Sample records for tha bearing surface

  1. What Is the Long-term Survival for Primary THA With Small-head Metal-on-metal Bearings? (United States)

    de Steiger, Richard; Peng, Andrea; Lewis, Peter; Graves, Stephen


    Large-head metal-on-metal (MoM) bearing hip replacements have been shown to have a much higher rate of revision than other bearing surfaces. However, small-head (≤ 32 mm) MoM bearing surfaces have been in use for many years with several reports of satisfactory mid- to long-term survivorship. It is unclear whether the long-term survival of small-head MoM devices will continue to be satisfactory or whether the same concerns seen with the large-head MoM devices will ultimately become more prevalent. We analyzed a large national registry to ask: (1) What is the 15-year Kaplan-Meier survivorship of primary conventional THA using small-head (≤ 32 mm) MoM bearing surfaces compared with large-head MoM bearing surfaces in primary THA? (2) Is there an increased rate of revision for adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD) in this group of patients over time? The Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry longitudinally maintains data on all primary and revision joint arthroplasties with nearly 100% capture. We analyzed all conventional primary THAs performed from Registry inception in September 1999 until December 31, 2015, in patients with a diagnosis of osteoarthritis and using MoM bearing surfaces ≤ 32 mm in diameter, defined as small-head MoM. The study group included 4838 primary THA with ≤ 32-mm MoM bearing surfaces. There were 2506 (51.8%) male patients and the median age of patients undergoing THA with a small-head MoM bearing surface was 64 years (range, 20-92 years of age). The outcome measure was the cumulative percent revision defined as the time to first revision using Kaplan-Meier estimates of survivorship at 15 years; reasons for revision and type of revision were also examined. We specifically investigated whether there was an increased risk of revision for ARMD in this MoM group compared with all other bearing surfaces. We compared these results with large-head MoM THAs (femoral head size > 32 mm). The cumulative percent

  2. Case studies in management of THA failure secondary to taper corrosion, modular junctions and metal-on-metal bearings. (United States)

    Lombardi, Adolph V


    The diagnosis and treatment of patients with painful total hip arthroplasties secondary to taper corrosion and wear of modular junctions and metal-on-metal bearings represents a major challenge for the orthopaedic clinician. Guidelines are evolving as we analyze the growing body of evidence regarding metal-related failures of orthopaedic implants and adverse reactions to metal debris. In this article 6 case examples are presented to enhance understanding and application of current evidence into practice. Clinical expertise is integrated with the best available evidence from research and national joint registries data into the decision making process relevant for patient care in everyday practice. Issues addressed include understanding taper corrosion and metal failure mechanisms, clinical presentation of adverse soft tissue reactions, utility of specialized tests such as metal ion analysis and cross-sectional imaging studies, the utility of modular components for primary THA, dealing with recalled component, and current recommendations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Are Trends in Total Hip Arthroplasty Bearing Surface Continuing to Change? 2007-2015 Usage in a Large Database Cohort. (United States)

    Bedard, Nicholas A; Burnett, Robert A; DeMik, David E; Gao, Yubo; Liu, Steve S; Callaghan, John J


    Bearing surface issues related to trunnionosis or metal-on-metal (MoM) articulations have likely impacted recent trends in bearing surface choice. The purpose of this study is to evaluate trends in total hip arthroplasty (THA) bearing surface use, including 2015 data, with respect to the date of operation and patient demographics. The Humana dataset was reviewed from 2007 through 2015 to analyze bearing surface usage in primary THA. Four bearing surface types were identified by International Classification of Disease, 10th Revision codes and trended throughout the years: metal-on-polyethylene (MoP), ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC), ceramic-on-polyethylene (CoP), and MoM. Prevalence was analyzed as a function of age and sex. Of the 28,504 primary THA procedures, the most commonly used bearing was MoP (46.1%), followed by CoP (33.2%), MoM (17.1%), and ceramic-on-ceramic (3.6%). The use of CoP bearings significantly increased from 6.4% in 2007 to 52.0% in 2015, while MoM bearings decreased during this period. MoP bearings decreased over 2012-2015 (P MoM and CoP bearings (OR 1.1). Multivariate logistic regression showed age to be an independent predictor of bearing surface choice with patients 65 and older more likely to receive MoP bearings (OR 3.2). Bearing surface choice in primary THA has changed tremendously from 2007 to 2015. MoM bearing use has decreased as a result of adverse effects. Age continues to remain a significant factor in bearing surface choice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Shifted laser surface texturing for bearings applications (United States)

    Houdková, Š.; Šperka, P.; Repka, M.; Martan, J.; Moskal, D.


    The laser surface texturing (LST) technologies, based on creation of micro-pattern with pre-defined geometry can positively influence both the friction and wear of tribo-elements. In practice, the integration of LST technology is often limited due to its slowness. The new method, so called shifted laser surface texturing (sLST) with increased process speed was developed to make the technology more attractive for the industrial application. In the paper, the texture created by sLST technology was applied onto the steel samples and Al-Sn-Si surface of sliding bearings. Both block-on-ring (ASTM G-77) laboratory tests of steel samples and high-loaded working application tests on Al-Sn-Si bearings surface were carried out to evaluate the influence of texture on tribological behaviour. The ASTM G-77 laboratory tests showed a positive effect of the texture on friction behaviour. Under the high-loaded testing conditions, the positive effect was observed in initial stages of the tests, decreasing the torque of textured bearings compared to the untreated one. Lately, the texture was worn out and have no influence on the overall wear of the bearings. Based on the above mentioned observations, the use of alternative bearing material with higher hardness or application of protective layer over the created texture was suggested to exploit the texture benefits.

  5. Periprosthetic Joint Infection in Hip Arthroplasty: Is There an Association Between Infection and Bearing Surface Type? (United States)

    Pitto, Rocco P; Sedel, Laurent


    class (ASA, recording started 2005) in the multivariate analysis. The rate of early PJI (hips were associated with a lower risk of revision for deep infection when compared with CoP (HR, 1.30; CI, 0.78-2.18; p = 0.01), MoP (HR, 1.75; CI, 1.07-2.86; p = 0.02), and MoM (HR, 2.12; CI, 1.23-3.65; p = 0.008). Our finding associating CoC THA bearings with a lower risk of infection after THA must be considered very preliminary, and we caution readers against attributing all of the observed difference to the bearing surface. It is possible that some or all of the observed difference associated with bearing type may have been driven by other factors such as ASA and BMI, which could not be included in our multivariate analysis, and so future registry studies on this topic must assess those variables carefully. Level III, therapeutic study.

  6. Mastication forces and implant-bearing surface. (United States)

    Le Gall, M G; Lauret, J F; Saadoun, A P


    This article discusses the shift of emphasis in implantology from the phenomenon of osseointegration of implants to the accurate fabrication of the prosthesis, recognizing the implant/prosthesis unit as an actual replica rather than a replacement of the missing tooth. The study of kinetics with its succession of mandibular cycles is used to discuss the integration of mastication and occlusion. The importance of periimplant ligament in natural teeth is discussed, along with the impact of its absence on implant mobility. The impact of the bone types and the root surface architecture on the implant-bearing surface is presented along with the stress of the mastication forces. All these factors have to be considered in the treatment planning and effectively communicated to the laboratory. The learning objective of this article is to provide updated information in those areas for the reader.

  7. Gyroscope pivot bearing dimension and surface defect detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ge, Wenqian; Zhao, Huijie; Li, Xudong


    ... illumination system is proposed. After detecting the micro-defects of a gyroscope pivot bearing with a high curvature glabrous surface and analyzing the characteristics of the surface detection and reflection model, a complex...

  8. Designing prosthetic knee joints with bio-inspired bearing surfaces. (United States)

    Qiu, Mingfeng; Chyr, Anthony; Sanders, Anthony P; Raeymaekers, Bart


    It has long been known that articular cartilage exhibits a surface microtexture with shallow indentations. By contrast, prosthetic joints consist of ultra-smooth bearing surfaces, the longevity of which does not reach that of natural cartilage. We show that adding a microtexture to the smooth femoral component of a prosthetic knee joint reduces friction by increasing the lubricant film thickness between the bearing surfaces of the knee. We have implemented an elastohydrodynamic lubrication model to optimize the geometry of the microtexture, while taking into account the deformation of the polyethylene tibial insert. We have manufactured several microtexture designs on a surrogate femoral component, and experimentally demonstrate that the microtexture reduces friction between the surrogate femoral component and tibial insert.

  9. The winner in the race of bearing surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-yang HU


    Full Text Available There are no absolute ’winners’ in this ’race of bearing surface’.Since the mechanical performance of the modern bearing surface used in total hip joint manufacture is satisfactory,it is necessary to take their advantage respectively and treat each patient independently.Patient satisfaction,quality of life,and radiographic analysis should also be considered.Specifically,high crosslinked UHMWPE cup articulating with CoCr alloy and the alternative of ceramic ball are surviving for almost thirty years because of their high wear resistance,no toxicity and comparably low cost.They are more suitable for the patients who are not very young and less active and ask for a relatively lower physical and financial condition of patients.For patients articulating with MOM,they benefit from larger sized heads and low wear and friction,which would produce more stability for more active patients.However,one should be aware of the metal ions released in serum as well as in urine.Therefore,MOM is not fit for patients who are pregnant or suffer from renal insufficiency etc.A random kidney function test should be performed before MOM surgery.Last but not least,the COC bearing surface has all the superiorities mentioned above but with a risk of fracture and a rarely audible squeaking.The fairly high cost makes it not a choice for everyone,but it could be a lifelong choice for younger patients with a lot of high impact activities.More in vitro and long term in vivo studies are needed to prove longer lasting effects to improve bearing surfaces.

  10. Gyroscope pivot bearing dimension and surface defect detection. (United States)

    Ge, Wenqian; Zhao, Huijie; Li, Xudong


    Because of the perceived lack of systematic analysis in illumination system design processes and a lack of criteria for design methods in vision detection a method for the design of a task-oriented illumination system is proposed. After detecting the micro-defects of a gyroscope pivot bearing with a high curvature glabrous surface and analyzing the characteristics of the surface detection and reflection model, a complex illumination system with coaxial and ring lights is proposed. The illumination system is then optimized based on the analysis of illuminance uniformity of target regions by simulation and grey scale uniformity and articulation that are calculated from grey imagery. Currently, in order to apply the Pulse Coupled Neural Network (PCNN) method, structural parameters must be tested and adjusted repeatedly. Therefore, this paper proposes the use of a particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, in which the maximum between cluster variance rules is used as fitness function with a linearily reduced inertia factor. This algorithm is used to adaptively set PCNN connection coefficients and dynamic threshold, which avoids algorithmic precocity and local oscillations. The proposed method is used for pivot bearing defect image processing. The segmentation results of the maximum entropy and minimum error method and the one described in this paper are compared using buffer region matching, and the experimental results show that the method of this paper is effective.

  11. Gyroscope Pivot Bearing Dimension and Surface Defect Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xudong Li


    Full Text Available Because of the perceived lack of systematic analysis in illumination system design processes and a lack of criteria for design methods in vision detection a method for the design of a task-oriented illumination system is proposed. After detecting the micro-defects of a gyroscope pivot bearing with a high curvature glabrous surface and analyzing the characteristics of the surface detection and reflection model, a complex illumination system with coaxial and ring lights is proposed. The illumination system is then optimized based on the analysis of illuminance uniformity of target regions by simulation and grey scale uniformity and articulation that are calculated from grey imagery. Currently, in order to apply the Pulse Coupled Neural Network (PCNN method, structural parameters must be tested and adjusted repeatedly. Therefore, this paper proposes the use of a particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm, in which the maximum between cluster variance rules is used as fitness function with a linearily reduced inertia factor. This algorithm is used to adaptively set PCNN connection coefficients and dynamic threshold, which avoids algorithmic precocity and local oscillations. The proposed method is used for pivot bearing defect image processing. The segmentation results of the maximum entropy and minimum error method and the one described in this paper are compared using buffer region matching, and the experimental results show that the method of this paper is effective.

  12. What every surgeon should know about Ceramic-on-Ceramic bearings in young patients (United States)

    Hernigou, Philippe; Roubineau, François; Bouthors, Charlie; Flouzat-Lachaniette, Charles-Henri


    Based on the exceptional tribological behaviour and on the relatively low biological activity of ceramic particles, Ceramic-on-Ceramic (CoC) total hip arthroplasty (THA) presents significant advantages CoC bearings decrease wear and osteolysis, the cumulative long-term risk of dislocation, muscle atrophy, and head-neck taper corrosion. However, there are still concerns regarding the best technique for implantation of ceramic hips to avoid fracture, squeaking, and revision of ceramic hips with fracture of a component. We recommend that surgeons weigh the potential advantages and disadvantages of current CoC THA in comparison with other bearing surfaces when considering young very active patients who are candidates for THA. Cite this article: Hernigou P, Roubineau F, Bouthors C, Flouzat-Lachaniette C-H. What every surgeon should know about Ceramic-on-Ceramic bearings in young patients. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:107-111. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000027. PMID:28461936

  13. Tribological thin films on steel rolling element bearing surfaces (United States)

    Evans, Ryan David

    Tribological thin films are of interest to designers and end-users of friction management and load transmission components such as steel rolling element bearings. This study sought to reveal new information about the properties and formation of such films, spanning the scope of their technical evolution from natural oxide films, to antiwear films from lubricant additives, and finally engineered nanocomposite metal carbide/amorphous hydrocarbon (MC/a-C:H) films. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed on the near-surface material (depth lubricated conditions in mineral oil with and without sulfur- and phosphorus-containing gear oil additives. Site-specific thinning of cross-section cone surface sections for TEM analyses was conducted using the focused ion beam milling technique. Two types of oxide surface films were characterized for the cones tested in mineral oil only, each one corresponding to a different lubrication severity. Continuous and adherent antiwear films were found on the cone surfaces tested with lubricant additives, and their composition depended on the lubrication conditions. A sharp interface separated the antiwear film and base steel. Various TEM analytical techniques were used to study the segregation of elements throughout the film volume. The properties of nanocomposite tantalum carbide/amorphous hydrocarbon (TaC/a-C:H) thin films depend sensitively on reactive magnetron sputtering deposition process conditions. TaC/a-C:H film growth was studied as a function of three deposition parameters in designed experiments: acetylene flow rate, applied d.c. bias voltage, and substrate carousel rotation rate. Empirical models were developed for the following film characteristics to identify process-property trend relationships: Ta/C atomic ratio, hydrogen content, film thickness. TaC crystallite size, Raman spectrum, compressive stress, hardness, and elastic modules. TEM measurements revealed the film base structure consisted of equiaxed

  14. Le CRDI en Thaïlande

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    nota m ment le vieillissement de la popula- tion et les soins de longue durée. En 2003, une étude du Forum menée en Thaïlande, au Cambodge, au Laos et au. Vietnam a produit de nouvelles connais- sances en vue de stimuler l'emploi rural. Les équipes de recherche ont examiné l'importance des activités hors ferme et.

  15. Influence of Quality of Rolling Surfaces of Roller Bearings on Their Vibrational Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevgenij Kurec


    Full Text Available The paper investigates vibrational behaviour of widely used rollerbearings No. NU207 which have different roughness of rollingsurfaces. Fatigue damage is one of the main factors that limitthe life of bearings of such type. The aims of present work wereto establish dependence of roughness parameter Ra of rollingsurfaces of bearings on their vibration velocity and investigatevibrational behaviour of roller bearings with different roughnessof rolling surfaces.

  16. Using bearing area parameters to quantify early erosive tooth surface changes in enamel: a pilot study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Field, James; German, Matthew; Waterhouse, Paula


    .... This study aimed to test the hypothesis that measuring the bearing area parameters in addition to Ra may be useful when qualifying the surface of enamel at baseline and after an erosive challenge...

  17. Rarefaction cloaking: Influence of the fractal rough surface in gas slider bearings (United States)

    Su, Wei; Liu, Haihu; Zhang, Yonghao; Wu, Lei


    For ultra-thin gas lubrication, the surface-to-volume ratio increases dramatically when the flow geometry is scaled down to the micro/nano-meter scale, where surface roughness, albeit small, may play an important role in gas slider bearings. However, the effect of surface roughness on the pressure and load capacity (force) in gas slider bearings has been overlooked. In this paper, on the basis of the generalized Reynolds equation, we investigate the behavior of a gas slider bearing, where the roughness of the slider surface is characterized by the Weierstrass-Mandelbrot fractal function, and the mass flow rates of Couette and Poiseuille flows are obtained by deterministic solutions to the linearized Bhatnager-Gross-Krook equation. Our results show that the surface roughness reduces the local mass flow rate as compared to the smooth channel, but the amount of reduction varies for Couette and Poiseuille flows of different Knudsen numbers. As a consequence, the pressure rise and load capacity in the rough bearing become larger than the ones in the smooth bearing in the slip and early transition flow regimes, e.g., a 6% roughness could lead to an increase of 20% more bearing load capacity. However, this situation is reversed in the free-molecular flow regime, as the ratio of the mass flow rates between Couette and Poiseuille flows is smaller than that in the smooth channel. Interestingly, between the two extremes, we have found a novel "rarefaction cloaking" effect, where the load capacity of a rough bearing equals to that of a smooth bearing at a certain range of Knudsen numbers, as if the roughness does not exist.

  18. Deposition of Coatings for Raising the Wear Resistance of Friction Surfaces of Spherical Sliding Bearings (United States)

    Gorlenko, A. O.; Davydov, S. V.


    The process of finishing plasma hardening with deposition of a multilayer amorphous coating of the Si - O - C - N system is considered as applied to hardening of the friction surfaces of spherical sliding bearings. The microrelief, the submicrorelief, and the tribological characteristics of the deposited wear-resistant antifriction amorphous coating, which are responsible for the elevated wear resistance of spherical sliding bearings, are investigated.

  19. Increased Mortality After Prosthetic Joint Infection in Primary THA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundtoft, Per Hviid; Pedersen, Alma Becic; Varnum, Claus


    Background: Revision for prosthetic joint infection (PJI) has a major effect on patients’ health but it remains unclear if early PJI after primary THA is associated with a high mortality. Questions/Purposes: (1) Do patients with a revision for PJI within 1 year of primary THA have increased...

  20. Groundwater and surface-water interactions near White Bear Lake, Minnesota, through 2011 (United States)

    Jones, Perry M.; Trost, Jared J.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Jackson, P. Ryan; Bode, Jenifer A.; O'Grady, Ryan M.


    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the White Bear Lake Conservation District, the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, and other State, county, municipal, and regional planning agencies, watershed organizations, and private organizations, conducted a study to characterize groundwater and surface-water interactions near White Bear Lake through 2011. During 2010 and 2011, White Bear Lake and other lakes in the northeastern part of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area were at historically low levels. Previous periods of lower water levels in White Bear Lake correlate with periods of lower precipitation; however, recent urban expansion and increased pumping from the Prairie du Chien-Jordan aquifer have raised the question of whether a decline in precipitation is the primary cause for the recent water-level decline in White Bear Lake. Understanding and quantifying the amount of groundwater inflow to a lake and water discharge from a lake to aquifers is commonly difficult but is important in the management of lake levels. Three methods were used in the study to assess groundwater and surface-water interactions on White Bear Lake: (1) a historical assessment (1978-2011) of levels in White Bear Lake, local groundwater levels, and their relation to historical precipitation and groundwater withdrawals in the White Bear Lake area; (2) recent (2010-11) hydrologic and water-quality data collected from White Bear Lake, other lakes, and wells; and (3) water-balance assessments for White Bear Lake in March and August 2011. An analysis of covariance between average annual lake-level change and annual precipitation indicated the relation between the two variables was significantly different from 2003 through 2011 compared with 1978 through 2002, requiring an average of 4 more inches of precipitation per year to maintain the lake level. This shift in the linear relation between annual lake-level change and annual precipitation


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz Zaleski


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies on the effect of technological parameters of vibration shot peening upon the shape of bearing curves and the parameters of that curve. The topography of surface formed in result of vibration shot peening and pre-machining, which was grinding, were analyzed. The material used in the studies was alloy steel 30HGSA. The shot peening process was performed on an appliance equipped with a kinematic vibrator. Shot peening time t, vibrator oscillations (vibrations frequency ν, as well as vibrator oscillations amplitude A were changed within: t = 1–15 min, ν = 17,5–35 Hz, A = 10,3–17,3 mm. For measuring surface roughness and determining the bearing curve the appliance T8000 RC120-400 by Hommel-Etamic was used together with the software. In result of the machining performed surface roughness decreased, and the parameters of bearing curve improved.

  2. Transgenres thaïlandaises en Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheera Thongkrajai


    Full Text Available Comme beaucoup de leurs compatriotes en Thaïlande, les personnes transgenres/transsexuelles male-to-female (MTF, désignées par le terme de kathoey, souhaitent partir à l’étranger en espérant trouver une vie meilleure. Dans leur cas, cette quête ne renvoie pas seulement à une amélioration économique de leur situation et de celle de leur famille, mais tout autant à la possibilité de vivre pleinement en femme et notamment d’engager, comme telle, des relations affectives et/ou sexuelles durables avec des hommes. Les kathoey migrantes en Europe cherchent à entretenir plusieurs relations sexuelles et/ou affectives pour maintenir et améliorer leur situation. Pour elles, avoir un « mari » farang (occidental, représente à la fois une chance de réussite économique et sociale capable de dépasser les stéréotypes négatifs et l’exclusion sociale dont elles sont l’objet en Thaïlande.Thai male-to-female transgenders in EuropeLike many of their Thai compatriots, Thai male-to-female transgenders (MTF, also known as kathoey wish to go abroad, seeking for a better life. It is not only a quest for a better economic situation for themselves and their families, but also the possibility to live completely as women, and as such to get engaged in emotional and / or sexual relationships with men. The kathoey who migrate to Europe are looking for various sexual / emotional relationships in order to maintain or improve their situation. For them, to have a farang (western “husband” represents a chance for an economic as well as a social success which could help them overcome the negative stereotypes and social exclusion to which they are subjected to in Thailand.Tailandés transexuales male-to-females en EuropaComo muchos emigrantes de Tailandia, los transexuales male-to-females (MTF, llamados kathoey en tailandés, desean partir al extranjero en busca de una vida mejor. En su caso, esta búsqueda remite ya no a una mejora econ

  3. Hip resurfacing does not improve proprioception compared with THA. (United States)

    Larkin, Brian; Nyazee, Humaa; Motley, John; Nunley, Ryan M; Clohisy, John C; Barrack, Robert L


    Proposed benefits of total hip resurfacing arthroplasty over total hip arthroplasty (THA) include better proprioception, but this has not been rigorously tested or validated. Our purpose was to apply an advanced testing device that objectively quantifies dynamic postural stability to determine if total hip resurfacing is associated with improved proprioception compared with standard or large-head THA. Three groups of 25 patients (total hip resurfacing, THA femoral head > 32 mm, THA femoral head ≤ 32 mm) and a matched control group were recruited. All participants had UCLA scores ≥ 5 and Harris hip scores ≥ 90 at the time of testing. Testing was conducted using a commercially available device that uses a multidirectional, powered platform to measure deviations of the center of mass and consisted of trials with both double- and single-limb support. Double-limb testing showed no differences between groups. In single-limb testing, the operative side performed better in patients who had undergone total hip resurfacing versus THA, but this difference disappeared when the operative side was normalized to the nonoperative side. When compared with control subjects who had not had arthroplasty, both operative and nonoperative sides showed significantly worse proprioception for all arthroplasty cohorts, suggesting that decreased proprioception is associated with arthritis of the hip in young adults. Total hip resurfacing arthroplasty did not result in improved proprioception compared with THA. These results tend to refute the concept that improved proprioception is a rationale for selecting total hip resurfacing over THA in young patients.

  4. Using bearing area parameters to quantify early erosive tooth surface changes in enamel: a pilot study. (United States)

    Field, James; German, Matthew; Waterhouse, Paula


    Most in vitro studies investigate the erosive process using relatively simple roughness parameters such as roughness average (Ra). In isolation, Ra may misrepresent the surface features. Further, few studies report baseline surface characteristics after sample preparation. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that measuring the bearing area parameters in addition to Ra may be useful when qualifying the surface of enamel at baseline and after an erosive challenge. The null hypothesis for this study was that the bearing area parameters provide no more useful information than Ra alone, when qualifying the surface of enamel at baseline and after an erosive challenge. Enamel slabs (n=20) were prepared from human (n=2) and bovine (n=4) incisor teeth and polished with 0.05μm paste. Roughness average (Ra) and bearing parameters (MR1, MR2, Rpk, Rk, Rvk) were used to record baseline characteristics. Specimens were subjected to erosion with 1% citric acid solution for 1min. Profilometric characteristics were recorded post-erosion, along with the maximum height changes within the profile. T-tests were carried out in order to compare baseline surface characteristics between tissue types. Post-erosion, analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the effects of tissue type (bovine or human). There was no significant difference in Ra between human and bovine incisor enamel at baseline (human 0.11μm, bovine 0.12μm P>0.05), and no significant difference was observed post-erosion (human 0.23μm, bovine 0.20μm P>0.05). There were significant differences in bearing parameters at baseline and post-erosion that were not identified by the Ra measurement alone. The results suggest that if Ra alone is measured, important differences in surface characteristics may be missed. The null hypothesis is rejected, and the recommendation is made that bearing parameters are included within profile measurements in order to further triangulate the results of surface analysis studies. In

  5. Early rehabilitation in Resurfacing, standard and large head THA patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penny, Jeannette Østergaard; Varmarken, Jens-Erik; Ovesen, Ole


      Introduction For patients in employment a fast rehabilitation is important. The reduced risk of dislocation when using a large-head metal-on-metal articulation theoretically offers a faster rehabilitation than a THA with a 28 mm articulation due to no restrictions. The larger surgical incision...... in the resurfacing patient may impair the early rehabilitation. We aimed to investigate early differences in rehabilitation parameters amongst the different groups. Materials and methods We randomized to resurfacing (n=20), standard 28 mm THA (n=19) and large head MoM THA (n=12). We recorded operation time, blood...

  6. Cement-base bearing pads mortar for connections in the precast concrete: study of surface roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. El Debs

    Full Text Available Bearing pads are used in precast concrete connections to avoid concentrated stresses in the contact area between the precast elements. In the present research, the bearing pads are Portland cement mortar with styrene-butadiene latex (SB, lightweight aggregate (expanded vermiculite-term and short fibers (polypropylene, glass and PVA, in order to obtain a material with low modulus of elasticity and high tenacity, compared with normal Portland cement mortar. The objective of this paper is to analyze the influence of surface roughness on the pads and test other types of polypropylene fibers. Tests were carried out to characterize the composite and test on bearing pads. Characterization tests show compressive strength of 41MPa and modulus of elasticity of 12.8GPa. The bearing pads tests present 30% reduction of stiffness in relation to a reference mortar. The bearing pads with roughness on both sides present a reduction up to 30% in stiffness and an increase in accumulated deformation of more than 120%, regarding bearing pads with both sides smooth.

  7. Low Frequency of Early Complications With Dual-mobility Acetabular Cups in Cementless Primary THA. (United States)

    Chughtai, Morad; Mistry, Jaydev B; Diedrich, Aloise M; Jauregui, Julio J; Elmallah, Randa K; Bonutti, Peter M; Harwin, Steven F; Malkani, Arthur L; Kolisek, Frank R; Mont, Michael A


    stem; and two patients had periprosthetic infections that were treated with two-stage revisions. There were no dislocations. Patients had a mean HHS of 94 (SD, 6) at final followup. On radiographic evaluation, no progressive radiolucencies or positional changes of the components were identified. Surgical complications included one traumatic avulsion of the abductors, one traumatic avulsion of the greater trochanter, which was repaired without revision of any of the components, and one loose femoral stem, which required revision of the femoral component only. Dual-mobility cups in primary THA yield seemingly comparable survivorship and complications to conventional THA bearings at short-term followup. Because serious complications have occasionally been reported with the use of these bearings, larger, longer term, comparative-and ideally, randomized-trials will be needed to establish the superiority of one approach over the other. Until or unless such studies show the superiority of dual-mobility designs for primary THA, we recommend that in the setting of uncomplicated primary THA, dual-mobility articulations be used only in centers that track their results carefully or in research protocols. Level IV, therapeutic study.

  8. Patrimoine culinaire thaïlandais au coeur de Paris


    Deslis, Jirasri; PIPATPALLOP, Porntip; de Pablo, Elisabeth; Stockinger, Peter; LEGRAND, Valérie


    Dans le cadre d'une étude consacrée à la spécificité culturelle de la communauté thaïe à Paris et en Ile-de-France, nous vous présentons un premier reportage consacré à la très réputée cuisine thaïe.Grâce à Jirasri Deslis, Portnip Pipatpallop et son restaurant "Im Thaï Gourmet", nous a aimablement ouvert ses portes afin de nous expliquer quelques aspects pratiques et techniques relatifs à la tradition culinaire de Thaïlande.Porntip PIPATPALLOP concrétise la passion pour la cuisine de son pays...

  9. Inadequate thickness of the weight-bearing surface of claws in ruminants : clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Shakespeare


    Full Text Available The term 'thin soles' refers to the suboptimal thickness of the weight-bearing surface of claws in ruminants. These palmar / plantar surfaces of the claws support the weight of the animal and consist of the distal wall horn, the sole proper, the heel and the minute white line area. The sole should normally only bear weight on uneven or undulating surfaces. A decrease in the thickness of the weight-bearing claw surface will decrease the protective function of this structure and may alter the proportion of weight-bearing by each section with possible detrimental effects on hoof function. Horn tissue readily absorbs water and becomes softer which can lead to increased wear rates. Growth rates normally match wear rates but, unlike the latter, time is needed for the growth rate response to adapt to changes in wear rate. Concrete surfaces can be abrasive and dairy cows that spend their lactation cycle on these floors should be let out to pasture in the dry period so that their claws can recoup lost horn. Frictional coefficient is a measure of the 'slipperiness' of hooves on various surfaces. Newly laid or fresh concrete is not only abrasive but the thin surface suspension of calcium hydroxide that forms has a very alkaline pH which causes keratin degradation and is mostly responsible for the excessive claw wear that occurs. Four case studies are used to illustrate the importance of the distal wall horn, the dangers of over-trimming and the effects of disease and concrete on horn growth and wear rates.

  10. Journal bearing (United States)

    Menke, John R.; Boeker, Gilbert F.


    1. An improved journal bearing comprising in combination a non-rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a first bearing surface, a rotatable cylindrical bearing member having a confronting second bearing surface having a plurality of bearing elements, a source of lubricant adjacent said bearing elements for supplying lubricant thereto, each bearing element consisting of a pair of elongated relatively shallowly depressed surfaces lying in a cylindrical surface co-axial with the non-depressed surface and diverging from one another in the direction of rotation and obliquely arranged with respect to the axis of rotation of said rotatable member to cause a flow of lubricant longitudinally along said depressed surfaces from their distal ends toward their proximal ends as said bearing members are rotated relative to one another, each depressed surface subtending a radial angle of less than, and means for rotating said rotatable bearing member to cause the lubricant to flow across and along said depressed surfaces, the flow of lubricant being impeded by the non-depressed portions of said second bearing surface to cause an increase in the lubricant pressure.

  11. High dislocation cumulative risk in THA versus hemiarthroplasty for fractures. (United States)

    Poignard, Alexandre; Bouhou, Mohamed; Pidet, Olivier; Flouzat-Lachaniette, Charles-Henri; Hernigou, Philippe


    Although not all elderly patients with femoral neck fractures are candidates for THA, active, mentally competent, independent patients achieve the most durable functional scores with THA compared with hemiarthroplasty. However, a relatively high frequency of early or late dislocation could reduce the potential benefits with THA. We asked whether the incidence of first-time, recurrent dislocation, and revision differed in patients with hip fractures having THA or hemiarthroplasty. We retrospectively reviewed 380 patients with hip fractures (380 hips) who underwent THAs between 1995 and 1999, and compared them with 412 patients with hip fractures (412 hips) who underwent hemiarthroplasties between 1990 and 1994. The mean followup was 8 years (range, 1-20 years). THA had a higher early risk of first-time dislocation and a higher late risk: 19 (4.5%) of the 412 hips treated with hemiarthroplasty had at least one dislocation whereas 30 (8.1%) of the 380 hips treated with THA had at least one dislocation. The cumulative number of dislocations at the most recent followup (first time and recurrent dislocations) was 58 (13%) for the 380 THAs and 22 (5%) for the 412 hemiarthroplasties. At the 10-year followup, eight THAs (2%) had revision (six recurrent dislocations, two loosenings), and 42 hemiarthroplasties (10%) had revision (40 acetabular protrusions, one recurrent dislocation). The risk of revision for recurrent dislocation increases with THA, but it remains lower than the risk of revision for wear of cartilage and acetabular protrusion in hemiarthroplasty. Level III, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  12. Quality of surface water in the Bear River basin, Utah, Wyoming, and Idaho (United States)

    Waddell, K.M.; Price, Don


    The United States Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, began a reconnaissance in 1967 to obtain essential water-quality information for the Bear River basin. The reconnaissance was directed toward defining the chemical quality of the basin’s surface waters, including suitability for specific uses, geology, and general basin hydrology. Emphasis was given to those areas where water-development projects are proposed or being considered.

  13. Failure Analysis and Thermochemical Surface Engineering of Bearings in the Wind Turbine Drivetrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    West, Ole H.E.; Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin

    the influence of different alloying concepts, prior heat treatments and nitriding parameters on the case properties. With optimum nitriding conditions a maximum nitriding depth of 800 μm was achieved, without formation of a thick porous compound layer. The build-up of near surface compressive stresses...... was confirmed by synchrotron X–ray diffraction stress analysis. The performance of surface engineered rollers was evaluated by RCF testing under conditions that are known to provoke failure in rollers made from a standard bearing steel. One of the nitrided materials showed promising results....

  14. Bearing splitting and near-surface source ranging in the direct zone of deep water (United States)

    Wu, Jun-Nan; Zhou, Shi-Hong; Peng, Zhao-Hui; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Ren-He


    Sound multipath propagation is very important for target localization and identification in different acoustical zones of deep water. In order to distinguish the multipath characteristics in deep water, the Northwest Pacific Acoustic Experiment was conducted in 2015. A low-frequency horizontal line array towed at the depth of around 150 m on a receiving ship was used to receive the noise radiated by the source ship. During this experiment, a bearing-splitting phenomenon in the direct zone was observed through conventional beamforming of the horizontal line array within the frequency band 160 Hz-360 Hz. In this paper, this phenomenon is explained based on ray theory. In principle, the received signal in the direct zone of deep water arrives from two general paths including a direct one and bottom bounced one, which vary considerably in arrival angles. The split bearings correspond to the contributions of these two paths. The bearing-splitting phenomenon is demonstrated by numerical simulations of the bearing-time records and experimental results, and they are well consistent with each other. Then a near-surface source ranging approach based on the arrival angles of direct path and bottom bounced path in the direct zone is presented as an application of bearing splitting and is verified by experimental results. Finally, the applicability of the proposed ranging approach for an underwater source within several hundred meters in depth in the direct zone is also analyzed and demonstrated by simulations. Project supported by the Program of One Hundred Talented People of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11434012 and 41561144006).

  15. Laser surface pretreatment of 100Cr6 bearing steel – Hardening effects and white etching zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buling, Anna, E-mail: [Faculty of Engineering and Computer Science, University of Applied Sciences, 49009 Osnabrück (Germany); Sändker, Hendrik; Stollenwerk, Jochen [Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT, Steinbachstrasse 15, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Krupp, Ulrich; Hamann-Steinmeier, Angela [Faculty of Engineering and Computer Science, University of Applied Sciences, 49009 Osnabrück (Germany)


    Highlights: • Laser surface pretreatment of the bearing steel 100Cr6 is performed. • Microstructural changes of the surface are examined by light microscopy and SEM. • Topographical changes are observed using white light interferometry. • Micro-hardness testing show the existence of very hard white etching zones (WEZ). • WEZ are attributed to near-surface reaustenitization and rapid quenching. • Dark etching zones (DEZ) are found at the laser path edges after laser pretreatment. - Abstract: In order to achieve a surface pretreatment of the bearing steel 100Cr6 (1–1.5 wt.% Cr) a laser-based process was used. The obtained modification may result in an optimization of the adhesive properties of the surface with respect to an anticorrosion polymer coating on the basis of PEEK (poly-ether-ether-ketone), which is applied on the steel surface by a laser melting technique. This work deals with the influence of the laser-based pretreatment regarding the surface microstructure and the micro-hardness of the steel, which has been examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light microscopy and automated micro-hardness testing. The most suitable parameter set for the laser-based pretreatment leads to the formation of very hard white etching zones (WEZ) with a thickness of 23 μm, whereas this pretreatment also induces topographical changes. The occurrence of the white etching zones is attributed to near-surface re-austenitization and rapid quenching. Moreover, dark etching zones (DEZ) with a thickness of 32 μm are found at the laser path edges as well as underneath the white etching zones (WEZ). In these areas, the hardness is decreased due to the formation of oxides as a consequence of re-tempering.

  16. The Mechanism of Solid State Joining THA with AlMg3Mn Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczorowski M.


    Full Text Available The results of experimental study of solid state joining of tungsten heavy alloy (THA with AlMg3Mn alloy are presented. The aim of these investigations was to study the mechanism of joining two extremely different materials used for military applications. The continuous rotary friction welding method was used in the experiment. The parameters of friction welding process i.e. friction load and friction time in whole studies were changed in the range 10 to 30kN and 0,5 to 10s respectively while forging load and time were constant and equals 50kN and 5s. The results presented here concerns only a small part whole studies which were described elsewhere. These are focused on the mechanism of joining which can be adhesive or diffusion controlled. The experiment included macro- and microstructure observations which were supplemented with SEM investigations. The goal of the last one was to reveal the character of fracture surface after tensile test and to looking for anticipated diffusion of aluminum into THA matrix. The results showed that joining of THA with AlMg2Mn alloy has mainly adhesive character, although the diffusion cannot be excluded.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamenko Yu. І.


    Full Text Available The standards and methods concerning assignment of rolling bearing fit with shafts and frames via example of bearing 6-208 are analyzed. We set certain differences of recommendations according to GOST 3325-85, "Rolling bearings. Tolerance zones and technical requirements to mounting surfaces of shafts and frames. Attachment" and by reference of rolling bearing manufacturers. The following factors should be taken into consideration when assigning the mounting with the tension the internal ring of the bearing with shaft and mounting with a gap in the outer ring with a housing bore. The methods of achieving accuracy of mounting surfaces of shafts and frames via form tolerance assignment: roundness tolerance, profile of longitudinal cut, cross section, cylindricity and others. It is possible to limit the bearing rings in different ways, for example appointing the cylindrical mounting surfaces and bead end surfaces the appropriate tolerances, namely: coaxiality tolerance or full radial beat of mounting surfaces, and also perpendicularity tolerance, butt beats and full butt beats of mounting end surfaces. We suggest to expand methods of achieving the accuracy of shafts and frames depending on seriation of production and production operations metrology support.

  18. Nonlinear dynamic modeling of surface defects in rolling element bearing systems (United States)

    Rafsanjani, Ahmad; Abbasion, Saeed; Farshidianfar, Anoushiravan; Moeenfard, Hamid


    In this paper an analytical model is proposed to study the nonlinear dynamic behavior of rolling element bearing systems including surface defects. Various surface defects due to local imperfections on raceways and rolling elements are introduced to the proposed model. The contact force of each rolling element described according to nonlinear Hertzian contact deformation and the effect of internal radial clearance has been taken into account. Mathematical expressions were derived for inner race, outer race and rolling element local defects. To overcome the strong nonlinearity of the governing equations of motion, a modified Newmark time integration technique was used to solve the equations of motion numerically. The results were obtained in the form of time series, frequency responses and phase trajectories. The validity of the proposed model verified by comparison of frequency components of the system response with those obtained from experiments. The classical Floquet theory has been applied to the proposed model to investigate the linear stability of the defective bearing rotor systems as the parameters of the system changes. The peak-to-peak frequency response of the system for each case is obtained and the basic routes to periodic, quasi-periodic and chaotic motions for different internal radial clearances are determined. The current study provides a powerful tool for design and health monitoring of machine systems.

