Full Text Available Pongsathorn Gojaseni1, Angkana Phaopha1, Worawon Chailimpamontree1, Thaweepong Pajareya1, Anutra Chittinandana21Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Bhumibol Adulyadej Hospital, Directorate of Medical Services, Royal Thai Air Force, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Department of Education, Directorate of Medical Services, Royal Thai Air Force, Bangkok, ThailandPurpose: To assess the prevalence and risk factors of microalbuminuria in nondiabetic hypertensive patients in Thailand.Patients and methods: A cross-sectional study was performed during January to December 2007 at outpatients departments of Bhumibol Adulyadej hospital. Nondiabetic hypertensive patients without a history of pre-existing kidney diseases participated in this study. A questionnaire was used for collecting information on demographics, lifestyle, and family history of cardiovascular and kidney disease. Spot morning urine samples were collected for albuminuria estimation. Albuminuria thresholds were evaluated and defined using albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR.Results: A total of 559 hypertensive patients (283 males, 276 females, aged 58.0 ± 11.6 years were enrolled in this study. Microalbuminuria (ACR 17 to 299 mg/g in males and 25 to 299 mg/g in females was found in 93 cases (16.6% [15.0%‑18.2%]. The independent determinants of elevated urinary albumin excretion in a multiple logistic regression model were; body mass index ≥30 (odds ratio (OR = 2.24, 95% confidence intervals (CI: 1.33–3.76 and dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (DCCB use (OR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.22‑3.02.Conclusion: In Thai nondiabetic hypertensive patients, microalbuminuria was not uncommon. Obesity and use of dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker were found to be the important predictors. Prognostic value of the occurrence of microalbuminuria in this population remains to be determined in prospective cohort studies.Keywords: microalbuminuria, hypertension, obesity, calcium channel blocker, metabolic
Snorgaard, O; Køber, L; Carlsen, J
OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of metformin on blood pressure and metabolism in nondiabetic hypertensives. DESIGN: A six-week single-blind placebo wash-out, followed by a double-blind placebo-controlled parallel group design with skew randomization (2:2:1) to metformin 850 mg b.i.d. (n = 10......BP. Glucose metabolism and lipoproteins were unchanged in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: Although metformin treatment induced a decline in diastolic office blood pressure in nondiabetic hypertensives, the decline was not different from that during placebo treatment. Metformin had no significant effect on ambulatory...... blood pressure. Thus, metformin has, if any, only a minor clinically insignificant effect on blood pressure in nondiabetic hypertensives. The study does not support the hypothesis that circulating insulin is a major regulator of blood pressure in hypertension....
Nagy, Krisztina; Sipos, Evelin; El Hadj Othmane, Taha
Heart rate variability is reduced among patients with hypertension and/or with diabetes mellitus. Hypertension and diabetes show frequent co-morbidity, but it is still not entirely clear whether heart rate variability is reduced in non-diabetic patients with hypertension. The aim of the authors was to evaluate the heart rate variability in hypertensive patients with and without diabetes and in control subjects. 130 patients with hypertension, 48 patients with hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and 87 control subjects were involved in the study. Minimum, mean and maximum heart rate, and parameters of heart rate variability were measured. The mean of minimum heart rate did not differ significantly between the three groups. However, all other parameters were significantly reduced in patients with hypertension with and without diabetes as compared to the control group. No significant differences were observed between hypertensive patients with and without diabetes mellitus. Heart rate variability is significantly reduced in non-diabetic patients with hypertension. It seems that type 2 diabetes results in no further significant reduction of heart rate variability in patients with hypertension.
Full Text Available Suprawita Saensak,1,2 Teraporn Vutyavanich,3 Woraluk Somboonporn,4 Manit Srisurapanont5 1Academic Department, Faculty of Medicine, Mahasarakham University, Maha Sarakham, Thailand; 2Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University,Thailand; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 5Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Aim: To examine the effectiveness of a modified relaxation (MR technique in reducing blood pressure levels in Thai postmenopausal women with mild hypertension, compared with a control group who received health education. Methods: This is a 16-week, randomized, parallel, open-label, controlled trial in a menopausal clinic in a tertiary health care center in Northeastern Thailand. The intervention group received a 60-minute session of MR training and were encouraged to practice 15–20 minutes a day, at least 5 days a week. The control group received lifestyle education, including diet and exercise. The primary and secondary outcomes were systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP. Results: Of 432 participants, 215 and 217 were randomly allocated to the MR and control groups, respectively. Of those, 167 participants in the MR group and 175 participants in the control group completed the study. The SBP was significantly more reduced in the MR group, with a mean of 2.1 mmHg (P < 0.001. There was no significant difference between groups on the changed DBP. Conclusion: The MR technique may be effective in lowering SBP in Thai postmenopausal women visiting a menopause clinic. Its efficacy may be observed as soon as 4 weeks after start of treatment. Long-term and combined relaxation therapy and antihypertensive agents are warranted in a large cohort of this population. This trial is registered in clinicaltrials.gov (number
Campia, Umberto; Matuskey, Linda A; Tesauro, Manfredi; Cardillo, Carmine; Panza, Julio A
This study tested the hypothesis that pioglitazone reduces endothelin-1 activity in the forearm vasculature in non-diabetic patients with hypertension or hypercholesterolemia and variable degrees of insulin resistance. We conducted a single center, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, cross-over trial in 80 patients with either hypertension or hypercholesterolemia and further classified as insulin-sensitive or insulin-resistant based on a published insulin sensitivity index. Participants received pioglitazone 45 mg daily or matching placebo for eight weeks. The main endpoint was the change in forearm vascular endothelin-1 activity, as assessed by intra-arterial infusion of the endothelin type A receptor blocker BQ-123, measured at the end of each 8-week treatment period. Pioglitazone lowered plasma insulin (P < 0.001), improved insulin sensitivity (P < 0.001), increased HDL (P < 0.001), and reduced triglycerides (P = 0.003), free fatty acids (P = 0.005), and C-reactive protein (P = 0.001). However, pioglitazone did not affect the vasodilator response to BQ-123 in the whole group (P = 0.618) and in the diagnosis or insulin sensitivity subgroups. Hence, in non-diabetic patients with hypertension or hypercholesterolemia, PPARγ activation with pioglitazone does not affect endothelin-1 activity, despite enhancing insulin sensitivity and reducing plasma insulin and C-reactive protein levels. In non-diabetic patients with hypertension or hypercholesterolemia, pioglitazone improves insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, and inflammation but does not affect endothelin activity. Our data suggest that the determinants of endothelin-1 vascular activity in vivo may differ and/or be more complex than those suggested by the results of previous in vitro studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Han, Seung Seok; Bae, Eunjin; Ahn, Shin Young; Kim, Sejoong; Park, Jung Hwan; Shin, Sung Joon; Lee, Sang Ho; Choi, Bum Soon; Chin, Ho Jun; Lim, Chun Soo; Kim, Suhnggwon; Kim, Dong Ki
Although adiponectin levels have been reported to be correlated with albuminuria, this issue remains unresolved in non-diabetic hypertensive subjects, particularly when urinary adiponectin is considered. Urinary adiponectin levels were examined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 229 participants. who used olmesartan as a hypertensive agent. Their albuminuria levels were measured for 16 weeks after randomization and initiation of conventional or intensive diet education. Linear or logistic regression models were applied, as appropriate, to explore the relationship with albuminuria itself or its response after the intervention. Urinary adiponectin levels were positively related to baseline albuminuria level (r = 0.529). After adjusting for several covariates, the adiponectin level was associated with the albuminuria level (β = 0.446). Among the 159 subjects with baseline macroalbuminuria, the risk of consistent macroalbuminuria (> 300 mg/day) at 16 weeks was higher in the 3(rd) tertile of adiponectin than in the 1(st) tertile (odds ratio = 6.9), despite diet education. In contrast, among all subjects, the frequency of the normoalbuminuria achievement (< 30 mg/day) at 16 weeks was higher in the 1(st) tertile than in the 3(rd) tertile (odds ratio = 13.0). Urinary adiponectin may be a useful biomarker for albuminuria or its response after treatment in non-diabetic hypertensive patients.
Snorgaard, O; Køber, L; Carlsen, J
, not significantly different comparing metformin and placebo. Systolic oBP, diastolic aBP, and systolic aBP showed no significant change by treatment. The decline in diastolic oBP was 5 mmHg in the pooled group of metformin-treated patients, P Different gender and the presence of obesity had no impact......BP. Glucose metabolism and lipoproteins were unchanged in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: Although metformin treatment induced a decline in diastolic office blood pressure in nondiabetic hypertensives, the decline was not different from that during placebo treatment. Metformin had no significant effect on ambulatory...
Bharati, Sandesh Madhukar; Singh, Nishith
Objective: To study the effects of losartan and atenolol on glucometabolic parameters in nondiabetic hypertensive patients. Materials and Methods: In a prospective, open-label, parallel group study, nondiabetic patients with mild to moderate hypertension were randomized to either losartan (titrated from 50 to 100 mg/day, n = 20) or atenolol (titrated from 25 mg to 100 mg/day, n = 20) for period of 24 weeks. At baseline, 12 and 24 weeks fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting plasma insulin (FPI), homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) apart from lipid parameters, mean systolic, and diastolic blood pressures levels were determined. Results: At the end of study, losartan significantly (P < 0.05) reduced FPG, FPI, and HOMA-IR compared to atenolol and baseline. While atenolol increased the HOMA-IR levels significantly compared to the baseline. Conclusions: Losartan improved the insulin sensitivity while atenolol worsened it. Losartan is better than atenolol for its effects on the glucose-insulin metabolism. PMID:27440952
Full Text Available Diabetes and hypertension are major independent risk factors for cardiovascular and renal diseases; however, prevalence and characteristics of the coexistence in general population is not clear. Data from Thai National Health Examination Survey III were used to estimate the prevalence of coexistence of diabetes and hypertension, and to estimate the proportion of awareness, treatment and control of both conditions. A total of 36,877 (male 17,614 and female 19,263 participants were included in the study. The prevalence of people with diabetes and hypertension was 3.2% (male 2.8% and female 3.6%. Approximately half of the diabetes patients (49.0%, 95%CI 45.6, 52.5 had hypertension, and 14.4% (95%CI 13.0, 16.0 of hypertensive patients had diabetes. After controlling for covariates, factors associated with coexistence of diabetes and hypertension included; age ≥60 years (adjust odds ratio 1.38, 95%CI 1.14, 1.73, having education less than 6 years (1.83, 95%CI 1.03, 3.38 and abdominal obesity (2.49, 95%CI 2.00, 3.10. More than 80% were unaware of having both conditions. Target for control of both glucose and blood pressure among those treated was achieved in only 6.2%. In conclusion, patients with diabetes or hypertension should be promoted to have weight control and screening for the comorbidity.
Ruzicka, Marcel; Burns, Kevin D; Hiremath, Swapnil
In this review we evaluate the literature to determine if lower blood pressure (BP) targets are beneficial for patients with nondiabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD). Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD), African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK), and Ramipril Efficacy in Nephropathy-2 (REIN-2), designed to assess the benefit of lower BP on progression of nondiabetic CKD, generally came to the same negative conclusion. They were not designed and powered to assess an effect of lower BP on cardiovascular outcomes. The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) was the first trial designed and powered to address this issue, and showed a clear benefit of a lower targeted and achieved BP. SPRINT did not show any renal benefits from lower BP, and it was not designed to assess this outcome, and it enrolled patients with less "renal risk" per se. A distinguishing feature of SPRINT compared with other large trials is that it highlighted the importance of precise BP measurement methods in defining targets in hypertension treatment. Accordingly, we propose that SPRINT is truly a "game-changing" clinical trial that sets the bar for management of hypertension in select patients with nondiabetic CKD. In these patients, systolic BP target depends critically on the BP measurement method: < 140 mm Hg when derived from 3 readings using a mercury sphygmomanometer after 5 minutes of rest, < 130 mm Hg when calculated from at a minimum of 3 readings using an automated oscillometric device, and < 120 mm Hg when taken using an automated oscillometric device after 5 minutes of unattended rest. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Antonia Anna Lukito
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have confirmed separately the relationship between obesity, insulin-resistance, hypertension and bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2 with coronary artery calcification, a parameter of subclinical atherosclerosis. It was also reported that BMPs may function as proinflammatory, prohypertensive and proatherogenic mediators. The study aimed to assess the correlation between systemic hypertension and BMP-2 plasma concentration in central-obese non-diabetic men with evidence of coronary artery calcification. METHODS: This was a cross sectional study on 60 central-obese non-diabetic men, of an average age of 55.2 years, with evidence of coronary calcification, who came for health check-up and met the inclusion criteria consecutively as defined by waist circumference >90 cm and fasting blood glucose <126 mg/dL. Coronary calcification was defined by coronary artery calcium (CAC score ≥10 Agatson-unit Dual Source 64 slice CT scan. RESULTS: There is positive correlation between hypertension and BMP-2 in central-obese non-diabetic men with evidence of coronary artery calcification. BMP-2 plasma concentration was higher in the hypertensive subjects. The correlation was stronger in younger (<55 years old subjects and subjects with insulin-resitance. KEYWORDS: hypertension, BMP-2, coronary calcification, central obesity, age, insulin resistance.
Misra, A; Kathpalia, R; Lall, S B; Peshin, S
To investigate the inter-relationship of hyperinsulinemia and isolated systolic hypertension, 15 patients with isolated systolic hypertension (Group I) were compared to those having systolic and diastolic hypertension (Group II), and 14 age- and sex-matched controls (Group III). Significantly high triglycerides and total cholesterol were observed in Groups I and II (p < 0.001) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in Group II (p < 0.001), when compared to controls. Significantly high number of patients had impaired glucose tolerance (80%; p = 0.0002 and 60%; p = 0.05) on oral glucose tolerance test in Groups I and II, respectively. Higher blood glucose values were observed in Group I as compared to Group III, at 0, 30, 60 (p < 0.05) and 120 minutes (p < 0.001). Subjects in all the three groups showed fasting normo-insulinemia. At 60 minutes during oral glucose tolerance test, higher insulin levels were seen in Groups I and II as compared to controls (p = NS). Peak insulin levels and area under curve for insulin were higher in Groups I and II as compared to controls (p = NS). The observations of the present study indicate that, similar to systolic and diastolic hypertension, several features of insulin resistance syndrome such as hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia and glucose intolerance accompany isolated systolic hypertension.
Vyssoulis, Gregory P; Liakos, Charalampos I; Karpanou, Eva A; Triantafyllou, Athanasios I; Michaelides, Andreas P; Tzamou, Vanessa E; Markou, Maria I; Stefanadis, Christodoulos I
Arterial hypertension (AH) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are established cardiovascular risk factors. Impaired glucose homeostasis (IGH; impaired fasting glucose or/and impaired glucose tolerance) or pre-diabetes, obesity, and DM family history identify individuals at risk for type 2 DM in whom preventive interventions are necessary. The aim of this study was to determine the glycemic profile in non-diabetic Greek adult hypertensive men and women according to DM family history and the obesity status. Diabetes family history, obesity markers (waist-to-hip ratio, WHR; body mass index, BMI), glycemic parameters (fasting and 2-hour post-load plasma glucose, if necessary; glycated hemoglobin, HbA1c; fasting insulin), insulin resistance indices (homeostasis model assessment, HOMA; quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, QUICKI; Bennett; McAuley), and IGH prevalence were determined in a large cohort of 11,540 Greek hypertensives referred to our institutions. Positive DM family history was associated with elevated fasting glucose (98.6 ± 13.1 vs 96.5 ± 12.3 mg/dL), HbA1c (5.58% ± 0.49% vs 5.50% ± 0.46%), fasting insulin (9.74 ± 4.20 vs 9.21 ± 3.63 μU/mL) and HOMA (2.43 ± 1.19 vs 2.24 ± 1.01) values, lower QUICKI (0.342 ± 0.025 vs 0.345 ± 0.023), Bennett (0.285 ± 0.081 vs 0.292 ± 0.078) and McAuley (6.73 ± 3.43 vs 6.95 ± 3.44) values, and higher IGH prevalence (45.3% vs 38.7%); P history was significant (P history present with higher IGH prevalence and worse glycemic indices levels compared with those with negative family history, especially in the higher WHR/BMI subgroups. Copyright © 2013 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thawornchaisit, Prasutr; de Looze, Ferdinandus; Reid, Christopher M; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian C
This study evaluates the impact of a number of demographic, biological, behavioural and lifestyle health risk factors on the incidence of hypertension in Thailand over a 4-year period. A 4-year prospective study of health risk factors and their effects on the incidence of hypertension in a national Thai Cohort Study from 2005 to 2009. As Thailand is transitioning from a developing to a middle-income developed country, chronic diseases (particularly cardiovascular disease) have emerged as major health issues. Hypertension is a major risk factor for heart attack and stroke and cross-sectional studies have indicated that the prevalence is increasing. A total of 57 558 Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University students who participated in both the 2005 and 2009 questionnaire surveys and who were normotensive in 2005 were included in the analysis. Adjusted relative risks associating each risk factor and incidence of hypertension by sex, after controlling for confounders such as age, socioeconomic status, body mass index (BMI) and underlying diseases. The overall 4-year incidence of hypertension was 3.5%, with the rate in men being remarkably higher than that in women (5.2% vs 2.1%). In both sexes, hypertension was associated with age, higher BMI and comorbidities but not with income and education. In men, hypertension was associated with physical inactivity, smoking, alcohol and fast food intake. In women, hypertension was related to having a partner. In both men and women, hypertension was strongly associated with age, obesity and comorbidities while it had no association with socioeconomic factors. The cohort patterns of socioeconomy and hypertension reflect that the health risk transition in Thais is likely to be at the middle stage. Diet and lifestyle factors associate with incidence of hypertension in Thais and may be amenable targets for hypertension control programmes.
Thawornchaisit, Prasutr; de Looze, Ferdinandus; Reid, Christopher M; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian
Thailand is undergoing a health-risk transition which increases chronic diseases, particularly hypertension, as a result of a rapid transition from a developing to a developed country. This study analyzes the effect of health-risk factors such as demography, socioeconomic status (SES) and body mass index (BMI) on the prevalence of hypertension. This was a cross-sectional analysis using data obtained in 2005 from 87,143 Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University (STOU) students participating in the Thai Cohort Study (mean age 30.5 years, 54.7% female). Adjusted odds ratios of the association between risk factors and hypertension were analysed across two age groups by sex, after controlling for the confounding factors such as SES and BMI. The prevalence of hypertension in men was approximately twice as high as that in women (6.9% vs 2.6%). Hypertension was associated with ageing, a lower education attainment, a higher BMI and having underlying diseases in both sexes. In men, hypertension was associated with being single, having a high income, spending more time on screens (TV & PC), cigarette smoking and drinking alcohol. In women, it was directly correlated with instant and roasted or smoked food consumption. Hypertension was highly associated with obesity and having underlying disease. The Thai health-risk transition is in a later stage. Thais should now be educated about the danger of high blood pressure and the protective power of a low fat and low salt diet, and a normal BMI. Cessation of smoking and moderation in alcohol intake should be promoted.
Monster, TBM; Janssen, WMT; de Jong, PE; de Jong-van den Berg, LTW
Aims Microalbuminuria (30-300 mg 24 h(-1)) is recognized to be independently associated with renal and cardiovascular risk. Antihypertensives may lower microalbuminuria. We questioned whether the use of different anti hypertensive drug classes in general practice influences microalbuminuria as
Srichairattanakull, Jeamjai; Kaewpan, Wonpen; Powattana, Arpaporn; Pichayapinyo, Panan
To investigate the effectiveness of a program that utilizes community involvement to improve the self-management strategies among people living with hypertension. Forty-four subjects, aged 35 to 59-year-old, with hypertension in Nakhon Pathom Province, Thailand, were randomly allocated to either an experimental group (n = 22) or a control group (n = 20). The experimental group attended a program to improve self-management methods based on social cognitive theory (SCT). The program lasted 12 weeks, consisted of 1 1/2 hours meeting once a week, including group meetings and home visit monitoring. Mann-Whitney U test and Friedman test were employed to analyze the program's effectiveness. After the program, the mean rank of the perceived self-efficacy for the self-management strategies was statistically different between the two groups (p = 0.023). In the experimental group, after the twelve week, the mean rank of perceived self-efficacy and outcome expectancy increased and diastolic blood pressure decreased after the eight week. The program applied social cognitive theory (SCT) to promote self-management techniques, increased the health promoting behavior among hypertensive people.
Ozkayar, Nihal; Dede, Fatih; Ates, Ihsan; Akyel, Fatma; Yildirim, Tolga; Altun, Bulent
High dietary salt intake was reported to increase blood pressure by numerous studies, but no study has investigated the effect of dietary salt intake on blood pressure variability (BPV). This study aimed to determine if daily salt intake is related to ambulatory BPV. The study included 136 primary hypertensive patients (92 male, 44 female) with a mean age of 50.7±11.1 years. All the patients underwent 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring to determine both the 24-h systolic and 24-h diastolic BPV. 24-h urine sodium was measured. The correlation between BPV and 24-h urinary sodium was investigated. Logarithmic transformation of 24-h urinary sodium [log(24-h urinary sodium)] was positively correlated with the mean 24-h systolic ARV, and nighttime systolic ARV (r=0.371 and p=0.001, r=0.329 and p=0.028, respectively). Similarly, log(24-h urinary sodium) was positively correlated with mean 24-h diastolic ARV and nighttime diastolic ARV (r=0.381 and p=0.001, r=0.320 and p=0.020 respectively). Log(24-h urinary sodium) was an independent predictor of BPV based on multivariate regression analysis. Dietary salt intake might play a role in the pathogenesis of ambulatory BPV. Copyright Â© 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available High dietary salt intake was reported to increase blood pressure by numerous studies, but no study has investigated the effect of dietary salt intake on blood pressure variability (BPV. This study aimed to determine if daily salt intake is related to ambulatory BPV. The study included 136 primary hypertensive patients (92 male, 44 female with a mean age of 50.7 ± 11.1 years. All the patients underwent 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring to determine both the 24-h systolic and 24-h diastolic BPV. 24-h urine sodium was measured. The correlation between BPV and 24-h urinary sodium was investigated. Logarithmic transformation of 24-h urinary sodium [log(24-h urinary sodium] was positively correlated with the mean 24-h systolic ARV, and nighttime systolic ARV (r = 0.371 and p = 0.001, r = 0.329 and p = 0.028, respectively. Similarly, log(24-h urinary sodium was positively correlated with mean 24-h diastolic ARV and nighttime diastolic ARV (r = 0.381 and p = 0.001, r = 0.320 and p = 0.020 respectively. Log(24-h urinary sodium was an independent predictor of BPV based on multivariate regression analysis. Dietary salt intake might play a role in the pathogenesis of ambulatory BPV.
Peralta, Carmen A; Frigaard, Martin; Rubinsky, Anna D; Rolon, Leticia; Lo, Lowell; Voora, Santhi; Seal, Karen; Tuot, Delphine; Chao, Shirley; Lui, Kimberly; Chiao, Phillip; Powe, Neil; Shlipak, Michael
Whether screening for chronic kidney disease (CKD) can improve the care of persons at high risk for complications remains uncertain. We describe the design and early implementation experience of a pilot, cluster-randomized pragmatic trial to evaluate the feasibility, implementation, and effectiveness of a "triple marker" CKD screening program (creatinine, cystatin C and albumin to creatinine ratio) for improving care among hypertensive veterans seen in primary care at one Veterans Administration Hospital. Non-diabetic hypertensive veterans age 18-80 without known CKD were randomized in clusters determined by primary care provider (unit of randomization) into three arms. Usual care will be compared with two incrementally intensified treatment strategies: (1) screen for CKD followed by patient and provider education or (2) screen-educate plus a clinical pharmacist-led CKD and BP management program. The primary clinical outcome is systolic blood pressure (BP) change from baseline. Secondary clinical outcome is BP control. The primary process outcomes is triple marker screening (across three arms), and secondary process outcomes include use of inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system (ACE/ARB) overall and in persons with albuminuria, CKD recognition by PCP, use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and NSAID education by PCP. The design uses the Veterans Health Administration electronic health record (EHR) to identify participants, deliver the interventions and ascertain study outcomes. Assessment of the program implementation will use the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. Study duration is 12 months. A total of 1,819 patients have been randomized within 41 provider clusters. The median age (interquartile range) is 68 years (61-72), and 99% of participants are male. Approximately 16% are Black, and 5% Hispanic. In the first 6 months of the trial, 434 triple marker screening tests have been ordered, and
Aksnes, Tonje A; Kjeldsen, Sverre E; Rostrup, Morten; Holzhauer, Björn; Hua, Tsushung A; Julius, Stevo
Diabetic and new-onset diabetic patients with hypertension have higher cardiac morbidity than patients without diabetes. We aimed to investigate whether baseline predictors of cardiac morbidity, the major constituent of the primary endpoint in the Valsartan Antihypertensive Long-term Use Evaluation (VALUE) trial, were different in patients with diabetes and new-onset diabetes compared to patients without diabetes. In total, 15,245 high-risk hypertensive patients in the VALUE trial were followed for an average of 4.2 years. At baseline, 5250 patients were diabetic by the 1999 World Health Organization criteria, 1298 patients developed new-onset diabetes and 8697 patients stayed non-diabetic during follow-up. Cardiac morbidity was defined as a composite of myocardial infarction and heart failure requiring hospitalization, and baseline predictors were identified by univariate and multivariate stepwise Cox regression analyses. History of coronary heart disease (CHD) and age were the most important predictors of cardiac morbidity in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. History of CHD, history of stroke and age were the only significant predictors of cardiac morbidity in patients with new-onset diabetes. Predictors of cardiac morbidity, in particular history of CHD and age, were essentially the same in high-risk hypertensive patients with diabetes, new-onset diabetes and without diabetes who participated in the VALUE trial.
... Hypertension Triglycerides Featured Resource Find an Endocrinologist Search Hypertension September 2017 Download PDFs English Espanol Editors Fady ... Additional Resources MedlinePlus (NIH) Mayo Clinic What is hypertension? Hypertension, or high blood pressure, is a leading ...
Full Text Available In recent years, a number of studies have investigated complementary medical approaches to the treatment of hypertension using dietary supplements. Rice bran protein hydrolysates extracted from rice is a rich source of bioactive peptides. The present study aimed to investigate the vasorelaxation and antihypertensive effects of peptides-derived from rice bran protein hydrolysates (RBP in a rat model of two kidney-one clip (2K-1C renovascular hypertension. 2K-1C hypertension was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by placing a silver clip around the left renal artery, whereas sham-operated rats were served as controls. 2K-1C and sham-operated rats were intragastrically administered with RBP (50 mg kg−1 or 100 mg kg−1 or distilled water continuously for six weeks. We observed that RBP augmented endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in all animals. Administration of RBP to 2K-1C rats significantly reduced blood pressure and decreased peripheral vascular resistance compared to the sham operated controls (p < 0.05. Restoration of normal endothelial function and blood pressure was associated with reduced plasma angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, decreased superoxide formation, reduced plasma malondialdehyde and increased plasma nitrate/nitrite (p < 0.05. Up-regulation of eNOS protein and down-regulation of p47phox protein were found in 2K-1C hypertensive rats-treated with RBP. Our results suggest that RBP possesses antihypertensive properties which are mainly due to the inhibition of ACE, and its vasodilatory and antioxidant activity.
Full Text Available Background Diabetic nephropathy is a progressive disease that leads to renal failure and end stage renal disease. A frequent and early manifestation of diabetic nephropathy is hyaline arteriolosclerosis. The noninvasive method for estimating the severity of arteriolosclerosis is measurement of the renal resistive index (RI. In this study, we determined whether or not normal blood glucose control, classified as an HbA1c < 5.8%, was a sufficiently low level to prevent arteriolosclerosis in patients with essential hypertension. Methods The study subjects were 93 patients with essential hypertension with HbA1c levels <5.8%. Patients with a history of medication for diabetes mellitus were excluded. Blood flow velocity of the renal interlobar arteries was assessed by a Doppler ultrasonography and the RI calculated. Results RI correlated positively with age, body mass index, pulse pressure, pulse rate and HbA1c, and negatively with diastolic blood pressure. A multivariate analysis identified age, pulse pressure and HbA1c as significant independent determinants of RI. Our data show that RI correlates with HbA1c independent of other variables, even in normoglycemic patients with HbA1c levels <5.8%. Conclusions The results of this cross-sectional study suggest that blood glucose levels should be kept as low as possible in order to prevent arteriolosclerosis in the kidney in hypertensive patients.
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — These datasets provide de-identified insurance data for hypertension hyperlipidemia. The data is provided by three managed care organizations in Allegheny County...
Winter, Katherine H; Tuttle, Laura A; Viera, Anthony J
Hypertension is the most common modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Antihypertensive treatment substantially reduces the risk of heart failure, stroke, and myocardial infarction. Current guidelines recommend screening all adults for high blood pressure (BP). Lifestyle modifications to help control high BP include weight loss, exercise, moderation of alcohol intake, and a diet low in sodium and saturated fats and high in fruits and vegetables. Out-of-office BP monitoring should be used to confirm suspected white coat effect, especially in patients with apparent resistant hypertension. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hypertension is a major worldwide health problem. Its prevalence is 1.5-2 times higher in diabetic population than that in non-diabetic individuals. Its pathogenesis depends on diabetic nephropathy in type 1, whereas may be multifactorial in type 2 diabetes mellitus. In diabetics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors are most widely preferred in the treatment of hypertension because of their numerous desirable effects. In this article, the most recent data are presented on the relationshi...
Sithisarankul, Pornchai; Piyasing, Veera; Boontheaim, Benjaporn; Ratanamongkolgul, Suthee; Wattanasirichaigoon, Somkiat
The objectives of this study were to explore characteristics of the long-lived Thai physicians. We sent 983 posted questionnaires to 840 male and 143 female physicians. We obtained 327 of them back after 2 rounds of mailing, yielding a response rate of 33.3 percents. The response rate of male physicians was 32.4 percents and that of female physicians was 38.5 percents. Their ages were between 68-93 years (75.1 +/- 4.86 years on average). The majority were married, implying that their spouses were also long-lived. Around half of them still did some clinical work, one-fourth did some charity work, one-fourth did various voluntary works, one-fifth did some business, one-fifth did some academic work, and some did more than one type of work. Most long-lived physicians were not obese, with BMI of 16.53-34.16 (average 23.97 +/- 2.80). Only 8 had BMI higher than 30. BMIs were not different between male and female physicians. However, four-fifths of them had diseases that required treatment, and some of them had more than one disease. The five most frequent diseases were hypertension, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, dyslipidemia, and benign prostate hypertrophy, respectively. Most long-lived physicians did exercise (87.8%), and some did more than one method. The most frequent one was walking (52.3%). Most did not drink alcohol or drank occasionally, only 9.0% drank regularly. Most of them slept 3-9 hours per night (average 6.75 +/- 1.06). Most (78.3%) took some medication regularly; of most were medicine for their diseases. Most did not eat macrobiotic food, vegetarian food, or fast food regularly. Most long-lived physicians practiced some religious activities by praying, paying respect to Buddha, giving food to monks, practicing meditation, and listening to monks' teaching. They also used Buddhist practice and guidelines for their daily living and work, and also recommended these to their younger colleagues. Their recreational activities were playing musical instruments
The effects of the fluctuations of the Thai economy of the country's petroleum industry and the outlook for the future are discussed. Thailand witnessed enormous economic growth during the 1980s and the first part of the 1990s, but events since 1997 have caused it to stutter. However, the petroleum industry remains buoyant with measures to stimulate gas and oil production and moves to privatise and deregulate energy markets. Key statistics for Thailand, historical demand trends for petroleum, the impact of the 1997 Asian economic crisis, regulation of the Thai oil market, crude and condensate production levels, refinery capacity, new entrants to the refinery sector, the Thai refinery expansion programme, the product trade balance, the challenges of fuel reformulation and demand scenarios are considered.
The effects of the fluctuations of the Thai economy of the country's petroleum industry and the outlook for the future are discussed. Thailand witnessed enormous economic growth during the 1980s and the first part of the 1990s, but events since 1997 have caused it to stutter. However, the petroleum industry remains buoyant with measures to stimulate gas and oil production and moves to privatise and deregulate energy markets. Key statistics for Thailand, historical demand trends for petroleum, the impact of the 1997 Asian economic crisis, regulation of the Thai oil market, crude and condensate production levels, refinery capacity, new entrants to the refinery sector, the Thai refinery expansion programme, the product trade balance, the challenges of fuel reformulation and demand scenarios are considered
The purposes of this research are to investigate Thai teens’ attitude toward prostitution on the internet, to discover the causes of teenage prostitution and to study the relationship between teenage promiscuity and the causes of teenage prostitution. This study is a mixed research which utilized both qualitative and quantitative approach. The population of this study included teenagers and early adults between 14-21 years old who were studying in high schools, colleges, or universities. A to...
Seyed Javad Kia; Ali Khalighi sigaroudi; Bardia Vadiati Saberi; Abolfazl Bagheri
Background & Objectives: Chronic renal failure (CRF), also known as chronic kidney disease, caused by devastated nephron mass of the kidney results in uremia. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus and glomerulonephritis are common etiologic factors of CRF. This condition causes miscellaneous oral manifestations especially in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to comparison oral manifestations of diabetic and non-diabetic uremic patients undergoing hemodialysis. Methods: A total of 95 pa...
Phongamwong, Chanwit; Choosakde, Apijaree
The Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) is a good clinical tool to evaluate patients with shoulder pain, but has not been adapted to Thai version. The objectives of this study were to translate the English version and culturally adapt the SPADI to Thai version and to evaluate the internal consistency and construct validity of the Thai SPADI among Thai participants having shoulder pain. Following the cross-cultural adaptation guidelines stated by the American Association of Orthopedic Surgeons (AAOS) Outcome Committee, the SPADI was translated to Thai version (Thai SPASI). Thai participants with shoulder pain completed the three questionnaires, i.e., the Thai SPADI, bodily pain subscale of the Thai Short Form 36 second version (Thai SF-36 V2) and the Thai version of disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (Thai DASH). Internal consistency of the Thai SPADI was measured using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Convergent and divergent validity was used to measure construct validity of the Thai SPADI by assessing the correlation of the Thai SPADI with the Thai DASH and bodily pain subscale of the Thai SF-36 V2. Of 44 participants, the majority of participants were female (68.2%) and had Bachelor's degree or higher education level (59.1%) with a mean age of 50.4 years (SD 14.3). Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the Thai SPADI in pain subscale, disability subscale and total scale was 0.92, 0.94 and 0.95, respectively. The correlation of the Thai SPADI with the Thai DASH and bodily pain subscale of the Thai SF-36 V was 0.79 (p shoulder disability among Thais.
The Office of Atomic Energy for Peace (OAEP) was established in 1962, as a reactor center, by the virtue of the Atomic Energy for Peace Act, under operational policy and authority of the Thai Atomic Energy for Peace Commission (TAEPC); and under administration of Ministry of Science, Technology and Energy. It owns and operates the only Thai Research Reactor (TRR-1/M1). The TRR-1/M1 is a mixed reactor system constituting of the old MTR type swimming pool, irradiation facilities and cooling system; and TRIGA Mark III core and control instrumentation. The general performance of TRR-1/M1 is summarized in Table I. The safe operation of TRR-1/M1 is regulated by Reactor Safety Committee (RSC), established under TAEPC, and Health Physics Group of OAEP. The RCS has responsibility and duty to review of and make recommendations on Reactor Standing Orders, Reactor Operation Procedures, Reactor Core Loading and Requests for Reactor Experiments. In addition,there also exist of Emergency Procedures which is administered by OAEP. The Reactor Operation Procedures constitute of reactor operating procedures, system operating procedures and reactor maintenance procedures. At the level of reactor routine operating procedures, there is a set of Specifications on Safety and Operation Limits and Code of Practice from which reactor shift supervisor and operators must follow in order to assure the safe operation of TRR-1/M1. Table II is the summary of such specifications. The OAEP is now upgrading certain major components of the TRR-1/M1 such as the cooling system, the ventilation system and monitoring equipment to ensure their adequately safe and reliable performance under normal and emergency conditions. Furthermore, the International Atomic Energy Agency has been providing assistance in areas of operation and maintenance and safety analysis. (author)
Zafar, U.; Qureshi, H.J.
Insulin resistance is positively correlated with body iron. It is unclear whether iron is a cause or an outcome of insulin resistance. Insulin resistance precedes type 2 diabetes mellitus. Offspring of type 2 diabetics are insulin resistant as compared to those of the non-diabetics. The present study was designed to compare and correlate insulin resistance with iron parameters (including serum ferritin, transferrin saturation and blood haemoglobin) in non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetics and non-diabetic offspring of non-diabetics. Methods: It was a cross-sectional study, conducted on one hundred and twenty male subjects 20-40 years of age. They were divided into two groups, each group having 60 subjects. Group A included non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetics, while Group B included non-diabetic offspring of non-diabetics. Fasting blood sample was taken and examined for glucose, haemoglobin, insulin, iron, TIBC and ferritin. Data was analysed by SPSS-17. Results: Insulin resistance and iron parameters were significantly higher (p<0.05) in non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetics as compared to those of the non-diabetics. There was significant positive correlation (p=0.027) between insulin resistance and serum iron in non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetics. There was also significant positive correlation between insulin resistance and serum iron, transferrin saturation and haemoglobin in non-diabetic offspring of non-diabetics. Conclusion: Non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetics have iron load and insulin resistance, that predispose them to the development of type 2 diabetes. (author)
Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the conjunctival bacterial flora in diabetic patients and nondiabetic subjects. Materials and Methods: Fifty-three diabetic patients and 43 nondiabetic healthy individuals were included in the study. A specimen was taken from each participant for the study by rubbing a sterile cotton-tipped swab on the inferior palpebral conjunctiva of the right eye. Samples were incubated in blood agar, chocolate agar, eosin methylene-blue lactose sucrose agar and sabouraud 4% dextrose agar. Isolated microorganisms were identified using routine microbiological methods. Results: Rates for bacterial isolations were determined as 38.5% in diabetic patients and 34.9% in nondiabetic controls. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in 30% of cases in the diabetic patient group, while 20% tested positive for Escherichia coli, 10% for coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, 10% for Klebsiella pneumoniae and 30% for multiple bacteria. In the non-diabetic group, 53.3% of patients were positive for Staphylococcus aureus while coagulase-negative Staphylococcus was isolated in 26.7%, Klebsiella pneumoniae in 6.7% and multiple bacteria in 13.3% of patients. Although there was no statistically significant difference in the number of isolated bacteria between the diabetic and nondiabetic groups, gram-negative bacterial colonization was significantly higher in diabetic patients (χ2=0.129, p=0.719 and χ2=5.60, p=0.018, respectively. Conclusion: Gram-negative bacteria are more common in the conjunctival flora of diabetic patients. This should be considered by clinicians when treating ocular infections in diabetic patients. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2015; 45: 193-196
Charuluxananan, Somrat; Suraseranivongse, Suwannee; Punjasawadwong, Yodying; Somboonviboon, Wanna; Nipitsukarn, Thana; Sothikarnmanee, Thepakorn; Vasinanukorn, Mayuree; Werawatganon, Thewarug; Tanudsintum, Surasak; Lekprasert, Varinee; Hintong, Thanoo
Since anesthesia, unlike medical or surgical specialties, does not constitute treatment, The Royal College of Anesthesiologists of Thailand host the Thai Anesthesia Incidents Study (THAI Study) of anesthetic outcomes to determine factors related to anesthesia related adverse events. A prospective descriptive study of occurrence screening was conducted in 20 hospitals comprised of 7 university, 4 general and 4 district hospitals across Thailand. Anesthesia personnels were required to fill up patient-related, surgical-related, anesthesia-related variables and adverse outcomes on a strutured data entry form. The data included preanesthetic evaluation intraoperative period and 24 hr postoperative period. Adverse events specific form was recorded when adverse events occurred. All data were keyed in data management unit with double entry technique and descriptive statistics was used in the first phase of this study. A total of 163403 consecutive cases were recorded in one year. The mean (S.D.) of age, weight and height of patients were 38.6(2.3) yrs, 53.9(17.7) kgs and 153.4(22.7) cm respectively. There were more female (52.9%) than male (47. 1%) patients with ASA PS 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 = 50.8%, 36.3%, 10.7%, 2.0%, 0.2% respectively. Hypertension (11.6%), anemia (7.7%) and diabetes melitus (6.8%) were the three most common abnormalities in preanesthetic history taking. Mallampati score of 111870 patients grade 1, 2, 3, 4 were 54.0%, 39.7%, 5.6%, 0.7% and laryngoscopic grade 1, 2, 3, 4 of 74888 patients were 81.0%, 15.5%, 3.0% and 0.5% respectively. The first phase of THAI study epidemiological project can represent both the anesthesia and surgical profiles in Thailand. The collected data available should be useful for the improvement of the quality of anesthesia, guidelines for clinical practices, medical education and for further research.
M. Ning (Mao); M.J. McAleer (Michael)
textabstractThis paper reviews the Thai national character according to Hofstede’s cultural dimension theory and Komin’s nine values cluster (Psychology of the Thai people), analyses the social hierarchy of Thai consumers according to the Luxury 4P Taxonomy (Han et al., 2010), integrates the Theory
Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Nørgaard, K; Jensen, T
All IDDM patients without late complications have blood pressures similar to the nondiabetic background population, and those who develop clinical nephropathy in Denmark have no familial predisposition to hypertension. Blood pressure remains normal until after development of microalbuminuria, ind...
Naseem, A.; Moin, S.
Objective: To identify differences in incidence and clinical manifestations of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and prevalence of coronary disease risk factors in diabetic and non-diabetics. Design: A prospective longitudinal survey. Place and duration of study: The study was carried out in Armed Forces Institute of Cardiology/National Institute of Heart Diseases (AFIC/NIHD) Rawalpindi, over a period of one month (1st August to 1st September, 1994). Subject and Methods: After fulfilling the inclusion criteria, a total of 100 patients were included in the study. Fifty patients had diabetes and AMI while 50 patients had AMI but were not diabetic. All the patients were studies for at least 15 days in hospital and data collected on a pre-designed proforma. Results: Among diabetic patients, 84% were not insulin-dependant, while remaining 16% were on insulin therapy. Duration of diabetes was over 20 years in 18% between 10 and 20 years in 62% and less than 10 years in 8%. Male to female ratio was 7.3:1 in non-diabetic group while in diabetic group it was 4.5:1. Mean age at the time of the first AMI was 54.6 years in non-diabetic group and 52.8 years in diabetic group, with women in diabetic group having mean age of 51.9 years, men 53.2 years, while non-diabetic women had a mean age of 54.2 years and the men 55 years. Incidence of hypertension was 32% among diabetic patients and 24% among non-diabetics. Lipid abnormalities were 44% in diabetic group and 36% in non-diabetic group the most common mode of presentation in both groups was chest pain or chest discomfort, but one-fourth of the diabetics presented without any chest pain. Q-wave AMI of the anterior wall of the myocardium predominated in both group, but non-Q wave infarctions were more frequent in the diabetic group (28% vs. 16%). Diabetic group tended to be identified later and only half the diabetics with AMI qualified for thrombolytic therapy as compared to more than 2/3 cases of the non-diabetic group
Ashitani, Aki; Ueno, Toshinori; Nakashima, Ayumu; Doi, Shigehiro; Yamane, Kiminori; Masaki, Takao
High-normal albuminuria is an important risk factor for incident chronic kidney disease in diabetic populations, in contrast to an uncertain association in nondiabetic populations. This study aimed to reveal the relationship between high-normal albuminuria and incident chronic kidney disease in a Japanese nondiabetic population. A 10-year follow-up retrospective cohort study was performed involving 1378 Japanese men (mean age 44 ± 5.3 years) without chronic kidney disease and diabetes mellitus. Chronic kidney disease was diagnosed as either estimated glomerular filtration rate chronic kidney disease over the 10-year follow-up period. Median annual estimated glomerular filtration rate decline showed a deterioration with increasing quartiles of baseline albumin-to-creatinine ratio (P = 0.004). Participants who had a baseline albumin-to-creatinine ratio in the highest quartile (5.9-28.9 mg/g) were more likely to develop micro- or macroalbuminuria (odds ratio: 16.23, 95% confidence interval 6.56-54.03), chronic kidney disease (odds ratio: 2.48, 95% confidence interval 1.64-3.82), and hypertension (odds ratio 2.06, 95% confidence interval 1.30-3.31), but not diabetes mellitus compared with those who had an albumin-to-creatinine ratio in the lowest quartile (1.3-3.6 mg/g) after adjustment for potential confounders. High-normal albuminuria was associated with incident chronic kidney disease in this Japanese nondiabetic male population.
La-ongsri, Woranuch; Trisonthi, Chusie; Balslev, Henrik
A synopsis of Nymphaeaceae from Thailand was made by means of a literature search, consultation of herbarium specimens in several Thai and European herbaria, and a survey of 47 wetlands throughout Thailand. Nymphaeaceae phylogeny, habitats and reproductive ecology are reviewed. All species encoun...
Shah, Bhavik S; Deshpande, Shrikalp S
To evaluate and compare clinical and epidemiological characteristics, treatment strategies, and utilization of evidence-based medicine (EBM) among coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with or without diabetes. Prospective observational cohort study from a tertiary care hospital in India among patients with CAD (myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or chronic stable angina). Data included demographic information, vital signs, personal particulars, risk factors for CAD, treatment strategies, and discharge medications. We evaluated epidemiologic characteristics and treatment strategies for diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Of 1,073 patients who underwent angiography, 960 patients (30% diabetic) had CAD. Proportion of hypertensive patients was higher among diabetic patients (58 vs 35% non-diabetic, P patients received medical management in diabetic vs non-diabetic CAD patients (35 vs 34%, P = 0.091); in diabetics the use of surgical procedure was higher (22 vs 17%, P = 0.0230) than interventional strategy (percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, 43 vs 49%, P = 0.0445). Key medications (antiplatelet agents, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)/angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB), beta-blockers, and ahtihyperlipidemic agents) were prescribed in 95, 53/12, 67, and 91% diabetic (n = 252) and 96, 51/8, 67, and 94% non-diabetic (n = 673) patients, respectively on discharge. Clustering of several risk factors at presentation, typically diabetes and hypertension, is common in CAD patients. Though diabetic patients are managed more conservatively, utilization of EBM for diabetic and non-diabetic patients is consistent with the recommendations.
Full Text Available Diabetic patients are more likely to develop kidney stones than the general population. The underlying mechanisms for this disparity remain to be elucidated. Little is known about the relationship between urine composition and diabetes mellitus in non-stone-forming individuals. We sought to examine the differences in the 24-hour (24-h urine composition between diabetic and non-diabetic adults who were not stone formers.A convenience sample of 538 individuals without a history of nephrolithiasis, gout, hyperparathyroidism, or gastroenteric diseases participated in this study. The 24-h urine profiles of 115 diabetic adults were compared with those of 423 non-diabetic adults. Diabetes was defined by self-reported physician diagnosis or medication use. All participants were non-stone formers confirmed by urinary tract ultrasonography. Participants provided a fasting blood sample and a single 24-h urine collection for stone risk analysis. Student's t-test was used to compare mean urinary values. Linear regression models were adjusted for age, gender, body mass index, hypertension, fasting serum glucose, serum total cholesterol, estimated creatinine clearance rate and urinary factors.Univariable analysis showed that the diabetic participants had significantly higher 24-h urine volumes and lower urine calcium and magnesium excretions than non-diabetic participants (all P 0.05. The main limitation of this study is that the convenience samples and self-reported data may have been sources of bias.Our data showed that there were no differences in 24-h urine composition between diabetic and non-diabetic adults who are not stone formers. The reason for it might be the improved glycemic control in diabetic individuals in our study. Therefore, a tighter glycemic control might reduce stone formation in diabetic adults.
The goal of this study is to compare classroom discourse in Thai 9th grade science lessons with English or Thai as a medium of instruction. This is a cross-sectional study of video recordings from five lessons in an English-medium instruction class and five lessons in a Thai- medium instruction class from a Thai secondary school. The study involved two teachers and two groups of students. The findings show the use of both English and Thai in English-medium lessons. Students tend to be more responsive to teacher questions in Thai than in English. The findings suggest the use of students' native language during English-medium lessons to help facilitate learning in certain situations. Additionally, the study provides implications for research, practice and policy for using English as a medium of instruction.
Benni, Jyoti M; Patil, Paragouda A
Introducing a new drug to the market is a time-consuming process, is complex, and involves consumption of a lot of resources. Therefore, discovering new uses for the old drugs (i.e. drug repurposing) benefits the patients by providing them time-tested drugs. With developments in insulin therapy still happening, it is worth keeping up to date on trends in the use of this powerful glucose-lowering agent. The aim of this article is to explore the potential non-diabetic clinical applications of insulin. Literature survey was carried out through the various scientific journals publishing experimental and clinical research papers regarding the diverse applications of insulin other than in diabetes mellitus. These applications include both therapeutic as well as diagnostic uses of insulin. The relevant information collected from these publications was paraphrased in the present paper. On studying the literature, the non-diabetic uses of insulin include the following: wound healing, parenteral nutrition, antiaging, body building, cardioprotection in acute coronary syndromes, insulin tolerance test to test the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning, cell culture, cancer treatment, organ preservation, and management of septic shock, calcium channel, β-blocker overdose and other critical illnesses in intensive care units. This review attempts to survey some interesting new applications of insulin other than in diabetes mellitus.
Pundir, J; Sinha, P
Fetal macrosomia represents a continuing challenge in obstetrics, as it has risk of shoulder dystocia leading to transient or permanent fetal, maternal injury and medicolegal liability. The overall incidence of macrosomia has been rising. Non-diabetic macrosomia is still an obstetric dilemma, as there is no clear consensus regarding its ante-partum prediction and management, as accurate diagnosis is only made retrospectively. The risk of shoulder dystocia rises from 1.4% for all vaginal deliveries to 9.2-24% for birth weights more than 4,500 g. Unfortunately, 50% of all cases of shoulder dystocia occur at birth weights of less than 4,000 g. Brachial plexus injury occurs in 1:1,000 births and permanent damage in 1:10,000 deliveries (12% of all) leading to litigation 1:45,000 deliveries. The prenatal diagnosis of macrosomia remains imprecise. Pre-pregnancy and ante-partum risk factors and ultrasound have poor predictive value. Induction of labour and prophylactic caesarean delivery has not been shown to alter the incidence of shoulder dystocia among nondiabetic patients. Caesarean section and induction of labour are associated with increased risk of operative morbidity and mortality with added cost implications.
McIntosh, Linda Susan
This thesis documents the hand-woven textiles that the Phu Thai ethnic group living in Savannakhet Province, Laos, produce. The various stages of textile production and the uses of textiles in Phu Thai society, especially as identity markers, are also examined. Textiles of neighboring groups are also investigated to how knowledge of textile technology, types, and aesthetics are transferred between the Phu Thai and other ethnicities, specifically the Lao and Katang. The study's field research ...
This study assessed the cardiovascular responses of diabetic and non-diabetic subjects to a single bout of bicycle ergometry. Ten male volunteer diabetics and ten male non-diabetic healthy subjects constituted the study and control groups respectively. The subjects exercised for ten minutes on a bicycle ergometer.
... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Ocular Hypertension Sections What Is Ocular Hypertension? Ocular Hypertension Causes ... Hypertension Diagnosis Ocular Hypertension Treatment What Is Ocular Hypertension? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es la hipertensión ocular? ...
This paper reports that Thailand continues to mark progress on the ambitious expansion of its petrochemical industry. Among recent developments: The outlook for Thailand's troubled worldscale aromatics project has improved with a major cut in its estimated cost. In addition, the project apparently has drawn the interest of other companies seeking a possible equity stake. Amoco Chemical Co., which lost a tender to build a worldscale purified terephathalic acid (PTA) complex in Thailand to Taiwan's Tuntex Co., is reviving its bid with a proposal similar to its earlier one. Amoco contends there will be enough demand to warrant a second PTA plant in Thailand. Tuntex is negotiating with several business groups to take part in its $333 million, 350,000 ton/year PTA project in Thailand. Tuntex is soliciting interest from a number of Thai companies, including Bangkok Bank and the Saha Union industrial conglomerate to acquire portions of the 51% interest in the project earmarked for Thai shareholders. The firm also is negotiating with a number of Japanese companies with whom it has long trade ties, including Mitsui and Co. and Marubeni Corp. to acquire part of the 49% foreign shareholding in the project. Thai Olefins Co. (TOC) marked further progress with feedstock contracts and financing arrangements for its proposed $720 million olefins plant, part of Thailand's second worldscale petrochemical complex (NPC II). Indian industrial giant Birla proposed a $20 million ethylene glycol (EG) project in Thailand
M.J. McAleer (Michael); N. Mao (Ning)
markdownabstractThis paper reviews the Thai national character according to Hofstede's cultural dimension theory and Komin's nine values cluster, analyses the social hierarchy of Thai consumers according to the Luxury 4P Taxonomy, integrates the Theory of Cultural Capital, and expounds the features
Balthip, Karnsunaphat; McSherry, Wilfred; Petchruschatachart, Usanee; Piriyakoontorn, Siriwan; Liamputtong, Pranee
This article describes experiences that enhanced life purpose in 21 Thai adolescents living in Southern Thailand. Thailand is undergoing rapid change from technology, a globalizing economy, and shifting social norms. A phenomenological analysis of in-depth interviews and stories to better understand how Thai youth themselves experience and…
Full Text Available Diabetic nephropathy (DN is one of the major complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The diagnosis of DN is mostly clinical. Kidney biopsy is indicated only if nondiabetic renal disease (NDRD is suspected. This study is aimed to assess the prevalence of NDRD and to determine predictor and prognostic factors of DN, NDRD. It was a retrospective analytic study including T2DM patients in whom renal biopsies were performed at our department from 1988 to 2014. Seventy-five patients were included. Mean age was 52.7 years with sex ratio at 1.56. Renal biopsy findings were isolated NDRD in 33 cases, NDRD superimposed on DN in 24 cases, and isolated DN in 18 cases. Most common NDRD found were focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (21% and membranous nephropathy (19%. Multivariate analysis showed that the absence of ischemic heart disease [odds ratio (OR = 0.178, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.041–0.762], absence of peripheral vascular disease (OR = 0.173, 95% CI = 0.045–0.669, and presence of hematuria (OR = 7.200, 95%CI = 0.886–58.531 were independent predictors of NDRD. 24 patients reached end-stage renal disease 55% in DN group, 16% in DN associated to NDRD group, and 30% in NDRD group. The prevalence of NDRD found in our study confirmed usefulness of renal biopsy in patients with T2DM, especially in those without degenerative complications, hypertension, and insulin therapy.
Full Text Available Namprik is a typical Thai food containing various herbs. The diversity of Namprik depends on herb composition and content, cooking method, and flavor. The objective of this study was to develop a fine, driedand granular Namprik formula for eating with rice. The ingredients included many commonly found Thai herbs. The recipe of lemon grass Namprik produced by Satree Ban-Tung group, Khaokram district, AmphurMueang, Krabi province, Thailand, was reformulated. Mixture design was applied to optimize the amounts of black pepper (10-33%, garlic (10-66.67% and shallot (10-66.67%. Contour plot of hedonic scores andthe predictive regression models were calculated. Results showed that optimal formula should have 23.33% black pepper, 66.67% garlic and 10% shallot. Optimum levels of additional mixed herbs consisting of 5-25%kaffir lime leaves and 75-95% holy basil in the formula, using the mixture design, were also investigated. The results of sensory evaluation using 9-point hedonic scale showed no significant differences in appearance,taste and overall liking (p>0.05. However, the formula containing 4.2% kaffir lime leaves and 15.8% holy basil obtained the highest average score for aroma (p<0.05. Various amounts of dried African chili (7, 5,3% were added to determine an acceptable hot and spicy flavor, using just-about-right scale. The results revealed that the formula containing 7, 5 and 3% dried African chili were defined as just-about-right by 22, 32 and 42% of the panelists, respectively. The final product was given average hedonic scores of aroma, taste,spicy and overall liking ranging from like moderately to like very much. Appearance scores were in the range of like slightly to like moderately. This study indicated that a more nutrition and healthier Namprik containing some Thai herbs can be produced.
Full Text Available Thua nao is a traditionally fermented food in Thailand. It is manufactured by fermenting cooked soybeans with naturally occurring microbes. There are also similar products including natto in Japan, kinema in India, and chongkukjang in Korea. In Thailand, thua nao is widely consumed, especially by people in the northern part. The product is generally regarded as a protein supplement and widely used as a condiment. Two major types of thua nao can be distinguished; fresh and dried forms. To date, scientific information on thua nao is scarce and thus this article aims to document the updated knowledge of Thai thua nao.
Densupsoontorn, Narumon; Jirapinyo, Pipop; Thamonsiri, Nuchnoi; Wongarn, Renu
Fructose malabsorption has not been well-defined in Thai populations but there has been increasing consumption of fructose-fortified drinks. To assess the incidence of fructose malabsorption and intolerance in Thai normal subjects as well as the facilitating effect of glucose on fructose absorption. Twenty-five gram of fructose was ingested by 77 subjects (37 men, 40 women; mean age 26 and 31 y, range 20-50 y and 21-50 y for men and women, respectively). Measurement of breath-H(2) levels after fructose ingestion in each subject up to 2 h was performed. Those who showed fructose malabsorption were later given 25 g of each glucose and fructose and second tests of breath-H(2) tests were done. Fructose malabsorption was found in eleven females with a significant rise in average breath-H(2) level at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min (pfructose malabsorbers, excess breath-H(2) reverted to normal when the fructose solution was mixed and administered with 25 g glucose (pfructose malabsorption was 11 of 77 subjects but these were female. One of the 11 had gastrointestinal symptoms. It was found that an equal amount of glucose would abolish fructose malabsorption.
.5% of 1964 subjects were free of chronic diseases. Treatment gap (indicating those who have untreated or inadequate treatment of diabetes mellitus and hypertension in Thai elders in this study was 37% and 55.5% respectively. 62.6% of Thai elders have ApoE3E3 allele. Prevalence of positive ApoE4 gene in this study is 22.85%. 38.6% of Thai elders who had MRI brain study have moderate to severe white matter lesions. Conclusion The large and comprehensive set of measurements in DDP allows a wide-ranging explanation of the functional and clinical features to be investigated in relation to white matter lesions or cortical atrophy of the brain in Thai elderly population. An almost 2 year follow up was made available to those with MCI and dementia and some of the cognitively normal elderly. The longitudinal design will provide great understanding of the possible contributors to disability in the elderly and to the progression of cognitive decline in Thai elders.
