD criteria for diagnosis. The 18-question ASRS-V1.1 TH had satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.92: Cronbach's alpha = 0.87 for inattentive scale, Cronbach's alpha = 0.84 for hyperactive / impulsive scale). For testing the criteria validity, the questionnaire has an adequate. The AUC from the first 6 questions was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.68-0.92) while from the 18 questions was 0.71(95% CI: 0.55-0.86). The 18-question ASRS-V1.1TH is a psychometrically reliable and valid measure for screening adult ADHD in Thai clinical samples, especially the first 6 questions of the questionnaire.

  12. An Evaluation of Organisation Processes Associated with the Transition to a more Internationalised Campus: an Investigation in Thai Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Chaiprasit, Kanokporn

    2013-01-01

    This thesis explores the endeavours by managements in Thai universities to facilitate the changes needed to achieve more internationalised campuses. Globalisation has resulted in pressure on universities worldwide to change many aspects of their services in order to respond to student demand and mobility. In addition Higher Education in Thailand is already being affected by the pressures being brought about by the introduction of the new requirements of the Association of South East Asi...

  13. Finding of key factors in creating small business system’s success : The case study in Thai restaurants in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Maleekaew, Chiraluck; Sudthamnong, Sirinun

    2007-01-01

    Research Questions: Which factors are the actual impacts for the success of Thai restaurant in Sweden? Aims of Research: To investigate the key factors that may cause the success within a restaurant. The success of the restaurant in this research is a restaurant that has positive financial result, revenue more than cost. Positive financial result shows that they manage the quality of the restaurant effectively. Methodology: This thesis studies and analyzes the variables and factors in process...

  14. Application of the Extended Theory of Planned Behavior Model to Investigate Purchase Intention of Green Products among Thai Consumers

    OpenAIRE

    Kamonthip Maichum; Surakiat Parichatnon; Ke-Chung Peng

    2016-01-01

    Green products are among the widely used products worldwide due to their environmental benefits. However, information on the consumers’ purchase intention towards green products in developing countries, such as Thailand, is lacking. This study aims to investigate Thai consumers who are aged over 18 years, and whose base education is high school, on purchase intention for green products by using an extended framework of the theory of planned behavior (TPB). We derived and examined the model th...

  15. The reliability, validity and responsiveness of the Thai version of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Quality of Life (SLEQOL-TH) instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasitanon, N; Wangkaew, S; Puntana, S; Sukitawut, W; Leong, K P; Louthrenoo, W

    2013-03-01

    The English version of the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Quality of Life Questionnaire (SLEQOL) is a validated disease-specific quality of life instrument. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Thai version of the SLEQOL (SLEQOL-TH). Two independent translators translated the SLEQOL into Thai. The back translation of this version was performed by two other independent translators. The final version, SLEQOL-TH, was completed after resolving the discrepancies revealed by the back translation. One hundred and nine patients with SLE were enrolled to test the reliability, construct validity, floor and ceiling effects, and sensitivity to the changes of the SLEQOL-TH at six months. The differential item functioning (DIF) between the Thai and English versions was analyzed using the partial gamma. The internal consistency of the SLEQOL-TH was satisfactory with the overall Cronbach's alpha of 0.86. The test-retest reliability of the SLEQOL-TH was acceptable with the intra-class correlation coefficient of 0.86. Low correlations between the SLEQOL-TH and SLEDAI were observed. The total score of the SLEQOL-TH was moderately responsive to changes in quality of life, with a standardized response mean of 0.50. When comparing the SLEQOL-TH from Thai SLE patients with the original SLEQOL version obtained from Singapore SLE patients, 11 out of 40 items showed a moderate to large DIF. The SLEQOL-TH has acceptable psychometric properties and shows construct validity. In comparison with the English version of SLEQOL, there are some items that showed DIF. The applicability of the SLEQOL-TH in real-life clinical practice and clinical trials needs to be determined.

  16. Development and validation of a Thai stressful life events rating scale for patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenic methamphetamine abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Ek-uma Imkome; JintanaYunibhand; Waraporn Chaiyawat

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to psychometrically test a Thai Stressful Life Events Rating Scale (TSLERS). Factor analysis was done on data collected from 313 patients with schizophrenia and methamphetamine abuse in Thailand from April to May, 2015. Results identified the following problems impacting physical and mental health: social relationship and social concerns, money, family life, life security, and career. Evaluation of the psychometric scale properties demonstrated acceptable validity ...

  17. Tsunami and ghost stories in Thailand: exploring the psychology of ghosts and religious rituals within the context of Thai Buddhism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorajjakool, Siroj

    2007-01-01

    The post-tsunami ghost phenomena in Thailand may be understood, in Jungian terms, as an expression of the autonomous complex of the collective psyche resulting from traumatic loss. Religious rituals, as in the context of Thai Buddhism, provide an alternative method of dealing with grief, and hence they affirm the place of religious practices in the overall psychological well-being of people from various cultural backgrounds.