  19. Photoreactive Polymers Bearing a Zwitterionic Phosphorylcholine Group for Surface Modification of Biomaterials. (United States)

    Lin, Xiaojie; Fukazawa, Kyoko; Ishihara, Kazuhiko


    Photoreactive polymers bearing zwitterionic phosphorylcholine and benzophenone groups on the side chain were synthesized and used as surface modification reagents for biomaterials. A photoreactive methacrylate containing the benzophenone group, 3-methacryloyloxy-2-hydroxypropyl-4-oxybenzophenone (MHPBP), was synthesized via a ring-opening and addition reaction between glycidyl methacrylate and 4-hydroxybenzophenone. Then, water-soluble, amphiphilic polymers poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC)-co-MHPBP) (PMH) and poly(MPC-co-n-butyl methacrylate-co-MHPBP), with different monomer unit compositions, were synthesized through radical polymerization. Ultraviolet-visible (UV/vis) absorption spectra of these polymer solutions showed that these polymers have maximum absorption peaks at 254 and 289 nm that can be attributed to the benzophenone unit. The intensity of UV adsorption at 289 nm was decreased with increased UV irradiation time, and it was saturated within a few minutes, indicating that the polymers are highly sensitive to UV irradiation. A commercial material (i.e., cyclic polyolefin) was simply modified by a UV irradiation for 1.0 min. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis results indicated that the stability of the polymer on the surface was dramatically enhanced because of the photochemical reaction of the benzophenone moiety. The air contact angles of PMH surfaces measured in water were up to 160°. Thus, highly hydrophilic surfaces were obtained. The critical surface tension of the PMH-modified surface was 45.7 mN/m. By evaluating the biological reactivity of the treated surface, protein adsorption and cell adhesion were completely inhibited on the surface, which was prepared using a photopatterning procedure using PMH. In conclusion, photoreactive MPC polymers with a benzophenone moiety could be used as a novel and effective surface modifier.



    Heiner, Anneliese D; Callaghan, John J.; Brown, Thomas D.


    Impaction grafting for THA involves compacting morselized cancellous bone (MCB) into a cavitary defect, to build up bone stock. Ideally, the MCB subsequently remodels into a new contiguous cancellous lattice. A recent laboratory model of MCB fusion allows simulating an impaction graft construct in this ideal eventual clinical state. The purpose of the present study was to determine the relative stability of femoral impaction graft constructs in which the MCB has fused, versus for MCB in the f...

  1. Three-dimensional micro-roughness of a pseudotachylyte-bearing fault surface (United States)

    Resor, P. G.; Griffith, W.; Di Toro, G.


    Dynamic friction experiments in granitoid or gabbroic rocks that achieve earthquake slip velocities reveal significant weakening by melt-lubrication of the sliding surfaces. Extrapolation of these experimental results to seismic source depths (> 7 km) suggests that the slip weakening distance (Dw) over which this transition occurs is analysis of three-dimensional (3D) fault surface microtopography and its causes on a pseudotachylyte-bearing fault. The solidification of frictional melt soon after seismic slip ceases "freezes in" earthquake source geometries, however it also precludes the development of extensive fault surface exposures that have enabled direct studies of fault surface roughness. We have overcome this difficulty by imaging the intact 3D geometry of the fault using high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT). Samples (2 cm diameter cores) from a wavy fault segment cutting tonalites of the Gole Larghe fault zone, Italy were scanned at the University of Texas High Resolution X-ray CT Facility, using an Xradia MicroCT scanner with a 70 kV X-ray source. Individual voxels (3D pixels) are ~32 μm across. Fault geometry is thus imaged over ~4 orders of magnitude from the micron scale up to Dw. The pseudotachylyte-bearing fault surface is imaged as a tabular body of intermediate X-ray attenuation crosscutting high attenuation biotite and low attenuation quartz and feldspar of the surrounding tonalite. We extract the fault surfaces (contact between the pseudotachylyte bearing fault zone and the wall rock) using integrated manual mapping, automated edge detection, and statistical evaluation. This approach results in a digital elevation model over > 90% of the fault surface for a sample from an extensional bend along the fault. Fourier spectral analysis of this surface reveals that roughness in both slip-parallel and slip-perpendicular directions exhibit approximate power-law scaling, however best-fit linear slopes are significantly less than 3, consistent

  2. Sub-surface Fatigue Crack Growth at Alumina Inclusions in AISI 52100 Roller Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerullo, Michele


    Sub-surface fatigue crack growth at non metallic inclusions is studied in AISI 52100 bearing steel under typical rolling contact loads. A first 2D plane strain finite element analysis is carried out to compute the stress history in the innner race at a characteristic depth, where the Dang Van...... damage factor is highest. Subsequently the stress history is imposed as boundary conditions in a periodic unit cell model, where an alumina inclusion is embedded in a AISI 52100 matrix. Cracks are assumed to grow radially from the inclusion under cyclic loading. The growth is predicted by means...... of irreversible fatigue cohesive elements. Different orientations of the cracks and different matrix-inclusion bonding conditions are analyzed and compared....

  3. Surface materials map of Afghanistan: iron-bearing minerals and other materials (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Dudek, Kathleen B.; Livo, Keith E.


    This map shows the distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of HyMap imaging spectrometer data of Afghanistan. Using a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) WB-57 aircraft flown at an altitude of ~15,240 meters or ~50,000 feet, 218 flight lines of data were collected over Afghanistan between August 22 and October 2, 2007. The HyMap data were converted to apparent surface reflectance, then further empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap data was compared to the spectral features of reference entries in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, ice, and snow. This map shows the spatial distribution of iron-bearing minerals and other materials having diagnostic absorptions at visible and near-infrared wavelengths. These absorptions result from electronic processes in the minerals. Several criteria, including (1) the reliability of detection and discrimination of minerals using the HyMap spectrometer data, (2) the relative abundance of minerals, and (3) the importance of particular minerals to studies of Afghanistan's natural resources, guided the selection of entries in the reference spectral library and, therefore, guided the selection of mineral classes shown on this map. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated. Minerals having similar spectral features were less easily discriminated, especially where the minerals were not particularly abundant and (or) where vegetation cover reduced the absorption strength of mineral features. Complications in reflectance calibration also affected the detection and identification of minerals.

  4. The impact of microgeometry pistons with a stepped bearing surface for the friction loss of the internal combustion engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wroblewski Emil


    Full Text Available This paper present the results of experimental piston friction losses on stepped bearing surface microgeometry obtained on the test rig. This test rig is equipped with special temperature control system, which provides better stability to temperature than in standard systems. The results of station tests was discussed. Tests was analyzed depending the moment caused by the friction on the oil temperature in the oil sump. Specified conclusions allow to assess the impact of the stepped profile of the pistons bearing surface microgeometry for different values of engine speed and the oil temperature at the friction losses in the main kinematic engine node which is piston-cylinder.

  5. Birmanie-Thaïlande: un écart croissant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel BRUNEAU


    Full Text Available Deux royaumes (Birmanie et Siam très proches l’un de l’autre culturellement et dans leurs structures socio-politiques ont vu, au cours des deux siècles derniers, leur richesse économique relative s’inverser l’un par rapport à l’autre en fonction de leur degré d’intégration au commerce international et au capitalisme occidental. Depuis la seconde guerre mondiale, l’écart n’a cessé de se creuser en faveur de la Thaïlande, qui est en train de rejoindre les Nouveaux Pays Industriels. Une cartographie de synthèse montre l’alternance de la richesse économique et l’écart qui n’a cessé de se creuser. L’Asie du Sud-Est continentale naguère déchirée, écartelée par les dominations extérieures (impérialismes britannique et français, puis nippo-américain a tendance à se recomposer en un ensemble dominé par la Thaïlande qui s’affirme de plus en plus comme la puissance économique centrale de la péninsule indochinoise.

  6. [Wear and Roughness of Bearing Surface in Retrieved Polyethylene Bicon-Plus Cups]. (United States)

    Ranuša, M; Gallo, J; Hobza, M; Vrbka, M; Nečas, D; Hartl, M


    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY By 7th December 2016, 4,755 Bicon-Plus cups in total were implanted in the Czech Republic. Some of them have been continuously re-operated, while the most frequent reason of failure is polyethylene wear and aseptic loosening. The present study is focused on surface analysis of retrieved polyethylene Bicon-Plus cups and the determination of the roughness of their bearing surfaces. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this study, we had 13 high molecular weight polyethylene cups with the average time in situ of 8.11 years (3.6-13.7, SD 3.2) before the retrieval. The study population was composed of 3 men, 10 women, with the mean age of 53.31 years. An optical scanning method, based on the principle of active triangulation, was used to determine wear rate. The rate of wear was identified by means of an obtained scan subsequently processed with the use of the GOM Inspect software. The roughness of surfaces was analysed with the application of Contour GT-X8 profiler using the principle of phase shifting interferometry. Measurements of surface topography of the retrieved cups were performed on the entire bearing surfaces. For the individual surface changes, a typical range of surface roughness, describing the particular wear character, was determined. By means of morphology analysis of the tested implants, three areas were identified: unworn area; area representing the worn part of the cup; and the area roughened by parallel grooving. The total surface roughness was evaluated as an arithmetic mean of the measured values. Subsequently, the values were sorted based on frequency and were classified into categories defining the particular wear mechanisms. RESULTS Wear rate of the retrieved acetabular cups was evaluated based on the wear direction vector and the size of linear wear. The average linear wear was equal to 0.13 mm/year (ranging from 0.26 to 2.29 mm/year), and the mean value of total volumetric material loss was 44.37 mm3/year (the range being from 51


    The East Bear catchment at Bear Brook Watershed, Maine receives moderate (for the eastern U.S.) amounts of Cl- in wet and dry deposition. In 1989, Cl- in precipitation ranged from 2 to 55 eq/L. Dry, occult, and wet deposition plus evapotranspiration resulted in stream Cl- averagi...

  8. The origin of sulfur-bearing species on the surfaces of icy satellites (United States)

    Strazzulla, Giovanni; Garozzo, Mario; Gomis, Oscar


    We present experimental results in order to understand the physico-chemical effects induced by fast ions irradiating sulfur bearing molecules. The experiments are relevant both to Solar System objects (icy satellites, comets, TNOs) and icy mantles on grains in the interstellar medium. Here we concentrate on the application to the Galilean moons that are exposed to high energetic particle fluxes in the jovian magnetosphere. In particular we show that: Implantation of sulfur ions into water ice produces hydrated sulfuric acid with high efficiency providing an important contribution to the sulfur cycle on the surfaces of Europa and other jovian satellites. Implantation of protons into sulfur dioxide produces mainly SO 3, polymers, and O 3 but not H-S bonds. The suggested hypothesis that H implantation could result in the formation of H 2SO 3 on Io is not confirmed by our experiments. Irradiation of sulfur dioxide mainly produces SO 3 and sulfur polymers. Irradiation and subsequent warming of H 2S induces the formation of a sulfurous residue that exhibits S-H bonds. Water ice has been deposited on refractory sulfurous materials originating from SO 2 or H 2S irradiation. We looked to the formation of new species at the interface (ion mixing). We have not found evidence for the efficient synthesis of SO 2. In the case of residues rich in species containing S-H bonds, H 2S is re-formed.

  9. No Difference in Reoperations at 2 Years Between Ceramic-on-metal and Metal-on-metal THA: A Randomized Trial. (United States)

    Engh, C Anderson; Sritulanondha, Supatra; Korczak, Abigail; Whalen, Terrence David; Naudie, Douglas D R; McCalden, Richard W; MacDonald, Steven J


    Hard-on-hard bearings for total hip arthroplasty continue to warrant analysis even though crosslinked polyethylene is performing very well. Ceramic-on-metal (CoM) has low in vitro wear and did well in an early clinical trial. We report on a prospective, randomized, multicenter investigational device trial comparing CoM with metal-on-metal (MoM). (1) Is there a difference in the number or type of revisions comparing CoM with MoM? (2) Are cobalt and chromium metal levels different for CoM and MoM THA? Between August 2005 and October 2006, of 1015 patients screened, 390 patients were enrolled at 11 centers and randomized to 194 CoM and 196 MoM bearings. There was no difference in the preoperative patient demographics between the study groups. Mean followup was 50 months (range, 22-75 months). Seventy-two patients from two centers had metal level analysis. With the numbers available, there was no difference in the proportion of patients undergoing revisions between the MoM and the CoM cohorts (MOM: 3% [six of 196]; COM: 1.5% [three of 194]; p = 0.50). Four MoM revisions were unrelated to the bearing surface. Two had bearing surface-related reoperations, one for an aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesion and one for elevated metal levels with acetabular malposition. None of the CoM revisions were related to the bearing surface. The metal level analysis revealed that in contrast to the CoM, the MoM bearing group had increasing values of erythrocyte and serum cobalt from 1 to 5 years (CoM erythrocyte 0.45-0.55 ppb, p = 0.11 and CoM serum 0.88-0.85, p = 0.55, and MoM erythrocyte 0.32-0.51 ppb, p MoM serum 0.65-1.01 ppb, p MoM cobalt levels in erythrocytes and serum at 5 years were more variable than at 1 year (erythrocyte interquartile range [IQR], 0.26-0.44 to 0.31-1.21 ppb and serum IQR, 0.42-0.80 to 0.64-2.20 ppb, p MoM cobalt elevations may be important considering recent reports of taper corrosion. This CoM bearing was approved by the FDA but

  10. The influence of external dynamic loads on the lifetime of rolling element bearings: Experimental analysis of the lubricant film and surface wear (United States)

    Jacobs, William; Van Hooreweder, Brecht; Boonen, Rene; Sas, Paul; Moens, David


    Precise prediction of the lifetime of rolling element bearings is a crucial step towards a reliable design of many rotating machines. For bearings subjected to highly varying loads, recent research emphasises a strong reduction of the actual bearing lifetime w.r.t. the classically calculated bearing lifetime. This paper experimentally analyses the influence of external dynamic loads on the lifetime of rolling element bearings. A novel bearing test rig is introduced. The test rig is able to apply a fully controlled multi-axial static and dynamic load on a single test bearing. Also, different types and sizes of bearings can be tested. Two separate investigations are conducted. First, the behaviour of the lubricant film between the rolling elements and raceways is analysed. Increased metallic contact or breakdown of the film during dynamic excitation is investigated based on the measured electrical resistance through the bearing. The study shows that the lubricant film thickness follows the imposed variations of the load. Variations of the lubricant film thickness are similar to the variations when the magnitude of the static bearing load is changed. Second, wear of the raceway surfaces is analysed. Surface wear is investigated after a series of accelerated lifetime tests under high dynamic load. Due to sliding motion between asperities of the contacting surfaces in the bearing, polishing of the raceway honing structure occurs. This polishing is clearly observed on SEM images of the inner raceway after a test duration of only 0.5% of the calculated L10 life. Polishing wear of the surfaces, such as surface induced cracks and material delamination, is expected when the bearing is further exposed to the high dynamic load.

  11. Optimum design of amphiphilic polymers bearing hydrophobic groups for both cell surface ligand presentation and intercellular cross-linking. (United States)

    Takeo, Masafumi; Li, Cuicui; Matsuda, Masayoshi; Nagai, Hiroko; Hatanaka, Wataru; Yamamoto, Tatsuhiro; Kishimura, Akihiro; Mori, Takeshi; Katayama, Yoshiki


    Amphiphilic polymers bearing hydrophobic alkyl groups are expected to be applicable for both ligand presentation on the cell surface and intercellular crosslinking. To explore the optimum design for each application, we synthesized eight different acyl-modified dextrans with varying molecular weight, alkyl length, and alkyl modification degree. We found that the behenate-modified polymers retained on the cell surface longer than the palmitate-modified ones. Since the polymers were also modified with biotin, streptavidin can be presented on the cell surface through biotin-streptavidin recognition. The duration of streptavidin on the cell surface is longer in the behenate-modified polymer than the palmitate-modified one. As for the intercellular crosslinking, the palmitate-modified polymers were more efficient than the behenate-modified polymers. The findings in this research will be helpful to design the acyl-modified polymers for the cell surface engineering.

  12. Current Insights Regarding Metal-on-Metal Bearings for Hip Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Van Der Straeten


    Full Text Available Modern small diameter metal-on-metal (MoM bearings for total hip arthroplasty (THA have been developed in the nineteen-eighties to address the problem of polyethylene wear related osteolysis. Subsequently large diameter MoM hip resurfacings (HRA were designed for young and active patients to preserve bone and avoid dislocation. Large diameter MoM THA were originally meant as an easy femoral component-only revision solution for femoral neck fractures in HRA, but were then advocated for primary THA as well. In the last decade however, increasing numbers of revisions for adverse local tissues reactions (ALTR to metal debris have been reported. These ALTR are due to excessive wear of the MoM bearings, usually related to malpositioning of the components leading to edge loading, or in rare cases to metal sensitivity. Besides the immunological reactions, metal particles and ions have a potential local and systemic toxicity. Wear and tribocorrosion at the taper-trunnion connections of MoM THA but also THA with polyethylene and ceramic bearings have also been recognized as a cause of ALTR with extensive tissue destruction. Despite the fact that the long-term survivorship and functional results of certain MoM HRA are excellent and better than THA in the young and active patients group, MoM bearings have become very unpopular and are likely to be replaced by bearing couples of other materials.

  13. Bilateral Insufficiency Fracture of the Pelvis Following THA: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Hayashi


    Full Text Available Insufficiency fracture is of the stress fractures and is caused by repetitive stress on fragile bone. Insufficiency fractures of pubic rami are rare occurrences in association with total hip arthroplasty (THA. Postoperative stress fractures occur due to increase of patients activity following years of disability. The physician should consider the possibility of a pelvic insufficiency fracture in patients with RA after THA, if the patients present with groin pain. We demonstrate here the first case of bilateral insufficiency fracture of pubic rami and iliac bone following THA.

  14. Bilateral Insufficiency Fracture of the Pelvis Following THA: A Case Report


    Shinya Hayashi; Takayuki Nishiyama; Takaaki Fujishiro; Shingo Hashimoto; Masahiro Kurosaka


    Insufficiency fracture is of the stress fractures and is caused by repetitive stress on fragile bone. Insufficiency fractures of pubic rami are rare occurrences in association with total hip arthroplasty (THA). Postoperative stress fractures occur due to increase of patients activity following years of disability. The physician should consider the possibility of a pelvic insufficiency fracture in patients with RA after THA, if the patients present with groin pain. We demonstrate here the fir...

  15. Late Dislocations After Total Hip Arthroplasty: Is the Bearing a Factor? (United States)

    Shah, Siddharth M; Walter, William L; Tai, Stephen M; Lorimer, Michelle F; de Steiger, Richard N


    Dislocation is a leading cause of revision after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA). Although more common in the first few years after the procedure, dislocation can occur at any time. This study investigated the difference in late dislocation in ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) bearings compared with metal-on-polyethylene and ceramic-on-polyethylene bearings in THA. Data were used from the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry, and the cumulative percent revision for dislocation was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method for the different bearing surfaces. There were 192,275 THAs included in the study with 101,915 metal-on-cross-linked polyethylene (MoXLPE), 30,256 ceramic-on-cross-linked polyethylene (CoXLPE), and 60,104 CoC. The cumulative percent revision for dislocation at 13 years for MoXLPE, CoXLPE, and CoC groups was 1.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.3), 1.0 (95% CI, 0.7-1.4), and 0.9 (95% CI, 0.8-1.1), respectively. There was an increased risk of revision for dislocation for MoXLPE compared with CoXLPE and CoC. When stratified for head size, there was no difference in the risk of revision for dislocation between MoXLPE, CoXLPE, and CoC in the 28- and 32-mm head sizes. With a head size of 36 mm, MoXLPE had a higher rate of dislocation compared with other materials. Bearing surface has little impact on revision for dislocation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Investigations on femtosecond laser modified micro-textured surface with anti-friction property on bearing steel GCr15 (United States)

    Yang, Lijun; Ding, Ye; Cheng, Bai; He, Jiangtao; Wang, Genwang; Wang, Yang


    This work puts forward femtosecond laser modification of micro-textured surface on bearing steel GCr15 in order to reduce frictional wear and enhance load capacity during its application. Multi pulses femtosecond laser ablation experiments are established for the confirmation of laser spot radius as well as single pulse threshold fluence and pulse incubation coefficient of bulk material. Analytical models are set up in combination with hydrodynamics lubrication theory. Corresponding simulations are carried out on to explore influences of surface and cross sectional morphology of textures on hydrodynamics lubrication effect based on Navier-Stokes (N-S) equation. Technological experiments focus on the impacts of femtosecond laser machining variables, like scanning times, scanning velocity, pulse frequency and scanning gap on morphology of grooves as well as realization of optimized textures proposed by simulations, mechanisms of which are analyzed from multiple perspectives. Results of unidirectional rotating friction tests suggest that spherical texture with depth-to-width ratio of 0.2 can significantly improve tribological properties at low loading and velocity condition comparing with un-textured and other textured surfaces, which also verifies the accuracy of simulations and feasibility of femtosecond laser in modification of micro-textured surface.

  17. Alloy Microstructure Dictates Corrosion Modes in THA Modular Junctions. (United States)

    Pourzal, Robin; Hall, Deborah J; Ehrich, Jonas; McCarthy, Stephanie M; Mathew, Mathew T; Jacobs, Joshua J; Urban, Robert M


    Adverse local tissue reactions (ALTRs) triggered by corrosion products from modular taper junctions are a known cause of premature THA failure. CoCrMo devices are of particular concern because cobalt ions and chromium-orthophosphates were shown to be linked to ALTRs, even in metal-on-polyethylene THAs. The most common categories of CoCrMo alloy are cast and wrought alloy, which exhibit fundamental microstructural differences in terms of grain size and hard phases. The impact of implant alloy microstructure on the occurring modes of corrosion and subsequent metal ion release is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to determine whether (1) the microstructure of cast CoCrMo alloy varies broadly between manufacturers and can dictate specific corrosion modes; and whether (2) the microstructure of wrought CoCrMo alloy is more consistent between manufacturers and has low implications on the alloy's corrosion behavior. The alloy microstructure of four femoral-stem and three femoral-head designs from four manufacturers was metallographically and electrochemically characterized. Three stem designs were made from cast alloy; all three head designs and one stem design were made from wrought alloy. Alloy samples were sectioned from retrieved components and then polished and etched to visualize grain structure and hard phases such as carbides (eg, M 23 C 6 ) or intermetallic phases (eg, σ phase). Potentiodynamic polarization (PDP) tests were conducted to determine the corrosion potential (E corr ), corrosion current density (I corr ), and pitting potential (E pit ) for each alloy. Four devices were tested within each group, and each measurement was repeated three times to ensure repeatable results. Differences in PDP metrics between manufacturers and between alloys with different hard phase contents were compared using one-way analysis of variance and independent-sample t-tests. Microstructural features such as twin boundaries and slip bands as well as corrosion

  18. Grin and Bear It?: Employees' Use of Surface Acting During Co-worker Conflict. (United States)

    Nixon, Ashley E; Bruk-Lee, Valentina; Spector, Paul E


    Using survey data from 459 employed individuals, the conditional indirect effects of three types of interpersonal conflict at work on strains and performance through surface acting were tested. Results indicated that task, relationship and non-task organizational conflict were positively related to depressive and physical symptoms and negatively related to performance. Task conflict had a significantly weaker association with employee outcomes than either relationship or non-task organizational conflict. Surface acting negatively related to all types of conflict, although it had a weaker association with relationship conflict than task or non-task organizational conflict. Support was found for moderated mediation relationships whereby surface acting mediated the associations between all types of conflict with depressive symptoms, as well as the association between relationship and non-task organizational conflict with physical symptoms, when conflict was infrequent. Surface acting also mediated the associations between all types of conflict and performance when conflict was frequent. Future research directions are discussed that can advance our theoretical understanding of how emotional labour and interpersonal conflict interact to affect employees, as well as further our ability to improve employee well-being and organizational functioning. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Bearing material. [composite material with low friction surface for rolling or sliding contact (United States)

    Sliney, H. E. (Inventor)


    A composite material is described which will provide low friction surfaces for materials in rolling or sliding contact and is self-lubricating and oxidation resistant up to and in excess of about 930 C. The composite is comprised of a metal component which lends strength and elasticity to the structure, a fluoride salt component which provides lubrication and, lastly, a glass component which not only provides oxidation protection to the metal but may also enhance the lubrication qualities of the composite.

  20. Laser surface texturing for high control of interference fit joint load bearing (United States)

    Obeidi, M. Ahmed; McCarthy, E.; Brabazon, D.


    Laser beams attract the attention of researchers, engineers and manufacturer as they can deliver high energy with finite controlled processing parameters and heat affected zone (HAZ) on almost all kind of materials [1-3]. Laser beams can be generated in the broad range of wavelengths, energies and beam modes in addition to the unique property of propagation in straight lines with less or negligible divergence [3]. These features made lasers preferential for metal treatment and surface modification over the conventional machining and heat treatment methods. Laser material forming and processing is prosperous and competitive because of its flexibility and the creation of new solutions and techniques [3-5]. This study is focused on the laser surface texture of 316L stainless steel pins for the application of interference fit, widely used in automotive and aerospace industry. The main laser processing parameters applied are the power, frequency and the overlapping laser beam scans. The produced samples were characterized by measuring the increase in the insertion diameter, insertion and removal force, surface morphology and cross section alteration and the modified layer chemical composition and residual stresses.

  1. Outcomes of different bearings in total hip arthroplasty - implant survival, revision causes, and patient-reported outcome. (United States)

    Varnum, Claus


    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a common and successful treatment of patients suffering from severe osteoarthritis that significantly reduces pain and improves hip function and quality of life. Traditionally, the outcome of THA has been evaluated by orthopaedic surgeons and assessed in morbidity and mortality rates, and implant survival. As patients and surgeons may assess outcome after THA differently, patient-reported outcomes (PROMs) have gained much more interest and are today recognized as very important tools for evaluating the outcome and satisfaction after THA. One of the prognostic factors for the outcome of THA is the type of bearings. This PhD thesis focuses on the influence of different types of bearings on implant survival, revision causes, PROMs, and noises from THA. The aims of the thesis were: Study I: To examine the revision risk and to investigate the causes of revision of cementless ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) THAs comparing them to those of "standard" metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) THAs. Study II: To compare the six-year revision risk for metal-on-metal (MoM) with that for MoP bearings in cementless stemmed THA, and further to study the revision risk for different designs of stemmed MoM THAs and the causes of revision. Study III: To examine the association between CoC, MoM, and MoP bearings and both generic and disease-specific PROMs, and furthermore to examine the incidence and types of noises from the three types of bearings and identify the effect of noises on PROM scores. In study I and III, we used data from the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Registry combined with data from the Civil Registration System and the Danish National Patient Registry. In study II, data from the Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association, containing data from hip arthroplasty registries in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland, was used. In study I, 11,096 patients operated from 2002 through 2009 with cementless THA were included. Of these, 16% had CoC THA and 84% had MoP THA. At

  2. Impact of surface treatment of different reinforced glass-ceramic anterior crowns on load bearing capacity. (United States)

    Emslander, Angela; Reise, Michael; Eichberger, Marlis; Uhrenbacher, Julia; Edelhoff, Daniel; Stawarczyk, Bogna


    This study investigated the influence of different surface treatments on fracture load (FL) of canine crowns fabricated from two different pressable lithium-disilicate ceramics: A (HS10PC, estetic ceram, n=180) and B (IPS e.max Press, IvoclarVivadent, n=120). The standardized specimens were divided into groups of six different surface treatments and two glazing temperatures. A-group specimens were additionally assigned two glazing pastes with various thermal expansion coefficients (TEC). FL was measured and TECs were determined. Data were analyzed using three/one-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc Scheffe's test. B showed comparable or higher FL than A (B: 503-876 N; A: 375-734 N). Lithium-disilicate crowns show higher FL when not grinded but only polished or glazed. Glazing pastes affected FL depending on their TECs, firing temperature and crown treatment. TEC of A and B was 10 ppm/K, glazing pastes for A presented TECs of 7.5 ppm/K and 10 ppm/K and for B of 9 ppm/K.

  3. Thaïlande | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le développement ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Des chercheurs du Canada, de la Chine, de l'Indonésie et de la Thaïlande ont utilisé les outils qu'offre la biotechnologie moderne, tels que l'empreinte génétique, afin de préserver la biodiversité génétique et d'améliorer les espèces de poissons. En Thaïlande, les chercheurs et les pisciculteurs ont collaboré pour cerner ...

  4. Do Rerevision Rates Differ After First-time Revision of Primary THA With a Cemented and Cementless Femoral Component?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Kirill; Pedersen, Alma B; Overgaard, Søren


    the results of future revision procedures; however, this has not been documented. The purpose of this study was to compare (1) the risk for rerevision of first revision THA; (2) the patterns of femoral bone loss at the time of first revision of primary THA; (3) the reasons for first revision of primary THA......) and 2 years (range, 0-16 years), respectively. Survival of first revision THA, with second revision of the femur as outcome, was evaluated using hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) adjusting for potential confounding. All patient- and surgery-related data are collected from Danish...

  5. No Superiority of Cemented Metal-on-Metal vs Metal-on-Polyethylene THA at 5-Year Follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Wierd P.; Cheung, John; Sietsma, Maurits S.; van Raay, Jos J. A. M.; Deutman, Robert

    A randomized controlled trial was performed to compare the cemented Stanmore metal-on-metal (Biomet, Warsaw, Indiana) total hip arthroplasty (THA; 102 hips) to the cemented Stanmore metal-on-polyethylene (Biomet) THA (98 hips). The primary outcome was clinical performance. Radiological performance,

  6. Laser-Hardened and Ultrasonically Peened Surface Layers on Tool Steel AISI D2: Correlation of the Bearing Curves' Parameters, Hardness and Wear (United States)

    Lesyk, D. A.; Martinez, S.; Mordyuk, B. N.; Dzhemelinskyi, V. V.; Lamikiz, A.; Prokopenko, G. I.; Grinkevych, K. E.; Tkachenko, I. V.


    This paper is focused on the effects of the separately applied laser heat treatment (LHT) and ultrasonic impact treatment (UIT) and the combined LHT + UIT process on the wear and friction behaviors of the hardened surface layers of the tool steel AISI D2. In comparison with the initial state, wear losses of the treated specimens after long-term wear tests were decreased by 68, 41, and 77% at the LHT, UIT, and combined LHT + UIT processes, respectively. The Abbott-Firestone bearing curves were used to analyze the material ratio and functional characterization (bearing capacity and oil capacitance) of the studied surface specimens. The wear losses registered after short (15 min) tests correlate well with the changes in experimental surface roughness Ra, and the predictive Rpk, and bearing capacity B C parameters, respectively, evaluated using the Abbott-Firestone curves and Kragelsky-Kombalov formula. The wear losses after the long-term (45 min) tests are in good correlation with the reciprocal surface microhardness HV and with the W L and W P wear parameters, respectively, estimated using Archard-Rabinowicz formula and complex roughness-and-strength approach. The observed HV increase is supported by nanotwins (LHT), by dense dislocation nets (UIT), and by dislocation cells/nanograins fixed with fine carbides (LHT + UIT) formed in the surface layers of the steel.

  7. The Infection Rate of Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Replacement Is Higher When Compared to Other Bearing Surfaces as Documented by the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry. (United States)

    Huang, Phil; Lyons, Matt; O'Sullivan, Michael


    Despite the well-documented decline in the use of metal-on-metal (MoM) implants over the last decade, there are still controversies regarding whether all MoM implants are created equally. Complications such as elevated serum metal ion levels, aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesion (ALVAL) and pseudotumours have all been well documented, but recent studies suggest increased risk of infection with MoM bearing surfaces. Most of these studies however have small patient numbers. The purpose of this study was to examine the cumulative incidence of revision for infection of MoM bearing surfaces in primary hip arthroplasty at a national and single-surgeon level. Data was collected from the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry, which contains over 98% of all arthroplasties performed in Australia since 2001. The cumulative incidence of revision for infection was extracted at a national level and single-surgeon level. Two hundred seventy-six thousand eight hundred seventy-eight subjects were documented in the Australian registry. The 10-year cumulative percent revision for infection of MoM bearing surfaces in primary total hip replacement (THR) was 2.5% at a national level, compared to 0.8% for other bearing surfaces. The senior author contributed 1755 subjects with 7-year follow-up and a cumulative percent revision for infection of MoM bearing surfaces in primary THR of 36.9%, compared to 2.0% for other bearing surfaces. The cumulative percent of revision of MoM bearing surfaces is higher compared to other bearing surfaces; this is especially pronounced in cumulative percent of revision for infection. There was a higher cumulative percent of revision for infection in MoM bearings surfaces (in particular, large-head MoM) compared to other bearing surfaces at both the national and individual-surgeon level.

  8. Finite size effects of ionic species sensitively determine load bearing capacities of lubricated systems under combined influence of electrokinetics and surface compliance. (United States)

    Naik, Kaustubh Girish; Chakraborty, Suman; Chakraborty, Jeevanjyoti


    The behaviour and health of lubricated systems in various natural and artificial settings are often characterized by their load bearing capacity. This capacity stemming from the lift force associated with confined fluid flow can be significantly altered due to surface compliance and electrokinetic effects. Here, we highlight the influence of finite size of the ionic species participating in electrokinetic transport with substrate compliance in determining the electromechanical characteristics of lubricated systems. With these new considerations, anomalous trends previously observed for the load bearing capacity corresponding to high values of zeta potential are corrected. Simultaneously, trends associated with the finite ionic size are also found to be reversed, but fall in line with the consistent theory. Importantly, despite an intricate interplay among the various influences - electrokinetic, hydrodynamic, geometric, and elastic - previously established trends due to geometric (non-parallel slider geometry) and elastic effects are found to persist. Specifically, in the presence of electrokinetic effects, an increase in the obliqueness of the slider geometry results in lower values of load bearing capacity while an increase in the stiffness leads to higher values. These results point to a certain robustness in the overall theory and it is hoped that they can contribute to better practical designs of slider bearings and an improved understanding of lubricated sliding surfaces in biological settings.

  9. Bearings: Technology and needs (United States)

    Anderson, W. J.


    A brief status report on bearing technology and present and near-term future problems that warrant research support is presented. For rolling element bearings a material with improved fracture toughness, life data in the low Lambda region, a comprehensive failure theory verified by life data and incorporated into dynamic analyses, and an improved corrosion resistant alloy are perceived as important needs. For hydrodynamic bearings better definition of cavitation boundaries and pressure distributions for squeeze film dampers, and geometry optimization for minimum power loss in turbulent film bearings are needed. For gas film bearings, foil bearing geometries that form more nearly optimum film shapes for maximum load capacity, and more effective surface protective coatings for high temperature operation are needed.

  10. How have alternative bearings and modularity affected revision rates in total hip arthroplasty? (United States)

    Mihalko, William M; Wimmer, Markus A; Pacione, Carol A; Laurent, Michel P; Murphy, Robert F; Rider, Carson


    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) continues to be one of the most successful surgical procedures in the medical field. However, over the last two decades, the use of modularity and alternative bearings in THA has become routine. Given the known problems associated with hard-on-hard bearing couples, including taper failures with more modular stem designs, local and systemic effects from metal-on-metal bearings, and fractures with ceramic-on-ceramic bearings, it is not known whether in aggregate the survivorship of these implants is better or worse than the metal-on-polyethylene bearings that they sought to replace. Have alternative bearings (metal-on-metal and ceramic-on-ceramic) and implant modularity decreased revision rates of primary THAs? In this systematic review of MEDLINE and EMBASE, we used several Boolean search strings for each topic and surveyed national registry data from English-speaking countries. Clinical research (Level IV or higher) with ≥ 5 years of followup was included; retrieval studies and case reports were excluded. We included registry data at ≥ 7 years followup. A total of 32 studies (and five registry reports) on metal-on-metal, 19 studies (and five registry reports) on ceramic-on-ceramic, and 20 studies (and one registry report) on modular stem designs met inclusion criteria and were evaluated in detail. Insufficient data were available on metal-on-ceramic and ceramic-on-metal implants, and monoblock acetabular designs were evaluated in another recent systematic review so these were not evaluated here. There was no evidence in the literature that alternative bearings (either metal-on-metal or ceramic-on-ceramic) in THA have decreased revision rates. Registry data, however, showed that large head metal-on-metal implants have lower 7- to 10-year survivorship than do standard bearings. In THA, modular exchangeable femoral neck implants had a lower 10-year survival rate in both literature reviews and in registry data compared with combined

  11. Paleo-Environment and C-14 Dating: The Key to the Depositional Age of the Tha Chang and Related Sand Pits, Northeastern Thailand (United States)

    Putthapiban, P.; Zolensky, M.; Jull, T.; Demartino, M.; Salyapongse, S.


    - Arizona AMS Laboratory. Although, there is no sharp boundary between the unconsolidated sedimentary horizons in the pits, C-14 ages obtained from the Tha Chang vary from 34,340 BP at the middle horizon (approx 10 m below ground zero) to >49,900 BP at the lower horizon with unknown basal formation (highly pyritized zone approx 20 - 25 m below ground zero). The ages for the Chumpuang vary from 41,700 BP, >45,900 BP and >49,900 BP from the upper most to the lower most of a broad horizon (approx 8 m to approx 12 m below ground zero). The C-14 age of the pottery collected from layer approximately 5 m below ground zero is 2,514 BP. The nature of fluviatile together with occasional mass wasting characteristics of all sand pits studies suggest the relatively faster depositional rate of the lower horizon which involved more flooding and mass wasting deposits than those of the upper horizons. The apparent of some mixing of the wood ages may indicate reworking and lag deposits nature of the area. The depositional rate of the upper most sand and soil horizon (5 m thick) is approximately 1 m per 500 years which mean both erosion and deposition had played a significant role during that time period. In term of the true age of the formation, we argue that since most of the materials deposited are reworked materials, all ages obtained from fossil fragments could not be the age of sand and gravel formation. Furthermore, the maximum age of all the tektite bearing horizons cannot be older than 0.8 Ma. The oldest C-14 age of 49,900 BP is interpreted as the minimum age of the Tha Chang and related sand pits formation when geomorphology of the area was a lot more hilly and much higher gradient than that of the present day.

  12. Ultrathin wear-resistant coatings for the tape bearing surface of thin-film magnetic heads for digital compact cassette (United States)

    Zieren, V.; Dejongh, M.; Vangroenou, A. Broese; Vanzon, J. B. A.; Lasinski, P.; Theunissen, G. S. A. M.


    The introduction of the digital compact cassette (DCC) system into the consumer market imposed some severe requirements on the durability of the thin-film heads used in this system. The reliability of the head's record and playback functions has to be maintained under a wide variety of climatic conditions and tape types, as a consequence of the system's backward compatibility with the analog compact cassette. This paper describes the results of several accelerated wear tests as well as of durability tests against tape, which were set-up to find the best material and process conditions for a wear-resistant coating on the tape bearing surface of a DCC head. This ultrathin coating (less than 75 nm) appeared to be the best solution as a safeguard against severe pole-tip recession, which would cause an unacceptable distance loss in the recording system. The first material which showed a very high wear resistance was CrN. As CrN fulfils all requirements for wear and corrosion resistance in the home application, this material is presently used in all DCC home decks. However, under extremely abrasive conditions, such as may be encountered in a car environment (e.g. cold start at -20 C), CrN is surpassed by an even more wear-resistant material, called SPL (super protective layer). Therefore, SPL is preferred as a coating on thin-film heads for car stereo (as well as portable) DCC apparatus. Both materials are characterized by their specific wear performance, which has a superior impact on the electrical (record and playback) properties of the head during its lifetime.

  13. Estimating the Societal Benefits of THA After Accounting for Work Status and Productivity: A Markov Model Approach. (United States)

    Koenig, Lane; Zhang, Qian; Austin, Matthew S; Demiralp, Berna; Fehring, Thomas K; Feng, Chaoling; Mather, Richard C; Nguyen, Jennifer T; Saavoss, Asha; Springer, Bryan D; Yates, Adolph J


    Demand for total hip arthroplasty (THA) is high and expected to continue to grow during the next decade. Although much of this growth includes working-aged patients, cost-effectiveness studies on THA have not fully incorporated the productivity effects from surgery. We asked: (1) What is the expected effect of THA on patients' employment and earnings? (2) How does accounting for these effects influence the cost-effectiveness of THA relative to nonsurgical treatment? Taking a societal perspective, we used a Markov model to assess the overall cost-effectiveness of THA compared with nonsurgical treatment. We estimated direct medical costs using Medicare claims data and indirect costs (employment status and worker earnings) using regression models and nonparametric simulations. For direct costs, we estimated average spending 1 year before and after surgery. Spending estimates included physician and related services, hospital inpatient and outpatient care, and postacute care. For indirect costs, we estimated the relationship between functional status and productivity, using data from the National Health Interview Survey and regression analysis. Using regression coefficients and patient survey data, we ran a nonparametric simulation to estimate productivity (probability of working multiplied by earnings if working minus the value of missed work days) before and after THA. We used the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry to obtain revision rates because it contained osteoarthritis-specific THA revision rates by age and gender, which were unavailable in other registry reports. Other model assumptions were extracted from a previously published cost-effectiveness analysis that included a comprehensive literature review. We incorporated all parameter estimates into Markov models to assess THA effects on quality-adjusted life years and lifetime costs. We conducted threshold and sensitivity analyses on direct costs, indirect costs, and revision

  14. Influence of processing medium on frictional wear properties of ball bearing steel prepared by laser surface melting coupled with bionic principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Hong, E-mail: [Key Lab of Automobile Materials, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130025 (China); Wang Chengtao [Key Lab of Automobile Materials, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130025 (China); Faw-Volkswagen Automotive Company Ltd., Changchun 130011 (China); Guo Qingchun [Key Lab of Automobile Materials, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130025 (China); Brilliance Automobile Engineering Research Institute, Shenyang 110141 (China); Yu Jiaxiang [Key Lab of Automobile Materials, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130025 (China); Wang Mingxing [State Key Laboratory of Nonlinear Mechanics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 15 Beisihuanxi Road, Beijing 100190 (China); Liao Xunlong [Technical Management Department, CNNC China Zhongyuan Engineering Corp. Ltd., No 487 Tianlin Road, Shanghai 200233 (China); Zhao Yu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Changchun University of Technology, Changchun 130012 (China); Ren Luquan [Key Lab of Terrain Machinery Bionics Engineering, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130025 (China)


    Coupling with bionic principles, an attempt to improve the wear resistance of ball bearing steel (GCr15) with biomimetic units on the surface was made using a pulsed Nd: YAG laser. Air and water film was employed as processing medium, respectively. The microstructures of biomimeitc units were examined by scanning electron microscope and X-ray diffraction was used to describe the microstructure and identify the phases as functions of different mediums as well as water film with different thicknesses. The results indicated that the microstructure zones in the biomimetic specimens processed with water film were more refined and had better wear resistance increased by 55.8% in comparison with that processed in air; a significant improvement in microhardness was achieved by laser surface melting. The application of water film provided considerable microstructural changes and much more regular grain shape in biomimetic units, which played a key role in improving the wear resistance of ball bearing steel.