Full Text Available Objectives of the Study: The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of different classes of antihypertensive drugs in diabetic and nondiabetic patients (NDPs with essential hypertension. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in Mayo Hospital, Punjab Institute of Cardiology, and National Defence Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, on 200 hypertensive patients with diabetes and 230 hypertensive patients without (Three hospitals diabetes. Both male and female patients of age between 30 and 80 years with systolic blood pressure (SBP above 130 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure (DBP above 80 mmHg were enrolled in the study. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI, beta-blocker (βB, calcium-channel blocker (CCB, diuretics (D, angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB as well as α-blocker classes of antihypertensive drugs were used. These drugs were used as monotherapy as well as combination therapy. The study was conducted for 4 months (July–October. After 4 months, patients were assessed for efficacy by monitoring blood pressure (BP and tolerability by assessing safety profile on renal function, liver function as well as lipid profile. Results: Significant control in mean BP by all drug groups was observed in “both groups that is patients with diabetes and without diabetes.” The efficacy and tolerability data revealed that in diabetic patients with hypertension, the highest decrease in SBP and DBP was observed using monotherapy with ACEI, two-drug combination therapy with ACEI plus diuretic, ARBs plus diuretic, ACEI plus CCBs, three-drug combination therapy with ACEI plus CCBs plus diuretic, and four drug combination therapy with ACEI plus CCBs plus diuretic plus βBs, ARB's plus CCBs plus diuretic plus βBs while in NDPs, monotherapy with diuretic, two-drug combination therapy with ACEI plus CCBs, ACEI plus βBs, three-drug combination therapy with βBs plus ACEI plus D was found more effective in controlling SBP as well
Kasisopa, Benjawan; Reilly, Ronan G; Luksaneeyanawin, Sudaporn; Burnham, Denis
It has recently been found that adult native readers of Thai, an alphabetic scriptio continua language, engage similar oculomotor patterns as readers of languages written with spaces between words; despite the lack of inter-word spaces, first and last characters of a word appear to guide optimal placement of Thai readers' eye movements, just to the left of word-centre. The issue addressed by the research described here is whether eye movements of Thai children also show these oculomotor patterns. Here the effect of first and last character frequency and word frequency on the eye movements of 18 Thai children when silently reading normal unspaced and spaced text was investigated. Linear mixed-effects model analyses of viewing time measures (first fixation duration, single fixation duration, and gaze duration) and of landing site location revealed that Thai children's eye movement patterns were similar to their adult counterparts. Both first character frequency and word frequency played important roles in Thai children's landing sites; children tended to land their eyes further into words, close to the word centre, if the word began with higher frequency first characters, and this effect was facilitated in higher frequency words. Spacing also facilitated more effective use of first character frequency and it also assisted in decreasing children's viewing time. The use of last-character frequency appeared to be a later development, affecting mainly single fixation duration and gaze duration. In general, Thai children use the same oculomotor control mechanisms in reading spaced and unspaced texts as Thai adults, who in turn have similar oculomotor control as readers of spaced texts. Thus, it appears that eye movements in reading converge on the optimal landing site using whatever cues are available to guide such placement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to study components of desired characteristics of Thai Clinical Psychologists. The sample consisted of 169 Thai clinical psychologists who have Thai clinical license and work on psychiatric in the hospital selected by simple random sampling technique. The research instrument was characteristics of Thai Clinical Psychologists questionnaires. Data were analyzed by means of second order confirmatory factor analysis using LISREL version 8.72. The results of the research revealed that desired characteristics of Thai Clinical Psychologists consisted of 3 components ; ability, personality and ethics. The characteristics of Thai Clinical Psychologists was congruent with the empirical data. The factor loadings of those three components were high at the .05 level, and they were found to be capable of measuring the characteristics of Thai Clinical Psychologists functioning factors.The results of second order confirmatory factor analysis of model in the characteristics of Thai Clinical Psychologists were found that model was fitted with empirical data. Ranging from the highest factor loading value to the lowest, they were from 0.30 to 1.09, respectively: personality, ethics and ability with factors loading of 1.09, 0.59, and 0.30 respectively. The construct validity of models was consistent with empirical data, with chi-square goodness of fit test at 56.65 ; p-value = 0.13497 ; Goodness of Fit Index (GFI = 0.94 ; Adjusted Goodness of Fit Index (AGFI = 0.91 ; Comparative fit index (CFI = 0.98 ; Root Mean Square Residual (RMR = 0.010, and Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA = 0.037
Seyed Javad Kia
Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Chronic renal failure (CRF, also known as chronic kidney disease, caused by devastated nephron mass of the kidney results in uremia. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus and glomerulonephritis are common etiologic factors of CRF. This condition causes miscellaneous oral manifestations especially in diabetic patients. The aim of this study was to comparison oral manifestations of diabetic and non-diabetic uremic patients undergoing hemodialysis. Methods: A total of 95 patients who undergoing hemodialysis in Razi hospital in Rasht city participated in this descriptive analytical study. Patients were divided into two diabetic and non- diabetic groups. Oral cavity examinations were done by latex gloves and single use mirror. Objective and subjective oral manifestations such as xerostomia, bad taste, mucosal pain, uremic odor, coating tongue, petechial, purpura, pale oral mucosa, ulcer, dental erosion and candida infection were recorded in questionnaire. After gathering of information, the data were analyzed by SPSS 15 software using t-test and chi square statistical test. Results: About 60% of patients (57 person were men and 40 % (38 person were women. The mean age of patients was 48 years (range of 20 -76 years. Common subjective oral manifestation in both groups was xerostomia and most common objective oral manifestations were pale oral mucosa, uremic odor and coating tongue respectively. The DMFT index in diabetic group was significantly higher (17.3±7.63 than non-diabetic patients (12.4±8.26. There was no significant statistical correlation between the time of dialysis, number of dialysis appointment during the week and objective and subjective oral manifestations in two groups. Conclusion: Although, the present study has shown an increase in oral manifestations in diabetic patients undergoing hemodialysis relative to non-diabetic group, but this increase was not statistically significant. On the other hand
Alizadeh, Ahmad; Roudbari, Ali; Heidarzadeh, Abtin; Babaei Jandaghi, Ali; Bani Jamali, Maryam
Diabetes mellitus is a widespread disease. Its vascular complications can be characterized by arteriosclerosis formation in carotid arteries. Due to its delayed diagnosis resulting in more complications in Iran, it seems that screening diabetic patients is mandatory. The aim of this study was to compare the intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid artery in diabetic and non-diabetic patients. This is a cross-sectional study, which included 80 participants (40 diabetics and 40 non-diabetics). By using ultrasound, bilateral IMTs of the distal carotid were measured and the data were analyzed using ANOVA and multivariate regression tests in SPSS 14. The mean IMT was 0.97 in diabetic patients and 0.63 in non-diabetics (P < 0.001). Age and gender had significant positive effects on the increase of IMT (P < 0.05 and P < 0.005, respectively for age and gender). Past medical history of coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in diabetes is associated significantly with an increase in IMT (P =0.019 and 0.027 respectively). Other confounding variables such as smoking, history of hypertension (HTN) and hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP) in diabetic patients showed no significant relationship with the increase of IMT. Although measuring the IMT of the carotid artery by sonography is a useful tool for screening diabetic patients, more studies are needed for determining how to use these measurements in promoting the patients outcomes
Maseeh-uz-Zaman; Fatima, N.; Samad, A.; Rasheed, S.Z.; Ishaq, M.; Rehman, K.; Wali, A.
The objective of the present study was to assess the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD) among diabetic (DM) and nondiabetic (NDM) women using Gated SPECT (GSPECT) and to study the impact of other. risk factors like hypertension (HTN), dyslipidemia, family history and menopause. This is a prospective cross-sectional study on a consecutive sample of 287 women referred to Nuclear Cardiology Department of Karachi Institute of Heart Diseases (KIHD) for GSPECT for evaluation of known or suspected CAD (from January 2009 till June 2009). Women with a history of DM diagnosed less than 5 years were excluded. Same day (reststress) GSPECT study was conducted and fixed or reversible perfusion defects were considered positive GSPECT for CAD. GSPECT was positive for CAD in 41/115 (36%, P 0.002) diabetic women and 37/172 (21 %, P 0.005) non-diabetic cohort. In diabetic cohort, GSPECT was positive in 5/9 (56%, P 0.013) women with diabetes only, 17/35 (48%, P 0.02) DM with HTN, 12/15 (80%, P value 0.02) DM with dyslipidemia and 11/43 (26%, P 0.001) DM with >2 risk factors. GSPECT was normal in all 3 diabetic women with positive family history for CAD. In nondiabetic cohort, GSPECT was positive in 9/32 (28%, P value 0.739) women with no risk factor, 5/58 (26%, P 0.866) HTN only, 2/5 (40%, P value 0.655) only dyslipidemic women, 1/12. (8%, P 0.004) with family history only and 4/23 (17%, P value 0.166) non-diabetic with >2 risk factors. Interestingly, 35/93 post-menopausal diabetic (38%, p value 0.017) had positive GSPECT while 33/123 non-diabetic postmenopausal women (27%, p 0.03) had positive perfusion scans. GSPECT was positive in 6/26 (23%, P 0.006) and 4/49 (8%, P 0.05) in diabetic and non-diabetic pre-menopausal women. The prevalence of CAD in our diabetic women is as high as internationally reported and diabetes is a strong risk factor for CAD. Dyslipidemia with diabetes is a major contributor to CAD than HTN and F/H. Diabetes erases the protective effect of estrogen
Kaewboonchoo, Orawan; Ratanasiripong, Paul
The purpose of this research was to develop and test the psychometric properties of the Thai version of the Work Ability Index (WAI). Forward translation and back-translation of the WAI were performed by seven bilingual professionals to ensure that the Thai WAI was culturally relevant and conceptually accurate. To ensure generalizability of the Thai WAI, a sample of 2,744 Thai workers from 19 different enterprises in five regions of Thailand completed the Thai version of the WAI along with the General Health Questionnaire. The 19 enterprises were from the following industries: canned food, snack food, cooking oil, footwear, pharmaceutical, ceramics, toy, steel, petrochemical, and auto parts. The results from exploratory factor analysis supported a 3-factor model, accounting for 53.49% of the total variance. The results also provided evidence for adequate test-retest reliability and internal consistency of the Thai WAI. The internal consistency of the Thai WAI was found to be slightly low due to the newness of the concept of work ability, which is not a common term used in the Thai language; therefore, explanation of the meaning of work ability is needed to increase understanding of workers. By providing early recognition of workers' health risks as well as risks of early termination, the WAI can help Thai human resources managers respond better to the needs of workers and be proactive in their efforts to retain workers in their organizations. Occupational health professionals could also utilize the WAI to evaluate the work ability of Thai workers in order to help organizations recognize early signs of their workers' health risks and possible early terminations and respond appropriately.
Nielsen, Nathan; Jackson, Claire; Spurling, Geoffrey; Cranstoun, Peter
To determine the prevalence of photographic signs of nondiabetic retinal pathology in Australian general practice patients with diabetes. Three hundred and seven patients with diabetes underwent retinal photography at two general practices, one of which was an indigenous health centre. The images were assessed for signs of pathology by an ophthalmologist. Signs of nondiabetic retinal pathology were detected in 31% of subjects with adequate photographs. Features suspicious of glaucoma were detected in 7.7% of subjects. Other abnormalities detected included signs of age related macular degeneration (1.9%), epiretinal membranes (2.4%), vascular pathology (9.6%), chorioretinal lesions (2.9%), and congenital disc anomalies (2.9%). Indigenous Australian patients were more likely to have signs of retinal pathology and glaucoma. Signs of nondiabetic retinal pathology were frequently encountered. In high risk groups, general practice based diabetic retinopathy screening may reduce the incidence of preventable visual impairment, beyond the benefits of detection of diabetic retinopathy alone.
Sompong, Narong; Kheerajitt, Cherdpong
The objectives of this research were to: 1) develop the online courseware on Thai Food Good Health to support the Thai Kitchen to the world project; and 2) evaluate the courseware by the learners toward the courseware integrated using in aboard. The research sample were sampling for chefs, Thai restaurant owners, and the students who were studying…
Eamsila, C; Singsawat, P; Duangvaraporn, A; Strickman, D
Thai soldiers who were conscripted, Royal Thai Army forces, professional Border Patrol Police, or local militia (Thai Rangers) located in any of seven provinces of Thailand were bled in April and again, four months later, in July 1989. In 1991, soldiers from five different locations in southern Thailand were bled once, in July. Serum samples were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody assay for antibody to Orientia (formerly Rickettsia) tsutsugamushi, etiologic agent of scrub typhus, with any titer > or = 1:50 considered positive. Prior to field exercises, prevalence of antibody varied significantly between different types of units, ranging between 18.6% for Thai Rangers and 6.8% for the Royal Thai Army. The April prevalence, July prevalence, and incidence varied significantly by province in 1989, with highest incidence being 14.5% in Kanchanaburi and the lowest 0% in Utraladit. The prevalence in southern Thailand in 1991 varied between 1.6% and 6.8%. The data demonstrate that O. tsutsugamushi is widely distributed in Thailand and that military activity consisting of field exercises that simulate combat conditions significantly expose soldiers to infection.
Phanasathit, Muthita; Manwong, Mereerat; Hanprathet, Nitt; Khumsri, Jiraporn; Yingyeun, Rungmanee
To determine the validity ofthe Thai version ofthe Bergen FacebookAddiction Scale (Thai-BFAS) using Facebook addiction screening in Thai high school students. The original BFAS was authorized for translation and validation in Thai. After content validity and usability were approved by three Thai psychiatrists, the Thai-BFAS was adjusted again by the authors and back translated by an English expert. Thisfinal version was investigated using the internal consistency method among 874 high schools students in Bangkok, Chiang Mai, Ubon Ratchathani and Songkhla, and confirmatoy factor analysis (CFA) was employed to prove that the six-component model could be representative of addiction behaviors. In addition, test-retest reliability was performed separately among 30 pilot high school students in Bangkok. The Thai-BFAS has six items, which are each scored on a 5-point scale with total score ranges from 0 to 24; the cutoff score for Facebook addition stands at least 12 points. The Cronbach s alpha coefficient was 0.91 (95% CI; 0.90, 0.92) and the inter-class correlation coefficient was 0.80 (95% CI; 0.49, 0.92). The CFA showed that the six items accurately represent the six-component model of addiction such as salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal, relapse and conflict. The Thai-BFAS is consistent as a screening testfor Facebook addiction among high school students due to good reliability and validity. It also conforms well to the original version. The six items in the Thai-BFAS are a good representation of the addiction behaviors. Further studies should be undertaken in cases of sensitivity and specificity when compared with other similar tests of addiction as well as in various additional populations and circumstances.
This article describes research undertaken to investigate aspects of Thai culture and its effects on Thai students in an international school in Thailand. Using a variety of data gathering methods, the investigation looks at how Thai culture manifests itself in the classroom in the form of student behaviour and attitudes. The research also…
... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Hypertensive Crisis: When You Should Call 9-1-1 for ... the Facts About HBP • Know Your Numbers Introduction Hypertensive Crisis Monitoring Your Blood Pressure At Home • Understand Symptoms ...
Cetin, M. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org@ttent.net.tr; Cetin, R.; Tamer, N
AIM: To determine the age-specific prevalence of breast arterial calcifications in patients with systemic hypertension. METHODS: The mammograms and patient records of 2406 women who underwent screening or diagnostic mammography were reviewed retrospectively. Mammograms were evaluated for the presence of arterial calcification and results were coded. Hypertension was defined as use of anti-hypertensive agents and diabetes was defined as use of oral hypoglycaemic agents or insulin. RESULTS: The prevalence of breast arterial calcification among hypertensives (17.6%) was lower than among diabetics (25.4%). The prevalence in the non-diabetic, non-hypertensive group was lowest (7.3%). The prevalence increased with age in all three groups. The highest prevalence was found in diabetics older than 60 years (81.8%). Breast arterial calcification was not found among women younger than 40 years. CONCLUSION: Breast arterial calcification is associated with hypertension and prevalence increases with age. Breast arterial calcification on mammograms may indicate unsuspected hypertension especially in non-diabetic patients.
Tansakul, Natthasit; Limsuwan, Sasithorn; Böhm, Josef; Hollmann, Manfred; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim
Aflatoxin (AF) B1, B2, G1 and G2 were determined in 120 samples of selected Thai commodities including unpolished rice, unpolished glutinous rice, chilli powder, whole dried chilli pods and raw peanut. The mean concentrations of the total AFs for analysed samples were 0.16, 25.43, 14.18, 6.62 and 1.43 µg kg(-1) with positive incidences of 4%, 20%, 97%, 37% and 30%, respectively. Quantitative analysis was performed using HPLC equipped with post-column derivatisation and fluorescence detection. Sample clean-up was carried out using immunoaffinity columns for selective enrichment of AFs. The method was validated by using certified reference material, which showed recoveries over 85%. The limit of detections (LODs) and limit of quantifications (LOQs) were in a range between 0.01-0.11 µg kg(-1) and 0.03-0.38 µg kg(-1), respectively. The results clearly demonstrated that AFs were detectable in different matrices. Chilli powder was found to have the highest level of AFs contamination followed by chilli pods, peanut and rice, respectively. However, among the selected commodities, unpolished rice contained only trace levels of AFB1 and AFB2. With regard to the fact that AFs are a natural contaminant in commodities, this report calls to attention the regular monitoring and effective control of food commodities to prevent health hazards.
Bai, Ke; Fu, Yueqiang; Liu, Chengjun; Xu, Feng; Zhu, Min
This study is to explore the clinical characteristics, laboratory diagnosis, and treatment outcomes in pediatric patients with non-diabetic ketoacidosis. Retrospective patient chart review was performed between March 2009 to March 2015. Cases were included if they met the selection criteria for non-diabetic ketoacidosis, which were: 1) Age ≤ 18 years; 2) urine ketone positive ++ or >8.0 mmol/L; 3) blood ketone >3.1 mmol/L; 4) acidosis (pH diabetic ketoacidosis and were included in the report. Five patients with 7 episodes of non-diabetic ketoacidosis were identified. They all presented with dehydration, poor appetite, and Kussmaul breathing. Patients treated with insulin plus glucose supplementation had a quicker recovery from acidosis, in comparison to those treated with bicarbonate infusion and continuous renal replacement therapy. Two patients treated with bicarbonate infusion developed transient coma and seizures during the treatment. Despite normal or low blood glucose levels, patients with non-diabetic ketoacidosis should receive insulin administration with glucose supplementation to correct ketoacidosis.
Health seeking behaviour is important in older people with hypertension and overweight, in terms of managing health factors that are related to their health and illness. However, health seeking behaviour of Thai older people is not well documented. This qualitative study aimed to describe health seeking behaviour of overweight hypertensive older people. Seven older women and three men participated in this study through purposive sampling. Qualitative data were gathered via in-depth interviews...
Musumari, Patou Masika; Tangmunkongvorakul, Arunrat; Srithanaviboonchai, Kriengkrai; Manoyosa, Veruree; Tarnkehard, Surapee; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Suguimoto, S Pilar; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro; Chariyalertsak, Suwat
Out-of-school youth in Thailand engage in risky sexual behavior that puts them at risk for contracting HIV infection and can have other negative sexual reproductive health outcomes. No study has examined risky sexual behaviors and compared them between Thai and non-Thai out-of-school youth. The current study compares sexual risk behavior and HIV testing behavior between out-of-school Thai and non-Thai youth. We conducted face-to-face interviews in this study population in urban Chiang Mai during 2014. Participants were recruited through convenience sampling from two main sources: non-formal education centers (NFECs) and social meeting places. We recruited 924 youth, aged 15-24 years, of whom 424 (45.9%) were Thai and 500 (54.1%) were non-Thai. The majority were attending NFECs (82.3%). Of the sexually experienced participants (57.7%), 75.4% did not use condoms consistently, and 50.3% had at least 2 lifetime sexual partners. Among the study participants, the Thai studied youth had significantly higher odds of ever having had sex (AOR=2.33; 95% CI: 1.56-3.49; p<0.001), having an earlier sexual debut (AOR=5.52; 95% CI: 2.71-11.25; p<0.001) and having a larger number of lifetime sexual partners (AOR=2.31; 95% CI: 1.37-3.88; p=0.002) than non-Thai participants. There was no significant difference between the Thai and non-Thai participants in terms of having HIV testing. The Thai studied youth were more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior than the non-Thai youth. However, both groups displayed risky sexual behaviors. Future research should explore indepth the drivers of risky sexual behaviors among both Thai and non-Thai youth.
Doroszko, Adrian; Janus, Agnieszka; Szahidewicz-Krupska, Ewa; Mazur, Grzegorz; Derkacz, Arkadiusz
Resistant hypertension is a severe medical condition which is estimated to appear in 9-18% of hypertensive patients. Due to higher cardiovascular risk, this disorder requires special diagnosis and treatment. The heterogeneous etiology, risk factors and comorbidities of resistant hypertension stand in need of sophisticated evaluation to confirm the diagnosis and select the best therapeutic options, which should consider lifestyle modifications as well as pharmacological and interventional treatment. After having excluded pseudohypertension, inappropriate blood pressure measurement and control as well as the white coat effect, suspicion of resistant hypertension requires an analysis of drugs which the hypertensive patient is treated with. According to one definition - ineffective treatment with 3 or more antihypertensive drugs including diuretics makes it possible to diagnose resistant hypertension. A multidrug therapy including angiotensin - converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers, diuretics, long-acting calcium channel blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists has been demonstrated to be effective in resistant hypertension treatment. Nevertheless, optional, innovative therapies, e.g. a renal denervation or baroreflex activation, may create a novel pathway of blood pressure lowering procedures. The right diagnosis of this disease needs to eliminate the secondary causes of resistant hypertension e.g. obstructive sleep apnea, atherosclerosis and renal or hormonal disorders. This paper briefly summarizes the identification of the causes of resistant hypertension and therapeutic strategies, which may contribute to the proper diagnosis and an improvement of the long term management of resistant hypertension.
This article reports on an examination of the communication needs of a group of Thai civil engineering students. Twenty-five stakeholders helped identify the communication needs of the students by participating in individual interviews. These included employers, civil engineers, civil engineering lecturers, ex-civil engineering students of the…
Ratanasiripong, Paul; Rodriguez, Adrian
There are few in-depth studies of Thai college student health and mental health behaviors that focus on the cultural influences that shape such behaviors. Thus, the purposes of this study are: (1) to conduct the needs assessment survey on health and mental health issues at a public university in Thailand in order to better understand the issues…
Campbell, Patricia Shehan
Reports on an interview with Terry E. Miller, a specialist on music of Thailand and other southeastern Asian nations. Discusses the culture, the role of music, and musical instruments of Thailand. Includes a list of resources and two lesson plans for teaching about Thai music. (CFR)
Murphy, Richard, Ed.; And Others
This resource book is intended as an aid to persons working with Thai Dam refugees. To help the language teacher, some differences between Lao and English are discussed, specifically tonal inflections, positioning, declension of pronouns, conjugation of verbs, interrogatives, classifiers and predicate adjectives. An outline of cultural differences…
Kamalaporn, Harutai; Chawalitdamrong, Pongpan; Preutthipan, Aroonwan
Childhood asthma is a substantial health burden in Thailand. Due to a lack of pediatric respiratory specialists (pediatric pulmonologists and allergists; RS), most Thai children are cared for by general pediatricians (pediatric primary care providers (PCP)). We investigated whether current practices of Thai pediatricians complied with asthma guidelines and compared practices (diagnosis and treatments) provided by PCP and RS. A cross-sectional study was conducted using electronic surveys including four case scenarios of different asthma phenotypes distributed to Thai pediatricians. Asthma diagnosis and management were evaluated for compliance with standard guidelines. The practices of PCP and RS were compared. From 800 surveys distributed, there were 405 respondents (51%). Most respondents (81%) were PCP, who preferred to use clinical diagnosis rather than laboratory investigations to diagnose asthma. For acute asthmatic attacks, 58% of the pediatricians prescribed a systemic corticosteroid. For uncontrolled asthma, 89% of the pediatricians prescribed at least one controller. For exercise-induced bronchospasm, 55% of the pediatricians chose an inhaled bronchodilator, while 38% chose a leukotriene receptor antagonist (LTRA). For virus-induced wheeze, 40% of the respondents chose an LTRA, while 15% chose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). PCP prescribed more oral bronchodilators (31% vs. 18%, p = 0.02), antibiotics (20% vs. 6%, p attack. Most of the Thai pediatricians' practices toward diagnosis and treatment of acute asthmatic attack and uncontrolled asthma conform to the guidelines. PCP prescribed more oral bronchodilators, antibiotics, and antihistamines than RS.
g sample, respectively. Interestingly, phytophenolic chromatogram and anthocyanin pigment levels showed a strong correlation. Conclusion: Oryza sativa, unpolished Thai rice strain of Leum Phua, has high levels of anthocyanin pigment, phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Its pure phytochemical contents should be ...
Full Text Available Hypertension affects about 10 - 25% of the population and is an important risk factor for cardiovascular and renal disease. The renin-angiotensin system is frequently implicated in the pathophysiology of hypertension, be it primary or secondary. The prevalence of primary aldosteronism increases with the severity of hypertension, from 2% in patients with grade 1 hypertension to 20% among resistant hypertensives. Mineralcorticoid hypertension includes a spectrum of disorders ranging from renin-producing pathologies (renin-secreting tumors, malignant hypertension, coarctation of aorta, aldosterone-producing pathologies (primary aldosteronism - Conns syndrome, familial hyperaldosteronism 1, 2, and 3, non-aldosterone mineralocorticoid producing pathologies (apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome, Liddle syndrome, deoxycorticosterone-secreting tumors, ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormones (ACTH syndrome, congenitalvadrenal hyperplasia, and drugs with mineraocorticoid activity (locorice, carbenoxole therapy to glucocorticoid receptor resistance syndromes. Clinical presentation includes hypertension with varying severity, hypokalemia, and alkalosis. Ratio of plasma aldosterone concentraion to plasma renin activity remains the best screening tool. Bilateral adrenal venous sampling is the best diagnostic test coupled with a CT scan. Treatment is either surgical (adrenelectomy for unilateral adrenal disease versus medical therapy for idiopathic, ambiguous, or bilateral disease. Medical therapy focuses on blood pressure control and correction of hypokalemia using a combination of anti-hypertensives (calcium channel blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers and potassium-raising therapies (mineralcorticoid receptor antagonist or potassium sparing diuretics. Direct aldosterone synthetase antagonists represent a promising future therapy.
Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is associated with an increased risk of adverse clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. The prognosis of patients with diabetes mellitus and chronic total occlusion (CTO treated with PCI is poorly investigated. Current study evaluates outcome of successful PCI on CTO in patients with and without diabetes. Methods: One hundred and sixty three patients treated with successful PCI on CTO between January 2009 and March 2011 were prospectively identified from the PCI registry at the Madani Heart Center, Tabriz, Iran. Patients were followed for 15±3 months, were evaluated for the occurrence of major adverse cardiac events (MACE comprising death, acute myocardial infarction, and need for repeat revascularization.Results: No differences were found in baseline clinical and procedural variables between patients with (n=34 and without diabetes (n=129, unless for hypertension (p=0.03. Hospitalization period after PCI in diabetics (3.26±0.61 days and non-diabetics (2.86±0.52 days was similar. In-hospital MACE occurred in 8 (23.5% individuals of diabetics and 10 (7.8% individuals of non-diabetics (p=0.02, among them revascularization was significantly higher in diabetics (20.6% vs. 7%, p=0.04. Follow-up events in diabetic and non-diabetic groups were 12 (35.3% and 37 (28.5%, respectively (p was not significant. Conclusion: In patients undergoing successful PCI on CTO, diabetes is associated with higher in-hospital adverse events; however diabetes does not affect long term outcomes in these patients.
Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is a growing problem worldwide. Clinical and epidemiologic studies have shown that structural and functional changes that occur in major arteries are a major contributing factor to the high mortality in uremic patients. Recent studies have shown a stepwise increase of the carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV from CKD Stage 1 to Stage 5. We evaluated the cfPWV and augmentation index (AIx, as indirect markers of arterial stiffness in patients with nondiabetic CKD and compared the values with normal population; we also evaluated the relationship between various stages of CKD and arterial stiffness markers. This cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Nephrology for a duration of two years from January 15, 2012, to January 14, 2014. Fifty patients with nondiabetic CKD were studied along with 50 healthy volunteers who did not have CKD, who served as controls. Assessment of arterial stiffness (blood pressure, PWV, heart rate, aortic augmentation pressure, and AIx was performed using the PeriScope device. PWV positively correlated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean aortic arterial pressure, serum creatinine, and serum uric acid and negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate. Arterial stiffness increased as CKD stage increased and was higher in nondiabetic CKD group than in the general population. Arterial stiffness progressed gradually from CKD Stage 2 to 5, and then abruptly, in dialysis patients. Measures to decrease the arterial stiffness and its influence on decreasing cardiovascular events need further evaluation.
Jarurin Pitanupong; Chonnakarn Jatchavala
Objective: To determine the prevalence, and associated factors of atypical eating attitudes and behaviors in Thai medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey examined the eating abnormalities in Thai medical students, conducted in 2014. Research assistants collected data by using; self-reported questionnaires using The Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26 Thai Version). The statistical analysis used R-program for qualitative variables and logistic regression was applied to ...
The mosques have been appearance in Thailand since Ayutthaya Kingdom (1350 to 1767 A.D.) Until today, more than 400 years later; there are many styles of art form behind their structure. This research intended to identify Islamic Art in Thai mosques. A framework was applied using qualitative research methods; Thai Muslims with dynamic roles in Islamic culture were interviewed. In addition, a field survey of 40 selected mosques from 175 Thai mosques was studied. Data analysis wi...
Suvarnabhumi, Krishna; Sowanna, Non; Jiraniramai, Surin; Jaturapatporn, Darin; Kanitsap, Nonglak; Soorapanth, Chiroj; Thanaghumtorn, Kanate; Limratana, Napa; Akkayagorn, Lanchasak; Staworn, Dusit; Praditsuwan, Rungnirand; Uengarporn, Naporn; Sirithanawutichai, Teabaluck; Konchalard, Komwudh; Tangsangwornthamma, Chaturon
Objective The Thai Medical School Palliative Care Network conducted this study to establish the current state of palliative care education in Thai medical schools. Methods A questionnaire survey was given to 2 groups that included final year medical students and instructors in 16 Thai medical schools. The questionnaire covered 4 areas related to palliative care education. Results An insufficient proportion of students (defined as fewer than 60%) learned nonpain symptoms control (50.0%), goal ...
Koley, Munmun; Saha, Subhranil; Arya, Jogendra Singh; Choubey, Gurudev; Ghosh, Shubhamoy; Chattopadhyay, Rajat; Das, Kaushik Deb; Ghosh, Aloke; Hait, Himangsu; Mukherjee, Rajarshi; Banerjee, Tanapa
High prevalence of undiagnosed cases of diabetes mellitus and poor knowledge, awareness, and practice has increased premature death, costly complications, and financial burden. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in November 2014 on 273 diabetics and 355 nondiabetics in 3 government homeopathic hospitals in West Bengal, India. A self-administered questionnaire assessing knowledge, awareness, and practice related to diabetes was used. A total of 17.5% to 29.3% of the participants were aware of the normal blood sugar level. Lack of insulin, frequent urination, hypertension, and poor wound healing were identified most frequently as the cause, symptom, association, and complications. A total of 35.5% to 46.5% said that diabetes was preventable; 14.1% to 31.9% knew that diabetes was controllable rather than curable. Consumption of planned diet, avoiding sugar, and testing blood sugar were the most frequently identified components of healthy lifestyle, diabetic diet, and diagnostic domain. Diabetics had higher knowledge and awareness than nondiabetics (P diabetes. © The Author(s) 2015.
Malinowska-Polubiec, Aneta; Romejko-Wolniewicz, Ewa; Szostak, Oksana; Dobrowolska-Redo, Agnieszka; Tolloczko, Justyna; Zareba-Szczudlik, Julia; Smolarczyk, Roman; Czajkowski, Krzysztof
Shoulder dystocia remains an obstetric emergency. Maternal diabetes is considered to be one of the major risk factors for shoulder dystocia. The aim of this study was to analyze antepartum and peripartum risk factors and complications of shoulder dystocia in diabetic and non-diabetic women. We performed a retrospective analysis of 48 shoulder dystocia cases out of 28,485 vaginal deliveries of singleton, live-born infants over a 13 year period: 13 cases were diagnosed in diabetic women and 35 cases in non-diabetic women. The study was conducted in the 2nd Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw, Poland, from January 2000 to December 2012. Compared to non-diabetic women, diabetic patients had significantly higher pre-pregnancy body weight (83.4±23.8 kg vs. 62.5±10.9 kg, p=0.002), higher pre-pregnancy BMI (30.2±6.8 kg/m2 vs. 22.9±4.3 kg/m2, p=0.0003), and lower gestational weight gain (11.4±6.2 kg vs. 16.0±4.7 kg, p=0.01). Diabetic women with shoulder dystocia were more likely to deliver before completion of the 38th week of gestation (30.8% vs. 5.7%, p=0.02) and had a higher incidence of 1st and 2nd stage perineal tears compared with the non-diabetic group (23.1% vs. 0%, p=0.02). There were two cases of symphysis pubis dehiscence in non-diabetic women. Children of diabetic mothers had a significantly higher birth weight (4,425.4±561.6 g vs. 4,006.9±452.8 g, p=0.03). Children of diabetic mothers with dystocia were at significantly higher risk of peripartum injuries (92.3% vs. 45.7%). A significant difference was observed in the percentage of brachial plexus palsy (61.5% vs. 17.1%). Children of diabetic women experiencing shoulder dystocia were more frequently affected by Erb's brachial plexus palsy and respiratory disturbances. These children had an increased likelihood of birth weights above the 90th percentile (not necessarily reaching 4,000 g) compared to children born to non-diabetic mothers. Shoulder dystocia in women with
Full Text Available Through history of nation building, Thai and Javanese people interacted with other language speakers. For example, they interacted with Indian mbrchants who also brought their literature and religions. In their contacts, Thai and Javanese speakers adopted Sanskrit words for enriching their own vocabularies. This article attempts to describe the meanings of Sanskrit loanwords. In comparison between the meanings of Sanskrit loanwords in Thai and Javanese languages, there are 14 categories of semantic adaptations which are found in both languages. These changes reflect the changes of the socio-cultural background of the Thai and Javanese speakers.
Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Johansen, Marianne; Kamper, Anne Lise
There are four major hypertensive disorders in pregnancy: chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia. The indications and efficacy of antihypertensive treatment of the different hypertensive disorders are assessed. Advantages...
... Home / Hypertension Pulmonary Hypertension What Is Pulmonary hypertension (PULL-mun-ary HI- ... are called pulmonary hypertension.) Group 1 Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Group 1 PAH includes: PAH that has no ...
... Home / Hypertension Pulmonary Hypertension What Is Pulmonary hypertension (PULL-mun-ary HI- ... are called pulmonary hypertension.) Group 1 Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Group 1 PAH includes: PAH that has no ...
Mathiesen, E.R.; Johansen, M.; Kamper, A.L.
There are four major hypertensive disorders in pregnancy: chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia. The indications and efficacy of antihypertensive treatment of the different hypertensive disorders are assessed. Advantages...
Adio J. Akamo; Oladipo Ademuyiwa; Regina N. Ugbaja; Elizabeth A. Balogun; David A. Ojo; Olusola A. Talabi; Christopher, A. Erinle
ABO blood groups, Rhesus factors and haemoglobin genotypes are all inherited blood characters. This this study was aimed at investigating the relative incidence of hypertension comorbidly occurring with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in ABO/Rhesus blood groups and haemoglobin genotypes in some residents of Abeokuta, South-Western Nigeria. Age and sex matched control subjects (n=150) and patients (n=470) [hypertensive nondiabetics (HND, n=179), normotensive diabetics (ND, n=132), hypertensive...
Thailand's demand for gas will outstrip supplies in the late 1990s as rapid economic growth continues. Gas will be a cornerstone for Thai energy policy throughout the growth, although sources in neighboring countries need development. Thai gas production will rise 25% from 1992 to average 1 bcfd by 1995. Including production from new discoveries, production could rise to 1.5 bcfd by 2000, up almost 90% from the 1992 level. Increased gas flow output in the mid-1990s will be due largely to development of Gulf of Thailand fields. By 1998, production from Gulf of Thailand fields will not be enough to offset the decline in today's fields. Thailand will need to import more than 1 bcfd by 2005 in the absence of future discoveries in the country. The paper discusses new pipelines and imports
Won-In, K.; Suksawang, S.; Intarasiri, S.; Thongleurm, Chom; Kamwanna, T.; Dararutana, P.
The Thai amulets that created in an image of Lord Buddha meditation were made to explain the Dharma of Buddha and believed to bless every life in this world for good karma. Phra Somdej Wat Rakhang amulet is the top of the five most famous Thai amulets. There are many molds with various compositions. In this work, it was the first time that X-ray fluorescence spectrometry methods; scanning electron microscope cooperated with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (SEM/EDS) and particle induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE) were carried out to analyze their compositions. Two samples were collected from different molds. Results revealed C, Ca and Si were main composition. The differences in their compositions have been used to identify and characterize for each molds
Jitnarin, Nattinee; Kosulwat, Vongsvat; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Boonpraderm, Atitada; Haddock, Christopher K; Poston, Walker S C
The authors examined the relationship between socioeconomic status and smoking in Thai adults. A nationally representative sample of 7858 Thais adults (18 years and older) was surveyed during 2004 to 2005. Four demographic/socioeconomic indicators were examined in logistic models: gender, education, occupational status, and annual household income. Overall, 22.2% of the participants were smokers. Men were more likely to be smokers across all age groups and regions. Compared with nonsmokers, current smokers were less educated, more likely to be employed, but had lower household income. When stratified by gender, education and job levels were strongly associated with smoking prevalence among males. A significant relationship was found between annual household income and smoking. Those who lived under the poverty line were more likely to smoke than persons who lived above the poverty line in both genders. The present study demonstrated that socioeconomic factors, especially education level and occupational class, have a strong influence on smoking behavior in Thai adults.
Das, U.; Dakshinamurty, K. V.; Prayaga, A.; Uppin, M. S.
Nondiabetic renal disease (NDRD) is seen as a cause of proteinuria and renal failure in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). The clinical differences between NDRD and diabetic glomerulosclerosis (DGS) are not clear. This study was done to find the spectrum of NDRD in type 2 DM patients and differences in clinical profile between NDRD and DGS patients. Data of patients with type 2 DM who underwent renal biopsy in this institute from 1990 to 2008 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were categorized as isolated NDRD, NDRD with DGS, and isolated DGS. A total of 75 patients were included. Mean age was 45 ± 10.2 years, male to female ratio was 3.1 : 1, median duration of DM was 12 months (range, 1 year-15 years), proteinuria was 4.2 ± 3.4 g/day, and serum creatinine was 4.3 ± 3.9 mg/dl. Hypertension was observed in 63 (84%) cases and microscopic hematuria in 24 (32%) cases. Nephrotic syndrome (38.7%) was the commonest clinical presentation. Forty-eight (64%) cases had NDRD and 27 (36%) had DGS. The commonest NDRD was minimal change disease (12.5%). Three (6.3%) patients had lupus nephritis. Tubulointerstitial nephritis has been observed in 10.4% patients. No significant differences between NDRD and DGS patients were found except hypertension which was significantly high in the DGS group. Acute kidney injury and nephritic syndrome were not observed in the DGS group. In conclusion, the incidence of biopsy-proven NDRD in type 2 DM in this study was high. Kidney biopsy aided in the detection of NDRD in clinically suspected patients. PMID:23326046
Full Text Available We read the interesting article entitled “the Effect of Diabetes Mellitus on Short Term Mortality and Morbidity after Isolated Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery” (1. We performed a study on intra-hospital complications in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI in Birjand, east of Iran in 2012. In our study, 479 patients with AMI (243 diabetics and 236 non-diabetics were assessed. The subjects’ mean age was 61.95 ± 13.18 years. Assessment of intra-hospital complications in the two groups revealed that recurrent angina and mortality were significantly higher in the diabetics compared to the non-diabetics (52.5% vs. 39.3%, P = 0.009; 11.2% vs. 2.6%, P = 0.012, respectively. Besides, the mean Ejection Fraction (EF was lower in the diabetics in comparison to the non-diabetics (45.26 ± 11.37% vs. 49.98 ± 10.39%, P = 0.014. Moreover, the incidence rates of intra-hospital mortality and heart failure were higher in the diabetics with AMI. This can be due to the higher prevalence of the associated risk factors, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia, in diabetic patients and their effects on the heart. Hyperglycemia occurring after AMI is a strong and independent prognostic marker of post-MI complications. Stress, which occurs following AMI, increases insulin resistance and hyperglycemia and decreases glucose tolerance. Un-controlled diabetes in patients having AMI is accompanied by an unfavorable prognosis and may increase the risk of life-threatening complications (2. The increased risk of complications can be a possible explanation for the increase in intra-hospital mortality after AMI is diabetic patients. Various studies have indicated that initial hyperglycemia associated with failure of ST segment resolution after streptokinase infusion is followed by more extensive infarction revealed in Single-Photon Emission Computerized Tomography (SPECT, less blood flow in coronary arteries in
Bunyavaree, Monthathip; Kasemsarn, Pranee; Boonchai, Waranya
Preservatives are added to cosmetics and other consumer products to prevent microbial growth and product degradation. Many cosmetic preservatives are skin sensitizers and frequent causes of contact dermatitis. The use of preservatives may vary by country and/or region, according to legislation, and may be reflected in differences in the prevalence rates of preservative allergy worldwide. To examine the type and frequency of preservative use in cosmetics sold in Thai markets in metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand. Preservatives contained in 1000 different cosmetics sold in Thai markets were documented and analysed, based on the labelling of ingredients. Most of the cosmetic and skincare products sold in Thai markets were international brands, with only a small proportion of cosmetic products being produced in Thailand. International brand cosmetics were more likely to contain non-formaldehyde-releasing preservatives than domestically produced brands. Isothiazolinone-based preservatives, which are responsible for the current increase in the prevalence of contact allergy, were found at a significant frequency in domestically produced, leave-on cosmetic products. Preservatives in cosmetics were significantly different according to source of production and type of cosmetics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Permnamtip, Vorapot; Busamongkol, Arporn; Laoharojanaphand, Sirinart; Chaiyasith, Suwan
Full text: Trace elements were analyzed in Thai cereal, e.g. rice and bean, by using neutron activation analysis (NAA). The selected cereals are major food items for Thai population. The data obtained from this work will be useful for nutrition and safety consumption of Thai cereal. Trace elements verified include Al, As, Br, Ca, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, I, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Se, Sn, V and Zn. It was found that Al, As, Br, Cl, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ca, K and Mg are presented in the range of 2.2 to 35.7, 0.15 to 0.21, 0.44 to 13.5, 55.6 to 640.3, 16.3 to 16.5, 158.9 to 161.1, 12.2 to 55.7, 8.2 to 58.1 (g/g (ppm) , 0.02 to 0.28, 0.09 to 1.99 and 0.03 to 0.26 %, respectively. For Cd, Cr, I, Mo, Se, Sn and V were not found in sample because the concentrations were lower than detection limit. Precision and accuracy were determined by analyzing standard reference materials: NIST 1568a, NIST 8704, ACSP DORM-1, NIES No.9 and NMIJ 7302 to a
Ford, Kathleen; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat
The objective of the study is to assess views of age related changes in sexual behavior among married Thai adults age 53 to 57. Results are viewed in the context of life course theory. In-depth interviews were conducted with 44 Thai adults in Bangkok and the four regions of Thailand. Topics covered include changing sexual behavior with age, adjustment to this change, gender differences in behavior, attitudes toward commercial sex and other non-marital sexual partners, and condom use. Most res...
Drug-Eluting Nitinol Stent Treatment of the Superficial Femoral Artery and Above-the-Knee Popliteal Artery (The Zilver PTX Single-Arm Clinical Study): A Comparison Between Diabetic and Nondiabetic Patients
Fanelli, Fabrizio, E-mail: email@example.com [Sapienza University of Rome, Vascular and Interventional Radiology Unit, Department of Radiological Sciences (Italy); Primo, Massimiliano Di [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, University Paris Descartes (France); Boatta, Emanuele [Sapienza University of Rome, Vascular and Interventional Radiology Unit, Department of Radiological Sciences (Italy); Johnston, Krystal, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [MED Institute, Inc (United States); Sapoval, Marc, E-mail: email@example.com [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, University Paris Descartes (France)
Purpose: To describe the 1-year results of drug-eluting nitinol stent placement in the femoropopliteal artery of diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Materials and Methods: All patients enrolled in this prospective, multicenter study underwent paclitaxel-eluting stent placement for de novo or restenotic lesions of the superficial femoral and/or popliteal artery. Baseline and follow-up walking impairment questionnaire (WIQ) scores, Rutherford classifications, and ankle-brachial index (ABI) measurements were obtained. Follow-up was completed at 1, 6, and 12 months. Results: There were 285 diabetic patients and 502 nondiabetic patients treated. There were no significant differences in mean lesion length or lesion calcification between patient groups. Procedural success in both treatment groups was >97 %. There were no significant differences between diabetic and nondiabetic groups in Kaplan-Meier estimates of patency, event-free survival (EFS), or freedom from target lesion revascularization (TLR) at 6 and 12 months. Both groups experienced a significant increase in ABI and WIQ values after treatment, and these improvements were sustained to 12-month follow-up; however, nondiabetic patients had significantly greater 6- and 12-month WIQ scores compared with diabetic patients. Based on covariate analysis, the only factors shown to be significant and to negatively influence patency were longer lesion length (p = 0.009), higher Rutherford classification (p = 0.02), and lack of hypertension (p = 0.02); diabetic status was not found to be a significant factor. Conclusion: Diabetic and nondiabetic patients had similar estimates of primary patency, EFS, and freedom from TLR; however, diabetic patients showed less improvement in WIQ scores compared with nondiabetic patients.
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is high blood pressure in the arteries to your lungs. It is a serious condition. If you have ... that carry blood from your heart to your lungs become hard and narrow. Your heart has to ...
Foulke, J. M.
An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.
Poulsen, Per Løgstrup; Ibsen, Hans
Endocrine hypertension is rare, but frequently refractory. Adenomas are common incidental findings. Biochemical tests confirm the diagnosis. Primary aldosteronism is the most common form. Hypokalaemia is an important sign, but 50% of patients may be normokalaemic. The plasma-aldosterone-to-renin ......Endocrine hypertension is rare, but frequently refractory. Adenomas are common incidental findings. Biochemical tests confirm the diagnosis. Primary aldosteronism is the most common form. Hypokalaemia is an important sign, but 50% of patients may be normokalaemic. The plasma...
Full Text Available Background. Apelin, the endogenous ligand for the APJ receptor, has a potent hypotensive effect via a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism in vivo. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between the common variants of apelin gene (APLN and hypertension, which was reported recently in a Chinese Han population with and without diabetes. Methods. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs on APLN were genotyped in 3156 diabetic patients and 3736 nondiabetic individuals. For non-diabetic subjects, 1779 were enrolled in stage 1 and 1757 were recruited for validation. A meta-analysis combining the two stages was carried out to obtain the overall effect. Results. In diabetic patients, no significant associations of the three SNPs with hypertension were observed. In contrast, we found that rs2235306 was associated with hypertension in non-diabetic males after adjusting for covariates (OR=1.19, P=0.039 while rs2235307 and rs3115759 displayed no evidence of association in both genders. One haplotype, C-C-A, also showed an association with hypertension (OR=1.47, P=0.032 only in men. However, analysis in stage 2 and meta-analysis did not support these findings. Conclusions. We conclude that common variants on APLN are not associated with the prevalence of hypertension in the Chinese.
Worathumrong, Sakulrat; Luksaneeyanawin, Sudaporn
This study compares how the native speakers of Thai (TTs) and American (AEs) as well as the Thai learners of English as a foreign language with high exposure to English (TEHs) and those with the low exposure (TELs) perform the speech acts of compliments (Cs) by taking the context of age into their consideration. The data were collected by means of…
Full Text Available This paper examines the role of mobile technology in the lives of Thai immigrants in Berlin. By using qualitative research methods, this research investigates how new digital and social media applications have affected the organization of Thai immigrants on both individual and institutional levels, with a particular focus on the Royal Thai Embassy in Berlin. Mobile technologies today are widely used in the diaspora, by both individuals and social institutions, to maintain relationships with the homeland and to promote national affairs. Both individual Thai immigrants and official staff of the embassy rely significantly on Internet sites, particularly on social networking sites such as Facebook, to gain information on Thailand and to expand their networks. This paper explores changes in communication and their implications for Thais and their respective institutions in Germany.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Perioperative hypertension is a situation whose management is suggested by the clinical judgement much more than clinical evidences. JNC 7 guidelines give a classification of blood pressure (BP, without any mention specifically dedicated to patients undergoing surgery. The ACC/AHA guidelines recommend deferring surgery if diastolic BP is above 110 mmHg and systolic BP is above 180 mmHg. AIM OF THE STUDY In this review we considered pathogenetic, clinical and therapeutic factors related to perioperative management of hypertensive patients. DISCUSSION In actual trend of the preoperative evaluation, alone hypertension is considered as a minor risk factor. BP values ≤ 180/110 mmHg do not influence the outcomes in patients who underwent noncardiac surgery. Therefore, in these conditions it’s not necessary to delay surgery. Hypertensive picks are possible during the operation, mostly because of the intubation, but, much more dangerous, falls of pressure are possible. The intraoperative arterial pressure should be maintained within 20% of the best estimated preoperative arterial pressure, especially in patients with markedly elevated preoperative pressures. After surgery the arterial BP can increase for stress factors, pain, hypoxia and hypercapnia, hypothermia and infusional liquids overload. For all these reasons a careful monitoring is mandatory. Anti-hypertensive medication should be continued during the postoperative period in patients with known and treated hypertension, as unplanned withdrawal of treatment can result in rebounded hypertension. The decision to give anti-hypertensive drugs must be made for each patient, taking into account their normal BP and their postoperative BP. With regard to the optimal treatment of the patient with poorly or uncontrolled hypertension in the perioperative evaluation, recent guidelines suggest that the best treatment may consider cardioselective β-blockers therapy, but also clonidin by
Gross, G A; Solenberger, T; Philpott, T; Holcomb, W L; Landt, M
Leptin plays an important role in regulating body composition through modulation of appetite and energy expenditure. We hypothesized that leptin levels in umbilical cord blood correlate with newborn body weight and habitus. We also hypothesized that infants of diabetic mothers would demonstrate altered leptin metabolism. Venous blood was sampled at birth from the umbilical cords of 105 infants (74 infants of nondiabetic mothers, and 31 infants of diabetic mothers). Thirty-nine mothers had plasma leptin concentrations measured. Analysis was done using Student's t-test, Pearson's correlation, and Spearman's correlation. Univariate/multivariate regression was used for analysis of factors associated with leptin concentration in umbilical cord plasma. Maternal and newborn characteristics were correlated with log leptin levels in umbilical venous plasma. Leptin concentration in umbilical cord plasma correlated best with birth weight for newborns of both nondiabetic and diabetic mothers (p relationship between umbilical cord leptin level and newborn birth weight, as well as maternal DM, but not with gestational age. Similarly, there was no significant correlation with maternal plasma leptin concentration. The strong correlation of leptin concentration in umbilical cord plasma with newborn birth weight, and the lack of significant correlation with maternal leptin plasma levels, suggest that normal fetal leptin metabolism reflects fetal size and/or body habitus independent of maternal leptin metabolism. On the other hand, the higher umbilical plasma levels in infants of diabetic mothers may reflect an influence of altered fetal insulin homeostasis on fetal leptin metabolism, and suggests that maternal diabetes may influence fetal leptin metabolism.
Nørgaard, K; Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Borch-Johnsen, K
antihypertensive treatment (if any). They were followed-up for a 58 (6-234) month period. We confirmed that hypertension is more common among Type 1 diabetic patients than in the general population and found the prevalence of essential hypertension similar in Type 1 diabetic patients to the non-diabetic population......The prevalence of hypertension in a representative sample (n = 10202) of the Danish general population aged 16-59 years was assessed to 4.4% based on three blood pressure readings. In Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients of similar age (n = 1703) the prevalence was determined in a similar...... way to 14.7% (p less than 0.00001). The excess prevalence in Type 1 diabetic patients was due to hypertension in patients with incipient and clinical nephropathy as the prevalence of hypertension among diabetic patients with normal urinary albumin excretion (essential hypertension) was 3.9%, similar...
Rauh, Simone P; Heymans, Martijn W; Koopman, Anitra D M
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: To develop a prediction model that can predict HbA1c levels after six years in the non-diabetic general population, including previously used readily available predictors. METHODS: Data from 5,762 initially non-diabetic subjects from three population-based cohorts (Hoorn Study, I...
Ghalaut, Pankaj; Sharma, Tarun Kumar; Ghalaut, Veena Singh; Singh, Ragini; Ghalaut, P S
Periodontal disease is closely related to type 2 diabetes and is an important complication of diabetes. There are few studies about the relationship the glycohemoglobin levels with severity of periodontitis in non-diabetic population. We therefore planned this study to evaluate the glycohemoglobin levels with severity of periodontitis in non-diabetic population. This study was conducted on 50 age and gender matched subjects in each of the three groups (according to the grades of mobility in periodontitis), a total of 150 non-diabetic periodontitis patients (Grade 1, Grade 2, and Grade 3 mobility) and 50 non-diabetic periodontitis patients with Grade 0 mobility (controls), in collaboration with the Department of Periodontics of Dental College and Department of Biochemistry, PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana. After obtaining informed consent, fasting venous blood samples of all the non-diabetic periodontitis patients of all grades were collected aseptically for HbA1c, plasma glucose, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) estimation. A total of 150 non-diabetic periodontitis patients (Grade 1, Grade 2, and Grade 3 mobility) and 50 age and gender matched controls participated in the study. There was no significant difference in fasting plasma glucose and postprandial plasma glucose in non-diabetic periodontitis patients with Grade 1, Grade 2, and Grade 3 mobility as compared to controls, non-diabetic periodontitis patients with Grade 1 mobility as compared to Grade 2, non-diabetic periodontitis patients with Grade 1 mobility as compared to Grade 3 and non-diabetic periodontitis patients with Grade 2 mobility as compared to Grade 3. Glycohemoglobin and serum C-reactive protein levels were significantly increased in non-diabetic periodontitis patients with Grade 1, Grade 2, and Grade 3 mobility as compared to controls, non-diabetic periodontitis patients with Grade 1 mobility as compared to Grade 3 and non-diabetic periodontitis patients with Grade 2 mobility as compared to Grade 3
Thomsen, H.S.; Sos, T.A.; Nielsen, S.L.; Koebenhavns Amts Sygehus, Herlev; Cornell Univ., New York
Hypertension constitutes a major health problem and the challenge is to identify patients having 'surgically' curable renal vascular disease among the majority with so-called essential hypertension. The best of unsatisfactory diagnostic tests are renography and plasma renin activity both before and during angiotensin II blockade. The necessity of better screening tests has increased because of the recent advances in surgical techniques and especially percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty. The latter has definitely become the method of choice for correction of suspected hemodynamically significant artery stenoses whenever technically feasible. With improved angioplasty techniques the risk of treating renal artery stenosis without hemodynamic and clinical importance (so-called cosmetic repair) has increased. Unfortunately randomized trials including surgery versus angioplasty are not available. It should be kept in mind that only after correction of the stenosis is achieved and the blood pressure has become normal, can the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension be made with certainty. (orig.)
Full Text Available Aims : Previous studies have shown that diabetes mellitus (DM increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases in females to a greater extent than in males. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the lipid profiles of type 2 diabetic males and females. Materials and Methods : The study included 107 type 2 diabetic patients (41 males and 66 females, and 122 hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients (39 males and 83 females, aged 15 years and older. Total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C concentrations were assayed for each group using standard biochemical methods. Results : The mean TC, TG, VLDL-C, HDL-C and LDL-C concentrations, TG/HDL and LDL/HDL ratios were higher in type 2 diabetic and hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients compared with non-diabetic, and hypertensive non-diabetic control subjects, although these were not significant (P > 0.05. Hypertensive type 2 diabetic females had significantly higher serum TC (7.42 ± 1.63 mmol/L than hypertensive non-diabetic males (5.76±1.57 mmol/L; P 0.05. Conclusion : This study demonstrated that dyslipidemia exists in our type 2 diabetic population with greater TC in hypertensive type 2 diabetic females compared with hypertensive type 2 diabetic males. This suggests that hypertensive type 2 diabetic females are exposed more profoundly to risk factors including atherogenic dyslipidemia compared with males.
Pongchaiyakul, Chatlert; Apinyanurag, Chalermchai; Soontrapa, Supasil; Soontrapa, Sugree; Pongchaiyakul, Choowong; Nguyen, Tuan V; Rajatanavin, Rajata
Osteoporosis is a growing health problem not only in women but also in men. However, there is a scarcity of epidemiologic data to study osteoporosis in Thai men. To examine the bone mineral density (BMD) and to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis in Thai men. A total of 412 men (159 from Bangkok and 253 from Khon Kaen, respectively) averaging 51 +/- 16 years of age, were measured for BMD at the femoral neck and lumbar spine by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (LUNAR Corporation, WI, USA). The peak BMD was observed in men 20-29 years of age at both the femoral neck (mean +/- SD, 1.10 +/- 0.15 g/cm2) and lumbar spine (mean +/- SD, 1.17 +/- 0.13 g/cm2). The prevalence of osteoporosis in the entire group of subjects was 12.6, 4.6 and 3.9 per cent at the femoral neck, lumbar spine and both sites, respectively. The prevalence of osteoporosis increased with advancing age and was significantly higher at the femoral neck in urban men than rural men (18.2 vs 9.2 per cent, p men.