  18. Motorická výkonnost závodníků Muay-Thai

    OpenAIRE

    Bělský, Dalibor

    2006-01-01

    Název práce: Motorická yýkonnost závodníků Muay-Thai Title: Motor performance ofMuay-Thai competitors Cíl práce: Cílem diplomové práce je na základě standardizované baterie obecných motorických testů porovnat obecnou motorickou výkonnost závodníků Muay - Thai (Thajského boxu) a posoudit vliv této motorické výkonnosti na výkonnost specifickou. Metoda: Všichni závodníci byli měřeni stejnou baterií testů. Použitá baterie testů obsahuje: člunkový běh 4x10m, počet shybů, leh/sed za lmin., skok dal...

  19. Can total knee arthroplasty (TKA) achieve its goal in knee flexion floor activity of Thai Buddhist monks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sresuriyasawad, Viriya

    2012-10-01

    To study knee's angulation required for Thai Buddhist monks whose activity based on floor sitting basis. And to identify an inter-observer reliability of knee flexion measurement based on radiologic reading. Descriptive analysis study comprised of measuring bilateral knee flexing angulation in 4 postures of floor activities; kneeling, monk's position in both right and left manner and sit cross-legged position, in 35 Thai Buddhist monks at Priest Hospital using plain radiograph image. The radiograph imaging for each patient was performed by one radiologist and two orthopedics. The measurement result was also analyzed for inter-observer reliability. Mean knee flexion angle in kneel, left monk's position, right monk's position and sit cross-legged postures were 163.21, 146.49, 148.89 and 138.38 degree, respectively. No statistical difference between knee flexion measurements among 3 investigators. Daily floor activity of Thai Buddhist monks need more flexion capacity than that can achieve by total knee arthroplasty instrument using nowadays.

  20. ``Low-cost Electronic nose evaluated on Thai-herb of Northern-Thailand samples using multivariate analysis methods''

    Science.gov (United States)

    na ayudhaya, Paisarn Daungjak; Klinbumrung, Arrak; Jaroensutasinee, Krisanadej; Pratontep, Sirapat; Kerdcharoen, Teerakiat

    2009-05-01

    In case of species of natural and aromatic plant originated from the northern Thailand, sensory characteristics, especially odours, have unique identifiers of herbs. The instruments sensory analysis have performed by several of differential of sensing, so call `electronic nose', to be a significantly and rapidly for chemometrics. The signal responses of the low cost electronic nose were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA). The aims of this paper evaluated various of Thai-herbs grown in Northern of Thailand as data preprocessing tools of the Low-cost electronic nose (enNU-PYO1). The essential oil groups of Thai herbs such as Garlic, Lemongrass, Shallot (potato onion), Onion, Zanthoxylum limonella (Dennst.) Alston (Thai name is Makaen), and Kaffir lime leaf were compared volatilized from selected fresh herbs. Principal component analysis of the original sensor responses did clearly distinguish either all samples. In all cases more than 97% for cross-validated group were classified correctly. The results demonstrated that it was possible to develop in a model to construct a low-cost electronic nose to provide measurement of odoriferous herbs.

  1. Comparison of the reliability of parental reporting and the direct test of the Thai Speech and Language Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prathanee, Benjamas; Angsupakorn, Nipa; Pumnum, Tawitree; Seepuaham, Cholada; Jaiyong, Pechcharat

    2012-11-01

    To find reliability of parental or caregiver's report and testing of the Thai Speech and Language Test for Children Aged 0-4 Years Old. Five investigators assessed speech and language abilities from video both contexts: parental or caregivers' report and test forms of Thai Speech and Language Test for Children Aged 0-4 Years Old. Twenty-five normal and 30 children with delayed development or risk for delayed speech and language skills were assessed at age intervals of 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 24, 30, 36 and 48 months. Reliability of parental or caregivers' testing and reporting was at a moderate level (0.41-0.60). Inter-rater reliability among investigators was excellent (0.86-1.00). The parental or caregivers' report form of the Thai Speech and Language test for Children aged 0-4 years old was an indicator for success at a moderate level. Trained professionals could use both forms of this test as reliable tools at an excellent level.

  2. Diphtheria outbreak in Thailand, 2012; seroprevalence of diphtheria antibodies among Thai adults and its implications for immunization programs.