  15. Custom cementless THA in patients with Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease. (United States)

    Al-Khateeb, Hesham; Kwok, Iris H Y; Hanna, Sammy A; Sewell, Mathew D; Hashemi-Nejad, Aresh


    Legg-Calve-Perthes disease is characterized by osteonecrosis of the femoral head during childhood. Outcomes of total hip arthroplasty (THA) for these patients are less satisfactory than for those with primary osteoarthritis, often complicated by young patient age, multi-planar deformities and previous childhood surgery. To our knowledge no one has reported the long-term outcomes of cementless custom-made THA in patients with Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. We reviewed 15 THAs with an average follow-up of ten years. Survivorship rates of the femoral and acetabular components were 100% and 79% respectively. Mean Harris Hip Scores improved from 41 preoperatively to 80 at final follow-up. With excellent functional outcome, custom-made cementless prostheses should be considered as a treatment option for osteoarthritis secondary to Legg-Calve-Perthes disease in the presence of abnormal proximal femoral and acetabular anatomy. © 2014.

  16. Patient-Reported Outcomes After Revision of Metal-on-Metal Total Bearings in Total Hip Arthroplasty. (United States)

    Mata-Fink, Ana; Philipson, Daniel J; Keeney, Benjamin J; Ramkumar, Dipak B; Moschetti, Wayne E; Tomek, Ivan M


    Failure of metal-on-metal (MOM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) bearings is often accompanied by an aggressive local reaction associated with destruction of bone, muscle, and other soft tissues around the hip. Little is known about whether patient-reported physical and mental function following revision THA in MOM patients is compromised by this soft tissue damage, and whether revision of MOM THA is comparable with revision of hard-on-soft bearings such as metal-on-polyethylene (MOP). We identified 75 first-time MOM THA revisions and compared them with 104 first-time MOP revisions. Using prospective patient-reported measures via the Veterans RAND-12, we compared Physical Component Score and Mental Component Score function at preoperative baseline and postoperative follow-up between revision MOM THA and revision MOP THA. Physical Component Score did not vary between the groups preoperatively and at 1 month, 3 months, and 1 year postoperatively. Mental Component Score preoperatively and 1 and 3 months postoperatively were lower in patients in the MOM cohort compared with patients with MOP revisions (baseline: 43.7 vs 51.3, P MOM THA patients does not differ significantly from the outcomes of revised MOP THA. Mental function is markedly lower in MOM patients at baseline and early in the postoperative period, but does not differ from MOP patients at 1 year after revision. This information should be useful to surgeons and physicians facing MOM THA revision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Do jumbo cups cause hip center elevation in revision THA? A computer simulation. (United States)

    Nwankwo, Chima; Dong, Nick N; Heffernan, Christopher D; Ries, Michael D


    Acetabular revision THA with use of a large (jumbo) cup is an effective treatment for many cavitary and segmental peripheral bone defects. However, the jumbo cup may result in elevation of the hip center and protrusion through the anterior acetabular wall as a result of the oversized geometry of the jumbo cup compared with the physiologic acetabulum. The purpose of this computer simulation was to determine how much elevation of the hip center and anterior wall protrusion occurs in revision THA with use of a jumbo cup technique in which the inferior edge of the jumbo cup is placed at the inferior acetabular rim and the superior edge of the jumbo cup is placed against host bone at the superior margin of a posterosuperior bone defect. Two hundred sixty-five pelvic CT scans were analyzed by custom CT analytical software. The computer simulated oversized reaming. The vertical and anterior reamer center shifts were measured, and anterior column bone removal was determined. The computer simulation demonstrated that the hip center shifted 0.27 mm superiorly and 0.02 mm anteriorly, and anterior column bone removal increased 0.86 mm for every 1-mm increase in reamer diameter. Our results indicate that the jumbo cup technique results in hip center elevation despite placement of the cup adjacent to the inferior acetabulum. For a hypothetical increase from a 54-mm socket to a 72-mm socket, as one might see in the context of the revision of a failed THA, our model would predict an elevation of the hip center of approximately 5 mm and loss of approximately 15 mm of anterior column bone. This suggests that an increase in femoral head length may be needed to compensate for the hip center elevation caused by the use of a large jumbo cup in revision THA. A jumbo cup may also result in protrusion through the anterior wall.

  18. Femoral anteversion in THA and its lack of correlation with native acetabular anteversion. (United States)

    Bargar, William L; Jamali, Amir A; Nejad, Amir H


    Several studies support the concept that, for optimum range of motion in THA, the combined femoral and acetabular anteversion should be some constant or fall within some "safe zone." When using a cementless femoral component, the surgeon has little control of the anteversion of the component since it is dictated by native femoral anteversion. Given this constraint, we asked whether the surgeon should use the native anteversion of the acetabulum as a target for implant position in THA. Forty-six patients scheduled for primary THA underwent CT scanning and preoperative planning using a computer workstation. The native acetabular anteversion and the native femoral anteversion were measured. Prosthetic femoral anteversion was measured on the workstation by three-dimensional templating of a straight-stemmed tapered implant. The mean of the sum of the native acetabular anteversion and native femoral anteversion was 28.9 degrees; however, 17% varied by 10 degrees to 15 degrees and 11% by more than 15 degrees. The mean of native femoral anteversion and prosthetic femoral anteversion was 13.8 degrees (range, -6.1 degrees-32.7 degrees) and 22.5 degrees (range, 1 degrees-39 degrees), respectively. Based on our data, we believe the surgeon should not use the native acetabular anteversion as a target for positioning the acetabular component.

  19. Ceramic-on-ceramic THA Associated With Fewer Dislocations and Less Muscle Degeneration by Preserving Muscle Progenitors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hernigou, Philippe; Roussignol, Xavier; Delambre, Jerome; Poignard, Alexandre; Flouzat-Lachaniette, Charles-Henri


    Dislocation is a common complication after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Although the etiology of dislocation is multifactorial, longer-term changes in muscle such as atrophy may influence the risk of prosthetic dislocation...

  20. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing (United States)

    Kalsi, Manmohan S.; Somogyi, Dezso; Dietle, Lannie L.


    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  1. Investigation of the Influence of Shapes-Texture on Surface Deformation of UHMWPE as a Bearing Material in Static Normal Load and Rolling Contact (United States)

    Lestari, W. D.; Ismail, R.; Jamari, J.; Bayuseno, A. P.


    Surface texture is a common method for improving wear properties of a tribo-pair of soft and hard bearing material. The reduction of wear rates on the contacting surface material is becoming important issues. In the present study, analysis of the contact pressure on the flat surface of UHMWPE (Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene) under the static- and rolling motion with the surface of steel ball used the 3D finite element method (FEM) (the ABAQUS software version 6.12). Five shaped-texture models (square, circle, ellipse, triangle, and chevron) were presented on the flat surface for analysis. The normal load of 17, 30 and 50 N was deliberately set-up for static and rolling contact analysis. The contact pressure was determined to predict the wear behavior of the shaped-texture on the flat surface of UHMWPE. The results have shown that the static normal load yielded the lowest von-Mises stress distribution on the shaped-texture of the ellipse for all values applied a load, while the square shape experienced the highest stress distribution. Under rolling contact, however, the increasing load yielded the increasing von Mises stress distribution for the texture with a triangle shape. Moreover, the texture shapes for circle, ellipse, and chevron respectively, may undergo the lowest stress distribution for all load. The wear calculation provided that the circle and square shape may undergo the highest wear rates. Obviously, the surface texture of circle, ellipse, and chevron may experience the lowest wear rates and is potential for use in the surface engineering of bearing materials.

  2. The preparation of polytrifluorochloroethylene (PCTFE) micro-particles and application on treating bearing steel surfaces to improve the lubrication effect for copper-graphite (Cu/C) (United States)

    Lu, Hailin; Zhang, Pengpeng; Ren, Shanshan; Guo, Junde; Li, Xing; Dong, Guangneng


    Contact mechanical seal is a normal technology applied on middle axis of liquid rocket turbo pump, and the kinetic and static seal rings contact low temperature rocket propellant. Copper-graphite (Cu/C) composite as an excellent self-lubrication material was widely used in aerospace industry, this study took Cu/C as ball and bearing steel as disk to investigate the tribology properties, and distilled water were used to simulate the lox tribology performances. This study prepared polytrifluorochloroethylene (PCTFE) micro-particles which were coated on the oxide surfaces of bearing steel disk at temperature of 150 °C. The tribology results showed that the oxide surfaces treated with micro PCTFE particles have lower fiction coefficient and lower wear rate than original disk in water, and the wear morphology revealed that the treated surfaces obviously had less Cu/C composite transfer film than original disk. Meanwhile SEM, EDS, XRD, XPS and light microscope etc revealed that PCTFE micro-particles could associate with the oxide surfaces and caused higher water contact angle, due to the properties of the fluorine-containing composite may cause the good lubrication effect in water. Thus this technology shows great potential to enhance tribological performances for aerospace industry on a large scale.

  3. Grizzly bear (United States)

    Schwartz, C.C.; Miller, S.D.; Haroldson, M.A.; Feldhamer, G.; Thompson, B.; Chapman, J.


    The grizzly bear inspires fear, awe, and respect in humans to a degree unmatched by any other North American wild mammal. Like other bear species, it can inflict serious injury and death on humans and sometimes does. Unlike the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) of the sparsely inhabited northern arctic, however, grizzly bears still live in areas visited by crowds of people, where presence of the grizzly remains physically real and emotionally dominant. A hike in the wilderness that includes grizzly bears is different from a stroll in a forest from which grizzly bears have been purged; nighttime conversations around the campfire and dreams in the tent reflect the presence of the great bear. Contributing to the aura of the grizzly bear is the mixture of myth and reality about its ferocity. unpredictable disposition, large size, strength, huge canines, long claws, keen senses, swiftness, and playfulness. They share characteristics with humans such as generalist life history strategies. extended periods of maternal care, and omnivorous diets. These factors capture the human imagination in ways distinct from other North American mammals. Precontact Native American legends reflected the same fascination with the grizzly bear as modern stories and legends (Rockwell 1991).

  4. Gear bearing drive (United States)

    Weinberg, Brian (Inventor); Mavroidis, Constantinos (Inventor); Vranish, John M. (Inventor)


    A gear bearing drive provides a compact mechanism that operates as an actuator providing torque and as a joint providing support. The drive includes a gear arrangement integrating an external rotor DC motor within a sun gear. Locking surfaces maintain the components of the drive in alignment and provide support for axial loads and moments. The gear bearing drive has a variety of applications, including as a joint in robotic arms and prosthetic limbs.

  5. Is an algorithmic approach to the treatment of recurrent dislocation after THA effective? (United States)

    Saadat, Ehsan; Diekmann, Glenn; Takemoto, Steven; Ries, Michael D


    The indications for surgical techniques for treatment of recurrent hip dislocation after THA differ, and their rates of achievement of stability may not be similar. We (1) describe our indications for different approaches for recurrent dislocation, (2) outline an algorithmic approach to the management of recurrently dislocating hips after THA, and (3) determine the overall rate of restoration of stability via this algorithmic approach and for each of four procedures with our indications. We retrospectively reviewed 66 patients (69 hips) with revision THA for symptomatic recurrent dislocation from 1993 to 2008. We determined the rate of achievement of stability for the overall patient population and with each revision technique. Minimum followup was 2.8 years (mean, 7.8 years; range, 2.8-12.7 years). Fifty-one of the 69 hips (74%) had no further dislocations while nine (13%) required two revisions and nine (13%) required three or more revisions. Ultimately, all of the 69 hips (100%) were stable at followup. Use of a large (36-mm-diameter) head, constrained cup, trochanteric advancement, correction of malposition, and a combination of techniques was effective in achieving stability in 67%, 68%, 86%, 91%, and 90% of cases, respectively. Separating the treatment of patients based primarily on the presence or absence of (1) component malposition, (2) an intact abductor mechanism, and (3) implants accommodating a large-diameter femoral head, we were able to achieve hip stability with one operation in 74% of cases. Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  6. The pants too short, the leg too long: leg length inequality after THA. (United States)

    Rubash, Harry E; Parvataneni, Hari K


    It is critical to develop and use a consistent, systematic and reproducible approach to, perioperatively, evaluate leg length discrepancy in patients undergoing THA. Careful preoperative planning is critical but does not preclude the need for intraoperative assessment once trial components and final components are implanted. Newer techniques such as digital templating and image-guided surgery may provide more accurate techniques, although this has not been proven. Most importantly, careful preoperative planning, intraoperative measurement, and attention to detail will avoid major leg length discrepancies in the majority of patients.

  7. Anti-backlash gear bearings (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)


    A gear bearing having a first gear and a second gear, each having a plurality of teeth. Each gear operates on two non-parallel surfaces of the opposing gear teeth to perform both gear and bearing functions simultaneously. The gears are moving at substantially the same speed at their contact points. The gears may be roller gear bearings or phase-shifted gear bearings, and may be arranged in a planet/sun system or used as a transmission. One preferred embodiment discloses and describes an anti-backlash feature to counter ''dead zones'' in the gear bearing movement.

  8. Solid waste management in Thailand: an overview and case study (Tha Khon Yang sub-district). (United States)

    Yukalang, Nachalida; Clarke, Beverley Dawn; Ross, Kirstin Elizabeth


    Due to rapid urbanization, solid waste management (SWM) has become a significant issue in several developing countries including Thailand. Policies implemented by the Central Thai Government to manage SWM issues have had only limited success. This article reviews current municipal waste management plans in Thailand and examines municipal waste management at the local level, with focus on the Tha Khon Yang sub-district surrounding Mahasarakham University in Mahasarakham Province. Within two decades this area has been converted from a rural to an urban landscape featuring accommodation for over 45,000 university students and a range of business facilities. This development and influx of people has outpaced the government's ability to manage municipal solid waste (MSW). There are significant opportunities to improve local infrastructure and operational capacity; but there are few mechanisms to provide and distribute information to improve community participation in waste management. Many community-based waste management projects, such as waste recycling banks, the 3Rs (reduce, reuse and recycle), and waste-to-biogas projects have been abandoned. Additionally, waste from Tha Kon Yang and its surrounding areas has been transferred to unsanitary landfills; there is also haphazard dumping and uncontrolled burning of waste, which exacerbate current pollution issues.

  9. Reduction-induced inward diffusion and crystal growth on the surfaces of iron-bearing silicate glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, S.J.; Tao, H.Z.; Zhang, Y.F.


    first and then the growth of silica crystals on the glass surface. The type of alkaline earth cations has a strong impact on both the glass transition and the surface crystallization. In the Mg-containing glass, a quartz layer forms on the glass surface. This could be attributed to the fact that Mg2......We investigate the sodium inward diffusion (i.e., sodium diffusion from surface toward interior) in iron containing alkaline earth silicate glasses under reducing conditions around Tg and the induced surface crystallization. The surface crystallization is caused by formation of a silicate-gel layer...

  10. Periprosthetic Occult Fractures of the Acetabulum Occur Frequently During Primary THA. (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Kabata, Tamon; Kajino, Yoshitomo; Inoue, Daisuke; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki


    Periprosthetic fractures of the acetabulum occurring during primary THA are rare. Periprosthetic occult fractures are defined as those not identified by the surgeon during the procedure which might be missed on a routine postoperative radiograph. However, it is unclear how frequently these fractures occur and whether their presence affects functional recovery. In this study, using routine CT scans that were obtained as part of another primary hip arthroplasty study protocol, we retrospectively assessed (1) the prevalence of occult fractures of the acetabulum occurring during primary THA, (2) the location of occult fractures of the acetabulum during THA, and (3) risk factors contributing to such occult fractures. Between 2004 and 2013, our institute performed 585 primary THAs (cementless or hybrid) in 494 patients with DICOM pre- and postoperative CT; during the period in question, all patients undergoing THA underwent CT before and after surgery. Preoperative CT images were taken as part of a CT-based three-dimensional templating software and navigation system. Postoperative CT images were taken an average of 1 week after surgery as part of a different protocol to evaluate cup position, restoration of leg length and offset, volume of postoperative hematoma to assess anticoagulation effects after THA, and fractures that were not found on routine postoperative radiographs (which we defined as occult fractures). Patients with a history of prior pelvic osteotomy, trauma, and infection were excluded (88 patients/99 hips); 406 patients (102 males and 304 females; 486 hips) form the basis of this report. The mean age of the patients was 60 ± 11 years, with a mean BMI of 23 ± 4 kg/m 2 . The mean followup of the patients with periprosthetic fracture of the acetabulum was 58 ± 28 months (range, 12-131 months). Potential risk factors for occult acetabular fracture including age, sex, BMI, preoperative diagnosis, additional dome screw fixation, composition and size of each

  11. Current Insights Regarding Metal-on-Metal Bearings for Hip Arthroplasty


    Catherine Van Der Straeten


    Modern small diameter metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings for total hip arthroplasty (THA) have been developed in the nineteen-eighties to address the problem of polyethylene wear related osteolysis. Subsequently large diameter MoM hip resurfacings (HRA) were designed for young and active patients to preserve bone and avoid dislocation. Large diameter MoM THA were originally meant as an easy femoral component-only revision solution for femoral neck fractures in HRA, but were then advocated for prim...

  12. Evaluation of a bisphosphonate enriched ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene for enhanced total joint replacement bearing surface functionality (United States)

    Wright-Walker, Cassandra Jane

    Each year in the United States there is an increasing trend of patients receiving total joint replacement (TJR) procedures. Approximately a half million total knee replacements (TKRs) are performed annually in the United States with increasing prevalence attributed to baby-boomers, obesity, older, and younger patients. This trend is also seen for total hip replacements (THRs) as well. The use of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) inserts in TJRs results in wear particle-induced osteolysis, which is the predominant cause for prosthesis failure and revision surgery. Sub-micron size particle generation is inevitable despite the numerous efforts in improving this bearing material. Work by others has shown that the use of oral and intravenous systemic bisphosphonates (BP) can significantly minimize periprosthetic osteolysis. However, the systemic delivery and the high solubility of BPs results in a predominant portion of the drug being excreted via the kidney without reaching its target, bone. This doctoral research project is focused on the development and evaluation of a novel method to administer BPs locally using the inherent wear of UHMWPE for possible use as an anti-osteolysis treatment. For new materials to be considered, they must be mechanically and tribologically comparable to the current gold standard, UHMWPE. In order to evaluate this material, mechanical, drug elution and tribological experiments were performed to allow assessment of material properties. Tensile tests showed comparable yield stress and pin-on-disk testing showed comparable wear to standard virgin UHMWPE. Further, drug elution tests have shown that BP was released from the enriched material both in static and dynamic conditions. Additionally, an aggressive 2 million cycle total knee simulator experiment has shown statistically similar wear results for the two materials. Overall, this research has provided the groundwork for further characterization and development of a new

  13. Why did the bear cross the road? Comparing the performance of multiple resistance surfaces and connectivity modeling methods (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Jesse S. Lewis; Erin L. Landguth


    There have been few assessments of the performance of alternative resistance surfaces, and little is known about how connectivity modeling approaches differ in their ability to predict organism movements. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of four connectivity modeling approaches applied to two resistance surfaces in predicting the locations of highway...

  14. Dictionnaire insolite de la Thaïlande, Jean Baffie & Thanida Boonwanno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Pichard-Bertaux


    Full Text Available Dans son compte rendu paru dans le numéro 16 de Moussons, Laurence Husson présentait le Dictionnaire insolite de l’Indonésie et concluait par ces mots : « Espérons que la collection s’étendra à tous les pays d’Asie du Sud-Est avec le même bonheur d’écriture ». C’est en tous cas chose faite pour la Thaïlande : sous la plume de Jean Baffie, directeur de la Maison Asie-Pacifique et membre de l’Institut de Recherche sur le Sud-Est Asiatique (CNRS-université de Provence, sociologue et spécialiste...

  15. Entraide bénévole Suisse - Thaïlande

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association


    Qui sommes-nous ? Une équipe de bénévoles désireux d’améliorer le quotidien de familles productrices, au sud-est de la Thaïlande, en vous offrant une production artisanale d’excellentes épices et tisanes de première qualité. CULTIVÉES SANS PESTICIDES NI ENGRAIS. Nous vous offrons plus de 30 moyens de prendre soin de vous et de ceux que vous aimez! Rejoignez-nous sur :  Nous serons le jeudi 1er décembre dans le Bâtiment principal de 10 h 00 à 16 h 00. Les Saveurs du Siam sont parties intégrantes de la FONDATION HOPE-HOUSE «SAWATDI»

  16. Good mid- to long-term THA outcomes with a modified cementless rectangular biconical stem design. (United States)

    Iori, Stefano; Viganò, Roberto


    Second- and third-generation cementless Zweymüller stems have achieved good long-term outcomes in total hip arthroplasty (THA). The PPF cementless proximal press-fit femoral stem (Biomet Inc.) is based on the Zweymüller stem, with some prominent design differences. This study was designed to assess its performance in terms of survivorship, clinical function, and radiographic outcomes. We retrospectively analysed 250 patients (303 hips) who underwent THA between 1998 and 2011. Patients attended a follow-up visit a mean 10.9 ± 2.6 years after the procedure. All patients underwent radiographic examination and were clinically assessed for Forgotten Joint Score (FJS) and pain visual analogue scale (VAS). Survivorship was calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Clinical data were available for 142 patients (192 hips) and radiographic data for 79 patients (109 hips). Stem survival was 99.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 96.6%-99.8%) at 10 years and 95.6% (95% CI 96.6%-99.8%) at 15 years. The median postoperative FJS was 91 (interquartile range [IQR], 75-100). The median VAS score was 0 (IQR, 0-2). Radiolucent lines were observed in 47 hips (43.1%). 25 hips (22.9%) had Grade I ossification, 17 (15.6%) Grade II, and 2 (1.8%) Grade III. 12 hips (11.0%) had osteolysis in at least 1 femoral zone. The cementless proximal press-fit femoral stem was associated with good mid- to long-term survival and functional outcomes. The current design can be considered equivalent to the second- and third-generation Zweymüller stems.

  17. Seismic bearing (United States)

    Power, Dennis


    Textron Systems (Textron) has been using geophones for target detection for many years. This sensing capability was utilized for detection and classification purposes only. Recently Textron has been evaluating multiaxis geophones to calculate bearings and track targets more specifically personnel. This capability will not only aid the system in locating personnel in bearing space or cartesian space but also enhance detection and reduce false alarms. Textron has been involved in the testing and evaluation of several sensors at multiple sites. One of the challenges of calculating seismic bearing is an adequate signal to noise ratio. The sensor signal to noise ratio is a function of sensor coupling to the ground, seismic propagation and range to target. The goals of testing at multiple sites are to gain a good understanding of the maximum and minimum ranges for bearing and detection and to exploit that information to tailor sensor system emplacement to achieve desired performance. Test sites include 10A Site Devens, MA, McKenna Airfield Ft. Benning, GA and Yuma Proving Ground Yuma, AZ. Geophone sensors evaluated include a 28 Hz triax spike, a 15 Hz triax spike and a hybrid triax spike consisting of a 10 Hz vertical geophone and two 28 Hz horizontal geophones. The algorithm uses raw seismic data to calculate the bearings. All evaluated sensors have triaxial geophone configuration mounted to a spike housing/fixture. The suite of sensors also compares various types of geophones to evaluate benefits in lower bandwidth. The data products of these tests include raw geophone signals, seismic features, seismic bearings, seismic detection and GPS position truth data. The analyses produce Probability of Detection vs range, bearing accuracy vs range, and seismic feature level vs range. These analysis products are compared across test sites and sensor types.

  18. Tribological performance of femtosecond laser-induced periodic surface structures on titanium and a high toughness bearing steel (United States)

    Bonse, J.; Koter, R.; Hartelt, M.; Spaltmann, D.; Pentzien, S.; Höhm, S.; Rosenfeld, A.; Krüger, J.


    Laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS, ripples) were processed on steel (X30CrMoN15-1) and titanium (Ti) surfaces by irradiation in air with linear polarized femtosecond laser pulses with a pulse duration of 30 fs at 790 nm wavelength. For the processing of large LIPSS covered surface areas (5 mm × 5 mm), the laser fluence and the spatial spot overlap were optimized in a sample-scanning geometry. The laser-processed surfaces were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), white light interference microscopy (WLIM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Spatial LIPSS periods between 450 and 600 nm were determined. The nanostructured surface regions were tribologically tested under reciprocal sliding conditions against a 10-mm diameter ball of hardened 100Cr6 steel. Paraffin oil and engine oil were used as lubricants for 1000 sliding cycles at 1 Hz with a normal load of 1.0 N. The corresponding wear tracks were analyzed by OM and SEM. In particular cases, the laser-generated nanostructures endured the tribological treatment. Simultaneously, a significant reduction of the friction coefficient and the wear was observed in the laser-irradiated (LIPSS-covered) areas when compared to the non-irradiated surface. The experiments reveal the potential benefit of laser surface structuring for tribological applications.

  19. CO2-Brine-Iron-bearing Clay Mineral Interactions: Surface Area Changes and Fracture-Filling Potentials in Geologic CO2 Sequestration (United States)

    Jun, Y.; Hu, Y.


    Geologic carbon dioxide sequestration (GCS) is a promising option to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emission from coal-fired power plants. The injected CO2 in GCS sites can induce dissolution of rocks and secondary mineral formation, potentially change the physical properties of the geological formations, and thus influence the transport and injectivity of CO2. However, most of the relevant studies are based on hydrological transport, using simulation models rather than studying actual interfacial chemical reactions. The mechanisms and kinetics of interfacial reactions among supercritical CO2 (scCO2)-saline water-rock surfaces at the molecular scale and their impacts on CO2 leakage have not been well understood. This research investigated the effects of various environmental factors (such as temperature, pressure, salinity, and different metal ion and organic-containing brine) on the dissolution and surface morphological changes of clay minerals. In this work, iron-bearing clay mineral, biotite [K(Mg,Fe)3AlSi3O10(OH,F)2], was used for model clay minerals in potential GCS sites. Both fluid/solid chemistry analysis and interfacial topographic studies were conducted to investigate the dissolution/precipitation on clay mineral surfaces under GCS conditions in high salinity systems. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the interfacial surface morphology changes were observed. Shortly after a CO2 pressure of 102 atm is applied at 95oC, in situ pH of solutions was 3.15 ± 0.10. The early intrinsic dissolution rates of biotite were 8.4 ± 2.8 × 10-13 and 11.2 ± 3.0 × 10-13 mol Si m-2s-1 in water and NaCl solution, respectively. At the early stage of reaction, fast growth of fibrous illite on biotite basal planes was observed. After 22-70 h reaction, the biotite basal surface cracked, resulting in illite detaching from the surfaced. Later, the cracked surface layer was released into solution, thus the inner layer was exposed as a renewed

  20. Influence of near-surface stratigraphy on coastal landslides at Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, Lake Michigan, USA (United States)

    Barnhardt, W.A.; Jaffe, B.E.; Kayen, R.E.; Cochrane, G.R.


    Lake-level change and landslides are primary controls on the development of coastal environments along the coast of northeastern Lake Michigan. The late Quaternary geology of Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore was examined with high-resolution seismic reflection profiles, ground-penetrating radar (GPR), and boreholes. Based on sequence-stratigraphic principles, this study recognizes ten stratigraphic units and three major unconformities that were formed by late Pleistocene glaciation and postglacial lake-level changes. Locally high sediment supply, and reworking by two regressions and a transgression have produced a complex stratigraphy that is prone to episodic failure. In 1995, a large landslide deposited approximately 1 million m3 of sediment on the lake floor. The highly deformed landslide deposits, up to 18 m thick, extend 3-4 km offshore and unconformably overlie well-stratified glacial and lacustrine sediment. The landslide-prone bluff is underlain by channel-fill deposits that are oriented nearly perpendicular to the shoreline. The paleochannels are at least 10 m deep and 400 m wide and probably represent stream incision during a lake-level lowstand about 10.3 ka B.P. The channels filled with sediment during the subsequent transgression and lake-level highstand, which climaxed about 4.5 ka B.P. As lake level fell from the highstand, the formation of beach ridges and sand dunes sealed off the channel and isolated a small inland lake (Glen Lake), which lies 5 m above the level of Lake Michigan and may be a source of piped groundwater. Our hypothesis is that the paleochannels act as conduits for pore water flow, and thereby locally reduce soil strength and promote slope failure.

  1. From the Slab to the Surface: Origin, Storage, Ascent, and Eruption of Volatile-Bearing Magmas in the Aleutian arc (United States)

    Roman, D.; Plank, T. A.; Hauri, E. H.; Rasmussen, D. J.; Power, J. A.; Lyons, J. J.; Haney, M. M.; Werner, C. A.; Kern, C.; Lopez, T. M.; Izbekov, P. E.; Stelling, P. L.


    We present initial results from an integrated geochemical-geophysical study of the Unimak-Cleveland corridor of the Aleutian volcanic arc, which encompasses six volcanoes spanning 450 km of the arc that have erupted in the past 25 years with a wide range of magmatic water contents. This relatively small corridor also exhibits a range of deep and upper-crustal seismicity, apparent magma storage depths, and depths to the subducting tectonic plate. The ultimate goal of this study is to link two normally disconnected big-picture problems: 1) the deep origin of magmas and volatiles, and 2) the formation and eruption of crustal magma reservoirs, which we will do by establishing the depth(s) of crustal magma reservoirs and pre-eruptive volatile contents throughout the corridor. Our preliminary work focuses on the geographic end members Shishaldin Volcano, which last erupted in 2014-2015, and Cleveland Volcano, which last erupted in April-May of this year (2016). Both systems are persistently degassing, open-vent volcanoes whose frequent eruptions are typically characterized by minimal precursory seismicity, making eruption forecasting challenging. At Cleveland, we analyze data from a 12-station broadband seismic network deployed from August 2015-July 2016, which is complemented by two permanent seismo-acoustic stations operated by the Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO). We also analyze tephras from recent eruptions (including 2016) and conducted ground- and helicopter-based gas emission surveys. At Shishaldin, we analyze data from the permanent AVO network, which is comprised of mainly short-period, single-component seismic stations. We also present preliminary analyses of samples of recent eruptive deposits and gas emission data. Through integration of these various datasets we present preliminary interpretations related to the origin, storage, ascent and eruption of volatile-bearing magmas at Cleveland and Shishaldin volcanoes.

  2. Computational design of rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen-Schäfer, Hung


    This book comprehensively presents the computational design of rolling bearings dealing with many interdisciplinary difficult working fields. They encompass elastohydrodynamics (EHD), Hertzian contact theory, oil-film thickness in elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL), bearing dynamics, tribology of surface textures, fatigue failure mechanisms, fatigue lifetimes of rolling bearings and lubricating greases, Weibull distribution, rotor balancing, and airborne noises (NVH) in the rolling bearings. Furthermore, the readers are provided with hands-on essential formulas based on the up-to-date DIN ISO norms and helpful examples for computational design of rolling bearings. The topics are intended for undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical and material engineering, research scientists, and practicing engineers who want to understand the interactions between these working fields and to know how to design the rolling bearings for automotive industry and many other industries.

  3. Muscle strength, gait, and balance in 20 patients with hip osteoarthritis followed for 2 years after THA. (United States)

    Rasch, Anton; Dalén, Nils; Berg, Hans E


    Patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA) have muscular weakness, impaired balance, and limp. Deficits in the different limb muscles and their recovery courses are largely unknown, however. We hypothesized that there is persisting muscular weakness in lower limb muscles and an impaired balance and gait 2 years after THA. 20 elderly patients with unilateral OA were assessed before, and 6 and 24 months after surgery for maximal voluntary isometric strength of hip and knee muscles and by gait analysis, postural stability, and clinical scores (HHS, SF-36, EuroQoL). Hip muscles showed a remaining 6% weakness compared to the contralateral healthy limb 2 years after THA. Preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively, that deficit was 18% and 12%, respectively. Knee extensors fully recovered a preoperative 27% deficit after 2 years. Gait analysis demonstrated a shorter single stance phase for the OA limb compared to healthy limb preoperatively, that had already recovered at the 6-month follow-up. Balance of two-foot standing showed improvement in both sagittal and lateral sway after operation. All clinical scores improved. Muscle strength data demonstrated a slow but full recovery of muscles acting about the knee, but there was still a deficit in hip muscle strength 2 years after THA. Gait and balance recovered after the operation. To accelerate improvement in muscular strength after THA, postoperative training should probably be more intense and target hip abductors.

  4. Study the effect of surface texturing on the stress distribution of UHMWPE as a bearing material during rolling motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jamari, J.; Ismail, R.; Anwar, I.B.; Saputra, E.; Tauviqirrahman, M.; Heide, E. van der


    Tribological properties of materials used in biomedical implants will critically affect the performance of the implant. Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) material is popular due to its great properties. Surface texturing is one of the methods to minimize friction and wear. In this

  5. Hydrodynamic bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Bonneau, Dominique; Souchet, Dominique


    This Series provides the necessary elements to the development and validation of numerical prediction models for hydrodynamic bearings. This book describes the rheological models and the equations of lubrication. It also presents the numerical approaches used to solve the above equations by finite differences, finite volumes and finite elements methods.

  6. Dense array recordings in the San Bernardino Valley of landers-big bear aftershocks: Basin surface waves, Moho reflections, and three-dimensional simulations (United States)

    Frankel, Arthur


    Fourteen GEOS seismic recorders were deployed in the San Bernardino Valley to study the propagation of short-period (T ≈ 1 to 3 sec) surface waves and Moho reflections. Three dense arrays were used to determine the direction and speed of propagation of arrivals in the seismograms. The seismograms for a shallow (d ≈ 1 km) M 4.9 aftershock of the Big Bear earthquake exhibit a very long duration (60 sec) of sustained shaking at periods of about 2 sec. Array analysis indicates that these late arrivals are dominated by surface waves traveling in various directions across the Valley. Some energy is arriving from a direction 180° from the epicenter and was apparently reflected from the edge of the Valley opposite the source. A close-in aftershock (Δ = 25 km, depth = 7 km) displays substantial short-period surface waves at deep-soil sites. A three-dimensional (3D) finite difference simulation produces synthetic seismograms with durations similar to those of the observed records for this event, indicating the importance of S-wave to surface-wave conversion near the edge of the basin. Flat-layered models severely underpredict the duration and spectral amplification of this deep-soil site. I show an example where the coda wave amplitude ratio at 1 to 2 Hz between a deep-soil and a rock site does not equal the S-wave amplitude ratio, because of the presence of surface waves in the coda of the deep-soil site. For one of the events studied (Δ ≈ 90 km), there are sizable phases that are critically reflected from the Moho (PmP and SmS). At one of the rock sites, the SmS phase has a more peaked spectrum that the direct S wave.

  7. Effect of surface passivation on corrosion resistance and antibacterial properties of Cu-bearing 316L stainless steel (United States)

    Zhao, Jinlong; Xu, Dake; Shahzad, M. Babar; Kang, Qiang; Sun, Ying; Sun, Ziqing; Zhang, Shuyuan; Ren, Ling; Yang, Chunguang; Yang, Ke


    The resistance for pitting corrosion, passive film stability and antibacterial performance of 316L-Cu SS passivated by nitric acid solution containing certain concentration of copper sulfate, were studied by electrochemical cyclic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and co-culture with bacteria. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to analyze the Cu2+ ions release from 316L-Cu SS surface. XPS analysis proved that the enrichment of CuO, Cr2O3 and Cr(OH)3 on the surface of specimen could simultaneously guarantee a better corrosion resistance and stable antibacterial properties. The biocompatibility evaluation determined by RTCA assay also indicated that the 316L-Cu SS after antibacterial passivation was completely biocompatible.

  8. Natural Remission of Major Periprosthetic Osteolysis following Total Hip Arthroplasty with Metal-on-Metal Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Tamaki


    Full Text Available The natural course of adverse events following the use of metal-on-metal (MoM bearings in total hip arthroplasty (THA is not well known. In this article, we report the case of a patient with asymptomatic major acetabular osteolysis following MoM THA that diminished gradually without any surgical intervention. A 58-year-old male underwent one-stage bilateral MoM THA for bilateral osteoarthritis. Four years after THA, major acetabular osteolysis developed in his right hip without any local or systemic symptoms. The patient underwent a careful radiographic and clinical observation without any surgical intervention because he did not want to undergo revision surgery. The lesion gradually diminished after 7 years, and most of the osteolytic area was replaced by newly formed bone at 10 years. He continues to be followed with no evidence of cup loosening or migration. Our observation suggests that a periprosthetic osteolytic change related to the use of MoM bearings has the potential for natural remission.

  9. Ten-year follow-up study of three alternative bearing surfaces used in total hip arthroplasty in young patients: a prospective randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Atrey, A; Ward, S E; Khoshbin, A; Hussain, N; Bogoch, E; Schemitsch, E H; Waddell, J P


    We present the ten-year data of a cohort of patients, aged between 18 and 65 years (mean age 52.7 years; 19 to 64), who underwent total hip arthroplasty. Patients were randomised to be treated with a cobalt-chrome (CoCr) femoral head with an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), highly cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) or ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) bearing surface. A total of 102 hips (91 patients) were randomised into the three groups. At ten years, 97 hips were available for radiological and functional follow-up. Two hips (two patients) had been revised (one with deep infection and one for periprosthetic fracture) and three were lost to follow-up. Radiological analysis was performed using a validated digital assessment programme to give linear, directional and volumetric wear of the two polyethylene groups. There was a significantly reduced rate of steady-state linear wear with XLPE (0.07 mm/yr) compared with UHMWPE (0.37 mm/yr) (p = 0.001). Volumetric wear was also significantly reduced in the XLPE group (29.29 mm 3 /yr) compared with the UHMWPE group (100.75mm 3 /yr) (p = 0.0001). There were six patients with UHMWPE who had non-progressive osteolysis and none in the XLPE group. All three bearing groups had significant improvements in 12-item short form health survey scores, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index score and Harris Hip Score. However, the improvement in HSS was significantly less in the UHMWPE group (p = 0.0188) than in the other two groups. At ten years, the rates of volumetric and linear wear in the XLPE group remain low and predominantly below the estimated threshold for osteolysis (1 mm/yr). The rate of linear wear in the XLPE group was three times less than in the UHMWPE group at five-year follow-up and five times less at ten years. The rate of volumetric wear was also three times less in the XLPE group at ten years. While CoC also performs well, XLPE at ten years remains a safe and excellent bearing option

  10. A Novel Assessment of Braking Reaction Time Following THA Using a New Fully Interactive Driving Simulator. (United States)

    Ruel, Allison V; Lee, Yuo-Yu; Boles, John; Boettner, Friedrich; Su, Edwin; Westrich, Geoffrey H


    After total hip replacement surgery, patients are eager to resume the activities of daily life, particularly driving. Most surgeons recommend waiting 6 weeks after surgery to resume driving; however, there is no evidence to indicate that patients cannot resume driving earlier. Our purpose was to evaluate when in the recovery period following THA that patients regain or improve upon their preoperative braking reaction time, allowing them to safely resume driving. We measured and compared pre- and postoperative braking reaction times of 90 patients from 3 different surgeons using a Fully Interactive Driving Simulator (Simulator Systems International, Tulsa, OK). We defined a return to safe braking reaction time as a return to a time value that is either equal to or less than the preoperative braking reaction time. Patients tested at 2 and 3 weeks after surgery had slower braking reaction times than preoperative times by an average of 0.069 and 0.009 s, respectively. At 4 weeks after surgery, however, patients improved their reaction times by 0.035 s (p = 0.0398). In addition, at 2, 3, and 4 weeks postoperatively, the results also demonstrated that patient less than 70 years of age recovered faster. Based upon the results of this study, most patients should be allowed to return to driving 4 weeks following minimally invasive primary total hip arthroplasty.