Chantaranima, Tarntip; Yuenyong, Chokchai
Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) was accepted by worldwide Educators that it is a ubiquitous word in the preparation of teachers in the past decade. This study uses Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) framework as a lens for classifying the guidelines and expectations for categorizing expertise teachers. Therefore, the paper tries to clarify the relationship between competencies of Thai expertise teacher and PCK elements. To promote skillful Thai teachers by offering them academic titles, the Office of the Teacher Civil Service and Education Personal Commission were developed to provide guidelines and expectations for categorizing expertise teachers (OTEPC, 2009). This article focuses on the guideline criteria which are three areas of consideration. The first area of consideration is teacher's disciplines including virtues and professional conducts. The second area of consideration is teacher's knowledge and teaching ability. The last area of consider is teacher's performance. It seemed that the OTEPC guideline pay too much attention on the first area. However, there are some issues of PCK appearing on the OTEPC teacher competency. The paper will discuss some suggestions of fill up PCK in the OTEPC guideline. The paper may have implication for Thailand teacher education.
Mezza, Teresa; Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Sorice, Gian Pio
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by poor glucose uptake in metabolic tissues and manifests when insulin secretion fails to cope with worsening insulin resistance. In addition to its effects on skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue metabolism, it is evident that insulin resistance also affects...... pancreatic β-cells. To directly examine the alterations that occur in islet morphology as part of an adaptive mechanism to insulin resistance, we evaluated pancreas samples obtained during pancreatoduodenectomy from nondiabetic subjects who were insulin-resistant or insulin-sensitive. We also compared...... insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion, and incretin levels between the two groups. We report an increased islet size and an elevated number of β- and α-cells that resulted in an altered β-cell-to-α-cell area in the insulin- resistant group. Our data in this series of studies suggest that neogenesis from...
Mekchay, Supamit; Supakankul, Pantaporn; Assawamakin, Anunchai; Wilantho, Alisa; Chareanchim, Wanwisa; Tongsima, Sissades
In recent years, Thai indigenous chickens have increasingly been bred as an alternative in Thailand poultry market. Due to their popularity, there is a clear need to improve the underlying quality and productivity of these chickens. Studying chicken genetic variation can improve the chicken meat quality as well as conserving rare chicken species. To begin with, a minimal set of molecular markers that can characterize the Thai indigenous chicken breeds is required. Using AFLP-PCR, 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from Thai indigenous chickens were obtained by DNA sequencing. From these SNPs, we genotyped 465 chickens from 7 chicken breeds, comprising four Thai indigenous chicken breeds--Pradhuhangdum (PD), Luenghangkhao (LK), Dang (DA) and Chee (CH), one wild chicken--the red jungle fowls (RJF), and two commercial chicken breeds--the brown egg layer (BL) and commercial broiler (CB). The chicken genotypes reveal unique genetic structures of the four Thai indigenous chicken breeds. The average expected heterozygosities of PD=0.341, LK=0.357, DA=0.349 and CH=0.373, while the references RJF= 0.327, CB=0.324 and BL= 0.285. The F(ST) values among Thai indigenous chicken breeds vary from 0.051 to 0.096. The F(ST) values between the pairs of Thai indigenous chickens and RJF vary from 0.083 to 0.105 and the FST values between the Thai indigenous chickens and the two commercial chicken breeds vary from 0.116 to 0.221. A neighbour-joining tree of all individual chickens showed that the Thai indigenous chickens were clustered into four groups which were closely related to the wild RJF but far from the commercial breeds. Such commercial breeds were split into two closely groups. Using genetic admixture analysis, we observed that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds are likely to share common ancestors with the RJF, while both commercial chicken breeds share the same admixture pattern. These results indicated that the Thai indigenous chicken breeds may descend from the
... of Liver Disease .) Portal hypertension is abnormally high blood pressure in the portal vein (the large vein that brings blood from the ... imaging (MRI), or liver biopsy. Drugs can reduce blood pressure in the portal vein, but if bleeding in the digestive tract occurs, ...
Belkis Vicente Sánchez
Full Text Available Background: the incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus have increased in recent decades and this trend is expected to continue. Objective: to determine the risk perception for developing type 2 diabetes among non-diabetic individuals. Methods: a cross-sectional study involving non-diabetic individuals in the catchment area of the doctor-and-nurse office No.15 of the Manuel Fajardo Polyclinic in Cienfuegos was conducted between May 2013 and June 2014. The universe consisted of 1145 people, and the sample included 323 individuals of different age groups selected by sex. The variables studied were: age, sex, body mass index, nutritional assessment, and having a perceived risk when they answered 70 % of questions correctly. The arithmetic mean, standard deviation, Chi-square test, and risk estimation were calculated with a 95 % confidence interval. Results: individuals aged 25 to 34 years and females predominated. Fifty nine point two percent of the study participants knew of their risk. Eighty one point one percent understood that diabetes is preventable and 93.5 % stated that it is their responsibility to prevent its development. Thirty five point two percent of women considered normal-weight/thin fully agreed on the importance of physical activity and diabetes prevention. Eighty point five percent of women and 78.5 % of men answered positively to the question about obesity and diabetes. Conclusions: study participants knew of their risk of developing type 2 diabetes, although a large number of them attributed all responsibility for prevention to the health personnel.
Full Text Available Introduction: Periodontitis is referred to as the sixth complication of diabetes mellitus. If left untreated, periodontitis can lead to tooth loss, thereby compromising a patient's ability to maintain a proper diet and affecting the quality of life. Aim: To assess the periodontal status among type II diabetic and nondiabetic individuals in Chennai city. Materials and Methods: A hospital based cross-sectional comparative study was conducted among diabetics and nondiabetic population attending a government hospital in Chennai city. The WHO Oral Health Assessment Form (1997 was used to assess the periodontal status. The final sample size of the study was 1000 which included 500 diabetics and 500 nondiabetics. Results: This study showed a significant association between the diabetic status and periodontal disease. The severity of periodontal disease was high among diabetics when compared to nondiabetics. The mean number of sextants with shallow pockets was 0.76 ± 1.20 among diabetics and 0.49 ± 0.86 among nondiabetics (P < 0.0001. The mean number of sextants with Loss of Attachment score of 1 (4–5 mm was 0.67 ± 1.05 among diabetics and 0.32 ± 0.70 among nondiabetics. Conclusion: Periodontal disease was more frequent and severe in diabetic patients as compared to nondiabetics although there are a number of questions need to be answered in future research.
Ford, Kathleen; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat
The objective of the study is to assess views of age related changes in sexual behavior among married Thai adults age 53 to 57. Results are viewed in the context of life course theory. In-depth interviews were conducted with 44 Thai adults in Bangkok and the four regions of Thailand. Topics covered include changing sexual behavior with age, adjustment to this change, gender differences in behavior, attitudes toward commercial sex and other non-marital sexual partners, and condom use. Most respondents were aware of this change and saw a decrease in sexual activity and desire more often among women compared to men. At the same time, many respondents viewed sexuality as important to a marriage. Some respondents accepted the decrease in sexual activity and focused more on work, family and temple activities. Thai Buddhism was seen as an important resource for people who were dealing with changes due to aging. Other persons turned to other partners including both commercial and non-commercial partners. The influence of the HIV epidemic that began in the 1990s was seen in concerns about disease transmission with extramarital partners and consequent attitudes toward condom use. The acceptability of extramarital partners in the family and community ranged from acceptance to strong disapproval of extramarital relationships.
Romero Gutiérrez, Gustavo; Muro Barragán, Sergio Alejandro; Ponce de León, Ana Lilia Ponce
The gestational hypertension is the most frequent cause of hypertension during the pregnancy. The gestational hypertension is a provisional diagnosis only during the pregnancy; it is unknown the number of women with gestational hypertension who progress to chronic hypertension. To determine the number of women with gestational hypertension who progress to chronic hypertension. A cohort prospective study was carried out; we includedl96 patients with the diagnosis of gestational hypertension at the time of the interruption of the pregnancy; after 12 weeks, a follow up appointment was scheduled in order to measure the blood pressure and to determine how many patients progressed to chronic hypertension. The data were analyzed with arithmetic mean, standard error and percentage values. For the comparison of variables, the Chi2 test and a logistic regression analysis were used; an alpha value was set at 0.05. Thirteen patients (6.6%) with diagnosis of gestational hypertension progressed to chronic hypertension. It was found that advanced age (p = 0.007), high body mass index (p = 0.013) and the antecedent of hypertensive disease in a previous pregnancy (p = 0.048) were significantly associated with the progression to chronic hypertension. The overweight, advanced maternal age and the antecedent of hypertensive disorder in a previous pregnancy are the variables associated with the progression from gestational hypertension to chronic hypertension.
Gartland, S; Malik, M; Lovell, M
Objective—To determine the type and number of injuries that occur during the training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing and to compare the data obtained with those from previous studies of karate and taekwondo.
)-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α are able to synergistically induce apoptosis in HaCaT keratinocyte cells. The present study aimed to elucidate modulatory effects of ethanolic extracts derived from Thai traditional medicinal.
".. a team of over 55 Thai delegates led by ICT Minister Surapong Suebwonglee exchanged views and showcased Thailand's achievements that addressed bridging the digital divide at the UN conference that was attended by over 40 national leaders" (1 page).
Vaseenon, Tanawat; Intharasompan, Piyapong; Wattanarojanapom, Thongaek; Theeraamphon, Nipon; Auephanviriyakul, Sansanee; Phisitkul, Phinit
Muay Thai kickboxing is a common sport that uses the foot and ankle in fighting. Muay Thai kickboxing trainees usually receive training in Thailand Foot and ankle problems in this group ofpeople who usually train barefoot remain unexplored To evaluate the prevalence of common foot and ankle problems in Muay Thai kick boxers. The present study is a cross-sectional survey of Muay Thai kick boxers practicing in northern Thailand. Interviews were conducted and foot and ankle examinations were evaluated Foot morphology was examined using a Harris mat footprint. One hundred and twenty-three Muay Thai kickbox ersinnine training gyms were included in this study. Common foot and ankle problems found in the Muay Thai kick boxers were callosity (59%), gastrocnemius contracture (57%), toe deformities (49.3%), wounds (10%) and heel pain (9%). Callosity was most commonly found on the forefoot (77.5%), on the plantar first metatarsal (55.3%) and on the big toe (33.3%). An association was found between a tight heel cord and a history of foot injury with prolonged periods of weekly training. Toe deformities such as hallux rigidus (37.6%) were also associated with prolonged periods of training (p = 0.001). No correlation was found between type of foot arch and foot and ankle problems. Plantar forefoot callosities and wounds as well as toe deformities including tight heel cords are some of the foot and ankle problems commonly found in Muay Thai kick boxers. They are associated with prolonged periods of barefoot training. The unique pattern of training and of the kicks in Muay Thai might be a path mechanism, leading to the development of foot and ankle problems.
Strotmeyer, Stephen; Coben, Jeffrey H.; Fabio, Anthony; Songer, Thomas; Brooks, Maria
Background Muay Thai is a combat sport of Thailand that uses stand-up striking along with various clinching techniques. Currently, little is known about the injuries and risk factors for injuries among Muay Thai fighters. Gaining more insight into the nature and frequency of injury in this sport provides part of the overall sports injury picture, within the larger burden of injury as a public health issue. Generating this information is a critical first step toward the broader goal of improvi...
Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk
The paper analyses the regional and international implications of the Thai military coup in September 2006. Focus is furthermore attached to the economic consequences and the geo-political and geo-economic aspects related to the coup.......The paper analyses the regional and international implications of the Thai military coup in September 2006. Focus is furthermore attached to the economic consequences and the geo-political and geo-economic aspects related to the coup....
Cheeptham, N; Towers, G H N
Forty-one types of commercially available Thai medicinal teas were tested for their light-mediated activities against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus K147 methicillin-sensitive (Ms), Escherichia coli DC10, E. coli (wild), Pseudomonas aeruginosa 187 (wild), Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. The results represent a first report of the light-mediated antimicrobial activities of Thai medicinal teas and suggest that phytochemical investigations may be warranted. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.
Full Text Available Thai people like to cover sacred objects or things dear to them with gold leaf.. Statues of Buddha are sometimes covered with so many layers of gold leaf that they become formless figures, that can hardly be recognized. Portraits of beloved ancestors, statues of elephants and grave tombs are often covered with gold leaf. If one considers the number of Thai people and the popularity of the habit, the amount of gold involved could be considerable.
Song, H; Witt, SF; Li, G
This study examines the demand for Thai tourism by seven major origin countries – Australia, Japan, Korea, Singapore, Malaysia, the UK and the USA. The general-to-specific modelling approach is followed in the construction, estimation, testing and selection of the tourism demand models. The empirical results show that habit persistence is the most important factor that influences the demand for Thai tourism by residents from all origin countries. The income, own price, cross price and trade v...
Nattavud Pimpa; Timothy Moore
Leadership is deeply attached to culture. This study compares leadership styles in Thai and Australian public sectors. The data were collected from staff in public sector settings in Australia and Thailand. The results confirm four leadership styles that suit the public sector culture in both countries: communication-oriented, strategic thinking and planning, relationship building, and conflict management. In the Thai public sector system, leadership that focuses on goal orientation is ranked...
Nielsen, F S; Gaede, P; Vedel, P
OBJECTIVE: Early data have suggested a high prevalence of white coat hypertension (approximately 50%) in NIDDM patients. To study this phenomenon further, we determined the prevalence of white coat hypertension in NIDDM patients with normo- or microalbuminuria or with diabetic nephropathy. RESEARCH...... DESIGN AND METHODS: Three groups of hypertensive NIDDM patients (repeated clinic blood pressure > 140/90 mmHg or antihypertensive treatment) attending the Steno Diabetes Center were investigated in a cross-sectional study. Group 1 had normoalbuminuria (a urinary albumin excretion [UAE] rate ... in normoalbuminuric NIDDM patients resembles that observed in nondiabetic subjects with essential hypertension, whereas the prevalence is significantly lower in NIDDM patients with incipient or overt diabetic nephropathy, suggesting a difference between primary and secondary hypertension....
Nielsen, F S; Gaede, P; Vedel, P
in normoalbuminuric NIDDM patients resembles that observed in nondiabetic subjects with essential hypertension, whereas the prevalence is significantly lower in NIDDM patients with incipient or overt diabetic nephropathy, suggesting a difference between primary and secondary hypertension.......OBJECTIVE: Early data have suggested a high prevalence of white coat hypertension (approximately 50%) in NIDDM patients. To study this phenomenon further, we determined the prevalence of white coat hypertension in NIDDM patients with normo- or microalbuminuria or with diabetic nephropathy. RESEARCH...... DESIGN AND METHODS: Three groups of hypertensive NIDDM patients (repeated clinic blood pressure > 140/90 mmHg or antihypertensive treatment) attending the Steno Diabetes Center were investigated in a cross-sectional study. Group 1 had normoalbuminuria (a urinary albumin excretion [UAE] rate
Abiodun M. Adeoye; Adewole Adebiyi; Bamidele O. Tayo; Babatunde L. Salako; Adesola Ogunniyi; Richard S. Cooper
Background. Certain hypertension subtypes have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and may be related to specific underlying genetic determinants. Inappropriate characterization of subtypes of hypertension makes efforts at elucidating the genetic contributions to the etiology of hypertension largely vapid. We report the hypertension subtypes among patients with hypertension from South-Western Nigeria. Methods. A total of 1858 subjects comprising 76% fema...
Armario, P; Oliveras, A; de la Sierra, A
A 53 year old woman with hypercholesterolemia treated with statins, with no history of cardiovascular disease, was referred to the Hypertension and Vascular Risk Unit for management of hypertension resistant to 4 antihypertensive agents at full doses. The patient had obesity, with a body mass index of 36.3kg/m(2) and office blood pressure 162/102mm Hg. Physical examination showed no data of interest. glucose 120mg/dl, glycated Hb: 6.4%, albuminuria 68mg/g, kidney function and study of the renin angiotensin system and other biochemical parameters were normal. Echocardiography: left ventricular mass, 131g/m(2) (normal, <110g/m(2)). True resistant hypertension was confirmed by ambulatory monitoring of blood pressure during 24h (153/89mm Hg). Spironolactone treatment (25mg/day) was added and was well tolerated, with no change in renal function and kaliemia within normal (4.1mmol/l) following the treatment. After 8 weeks, blood pressure was well controlled: office blood pressure 132/86mm Hg and 24h-ambulatory blood pressure: 128/79mm Hg. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Ukadej Boonyaprakob; Sommai Homsavart; Jatuporn Noosud; Rongdej Tungtrakanpoung
The Thai Bangkaew dog is a Spitz-type dog that originated in Thailand. Legend has it that the dog is descended from hybrids between a native female dog and a male wild canid. To examine the mysterious story about the ancestry of the Thai Bangkaew dog's paternal lineage, sequence variation was examined for the last intron of the Y-chromosome-specific zinc-finger gene, ZFY, and its X homolog for male Thai Bangkaew dogs and other male Thai canids, including the Thai ridgeback and mixed breed dog...
Limviriyakul, Siriporn; Supavanich, Walop
Demonstrate the reliability and validity of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory Thai Version (THI-T), a self-report measure of tinnitus. A cross-sectional psychometric validation study was used to determine internal consistency reliability and validity of the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory Thai Version at the Otoneurology clinic at Tertiary care center The cross-cultural adaptation of the Tinnitus Handicapped Inventory English version (Newman et al, 1996) was translated into Thai version following the steps indicated by Guillemin et al. The reliability was constructed by using Cronbach's coefficient alpha. The validity was analyzed by the correlation between Tinnitus Handicap Inventory Thai version and the 36-items short form health survey and visual analog scale using Spearman and Pearson test. The result showed good internal consistency reliabilities of total, functional, emotional, and catastrophic scale (a = 0.902, 0.804, 0.831 and 0.661, respectively) of Tinnitus Handicap Inventory Thai Version. Spearman correlation showed the significant correlation of Tinnitus Handicap Inventory to 36-items short form health survey and visual analog scale. Tinnitus Handicap Inventory Thai Version will be a vigorous tool in evaluating tinnitus patients as well as monitoring the progress of their symptoms.
Navaporn Sanprasert Snodin
Full Text Available This paper investigated the names given to Thai local community products and provides a description of the use of the English language in naming products in Thailand. The business names of Thai local products under the program One Tambon One Product (OTOP were selected for analysis, focusing on language characteristics and semantic appropriateness by using onomastics to some extent. The data consisted of 1,304 names from five product categories—food, drinks, clothing and accessories, handicrafts and ornaments, and inedible herbs, as provided in the database of tambons and OTOP products. Thai product names in English, some of which only Thais can understand, show language creativity, reflecting Thai identity within English usage in the local setting. One problematic area concerns the lack of semantic appropriateness of some English names, as the names are sometimes not relevant to the product type. Thai entrepreneurs need support in naming their products to achieve international intelligibility if their products are to be marketed to international customers.
Nopparatkiat, Pornchai; na Nagara, Byaporn; Chansa-ngavej, Chuvej
This paper aimed to demonstrate the research and development of a rule-based expert system for skin problem consulting in the areas of acne, melasma, freckle, wrinkle, and uneven skin tone, with recommended treatments from Thai traditional medicine knowledge. The tool selected for developing the expert system is a software program written in the PHP language. MySQL database is used to work together with PHP for building database of the expert system. The system is web-based and can be reached from anywhere with Internet access. The developed expert system gave recommendations on the skin problem treatment with Thai herbal recipes and Thai herbal cosmetics based on 416 rules derived from primary and secondary sources. The system had been tested by 50 users consisting of dermatologists, Thai traditional medicine doctors, and general users. The developed system was considered good for learning and consultation. The present work showed how such a scattered body of traditional knowledge as Thai traditional medicine and herbal recipes could be collected, organised and made accessible to users and interested parties. The expert system developed herein should contribute in a meaningful way towards preserving the knowledge and helping promote the use of Thai traditional medicine as a practical alternative medicine for the treatment of illnesses.
Abiodun M. Adeoye
Full Text Available Background. Certain hypertension subtypes have been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and may be related to specific underlying genetic determinants. Inappropriate characterization of subtypes of hypertension makes efforts at elucidating the genetic contributions to the etiology of hypertension largely vapid. We report the hypertension subtypes among patients with hypertension from South-Western Nigeria. Methods. A total of 1858 subjects comprising 76% female, hypertensive, aged 18 and above were recruited into the study from two centers in Ibadan, Nigeria. Hypertension was identified using JNCVII definition and was further grouped into four subtypes: controlled hypertension (CH, isolated systolic hypertension (ISH, isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH, and systolic-diastolic hypertension (SDH. Results. Systolic-diastolic hypertension was the most prevalent. Whereas SDH (77.6% versus 73.5% and IDH (4.9% versus 4.7% were more prevalent among females, ISH (10.1% versus 6.2% was higher among males (P=0.048. Female subjects were more obese (P<0.0001 and SDH was prevalent among the obese group. Conclusion. Gender and obesity significantly influenced the distribution of the hypertension subtypes. Characterization of hypertension by subtypes in genetic association studies could lead to identification of previously unknown genetic variants involved in the etiology of hypertension. Large-scale studies among various ethnic groups may be needed to confirm these observations.
Full Text Available The fluoride sorption ability of a locally available bone char is quantified. Both a synthetic solution and natural groundwater samples from several sites are studied and compared to Indian bone char, which is widely accepted and used successfully in India and elsewhere. The Freundlich and Langmuir sorption isotherms were used to quantify sorption properties. Results show that the Thai bone char is as effective as the Indian bone char for removing fluoride from contaminated water, despite the more rigid physical and social constraints found in rural Thailand. Sorption studies with fluoride-contaminated natural groundwater samples also show that chlorides, nitrates, and sulfates had little effect on the removal of fluoride by the homemade bone char.
Promdee, Limthong; Trakulthong, Jindara; Kangwantrakul, Wisut
Highly added sugar diets have been associated with various health problems such as dental caries, dyslipidemia, obesity and poor quality of life. Unfortunately, sugar consumption, especially sucrose, has increased continuously worldwide. The purpose of the study was to examine sources of sugar consumption and amount of added sucrose consumed in Thai undergraduate students. This study was carried out at Khon Kaen University, Thailand, between the years 2004-2005. A complete 3-day record of items and amounts of sweet consumption were obtained from 202 individuals--38 male and 164 female students. Added sucrose content of each sweetened food and drinks referred to in the record was determined by an enzymatic method. Mean intakes of sucrose were calculated from the sucrose content. The average of sucrose consumption in all subjects was 69+/-38 g/day, ranged from 4 to 182 g/day or 17 teaspoons of added sucrose per day. This amount accounted for 13.8% of total daily energy intake. There was a record of 337 kinds of sweetened foods and drinks found. The major source of added sucrose consumption was sweetened beverage, which was consumed 118 g/day averagely, or 60% of daily sugar consumption. Intake of sucrose per day in both male and female was not statistically difference, neither among different BMI groups. Intake of added sugar in the students was higher than the recommendation of the World Health Organization. These data would be helpful in a health promotion campaign aimed at a reduction of sugar consumption in Thai undergraduate students.
Rerksuppaphol, Sanguansak; Rerksuppaphol, Lakkana
Obesity and underweight are both a public health concern worldwide. Being overweight, and obesity are primary risk factors for the development of chronic conditions including hypertension. Data on obesity and the underweight as well as their association with hypertension in Thai children, specifically, are scant. This study was aimed to assess the relationship between obesity or underweight status and hypertension in Thai school children. Anthropometric data were collected from 3991 students (mean age of 9.5 yr) in Ongkharak district, central Thailand. The sex as well as the age-specific BMI criteria of the WHO were used to define what is overweight, obesity, underweight and severe underweight status of children. In order to calculate the odds ratio and the association between one's nutritional status and hypertension logistic regression was used. Obese and overweight children have a higher prevalence of hypertension compared with children with an average weight (49.5% and 26.5% versus 16.2%, respectively). The risks of developing hypertension is also high in obese children (OR 5.15; 95%CI: 4.27, 6.22), overweight children (1.87; 95% CI: 1.50, 2.32) and overweight/obese children (OR 3.30; 95% CI: 2.82, 3.86. Additionally, underweight children were not associated with an increased risk of hypertension (OR 1.04; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.42). Rates of hypertension in overweight and obese children are high in central Thailand and, as a result, this increased body weight is a risk factor for hypertension. Larger, multi-centric studies are required to evaluate the correlation between hypertension and obesity amongst children at the national level.
Kim, John S.; McSweeney, Julia; Lee, Joanne; Ivy, Dunbar
Objective Review the pharmacologic treatment options for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) in the cardiac intensive care setting and summarize the most-recent literature supporting these therapies. Data Sources and Study Selection Literature search for prospective studies, retrospective analyses, and case reports evaluating the safety and efficacy of PAH therapies. Data Extraction Mechanisms of action and pharmacokinetics, treatment recommendations, safety considerations, and outcomes for specific medical therapies. Data Synthesis Specific targeted therapies developed for the treatment of adult patients with PAH have been applied for the benefit of children with PAH. With the exception of inhaled nitric oxide, there are no PAH medications approved for children in the US by the FDA. Unfortunately, data on treatment strategies in children with PAH are limited by the small number of randomized controlled clinical trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of specific treatments. The treatment options for PAH in children focus on endothelial-based pathways. Calcium channel blockers are recommended for use in a very small, select group of children who are responsive to vasoreactivity testing at cardiac catheterization. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor therapy is the most-commonly recommended oral treatment option in children with PAH. Prostacyclins provide adjunctive therapy for the treatment of PAH as infusions (intravenous and subcutaneous) and inhalation agents. Inhaled nitric oxide is the first line vasodilator therapy in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, and is commonly used in the treatment of PAH in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Endothelin receptor antagonists have been shown to improve exercise tolerance and survival in adult patients with PAH. Soluble Guanylate Cyclase Stimulators are the first drug class to be FDA approved for the treatment of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. Conclusions Literature and data supporting the
Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Johansen, Marianne; Kamper, Anne Lise
There are four major hypertensive disorders in pregnancy: chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and chronic hypertension with superimposed preeclampsia. The indications and efficacy of antihypertensive treatment of the different hypertensive disorders are assessed. Advantag...... and disadvantages of different classes of antihypertensive drugs during pregnancy and lactation are described....
Pawloski, Lisa R; Ruchiwit, Manyat; Pakapong, Yothaka
Few studies have examined growth data from adolescent girls in Southeast Asia and almost none have been carried out in Thailand. Thus this study examines growth data from Thai adolescent girls. Cross-sectional growth data from a sample of Thai girls were compared to reference data from healthy well-nourished girls. It is hypothesized that the reference girls will be taller and heavier than the Thai girls; however, the growth indicators will also indicate that obesity is present among Thai girls. Anthropometric and age at menarche data were collected from a sample of 319 adolescent girls ages 11-17 years living in suburban Thailand. Thai girls are heavier than the reference girls at ages 11-13 years yet are shorter and lighter than the reference girls at ages 14-17 years. The data also reveal that 18.4% of the girls are overweight or obese as classified by the CDC BMI-for-age percentile growth curves. The findings suggest the presence of overweight and obesity among this adolescent Thai population. These data may reflect the impact of the improved economic situation of Thailand as well as the impact of body image concerns among these young girls.
Misra, A; Shukla, P; Reddy, K S; Lall, S B; Peshin, S S; Pandey, R M
Significant insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia has been observed to be associated with coronary heart disease in epidemiological studies, particularly so in Asian Indians. This study attempted to investigate if hyperinsulinemia accompanies acute cardiovascular events in Asian Indians, and that it is not a metabolic response to acute stress alone. To test this hypothesis, a case-control study was carried out in a tertiary referral hospital in northern India. Group I (n = 19), consisting of non-diabetic, non-hypertensive, non-obese patients presenting with first episode of acute coronary event (first episode of angina or myocardial infarction) were compared with non-diabetic, non-hypertensive, non-obese patients of group II (n = 21) presenting with non-cardiovascular emergencies (severe abdominal pain e.g. uncomplicated ureteric colic or non-specific intestinal colic. Blood was analysed for glycosylated haemoglobin, fructosamine and insulin levels within 24 hours of the acute event. Elevated serum fructosamine was observed in 11 (57.8%) subjects in group I and 9 (42.9%) in group II (p = NS). Glycosylated haemoglobin was 6.8 +/- 0.1 percent in group I versus 5.9 +/- 0.04 percent in group II (p < 0.01). Three out of 11 subjects in group I and 1/9 subjects in group II having elevated serum fructosamine level also had increased glycosylated haemoglobin level. Five (26.3%) subjects in group I and 2 (9.5%) in group II with elevated glycosylated haemoglobin level were excluded from the analysis as these patients might have been diabetic. Mean serum insulin values were significantly higher in group I (161.3 +/- 8.15 micro IU/mL and 17.5 +/- 1.9 micro IU/mL in groups I and II, respectively; p < 0.001). Eleven (57.8%) subjects in group I had insulin values above 100 uIU/ml. The present study indicates that significant hyperinsulinemia accompanies acute cardiovascular events and it is not an acute response to pain or stress hyperglycemia. Markedly high insulin levels
Conclusion: Treatment effect of diabetic nephropathy patients is relatively poor compared to that of non-diabetic patients. In clinics, management and prevention of diabetic patients should be strengthened to avoid complication of nephropathy which brings serious injury to patients.
Full Text Available Background & objectives: Recent data suggest that insulin resistance can predict cardiovascular disease independently of the other risk factors, such as hypertension, visceral obesity or dyslipidaemia. However, the majority of available methods to evaluate insulin resistance are complicated to operate, expensive, and time consuming. This study was undertaken to assess whether serum lipoprotein ratios could predict insulin resistance in non-diabetic acute coronary syndrome (ACS patients. Methods: Ninety non-diabetic patients with impaired fasting glucose admitted with a diagnosis of ACS were included in the study. At the time of admission fasting glucose and insulin concentrations were measured. The homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR was used for insulin resistance. The fasting serum total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C levels were checked, and then TC/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratios were calculated. The areas under the curves (AUC of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were used to compare the power of these serum lipoprotein ratios as markers. Results: Lipoprotein ratios were significantly higher in patients with HOMA-IR index > 2.5 as compared to patients with index <2.5 (P < 0.05. Both TG/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratios were significantly correlated with HOMA-IR (P<0.05. The area under the ROC curve of the TG/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratio for predicting insulin resistance was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.67 to 0.93, 0.78 (95% CI, 0.65 to 0.91, respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: The findings of this study demonstrate that serum lipoprotein ratios can provide a simple means of identifying insulin resistance and can be used as markers of insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases risk in adult non-diabetic patients.
Freedman, Barry I; Cohen, Arthur H
Unrelated disease processes commonly occur in non-diabetic individuals with mild-to-moderate hypertension and low level or absent proteinuria who present with chronic kidney disease: primary glomerulosclerosis in those with recent African ancestry, and arteriolar nephrosclerosis with resultant glomerular ischaemia potentially related to hypertension and vascular disease risk factors in other cases. Unfortunately, nephrologists often indiscriminately apply a diagnosis of 'hypertensive nephrosclerosis' to patients in either scenario, which implies that the hypertension is causative of their renal disease. Although nephropathies that are associated with variants in the apolipoprotein L1 gene (APOL1) often cause secondarily elevated blood pressure, they belong to the spectrum of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and are not initiated by systemic hypertension. Because genetic testing for APOL1 variants and other glomerulosclerosis-associated gene variants is available and can provide a precise definition of disease pathogenesis, we believe that the term 'hypertensive nephrosclerosis' should now be abandoned and replaced with either gene-based (for example, APOL1-associated) glomerulosclerosis or arteriolar nephrosclerosis. Precision medicine will be key to improving diagnostic accuracy in this field. Discrimination of these disparate disorders has the potential to eradicate primary forms of glomerulosclerosis that are associated with APOL1 renal-risk variants.
Mohammad H Ebrahimzadeh
Full Text Available Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is a compression neuropathy that causes paresthesia, pain or numbness in the territory of median nerve. The aim of this study is to compare the open surgery outcome and patients` satisfaction in carpal tunnel syndrome among diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Methods: In a retrospective cohort study from April 2011 to June 2012, patients suffered from carpal tunnel syndrome at least 6 months, without response to conservative treatment, who had the inclusion and exclusion criteria, were evaluated by the usage of MHQ and WHOQOL-BREEF tests, one month before surgery and three months after that. Carpal tunnel decompression surgery was performed by two surgeons, experienced in hand surgery, which used the same surgical method. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS 19.0. Results: 24 of patient (34.2% were male and 46 (65.8% were female and there was no significant difference between two groups (P>0.05. MHQ total score before and after surgery was respectively 50.22±7.13 and 63.49±11.28 and this difference was significant (P
... PARTNERSHIPS Meet our Fundraising Partners Tweet Welcome Intracranial hypertension (IH) is the general term for the neurological ... high. (Old names for IH include Benign Intracranial Hypertension and Pseudotumor Cerebri). The Intracranial Hypertension Research Foundation ...
SBA National Resource Center: 800-621-3141 Hypertension A disease that often goes undetected. What is hypertension? Hypertension, also called high blood pressure , is a condition in which the arteries of ...
Groves, Daniel W.; Krantz, Mori J.; Hokanson, John E.; Johnson, Lonnie R.; Eckel, Robert H.; Kinney, Gregory L.; Rewers, Marian; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.; Alman, Amy C.
People with type 1 diabetes mellitus manifest a higher burden of both periodontal disease and coronary artery disease (CAD); however, little is known about their interrelation. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) measures subclinical atherosclerosis and predicts major adverse coronary events. The relation between periodontal disease and CAC progression in individuals with type 1 diabetes has not been previously described. We determined the prevalence and progression of CAC in relation to self-reported periodontal disease. Multivariate logistic and tobit regression models were used to examine the relation between periodontal disease duration and CAC progression and whether this relation differs by diabetes status after controlling for age, sex, total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, hypertension, smoking, body mass index (BMI), duration of diabetes, and baseline CAC. A total of 473 individuals with type 1 diabetes and 548 non-diabetic individuals were followed for a mean of 6.1 years. At baseline, the prevalence and duration of periodontal disease did not differ between individuals with and without diabetes (14.5% vs. 13.4%, p=0.60; 6 vs. 9 years, p=0.18). Duration of periodontal disease was not significantly associated with baseline CAC prevalence. In type 1 diabetic individuals, periodontal disease duration was significantly related to CAC progression (p=0.004) but not among non-diabetic individuals (p=0.63). In conclusion, this study suggests that periodontal disease is an independent predictor of long-term progression of CAC in type 1 diabetic individuals. PMID:26189036
Sharma, Deepak; Farahbakhsh, Nazanin; Shastri, Sweta; Sharma, Pradeep
Neonatal hypertension (HT) is a frequently under reported condition and is seen uncommonly in the intensive care unit. Neonatal HT has defined arbitrarily as blood pressure more than 2 standard deviations above the base as per the age or defined as systolic BP more than 95% for infants of similar size, gestational age and postnatal age. It has been diagnosed long back but still is the least studied field in neonatology. There is still lack of universally accepted normotensive data for neonates as per gestational age, weight and post-natal age. Neonatal HT is an important morbidity that needs timely detection and appropriate management, as it can lead to devastating short-term effect on various organs and also poor long-term adverse outcomes. There is no consensus yet about the treatment guidelines and majority of treatment protocols are based on the expert opinion. Neonate with HT should be evaluated in detail starting from antenatal, perinatal, post-natal history, and drug intake by neonate and mother. This review article covers multiple aspects of neonatal hypertension like definition, normotensive data, various etiologies and methods of BP measurement, clinical features, diagnosis and management.
Kengne, Andre P; Awah, Paschal K; Fezeu, Leopold L; Sobngwi, Eugene; Mbanya, Jean-Claude
To implement a nurse-led protocol for the care of hypertension, 5 clinics were established in Yaounde (urban) and Bafut (rural) in Cameroon. International guidelines were adapted and 10 nurses were trained. The initial cohort of patients was referred from a field survey. The program proceeded for 26 months and 454 patients (45% urban) were registered in the clinics. Relative to urban participants, rural participants were more often women (59% vs 45%, P=.002) and less likely to have diabetes (7.2% vs 41.2%, Purban participants and nondiabetics. Nurse-led clinics are effective for improving hypertension care in these settings and require implementation and validation through controlled trials.
Martinez-Martin, F J; Rodriguez-Rosas, H; Peiro-Martinez, I; Soriano-Perera, P; Pedrianes-Martin, P; Comi-Diaz, C
We studied the effects of treatment with olmesartan/amlodipine and olmesartan/hydrochlorothiazide on inflammatory and metabolic parameters (including new-onset diabetes as a secondary endpoint) in non-diabetic hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). A total of 120 patients with MetS and stage I and II hypertension were randomized to olmesartan 20 mg/amlodipine 5 mg or olmesartan 20 mg/hydrochlorothiazide 12.5 mg. If target systolic blood pressure (hydrochlorothiazide combination. PMID:21107432
Full Text Available Based on evidence gathered through participant observation, this article illuminates the nature of vote-canvassing, previously a black box in Thai electoral studies. Offering a close-up study of the internal mechanisms of an individual Thai election campaign, this article reveals that vote-canvasser networks are underpinned by long-term dyadic relationships, both hierarchical and horizontal, between the candidate, vote-canvassers and voters. These networks continue to be the most important factor in winning elections. This article documents how candidates draw up an election campaign map and identify voters along residential lines to maximise their vote-canvassing strategy. The findings of this article challenge Anek’s 1996 concept of “two democracies”, which argues that rural voters are influenced by money, local leaders, political factions and corrupt politicians while more well-educated, urban, middle-class voters are more oriented toward the alternative policies offered by competing parties. The case study of Kom’s election campaign showed that the role of the much-vaunted middle-class voters is not decisive, even in suburban areas of Bangkok. While political marketing has grown in importance in Thai elections, it has not displaced traditional electoral practices. Thai society is, in fact, deeply fragmented and diverse – too complex to be divided in such a simplistic manner. This article suggests that rather than undergoing a linear transformation, political hybridisation is a key trend in Thai election campaigns.
Hanpatchaiyakul, Kulnaree; Eriksson, Henrik; Kijsomporn, Jureerat; Östlund, Gunnel
This study explored the lived experiences of Thai women in relation to alcohol addiction in treatment. Twelve women aged 20 to 65 years, were participated. The participants were recruited from two special hospitals and one outpatient clinic in a general hospital. Descriptive phenomenology was applied to analyze the transcripts of the individual interviews. The explored phenomenon of Thai women experiencing alcohol addiction included four essential aspects, (1) feeling inferior and worthless (2) feeling physically and emotionally hurt, (3) fearing physical deterioration and premature death, and (4) feeling superior and powerful. Through these different aspects of Thai women's lived experiences, the following essence was synthesized. The essence of the lived experience of alcohol addiction among the studied Thai women was ambivalence between feeling inferior and worthless and feeling superior and powerful when acting as a man. Drinking alcohol lessened life's difficulties and fears; for example, of violence, bodily demolition, premature death and marginalization from family and society. Thai women who experience alcohol addiction are treated with gender-related double standards when trying to undo gender traditional roles. Their marginalization from family and society deepens making them even more vulnerable to the positive side effects of alcohol drinking. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
... Home / Hypertension Pulmonary Hypertension What Is Pulmonary hypertension (PULL-mun-ary HI- ... are called pulmonary hypertension.) Group 1 Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Group 1 PAH includes: PAH that has no ...
Rotroff, Daniel M; Oki, Noffisat O; Liang, Xiaomin; Yee, Sook Wah; Stocker, Sophie L; Corum, Daniel G; Meisner, Michele; Fiehn, Oliver; Motsinger-Reif, Alison A; Giacomini, Kathleen M; Kaddurah-Daouk, Rima
Millions of individuals are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), which increases the risk for a plethora of adverse outcomes including cardiovascular events and kidney disease. Metformin is the most widely prescribed medication for the treatment of T2D; however, its mechanism is not fully understood and individuals vary in their response to this therapy. Here, we use a non-targeted, pharmacometabolomics approach to measure 384 metabolites in 33 non-diabetic, African American subjects dosed with metformin. Three plasma samples were obtained from each subject, one before and two after metformin administration. Validation studies were performed in wildtype mice given metformin. Fifty-four metabolites (including 21 unknowns) were significantly altered upon metformin administration, and 12 metabolites (including six unknowns) were significantly associated with metformin-induced change in glucose (q < 0.2). Of note, indole-3-acetate, a metabolite produced by gut microbes, and 4-hydroxyproline were modulated following metformin exposure in both humans and mice. 2-Hydroxybutanoic acid, a metabolite previously associated with insulin resistance and an early biomarker of T2D, was positively correlated with fasting glucose levels as well as glucose levels following oral glucose tolerance tests after metformin administration. Pathway analysis revealed that metformin administration was associated with changes in a number of metabolites in the urea cycle and in purine metabolic pathways (q < 0.01). Further research is needed to validate the biomarkers of metformin exposure and response identified in this study, and to understand the role of metformin in ammonia detoxification, protein degradation and purine metabolic pathways.
Dembińska-Kieć, A; Kawecka-Jaszcz, K; Kwaśniak, M; Guevara, I; Pankiewicz, J; Malczewska-Malec, M; Iwanejko, J; Hartwich, J; Zdzienicka, A; Stochmal, A; Leszczyńska-Gołabek, I
The association between apo E isoforms and insulin output during the oral glucose test (OGTT) in 60 non-diabetic, non-obese patients with essential hypertension and in control subjects (non-obese, non-diabetic normotensive subjects) was estimated. According to low or high insulin output during OGTT, the subjects were divided into the following groups: normotensive subjects with low (NLI) and high (NHI) and hypertensive subjects with low (HLI) and high (HHI) insulin output. The apo E 4/2 phenotype was detected in 32% of hypertensive subjects but not in control subjects. The frequency of apo E 3/2 phenotype in hypertensive subjects was 5% and in normotensive subjects 15%. An increased frequency of phenotype apo E 4/3 was noticed both in HHI (46%) and in NHI (50%) compared with HLI (22%) and NLI (17%) groups. The results suggest that the determination of phenotypes apo E and insulin output may contribute to an early detection of individuals at high risk of hypertension development.
Bertelsen, Geir; Peto, Tunde; Lindekleiv, Haakon; Schirmer, Henrik; Solbu, Marit D; Toft, Ingrid; Sjølie, Anne Katrin; Njølstad, Inger
To determine the prevalence and risk factors for retinopathy in a nondiabetic population. The study population included 5869 participants without diabetes aged 38-87 years from the Tromsø Eye Study, a substudy of the population-based Tromsø Study in Norway. Retinal images from both eyes were graded for retinopathy. We collected data on risk factors from self-report questionnaires, clinical examinations, laboratory measurements and case note reviews. The cross-sectional relationship between potential risk factors and retinopathy was assessed using logistic regression analysis. The overall prevalence of retinopathy was 14.8%. Men had a higher prevalence of retinopathy compared with women (15.9% versus 14.0%, p=0.04). In men, retinopathy was associated with hypertension (odds ratio [OR], 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-2.04) and HbA1c (OR per %, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.01-1.96). In women, retinopathy was associated with age (OR per 10 years, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.14-1.52), log-transformed urinary albumin excretion (OR per log unit, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.14-1.87) and hypertension (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.08-1.71). In women, retinopathy was associated with very low levels of urinary albumin excretion (urinary albumin/creatinine ratio >0.43 mg/mmol). This study confirms results from previous studies on the strong association between blood pressure and retinopathy. A novel finding is the sex differences in risk factors for retinopathy, suggesting a sex difference in the pathogenesis leading to retinopathy. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Nakai, Yousuke; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Takashi; Mizuno, Suguru; Sasahira, Naoki; Kogure, Hirofumi; Kawakubo, Kazumichi; Yamamoto, Natsuyo; Hirano, Kenji; Ijichi, Hideaki; Tateishi, Keisuke; Tada, Minoru; Koike, Kazuhiko
The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of diabetes mellitus (DM) as well as antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and antihyperlipidemic medications such as metformin and statins on survival in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer receiving chemotherapy. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 250 patients with advanced pancreatic cancer receiving chemotherapy. Multivariate analyses of prognostic factors for survival were performed both in overall population and in subgroups with and without DM. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed in 124 patients (50%) who had less distant metastasis and more hypertension. Thirty patients received statin for hyperlipidemia. Overall survival was 13.3 versus 10.0 months with and without DM (P = 0.084), but hazard ratio of DM was 1.05 (P = 0.758) in the multivariate analysis. Subgroup analysis of diabetic patients, but not in non-diabetic patients, demonstrated use of statins (hazard ratio, 0.40; P = 0.010) as a prognostic factor, as well as distant metastasis, performance status, combination therapy with gemcitabine and S-1, and use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers. No antidiabetic medications were prognostic factors. Neither DM nor antidiabetic treatment had prognostic impact on advanced pancreatic cancer. Statin use was associated with better survival in the diabetic patients.
Thienthong, Somboon; Hintong, Thanoo; Pulnitiporn, Aksorn
To determine the incidence, risk factors, signs, symptoms and management of perioperative allergic reactions in the Thai Anesthesia Incidents Study (THAI Study). Between February 1, 2003, and January 31, 2004, a descriptive, prospective, multicenter study was conducted in 20 hospitals across Thailand. All patients receiving anesthetic and medical agents were monitored for allergic reactions for the first 24 postoperative-hours. Signs and symptoms of suspected allergic reactions included skin reactions, wheezing and unexpected hypotension. The details of allergic reactions were reviewed and recorded. Allergic reactions occurred in 30 of the 163,403 patients included in this study. The reaction-incidence was approximately 1 in 5,500 cases of anesthesia. Forty-eight percent of the affected patients had a history of allergic reactions. The manifestations were skin reactions, hypotension and wheezing in 38, 22 and 19 percent of the overall symptoms, respectively. Reactions were mild, moderate and severe in 40, 23 and 37 percent of the patients, respectively. The three drugs most suspected of causing the reaction(s) were antibiotics (19%), muscle relaxants (17%) and propofol (15%). All of the affected patients recovered after treatment including the one who suffered cardiac arrest because of the allergic reaction. The incidence of perioperative allergic reactions was 1 in 5,500 cases of anesthesia. History of allergies was obtained from half of the patients and the most common sign was a skin reaction. The drugs most suspected of causing an allergic reaction were antibiotics. All of the patients responded well to rescue treatment.
Thongphasuk, Jarunee; Thongphasuk, Piyanuch
Antioxidants have been used as radioprotectors in cosmetics and radiation therapy to protect normal tissues in cancer patients. The objective of this study is to determine the activities of antioxidants in Thai edible plants (holy basil, sesame (white and black). durian (Chanee and Monthong), parsley, morning glory, guava, chilies, pepper, sweet pepper, ash pumpkin, pumpkin, tomato, peppermint, and sweet basil) by using I, I-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical and to determine their capability to inhibit radiation-induced hemolysis. Gamma rays (10 KGy) from cobalt-60 was used to induce hemolysis of human red blood cells, and ascorbic acid was used as standard antioxidant. The extracts from all samples showed antioxidant activities. However, only the extracts (0.1-1,000 μg/8 x 10 9 red blood cells) from parsley, guava, peppermint, and sweet basil could significantly inhibit (p<0.05) radiation-induced hemolysis. Although ascorbic acid is a strong antioxidant, its ability to inhibit radiation-induced hemolysis was lower than the extracts. This maybe due to its hydrophilic property which limits its ability to penetrate cell membrane
Sanseeha, Ladda; Chontawan, Ratanawadee; Sethabouppha, Hunsa; Disayavanish, Chamlong; Turale, Sue
This study explored the perceptions of 18 people diagnosed with schizophrenia from 1-10 years to uncover how they perceived themselves and their illness. It also involved 12 family members who added their perceptions. The data were collected using in-depth interviews, reflective journaling, and observations. The data were analyzed through the lens of Heidegger's hermeneutic phenomenology. Four themes emerged: perceptions of mental illness, perceptions of the causes of illness, perceptions of discrimination, and attempting to live with schizophrenia. The findings included strong underlying cultural and spiritual beliefs, and attitudes unique to the Thai participants, including the causation of schizophrenia by supernatural powers, black magic, and bad karma stemming from past deeds. Understanding the perceptions of the participants might help health-care providers to be more sensitive to those living with schizophrenia in Thailand and elsewhere. In particular, the findings could be useful in informing psychiatric careproviders about developing better caring systems for clients diagnosed with schizophrenia. This should help the sufferers of schizophrenia to live their lives to their own satisfaction and as normally as possible.
Conclusion: CT findings of tuberculosis in diabetic patients are different from those in non-diabetic patients, with a higher occurrence of non-segmental distribution and multiple cavities within a tuberculous lesion. By follow-up re-examination, diabetic patients show a slower and unobvious therapeutic response on CT scans compared to non-diabetic patients. CT can provide important information for the diagnosis and management of TB in diabetic and non-diabetic patients.
By examining competing discourses about women who are maechii (or 'lay nuns') in Buddhist Thai society, this paper demonstrates that, although maechii vow to be celibate, social constructions of their role are grounded in sexuality. The discourses examined are those of the Buddhist canon and Sangha (Order of Monkhood), the Thai Maechii Institute, the mass media, and the government. The analysis is supplemented with field observations and interviews with monks, maechii, and lay persons. Findings suggest that maechii comprise an ambiguous category linguistically, Buddhistically, and in terms of their sexuality. Case studies of the founders of nunneries conducted in ChiangMai indicate that maechii leaders have been resisting the prevalent views that most maechii are social misfits, yet also are capable of undermining monks' celibacy and, by extension, the larger social order. The analysis contributes to the understanding of the interconnectedness of gender and sexuality in contemporary Thai society.
Full Text Available This research aims at studying an elderly employment model for the Thai automotive industry. Mixed methods with a sequential exploratory strategy were utilized. Grounded theory was employed by using in-depth interviews to investigate the characteristics of elderly employment in the Thai automotive industry. For this stage of the research, theoretical and purposive sampling was used to select 32 key informants from four groups of stakeholders: (1 elderly workers, (2 employers or human resource managers, (3 government officers, and (4 academics. The findings were then validated using a quantitative approach with structural equation modelling (SEM. A total of 308 elderly workers and human resource managers were surveyed regarding their opinion about elderly employment. Based on the survey, the elderly employment model in the Thai automotive industry, which is comprised of the approach to elderly employment, elderly employment preparation, and key success factors for elderly employment, was revealed to be a good fit.
Istenes, Ildikó; Körei, Anna Erzsébet; Putz, Zsuzsanna; Németh, Nóra; Martos, Timea; Keresztes, Katalin; Kempler, Miklós Soma; Erzsébet, Vági Orsolya; Vargha, Péter; Kempler, Péter
The aim of our study was to evaluate the relative effect of diabetes and hypertension on heart rate variability. Four age-matched groups including type 2 diabetic patients with and without hypertension, non-diabetic patients with essential hypertension and healthy control subjects were studied. Autonomic function was evaluated by the standard cardiovascular reflex tests and 24-hour heart rate variability measurement. Heart rate variability was characterized by the triangular index value and by the spectral components of the frequency domain analysis. According to the two-way analysis of variance on ranks, all parameters were influenced negatively by diabetes (heart rate variability triangular index: p heart rate variability parameters are additive. Beat-to-beat variation upon deep breathing, the most sensitive cardiovascular reflex test was also negatively influenced by both diabetes (p heart rate variability. Early assessment of the autonomic nerve function is suggested in diabetic patients with hypertension. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Krittaya Na Nongkhai
Full Text Available This paper studied cultural hybridization as reflected in hero characters from 30 Thai action adventure films produced and released during 1997–2010. It was hypothesized that the characterization of the heroes in the action adventure films in question had been influenced by features of heroes in foreign films. Such features had been mixed with Thai values and local beliefs so as to create Thai hybrid hero characters. These hybrid characters demonstrated the distinctiveness and dynamics of Thai action adventure films. It was found that cultural hybridization is presented through the Thai hero characters' images, gender identity, and roles leading to the emergence of three important types of Thai hybrid hero: 1 local Thai cowboy heroes, 2 Thai martial arts heroes, and 3 Thai necromancer superheroes. These heroes are clear evidence of an adaptation and cultural hybridization between international films' hero characters and certain elements in Thai society being legends, local beliefs, and the values of masculinity. Moreover, these hybrid heroes reflect the flow of globalization into Thai society and the process of localization to creatively respond to the flux in global culture.
Strotmeyer, Stephen; Lystad, Reidar P
Muay Thai is a style of kickboxing that allows full-contact blows to an unprotected head, torso and legs, and, as in any combat sport, there is an inherent risk of injury. Previous observational studies have shown there is a substantial risk of injury in competitive kickboxing. None of these studies, however, have investigated the potential role of psychological risk factors and, consequently, little is known about the perception of injury risk among these athletes. Notwithstanding the important role risk perception may play in the occurrence and prevention of sports injuries, there is very limited empirical data pertaining to athletes in full-contact combat sports such as Muay Thai. Because the development and successful implementation of effective injury prevention policies for combat sports are likely to benefit from an increased understanding of the perception of injury risk and sport safety attitudes and behavior of its participants, further study is warranted. Muay Thai fighters were invited to complete an online survey in which they rated the perceived risk of injury in a range of different sports, including Muay Thai kickboxing. Perceived comparative risk was obtained indirectly by subtracting perceived risk of injury to oneself from perceived risk of injury to a peer. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, comparison of means, and ordinal logistic regression. Contrary to the best available epidemiological evidence, Muay Thai fighters perceived the risk of injury in their own sport to be average and significantly lower than that in other collision and contact sports, including popular combat sports such as boxing and mixed martial arts. On average, Muay Thai fighters perceived their own risk injury to be significantly lower compared to their peers (p injury risk perception and actual risk among Muay Thai fighters. Moreover, these athletes also exhibit a slight degree comparative optimism or unrealistic optimism. Because behavior is determined by
This paper offers a discussion of some of the attitudes towards teaching and learning in Thai nursing education. It illustrates the strict, hierarchical set of relationships that exist between people throughout all aspects of Thai society. It then relates these relationships to those between teachers and students of nursing and how those relationships effect the ways in which students receive and deal with knowledge. Other attitudes towards learning, communication and student/lecturer relationships are also noted. It is hoped that the paper helps those, in other cultures, to reflect on their own practices.
Hage, Fadi G; Mansur, Sulaf J; Xing, Dongqi; Oparil, Suzanne
Hypertension is the most common modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of death in both men and women. The prevalence and severity of hypertension rise markedly with age, and blood pressure control becomes more difficult with aging in both genders, particularly in women. In addition, there are forms of hypertension that occur exclusively in women, e.g., hypertension related to menopause, oral contraceptive use, or pregnancy (e.g., chronic hypertension, gestationa...
Yang, Yue; Wei, Ri-bao; Xing, Yue; Tang, Lu; Zheng, Xiao-yong; Wang, Zi-cheng; Gao, Yu-wei; Li, Min-xia; Chen, Xiang-mei
This study compared the efficacy of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and calcium channel blockers (CCBs) in the effect of insulin resistance (IR) as assessed using the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in non-diabetic patients. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched to identify studies published before December 2012 that investigated the use of ARBs and CCBs to determine the effect on the HOMA-IR index in non-diabetics. Parameters on IR and blood pressure were collected. Review Manager 5.2 and Stata 12.0 were used to perform the meta-analysis. Fixed and random effects models were applied to various aspects of the meta-analysis, which assessed the therapeutic effects of the two types of drug using the HOMA-IR index in non-diabetic patients. The meta-analysis included five clinical trials. Patient comparisons before and after treatment with ARBs and CCBs revealed that ARBs reduced the HOMA-IR index (weighted mean difference (WMD) -0.65, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.93 to -0.38) and fasting plasma insulin (FPI) (WMD -2.01, 95% CI -3.27 to -0.74) significantly more than CCBs. No significant differences in the therapeutic effects of these two types of drug on blood pressure were observed. Given that there are no significant differences in the therapeutic effects of ARBs and CCBs on blood pressure, as ARBs are superior to CCBs in their effect on the HOMA-IR index in non-diabetics, they might be a better choice in hypertension patients without diabetes. © 2013.
Full Text Available The Thai Bangkaew dog is a Spitz-type dog that originated in Thailand. Legend has it that the dog is descended from hybrids between a native female dog and a male wild canid. To examine the mysterious story about the ancestry of the Thai Bangkaew dog's paternal lineage, sequence variation was examined for the last intron of the Y-chromosome-specific zinc-finger gene, ZFY, and its X homolog for male Thai Bangkaew dogs and other male Thai canids, including the Thai ridgeback and mixed breed dogs, Asiatic jackals (Canis aureus and a dhole (Cuon alpinus. A 1075-bp ZFY segment from DNA samples of Thai Bangkaew dogs was found to be 100% identical to the domestic dog ZFY and (if gaps are allowed showed 81% and 92% identity to jackal ZFY and dhole ZFY, respectively. However, if gaps were treated as missing data, the 1045-bp ZFY sequence for the Thai Bangkaew dogs was 100% identical to domestic dog ZFY and 99.5% to jackal ZFY and dhole ZFY, respectively. In addition, the 959-bp Thai Bangkaew ZFX fragments were identical and showed 100% identity to domestic dog ZFX. These genetic data suggest that the Thai Bangkaew dogs still present today share a common male ancestor with modern dogs, rather than being the descendants of dhole or jackal/dog hybrids.
Gerdts, E; Okin, P M; Omvik, P
in diabetic and non-diabetic groups during treatment (33/18 vs. 28/16mmHg (ns)), diabetes was associated with higher prevalence of persistent LVH (47 vs. 39%, pdiabetes independently predicted less LV mass reduction and less improvement in stress-corrected LV midwall......BACKGROUND AND AIM: Diabetes is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and impaired systolic function in hypertensive patients, but less is known about its impact on LVH regression and functional improvement during antihypertensive treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed annual...... echocardiography in 730 non-diabetic and 93 diabetic patients (aged 55-80 years) with hypertension and electrocardiographic LVH during 4.8-year losartan- or atenolol-based treatment in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study. Baseline mean blood pressure (BP) and LV mass did...