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    Wanlapakorn, Nasamon; Yoocharoen, Pornsak; Tharmaphornpilas, Piyanit; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong

    2014-09-01

    An age distribution shift in diphtheria cases during a 2012 outbreak in northeastern of Thailand suggests adults are increasingly at risk for infection in Thailand. Data regarding immunity against diphtheria among the adult Thai population is limited. We review a 2012 diphtheria outbreak in Thailand and conducted a nationwide seroepidemiological survey to determine the prevalence of diphtheria antibodies among Thai adults in order to inform immunization programs. A total of 41 confirmed cases, 6 probable cases and 101 carriers of diphtheria were reported from northeastern and upper southern Thailand. The diphtheria outbreak in northeastern Thailand occurred among adults aged > or =15 years; sporadic cases occurred among children from upper southern Thailand. We conducted a seroepidemiological survey of 890 Thai adults from 4 age groups (20-29, 30-39, 40-49 and 50-59 years) in 7 different geographical areas of Thailand (Chiang Mai, Ratchaburi, Chon Buri, Nakhon Si Thammarat, Phitsanulok, Khon Kaen and Songkhla). Diptheria toxin antibody levels were measured with a commercially available ELISA test. The seroprotection rate ranged from 83% to 99%, with the highest in eastern Thailand (Chon Buri, 99%) and the lowest in northern Thailand (Chiang Mai, 83%). Diphtheria antibodies declined with increasing age. We recommend one doseof diphtheria-tetanus toxoid (dT) vaccine once after 20 years of age in order to boost the antibody and revaccinations every 10 years to prevent future outbreaks.

  3. Prevalence of Diabetes and Relationship with Socioeconomic Status in the Thai Population: National Health Examination Survey, 2004–2014

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    Wichai Aekplakorn

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence and trend of diabetes, related glycemic control, and influential socioeconomic (SES factors in the Thai population aged ≥20 years during 2004–2014. Methods. Data from the Thai National Health Examination Survey 2004, 2009, and 2014 were used. Age-adjusted prevalence was calculated, and the associations of education levels with prevalence of diabetes and glycemic control were examined using logistic regression. Results. Age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes increased from 7.7% in 2004 to 7.8% in 2009 and 9.9% in 2014 (8.9% among men and 10.8% among women. Proportions of undiagnosed diabetes were slightly decreased but remained high in 2014 (51.2% for men and 41.3% for women. Diabetes prevalence was higher among those with primary education in both sexes; however, undiagnosed diabetes was higher among women with secondary and university educations. The percentages of those treated and controlled slightly improved among men (45.9% but not among women (36.4%. Unmet glycemic control was also higher among women with secondary education levels and among men with university-level educations. Conclusions. Epidemic diabetes continues to grow in the Thai population, particularly in individuals with lower educational attainment. Measures to detect new cases and strengthen glycemic control should be scaled up.

  4. Suicide risk among Thai illicit drug users with and without mental/alcohol use disorders

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    Kittirattanapaiboon P

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Phunnapa Kittirattanapaiboon,1 Sirijit Suttajit,2 Boonsiri Junsirimongkol,1 Surinporn Likhitsathian,2 Manit Srisurapanont2 1Department of Mental Health, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand; 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Background: It is not yet known if the increased risk of suicide in substance abusers is caused by the causal and/or coexisting relationship between substance use and psychiatric disorders. This study was designed to estimate the suicide risk among individuals with illicit drug use alone, illicit drug users with mental disorders, and illicit drug users with alcohol use disorders. Methods: Subjects were participants of the 2008 Thai National Mental Health Survey. They were asked for their illicit drug use in the past year. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI, current suicidality (1 month prior to assessment, mood episodes, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, and alcohol use disorders were used for assessing mental/alcohol use disorders. A score of 1 or more for the MINI–Suicidality module was defined as the presence of suicide risk. Results: Of the total 17,140 respondents, 537 currently used illicit drugs, while 1,194 respondents had a suicide risk. Common illicit drugs were kratom (59% and (methamphetamine (24%. Compared with 16,603 Thais without illicit drug use, the illicit drug users with or without mental/alcohol use disorders (n=537 had an increased risk of suicide (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.09, 1.55–2.81. While those who used illicit drugs alone (no mental/alcohol use disorder (n=348 had no increased risk of suicide (adjusted OR, 95% CI =1.04, 0.66–1.65, the illicit drug users with mental or alcohol use disorders (n=27 and n=162, respectively had significantly increased risk of suicide (adjusted ORs, 95% CIs =14.06, 6.50–30.3 and 3.14, 1.98–4.99, respectively. Conclusion: A key