  11. Sequestration of Pb-Zn-Sb- and As-bearing incidental nanoparticles by mineral surface coatings and mineralized organic matter in soils. (United States)

    Schindler, Michael; Hochella, Michael F


    Nanoparticles (NPs) often play significant roles in dictating the transport, distribution, bioavailability and toxicity of contaminants in the environment. Incidental NPs (i.e. NPs of anthropogenic origin but not purposely engineered) are often overlooked in contaminant transport and fate studies; yet in many systems they dominate contaminant transport processes. Using surficial contaminated regosols from Trail, British Columbia, Canada, a metal smelting and refining area along the banks of the Columbia River, we show that sequestration of Pb-, Zn-, Sb-, and As-bearing incidental NPs is strongly influenced by their aggregation, crystal growth, and/or particle attachment to mineral surface coatings (MSC) and in mineralized organic matter (MOM). Transmission electron microscopy shows the occurrence of NPs of anglesite (PbSO4), Fe-As-phosphate, kintoreite (Pb[(Fe,Al)3(P(As)O4)(PO3(OH))(OH)6]), and franklinite (ZnFe2O4) in matrices of amorphous silica which retain different stages of their agglomeration and aggregation. Other identified nano-size phases in the MSC and MOM indicate a complex and previously unrecognized mineralogy of Pb-, Zn-, Sb-, and As-phase in surficial soils. Mineralogical complexity and the various sequestration processes observed in this study indicate a new dimension of nano-scale processes on mineral surfaces and organic matter that have been previously overlooked when studying the fate of contaminants with bulk-analytical tools such as micro-X-ray diffraction or synchrotron-based spectroscopic methods.

  12. Effect of different surface pretreatments and adhesives on the load-bearing capacity of veneered 3-unit PEEK FDPs. (United States)

    Stawarczyk, Bogna; Thrun, Hadelinde; Eichberger, Marlis; Roos, Malgorzata; Edelhoff, Daniel; Schweiger, Josef; Schmidlin, Patrick R


    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) can be used as a framework material for fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). However, information about the fracture load of veneered PEEK FDPs is still scarce. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the influence of different PEEK surface pretreatments and adhesive systems on the fracture load of 2 differently veneered FDPs. Four hundred eighty anatomically shaped 3-unit PEEK frameworks were milled, airborne-particle abraded with 50 μm alumina powder, and divided into 4 groups according to the following surface pretreatment (n=120): plasma treatment, etching with either sulfuric acid or piranha solution, and no further treatment. All groups were then allocated to 4 conditioning groups:, Ambarino P60, Signum PEEK Bond, or no conditioning. They were veneered with Signum Composite (n=15) or Signum Ceramis (n=15). Upon completion, the FDPs were thermally aged, and fracture loads and failure types were determined. Statistical analysis was performed with 3/2/1-way ANOVA with the post hoc Tukey HSD test (α=.05). The highest fracture loads were achieved without treatment in combination with (737 ±138 N). The lowest values were obtained after piranha acid etching and conditioning with (277 ±71 N); both groups were veneered with Signum Composite. The results, however, indicated no clear influence of either pretreatment or conditioning. With few exceptions, FDPs veneered with Signum Composite showed higher fracture load values compared to Signum Ceramis. After thermocycling, all FDPs showed cracks in the veneering composite resin material in the pontic region, regardless of the PEEK pretreatment or the adhesive system used. After loading, no fractures of the PEEK frameworks were evident in any FDPs, but chipping of the veneering material was observed. With respect to the fracture types after thermocycling, pretreatment, conditioning, or veneering resin cement did not affect the fracture results

  13. Radial Halbach Magnetic Bearings (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.; Gallo, Christopher A.; Thompson, William K.


    minimizing it on the opposite side. The advantage of this configuration is that it makes it possible to approach the theoretical maximum force per unit area that could be exerted by a given amount of permanent-magnet material. The configuration is named after physicist Klaus Halbach, who conceived it for use in particle accelerators. Halbach arrays have also been studied for use in magnetic-levitation ("maglev") railroad trains. In a radial Halbach magnetic bearing, the basic Halbach arrangement is modified into a symmetrical arrangement of sector-shaped permanent magnets mounted on the outer cylindrical surface of a drum rotor (see Figure 2). The magnets are oriented to concentrate the magnetic field on their radially outermost surface. The stator coils are mounted in a stator shell surrounding the rotor.

  14. Similar Clinical Outcomes with Preoperative and Postoperative Start of Thromboprophylaxis in THA: A Register-based Study. (United States)

    Borgen, Pål O; Pripp, Are H; Dybvik, Eva; Leistad, Lilian; Dahl, Ola E; Reikerås, Olav


    Elective THA is associated with a high risk of thromboembolic events. Although these events may be less common now than they were in the past, they can be serious, and most patients undergoing the procedure therefore still receive thromboprophylaxis. However, controversy remains regarding whether to begin thromboprophylaxis before THA or after to best balance the risks of clotting and bleeding. We asked the following questions: (1) Is there a difference in bleeding events with pre- versus postoperative thromboprophylaxis? (2) Is there a difference in thromboembolic episodes after THA between the two regimens? (3) How do the two approaches of thromboprophylaxis influence mortality, readmissions, and other complications? We used a population-based followup design with predefined data based on international health codification to assess clinical effects of LMWH prophylaxis initiated before or after THA. We took data limited to primary THAs done in Norway between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2011, from the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register and the National Patient Register to have necessary data elements to complete the study. The two registers were merged after identifying patients with their 11-digit personal identification number (Social Security number). We obtained data regarding demographics, administrative and surgical details, and episode histories for prophylaxis-related events within 180 days of surgery. A total of 25,163 patients undergoing THA were included for analysis, and 9977(40%) versus 15,186 (60%) patients received pre- and postoperative LMWH, respectively. We performed statistical adjustment for differences in baseline characteristics using multivariate logistic regression. After adjustment for age, sex, operation time, year of surgery, and American Society of Anesthesiologists class, we could not show major differences in bleeding events; (odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% CI, 0.88-1.22; p = 0.660), thromboembolic episodes; (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0

  15. Novas superfícies em artroplastia total do quadril New bearing surfaces in total hip replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Schwartsmann


    Full Text Available A artroplastia total do quadril tem sido indicada cada vez mais em pacientes mais jovens e ativos, além de haver uma natural e crescente demanda do procedimento em função do aumento da expectativa de vida dos pacientes. Os altos custos da cirurgia e as controvérsias da performance dos implantes fazem deste assunto objeto de constantes pesquisas na busca de novos materiais com melhores resistências ao desgaste e biocompatibilidade. O presente artigo abrange um estudo de revisão das novas superfícies em artroplastia total do quadril.Total hip arthroplasty is being increasingly indicated for younger and more active patients, in addition to a naturally growing demand for the procedure because of increasing life expectancy among patients. The high costs of this surgery and the controversies regarding implant performance have made this topic the subject of constant research, seeking new materials with better resistance to wear and better biocompatibility. The present article provides a review of new surfaces in total hip arthroplasty.

  16. Navigation is Equal to Estimation by Eye and Palpation in Preventing Psoas Impingement in THA. (United States)

    Weber, Markus; Woerner, Michael; Messmer, Benedikt; Grifka, Joachim; Renkawitz, Tobias


    Iliopsoas tendon impingement is one possible reason for persistent groin pain and diminished functional outcome after THA. So far, estimation by eye and palpation is the standard procedure to intraoperatively assess the distance of the cup to the anterior rim. However, novel technologies such as imageless navigation enable intraoperative measurements of the cup in relation to the psoas tendon and bony landmarks. We asked whether psoas impingement (1) can be reduced using imageless navigation compared with the standard technique and (2) is associated with specific patient characteristics. Furthermore, we investigated (3) if anterior cup protrusion (overhang) is associated with lower outcome scores for pain and function. The current study is a reanalysis of data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating navigation for THA; 135 patients were randomized for surgery with or without the use of imageless navigation. The risk for anterior protrusion of the cup above the acetabular rim and thus potential psoas impingement, defined as an overhang of the cup above the anterior acetabular rim as measured on postoperative CT, was either controlled with the help of navigation or standard control by eye and palpation intraoperatively. Postoperatively, the anterior protrusion of the cup above the acetabular rim was measured on three-dimensional (3-D) CT by a blinded, external institute. In addition to patient-related outcome measures, the Harris hip score, Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, and EuroQol were obtained 1 year postoperatively. Altogether 123 data sets were available for primary analysis and 115 were available for 1-year followup. There was no difference, with the numbers available, between the navigated and the control groups in terms of the mean distance of the cup below the anterosuperior acetabular rim (3.9 mm; -5.3 to 12.6 mm versus 4.4 mm; -7.9 to 13.7 mm; p = 0.72) or the anteroinferior acetabular rim (4.7 mm; -6.2 to 14.8 mm versus 4.2 mm; -7

  17. Final Technical Report. Reactivity of Iron-Bearing Minerals and CO2 Sequestration and Surface Chemistry of Pyrite. An Interdisciplinary Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strongin, Daniel [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)


    Over the course of the scientific program, two areas of research were pursued: reactions of iron oxides with supercritical CO2 and sulfide and surface reactivity of pyrite. The latter area of interest was to understand the chemistry that results when supercritical CO2 (scCO2 ) with H2 S and/or SO2 in deep saline formations (DFS) contacts iron bearing minerals. Understanding the complexities the sulfur co-injectants introduce is a critical step in developing CO2 sequestration as a climate-mitigating strategy. The research strategy was to understand macroscopic observations of this chemistry with an atomic/molecular level view using surface analytical techniques. Research showed that the exposure of iron (oxyhdr)oxides (which included ferrihydrite, goethite, and hematite) to scCO2 in the presence of sulfide led to reactions that formed siderite (FeCO3). The results have important implications for the sequestration of CO2 via carbonation reactions in the Earth’s subsurface. An earlier area of focus in the project was to understand pyrite oxidation in microscopic detail. This understanding was used to understand macroscopic observations of pyrite reactivity. Results obtained from this research led to a better understanding how pyrite reacts in a range of chemical environments. Geochemical and modern surface science techniques were used to understand the chemistry of pyrite in important environmental conditions. The program relied on a strong integration the results of these techniques to provide a fundamental understanding to the macroscopic chemistry exhibited by pyrite in the environment. Major achievements during these studies included developing an understanding of the surface sites on pyrite that controlled its reactivity under oxidizing conditions. In particular sulfur anion vacancies and/or ferric sites were sites of reactivity. Studies also showed that the

  18. Muscle strength, gait, and balance in 20 patients with hip osteoarthritis followed for 2 years after THA


    Rasch, Anton; Dal?n, Nils; Berg, Hans E


    Background Patients with hip osteoarthritis (OA) have muscular weakness, impaired balance, and limp. Deficits in the different limb muscles and their recovery courses are largely unknown, however. We hypothesized that there is persisting muscular weakness in lower limb muscles and an impaired balance and gait 2 years after THA. Patients and methods 20 elderly patients with unilateral OA were assessed before, and 6 and 24 months after surgery for maximal voluntary isometric strength of hip and...

  19. Water Quality Degradation and Management Strategies for Swine and Rice Farming Wastewater in the Tha Chin River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Henderson


    Full Text Available Water quality in the Tha Chin River regularly exceeds biological oxygen demand (BOD standards of Thailand’s Enhancement and Conservation of National Environmental Quality Act. This study quantified the BOD loading from rice cultivation and swine farming to the Tha Chin River using effluent data and procedures from the Pollution Control Department (PCD, geospatial land-use maps from the Land Development Department, and water quality data from the Ministry of Natural Resources and the Environment. It was determined that the BOD loading was 12 tons/day from swine farming in 2015 and 52 tons/day, on average, from rice farming between 2002 and 2011. Technology-specific, community-scale wastewater management strategies were recommended for both industries: feasibility studies revealed 66 potential sites for constructed wetland implementation and 7 subdistricts suitable for biogas network pipelines. It was determined that if these projects are implemented in conjunction, the BOD would be reduced by 6% (0.3 mg/L in the entire river or 11% (0.5 mg/L at the three water quality monitoring stations proximate to swine farms. These reductions would have a substantial effect on the water quality of the Tha Chin River, and governmental agencies such as the PCD should strongly consider subsidization and implementation of these projects.

  20. Sequestration of Pb–Zn–Sb- and As-bearing incidental nanoparticles by mineral surface coatings and mineralized organic matter in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindler, Michael; Hochella, Michael F.


    Nanoparticles (NPs) often play significant roles in dictating the transport, distribution, bioavailability and toxicity of contaminants in the environment. Incidental NPs (i.e. NPs of anthropogenic origin but not purposely engineered) are often overlooked in contaminant transport and fate studies; yet in many systems they dominate contaminant transport processes. Using surficial contaminated regosols from Trail, British Columbia, Canada, a metal smelting and refining area along the banks of the Columbia River, we show that sequestration of Pb-, Zn-, Sb-, and As-bearing incidental NPs is strongly influenced by their aggregation, crystal growth, and/or particle attachment to mineral surface coatings (MSC) and in mineralized organic matter (MOM). Transmission electron microscopy shows the occurrence of NPs of anglesite (PbSO4), Fe– As-phosphate, kintoreite (Pb[(Fe,Al)3(P(As)O4)(PO3(OH))(OH)6]), and franklinite (ZnFe2O4) in matrices of amorphous silica which retain different stages of their agglomeration and aggregation. Other identified nano-size phases in the MSC and MOM indicate a complex and previously unrecognized mineralogy of Pb-, Zn-, Sb-, and As-phase in surficial soils. Mineralogical complexity and the various sequestration processes observed in this study indicate a new dimension of nano-scale processes on mineral surfaces and organic matter that have been previously overlooked when studying the fate of contaminants with bulk-analytical tools such as micro-X-ray diffraction or synchrotron-based spectroscopic methods.

  1. Teflon lubrication of liquid oxygen turbopump bearings (United States)

    Naerheim, Y.; Stocker, P. J.


    Ball bearings with glass fiber reinforced Teflon ball retainers from hot-fired liquid oxygen turbopumps were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to determine the extent of Teflon transfer and/or chemical reaction at the bearing surface. No Teflon, but metal fluorides could be found on the metal surface. This indicates that Teflon decomposes and reacts with the bearing steel to form fluorides. Hence, Teflon does not appear to function directly as a lubricant under these operating conditions.

  2. No Benefit After THA Performed With Computer-assisted Cup Placement: 10-year Results of a Randomized Controlled Study. (United States)

    Parratte, Sebastien; Ollivier, Matthieu; Lunebourg, Alexandre; Flecher, Xavier; Argenson, Jean-Noel A


    Computer-assisted surgery (CAS) for cup placement has been developed to improve the functional results and to reduce the dislocation rate and wear after total hip arthroplasty (THA). Previously published studies demonstrated radiographic benefits of CAS in terms of implant position, but whether these improvements result in clinically important differences that patients might perceive remains largely unknown. We hypothesized that THA performed with CAS would improve 10-year patient-reported outcomes measured by validated scoring tools, reduce acetabular polyethylene wear as measured using a validated radiological method, and increase survivorship. Sixty patients operated on for a THA between April 2004 and April 2005 were randomized into two groups using either the CAS technique or a conventional technique for cup placement. All patient candidates for a THA with the diagnosis of primary arthritis or avascular necrosis were eligible for the CAS procedure and randomly assigned to the CAS group by the Hospital Informatics Department with use of a systematic sampling method. The patients assigned to the freehand cup placement group were matched for sex, age within 5 years, pathological condition, operatively treated side, and body mass index within 3 points. All patients were operated on through an anterolateral approach (patient in the supine position) using cementless implants. In the CAS group, a specific surgical procedure using an imageless cup positioning computer-based navigation system was performed. There were 16 men and 14 women in each group; mean age was 62 years (range, 24-80 years), and mean body mass index was 25 ± 3 kg/m(2). No patient was lost to followup at 10 years, but five patients have died (two in the CAS group and three in the control group). At the 10-year followup, an independent observer blinded to the type of technique performed patients' evaluation. Cup positioning was evaluated postoperatively using a CT scan in the two groups with results

  3. Journal and Wave Bearing Impedance Calculation Software (United States)

    Hanford, Amanda; Campbell, Robert


    The wave bearing software suite is a MALTA application that computes bearing properties for user-specified wave bearing conditions, as well as plain journal bearings. Wave bearings are fluid film journal bearings with multi-lobed wave patterns around the circumference of the bearing surface. In this software suite, the dynamic coefficients are outputted in a way for easy implementation in a finite element model used in rotor dynamics analysis. The software has a graphical user interface (GUI) for inputting bearing geometry parameters, and uses MATLAB s structure interface for ease of interpreting data. This innovation was developed to provide the stiffness and damping components of wave bearing impedances. The computational method for computing bearing coefficients was originally designed for plain journal bearings and tilting pad bearings. Modifications to include a wave bearing profile consisted of changing the film thickness profile given by an equation, and writing an algorithm to locate the integration limits for each fluid region. Careful consideration was needed to implement the correct integration limits while computing the dynamic coefficients, depending on the form of the input/output variables specified in the algorithm.

  4. Groundwater Protection Program Calendar Year 1998 Evaluation of Groundwater and Surface Water Quality Data for the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime at the U.S. Department of Energy Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report presents an evaluation of the water quality monitoring data obtained by the Y-12 Plant Groundwater Protection Program (GWPP) in the Bear Creek Hydrogeologic Regime (Bear Creek Regime) during calendar year (CY) 1998. The Bear Creek Regime contains many confirmed and potential sources of groundwater and surface water contamination associated with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Applicable provisions of DOE Order 5400.1A - General Environmental Protection Program - require evaluation of groundwater and surface water quality near the Y-12 Plant to: (1) gauge groundwater quality in areas that are, or could be, affected by plant operations, (2) determine the quality of surface water and groundwater where contaminants are most likely to migrate beyond the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) property line, and (3) identify and characterize long-term trends in groundwater quality. The following sections of this report contain relevant background information (Section 2.0); describe the results of the respective data evaluations required under DOE Order 5400.1A (Section 3.0); summarize significant findings of each evaluation (Section 4.0); and list the technical reports and regulatory documents cited for more detailed information (Section 5.0). All of the figures (maps and trend graphs) and data tables referenced in each section are presented in Appendix A and Appendix B, respectively.

  5. Development and Evaluation of Titanium Spacesuit Bearings (United States)

    Rhodes, Richard; Battisti, Brian; Ytuarte, Raymond, Jr.; Schultz, Bradley


    The Z-2 Prototype Planetary Extravehicular Space Suit Assembly is a continuation of NASA's Z-series of spacesuits, designed with the intent of meeting a wide variety of exploration mission objectives, including human exploration of the Martian surface. Incorporating titanium bearings into the Z-series space suit architecture allows us to reduce mass by an estimated 23 lbs per suit system compared to the previously used stainless steel bearing race designs, without compromising suit functionality. There are two obstacles to overcome when using titanium for a bearing race- 1) titanium is flammable when exposed to the oxygen wetted environment inside the space suit and 2) titanium's poor wear properties are often challenging to overcome in tribology applications. In order to evaluate the ignitability of a titanium space suit bearing, a series of tests were conducted at White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) that introduced the bearings to an extreme test profile, with multiple failures imbedded into the test bearings. The testing showed no signs of ignition in the most extreme test cases; however, substantial wear of the bearing races was observed. In order to design a bearing that can last an entire exploration mission (approx. 3 years), design parameters for maximum contact stress need to be identified. To identify these design parameters, bearing test rigs were developed that allow for the quick evaluation of various bearing ball loads, ball diameters, lubricants, and surface treatments. This test data will allow designers to minimize the titanium bearing mass for a specific material and lubricant combination and design around a cycle life requirement for an exploration mission. This paper reviews the current research and testing that has been performed on titanium bearing races to evaluate the use of such materials in an enriched oxygen environment and to optimize the bearing assembly mass and tribological properties to accommodate for the high bearing cycle life for an

  6. Scaling laws for radial foil bearings (United States)

    Honavara Prasad, Srikanth

    The effects of fluid pressurization, structural deformation of the compliant members and heat generation in foil bearings make the design and analysis of foil bearings very complicated. The complex fluid-structural-thermal interactions in foil bearings also make modeling efforts challenging because these phenomena are governed by highly non-linear partial differential equations. Consequently, comparison of various bearing designs require detailed calculation of the flow fields (velocities, pressures), bump deflections (structural compliance) and heat transfer phenomena (viscous dissipation in the fluid, frictional heating, temperature profile etc.,) resulting in extensive computational effort (time/hardware). To obviate rigorous computations and aid in feasibility assessments of foil bearings of various sizes, NASA developed the "rule of thumb" design guidelines for estimation of journal bearing load capacity. The guidelines are based on extensive experimental data. The goal of the current work is the development of scaling laws for radial foil bearings to establish an analytical "rule of thumb" for bearing clearance and bump stiffness. The use of scale invariant Reynolds equation and experimentally observed NASA "rule of thumb" yield scale factors which can be deduced from first principles. Power-law relationships between: a. Bearing clearance and bearing radius, and b. bump stiffness and bearing radius, are obtained. The clearance and bump stiffness values obtained from scaling laws are used as inputs for Orbit simulation to study various cases. As the clearance of the bearing reaches the dimensions of the material surface roughness, asperity contact breaks the fluid film which results in wear. Similarly, as the rotor diameter increases (requiring larger bearing diameters), the load capacity of the fluid film should increase to prevent dry rubbing. This imposes limits on the size of the rotor diameter and consequently bearing diameter. Therefore, this thesis aims

  7. A New Automated Way to Measure Polyethylene Wear in THA Using a High Resolution CT Scanner: Method and Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Q. Maguire Jr.


    Full Text Available As the most advantageous total hip arthroplasty (THA operation is the first, timely replacement of only the liner is socially and economically important because the utilization of THA is increasing as younger and more active patients are receiving implants and they are living longer. Automatic algorithms were developed to infer liner wear by estimating the separation between the acetabular cup and femoral component head given a computed tomography (CT volume. Two series of CT volumes of a hip phantom were acquired with the femoral component head placed at 14 different positions relative to the acetabular cup. The mean and standard deviation (SD of the diameter of the acetabular cup and femoral component head, in addition to the range of error in the expected wear values and the repeatability of all the measurements, were calculated. The algorithms resulted in a mean (±SD for the diameter of the acetabular cup of 54.21 (±0.011 mm and for the femoral component head of 22.09 (±0.02 mm. The wear error was ±0.1 mm and the repeatability was 0.077 mm. This approach is applicable clinically as it utilizes readily available computed tomography imaging systems and requires only five minutes of human interaction.

  8. Preparation of Transparent Bulk TiO2/PMMA Hybrids with Improved Refractive Indices via an in Situ Polymerization Process Using TiO2 Nanoparticles Bearing PMMA Chains Grown by Surface-Initiated Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization. (United States)

    Maeda, Satoshi; Fujita, Masato; Idota, Naokazu; Matsukawa, Kimihiro; Sugahara, Yoshiyuki


    Transparent TiO2/PMMA hybrids with a thickness of 5 mm and improved refractive indices were prepared by in situ polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in the presence of TiO2 nanoparticles bearing poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) chains grown using surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP), and the effect of the chain length of modified PMMA on the dispersibility of modified TiO2 nanoparticles in the bulk hybrids was investigated. The surfaces of TiO2 nanoparticles were modified with both m-(chloromethyl)phenylmethanoyloxymethylphosphonic acid bearing a terminal ATRP initiator and isodecyl phosphate with a high affinity for common organic solvents, leading to sufficient dispersibility of the surface-modified particles in toluene. Subsequently, SI-ATRP of MMA was achieved from the modified surfaces of the TiO2 nanoparticles without aggregation of the nanoparticles in toluene. The molecular weights of the PMMA chains cleaved from the modified TiO2 nanoparticles increased with increases in the prolonging of the polymerization period, and these exhibited a narrow distribution, indicating chain growth controlled by SI-ATRP. The nanoparticles bearing PMMA chains were well-dispersed in MMA regardless of the polymerization period. Bulk PMMA hybrids containing modified TiO2 nanoparticles with a thickness of 5 mm were prepared by in situ polymerization of the MMA dispersion. The transparency of the hybrids depended significantly on the chain length of the modified PMMA on the nanoparticles, because the modified PMMA of low molecular weight induced aggregation of the TiO2 nanoparticles during the in situ polymerization process. The refractive indices of the bulk hybrids could be controlled by adjusting the TiO2 content and could be increased up to 1.566 for 6.3 vol % TiO2 content (1.492 for pristine PMMA).

  9. Nineteen year results of THA using modular 9 mm S-ROM femoral component in patients with small femoral canals. (United States)

    Drexler, Michael; Dwyer, Tim; Marmor, Meir; Abolghasemian, Mansour; Chakravertty, Rajesh; Chechik, Ofir; Cameron, Hugh U


    A retrospective analysis was undertaken of 30 consecutive THA performed in 25 patients with hypoplastic proximal femurs, who had received a 9-mm uncemented modular S-ROM stem. The mean patient age was 42 years (17-69 years), mean height was 152.5 cm (130-170.5 cm), mean weight was 63 kg (39-90 kg), and mean follow-up period was 19 years (range, 12-23 years). Subsidence was seen in 2 hips, with asymptomatic femoral osteolysis present in 11 hips; overall survival of the femoral stem was 93.3%, with two revisions of the femoral component required for aseptic loosening. After a mean follow-up of 19 years, the use of the S-ROM 9 mm femoral stem in the patient with the small femur was associated with a low revision rate due to aseptic loosening of the stem. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Generic rules of mechano-regulation combined with subject specific loading conditions can explain bone adaptation after THA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz D Szwedowski

    Full Text Available Bone adaptation after total hip arthroplasty is associated with the change in internal load environment, and can result in compromised bone stock, which presents a considerable challenge should a revision procedure be required. Under the assumption of a generic mechano-regulatory algorithm for governing bone adaptation, the aim of this study was to understand the contribution of subject specific loading conditions towards explaining the local periprosthetic remodelling variations in patients. CT scans of 3 consecutive THA patients were obtained and used for the construction of subject specific finite element models using verified musculoskeletal loading and physiological boundary conditions. Using either strain energy density or equivalent strain as mechano-transduction signals, predictions of bone adaptation were compared to DEXA derived BMD changes from 7 days to 12 months post-implantation. Individual changes in BMD of up to 33.6% were observed within the 12 month follow-up period, together with considerable inter-patient variability of up to 26%. Estimates of bone adaptation using equivalent strain and balanced loading conditions led to the best agreement with in vivo measured BMD, with RMS errors of only 3.9%, 7.3% and 7.3% for the individual subjects, compared to errors of over 10% when the loading conditions were simplified.This study provides evidence that subject specific loading conditions and physiological boundary constraints are essential for explaining inter-patient variations in bone adaptation patterns. This improved knowledge of the rules governing the adaptation of bone following THA helps towards understanding the interplay between mechanics and biology for better identifying patients at risk of excessive or problematic periprosthetic bone atrophy.

  11. 'Dodo' and 'Baby Bear' Trenches (United States)


    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image on Sol 11 (June 5, 2008), the eleventh day after landing. It shows the trenches dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm. The trench on the left is informally called 'Dodo' and was dug as a test. The trench on the right is informally called 'Baby Bear.' The sample dug from Baby Bear will be delivered to the Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The Baby Bear trench is 9 centimeters (3.1 inches) wide and 4 centimeters (1.6 inches) deep. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Bearing tester data compilation, analysis, and reporting and bearing math modeling (United States)


    The Shaberth bearing analysis computer program was developed for the analysis of jet engine shaft/bearing systems operating above room temperature with normal hydrocarbon lubricants. It is also possible to use this tool to evaluate the shaft bearing systems operating in cryogenics. Effects such as fluid drag, radial temperature gradients, outer race misalignments and clearance changes were simulated and evaluated. In addition, the speed and preload effects on bearing radial stiffness was evaluated. The Shaberth program was also used to provide contact stresses from which contact geometry was calculated to support other analyses such as the determination of cryogenic fluid film thickness in the contacts and evaluation of surface and subsurface stresses necessary for bearing failure evaluation. This program was a vital tool for the thermal analysis of the bearing in that it provides the heat generation rates at the rolling element/race contacts for input into a thermal model of the bearing/shaft assembly.

  13. Teddy Bear Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo; Caldas-Coulthardt, Carmen


    This paper presents a semiotic analysis of a key cultural artefact, the teddy bear. After introducing the iconography of the teddy bear, it analyses different kinds of stories to show how teddy bears are endowed with meaning in everyday life: stories from children's books, reminiscenses by adults...... about their childhood teddy bears, and children's accounts of what they do with teddy bears, both written for school and told 'out of school', The chapter sees teddy bears as artefacts that provide a cultural channeling for the child's need of a transitional object and argues that the meanings of teddy...... bears have traditionally centred on interpersonal relations within the nuclear family, but have recently been institutionalized and commercialized....

  14. Wear Analysis of Wind Turbine Gearbox Bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blau, Peter Julian [ORNL; Walker, Larry R [ORNL; Xu, Hanbing [ORNL; Parten, Randy J [ORNL; Qu, Jun [ORNL; Geer, Tom [ORNL


    The objective of this effort was to investigate and characterize the nature of surface damage and wear to wind turbine gearbox bearings returned from service in the field. Bearings were supplied for examination by S. Butterfield and J. Johnson of the National Wind Technology Center (NREL), Boulder, Colorado. Studies consisted of visual examination, optical and electron microscopy, dimensional measurements of wear-induced macro-scale and micro-scale features, measurements of macro- and micro-scale hardness, 3D imaging of surface damage, studies of elemental distributions on fracture surfaces, and examinations of polished cross-sections of surfaces under various etched and non-etched conditions.

  15. The Ideal Total Hip Replacement Bearing Surface in the Young Patient: A Prospective Randomized Trial Comparing Alumina Ceramic-On-Ceramic With Ceramic-On-Conventional Polyethylene: 15-Year Follow-Up. (United States)

    Atrey, Amit; Wolfstadt, Jesse I; Hussain, Nasir; Khoshbin, Amir; Ward, Sarah; Schemitsch, Emil H; Waddell, James P


    The optimum bearing surface for total hip arthroplasty remains debatable. We have previously published our outcome at 10 years and this represents the 15-year follow-up. A total of 58 hips (in 57 patients with a mean age of 42 years) were randomized to receive either ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) or ceramic-on-polyethylene (CoP) total hip arthroplasty. We prospectively followed for survivorship, functional outcomes (using the Harris Hip Score and the St Michael's Hip Score [SMH]), and radiological outcomes. At a minimum of 15 years, 3 patients had died, but not been revised. Seven were lost to follow-up. Five cases from the CoP group were revised (4 for polyethylene wear and osteolysis). Four from the CoC were revised; one each for head fracture, instability, infection, and trunnionosis. Both groups showed statistically significant improvements in Harris Hip Score scores and SMH functional scores, with no difference between the 2 bearings. For the CoP group, there was an improvement from 15.6 to 21.5 in the SMH and from 48.8 to 88.7 (P > .05); and for CoC, this improvement was 15.8 to 23.5 and 50.3 to 94.6 (P > .05), respectively. Mean wear rate of the polyethylene was 0.092 mm/y and for the CoC was 0.018 mm/y. Two patients in the CoC group had evidence of acetabular osteolysis vs 3 in the CoP. Six patients had femoral osteolysis in the CoC group and 12 in the CoP group. Survivorship and function of the 2 bearing groups remains comparable; while the polyethylene wear and osteolysis may represent issues in the future. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Surgical Risks and Costs of Care are Greater in Patients Who Are Super Obese and Undergoing THA. (United States)

    Meller, Menachem M; Toossi, Nader; Gonzalez, Mark H; Son, Min-Sun; Lau, Edmund C; Johanson, Norman


    Patients with morbid obesity, defined as a BMI greater than 40 kg/m(2), and super obesity, defined as a BMI greater than 50 kg/m(2), increasingly present for total hip replacement. There is disagreement in the literature whether these individuals have greater surgical risks and costs for the episode of care, and the magnitude of those risks and costs. There also is no established threshold for obesity as defined by BMI in identifying increased complications, risks, and costs of care. Until recently, analysis of higher BMI data was limited to small cohorts from hospital-based data banks, based on BMI or height and weight only, often as part of a multivariate analysis. On October 1, 2010 the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services added a fifth digit to the BMI data, V85.xx, in the Medicare data bank, which allowed data mining of cases of patients with higher BMI. To our knowledge, our study is the first large retrospective Medicare data mining study, which allows us to examine BMI levels greater than 40 and 50 kg/m(2) to delineate risks, complications, and costs for these patients. We sought to quantify (1) the surgical risk, and (2) the costs associated with complications after THA in patients who were morbidly obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2)) or super obese (BMI ≥ 50 kg/m(2)). This is a retrospective study of patients, using Medicare hospital claims data, who underwent THA. The ICD-9 Clinical Modification (CM) diagnosis code V85.4x was used to identify patients with morbid obesity and with super obesity from October 1, 2010 through December 31, 2014. Patients without any BMI-related diagnosis codes were used as the control group. Twelve complications occurring during the 90 days after THA were analyzed using multivariate Cox models adjusting for patient demographic, comorbidities, and institutional factors. In addition, hospital charges and payments were compared from primary surgery through the subsequent 90 days. Patients with morbid obesity had increased

  17. A complete-pelvis segmentation framework for image-free total hip arthroplasty (THA): methodology and clinical study. (United States)

    Xie, Weiguo; Franke, Jochen; Chen, Cheng; Grützner, Paul A; Schumann, Steffen; Nolte, Lutz-P; Zheng, Guoyan


    Complete-pelvis segmentation in antero-posterior pelvic radiographs is required to create a patient-specific three-dimensional pelvis model for surgical planning and postoperative assessment in image-free navigation of total hip arthroplasty. A fast and robust framework for accurately segmenting the complete pelvis is presented, consisting of two consecutive modules. In the first module, a three-stage method was developed to delineate the left hemi-pelvis based on statistical appearance and shape models. To handle complex pelvic structures, anatomy-specific information processing techniques were employed. As the input to the second module, the delineated left hemi-pelvis was then reflected about an estimated symmetry line of the radiograph to initialize the right hemi-pelvis segmentation. The right hemi-pelvis was segmented by the same three-stage method, Two experiments conducted on respectively 143 and 40 AP radiographs demonstrated a mean segmentation accuracy of 1.61±0.68 mm. A clinical study to investigate the postoperative assessment of acetabular cup orientations based on the proposed framework revealed an average accuracy of 1.2°±0.9° and 1.6°±1.4° for anteversion and inclination, respectively. Delineation of each radiograph costs less than one minute. Despite further validation needed, the preliminary results implied the underlying clinical applicability of the proposed framework for image-free THA. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Bearing Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shah


    Full Text Available Health monitoring of bearings is a widely researched topic and has been attempted by analysing acoustic, thermal and vibration signatures. The methods usually require signal of a healthy bearing to be used as a baseline. This limits their use in practical scenarios. This work proposes a kurtosis based baseline free method of analysing vibration signals to identify the bearing which has generated a fault. It then reports a detailed study on empirical mode decomposition technique for extracting intrinsic mode functions and suggests a set of steps which are necessary and sufficient for the purpose of bearing health monitoring. Thereafter, it compares a few dominant frequencies with the expected ones based on known bearing dimensions. This process has been shown to be fairly accurate in identifying the location of fault in a bearing.

  19. Vapor Cavitation in Dynamically Loaded Journal Bearings (United States)

    Jacobson, B. O.; Hamrock, B. J.


    High speed motion camera experiments were performed on dynamically loaded journal bearings. The length to diameter ratio of the bearing, the speed of the roller and the tube, the surface material of the roller, and the static and dynamic eccentricity of the bearing were varied. One hundred and thirty-four cases were filmed. The occurrence of vapor cavitation was clearly evident in the films and figures presented. Vapor cavitation was found to occur when the tensile stress applied to the oil exceeded the tensile strength of the oil or the binding of the oil to the surface. The physical situation in which vapor cavitation occurs is during the squeezing and sliding motion within a bearing. Besides being able to accurately capture the vapor cavitation on film, an analysis of the formation and collapse of the cavitation bubbles and characteristics of the bubble content are presented.

  20. Polar bears, Ursus maritimus (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D.; Stirling, Ian


    Polar bears are the largest of the eight species of bears found worldwide and are covered in a pigment-free fur giving them the appearance of being white. They are the most carnivorous of bear species consuming a high-fat diet, primarily of ice-associated seals and other marine mammals. They range throughout the circumpolar Arctic to the southernmost extent of seasonal pack ice.

  1. Construction of supported lipid membrane modified piezoelectric biosensor for sensitive assay of cholera toxin based on surface-agglutination of ganglioside-bearing liposomes. (United States)

    Chen, Huan; Hu, Qing-Yuan; Yue-Zheng; Jiang, Jian-Hui; Shen, Guo-Li; Yu, Ru-Qin


    A novel piezoelelctric biosensor has been developed for cholera toxin (CT) detection based on the analyte-mediated surface-agglutination of ganglioside (GM1)-functionalized liposomes. To achieve a CT-specific agglutination at the surface, the gold electrode is modified by a GM1-functionalized supported lipid membrane via spontaneous spread of the liposomes on a self-assembled monolayer of a long-chain alkanethiol. In the presence of CT, the GM1-incorporated liposomes in assay medium will rapidly specifically agglutinate at the electrode surface through the binding of CT to GM1 on the electrode surface and the liposome interface. This results in an enormous mass loading on the piezoelelctric crystal as well as a significant increase of density and viscosity at the interface, thereby generating a decrease in frequency of the piezoelelctric crystal. The combination of mass loading with interfacial change in the surface-agglutination reaction allows the developed piezoelelctric biosensor to show substantial signal amplification in response to the analyte CT. The detection limit can be achieved as low as 25 ng mL(-1) CT. This is the first demonstration on CT detection based on specific surface-agglutination of GM1-modified liposomes. The supported lipid layer based sensing interface can be prepared readily and renewably, making the developed technique especially useful for simple, reusable and sensitive determination of proteins.

  2. Foil Bearing Coating Behavior in CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Kruizenga, Alan Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Pasch, James Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fleming, Darryn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The Sandia S-CO2 Recompression Closed Brayton Cycle (RCBC) utilizes a series of gas foil bearings in its turbine-alternator-compressors. At high shaft rotational speed these bearings allow the shaft to ride on a cushion of air. Conversely, during startup and shutdown, the shaft rides along the foil bearing surface. Low-friction coatings are used on bearing surfaces in order to facilitate rotation during these periods. An experimental program was initiated to elucidate the behavior of coated bearing foils in the harsh environments of this system. A test configuration was developed enabling long duration exposure tests, followed by a range of analyses relevant to their performance in a bearing. This report provides a detailed overview of this work. The results contained herein provide valuable information in selecting appropriate coatings for more advanced future bearing-rig tests at the newly established test facility in Sandia-NM.

  3. Contact fatigue in rolling-element bearings

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Fernandes, PJL


    Full Text Available Surface contact fatigue is a common cause of failure in rolling-element bearings. The extent of damage observed depends on the contact loads, the curvature of the rolling elements, and the relative motion between the contacting surfaces...

  4. Geology, mineralization, and hydrothermal alteration and relationships to acidic and metal-bearing surface waters in the Palmetto Gulch area, southwestern Colorado (United States)

    Bove, Dana J.; Kurtz, Jeffrey P.; Wright, Winfield G.