The objective of this randomized comparative study was to provide preliminary data of comparative effectiveness of Thai traditional massage (TTM) and Chinese acupuncture for the treatment of myofascial back pain in young military personnel. Eighteen Thai military personnel, aged ranging from 20-40 years were randomly divided into TTM and acupuncture groups. Each group received 5 sessions of massage or acupuncture during a 10-day period. The Thai version McGill Pain Questionnaire, 100-mm, visual analog scale (VAS) and summation of pain threshold in each trigger point measured by pressure algometer were assessed at day 0, 3, 8 and 10. At the end of treatment protocols, McGill scores decreased significantly in TTM and acupuncture groups (p = 0.024 and 0.002, respectively). VAS also decreased significantly (p = 0.029 and 0.003, respectively). However, the pain pressure threshold increased significantly in the acupuncture group but not in the TTM group (p = 0.006 and 0.08, respectively). When outcomes were compared between the two groups, no significant difference was found in the VAS (p = 0.115) and pain pressure threshold (p = 0.116), whereas the acupuncture group showed significantly lower McGill scores than the TTM group (p = 0.039). In conclusion, five sessions of Thai traditional massage and Chinese acupuncture were effective for the treatment of myofascial back pain in young Thai military personnel. Significant effects in both groups begin after the first session. Acupuncture is more effective than Thai traditional massage when affective aspect is also evaluated.
Sobrino Martínez, Javier; Doménech Feria-Carot, Mónica; Morales Salinas, Alberto; Coca Payeras, Antonia
Hypertensive crises lumped several clinical situations with different seriousness and prognosis. The differences between hypertensive urgency and hypertensive emergency depends on if this situation involves a vital risk for the patient. This risk is defined more by the severity of the organ damage than for the higher values of blood pressure. The hypertensive urgency not involves an immediately risk for the patient, for these reason, the treatment can be completed after discharged. Otherwise, the hypertensive emergency is a critical clinical condition that requires hospital assistance. Faced with a patient, with severe hypertension, asymptomatic or with unspecific symptoms we must be careful. First, we need to confirm the values of blood pressure, with several measures of blood pressure and investigate and treat factors, which triggered this situation. The objective of medical treatment for hypertensive urgency is to reduce blood pressure values (at least 20% of baseline values) but to avoid sudden reduction of these values. In hypertensive urgencies rapid acting drug should not be used because of the risk of ischemic stroke and use drugs with longer half-life. The cardiovascular risk of these patients is higher than that do not suffer hypertensive crisis. The treatment must be personalized in each hypertensive emergency and intravenous its the best route to treat these patients.
Opadijo, O.G.; Salami, T.A.T.; Sanya, E.O.; Omotoso, A.B.O.
To determine the prevalence of both systolic and diastolic hypertensions in relation to age and their impacts on target organ among adult Nigerians with hypertension. Newly diagnosed adult hypertensives, with blood pressure 140/90mm Hg, taken twice with mercury column sphygmomanometer at 3 weeks interval, were studied. The total number of hypertensive patients treated over this period was also taken into consideration. The newly diagnosed hypertensives were classified using JNC VI classification. The frequency of occurrence of target organ damage such as Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH), heart failure, renal impairment etc. was charted according to systolic and or diastolic pressures. The occurrence of systolic or diastolic blood pressure was also related with the age of the patients. Blood metabolic parameters were compared in both systolic and diastolic blood pressures for their possible contributory role. Two thousand seven hundred and ninety-two adult hypertensive patients were managed over the study period. Of them, 218 (7.8%) were newly diagnosed and studied. There were 94 males and 124 females. Seventy-seven (35.3%) were aged 60 years and above with equal frequency in the gender. One hundred and seventy-eight (81.7%) cases had combined systolic and diastolic pressures. Twenty-nine (13.3%) patients had systolic hypertension. Twenty-five (86.2%) of these 29 were aged 50 years and above and 20 (69.0%) were aged 60 years and above. Eleven (5.0%) patients had isolated diastolic hypertension and they were all in the age bracket 40-49 years. Systolic blood pressure was found to be rising with advancing age while diastolic blood pressure peaked at mid 40's and declined. Target organ damage occurred more frequently with systolic hypertension and advancing age than with diastolic hypertension. Systolic hypertension occurred more frequently in this series of adult Nigerians with hypertension. It was higher with advancing age and associated with more target organ
Full Text Available Background and Objective: The incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD is increasing in India. Recent data suggesting insulin resistance can predict cardiovascular disease independently of the other risk factors, such as hypertension, visceral obesity, or dyslipidemia, so a focus on the relation between acute coronary syndrome (ACS and insulin resistance is relevant. Several studies addressing serum lipoprotein ratios as surrogates for insulin resistance have found promising results. We analyzed the association of lipoprotein ratios with the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Methods: One hundred non-diabetic patients with impaired fasting glucose admitted with a diagnosis of ACS were included in the study. Admission fasting glucose and insulin concentrations were measured. The HOMA-IR was used to calculate insulin resistance. The fasting serum total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C levels are used to calculate following lipid ratios: TC/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C. The areas under the curves (AUC of the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC were used to compare the power of these serum lipoprotein ratio markers. Results: Lipoprotein ratios were significantly higher in patients with HOMA Index >2 as compared to patients with Index <2. TG/HDL-C ratio and TC/HDL-C ratio were significantly correlated with HOMA-IR (P < 0.05 as obtained by Pearson′s correlation analysis (r = 0.4459, P = 0.0012; r = 0.4815, P = 0.0004; r = 0.3993; P = 0.0041, respectively. The area under the ROC curve of the TG/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C ratios for predicting insulin resistance was 0.80 (95% CI, 0.67-0.93, 0.78 (95% CI, 0.65-0.91, respectively. Conclusion: A plasma TG/HDL-C ratio and TC/HDL-C ratio provide a simple means of identifying insulin resistant and can be used as the markers of insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases risk in adult non-diabetic patients.
Pawar, Sundeep T; Nath, Soumya S; Ansari, Farrukh
We report a case of hyperglycaemia and ketosis developing in a non-diabetic patient who underwent a neurosurgical procedure under general anaesthesia. A 52-year-old non-diabetic female patient underwent excision of acoustic neuroma under general anaesthesia. Pancreatic function was not disturbed and she received a single dose of dexamethasone (8 mg) and paracetamol (1 g). Delayed recovery from anaesthesia occurred. On investigation, she was found to have hyperglycaemia and ketosis. She was further managed on the line of diabetic ketoacidosis. After 24 hours, when blood glucose had normalised and ketosis abated, she could be weaned from mechanical ventilation and extubated. The patient did not receive any drugs known to cause such a condition. To the best of our knowledge, hyperglycaemia and ketosis developing in a non-diabetic patient causing delayed recovery and extubation is here reported for the first time.
Haji Zaine, Norafizah; Hitos, Kerry; Vicaretti, Mauro; Fletcher, John P; Begg, Lindy; Burns, Joshua
There are few studies investigating the characteristics, risk factors and socioeconomic status of patients with non-diabetic foot ulcers. The aim of this study was to explore the characteristics of non-diabetic foot ulcers in a large tertiary referral outpatient hospital setting in Western Sydney, Australia. From 2011 to 2013, data from 202 patients with non-diabetic foot ulcers during their initial visit were retrospectively extracted for analysis from Westmead Hospital's Foot Wound Clinic Registry. Data including demographics, socioeconomic status and foot ulcer characteristics were recorded on a standardised data collection form. Demographics and physical characteristics were: 54 % male, median age 78 years [interquartile range (IQR): 64-87], median body mass index (BMI) of 23.8 kg/m(2) (IQR: 20-26.9), 35 % had loss of protective sensation and the median postcode score for socioeconomic status was 996 (IQR: 935-1034). Foot ulcer characteristics were: median cross-sectional area of 1.2 cm(2) (IQR: 0.3-5.0), 30.5 % plantar and 27 % dorsal, 22.1 % University of Texas (UT) Wound Classification for Diabetic Foot Ulcers Grade of 1C-3C (with ischaemia). Unlike diabetic foot ulcers, non-diabetic foot ulcers largely affected older males and females. In accordance with diabetic foot ulcer characteristics, socioeconomic status was not related to non-diabetic foot ulcers in Western Sydney. Based on the findings of this study the epidemiological pattern of non-diabetic foot ulceration and its pathogenesis requires further investigation.
Arévalo-Lorido, José Carlos; Carretero-Gómez, Juana; García-Sánchez, Francisco; Maciá-Botejara, Enrique; Ramiro-Lozano, José Manuel; Masero-Carretero, Antonio; Robles, Nicolás Roberto; Bureo-Dacal, Juan Carlos
Secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPTH) is a leading cause of renal osteodystrophy, and an independent risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Our aim is to establish differences in prevalence and profile of SHPTH, regarding diabetics or non-diabetics with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Cross-sectional multicenter study which included patients with stages 3 to 4 CKD. SHPTH was considered when the intact PTH levels (iPTH) were equal or higher than 70pg/ml. We divided the sample into two groups (diabetics and non-diabetics). We used robust statistical methods. 409 patients (214 diabetics) were studied. HPTH was found in 60.4% of diabetics vs 65% of non-diabetics (P=0.42). Diabetics with HPTH were younger (79.5 vs 82.3 years-old, P=0.005), and had more hypertension (P=0.0014), dyslipidemia (P=0.0001) and comorbidities. In multivariate analysis, we found a significant relationship in case of diabetics, with age (OR: 1.04, 95%CI 1.005-1.09 P=0.02 ), and with statins treatment (OR 2.3, 95%CI 1.17-4.54, P=0.01). The prevalence of SHPTH between the groups was similar, however, diabetics had more presence of hypertension and dyslipidemia, and SHPTH in this case was also related with moderate microalbuminuria and lower levels of vitamin D. An association with statins was also found in this group. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bos, H; Andersen, S; Rossing, P
Reduction of proteinuria is a prerequisite for successful long-term renoprotection. To investigate whether individual patient factors are determinants of antiproteinuric efficacy, we analyzed individual responses to different modes of antiproteinuric intervention in nondiabetic and diabetic...... patients, obtained in prior studies comparing the efficacy of various pharmacological regimens. The individual antiproteinuric response to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition positively correlated to the response to angiotensin type I (AT1) receptor blockade in diabetic (r = 0.67, P ... = 16) as well as nondiabetic patients (r = 0.75, P 1 receptor blockade in diabetic (r = 0.73, P
Ausk, Karlee J.; Boyko, Edward J.; Ioannou, George N.
OBJECTIVE Insulin resistance is a suspected causative factor in a wide variety of diseases. We aimed to determine whether insulin resistance, estimated by the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), is associated with all-cause or disease-specific mortality among nondiabetic persons in the U.S. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We determined the association between HOMA-IR and death certificate–based mortality among 5,511 nondiabetic, adult participants of the third U.S. Nati...
Charubusp, Sasima; Chinwonno, Apasara
This study investigated the effects of Academic Literacy-Based Intervention (ALI) on 30 undergraduate Thai university students' English reading proficiency. Based on the English reading proficiency test, these students were sub-classified into 2 groups, 15 in the high English reading proficiency group and 15 in the low English reading proficiency…
Kaewpanukrungsi, Wanida; Anantachoti, Puree
The Thai National Pharmacovigilance Center (NPVC) has operated since 1983, but its performance has never been formally assessed. The paper aimed to present the main findings of performance assessment of the Thai NPVC. A survey was conducted. Data from January 2011-December 2013 were collected. The performance was assessed through four indicator domains. The NPVC has a clear mission to guide its roles and responsibilities. The center has a well-established structure, adequate budget, qualified personnel, and good IT infrastructure, but it has no in-house IT personnel.Safety surveillance function was considered excellent. The Thai adverse drug reaction database accumulate a number of quality reports. Typically, new signals of traditional or herbal medicines could be generated from the database.The risk management process was well established and carried out. The National Drug Safety Advisory Sub-Committee was composed of qualified representatives from related disciplines. Not only do these committee members make safety decisions, but they also provide key safety messages and communicate these to their member audiences.The risk communication function was evaluated to be unsatisfactory. It was not effectively distributed to individual health care professionals. The overall performance of the Thai NPVC was considerably good. The findings suggested that risk communication should be improved. Moreover, organizational performance should be routinely evaluated. If possible, benchmarking with international pharmacovigilance centers should also be performed.
Background: This paper aimed to demonstrate the research and development of a rule-based expert system for skin problem consulting in the areas of acne, melasma, freckle, wrinkle, and uneven skin tone, with recommended treatments from Thai traditional medicine knowledge. Materials and Methods: The tool selected ...
Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Fongkaew, Warunee; Miller, Brenda A; Cupp, Pamela K; Rosati, Michael J; Byrnes, Hilary F; Atwood, Katharine A; Chookhare, Warunee
This study describes sexual communication among Thai parents and their teens and identifies variables related to communication about sex in urban Thai families. Data were derived from 420 families whose teenage children ages 13-14 years were randomly selected using the probability proportional to size technique. Interviews were conducted with 1 parent and 1 teenage child in each family. In-depth interviews were also conducted in 30 parents and teens drawn from the same 420 families. Results showed that parents were most likely to talk with their teens about body changes and dating; however, less discussion about sex-related issues, birth control, and HIV/AIDS occurred. More daughters than sons reported frequent discussions with their parents about sex. Parents who believed their teens had been involved in sexual activity were more likely to talk about HIV/AIDS and the difficulty of teenagers having babies, instead of talking about sexual intercourse or when to start having sex. Multiple regression analysis indicated that gender of the child (female), parental religiosity, and parental perception of teen sexual activity were significant predictors of increased sexual communication in Thai families. The findings suggest a need for approaches designed to facilitate communication skills about sex-related issues among Thai parents.
Kulnaree Hanpatchaiyakul, Ph.D., RN
Conclusion: Thai women who experience alcohol addiction are treated with gender-related double standards when trying to undo gender traditional roles. Their marginalization from family and society deepens making them even more vulnerable to the positive side effects of alcohol drinking.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence and related factors of androgen receptor (AR expression in Thai breast cancer patients. A descriptive study was done in 95 patients, who were admitted to Charoenkrung Pracharak Hospital, Bangkok (2011–2013. Statistical relationships were examined between AR protein expression, tumor status, and patient characteristics. Compared with those from Western countries, ethnic Thai patients were younger at age of diagnosis and had a higher proliferative index (high Ki-67 expression, which indicates unfavorable prognosis. In addition, 91% of the Thai breast tumors that were positive for any of the following receptors, estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 also expressed the AR protein, while in triple negative breast tumors only 33% were AR positive. ER and PR expression was positively related with AR expression, while AR expression was inversely correlated to Ki-67 expression. AR status was strongly correlated with ER and PR status in Thai patients. There is an inverse relationship between Ki-67 and AR, which suggests that AR may be a prognostic factor for breast cancer.
Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk
There are a variety of suggestions trying to explain why the Thai military decided, in 2006, to stage the 18th coup in 75 years. Some point to corruption and declining growth and investment rates, others to the security problems in the South. A third explanation has tried to relate the coup...
Seattle School District 1, WA.
Designed for use in bilingual education programs, this industrial arts safety guide presents guidelines for developing a student safety program and three sections of shop safety practices in both English and Thai. Safety program format, safety committees, safety inspection, and student accident investigation are discussed in the section on…
Saswattecha, Kanokwan; Kroeze, Carolien; Jawjit, Warit; Hein, Lars
Palm oil production has increased in Thailand with considerable environmental impacts. The aim of this study is to analyse possibilities to examine how the environmental sustainability of Thai palm oil production can be improved in the coming decades. To this end, we integrated a sectoral and a
Rukumnuaykit, Pungpond; Pholphirul, Piriya
Human capital investment is a necessary condition for improving labour market outcomes in most countries. Empirical studies to investigate human capital and its linkages on the labour demand side are, however, relatively scarce due to limitations of firm-level data-sets. Using firm-level data from the Thai manufacturing sector, this paper aims to…
This study aimed at investigating English grammar knowledge of a group of Thai university students. The three main research questions revolved around their knowledge of English grammar, the kinds of difficulties they had encountered in using the grammar as well as their perceptions of the roles of grammar in using English. The participants were…
Purpose: To evaluate eight edible Thai local plant extracts (Camellia sinensis, Careya sphaerica, Cratoxylum formosum, Eleutherococcus trifoliatus, Ficus auriculata, Persicaria odorata, Schima wallichii, and Vaccinium sprengelii) against colon and liver cancer cell lines. Methods: The 80 % ethanol plant extracts were ...
Sereetrakul, Wilailuk; Wongveeravuti, Siriwan; Likitapiwat, Tanakorn
Since males and females are raised differently by their parents (Thorne, 2003), gender roles may affect the saving and spending behaviours of male and female teenagers. The objective of this research was to study the gender differences in saving and spending behaviours of Thai students. This was an exploratory study where a questionnaire was used…
This article reports on a small-scale study of Thai-speaking learners using pocket electronic dictionaries (PEDs) to read an English news article. It investigates how the subjects use their PEDs for reading comprehension. Thirty-nine undergraduate students completed a questionnaire survey. Of these, four were chosen to ...
This article considers a fundamental issue in language planning, namely, whether or not to introduce a curriculum for the mother tongue (MT), in the wider context of a complex language planning situation in Thailand. It details recent moves in the consideration of this issue for the Thai Lao (Isan) of Northeast Thailand, Thailand's largest…
Pratoomrat, Panadda; Rajprasit, Krich
The present study aimed to examine how Business English courses are conducted in the Thai Higher Education, and to investigate students' perceptions toward the instructional management of the courses in their universities. The participants were four instructors, and one hundred and forty students enrolling in the courses of four universities in…
Duc Anh Ha
Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Vietnam and hypertension (HTN is an important and prevalent risk factor for CVD in the adult Vietnamese population. Despite an increasing prevalence of HTN in this country, information about the awareness, treatment, and control of HTN is limited. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of HTN, and factors associated with these endpoints, in residents of a mountainous province in Vietnam.Data from 2,368 adults (age≥25 years participating in a population-based survey conducted in 2011 in Thai Nguyen province were analyzed. All eligible participants completed a structured questionnaire and were examined by community health workers using a standardized protocol.The overall prevalence of HTN in this population was 23%. Older age, male sex, and being overweight were associated with a higher odds of having HTN, while higher educational level was associated with a lower odds of having HTN. Among those with HTN, only 34% were aware of their condition, 43% of those who were aware they had HTN received treatment and, of these, 39% had their HTN controlled.Nearly one in four adults in Thai Nguyen is hypertensive, but far fewer are aware of this condition and even fewer have their blood pressure adequately controlled. Public health strategies increasing awareness of HTN in the community, as well as improvements in the treatment and control of HTN, remain needed to reduce the prevalence of HTN and related morbidity and mortality.
Ha, Duc Anh; Goldberg, Robert J.; Allison, Jeroan J.; Chu, Thang Hong; Nguyen, Hoa L.
Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in Vietnam and hypertension (HTN) is an important and prevalent risk factor for CVD in the adult Vietnamese population. Despite an increasing prevalence of HTN in this country, information about the awareness, treatment, and control of HTN is limited. The objectives of this study were to describe the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of HTN, and factors associated with these endpoints, in residents of a mountainous province in Vietnam. Methods Data from 2,368 adults (age≥25 years) participating in a population-based survey conducted in 2011 in Thai Nguyen province were analyzed. All eligible participants completed a structured questionnaire and were examined by community health workers using a standardized protocol. Results The overall prevalence of HTN in this population was 23%. Older age, male sex, and being overweight were associated with a higher odds of having HTN, while higher educational level was associated with a lower odds of having HTN. Among those with HTN, only 34% were aware of their condition, 43% of those who were aware they had HTN received treatment and, of these, 39% had their HTN controlled. Conclusions Nearly one in four adults in Thai Nguyen is hypertensive, but far fewer are aware of this condition and even fewer have their blood pressure adequately controlled. Public health strategies increasing awareness of HTN in the community, as well as improvements in the treatment and control of HTN, remain needed to reduce the prevalence of HTN and related morbidity and mortality. PMID:23826134
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence, and associated factors of atypical eating attitudes and behaviors in Thai medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional survey examined the eating abnormalities in Thai medical students, conducted in 2014. Research assistants collected data by using; self-reported questionnaires using The Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26 Thai Version. The statistical analysis used R-program for qualitative variables and logistic regression was applied to determine the correlation and P-value. Results: 141 Thai, medical students (15.9% were reported to have atypical attitudes towards eating, and displayed abnormal eating behaviors. There was no statistically significant correlation of attitude towards eating, and their current eating behaviors according to the medical students’ gender, year of studying and Grade Point Average. However, their eating attitudes and behaviors were, associated with Body Mass index. Normal weight (BMI 18.5- 23.49 and overweight (BMI 23.5-39.9 groups could increase by 2.2 (95% CI =1.2, 4.3 and 2.3 (95% CI=1.1, 4.8 times risk depending on atypical eating attitudes and abnormal eating behaviors respectively, when compared with the underweight group (BMI<18.5. Conclusion: There was no correlated difference in concerns to the Thai medical student’s abnormal eating habits, with gender, years of their study and Grade Point Average. Only normal to over-weight BMI were associated. Overweight male, medical students significantly represented more atypical attitudes towards eating and behaviors than other groups in this population. These results may reveal the changing trends of eating attitudes and behaviors due to the current ideal body image of being more muscular. However, prospective studies are still needed.
Full Text Available Background: Traditional Thai tobacco (Nicotiana abacus L. is known as a non-Virginia type whose mature leaf contains three to four times more nicotine than that of a Virginia type. As such, the process of Thai traditional tobacco production may lead to adverse health effects such as green tobacco sickness (GTS. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of GTS and risk factors related to GTS among Thai traditional tobacco farmers in Nan province, northern Thailand. Methods: 473 Thai traditional tobacco farmers from rural areas in Nan province were randomly selected and interviewed in person by means of questionnaires and environmental survey. Statistical analyses were used to identify potential risk factors for GTS. Results: The prevalence of GTS was 22.6% (95% CI 19.1% to 26.6%. Multivariate analysis showed various risk factors associated with GTS including gender of the farmer (ORadj 0.44, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.73, smoking (ORadj 4.36, 95% CI 1.41 to 13.47, skin rash (ORadj 0.36, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.68, wearing a wet suit (ORadj 1.91, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.23, process of curing tobacco leaves (ORadj 0.06, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.16, and watering tobacco plants (ORadj 0.42, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.72. Conclusion: The process of traditional Thai tobacco production can result in increased dermal exposure and can be considered a major risk factor for GTS. Body soaking during watering may further increase adverse health effects related to GTS.
Saleeon, T; Siriwong, W; Maldonado-Pérez, H L; Robson, M G
Traditional Thai tobacco (Nicotiana abacus L.) is known as a non-Virginia type whose mature leaf contains three to four times more nicotine than that of a Virginia type. As such, the process of Thai traditional tobacco production may lead to adverse health effects such as green tobacco sickness (GTS). To investigate the prevalence of GTS and risk factors related to GTS among Thai traditional tobacco farmers in Nan province, northern Thailand. 473 Thai traditional tobacco farmers from rural areas in Nan province were randomly selected and interviewed in person by means of questionnaires and environmental survey. Statistical analyses were used to identify potential risk factors for GTS. The prevalence of GTS was 22.6% (95% CI 19.1% to 26.6%). Multivariate analysis showed various risk factors associated with GTS including gender of the farmer (ORadj 0.44, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.73), smoking (ORadj 4.36, 95% CI 1.41 to 13.47), skin rash (ORadj 0.36, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.68), wearing a wet suit (ORadj 1.91, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.23), process of curing tobacco leaves (ORadj 0.06, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.16), and watering tobacco plants (ORadj 0.42, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.72). The process of traditional Thai tobacco production can result in increased dermal exposure and can be considered a major risk factor for GTS. Body soaking during watering may further increase adverse health effects related to GTS.
Collini, F J; Brener, B
The management of both acute and recurrent variceal bleeding continues to be a significant challenge to the clinician. The cause and pathogenesis of portal hypertension has been described. Alcoholic cirrhosis is the most common cause of intrahepatic sinusoidal and postsinusoidal obstruction in the United States. Long term survival depends on rapid institution of an established protocol of surgical management for variceal hemorrhage. A patient who presents with variceal bleeding must be rapidly stabilized with fluid resuscitation, and specific measures, such as the use of vasopressin and balloon tamponade, must be instituted to control hemorrhage so that endoscopy can be used to establish the diagnosis. Sclerotherapy achieves a high rate of success in the acute situation, but if hemorrhage cannot be controlled, percutaneous transhepatic embolization or emergent shunting must be performed, depending on the condition of the patient. Angiography, prior to surgical treatment, is necessary to define venous anatomy and determine portal hemodynamics, both of which provide information vital in choosing the type of shunt. If bleeding is massive and the patient is unstable, H-grafts are most appropriate, for they are technically easier and give excellent short term results. In a stable Child's A or B patient with minor ascites as well as suitable anatomy and hepatopedal flow, DSRS is the procedure of choice because it produces the smallest degree of HE postoperatively and increases the survival rate for nonalcoholics. If this is not feasible or if the surgeon lacks the technical expertise to perform DSRS, PCS is the logical alternative. In view of the data from the series observed in the United States, ablative procedures cannot be recommended at the present for the treatment of variceal bleeding. In the Child's C poor-risk patient, the operative mortality rate is prohibitive, and only nonsurgical means should be used to establish control of bleeding. In the elective
Shin, Masako T.
This English-Thai lexicon and program introduction for combination welding is one of eight documents in the Multicultural Competency-Based Vocational/Technical Curricula Series. It is intended for use in postsecondary, adult, and preservice teacher and administrator education. The first two sections provide Thai equivalencies of English…
Shin, Masako T.
This English-Thai lexicon and program introduction for automotive mechanics is one of eight documents in the Multicultural Competency-Based Vocational/Technical Curricula Series. It is intended for use in postsecondary, adult, and preservice teacher and administrator education. The first two sections provide Thai equivalencies of English…
Shin, Masako T.
This English-Thai lexicon and program introduction for maintenance mechanics is one of eight documents in the Multicultural Competency-Based Vocational/Technical Curricula Series. It is intended for use in postsecondary, adult, and preservice teacher and administrator education. The first two sections provide Thai equivalencies of English…
Handschin, Anja; Henny-Fullin, Katja; Buess, Daniel; Leuppi, Jörg; Dieterle, Thomas
Arterial hypertension remains the most important risk factor for cardiovascular and renal diseases. In view of an increasing prevalence with older age and an increasingly aging population, the treatment of elderly patients with arterial hypertension will become increasingly important in daily practice. Arterial hypertension in the elderly differs in many aspects from arterial hypertension in younger patients. For example, isolated systolic hypertension is the predominant form of arterial hypertension in the elderly. In comparison to younger patients, treatment of hypertension in the elderly is less well investigated. However, available data suggest that lowering of blood pressure in the elderly and very elderly reduces the risk of heart failure, stroke, and even mortality. The best evidence for the treatment of hypertension in the elderly exists for diuretics and calcium antagonists. However, the primary choice of antihypertensive therapy should be guided by the presence of existing cardiovascular and/or renal comorbidities.
Sachin Ramesh Gondane
Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of this study is to evaluate the various clinical parameters of airway assessment and their ability to predict difficult laryngoscopy and intubation in diabetic patients as compared to nondiabetic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS Out of 120 patients, 60 diabetics (group-D and 60 nondiabetics (group-N were studied preoperatively for various airway indices such as the modified Mallampati Test (MPC, Thyromental Distance (TMD, Degree of Head Extension (HE, the Palm Print Index (PP and the Prayer Sign (PS and their corresponding Cormack-Lehane scores (CL were noted. The two groups were studied using chi-square tests. p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS The incidence of difficult laryngoscopy as indicated by CL grade III and IV in diabetic patients was 43.33%, while that in the nondiabetic group was 20%. In diabetics group, MPC as a predictor was more sensitive (80.77% while PP index was more specific (97.06%. PP index also had maximum positive predictive value and odds ratio. In nondiabetic group, MPC had maximum sensitivity (75.00% while PP index, PS and TMD were showed equal specificity (95.83%. CONCLUSION MPC as a predictor was more sensitive in both groups while PP index was more specific in group D.
Al Hayek, Ayman A; Khawaja, Nahla M; Khader, Yousef S; Jaffal, Sahar K; Ajlouni, Kamel M
Determine the prevalence of hypogonadism among diabetic and non-diabetic men in Jordan. A cross-sectional study of 1717 men (1089 participants with type 2 diabetes and 628 non-diabetic subjects). Both groups were inquired to answer the Androgen Deficiency for aging male (ADAM) questionnaire. Early morning Total testosterone, prolactin, sex hormone binding globulin, follicle stimulating hormone, leutinizing hormone, HbA1c and fasting blood sugar were measured. Hypogonadism was defined as total testosterone Hypogonadism among all study participants was 18.5%. The prevalence of Hypogonadism in diabetic and non-diabetic men was 24.3% and 8.3%, respectively. The mean (SD) total testosterone concentration of diabetic and non-diabetic men was 3.78 ng/ml (1.7) and 4.92 ng/ml (2.5), respectively (P- value Hypogonadism and symptomatic androgen deficiency were negatively and significantly related to diabetes, monthly income and age (P value Hypogonadism is a prevalent disorder among Jordanian diabetic population. Symptoms of androgen deficiency should be corroborated with testosterone level to establish a multidisciplinary approach for management of hypogonadism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Santos, Vanessa Prado dos; Alves, Carlos Alberto Silveira; Fidelis, Cícero; Araújo Filho, José Siqueira de
To compare angiographic findings of diabetic and non-diabetic patients with critical limb ischemia. We included 161 patients with infrainguinal critical limb ischemia (CLI). We evaluated the clinical and arteriographic (number and presence of opacification of leg arteries) of the two groups of patients. Statistical analysis was performed using EPI-INFO. Most patients were category 5 of Rutherford's Classification and had femoropopliteal disease. Seventy-two percent of non-diabetic and 67% of diabetic had opacification of the fibular artery (p = 0.25), this is the most present artery in both groups. Diabetic patients had less opacification of the posterior tibial artery in the univariate analysis (29% vs. 47%, p = 0.008). But only female sex showed a significant risk for the absence of the posterior tibial artery in logistic regression (OR = 2.6; p = 0.01). The peroneal artery was the most frequently artery in angiograms of diabetic and non-diabetic patients with CLI. Diabetic and non-diabetic patients did not differ in angiographic findings of the leg. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Donahue, R P; Prineas, R J; Donahue, R D
Whether serum leptin levels are associated with insulin resistance independent of the effects of hyperinsulinemia and adiposity is an important unanswered question. We examined the relationship between the rate of insulin-mediated glucose uptake and serum leptin concentrations among nondiabetic m...
Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Tronier, B; Bülow, J B
Plasma concentrations of insulin, C-peptide, and proinsulin were measured in different vascular beds in order to determine renal, hepatic, and systemic kinetics of the endogenous peptides in the fasting condition. Nineteen nondiabetic subjects were studied, two were normal, nine had minor vascular...
Full Text Available Aims: This study aims to compare the incidence of interappointment flare-up during endodontic treatment in diabetics and nondiabetics patients using calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine gel as intracanal medicament. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients requiring root canal treatment were chosen. 30 known diabetic patients with fasting blood sugar (FBS = 100–120 mg/dl were in Group 1 while others non-diabetic patients with FBS ≤ 100 mg/dl were placed in Group 2. After initiation of endodontic procedures and biomechanical preparation, 15 patients were chosen randomly to place calcium hydroxide paste or chlorhexidine gel, as intracanal medicament in both groups. The pain was recorded on day 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14 posttreatment using verbal rating scale. Result: A total of 10 of 60 patients developed interappointment flare-up, of which 5 (16.6% were diabetics, and 2 (6% were nondiabetic patients. The results comparing the interappointment flare-ups between the groups were statistically nonsignificant (P - 0.2179. Conclusions: Although the incidence of interappointment flare-up in diabetic patients is approximately twice than that seen in nondiabetic patients, these results are nonsignificant. This indicates that interappointment flare-ups in diabetic patients with good glycemic control are essentially similar to healthy individual with no metabolic diseases.
Sevuk, Utkan; Cakil, Nevzat; Altindag, Rojhat; Baysal, Erkan; Altintas, Bernas; Yaylak, Baris; Adiyaman, Mehmet Sahin; Bahadir, Mehmet Veysi
Hyperglycemia is common after cardiac surgery in both diabetic and nondiabetic patients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Association between nadir hematocrit levels on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and postoperative hyperglycemia is not clear. This study was carried out to determine the relationship between nadir hematocrit during CPB and postoperative hyperglycemia in nondiabetic patients. Records of 200 nondiabetic patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting operation were retrospectively reviewed. In the first analysis, patients were divided into two subgroups according to the presence or absence of hyperglycemia. Further analysis was made after dividing the patients into 3 subgroups according to nadir hematocrit levels on CPB (less than 20%; 20% to 25%; greater than or equal to 25%). Compared to patients without hyperglycemia, patients with postoperative hyperglycemia had significantly lower preoperative hematocrit levels (p = 0.004) and were associated with lower nadir hematocrit levels during CPB (p= 0.002). Peak intensive care unit blood glucose levels and number of blood transfusions were significantly higher in patients with nadir hematocrit levels less than 20. (phematocrit levels less than 20% (OR 2.9, p=0.009) and allogenic blood transfusion (OR 1.5, p=0.003) were independently associated with postoperative hyperglycemia. Nadir hematocrit levels on CPB less than 20% and allogenic blood transfusions were independently associated with postoperative hyperglycemia in nondiabetic patients. Patients with a nadir hematocrit levels less than 20 % during CPB should be closely monitored for hyperglycemia in the perioperative period.
Donahue, R P; Prineas, R J; Donahue, R D
Whether serum leptin levels are associated with insulin resistance independent of the effects of hyperinsulinemia and adiposity is an important unanswered question. We examined the relationship between the rate of insulin-mediated glucose uptake and serum leptin concentrations among nondiabetic men...
Wang, Hongbin; Feng, Yinhan; Cheng, Liang
Sentence similarity computation plays an increasingly important role in text mining, Web page retrieval, machine translation, speech recognition and question answering systems. Thai language as a kind of resources scarce language, it is not like Chinese language with HowNet and CiLin resources. So the Thai sentence similarity research faces some challenges. In order to solve this problem of the Thai language sentence similarity computation. This paper proposes a novel method to compute the similarity of Thai language sentence based on syntactic structure and semantic vector. This method firstly uses the Part-of-Speech (POS) dependency to calculate two sentences syntactic structure similarity, and then through the word vector to calculate two sentences semantic similarity. Finally, we combine the two methods to calculate two Thai language sentences similarity. The proposed method not only considers semantic, but also considers the sentence syntactic structure. The experiment result shows that this method in Thai language sentence similarity computation is feasible.
Full Text Available Tinakon Wongpakaran,1 Nahathai Wongpakaran,1 Manee Pinyopornpanish,1 Usaree Srisutasanavong,1 Peeraphon Lueboonthavatchai,2 Raviwan Nivataphand,2 Nattaporn Apisiridej,3 Donruedee Petchsuwan,3 Nattha Saisavoey,4 Kamonporn Wannarit,4 Ruk Ruktrakul,5 Thawanrat Srichan,5 Sirina Satthapisit,6 Daochompu Nakawiro,7 Thanita Hiranyatheb,7 Anakevich Temboonkiat,8 Namtip Tubtimtong,9 Sukanya Rakkhajeekul,9 Boonsanong Wongtanoi,10 Sitthinant Tanchakvaranont,11 Putipong Bookkamana121Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 2Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 3Trang Hospital, Trang, 4Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 5Lampang Hospital, Lampang, 6KhonKaen Hospital, Khon Kaen, 7Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 8Phramongkutklao Hospital, Bangkok, 9Faculty of Medicine Naresuan University, Pitsanulok, 10Srisangwal Hospital, Mae Hong Son, 11Queen Savang Vadhana Memorial Hospital, Chonburi, 12Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai Kingdom of ThailandBackground: The Thai Study of Affective Disorders was a tertiary hospital-based cohort study developed to identify treatment outcomes among depressed patients and the variables involved. In this study, we examined the baseline characteristics of these depressed patients.Methods: Patients were investigated at eleven psychiatric outpatient clinics at tertiary hospitals for the presence of unipolar depressive disorders, as diagnosed by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The severity of any depression found was measured using the Clinical Global Impression and 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD clinician-rated tools, with the Thai Depression Inventory (a self-rated instrument administered alongside them. Sociodemographic and psychosocial variables were collected, and quality of life was also captured using the health-related quality of life (SF-36v2
Ellervik, Christina; Tarnow, Lisa; Pedersen, Erling Bjerregaard
Monogenic forms of hypertension are very rare, but have a well-characterized heredity. Primary hypertension is very common with a complex and polygenic heredity. Primary hypertension arises due to an interaction between multiple genetic and environmental factors. Its heredity is unknown, although...
Review Article: Hypertension and sexual dysfunction. 117. Vol 54 No 2. S Afr Fam Pract 2012. Introduction. Hypertension is a major independent cardiovascular risk factor, and also a marker of survival risk. Quality of life during the treatment of hypertension is an important health issue, as one in every five treated patients ...
Full Text Available The main purposes of the study were to determine the attitude of farmers towards Thai Koi farming in a selected area of Mymensingh district. Attempt was also made to identify the problems faced by the farmers in Thai Koi farming. Data were obtained from randomly selected 70 Thai Koi farmers of Shaiod and Ahmedpur villages in Kheruajani Union under Muktagachha Upazila of Mamensingh district during April, 2015. Attitude of the farmers was measured in respect of different aspects of Thai koi production. A three-point rating scale was used to indicate the Thai koi farmers’ response against each statement. The possible score for each respondent could range from 15 to 45 and observed score ranged from 31 to 41. It is evident that ‘I believe that Thai koi farming in pond can supply protein and nutrition to the family members ranked first as a statement in attitude scale of Thai Koi farmers. Second is ‘I like Thai Koi farming because it has higher growth rate than that of other local Koi’. Most of the Thai Koi farmers had highly favourable attitude. Among the problems, ‘high sensitivity to disease of Thai Koi’ got the highest problem confrontation score and stood the first ranked problem and other problem were ‘High price of Thai koi feed’, High price of drugs’ and ‘High price of farm labour’ etc. Farmers suggested from their experiences that there should have need-based spot training on effective management of Thai Koi farming. In achieving this target, Department of Fisheries and allied NGOs may play a crucial role.
Swapna, Lingam Amara; Koppolu, Pradeep; Prince, Jyothi
The objective of our study is to assess the subjective and objective oral manifestations and salivary pH in diabetic and nondiabetic uremic patients at a nephrology clinic. A total of 194 diabetic and nondiabetic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), who were divided into four groups, Group A, B, C, D, and who were attending a nephrology clinic were included in the study. Predialytic unstimulated whole salivary pH was recorded using pH- measuring strips. Subjective and objective findings were evaluated and recorded in the specially designed pro forma. Dental health assessment consisted of decayed, missing, and filled teeth index and community periodontal index (CPI). Dysgeusia was found to be significantly more prevalent in nondiabetic patients on dialysis. Uremic odor showed high significance (P diabetic dialysis. There was no significant difference in the incidence of tongue coating between the four groups. A statistically high significance was observed with the objective oral manifestation of mucosal petechiae, with P = 0.01. There was an increased periodontal pocket depth among diabetic CKD patients as compared to that in nondiabetic patients. A moderate significance was found, with a CPI score showing P diabetic CKD patients (Groups A, B). Recorded salivary pH showed no significant difference among diabetic and nondiabetic CKD patients. Findings suggest that these patients are at risk of developing complications, related to systemic health causing morbidity and mortality. Hence, these patients are to be motivated for comprehensive professional oral care and self oral hygiene instructions. Additional research is necessary to elucidate and correlate the combined influence of diabetes, CKD, and dialysis on oral health.
Lingam Amara Swapna
Full Text Available The objective of our study is to assess the subjective and objective oral manifestations and salivary pH in diabetic and nondiabetic uremic patients at a nephrology clinic. A total of 194 diabetic and nondiabetic patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, who were divided into four groups, Group A, B, C, D, and who were attending a nephrology clinic were included in the study. Predialytic unstimulated whole salivary pH was recorded using pH- measuring strips. Subjective and objective findings were evaluated and recorded in the specially designed pro forma. Dental health assessment consisted of decayed, missing, and filled teeth index and community periodontal index (CPI. Dysgeusia was found to be significantly more prevalent in nondiabetic patients on dialysis. Uremic odor showed high significance (P <0.05 with 75% patients being positive in diabetic dialysis. There was no significant difference in the incidence of tongue coating between the four groups. A statistically high significance was observed with the objective oral manifestation of mucosal petechiae, with P = 0.01. There was an increased periodontal pocket depth among diabetic CKD patients as compared to that in nondiabetic patients. A moderate significance was found, with a CPI score showing P <0.05. Increased prevalence of caries was noticed among the diabetic CKD patients (Groups A, B. Recorded salivary pH showed no significant difference among diabetic and nondiabetic CKD patients. Findings suggest that these patients are at risk of developing complications, related to systemic health causing morbidity and mortality. Hence, these patients are to be motivated for comprehensive professional oral care and self oral hygiene instructions. Additional research is necessary to elucidate and correlate the combined influence of diabetes, CKD, and dialysis on oral health.
Cai, Qian-Ying; Zhang, Heng-Xin; Wang, Chen-Chen; Sun, Hao; Sun, Shu-Qiang; Wang, Yu-Huan; Yan, Hong-Tao; Yang, Xin-Jun
To measure levels of placental brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene expression and umbilical cord blood BDNF in neonates with nondiabetic macrosomia and determine associations between these levels and macrosomia. This case-control study included 58 nondiabetic macrosomic and 59 normal birth weight mother-infant pairs. Data were collected from interviews and our hospital's database. BDNF gene expression was quantified in placental tissues using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (n = 117). Umbilical cord blood BDNF levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (n = 90). Multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between BDNF levels and macrosomia. Placental BDNF gene expression (P = 0.026) and cord blood BDNF (P = 0.008) were lower in neonates with nondiabetic macrosomia than in normal birth weight controls. Cord blood BDNF was significantly lower in vaginally delivered macrosomic neonates than vaginally delivered controls (P = 0.014), but cord BDNF did not differ between vaginal and cesarean section delivery modes in macrosomic neonates. Cord blood BDNF was positively associated with gestational age in control neonates (r = 0.496, P macrosomia (adjusted odds ratio 0.992; 95% confidence interval 0.986-0.998). Both placental BDNF gene expression and cord blood BDNF were downregulated in neonates with nondiabetic macrosomia compared with normal birth weight neonates. Cord BDNF may partly derive from BDNF secreted by the placenta. Higher cord plasma BDNF levels protected against nondiabetic macrosomia.
Go, Alan S; Fan, Dongjie; Sung, Sue Hee; Inveiss, Alda I; Romo-LeTourneau, Victoria; Mallya, Usha G; Boklage, Susan; Lo, Joan C
Statin therapy is highly efficacious in the prevention of fatal and nonfatal atherosclerotic events in persons at increased cardiovascular risk. However, its long-term effectiveness in practice depends on a high level of medication adherence by patients. We identified nondiabetic adults with cardiovascular risk factors between 2008 and 2010 within a large integrated health care delivery system in Northern California. Through 2013, we examined the use and adherence of newly initiated statin therapy based on data from dispensed prescriptions from outpatient pharmacy databases. Among 209,704 eligible adults, 68,085 (32.5%) initiated statin therapy during the follow-up period, with 90.4% receiving low-potency statins. At 12 and 24 months after initiating statins, 84.3% and 80.2%, respectively, were actively receiving statin therapy, but only 42% and 30%, respectively, had no gaps in treatment during those time periods. There was also minimal switching between statins or use of other lipid-lowering therapies for augmentation during follow-up. Age≥50 years, Asian/Pacific Islander race, Hispanic ethnicity, prior myocardial infarction, prior ischemic stroke, hypertension, and baseline low-density lipoprotein cholesterol>100 mg/dL were associated with higher adjusted odds, whereas female gender, black race, current smoking, dementia were associated with lower adjusted odds, of active statin treatment at 12 months after initiation. There remain opportunities for improving prevention in patients at risk for cardiovascular events. Our study identified certain patient subgroups that may benefit from interventions to enhance medication adherence, particularly by minimizing treatment gaps and discontinuation of statin therapy within the first year of treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The study investigates systematicity in English interlanguage of dependent prepositions among L1 Thai learners of L2 English. It is hypothesized that Thai learners show non-random use of English dependent prepositions in their English interlanguage, and that the systematicity is largely attributable to cross-linguistic influence and certain cognitive factors. To test the hypothesis, 30 L1 Thai undergraduate students of L2 English at elementary, intermediate, and advanced proficiency levels took two tests: a Thai–English translation test and a cloze test. The tests involved four types of relationship between English and Thai dependent prepositions: (1 [–prep] in English but [+prep] in Thai, (2 [+prep] in English but [–prep] in Thai, (3 [+prep1] in English but [+prep2] in Thai, and (4 [+prep] in English and [+prep] in Thai. The findings demonstrate that systematicity occurred in the learners’ English usage of prepositions of all such types, possibly due to negative transfer from the learners’ native language. Also, the L2 learners tended to exhibit such systematicity irrespective of their English proficiency level. It may be assumed that the cognitive aspect of L2 learners’ working memory is involved in processing the usage of the four types of English dependent prepositions. The results of the study are expected to shed light on the problems of L2 English interlanguage of dependent prepositions among L1 Thai learners.
Han, Tae Kyun; Ryu, Dae Sik; Kim, Heung Chul; Hur, Hun; Eom, Kyeung Tae; Namkung, Sook; Park, Man Soo; Hwang, Woo Chul; Lee, Kwan Seop
To describe the radiologic findings of idiopathic portal hypertension and to find the points of differentiation between idiopathic portal hypertension and liver cirrhosis. Four portograms in five patients who for four years had suffered from pathologically confirmed idiopathic portal hypertension were retrospectively analyzed and compared with a portogram obtained from a control subject with liver cirrhosis. Portographic finding s of idiopathic portal hypertension were paucity of medium-sized portal branches, irregular and obtuse-angled division of peripheral branches, abrupt interruption and an avascular area beneath the liver margin. A portogram of idiopathic portal hypertension may be useful in differentiation this and liver cirrhosis
M. Yu. Yukina
Full Text Available Hypertension is a very common disease with high morbidity and reduction in quality of life. Endocrine disorders are the most common cause of secondary hypertension affecting ~3% of the population. Primary aldosteronism can be the cause of endocrine hypertension more often than other endocrine disorders. Other less common causes of endocrine hypertension include Cushing syndrome, pheochromocytoma, thyroid disorders, and hyperparathyroidism. Endocrine hypertension is potentially curable if the underlying cause is identified and treated accordingly. Younger age at manifestation of resistance to multiple antihypertensive drugs, together with other clinical signs of an endocrine disorder, should raise the suspicion and prompt the appropriate evaluation.
Owen, Jonathan G; Yazdi, Farshid; Reisin, Efrain
Obesity continues to increase in prevalence worldwide. Hypertension has long been associated with obesity, and weight loss continues to be a first-line therapy in the treatment of hypertension. Lifestyle modification and pharmacologic therapy, however, often meet with treatment failure. Bariatric surgery continues to be the most successful approach to sustained weight loss. This review focuses on the underlying physiologic mechanisms of obesity-hypertension, and the impact of bariatric surgery on the treatment of hypertension. Current available literature on the physiologic mechanisms of obesity-hypertension, and the major trials, meta-analyses and systematic reviews of the impact of bariatric surgery procedures on hypertension are reviewed. Evidence suggests significant improvement in obesity-hypertension in patients who undergo surgical weight-reduction procedures. Malabsorptive techniques such as the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or surgical resection techniques such as laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy appear to offer superior results in regards to hypertension control over restrictive techniques such as Gastric Banding. Though long-term control of hypertension following surgery remains a concern, available follow-up post-operative data of up to 10 years suggests a sustained, if lessened, effect on hypertension control over time. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Full Text Available Background. We investigated the association between blood pressure control and common cardiometabolic risk factors from a global and regional perspective. Methods. In the present analysis of a large cross-sectional i-SEARCH study, 17.092 outpatients receiving antihypertensive treatment were included in 26 countries. According to clinical guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension, patients were classified based on the level of seated systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP. Uncontrolled hypertension was defined as SBP/DBP ≥140/90 mmHg for non-diabetics, and ≥130/80 mmHg for diabetics. Results. Overall, mean age was 63.1 years, 52.8% were male, and mean BMI was 28.9 kg/m2. Mean SBP/DBP was 148.9/87.0 mmHg, and 76.3% of patients had uncontrolled hypertension. Diabetes was present in 29.1% with mean HbA1c of 6.8%. Mean LDL-cholesterol was 3.2 mmol/L, HDL-cholesterol 1.3 mmol/L, and triglycerides 1.8 mmol/L; 49.0% had hyperlipidemia. Patients with uncontrolled hypertension had a higher BMI (29.4 versus 28.6 kg/m2, LDL-cholesterol (3.4 versus 3.0 mmol/L, triglycerides (1.9 versus 1.7 mmol/L, and HbA1c (6.8 versus 6.7% than those with controlled blood pressure (P<0.0001 for all parameters. Conclusions. Among outpatients treated for arterial hypertension, three quarters had uncontrolled blood pressure. Elevated SBP/DBP and uncontrolled hypertension were associated with increasing BMI, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and HbA1c, both globally and regionally.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of motorcycle to car transitioning and urbanisation on traffic injury rates in Thailand.Analysis of two consecutive surveys of a large national cohort study.Thailand.The data derived from 57,154 Thai Cohort Study (TCS participants who provided relevant data on both the 2005 and 2009 surveys.Motorcycle and car traffic crash injury self-reported in 2009, with twelve months' recall.In 2009, 5608(10% participants reported a traffic crash injury. Most crashes involved a motorcycle (74%. Car access increased and motorcycle use decreased between 2005 and 2009. Among those who used a motorcycle at both time points, traffic injury incidence was 2.8 times greater compared to those who did not use a motorcycle at either time point. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to test longitudinal and cross sectional factors associated with traffic crash injury: in the adjusted model, cars were negatively and motorcycles positively associated with injury. Living in an urban area was not injury protective in the adjusted model of traffic crash injury.Ongoing urbanisation in Thailand can be expected to lead to further reductions in road traffic injuries based on transition from motorcycles to cars in urban areas. Cities, however, do not provide an intrinsically safer traffic environment. To accommodate a safe transition to car use in Thailand, traffic infrastructural changes anticipating the growing car density in urban areas is warranted.
Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Kelly, Matthew; McClure, Roderick; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of motorcycle to car transitioning and urbanisation on traffic injury rates in Thailand. Analysis of two consecutive surveys of a large national cohort study. Thailand. The data derived from 57,154 Thai Cohort Study (TCS) participants who provided relevant data on both the 2005 and 2009 surveys. Motorcycle and car traffic crash injury self-reported in 2009, with twelve months' recall. In 2009, 5608(10%) participants reported a traffic crash injury. Most crashes involved a motorcycle (74%). Car access increased and motorcycle use decreased between 2005 and 2009. Among those who used a motorcycle at both time points, traffic injury incidence was 2.8 times greater compared to those who did not use a motorcycle at either time point. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to test longitudinal and cross sectional factors associated with traffic crash injury: in the adjusted model, cars were negatively and motorcycles positively associated with injury. Living in an urban area was not injury protective in the adjusted model of traffic crash injury. Ongoing urbanisation in Thailand can be expected to lead to further reductions in road traffic injuries based on transition from motorcycles to cars in urban areas. Cities, however, do not provide an intrinsically safer traffic environment. To accommodate a safe transition to car use in Thailand, traffic infrastructural changes anticipating the growing car density in urban areas is warranted.
Full Text Available The effect of kefir starter from Wilderness Family Naturals Company on the initial formulation of Thai fermented sausage were evaluated. The differences found among batches in the main microbial populations and pH were not significant. Only, the total acid of batch D (added the kefir starter 15 ml was significantly higher (P0.05. It is concluded that the addition of kefir starter (7 ml could be useful to improve the final quality of Thai fermented sausages. The addition of kefir starter that initiates rapid acidification of the raw meat and that leads to a desirable sensory quality of the end-product are used for the production of fermented sausages, and represents a way of improving and optimizing the sausage fermentation process and achieving tastier, safer, and healthier products.
Full Text Available Leadership is deeply attached to culture. This study compares leadership styles in Thai and Australian public sectors. The data were collected from staff in public sector settings in Australia and Thailand. The results confirm four leadership styles that suit the public sector culture in both countries: communication-oriented, strategic thinking and planning, relationship building, and conflict management. In the Thai public sector system, leadership that focuses on goal orientation is ranked most highly: Australian public sector organisations focus on leadership that fosters equity among organisational members, creates a supportive environment in the workplace, and facilitates participation. It is evident from this study that significant distinctions between the organisational cultures of Thailand and Australia are matched by marked dissimilarities of preferred leadership styles. Thus, an understanding of local organisational culture is important for effective leadership at all levels.
Full Text Available Seventeen species of herbs established in Thai traditional remedies were microbially decontaminated by gamma-irradiation doses of 7.7 and 8.8 kGy. The herb samples were randomly collected four times from producers in Chiangmai during a 1-year period. These were tested, qualitatively and quantitatively, for total aerobic bacteria, Staphylococcus spp., Salmonella spp., coliform bacteria, and fungi before and after gamma treatment. No microorganisms were found after gamma treatment; and the color, aroma, and texture of the herbs remained normal. The applied dose of gamma irradiation was within the regulatory limits in Thailand (<10 kGy and the main export country (USA< 30 kGy. Gamma irradiation is an effective treatment for microbial decontamination of Thai export herbs.
The central concept of Newtonian mechanics is force. Without this concept, the students would find the rest of mechanics very difficult to master. Based on this hypothesis, the understandings and misconceptions of Newtonian mechanics were investigated. Three hundred eighteen Thai freshmen participated in this study. The freshmen were divided into two groups according to their high school locations, Bangkok and other cities of Thailand. The Force Concept Inventory was used to probe the freshmen's understandings and misconceptions. The SPSS and EXCEL programs were used to analyze the data. The translation of the FCI into Thai and its subsequent validation is considered to be a significant contribution to physics education research. The analyses indicated freshmen had the best understanding on concepts of Newton's first and third laws and the least on Newton's second law. Several Misconceptions on Newtonian force concepts were found, similar to their USA counterparts. Statistically significant differences were found between the two groups of freshmen on understanding of Newtonian force concepts.
Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk
The first part of the paper discusses the most important explanations of the coup. The second part is devoted to history and ideology of the king and the throne while the third develops an image of the Crown Property Bureau and the Privy council's role in Thai politics. The fourth and fifth secti...... sections look more squarely at the impact of the rivalry of the US and China and the regional security dimension in relation to the coup itself and more specifically the role of the king. Finally some concluding remarks are offered.......The first part of the paper discusses the most important explanations of the coup. The second part is devoted to history and ideology of the king and the throne while the third develops an image of the Crown Property Bureau and the Privy council's role in Thai politics. The fourth and fifth...
Sirirassamee, Tawima; Sirirassamee, Buppha
This study aims to establish the prevalence of risky health behaviors among Thai youth and to characterize the prevalence of these behaviors by gender, age group, educational status, and region. We analyzed data from a population-based, nationally representative, cross-sectional survey of 938 youth aged between 13 and 24 years, sampled from Bangkok and 4 regions of Thailand. The 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System questionnaire was used to measure youth risk behaviors. This study finds that 15.9% of respondents had engaged in physical fights, and 8.1% had been cyber bullied. The prevalence of current cigarette smoking, alcohol, and marijuana use were 22.3%, 27.9%, and 2.3%, respectively. The prevalence of risky behaviors among Thai youth were found to be high, including behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence, unsafe sexual behaviors, and cigarette and alcohol consumption. © 2014 APJPH.
Strotmeyer, Stephen; Lystad, Reidar P.
Background Muay Thai is a style of kickboxing that allows full-contact blows to an unprotected head, torso and legs, and, as in any combat sport, there is an inherent risk of injury. Previous observational studies have shown there is a substantial risk of injury in competitive kickboxing. None of these studies, however, have investigated the potential role of psychological risk factors and, consequently, little is known about the perception of injury risk among these athletes. Notwithstanding...
This thesis focuses on irregular migration from Laos to Thailand, and irregular migrant labour in Thailand. This research is set in Mukdahan – a small (in size and population) yet important province as a gateway to cross-border activities in the Mekong region. It draws on the experiences of Lao irregular female migrant labourers in Mukdahan, northeastern Thailand, and the practices and perspectives of Thai authorities and employers in relation to irregular migrant labour law and enforcement. ...
Nuinoon, Manit; Kruachan, Kwanta; Sengking, Warachaya; Horpet, Dararat; Sungyuan, Ubol
Thalassemia and hemoglobin E (Hb E) are common in Thailand. Individuals with thalassemia trait usually have a normal hemoglobin concentration or mild anemia. Therefore, thalassemic individuals who have minimum acceptable Hb level may be accepted as blood donors. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of α-thalassemia 1 trait, β-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes in Southern Thai blood donors. One hundred and sixteen voluntary blood donors, Southern Thailand origin, were ...
Manoonpol, Chayanit; Plakornkul, Vasana
Analysis of skeleton is necessary for sex determination. There are several pieces of bone that are used such as pelvic bone and zygomatic arch etc. In the fieldwork of physical anthropologist and forensic physician, the skull or some pieces of the skull can be very useful. In the skull, the mastoid process is a compact and permanent process. Craniometric measurements of mastoid process are interesting parameters to distinguish sex. To study the craniometric measurements of mastoid process of dry skulls in Thais and provide a method for sex determination. One hundred normal skulls of Thais from the central region, 60 male and 40 female, were studied. The measurement of mastoid process between the three points, porion (po), mastoidale (ma), and asterion (as) were made. The three distances (po-ma, ma-as, po-as) were recorded (mm) and the mastoid triangular areas were calculated by using Heron's formula (mm2). The student's t-test and linear discriminant analysis were used for data analysis. The means of mastoid dimensions and mastoid triangular area in male are significantly larger than those of the female (p < or = 0.01). The linear discriminant analysis shows that using the mastoid process dimensions and mastoid triangular area for determining sex in Thais are convincing. The average accuracy is 67.00 to 76.90%. The better mastoid dimension is ma-as of the right mastoid process. It shows a high average accuracy at 76.90%. Means of the mastoid dimensions and mastoid triangular area of Thai skulls (whole skull or fragments) provide an accurate method for determining sex.
Sinhaneti, Kantara; Pullawan, Jitmanee
Introduction: Aesthetic surgery becomes another option of beauty. Interested Patients seeking for choices offered outside their homeland for more benefits. Thailand maybe one of those choices people is now interested in. Thai aesthetic industry may prove to be one of the most wanted destinations because of its expertise and relatively low cost with impressive service. Problem: “How should Thailand improve its Aesthetic service attractiveness to drive its potential to the level of internationa...