  5. Prevalence of Vitamin D insufficiency and low bone mineral density in elderly Thai nursing home residents

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    Kruavit Anuk

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous emerging data from research on osteoporosis among Asians found differences from Caucasians. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and osteoporosis in elderly participants from two nursing homes in Thailand, a country located near the equator. Methods The subjects of this cross-sectional study comprised 93 elderly Thai women who were living in institutional long-term nursing homes for the aged. Demographic data, daily food and calcium intake, physical activity, and sunlight exposure were measured. Lumbar spine and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD and biochemical levels including serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] and bone turnover markers were assessed. Vitamin D insufficiency was defined as 25(OHD level  Results The mean age of subjects was 75.2 ± 6.0 (SD years. Dietary calcium intake was low (322 ± 158 mg/day The mean 25(OHD level was 64.3 ± 14.9 nmol/L and the prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency was 38.7% (95% CI: 28.8%, 49.4%. There was no correlation between serum 25(OHD concentrations and age (r = −.11, p = 0.3. The mean BMD of lumbar spine and femoral neck were 0.92 ± 0.19 and 0.65 ± 0.10 g/cm2, respectively. Nearly a half of the subjects had osteopenia (44.1%, 95% CI: 33.8%, 54.8% and osteoporosis (47.3%, 95% CI: 36.9%, 57.9%. Circulating C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx level correlated significantly with both lumbar spine (r = −0.26, p = 0.01 and femoral neck BMD (r = −0.25, p = 0.02. Conclusions More than one-third of Thai elderly women residing in nursing homes had vitamin D insufficiency. Almost all nursing home residents had osteoporosis and/or osteopenia.

  6. Anticancer activities against cholangiocarcinoma, toxicity and pharmacological activities of Thai medicinal plants in animal models.

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    Plengsuriyakarn, Tullayakorn; Viyanant, Vithoon; Eursitthichai, Veerachai; Picha, Porntipa; Kupradinun, Piengchai; Itharat, Arunporn; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2012-03-27

    Chemotherapy of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a devastating cancer with increasing worldwide incidence and mortality rates, is largely ineffective. The discovery and development of effective chemotherapeutics is urgently needed. The study aimed at evaluating anticancer activities, toxicity, and pharmacological activities of the curcumin compound (CUR), the crude ethanolic extracts of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Ginger: ZO) and Atractylodes lancea thung. DC (Khod-Kha-Mao: AL), fruits of Piper chaba Hunt. (De-Plee: PC), and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai formulation (a mixture of parts of 18 Thai medicinal plants: PPF) were investigated in animal models. Anti-cholangiocarcinoma (anti-CCA) was assessed using CCA-xenograft nude mouse model. The antihypertensive, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and anti-ulcer activities and effects on motor coordination were investigated using Rota-rod test, CODA tail-cuff system, writhing and hot plate tests, carrageenan-induced paw edema test, brewer's yeast test, and alcohol-induced gastric ulcer test, respectively. Acute and subacute toxicity tests were performed according to the OECD guideline for testing of chemicals with modification. Promising anticancer activity against CCA in nude mouse xenograft model was shown for the ethanolic extract of AL at all oral dose levels (1000, 3000, and 5000 mg/kg body weight) as well as the extracts of ZO, PPF, and CUR compound at the highest dose level (5000, 4000, and 5000 mg/kg body weight, respectively). PC produced no significant anti-CCA activity. Results from acute and subacute toxicity tests both in mice and rats indicate safety profiles of all the test materials in a broad range of dose levels. No significant toxicity except stomach irritation and general CNS depressant signs were observed. Investigation of pharmacological activities of the test materials revealed promising anti-inflammatory (ZO, PPF, and AL), analgesic (CUR and PPF), antipyretic (CUR and AL), antihypertensive (ZO

  7. GABA content and Antioxidant activity of Thai waxy corn seeds germinated by hypoxia method

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    Pisamai Polthum

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Germinated seeds have a greater amount of the naturally-occurring -aminobutyric acid (GABA which has many health benefits. Further, colored seeds have higher antioxidant activity. Thai waxy corn is widely consumed after cooking, due to its palatable glutinous texture. However, it is not commonly germinated before use. In this study, two varieties of Thai waxy corn, KKU-KND (purple seed and KKU-SLE (white seed, were germinated and converted to corn flour with the aim of investigating the effect of germination on GABA content and antioxidant activity. Further, the microstructure of starch granules was also examined. KKU-KND and KKU-SLE were grown and harvested in 2012. The seeds were soaked in distilled water for 6 hrs to attain a moisture content of 31-32%wb and then germinated by employing two methods, i in an open plastic box, and ii in a closed plastic box with a headspace of 3 cm for devoid oxygen (hypoxia method; the germination period varied between 12-48 hrs at 35±2°C in both cases. The germinated samples were then dried at 50°C to a moisture content of 10±2%wb. The results showed that non-germinated KKU-KND and KKU-SLE contained 2.68±0.77 and 1.58±0.05 mgGABA/ 100gdb, respectively, whereas the samples germinated by the hypoxia method contained significantly higher GABA which increased with germination time (p<0.05. The highest GABA contents found in KKU-KND and KKU-SLE were 37.20±3.27 and 54.47±2.08 mg/100gdb, respectively after 48 hrs of germination under the hypoxia method. In addition, the germinated KKU-KND gave ABTS and DPPH values of 388.32±0.53 and 140.29±0.57 mgTrolox/100gdb, whereas the germinated KKU-SLE gave ABTS and DPPH values of 183.69±1.75 and 38.43±1.64 mgTrolox/100gdb, respectively. The pictures of starch granules obtained by means of SEM displayed differences in the shape and size of the non-germinated and germinated granules in both verities. In conclusion, the hypoxia method is able to induce higher GABA