    The Palmetto Gulch area is affected by low pH and metal-bearing drainage from abandoned mines, and perhaps, from natural weathering around vein zones. To investigate these anthropogenic and potential natural sources of acidity and metals, we mapped the geology, veins, and hydrothermally altered areas; conducted mine dump leachate studies; and collected reconnaissance water quality data. Several small abandoned mines are present in the Palmetto Gulch area that produced small amounts of relatively high-grade silver ore from fault-controlled polymetallic vein deposits. These veins are hosted in lavas, breccias, and related volcaniclastic sediments that ponded within the 28 Ma San Juan-Uncompahgre caldera complex. These rock units generally have conformable contacts and have shallow dips to the northwest. Lava flows of pyroxene andesite, which host the Roy-Pray mine, are massive near their base and typically grade upward into tightly jointed rock with 2-15 cm joint spacing. In general, most hydrothermally altered rock within the Palmetto Gulch area is restricted to envelopes surrounding the mineralized veins and faults. Composite zones of vein-related alteration vary from about 50 to 80 m wide along the high ridgelines and narrow to less than 10 to 15 m beneath an elevation of about 5,462 m. Where unaffected by surficial oxidation, these altered zones contain as much as 7 to 10 volume percent finely-disseminated pyrite. The majority of rocks in the area were affected by regional and vein-related propylitic alteration. These greenish-colored rocks have alteration products consisting of chlorite, illite, and calcite; and feldspars are typically weakly altered. Most of these rocks have detectable amounts of calcite, while as much as 11 percent by weight was detected in samples collected during this study. The Palmetto Gulch area is affected by low pH and metal-bearing drainage from abandoned mines, and perhaps, from natural weathering around vein zones. To investigate

  5. Low elastic modulus Ti-Ta alloys for load-bearing permanent implants: enhancing the biodegradation resistance by electrochemical surface engineering. (United States)

    Kesteven, Jazmin; Kannan, M Bobby; Walter, Rhys; Khakbaz, Hadis; Choe, Han-Choel


    In this study, the in vitro degradation behaviour of titanium-tantalum (Ti-Ta) alloys (10-30 wt.% Ta) was investigated and compared with conventional implant materials, i.e., commercially pure titanium (Cp-Ti) and titanium-aluminium-vanadium (Ti6Al4V) alloy. Among the three Ti-Ta alloys studied, the Ti20Ta (6.3×10(-4) mm/y) exhibited the lowest degradation rate, followed by Ti30Ta (1.2×10(-3) mm/y) and Ti10Ta (1.4×10(-3) mm/y). All the Ti-Ta alloys exhibited lower degradation rate than that of Cp-Ti (1.8×10(-3) mm/y), which suggests that Ta addition to Ti is beneficial. As compared to Ti6Al4V alloy (8.1×10(-4) mm/y), the degradation rate of Ti20Ta alloy was lower by ~22%. However, the Ti30Ta alloy, which has closer elastic modulus to that of natural bone, showed ~48% higher degradation rate than that of Ti6Al4V alloy. Hence, to improve the degradation performance of Ti30Ta alloy, an intermediate thin porous layer was formed electrochemically on the alloy followed by calcium phosphate (CaP) electrodeposition. The coated Ti30Ta alloy (3.8×10(-3) mm/y) showed ~53% lower degradation rate than that of Ti6Al4V alloy. Thus, the study suggests that CaP coated Ti30Ta alloy can be a viable material for load-bearing permanent implants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. EcoBears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nick; Pedersen, Sandra Bleuenn; Sørensen, Jens Ager


    In this paper, we introduce the EcoBears concept that aims to augment household appliances with functional and aesthetic features to promote their "use'' and "longevity of use'' to prevent their disposal. The EcoBears also aim to support the communication of environmental issues in the home setting...

  7. Low elastic modulus Ti–Ta alloys for load-bearing permanent implants: Enhancing the biodegradation resistance by electrochemical surface engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesteven, Jazmin [Biomaterials and Engineering Materials (BEM) Laboratory, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Kannan, M. Bobby, E-mail: [Biomaterials and Engineering Materials (BEM) Laboratory, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Walter, Rhys; Khakbaz, Hadis [Biomaterials and Engineering Materials (BEM) Laboratory, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland 4811 (Australia); Choe, Han-Choel [Department of Dental Materials, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759 (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, the in vitro degradation behaviour of titanium–tantalum (Ti–Ta) alloys (10–30 wt.% Ta) was investigated and compared with conventional implant materials, i.e., commercially pure titanium (Cp-Ti) and titanium–aluminium–vanadium (Ti6Al4V) alloy. Among the three Ti–Ta alloys studied, the Ti20Ta (6.3 × 10{sup −4} mm/y) exhibited the lowest degradation rate, followed by Ti30Ta (1.2 × 10{sup −3} mm/y) and Ti10Ta (1.4 × 10{sup −3} mm/y). All the Ti–Ta alloys exhibited lower degradation rate than that of Cp-Ti (1.8 × 10{sup −3} mm/y), which suggests that Ta addition to Ti is beneficial. As compared to Ti6Al4V alloy (8.1 × 10{sup −4} mm/y), the degradation rate of Ti20Ta alloy was lower by ∼ 22%. However, the Ti30Ta alloy, which has closer elastic modulus to that of natural bone, showed ∼ 48% higher degradation rate than that of Ti6Al4V alloy. Hence, to improve the degradation performance of Ti30Ta alloy, an intermediate thin porous layer was formed electrochemically on the alloy followed by calcium phosphate (CaP) electrodeposition. The coated Ti30Ta alloy (3.8 × 10{sup −3} mm/y) showed ∼ 53% lower degradation rate than that of Ti6Al4V alloy. Thus, the study suggests that CaP coated Ti30Ta alloy can be a viable material for load-bearing permanent implants. - Highlights: • In vitro degradation of titanium–tantalum (Ti–Ta) alloys was studied. • Ta addition to Ti is beneficial for better degradation resistance. • Ti–Ta alloys perform better than commercially pure Ti. • Calcium phosphate coated Ti–Ta alloy is superior to Ti6Al4V alloy.

  8. The salmon bears: giants of the great bear rainforest

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McAllister, I; Read, N


    The Salmon Bears explores the delicate balance that exists between the grizzly, black and spirit bears of the Great Bear Rainforest and their natural environment on the central coast of British Columbia...

  9. Sensitivity study of borehole-to-surface and crosswell electromagnetic measurements acquired with energized steel casing to water displacement in hydrocarbon-bearing layers


    Pardo D.; Torres-Verdín C.; Zhang Z.


    We study the theoretical response of electromagnetically energized steel casing in the presence of subsurface variations of electrical resistivity. Casing is energized with a finite-size solenoid antenna located along the axis of the borehole. Measurements consist of the azimuthal component of the electric field acquired either on the surface or in a separate well in the same hydrocarbon field. We assume two-dimensional (2D) axisymmetric variations of subsurface electrical resistivity and cas...

  10. Touchdown Ball-Bearing System for Magnetic Bearings (United States)

    Kingsbury, Edward P.; Price, Robert; Gelotte, Erik; Singer, Herbert B.


    The torque-limited touchdown bearing system (TLTBS) is a backup mechanical-bearing system for a high-speed rotary machine in which the rotor shaft is supported by magnetic bearings in steady-state normal operation. The TLTBS provides ball-bearing support to augment or supplant the magnetic bearings during startup, shutdown, or failure of the magnetic bearings. The TLTBS also provides support in the presence of conditions (in particular, rotational acceleration) that make it difficult or impossible to control the magnetic bearings or in which the magnetic bearings are not strong enough (e.g., when the side load against the rotor exceeds the available lateral magnetic force).

  11. The Influence of Pressure Distribution on the Maximum Values of Stress in FEM Analysis of Plain Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Cojocaru


    Full Text Available Several methods can be used in the FEM studies to apply the loads on a plain bearing. The paper presents a comparative analysis of maximum stress obtained for three loading scenarios: resultant force applied on the shaft – bearing assembly, variable pressure with sinusoidal distribution applied on the bearing surface, variable pressure with parabolic distribution applied on the bearing surface.

  12. Mixed Lubrication Solution of Dynamically Loaded Radial Slide Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Novotny


    Full Text Available A solution of radial slide bearing dynamics and tribology incorporating the influences of real surface roughness contacts or the influence of surface roughness on bearing lubrication is presented in this paper. Finite difference method for Reynolds equation discretization, finite element method for calculation of elastic deformations, Gauss-Seidel’s method for iterative solution of discretized equations or Newmark’s algorithm are the methods employed in the proposed solution approach. The coupled structural-fluid solver considering mixed lubrication conditions of the radial bearings is the result. The proposed algorithms are presented for highly loaded radial slide bearing of internal combustion engine.

  13. Ultra-precision bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Wardle, F


    Ultra-precision bearings can achieve extreme accuracy of rotation, making them ideal for use in numerous applications across a variety of fields, including hard disk drives, roundness measuring machines and optical scanners. Ultraprecision Bearings provides a detailed review of the different types of bearing and their properties, as well as an analysis of the factors that influence motion error, stiffness and damping. Following an introduction to basic principles of motion error, each chapter of the book is then devoted to the basic principles and properties of a specific type of bearin

  14. Assessing the Contribution of the CFRP Strip of Bearing the Applied Load Using Near-Surface Mounted Strengthening Technique with Innovative High-Strength Self-Compacting Cementitious Adhesive (IHSSC-CA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyaa Mohammed


    Full Text Available Efficient transfer of load between concrete substrate and fibre reinforced polymer (FRP by the bonding agent is the key factor in any FRP strengthening system. An innovative high-strength self-compacting non-polymer cementitious adhesive (IHSSC-CA was recently developed by the authors and has been used in a number of studies. Graphene oxide and cementitious materials are used to synthesise the new adhesive. The successful implementation of IHSSC-CA significantly increases carbon FRP (CFRP strip utilization and the load-bearing capacity of the near-surface mounted (NSM CFRP strengthening system. A number of tests were used to inspect the interfacial zone in the bonding area of NSM CFRP strips, including physical examination, pore structure analysis, and three-dimensional laser profilometery analysis. It was deduced from the physical inspection of NSM CFRP specimens made with IHSSC-CA that a smooth surface for load transfer was found in the CFRP strip without stress concentrations in some local regions. A smooth surface of the adhesive layer is very important for preventing localized brittle failure in the concrete. The pore structure analysis also confirmed that IHSSC-CA has better composite action between NSM CFRP strips and concrete substrate than other adhesives, resulting in the NSM CFRP specimens made with IHSSC-CA sustaining a greater load. Finally, the results of three-dimensional laser profilometery revealed a greater degree of roughness and less deformation on the surface of the CFRP strip when IHSSC-CA was used compared to other adhesives.

  15. Laboratory Simulation of Rolling Contact Fatigue Cracks in Wind Turbine Bearings Using Hydrogen Infused 100Cr6 Bearing Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janakiraman, Shravan; West, Ole; Klit, Peder

    Premature fatigue failure is observed in rolling element bearings used in wind turbine components. It is believed that decomposed hydrogen from the lubricant diffuses into the surface of the bearing inner ring making it susceptible to failure. An attempt is made to simulate the formation of these......Premature fatigue failure is observed in rolling element bearings used in wind turbine components. It is believed that decomposed hydrogen from the lubricant diffuses into the surface of the bearing inner ring making it susceptible to failure. An attempt is made to simulate the formation...

  16. Management recommendations: Bear River (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a review of land management practices at the Bear River Migratory Bird Refuge, by a land use specialist. Recommendations, time frame and additional...

  17. DW_BEAR (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Subset of BEAR (Bi-Weekly Examination Analysis and Reporting) data used for financial audit remediation reporting within the Coast Guard Business Intelligence (CGBI)...

  18. Rolling bearing analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Harris, Tedric A


    One of the most well-known experts in the field brings cutting-edge research to practitioners in the new edition of this important reference. Covers the improved mathematical calculations for rolling bearing endurance developed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Society of Lubrication and Tribology Engineers. Updated with new material on Condition-Based Maintenance, new testing methods, and new bearing materials.

  19. Ball bearing measurement with white light interferometry (United States)

    Schmit, Joanna; Han, Sen; Novak, Erik


    Requirements on high-performance of ball bearings in terms of the loads they experience and their reliability are increasing as the automotive, aerospace, and power generation industries look to cut costs, reduce emissions, and improve efficiency. Most bearings are evaluated with a stylus profiler or with a bright field scopes or microscopes for form, roughness, and defect classification. Two-dimensional stylus measurements captures only very localized surface profiles unless multiple scans are performed which slow the measurement time unacceptably; this leads to inadequate sampling and sometimes greatly varying results based on location and directionality of the line scan. Bright field microscopes deliver only the lateral information about defects but not their depth, volume or surface roughness. White light interferometry can be very successfully utilized in the measurement of full field form, roughness and defect detection and is gaining adoption. They provide rapid, accurate, three-dimensional imaging compatible with the newly developed ISO 3D surface parameters which are expected to rapidly displace traditional 2D metrics. These surface parameters allow for better characterization of surface structure and better understanding of the production process and bearing and race wear. New 3D filtering techniques allow effective separation of form, waviness, and roughness for highly accurate and repeatable bearing qualification.

  20. Uneven damage on head and liner contact surfaces of a retrieved Co–Cr-based metal-on-metal hip joint bearing: An important reason for the high failure rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, Yuichiro, E-mail: [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Chen, Yan; Li, Yunping; Yamanaka, Kenta; Chiba, Akihiko [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Tanaka, Shun-Ichiro [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Hagiwara, Yoshihiro [Tohoku University School of Medicine, 2-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8575 (Japan)


    Detailed metallurgical investigations have been performed on a used Co–Cr-based metal-on-metal (MoM) hip joint bearing containing a type of liner that is commonly used in such joints. The damage on the metal-liner sliding surface was considerably more severe than that on the metal head counterpart, in terms of wear-scar density and width and microcrack frequency. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy revealed that a thick (> 3 μm) nanocrystalline layer formed on the sliding surface of the head, whereas the liner had coarse carbides embedded in it and nanocrystals were formed in a very limited region no deeper than 1 μm. Comparative investigation of an unused head and a liner of identical type showed that although the chemical compositions of the liner and head were nearly identical, their microstructures were significantly different. Specifically, the grain size in the liner was larger than that in the head on average, and the grain boundaries of the liner were decorated with coarse carbides. Moreover, X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a large tensile residual stress only in the liner. These differences are possibly responsible for the wear damage on the liner being more serious than that on the head. - Highlights: • Microstructures in a used metal-on-metal (MoM) hip joint have been investigated in detail. • The damage on the liner sliding surface was considerably more severe than that on the head. • Relatively coarse microstructures are probably responsible for the severe damage on the liner.

  1. Climate Drives Polar Bear Origins (United States)

    In their provocative analysis of northern bears (“Nuclear genomic sequences reveal that polar bears are an old and distinct bear lineage,” Reports, 20 April, p. 344), F. Hailer et al. use independent nuclear loci to show that polar bears originated during the middle Pleistocene, rather than during t...

  2. Bone remodelling in THA: A comparative DXA scan study between conventional implants and a new stemless femoral component. A preliminary report. (United States)

    Albanese, C V; Rendine, M; De Palma, F; Impagliazzo, A; Falez, F; Postacchini, F; Villani, C; Passariello, R; Santori, F S


    Periprosthetic bone loss is a major cause for concern in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA). There are many different factors that may determine the pattern of bone loss and bone remodelling following THA, such as the quality of the bone before the hip replacement, skeletal bone mass at the time of the operation, material and method of fixation and implant design. Recent developments in dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) have made it possible to quantify bone mineral density (BMD) to evaluate changes around the prosthesis and to measure bone stock and bone density redistribution after a total hip replacement. In this cross-sectional multicentre clinical study the DXA method was used to compare bone mass after uncemented THA of a custom-made stemless design with five groups of conventional cementless implants (Alloclassic, Mayo, CFP, IPS, ABG). The adaptive bone changes of the proximal femur three years after implantation were evaluated. Periprosthetic BMD was measured in 130 subjects in the seven regions of interest (ROI) based on Gruen zones. Significant differences were found between the stemless implant and the other five groups in zones 1, 4 and 7. The CFP, IPS, and ABG groups showed decreased BMD in ROI 1, and the Mayo, IPS and Alloclassic in ROI 7. An increased BMD in ROI 4 was observed in the Mayo, IPS, ABG and Alloclassic groups. The results of the present study suggest that a conservative stemless implant with complete proximal load transfer produces a homogeneous and more physiological redistribution of bone density, allowing maintenance of proximal periprosthetic bone stock.

  3. Tribology of alternative bearings. (United States)

    Fisher, John; Jin, Zhongmin; Tipper, Joanne; Stone, Martin; Ingham, Eileen


    The tribological performance and biological activity of the wear debris produced has been compared for highly cross-linked polyethylene, ceramic-on-ceramic, metal-on-metal, and modified metal bearings in a series of in vitro studies from a single laboratory. The functional lifetime demand of young and active patients is 10-fold greater than the estimated functional lifetime of traditional polyethylene. There is considerable interest in using larger diameter heads in these high demand patients. Highly cross-linked polyethylene show a four-fold reduction in functional biological activity. Ceramic-on-ceramic bearings have the lowest wear rates and least reactive wear debris. The functional biological activity is 20-fold lower than with highly cross-linked polyethylene. Hence, ceramic-on-ceramic bearings address the tribological lifetime demand of highly active patients. Metal-on-metal bearings have substantially lower wear rates than highly cross-linked polyethylene and wear decreases with head diameter. Bedding in wear is also lower with reduced radial clearance. Differential hardness ceramic-on-metal bearings and the application of ceramic-like coatings reduce metal wear and ion levels.

  4. Involvement of functional groups on the surface of carboxyl group-terminated polyamidoamine dendrimers bearing arbutin in inhibition of Na⁺/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1)-mediated D-glucose uptake. (United States)

    Sakuma, Shinji; Kanamitsu, Shun; Teraoka, Yumi; Masaoka, Yoshie; Kataoka, Makoto; Yamashita, Shinji; Shirasaka, Yoshiyuki; Tamai, Ikumi; Muraoka, Masahiro; Nakatsuji, Yohji; Kida, Toshiyuki; Akashi, Mitsuru


    A carboxyl group-terminated polyamidoamine dendrimer (generation: 3.0) bearing arbutin, which is a substrate of Na⁺/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1), via a nonbiodegradable ω-amino triethylene glycol linker (PAMAM-ARB), inhibits SGLT1-mediated D-glucose uptake, as does phloridzin, which is a typical SGLT1 inhibitor. Here, since our previous research revealed that the activity of arbutin was dramatically improved through conjugation with the dendrimer, we examined the involvement of functional groups on the dendrimer surface in inhibition of SGLT1-mediated D-glucose uptake. PAMAM-ARB, with a 6.25% arbutin content, inhibited in vitro D-glucose uptake most strongly; the inhibitory effect decreased as the arbutin content increased. In vitro experiments using arbutin-free original dendrimers indicated that dendrimer-derived carboxyl groups actively participated in SGLT1 inhibition. However, the inhibitory effect was much less than that of PAMAM-ARB and was equal to that of glucose moiety-free PAMAM-ARB. Data supported that the glucose moiety of arbutin was essential for the high activity of PAMAM-ARB in SGLT1 inhibition. Analysis of the balance of each domain further suggested that carboxyl groups anchored PAMAM-ARB to SGLT1, and the subsequent binding of arbutin-derived glucose moieties to the target sites on SGLT1 resulted in strong inhibition of SGLT1-mediated D-glucose uptake.

  5. The quality of materials applied for slewing bearing raceway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Krynke


    Full Text Available Selected slewing bearings and their application have been described in this article. Basic causes of the damage pitch surfaces of slewing bearings have been analysed and examples of the damage have been presented as well. Special attention was paid to these kinds of damage which appeared most often in the case of the pitch surfaces of the bearings and those ones which very often cause premature exchange of the bearing and its scrapping. On the basis of the conducted studies it was stated that the main cause of the damage to  the pitch surfaces of the bearings is the excessive load of rolling elements. Based on the results of the conducted analysis, actions limiting the occurrence of the damage to the pitch surfaces of the bearings, which lead to their premature exchange, have been proposed. One of the suggested actions, limiting the premature exchange of bearings, is the necessity of exceptionally thorough design and selection of the slewing bearings, including the conditions of their foundation

  6. Partial tooth gear bearings (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)


    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  7. Tribology experiment. [journal bearings and liquid lubricants (United States)

    Wall, W. A.


    A two-dimensional concept for Spacelab rack 7 was developed to study the interaction of liquid lubricants and surfaces under static and dynamic conditions in a low-gravity environment fluid wetting and spreading experiments of a journal bearing experiments, and means to accurately measure and record the low-gravity environment during experimentation are planned. The wetting and spreading process of selected commercial lubricants on representative surface are to the observes in a near-zero gravity environment.

  8. Modular gear bearings (United States)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)


    A gearing system using modular gear bearing components. Each component is composed of a core, one or more modules attached to the core and two or more fastening modules rigidly attaching the modules to the core. The modules, which are attached to the core, may consist of gears, rollers or gear bearing components. The core orientation affects the orientation of the modules attached to the core. This is achieved via the keying arrangement of the core and the component modules that attach to the core. Such an arrangement will also facilitate the phase tuning of gear modules with respect to the core and other gear modules attached to the core.

  9. Blade Bearing Friction Estimation of Operating Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perisic, Nevena; Pedersen, Bo Juul; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning


    reliability can be increased by continuous monitoring of blade bearing. High blade bearing friction is undesirable, as it may be associated with excessive heating of the surfaces, damage and/or inefficient operation. Thus, continuous observation of bearing friction level is crucial for blade bearing health...... monitoring systems. A novel algorithm for online monitoring of bearing friction level is developed combining physical knowledge about pitch system dynamics with state estimator, i.e. observer theory and signal processing assuming realistic sensor availability. Results show estimation of bearing friction...... torque required for condition monitoring, and a corresponding indicator signal which represents estimation of a relative friction coefficient. All data used in this work have been calculated using the aeroelastic code, LACflex applying a model of a generic multi-MW WTG....

  10. Thin and Curved Self-Bearing Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoş Ciolacu


    Full Text Available Edification practice proves that an aesthetic fulfillment of a building may ignore structural laws - Greek architecture - same as correct building are fulfilling beautiful - iron architecture. The degree of parrticipation of the structure to artistic impression is different and the buildings situated at those two extremes have a structural component that is destined to influence the aesthetic reaction. Through structure a building can emit a semiotic message, a noun-verbal communication as a product of the universal recognition of the compliance of a function. Pure structural message are coming from our intuitive understanding of a structural behaviour, that is generated both by physical experience with structural action and by perception of the constructive forms of the nature.

  11. Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (United States)

    Chu, Wei-Kan


    Hybrid superconductor magnet bearings (HSMB's) utilize high temperature superconductors (HTS's) together with permanent magnets to form a frictionless interface between relatively rotating parts. They are low mass, stable, and do not incur expenditure of energy during normal operation. There is no direct physical contact between rotor and stator, and hence there is no wear and tear. However, just as any other applications of HTS's, it requires a very cold temperature to function. Whereas this might be perceived as a disadvantage on earth, it is of no great concern in space or on the moon. To astronomers, the moon is an excellent site for an observatory, but the cold and dusty vacuum environment on the moon precludes the use of mechanical bearings on the telescope mounts. Furthermore, drive mechanisms with very fine steps, and hence bearings with extremely low friction are needed to track a star from the moon, because the moon rotates very slowly. All aspects considered, the HSMB is about the only candidate that fits in naturally. Here, we present a design for one such bearing, capable of supporting a telescope that weighs about 3 lbs on Earth.

  12. Rolling bearing life models and steel internal cleanliness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beswick, J.; Gabelli, A.; Ioannides, S.; Tripp, J.H.; Voskamp, A.P.


    The most widely used steel grade for rolling bearings is based on a steel composition first used almost a hundred years ago, the so-called 1C-1.5Cr steel. This steel is used either in a selective surface induction hardened conditions or in a through hardened heat treated condition, both yielding exceptional structural and contact fatigue properties. The Lundberg and Palmgren rolling bearing life prediction model, published in 1947, was the first analytical approach to bearing performance prediction, subsequently becoming a widely accepted basis for rolling bearing life calculations. At that time the fatigue life of rolling bearings was dominated by the classical sub-surface initiated failure mode. This mode results from the accumulation of micro-plastic strain at the depth of maximum Hertzian stress and is accelerated by the stress concentrations occurring at the micro internal defects. In common with all fatigue processes, rolling bearing failure is a statistical process: the failures of bearings with high inclusion content tested at high stress levels belong to the well-known family of Weibull distributions. Steady improvements in bearing steel cleanliness due, amongst other things, to the introduction of secondary metallurgy steel making techniques, have resulted in a significantly increased rolling bearing life and load carrying capacity. In recognition of this, in 1985 Ioannides and Harris introduced a new fatigue life model for rolling bearings, comprising a more widely applicable approach to the modeling of bearing life based on the relevant failure mode. Subsequently this has been extended to include effects of hardness and of micro-inclusion distributions in state-of-the-art clean bearing steel.

  13. Composites of porous metal and solid lubricants increase bearing life (United States)

    Sliney, H. E.


    Self-lubricating composites of porous nickel and nickel-chromium alloy impregnated with a barium fluoride-calcium fluoride eutectic, and a thin film of solid lubricant increase wear life of load bearing surfaces.

  14. Signature analysis of roller bearing vibrations - Lubrication effects (United States)

    Su, Y.-T.; Sheen, Y.-T.; Lin, M.-H.

    This study investigates the vibration signature of roller bearings, induced by the surface irregularities of components, under various lubricating conditions. The bearing vibration is modeled as the output of the bearing assembly which is subjected to the excitations of surface irregularities through the oil-film. The oil-film acts as a spring between the roller and race. The stiffness of oil-film under different lubricating conditions is studied from the empirical equation of minimum oil-film thickness. It is shown that the vibration spectra of a normal roller bearing may have a pattern of equal frequency spacing distribution (EFSD) whose frequency information is similar to that of a damaged bearing. Under large loading and low running speed, the vibration energy is low if the lubricant viscosity is high. On the other hand, at high running speed, the vibration energy is high with high lubricant viscosity.

  15. Development of surface treated and coated hybrid- and all ceramic rolling bearings under low lubricant- and lubricant free operation. Final report; Oberflaechenbehandlung und Beschichtungen fuer Hybrid- und Keramikkugellager im schmiermittelarmen oder -freien Betrieb. Teilvorhaben: Entwicklung und Herstellung von oberflaechen-technisch optimierten Hybrid- und Keramikkugellagern fuer den Einsatz im schmiermittelarmen oder -freien Betrieb. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, M.; Sternagel, R.


    Objective within the project was the development of surface treated and coated hybrid- and all ceramic rolling bearings designed for less-lubricant- and lubricant free operation. In the first step a test procedure was developed and qualified for the investigation and assessment of the fitness of coatings for rolling contact stresses. Hybrid rolling bearings were produced with several thin ceramic coatings (SiC, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2} and TiB{sub 2}). Bearings with ZrO{sub 2} and TiB{sub 2}-coatings achieved good performance in dry running at 1,2 GPa (uncoated: < 0,8 GPa) maximum Hertz`ian contact load. Ceramic rolling bearings made from a new developed silicon nitride were coated with systems Si-C, Al-O, Zr-O und Ti-B. Bearings with SiC showed good wear behaviour. Ceramic rolling bearings were also doted with ions N, C, O and Ti by ionimplantation. Among these bearings O- and N- implanted bearings had the least wear of the rolling surfaces of the rollers and raceways, even at a maximum specific load of 1,7 GPa without lubricant. (orig.) [Deutsch] Mit den im vorliegenden Beitrag beschriebenen Arbeiten wurde das Ziel verfolgt, beschichtete und oberflaechentechnisch optimierte Hybrid- und Keramikwaelzlager aus Siliciumnitrid fuer die Anwendung im schmiermittelarmen und -freien Betrieb zu entwickeln. Im ersten Schritt wurde ein Pruefverfahren entwickelt und erprobt, mit dem das Einsatzverhalten von Beschichtungen unter Waelzbeanspruchung ermittelt werden kann. Danach wurden Hybridlager mit duennen keramischen Schichten (SiC, Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, ZrO{sub 2} und TiB{sub 2}) ausgestattet. Dabei konnte mit den Schichten ZrO{sub 2}- and TiB{sub 2} eine Trockenlauftragfaehigkeit bis 1,2 GPa (unbeschichtet < 0,8 GPa) maximaler Hertz`scher Kontaktspannung realisiert werden. Keramikwaelzlager aus einem neuen Siliciumnitridwerkstoff wurden mit den Schichtsystemen Si-C, Al-O, Zr-O und Ti-B beschichtet, hierbei zeigte SiC eine

  16. Non Linear Analysis on Multi Lobe Journal Bearings (United States)

    Udaya Bhaskar, S.; Manzoor Hussian, M.; Yousuf Ali, Md.


    Multi lobe journal bearings are used in machines which operate at high speeds and high loads. In this paper the multi lobe bearing are analyzed to determine the effect of surface roughness during non linear loading. A non-linear time transient analysis is performed using the fourth order Runge Kutta method. The finite difference method is used to predict the pressure distribution over the bearing surface. The effect of eccentric ratio is studied and the variation of attitude angle is discussed. The journal center trajectories were calculated and plotted.

  17. Government Risk-Bearing

    CERN Document Server


    The u.s. government bulks large in the nation's financial markets. The huge volume of government-issued and -sponsored debt affects the pricing and volume ofprivate debt and, consequently, resource allocation between competing alternatives. What is often not fully appreciated is the substantial influence the federal government wields overresource allocation through its provisionofcreditandrisk-bearing services to the private economy. Because peopleand firms generally seekto avoid risk, atsomeprice they are willing to pay another party to assume the risk they would otherwise face. Insurance companies are a class of private-sector firms one commonly thinks of as providing these services. As the federal government has expanded its presence in the U.S. economy during this century, it has increasingly developed programs aimed at bearing risks that the private sector either would not take on at any price, or would take on but atapricethoughtto besogreatthatmostpotentialbeneficiarieswouldnotpurchase the coverage. To...

  18. Nanoparticles dynamics on a surface: fractal pattern formation and fragmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dick, Veronika V.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.


    In this paper we review our recent results on the formation and the post-growth relaxation processes of nanofractals on surface. For this study we developed a method which describes the internal dynamics of particles in a fractal and accounts for their diffusion and detachment. We demonstrate tha...

  19. Magnetic translator bearings (United States)

    Hockney, Richard L. (Inventor); Downer, James R. (Inventor); Eisenhaure, David B. (Inventor); Hawkey, Timothy J. (Inventor); Johnson, Bruce G. (Inventor)


    A magnetic bearing system for enabling translational motion includes a carriage and a shaft for movably supporting the carriage; a first magnetic bearing fixed to one of the carriage and shaft and slidably received in a first channel of the other of the carriage and shaft. The first channel is generally U shaped with two side walls and a back wall. The magnetic bearing includes a pair of spaced magnetic pole pieces, each pole piece having a pair of electromagnetic coils mounted on poles on opposite ends of the pole piece proximate the side walls, and a third electromagnetic coil mounted on a pole of the pole piece proximate the backwall; a motion sensor for sensing translational motion along two axes and rotationally about three axes of the carriage and shaft relative to each other; and a correction circuit responsive to the sensor for generating a correction signal to drive the coils to compensate for any misalignment sensed between the carriage and the shaft.

  20. On the Design of Tilting-Pad Thrust Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinrichson, Niels


    Pockets are often machined in the surfaces of tilting-pad thrust bearings to allow for hydrostatic jacking in the start-up phase. Pockets and other recesses in the surfaces of bearing pads influence the pressure distribution and thereby the position of the pivot resulting in the most advantageous...... pad convergence ratio. In this thesis, a theoretical approach is applied in the attempt to quantify the influence of recesses in the pad surfaces. The recesses may be relatively deep and enclosed as is the case with pockets designed for hydrostatic jacking. Such recesses are characterized by low...... based on the Reynolds equation are used. They include the effects of variations of viscosity with temperature and the deformation of the bearing pads due to pressure and thermal gradients. The models are validated using measurements. Tilting-pad bearings of standard design are studied and the influences...

  1. Self-Assembling Brush Polymers Bearing Multisaccharides. (United States)

    Lee, Jongchan; Kim, Jin Chul; Lee, Hoyeol; Song, Sungjin; Kim, Heesoo; Ree, Moonhor


    Three different series of brush polymers bearing glucosyl, maltosyl, or maltotriosyl moiety at the bristle end are successfully prepared by using cationic ring-opening polymerization and two sequential postmodification reactions. All brush polymers, except for the polymer containing 100 mol% maltotriosyl moiety, demonstrate the formation of multibilayer structure in films, always providing saccharide-enriched surface. These self-assembling features are remarkable, regarding the bulkiness of saccharide moieties and the kink in the bristle due to the triazole linker. The saccharide-enriched film surfaces reveal exceptionally high specific binding affinity to concanavalin A but suppress nonspecific binding of plasma proteins severely. Overall, the brush polymers bearing saccharide moieties of various kinds in this study are highly suitable materials for biomedical applications including biosensors. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Introgressive hybridization: brown bears as vectors for polar bear alleles. (United States)

    Hailer, Frank


    The dynamics and consequences of introgression can inform about numerous evolutionary processes. Biologists have therefore long been interested in hybridization. One challenge, however, lies in the identification of nonadmixed genotypes that can serve as a baseline for accurate quantification of admixture. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Cahill et al. (2015) analyse a genomic data set of 28 polar bears, eight brown bears and one American black bear. Polar bear alleles are found to be introgressed into brown bears not only near a previously identified admixture zone on the Alaskan Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof (ABC) Islands, but also far into the North American mainland. Elegantly contrasting admixture levels at autosomal and X chromosomal markers, Cahill and colleagues infer that male-biased dispersal has spread these introgressed alleles away from the Late Pleistocene contact zone. Compared to a previous study on the ABC Island population in which an Alaskan brown bear served as a putatively admixture-free reference, Cahill et al. (2015) utilize a newly sequenced Swedish brown bear as admixture baseline. This approach reveals that brown bears have been impacted by introgression from polar bears to a larger extent (up to 8.8% of their genome), than previously known, including the bear that had previously served as admixture baseline. No evidence for introgression of brown bear into polar bear is found, which the authors argue could be a consequence of selection. Besides adding new exciting pieces to the puzzle of polar/brown bear evolutionary history, the study by Cahill and colleagues highlights that wildlife genomics is moving from analysing single genomes towards a landscape genomics approach. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Tribological Behavior of Journal Bearing Material under Different Lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Baskar


    Full Text Available The friction and wear behavior of journal bearing material has been investigated using pin on disc wear tester with three different lubricating oils i.e. synthetic lubricating oil (SAE20W40, chemically modified rapeseed oil (CMRO, chemically modified rapeseed oil with Nano CuO. Wear tests were carried out at maximum load of 200 N and sliding speeds of 2 – 10 m/s. The results showed that the friction and wear behavior of the journal bearing material have changed according to the sliding conditions and lubricating oils. The journal bearing material has a lower friction coefficient for CMRO with Nano CuO than other two oils. Higher wear of journal bearing material was observed in SAE 20W40 and CMRO. Worn surfaces of the journal bearing material with three lubricating oils were examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM and wear mechanisms were discussed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.І. Marchuk


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the mechanism of origin of structural, structural and technological defects of rollers. The technique for integrated indicator of vibration working surfaces of the rings to determine the level of life of the finished part to the operation as part of the bearing and predict the vibroacoustic characteristics of rolling bearings. It was established that technological defects cause low-frequency and high-frequency vibrations. The question about the extent to which it is necessary to strengthen the tolerances on the parameters of bearings on which vibration level is determined not errors bearing parts and their structural properties. Calculated values of the amplitudes vibroacceleration due to the rigidity of the bearing vibrations are so small that in some cases adopted precision calculations turned enough to detect such vibrations. Thus, when tested on the vibro-acoustic installations structural vibration does not play an important role.

  5. Aerospace applications of magnetic bearings (United States)

    Downer, James; Goldie, James; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hockney, Richard


    Magnetic bearings have traditionally been considered for use in aerospace applications only where performance advantages have been the primary, if not only, consideration. Conventional wisdom has been that magnetic bearings have certain performance advantages which must be traded off against increased weight, volume, electric power consumption, and system complexity. These perceptions have hampered the use of magnetic bearings in many aerospace applications because weight, volume, and power are almost always primary considerations. This paper will review progress on several active aerospace magnetic bearings programs at SatCon Technology Corporation. The magnetic bearing programs at SatCon cover a broad spectrum of applications including: a magnetically-suspended spacecraft integrated power and attitude control system (IPACS), a magnetically-suspended momentum wheel, magnetic bearings for the gas generator rotor of a turboshaft engine, a vibration-attenuating magnetic bearing system for an airborne telescope, and magnetic bearings for the compressor of a space-rated heat pump system. The emphasis of these programs is to develop magnetic bearing technologies to the point where magnetic bearings can be truly useful, reliable, and well tested components for the aerospace community.

  6. Dietary ecology of the extinct cave bear: Evidence of omnivory as inferred from dental microwear textures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Brent Jones


    Full Text Available The diet of the extinct European cave bear, Ursus spelaeus, has widely been debated. Diverging from the extant brown bear (Ursus arctos approximately 1.2 million years ago, the cave bear is one of the most ubiquitous fossil bears occurring in Europe during the middle and Late Pleistocene. Early morphological studies suggested that the cave bear was likely specialized on processing tough and/or abrasive foods, while later two-dimensional low-magnification microwear studies suggested that they were omnivorous and may have consumed more bone than U. arctos. Here, we used dental microwear texture analysis (DMTA to further interpret the diet of the cave bear. Microscopic wear features were assessed and compared to modern ursids, including the cave bears’ closest living relative, U. arctos. Results suggest that U. spelaeus consumed a diet with a diversity of textural properties, similar to most other bears and only distinguishable from the hyper-carnivorous polar bear (Ursus maritimus. Further, only U. maritimus can be distinguished from all bear species here examined (i.e., the giant panda bear, Ailuropoda melanoleuca; sun-bear, Ursus malayanus; spectacled bear, Tremarctos ornatus; American black bear, Ursus americanus; and U. arctos, with significantly greater area-scale fractal complexity (Asfc of microwear surfaces. The DMTA of A. melanoleuca also has significantly lower Asfc than T. ornatus and U. americanus, consistent with observed dietary behavior. As modern bears vary their diets seasonally and across their range, it may be difficult to characterize the dietary ecology of extinct bears using dental microwear alone. Nevertheless, DMTA here demonstrates that U. spelaeus had a diet distinct from the hyper-carnivorous U. maritimus and instead likely consumed food with textural properties most similar to other herbivorous/omnivorous bears. Lastly, the European cave bear and North American giant short-faced bear (Arctodus simus may have had

  7. Grease lubrication in rolling bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Lugt, Piet M


    The definitive book on the science of grease lubrication for roller and needle bearings in industrial and vehicle engineering. Grease Lubrication in Rolling Bearings provides an overview of the existing knowledge on the various aspects of grease lubrication (including lubrication systems) and the state of the art models that exist today. The book reviews the physical and chemical aspects of grease lubrication, primarily directed towards lubrication of rolling bearings. The first part of the book covers grease composition, properties and rheology, including thermal

  8. Hydrostatic and hybrid bearing design

    CERN Document Server

    Rowe, W B


    Hydrostatic and Hybrid Bearing Design is a 15-chapter book that focuses on the bearing design and testing. This book first describes the application of hydrostatic bearings, as well as the device pressure, flow, force, power, and temperature. Subsequent chapters discuss the load and flow rate of thrust pads; circuit design, flow control, load, and stiffness; and the basis of the design procedures and selection of tolerances. The specific types of bearings, their design, dynamics, and experimental methods and testing are also shown. This book will be very valuable to students of engineering des

  9. Experimental Performance Study of a High Speed Oil Lubricated Polymer Thrust Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhou


    Full Text Available With the demand for turbomachinery to operate at higher speeds, loads, and power, fluid film bearings that support turbomachinery must be capable of operating in these more demanding applications. Thrust bearings operating at high speeds and loads can experience high surface temperatures and thin fluid film thickness. Typically, babbitt (white metal is the bearing lining material for most turbomachinery bearings but is limited in operating temperature and allowable film thickness. Polymer based materials are alternative materials that can operate at high temperatures and with thin films and have been in use for many decades in high load applications, such as electric submersible pumps (ESP. Test results of polymer lined thrust bearings subjected to modern turbomachinery speeds and loads are presented and compared to babbitt lined bearings of the same design and under similar conditions. The test results show polymer lined thrust bearings can operate at higher bearing unit loads than babbitt.

  10. Evolution and use of combined mechanical and thermal codes for cryogenic turbopump bearings (United States)

    Cody, Joe C.; Marty, David E.; Moore, James D.


    Shaft bearing system analysis codes were developed, improved, and used to investigate Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Liquid Oxygen (LOX) turbopump bearing problems, and to support the Marshall Space Flight Center Bearing and Seal Materials Test (BSMT) program. Thermal network modeling uses the SINDA thermal code, and the modeling of bearing quasi-dynamic characteristics uses the SHABERTH bearing/shaft code. These codes are solved concurrently for a bearing/shaft system using software developed for this purpose. Simulation of the SSME LOX turbopump turbine and pump end bearings and the MSFC BSMT operating in liquid nitrogen (LN sub 2) and LOX was done. The thermal network models include the bearing components, bearing carriers, shaft, housing, frictional heat, and viscous fluid energy. A cage model was included to account for heat generation between the cage and rolling elements. Since most bearing surfaces operate at temperatures well above the coolant saturation temperature, and move at high speed relative to the coolant, forced convection boiling is the dominant mechanism for heat removal. Improved modeling of forced convection film boiling was incorporated to take into account the local vapor generation at the high temperature surfaces. Rearing preloads in the pump and tester are provided by preload springs. As bearing operating clearances and contact angles change due to thermal effects and loading, the bearing preload changes with these varying conditions. These characteristics were modeled and are included in the overall system models. Results from these models indicate an operational limit which, if exceeded, predicts a thermal excursion.