Gartland, S; Malik, M H; Lovell, M E
To determine the type and number of injuries that occur during the training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing and to compare the data obtained with those from previous studies of karate and taekwondo. One to one interviews using a standard questionnaire on injuries incurred during training and practice of Muay Thai kick boxing were conducted at various gyms and competitions in the United Kingdom and a Muay Thai gala in Holland. A total of 152 people were questioned, 132 men and 20 women. There were 19 beginners, 82 amateurs, and 51 professionals. Injuries to the lower extremities were the most common in all groups. Head injuries were the second most common in professionals and amateurs. Trunk injuries were the next most common in beginners. The difference in injury distribution among the three groups was significant (pinjury in the three groups. Fractures were the second most common in professionals, and in amateurs and beginners it was sprains and strains (pinjury rates were: beginners, 13.5/1000 participants; amateurs, 2.43/1000 participants; professionals, 2.79/1000 participants. For beginners, 7% of injuries resulted in seven or more days off training; for amateurs and professionals, these values were 4% and 5.8% respectively. The results are similar to those found for karate and taekwondo with regard to injury distribution, type, and rate. The percentage of injuries resulting in time off training is less.
Visudtibhan, Anannit; Siripornpanich, Vorasith; Khongkhatithum, Chaiyos; Chiemchanya, Surang; Sirijunpen, Suthatip; Ruangkanchanasetr, Suwanna; Visudhiphan, Pongsakdi
A cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of migraine in seventh grade Thai students in 4 junior high schools in Bangkok, Thailand, according to the diagnostic criteria of the second edition of the Classification of Headache of the International Headache Society was conducted in July 2004. The study included a screening self-administered questionnaire and face-to-face interview with physical examination. The diagnosis of migraine was made and confirmed by 2 pediatric neurologists. All of 1789 students in participating schools completed the questionnaire. After 2 interviews, 248 students (13.8%) were diagnosed with migraine. The prevalence in girls was higher than that in boys (16.2% vs 11.7%). Migraine as having aura was diagnosed in 34 students (13.7%). One student had sporadic hemiplegic migraine. Among 248 children, 176 (71%) reported the duration of headache between 1 and 2 hours. The leading precipitating factor of migraine was the stress related to daily school activities (17.7%). There were 32 students (12.9%) with frequent and intense headache who were referred to their primary physicians for further management. This study had disclosed a high prevalence of migraine in seventh grade Thai students in Bangkok City and reflected the existing burden of this illness in Thai students.
Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the relationship between innovation, R&D (Research and Development, and productivity in Thai manufacturing using cross-sectional data from the 2007 Industrial Census of Thailand. We utilize a simplified structural model (CDM model that describes the link between innovation output, R&D and productivity for the Thai case. Various estimation techniques are used to compare and provide evidence for empirical results. Our findings generally suggest that government aid and plant characteristics play an important role for a plant to engage in R&D and to be innovative, both in terms of process innovation and product innovation. Exporting plants, plants in the central region, and plants that are categorized as Head Branch type are more likely to engage in R&D and be innovative. The type of industry and specific technological characteristics of plants are shown to influence innovation effort and decisions to undertake R&D. On average, plant size, foreign ownership, exporting and product innovation are important drivers of productivity enhancement in Thai manufacturing.
Full Text Available Thai Buddhist communities are by far the fastest-growing Buddhist establishments in Sweden, and – contrary to other Buddhist congregations that are mainly clustered in the cities – Thai Buddhist temples can be found in sparsely-populated areas and rural parts of Sweden. This article aims to document and analyse the ‘foodscape’ of diasporic Thai Buddhism in Sweden. In particular the article identifies and discusses five different strategies used by local communities- in order to support their temples in urban as well as rural areas: 1 local support, 2 pre-cooking and freezing, 3 pre-organised almsgiving in nearby cities, 4 change of food gifts, 5 change of the nikaya. A temple’s location in a rural area can drive forward a reinterpretation and adaptation of the monk’s rules, and contribute to a changing composition of food gifts. Food performs several functions. In addition to the religious functions that are associated with almsgiving, food can also serve as a means of generating bonding and bridging civic social capital, and providing economic income to temples.
Suvarnabhumi, Krishna; Sowanna, Non; Jiraniramai, Surin; Jaturapatporn, Darin; Kanitsap, Nonglak; Soorapanth, Chiroj; Thanaghumtorn, Kanate; Limratana, Napa; Akkayagorn, Lanchasak; Staworn, Dusit; Praditsuwan, Rungnirand; Uengarporn, Naporn; Sirithanawutichai, Teabaluck; Konchalard, Komwudh; Tangsangwornthamma, Chaturon; Vasinanukorn, Mayuree; Phungrassami, Temsak
The Thai Medical School Palliative Care Network conducted this study to establish the current state of palliative care education in Thai medical schools. A questionnaire survey was given to 2 groups that included final year medical students and instructors in 16 Thai medical schools. The questionnaire covered 4 areas related to palliative care education. An insufficient proportion of students (defined as fewer than 60%) learned nonpain symptoms control (50.0%), goal setting and care planning (39.0%), teamwork (38.7%), and pain management (32.7%). Both medical students and instructors reflected that palliative care education was important as it helps to improve quality of care and professional competence. The percentage of students confident to provide palliative care services under supervision of their senior, those able to provide services on their own, and those not confident to provide palliative care services were 57.3%, 33.3%, and 9.4%, respectively. The lack of knowledge in palliative care in students may lower their level of confidence to practice palliative care. In order to prepare students to achieve a basic level of competency in palliative care, each medical school has to carefully put palliative care content into the undergraduate curriculum.
Soleymanian, Tayebeh; Kokabeh, Zeinab; Ramaghi, Rozita; Mahjoub, Alireza; Argani, Hassan
Diabetes is the leading cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide. We compared the clinical outcomes in diabetic patients on hemodialysis (HD) with non-diabetics. Adult maintenance HD patients (N= 532) from 9 HD facilities were enrolled to this prospective cohort study in September 2012. Causes of death, hospitalization, and HD exit were recorded in a median 28 months follow up period. Forty-one percent of patients were diabetic. Diabetic patients compared to non-diabetics had significantly higher age (62.2 ± 11.2 versus 53.1 ± 16.7 years), lower dialysis duration (median: 23 versus 30 months), more cardiovascular comorbidities (64% versus 28%) , higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (median: 3.80 versus 2.25 mg/L), lower serum albumin (3.86 ± 0.35 versus 3.93 ± 0.35 g/dL), lower intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) (median: 272 versus 374 ρg/mL), higher serum triglyceride (167 ± 91 versus 139 ± 67 mg/dL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) (82.5 ± 24.5 versus 77.5 ± 23.8 mg/dL), and worse short form health survey (SF36) score (45.7 ± 20.9 versus 52.7 ± 20.5). Annual admission rate was higher in diabetics (median: 0.86 versus 0.43) and diabetic foot involved 16% of their admissions. Transplantation rate was 4 and 9 per 100 patient years in diabetics and non-diabetics, respectively. Death rate was two folds higher in diabetics (24 versus 12 per 100 patient years). Cardiovascular diseases ( ± infections/other causes) comprised 80.5% of death in diabetics and 54.5% in non-diabetics. In Cox regression proportional hazard multivariate analysis, hazard risk of death in diabetics was 1.9 times higher than non-diabetics. Clinical outcomes and health related quality of life (HRQOL) are much worse in diabetic compared to non-diabetic HD patients mainly due to more frequent of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs).
Full Text Available Suchat Paholpak,1 Ronnachai Kongsakon,2 Wasana Pattanakumjorn,3 Roongsang Kanokvut,4 Wiroj Wongsuriyadech,5 Manit Srisurapanont6 On behalf of the Thai Bipolar Disorder Registry Study Group1Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 2Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 3Department of Psychiatry, Ratchaburi Hospital, Ratchaburi, 4Department of Psychiatry, Buddhachinaraj Hospital, Phitsanulok, 5Department of Psychiatry, Udonthani Hospital, Udonthani, 6Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand Background: The aim of the study was to determine in a clinical setting the risk factors for current anxiety disorder (AD comorbidity among Thai patients with bipolar disorder (BD, being treated under the Thai Bipolar Disorder Registry Project (TBDR. Methods: The TBDR was a multisite naturalistic study conducted at 24 psychiatric units (ie, at university, provincial mental, and government general hospitals between February 2009 and January 2011. Participants were in- or out-patients over 18 years of age who were diagnosed with BD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Instruments used in this study included the Thai Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview version 5; Thai Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS; Thai Young Mania Rating Scale; Clinical Global Impression of Bipolar Disorder-Severity (CGI-BP-S, CGI-BP-S-mania, CGI-BP-S-depression, and CGI-BP-S-overall BP illness; and the Thai SF-36 quality of life questionnaire. Results: Among the 424 BD patients, 404 (95.3% had BD type I. The respective mean ± standard deviation of age of onset of mood disturbance, first diagnosis of BD, and first treatment of BD was 32.0±11.9, 36.1±12.2, and 36.2±12.2 years. The duration of illness was 10.7±9.0 years. Fifty-three (12.5% of the 424 participants had
Purpose: This paper offer marketing strategy suggestion to the airlines operating within the Thai aviation market. It identifies the recommended motivational factors that influence the airline customers’ decision to their airline choices. Airlines use different customer relationship management programs to attract returning customers. This paper suggested the most attractive motivation factors for Thailand's air travel market. Design/methodology: This research paper is an attemp...
Phattharayuttawat, Sucheera; Ngamthipwatthana, Thienchai; Pitiyawaranun, Buncha
"Quality of life" has become a main focus of interest in medicine. The Pictorial Thai Quality of Life (PTQL) was developed in order to measure the Thai mental illness both in a clinical setting and community. The purpose of this study was to develop the Pictorial Thai Quality of Life (PTQL), having adequate and sufficient construct validity, discriminant power, concurrent validity, and reliability. To develop the Pictorial Thai Quality of Life Test, two samples groups were used in the present study: (1) pilot study samples: 30 samples and (2) survey samples were 672 samples consisting of normal, and psychiatric patients. The developing tests items were collected from a review of the literature in which all the items were based on the WHO definition of Quality of Life. Then, experts judgment by the Delphi technique was used in the first stage. After that a pilot study was used to evaluate the testing administration, and wording of the tests items. The final stage was collected data from the survey samples. The results of the present study showed that the final test was composed 25 items. The construct validity of this test consists of six domains: Physical, Cognitive, Affective, Social Function, Economic and Self-Esteem. All the PTQL items have sufficient discriminant power It was found to be statistically significant different at the. 001 level between those people with mental disorders and normal people. There was a high level of concurrent validity association with WHOQOL-BREF, Pearson correlation coefficient and Area under ROC curve were 0.92 and 0.97 respectively. The reliability coefficients for the Alpha coefficients of the PTQL total test was 0.88. The values of the six scales were from 0.81 to 0:91. The present study was directed at developing an effective psychometric properties pictorial quality of life questionnaire. The result will be a more direct and meaningful application of an instrument to detect the mental health illness poor quality of life in
Prapobaratanakul, Chariya; Pongpairoj, Nattama
The study investigated variable production of English past tense morphology by an L1 Thai-speaking learner of English. Due to the absence of the past tense inflectional morphology in the Thai language, production of English past tense morphemes poses a persistent problem for L1 Thai-speaking learners of English. Hypotheses have been made in…
Walker S.C. Poston
Full Text Available We evaluated the associations between overweight and obesity and socio-economic status (SES, behavioral factors, and dietary intake in Thai adults. A nationally representative sample of 6,445 Thais adults (18–70 years was surveyed during 2004–2005. Information including demographics, SES characteristics, dietary intake, and anthropometrics were obtained. Overall, 35.0% of men, and 44.9% of women were overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 23 kg/m2 using the Asian cut-points. Regression models demonstrated that age was positively associated with being overweight in both genders. In gender-stratified analyses, male respondents who were older, lived in urban areas, had higher annual household income, and did not smoke were more likely to be classified as overweight and obese. Women who were older, had higher education, were not in a marriage-like relationship and were in semi-professional occupation were at greater risk for being overweight and obese. High carbohydrate and protein intake were found to be positively associated with BMI whereas the frequent use of dairy foods was found to be negatively associated with BMI among men. The present study found that SES factors are associated with being classified as overweight and obese in Thai adults, but associations were different between genders. Health promotion strategies regarding obesity and its related co-morbidity are necessary.
Lee, Gyeongsil; Lee, Joann; Lee, Sungkyu
The study aimed to identify the risk factors for future smoking among Thai youth aged 13 to 15 years (seventh to ninth grade). Data from the nationally representative 2005 Thai Global Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 15 774) were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression. Among nonsmoking Thai youth, boys were much more likely to have intention of future smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 0.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.37-0.84). Younger youth were more likely to be cigarette smokers in the future (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.56-0.88). Youth having the intention of smoking from a friend's cigarette offer were 5.29 times more likely to have intention of future smoking, compared with those who did not (95% CI = 3.75-7.46). Understanding and targeting youth at higher risk for future smoking can provide for a lowering of the youth smoking rate in Thailand and contribute to the country's continued efforts in effective youth tobacco control. © 2013 APJPH.
Chandar, Jayanthi; Zilleruelo, Gastón
Hypertensive crisis is rare in children and is usually secondary to an underlying disease. There is strong evidence that the renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the genesis of hypertensive crisis. An important principle in the management of children with hypertensive crisis is to determine if severe hypertension is chronic, acute, or acute-on-chronic. When it is associated with signs of end-organ damage such as encephalopathy, congestive cardiac failure or renal failure, there is an emergent need to lower blood pressures to 25-30% of the original value and then accomplish a gradual reduction in blood pressure. Precipitous drops in blood pressure can result in impairment of perfusion of vital organs. Medications commonly used to treat hypertensive crisis in children are nicardipine, labetalol and sodium nitroprusside. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and recent developments in management of hypertensive crisis in children.
Tu, Mingshan; Jepsen, Jørgen Riis
Background: Due to the high prevalence of arterial hypertension and its role in the development of athe- rosclerosis, myocardial infarction and stroke, hypertension is a major public health challenge worldwide. There is limited knowledge of the prevalence of hypertension among seafarers who......, however, are known to have an excess morbidity and mortality from these disorders. This article addresses the prevalence of hypertension among Danish seafarers and discusses potential risk factors for hypertension in maritime settings. Materials and methods: A representative sample of 629 Danish seafarers...... who had statutory medical examinations was studied from the beginning of October 2011 to the end of June 2012. The medical examination included measurements of blood pressure. The prevalence of hypertension in the study po- pulation was stratified by age, work place on board, smoking status, alcohol...
Xu, Jin; Viscoli, Catherine M; Ford, Gary A; Gorman, Mark; Kernan, Walter N
We sought to develop an instrument to screen for insulin resistance in nondiabetic patients with recent ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Subjects were 7262 nondiabetic patients aged greater than or equal to 40 years with ischemic strokes or TIA within the past 6 months. Features were analyzed in bivariate analysis for association with insulin resistance, measured by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Features significantly associated with HOMA-IR (P validation cohort. In the enhanced model, the aROC was .78 in the validation cohort. Our 2 scoring systems performed well in identifying stroke patients with insulin resistance, but they are probably not sufficiently accurate for high-stake clinical decisions. We suggest strategies for improving the accuracy of future instruments. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Clausen, P; Nielsen, P K; Olgaard, K
Plasma leptin is associated with the body mass index and, more precisely, with the body fat mass. Plasma leptin has been found to be elevated in uremic patients. This study aimed at investigating the plasma leptin concentration and associations between plasma leptin, body fat mass, and glomerular...... filtration rate in nondiabetic predialysis uremic patients and in nondiabetic patients on chronic hemodialysis. Plasma leptin, body fat mass, and creatinine clearance were measured in 22 predialysis uremic patients, 18 hemodialysis patients, and 24 healthy control subjects. The logarithmically transformed...... plasma leptin concentration was closely associated with the body fat mass in all groups (r = 0.93, r = 0.83, and r = 0.72, respectively; p
Holmer-Jensen, Jens; Mortensen, Lene S; Astrup, Arne
Non-fasting triglyceridemia is much closer associated to cardiovascular risk compared to fasting triglyceridemia. We hypothesized that there would be acute differential effects of four common dietary proteins (cod protein, whey isolate, gluten, and casein) on postprandial lipemia in obese non......-diabetic subjects. To test the hypothesis we conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study with crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins i.e. cod protein, whey protein, gluten or casein. Eleven obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, body mass index: 30.......3-42.0 kg/m(2)) participated and blood samples were drawn in the 8-h postprandial period. Supplementation of a fat rich mixed meal with whey protein caused lower postprandial lipemia (P = .048) compared to supplementation with cod protein and gluten. This was primarily due to lower triglyceride...
Hansen, Henrik Steen; Larsen, Mogens Lytken
Hypertension and hyperlipidemia are well-established and partially overlapping risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Analyses of cardiovascular morbidity in relationship to changes in blood pressure and in serum cholesterol levels have shown that combined reduction of both risk factors...... are important to achieve a reduction in morbidity. Statins have been shown to be effective in preventing both coronary and cerebrovascular events in both hypertensive and normotensive cases. Consequently, most recent guidelines recommend that statin treatment be considered in hypertensive patients aged less...
The objectives of this study are to describe 147 Thai elementary school teachers' English pronunciation competence and to identify a teacher variable that has an impact on their pronunciation. The instrument used to collect data consisted of two parts: a questionnaire to elicit Thai teachers' personal information (i.e., seven variables in all),…
Noonim, P.; Mahakarnchanakul, W.; Nielsen, K.F.; Frisvad, J.C.; Samson, R.A.
During 2006 and 2007, a total of 64 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea arabica) from two growing sites in Chiangmai Province and 32 Thai dried coffee bean samples (Coffea canephora) from two growing sites in Chumporn Province, Thailand, were collected and assessed for fumonisin contamination by
Chokriensukchai, Kanchana; Tamang, Ritendra
This study examines the exposure of Thai youths to media information on global warming, the relationship between exposure to global warming information and awareness of global warming, and the relationship between that awareness and lifestyle activities that contribute to global warming. A focus group of eight Thai youths provided information that…
Full Text Available This paper explores the impact of Thai culture on managing the decision making process in requirements engineering and contribution a better understand of its influence on the management of requirements engineering process. The paper illustrates the interaction of technology and culture and shows that rather than technology changing culture, culture can change the way technology is used. Thai culture is naturally inherent in Thai daily life and Thais bring that into their work practices. The concepts of power and uncertainty in Thai culture contribute toward hierarchical forms of communication and decision making process in Thailand, especially during requirements engineering, where information systems requirements need to be established for further development. The research shows that the decision making process in Thailand tends to take a much longer time, as every stage during requirements engineering needs to be reported to management for final decisions. The tall structure of Thai organisations also contributes to a bureaucratic, elongated decision-making process during information systems development. Understanding the influence of Thai culture on requirements engineering and information systems development will assist multinational information systems consulting organisations to select, adapt, better manage, or change requirements engineering process and information systems developments methodologies to work best with Thai organisations.
Tangdhanakanond, Kamonwan; Archwamety, Teara
The purpose of the present study was to examine Thai college students' perceptions of school psychologist's roles and functions. Participants were 164 undergraduate students in the Faculty of Education at a Thai university. A questionnaire was employed to collect the data. It was found that college students majoring in secondary education rated…
Private tutoring in academic subjects, which is provided for a fee and which takes place outside standard school hours, has become a global phenomenon. It is also very visible in Thailand. This paper draws on qualitative method including documentary analyses and semi-structured interviews with Thai policy elites, to understand the Thai state…
Sermsook, Kanyakorn; Liamnimit, Jiraporn; Pochakorn, Rattaneekorn
The purposes of the present study were to examine the language errors in a writing of English major students in a Thai university and to explore the sources of the errors. This study focused mainly on sentences because the researcher found that errors in Thai EFL students' sentence construction may lead to miscommunication. 104 pieces of writing…
Choosakul, Chairat; Vongjaturapat, Naruepon; Li, Fuzhong; Harmer, Peter
Grounded in the conceptual framework of the Sport Commitment Model and previous empirical studies conducted in Western countries, this study was designed to (a) test and validate a Thai version of the Athlete Opinion Survey to assess components of the Sport Commitment Model in Thai youth athletes and (b) examine structural relationships among…
This research aims to develop Education Course Syllabus, Thai language major, according to Buddhism way of Thailand by using Taba's Approach and to evaluate the efficiency of Education Course Syllabus, Thai language major, according to Buddhism way of Thailand. This research was conducted according to research and development format and its…
Amnuai, Wirada; Wannaruk, Anchalee
This study investigates the rhetorical move structure of English applied linguistic research article Discussions published in Thai and international journals. Two corpora comprising of 30 Thai Discussions and 30 international Discussions were analyzed using Yang & Allison's (2003) move model. Based on the analysis, both similarities and…
Lotfi-Kamran, Mohammad Hossein; Jafari, Abbas Ali; Falah-Tafti, Abbas; Tavakoli, Ehsan; Falahzadeh, Mohammad Hossein
Background: Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection in diabetic patients. Presence of denture in the oral cavity of diabetic patients can promote Candida colonization and results in the higher incidence of oral and systemic candidiasis. The general purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare Candida colonization in denture of diabetic patients and non-diabetic control group. Methods: In current case-control study, samples for mycological examinations were collect...
Hehir, Mark P
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a leptin-regulated anorectic neuropeptide. Increased levels of leptin in cord blood of diabetic mothers have previously been described. The aim of this study was to quantify maternal and fetal serum CART levels in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM, n = 10) and non-diabetic pregnancy (n = 10). Matched maternal serum samples (n = 20) were obtained at 36-weeks gestation and cord samples from the umbilical vein at delivery (n = 20), CART was quantified using a competitive enzyme immunoassay. Statistical analysis was performed using Spearmans correlation and t test. There was no difference in maternal CART levels at 36-weeks gestation between T1DM (mean = 331.13 pg\\/ml, Standard Error of the Mean (SEM) = 114.54) and non-diabetic pregnancy (mean = 195.01 pg\\/ml SEM = 29.37) (p = 0.106). Fetal CART levels in the umbilical vein were similar in T1DM (mean = 199.27 pg\\/ml, SEM = 39.81) and non-diabetic pregnancy (mean = 149.76 pg\\/ml, SEM = 26.08) (p = 0.143). Maternal serum CART levels measured at 36-weeks gestation correlated with maternal BMI at booking (Spearmans ρ = 0.332) (p = 0.001) irrespective of diabetes. Serum CART can be detected in both diabetic and non-diabetic human pregnancy and may play an important role in body mass regulation in pregnancy.
Soleymanian, Tayebeh; Kokabeh, Zeinab; Ramaghi, Rozita; Mahjoub, Alireza; Argani, Hassan
Background Diabetes is the leading cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide. Objectives We compared the clinical outcomes in diabetic patients on hemodialysis (HD) with non-diabetics. Patients and Methods Adult maintenance HD patients (N= 532) from 9 HD facilities were enrolled to this prospective cohort study in September 2012. Causes of death, hospitalization, and HD exit were recorded in a median 28 months follow up period. Results Forty-one percent of patients were diabetic. Diab...
Cowett, R.M.; Susa, J.B.; Kahn, C.B.; Giletti, B.; Oh, W.; Schwartz, R.
Glucose kinetics were measured during the third trimester of pregnancy in nine nondiabetic women, nine insulin-dependent diabetic women, six gestational diabetic women, and five control women (nonpregnant, nondiabetic) after an overnight fast. The patients not dependent on insulin were diagnosed as diabetic by oral glucose tolerance tests during the third trimester. The turnover studies were repeated post partum (6 weeks to 5 months after delivery) in 14 of the 24 pregnant subjects. All pregnant groups had a progressive fall in plasma glucose concentration during the study, but there was a steady state of plasma glucose concentration during the turnover period. In comparison to the control subjects, both the pregnant nondiabetic and pregnant insulin-dependent diabetic women had significantly higher plasma insulin concentrations throughout the study There were no differences in the glucose turnover rate between any of the pregnant groups and the control group of women patients were studied post partum, the glucose turnover rate was similar when referenced to body weight; however, because of a 9.6% to 14.5% fall in weight post partum, the absolute valueds were h in the pregnant women. We conclude that, in the basal state after an overnight fast, (1) both nondiabetic and diabetic patients accelerated their glucose turnover rate during pregnancy to provide for increased maternal and fetoplacental metabolic requirements, and (2) in the diabetic subjects the nearly normal plasma glucose and insulin concentrations and other metabolic parameters, as well as the glucose turnover rate, suggested good metabolic control during pregnancy in most of the insulin-dependent and in all of the gestational diabetic patients.
Presley, Tennille D; Duncan, A'ja V; Jeffers, Anne B; Fakayode, Sayo O
This study determined the levels of Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Na in various tissues samples (liver, brain, kidney, intestines, muscle and hair) of diabetic and non-diabetic rats by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy, in order to assess the role of element levels during T2DM. The ratios of Ca/Mg, Zn/Cu, Ca/Zn, and Mg/Zn in diabetic and non-diabetic rat tissues were also calculated. The determined element levels were further subjected to a student-t test statistical analysis and multiple-linear-regression in order to evaluate similarities, differences, and an inter-element association in tissues of diabetic and non-diabetic rats. The results of the study showed high variability in element levels and Ca/Mg Zn/Cu Mg/Zn Ca/Zn ratios in the tissues of diabetic and non-diabetic rats, but are tissue- and element-dependent, suggesting differences in the accumulation of the elements in tissues of diabetics and non-diabetics. The obtained significant differences in the levels of elements and Ca/Mg Zn/Cu Mg/Zn Ca/Zn ratios in several tissues of diabetic and non-diabetic rats in this study suggest that the investigated elements play considerable roles in the T2DM disease process. Strong inter-element associations (R 2 ≥0.9) were observed for some elements in tissues of diabetic and non-diabetics rats. However, poor inter-elemental associations were obtained for some elements in the tissues of diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Published by Elsevier GmbH.
Tagle, Rodrigo; Tagle V, Rodrigo; Acevedo, Mónica; Valdés, Gloria
The present review examines the types of hypertension that women may suffer throughout life, their physiopathological characteristics and management. In early life, the currently used low-dose oral contraceptives seldom cause hypertension. Pregnancy provokes preeclampsia, its main medical complication, secondary to inadequate transformation of the spiral arteries and the subsequent multisystem endothelial damage caused by deportation of placental factors and microparticles. Hypertension in preeclampsia is an epiphenomenon which needs to be controlled at levels that reduce maternal risk without impairing placental perfusion. The hemodynamic changes of pregnancy may unmask a hypertensive phenotype, may exacerbate a chronic hypertension, or may complicate hypertension secondary to lupus, renovascular lesions, and pheochromocytoma. On the other hand a primary aldosteronism may benefit from the effect of progesterone and present as a postpartum hypertension. A hypertensive pregnancy, especially preeclampsia, represents a risk for cardiac, vascular and renal disease in later life. Menopause may mimic a pheochromocytoma, and is associated to endothelial dysfunction and salt-sensitivity. Among women, non-pharmacological treatment should be forcefully advocated, except for sodium restriction during pregnancy. The blockade of the renin-angiotensin system should be avoided in women at risk of pregnancy; betablockers could be used with precautions during pregnancy; diuretics, ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor antagonists should not be used during breast feeding. Collateral effects of antihypertensives, such as hyponatremia, cough and edema are more common in women. Thus, hypertension in women should be managed according to the different life stages.
Stern, Ralph H
The Canadian Hypertension Education Program (CHEP) has published guidelines annually since 2000. The CHEP guidelines are a model of concise, comprehensive, up-to-date, evidence-rated guidelines for physicians who diagnose and treat hypertension. The guidelines address measurement of blood pressure and the definition of hypertension, secondary hypertension evaluation and treatment, and blood pressure targets and medication choices in patients with and without compelling indications. This review describes CHEP's process for developing guidelines and provides an overview of the 2013 recommendations. ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Conclusions: hypertension is a major modifiable risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, eye abnormalities and end stage renal disease, which require proper counseling and management of patients.
Toyama, Masahiro; Watanabe, Shigeyuki; Miyauchi, Takashi; Kuroda, Yasuhisa; Ojima, Eiji; Sato, Akira; Seo, Yoshihiro; Aonuma, Kazutaka
Although morning hypertension (HT) has been identified as a major cardiovascular risk, susceptible populations remain unknown. This study aimed to clarify the relationship between morning HT and diabetes or obesity in a large-scale population. Clinic blood pressure (BP) and BP upon awakening were recorded in 2554 outpatients with HT who attended 101 clinics or hospitals for two weeks. Mean clinic and awakening BP>140/90 and >135/85 mmHg, respectively, were considered as HT. The patients were classified according to values for clinic and home BP, into normal BP, white coat HT, masked HT, and sustained HT. Morning BP (mmHg) significantly and progressively elevated in the order of normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes (134.1 ± 12.2, 135.4 ± 13.1 and 137.5 ± 11.5; pmorning HT significantly increased and progressively in the same order (53.4%, 55.6%, 66.4%, pMorning BP was significantly higher among obese patients with diabetes than among non-obese and non-diabetic patients (138.8 ± 10.5, 133.1 ± 11.9, pmorning HT was significantly higher in obese diabetic patients than in non-obese and non-diabetic patients (73.0% vs. 49.9%, pmorning HT. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Sirijit Suttajit,1 Suchat Paholpak,2 Somrak Choovanicvong,3 Khanogwan Kittiwattanagul,4 Wetid Pratoomsri,5 Manit Srisurapanont1On behalf of the Thai Bipolar Registry Group1Department of Psychiatry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, 2Department of Psychiatry, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, 3Srithanya Hospital, Nonthaburi, 4Khon Kaen Rajanagarindra Psychiatric Hospital, Khon Kaen, 5Chachoengsao Hospital, Chachoengsao, ThailandBackground: The Thai Bipolar Disorder Registry was a prospective, multisite, naturalistic study conducted in 24 hospitals across Thailand. This study aimed to examine the correlates of current suicide risk in Thai patients with bipolar I disorder.Methods: Participants were adult inpatients or outpatients with bipolar disorder, based on the Diagnosis and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition. All were assessed by using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI, version 5. The severity of current suicide risk was determined by using the total score of the MINI suicidality module. Mood symptoms were assessed by using the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale.Results: The data of 383 bipolar I disorder patients were included in the analyses. Of these, 363 (94.8% were outpatients. The mean (standard deviation of the MINI suicide risk score was 1.88 (5.0. The demographic/clinical variables significantly associated with the MINI suicide risk scores included age, number of overall previous episodes, the Young Mania Rating Scale score, the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale scores, and the Clinical Global Impression Severity of Illness Scale for Bipolar Disorder mania score, depression score, and overall score. The variables affecting the differences of suicide risk scores between or among groups were type of first mood episode, a history of rapid cycling, anxiety disorders, and alcohol use disorders. The stepwise multiple linear regression model revealed
Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (HP is a common worldwide infection with known gastrointestinal and nongastrointestinal complications. One of the gastrointestinal side effects posed for this organism is its role in diabetes and increased insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between HP and insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic patients and nondiabetics. This cross-sectional study was carried out from May to December 2013 on 211 diabetic patients referred to diabetes clinic of Shahid Beheshti Hospital of Qom and 218 patients without diabetes. HP was evaluated using serology method and insulin resistance was calculated using HOMA-IR. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was 55.8% and 44.2% in diabetics and nondiabetics (P=0.001. The study population was divided into two HP positive and negative groups. Among nondiabetics, insulin resistance degree was 3.01±2.12 and 2.74±2.18 in HP+ and HP− patients, respectively P=0.704. Oppositely, insulin resistance was significantly higher in diabetic HP+ patients rather than seronegative ones (4.484±2.781 versus 3.160±2.327, P=0.013. In diabetic patients, in addition to higher prevalence of HP, it causes a higher degree of insulin resistance.
Fagerudd, J A; Pettersson-Fernholm, K J; Riska, M K; Grönhagen-Riska, C; Groop, P H
In non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), there is a clustering of an elevated urinary albumin excretion rate (U-AER) in nondiabetic relatives of albuminuric patients. Whether this is also the case in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is unknown. Overnight U-AER was measured in 186 nondiabetic first-degree relatives of 80 IDDM patients with diabetic nephropathy (U-AER > 200 microg/min or 300 mg/24 hours; DN+) and in 52 relatives of 25 IDDM patients without nephropathy (U-AER therapy, and smoking habits. No difference was found in overnight U-AER between relatives of patients with DN+ and DN- [median (range), 3.4 (0.1 to 372) vs. 4.0 (0.2 to 62) microg/min, respectively, P = NS]. The proportion of relatives with a U-AER = 10 microg/min was 12% in DN+ compared with 8% in DN- (P = NS). Among relatives of DN+, those with antihypertensive treatment (AHT+) had higher U-AER compared with those without [AHT+ vs. AHT-, 5.0 (0.5 to 372) vs. 3.4 (0.1 to 26.5) microg/min, P AER in nondiabetic relatives of patients with nephropathy. This is different from what has been reported in NIDDM, and suggests heterogeneity in the genesis of albuminuria in diabetes.
Al-Otaibi, Dalal H.; Babay, Nadir A.; Habib, Syed S.; Almas, K.
Objective was to study the extent of periodontal disease in diabetic and non-diabetic periodontitis patients and to investigate the relationship of dyslipidemia and periodontal disease, in diabetic and non-diabetic periodontitis patients. This is a cross-sectional study at the Department of Preventive Dental Sciences College of Dentistry and Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, from February 2003 to June 2004. A total of 90 patients was recruited and divided into 3 equal groups of 30 subjects, with age and gender matched, and divided as follows: group 1 healthy group: periodontally and systemically healthy subjects, group 2 periodontitis group: chronic periodontitis patients with no systemic disease, group 3 diabetic group: chronic periodontitis patients with chronic type 2 diabetes mellitus. Plaque index, bleeding on probing, probing pocket depth PPD, and clinical attachment level CAL were measured at the time of initial examination. The glycated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein LDL, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein were also measured. Periodontal parameters PPD and CAL were of significantly higher value in the diabetic patients, when compared to the periodontitis patients p<0.05. The total cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride were also found to be significantly higher among the periodontitis patients than the healthy subjects p<0.05. This study indicated that type 2 diabetic patients had a higher risk to developed advanced periodontal disease hat the non-diabetic subjects. It also highlighted the association of dyslipidemia in periodontitis patients. (author)
Woo, Keng-Thye; Choong, Hui-Lin; Wong, Kok-Seng; Tan, Han-Kim; Foo, Marjorie; Fook-Chong, Stephanie; Lee, Evan J C; Anantharaman, Vathsala; Lee, Grace S L; Chan, Choong-Meng
This is a report of a clinical trial on the therapeutic efficacy and safety of combined aliskiren and losartan (an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB)) versus aliskiren alone and ARB alone in non-diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) over a 3-year period. This was a randomised trial in 155 patients with non-diabetic CKD comparing aliskiren (150 mg/day) (n=52) versus losartan (100 mg/day) (n=52) and the third group aliskiren (150 mg/day) combined with losartan (100 mg/day) (n=51). The trial utilised primary renal end points of eGFR proteinuria (p<0.001 for all). The changes in eGFR, total urinary protein from baseline to each year were not significantly different between the three therapeutic groups. This study in non-diabetic CKD patients showed that combination therapy with aliskiren and ARB was as efficacious as aliskiren alone and ARB alone. There was one patient who developed a non-fatal stroke in the combined aliskiren and ARB group while the other two groups had none. © The Author(s) 2014.
Matu, N K; Stephen, L; Lalloo, R
To compare the periodontal status of a group of diabetic Coloured and Black communities of South Africa with a non-diabetic group. Sixty-seven type 2 diabetics (mean age: 49.3 +/- 8.97) and 67 non-diabetics (mean age: 47.6 +/- 8.85) were examined. The plaque index (P1I), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) were recorded on Ramfjord index teeth or their substitutes. Previous dental care, smoking status, alcohol consumption and socio-economic status were also assessed. Diabetics had significantly higher mean GI (p = 0.001), PD (p = 0.031) and CAL (p = 0.022) than non-diabetics. The mean P1I (p = 0.531) was not significantly different between the two groups. This study showed that diabetics had more severe and a higher prevalence of periodontal disease. Diabetics and their health care givers should be informed of these findings so that diabetics can seek early management of periodontal disease.
Jane J. Lee
Full Text Available Excess fat in the abdomen can be classified generally as visceral and subcutaneous adiposity. Evidence suggests that visceral adiposity has greater implications for diabetes than other fat depots. The purpose of this study is to explore the disparities in the distribution of abdominal adiposity in diabetic/prediabetic and nondiabetic populations and to identify moderators that influence the pattern of central obesity via a meta-analysis technique. The Hedges’ g was used as a measure of effect size and 95% confidence interval was computed. A total of 41 relevant studies with 101 effect sizes were retrieved. Pooled effect sizes for visceral and subcutaneous adiposity were 0.69 and 0.42, respectively. Diabetic/prediabetic populations exhibited greater visceral and subcutaneous adiposity compared to nondiabetic populations (Z=10.35, P<0.05. Significant moderator effects of gender (Z=-2.90 and assessment method of abdominal adiposity (Z=-2.17 were found for visceral fat (P<0.05, but not for subcutaneous fat. Type of health condition influenced both visceral (Z=-5.10 and subcutaneous (Z=-7.09 abdominal adiposity volumes (P<0.05. Abdominal adiposity distributions were significantly altered in the diabetic/prediabetic population compared to the nondiabetic population. Gender, assessment method of abdominal adiposity, and type of health conditions (diabetic/prediabetics were identified as crucial moderators that influence the degree of abdominal adiposity.
Full Text Available Ingestion of inorganic arsenic (iAs is considered to be related to the development of diabetes mellitus. In order to clarify the possible differences in the metabolism in diabetics, we measured urinary iAs metabolites in diabetic cases and non-diabetic control subjects in Faridpur, an arsenic-contaminated area in Bangladesh. Physician-diagnosed type 2 diabetic cases (140 persons and non-diabetic controls (180 persons were recruited. Drinking water and spot urine samples were collected. Mean concentrations of total arsenic in drinking water did not differ between cases (85.1 μg/L and controls (85.8 μg/L. The percentage of urinary iAs (iAs% was significantly lower in cases (8.6% than in controls (10.4%, while that of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA% was higher in cases (82.6% than in controls (79.9%. This may have been due to the higher secondary methylation index (SMI in the former (11.6 rather than the latter (10.0. Adjusting for matching factors (sex and unions, and the additional other covariates (age and water arsenic significantly attenuated the differences in iAs%, SMI, and DMA%, respectively, though the difference in monomethylarsonic acid% was newly significant in the latter adjustment. Our study did not suggest any significant differences in urinary arsenic metabolites between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects.
Paoletti, Ernesto; Bellino, Diego; Amidone, Marco; Rolla, Davide; Cannella, Giuseppe
To date, few studies have used ambulatory pressure monitoring (ABPM) in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) before the start of dialysis treatment. The aim of this study was therefore to ascertain the correlates of arterial hypertension assessed by ABPM in CKD patients at their first referral to a nephrologist. We studied 244 (164 men; mean age 63 years) nondiabetic patients with CKD. Each patient had blood pres-sure (BP) measured by 24-hour ABPM, creatinine clearance (CrCl) estimated according to the Cockcroft-Gault formula, and Hgb concentration, serum lipids, iPTH, daily urinary protein (Uprot) and sodium (UNa) excretion assessed using routine methods. According to ABPM data analysis, 81 patients were normotensives, 78 were stable hypertensives, 26 had day-time hypertension and 59 had nocturnal hypertension. ANOVA showed both lower CrCl (p=0.0033), and higher Uprot (p nighttime SBP > 24-hour PP > daytime PP > daytime SBP > 24-hour SBP. In CKD patients, proteinuria is the strongest correlate of arterial hypertension and particularly of increased nocturnal PP, possibly as an expression of vascular damage. On the basis of these results, ABPM appears to be the most reliable tool for detecting the associations between raised BP (particularly nighttime hypertension) and renal damage in CKD patients not yet on renal replacement therapy (RRT).
Padilha, Bruna Merten; Ferreira, Raphaela Costa; Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; Tassitano, Rafael Miranda; Holanda, Lidiana de Souza; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima; Cabral, Poliana Coelho
Restricted sodium intake has been recommended for more than 1 century for the treatment of hypertension. However, restriction seems to increase blood cholesterol. In women with excess weight, blood cholesterol may increase even more because of insulin resistance and the high lipolytic activity of adipose tissue.The aim of this study was to assess the association between blood cholesterol and sodium intake in hypertensive women with and without excess weight.This was a cross-sectional study with hypertensive and nondiabetic women aged 20 to 59 years, recruited at the primary healthcare units of Maceio, Alagoas, Brazilian Northeast. Excess weight was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥25.0 kg/m. Sodium intake was estimated by the 24-hour urinary excretion of sodium. Blood cholesterol was the primary outcome investigated by this study, and its relationship with sodium intake and other variables was assessed by Pearson correlation and multivariate linear regression using a significance level of 5%.This study included 165 hypertensive women. Of these, 135 (81.8%) were with excess weight. The mean sodium intake was 3.7 g (±1.9) and 3.4 g (±2.4) in hypertensive women with and without excess weight, respectively. The multiple normal linear regression models fitted to the "blood cholesterol" in the 2 groups reveal that for the group of hypertensive women without excess weight only 1 independent variable "age" is statistically significant to explain the variability of the blood cholesterol levels. However, for the group of hypertensive women with excess weight, 2 independent variables, age and sodium intake, can statistically explain variations of the blood cholesterol levels.Blood cholesterol is statistically inversely related to sodium intake for hypertensive women with excess weight, but it is not statistically related to sodium intake for hypertensive women without excess weight.
Fischer, Margit Bistrup; Thingaard, Ebbe; Andersen, Anita Sylvest
Hypertension during pregnancy is one of the leading causes of maternal and foetal morbidity and mortality. Monitoring of blood pressure is therefore an essential part of prenatal care. Masked hypertension, where blood pressure levels are elevated at home despite normal blood pressure levels...
Christensen, Hanne; Strandgaard, Svend
Hypertension is a major and modifiable risk factor of stroke and dementia. Hypertension causes remodelling of the cerebral resistance vessels, impairing their tolerance to very low blood pressure. In primary prevention of stroke, the effect of beta-blockers is inferior to other classes...
Beneficial effects of exercise training on human hypertension.Journal of Nig Soc of Physiotherapy. 10 (2): 28-30. ALLHAT Collaboration Research Group (2000) Major cardiovascular. Events in hypertensive patients randomized to doxagosin versus chlorthalidone: the antihypertensive and lipid lowering treatment to.
Dam Fialla, Annette; Havelund, Troels
Non-cirrhotic intrahepatic portal hypertension is characterized by portal hypertension in the absence of liver cirrhosis or portal vein thrombosis. The disease is common in the East and rarely seen in the West. Two cases with oesophageal varices are described. The histopathology is heterogeneous...
Henriksen, Jens H; Møller, Søren
Arterial hypertension is a common disorder with a frequency of 10% to 15% in subjects in the 40- to 60-year age group. Yet most reports find the prevalence of arterial hypertension in patients with chronic liver disease (cirrhosis) much lower. In this review, we consider the alterations in systemic...
Kamper, A.L.; Pedersen, E.B.; Strandgaard, S.
Renal mechanisms, in particular the renin-angiotensin system and renal salt handling, are of major importance in blood pressure regulation. Co-existence of hypertension and decreased renal function may be due to nephrosclerosis secondary to hypertension, or primary renal disease with secondary...
Kamper, Anne-Lise; Pedersen, Erling B; Strandgaard, Svend
Renal mechanisms, in particular the renin-angiotensin system and renal salt handling, are of major importance in blood pressure regulation. Co-existence of hypertension and decreased renal function may be due to nephrosclerosis secondary to hypertension, or primary renal disease with secondary...
tance,' and the criteria for the recognition of malignant hypertension have become so well established that there is no dispute about the diagnosis when this condition ends in uraemia. By contrast, benign hypertension mani- fests itself mainly as cardiac or cerebrovascular disease,"" and although the occurrence of renal ...
Limpawattana, Panita; Kengkijkosol, Thepkhachi; Assantachai, Prasert; Krairit, Orapitchaya; Pimporm, Jiraporn
Obesity is a worldwide medical condition that leads to physical and psychological impairment. Specific ethnicity, gender and age group are related to different performances of anthropometric indices to predict obesity. The objectives of this study were to estimate the performance of the anthropometric indices for detecting obesity based on percentage of body fat (PBF), to study the correlation among those indices, and to determine the optimal cut-off point of the indices among young Thai adults. This is a cross-sectional study of healthy urban subjects in Khon Kaen, Thailand who were aged 20-39 years. Baseline characteristics and anthropometric measures were collected. PBF was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Demographic data and anthropometric variables were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to compare the performance of anthropometric measures as predictors of obesity. One-hundred men and 100 women were recruited for this study. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-stature ratio (WSR) were significantly correlated to PBF. BMI demonstrated the best performance according to the area under the ROC curves in both sexes at cut-off points of 22.5 in women or 25 kg/m(2) in men. WC and WSR showed better performance than WHR to detect obesity. In conclusion, anthropometric indices in young Thai adults were correlated well with PBF to predict obesity as shown in prior reports. Different cut-off points of these indices to define obesity in young Thai adults are recommended. The global cut-off points of WSR in women regardless of ethnicity are supported.
Sujarit, Chutinut; Rittirut, Waigoon; Amornlerdpison, Doungporn; Siripatana, Chairat
This research aimed to investigate an optimal condition for astaxanthin production by Phaffia rhodozyma TISTR 5730 in two different media: synthetic YM medium and the medium added with coconut water and diluted with sewage from Thai traditional rice vermicelli plant (coconut water: sewage of 1:0, 1:1, 1:3 and 1:5 ration respectively). The basic medium formulation was composed of 10 g/L glucose, 3 g/L yeast extract, 0.1 g/L K2HPO4, 0.01 g/L NaCl, 0.01 g/L MgSO4 and 0.01 g/L CaCl2 with initial pH 5.5. The cultures were cultivated on 200 rpm shaking bath at 50 °C for 120 hr. It was found that P. rhodozyma TISTR 5370 grew optimally when cultivated in a mixture of coconut water and Thai rice vermicelli sewage (ratio of 1:3), with growth of 3.23 g dry biomass/L and specific astaxanthin production of 680 μg/g dry cell respectively. When fan palm sugar was added to increase reducing sugar from 10 to 15, 20 and 25 g/L, it was demonstrated that the 15 g/L formulation produced highest both dry cell weight (9.66 g/L) and astaxanthin (810 μg/g dry cell weight). Furthermore, when 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/L citric acid was added as supplement, it was found that 1.0-g/L citric acid formulation gave the best result: 10.30 g/L dried cell weight and 930 μg/g dry cell weight astaxanthin. This study provides a promising alternative method of sewage reduction and valorization of wastewater from Thai traditional rice vermicelli plant.
Since the mid-1990s, Thailand has been one of the largest per capita consumers of methamphetamine pills (ya ba - "crazy drug") in the world and one of the leading consumers of methamphetamine in Southeast Asia, with its youth comprising the majority of users. This article examines the socio-cultural context of methamphetamine use among young Thai in order to understand its widespread appeal. The study is based on 18 months of ethnographic research in Chiang Mai, northern Thailand, between 2002 and 2006 and a follow-up field trip in 2011. In-depth interviews were carried out with 211 young people aged between 15 and 25 in institutional and non-institutional settings. Many of the findings derive from participant observation and informal interviews with a small sample of 20 people. Chiang Mai youth have transformed methamphetamine from a labourers' drug centred on economic utility to a multi-purpose youth drug primarily consumed for pleasure and performance. Ya ba appeals to many young Thai due to its positive image as a modern and fashionable consumer commodity, with confidence in these synthetic pills drawing on and mirroring a broader faith in modern (western) medicine. The growing demand for ya ba in northern Thailand is in part a reflection of the changing social values that have accompanied rapid urbanisation and modernisation in Thailand. In their overwhelming aspiration to be modern, young Thai are consuming ya ba not to rebel against the dominant culture, but to keep up with the demands and expectations of a modern capitalist society. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available As a leading risk factor for stroke, hypertension is also an important risk factor for cognitive impairment. Midlife hypertension doubles the risk of dementia later in life and accelerates the progression of dementia, but the correlation between late-life blood pressure and cognitive impairment is still unclear. Beside blood pressure, the effect of pulse pressure, blood pressure variability and circadian rhythm of blood pressure on cognition is currently attracting more and more attention. Hypertension induces alterations in cerebrovascular structure and functions, which lead to brain lesions including cerebral atrophy, stroke, lacunar infarcts, diffuse white matter damage, microinfarct and microhemorrhage, resuling in cognitive impairment. Hypertension also impairs the metabolism and transfer of amyloid-β protein (Aβ, thus accelerates cognitive impairment. Individualized therapy, focusing on characteristics of hypertensive patients, may be a good choice for prevention and treatment of cognitive impairment. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.08.004
Henriksen, Jens H; Møller, Søren
Arterial hypertension is a common disorder with a frequency of 10% to 15% in subjects in the 40- to 60-year age group. Yet most reports find the prevalence of arterial hypertension in patients with chronic liver disease (cirrhosis) much lower. In this review, we consider the alterations in systemic...... to increased arterial blood pressure. Subjects with established arterial hypertension (essential, secondary) may become normotensive during the development of cirrhosis, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in cases with renovascular disease and high circulating renin...... activity. There is much dispute as to the understanding of homeostatic regulation in cirrhotic patients with manifest arterial hypertension. This is a topic for future research....
Seven, Ekim; Husemoen, Lise L N; Wachtell, Kristian
OBJECTIVE: The adipocytokines, leptin, adiponectin, and interleukin-6, which stimulate liver C-reactive protein (CRP) production, are regarded as potential candidate intermediates between adipose tissue and overweight-induced hypertension. METHODS: We examined the associations between leptin......, adiponectin, and CRP levels with both prevalent and 5-year incident hypertension (IHT) in a general population of Danish adults (n = 5,868, 51.3% women, mean age 45.8 ± 7.9 years). RESULTS: We recorded 2195 prevalent and 379 incident cases of hypertension. In models including leptin, CRP, adiponectin, sex.......023) in the fully adjusted model. The population attributable risk estimate of IHT owing to overweight was 31%. CONCLUSION: Leptin, but not adiponectin or CRP, may play a mediating role in overweight-induced hypertension. However, as BMI was a strong independent predictor of hypertension, other factors than leptin...
Seven, Ekim; Husemoen, Lise L N; Wachtell, Kristian
OBJECTIVE:: The adipocytokines, leptin, adiponectin, and interleukin-6, which stimulate liver C-reactive protein (CRP) production, are regarded as potential candidate intermediates between adipose tissue and overweight-induced hypertension. METHODS:: We examined the associations between leptin......, adiponectin, and CRP levels with both prevalent and 5-year incident hypertension (IHT) in a general population of Danish adults (n = 5868, 51.3% women, mean age 45.8 ± 7.9 years). RESULTS:: We recorded 2195 prevalent and 379 incident cases of hypertension. In models including leptin, CRP, adiponectin, sex.......023) in the fully adjusted model. The population attributable risk estimate of IHT owing to overweight was 31%. CONCLUSION:: Leptin, but not adiponectin or CRP, may play a mediating role in overweight-induced hypertension. However, as BMI was a strong independent predictor of hypertension, other factors than leptin...
Hypertension is an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality, and a highly prevalent condition in both men and women. However, the prevalence of hypertension is predicted to increase more among women than men. Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) can induce hypertension in a small group of women and, increase CV risk especially among those with hypertension. Both COC-related increased CV risk and blood pressure (BP) returns to pretreatment levels by 3 months of its discontinuation. The effects of menopause and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on BP are controversial, and COCs and HRT containing the new generation progestin drospirenone are preferred in women with established hypertension. Despite the high incidence of cancer in women, CV disease remains the major cause of death in women and comparable benefit of antihypertensive treatment have been demonstrated in both women and men.
Peng, Baogan; Pang, Xiaodong; Li, Duanming; Yang, Hong
Abstract Cervical spondylosis and hypertension are all common diseases, but the relationship between them has never been studied. Patients with cervical spondylosis are often accompanied with vertigo. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion is an effective method of treatment for cervical spondylosis with cervical vertigo that is unresponsive to conservative therapy. We report 2 patients of cervical spondylosis with concomitant cervical vertigo and hypertension who were treated successfully with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion. Stimulation of sympathetic nerve fibers in pathologically degenerative disc could produce sympathetic excitation, and induce a sympathetic reflex to cause cervical vertigo and hypertension. In addition, chronic neck pain could contribute to hypertension development through sympathetic arousal and failure of normal homeostatic pain regulatory mechanisms. Cervical spondylosis may be one of the causes of secondary hypertension. Early treatment for resolution of symptoms of cervical spondylosis may have a beneficial impact on cardiovascular disease risk in patients with cervical spondylosis. PMID:25761188
Liang, Mingyu; Cowley, Allen W; Mattson, David L; Kotchen, Theodore A; Liu, Yong
Multiple genes and pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Epigenomic studies of hypertension are beginning to emerge and hold great promise of providing novel insights into the mechanisms underlying hypertension. Epigenetic marks or mediators including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and noncoding RNA can be studied at a genome or near-genome scale using epigenomic approaches. At the single gene level, several studies have identified changes in epigenetic modifications in genes expressed in the kidney that correlate with the development of hypertension. Systematic analysis and integration of epigenetic marks at the genome-wide scale, demonstration of cellular and physiological roles of specific epigenetic modifications, and investigation of inheritance are among the major challenges and opportunities for future epigenomic and epigenetic studies of hypertension. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Strotmeyer, Stephen; Coben, Jeffrey H; Fabio, Anthony; Songer, Thomas; Brooks, Maria
Muay Thai is a combat sport of Thailand that uses stand-up striking along with various clinching techniques. Currently, little is known about the injuries and risk factors for injuries among Muay Thai fighters. Gaining more insight into the nature and frequency of injury in this sport provides part of the overall sports injury picture, within the larger burden of injury as a public health issue. Generating this information is a critical first step toward the broader goal of improving the health and safety of Muay Thai fighters engaged in competition. This study is based upon a survey of 195 Muay Thai fighters. Participants were asked to complete a retrospective web survey on fight-related injuries. Regression analyses were conducted to determine whether injuries during sanctioned fights were related to factors such as fight experience, use of protective equipment, and injury history. Participants were aged 18 to 47 years old (median 26), predominantly male (85.9%), and white (72.3%). Respondents were professional (n = 96, 49.2%) and amateur (n = 99, 50.8%). Fighters reported a mean fight experience of 15.8 fights. Of the 195 respondents, 108 (55.4%) reported sustaining an injury during the most recent fight. The primary body region injured was the extremities (58%) versus the head, with a lower amount of self-reported concussions (5.4%). Nearly 2/3 (66.7%) of all injured fighters reported that the injury did not interfere with the bout outcome. Nearly 25% reported they missed no training time as a result of the injury. Injuries were related to professional fighter status (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.4-4.5), fight experience (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.5-4.9), weight class (OR = 0.923 heavy versus light, 95% CI = .86-.99), age (OR = 0.90 > 26 versus ≤26, 95% CI = .85-.95), use of protective equipment (OR = .46, 95% CI = .26-.82) and previous injury (OR = 1.81, 95% CI = .98-3.3). Lighter, younger, and more experienced
Rungreangkulkij, Somporn; Chafetz, Linda; Chesla, Catherine; Gilliss, Catherine
The paper presents data on families of a person with schizophrenia in rural Thailand, using the resiliency model of family stress, adjustment, and adaptation. The aim is to assess the impact of family factors on psychological morbidity of the mothers and relatives of a person with schizophrenia. One hundred and eight Thai families were interviewed based on family assessment instruments. Multiple regression analysis was performed. The findings suggest that in a stable stage of illness, other stresses of family life may have stronger impact on psychological status of family members, than the illness. Implications for clinical nurses and researchers are presented.
Olanwijitwong, Jutarmas; Piyaphanee, Watcharapong; Poovorawan, Kittiyod; Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Chanthavanich, Pornthep; Wichainprasast, Pongdej; Tantawichien, Terapong
The number of Thai tourists visiting India is increasing each year. Most studies investigating health problems among international travellers to India have focused on travellers from Europe or North America, and the applicability of these studies to Asian travellers is unknown. This cross-sectional study used data collected from Thai tourists who had recently completed a trip to India. A questionnaire on demographic data, travel characteristics, pre-travel health preparation, and health problems during the trip to India was administered. All participants were also invited to answer a follow-up questionnaire 15 days after their arrival. The study included 1,304 Thai tourists returning from India between October 2014 and March 2015. Sixty-two percent were female. Overall median age was 49 years, and the median length of stay was 10.6 days. Most were package tourists, and 52% (675) reported health problems during their trip. Common health problems were cough, runny nose, and sore throat (31.1%), followed by musculoskeletal problems (21.7%), fever (12.7%), diarrhea (9.8%) and skin problems (6.6%). Other reported problems were related to the eyes/ears (2.1%), animal exposure (1.9%) and accidents (0.8%). We found that several factors may be associated with the incidence of health problems among these tourists, including travelling style and travel health preparation. In the follow-up questionnaire, 16.8% of the participants reported new or additional symptoms that developed after their return to Thailand. Respiratory symptoms were still the most common health problems during this 15-day period. Over half (52%) of Thai tourists experienced health problems during their trip to India. The most common health problem was not travellers' diarrhoea, as would be expected from published studies. Rather, respiratory and musculoskeletal problems were common symptoms. This information will be useful in pre-travel assessment and care. Our findings may indicate that health risks among
Selvakkumaran, Sujeetha; Limmeechokchai, Bundit; Masui, Toshihiko; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Matsuoka, Yuzuru
Highlights: • Thai industrial sector has been modelled using AIM/Enduse model. • Potential mitigation of CO 2 for 2050 is approximately 20% from Baseline scenario. • Abatement cost curves show that varied counter measures are practical in the industrial sector. • Energy security is enhanced due to CO 2 mitigation in the LCS scenario. - Abstract: Energy plays a dominant role in determining the individual competitiveness of a country and this is more relevant to emerging economies. That being said, energy also plays an important and ever expanding role in carbon emissions and sustainability of the country. As a developing country Thailand’s industrial sector is vibrant and robust and consumes majority of the energy. In addition, it also has the highest CO 2 emissions, provided the emissions of power generation are taken into account. Industry also accounts for the highest consumption of electricity in Thailand. The objective of this study is to model the Thai industrial energy sector and estimate the mitigation potential for the timeframe of 2010–2050 using the principles of Low Carbon Society (LCS). In addition, the paper would also evaluate emission tax as a key driver of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) mitigation along with Marginal Abatement Cost (MAC) analysis. Another secondary objective is to analyse the impact of mitigation on energy security of the industrial sector. The Thai industrial sector was modelled using AIM/Enduse model, which is a recursive dynamic optimisation model belonging to the Asia–Pacific Integrated Model (AIM) family. Thai industrial sector was divided into nine sub-sectors based on national economic reporting procedures. Results suggest that the mitigation potential in 2050, compared to the Baseline scenario, is around 20% with positive impacts on energy security. The Baseline emission will approximately be 377 Mt-CO 2 in the industrial sector. All four indicators of energy security, Primary Energy Intensity, Carbon Intensity, Oil
Tovaranonte, Jantrararuk; Barfod, Anders S.; Overgaard, Anne Blach
Increasingly species distribution models are being used to address questions related to ecology, biogeography and species conservation on global and regional scales. We used the maximum entropy approach implemented in the MAXENT programme to build a habitat suitability model for Thai palms based...... overprediction of species distribution ranges. The models with the best predictive power were found by calculating the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC). Here, we provide examples of contrasting predicted species distribution ranges as well as a map of modeled palm diversity...