  8. Struggling with motherhood and coping with fatherhood - A grounded theory study among Thai teenagers.

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    Sriyasak, Atcharawadee; Almqvist, Anna-Lena; Sridawruang, Chaweewan; Neamsakul, Wanwadee; Häggström-Nordin, Elisabet

    2016-11-01

    to gain a deeper understanding of Thai teenage parents' perspectives, experiences and reasoning about becoming and being a teenage parent from a gender perspective. an exploratory design using grounded theory methodology. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. An interview guide was developed, a pilot study was undertaken, and interviews were performed on two different occasions: once during the second trimester of pregnancy and again when the infant was 5-6 months old. a province in the western part of Thailand. the selection of a heterogeneous group of teenage parents-to-be continued until saturation was reached, as describe by Glaser and Strauss (1967), in all n=50. Inclusion criteria for participants were that they were heterosexual couples, under 20 years of age, cohabiting, and expecting their first child. the core category 'struggling with motherhood and coping with fatherhood' comprises descriptions of the process from when the teenagers first learned about the pregnancy until the child was six months old. The teenagers had failed to use contraceptives which led to an unintended parenthood. Their parenthood became a turning point as the teenagers started to change their behaviours and lifestyle during pregnancy, and adapted their relationships to partner and family. Family commitments was a facilitator, through support given by their families. Finally, becoming a parent describes ways of dealing with the parental role, by engaging in parental activities and reestablishing goals in life. Most of the teenage parents reproduced traditional gender roles by being a caring mother or a breadwinning father respectively. 'struggling with motherhood and coping with fatherhood' referred to the parents' stories about how they struggled and coped with life changes and their parental role when they became unintentionally pregnant, accepted their parenting, and finally became parents. After becoming parents, the main concerns of most of the teenage parents

  9. Assessment of hepatitis C virus infection in two adjacent Thai provinces with drastically different seroprevalence.

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    Rujipat Wasitthankasem

    Full Text Available Improved awareness of the hepatitis C virus (HCV transmission has contributed to the overall decline in the HCV infection rate in some developing countries including Thailand. Chronic HCV infection in some rural Thai communities, however, presents a challenge in the efforts to treat and manage HCV-related diseases. Published and unpublished studies have suggested an unusually high incidence of HCV infection in a Thai province of Phetchabun compared to elsewhere in Thailand. To determine the magnitude of HCV infection and identify potential factors contributing to the higher rate of HCV infection in this province, we performed a population-based study in Phetchabun (n = 1667 and the neighboring Khon Kaen province (n = 1410 where HCV prevalence is much lower. Individuals between 30 and 64 years old completed detailed questionnaires designed to identify HCV risk factors and provided blood samples for anti-HCV antibody screening. The anti-HCV seropositive rates were 15.5% (259/1667 in Phetchabun and 3.6% (51/1410 in Khon Kaen. Positive samples were subsequently genotyped for HCV core gene sequence and assessed for the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg and human immunodeficiency virus antigen/antibody (HIV Ag/Ab. More individuals in Phetchabun possessed the combined presence of HBsAg (5.0% and HIV Ag/Ab (0.4% than those in Khon Kaen (3.9% HBsAg and 0.0% HIV Ag/Ab. While male gender, intravenous drug use (IVDU and tattoos were significant HCV risk factors in both provinces (p <0.05, education less than high school and agriculture-related occupation were additionally associated with HCV in Phetchabun. HCV genotypes 6, 3, and 1 were identified in similar frequency in both provinces. We estimated that prevalence of HCV seropositivity and viremic carriers were higher in Phetchabun (143 and 111 per 1000 than in Khon Kaen (34 and 22 per 1000. Finally, we derived a simple risk factor-based scoring system as a useful preclinical tool to screen

  10. Suicide risk among Thai illicit drug users with and without mental/alcohol use disorders

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    Kittirattanapaiboon, Phunnapa; Suttajit, Sirijit; Junsirimongkol, Boonsiri; Likhitsathian, Surinporn; Srisurapanont, Manit

    2014-01-01

    Background It is not yet known if the increased risk of suicide in substance abusers is caused by the causal and/or coexisting relationship between substance use and psychiatric disorders. This study was designed to estimate the suicide risk among individuals with illicit drug use alone, illicit drug users with mental disorders, and illicit drug users with alcohol use disorders. Methods Subjects were participants of the 2008 Thai National Mental Health Survey. They were asked for their illicit drug use in the past year. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), current suicidality (1 month prior to assessment), mood episodes, anxiety disorders, psychotic disorders, and alcohol use disorders were used for assessing mental/alcohol use disorders. A score of 1 or more for the MINI–Suicidality module was defined as the presence of suicide risk. Results Of the total 17,140 respondents, 537 currently used illicit drugs, while 1,194 respondents had a suicide risk. Common illicit drugs were kratom (59%) and (meth)amphetamine (24%). Compared with 16,603 Thais without illicit drug use, the illicit drug users with or without mental/alcohol use disorders (n=537) had an increased risk of suicide (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI] =2.09, 1.55–2.81). While those who used illicit drugs alone (no mental/alcohol use disorder) (n=348) had no increased risk of suicide (adjusted OR, 95% CI =1.04, 0.66–1.65), the illicit drug users with mental or alcohol use disorders (n=27 and n=162, respectively) had significantly increased risk of suicide (adjusted ORs, 95% CIs =14.06, 6.50–30.3 and 3.14, 1.98–4.99, respectively). Conclusion A key limitation of this study was the combined suicidal behaviors as a suicidality risk. Mental or alcohol use disorders found in this population actually increased the suicide risk. These findings support the coexisting relationship that mental and alcohol use disorders play a vital role in increasing the suicide