  11. Analysis of foil bearings for high speed operation in cryogenic applications (United States)

    Carpino, Marc


    The general objective of this project is to develop analysis tools which are required for the design of foil bearings to be used in cryogenic applications. During the second year of this project, a general analysis approach and code for journal bearings operating under steady state conditions will be completed. This will be followed by the initiation of an investigation into transient behavior of foil bearings to determine their performance in rotor systems. Foil bearings have been proposed as an alternative to rolling element bearings for use in cryogenic turbopumps in liquid propellant rocket engines. This type of bearing offers several advantages over rolling element bearings since they would use the cryogenic pump fluid for a lubricant and have structural flexibility. These bearings have the potential of high reliability and long life. The bearing surface is constructed of a 'foil' which resists deflection by a combination of bending, membrane, and elastic foundation effects. The relative motion between the rotating shaft and the foil causes pressure in the fluid film to develop. This pressure deflects the the foil surface away from the shaft. Once a full fluid film is established between the foil and the rotor shaft, contact no longer takes place and there is no subsequent wear of the surfaces. The flexible foil structure of the bearing allows it to compensate for minor tolerance and manufacturing defects. This same flexibility also has a significant effect on the dynamic performance of the rotor-bearing system.

  12. Bear maul craniocerebral trauma in Kashmir Valley. (United States)

    Bashir, Sheikh Adil; Rasool, Altaf; Zaroo, Mohamad Inam; Wani, Adil Hafeez; Zargar, Haroon Rashid; Darzi, Mohammad Ashraf; Khursheed, Nayil


    Craniocerebral injuries constitute the bulk of the trauma patients in all the tertiary-care hospitals. Bear attacks as a cause of trauma to the brain and its protective covering are rare. This was a hospital-based retrospective (January 1990 to July 2005) and prospective study (August 2005 to December 2010). Craniocerebral trauma was seen in 49 patients of bear maul injuries. Loss of scalp tissue was seen in 17 patients, 13 of whom had exposed pericranium and needed split-thickness skin grafting, while 4 patients with exposed skull bones required scalp transposition flaps as an initial procedure. Skull bone fractures without associated brain injury were observed in 24 cases. Frontal bone was the site of fracture in the majority of cases (95%). Surgical intervention was needed in 18 patients for significantly depressed fractures. Three of these patients had depressed frontal bone fractures with underlying contusions and needed brain debridement and duraplasty. Injury to the brain was observed in 8 patients. Trauma to the brain and its protective coverings as a result of bear attacks is rarely known. Brain injury occurs less commonly as compared to soft tissue and bony injury. Craniocerebral trauma as a result of bear assaults has been a hitherto neglected area of trauma as the past reported incidence has been very low. Of late, the incidence and severity of such attacks has assumed grave proportions in areas adjacent to known bear habitats. An innocuous-looking surface wound might be the only presentation of an underlying severe brain trauma. Public awareness has to be generated to protect the people living in hilly areas.

  13. Influence of environmental factors on abundance and temporal variation of benthic fauna resources in the eutrophic Tha Chin estuary, Samut Sakhon province, Thailand. (United States)

    Ritnim, Nittaya; Meksumpun, Charumas


    The influence of environmental factors on the abundance and temporal variation of benthic fauna resources was studied in the eutrophic Tha Chin estuary located in Samut Sakhon province. The objectives were to analyze the status of abundance and temporal variation of the benthic fauna and to clarify the impacts from environmental factors (water and sediment quality). Field surveys were conducted monthly from August 2007 to March 2008 at 11 sampling stations in the estuary. Based on freshwater runoff volumes, the high-, medium-, and low-loading periods were categorized to be from August to October 2007, November to December 2007, and January to March 2008, respectively. The benthic fauna resources were composed of 57 species in eight phyla. Annelids were the dominant species (with the maximum density being 19,885 individuals/m2), followed by the mollusks. Both densities decreased during the low-loading period in 2008. Water quality deteriorated during the high-loading period. Land-based wastewater discharges decreased the levels of salinity and dissolved oxygen but dramatically increased various nutrients. Consequently, the sediment quality deteriorated during the medium-loading period. Bottom deposits during this time depicted high accumulation of acid volatile sulfides (more than 0.76 mg/g dry weight). Analyzing the environmental relationships, deposit feeders (for example, Nereis sp. and Prionospio sp.) and a clam (Arcuatula sp.) showed potential as bio-indicators for environmental monitoring. The overall results revealed the importance of changes in the water and sediment qualities that had an influence on related benthic resources. The increase in the level of NH4(+)-N had a negative impact on the economic clam species, while the sedimentary TOM showed positive correlation (P succession of groups based on feeding behavior seemed to correspond with stress in eutrophication along the salinity gradient and in different estuarine parts. In addition, the economic

  14. Superconducting bearings for flywheel applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, A.B.


    A literature study on the application of superconducting bearings in energy storage flywheel systems. The physics of magnetic levitation and superconductors are presented in the first part of the report, followed by a discussion of the literature found onthe applications of superconducting bearings...

  15. TH-A-18C-02: An Electrostatic Model for Assessment of Joint Space Morphology in Cone-Beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Q; Thawait, G; Gang, G; Zbijewski, W; Riegel, T; Demehri, S; Siewerdsen, J [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States)


    Purpose: High-resolution cone-beam CT (CBCT) of the extremities presents a potentially valuable basis for image-based biomarkers of arthritis, trauma, and risk of injury. We present a new method for 3D joint space analysis that exploits the high isotropic spatial resolution of CBCT and is sensitive to small changes in disease-related morphology. Methods: The approach uses an “electrostatic” model in which joint surfaces (e.g., distal femur and proximal tibia) are labeled as charge densities between which the electric field is solved by approximation to the Laplace equation. The method yields a unique solution determined by the field lines across the “capacitor” and is hypothesized to be more sensitive than conventional (Sharp) scores and immune to degeneracies that limit simple distance-along-axis or closest-point analysis. The algorithm was validated in CBCT phantom images and applied in two clinical scenarios: osteoarthritis (OA, change in loadbearing tibiofemoral joint space); and assessment of injury risk (correlation of 3D joint space to tibial slope). Results: Joint space maps computed from the electrostatic model were accurate to within the voxel size (0.26 mm). The method highlighted subtle regions of morphological change that would likely be missed by conventional scalar metrics. Regions of subtle cartilage erosion were well quantified, and the method confidently discriminated OA and non-OA cohorts. 3D joint space maps correlated well with tibial slope and provide a new basis for principal component analysis of loadbearing injury risk. Runtime was less than 5 min (235×235×121 voxel subvolume in Matlab). Conclusion: A new method for joint space assessment was reported as a possible image-based biomarker of subtle articular change. The algorithm yields accurate quantitation of the joint in a manner that is robust against operator and patient setup variation. The method shows promising initial results in ongoing trials of CBCT in osteoarthritis

  16. Report on Quality and Manufacturing of Bear Bile from Living Bear


    川原, 一仁; 木谷, 千穂; 吉村, 千明; 田中, 俊弘; KAZUHITO, KAWAHARA; CHIHO, KITANI; CHIAKI, YOSHIMURA; TOSHIHIRO, TANAKA; 日野薬品株式会社; 岐阜薬科大学; Hino Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.; Gifu Pharmaceutical University


    Bear bile has been obtained from bears after slaughtering the animals. Today, in China, bear bile is collected in bear farms without killing the animals. And it has confirmed that the third generation (kept) is artificially bred. The ingredients of bear bile collected from live bear in Heilongjian, Liaoning, Jiling, Sichuan, Shanxi, and Shanghai were compared with those of natural bear bile obtained by killing bear in India and Canada, by thin-layer chromatography. The main component was taur...

  17. Eastern slopes grizzly bear project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The cumulative effects of human activities on the grizzly bears in the central Canadian Rockies are not well known. As a result, a project was initiated in 1994 to address the urgent requirement for accurate scientific information on the habitat and populations of grizzly bears in the area of the Banff National Park and Kananaskis Country. This area is probably the most heavily used and developed area where the grizzly still survives. The information gathered throughout the course of this study will be used to better protect and manage the bears and other sensitive carnivores in the region. Using telemetry, researchers are monitoring 25 grizzly bears which were radio-collared in a 22,000 square-kilometer area in the upper Bow Valley drainage of the eastern Alberta slopes. The researchers involved in the project are working with representatives from Husky Oil and Talisman Energy on the sound development of the Moose Mountain oil and gas field without adversely affecting the grizzly bear population. Information collected over seven years indicated that the grizzly bears have few and infrequent offspring. Using the information gathered so far, the location of the Moose Mountain to Jumping Pound pipeline was carefully selected, since the bears recover very slowly from high mortality, and also considering that the food and cover had already been compromised by the high number of roads, trails and other human activities in the area. The status of the population and habitat of the grizzly bear will be assessed upon the conclusion of the field research phase in 2001. Models will be updated using the data obtained during eight years and will assist in the understanding of complex variables that affect grizzly bears.

  18. Characterization and measurement of hybrid gas journal bearings (United States)

    Lawrence, Tom Marquis

    developed to study in unprecedented detail the aerostatic component of the hybrid bearings. It is used to definitively compare the feedhole bearings to the porous liner bearings. The hydrostatic bearing efficiency (HBE) is defined and it is determined that the maximum achievable hydrostatic bearing efficiency (MAHBE) is determined solely by the bearing's mass addition configuration. The MAHBE of the porous liner bearings is determined to be over 5 times that of the feedhole bearings. The method also presents a means to tune the Kmeas to the clearance to achieve the MAHBE as well as giving a complete mapping of the hitherto misunderstood complex shapes of aerostatic load versus radial deflection curves. This method also rediscovers the obscure phenomenon of static instability which is called in this thesis the "near surface effect" and appears to be the first work to present a practical method to predict the range of static instability and quantify its resultant stiffness fall-off. It determines that porous liner type bearings are not subject to the phenomenon which appears for feedhole type bearings when the clearance exceeds a critical value relative to its mass-addition compensation. The standing pressure waves of hydrostatic and hybrid bearings with the 2 configurations of external pressurization as well as a geometrically identical hydrodynamic bearing are studied in detail under the methodology of the "CFD microscope". This method is used to characterize and identify the development, growth, and movement of the pressure wave extrema with increased hydrodynamic action (either increasing speed or increasing eccentricity). This method is also used to determine the "cause" of the "near surface effect". A gedanken experiment is performed based on these results which indicates that a bearing with a "stronger aerostatic strength" component should be more stable than one with a low aerostatic strength component. Numerical instability "speed limits" are found that are also

  19. Non-contacting "snubber bearing" for passive magnetic bearing systems (United States)

    Post, Richard F


    A new non-contacting magnetic "snubber" bearing is provided for application to rotating systems such as vehicular electromechanical battery systems subject to frequent accelerations. The design is such that in the equilibrium position the drag force of the snubber is very small (milliwatts). However in a typical case, if the rotor is displaced by as little as 2 millimeters a large restoring force is generated without any physical contact between the stationary and rotating parts of the snubber bearing.

  20. The difference between weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing alignment in patient-specific instrumentation planning. (United States)

    Paternostre, Frederic; Schwab, Pierre-Emmanuel; Thienpont, Emmanuel


    Retrospective study to analyse the difference between weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing alignment in osteoarthritic knees planned for patient-specific instrumented (PSI) total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The aim of the study is to observe whether a difference in alignment can be linked to arthritis staging or zone mechanical axis. Full-leg standing radiographs and non-weight-bearing MRI of the whole leg were compared for hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle, measured according to Moreland criteria, in seventy osteoarthritic patients. Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) staging and classification according to zone mechanical axis with Kennedy zones was done. A mean preoperative HKA angle on standing radiographs of 176.4° ± 7.2° was measured compared to 176.4° ± 6.9° for the MRI whole-leg HKA angle. A difference of 0°-1° was observed in 54% of patients when comparing the weight-bearing with the non-weight-bearing HKA angle. Twenty-three per cent had a difference of 2° and another 23 % a difference of 3° or more. In female patients, the dynamic load pattern of weight-bearing increases the HKA angle due to convex side soft tissue laxity both in varus and valgus knees. More important differences were observed in the KL stage 3 and 4 patients (P bearing axis outside of the articular surface (P weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing alignment in patients with Kellgren-Lawrence 3 and 4 with a load-bearing axis outside of the articular surface (Kennedy 0 or 1 or 5). According to this study, these changes seem related to the amount of articular wear and the load-bearing axis. This is important for the preoperative planning process in PSI-assisted TKA. More concave side ligamentous release or more constraint can be necessary than imagined based on the PSI alignment result. Full-leg standing radiographs should be performed for PSI-assisted TKAs to analyse the position of the load-bearing axis. IV.

  1. Thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments (United States)

    Cortes, Douglas D.; Martin, Ana I.; Yun, Tae Sup; Francisca, Franco M.; Santamarina, J. Carlos; Ruppel, Carolyn D.


    A thorough understanding of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments is necessary for evaluating phase transformation processes that would accompany energy production from gas hydrate deposits and for estimating regional heat flow based on the observed depth to the base of the gas hydrate stability zone. The coexistence of multiple phases (gas hydrate, liquid and gas pore fill, and solid sediment grains) and their complex spatial arrangement hinder the a priori prediction of the thermal conductivity of hydrate-bearing sediments. Previous studies have been unable to capture the full parameter space covered by variations in grain size, specific surface, degree of saturation, nature of pore filling material, and effective stress for hydrate-bearing samples. Here we report on systematic measurements of the thermal conductivity of air dry, water- and tetrohydrofuran (THF)-saturated, and THF hydrate–saturated sand and clay samples at vertical effective stress of 0.05 to 1 MPa (corresponding to depths as great as 100 m below seafloor). Results reveal that the bulk thermal conductivity of the samples in every case reflects a complex interplay among particle size, effective stress, porosity, and fluid-versus-hydrate filled pore spaces. The thermal conductivity of THF hydrate–bearing soils increases upon hydrate formation although the thermal conductivities of THF solution and THF hydrate are almost the same. Several mechanisms can contribute to this effect including cryogenic suction during hydrate crystal growth and the ensuing porosity reduction in the surrounding sediment, increased mean effective stress due to hydrate formation under zero lateral strain conditions, and decreased interface thermal impedance as grain-liquid interfaces are transformed into grain-hydrate interfaces.

  2. Ultralow Friction in a Superconducting Magnetic Bearing (United States)

    Bornemann, Hans J.; Siegel, Michael; Zaitsev, Oleg; Bareiss, Martin; Laschuetza, Helmut


    Passive levitation by superconducting magnetic bearings can be utilized in flywheels for energy storage. Basic design criteria of such a bearing are high levitation force, sufficient vertical and horizontal stability and low friction. A test facility was built for the measurement and evaluation of friction in a superconducting magnetic bearing as a function of operating temperature and pressure in the vacuum vessel. The bearing consists of a commercial disk shaped magnet levitated above single grain, melt-textured YBCO high-temperature superconductor material. The superconductor was conduction cooled by an integrated AEG tactical cryocooler. The temperature could be varied from 50 K to 80 K. The pressure in the vacuum chamber was varied from 1 bar to 10(exp -5) mbar. At the lowest pressure setting, the drag torque shows a linear frequency dependence over the entire range investigated (0 less than f less than 40 Hz). Magnetic friction, the frequency independent contribution, is very low. The frequency dependent drag torque is generated by molecular friction from molecule-surface collisions and by eddy currents. Given the specific geometry of the set-up and gas pressure, the molecular drag torque can be estimated. At a speed of 40 Hz, the coefficient of friction (drag-to-lift ratio) was measured to be mu = 1.6 x 10(exp -7) at 10(exp -5) mbar and T = 60 K. This is equivalent to a drag torque of 7.6 x 10(exp -10) Nm. Magnetic friction causes approx. 1% of the total losses. Molecular friction accounts for about 13% of the frequency dependent drag torque, the remaining 87% being due to eddy currents and losses from rotor unbalance. The specific energy loss is only 0.3% per hour.

  3. Solitary amyloidoma related to THA. (United States)

    Ahmad, Zafar; Tibrewal, Saket; Waters, Geoffrey; Nolan, John


    Amyloidoma of soft tissues is rare, and no previously published reports describe it in relation to hip prostheses. This article presents the case of a 78-year-old woman with a medical history of myelodysplasia and mild renal failure who underwent a right-sided metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty in 2003. She presented to the outpatient clinic with a 1-year history of right anterior thigh pain. On examination, a large proximal anteromedial lump was palpable and was nontender, nonpulsatile, and firm. She had a positive Trendelenburg test but good hip range of motion. Plain radiographs showed signs of osteolysis around the hip prosthesis. Serology showed mildly raised liver function and renal function but a normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate and white blood cell count. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large mixed-signal soft tissue mass directly opposing the anterior cortex of the right femur, related to the hip prosthesis, measuring 16×10×7 cm. Associated destruction of the underlying cortex existed. Histological staining of a biopsy of the mass confirmed that the mass contained AL-type amyloid seen in primary amyloidosis. Mean patient age at diagnosis for amyloid tumors of soft tissues is 66 years. By definition, they start as solitary lesions. The types are important: AA type is related to infection and AL type is a primary process. Patients with AL amyloidomas have a poorer prognosis because they have a higher chance of malignancies. Early diagnosis can prevent long-term serious consequences of this condition. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Mixed-mu superconducting bearings (United States)

    Hull, John R.; Mulcahy, Thomas M.


    A mixed-mu superconducting bearing including a ferrite structure disposed for rotation adjacent a stationary superconductor material structure and a stationary permanent magnet structure. The ferrite structure is levitated by said stationary permanent magnet structure.

  5. Lateral dampers for thrust bearings (United States)

    Hibner, D. H.; Szafir, D. R.


    The development of lateral damping schemes for thrust bearings was examined, ranking their applicability to various engine classes, selecting the best concept for each engine class and performing an in-depth evaluation. Five major engine classes were considered: large transport, military, small general aviation, turboshaft, and non-manrated. Damper concepts developed for evaluation were: curved beam, constrained and unconstrained elastomer, hybrid boost bearing, hydraulic thrust piston, conical squeeze film, and rolling element thrust face.

  6. Radial magnetic bearings: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyu Zhang

    Full Text Available Radial magnetic bearings (RMBs are one of the most commonly used magnetic bearings. They are used widely in the field of ultra-high speed and ultra-precise numerical control machine tools, bearingless motors, high speed flywheels, artificial heart pumps, and molecular pumps, and they are being strengthened and extended in various important areas. In this paper, a comprehensive overview is given of different bearing topologies of RMBs with different stator poles that differ in their construction, the driving mode of electromagnets, power consumption, cost, magnetic circuits, and symmetry. RMBs with different poles and couplings between the two bearing axes in the radial direction responsible for cross-coupling generation are compared. In addition, different shaped rotors are compared, as the performances of magnetic bearing-rotor systems are of great concern to rotor constructions. Furthermore, the parameter design methods, the mathematical models and control strategies of the RMBs are described in detail. From the comparison of topologies, models and control methods for RMBs, the advantages, disadvantages and utilizable perspectives are also analyzed. Moreover, several possible development trends of the RMBs are discussed. Keywords: Radial magnetic bearings (RMBs, Topologies, Mathematical mode, Control strategies, Development trends

  7. 77 FR 70423 - Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC... (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC and Black Bear Development Holdings, LLC and Black Bear SO, LLC; Notice of Application for Partial Transfer of Licenses, and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On October 25, 2012, Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC, sole licensee (transferor) and...

  8. Research of the Quality of Quarry Dumpers Engine Crankshafts Sliding Bearings of Various Manufacturers


    Korotkov Alexander; Korotkova Lidiya; Vidin Denis


    Sliding bearings are an important part of many large and critical components. They are widely used in power equipment, high-capacity pumps, compressors, electric motors and internal combustion engines (ICE). As a rule, sliding bearings include an antifriction bushing, part of the shaft surface (bearing journal), and a layer of oil between them. These are complex and critical parts in which there may occur dangerous defects, and which directly affect the durability, accuracy and reliability of...

  9. A theoretical-experimental study of backup bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampe Linhares da Fonseca, Cesar Augusto

    running. When impacting on a stator surface, the rotor can develop a dangerous behavior caused by the friction force known as the full annular backward whirl. In this situation, the rotor will describe a trajectory around the surface of the bearing at a dominant superharmonic frequency and with large...... orbits, of contact force values in time and double-sided frequency spectra are given. The test rig consists of a horizontal rotor and is able to exchange backup bearings. Thanks to the force transducers, displacement sensors, and an encoder, one is able to characterize the lateral vibration of the rotor...... are weakly damped. It means that they are unable to withstand the occurrence of high orbits close to the resonance frequency. The pinned bearing is introduced and the pins are made of POM (polymer), whose contact characteristics are investigated. The different behaviors of the center of the shaft for the two...

  10. 36 CFR 13.1236 - Bear orientation. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bear orientation. 13.1236... Developed Area § 13.1236 Bear orientation. All persons visiting the BCDA must receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation. Failure to receive an NPS-approved Bear Orientation is prohibited. ...

  11. Integration of aquatic ecology and biological oceanographic knowledge for development of area-based eutrophication assessment criteria leading to water resource remediation and utilization management: a case study in Tha Chin, the most eutrophic river of Thailand. (United States)

    Meksumpun, Charumas; Meksumpun, Shettapong


    This research was carried out in Tha Chin Watershed in the central part of Thailand with attempts to apply multidisciplinary knowledge for understanding ecosystem structure and response to anthropogenic pollution and natural impacts leading to a proposal for an appropriate zonation management approach for sustainable utilization of the area. Water quality status of the Tha Chin River and Estuary had been determined by analyzing ecological, hydrological, and coastal oceanographic information from recent field surveys (during March 2006 to November 2007) together with secondary data on irrigation, land utilization, and socio-economic status.Results indicated that the Tha Chin River and Estuary was eutrophic all year round. Almost 100% of the brackish to marine areas reflected strongly hypertrophic water condition during both dry and high-loading periods. High NH(4)(+) and PO(4)(3-) loads from surrounding agricultural land use, agro-industry, and community continuously flew into the aquatic environment. Deteriorated ecosystem was clearly observed by dramatically low DO levels (ca 1 mg/l) in riverine to coastal areas and Noctiluca and Ceratium red tide outbreaks occurred around tidal front closed to the estuary. Accordingly, fishery resources were significantly decreased. Some riverine benthic habitats became dominated by deposit-feeding worms e.g. Lumbriculus, Branchiura, and Tubifex, while estuarine benthic habitats reflected succession of polychaetes and small bivalves. Results on analysis on integrated ecosystem responses indicated that changing functions were significantly influenced by particulates and nutrients dynamics in the system.Based on the overall results, the Tha Chin River and Estuary should be divided into 4 zones (I: Upper freshwater zone; II: Middle freshwater zone; III Lower freshwater zone; and IV: Lowest brackish to marine zone) for further management schemes on water remediation. In this study, the importance of habitat morphology and water flow

  12. The bear in Eurasian plant names: motivations and models. (United States)

    Kolosova, Valeria; Svanberg, Ingvar; Kalle, Raivo; Strecker, Lisa; Özkan, Ayşe Mine Gençler; Pieroni, Andrea; Cianfaglione, Kevin; Molnár, Zsolt; Papp, Nora; Łuczaj, Łukasz; Dimitrova, Dessislava; Šeškauskaitė, Daiva; Roper, Jonathan; Hajdari, Avni; Sõukand, Renata


    Ethnolinguistic studies are important for understanding an ethnic group's ideas on the world, expressed in its language. Comparing corresponding aspects of such knowledge might help clarify problems of origin for certain concepts and words, e.g. whether they form common heritage, have an independent origin, are borrowings, or calques. The current study was conducted on the material in Slavonic, Baltic, Germanic, Romance, Finno-Ugrian, Turkic and Albanian languages. The bear was chosen as being a large, dangerous animal, important in traditional culture, whose name is widely reflected in folk plant names. The phytonyms for comparison were mostly obtained from dictionaries and other publications, and supplemented with data from databases, the co-authors' field data, and archival sources (dialect and folklore materials). More than 1200 phytonym use records (combinations of a local name and a meaning) for 364 plant and fungal taxa were recorded to help find out the reasoning behind bear-nomination in various languages, as well as differences and similarities between the patterns among them. Among the most common taxa with bear-related phytonyms were Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng., Heracleum sphondylium L., Acanthus mollis L., and Allium ursinum L., with Latin loan translation contributing a high proportion of the phytonyms. Some plants have many and various bear-related phytonyms, while others have only one or two bear names. Features like form and/or surface generated the richest pool of names, while such features as colour seemed to provoke rather few associations with bears. The unevenness of bear phytonyms in the chosen languages was not related to the size of the language nor the present occurence of the Brown Bear in the region. However, this may, at least to certain extent, be related to the amount of the historical ethnolinguistic research done on the selected languages.

  13. Diagnosis of bearing creep in wind turbine gearboxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Liu, Zhenyan; Hilmisson, Reynir


    deals with the evaluation of the development of an inner race defect from surface pitting to race axial crack resulting in excessive rotational looseness, also referred to as bearing creep. It is shown that an inner race defect can be identified efficiently at an early stage by employing well known...

  14. Basic Expeditionary Airfield Resources (BEAR) Mission Brief (United States)


    BEAR Modernization Sustainment (GS-12 Vacant), BEAR Sustainment Readiness Mr. Jeff Leviner, Ctr, BEAR Readiness Logistics Program Analyst Mr. Bill...Lawrence, Civ, BEAR Modernization Logistics Manager Logistics Manager Ms. Kim Vollman, Ctr, BEAR Sustainment Program Analyst manager 2G...generally in Feb Storage Locations South Korea Osan AB Gunsan AB Sola , Norway AFCENT AOR Thumrait Letterkenny, PA Bluegrass, KY Daegu AB Suwon AB

  15. Outcomes of different bearings in total hip arthroplasty - implant survival, revision causes, and patient-reported outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varnum, Claus


    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is a common and successful treatment of patients suffering from severe osteoarthritis that significantly reduces pain and improves hip function and quality of life. Traditionally, the outcome of THA has been evaluated by orthopaedic surgeons and assessed in morbidity...... and mortality rates, and implant survival. As patients and surgeons may assess outcome after THA differently, patient-reported outcomes (PROMs) have gained much more interest and are today recognized as very important tools for evaluating the outcome and satisfaction after THA. One of the prognostic factors......, Sweden, and Finland, was used. In study I, 11,096 patients operated from 2002 through 2009 with cementless THA were included. Of these, 16% had CoC THA and 84% had MoP THA. At 8.7-year follow-up, no difference in RR of revision for any cause was found for CoC compared to MoP THA. One cause of revision...

  16. Metal ion concentrations in body fluids after implantation of hip replacements with metal-on-metal bearing--systematic review of clinical and epidemiological studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht Hartmann

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The use of metal-on-metal (MoM total hip arthroplasty (THA increased in the last decades. A release of metal products (i.e. particles, ions, metallo-organic compounds in these implants may cause local and/or systemic adverse reactions. Metal ion concentrations in body fluids are surrogate measures of metal exposure. OBJECTIVE: To systematically summarize and critically appraise published studies concerning metal ion concentrations after MoM THA. METHODS: Systematic review of clinical trials (RCTs and epidemiological studies with assessment of metal ion levels (cobalt, chromium, titanium, nickel, molybdenum in body fluids after implantation of metalliferous hip replacements. Systematic search in PubMed and Embase in January 2012 supplemented by hand search. Standardized abstraction of pre- and postoperative metal ion concentrations stratified by type of bearing (primary explanatory factor, patient characteristics as well as study quality characteristics (secondary explanatory factors. RESULTS: Overall, 104 studies (11 RCTs, 93 epidemiological studies totaling 9.957 patients with measurement of metal ions in body fluids were identified and analyzed. Consistently, median metal ion concentrations were persistently elevated after implantation of MoM-bearings in all investigated mediums (whole blood, serum, plasma, erythrocytes, urine irrespective of patient characteristics and study characteristics. In several studies very high serum cobalt concentrations above 50 µg/L were measured (detection limit typically 0.3 µg/L. Highest metal ion concentrations were observed after treatment with stemmed large-head MoM-implants and hip resurfacing arthroplasty. DISCUSSION: Due to the risk of local and systemic accumulation of metallic products after treatment with MoM-bearing, risk and benefits should be carefully balanced preoperatively. The authors support a proposed "time out" for stemmed large-head MoM-THA and recommend a restricted

  17. Development of bearings and a damper based on magnetically controllable fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guldbakke, J M; Hesselbach, J [Institute of Machine Tools and Production Technology, TU Braunschweig, Langer Kamp 19b, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)


    This paper presents two different kinds of magnetically controllable fluid bearings and a new magnetorheological fluid damper based upon open porous metallic foams. For the bearings, it will distinguish between a magnetohydrostatic bearing and a hydrostatic bearing with a magnetically controllable fluid. The magnetohydrostatic bearings get their load bearing capacity from the magnetohydrostatic pressure that is generated by the gradient of the magnetic field along a fluid surface. With such magnetohydrostatic bearings a specific load up to 1.6 N cm{sup 2} can be reached. To support heavier loads hydrostatic bearings with magnetically controllable fluids can be used. This bearing concept makes it possible to achieve a constant bearing gap even if the load of the bearing changes. For this purpose the fluids are used as a hydraulic medium. Due to the magnetically controlled rheological behaviour of the fluid the bearing gap remains constant. The great advantage of this closed loop system compared to that of common hydrostatic bearings using valves is the quicker response to payload changes. The reason for that is that the active element (i.e. the fluid) acts directly inside the bearing gap and not outside like in the case of valves. The foam damper developed uses the fluid to produce controllable damping forces. The open porous foam is directly placed in the active volume of the damper. By moving the foam piston the magnetically controllable fluid is pressed through the pores. The flow in the pores can be controlled by changing the fluid viscosity by applying a magnetic field. With this damper structure it is possible to reach higher damping forces whilst featuring a small design space.

  18. Comparison of methanol and isopropanol as wash solvents for determination of hair cortisol concentration in grizzly bears and polar bears. (United States)

    Kroshko, Thomas; Kapronczai, Luciene; Cattet, Marc R L; Macbeth, Bryan J; Stenhouse, Gordon B; Obbard, Martyn E; Janz, David M


    Methodological differences among laboratories are recognized as significant sources of variation in quantification of hair cortisol concentration (HCC). An important step in processing hair, particularly when collected from wildlife, is the choice of solvent used to remove or "wash" external hair shaft cortisol prior to quantification of HCC. The present study systematically compared methanol and isopropanol as wash solvents for their efficiency at removing external cortisol without extracting internal hair shaft cortisol in samples collected from free-ranging grizzly bears and polar bears. Cortisol concentrations in solvents and hair were determined in each of one to eight washes of hair with each solvent independently. •There were no significant decreases in internal hair shaft cortisol among all eight washes for either solvent, although methanol removed detectable hair surface cortisol after one wash in grizzly bear hair whereas hair surface cortisol was detected in all eight isopropanol washes.•There were no significant differences in polar bear HCC washed one to eight times with either solvent, but grizzly bear HCC was significantly greater in hair washed with isopropanol compared to methanol.•There were significant differences in HCC quantified using different commercial ELISA kits commonly used for HCC determinations.

  19. Unified gas-kinetic simulation of slider air bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruijie Wang


    Full Text Available The unified gas-kinetic scheme (UGKS is presented and used in this letter to study the slider air bearing problem. The UGKS solutions are first validated by comparison with direct simulation Monte Carlo results. After validation, the UGKS is used to study the air-bearing problem under different non-equilibrium conditions. On the surface of the slider, the dependency of the gas pressure and normal force on the Mach and Knudsen numbers are fully evaluated. The non-equilibrium effect on the force loading in the whole transition regime up to the free molecular limit is also studied.

  20. Assessment of the operating characteristics of the SSME LOX turbopump pump-end bearing (United States)

    New, L. S.; Tiller, B. K.


    A bearing/shaft model of the SSME LOX turbopump was developed using the SHABERTH bearing/shaft math modeling computer code. A previously developed bearing/shaft thermal model of the SSME LOX turbopump turbine and bearing was used in conjunction with SHABERTH to evaluate the thermomechanical operating characteristics of the LOX turbopump end bearings. Results show that for the two unmounted diametrical clearances evaluated (4.0 mils and 6.3 mils), the inboard pump end bearing supports about 81% of the isolator load for the small clearance and 77% of the isolator load for the larger clearance. Bearing clearance changes due to thermal effects were 40% for the 4.0 mil diametrical clearance case and 19% for the 6.3 mil clearance case evaluated. The thermal analysis included evaluation of bearing temperatures for a subcooled case and a saturated case. Results indicate that no drastic temperature change occurred between the two cases. Since the rolling element and race surfaces of the subcooled case were at temperatures sufficiently high enough to be vapor blanketed, exceeding saturation temperature at the bearing inlet did not increase surface temperatures greatly.

  1. Hibernation and seasonal fasting in bears: the energetic costs and consequences for polar bears

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Charles T. Robbins; Claudia Lopez-Alfaro; Karyn D. Rode; Øivind Tøien; O. Lynne Nelson


    ...–fall fasting when polar bears (Ursus maritimus) lose access to most marine mammals. To evaluate the consequences of such changes, we compared the cost of fasting by polar bears with hibernation by brown bears (U. arctos...

  2. Analysis of grease contamination influence on the internal radial clearance of ball bearings by thermographic inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mišković Žarko Z.


    Full Text Available One of the most important factors influencing ball bearings service life is its internal radial clearance. However, this parameter is also very complex because it depends on applied radial load and ball bearings dimensions, surface finish and manufacturing materials. Thermal condition of ball bearings also significantly affects internal radial clearance. Despite many researches performed in order to find out relevant facts about different aspects of ball bearings thermal behaviour, only few of them are dealing with the real working conditions, where high concentration of solid contaminant particles is present. That’s why the main goal of research presented in this paper was to establish statistically significant correlation between ball bearings temperatures, their working time and concentration of contaminant particles in their grease. Because of especially difficult working conditions, the typical conveyor idlers bearings were selected as representative test samples and appropriate solid particles from open pit coal mines were used as artificial contaminants. Applied experimental methodology included thermographic inspection, as well as usage of custom designed test rig for ball bearings service life testing. Finally, by obtained experimental data processing in advanced software, statistically significant mathematical correlation between mentioned bearings characteristics was determined and applied in commonly used internal radial clearance equation. That is the most important contribution of performed research - the new equation and methodology for ball bearings internal clearance determination which could be used for eventual improvement of existing bearings service life equations. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35029 i br. TR14033

  3. Ceramic-on-ceramic bearing fractures in total hip arthroplasty: an analysis of data from the National Joint Registry. (United States)

    Howard, D P; Wall, P D H; Fernandez, M A; Parsons, H; Howard, P W


    Ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) bearings in total hip arthroplasty (THA) are commonly used, but concerns exist regarding ceramic fracture. This study aims to report the risk of revision for fracture of modern CoC bearings and identify factors that might influence this risk, using data from the National Joint Registry (NJR) for England, Wales, Northern Ireland and the Isle of Man. We analysed data on 223 362 bearings from 111 681 primary CoC THAs and 182 linked revisions for bearing fracture recorded in the NJR. We used implant codes to identify ceramic bearing composition and generated Kaplan-Meier estimates for implant survivorship. Logistic regression analyses were performed for implant size and patient specific variables to determine any associated risks for revision. A total of 222 852 bearings (99.8%) were CeramTec Biolox products. Revisions for fracture were linked to seven of 79 442 (0.009%) Biolox Delta heads, 38 of 31 982 (0.119%) Biolox Forte heads, 101 of 80 170 (0.126%) Biolox Delta liners and 35 of 31 258 (0.112%) Biolox Forte liners. Regression analysis of implant size revealed smaller heads had significantly higher odds of fracture (chi-squared 68.0, p Liner thickness was not predictive of fracture (p = 0.67). Body mass index (BMI) was independently associated with revision for both head fractures (odds ratio (OR) 1.09 per unit increase, p = 0.031) and liner fractures (OR 1.06 per unit increase, p = 0.006). We report the largest independent study of CoC bearing fractures to date. The risk of revision for CoC bearing fracture is very low but previous studies have underestimated this risk. There is good evidence that the latest generation of ceramic has greatly reduced the odds of head fracture but not of liner fracture. Small head size and high patient BMI are associated with an increased risk of ceramic bearing fracture. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1012-19. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BEAR AT THE BACK DOOR. Deur generaal sir Walter Walker KCB, CBE,. D80. 8andton. Uitgegee deur Valiant Publis- hers. Verskyningsdatum Julie 1978. Prys R10.) Hierdie boek is 'n uitstekende aktuele geskrif ook. Suidelike Afrika se politieke en militere aspekte wat deur 'n a/gehele buitestaander nl 'n Britse. Generaal ...

  5. Little Bear Fire Summary Report (United States)

    Sarah McCaffrey; Melanie Stidham; Hannah. Brenkert-Smith


    In June 2012, immediately after the Little Bear Fire burned outside Ruidoso, New Mexico, a team of researchers interviewed fire managers, local personnel, and residents to understand perceptions of the event itself, communication, evacuation, and pre-fire preparedness. The intensity of fire behavior and resulting loss of 242 homes made this a complex fire with a...

  6. Intelligent Engine Systems: Bearing System (United States)

    Singh, Arnant P.


    The overall requirements necessary for sensing bearing distress and the related criteria to select a particular rotating sensor were established during the phase I. The current phase II efforts performed studies to evaluate the Robustness and Durability Enhancement of the rotating sensors, and to design, and develop the Built-in Telemetry System concepts for an aircraft engine differential sump. A generic test vehicle that can test the proposed bearing diagnostic system was designed, developed, and built. The Timken Company, who also assisted with testing the GE concept of using rotating sensors for the differential bearing diagnostics during previous phase, was selected as a subcontractor to assist General Electric (GE) for the design, and procurement of the test vehicle. A purchase order was prepared to define the different sub-tasks, and deliverables for this task. The University of Akron was selected to provide the necessary support for installing, and integrating the test vehicle with their newly designed test facility capable of simulating the operating environment for the planned testing. The planned testing with good and damaged bearings will be on hold pending further continuation of this effort during next phase.

  7. Climate Change, Polar Bears and their management


    Derenchenko, Liza


    This is a literature study of polar bears in the context of climate change: what kind of creatures are polar bears, what are the main interpretations of current climate change, how might the polar bear adapt to these changes (feeding strategies) and how are the bears being managed (hunting)? These are relevant questions , since climate change is on the agenda, and polar bears being the apex predators of the Arctic are a key representation of the wildlife there. The third element of polar bear...

  8. Friction and wear behaviour of self lubricating bearing liners (United States)

    Gay, Russell

    The thesis describes a numerical model for evaluating the variation of friction and wear of a self lubricating bearing liner over its useful wear life. Self-lubricating bearings have been in widespread use since the mid-1950s, particularly in the aerospace industry where they have the advantage of being low maintenance components. They are commonly used in relatively low speed, reciprocating applications such as control surface actuators, and usually consist of a spherical bearing with the inner and outer elements separated by a composite textile resin-bonded liner. A finite element model has been developed to predict the local stiffness of a particular liner at different states of wear. Results obtained using the model were used to predict the overall friction coefficient as it evolves due to wear, which is a novel approach. Experimental testing was performed on a bespoke flat-on-flat wear test rig with a reciprocating motion to validate the results of the friction model.. These tests were carried out on a commercially-available bearing liner, predominantly at a high contact pressure and an average sliding speed of 0.2 ms-1. Good agreement between predicted and experimentally measured wear was obtained when appropriate coefficients of friction were used in the friction model, and when the reciprocating sliding distance was above a critical value. A numerical wear model was also developed to predict the trend of backlash development in real bearing geometries using a novel approach. Results from the wear model were validated against full-scale bearing tests carried out elsewhere by the sponsoring company. Good agreement was obtained between the model predictions and the experimental results for the first 80% of the bearing wear life, and explanations for the discrepancy during the last 20% of the wear life have been proposed..

  9. Three-axis force actuator for a magnetic bearing (United States)

    Gondhalekar, Vijay (Inventor)


    This invention features a three-axis force actuator that axially, radially and rotatably supports a bearing member for frictionless rotation about an axis of rotation generally coincident with a Z-axis. Also featured is a magnetic bearing having such an actuator. The actuator includes an inner member, a magnetic member and a pole assembly having a ring member and four pole extending therefrom. The poles are equi-angular spaced from each other and radially spaced about the Z-axis. The inner member extends along the Z-axis and is a highly magnetic permeable material. The magnetic member is formed about the inner member outer surface, extends along the Z-axis and is configured so one magnetic pole polarity is located at its outer surface and the other polarity pole is located at its inner surface. Preferably, the magnetic member is a radially magnetized permanent magnet. The inner surface of the ring member is magnetically coupled to the magnetic member and a face of each pole is coupled to the bearing member. The magnetic member, the pole assembly, the inner member and the bearing member cooperate to generate a magnetic field that radially and rotatably supports a rotating member secured to the bearing member. The actuator further includes a plurality of electromagnetic coils. Preferably, a coil is formed about each pole and at least 2 coils are formed about the inner member. When energized, the electromagnetic coils generate a modulated magnetic field that stabilizes the rotating member in the desired operational position.