Chong, Yip-Boon; Keng, Tee-Chau; Tan, Li-Ping; Ng, Kok-Peng; Kong, Wai-Yew; Wong, Chew-Ming; Cheah, Phaik-Leng; Looi, Lai-Meng; Tan, Si-Yen
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is reportedly the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide. However, non-diabetic renal diseases (NDRD) are not uncommon among T2DM patients with renal involvement. Our study aimed to examine the prevalence of NDRD in T2DM and clinical markers for diabetic nephropathy (DN) and NDRD and to determine the role of renal biopsy in T2DM patients and its impact on clinical practice. We conducted a retrospective analysis of T2DM patients in whom renal biopsies were performed from January 2004 to March 2008 (n = 110). Biopsy results were divided into three groups: group I/pure DN (62.7%), group II/isolated NDRD (18.2%), and group III/mixed lesions (19.1%). The causes of NDRD in decreasing order of frequency were acute interstitial nephritis, glomerulonephritides, hypertensive renal disease, and acute tubular necrosis. Significant clinical markers for DN are presence of diabetic retinopathy and longer duration of diabetes. For NDRD, useful clinical markers include the presence of acute renal failure and microscopic hematuria. In the DN subgroup, Indians had significantly shorter duration of diabetes on biopsy compared with Malays and Chinese. NDRD is prevalent in T2DM patients, and given its potentially treatable nature, renal biopsy should be considered in T2DM patients with nephropathy, especially in those with atypical features.
Chewaskulyong, Busyamas; Sapinun, Ladarat; Downing, G Michael; Intaratat, Prapai; Lesperance, Mary; Leautrakul, Suntree; Somwangprasert, Areewan; Leerapun, Thaninit
the Thai PPS Adult Suandok tool was translated from the Palliative Performance Scale (PPSv2) and had been used in Chiang Mai, Thailand for several years. to test the reliability and validity of the Thai translation of PPSv2. a set of 22 palliative cases were used to determine a PPS score on Time-1, and repeated two weeks later as Time-2. A survey questionnaire was also completed for qualitative analysis. a total of 70 nurses and physicians from Maharaj Nakorn Hospital in Chiang Mai participated. The Time-1 intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for absolute agreement is 0.911 (95% CI 0.86-0.96) and for consistency is 0.92 (95% CI 0.87-0.96). The Time-2 ICC for agreement is 0.905 (95% CI 0.85-0.95) and for consistency is 0.912 (95% CI 0.86-0.96). These findings indicate good agreement among participants and also were somewhat higher in the Time-2 re-test phase. Cohen's kappa score is 0.55, demonstrating a moderate agreement. Thematic analysis from the surveys showed that 91% felt PPS to be a valuable clinical tool overall, with it being 'very useful' or 'useful' in several areas, including care planning (78% and 20%), disease monitoring (69% and 27%) and prognostication (61% and 31%), respectively. Some respondents noted difficulty in determining appropriate scores in paraplegic patients or those with feeding tubes, while others found the instructions long or difficult. the Thai PPS Adult Suandok translated tool has good inter- and intra-rater reliability and can be used regularly for clinical care.
Full Text Available Background/Aims: Diabetes is well-known to influence endothelial function. Endothelial function and blood flow regulation might be different in diabetic and non-diabetic pregnancy. However, the impact of umbilical blood flow regulation in gestational diabetes on fetal development is unknown so far. Methods: In a prospective birth cohort study, we analyzed the association of the umbilical artery Doppler indices (pulsatility index, resistance index and systolic/diastolic ratio and fetal size measures (biparietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, femur length and birth weight in 519 non-gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancies (controls and 226 gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancies in middle (day 160.32 ±16.29 of gestation and late (day 268.12 ±13.04 of gestation pregnancy. Results: Multiple regression analysis considering confounding factors (gestational day of ultrasound examination, offspring sex, maternal body mess index before pregnancy, maternal age at delivery, maternal body weight at delivery and maternal hypertension showed that umbilical artery Doppler indices (pulsatility index, resistance index and systolic/diastolic ratio were associated with fetal head circumference and femur length in middle gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancy but not in non-gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancy. Head circumference, biparietal diameter, abdominal circumference and femur length in mid gestation were smaller in fetus of gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancy versus non-gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancy. In contrast to non-gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancy in late gestation, umbilical artery Doppler indices in gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancy were not associated with ultrasound measures of fetal growth. Birth weight was slightly increased in gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancy as compared to non-gestational diabetes mellitus pregnancy. Conclusions: The impact of umbilical blood flow on fetal
Full text: The right heart catheterization is the gold standard in the diagnosis and determines the severity of pulmonary hypertension. The significant technical progress of noninvasive diagnostic imaging methods significantly improves the pixel density and spatial resolution in the study of cardiovascular structures, thus changes their role and place in the overall diagnostic plan. Learning points: What is the etiology, clinical manifestation and general pathophysiological disorders in pulmonary hypertension. What are the established diagnostic methods in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with pulmonary hypertension. What is the recommended protocol for CT scanning for patients with clinically suspected or documented pulmonary hypertension. What are the important diagnostic findings in CT scan of a patient with pulmonary hypertension. Discussion: The prospect of instantaneous complex - anatomical and functional cardiopulmonary and vascular diagnostics seems extremely attractive. The contrast enhanced multislice computed (CT ) and magnetic resonance imaging are very suitable methods for imaging the structures of the right heart, with the possibility of obtaining multiple projections and three-dimensional imaging reconstructions . There are specific morphological features that, if carefully analyzed, provide diagnostic information. Thus, it is possible to avoid or at least reduce the frequency of use of invasive diagnostic cardiac catheterization in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Conclusion: This review focuses on the use of contrast-enhanced CT for comprehensive evaluation of patients with pulmonary hypertension and presents the observed characteristic changes in the chest, lung parenchyma , the structures of the right half of the heart and pulmonary vessels
Garcia, E A; Newhouse, S; Caulfield, M J; Munroe, P B
The combination of investigation of rare Mendelian forms of hypertension, candidate gene studies, comparative mapping and genome-wide screening in both animal models and man has led to significant progress in determining new mechanisms of blood pressure control. In this review, the newly discovered blood pressure/cardiovascular genes, WNK kinases and angiotensin converting enzyme 2 and the development of a new anti-hypertensive agent PST2238 are discussed. Major genes causing essential hypertension have yet to be discovered, however, there are now over 20 published genome-wide screens for blood pressure controlling genes. Several regions demonstrate suggestive linkage to the trait and there is some overlap of regions between the different studies. It is hoped that new blood pressure genes will ultimately be discovered using this method. Pharmacogenetic studies in hypertension have only been initiated recently, some are described in this paper. Small studies upon single candidate genes, suggest that the contribution of genetics to the inter-individual variation in blood pressure response to anti-hypertensive therapy, is small, approximately 3-5%. Recently micro-arrays with multiple polymorphisms in multiple genes have been used. After accounting for the additive affects of multiple blood pressure loci, an individual's genetic profile appeared to explain up to 50% of the variation in blood pressure response to therapy. Knowledge of the genetic variants that cause hypertension and influence response to anti-hypertensive therapy will ultimately provide a greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying blood pressure control.
Dimitriadis, K; Tsioufis, C; Kasiakogias, A; Miliou, A; Poulakis, M; Kintis, K; Bafakis, I; Benardis, E; Tousoulis, D; Stefanadis, C
Emerging evidence suggests that the soluble receptor for advanced glycation end-products (sRAGE) is implicated in the development of vascular disease. We investigated the interrelationships of sRAGE with albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) and arterial stiffness in essential hypertension. In 309 untreated non-diabetic hypertensives, ACR values were determined as the mean of three non-consecutive morning spot urine samples and aortic stiffness was evaluated on the basis of carotid to femoral pulse wave velocity (c-f PWV). In all subjects, venous blood sampling was performed for the estimation of sRAGE levels. Patients with low (n = 155) compared to those with high sRAGE values (n = 154) had greater 24-h systolic BP (140 ± 8 vs. 134 ± 7 mmHg, p involvement of sRAGE in the progression of hypertensive vascular damage. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sumitra, Tatchai; Chankow, Nares; Bradley, K.; Bereznai, G.
The Thai-Canadian Nuclear Human Resources Development Linkage Project (the P roject ) was initiated in 1994 in order to develop the engineering and scientific expertise needed for Thailand to decide whether and how the country can best benefit from the establishment of a nuclear power program. The Project was designed to upgrade current academics and people in industry, and to develop an adequate supply of new technical personnel for academic, industry, utility, regulatory and other government institutions. The key Project objectives included the establishment of a Chair in Nuclear Engineering at Chulalongkorn University, the upgrading of the current Masters level curriculum, the establishment of undergraduate and doctorate level curricula, development and delivery of an industrial training program for people in industry and government, exchanges of Thai and Canadian academics and industry experts to establish common research programs and teaching interests, and a public education program that was to test in Thailand some of the techniques that have been successfully used in Canada. (author)
Yampratoom, Ramorn; Aroonyadech, Nawarat; Ruangdaraganon, Nichara; Roongpraiwan, Rawiwan; Kositprapa, Jariya
To investigate emergent literacy skills, including phonological awareness when presented with an initial phoneme-matching task and letter knowledge when presented with a letter-naming task in Thai preschoolers, and to identify key factors associated with those skills. Four hundred twelve typically developing children in their final kindergarten year were enrolled in this study. Their emergent reading skills were measured by initial phoneme-matching and letter-naming tasks. Determinant variables, such as parents' education and teachers' perception, were collected by self-report questionnaires. The mean score of the initial phoneme-matching task was 4.5 (45% of a total of 10 scores). The mean score of the letter-naming task without a picture representing the target letter name was 30.2 (68.6% of a total of 44 scores), which increased to 38.8 (88.2% of a total of 44 scores) in the letter-naming task when a picture representing the target letter name was provided. Both initial phoneme-matching and letter-naming abilities were associated with the mother's education and household income. Letter-naming ability was also influenced by home reading activities and gender. This was a preliminary study into emergent literacy skills of Thai preschoolers. The findings supported the importance of focusing on phonological awareness and phonics, especially in the socioeconomic disadvantaged group.
Laoprom, Nonglak; Sangprom, Araya; Chaisri, Patcharaporn
This work aims to study the antioxidants capacity, Total phenolic content and antibacterial activity of Thai medicinal plant for the treatment of dermatitis-related inflammations, Capparis micracantha. Crude extract from stem of Thai medicinal plant was extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and water. The antioxidant activities (IC50) was evaluated with 1,1-diphenyl-1-princylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. Bacterial activities was tested with four human pathogenic bacteria; Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Stapylococcus epidermidis by using agar diffusion assay. Minimum Inhibition Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were also determined by broth dilution method. For antioxidant activity, the methanol fraction from stem extract showed the highest activity with an IC50 of 2.4 mg/ml. Water extraction was the high TPC with 10,136.9 mg GAE/g dry weight. Methanol and water extraction showed the remarkable inhibition of bacterial growth was shown against L. monocytogenes and S. aureus. In addition, ethyl acetate, methanol and water fraction from stem extract against S. epidermidis. The present finding suggests that the extract of C. micracantha could be used to discover bioactive natural products that may serve as pharmaceutical products.
Oosterhoff, Pauline; White, Joanna; Nguyen, Thi Huong
Southeast Asian governments implement ambitious programmes to reduce population growth and maternal mortality in areas with large minority ethnic populations. Although some of these programmes introduce new social and health practices that meet their broader aims, they may pay inadequate attention to the protective and medically beneficial aspects of traditional practices. This study examined the decline of temporary matrilocality (zu kuay) among the Black Thai in Dien Bien, Vietnam, as a response to policies adopted under the government programme of Doi Moi ('modernisation'). The patrilocal, patrilinear cultural norms of the majority ethnic Kinh people were promoted and zu kuay discouraged at a time when heroin availability increased dramatically but harm reduction programmes were not yet in place. This historical coincidence appears to have heightened certain Thai women's vulnerability to marriages with HIV-positive injecting drug users. Policies and guidelines on marriage and reproductive health should take into account the role of minority ethnic traditions, as well as local health-seeking practices, in order not only to improve reproductive programmes but also to reduce HIV vulnerability.
Sinthubua, Apichat; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon; Ruengdit, Sitthiporn; Singsuwan, Phruksachat; Praneatpolgrang, Sithee; Duangto, Phuwadon
Sex determination is an important step in biological identification from skeletal remains, especially in forensic circumstances. Many authors suggested that the morphological study was more subjective than the metric. There are various craniometric studies in different populations. They revealed that there was population-specific for the sex discriminant equation derived from each population. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate sexual dimorphism and develop the discriminant function from 200 Thai skulls. Twenty-five standard cranial measurements were examined. The results revealed that males' cranium were statistically significant larger than females' in all measurements (P<0.05), except for minimum breadth of nasal bone. Sexual dimorphism index also expressed relatively high male/female ratio indicating great sexual dimorphism. The best practical equation for sex determination with six measurements (maximum cranial length, bizygomatic breadth, biauricular breadth, nasal height, biorbital breadth and right mastoid length) was derived from a stepwise discriminant method. This equation with 90.6% accuracy (91.1% in male and 90.0% in female) can provide valuable application utilizing in sex determination from skull in a Thai population. PMID:26770879
Kranrod, C.; Chanyotha, S.; Kritsananuwat, R.; Ploykrathok, T.; Pengvanich, P.; Tumnoi, Y.; Thumvijit, T.; Sriburee, S.
In this research, the natural radioactivity concentrations and their respective annual effective dose of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K in selected medicinal herb plants were investigated. Seven kinds of popular Thai medicinal herb plants had been studied: turmeric, ginger, safflower, moringa, gotu kola, garlic and alexandria senna. The radiological risk associated with the use of these medicinal plants was assessed. The activity concentrations of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K were determined using the gamma-ray spectrometry technique. The radioactivity concentrations were found to range from less than 0.20 to 6.67 Bqkg-1 for 226Ra, less than 0.10 to 9.69 Bqkg-1 for 228Ra, and from 159.42 to 1216.25 Bqkg-1 for 40K. Gotu kola showed the highest activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ra, while ginger showed the highest activity concentration of 40K. The total annual effective dose due to ingestion of these herb plants were found to range from 0.0028 to 0.0097 mSvy-1 with an average value of 0.0060±0.0001 mSvy-1. The results conclude that the Thai medicinal herb plants samples from this research are considered safe in terms of the radiological hazard.
Kranrod, C; Chanyotha, S; Kritsananuwat, R; Ploykrathok, T; Pengvanich, P; Tumnoi, Y; Thumvijit, T; Sriburee, S
In this research, the natural radioactivity concentrations and their respective annual effective dose of the naturally occurring radionuclides 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K in selected medicinal herb plants were investigated. Seven kinds of popular Thai medicinal herb plants had been studied: turmeric, ginger, safflower, moringa, gotu kola, garlic and alexandria senna. The radiological risk associated with the use of these medicinal plants was assessed. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 40 K were determined using the gamma-ray spectrometry technique. The radioactivity concentrations were found to range from less than 0.20 to 6.67 Bqkg -1 for 226 Ra, less than 0.10 to 9.69 Bqkg -1 for 228 Ra, and from 159.42 to 1216.25 Bqkg -1 for 40 K. Gotu kola showed the highest activity concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra, while ginger showed the highest activity concentration of 40 K. The total annual effective dose due to ingestion of these herb plants were found to range from 0.0028 to 0.0097 mSvy -1 with an average value of 0.0060±0.0001 mSvy -1 . The results conclude that the Thai medicinal herb plants samples from this research are considered safe in terms of the radiological hazard. (paper)
Full Text Available Background: Men are overrepresented with regard to alcohol addiction and in terms of alcohol treatment worldwide. In Thailand, alcohol consumption continues to rise, but few of those afflicted with alcohol addiction attend alcohol treatment programs, even though there is universal care for all. No comprehensive studies have been done on men's experiences with addiction and alcohol treatment programs in Thailand. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore men's experiences in terms of the ‘pros and cons of alcohol consumption’ in order to identify the barriers that exist for Thai men with regard to alcohol addiction and the decision to stop drinking. Design: Purposive sampling was applied in the process of recruiting participants at an alcohol clinic in a hospital in Thailand. Thirteen men with alcohol addiction (aged 32–49 years were willing to participate and were interviewed in thematic interviews. The analysis of the data was done with descriptive phenomenology. Results: Through men's descriptions, three clusters of experiences were found that were ‘mending the body’, ‘drinking as payoff and doping related to work’, and ‘alcohol becoming a best friend’ as ways of describing the development of addiction. Conclusions: The results highlight the importance of addressing concepts of masculinity and related hegemonic ideas in order to decrease the influence of the barriers that exist for Thai men with alcohol addiction with regard to entering treatment and to stop drinking.
Full Text Available Nowadays, Thai herbal plants are widely accepted in alternative medicine for treatment patients suffering deleterious diseases such as cancer. Having a variety of indications, several herbal formulas including Triphala have been routinely used as health tonic in Thai traditional and Ayurvedic medicines. The formulation of Triphala is a mixture of fruits of three plants: Phyllanthus emblica Linn., Terminalia chebula Retz. and Terminalia bellerica (Gaertn. Roxb., all of which were reported to inhibit the growth and induce the death of cancer cells effectively. Therefore, anticancer activities inevitably turn out to be one of the essential properties of Triphala formula as well. It is likely that a number of active compounds in the formula, especially tannins, are the key agents that induce the apoptotic cell death via free radical production in cancer cells. On the other hand, all three fruits of these plants also contain high levels of antioxidants, capable of protecting normal cells from any free radical-mediated injuries effectively. Thus, the paradoxical role of Triphala is cell-type specific and becomes an advantage for usage of this formulation. Furthermore, Triphala has high potentials for inhibition and prevention of mutagenesis and metastasis of cancer cells. Finally, studies in the mechanism of action of Triphala and the product development as well as safety evaluation of the standard herbal extract are definitely required for future pharmacological applications of Triphala as anticancer agents for cancer therapy.
Full Text Available The focus of this study is the transfer of marketing knowledge within Thai joint venture firms. The perspectives of Thai managers were surveyed using a structured instrument. The analysis identifies seven dimensions of marketing management knowledge: promotion management, price management, logistics management, product innovation management, strategic marketing management, cross-cultural management, and target marketing management. The incidence of transfer is highest for activities in strategic marketing management, followed by price management. Transfer in product innovation management and target marketing management tends to vary with the age of the joint venture. Joint venture firms with foreign partners originating from Western, advanced, industrialised nations recorded the highest incidence of knowledge transfer occurring within product innovation management. This trend also holds true for the management of promotion activities. The incidence of transfer in target marketing management is lowest among firms with foreign partners from neighbouring nations. The incidence of knowledge transfer within product innovation and target marketing also tends to vary with the age of the joint venture. An analysis based on industry classification revealed that the transfer of knowledge regarding logistics management occurs most for firms in the manufacturing sector. In the service sector, the highest incidence of knowledge transfer within the areas of promotion management and target marketing management occurred in the agricultural sector.
Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the dietary patterns of middle-aged Thais and their association with metabolic syndrome (MetS. Methods. The Thai National Health Examination Survey IV data of 5,872 participants aged ≥30–59 years were used. Dietary patterns were obtained by factor analysis and their associations with Mets were examined using multiple logistic regression. Results. Three major dietary patterns were identified. The first, meat pattern, was characterized by a high intake of red meat, processed meat, and fried food. The second, healthy pattern, equated to a high intake of beans, vegetables, wheat, and dairy products. The third, high carbohydrate pattern, had a high intake of glutinous rice, fermented fish, chili paste, and bamboo shoots. Respondents with a healthy pattern were more likely to be female, higher educated, and urban residents. The carbohydrate pattern was more common in the northeast and rural areas. Compared with the lowest quartile, the highest quartile of carbohydrate pattern was associated with MetS (adjusted odds ratio: 1.82; 95% CI 1.31, 2.55 in men and 1.60; 95% CI 1.24, 2.08 in women, particularly among those with a low level of leisure time physical activity (LTPA. Conclusion. The carbohydrate pattern with low level of LTPA increased the odds of MetS.
Full Text Available Several antioxidant nutrients have been described to inversely correlate with asthma. In order to quantify the intake of these substances, it is possible to measure skin levels by Raman spectroscopy, a novel non-invasive technique that can also be used in children. This cross-sectional school-based study involved 423 children from a rural area of Thailand. Asthmatic children were diagnosed according to a Health Interview for Asthma Control questionnaire. Skin carotenoid levels were measured with Raman spectroscopy. Demographic data were obtained by directly interviewing children and their parents, whereas anthropometric parameters were measured by trained staff. Intake of carotenoids, vitamin A and C were evaluated by a food frequency questionnaire. Overall incidence of asthma in Thai schoolchildren (aged 3.5-17.8 years was 17.3%. There was no significant difference in dietary intake of carotenoids and vitamin A and C, and skin carotenoid level between asthmatic and nonasthmatic children. Skin carotenoid level significantly correlated with all carotenoids and vitamin A intake (P<0.05. Carotenoids and vitamin A and C intakes, and skin carotenoid levels were not associated with the risk of asthma in Thai children. Skin carotenoids correlated with all carotenoids and vitamin A intake in mild to moderate degrees. Raman spectroscopy was confirmed to be a useful tool to determine antioxidant skin levels.
Nanakorn, Somsong; Chusilp, Kusuma; Kutanan, Wibhu
The present study describes the initial phase of the Thai Twin Registry (TTR) in Khon Kaen University, a pioneer research university located in the Northeast of Thailand. The initial steps of the study included the analysis of dermatoglyphic information in Thai twins for answering the research question: Are monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins different in dermatoglyphic variables? Subjects were 212 twin pairs (131 MZ and 81 [corrected] DZ), consisting of 155 males and 269 females. Four types of fingerprint pattern (FP) - that is, arch, radial loop, ulnar loop, and whorl - were classified and analyzed and compared between MZ and DZ twins. The arch radial loop and whorl frequencies differ between MZ and DZ twins. When comparing FP in each finger, only the right little finger shows a statistically different FP, while the FP similarity average from 10 homologous fingers of co-twins was greater in MZ than DZ twins. By using the Area Under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve analysis, the MZ twins could be differentiated from DZ twins by the FP similarity. Summarizing, this valuable report about TTR was conducted by analysis of FP data, which indicated that the MZ and DZ twins exhibited FP pattern and FP similarity differences. Other dermatoglyphic studies of the existing FP database, such as finger ridge count, finger ridge density, and minutia, will be considered for ongoing research at the TTR.
Lip, Gregory Y H; Coca, Antonio; Kahan, Thomas
Hypertension (HTN) is a common cardiovascular risk factor leading to heart failure (HF), coronary artery disease (CAD), stroke, peripheral artery disease and chronic renal failure. Hypertensive heart disease can manifest as many types of cardiac arrhythmias, most commonly being atrial fibrillation......) Council on Hypertension convened a Task Force, with representation from the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), Asia-Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS), and Sociedad Latinoamericana de Estimulación Cardíaca y Electrofisiología (SOLEACE), with the remit of comprehensively reviewing the available evidence...
Kamper, Anne-Lise; Pedersen, Erling Bjerregaard; Strandgaard, Svend
Renal mechanisms, in particular the renin-angiotensin system and renal salt handling, are of major importance in blood pressure regulation. Co-existence of hypertension and decreased renal function may be due to nephrosclerosis secondary to hypertension, or primary renal disease with secondary...... hypertension. Mild degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be detected in around 10% of the population, and detection is important as CKD is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Conversely, heart failure may cause an impairment of renal function. In chronic progressive...
Kamper, A.L.; Pedersen, E.B.; Strandgaard, S.
hypertension. Mild degrees of chronic kidney disease (CKD) can be detected in around 10% of the population, and detection is important as CKD is an important risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Conversely, heart failure may cause an impairment of renal function. In chronic progressive......Renal mechanisms, in particular the renin-angiotensin system and renal salt handling, are of major importance in blood pressure regulation. Co-existence of hypertension and decreased renal function may be due to nephrosclerosis secondary to hypertension, or primary renal disease with secondary...
Cavero-Redondo, Iván; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Álvarez-Bueno, Celia; Recio-Rodríguez, José Ignacio; Gómez-Marcos, Manuel Ángel; García-Ortiz, Luis
To examine, in a non-diabetic population, whether the association between arterial stiffness and glycaemic levels depends on the test used as a glycaemic indicator, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). A cross-sectional analysis of a 220 non-diabetic subsample from the EVIDENT II study in which FPG, HbA1c and arterial stiffness-related parameters (pulse wave velocity, radial and central augmentation index, and central pulse pressure) were determined. Mean differences in arterial stiffness-related parameters by HbA1c and FPG tertiles were tested using analysis of covariance. All means of arterial stiffness-related parameters increased by HbA1c tertiles, although mean differences were only statistically significant in pulse wave velocity (p ≤.001), even after controlling for potential confounders (HbA1c <5.30% = 6.88 m/s; HbA1c 5.30%-5.59% = 7.06 m/s; and HbA1c ≥5.60% = 8.16 m/s, p =.004). Conversely, mean differences in pulse wave velocity by FPG tertiles did not reach statistically significant differences after controlling for potential confounders (FPG 4.44 mmol/l = 7.18 m/s; FPG 4.44 mmol/l-4.87 mmol/l = 7.26 m/s; and FPG ≥4.88 mmol/l = 7.93 m/s, p =.066). Glucose levels in a non-diabetic population were associated with arterial stiffness but better when levels were determined using HbA1c. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Diabetic patients have a 20% higher risk of depression than the general population. Treatment with antidepressant drugs can directly interfere with blood glucose levels or may interact with hypoglycemic agents. The treatment of depression in diabetic patients must take into account variations of glycemic levels at different times and a comparison of the available antidepressant agents is important. In the present study we evaluated the interference of antidepressants with blood glucose levels of diabetic and non-diabetic rats. In a first experiment, male adult Wistar rats were fasted for 12 h. Imipramine (5 mg/kg, moclobemide (30 mg/kg, clonazepam (0.25 mg/kg, fluoxetine (20 mg/kg sertraline (30 mg/kg or vehicle was administered. After 30 min, fasting glycemia was measured. An oral glucose overload of 1 ml of a 50% glucose solution was given to rats and blood glucose was determined after 30, 60 and 90 min. Imipramine and clonazepam did not change fasting or overload glycemia. Fluoxetine and moclobemide increased blood glucose at different times after the glucose overload. Sertraline neutralized the increase of glycemia induced by oral glucose overload. In the second experiment, non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were fasted, and the same procedures were followed for estimation of glucose tolerance 30 min after glucose overload. Again, sertraline neutralized the increase in glycemia after glucose overload both in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. These data raise the question of whether sertraline is the best choice for prolonged use for diabetic individuals, because of its antihyperglycemic effects. Clonazepam would be useful in cases with potential risk of hypoglycemia.
Brendan K Podell
Full Text Available Hyperglycemia, the diagnostic feature of diabetes also occurs in non-diabetics associated with chronic inflammation and systemic insulin resistance. Since the increased risk of active TB in diabetics has been linked to the severity and duration of hyperglycemia, we investigated what effect diet-induced hyperglycemia had on the severity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb infection in non-diabetic guinea pigs. Post-prandial hyperglycemia was induced in guinea pigs on normal chow by feeding a 40% sucrose solution daily or water as a carrier control. Sucrose feeding was initiated on the day of aerosol exposure to the H37Rv strain of Mtb and continued for 30 or 60 days of infection. Despite more severe hyperglycemia in sucrose-fed animals on day 30, there was no significant difference in lung bacterial or lesion burden until day 60. However the higher spleen and lymph node bacterial and lesion burden at day 30 indicated earlier and more severe extrapulmonary TB in sucrose-fed animals. In both sucrose- and water-fed animals, serum free fatty acids, important mediators of insulin resistance, were increased by day 30 and remained elevated until day 60 of infection. Hyperglycemia mediated by Mtb infection resulted in accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs in lung granulomas, which was exacerbated by sucrose feeding. However, tissue and serum AGEs were elevated in both sucrose and water-fed guinea pigs by day 60. These data indicate that Mtb infection alone induces insulin resistance and chronic hyperglycemia, which is exacerbated by sucrose feeding. Moreover, Mtb infection alone resulted in the accumulation tissue and serum AGEs, which are also central to the pathogenesis of diabetes and diabetic complications. The exacerbation of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia by Mtb infection alone may explain why TB is more severe in diabetics with poorly controlled hyperglycemia compared to non-diabetics and patients with properly controlled
Mohammad Hossein Lotfi-Kamran
Full Text Available Background: Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection in diabetic patients. Presence of denture in the oral cavity of diabetic patients can promote Candida colonization and results in the higher incidence of oral and systemic candidiasis. The general purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare Candida colonization in denture of diabetic patients and non-diabetic control group. Methods: In current case-control study, samples for mycological examinations were collected from the palatal impression surface of maxillary dentures from 92 edentulous patients including 46 dia-betic and 46 non-diabetic denture wearers. All samples were cultured directly on sabouraud agar me-dium and isolated colonies were counted and identified based on specific tests. Data were statistically analyzed using Mann-Whitney and Spearman correlation tests. Results: The higher density of isolated colonies was seen in diabetic group in compare with control group (P = 0.0001. There was a statistically significant correlation between the blood glucose level (P = 0.0001 and the duration of denture usage (P = 0.022 with the colonization of Candida on den-ture of diabetic patients. C. albicans was the most common isolated Candida species in both groups, though diabetic patients with dentures had more non-albicans Candida isolated from their dentures compared to non-diabetic patients. Conclusions: Mycological findings from the present study revealed that diabetes mellitus can in-crease colonization of Candida in denture and mouth. By elimination of local and systemic factors in diabetic patients and improving their oral health care, Candida colonization and the risk of oral and systemic candidiasis will be decreased.
Aljarousha, Mohammed; Badarudin, Noor Ezailina; Che Azemin, Mohd Zulfaezal
Diabetes may affect the human body's systems and organs, including the eye. Diabetic retinopathy is the 5th leading cause of blindness globally. Diabetic subjects demonstrated dry eye symptoms that were also supported by the low values of the clinical tests. This study aimed to compare the dry eye symptoms and signs between diabetics and non-diabetics and tear functions between diabetic subjects with and without dry eye. This retrospective study was based on the observation of 643 medical files. Using a convenience sampling method, 88 subjects were found to report diabetes mellitus. The information extracted from the files included: date of first examination, age at first visit, gender, past ocular history, systemic disease, symptoms of dry eye disease and details of clinical diagnostic signs. Non-contact lens wearers were excluded. A group of 88, age and gender matched, control subjects were included for this comparison study. The percentage of dry eye symptoms was higher in diabetic subjects (15.9%) compared with non-diabetic subjects (13.6%; p<0.001). The percentage of dry eye symptoms was also higher in diabetics with dry eye (63%) than in diabetics without dry eye (36.9%; p<0.001). Tear break up time was significantly different between diabetics and non-diabetics (p<0.001) and between diabetics with and without dry eye (p=0.046). The corneal staining was significantly different between diabetic subjects with and without dry eye (p=0.028). Dry eye symptoms were significantly associated with diabetics. Tear break up time was significantly shorter in diabetics with dry eye compared to diabetics without dry eye.
Shen Zhenhai; Lu Yun; Feng Yinbo; Jin Xian
Objective: To observe the effects of rosiglitazone on metabolic parameters, carotid intimamedia thickness (IMT), brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) and ankle-brachial index (ABI) in nondiabetic patients with metabolic syndrome. Methods: Seventy-nine nondiabetic patients with metabolic syndrome were randomly divided into treatment group (n = 41) and control group (n = 38). The patients in treatment group were treated with rosiglitazone on the basis of life-style intervention, those in control group were treated with life-style intervention for 9 months. All patients were followed up every 3 months. Body mass index (BMI) ,waist circumference(WC), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure(DBP), fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), highdendity lipoprotein (HDL-C), Low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), HbA 1 C, fasting insulin (FIns), HOMA-IR, IMT, baPWV and ABI were measured in both groups before treatment and at the 6th, 9th month after treatment. Results: (1) After treatment with rosiglitazone for 6 months, FPG, TG, HDL-C, hsC RP, HbA 1 C, Fins and HOMA-IR in treatment group were improved (P 1 C, Fins and HOMA-IR got further improvement at the 9th month after treatment (P 1 C, Fins and HOMA-IR were changed significantly in treatment group compared to those in control group (P 1 C and HOMA-IR was independently related to the improvement of ABI by multivarient analysis. Conclusion: In nondiabetic patients with metabolic syndrome, rosiglitazone can significantly improve insulin resistance, correct metabolic disorders, has anti-inflammatory effect and retard atherosclerosis at some extent. (authors)
Zhao, Jiaying; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian
Background Urban populations usually have higher levels of cardiovascular risk factors than rural populations in developing countries. However, association between cardiovascular risk factors and duration of urban dwelling, particularly for early stages of urban migrations, has not yet been adequately studied. We examined cardiovascular risks in relation to timing of urbanization in Thailand, paying attention to recent internal migrants. Methods Our study base was a large national cohort (n = 87 151) of distance-learning Thai open university students recruited in 2005 and followed up in 2009. After exclusion of longitudinal dropouts and reverse migrants, 51 936 remained for analyses. The information collected included historical residence, urban migration and its lifecycle timing, self-reported doctor-diagnosed diseases, and socio-demographic and personal attributes that could influence health. To relate cardiovascular outcomes (prevalence and incidence of hypertension and hyperlipidaemia) and life-course urbanization status (ie at age 12, 4 years ago  and at present ), we applied logistic regression. Included in the models were 10 other covariates that could confound the urbanization effect. Results Recent migration (arriving within four years) among young cohort members (born after 1980) was associated with higher risk of hypertension (OR 1.80 for prevalence and 1.68 for four-year incidence). Higher hyperlipidaemia prevalence (and incidence) was associated with any urban dwelling. Recent migrants quickly developed hyperlipidaemia, particularly the youngest (born after 1980) and oldest participants (born before 1960). Conclusions Increased cardiovascular risks appear among rural-urban migrants within four years after they arrive. Given the scale of continuing urbanization, interventions are needed to support and educate recent migrants in Thai cities. PMID:25048513
Zhao, Jiaying; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian; Thai Cohort Study Team, The
Urban populations usually have higher levels of cardiovascular risk factors than rural populations in developing countries. However, association between cardiovascular risk factors and duration of urban dwelling, particularly for early stages of urban migrations, has not yet been adequately studied. We examined cardiovascular risks in relation to timing of urbanization in Thailand, paying attention to recent internal migrants. Our study base was a large national cohort (n = 87 151) of distance-learning Thai open university students recruited in 2005 and followed up in 2009. After exclusion of longitudinal dropouts and reverse migrants, 51 936 remained for analyses. The information collected included historical residence, urban migration and its lifecycle timing, self-reported doctor-diagnosed diseases, and socio-demographic and personal attributes that could influence health. To relate cardiovascular outcomes (prevalence and incidence of hypertension and hyperlipidaemia) and life-course urbanization status (ie at age 12, 4 years ago  and at present ), we applied logistic regression. Included in the models were 10 other covariates that could confound the urbanization effect. Recent migration (arriving within four years) among young cohort members (born after 1980) was associated with higher risk of hypertension (OR 1.80 for prevalence and 1.68 for four-year incidence). Higher hyperlipidaemia prevalence (and incidence) was associated with any urban dwelling. Recent migrants quickly developed hyperlipidaemia, particularly the youngest (born after 1980) and oldest participants (born before 1960). Increased cardiovascular risks appear among rural-urban migrants within four years after they arrive. Given the scale of continuing urbanization, interventions are needed to support and educate recent migrants in Thai cities.
Nørgaard, K; Jensen, T; Feldt-Rasmussen, B
. The systemic blood pressure and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin were measured in the following groups after 4 weeks without antihypertensive treatment: Group 1--eleven healthy control subjects. Group 2--ten Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with incipient nephropathy (urinary albumin...... excretion rate: 30-300 mg/24 h) and normal blood pressure. Group 3--eleven non-diabetic patients with essential hypertension. Group 4--nine Type 1 diabetic patients with hypertension but normal urinary albumin excretion (Type 1 diabetic patients with nephropathy (urinary......Diabetic patients with elevated urinary albumin excretion rate (incipient or clinical nephropathy) also have an increased transcapillary escape rate of albumin. This study was designed to clarify whether this is caused by a general vascular dysfunction or by elevated systemic blood pressure...
Full Text Available Previous studies had shown that elevated admission plasma glucose (APG could increase mortality rate and serious complications of acute myocardial infarction (AMI, but whether fasting plasma glucose (FPG had the same role remains controversial. In this retrospective study, 253 cases of AMI patients were divided into diabetic (n=87 and nondiabetic group (n=166. Our results showed that: compared with the nondiabetic patients, diabetic patients had higher APG, FPG, higher plasma triglyceride, higher rates of painless AMI (P0.05. While nondiabetic patients were subgrouped in terms of APG and FPG (cut points were 11.1 mmol/L and 7.0 mmol/L, resp., the mortality rate had significant difference (P<0.01, whereas glucose level lost significance in diabetic group. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that FPG (OR: 2.014; 95% confidence interval: 1.296–3.131; p<0.01 but not APG was independent predictor of in-hospital mortality for nondiabetic patients. These results indicate that FPG can be an independent predictor for mortality in nondiabetic female patients with AMI.
Full Text Available Adiponectin is a novel collagen-like protein synthesized by white adipose tissue. Its levels are decreased in obesity, type-2 diabetes and insulin-resistant states, and are increased in chronic renal failure. It has anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties. This study was planned to evaluate the levels of adiponectin in uremic patients with and without diabetes and to find any relationship between adiponectin levels and some cardiovascular risk factors, and to determine the possible predictive value of adiponectin for cardiovascular complications (CVC. The study included 100 subjects, 20 of them were healthy subjects and served as the control group (group I, 40 were uremic non-diabetic patients (group II (half of them were without CVC, group IIA, and the other half were patients with CVC, group IIB and, lastly, 40 uremic diabetic patients (group III (half of them were without CVC, group IIIA, and the other half were patients with CVC, group IIIB. All subjects were subjected to complete clinical examination, including determination of mean arterial blood pressure (MABP, body mass index (BMI, waist to hip ratio, routine laboratory investigations, fasting plasma glucose, fasting plasma insulin, lipid profile (cholesterol, TG, LDL, HDL, determination of insulin resistance by homeostasis model assessment index (HOMA-IR and estimation of serum levels of adiponectin. There was a significant increase in serum adiponectin levels in all the uremic patients (group II and group III when compared with the control (group I group, P <0.01; also, serum adiponectin levels were significantly decreased in uremic diabetic patients (group III when compared with uremic non-diabetic patients (group II, P <0.01; but this was still higher than in the controls. The patients with CVC, whether uremic non-diabetic (group IIB or uremic diabetic (group IIIB, had a significant decrease in serum adiponectin levels when compared with patients without CVC (group IIA and
Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This data set provides de-identified population data for diabetes and hypertension comorbidity prevalence in Allegheny County.
Markey, Keira A; Mollan, Susan P; Jensen, Rigmor H
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension is a disorder characterised by raised intracranial pressure that predominantly affects young, obese women. Pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated, but several causal factors have been proposed. Symptoms can include headaches, visual loss, pulsatile tinnitus...
Lip, Gregory Y H; Coca, Antonio; Kahan, Thomas
Hypertension is a common cardiovascular risk factor leading to heart failure (HF), coronary artery disease, stroke, peripheral artery disease and chronic renal insufficiency. Hypertensive heart disease can manifest as many cardiac arrhythmias, most commonly being atrial fibrillation (AF). Both...... supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias may occur in hypertensive patients, especially in those with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) or HF. Also, some of the antihypertensive drugs commonly used to reduce blood pressure, such as thiazide diuretics, may result in electrolyte abnormalities (e.g. hypokalaemia......, hypomagnesemia), further contributing to arrhythmias, whereas effective control of blood pressure may prevent the development of the arrhythmias such as AF. In recognizing this close relationship between hypertension and arrhythmias, the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) and the European Society...
... and may possibly fail. Because the blood has dif culty getting through the lungs to pick up ... Arterial Hypertension? The cause of PAH is often dif cult to determine. Your health care provider will ...
... a tank can help relieve shortness of breath. Medicines that can be used to treat pulmonary hypertension include the following: Endothelin receptor antagonists Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors Prostacyclins Anticoagulants (blood-thinning medicine) ...
Voiculescu, A; Kutkuhn, B; Rösen, P; Grabensee, B
Non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) and obesity are defined as classical insulin resistant states. Essential hypertension is now also considered to be an insulin resistant state, even in absence of NIDDM or obesity, as shown in epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies. Neither the underlying mechanism nor a direct causality between the two phenomena has been detected as yet, but different hypotheses have been postulated where, on the one hand, insulin resistance and hypertension are considered to be causally related and, on the other hand, they are considered to be parallel phenomena due to genetic and acquired factors. The clarification of the connection between hypertension and insulin resistance seems to be of great clinical importance, since they are both independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease and mortality from cardiovascular complications. This paper gives an overview of the results of recent research on the possible underlying pathogenetic mechanisms linking hypertension and insulin resistance.
... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has high ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...
... who also suffer from PH have lower pulmonary artery pressures than those who have PH alone; despite ... Address and Privacy Pulmonary Hypertension Association 801 Roeder Road, Ste. 1000 Silver Spring, MD 20910 Patient-to- ...
... Center Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone ... an Endocrinologist Clinical Trials Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone ...
Watcharananun, Wanwarang; Cadwallader, Keith R; Huangrak, Kittiphong; Kim, Hun; Lorjaroenphon, Yaowapa
"Tian Op", a traditional Thai scented candle, is used for the smoking and flavoring of sweets, cakes, and other desserts for the purpose of adding a unique aroma to the final product. Gas chromatography-olfactometry, aroma extract dilution analysis, and GC-MS were applied to identify the potent odorants in two types of traditional Thai desserts ("num dok mai" and "gleep lum duan") prepared using a Tian Op smoking process. On the basis of the results of AEDA and calculated odor-activity values, the predominant odorants in the Tian Op flavored desserts were vinyl ketones (C(5)-C(9)), n-aldehydes (C(5)-C(11)), (E)-2-unsaturated aldehydes (C(8)-C(11)), and omega-1-unsaturated aldehydes (C(8) and C(9)). Sensory studies of model mixtures confirmed the importance of n-aldehydes, omega-1-unsaturated aldehydes, and guaiacol as predominant odorants; however, the results showed that vinyl ketones and (E)-2-unsaturated aldehydes, despite having high odor-activity values, may be of only minor importance in the typical aroma profiles of traditional Tian Op smoked desserts.
Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren
blood pressure. This review considers the alterations in systemic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis in relation to essential hypertension and arterial hypertension of the renal origin. Subjects with arterial hypertension (essential, secondary) may become normotensive during the development...... of cirrhosis, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in cases with renovascular disease and high circulating renin activity. There is much dispute as to the understanding of homoeostatic regulation in cirrhotic patients with manifest arterial hypertension. This most...
Cruz Guzman, Luis Fernando
A review of the literature on the management of the renovascular disease is performed to provide better attention to patients. Renovascular hypertension is defined. The clinical implications and complications of the disease are determined. Pharmacological and surgical management are specified. Endovascular therapy has allowed to determine some indication in the management of hypertension renovascular. Instances where endovascular therapy has been beneficial are detailed. The new interventions for the management of renovascular disease are exposed [es
Peng, Baogan; Pang, Xiaodong; Li, Duanming; Yang, Hong
Abstract Cervical spondylosis and hypertension are all common diseases, but the relationship between them has never been studied. Patients with cervical spondylosis are often accompanied with vertigo. Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion is an effective method of treatment for cervical spondylosis with cervical vertigo that is unresponsive to conservative therapy. We report 2 patients of cervical spondylosis with concomitant cervical vertigo and hypertension who were treated successfully w...
The thromboembolic chronicle pulmonary Hypertension, also well known as chronic lung thromboembolism not resolved; it is a form not very common of lung thromboembolism. Until very recently was considered a rare curiosity of autopsy, but as the methods of diagnoses have improved and our attitude has changed, the incidence of this nosological entity has experienced a notable increment, but the most excellent in this illness is maybe that it is a form of lung hypertension, potentially recoverable
Groha, P; Schunkert, H
Arterial hypertension is one of the most frequent diseases in the western world and is one of the three most important risk factors for heart diseases. The 2013 guidelines of the European Societies of Hypertension and Cardiology (ESH/ESC) provide a clear action plan for evidence-based diagnostics and therapeutic measures in hypertensive subjects and simplify target blood pressures across various patient groups. Non-pharmacological options play a central role in the treatment of arterial hypertension. The indications for drug therapy arise from three criteria including the level of hypertension, risk profile of the patient, as well as response to non-pharmacological therapy. For the first choice monotherapy five substance groups are available: diuretics, beta blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin (AT) 1 receptor antagonists and calcium antagonists. By combination therapy, the responder rate can be significantly increased with respect to a normalization of blood pressure. A true treatment resistance, in which the therapeutic goal is not reached in spite of a triple combination with maximum dosage, is extremely rare. Further treatment options are combinations of four drug classes and changes of medication. Hypertensive emergencies require a rapid intervention; nevertheless, the magnitude of blood pressure lowering can greatly vary depending on the individual clinical picture.
Expands on Clark's (1974) hypothesis regarding non-literal uses of the English verbs of motion "come" and "go," by positing the notions of marked and unmarked relative states, and comparative deixis, in Thai verbs of motion. (AM)
Chittawatanarat, Kaweesak; Bunburaphong, Thananchai; Champunot, Ratapum
Mechanical ventilators (MV) have been progressing rapidly. New ventilator modes and supportive equipments have been developed. However; the MV status in Thai ICUs was not available. The objective of this report was to describe the MV supply and availability in Thai ICUs and review some important characteristics regarding of the availability of MV MATERIAL AND METHOD: The ICU RESOURCE I study (Mechanical ventilator part) database was used in the present study. Hospital types, MV brands and models were recorded. Statistically significant differences between and among groups were defined as p-value ventilators were also a high proportion of the MVs in Thai ICUs. Bennette and Hamilton were the most highly available MVin this survey. Advanced MV models were more available in academic ICUs (Thai Clinical Trial Registry: TCTR-201200005).
Noonim, Paramee; Mahakarnchanakul, Warapa; Varga, Janos
Two novel species of Aspergillus section Nigri from Thai coffee beans are described as Aspergillus aculeatinus sp. nov. and Aspergillus sclerotiicarbonarius sp. nov. Their taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic (morphology and extrolite profiles...
Ma, Qiuyue; Steiger, Stefanie; Anders, Hans-Joachim
Sodium glucose transporter (SGLT)-2 inhibition has renoprotective effects in diabetic kidney disease. Whether similar effects can be achieved also in non-diabetic kidney disease is speculative. Chronic kidney disease was induced in C57BL/6N mice by feeding an oxalate-rich diet for 14 days, known to induce nephrocalcinosis-related tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis without directly affecting the glomerular compartment. Empagliflozin treatment started from day 0 of oxalate feeding had no effect on the decline of glomerular filtration rate, crystal deposition, blood urea nitrogen or serum creatinine levels on day 7 and 14. Tissue morphometry of tubular injury and kidney mRNA levels of kidney injury molecule-1 or tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 were comparable between empagliflozin- and vehicle-treated mice with oxalate nephropathy on day 7 and 14. Similarly, empagliflozin did not affect markers of interstitial fibrosis, including silver, alpha smooth muscle actin ( α SMA) and collagen 1 staining, and mRNA levels of fibronectin-1, collagen 1 α 1, fibroblast-specific protein-1, and transforming growth factor (TGF)- β 2 on day 7 and 14. Thus, the specific renoprotective mechanisms-of-action of SGLT2 inhibition in diabetic kidney disease do not apply to chronic oxalosis, a non-diabetic form of chronic kidney disease. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.
Butt, U. I.; Khan, A.; Nawaz, A.; Mansoor, R.; Malik, A. A.; Sher, F.; Ayyaz, M.
Objective: To compare the frequency of surgical site infections in patients with type II diabetes undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy as compared with non-diabetic patients. Study Design: Cohort study. Place and Duration of Study: Surgical Unit 2, Services Hospital, Lahore, from May to October 2012. Methodology: Patients were divided into two groups of 60 each, undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Group A comprised non-diabetic patients and group B comprised type II diabetic patients. Patients were followed postoperatively upto one month for the development of SSIs. Proportion of patients with surgical site infections or otherwise was compared between the groups using chi-square test with significance of p < 0.05. Results: In group A, 35 patients were above the age of 40 years. In group B, 38 patients were above the age of 40 years. Four patients in group A developed a surgical site infection. Seven patients in group B developed SSIs (p = 0.07). Conclusion: Presence of diabetes mellitus did not significantly affect the onset of surgical site infection in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. (author)
Laverman, G D; Henning, R H; de Jong, P E; Navis, G; de Zeeuw, D
Although the antiproteinuric response to antihypertensive treatment is the main predictor of renoprotective efficacy in long-term renal disease, to date, dose-finding studies of antihypertensives have been based only on blood pressure. We aimed to find the optimal antiproteinuric dose of the angiotensin II antagonist losartan. An open-label, dose-response study using subsequent 6-week treatment periods was performed in 10 nondiabetic patients with proteinuria of 5.8 +/- 0.8 g/d and a mean arterial pressure of 103 +/- 3.7 mm Hg without antihypertensive medication. All patients had normal to moderately impaired renal function. After the baseline period, five periods followed with a daily losartan dose of 50 mg, 100 mg, 150 mg, and 50 mg and a recovery without losartan. At the end of each period, proteinuria and mean arterial pressure were measured. The consecutive doses of losartan had a similar antihypertensive response (-11.3 +/- 2.8% by the 100-mg dose). The optimal antiproteinuric response was reached at 100 mg of losartan (-30 +/- 8%). The 50-mg dose (-13 +/- 7%) was less effective, and the 150-mg dose (-28 +/- 8%) was not more effective. A 100-mg dose of losartan is optimal for reduction of proteinuria in nondiabetic patients with nephrotic range proteinuria.
Full Text Available Introduction: Nail infection like onychomycosis is mainly caused by dermatophytes and account for almost half of all nail disorders. Prevalence of nail infection has been attributed to several factors such as age, gender, socioeconomic status and predisposition to diabetes amongst others. This study aims at determining the prevalence and level of awareness of non-diabetics towards nail infections in Mauritius.Material and Methods: A survey was carried out among 471 participants of the non-diabetic population of Mauritius. Data on socio demographic factors, awareness, level of hygiene, family history and quality of life were obtained via questionnaire based studies. Data was analysed using the SPSS software.Results: Results show almost the same ratio of female to male was affected with nail infection but varies gender wise. Participants within the age group 20-60 with less than US 500 monthly income had a higher incidence of nail infection. No significant relation was obtained between nail infection and education level. A significant relationship was obtained between nail infection and occupation as well as quality of life. More than half of participants did not know about the routes of nail infections or the precautions needed to avoid spreading. However, good level of hygiene was observed among the participants.Conclusion: Factors like age, gender and socio economic status had a significant relationship on nail infection. Nail infection affects the Quality of Life (QoL and manual workers or even professionals are prone to nail infections.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Optimal treatment for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH has not yet been established, particularly for individuals without diabetes. We examined the effects of metformin, commonly used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes, on liver pathology in a non-diabetic NASH mouse model. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eight-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed a methionine- and choline-deficient plus high fat (MCD+HF diet with or without 0.1% metformin for 8 weeks. Co-administration of metformin significantly decreased fasting plasma glucose levels, but did not affect glucose tolerance or peripheral insulin sensitivity. Metformin ameliorated MCD+HF diet-induced hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. Furthermore, metformin significantly reversed hepatic steatosis and inflammation when administered after the development of experimental NASH. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These histological changes were accompanied by reduced hepatic triglyceride content, suppressed hepatic stellate cell activation, and the downregulation of genes involved in fatty acid metabolism, inflammation, and fibrogenesis. Metformin prevented and reversed steatosis and inflammation of NASH in an experimental non-diabetic model without affecting peripheral insulin resistance.
Yan, Ming-Tso; Cheng, Chih-Jen; Wang, Hsiu-Yuan; Yang, Chwei-Shiun; Peng, Sheng-Jeng; Lin, Shih-Hua
♦ An approach to hyponatremia in uremic patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) necessitates the assessment of intracellular fluid volume (ICV) and extracellular volume (ECV). The aim of the study was to evaluate the association of plasma sodium (Na(+)) concentration and body fluid composition and identify the causes of hyponatremia in non-diabetic PD patients. ♦ Sixty non-diabetic uremic patients on PD were enrolled. Baseline body fluid composition, biochemistry, hand-grip test, peritoneal membrane characteristics, dialysis adequacy, Na(+) and water balance, and residual renal function (RRF) were measured. These parameters were reevaluated for those who developed hyponatremia, defined as serum Na(+) concentration 7 mmol/L, during monthly visits for 1 year. Body fluid composition was determined by multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance (BIA). ♦ There was no significant correlation between serum Na(+) concentrations and any other parameters except a negative correction with overnight ultrafiltration (UF) amount (p = 0.02). The ICV/ECV ratio was positively correlated with serum albumin (p peritoneal permeability (n = 2) or a normal to increased ICV/ECV ratio associated with high water intake (n = 3). ♦ Besides BW change and ultrafiltration rate, the assessment of ICV/ECV ratio is valuable in identifying the etiologies of hyponatremia in PD and provides a guide for optimal therapy. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.
Gosmanov, Aidar R; Gosmanova, Elvira O; Kovesdy, Csaba P
Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) regardless of diabetes status are at increased risk of hypoglycemia with a resultant array of adverse clinical outcomes. Therefore, hypoglycemia should be thoroughly evaluated in ESRD patients. In diabetic dialysis patients, hypoglycemic agents and nutritional alterations can trigger hypoglycemia in the background of diminished gluconeogenesis, reduced insulin clearance by the kidney and improved insulin sensitivity following initiation of renal replacement therapy. Detailed evaluation of antidiabetic regimen and nutritional patterns, patient education on self-monitoring of blood glucose and/or referral to a diabetes specialist may reduce risk of subsequent hypoglycemia. In certain situations, it is important to recognize the possibility of non-diabetic causes of hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes and to avoid treating pseudo-hyperglycemia caused by glucose- non-specific glucometers in patients utilizing icodextrin-based solutions for peritoneal dialysis. Adrenal insufficiency, certain medications, malnutrition and/or infection are among the most common causes of hypoglycemia in non-diabetic ESRD patients, and they should be suspected after exclusion of inadvertent use of hypoglycemic agents. The goal of this review article is to summarize approaches and recommendations for the work up and treatment of hypoglycemia in ESRD. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.
Kamat, Rahul D; Dhupar, Vikas; Akkara, Francis; Shetye, Omkar
The increased prevalence of antibiotic resistance is an outcome of evolution. Most patients presenting with odontogenic space infections also have associated systemic co-morbidities such as diabetes mellitus resulting in impaired host defense. The present study aims to compare the odontogenic spaces involved, antibiotic susceptibility of microorganisms, length of hospital stay, and the infl uence of systemic comorbidities on treatment outcome in diabetic patients. A 2-year prospective study from January 2012 to January 2014 was conducted on patients with odontogenic maxillofacial space infections. The patients were divided into two groups based on their glycemic levels. The data were compiled and statistically analyzed. A total of 188 patients were included in the study that underwent surgical incision and drainage, removal of infection source, specimen collection for culture-sensitivity, and evaluation of diabetic status. Sixty-one out of 188 patients were found to be diabetic. The submandibular space was the most commonly involved space, and the most prevalent microorganism was Klebsiella pneumoniae in diabetics and group D Streptococcus in the nondiabetic group. The submandibular space was found to be the most commonly involved space, irrespective of glycemic control. Empiric antibiotic therapy with amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid combined with metronidazole with optimal glycemic control and surgical drainage of infection led to resolution of infection in diabetic as well as nondiabetic patients. The average length of hospital stay was found to be relatively longer in diabetic individuals.