  11. Idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy in Thai patients with clinical and angiographic choroidal neovascularization

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    Bhoomibunchoo C

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Chavakij Bhoomibunchoo,1 Yosanan Yospaiboon,1 Somanus Thoongsuwan,2 Duangnate Rojanaporn,3 Nawat Watanachai,4 Pichai Jirarattanasopa,5 Nattapon Wongcumchang,6 Atchara Amphornphruet,7 Sritatath Vongkulsiri,8 Eakkachai Arayangkoon9 1Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 5Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, 6Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Thammasat University, Pathum Thani, 7Department of Ophthalmology, Rajavithi Hospital, Bangkok, 8Department of Ophthalmology, Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok, 9Department of Ophthalmology, Mettapracharak Hospital, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand Objective: This study aimed to study the prevalence and characteristics of idiopathic polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (IPCV in Thai patients with clinical and angiographic choroidal neovascularization (CNV.Patients and methods: A consecutive case study of 140 patients presenting with CNV was conducted in nine large referral eye centers throughout Thailand. The demographic data, fundus photographs, fundus fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography of the patients were analyzed.Results: Of 129 patients with clinical and angiographic CNV, IPCV was diagnosed in 100 patients (77.52%, idiopathic CNVs in 16 patients (12.40% and age-related macular degeneration (AMD in 12 patients (9.30%. Of the 107 eyes with IPCV, 90 eyes (84.11% had both branching venous networks (BVNs and polypoidal lesions. Most IPCV patients (93% had unilateral involvement and were at a younger age than AMD patients. In all, 79 eyes (73.83% had lesions found in the macular area, 14 eyes (13.08% in the

  12. Association of ABCB1 C3435T polymorphism with phenobarbital resistance in Thai patients with epilepsy.

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    Keangpraphun, T; Towanabut, S; Chinvarun, Y; Kijsanayotin, P

    2015-06-01

    One-third of patients with epilepsy are resistant to anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Drug-resistant epilepsy is believed to be multifactorial involving both genetic and non-genetic factors. Genetic variations in the ABCB1 gene encoding the drug efflux transporter, p-glycoprotein (p-gp), may influence the interindividual variability in AED response by limiting drugs from reaching their target. Phenobarbital (PB), one of the most cost-effective and widely used AEDs in developing countries, has been reported to be transported by p-gp. This study aimed to investigate the association of a genetic variant, ABCB1 3435C>T, and non-genetic factors with phenobarbital response in Thai patients with epilepsy. One hundred and ten Thai patients with epilepsy who were treated with PB maintenance doses were enrolled in this study. Two phenotypic groups, PB-responsive epilepsy and PB-resistant epilepsy, were defined according to the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) criteria. Subjects were genotyped for ABCB1 3435C>T (rs1045642). Multiple logistic regression analysis was tested for the association of ABCB1 3435C>T polymorphism and non-genetic factors with PB response. Sixty-two PB-responsive epilepsy subjects and 48 PB-resistant epilepsy subjects were identified. All genotype frequencies of the ABCB1 3435C>T SNP were consistent with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P > 0·05). The ABCB1 3435C>T polymorphism and type of epilepsy were associated with response to PB. Patients with PB-resistant epilepsy had a significantly higher frequency of ABCB1 3435CC genotype and had focal epilepsy more often than patients with PB-responsive epilepsy (adjusted OR = 3·962, 95% CI = 1·075-14·610, P-value = 0·039; adjusted OR = 5·936, 95% CI = 2·272-15·513, P-value phenobarbital. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Effects of Personal Intelligence Reading Instruction on personal intelligence profiles of Thai university students

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    Salila Vongkrahchang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the impact of reading instruction using personal intelligence (PI on Thai university students' PI profiles. Thirty-nine undergraduates majoring in English involved in the study for ten weeks. Their PI profiles were measured twice at the pre-and post-interventions. The mixed methods research design was employed. The results showed that the students developed more personal intelligence in the post-intervention profiles (x¯ = 2.72, SD = 0.80 than in their pre-intervention ones (x¯ = 2.54, SD = 0.82. The students showed a preference for intrapersonal intelligence, in goal setting (x¯ = 2.85, SD = 0.78, monitoring (x¯ = 2.85, SD = 0.74, and evaluation strategy (x¯ = 3.21, SD = 0.77. Their interaction assessed by classroom observation and student worksheets also highlighted the PI profile findings. Personal Intelligence Reading Instruction facilitated the students setting specific and achievable goals, making overt and doable plans for their reading tasks, adjusting strategies helping them understand the text better, and identifying sources of difficulties while reading.