  10. Properties, Origins, and Preservation of Ancient Olivine-Bearing Bedrock: Implications for Noachian Processes on Mars (United States)

    Rogers, A. D.; Cowart, J. C.; Head, J. W.; Warner, N. H.; Palumbo, A.; Golombek, M. P.


    Olivine-bearing bedrock units are common and therefore significant surface units found in Noachian highlands, yet their origins are uncertain. We present new observations suggesting that some may have non-volcanic or non-effusive volcanic origins.

  11. Methods to estimate distribution and range extent of grizzly bears in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (United States)

    Haroldson, Mark A.; Schwartz, Charles C.; , Daniel D. Bjornlie; , Daniel J. Thompson; , Kerry A. Gunther; , Steven L. Cain; , Daniel B. Tyers; Frey, Kevin L.; Aber, Bryan C.


    The distribution of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population has expanded into areas unoccupied since the early 20th century. Up-to-date information on the area and extent of this distribution is crucial for federal, state, and tribal wildlife and land managers to make informed decisions regarding grizzly bear management. The most recent estimate of grizzly bear distribution (2004) utilized fixed-kernel density estimators to describe distribution. This method was complex and computationally time consuming and excluded observations of unmarked bears. Our objective was to develop a technique to estimate grizzly bear distribution that would allow for the use of all verified grizzly bear location data, as well as provide the simplicity to be updated more frequently. We placed all verified grizzly bear locations from all sources from 1990 to 2004 and 1990 to 2010 onto a 3-km × 3-km grid and used zonal analysis and ordinary kriging to develop a predicted surface of grizzly bear distribution. We compared the area and extent of the 2004 kriging surface with the previous 2004 effort and evaluated changes in grizzly bear distribution from 2004 to 2010. The 2004 kriging surface was 2.4% smaller than the previous fixed-kernel estimate, but more closely represented the data. Grizzly bear distribution increased 38.3% from 2004 to 2010, with most expansion in the northern and southern regions of the range. This technique can be used to provide a current estimate of grizzly bear distribution for management and conservation applications.

  12. A Preliminary Foil Gas Bearing Performance Map (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Radil, Kevin C.; Bruckner, Robert J.; Howard, S. Adam


    Recent breakthrough improvements in foil gas bearing load capacity, high temperature tribological coatings and computer based modeling have enabled the development of increasingly larger and more advanced Oil-Free Turbomachinery systems. Successful integration of foil gas bearings into turbomachinery requires a step wise approach that includes conceptual design and feasibility studies, bearing testing, and rotor testing prior to full scale system level demonstrations. Unfortunately, the current level of understanding of foil gas bearings and especially their tribological behavior is often insufficient to avoid developmental problems thereby hampering commercialization of new applications. In this paper, a new approach loosely based upon accepted hydrodynamic theory, is developed which results in a "Foil Gas Bearing Performance Map" to guide the integration process. This performance map, which resembles a Stribeck curve for bearing friction, is useful in describing bearing operating regimes, performance safety margins, the effects of load on performance and limiting factors for foil gas bearings.

  13. Live-trapping and handling brown bear (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper reports techniques developed to live trap and handle brown bears on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. The brown bears (Ursus middendorffi) on the...

  14. Live-trapping and handling brown bear (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In recent years bears have become increasingly important as big game animals. The brown bears (Ursus middendorfi) on the Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge, Kodiak...

  15. Brown bear telemetry and trapping: Special report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Brown bear studies were continued during the 1967 field season with emphasis on development of techniques for instrumenting bears with radio transmitters and...

  16. What stable nitrogen-bearing minerals could be stored in the surface during early Noachian Mars and what are the constraints in terms of temperature and pH? (United States)

    van de Burgt, I.; Sefton-Nash, E.; ten Kate, I. L.


    Nitrogen plays an important role in many biomolecules and is significant in biological activity on Earth. While nitrogen remains the dominant component in Earth's atmosphere, the nitrogen content of the early Mars atmosphere is ill-constrained, yet fundamental to understanding the habitability of early Mars. The objective of this study is to determine the feasibility and role of nitrogen fixation in clays in conditions that may have prevailed on early Mars. We model fixation as well as loss rates of the nitrogen in phyllosilicates within temperature and pH bounds plausible for ancient Mars surface conditions. We find that 0.3 - 2.3 teragram of nitrogen per Myr may be fixed into the clay phases that are observed on Mars' surface, and that only 3 percent of this would be released back to non-fixed reservoirs (aqueous, atmospheric).

  17. Stable isotopes to detect food-conditioned bears and to evaluate human-bear management (United States)

    Hopkins, John B.; Koch, Paul L.; Schwartz, Charles C.; Ferguson, Jake M.; Greenleaf, Schuyler S.; Kalinowski, Steven T.


    We used genetic and stable isotope analysis of hair from free-ranging black bears (Ursus americanus) in Yosemite National Park, California, USA to: 1) identify bears that consume human food, 2) estimate the diets of these bears, and 3) evaluate the Yosemite human–bear management program. Specifically, we analyzed the isotopic composition of hair from bears known a priori to be food-conditioned or non-food-conditioned and used these data to predict whether bears with an unknown management status were food-conditioned (FC) or non-food-conditioned (NFC). We used a stable isotope mixing model to estimate the proportional contribution of natural foods (plants and animals) versus human food in the diets of FC bears. We then used results from both analyses to evaluate proactive (population-level) and reactive (individual-level) human–bear management, and discussed new metrics to evaluate the overall human–bear management program in Yosemite. Our results indicated that 19 out of 145 (13%) unknown bears sampled from 2005 to 2007 were food-conditioned. The proportion of human food in the diets of known FC bears likely declined from 2001–2003 to 2005–2007, suggesting proactive management was successful in reducing the amount of human food available to bears. In contrast, reactive management was not successful in changing the management status of known FC bears to NFC bears, or in reducing the contribution of human food to the diets of FC bears. Nine known FC bears were recaptured on 14 occasions from 2001 to 2007; all bears were classified as FC during subsequent recaptures, and human–bear management did not reduce the amount of human food in the diets of FC bears. Based on our results, we suggest Yosemite continue implementing proactive human–bear management, reevaluate reactive management, and consider removing problem bears (those involved in repeated bear incidents) from the population.

  18. Human impacts on bear habitat use (United States)

    Mattson, David J.


    : Human effects on bear habitat use are mediated through food biomass changes, bear tolerance of humans and their impacts, and human tolerance of bears. Large-scale changes in bear food biomass have been caused by conversion of wildlands and waterways to intensive human use, and by the introduction of exotic pathogens. Bears consume virtually all human foods that have been established in former wildlands, but bear use has been limited by access. Air pollution has also affected bear food biomass on a small scale and is likely to have major future impacts on bear habitat through climatic warming. Major changes in disturbance cycles and landscape mosaics wrought by humans have further altered temporal and spatial pulses of bear food production. These changes have brought short-term benefits in places, but have also added long-term stresses to most bear populations. Although bears tend to avoid humans, they will also use exotic and native foods in close proximity to humans. Subadult males and adult females are more often impelled to forage closer to humans because of their energetic predicament and because more secure sites are often preempted by adult males. Although male bears are typically responsible for most livestock predation, adult females and subadult males are more likely to be habituated to humans because they tend to forage closer to humans. Elimination of human-habituated bears predictably reduces effective carrying capacity and is more likely to be a factor in preserving bear populations where humans are present in moderate-to-high densities. If humans desire to preserve viable bear populations, they will either have to accept increased risk of injury associated with preserving habituated animals, or continue to crop habituated bears while at the same time preserving large tracts of wildlands free from significant human intrusion.

  19. Thin film superconductor magnetic bearings (United States)

    Weinberger, Bernard R.


    A superconductor magnetic bearing includes a shaft (10) that is subject to a load (L) and rotatable around an axis of rotation, a magnet (12) mounted to the shaft, and a stator (14) in proximity to the shaft. The stator (14) has a superconductor thin film assembly (16) positioned to interact with the magnet (12) to produce a levitation force on the shaft (10) that supports the load (L). The thin film assembly (16) includes at least two superconductor thin films (18) and at least one substrate (20). Each thin film (18) is positioned on a substrate (20) and all the thin films are positioned such that an applied magnetic field from the magnet (12) passes through all the thin films. A similar bearing in which the thin film assembly (16) is mounted on the shaft (10) and the magnet (12) is part of the stator (14) also can be constructed.

  20. Fractal analysis of polar bear hairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qing-Li


    Full Text Available Hairs of a polar bear (Ursus maritimus are of superior properties such as the excellent thermal protection. Why do polar bears can resist such cold environment? The paper concludes that its fractal porosity plays an important role, and its fractal dimensions are very close to the golden mean, 1.618, revealing the possible optimal structure of polar bear hair.

  1. Cool Polar Bears: Dabbing on the Texture (United States)

    O'Connell, Jean


    In this article, the author describes how her second-graders created their cool polar bears. The students used the elements of shape and texture to create the bears. They used Monet's technique of dabbing paint so as to give the bear some texture on his fur.

  2. Foil bearing lubrication theory including compressibility effects (United States)

    Gorla, Rama Subba Reddy; Catalano, Daniel A.


    An analysis is presented to determine the film thickness in a foil bearing. Using the Reynolds equation and including the compressibility effects of the gas, an equation was developed applicable to the film thickness in a foil bearing. The bearing was divided into three regions, namely, the entrance region, middle region and exit region. Solutions are obtained for the film thickness in each region.

  3. Teaching American History with Teddy's Bear. (United States)

    Forman-Brunell, Miriam


    Discusses the origins of "Teddy's bear," tracing back to a cartoon published in 1902. States that Teddy's bear can shed light on U.S. culture and society. Focuses on the role of Teddy's bear as a symbol of conservationism, an embodiment of male dominance and female nurturance, and a manifestation of white racial supremacy. (CMK)

  4. Solid Lubricated Rolling Element Bearings (United States)


    program named SHABERTH (SHAft BEaring THermal, see References IZ and 13). Although this program is only quasi-dynamic, its credibility has been the light of experimental evidence and found to exhibit reasonably good correlation between theory and practice of fluid lubrication. () SHABERTH ...particular material selection or devel- opment. It is encouraging that SHABERTH , in spite of its quasi-dynamic - nature, has seen extensive use over a period

  5. Cannibalism and predation on black bears by grizzly bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem, 1975-1990 (United States)

    Mattson, D.J.; Knight, R.R.; Blanchard, B.M.


    We documented one instance of an adult male grizzly bear preying upon a black bear and four instances where circumstantial evidence suggested that grizzly bears (two cubs-of-the-year, one yearling female that was injured, and one adult male) had been preyed upon by conspecifics. We also examined feces of grizzly bears for bear remains. Remains of bears tended to be more common in spring feces and did not differ in frequency between early and late years of the study. Our observations generally support existing hypotheses concerning cannibalism among bears.

  6. Computing Thermal Performances Of Shafts And Bearings (United States)

    Woods, Claudia M.


    SHABERTH computer program developed to predict steady-state and transient thermal performance of multi-bearing shaft system operating with either wet or dry friction. Calculates loads, torques, temperatures, and fatigue lives for ball and/or roller bearings on single shaft. Enables study of many causes of instabilities in bearings. Also provides for analysis of reaction of system to termination of supply of lubricant to bearings and other lubricated mechanical elements. Valuable software tool in design and analysis of shaft bearing systems. Written in FORTRAN IV.

  7. Heuristic explanation of journal bearing instability (United States)

    Crandall, S. H.


    A fluid-filled journal bearing is viewed as a powerful pump circulating fluid around the annular space between the journal and the bearing. A small whirling motion of the journal generates a wave of thickness variation progressing around the channel. The hypothesis that the fluid flow drives the whirl whenever the mean of the pumped fluid velocity is greater than the peripheral speed of the thickness variation wave is discussed and compared with other simple explanations of journal bearing instability. It is shown that for non-cavitation long bearings the hypothesis predicts instability onset correctly for unloaded bearings but gradually overpredicts the onset speed as the load is increased.

  8. [Advances in studies on bear bile powder]. (United States)

    Zhou, Chao-fan; Gao, Guo-jian; Liu, Ying


    In this paper, a detailed analysis was made on relevant literatures about bear bile powder in terms of chemical component, pharmacological effect and clinical efficacy, indicating bear bile powder's significant pharmacological effects and clinical application in treating various diseases. Due to the complex composition, bear bile powder is relatively toxic. Therefore, efforts shall be made to study bear bile powder's pharmacological effects, clinical application, chemical composition and toxic side-effects, with the aim to provide a scientific basis for widespread reasonable clinical application of bear bile powder.

  9. Chromatographic (TLC) differentiation of grizzly bear and black bear scats (United States)

    Picton, Harold D.; Kendall, Katherine C.


    While past work concluded that thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was inadequate for the separation of grizzly (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bear (U. americanus) scats, our study found differences adequate for species separation. A key was constructed using 19 of 40 data points recorded on each(N)=356 profiles of 178) know-species scat. Accuracy was best for late summer scats (94%). Methods for specimen preparation, analysis, and reading the TLC profiles are discussed. Factors involved in scat variation were tested.

  10. Late Quaternary sedimentary features of Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho (United States)

    Smoot, J.P.


    over 40 m of water. The subaerial surfaces are indicated by root casts and gypsum-rich soil features. Bear Lake remained at this low state with a minor transgression until ca. 15 ka. A new influx of Bear River water produced a major lake transgression and deposited a thin calcite deposit. Bear Lake quickly dropped to a shallow-water state, accumulating a mixture of calcite and siliciclastic sediment that contains at least two intervals of root-disrupted horizons indicating lake-level drops to more than 40 m below the modern highstand. About 11,500 yr B.P., the lake level rose again through an influx of Bear River water producing another thin calcite layer. The Bear River ceased to flow into the basin and the lake salinity increased, resulting in the aragonite deposition that persisted until modern human activity. The climatic record of Bear Lake sediment is difficult to ascertain by using standard chemical and biological techniques because of variations in the inflow hydrology and the significant amount of erosion and redeposition of chemical and biological sediment components. Copyright ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.


    Coe, H. H.


    shear forces in the inlet zone of lubricated contacts, which accounts for the degree of lubricant film starvation; modeling normal and friction forces between a ball and a cage pocket, which account for the transition between the hydrodynamic and elastohydrodynamic regimes of lubrication; and a model of the effect on fatigue life of the ratio of the EHD plateau film thickness to the composite surface roughness. SHABERTH is intended to be as general as possible. The models in SHABERTH allow for the complete mathematical simulation of real physical systems. Systems are limited to a maximum of five bearings supporting the shaft, a maximum of thirty rolling elements per bearing, and a maximum of one hundred temperature nodes. The SHABERTH program structure is modular and has been designed to permit refinement and replacement of various component models as the need and opportunities develop. A preprocessor is included in the IBM PC version of SHABERTH to provide a user friendly means of developing SHABERTH models and executing the resulting code. The preprocessor allows the user to create and modify data files with minimal effort and a reduced chance for errors. Data is utilized as it is entered; the preprocessor then decides what additional data is required to complete the model. Only this required information is requested. The preprocessor can accommodate data input for any SHABERTH compatible shaft bearing system model. The system may include ball bearings, roller bearings, and/or tapered roller bearings. SHABERTH is written in FORTRAN 77, and two machine versions are available from COSMIC. The CRAY version (LEW-14860) has a RAM requirement of 176K of 64 bit words. The IBM PC version (MFS-28818) is written for IBM PC series and compatible computers running MS-DOS, and includes a sample MS-DOS executable. For execution, the PC version requires at least 1Mb of RAM and an 80386 or 486 processor machine with an 80x87 math co-processor. The standard distribution medium for the

  12. Genomic evidence of geographically widespread effect of gene flow from polar bears into brown bears. (United States)

    Cahill, James A; Stirling, Ian; Kistler, Logan; Salamzade, Rauf; Ersmark, Erik; Fulton, Tara L; Stiller, Mathias; Green, Richard E; Shapiro, Beth


    Polar bears are an arctic, marine adapted species that is closely related to brown bears. Genome analyses have shown that polar bears are distinct and genetically homogeneous in comparison to brown bears. However, these analyses have also revealed a remarkable episode of polar bear gene flow into the population of brown bears that colonized the Admiralty, Baranof and Chichagof islands (ABC islands) of Alaska. Here, we present an analysis of data from a large panel of polar bear and brown bear genomes that includes brown bears from the ABC islands, the Alaskan mainland and Europe. Our results provide clear evidence that gene flow between the two species had a geographically wide impact, with polar bear DNA found within the genomes of brown bears living both on the ABC islands and in the Alaskan mainland. Intriguingly, while brown bear genomes contain up to 8.8% polar bear ancestry, polar bear genomes appear to be devoid of brown bear ancestry, suggesting the presence of a barrier to gene flow in that direction. © 2014 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Analysis of bearing steel exposed to rolling contact fatigue (United States)

    Hansen, K. T.; Fæster, S.; Natarajan, A.; Mishin, O. V.; Danielsen, H. K.; Jensen, D. Juul; Klit, P.


    The objective of this work is to characterize fatigue damage in roller bearings under conditions of high load and slippage. A test rig constructed for rolling contact fatigue tests of rings is described, and test results are presented for rings taken from two spherical roller bearings. The preparation of the rings and the loading situation are explained. Test conditions are chosen with the aim of achieving pitting formation at the contacting surfaces. During testing the contact pressure, torque and the rotational speed are monitored and recorded. After testing the tested rings have been characterized using X-ray tomography and scanning electron microscopy. The observations confirm that rolling contact fatigue testing at high loads leads to pitting failure at the contacting surfaces. The pitting mostly appears on one side of the contact, attributed to a non-uniform contact pressure in the axial direction.

  14. Color View 'Dodo' and 'Baby Bear' Trenches (United States)


    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Surface Stereo Imager took this image on Sol 14 (June 8, 2008), the 14th Martian day after landing. It shows two trenches dug by Phoenix's Robotic Arm. Soil from the right trench, informally called 'Baby Bear,' was delivered to Phoenix's Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA, on Sol 12 (June 6). The following several sols included repeated attempts to shake the screen over TEGA's oven number 4 to get fine soil particles through the screen and into the oven for analysis. The trench on the left is informally called 'Dodo' and was dug as a test. Each of the trenches is about 9 centimeters (3 inches) wide. This view is presented in approximately true color by combining separate exposures taken through different filters of the Surface Stereo Imager. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  15. Modeling and Development of RMD Configuration Magnetic Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.P. Lijesh


    Full Text Available The low load carrying capacity of Passive Magnetic Bearings (PMBs has restricted their use in many industrial applications. The Rotation Magnetized Direction (RMD configuration has emerged as a strong and viable method that is able to substantially enhance the load carrying capacity of passive magnetic bearings. It consists of both radially and axially polarized passive magnets. But the physical realization of a radially polarized magnet is difficult to achieve. In the present work, a RMD structure consisting of aluminum ring and cubical shaped magnets is proposed by developing the radially polarized magnets required for RMD structure. A theoretical model is derived by simulating the cuboid magnets in form of sector magnets by developing equivalent surface area. An experimental setup was designed and developed to conduct experimental verification. The theoretical model is validated by conducting experiments on RMD configuration magnetic bearing and axially magnetized full ring bearing. The comparison of the load carrying capacity by different configuration is performed and results are presented.

  16. Failure Simulation Testing of the Z-1 Spacesuit Titanium Bearing Assemblies (United States)

    de Baca, Richard C.; Juarez, Alfredo; Peralta, Stephen; Tylka, Jonathan; Rhodes, Richard


    The Z-2 is a candidate for NASA's next generation spacesuit, designed for a range of possible missions with enhanced mobility for spacewalks both on planetary surfaces and in microgravity. Increased mobility was accomplished through innovations in shoulder and hip joints, using a number of new bearings to allow spacesuit wearers to dip, walk, and bend with ease; all important tasks for a planetary explorer collecting samples or traveling over rough terrain. The Advanced Spacesuit Development Team of NASA Johnson Space Center requested that the NASA White Sands Test Facility (WSTF) perform a series failure simulation tests on three titanium bearing assemblies, an elemental part of the joint construction used in new spacesuit designs. This testing simulated two undetected failures within the bearings and as a result the objective of this test program was to evaluate whether a failed or failing bearing could result in ignition of the titanium race material due to friction. The first failure was an inner seal leak sufficient to pressurize the race with +99 percent oxygen. The second failure was an improperly installed or mismatched ball port that created a protrusion in the ball bearing race, partially obstructing the nominal rolling path of each ball bearing. When the spacesuit bearings are assembled, bearing balls are loaded into the assembly via a ball port. The ball port is specific and unique to each bearing assembly (matched pair). The simulated mismatched ball port is a significant source of friction, which would be caused by an assembly error. To evaluate this risk, the bearings were cycled in a simulated worst-case scenario environment, with operational loads, and potential flaw conditions. During test the amount of actuation torque required and heat generated through continuous operation were measured and the bearings were observed for sparks or burning events. This paper provides detailed descriptions of the test hardware, methodology, and results.

  17. History of Space Shuttle Main Engine Turbopump Bearing Testing at the Marshall Space Flight Center (United States)

    Gibson, Howard; Thom, Robert; Moore, Chip; Haluck, Dave


    bronze filled polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) cage inserts into the bearings and the anchoring of the SHABERTH bearing model and SINDA thermal computer model for cryogenic bearing analysis. In the mid 1990's, Pratt and Whitney (P&W) won the contract to deliver new high pressure turbopumps for the Shuttle s engines. P&W used two new bearing materials for the rings, Cronidur 30 and AISI 9310 steel and testing was needed on these new materials. A test rig had been designed and delivered to MSFC for testing hydrostatic bearings but with the need by Pratt to validate their bearings, the rig was reconfigured for testing of two ball bearings or a ball bearing and a roller bearing. The P&W bearings are larger than the Rocketdyne bearings and could not be installed in the BSMT. This new test rig was called the LH2 test rig and began operation in 1995. The LH2 test rig accumulated 75,000 seconds of run time in hydrogen. This test rig was valuable in two areas: validating the use of silicon nitride balls and rollers in Alternate Turbopump Development (ATD) bearings, which Pratt eventually used, and in proving the robustness of the balls and rollers after river marks appeared on the surface of the rolling elements. Individual test reports have been presented at conferences and symposiums throughout the years. This paper is a comprehensive report of all the bearing testing done at Marshall. It represents thousands of hours of dedication and labor in all engineering and technical fields that made this program a success.

  18. Nonlinear Transient Modeling and Design of Turbocharger Rotor/Semi-Floating Bush Bearing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianming Cao


    Full Text Available This work presents the bearing design and analysis of radial semi-floating bush oil lubricated bearings for a typical industrial turbocharger configuration. Initially, the stability analysis for a linear rotor/bearing system is evaluated through eigenvalues and eigenvectors. The stiffness and damping coefficients of the inner oil film are obtained for the linear modeling process. The operating speed range of the turbocharger is high enough, at 21,000 to 24,000 rpm, to be unstable, indicating that the analysis should be and is carried out with nonlinear transient modeling. The nonlinear transient analysis evaluates the rotor and bush limit cycle orbits, rotor dynamics, the forces acting on the rotor and semi-floating bush surfaces, the oil flow through the bearing, the oil temperatures, and the power loss of the two oil films. The optimum design of a set of semi-floating bush bearings for this application depends strongly upon the clearances of the bush and squeeze film damper, usually expressed as the non-dimensional clearance to radius ratio. A typical clearance is evaluated to determine the bearing performance in terms of orbit size, forces acting on the bush and squeeze damper surfaces, oil flow through the bearing, power loss, and thermal heating. The nonlinear transient orbit values are evaluated for frequency content using the FFT to determine which orbits show both the synchronous and sub-synchronous vibration components and the associated rotor modes excited. These results are compared to the linear analysis over the operating speed range. The oil flow through the bearing component is much larger than the squeeze film damper. The forces acting on the bush and squeeze damper surfaces are related to the fatigue life of the bearing.

  19. Seismic performance of cable-sliding friction bearing system for isolated bridges (United States)

    Yuan, Wancheng; Wang, Binbin; Cheung, Pakchiu; Cao, Xinjian; Rong, Zhaojun


    During past strong earthquakes, highway bridges have sustained severe damage or even collapse due to excessive displacements and/or very large lateral forces. For commonly used isolation bearings with a pure friction sliding surface, seismic forces may be reduced but displacements are often unconstrained. In this paper, an alternative seismic bearing system, called the cable-sliding friction bearing system, is developed by integrating seismic isolation devices with displacement restrainers consisting of cables attached to the upper and lower plates of the bearing. Restoring forces are provided to limit the displacements of the sliding component. Design parameters including the length and stiffness of the cables, friction coefficient, strength of the shear bolt in a fixed-type bearing, and movements under earthquake excitations are discussed. Laboratory testing of a prototype bearing subjected to vertical loads and quasi-static cyclic lateral loads, and corresponding numerical finite element simulation analysis, were carried out. It is shown that the numerical simulation shows good agreement with the experimental force-displacement hysteretic response, indicating the viability of the new bearing system. In addition, practical application of this bearing system to a multi-span bridge in China and its design advantages are discussed.

  20. Measurement of Pressure Fluctuations inside a Model Thrust Bearing Using PVDF Sensors (United States)

    Youssef, Andrew; Matthews, David; Guzzomi, Andrew; Pan, Jie


    Thrust bearings play a vital role in propulsion systems. They rely on a thin layer of oil being trapped between rotating surfaces to produce a low friction interface. The “quality” of this bearing affects many things from noise transmission to the ultimate catastrophic failure of the bearing itself. As a result, the direct measure of the forces and vibrations within the oil filled interface would be very desirable and would give an indication of the condition of the bearing in situ. The thickness of the oil film is, however, very small and conventional vibration sensors are too cumbersome to use in this confined space. This paper solves this problem by using a piezoelectric polymer film made from Polyvinylidine Fluoride (PVDF). These films are very thin (50 μm) and flexible and easy to install in awkward spaces such as the inside of a thrust bearing. A model thrust bearing was constructed using a 3D printer and PVDF films inserted into the base of the bearing. In doing so, it was possible to directly measure the force fluctuations due to the rotating pads and investigate various properties of the thrust bearing itself. PMID:28420152

  1. Bearing Health Assessment Based on Chaotic Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lu


    Full Text Available Vibration signals extracted from rotating parts of machinery carry a lot of useful information about the condition of operating machine. Due to the strong non-linear, complex and non-stationary characteristics of vibration signals from working bearings, an accurate and reliable health assessment method for bearing is necessary. This paper proposes to utilize the selected chaotic characteristics of vibration signal for health assessment of a bearing by using self-organizing map (SOM. Both Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm and Takens' theory are employed to calculate the characteristic vector which includes three chaotic characteristics, such as correlation dimension, largest Lyapunov exponent and Kolmogorov entropy. After that, SOM is used to map the three corresponding characteristics into a confidence value (CV which represents the health state of the bearing. Finally, a case study based on vibration datasets of a group of testing bearings was conducted to demonstrate that the proposed method can reliably assess the health state of bearing.

  2. Effects of climate change on polar bears. (United States)

    Wiig, Øystein; Aars, Jon; Born, Erik W


    In this article, we review the effects on polar bears of global warming that have already been observed, and try to evaluate what may happen to the polar bears in the future. Many researchers have predicted a wide range of impacts of climate change on polar bear demography and conditions. A predicted major reduction in sea ice habitat will reduce the availability of ice associated seals, the main prey of polar bears, and a loss and fragmentation of polar bear habitat will ultimately lead to large future reductions in most subpopulations. It is likely that polar bears will be lost from many areas where they are common today and also that the total population will change into a few more distinctly isolated populations.

  3. Catalytic Properties of Surfaces Sites on Metal Oxides and Their Characterization by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (United States)


    chromium tha w-xs tcdbilized during reaction. The results of the iodometric titration of the surface oxide are shown in Figures 7 and 8. Th...catalysts to elicit further information; oxygen chemisorption (dispersion), x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, iodometric determination of oxidation...between the surface oxidation state following reaction and the mean oxidation state determined iodometrically . A large change in the catalys

  4. Effect of boundary conditions on the performances of gas-lubricated micro journal bearing (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Lei, Kangbin; Luo, Xilian; Gu, Zhaolin; Kiwamu, Kase


    As significant components of micromechanics, gas-lubricated microbearings are more prevalent for their special advantages than other types. The fluid dynamics of the microbearing is different from their larger cousins due to the noncontinuum effect and surface-dominated effect, which may make the Navier-Stokes equations invalid. In this paper, by considering the accommodation coefficients on journal (α i) and that on bearing (α o) separately, the microbearings with different bearing numbers under the assumption of large L/D (length to diameter) are simulated using direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) program incorporated with a Volume-CAD software. The diffuse reflection model and Cercignani-Lampis-Lord (CLL) model are applied to model the molecule-surface interaction. The flow field characteristics, as well as the performances of gas-lubricated journal bearings including load-carrying capacity, attitude angle and bearing drag are obtained. The results reveal that αi and αo have different effects to flow field characteristics and bearing performances. The bearing number has significantly impact on the bearing performances. The method developed in this paper would be very useful for designing and evaluating the gas-lubricated journal microbearing.

  5. Are organohalogen contaminants a bears (Ursus maritimus)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Leifsson, PS


    Tissues of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland contain the highest concentrations of organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) among subpopulations of any mammalian species in the Arctic. Negative associations also have been found between OHC concentrations and bone mineral density and liver...... histology parameters for this subpopulation of polar bears. The present study examined the OHC concentrations and adverse effects on renal tissue for 75 polar bears collected during 1999 to 2002. Specific lesions were diffuse glomerular capillary wall thickening, mesangial glomerular deposits, tubular...

  6. Trends in Controllable Oil Film Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Ilmar


    This work gives an overview about the theoretical and experimental achievements of mechatronics applied to oil film bearings, with the aim of: controlling the lateral vibration of flexible rotating shafts; modifying bearing dynamic characteristics, as stiffness and damping properties; increasing......" components and be applied to rotating machines with the goal of avoiding unexpected stops of plants, performing rotordynamic tests and identifying model parameters "on site". Emphasis is given to the controllable lubrication (active lubrication) applied to different types of oil film bearings, i...

  7. Powder-Metallurgical Bearings For Turbopumps (United States)

    Bhat, B. N.; Humphries, T. S.; Thom, R. L.; Moxson, V.; Friedman, G. I.; Dolan, F. J.; Shipley, R. J.


    Bearings fabricated by powder metallurgy developed for use in machines subjected to extremes of temperature, rolling-contact cyclic stresses, and oxidizing or otherwise corrosive fluids. Bearings also extend operating lives of other machines in which bearings required to resist extreme thermal, mechanical, and chemical stresses. One alloy exhibiting outstanding properties was MRC-2001. Resistance to fatigue, stress corrosion cracking, and wear found superior to that of 440C stainless steel.

  8. Bearing optimization for SSME HPOTP application (United States)

    Armstrong, Elizabeth S.; Coe, Harold H.


    The space shuttle main engine (SSME) high-pressure oxygen turbopumps (HPOTP) have not experienced the service life required of them. To improve the life of the existing turbopump bearings, modifications to the bearings that could be retrofitted into the present bearing cavity are being investigated. Several bearing parameters were optimized using the computer program SHABERTH, which performs a thermomechanical simulation of a load support system. The computer analysis showed that improved bearing performance is feasible if low friction coefficients can be attained. Bearing geometries were optimized considering heat generation, equilibrium temperatures, and relative life. Two sets of curvatures were selected from the optimization: an inner-raceway curvature of 0.54, an outer-raceway curvature of 0.52, and an inner-raceway curvature of 0.55, an outer-raceway curvature of 0.53. A contact angle of 16 deg was also selected. Thermal gradients through the bearings were found to be lower with liquid lubrication than with solid film lubrication. As the coolant flowrate through the bearing increased, the ball temperature decreased but at a continuously decreasing rate. The optimum flowrate was approximately 4 kg/s. The analytical modeling used to determine these feasible modifications to improve bearing performance is described.

  9. The Accuracy Of Air Bearing Systems (United States)

    Stout, K. J.


    The accuracy of air bearing systems is related in most cases to the static stiffness of the bearing. In practice the stiffness which can be achieved is related to the selection of optimum design parameters. This paper considers journal bearings and discusses the parameters which control bearing performance. Guidance is given to assist the designer in specifying the optimal conditions of each controlling parameter. A graphical design procedure is discussed which enables the designer to interrelate all aspects of design in a simple to use technique whilst still retaining optimal ranges for each parameter involved.

  10. Les villes frontalières thaïlandaises dans la régionalisation Thai Bordertowns in the Regionalization Process: Spatial Planing and Production of New Urban Forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Lainé


    Full Text Available La ville frontalière apparaît comme un type urbain particulier, tant en raison de sa localisation que de ses fonctions. Cet article propose d’étudier les villes frontalières thaïlandaises, et plus précisément celles situées sur les corridors de développement mis en place dans le cadre de la coopération régionale. Si ces villes sont longtemps apparues comme des espaces périphériques, peu intégrés au territoire national, deux dynamiques contemporaines modifient cet état de fait : le mouvement de déconcentration initié par le gouvernement thaïlandais dès le milieu des années 1970 d’une part, et surtout la coopération régionale marquant le tournant des années 1990 d’autre part. Les villes frontalières thaïlandaises sont devenues depuis une vingtaine d’années des objets spécifiques de la planification gouvernementale. D’espaces périphériques, elles ont été promues gateways, pôles de croissance économiques et soutien au commerce avec les pays limitrophes. Même si leur place dans le tissu urbain national diverge encore largement, des projets d’infrastructures leur permet d’acquérir une nouvelle envergure. L’étude de cas de trois villes sélectionnées montrent que si elles diffèrent au regard de critères démographiques, économiques ou en termes d’équipements, ces villes ont toutes connu au cours des dernières années et sous l’effet combiné de la régionalisation et de la planification une modification de leur organisation spatiale. De nouveaux centres apparaissent, et la diversité des acteurs impliqués ainsi que les dynamiques en cours sont à même de modifier de manière variable les relations entretenues avec les centres urbains situés de l’autre côté de la frontière d’une part, et la place de ces villes frontalières thaïlandaises dans le tissu urbain national et régional d’autre part.This paper will focus on Thai bordertowns located on ADB economic corridors. The

  11. Level of Denture Cleanliness Influences the Presence of Denture Stomatitis on Maxillary Denture Bearing-Mucosa


    Winatty Krisma; Martha Mozartha; Rani Purba


    Plaque accumulation on internal surface of denture is a common problem among removable denture wearers. Poor denture cleanliness can increase colonization of Candida albicans and cause inflammatory reaction of denture-bearing mucosa, i.e. denture stomatitis. Objective: To find out the effect of denture cleanliness level on denture stomatitis on maxillary denture-bearing mucosa in a group of removable denture wearers who received prosthodontic treatment at Poliklinik Gigi RSMH Palembang and to...

  12. Movements of Yellowstone grizzly bears (United States)

    Blanchard, Bonnie M.; Knight, Richard R.


    Ninety-seven grizzly bears Ursus arctos horribilis were radio-located 6299 times during 1975–1987. Annual range sizes differed by sex, age, reproductive status and amount of precipitation. Females exhibited greater fidelity to seasonal and annual ranges than males. Weaned female offspring generally remained in the vicinity of the maternal range, while weaned males often made substantial movements to unexplored country. Average total home range size was 884 km2 for females and 3757 km2 for males. Males consistently exhibited greater indices of movement and range sizes than females. All cohorts had larger mean ranges during this study than during the period 1959–1969 when the population had access to open garbage dumps. Movements and elevational distribution of all cohorts were related to availability of whitebark pine Pinus albicaulis seeds. We hypothesized that females with cubs-of-the-year and yearlings were displaced from most productive habitats during seasons and years of limited food availability.

  13. Foraging ecology of black bears in urban environments: guidance for human-bear conflict mitigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, D. L; Baruch-Mordo, S; Wilson, K. R; Breck, S. W; Mao, J. S; Broderick, J


    .... We studied black bears ( Ursus americanus ) in the urban area of Aspen, Colorado, USA from 2007 to 2010 to quantify bear foraging on natural and anthropogenic resources and to model factors associated with anthropogenic feeding events...

  14. Nuclear genomic sequences reveal that polar bears are an old and distinct bear lineage. (United States)

    Hailer, Frank; Kutschera, Verena E; Hallström, Björn M; Klassert, Denise; Fain, Steven R; Leonard, Jennifer A; Arnason, Ulfur; Janke, Axel


    Recent studies have shown that the polar bear matriline (mitochondrial DNA) evolved from a brown bear lineage since the late Pleistocene, potentially indicating rapid speciation and adaption to arctic conditions. Here, we present a high-resolution data set from multiple independent loci across the nuclear genomes of a broad sample of polar, brown, and black bears. Bayesian coalescent analyses place polar bears outside the brown bear clade and date the divergence much earlier, in the middle Pleistocene, about 600 (338 to 934) thousand years ago. This provides more time for polar bear evolution and confirms previous suggestions that polar bears carry introgressed brown bear mitochondrial DNA due to past hybridization. Our results highlight that multilocus genomic analyses are crucial for an accurate understanding of evolutionary history.

  15. Les « boutiques ». Regard sur quelques bourgades du sud de la Thaïlande The “Shops”. A Glance at some Southern Thailand Towns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Le Roux


    Full Text Available à travers une visite informelle du sud de la Thaïlande, à la population majoritairement jawi, malaise et musulmane mêlée de courants siamois, chinois et môn, et de reliquats proto-malais, par une rapide description de quelques-unes de ses villes et bourgades, marquées par l'histoire particulière de ce terroir et des formes urbaines et architecturales qui y dominent pour des raisons culturelles, religieuses, économiques ou politiques, on découvre un véritable carrefour de civilisations et de cultures. Celles-ci, assemblées de façon originale, façonnent une région caractéristique qui est à la fois la plus riche du royaume de Thaïlande et la plus éprouvée par une situation politique et militaire, instable depuis des décennies.This article is based on a journey through Southern Thailand, where the population, mostly Jawi, Malay, and Muslim, displays Siamese, Chinese, and Mon cultural features as well as some ancient Proto-Malay traits. It offers a description of some of its cities and towns, marked by the region's particular history and by urbanistic and architectural forms locally prominent for cultural, religious, economical, and political reasons. It shows that Southern Thailand is a complex crossroads of various civilizations and cultures, combined in a unique manner to form a specific domain, which is both the richest region of the kingdom of Thailand and one that has been, for decades on end, most stricken by an unstable political and military situation.

  16. Hypoid Gear Tooth Bearing Pattern Analysis : 1st Report, The Gear Dimensions for Tooth Bearing Development


    高橋, 幸一; 伊藤, 紀男; 呉, 為民; 吉野, 雅禎


    Tooth bearing patterns for hypoid gears cannot be described by conventional theory. In gear manufacturing factories, tooth bearing development is still required in order to obtain good tooth bearing patterns. This paper presents a new method for the development of hypoid tooth bearing patterns which differs from the conventional and experimental gear cutting methods. This report makes it possible to obtain accurate hypoid gear dimensions which consist of the mating pressure angles, spiral ang...

  17. Modified Vertical Bearing Capacity for Circular Foundations in Sand Using Reduced Friction Angle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Barari, Amin; Larsen, Kim André


    of a circular plate, several loading tests on small scale bucket foundations including the circular surface footings are performed at Aalborg University. In current research, the vertical bearing capacity of circular surface footings is investigated using reduced friction angle. It is also presented a linear...... relation between relative density and the reduced friction angle with reasonable accuracy....

  18. Plasma nitriding of AISI 52100 ball bearing steel and effect of heat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    friction, generates noise/vibration and necessitates an early replacement, which causes premature failure. To meet ... such as surface hardness, wear resistance, corrosion resis- tance, and fatigue strength of various ... to enhance the wear resistance, surface hardness and service life of the bearing steels (Zaitsev et al 1990; ...

  19. Phylogeography of mitochondrial DNA variation in brown bears and polar bears (United States)

    Shields, Gerald F.; Adams, Deborah; Garner, Gerald W.; Labelle, Martine; Pietsch, Jacy; Ramsay, Malcolm; Schwartz, Charles; Titus, Kimberly; Williamson, Scott


    We analyzed 286 nucleotides of the middle portion of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of 61 brown bears from three locations in Alaska and 55 polar bears from Arctic Canada and Arctic Siberia to test our earlier observations of paraphyly between polar bears and brown bears as well as to test the extreme uniqueness of mitochondrial DNA types of brown bears on Admiralty, Baranof, and Chichagof (ABC) islands of southeastern Alaska. We also investigated the phylogeography of brown bears of Alaska's Kenai Peninsula in relation to other Alaskan brown bears because the former are being threatened by increased human development. We predicted that: (1) mtDNA paraphyly between brown bears and polar bears would be upheld, (2) the mtDNA uniqueness of brown bears of the ABC islands would be upheld, and (3) brown bears of the Kenai Peninsula would belong to either clade II or clade III of brown bears of our earlier studies of mtDNA. All of our predictions were upheld through the analysis of these additional samples.