Richter, K; Podhisita, C
A review of family demography in Thailand is presented, and future research needs are identified. Suggestions for future research include a determination of an acceptable set of standard roles and obligations among family members in the "loose structure" paradigm and an analysis of marital stability. Other researchable topics include support to the elderly, family allocations to children, changes among rural adolescents, and family responses to AIDS. Embree and other researchers defined the Thai family as a "loosely structured" paradigm where behavior within the family was highly variable. Anthropologists Sulamith and Potter have described the matrilineal system, and others have referred to the influences of Buddhism on family roles. Foster identified traditional Thai marriage as based on individual choice of spouse, which was often based on romantic love and the desired approval of parents. Arranged marriages declined in importance. Rural Thais married within their villages but outside their matrilineage. Bridewealth payments were not rigidly enforced. Marriage forms included formal Buddhist marriage, legal registration, or both; elopement; and cohabitation. By 1991 marriage age had stabilized at 22 years for women and 24 years for men. Muslim women married at a younger age than Buddhist women. Marriage was delayed in urban areas, after migration, with increased education, and with labor force participation and nonagricultural employment. Studies by Limanonda found that first birth status and smaller sibling size were associated with earlier marriage. Marriage was nearly universal, but singlehood was accepted. 15% of first marriages during the later 1970s were found to have ended in divorce. Remarriage was common. Average household size was 4.0 in 1988. 15.7% of households with children 0-15 years old in 1990 were female headed. Higher education was found to be related to nuclear family formation. Kinship was a bilateral system based on sex, relative age, and
Full Text Available To evaluate the caries prevalence and related variables in Type 1 diabetic and non-diabetic children and among the diabetic children according to their metabolic status.Sixty-eight diabetic and 136 non-diabetic children, matching by gender and age (4-14 years were enrolled. The diabetic children were divided: a 20 children in good metabolic control (Hb1ac≤7.5 and b 48 children in bad metabolic control (Hb1ac>7.5. Dietary and oral hygiene habits were investigated. Caries status was registered using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System. Oral microflora was analysed using the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridisation method. Plaque acidogenicity was recorded after a sucrose rinse.Sugared beverage and snack intake was higher in diabetic group compared to non-diabetic group (p = 0.03 and p = 0.04, respectively and in subjects in bad metabolic control (p = 0.03 and p<0.01, respectively. Oral hygiene habits were similar, except for the use of fluoridated adjuvants, higher in non-diabetic children (p = 0.04. No statistically significant differences were observed regarding caries figures, but a higher number of caries free subjects was found in diabetic subjects in good metabolic control (p<0.01. Significant difference for the main cariogenic bacteria was found between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects (p<0.05. The pH values showed statistically significant differences between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects and between diabetic subjects in good and bad metabolic control (p<0.01.Diabetic children in good metabolic control might even be considered at low caries risk, while those in bad metabolic control showed an oral environment prone to a high caries risk.
Chen, Po-Chih; Wu, Pei-Yu; Huang, Jiun-Chi; Chen, Szu-Chia; Huang, Yeou-Lih
Hyperuricemia has been associated with low heart rate variability (HRV), however whether there is an association between uric acid (UA) and HRV changes after hemodialysis (HD) is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of UA in HRV changes before and after HD in non-diabetic patients. Ninety-six non-diabetic patients under maintenance HD were enrolled. HRV was examined to assess changes before and after HD. A change in HRV (ΔHRV) was calculated as post-HD HRV minus pre-HD HRV. Compared to the patients with a UA level ≦ 7 mg/dL, those with a UA level > 7 mg/dL had lower ∆high frequency (HF)% ( p = 0.027). UA was negatively associated with ∆HF% ( r = -0.247, p = 0.015) and ∆low frequency (LF)/HF ( r = -0.236, p = 0.021) in the non-diabetic patients undergoing HD. Furthermore, in multivariate analysis after adjustments for demographic, clinical, and biochemical characteristics and medications, UA was independently associated with ∆HF% (per 1 mg/dL, unstandardized coefficient β = -2.892; 95% CI, -5.066 to -0.717; p = 0.010) and ∆LF/HF (per 1 mg/dL, unstandardized coefficient β = -0.165; 95% CI, -0.291 to -0.038; p = 0.011). Hyperuricemia contributed to lesser HF% and LF/HF increase after HD in the non-diabetic patients, reflecting a state of impaired sympatho-vagal equilibrium in non-diabetic HD patients with hyperuricemia. Lowering UA levels may have the potential to improve increased HRV in non-diabetic HD patients.
Wichai Onlaor; Siriluck Rotchanakitumnuai
The aim of this research is to develop the understanding of corporate social responsibility (CSR) from consumers- perspective toward Thai mobile service providers. Based on the survey from 400 mobile customers, the result shows that four dimensions of CSR of Thai mobile service providers consist of economic, legal, ethical and philanthropic responsibility. These four CSR factors have positive impacts on enhancing customer satisfaction except one item of economic respon...
Namahoot KS; Laohavichien T
This research explores the effects of quality management and trust towards behavioural intention of Thai consumers to use internet banking. It specifically investigates whether the quality management dimensions of information quality, system quality and service quality affect the level of trust of Thai consumers towards internet banking, and whether this trust correspondingly affect their intention to use the system. This study has been conducted in Thailand and focused on the users of intern...
Thinkhamrop, Wilaiphorn; Sawaengdee, Krisada; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Theerawit, Tuangtip; Laohasiriwong, Wongsa; Saengsuwan, Jiamjit; Hurst, Cameron Paul
Background Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a major public health problem among registered nurses (RNs) in Thailand. Information on their burdens at a national level is limited. This study estimated the prevalence of MSDs among RNs using the 2009 Thai Nurse Cohort, a nationally representative sample of RNs in Thailand. Methods This study is part of the first wave survey of the Thai Nurse Cohort Study (TNCS) conducted in 2009. Members of the cohort consisted of 18,756 RNs across Thailand. ...
The research about Formal Thai National Costume in the reign of King Bhumibol Adulyadej is an applied research that aimed to study the accurate knowledge concerning to Thai national costume in the reign of King Rama IX, also to study origin of all costumes in the reign of King Rama IX and to study the style, material used, and using accasion. This research methodology which are collect quanlitative data through observation, document, and photograph from key informant of costume in the reign o...
Fernbrant, Cecilia; Emmelin, Maria; Essén, Birgitta; Östergren, Per-Olof; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth
The current aim is to examine the prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) among Thai women residing in Sweden and its association with mental health. We also investigate the potential influence of social isolation and social capital regarding the association between IPV and mental health outcome. A public health questionnaire in Thai was distributed by post to the entire population of Thai women, aged 18-64, residing in two regions in Sweden since 2006. Items included aspects related to IPV (physical/sexual/emotional), sociodemographic background, physical health, mental health (GHQ-12), social isolation, and social capital (i.e. social trust/participation). The response rate was 62.3% (n=804). Prevalence of lifetime reported IPV was 22.1%, with 20.5% by a previous partner and 6.7% by a current partner. Previous IPV exposure was significantly related to current IPV exposure, and all IPV exposure measures were significantly related to poor mental health. However, Thai women experiencing IPV by a current partner were more at risk for poor mental health than Thai women with previous or without any experience of IPV. Also, among all women exposed to IPV, those with trust in others and without exposure to social isolation seemed to have partial protection against the adverse mental health consequences associated with IPV. Most Thai women had never been exposed to IPV, and after migrating to Sweden, women had lower IPV exposure than in Thailand. However, the increased risk for poor mental health among those Thai women exposed to IPV suggests the need for supportive measures and targeted interventions to prevent further injuries and adverse health consequences. Although poor mental health in Thai women represents an obstacle for integration, the potential resilience indicated in the group with high social trust and without exposure to social isolation suggests that such aspects be included in the program designed to facilitate integration.
Lizakowski, Sławomir; Tylicki, Leszek; Renke, Marcin; Rutkowski, Przemysław; Heleniak, Zbigniew; Sławińska-Morawska, Maja; Aleksandrowicz, Ewa; Łysiak-Szydłowska, Wieslawa; Rutkowski, Bolesław
Aim To evaluate the proteinuria-lowering effect of a renin inhibitor (aliskiren), compared to placebo and to an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (perindopril), in patients with non-diabetic chronic kidney disease. Methods A randomised, double-blind, crossover trial was performed in 14 patients with nondiabetic chronic kidney disease with 24-h mean proteinuria of 2.01 g (95% CI, 1.36–2.66) and estimated creatinine clearance of 93 ± 6.8 ml/min. The study consisted of five treatment perio...
Winskel, Heather; Perea, Manuel; Peart, Emma
In the current study, we tested the generality of the modified receptive field (MRF) theory (Tydgat & Grainger, 2009) with English native speakers (Experiment 1) and Thai native speakers (Experiment 2). Thai has a distinctive alphabetic orthography with visually complex letters (ฝ ฟ or ผ พ) and nonlinear characteristics and lacks interword spaces. We used a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) procedure to measure identification accuracy for all positions in a string of five characters, which consisted of Roman script letters, Thai letters, or symbols. For the English speakers, we found a similar pattern of results as in previous studies (i.e., a dissociation between letters and symbols). In contrast, for the Thai participants, we found that the pattern for Thai letters, Roman letters and symbols displayed a remarkably similar linear trend. Thus, while we observed qualified support for the MRF theory, in that we found an advantage for initial position, this effect also applied to symbols (i.e., our data revealed a language-specific effect). We propose that this pattern for letters and symbols in Thai has developed as a specialized adaptive mechanism for reading in this visually complex and crowded nonlinear script without interword spaces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Khumsri, Jiraporn; Yingyeun, Rungmanee; Mereerat Manwong; Hanprathet, Nitt; Phanasathit, Muthita
To determine the prevalence ofFacebook (FB) addiction and its related factors among Thai high school students. This cross-sectional study was performed among 972 high school students in four provinces associated with high economic prosperity in Thailand: Bangkok, Ubon Ratchathani, Chiang Mai and Songkhla, utilizing a multistage cluster sampling technique. A self-administrative questionnaire was produced composing of three parts; demographic data, a Thai version of the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale (Thai-BFAS) and the Thai version of the General Health Questionnaire-28 items. Multivariate analysis was employed to analyze thefactors associated with FB addiction. The prevalence ofFB addiction amongst Thai adolescents was 41.8% (95% CI; 38.6, 45.2). Related factors included gender school location, sufficiency ofpersonalfinance, devices ofFB access, duration ofstaying online via FB, andFB usage during holidays. In addition, every 1-hour increase in usage enhanced the risk for FB addiction (OR = 1.12, 95% CI; 1.05, 1.19). The prevalence of FB addiction in Thai high school students was found to be higher than in many other countries. Relatedfactors should be controlled in order to reduce FB addiction and its detrimental impacts, such as behavior modification and the promotion of healthier free-time activities. Further studies are recommended to understand why FB addiction is so high in Thailand.
Seresangtakul, Pusadee; Takara, Tomio
In this paper, the distinctive tones of Thai in running speech are studied. We present rules to synthesize F0 contours of Thai tones in running speech by using the generative model of F0 contours. Along with our method, the pitch contours of Thai polysyllabic words, both disyllabic and trisyllabic words, were analyzed. The coarticulation effect of Thai tones in running speech were found. Based on the analysis of the polysyllabic words using this model, rules are derived and applied to synthesize Thai polysyllabic tone sequences. We performed listening tests to evaluate intelligibility of the rules for Thai tones generation. The average intelligibility scores became 98.8%, and 96.6% for disyllabic and trisyllabic words, respectively. From these result, the rule of the tones' generation was shown to be effective. Furthermore, we constructed the connecting rules to synthesize suprasegmental F0 contours using the trisyllable training rules' parameters. The parameters of the first, the third, and the second syllables were selected and assigned to the initial, the ending, and the remaining syllables in a sentence, respectively. Even such a simple rule, the synthesized phrases/senetences were completely identified in listening tests. The MOSs (Mean Opinion Score) was 3.50 while the original and analysis/synthesis samples were 4.82 and 3.59, respectively.
Peckmann, Tanya R; Scott, Shelby; Meek, Susan; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk
The impact of climate change is estimated to be particularly severe in Thailand. Overall, the country faces an increase in surface temperatures, severe storms and floods, and a possible increase in the number of mass disasters in the region. It is extremely important that forensic scientists have access to sex estimation methods developed for use on a Thai population. The goal of this project is to evaluate the accuracy of sex estimation discriminant functions, created using contemporary Mexican and Greek populations, when applied to a contemporary Thai sample. The length of the glenoid cavity (LGC) and breadth of the glenoid cavity (BGC) were measured. The sample included 191 individuals (95 males and 96 females) with age ranges from 19 to 96years old. Overall, when the Mexican and Greek discriminant functions were applied to the Thai sample they showed higher accuracy rates for sexing female scapulae (83% to 99%) than for sexing male scapulae (53% to 92%). Size comparisons were made to Chilean, Mexican, Guatemalan, White American, and Greek populations. Overall, in males and females of the Thai sample, the scapulae were smaller than in the Chilean, Mexican, White American, and Greek populations. However, the male and female Thai scapulae were larger than in the Guatemalan sample. Population-specific discriminant functions were created for the Thai population with an overall sex classification accuracy rate of 83% to 88%. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The purposes of the study were (1 to develop third year Thai major students’ researching skill according to the criterion of 80 percent, and (2 to study third and fourth year Thai major students’ satisfaction in Coaching and Mentoring process. 95 participants were selected using purposive sampling from third year Thai major students. Five research instruments were used in this study ; (1 classroom research comprehension tests, (2 outline evaluation forms, lesson plan evaluation forms and achievement tests, teaching performance evaluation forms and research report evaluation forms, (3 research behavioral observation forms for third year Thai major students, (4 third year Thai major students interview forms, and (5 satisfaction questionnaire. Statistics used in the study were percentage average, and standard deviation. The result showed third year Thai major students who had taken research course using Coaching and Mentoring process scored 80% in researching skill according to the criterion and had positive satisfaction with average value of 4.54 or 90.79%. Moreover, the result found that fourth year students had positive satisfaction in counseling third year students with average value of 4.73 or 96.38%.
Janyacharoen, Taweesak; Laophosri, Maneepun; Kanpittaya, Jaturat; Auvichayapat, Paradee; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak
Background Exercise has been shown to be effective in cardiovascular endurance in the elderly. We studied the effect of Thai dancing on physical performance of Thai elderly. Methods This was an open-labeled, randomized intervention study. The Thai dancing group exercised for 40 minutes three times a week for 6 weeks. Physical performance ability was the primary outcome, including a 6-minute walk test (6MWT), five-times sit-to-stand (FTSST), and a sit-and-reach test measured before and after 6 weeks of intervention. Results There were 42 subjects enrolled in the study, and 38 female subjects completed (20 in Thai dance group, 18 controls), with an average age of 65.8 ± 5.1 years. The Thai dance group had significantly better physical performance in all measurements at the end of the study. The 6MWT was longer (416.7 ± 58.7 versus 345.7 ± 55.1 m; P = 0.011), FTSST was quicker (10.2 ± 1.5 versus 14.4 ± 3.3 seconds; P dance group than the control group. Conclusion Thai dance can improve physical performance in recently aged (elderly) female adults. PMID:23950640
Full Text Available Abstract Objective This cross-sectional study sought to determine the prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factor clusters (CMRFCs and their effect on BP control among hypertensive patients from 28 US physician practices. Methods Each participating practice identified a random sample of 150-300 adults aged ≥ 18 years diagnosed with hypertension. The primary outcome variable was BP control (BP Results Overall, 6,527 hypertensive patients were identified for study inclusion. More than half (54.3% were female, and mean age was 64.7 years. Almost half (48.7% were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. About 1 in every 4 patients (25.3% had diabetes, and 60.7% had dyslipidemia. Mean blood pressure was 132.5/77.9 mmHg, and 55.0% of all patients had controlled BP; 62.4% of non-diabetic patients, and 33.3% of diabetic hypertensive patients, had BP controlled to recommended levels. Most (81.7% hypertensive patients had ≥ 1 cardiometabolic risk factor, and 12.2% had all 3 risk factors. As compared to hypertensive patients without additional risk factors, adjusted odds ratios for BP control were significantly lower for all combinations of CMRFCs (ORs 0.15-0.83, all p Conclusions Across 28 US practices, only 18% of hypertensive patients did not have any additional cardiometabolic risk factors. The high prevalence of CMRFCs presents a challenge to effective hypertension management.
Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient technique for improving the efficiency of Thai error correction system by using memetic algorithm. In this paper, the token passing algorithm is used for constructing word graph and the language model is used checking the correct sentence. The correction process starts with word graph construction from token passing algorithm, then the correct sentence are searched by memetic algorithm with the best fitness function from language model. For a long sentence from the token passing algorithm, a search space is very huge which can be resolved by using memetic algorithm. The memetic algorithm is used for searching the correct sentence in order to reduce the analysis time. The performance of the proposed method are evaluated and compared to the full search and genetic algorithm. From the experimental results show that the proposed method performs very well and yields better performance more than the compared method. The proposed method can search the best sentence accurately and quickly.
state over decades. In this way they have control of the state and amass resources which they can transform into economic and symbolic capital. This capital is used to win elections and to maintain the influential position of political trakun. Capital is reproduced through socialization from one...... generation to the next. Strategic marriages create alliances or strengthen cooperation in the trakun. Upon the death of one member of the trakun, the funeral mediates the possible loss of symbolic capital in all its forms. Hereby, the traditional funeral rituals are utilized and reinvented...... for the proliferation of the trakun’s symbolic capital. The role of political trakun shows that the Thai state is an abstract concept of an institution exercising sovereignty over a given territory, relating fundamentally to the maintenance of order within its territory and to the business of government. This has given...
The work presented in this paper compares traditional Chinese medicine and traditional Thai medicine, expounding on origins, academic thinking, theoretical system, diagnostic method and modern development. Based on a secondary analysis of available literature, the paper concentrates on two crucial historical developments: (1) the response to, and consequences of, the impact of the Western medicine; and (2) the revival of traditional medicine in these two countries and its prospects. From a comparative perspective, the analysis has led to the conclusion that the rise and fall of traditional medicine is an issue closely related with social and political issues; and the development of traditional medicines requires national policy and financial support from governments, human resource development, the improvement of service quality, and the dissemination of traditional medicine knowledge to the public. In addition, this paper also suggests deepening exchanges and cooperation between China and Thailand, strengthening cooperation between traditional medicine and medical tourism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Green Living has been practiced in everyday life which is accepted worldwide. However, there is no concrete academic principles for Green Living. The understanding of Green Living is rather abstract. This study focuses on the academic principles and indicators of the Green Living Families in Thailand. The results from the studies will be used for further research.This qualitative study aims at proposing the principles and indicators of the Green Living Families in the Thai context. The research methodologies include the analysis and synthesis of various documents both from Thailand and foreign countries, interviews and observation of five Green Living Families. The results show that the principles consist of 1 production for one’s own consumption within the family 2 economical use of resources and 3 sharing with others and the society. The essential indicators comprise of 1 Knowledge, 2 Practice, and 3 Attitude on Green Living.
Kalampakorn, Surintorn; Kaewpan, Wonpen; Luksamijarulkul, Pipat
To examine the health responsibilities of an aging Thai male workforce and its related factors. A descriptive study was conducted with 417 male workers aged 45-60 who were working in 4 regions of Thailand. Data were collected between October 2004 and February 2005 using self-administered questionnaires. Health responsibility was measured at the frequency of the participants personal health practices relating to the health seeking, participation in health promoting activities, and having health check-ups. Statistical analyses used were percentage, mean, and multiple regression analysis. Results showed that subjects had health responsibility at moderate level (Mean = 17.2 +/- 4.7). Lowest mean of health responsibility was found in participation in health promotion activities/club area (Mean = 1.9 +/- 1.0). Social support, perceived health status, and monthly income (p responsibility. Health responsibility of an aging workforce should be enhanced through support from family, friends, and co-workers.
Anthony J S Whalley
Full Text Available Endophytic fungi are present in all plant species investigated, and members of the Xylariaceae are especially common in tropical plants. There is major interest in endophytic fungi, because of their excellent track record concerning the production of novel and often bioactive compounds including the anti-cancer drugs taxol and taxane. Studies in Thailand on endophytes over the past 20 years confirm the high presence of the Xylariaceae in many different Thai plants. Species of Xylaria stand out as the most frequent Xylariaceae isolated; although, Daldinia eschscholtzii has also been commonly isolated. DNA technology and chemical profiling have been shown to be invaluable in the identification of xylariaceous isolates which previously could not be identified to species level or even assigned to genera in many cases. Reference is made to those isolates which produce novel compounds or those exhibiting bioactive properties.
Chanyotha, S; Kranrod, C; Chankow, N; Kritsananuwat, R; Sriploy, P; Pangza, K
The naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) distributed in products, by-products and waste produced from Thai mineral industries were investigated. Samples were analysed for radioactivity concentrations of two principal NORM isotopes: (226)Ra and (228)Ra. The enrichment of NORM was found to occur during the treatment process of some minerals. The highest activity of (226)Ra (7 × 10(7) Bq kg(-1)) was in the scale from tantalum processing. The radium concentration in the discarded by-product material from metal ore dressing was also enriched by 3-10 times. Phosphogypsum, a waste produced from the production of phosphate fertilisers, contained 700 times the level of (226)Ra concentration found in phosphate ore. Hence, these residues were also sources of exposure to workers and the public, which needed to be controlled.
Evaluation of plasma islet amyloid polypeptide and serum glucose and insulin concentrations in nondiabetic cats classified by body condition score and in cats with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus.
Henson, Michael S; Hegstad-Davies, Rebecca L; Wang, Qi; Hardy, Robert M; Armstrong, P Jane; Jordan, Kathryn; Johnson, Kenneth H; O'Brien, Timothy D
To evaluate and compare circulating concentrations of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP), insulin, and glucose in nondiabetic cats classified by body condition score (BCS) and in cats with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus. 109 (82 nondiabetic, 21 nonketoacidotic diabetic, and 6 ketoacidotic diabetic) cats. Cats were examined and BCSs were assessed on a scale of 1 to 9. After food was withheld for 12 hours, blood was collected and plasma concentrations of IAPP and serum concentrations of insulin and glucose were measured. Differences in these values were evaluated among nondiabetic cats grouped according to BCS and in diabetic cats grouped as ketoacidotic or nonketoacidotic on the basis of clinicopathologic findings. Correlations were determined among variables. In nondiabetic cats, BCS was significantly and positively correlated with circulating IAPP and insulin concentrations. Mean plasma IAPP concentrations were significantly different between cats with BCSs of 5 and 7, and mean serum insulin concentrations were significantly different between cats with BCSs of 5 and 8. Serum glucose concentrations were not significantly different among nondiabetic cats. Mean IAPP concentrations were similar between nonketoacidotic diabetic cats and nondiabetic cats with BCSs of 8 or 9. Mean IAPP concentrations were significantly reduced in ketoacidotic diabetic cats, compared with those of nondiabetic cats with BCSs of 6 through 8 and of nonketoacidotic diabetic cats. Results indicated that increased BCS (a measure of obesity) is associated with increased circulating concentrations of IAPP and insulin in nondiabetic cats.
Weder, A B; Schork, N J
Essential hypertension is a "disease of civilization" but has a clear genetic component. From an evolutionary perspective, persistence in the human genome of elements capable of raising blood pressure presupposes their adaptive significance. Recently, two hypotheses that explicitly appeal to selectionist arguments, the "slavery" and "thrifty gene" theories, have been forwarded. We find neither completely successful, and we advance an alternative explanation of the adaptive importance of genes responsible for hypertension. We propose that blood pressure rises during childhood and adolescence to subserve homeostatic needs of the organism. Specifically, we contend that blood pressure is a flexible element in the repertoire of renal homeostatic mechanisms serving to match renal function to growth. The effect of modern diet and lifestyle on human growth stimulates earlier and more vigorous development, straining biologically necessary relationships between renal and general somatic growth and requiring compensation via homeostatic mechanisms preserved during evolution. Prime among such mechanisms is blood pressure, which rises as a compensation to maintain renal function in the face of greater growth. Since virtually all members of acculturated societies share in the modern lifestyle, the demands imposed by accelerated growth and development result in a populational shift to higher blood pressures, with a consequent increase in the prevalence of hypertension. We propose that hypertension is the product of maladaptation of highly genetically conserved mechanisms subserving important biological homeostatic needs. Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying hypertension will require approaches that examine the developmental processes linking growth to blood pressure.
G. R. Tabeeva
Full Text Available Investigations of a relationship between migraine and hypertension are being continued. In spite of numerous studies, the association of some types of migraine (migraine with aura and migraine without aura with hypertension has not been fully elucidated. This issue is particularly relevant since these forms differ both clinically and pathophysiologically. Of even greater importance are the analysis and prediction of associations between migraine and cardiovascular diseases (ischemic stroke, myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease. The review deals with the clinical and pathophysiological features of the relationship between hypertension and migraine. There is evidence for the anatomic and functional correlation between the antinociceptive system and blood pressure (BP regulation control. It has been speculated that the increase in pain threshold is not the result of just hypertension as a disease, but it is caused by elevated BP-related hypalgesia. The efficacy of antihypertensive drugs is the fact that supports the association between hypertension and endothelial dysfunction. Identification of groups of patients having migraine and a high cardiovascular risk will allow timely early primary prevention and therapy. Introduction of a stratification approach at diagnostic stages may cause a reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rates.
Baradaran, A.; Nasri, H.
To consider the correlation of serum parathromone on severity of hypertension in end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on hemodialysis (HD). A cross-sectional study was done on patients with ESRD on treatment with maintenance HD. Levels of serum calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase, albumin and intact parathormone (iPTH) were measured. Stratification of hypertensive patients was done from stage one to three. The total number of patients studied was 73 (Females=28, Males=45), consisting of 58 non-diabetic (F=22, M=36) and 15 diabetic patients (F=6, M=9). The mean age of the study patients was 46.5+-16 years. The mean duration on HD of the study patients was 21.5+-232.5 months. The mean serum PTH of the study patients was 309+-349 pg/ml and the mean serum alkaline phosphatase was 413+-348 IU/L. There was a significant positive correlation between the stage of hypertension and serum PTH levels (r=0.200, p=0.045). Also, there was a significant positive correlation between stage of hypertension and calcium-phosphorus product (r=0.231, p=0.027). There was no significant correlation between stage of hypertension and serum ALP (r=0.135, p=0.128). Relationship between serum PTH and severity of hypertension in patients on HD needs to be studied in more detail. Hypertension and secondary hyperparathyroidism interact in the process of accelerated atherosclerosis in HD patients thus warranting appropriate measures to control hyperparathyrodism vigorously. (author)
Sobry, Agnes; Kizito, Walter; Van den Bergh, Rafael; Tayler-Smith, Katie; Isaakidis, Petros; Cheti, Erastus; Kosgei, Rose J; Vandenbulcke, Alexandra; Ndegwa, Zacharia; Reid, Tony
In three primary health care clinics run by Médecins Sans Frontières in the informal settlement of Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya, we describe the caseload, management and treatment outcomes of patients with hypertension (HT) and/or diabetes mellitus (DM) receiving care from January 2010 to June 2012. Descriptive study using prospectively collected routine programme data. Overall, 1465 patients were registered in three clinics during the study period, of whom 87% were hypertensive only and 13% had DM with or without HT. Patients were predominantly female (71%) and the median age was 48 years. On admission, 24% of the patients were obese, with a body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m2. Overall, 55% of non-diabetic hypertensive patients reached their blood pressure (BP) target at 24 months. Only 28% of diabetic patients reached their BP target at 24 months. For non-diabetic patients, there was a significant decrease in BP between first consultation and 3 months of treatment, maintained over the 18-month period. Only 20% of diabetic patients with or without hypertension achieved glycaemic control. By the end of the study period,1003 (68%) patients were alive and in care, one (primary care setting within an informal settlement. This model of intervention appears feasible to address the growing burden of non-communicable diseases in developing countries.
Modena, Maria Grazia
During fertile life women are usually normo or hypotensive. Hypertension may appear during pregnancy and this represents a peculiar phenomenon increasing nowadays for delay time of pregnancy. Gestational hypertension appears partially similar to hypertension in the context of metabolic syndrome for a similar condition of increased waste circumference. Parity, for the same pathogenesis, has been reported to be associated to peri and postmenopausal hypertension, not confirmed by our study of parous women with transitional non persistent perimenopausal hypertension. Estrogen's deficiency inducing endothelial dysfunction and increased body mass index are the main cause for hypertension in this phase of life. For these reasons lifestyle modification, diet and endothelial active drugs represent the ideal treatment. Antioxidant agents may have a role in prevention and treatment of hypertension. In conclusion, hypertension in women represents a peculiar constellation of different biological and pathogenic factors, which need a specific gender related approach, independent from the male model.
Lan, Jianjun; Chen, Xiaoni; Chen, Xiaoping; Wang, Si; Zhang, Xin; Wu, Kai; He, Sen; Peng, Yong; Jiang, Lingyun; Li, Longxin; Wan, Liyan
To investigate the correlation between serum visfatin and insulin resistance (IR) in non-diabetic essential hypertensive (EH) patients with and without IR, and to evaluate the effect of antihypertensive treatment on serum visfatin and IR in these patients. A total of 81 non-diabetic EH patients, including 54 with IR and 27 without IR, were enrolled. After two weeks wash-out, patients with IR were randomly assigned to telmisartan (group T) or amlodipine (group A) for 6 months. Blood samples were taken before and after treatment for measurement of routine biochemical parameters, visfatin and insulin resistance (measured by HOMA-IR). Visfatin was independently correlated with HOMA-IR (r=0.845, P=0.000). After 6 months of treatment, both drugs lowered HOMA-IR, more significantly so in group T than group A (P=0.010). Serum visfatin levels increased in group T but decreased in group A. Serum visfatin levels were higher in non-diabetic EH patients with IR compared with those without IR. Visfatin is independently correlated with HOMA-IR. Telmisartan lowers HOMA-IR to a greater extent than amlodipine. Interestingly, serum visfatin increased with telmisartan yet decreased with amlodipine treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Many studies showed that obesity was associated with high level of serum leptin, hyperhomocysteinemia, and insulin resistance in general population. Obesity is associated with various cardiovascular and metabolic complications. However, in end stage renal failure, it has been reported that obesity is associated with a favorable survival of patients. The purpose of this observational study was to investigate the relationship between serum leptin level increased at obesity and cardiovascular, nutritional traditional markers, and the comparison of patient’s survival for 5 years according to obesity in non-diabetic hemodialysis. A cross-sectional study was performed in obese and non-obese subjects according to body mass index. Fifteen obese patients (BMI≥25 kg/m2 and 29 non-obese patients (BMI<25 kg/m2 were studied. For each subject, blood was sampled for measurement of serum leptin, insulin resistance, C-reactive protein (CRP and nutritional parameters before hemodialysis. Insulin resistance was calculated by HOMA-IR. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship among insulin resistance, serum leptin level and nutritional parameters. In results, serum leptin level was significant positive correlated with BMI, nPCR, pre-albumin and HOMA-IR (p<0.05. Serum leptin level was significant negative correlated with tCO2 and CRP (p<0.05. Five years survival by Kaplan-Meier analysis was more favorable in obese group but did not show statistical significance (p=0.053. In conclusion, serum leptin level was associated with obesity and good nutrition status. But in view of positive correlation of HOMA-IR, serum leptin level may be associated with cardiovascular complication in non-diabetic hemodialysis patients. Therefore, we thought that serum leptin level may be a good nutritional marker and a cardiovascular risk factor. We thought that the further study for the proper leptin level will be needed and help the improvement of
Zanos, S; Mitsopoulos, E; Sakellariou, G
Experimental studies have shown that increased levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in uremia may cause elevation of intracellular calcium, predisposing to insulin resistance and lipid metabolism abnormalities. Administration of calcium-channel blockers (CCBs) in these models protects against the development of lipid profile abnormalities. This study evaluates the combined effect of intact PTH (iPTH) levels and administration of CCB on the lipid profiles of nondiabetic hemodialysis patients. One hundred and eight non-diabetic hemodialysis patients were studied for 6 months. The population was divided into four groups, according to iPTH levels and administration of CCB: (A) iPTH300 pg/mL without administration of CCB (n=43), (C) iPTH300 pg/mL with CCB administration (n=30). Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), triglycerides, and albumin were measured on a monthly basis. All results are shown as mean SE. Total cholesterol values (in mg/ dL) were for group (A) 186 +/- 4, for group (B) 205 +/- 3, for group (C) 200 +/- 3, and for group (D) 203 +/- 4 [p NS between (C) and (D), p<.05 for all other comparisons]. Triglycerides values (in mg/dL) were for group (A) 171 +/- 9, for group (B) 199 +/- 6, for group (C) 190 +/- 6, and for group (D) 191 +/- 9 (p NS for all comparisons). HDL values (in mg/dL) were for group (A) 43.8 +/- 1, for group (B) 35.8 +/- 1, for group (C) 38.3 +/- 0.7, and for group (D) 37.2 +/- 0.7 mg/dL [p NS between (C) and (D), p<.001 for all other comparisons]. Low-density lipoprotein values (in mg/dL) were for group (A) 107.6 +/- 4.4, for group (B) 149.3 +/- 2.5, for group (C) 131.2 +/- 2.9, and for group (D) 126.8 +/- 4.1 [p NS between (C) and (D), p<.001 for all other comparisons]. Atherogenic index values, calculated as [triglycerides/HDL] ratio, were for group (A) 4.6 +/- 0.04 , for group (B) 6.2 +/- 0.04, for group (C) 4.9 +/- 0.03, and for group (D) 5.9 +/- 0.03 [p NS between (C) and (D), p<.004 for all other
Whyte, Susan Reynolds
In Uganda, hypertension and diabetes have only recently been included in the health policy agenda. As they become treatable disorders, they take on more distinct contours in people's minds. This article relates knowledge about these two conditions to health institutions and technology for diagnos......In Uganda, hypertension and diabetes have only recently been included in the health policy agenda. As they become treatable disorders, they take on more distinct contours in people's minds. This article relates knowledge about these two conditions to health institutions and technology...... for diagnosing and treating them. The response to the AIDS epidemic in Uganda provides an important context for, and contrast with, the emergence of hypertension and diabetes as social phenomena. Ethnographic fieldwork shows the interplay between experience of these conditions and the political economy...
Hypertension is the most common cardiovascular disorder affecting more males in younger age groups; in the age group of 45-64, it is equally frequent in both genders, it is more common in elderly females. Blood pressure increases more in females around the menopause. Use of hormonal replacement therapy is not associated with an BP increase but, because of increased risk of coronary events, stroke, and thromboembolic events, HRT is not re-commended in CVD prevention. There is a similar decrease in BP by antihypertensive drugs in both genders as well as benefit from antihypertensive treatment. Women report about a double rate of adverse events of antihypertensive drugs. Oral contraception use is associated with a mild BP increase in most women and development of overt hypertension in about 5 %. Pre-eclampsia is associated with increased risk of developing CVD later in life (more frequent development of hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke).
Win, Thet Su Zin; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Suwankesawong, Wimon; Dilokthornsakul, Piyameth; Nathisuwan, Surakit
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAS) blockers are commonly used for cardiovascular diseases. Currently, little information exists for the Asian population on angioedema, a rare yet serious adverse event. This study aimed to describe characteristics of RAS blockers-associated angioedema (RASBA) in Thai patients. A retrospective study using the national pharmacovigilance database of Thailand was undertaken. Cases indicating the presence of angioedema with RAS blockers uses from 1984-2011 were identified. Patient demographics, co-morbidities, concomitant drugs, information for the RAS blockers and angioedema were obtained as well as causality assessment and quality of reports. A total of 895 cases were identified. Mean age was 59.9+12.8 years and 66.5% being female. Most angioedema events (48.6%) occurred during the first week of treatment. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (87.7%) were the most commonly implicated agents followed by angiotensin receptor blockers (10.5%), aldosterone antagonist (2.1%) and direct renin inhibitor (0.2%). Out of the 895 cases incorporated in this study, 165 (18.4%) were classified as serious events and resulted in hospitalization. The overall case fatality rate was 0.4%. Respiratory disturbance occurred in 46 cases (5.1%). Patients with respiratory complications tended to be younger (53.4+13.9 vs 60.3+12.7 years old; p=0.002) and with higher frequency of allergy history (26.1% vs 14.7%; p=0.032) compared to those without respiratory complications. Based on multivariate logistic regression, the adjusted OR for history of allergy was 2.23 (95%CI: 1.04 - 4.78, p = 0.041). RASBA in Thai population occurred mostly in elderly female patients and often led to hospitalization. Since large number of patients is regularly exposed to RAS-blockers, a nationwide attempt to raise awareness of clinicians when prescribing RAS-blockers is prudent.
Full Text Available Purpose: This paper offer marketing strategy suggestion to the airlines operating within the Thai aviation market. It identifies the recommended motivational factors that influence the airline customers’ decision to their airline choices. Airlines use different customer relationship management programs to attract returning customers. This paper suggested the most attractive motivation factors for Thailand's air travel market. Design/methodology/approach: This research paper is an attempt to study and identify the factors, including loyalty program, distribution channel, customer services, promotions and other influence causes that affected the customer preference in the airline ticket purchasing behavior in Thailand. A questionnaire survey was conducted with the sample identified through unrestricted non probability sampling technique at four major airports in Thailand. The data collected are analyzed to identify the favorable drivers that lead to customer decision on airline choice. Findings: The result from the study has demonstrated that price, and promotion has a significant impact on customer preference and positively leads to repurchase intention for their future travel. Moreover, flight schedules are also a main factor influencing the travelers’ final decision on airline choice. However, when the promotional strategies and schedule are comparable between airlines, customers are attracted by the airline amenities and services. Loyalty program (frequent-flier program flier program is showing a less attractive motivator while distribution channel demonstrates the least important affecting the travelers’ choice of airline. Originality/value: The paper begins with an overview of previous research in the area of airlines customer relationship management and then moves on to what is currently being implemented by the airlines. The authors then propose several customer relationship strategies and identify the most attractive one that
Full Text Available IntroductionThere is a high prevalence of hypertension in the elderly, as evidenced by clinical and health behavioral policies. Still, there are uncertainties on the treatment of hypertension, especially treatment of the very elderly. These considerations have largely been ignored in clinical trials due to concern regarding contamination by other pathologies that are difficult to frame and manage.Methods We performed an effective and ample literature review and provided reflections on the Consensus Conference ACCF/AHA 2011 on the principle types of hypertension found in the elderly. We also considered the associated principle pathologies for various treatments and related organs.Discussion Even if the goal of treatment of elevated blood pressure in the elderly is same as in younger population, it is no longer certain that a target systolic blood pressure (SBP <140 mmHg should be persistently reached in the very elderly. It is important to note that for all studies these values have never been reached. In the treatment of isolated systolic hypertension (ISH the preferred target is a SBP >160 mmHg. Treating hypertension in the elderly and very elderly reduces the risk of stroke and heart failure, though the evidence is inconclusive for all-cause mortality.Conclusion Hypertension in the elderly is very common and needs to be treated with criteria that consider the patient's age, comorbidities, lifestyle and adherence. Above all, in the very elderly, therapeutic treatment should be personalized according to the above criteria. Where possible pharmaceutical therapy should be limited at the preference of healthy lifestyle changes (physical activity, diet, etc..
Hypertension is a major public health burden in sub-Saharan Africa. It has been shown to track from adolescence to adulthood. Pre-hypertension refers to consistent systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure (BP) measurement between 90 - < 95th percentile, while hypertension is when systolic and/or diastolic BP ≥ 95th ...
Hasbak, P; Ibsen, H; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn
The clinical value of renal vein renin sampling (RVRS) as a prognostic tool in the treatment of renovascular hypertension was evaluated. One hundred consecutive patients were included over a 4-year period of time. About half of the patients (49%) were treated interventionally by PTRA (21%), nephr......The clinical value of renal vein renin sampling (RVRS) as a prognostic tool in the treatment of renovascular hypertension was evaluated. One hundred consecutive patients were included over a 4-year period of time. About half of the patients (49%) were treated interventionally by PTRA (21...
Guimarães, A C
Mean values for prevalence of hypertension in 18 selected populations, varied between 15.7% (BP > or = 95 mm Hg) and 27.7% (BP > or = 90 mm Hg). In three Mall surveys in Salvador (n = 5093 volunteers), prevalence mean value was 33.7% (JNC VI criteria), being influenced by age (5.5 to 17.8% and 41.0 to 54.9% for the 25-34 and 55-59 year old age groups, respectively) and socioeconomic class (24.7 and 39.6% for the highest and lowest social class, respectively, OR = 0.50 (0.26-0.95, P = 0.023). The national prevalence by the Ministry of Health is 20%. Mortality as a consequence of morbidity has increased, with stroke being a leading cause of death (11.3% of total deaths, 10.1% of all deaths in the 20-59 year-old age group, and 33.9% of cardiovascular deaths in Brazilian Capitals, 1994)Cardiovascular risk factors: At comparable age groups, prevalence of other major cardiovascular risk factors are: smoking approximately 27%, total cholesterol > or =200 mg/dl approximately 32.5%, glucose intolerance approximately 8.0%, diabetes approximately 7.5%, BMI 25-29 approximately 29.1%, BMI > or = 30 approximately 9.6%, and physical inactivity approximately 92%. AWARENESS, TREATMENT, AND CONTROL: Data are very scarce. In the total Mall population (n = 4613) in Salvador, a high blood pressure was present in 24.4% of those who either denied hypertension or ignored blood pressure. Of those who reported to be hypertensives, only 34.5% had their blood pressure Fighting Hypertension National Day, the Confederation of Hypertensive Patients Associations, and the very recent launch of the National Plan for Reorganization of Hypertension and Diabetes Care are some measures being taken in a joint effort of the Ministry of Health and the Brazilian Societies of Cardiology, Hypertension and Nephrology, to strengthen and improve the fight against hypertension.
Yri, Hanne M; Jensen, Rigmor H
AIMS: The aims of this article are to characterize the headache in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) and to field-test the ICHD diagnostic criteria for headache attributed to IIH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 44 patients with new-onset IIH. Thirty-four patients with suspected but u...... tinnitus may suggest intracranial hypertension. Based on data from a well-defined IIH cohort, we propose a revision of the ICDH-3 beta diagnostic criteria with improved clinical applicability and increased sensitivity and specificity....
Hoendermis, E. S.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), defined as group 1 of the World Heart Organisation (WHO) classification of pulmonary hypertension, is an uncommon disorder of the pulmonary vascular system. It is characterised by an increased pulmonary artery pressure, increased pulmonary vascular resistance
... have little effect on headaches caused by intracranial hypertension, they may temporarily affect the intensity of a ... study in which 26 patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) were treated with octreotide, a synthetic hormone ...
Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Borrayo-Sánchez, Gabriela; Madrid-Miller, Alejandra; Ramírez-Arias, Erick; Pérez-Rodríguez, Gilberto
It is inexorable that a proportion of patients with systemic arterial hypertension will develop a hypertensive crisis at some point in their lives. The hypertensive crises can be divided in hypertensive patients with emergency or hypertensive emergency, according to the presence or absence of acute end-organ damage. In this review, we discuss the cardiovascular hypertensive emergencies, including acute coronary syndrome, congestive heart failure, aortic dissection and sympathomimetic hypertensive crises (those caused by cocaine use included). Each is presented in a unique way, although some patients with hypertensive emergency report non-specific symptoms. Treatment includes multiple medications for quick and effective action with security to reduce blood pressure, protect the function of organs remaining, relieve symptoms, minimize the risk of complications and improve patient outcomes.
Rezazadeh, Fahimeh; Bazargani, Abdollah; Roozbeh-Shahroodi, Jamshid; Pooladi, Ali; Arasteh, Peyman; Zamani, Khosro
Diabetes is associated with higher rates of caries, on the other hand some studies have shown that renal failure can be protective against dental caries. In this study we compared oral Lactobacillus and Streptococcus mutans between diabetic dialysis and non-diabetic dialysis patients and the normal population. During November 2014 to January 2014, 85 people that referred to our medical care center entered the study. The sample included 30 diabetic dialysis, 28 non-diabetic dialysis patients and 27 healthy people. Oral saliva samples were obtained from their tongue and oral floor for microbiological examination. Patients' data were compared before and after dialysis. The amount of Lactobacillus and S. mutans did not show a significant difference between the three groups (P=0.092 and P=0.966 for S. mutans and lactobacillus, respectively). A positive and meaningful correlation was seen between fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels and the amount of S. mutans in the diabetic dialysis group (P=0.023; r=0.413). A meaningful and positive correlation was also seen between the amount of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) after dialysis and the amount of oral S. mutans in the non-diabetic dialysis group (P=0.03; r=0.403). Despite the differences in the prevalence of caries that have been reported between renal failure patients and diabetic patients, we did not find any significant difference between diabetic dialysis, non-diabetic dialysis patients and the healthy population, regarding their amount of oral cariogenic bacteria.
Kamimura, Akiko; Christensen, Nancy; Myers, Kyl; Nourian, Maziar M; Ashby, Jeanie; Greenwood, Jessica L J; Reel, Justine J
Free clinics across the country provide free or reduced fee healthcare to individuals who lack access to primary care and are socio-economically disadvantaged. This study examined perceived health status among diabetic and non-diabetic free clinic patients and family members of the patients. Diabetes self-efficacy among diabetic free clinic patients was also investigated with the goal of developing appropriate diabetes health education programs to promote diabetes self-management. English or Spanish speaking patients and family members (N = 365) aged 18 years or older completed a self-administered survey. Physical and mental health and diabetes self-efficacy were measured using standardized instruments. Diabetic free clinic patients reported poorer physical and mental health and higher levels of dysfunction compared to non-diabetic free clinic patients and family members. Having a family history of diabetes and using emergency room or urgent care services were significant factors that affected health and dysfunction among diabetic and non-diabetes free clinic patients and family members. Diabetic free clinic patients need to receive services not only for diabetes, but also for overall health and dysfunction issues. Diabetes educational programs for free clinic patients should include a component to increase diabetes empowerment as well as the knowledge of treatment and management of diabetes. Non-diabetic patients and family members who have a family history of diabetes should also participate in diabetes education. Family members of free clinic patients need help to support a diabetic family member or with diabetes prevention.
Debora da Silva Krenke
Full Text Available Objective: To study diabetic and non diabetic patients in UTI, regardingthe prevalence of broad spectrum beta-lactamase producing pathogensand quinolone resistance. Methods: Inclusion criteria for this studywas the presence of positive urine culture and fasting glucose equal toor above 126 mg/dl and below 100 mg/dl. We managed to include 494patients, 210 diabetics and 284 non-diabetics. Results: Escherichiacoli was the most frequently found pathogen in both diabetic andnon-diabetic groups, and significantly more frequent in non diabeticpatients (p = 0.0001 – 60% to 31% when compared to their diabeticcounterparts. Candida albicans infecting the urinary tract was foundin 30% of diabetics and in 16% of non-diabetics (p = 0.003. Broadspectrum beta-lactamase production was more frequently present inKlebsiella pneumoniae, however without significant difference betweenthe groups. Broad spectrum beta-lactamase production was morefrequent in diabetic patients (12% than in non-diabetics (4% (p =0.03. Quinolones resistance was more common in diabetics (40%when compared to non-diabetics (14% (p = 0.0001. Escherichiacoli is one of the pathogens more frequently found in patients withUTI. Conclusion: Diabetics have a greater likelihood of developingfungal urinary tract infection by Candida albicans, have more broadspectrum beta-lactamase producing Escherichia coli and more quinolone-resistant pathogens.
Martens, M.; Janssen, W.H.; Stork, A.
Under contract with the University Medical Centre, Utrecht, TNO Human Factors has conducted research to investigate the effect of diabetes on driving behaviour. In a driving simulator experiment, patients with diabetes and non-diabetics were confronted with various trafßc situations. The subject
Dencker, Magnus; Thorsson, Ola; Karlsson, Magnus K
was measured by accelerometers. Time spent performing vigorous activity was estimated from accelerometer data by using established cut-off points. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to quantify abdominal fat mass (AFM) and total body fat (TBF), also calculated as percentage of body weight (BF......This study explored the associations between body fat versus daily physical activity and insulin concentrations in non-diabetic young children in a cross-sectional study of 172 children (93 boys and 79 girls) aged 8-11 years. Blood samples were analysed for serum insulin and daily physical activity......%). Body fat distribution was calculated as AFM/TBF. Body fat distribution was independently linked to both insulin concentrations and physical activity. In contrast, TBF, AFM, and BF% were linked to physical activity only and not to insulin concentrations. In conclusion in this population of non...
Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex age-related metabolic disease. Cognitive dysfunction and learning and memory deficits are main characteristics of age-related metabolic diseases in the central nervous system. The underlying mechanisms contributing to cognitive decline are complex, especially cognitive dysfunction associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. SIRT1, as one of the modulators in insulin resistance, is indispensable for learning and memory. In the present study, deacetylation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammation, microRNA, and tau phosphorylation are considered in the context of mechanism and significance of SIRT1 in learning and memory in diabetic and nondiabetic murine models. In addition, future research directions in this field are discussed, including therapeutic potential of its activator, resveratrol, and application of other compounds in cognitive improvement. Our findings suggest that SIRT1 might be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of cognitive impairment induced by type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Dinushi Dilanka Dikowita
Full Text Available Pregnancy creates significant alterations in energy metabolism which itself is a physiological adaptation to provide continuous flow of energy metabolites to the foetus. The state of insulin resistance created by hormonal changes in pregnancy enables free flow of glucose to the foetus and allows its absorption through facilitated diffusion. As glucose is preferentially available for the foetus, maternal fasting glucose level would be less than that of a non-pregnant state and in contrast plasma ketones and free fatty acids levels are elevated, resulting in a state of accelerated starvation. These metabolic alterations place a pregnant woman at a higher risk of developing euglycaemic ketoacidosis when allowed to fast for prolonged periods due to medical, surgical and psychological reasons. We report a rare case of euglycaemic ketoacidosis causing severe increased anion gap metabolic acidosis in a non-diabetic mother following surgery for appendicitis at a gestation of 27 weeks.
Diemar, Sarah S; Sejling, Anne-Sophie; Iversen, Kasper K
on the myocardial infarction size in a closed-chest pig model. DESIGN: 38 non-diabetic pigs were randomised to hypoglycaemic (1.8-2.2 mmol/l; n = 15), normoglycaemic (5-7 mmol/l; n = 12) or hyperglycaemic glucose clamping (22-23 mmol/l; n = 11). After 30 min within glucose target myocardial infarction was induced...... for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 120 min. Hereafter the heart was double-stained to delineate infarction from viable tissue within the area at risk. RESULTS: Mean infarction size was 201 ± 35 mm(2) (mean ± SEM) in the hypoglycaemic group, 154 ± 40 mm(2) in the normoglycaemic group and 134 ± 40 mm(2...
Shanbhogue, Vikram V; Finkelstein, Joel S; Bouxsein, Mary L
CONTEXT: The clinical consequences of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia on bone remain largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of insulin resistance on peripheral bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), bone microarchitecture and estimated bone strength. DESIGN...... computed tomography was used to assess bone density and microstructure at the distal radius and tibia. Fasting insulin and glucose was measured and insulin resistance was estimated using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with higher values indicating greater insulin resistance...... covariates (e.g., time since menopause, cigarette smoking, physical activity, prior use of osteoporosis medications or glucocorticoids). CONCLUSIONS: In non-diabetic, postmenopausal women, insulin resistance was associated with smaller bone size, greater volumetric bone mineral density and generally...
Larsen, Nadja; Vogensen, Finn Kvist; van der Berg, Franciscus Winfried J
= 0.04). Conclusions The results of this study indicate that type 2 diabetes in humans is associated with compositional changes in intestinal microbiota. The level of glucose tolerance should be considered when linking microbiota with metabolic diseases such as obesity and developing strategies......Background Recent evidence suggests that there is a link between metabolic diseases and bacterial populations in the gut. The aim of this study was to assess the differences between the composition of the intestinal microbiota in humans with type 2 diabetes and non-diabetic persons as control....... Methods and Findings The study included 36 male adults with a broad range of age and body-mass indices (BMIs), among which 18 subjects were diagnosed with diabetes type 2. The fecal bacterial composition was investigated by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and in a subgroup of subjects (N = 20) by tag...
Clausen, P; Nielsen, P K; Olgaard, K
filtration rate seemed to have a limited influence on the plasma leptin concentration in nondiabetic uremic subjects matched by body fat mass to controls. The plasma leptin concentration was closely associated with the body fat mass, and the leptin level might, therefore, be useful as an indicator of the fat......Plasma leptin is associated with the body mass index and, more precisely, with the body fat mass. Plasma leptin has been found to be elevated in uremic patients. This study aimed at investigating the plasma leptin concentration and associations between plasma leptin, body fat mass, and glomerular.......4 (3.1-59.5) ng/ml versus 5.4 (1.6-47.5) ng/ml (median and range in parentheses; p
Tsubame Nishikai-Yan Shen
Full Text Available Persistent inflammatory environment and abnormal macrophage activation are characteristics of chronic diabetic wounds. Here, we attempted to characterize the differences in macrophage activation and temporal variations in cytokine expression in diabetic and non-diabetic wounds, with a focus on interleukin (IL-6 mRNA expression and the p38 MAPK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways. Cutaneous wound closure, CD68- and arginase-1 (Arg-1-expressing macrophages, and cytokine mRNA expression were examined in non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic mice at different time points after injury. The effect of IL-6 on p38 MAPK and Akt phosphorylation was investigated, and an in vitro scratch assay was performed to determine the role of IL-6 in primary skin fibroblast migration. Before injury, mRNA expression levels of the inflammatory markers iNOS, IL-6, and TNF-α were higher in diabetic mice; however, IL-6 expression was significantly lower 6 h post injury in diabetic wounds than that in non-diabetic wounds. Non-diabetic wounds exhibited increased p38 MAPK and Akt phosphorylation; however, no such increase was found in diabetic wounds. In fibroblasts from non-diabetic mice, IL-6 increased the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and levels of its downstream factor CREB, and also significantly increased Akt phosphorylation and levels of its upstream factor P13K. These effects of IL-6 were not detected in fibroblasts derived from the diabetic mice. In scratch assays, IL-6 stimulated the migration of primary cultured skin fibroblasts from the non-diabetic mice, and the inhibition of p38 MAPK was found to markedly suppress IL-6-stimulated fibroblast migration. These findings underscore the critical differences between diabetic and non-diabetic wounds in terms of macrophage activation, cytokine mRNA expression profile, and involvement of the IL-6-stimulated p38 MAPK-Akt signaling pathway. Aberrant macrophage activation and abnormalities in the cytokine m
Full Text Available Purpose: Dietary modification in association with life style changes is important in the management of the diabetes. Cereals account for as much as 77% of total caloric consumption in most African diets. Corn which is the largest cultivated cereal crop in Nigeria is prepared as a meal in many forms. The objective of this study was to assess the glycaemic responses to different preparations of corn meals. Material and Method: The design was a quasi-experimental with a total of 32 participants, 16 subjects with type diabetes and 16 age-and sex-matched non-diabetic control subjects. After an overnight fast, the participants were given corn meals to eat and had their blood sample collected every 30 minutes for over a 2 hour period for the assessment of blood sugar level and estimation of glycaemic responses. This was repeated weekly till the glycaemic index (GI and plasma sugar level response to the different test corn meal preparation, such as boiled corn, roasted corn, pap and cornflakes had been assessed. Results: All the different corn meal preparations had high GI, with corn flakes having the highest GI and pap the lowest. The GI for the corn meals in the non-diabetic were; pap 71.7±14.4%, roasted corn 76.5±14.9%, boiled corn 82.2±14.9% and cornflakes 88.1±14.4%. Discussion: Methods of preparing a meal from corn affect glycaemic response. Turk Jem 2015; 19: 79-82
Finkelstein, Joel S.; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Yu, Elaine W.