  14. Thai Elephant-Assisted Therapy Programme in Children with Down Syndrome.

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    Satiansukpong, Nuntanee; Pongsaksri, Maethisa; Sasat, Daranee

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of the Thai Elephant-Assisted Therapy Programme for children with Down syndrome (DS) (TETP-D) on balance, postural control and visual motor integration (VMI). A quasi-experimental design with blind control was used. Sixteen children with DS from grades 1 to 6, in a Thailand, public school were recruited for this study. The participants were divided voluntarily into two groups: control and experimental. These both groups received regular school activities, but the experimental group had added treatment, which consisted of TETP-D twice a week for 2 months. The balance subtest of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2, the postural control record form and Beery VMI were applied as outcome measure 1 week before and after the TETP-D. The results showed no significant difference in balance or postural control. However, a significant difference of VMI was shown between the two groups (z = 13.5, p = .04). Children with DS benefited from the TETP-D as it improved their VMI. The TETP-D could improve balance and postural control if provided within a suitable frequency and duration. Further research is needed to test this hypothesis. The limitations of this study are the significant differences in some aspects of the groups at pre-test such as gender and supine flexion of postural control. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Effects of Extracts from Thai Piperaceae Plants against Infection with Toxoplasma gondii.

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    Arpron Leesombun

    Full Text Available Herbal medicines and natural herb extracts are widely used as alternative treatments for various parasitic diseases, and such extracts may also have potential to decrease the side effects of the standard regimen drugs used to treat toxoplasmosis (sulfadiazine-pyrimethamine combination. We evaluated how effective the Thai piperaceae plants Piper betle, P. nigrum and P. sarmentosum are against Toxoplasma gondii infection in vitro and in vivo. Individually, we extracted the piperaceae plants with ethanol, passed them through a rotary evaporator and then lyophilized them to obtain crude extracts for each one. The in vitro study indicated that the P. betle extract was the most effective extract at inhibiting parasite growth in HFF cells (IC50 on RH-GFP: 23.2 μg/mL, IC50 on PLK-GFP: 21.4 μg/mL. Furthermore, treatment of experimental mice with the P. betle extract for 7 days after infection with 1,000 tachyzoites of the T. gondii PLK strain increased their survival (survival rates: 100% in 400 mg/kg-treated, 83.3% in 100 mg/kg-treated, 33.3% in 25 mg/kg-treated, 33.3% in untreated mice. Furthermore, treatment with 400 mg/kg of the P. betle extract resulted in 100% mouse survival following infection with 100,000 tachyzoites. The present study shows that P. betle extract has the potential to act as a medical plant for the treatment of toxoplasmosis.

  16. Effects of Extracts from Thai Piperaceae Plants against Infection with Toxoplasma gondii

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    Leesombun, Arpron; Boonmasawai, Sookruetai; Shimoda, Naomi; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicines and natural herb extracts are widely used as alternative treatments for various parasitic diseases, and such extracts may also have potential to decrease the side effects of the standard regimen drugs used to treat toxoplasmosis (sulfadiazine-pyrimethamine combination). We evaluated how effective the Thai piperaceae plants Piper betle, P. nigrum and P. sarmentosum are against Toxoplasma gondii infection in vitro and in vivo. Individually, we extracted the piperaceae plants with ethanol, passed them through a rotary evaporator and then lyophilized them to obtain crude extracts for each one. The in vitro study indicated that the P. betle extract was the most effective extract at inhibiting parasite growth in HFF cells (IC50 on RH-GFP: 23.2 μg/mL, IC50 on PLK-GFP: 21.4 μg/mL). Furthermore, treatment of experimental mice with the P. betle extract for 7 days after infection with 1,000 tachyzoites of the T. gondii PLK strain increased their survival (survival rates: 100% in 400 mg/kg-treated, 83.3% in 100 mg/kg-treated, 33.3% in 25 mg/kg-treated, 33.3% in untreated mice). Furthermore, treatment with 400 mg/kg of the P. betle extract resulted in 100% mouse survival following infection with 100,000 tachyzoites. The present study shows that P. betle extract has the potential to act as a medical plant for the treatment of toxoplasmosis. PMID:27213575

  17. A clinical study of transdermal contraceptive patch in Thai adolescence women.

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    Piyasirisilp, Rachatapon; Taneepanichskul, Surasak