Context: The clinical consequences of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia on bone remain largely unknown. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of insulin resistance on peripheral bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), bone microarchitecture, and estimated bone strength. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study included 146 postmenopausal, nondiabetic Caucasian women (mean age 60.3 ± 2.7 y) who were participating in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Interventions: There were no interventions. Main Outcome Measures: High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography was used to assess bone density and microstructure at the distal radius and tibia. Fasting insulin and glucose were measured and insulin resistance was estimated using homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), with higher values indicating greater insulin resistance. Results: There was a negative association between HOMA-IR and bone size and a positive association between HOMA-IR and total vBMD, trabecular vBMD, trabecular thickness, and cortical thickness at the radius and tibia. These relationships remained, even after adjusting for body weight and other potential covariates (eg, time since menopause, cigarette smoking, physical activity, prior use of osteoporosis medications or glucocorticoids). Conclusions: In nondiabetic, postmenopausal women, insulin resistance was associated with smaller bone size, greater volumetric bone mineral density, and generally favorable bone microarchitecture at weight-bearing and nonweight-bearing skeletal sites. These associations were independent of body weight and other potential covariates, suggesting that hyperinsulinemia directly affects bone structure independent of obesity and may explain, in part, the higher trabecular bone density and favorable trabecular microarchitecture seen in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27243136
Wang, Rui; Wei, Ri-Bao; Yang, Yue; Wang, Na; Huang, Meng-Jie; Cao, Cui-Ming; Wang, Zi-Cheng; Cai, Guang-Yan; Chen, Xiang-Mei
Background Insulin resistance (IR) is present at all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with CKD progression. Probucol can improve the prognosis of IR in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. This study aimed to observe the effect of probucol on IR and kidney protection in non-diabetic CKD patients. Methods This was an open-label, non-placebo-controlled, randomized study. A total of 59 patients were randomized to the probucol group (0.5 g, twice daily) or the control group using a 1: 1 treatment ratio. IR was determined using a homeostatic model assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) index. An Excel database was established to analyze follow-up data at weeks 0, 12, and 24. The primary outcome of interest was changes in the HOMA-IR, and the secondary outcomes of interest were changes in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), body mass index (BMI), cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and 24-h urinary protein. Results The HOMA-IR index of the probucol group after 24 weeks was significantly decreased (P HOMA-IR index in the control group increased (average increase: 0.54; range: −0.38 to 1.87). For the secondary outcomes of interest, the changes between these two groups also exhibited significant differences in eGFR (P = 0.041), cholesterol (P = 0.001), fasting insulin (P < 0.001), and fasting C-peptide (P = 0.001). Conclusions Compared to angiotensin receptor blockers alone, the combination with probucol ameliorates IR in non-diabetic CKD patients and delays disease progression. PMID:26512244
Sökücü, Sinem Nedime; Karasulu, Levent; Dalar, Levent; Ozdemir, Cengiz; Seyhan, Ekrem Cengiz; Aydin, Senay; Altin, Sedat
Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) may promote hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Our aim is to investigate the effect of OSAS on the fasting plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), and C reactive protein (CRP) in nondiabetic patients. Blood parameters of consecutive 90 non diabetic patients whom polysomnografic evaluations were done in our sleep laboratory was evaluated. Among these 61 patients with normal fasting blood glucose were classified due to their apne-hipopnea index (AHI) as mild (n=16, 26.2%), moderate (n=18, 29.5%) and severe (n=27, 44.2%) OSAS. The fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c and CRP were measured. Mean age of the patients was 47.7±11.2 years, 72% male. HbA1c, fasting glucose levels show positive correlation with BMI (r=.503, P=.00; r=.258, P=.045). No relation of HbA1c to apnea index nor AHI was detected while positive corelation of fasting glucose and CRP was detected (r=.262, P=.042; r=.258, P=.045). HbA1c, fasting glucose and CRP levels show negative correlation with minimum SpO2 levels (by order of r=-.302, P=.018; r=-.368, P=.004; r=-.365, P=.004). HbA1c, fasting glucose levels and CRP levels show positive correlation with mean desaturation index (time duration in which SpO2<90% by pulse oxymeter) (r=.263, P=.041; r=.311, P=.015; r=.283, P=.027). Although no relation in between increased HbA1c or glucose levels and severity of OSAS was detected in nondiabetic OSAS patients, the correlation with the night hypoxia was detected. This could also show the effect of night time hypoxia on glucose metabolism in OSAS patients. Copyright © 2012 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Rundek, Tatjana; Gardener, Hannah; Xu, Qiang; Goldberg, Ronald B; Wright, Clinton B; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Disla, Norbelina; Paik, Myunghee C; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Sacco, Ralph L
Whether insulin resistance predicts ischemic stroke (IS) is still a matter of debate. To determine the association between insulin resistance (IR) and risk of first ischemic stroke in a large, multiethnic, stroke-free cohort without diabetes. Prospective, population-based cohort study. Longitudinal epidemiologic study. A cohort of 1509 nondiabetic participants from the Northern Manhattan Study (mean [SD] age, 11  years; 64.2% women; 58.9% Hispanics). Insulin sensitivity, expressed by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) of insulin sensitivity (HOMA index = [fasting insulin × fasting glucose] / 22.5). Insulin resistance was defined by a HOMA-IR index in the top quartile (Q4). Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the effect of HOMA-IR on the risk of incident IS, myocardial infarction (MI), vascular death, and combined outcomes (IS, MI, and vascular death). The mean (SD) HOMA-IR was 2.3 (2.1), and Q4 was at least 2.8. During mean follow-up of 8.5 years, vascular events occurred in 180 participants; 46 had fatal or nonfatal IS, 45 had fatal or nonfatal MI, and 121 died of vascular causes. The HOMA-IR Q4 vs less than Q4 significantly predicted the risk of IS only (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-5.99) but not other vascular events. This effect was independent of sex, race/ethnicity, traditional vascular risk factors, and metabolic syndrome and its components. Insulin resistance estimated using the HOMA is a marker of increased risk of incident stroke in nondiabetic individuals. These findings emphasize the need to better characterize individuals at increased risk for IS and the potential role of primary preventive therapies targeted at IR.
de Oliveira, Patrícia Amante; Kovacs, Cristiane; Moreira, Priscila; Magnoni, Daniel; Saleh, Mohamed Hassan; Faintuch, Joel
Several studies have demonstrated the benefits of replacing trans and saturated fats with unsaturated fatty acids on cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to demonstrate the effect of polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat supplementation on the biochemical and endothelial markers of atherosclerotic disease in obese or overweight non-diabetic elderly patients. Seventy-nine patients were randomly divided into three groups: flaxseed oil, olive oil, and sunflower oil; patients in each group received 30 mL of oil for 90 days. Patients were subjected to anthropometric and bioimpedance assessments; biochemical and endothelial evaluations were performed through ultrasonography of the brachial artery and carotid artery for endothelium-dependent dilation and intima-media thickness assessment, respectively, before and after the intervention. The participants' usual diet remained unchanged. The flaxseed oil group had improved ultra-sensitive C-reactive protein levels (p = 0.074) and reduced carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) (p = 0.028); the olive oil group exhibited an improved apolipoprotein (Apo)B/ApoA ratio (p = 0.021), reduced CIMT (p = 0.028), and improved flow-mediated vasodilation (FMV) (p = 0.054); and similarly, the sunflower oil group showed an improved ApoB/ApoA ratio (p = 0.024), reduced CIMT (p = 0.048), and improved FMV (p = 0.001). Unsaturated fatty acid supplementation using the three vegetable oils attenuated pro-inflammatory properties and improved prothrombotic conditions. Therefore, introducing or replacing saturated and trans fat with unsaturated fatty acids is beneficial for cardiovascular risk reduction in obese or overweight non-diabetic elderly people. Further studies are needed to determine which unsaturated fat best prevents cardiovascular disease in elderly patients.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that there is a link between metabolic diseases and bacterial populations in the gut. The aim of this study was to assess the differences between the composition of the intestinal microbiota in humans with type 2 diabetes and non-diabetic persons as control. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The study included 36 male adults with a broad range of age and body-mass indices (BMIs, among which 18 subjects were diagnosed with diabetes type 2. The fecal bacterial composition was investigated by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR and in a subgroup of subjects (N = 20 by tag-encoded amplicon pyrosequencing of the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The proportions of phylum Firmicutes and class Clostridia were significantly reduced in the diabetic group compared to the control group (P = 0.03. Furthermore, the ratios of Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes as well as the ratios of Bacteroides-Prevotella group to C. coccoides-E. rectale group correlated positively and significantly with plasma glucose concentration (P = 0.04 but not with BMIs. Similarly, class Betaproteobacteria was highly enriched in diabetic compared to non-diabetic persons (P = 0.02 and positively correlated with plasma glucose (P = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that type 2 diabetes in humans is associated with compositional changes in intestinal microbiota. The level of glucose tolerance should be considered when linking microbiota with metabolic diseases such as obesity and developing strategies to control metabolic diseases by modifying the gut microbiota.
Pan, Yuesong; Chen, Weiqi; Jing, Jing; Zheng, Huaguang; Jia, Qian; Li, Hao; Zhao, Xingquan; Liu, Liping; Wang, Yongjun; He, Yan; Wang, Yilong
Pancreatic β-cell dysfunction is an important factor in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to estimate the association between β-cell dysfunction and prognosis of nondiabetic patients with ischemic stroke. Patients with ischemic stroke without a history of diabetes mellitus in the ACROSS-China (Abnormal Glucose Regulation in Patients with Acute Stroke across China) registry were included. Disposition index was estimated as computer-based model of homeostatic model assessment 2-β%/homeostatic model assessment 2-insulin resistance based on fasting C-peptide level. Outcomes included stroke recurrence, all-cause death, and dependency (modified Rankin Scale, 3-5) at 12 months after onset. Among 1171 patients, 37.2% were women with a mean age of 62.4 years. At 12 months, 167 (14.8%) patients had recurrent stroke, 110 (9.4%) died, and 184 (16.0%) had a dependency. The first quartile of the disposition index was associated with an increased risk of stroke recurrence (adjusted hazard ratio, 3.57; 95% confidence interval, 2.13-5.99) and dependency (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.21-4.38); both the first and second quartiles of the disposition index were associated with an increased risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio, 5.09; 95% confidence interval, 2.51-10.33; adjusted hazard ratio, 2.42; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-5.03) compared with the fourth quartile. Using a multivariable regression model with restricted cubic spline, we observed an L-shaped association between the disposition index and the risk of each end point. In this large-scale registry, β-cell dysfunction was associated with an increased risk of 12-month poor prognosis in nondiabetic patients with ischemic stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.
Thanakwang, Kattika; Isaramalai, Sang-Arun; Hatthakit, Urai
Active aging is central to enhancing the quality of life for older adults, but its conceptualization is not often made explicit for Asian elderly people. Little is known about active aging in older Thai adults, and there has been no development of scales to measure the expression of active aging attributes. The aim of this study was to develop a culturally relevant composite scale of active aging for Thai adults (AAS-Thai) and to evaluate its reliability and validity. EIGHT STEPS OF SCALE DEVELOPMENT WERE FOLLOWED: 1) using focus groups and in-depth interviews, 2) gathering input from existing studies, 3) developing preliminary quantitative measures, 4) reviewing for content validity by an expert panel, 5) conducting cognitive interviews, 6) pilot testing, 7) performing a nationwide survey, and 8) testing psychometric properties. In a nationwide survey, 500 subjects were randomly recruited using a stratified sampling technique. Statistical analyses included exploratory factor analysis, item analysis, and measures of internal consistency, concurrent validity, and test-retest reliability. Principal component factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a final 36-item scale consisting of seven factors of active aging: 1) being self-reliant, 2) being actively engaged with society, 3) developing spiritual wisdom, 4) building up financial security, 5) maintaining a healthy lifestyle, 6) engaging in active learning, and 7) strengthening family ties to ensure care in later life. These factors explained 69% of the total variance. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the overall AAS-Thai was 0.95 and varied between 0.81 and 0.91 for the seven subscales. Concurrent validity and test-retest reliability were confirmed. The AAS-Thai demonstrated acceptable overall validity and reliability for measuring the multidimensional attributes of active aging in a Thai context. This newly developed instrument is ready for use as a screening tool to assess active aging levels among older
M. A. Gurevich
Full Text Available The article describes in detail potential emergency states in patients with different stages of arterial hypertension with special attention to diagnosis and rational management of hypertensive crisis. Differentiated approach to management of different forms of hypertensive crisis is specified.
Restrepo Uribe; Villa Restrepo, Alfredo
Thorax x-rays were reviewed in 18 patients with portal hypertension. In 28% of these we found radiologic signs of pulmonary hypertension of the precapillary type. The existing relation between primary pulmonary hypertension and portal hypertension has been established in different scientific papers. In the published series the incidence of primary pulmonary hypertension is less than the one of found in these patients the physiopathology of this association is reviewed, and as a hypothetic manner it is postulated the possible roll of the hypoxaemia of the residents, at the altitude of the Bogota city. (2.640 mts) as a helping factor in this phenomenon
Lydia Rajakumari, M; Saravana Kumari, P
The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of Candida in the buccal cavity of diabetic and non-diabetic individuals in and around Pondicherry, India and to analyse the antifungal susceptibility profile of the selected isolates. A total of 400 buccal samples, 200 each from diabetic and non-diabetic healthy individuals were included in the study. Sabouraud's dextrose agar was used for isolation of Candida species. Identification was performed through microscopy, germ tube test, sugar fermentation test, sugar assimilation test and by using Hichrome agar. Distinct and phenotypically representative colonies were selected and subjected to ITS analysis. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing for the isolated Candida species was performed using E-test. Results revealed that the prevalence of Candida species in diabetic individuals was higher when compared with non-diabetic healthy individuals. The most predominantly isolated species in diabetic and non-diabetic individuals from buccal cavity was Candida albicans. C. tropicalis was predominant among the non-albicans Candida isolated from both diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. Among denture wearers C. glabrata was predominant. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing shows that ketoconazole, fluconazole and itraconazole were effective against the isolated Candida species. The rate of candidal carriage in diabetic individuals is higher. Different species of Candida are present in the oral cavity of diabetic individuals. There may be a positive correlation between glycemic control and candidal colonization. In vitro antifungal susceptibility testing of Candia species are required for proper management and treatment of candidal infections. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Klöting, I; Berg, S; Kovács, P; Voigt, B; Vogt, L; Schmidt, S
As shown by ourselves and others, animals models closely resembling human complex diseases like IDDM in BB/OK and hypertension in SHR/Mol rats can be used to dissect a complex disease into discrete genetic factors as has been done for hypertension in (BB/OK x SHR/Mol) cross hybrids. Discrete genetic factors, so-called QTLs, were detected on chromosomes 1, 10, 18, 20, and X. To gain additional information about the physiologic effect of the mapped blood pressure QTLs, genetically defined regions of the SHR rat were transferred onto the genetic background of diabetes-prone BB/OK rats. Four new congenic BB.SHR rats named BB.Sa, BB.Bp2, BB.1K, and BB.Xs were generated and characterized telemetrically for blood pressure, heart rate, and motor activity. The data demonstrate clearly that each single blood pressure QTL of the SHR rat causes a significant increase of the systolic blood pressure and has a different influence on diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and motor activity. The effects were modified differently by the diabetic state in BB.Sa, BB.Bp2, and BB.Xs rats carrying all diabetogenic genes of the BB/OK rats. The results demonstrate that these newly established congenic strains are a unique tool to study the physiological control of blood pressure by a single blood pressure QTL on the one hand and their interaction with hyperglycemia on the other. It is well within the bounds of possibility that diabetic congenics reflect the diabetic hypertension seen in diabetic patients. Because of the synteny conservation in gene order between different mammals, genes of the appropriate human region could therefore be candidate genes for hypertension in diabetics. Furthermore, these congenic strains can also be used to study interactions between a blood pressure QTL and various selected environmental conditions. In this way, one could learn which QTL can be influenced by environmental factors and to what extent. Another point is the study of gene interactions. Because
Wachtell, Kristian; Svendsen, Tage Lysbo; Andersen, Niels Holmark
of left ventricular mass is associated with substantial and significant reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Hypertension is strongly associated with increased risk of subsequent heart failure. Meta analysis data suggests that reduction in blood pressure is also associated with very...
Mørup, Peter; Levinsen, Tine Holbæk; Hovind, Peter
Hg. The conclusion was that her response was a paradoxical response to glycerylnitrate, orthostatism and a pathological response to massage of the carotid artery. This is the third reported case on paradoxical hypertension induced by glyceryl nitrates. It is speculated that dysfunction of the cerebral bloodflow...
... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Pulmonary Hypertension - High Blood Pressure in the Heart-to-Lung System Updated:Jan ... Pressure" This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...
Abstract Hypertensive heart disease is prevalent and during the last decade it has been determined that patients with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy have increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, many have doubted the effectiveness of LV mass assessment because it is difficult...
Little's syndrome and aldosteronism. (Kamide, 2003). Hypertension is probably the most common cardiovascular disease, and major health problem all over the world (Gumells, 1974). It is a strong and independent risk factor for coronary heart diasease. (National High Blood Pressure Education Programme, 1993) and the.
Norlander, Allison E; Madhur, Meena S; Harrison, David G
Although systemic hypertension affects a large proportion of the population, its etiology remains poorly defined. Emerging evidence supports the concept that immune cells become activated and enter target organs, including the vasculature and the kidney, in this disease. Mediators released by these cells, including reactive oxygen species, metalloproteinases, cytokines, and antibodies promote dysfunction of the target organs and cause damage. In vessels, these factors enhance constriction, remodeling, and rarefaction. In the kidney, these mediators increase expression and activation of sodium transporters, and cause interstitial fibrosis and glomerular injury. Factors common to hypertension, including oxidative stress, increased interstitial sodium, cytokine production, and inflammasome activation promote immune activation in hypertension. Recent data suggest that isolevuglandin-modified self-proteins in antigen-presenting cells are immunogenic, promoting cytokine production by the cells in which they are formed and T cell activation. Efforts to prevent and reverse immune activation may prove beneficial in preventing the long-term sequelae of hypertension and its related cardiovascular diseases. © 2018 Norlander et al.
Combination therapy with two or more drugs will be necessary in the majority ... There are a number of likely combinations of drug therapy for hypertension .... similar reduction in blood pressure, is better tolerated, and seems to confer benefits beyond reduction in blood pressure. SCOPE. Study on. Cognition and. Prognosis ...
Hypertensive disorders are the most common medical disorders of pregnancy and are associated with adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. When considering pregnancy, women with pre-existing chronic hypertension should be screened for target organ damage, especially renal dysfunction. Since blood pressure usually decreases until midpregnancy and returns to, or exceeds, prepregnancy values in the third trimester, antihypertensive treatment can sometimes be withdrawn in low-risk women, and reintroduced if needed. Recommended antihypertensive drugs are labetalol, methyldopa and nifedipine. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists and atenolol must be avoided. The occurrence of superimposed preeclampsia should be detected by appropriate clinical and laboratory evaluation. Preeclampsia is a multisystem maternal and fetal syndrome. The risk of preeclampsia is slightly reduced by low-dose aspirin and by calcium supplementation in women with low dietary calcium intake. For early-onset preeclampsia, expectant management improves perinatal outcomes, but requires close maternal and fetal surveillance. For acute management of severe hypertension, intravenous labetalol and oral nifedipine are recommended. Delivery is indicated in the presence of signs of maternal or fetal distress. Magnesium sulfate is indicated for the prophylaxis and the treatment of eclampsia. Most antihypertensive agents are compatible with breast feeding. Early-onset or severe preeclampsia increase the risk of remote chronic hypertension and cardiovascular disease.
Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina; Ibsen, Hans
Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle i...
increases with age whereas diastolic pressures tend to reach a plateaux in the fifth or sixth decade of life.3 Older patients have less compliant vessels and hence the higher systolic pressures and higher pulse pressures recorded. Pulse pressure hypertension (>80 mmHg) has now been recognised as a significant risk for ...
Liu, Shujun; Guo, Qiaoyan; Han, Hongbo; Cui, Peihe; Liu, Xiao; Miao, Lining; Zou, Hongbin; Sun, Guangdong
To investigate the clinical and histopathological features of non-diabetic renal disease (NDRD) superimposed on diabetic nephropathy (DN) in northeastern Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), and compare the changes with those of pure DN and isolated NDRD. Single-center retrospective analysis based on medical records of 273 patients (172 men, mean age: 51.1 ± 12.4 years) with T2D who underwent renal biopsy between February 2000 and October 2015. All patients were diagnosed as cases of pure DN, isolated NDRD or NDRD superimposed on DN. Out of the 273 T2D patients, 68 (24.9 %) had DN, 175 (64.1 %) had NDRD, and 30 (11.0 %) had NDRD superimposed on DN. Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN, 29.7 %) was the most common NDRD followed by IgA nephropathy (IgAN, 22.9 %), and hypertensive renal arteriolar sclerosis was the most common lesion in patients diagnosed as NDRD superimposed on DN. Patients with NDRD had a shorter duration of diabetes and lower frequencies of diabetic retinopathy (DR, 6.9 %) and renal failure (28.0 %), which is consistent with higher estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) and lower systolic blood pressure (SBP). No significant between-group differences were observed with respect to proteinuria and hematuria. Renal biopsy is strongly recommended for T2D patients to distinguish DN, NDRD and NDRD superimposed on DN, especially in patients with no signs of DR. This approach may help in early diagnosis and treatment of NDRD and improve renal outcomes in northeastern Chinese T2D patients.
This study aims to examine the twelve core values of Thai people found in Thai university students. The twelve values consist of the following attributes: 1.Upholding the nation, the religions and the Monarchy 2. Being honest, sacrificial and patient with positive attitude for the common good of the public 3. Being grateful to the parents,…
Changes in Non-Diabetic Comorbid Disease Status Following Laparoscopic Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy (LVSG) Versus Laparoscopic Roux-En-Y Gastric Bypass (LRYGB) Procedures: a Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.
Osland, Emma; Yunus, Rossita Mohamad; Khan, Shahjahan; Memon, Breda; Memon, Muhammed Ashraf
Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) and laparoscopic vertical sleeve gastrectomy (LVSG) have been proposed as cost-effective strategies to manage obesity-related chronic disease. The aim of this systematic review was to study the peer review literature regarding postoperative nondiabetic comorbid disease resolution or improvement reported from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing LVSG and LRYGB procedures. RCTs comparing postoperative comorbid disease resolution such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, obstructive sleep apnea, joint and musculoskeletal conditions, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and menstrual irregularities following LVSG and LRYGB were included for analysis. The studies were selected from PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, Science Citation Index, Current Contents, and the Cochrane database and reported on at least one comorbidity resolution or improvement. The present work was undertaken according to the Preferred Reporting Items of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). The Jadad method for assessment of methodological quality was applied to the included studies. Six RCTs performed between 2005 and 2015 involving a total of 695 patients (LVSG n = 347, LRYGB n = 348) reported on the resolution or improvement of comorbid disease following LVSG and LRYGB procedures. Both bariatric procedures provide effective and almost comparable results in improving or resolving these comorbidities. This systematic review of RCTs suggests that both LVSG and LRYGB are effective in resolving or improving preoperative nondiabetic comorbid diseases in obese patients. While results are not conclusive at this time, LRYGB may provide superior results compared to LVSG in mediating the remission and/or improvement in some conditions such as dyslipidemia and arthritis.
Full Text Available ABSTRACTAn experiment to determine Thai catfish's (Pangasius hypophthalmus Fowler immunity was carried out using different levels of ascorbic acid (0, 1.000, 2.000 and 3.000 mg/kg feed. Fish of 15-20 g in weight were kept in aquaria for 6 weeks with density of 15 fish/aquaria. Feed was given at 5-10 % of total biomass with frequency of three times a day. The blood sampling was taken every week and the challenge test with Aeromonas hydrophila (106cells/mm3 injection intramuscular was done on the 30th day. The result of this experiment shown that feed with ascorbic acid of 2.000 mg/kg was elevated the cellular responses such as: leucocyte total (34.850 cels/mm3, differential of leucocyte (lymphocyte: 72,2%, monocyte: 8,0%, neutrophyl: 7,8%, phagocytic index (13% and humoral response (titre antibody: 0.829 serum aglutination unit, which at the same time proves high level of survival rate against the artificial injection using A. hydrophila. Key words : Ascorbic acid, fish immunity, Thai catfish, Pangasius hypophthalmus. ABSTRAK Suatu penelitian telah dilakukan di laboratorium dengan menggunakan ikan jambal Siam (Pangasius hypophthalmus Fowler untuk melihat tingkat kekebalan ikan dengan menambahkan vitamin C pada pakan (0, 1.000, 2.000 dan 3.000 mg/kg pakan. Ikan jambal Siam ukuran 15-20 g dipelihara dalam aquarium selama 6 minggu dengan kepadatan 15 ekor/wadah. Pemberian pakan dilakukan 3 kali sehari sebanyak 5-10% dari bobot biomasa, pengambilan contoh darah dilakukan setiap minggu dan uji tantang dilakukan pada hari ke-30 dengan bakteri Aeromonas hydrophila (106 sel/mm3 secara intramuskular. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penambahan vitamin C sebanyak 2.000 mg/kg pakan menyebabkan meningkatnya respon seluler antara lain: total lekosit (34.850 sel/mm3, jenis lekosit (limfosit: 72,2%, monosit: 8,0%, netrofil: 7,7% dan trombosit: 17,6% indeks fagositik 13% dan respon humoral (titer antibodi: 0,829 unit serum aglutinasi
Thasanauwan, Wiyada; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Srichan, Weerachat; Judprasong, Kunchit; Wimonpeerapattana, Wanphen
Full text: Background: Childhood obesity is one of the global malnutrition problem. To assess body composition, stable isotope has been widely used for total body water (TBW) and body fat assessments. In the year 2008, Thailand involved in the IAEA Technical Cooperation Project (TC project) which aimed to develop and validate tools for Thai children to assess obesity in 247 pre-adolescent children aged 8 to 10 years. Later in the year 2011, only 100 children were agreed to be tracked for their body composition assessment. Objective: To explore the changes of body composition and to compare the changes between gender in 3 years period. Materials and methods: A total of 100 children (49 boys and 51 girls), who involved the project in 2008 (P1) and later in 2011 (P2) were measured for their body composition. BMI for age using WHO 2007 cut off was used to identify their nutritional status. TBW was determined by deuterium oxide dilution technique. Fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) were estimated. Results: Out of 100 children, 87 children (41 boys and 46 girls) provided the completed data of TBW at P1 and P2. They all grew up with significantly increased in weight, height, BMI (p<0.001). Their body composition in terms of %TBW, %FEM and %FM were not changed in both genders. Boys had significant higher %FFM than girls in P1 (71.5% in boys and 67.4% in girls, p<0.05) while %FM were significant lower than girls (28.5% in boys and 32.6% in girls, p<0.05). However, after 3 years, no significant different between boys and girls was observed. Over the 3 years period, based on BMI for age, the proportion of overweight and obese children increased from 36.6% to 48.8% for boys, and from 32.6% to 41.3% for girls. Around 17% of normal boys became overweight and obese, and for girls only 8.7% was found. Less than 5% of overweight and obese boys became normal, and none for girls. Conclusion: The obesity problem was inevitably increased when children are advance in age. However for
Shrestha, M; Weber, K E
It is posited that present-day Thai society is the product of different settlement patterns among Chinese Confucian followers and those ascribing to matrilocal practices. Chinese settled in urban areas and maintained Confucian dogma that barred women from high ranking positions and dictated a women's role of subservience to men. Matrilocal systems proliferated in rural areas. The village kinship system was egalitarian, until a class-state society was instituted and patriarchal systems dominated. At that time, women's status was reduced. Massive Chinese immigration occurred during the mid-19th century until World War II. Some Indians also migrated during this time period. The dominant use of the Thai language forced the Chinese to assimilate into Thai culture. Thai Buddhist practices were open and similar enough to Confucian ideology that religious assimilation also occurred. A small group of Chinese immigrants retained their ties to Chinese customs. The pattern of foreigners' involvement in the Thai economy was promoted by official policy. In the last several decades Thai policy shifted to an increasingly Thai-influenced economy. Other influences on gender patterns and Thai culture were the Hinduism of Indians who settled in Central Siam, the Mon aristocracy, and Brahmin cults. After the Khmers took over control of this region, the Indian caste system and the Hindu belief in Manu were integrated into Khmer culture. Women were considered the weaker and inferior sex and dependent upon men. The kings of Siam followed Brahmin rituals after the 15th century. Buddhism and the "sangha" became the central Thai religious institution. Even today Buddhist monks are given 3 months time off with pay for time spent as a monk, while maternity leave for women is limited to 45 days. The status of women is traced during the Sukothai period (1250-1350), the Ayudhaya period (1350-1767), and the Ratanakosin period (since 1782). Present occupational patterns reflect women's dominance in
Keller, Roberta L
Pulmonary hypertension in the perinatal period can present acutely (persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn) or chronically. Clinical and echocardiographic diagnosis of acute pulmonary hypertension is well accepted but there are no broadly validated criteria for echocardiographic diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension later in the clinical course, although there are significant populations of infants with lung disease at risk for this diagnosis. Contributing cardiovascular comorbidities are common in infants with pulmonary hypertension and lung disease. It is not clear who should be treated without confirmation of pulmonary vascular disease by cardiac catheterization, with concurrent evaluation of any contributing cardiovascular comorbidities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Alcocer, Luis; Cueto, Liliana
The economic aspects of hypertension are critical to modern medicine. The medical, economic, and human costs of untreated and inadequately controlled hypertension are enormous. Hypertension is distributed unequally and with iniquity in different countries and regions of the world. Treatment of hypertension requires an investment over many years to prolong disease-free quality years of life. The high prevalence and high cost of the disease impacts on the microeconomics and macroeconomics of countries and regions. The criteria used for inclusion in clinical guidelines for hypertension impact on the cost and cost/utility of diagnosis or treatment.
Gartland, Sam; Malik, Mohammad Hammad; Lovell, Martyn
To investigate prospectively the type and rate of injuries sustained during amateur Muay Thai competition. Prospective cohort study collection of data following clinical examination. Amateur Muay Thai competitions in the United Kingdom organized by the International Amateur Muay Thai Federation. Amateur Muay Thai boxers. Both sexes. Lightweight to super heavyweight. There were 92 participants, 12 females and 82 males. The average age was 17.3 years, and the average previous number of bouts was 3.9. A total of 588.5 minutes of competition time was assessed during a total of 10 events. Injury rates were 1.3 injuries per 100 minutes of competition in the lightweight category, 2.25 per 100 minutes of competition in the middleweight category, 30 per 100 minutes of competition in the heavyweight category, and 2.54 per 100 minutes of competition in the super heavyweight category. Compared with other reported martial arts, the injury rates are higher in Muay Thai. The head was shown to be the most common site of injury in amateur fighters, but there was an almost complete absence of lower limb injuries, which again is at variance with reported figures for other martial arts.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies have shown the efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT on depression; however, there are limited studies concerning the universality of the IPT problem areas in different countries. This study identifies whether the interpersonal problem areas defined in the IPT manual are endorsed by Thai depressed patients. Methods The Thai Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (Thai HRSD and Thai Interpersonal Questionnaire were used to assess 90 depressed and 90 non-depressed subjects in King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, during July 2007 - January 2008. The association between interpersonal problem areas/sociodemographic variables and depressive disorder were analyzed by chi-square test. A multivariable analysis was performed by using logistic regression to identify the remaining factors associated with depressive disorder. Results Most of the subjects were young to middle-aged females living in Bangkok and the Central Provinces. All four interpersonal problem areas (grief, interpersonal role disputes, role transitions, and interpersonal deficits were increased in the depressed subjects as compared to the non-depressed subjects, as were the sociodemographic variables (low education, unemployment, low income, and having a physical illness. Logistic regression showed that all interpersonal problem areas still remained problems associated with depression (grief: adjusted OR = 6.01, 95%CI = 1.93 - 18.69, p Conclusion All four interpersonal problem areas were applicable to Thai depressed patients.
Thato, Sathja; Hanna, Kathleen M; Rodcumdee, Branom
To translate the 14-item Condom Self-Efficacy Scale (CSES) into Thai and to validate the Thai version of the Condom Self-efficacy Scale (CSES-T) among Thai adolescents and young adults. The CSES was translated using a back-translation technique and validated with a cluster-based sample of 425 participants aged 18 to 22 years from eight randomly selected private vocational schools in Bangkok. Participants completed anonymous self-administered scales. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was conducted to identify latent factors. Factor analysis indicated three factors: communication, correct use, and consistent use. Items loading on the original CSES also loaded on the same factors of the CSES-T except one item. The Cronbach's alpha coefficients were .85 for the total scale, .70 for consistent use, .79 for correct use, and .80 for communication. Based on psychometric properties, the CSES-T is a valid and reliable tool. It is culturally appropriate for Thai young adults. Thai researchers and health care providers can use the CSES-T to assess adolescents' and young adults' self-efficacy to use condoms as well as to further develop and evaluate interventions to increase condom use.
Full Text Available The rhomboid fossa of clavicle is used to determine the age and sex in anthropology and forensic sciences. The variant types of rhomboid fossa on inferior surface have been reported in many races except in Thais. This study therefore was aimed at classifying the types of the rhomboid fossa in Northeastern Thais. The identified 476 Northeastern Thais dried clavicles (270 males and 206 females were observed and recorded for the types of rhomboid fossa. The results showed that Thai-rhomboid fossa could be classified into 4 types: Type 1: smooth; Type 2: flat; Type 3: elevated; and Type 4: depressed, respectively. The incidences of rhomboid fossa were as follows: Type 1: 0.21%; Type 2: 19.75%; Type 3: 76.26%; and Type 4: 3.78%, respectively. Additionally, it was found that the percentage of Type 4 (11.84% was much greater than that of female (1.94% compared to other types. This incidence of rhomboid fossa types especially Type 4 may be a basic knowledge to be used in sex identification. The high incidence of rhomboid fossa in both sexes of Northeastern Thai clavicles was Type 3 (elevated type.
Saetung, Sunee; Chailurkit, La-Or; Ongphiphadhanakul, Boonsong
The effect of massage therapy on bone metabolism in adults has only scarcely been explored. In a randomized crossover trial, we investigated the skeletal effect of Thai traditional massage by examining the changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover. Forty-eight postmenopausal women participated in the study. All volunteers were randomized to a 2-hour session of Thai traditional massage twice a week for 4 weeks and a 4-week control period after a 2-week washout, or vice versa. Twenty-one subjects were allocated to receiving Thai traditional massage first, followed by the control period, while 27 were initially allocated to the control period. Serum P1NP increased significantly after Thai traditional massage (P women whose ages were in the middle and higher tertiles and whose heights were in the lower and middle tertiles (n = 22) had a 14.8 ± 3.3% increase in P1NP after massage (P women (n = 26). Thai traditional massage results in an increase in bone formation as assessed by serum P1NP, particularly in postmenopausal women who are older and have a smaller body build. Future studies with larger samples and additional design features are warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT01627028.
Sridawruang, Chaweewan; Pfeil, Michael; Crozier, Kenda
This qualitative article explores the attitudes of Thai adolescents and parents concerning the barriers that prevent parents providing sex education to their adolescent children. Focus groups were conducted with 30 parents and 36 adolescents in rural north-eastern Thailand and were analyzed by using thematic analysis. The results showed that most Thai parents have not taught their children about sex education issues. Five themes emerged in relation to the limitations in providing sex education in Thai families. These were: restrictions imposed by traditional Thai culture; sex education is not a parental duty; parental limitations; the generation gap; and better not bring it up. We conclude that the core values in Thai society restrict the discussion of sex, resulting in youth missing the opportunity to acquire the knowledge that is needed about sexual issues from their family. This article provides evidence of how parents' knowledge and perceptions are linked to their ability and willingness to discuss sexual matters with their teenagers. Therefore, future sex education policies could be greatly enhanced by empowering parents to take part in the sex education of their teenage children. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Wongpakaran, Tinakon; Wongpakaran, Nahathai; Ruktrakul, Ruk
This study examines the Thai version of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) for its psychometric properties. In total 462 participants were recruited - 310 medical students from Chiang Mai University and 152 psychiatric patients, and they completed the Thai version of the MSPSS, the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and the Thai Depression Inventory (TDI). Test-retest reliability was conducted over a four week period. Factor analysis produced three-factor solutions for both patient (PG) and student groups (SG), and overall the model demonstrated adequate fit indices. The mean total score and the sub-scale score for the SG were statistically higher than those in the PG, except for 'Significant Others'. The internal consistency of the scale was good, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.91 for the SG and 0.87 for the PG. After a four week retest for reliability exercise, the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was found to be 0.84. The Thai-MSPSS was found to have a negative correlation with the STAI and the TDI, but was positively correlated with the RSES. The Thai MSPSS is a reliable and valid instrument to use.
Arunakul, Marut; Arunakul, Preeyaphan; Suesiritumrong, Chakhrist; Angthong, Chayanin; Chernchujit, Bancha
Self-administered questionnaires have become an important aspect for clinical outcome assessment of foot and ankle-related problems. The Foot and Ankle Ability Measure (FAAM) subjective form is a region-specific questionnaire that is widely used and has sufficient validity and reliability from previous studies. Translate the original English version of FAAM into a Thai version and evaluate the validity and reliability of Thai FAAM in patients with foot and ankle-related problems. The FAAM subjective form was translated into Thai using forward-backward translation protocol. Afterward, reliability and validity were tested. Following responses from 60 consecutive patients on two questionnaires, the Thai FAAM subjective form and the short form (SF)-36, were used. The validity was tested by correlating the scores from both questionnaires. The reliability was adopted by measuring the test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Thai FAAM score including activity of daily life (ADL) and Sport subscale demonstrated the sufficient correlations with physical functioning (PF) and physical composite score (PCS) domains of the SF-36 (statistically significant with p foot and ankle-related problems.
Lumyongsatien, Jate; Yangsakul, Waralak; Bunnag, Chaweewan; Hopkins, Claire; Tantilipikorn, Pongsakorn
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is one of common health conditions that affects patients' health-related quality of life. Our purpose is to assess the reliability and validity of Thai-version of Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 22 in chronic rhinosinusitis. Permission for translation of SNOT-22 from English language to Thai language was obtained from the developer. The translation process was done based on the international standard of translation method. A total of 80 subjects were recruited into the study and divided into two groups comprising of 50 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis and 30 healthy volunteers. Cronbach's α and Intraclass correlation coefficient were evaluated for its reliability. Validity test was evaluated against VAS score, SF-36 (Thai version) questionnaire and CT scan (based on Lund-Mackay score). Responsiveness was assessed between pre-operative and post-operative scores in 34 patients. The Thai version of SNOT-22 showed good reliability according to high value of Cronbach's α coefficient ( r = 0.929) and intraclass correlation coefficient ( r = 0.935). It also showed good validity by its ability to differential the patients with chronic rhinosinusitis from normal ( p reliability and validity, suitable for evaluation of chronic rhinosinusitis symptoms together with severity of the disease and response to treatment. Thai clinical trials registry TCTR20170320003. Date of registration 20/03/2017 (retrospectively registered).
Hamrahian, Seyed Mehrdad; Falkner, Bonita
Hypertension, a global public health problem, is currently the leading factor in the global burden of disease. It is the major modifiable risk factor for heart disease, stroke and kidney failure. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is both a common cause of hypertension and CKD is also a complication of uncontrolled hypertension. The interaction between hypertension and CKD is complex and increases the risk of adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular outcomes. This is particularly significant in the setting of resistant hypertension commonly seen in patient with CKD. The pathophysiology of CKD associated hypertension is multi-factorial with different mechanisms contributing to hypertension. These pathogenic mechanisms include sodium dysregulation, increased sympathetic nervous system and alterations in renin angiotensin aldosterone system activity. Standardized blood pressure (BP) measurement is essential in establishing the diagnosis and management of hypertension in CKD. Use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring provides an additional assessment of diurnal variation in BP commonly seen in CKD patients. The optimal BP target in the treatment of hypertension in general and CKD population remains a matter of debate and controversial despite recent guidelines and clinical trial data. Medical therapy of patients with CKD associated hypertension can be difficult and challenging. Additional evaluation by a hypertension specialist may be required in the setting of treatment resistant hypertension by excluding pseudo-resistance and treatable secondary causes. Treatment with a combination of antihypertensive drugs, including appropriate diuretic choice, based on estimated glomerular filtration rate, is a key component of hypertension management in CKD patients. In addition to drug treatment non-pharmacological approaches including life style modification, most important of which is dietary salt restriction, should be included in the management of hypertension in CKD patients.
Ben Salem Hachmi, L; Ben Salem Hachmi, S; Bouzid, C; Younsi, N; Smida, H; Bouguerra, R; Ben Slama, C
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. The aims of this study are to investigate the prevalence of hypertension in a female population with PCOS and to correlate hypertension with her clinical and hormonal profile. it is a transversal study of 79 PCOS patients with mean age of 25 +/- 7 years (range 13-44). PCOS diagnosis is made by Rotterdam consensus criteria's (2003). WHO definition of hypertension is used (BP 140/90 mmHg). Blood pressure is measured three times in each patient. Ovarian echography and biochemical assays (GnRH test, androgens, cholesterol, triglycerides, and oral glucose tolerance test) are made before the 5th day of the menstrual cycle. 12% of PCOS women have hypertension. Family history of hypertension is not a predictive factor of hypertension in our study. PCOS patients with hypertension are not significantly older than those without hypertension (28.4 +/- 6.5 vs. 25.2 +/- 7; p = 0.12). If compared to PCOS women without hypertension, those with hypertension have a significantly higher BMI (39.2 +/- 7 vs. 29.6; p = 0.0004). PCOS patients with and without hypertension do not differ significantly in their level of androgens and total cholesterol. Triglycerides level is higher in PCOS patients with hypertension (p = 0.06). In oral glucose tolerance test, areas under the curve of insulin and glucose are significantly higher in PCOS patients with hypertension (respectively p = 0.06 and 0.02). The area under the curve of LH during GnRH test is lower in PCOS patients with hypertension (p = 0.04).
Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Hansen, Birgitte R
In healthy, nondiabetic individuals with insulin resistance, fasting insulin is inversely correlated to the posthepatic insulin clearance rate (MCRi) and the hepatic insulin extraction (HEXi). We investigated whether similar early mechanisms to facilitate glucose homeostasis exist in nondiabetic...... > .1). Our data suggest that HEXi and MCRi are decreased in proportion to the degree of insulin resistance in nondiabetic HIV-infected patients with lipodystrophy....... insulin clearance rate was estimated as the ratio of posthepatic insulin appearance rate to steady-state plasma insulin concentration during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (40 mU.m-2 .min-1). Posthepatic insulin appearance rate during the clamp was calculated, taking into account the remnant...
Nayak, B Shivananda; Sobrian, Arianne; Latiff, Khalif; Pope, Danielle; Rampersad, Akash; Lourenço, Kodi; Samuel, Nichole
To assess the impact of risk factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, family history, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and hypertension, on the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Trinidadian population. A cross-sectional case control study comprised 146 non-diabetics and 147 type 2 diabetics ≥18 years of age, from North Central, South West and Eastern regions of Trinidad. Cross-tabulations revealed a significant difference between type 2-diabetes and age at pdifference at pdifference was observed between type 2 diabetes and gender and BMI. Age was the most significant risk factor of type 2 diabetes. Therefore it can be concluded that family history, ethnicity, waist circumference and hypertension are more significant risk factors of this disease than BMI and gender in the Trinidadian population. Copyright © 2014 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
de Courten, Maximilian; Ferrari, P; Schneider, M
To evaluate the effects of long-term treatment antihypertensive with the dihydropyridine calcium antagonist amlodipine on insulin sensitivity, plasma insulin, and lipoprotein metabolism in obese hypertensive patients. We measured the insulin sensitivity index (SI), determined by the Minimal Model...... Method of Bergman, fasting plasma insulin and glucose concentrations, serum total triglyceride and lipoprotein cholesterol fractions, and blood pressure in 20 obese, non-diabetic patients with essential hypertension before and after 6 weeks of placebo and again after 6 months of amlodipine. Ten patients...... [mean body mass index (BMI) 30.2 kg.m-2] had been on prior treatment with a thiazide diuretic in low dosage and/or a beta-adrenoceptor blocker (group A), and 10 matched patients [BMI 31.8 kg.m-2] had been previously untreated (group B). Amlodipine was started in a dose of 5 mg and was increased to 10 mg...
Pravichai, Sunisa; Ariyabuddhiphongs, Vanchai
Thai lottery gamblers won prizes after betting on numbers they obtained from newspaper stories. We hypothesized that Thai lottery gamblers' superstitious beliefs were related to their problem gambling through the mediation of number search and gambling intensity. In a study among 380 Thai lottery gamblers, superstitious beliefs were operationally defined as the beliefs in events or objects that seemed to reveal numbers, number search as an attempt to identify numbers to bet, gambling intensity as the frequency and amounts of lottery gambling, and problem gambling as the symptoms of problems relating to lottery gambling. Results support the hypotheses. There is a statistically significant indirect relationship between Thai lottery gamblers' superstitious beliefs and their problem gambling through the mediation of number search and gambling intensity. Thai lottery gamblers need to be reminded that their superstitious beliefs and number search are precursors of their problem gambling.
Hu, K K; Maung, C; Katz, D L
To evaluate the prevailing practice of presumptively diagnosing malaria in all cases of febrile illness in a clinic serving a refugee population on the Thai-Myanmar border A retrospective review of 3,506 patient charts from December 1993 through June 1994 at the MaeSot medical clinic to compare clinical signs of malaria to blood smear findings. Patients presenting without fever were assumed not to have malaria; the remaining 2,111 patients presenting with fever had blood smears examined for malaria infection. Fever alone sufferedfrom poorpositive predictive value (54.7 percent) and specificity (59.3 percent). When fever was combined with hepatosplenomegaly and anemia, the positive predictive value and specificity improved (84.5 percent and 98.5 percent, respectively). However, this combination also resulted in an unacceptably poor sensitivity (16.5 percent) and false negative error rate (835/1,000). CONCLUSIONS. In this nonimmune refugee population, severe complications of falciparum malaria occur quickly and commonly; aggressive chemotherapy is necessary to reduce morbidity and mortality. Until laboratory facilities are made available, all cases offever should continue to be treated presumptively as malaria.
Rungsiyanont, Sorasun; Lam-Ubol, Aroonwan; Vacharotayangul, Piamkamon; Sappayatosok, Kraisorn
To investigate the knowledge and attitudes of Thai dental practitioners regarding patients with HIV, a cross-sectional study using self-administered questionnaires was conducted. The questionnaires requested demographic information and included questions evaluating the knowledge and attitude of dental practitioners towards HIV. The results were analyzed using Scheffe method for multiple comparisons at the 95 percent confidence level. Out of 1,200 questionnaires sent, 446 questionnaires were returned (response rate 37.2 percent). The subjects included final (sixth)-year dental students (11.9 percent), general dentists (29.1 percent), specialist dentists (15.5 percent), dental hygienists (30.5 percent), and dental assistants (13 percent). More than 80 percent of the dental practitioners correctly answered the questions testing their basic knowledge of HIV such as routes of transmission and common opportunistic infections. However, knowledge about HIV pathogenesis, complications, and advances in HIV management was lacking. Dental hygienists and dental assistants had statistically significant lower scores in knowledge about HIV than other groups. Sixty-seven percent of dental practitioners said they feel worried when treating patients with HIV, and 20.4 percent said they would deny treatment for patients with HIV if possible. While knowledge about HIV may be adequate among dental practitioners in Thailand, greater effort should be put into emphasizing positive attitudes towards patients with HIV.
Piriyapong, Tapawas; Dharmasaroja, Pompatr A; Muengtaweepongsa, Sombat; Piyayotai, Dilok; Hutayanon, Pisit
Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is routinely performed to look for the cardiac sources of emboli in many Western stroke centers. Due to a limitation of resources in Thailand, echocardiography is done in only some patients with acute ischemic stroke. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the need for cardiac investigations, especially TTE, in Thai patients with acute ischemic stroke. Two-hundred and seven patients with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), who had TTE results during August 2006 to November 2008, were studied. Patients were divided into 2 groups by the risk of cardioembolism: low- versus high-risk groups. All echocardiography results were reviewed and classified by the need for management change following the echocardiography. Abnormal TTE results indicating a need for change in management were found in 4% (4/102) and 18% (18/105) in low- and high- risk patients, respectively The results of ECG alone led to change in management in 17% (36 patients). Atrial fibrillation was the most common cause of cardioembolism, which was found in 35 patients (17%). Because of limited resources in Thailand, ECG should be routinely performed on all ischemic stroke patients and TTE in patients with high risk for cardioembolism. However larger studies are still needed to clarify the benefits of echocardiography in low-risk patients.
Numbenjapon, Nawaporn; Nakavachara, Pairunyar; Santiprabhob, Jeerunda; Kiattisakthavee, Pornpimol; Wongarn, Renu; Likitmaskul, Supawadee
Childhood obesity is an emerging national health problem in Thailand. Our previous study found that one third of obese children and adolescents had impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and 2.6 percent had already developed type 2 diabetes mellitus. An immediate strategy needs to be established in order to improve these metabolic problems. To determine whether diet and exercise education for lifestyle modification with or without metformin therapy in our diabetes clinic is enable to improve these metabolic problems. Twenty-six Thai obese children and adolescents with IGT, who received at least 6 months of treatment consisting of lifestyle modification alone or lifestyle modification and metformin (combined treatment) were enrolled into this study. Each patient underwent the second 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Plasma glucose, insulin levels, HbA1C and lipid profiles were measured. The results were compared with historical pre-treatment data. Approximately 1 year after intervention, 19 out of 26 patients with IGT completed the second 2-hour OGTT. Sixteen patients (84.2%) successfully reversed to be normal glucose tolerance whereas 3 patients (15.8%) remained IGT. Body mass index (BMI), BMISDS, 2-hour plasma glucose, basal insulin level, 2-hour insulin level were significantly decreased after treatment in normal OGTT group (Ps youth is a reversible abnormality by lifestyle modification with or without metformin.
Ukarapol, Nuthapong; Singhavejakul, Jesda; Lertprasertsuk, Nirush; Wongsawasdi, Lumduan
The aim of this prospective study was to describe the clinical characteristics of colorectal polyp in Thai children. From December 2002 to February 2005, children under 15 years of age presenting with rectal bleeding were prospectively enrolled. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory information was recorded. Location, number, characteristics, and histopathology of the polyps were noted. There were 32 patients with a mean age of 6.5 years. The most common presenting symptom was hematochezia, followed by prolapsing rectal mass and diarrhea. In 20 patients there was a single polyp, 6 had 2-4 polyps, and 6 were diagnosed with polyposis coli. Most of the polyps were located exclusively at the rectum and sigmoid colon. In only 7 cases were the polyps proximal to the rectosigmoid region. This included 6 patients who had polyps beyond the splenic flexure. All were juvenile polyps without evidence of adenomatous changes. Compared to those with isolated polyps, the patients with polyposis coli had a statistically significant incidence of right-sided polyps (P polyps and the concern about malignant transformation, colonoscopy should be considered as the initial evaluation in children with rectal bleeding.
Teenoi, Kultida; Siripun, Kulpatsorn; Yuenyong, Chokchai
Like others, Thailand education strongly focused on STEM education. This paper aimed to examine existing Thai high school students' integrated knowledge about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in their developing science project. The participants included 49 high school students were studying the subject of individual study (IS) in Khon Kaen wittayayon school, Khon Kaen, Thailand. The IS was provided to gradually enhance students to know how to do science project starting from getting start to do science projects, They enrolled to study the individual study of science project for three year in roll. Methodology was qualitative research. Views of students' integrated knowledge about STEM were interpreted through participant observation, interview, and students' science projects. The first author as participant observation has taught this group of students for 3 years. It found that 16 science projects were developed. Views of students' integrated knowledge about STEM could be categorized into three categories. These included (1) completely indicated integration of knowledge about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, (2) partial indicated integration of knowledge about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics, and (3) no integration. The findings revealed that majority of science projects could be categorized as completely indicated integration of knowledge about science, technology, engineering, and mathematics. The paper suggested some ideas of enhancing students to applying STEM for developing science projects.
Full Text Available AbstractA major motivation of this study is to examine the factors that are the most important in contributing to the relatively poor efficiency performance of Thai manufacturing small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs. The results obtained will be significant in devising effective policies aimed at tackling this poor performance.This paper uses data on manufacturing SMEs in the North-eastern region of Thailand in 2007 as a case study, by applying a stochastic frontier analysis (SFA and a technical inefficiency effects model. The empirical results obtained indicate that the mean technical efficiency of all categories of manufacturing SMEs in theNorth-eastern region is 43%, implying that manufacturing SMEs have high levels of technical inefficiency in their production processes.Manufacturing SMEs in the North-eastern region are particularly labour-intensive. The empirical results of the technical inefficiency effects model suggest that skilled labour, the municipal area and ownership characteristics are important firm-specific factors affecting technical efficiency. The paper argues that the government should play a more substantial role in developing manufacturing SMEs in the North-eastern provinces through: providing training programs for employees and employers; encouraging a greater usage of capital and technology in the production process of SMEs; enhancing the efficiency of state-ownedenterprises; encouraging a wide range of ownership forms; and improving information and communications infrastructure.
Full Text Available Thalassemia and hemoglobin E (Hb E are common in Thailand. Individuals with thalassemia trait usually have a normal hemoglobin concentration or mild anemia. Therefore, thalassemic individuals who have minimum acceptable Hb level may be accepted as blood donors. This study was aimed at determining the frequency of α-thalassemia 1 trait, β-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes in Southern Thai blood donors. One hundred and sixteen voluntary blood donors, Southern Thailand origin, were recruited for thalassemia and Hb E screening by red blood cell indices/dichlorophenolindophenol precipitation test. β-Thalassemia and Hb E were then identified by high performance liquid chromatography and 4 common α-thalassemia deletions were characterized by a single tube-multiplex gap-polymerase chain reaction. Overall frequency of hemoglobinopathies was 12.9%, classified as follows: homozygous α-thalassemia 2 (1.7%, heterozygous α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%, heterozygous β-thalassemia without α-thalassemia (0.9%, heterozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (5.2%, double heterozygotes for Hb E/α-thalassemia 1 (1.7%, homozygous Hb E without α-thalassemia (0.9%, and homozygous Hb E with heterozygous α-thalassemia 2 (0.9%. The usefulness of thalassemia screening is not only for receiving highly effective red blood cells in the recipients but also for encouraging the control and prevention program of thalassemia in blood donors.
More than 700,000 people are thought to be HIV positive in Thailand. A booming sex industry and social attitudes which support the male patronage of prostitutes are major factors in the spread of disease in the country. A 4-day workshop on sexual behavior and AIDS in Thailand was attended by representatives from Burma, Cambodia, China, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. According to the Joint UN Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the percentage of military conscripts in northern Thailand who visited a brothel in the past year fell from 58% in 1991 to 23% in 1995, while the percentage of recruits using condoms during their most recent brothel visits increased from 60% to 90% over the same period. Statistics from the Thai Public Health Ministry indicate that the percentage of men in the general population who used condoms when visiting a brothel increased from 40% in 1990 to 90% in 1994. Furthermore, a nationwide survey among military conscripts found the prevalence of HIV infection fell from 3.7% in 1993 to 2.5% in 1995, with the downward trend continuing in 1996. This success in reducing the level of sexual risk behavior and the incidence of HIV infection in Thailand lends hope for the possibility of changing the course of the HIV/AIDS epidemic elsewhere.
Poosari, Arisara; Promthet, Supannee; Kamsa-ard, Siriporn; Suwanrungruang, Krittika; Longkul, Jirapat; Wiangnon, Surapon
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. We investigated the association of hormonal contraceptive use and breast cancer in Thai women. A cohort study was conducted in Khon Kaen, Thailand. There were 70 cases of histologically confirmed breast cancer among 11 414 women aged 30 to 69 years who were recruited as participants in the cohort study during the period from 1990 through 2001. The study population was followed-up until December 31, 2011. To identify factors associated with incidence of breast cancer, hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. The 11 414 women provided a total observation time of 157 200 person-years. Breast cancer risk among women with a history of hormonal contraceptive use was 1.31 times that of women without such a history, but the difference was not statistically significant (95% CI, 0.65-2.65). No type of hormonal contraceptive was associated with a significant increase in breast cancer risk as compared with women who had never used hormonal contraceptives (oral contraception: HR = 1.35, 95% CI, 0.65-2.78; injection contraception: HR = 1.25, 95% CI, 0.56-2.80), and there was no relationship between duration of hormonal contraceptive use and breast cancer. There was no association between hormonal contraceptive use and breast cancer; however, this finding should be viewed with caution due to the small number of cases.
Mekmullica, Jutarat; Pancharoen, Chitsanu
To determine the acceptability of oral typhoid vaccine to Thai children, 434 volunteers, aged 4-15 years (average age = 8.2 years), were assigned to take three capsules of oral typhoid vaccine (one capsule every other day). Success was defined as the subjects' being able to swallow all three capsules. Information concerning the subjects' level of education, eating habits, and ability to take medicines in a variety of preparations (syrups, tablets and capsules) was obtained. The overall success rate was 94.2%; the rates were 84.4%, 94.9%, and 100% in the age groups 4-6 years, 7-9 years, and 10-12 years respectively. The rates were 82%, 85.7%, 93.3%, 96.4%, 98.8%, 100% and 100% in the students of kindergarten 1, kindergarten 2, elementary grade 1, grade 2, grade 3, grade 4, and grade 5 respectively. There was a correlation between a child's prior ability to take tablets/capsules and his success in swallowing the oral typhoid vaccine.
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ABSTRACT: This article reports on a small-scale study of Thai-speaking learners using pocket electronic dictionaries (PEDs to read an English news article. It investigates how the subjects use their PEDs for reading comprehension. Thirty-nine undergraduate students completed a questionnaire survey. Of these, four were chosen to participate in the experiment. Observations and interviews were utilized to ascertain how the subjects used their PEDs. The findings showed superficial and partial reading of the dictionary entries. It also revealed several factors that may hinder dictionary look-up success. On the basis of this research, guidelines for buying PEDs and for teaching PED skills are proposed.
OPSOMMING: Die gebruik van sak- elektroniese woordeboeke deur Thaise universiteitstudente. Hierdie artikel doen verslag van 'n kleinskaalse studie van Thaisprekende aanleerders wat sak- elektroniese woordeboeke (SEW's gebruik om 'n Engelse nuusartikel te lees. Dit ondersoek hoe die proefpersone hul SAW's gebruik vir leesbegrip. Nege-en-dertig voorgraadse studente het 'n vraelysopname voltooi. Uit hulle is vier gekies om aan die eksperiment deel te neem. Waarnemings en onderhoude is aangewend om te bepaal hoe die proefpersone hul SEW's gebruik het. Die bevindings het oppervlakkige en gedeeltelike lees van die woordeboekinskrywings getoon. Dit het ook verskeie faktore uitgewys wat woordeboekopsoeksukses mag belemmer. Op grond van hierdie navorsing word riglyne vir die koop van SEW's en vir die onderrig van SEWvaardighede voorgestel.
Sleutelwoorde: WOORDEBOEKGEBRUIK, SAK- ELEKTRONIESE WOORDEBOEK, WOORDEBOEKRAADPLEGING, EENTALIGE WOORDEBOEK, TWEETALIGE WOORDEBOEK
Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of energy saving and changes in energy intensities in Thai manufacturing sector by Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index decomposition technique. This method includes three effects consists of the energy intensity effect, the structural effect and the effect of the economic growth on the energy consumption in Thailand by using the 25-year annual data from 1990 to 2014, carried out in four phases; (i before National Energy Conservation law, (ii during the effect of the law, (iii Transition period of the law from first to second version, and (iv during the effect of the law (No.2. We found that the most effective intensity effect is in the third phase due to the effect of the implementation of new energy efficient equipment from the second phase by enforcement of the law, especially in non-metallic sector, while the first phase illustrates the lowest intensity effect due to the energy conservation law had not been occurred. However, due to the highest economic growth of the country and change from agricultural to industrial development direction, the first phase presents the most effective structural effect, then this effect continuously decreased by time. We also conclude that the energy conservation law have direct effect to energy efficiency of the country however, strictly individual regulation which have target to enforce to energy intensive industries is still required for sustainable energy efficiency improvement.
Angthong, Chayanin; Chernchujit, Bancha; Suntharapa, Thongchai; Harnroongroj, Thossart
Nowadays, measuring score in the form of subjective questionnaires is the important tool for clinical evaluation of the foot and ankle-related problems. VisualAnalogue Scale-Foot and Ankle (VAS-FA) is the newly developed subjective questionnaire, which has sufficiency of validity and reliability from a previous study Translate the original English version of VAS-FA into the Thai version and evaluate the validity and reliability of Thai VAS-FA in patients with foot and ankle-related problems. According to the forward-backward translation protocol, original VAS-FA was translated into the Thai version. Thai VAS-FA and validated Thai Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaires were distributed to 42 Thai patients to complete. For validation, Thai VAS-FA scores were correlated with SF-36 scores. For reliability, the test-retest reliability and internal consistency were analyzed. Thai VAS-FA score demonstrated the sufficient correlations with physical functioning (PF), role physical (RP), bodily pain (BP) domains, and total score of SF-36 (statistically significant with p 0.5 values). The result of reliability revealed highly intra-class correlation coefficient as 0.995 from test-retest study. The internal consistency was excellent with Cronbach alpha: 0.995. The original VAS-FA score is a well-validated, subjective, visual-analogue-scale based outcome score. The Thai version of VAS-FA form maintained the validity and reliability of the original version. This newly translated-validated score can be distributed for the evaluation of the functions, symptoms, and limitation of activities in Thai patients with foot and ankle problems.