    2008-02-01

    To study cycle control, compliance and safety of a transdermal contraceptive patch in adolescent Thai women. Fifty-eight healthy women were assigned to receive 3 cycles of contraceptive patch (ethinyl estradiol 20 microg and norelgestromin 150 microg/day). All participants aged 16-20 years were invited to participate from the family planning clinic at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Data were collected on adverse effects, perceived advantages and disadvantages, body weight, blood pressure, patch detachments and compliance. Data were analyzed using mean, percentage and student's t-test. The participants' average age was 19.4 years, height 158.8 cm, weight 51.8 kg, BMI 20.8 Kg/m2. The most location of patch application was the abdomen and the most adverse event was breast tenderness (31.0%) followed by application site reaction, nausea vomiting and headache respectively. The breast symptom was mild in severity. The participants reported decrease in dysmenorrhea and shorter duration of bleeding. There were no significant changes in body weight and blood pressure. The improvement of their facial acne was reported. There were no pregnancies during use and the adhesion of the contraceptive patch is excellent. Partial patch detachment was reported in only 6.9%. No completed patch detachment was found. The present study found an overall positive impression of a new transdermal contraceptive patch. The good compliance and few side effects were demonstrated. The adhesive patch contraceptive was excellent.

  18. Helmet Use and Associated Factors among Thai Motorcyclists during Songkran Festival

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    Siviroj, Penprapa; Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Morarit, Sompong

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess helmet use and associated factors among motorcycle riders during Songkran festival in Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of helmet use among Thai motorcycle riders (sample size = 18,998) during four days of the Songkran festival. For this sample, the population of motorcycle riders was consecutively selected using quota sampling from 12 petrol stations in four provinces from each of the four main geographical regions of Thailand. The study was conducted at petrol stations at roads in town, outside town and highway at different time intervals when trained field staff administered a structured questionnaire and performed an observation checklist. Results indicate that 44.2% of the motorcycle riders and 72.5% of the motorcycle passengers had not been using a helmet. In multivariable analysis demographics, environmental factors, helmet use experiences and attitudes and recalling a lower exposure to road safety awareness (RSA) campaign were associated with non-helmet use among motorcyclists. It appears that the RSA campaign may have some positive effect on reducing non-helmet use among motorcycle riders during the Songkran festival. PMID:23202686

  19. Modulation of Malaria Phenotypes by Pyruvate Kinase (PKLR Variants in a Thai Population.

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    Rebekah van Bruggen

    Full Text Available Pyruvate kinase (PKLR is a critical erythrocyte enzyme that is required for glycolysis and production of ATP. We have shown that Pklr deficiency in mice reduces the severity (reduced parasitemia, increased survival of blood stage malaria induced by infection with Plasmodium chabaudi AS. Likewise, studies in human erythrocytes infected ex vivo with P. falciparum show that presence of host PK-deficiency alleles reduces infection phenotypes. We have characterized the genetic diversity of the PKLR gene, including haplotype structure and presence of rare coding variants in two populations from malaria endemic areas of Thailand and Senegal. We investigated the effect of PKLR genotypes on rich longitudinal datasets including haematological and malaria-associated phenotypes. A coding and possibly damaging variant (R41Q was identified in the Thai population with a minor allele frequency of ~4.7%. Arginine 41 (R41 is highly conserved in the pyruvate kinase family and its substitution to Glutamine (R41Q affects protein stability. Heterozygosity for R41Q is shown to be associated with a significant reduction in the number of attacks with Plasmodium falciparum, while correlating with an increased number of Plasmodium vivax infections. These results strongly suggest that PKLR protein variants may affect the frequency, and the intensity of malaria episodes induced by different Plasmodium parasites in humans living in areas of endemic malaria.

  20. Association of hyposalivation with oral function, nutrition and oral health in community-dwelling elderly Thai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samnieng, P; Ueno, M; Shinada, K; Zaitsu, T; Wright, F A C; Kawaguchi, Y

    2012-03-01

    This study was to analyze the association of hyposalivation with oral function, nutritional status and oral health in community-dwelling elderly Thai. The subjects were 612 elderly people (mean age = 68.8, SD 5.9 years). Oral function (tasting, speaking, swallowing and chewing) and Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) were evaluated. Oral examination investigated teeth and periodontal status. Both unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva were collected for 5 minutes. Among all subjects, 14.4 % were classified within the hyposalivation. Hyposalivation was associated with gender, systemic disease, medication, and smoking. Subjects within the hyposalivation group had a higher number of decayed teeth and a higher prevalence of periodontitis than the normal salivation group (p < 0.05). The hyposalivation group also had a lower number of teeth present and a lower mean MNA score than the normal salivation group (p < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that hyposalivation in both dentate and edentulous subjects was significantly associated with tasting, speaking, swallowing and chewing. This study suggested that hyposalivation is a risk factor not only for dental caries and periodontal disease but also for taste disturbances, speaking problems, swallowing problems, poor chewing ability and malnutrition. Monitoring salivary flow is an important measure in the care of older people.