  20. Unbalance Response Prediction for Rotors on Ball Bearings Using Speed and Load Dependent Nonlinear Bearing Stiffness (United States)

    Fleming, David P.; Poplawski, J. V.


    Rolling-element bearing forces vary nonlinearly with bearing deflection. Thus an accurate rotordynamic analysis requires that bearing forces corresponding to the actual bearing deflection be utilized. For this work bearing forces were calculated by COBRA-AHS, a recently developed rolling-element bearing analysis code. Bearing stiffness was found to be a strong function of bearing deflection, with higher deflection producing markedly higher stiffness. Curves fitted to the bearing data for a range of speeds and loads were supplied to a flexible rotor unbalance response analysis. The rotordynamic analysis showed that vibration response varied nonlinearly with the amount of rotor imbalance. Moreover, the increase in stiffness as critical speeds were approached caused a large increase in rotor and bearing vibration amplitude over part of the speed range compared to the case of constant bearing stiffness. Regions of bistable operation were possible, in which the amplitude at a given speed was much larger during rotor acceleration than during deceleration. A moderate amount of damping will eliminate the bistable region, but this damping is not inherent in ball bearings.

  1. State Space Formulation of Nonlinear Vibration Responses Collected from a Dynamic Rotor-Bearing System: An Extension of Bearing Diagnostics to Bearing Prognostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W. Tse


    Full Text Available Bearings are widely used in various industries to support rotating shafts. Their failures accelerate failures of other adjacent components and may cause unexpected machine breakdowns. In recent years, nonlinear vibration responses collected from a dynamic rotor-bearing system have been widely analyzed for bearing diagnostics. Numerous methods have been proposed to identify different bearing faults. However, these methods are unable to predict the future health conditions of bearings. To extend bearing diagnostics to bearing prognostics, this paper reports the design of a state space formulation of nonlinear vibration responses collected from a dynamic rotor-bearing system in order to intelligently predict bearing remaining useful life (RUL. Firstly, analyses of nonlinear vibration responses were conducted to construct a bearing health indicator (BHI so as to assess the current bearing health condition. Secondly, a state space model of the BHI was developed to mathematically track the health evolution of the BHI. Thirdly, unscented particle filtering was used to predict bearing RUL. Lastly, a new bearing acceleration life testing setup was designed to collect natural bearing degradation data, which were used to validate the effectiveness of the proposed bearing prognostic method. Results show that the prediction accuracy of the proposed bearing prognostic method is promising and the proposed bearing prognostic method is able to reflect future bearing health conditions.

  2. Reflectance spectroscopy of ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites as Mars soil analog materials. (United States)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Pieters, Carlé M.; Burns, Roger G.; Edwards, John O.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.; Fröschl, Heinz


    Spectroscopic analyses have shown that smectites enhanced in the laboratory with additional ferric species exhibit important similarities to those of the soils on Mars. Ferrihydrite in these chemically treated smectites has features in the visible to near-infrared region that resemble the energies and band strengths of features in reflectance spectra observed for several bright regions on Mars. New samples have been prepared with sulfate as well, because S was found by Viking to be a major component in the surface material on Mars. A suite of ferrihydrite-bearing and ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites, prepared with variable Fe 3+ and S concentrations and variable pH conditions, has been analyzed using reflectance spectroscopy in the visible and infrared regions, Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature and 4 K, differential thermal analysis, and X-ray diffraction. These analyses support the formation of ferrihydrite of variable crystallinity in the ferrihydrite-bearing montmorillonites and a combination of schwertmannite and ferrihydrite in the ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites. Small quantities of poorly crystalline or nanophase forms of other ferric materials may also be present in these samples. The chemical formation conditions of the ferrihydrite-bearing and ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites influence the character of the low temperature Mössbauer sextets and the visible reflectance spectra. An absorption minimum is observed at 0.88-0.89 μm in spectra of the ferric sulfate-bearing samples, and at 0.89-0.92 μm in spectra of the ferrihydrite-bearing montmorillonites. Mössbauer spectra of the ferric sulfate-bearing montmorillonites indicate variable concentrations of ferrihydrite and schwertmannite in the interlaminar spaces and along grain surfaces. Dehydration under reduced atmospheric pressure conditions induces a greater effect on the adsorbed and interlayer water in ferrihydrite-bearing montmorillonite than on the water in ferric

  3. Can polar bear hairs absorb environmental energy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Ji-Huan


    Full Text Available A polar bear (Ursus maritimus has superior ability to survive in harsh Arctic regions, why does the animal have such an excellent thermal protection? The present paper finds that the unique labyrinth cavity structure of the polar bear hair plays an important role. The hair can not only prevent body temperature loss but can also absorb energy from the environment.

  4. Hydrodynamic Lubrication Analysis Of Slider Bearings Lubricated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrodynamic Lubrication Analysis Of Slider Bearings Lubricated With Micropolar Fluids. ... The finite element method and Gauss Seidel iterative procedure have been used to simulate the modified Reynolds equation governing the micropolar lubricant flow in the bearing. The variations of pressure and load capacity are ...

  5. 33 CFR 117.543 - Bear Creek. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bear Creek. 117.543 Section 117.543 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.543 Bear Creek. (a) The draws of the Baltimore...

  6. Shaft Center Orbit in Dynamically Loaded Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klit, Peder


    The aim of this work is to demonstrate how to utilize the bearings damping coe±cients to estimate the orbit for a dynamically loaded journal bearing. The classical method for this analysis was developed by Booker in 1965 [1]and described further in 1972 [2]. Several authors have re¯ned this metho...

  7. A Weldability Study of Structural Materials for Manufacturing Bearing Separators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Drizhov


    Full Text Available The aim is to analyze the possibility for using the 08YUT steel separator tape to manufacture separators, which are to be further applied to the bearing assembly via projection welding.Reliability of rolling bearings is determined by many factors such as surface quality of balls and rings and assembly precision, including the seal strength of hemiseparators.The technology based on the double-pulsed condenser projection welding belongs to one of the most efficient technologies to provide the assembly of bearing, for it allows welding of separator simultaneously in all currents. The paper shows that the required condition to assure high reliability of the bearing is induastial development and implementation of an effective and positive quality control system, which will reduce the probability of damages occurring both when welding and in the course of operation.The work used the static tensile test methods, as well as metallographic analysis.The experimental study used the 08YUT steel hemiseparators. A tape thickness of the hemiseparators was of 1.5mm. The number of simultaneously welded points were 8. The experimental studies of the metal damage of welding joints of the the 08YUT steel separator have shown that with a wide range of the changing welding current and compressed electrode force the quality assurance of welding points at the parent metal level could not be retrieved.The metallographic analysis of the metal damage nature of a welded joint revealed that between the atoms on the surfaces of hemiseparators there are no strong bonds – a bond was formed in the contact zone. This phenomenon leads to reduced tensile seal strength.The study has shown that aluminum and titanium added to the low-carbon steel in order to have a more fine-grained metal structure has a negative effect on the quality of welded joint via projection welding.

  8. Development of new materials for turbopump bearings (United States)

    Maurer, R. E.; Pallini, R. A.


    The life requirement for the angular contact ball bearings in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP) is 7.5 hours. In actual operation, significantly shorter service life was experienced. The objective is to identify bearing materials and/or materials processing techniques offering signficant potential for extending HPOTP bearing performance life. Interactive thermomechanical analysis of the HPOTP bearing-shaft system was performed with the SHABERTH computer program. Bearing fatigue life, ball-race contact stress, heat generation rate, bulk ring temperatures and circumferential stress in the inner rings were quantified as functions of radial load, thrust load and ball-race contact friction. Criteria established from the output of this analysis are being used for material candidate selection.

  9. Foil Bearing Stiffness Estimation with Pseudospectral Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankar Balaji


    Full Text Available Compliant foil gas lubricated bearings are used for the support of light loads in the order of few kilograms at high speeds, in the order of 50,000 RPM. The stiffness of the foil bearings depends both on the stiffness of the compliant foil and on the lubricating gas film. The stiffness of the bearings plays a crucial role in the stable operation of the supported rotor over a range of speeds. This paper describes a numerical approach to estimate the stiffness of the bearings using pseudo spectral scheme. Methodology to obtain the stiffness of the foil bearing as a function of weight of the shaft is given and the results are presented.

  10. Geology and geomorphology of Bear Lake Valley and upper Bear River, Utah and Idaho (United States)

    Reheis, M.C.; Laabs, B.J.C.; Kaufman, D.S.


    Bear Lake, on the Idaho-Utah border, lies in a fault-bounded valley through which the Bear River flows en route to the Great Salt Lake. Surficial deposits in the Bear Lake drainage basin provide a geologic context for interpretation of cores from Bear Lake deposits. In addition to groundwater discharge, Bear Lake received water and sediment from its own small drainage basin and sometimes from the Bear River and its glaciated headwaters. The lake basin interacts with the river in complex ways that are modulated by climatically induced lake-level changes, by the distribution of active Quaternary faults, and by the migration of the river across its fluvial fan north of the present lake. The upper Bear River flows northward for ???150 km from its headwaters in the northwestern Uinta Mountains, generally following the strike of regional Laramide and late Cenozoic structures. These structures likely also control the flow paths of groundwater that feeds Bear Lake, and groundwater-fed streams are the largest source of water when the lake is isolated from the Bear River. The present configuration of the Bear River with respect to Bear Lake Valley may not have been established until the late Pliocene. The absence of Uinta Range-derived quartzites in fluvial gravel on the crest of the Bear Lake Plateau east of Bear Lake suggests that the present headwaters were not part of the drainage basin in the late Tertiary. Newly mapped glacial deposits in the Bear River Range west of Bear Lake indicate several advances of valley glaciers that were probably coeval with glaciations in the Uinta Mountains. Much of the meltwater from these glaciers may have reached Bear Lake via groundwater pathways through infiltration in the karst terrain of the Bear River Range. At times during the Pleistocene, the Bear River flowed into Bear Lake and water level rose to the valley threshold at Nounan narrows. This threshold has been modified by aggradation, downcutting, and tectonics. Maximum lake

  11. 49 CFR 230.102 - Tender plain bearing journal boxes. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender plain bearing journal boxes. 230.102... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.102 Tender plain bearing journal boxes. Plain bearing journal boxes... expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and bearing...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengjun Tang


    Full Text Available The silos are widely used in bulk material in many fields such as agriculture, mining, chemical, electric power storage, etc. Thin metal cylindrical silo shells are vulnerable to buckling failure caused by the compressive wall friction force. In this paper, the structural analysis of two types of steel silo with cylindrical-wall bearing and profile-steel bearing is implemented by Abaqus finite element analysis. The results indicate that under the same loading conditions, steel silos with profile-steel bearing and cylindrical-Wall bearing have similar values in Mises stress, but the steel silo with profile-steel bearing has a smaller radial displacement and a better capability of buckling resistance. Meanwhile, the total steel volumes reduced 8.0% comparing to the steel silo with cylindrical-wall bearing. Therefore, steel soil with profile-steel bearing not only has a less steel volumes but also a good stability.

  13. Polyethylene wear of mobile-bearing unicompartmental knee replacement at 20 years. (United States)

    Kendrick, B J L; Simpson, D J; Kaptein, B L; Valstar, E R; Gill, H S; Murray, D W; Price, A J


    The Oxford unicompartmental knee replacement (UKR) was designed to minimise wear utilising a fully-congruent, mobile, polyethylene bearing. Wear of polyethylene is a significant cause of revision surgery in UKR in the first decade, and the incidence increases in the second decade. Our study used model-based radiostereometric analysis to measure the combined wear of the upper and lower bearing surfaces in 13 medial-compartment Oxford UKRs at a mean of 20.9 years (17.2 to 25.9) post-operatively. The mean linear penetration of the polyethylene bearing was 1.04 mm (0.307 to 2.15), with a mean annual wear rate of 0.045 mm/year (0.016 to 0.099). The annual wear rate of the phase-2 bearings (mean 0.022 mm/year) was significantly less (p = 0.01) than that of phase-1 bearings (mean 0.07 mm/year). The linear wear rate of the Oxford UKR remains very low into the third decade. We believe that phase-2 bearings had lower wear rates than phase-1 implants because of the improved bearing design and surgical technique which decreased the incidence of impingement. We conclude that the design of the Oxford UKR gives low rates of wear in the long term.

  14. Research of the Quality of Quarry Dumpers Engine Crankshafts Sliding Bearings of Various Manufacturers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korotkov Alexander


    Full Text Available Sliding bearings are an important part of many large and critical components. They are widely used in power equipment, high-capacity pumps, compressors, electric motors and internal combustion engines (ICE. As a rule, sliding bearings include an antifriction bushing, part of the shaft surface (bearing journal, and a layer of oil between them. These are complex and critical parts in which there may occur dangerous defects, and which directly affect the durability, accuracy and reliability of the entire unit. To ensure high reliability of the equipment with sliding bearings applied in complex equipment, it is necessary to provide the quality control and sufficient level of monitoring of the technical condition, as well as diagnosis of emerging defects. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the internal combustion engines sliding bearings quality of various manufacturing companies. It gives operational properties of bearings depending on the compositional composition. The results of chemical analysis of the base, the cover and intermediate layers of the ICE liners are presented here. We have also made recommendations to increase the operational performance of sliding bearings.

  15. Research of the Quality of Quarry Dumpers Engine Crankshafts Sliding Bearings of Various Manufacturers (United States)

    Korotkov, Alexander; Korotkova, Lidiya; Vidin, Denis


    Sliding bearings are an important part of many large and critical components. They are widely used in power equipment, high-capacity pumps, compressors, electric motors and internal combustion engines (ICE). As a rule, sliding bearings include an antifriction bushing, part of the shaft surface (bearing journal), and a layer of oil between them. These are complex and critical parts in which there may occur dangerous defects, and which directly affect the durability, accuracy and reliability of the entire unit. To ensure high reliability of the equipment with sliding bearings applied in complex equipment, it is necessary to provide the quality control and sufficient level of monitoring of the technical condition, as well as diagnosis of emerging defects. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the internal combustion engines sliding bearings quality of various manufacturing companies. It gives operational properties of bearings depending on the compositional composition. The results of chemical analysis of the base, the cover and intermediate layers of the ICE liners are presented here. We have also made recommendations to increase the operational performance of sliding bearings.

  16. Application of Silicon Nitride (Si3N4 Ceramics in Ball Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijianto Wijianto


    operation up to 1000°C, greater thermal shock resistance, lower density and low thermal expansion. This properties gives some benefit for ball bearing material such as higher running speed, reduce vibration of the shaft, will improve the life time and maintenance cost, lower heat generated, less energy consumption, lower wear rate, reducing noise level and reduce of using lubricant. The sintering methods are used to produce ball bearing from silicon nitride. Some techniques can be applied to increase ceramics strength which are reduce porosity, reduce grain size, reduce surface flaw and proof stressing. The surface finishing of the ceramic bearing is very important because silicon nitride as a brittle material, its strength is limited to the flaw sizes especially the flaw at the surface.

  17. Nanocrystalline, superhard, ductile ceramic coatings for roller-cone bit bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namavar, F.; Colter, P.; Karimy, H. [Spire Corp., Bedford, MA (United States)] [and others


    The established method for construction of roller bits utilizes carburized steel, frequently with inserted metal bearing surfaces. This construction provides the necessary surface hardness while maintaining other desirable properties in the core. Protective coatings are a logical development where enhanced hardness, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, and surface properties are required. The wear properties of geothermal roller-cone bit bearings could be further improved by application of protective ceramic hard coatings consisting of nanometer-sized crystallites. Nanocrystalline protective coatings provide the required combination of hardness and toughness which has not been available thus far using traditional ceramics having larger grains. Increased durability of roller-cone bit bearings will ultimately reduce the cost of drilling geothermal wells through increased durability.

  18. Polar bears and sea ice habitat change (United States)

    Durner, George M.; Atwood, Todd C.; Butterworth, Andy


    The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is an obligate apex predator of Arctic sea ice and as such can be affected by climate warming-induced changes in the extent and composition of pack ice and its impacts on their seal prey. Sea ice declines have negatively impacted some polar bear subpopulations through reduced energy input because of loss of hunting habitats, higher energy costs due to greater ice drift, ice fracturing and open water, and ultimately greater challenges to recruit young. Projections made from the output of global climate models suggest that polar bears in peripheral Arctic and sub-Arctic seas will be reduced in numbers or become extirpated by the end of the twenty-first century if the rate of climate warming continues on its present trajectory. The same projections also suggest that polar bears may persist in the high-latitude Arctic where heavy multiyear sea ice that has been typical in that region is being replaced by thinner annual ice. Underlying physical and biological oceanography provides clues as to why polar bear in some regions are negatively impacted, while bears in other regions have shown no apparent changes. However, continued declines in sea ice will eventually challenge the survival of polar bears and efforts to conserve them in all regions of the Arctic.

  19. Genomic sequencing of Pleistocene cave bears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noonan, James P.; Hofreiter, Michael; Smith, Doug; Priest, JamesR.; Rohland, Nadin; Rabeder, Gernot; Krause, Johannes; Detter, J. Chris; Paabo, Svante; Rubin, Edward M.


    Despite the information content of genomic DNA, ancient DNA studies to date have largely been limited to amplification of mitochondrial DNA due to technical hurdles such as contamination and degradation of ancient DNAs. In this study, we describe two metagenomic libraries constructed using unamplified DNA extracted from the bones of two 40,000-year-old extinct cave bears. Analysis of {approx}1 Mb of sequence from each library showed that, despite significant microbial contamination, 5.8 percent and 1.1 percent of clones in the libraries contain cave bear inserts, yielding 26,861 bp of cave bear genome sequence. Alignment of this sequence to the dog genome, the closest sequenced genome to cave bear in terms of evolutionary distance, revealed roughly the expected ratio of cave bear exons, repeats and conserved noncoding sequences. Only 0.04 percent of all clones sequenced were derived from contamination with modern human DNA. Comparison of cave bear with orthologous sequences from several modern bear species revealed the evolutionary relationship of these lineages. Using the metagenomic approach described here, we have recovered substantial quantities of mammalian genomic sequence more than twice as old as any previously reported, establishing the feasibility of ancient DNA genomic sequencing programs.

  20. Genetic control of biennial bearing in apple (United States)

    Guitton, Baptiste; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Velasco, Riccardo; Gardiner, Susan E.; Chagné, David; Costes, Evelyne


    Although flowering in mature fruit trees is recurrent, floral induction can be strongly inhibited by concurrent fruiting, leading to a pattern of irregular fruiting across consecutive years referred to as biennial bearing. The genetic determinants of biennial bearing in apple were investigated using the 114 flowering individuals from an F1 population of 122 genotypes, from a ‘Starkrimson’ (strong biennial bearer)בGranny Smith’ (regular bearer) cross. The number of inflorescences, and the number and the mass of harvested fruit were recorded over 6 years and used to calculate 26 variables and indices quantifying yield, precocity of production, and biennial bearing. Inflorescence traits exhibited the highest genotypic effect, and three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on linkage group (LG) 4, LG8, and LG10 explained 50% of the phenotypic variability for biennial bearing. Apple orthologues of flowering and hormone-related genes were retrieved from the whole-genome assembly of ‘Golden Delicious’ and their position was compared with QTLs. Four main genomic regions that contain floral integrator genes, meristem identity genes, and gibberellin oxidase genes co-located with QTLs. The results indicated that flowering genes are less likely to be responsible for biennial bearing than hormone-related genes. New hypotheses for the control of biennial bearing emerged from QTL and candidate gene co-locations and suggest the involvement of different physiological processes such as the regulation of flowering genes by hormones. The correlation between tree architecture and biennial bearing is also discussed. PMID:21963613

  1. Grizzly bear diet shifting on reclaimed mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cristescu


    Full Text Available Industrial developments and reclamation change habitat, possibly altering large carnivore food base. We monitored the diet of a low-density population of grizzly bears occupying a landscape with open-pit coal mines in Canada. During 2009–2010 we instrumented 10 bears with GPS radiocollars and compared their feeding on reclaimed coal mines and neighboring Rocky Mountains and their foothills. In addition, we compared our data with historical bear diet for the same population collected in 2001–2003, before extensive mine reclamation occurred. Diet on mines (n=331 scats was dominated by non-native forbs and graminoids, while diets in the Foothills and Mountains consisted primarily of ungulates and Hedysarum spp. roots respectively, showing diet shifting with availability. Field visitation of feeding sites (n=234 GPS relocation clusters also showed that ungulates were the main diet component in the Foothills, whereas on reclaimed mines bears were least carnivorous. These differences illustrate a shift to feeding on non-native forbs while comparisons with historical diet reveal emergence of elk as an important bear food. Food resources on reclaimed mines attract bears from wilderness areas and bears may be more adaptable to landscape change than previously thought. The grizzly bear’s ready use of mines cautions the universal view of this species as umbrella indicative of biodiversity.

  2. Best management practices in counting urban black bears

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jonathan L Fusaro; Mary M Conner; Michael R Conover; Timothy J Taylor; Marc W Kenyon Jr


    .... We modified DNA-based CMR for black bear using hair-snares to take into account the small home ranges of urban bears, urban bear behavior, and human safety within Mammoth Lakes, California, USA...

  3. Eastern slopes grizzly bear project : project update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report updates a study to examine the cumulative effects of human activities on the grizzly bears in the central Canadian Rockies. The project was initiated in 1994 to acquire accurate scientific information on the habitat and populations of grizzly bears in the area of the Banff National Park and Kananaskis Country. This area is probably the most heavily used and developed area where the grizzly still survives. The information gathered throughout the course of the study is used to better protect and manage the bears and other sensitive carnivores in the region. Using telemetry, researchers monitored 25 grizzly bears which were radio-collared in a 22,000 square-kilometer area in the upper Bow Valley drainage of the eastern Alberta slopes. The researchers worked with representatives from Husky Oil and Rigel Energy on the development of the Moose Mountain oil and gas field without adversely affecting the grizzly bear population. Information collected over eight years indicates that the grizzly bears have few and infrequent offspring. Using the information gathered thus far, the location of the Moose Mountain to Jumping Pound pipeline was carefully selected, since the bears suffer from high mortality, and the food and cover had already been compromised by the high number of roads, trails and other human activities in the area. The research concluded in November 2001 provides sufficient information to accurately asses the status of the grizzly bear population and habitat. The data will be analyzed and integrated in 2002 into models that reflect the variables affecting grizzly bears and a final report will be published.

  4. Controllable Lubrication for Main Engine Bearings Using Mechanical and Piezoelectric Actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estupinan, Edgar; Santos, Ilmar


    located around the bearing surface. The main equations that govern the dynamics of the injection for a piezo-actuated oil injector and a mechanical-actuated oil injector are presented. It is shown how the dynamics of the oil injection system is coupled to the dynamics of the bearing fluid film through...... in journal bearings helps to enhance the hydrodynamic fluid film by increasing the fluid film thickness and consequently reducing viscous friction losses and vibrations. In this study, the hydrostatic lubrication is modified by injecting oil at controllable pressures through orifices circumferentially...... to an equivalent conventional lubricated bearing in terms of the maximum fluid film pressures, minimum fluid film thicknesses, and reduction of viscous friction losses....

  5. Determination a static limiting load curves for slewing bearing with application of the finite element methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Krynke


    Full Text Available In slewing bearings, a great number of contact pairs are present on the contact surfaces between the rolling elements and raceways of the bearing. Computations to determine the load of the individual rolling elements, taking into account the flexibility of the bearing ring, are most often carried out using the finite element method. Construction of a FEM full model of the bearing, taking into account the shape of the rolling elements and the determination of the contact problem for every rolling element, leads to a singularity of stiffness matrix, which in turn makes the problem impossible to solve. In FEM models the rolling elements are replaced by one-dimensional finite elements (linear elements to simplify the computation procedure and to obtain an optimal time for computations. replaced by truss elements with a material non-linear characteristic located between the raceway centres of the curvatures in their axial section, are presented in the paper

  6. Three Types of Active Lubrication Systems for the Main Bearings of Reciprocating Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Ilmar; Pulido, E. E.


    pressures, through orifices circumferentially located around the bearing surface. The computed bearing fluid film forces are coupled to the set of nonlinear equations that describes the dynamics of the reciprocating engine, obtained with the help of multibody dynamics (rigid components) and finite elements...... thickness and consequently reducing viscous friction losses and vibrations. One refers to active lubrication when conventional hydrodynamic lubrication is combined with dynamically modified hydrostatic lubrication. In this case, the hydrostatic lubrication is modified by injecting oil at controllable......In the paper the authors investigate three different schemes for the realization of the controllable oil injection system to be couple to the main engine bearings. The use of active lubrication in fluid film bearings helps to enhance the hydrodynamic fluid film by increasing the fluid film...

  7. Mobile-bearing knee systems: ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene wear and design issues. (United States)

    Greenwald, A Seth; Heim, Christine S


    In June 2004, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Orthopaedic Advisory Panel recommended the reclassification of mobile-bearing knee systems for general use. This reflects the increasing use of mobile-bearing knee systems internationally, which is currently limited in the United States by regulatory requirement. Mobile-bearing knee systems are distinguished from conventional, fixed-plateau systems in that they allow dual-surface articulation between an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene insert and metallic femoral and tibial tray components. Their in vivo success is dependent on patient selection, design, and material choice, as well as surgical precision during implantation. Laboratory and clinical experience extending over 25 years with individual systems suggests that mobile-bearing knee systems represent a viable treatment option for patients with knee arthrosis.

  8. Self-lubricating plasma-sprayed composites for sliding contact bearings to 900 C (United States)

    Sliney, H. E.


    Plasma-sprayed composites which have good oxidation-resistance and self-lubricating characteristics to 900 C were developed. The composites are a Nichrome matrix containing dispersed glass for oxidation protection and calcium fluoride for lubrication. They are applied to bearing surfaces in layers about 0.050 cm thick by plasma-spraying; the layers are then machined to a thickness of 0.025 cm. Oscillating bearing tests were performed in air to 900 C at unit radial loads up to 3.5 times 10 to the 7th power Newtons per square meter (5000 psi) and a thrust load of 1960 Newtons (440 lb). Bearings with a composite liner in the bore were in good condition after over 50,000 oscillating cycles accumulated during repeated bearing temperature cycles between 25 and 900 C.

  9. Influence of bearing support structures on shaft vibration of large hydraulic pump/turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pistner, C.A.; Greenplate, B.S. [Voith, Hydro, Inc., Pennsylvania, PA (United States); Waddell, A.M. [Tennessee Valley Authority, Chattanooga, TN (United States)


    Start-up transient loads from pump/turbine impellers can cause excessive vibration problems in the shaft system. If the radial guide bearing supports are structurally soft or loose, or if the bearings are worn, the resulting radial shaft movement causes abnormal wear. The wear normally occurs at the impeller sealing surfaces, main shaft seals, motor/generator components, piping, brackets, foundation connections, etc. This paper explores the critical factors causing shaft system vibration problems at the Tennessee Valley Authority`s Raccoon Mountain Pumped Storage Plant, as well as the unique modifications which were implemented to strengthen and improve the units. The solution involved extensive three-dimensional finite element structural and thermal transient analyses of the original and re-designed turbine shoe bearing, bearing housings, and support structures. The conclusion compares the calculated and measured shaft system response to transient loads of the original and modified system.

  10. On the simplifications for the thermal modeling of tilting-pad journal bearings under thermoelastohydrodynamic regime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier; Fillon, Michel; Santos, Ilmar


    are strongly dependent on the Reynolds number for the oil flow in the bearing. For bearings operating in laminar regime, the decoupling of the oil film energy equation solving procedure, with no heat transfer terms included, with the pad heat conduction problem, where the oil film temperature is applied...... formulation for inclusion of the heat transfer effects between oil film and pad surface. Such simplified approach becomes necessary when modeling the behavior of tilting-pad journal bearings operating on controllable lubrication regime. Three different simplified heat transfer models are tested, by comparing...... at the boundary as a Dirichlet condition, showed a good balance between quality of the results, implementation easiness and reduction in calculation time. For bearings on the upper limit of the laminar regime, the calculation of an approximated oil film temperature gradient in the radial direction, as proposed...

  11. The Biotribology of PEEK-on-HXLPE Bearings Is Comparable to Traditional Bearings on a Multidirectional Pin-on-disk Tester. (United States)

    Baykal, Doruk; Siskey, Ryan S; Underwood, Richard J; Briscoe, Adam; Kurtz, Steven M


    All-polymer bearings involving polyetheretherketone (PEEK) have been proposed for orthopaedic applications because they may reduce stress shielding, reduce weight of the implants, reduce wear and risk of osteolysis, and prevent release of metal ions by replacing the metal articulating components. Little is known about the biotribology of all-polymer PEEK bearings, including the effects of cross-shear, which are relevant for implant longevity, especially in the hip, and increased temperature that may affect lubricant proteins and, hence, lubrication in the joint. Using pin-on-disk in vitro testing, we asked: (1) Can all-polymer bearing couples involving PEEK have a comparable or lower wear rate than highly crosslinked UHMWPE (HXLPE) on CoCr bearing couples? (2) Is the wear rate of PEEK bearing couples affected by the amount of cross-shear? (3) Is there a difference in wear mechanism and surface morphology for all-polymer bearing surfaces compared with UHMWPE (HXLPE) on CoCr? We simultaneously tested a total of 100 pin-on-disk couples (n = 10 per bearing couple) consisting of three traditional metal-on-UHMWPE and seven polymer-on-polymer bearings for 2 million cycles under physiologically relevant conditions and in accordance with ASTM F732. Using analysis of variance, we analyzed the effect of bearing surface topography and cross-shear on wear rate. The changes in surface topography were evaluated using optical microscopy. Sample size was sufficient to provide 80% power to detect a difference of 1.4 mm3/MC in average wear rates of bearing couples. The combined wear rates of all-polymer bearing couples were not different than traditional bearing couples. With the numbers available, the PEEK and HXLPE bearing couple had a mean wear rate (WR: mean ± SD) of 0.9 ± 1.1 mm3/MC (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2-1.5 mm3/MC), which was not different than the wear rate of the CoCr and HXLPE bearing couple (1.6 ± 2.0 mm3/MC; 95% CI, 0.4-2.8 mm3/MC; mean difference = 0.73 mm

  12. Microeconomic analysis of military aircraft bearing restoration (United States)

    Hein, G. F.


    The risk and cost of a bearing restoration by grinding program was analyzed. A microeconomic impact analysis was performed. The annual cost savings to U.S. Army aviation is approximately $950,000.00 for three engines and three transmissions. The capital value over an indefinite life is approximately ten million dollars. The annual cost savings for U.S. Air Force engines is approximately $313,000.00 with a capital value of approximately 3.1 million dollars. The program will result in the government obtaining bearings at lower costs at equivalent reliability. The bearing industry can recover lost profits during a period of reduced demand and higher costs.

  13. HI-bearing Ultra Diffuse Galaxies in the ALFALFA Survey (United States)

    Leisman, Lukas; Janowiecki, Steven; Jones, Michael G.; ALFALFA Almost Darks Team


    The Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (Arecibo L-band Feed Array) extragalactic HI survey, with over 30,000 high significance extragalactic sources, is well positioned to locate gas-bearing, low surface brightness sources missed by optical detection algorithms. We investigate the nature of a population of HI-bearing sources in ALFALFA with properties similar to "ultra-diffuse" galaxies (UDGs): galaxies with stellar masses of dwarf galaxies, but radii of L* galaxies. These "HI-bearing ultra-diffuse" sources (HUDS) constitute a small, but pertinent, fraction of the dwarf-mass galaxies in ALFALFA. They are bluer and have more irregular morphologies than the optically-selected UDGs found in clusters, and they appear to be gas-rich for their stellar mass, indicating low star formation efficiency. To illuminate potential explanations for the extreme properties of these sources we explore their environments and estimate their halo properties. We conclude that environmental mechanism are unlikely the cause of HUDS' properties, as they exist in environments equivalent to that of the other ALFALFA sources of similar HI-masses, however, we do find some suggestion that these HUDS may reside in high spin parameter halos, a potential explanation for their "ultra-diffuse" nature.

  14. Conical Magnetic Bearing Development and Magnetic Bearing Testing for Extreme Temperature Environments (United States)

    Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Jansen, Mark


    The main proposed research of this grant were: to design a high-temperature, conical magnetic bearing facility, to test the high-temperature, radial magnetic bearing facility to higher speeds, to investigate different backup bearing designs and materials, to retrofit the high-temperature test facility with a magnetic thrust bearing, to evaluate test bearings at various conditions, and test several lubricants using a spiral orbit tribometer. A high-temperature, conical magnetic bearing facility has been fully developed using Solidworks. The facility can reuse many of the parts of the current high-temperature, radial magnetic bearing, helping to reduce overall build costs. The facility has the ability to measure bearing force capacity in the X, Y, and Z directions through a novel bearing mounting design. The high temperature coils and laminations, a main component of the facility, are based upon the current radial design and can be fabricated at Texas A&M University. The coil design was highly successful in the radial magnetic bearing. Vendors were contacted about fabrication of the high temperature lamination stack. Stress analysis was done on the laminations. Some of the components were procured, but due to budget cuts, the facility build up was stopped.

  15. Vibration Characteristics of Hydrodynamic Fluid Film Pocket Journal Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Feng


    Full Text Available Theoretical analyses of hydrodynamic fluid film bearings with different bearing profiles rely on solutions of the Reynolds equation. This paper presents an approach used for analysing the so-called pocket bearings formed from a combination of offset circular bearing profiles. The results show that the variation of the dynamic bearing characteristics with different load inclinations for the pocket bearings is less than that for the elliptic bearing counterpart. It is shown that the natural frequencies as well as the critical speeds, and hence the vibrational behaviour, can also be significantly different for an industrial rotor supported by the different bearings.

  16. Molecular phylogeny and SNP variation of polar bears (Ursus maritimus), brown bears (U. arctos), and black bears (U. americanus) derived from genome sequences. (United States)

    Cronin, Matthew A; Rincon, Gonzalo; Meredith, Robert W; MacNeil, Michael D; Islas-Trejo, Alma; Cánovas, Angela; Medrano, Juan F


    We assessed the relationships of polar bears (Ursus maritimus), brown bears (U. arctos), and black bears (U. americanus) with high throughput genomic sequencing data with an average coverage of 25× for each species. A total of 1.4 billion 100-bp paired-end reads were assembled using the polar bear and annotated giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) genome sequences as references. We identified 13.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the 3 species aligned to the polar bear genome. These data indicate that polar bears and brown bears share more SNP with each other than either does with black bears. Concatenation and coalescence-based analysis of consensus sequences of approximately 1 million base pairs of ultraconserved elements in the nuclear genome resulted in a phylogeny with black bears as the sister group to brown and polar bears, and all brown bears are in a separate clade from polar bears. Genotypes for 162 SNP loci of 336 bears from Alaska and Montana showed that the species are genetically differentiated and there is geographic population structure of brown and black bears but not polar bears.

  17. Ceramic Rail-Race Ball Bearings (United States)

    Balzer, Mark A.; Mungas, Greg S.; Peters, Gregory H.


    Non-lubricated ball bearings featuring rail races have been proposed for use in mechanisms that are required to function in the presence of mineral dust particles in very low-pressure, dry environments with extended life. Like a conventional ball bearing, the proposed bearing would include an inner and an outer ring separated by balls in rolling contact with the races. However, unlike a conventional ball bearing, the balls would not roll in semi-circular or gothic arch race grooves in the rings: instead, the races would be shaped to form two or more rails (see figure). During operation, the motion of the balls would push dust particles into the spaces between the rails where the particles could not generate rolling resistance for the balls

  18. Polar bear research in Alaska, spring 1981 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An investigation of the ecology and population dynamics of Alaskan polar bears has continued since 1967. As part of that program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service...

  19. Polar bear research in Alaska, spring 1982 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An investigation of the ecology and population dynamics of Alaskan polar bears has continued since 1967. As part of that program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service...

  20. Cavitation Peening of Aerospace Bearings Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High-value bearings are a critical part of the safety, reliability, cost and performance of modern aircraft. A typical passenger jet will have 100 to 175 high-valve...

  1. Bear Lake-Minidoka - Phragmites Control (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Bear Lake: Phragmites patches were sprayed on the refuge & north of the lake proper. Minidoka: patches along the Snake River & Lake Walcott were treated with...

  2. AX-5 space suit bearing torque investigation (United States)

    Loewenthal, Stuart; Vykukal, Vic; Mackendrick, Robert; Culbertson, Philip, Jr.


    The symptoms and eventual resolution of a torque increase problem occurring with ball bearings in the joints of the AX-5 space suit are described. Starting torques that rose 5 to 10 times initial levels were observed in crew evaluation tests of the suit in a zero-g water tank. This bearing problem was identified as a blocking torque anomaly, observed previously in oscillatory gimbal bearings. A large matrix of lubricants, ball separator designs and materials were evaluated. None of these combinations showed sufficient tolerance to lubricant washout when repeatedly cycled in water. The problem was resolved by retrofitting a pressure compensated, water exclusion seal to the outboard side of the bearing cavity. The symptoms and possible remedies to blocking are discussed.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The invention relates to a light-weight load-bearing structure (1) with optimized compression zone (2), where along one or more compression zones (2) in the structure (1) to be cast a core (3) of strong concrete is provided, which core (3) is surrounded by concrete of less strength (4) compared...... to the core (3) of strong concrete. The invention also relates to a method of casting of light-weight load-bearing structures (1) with optimized compression zone (2) where one or more channels, grooves, ducts, pipes and/or hoses (5) formed in the load-bearing structure (1) serves as moulds for moulding one...... or more cores (3) of strong concrete in the light-weight load-bearing structure (1)....

  4. Progress report: brown bear studies - 1984 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Forty-four brown bears (22 adult female, 22 offspring) were captured in the Ayakulik River, Sturgeon River, and Frazer Lake drainages of Kodiak Island in July, 1983....

  5. Silicon Nitride Bearings for Total Joint Arthroplasty

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McEntire, Bryan; Lakshminarayanan, Ramaswamy; Ray, Darin; Clarke, Ian; Puppulin, Leonardo; Pezzotti, Giuseppe


      The articulation performance of silicon nitride against conventional and highly cross-linked polyethylene, as well as for self-mated silicon nitride bearings, was examined in a series of standard hip simulation studies...

  6. Commentary: Curbing the Nuisance Bear's Garbage Appetite


    Barce, George W.


    Since the early 1900S, the human population in the United States has more than tripled. Likewise, human interactions with wildlife have also increased exponentially (Conover 1995). Within the range of the American black bear (Ursus americanus), wildlife officials and land managers are often called upon to deal with nuisance bears. The Fall 2008 issue of Human–Wildlife Conflicts (now Human– Wildlife Interactions, ) contained several insightful manuscripts regarding the management of nuisance b...

  7. Comments to a polar bear population model


    Øritsland, Nils Are


    Larsen, T. & Ugland, K. I. (Polar Research 2 n.s., 117-118) note correctly that a Leslie matrix model treats cubs and females as independent units which is not the case for polar bears. Population projections using the Leslie model with hunting mortalities added are instructive first approximations in evaluations of field data, however, and are recommended as exercises also for polar bear biologists. An APL programme for such projections is available.

  8. Flywheel energy storage with superconductor magnetic bearings (United States)

    Weinberger, Bernard R.; Lynds, Jr., Lahmer; Hull, John R.


    A flywheel having superconductor bearings has a lower drag to lift ratio that translates to an improvement of a factor of ten in the rotational decay rate. The lower drag results from the lower dissipation of melt-processed YBCO, improved uniformity of the permanent magnet portion of the bearings, operation in a different range of vacuum pressure from that taught by the art, and greater separation distance from the rotating members of conductive materials.

  9. Passive magnetic bearings for vehicular electromechanical batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, R


    This report describes the design of a passive magnetic bearing system to be used in electromechanical batteries (flywheel energy storage modules) suitable for vehicular use. One or two such EMB modules might, for example, be employed in a hybrid-electric automobile, providing efficient means for power peaking, i.e., for handling acceleration and regenerative braking power demands at high power levels. The bearing design described herein will be based on a ''dual-mode'' operating regime.

  10. Are organohalogen contaminants a bears (Ursus maritimus)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Leifsson, PS


    histology parameters for this subpopulation of polar bears. The present study examined the OHC concentrations and adverse effects on renal tissue for 75 polar bears collected during 1999 to 2002. Specific lesions were diffuse glomerular capillary wall thickening, mesangial glomerular deposits, tubular....... In adult males, statistically significant (p thickening and chlordane (sigmaCHL) concentrations, and tubular medullary hyalin casts and sigmaCHL, sigma...

  11. Dynamic tester for rotor seals and bearings (United States)

    Vonpragenau, George L. (Inventor)


    A dynamic tester for testing vibration damping seals and bearings is constructed having a hollow shaft extending through the seal or bearing, with the shaft internally supported at each end by fluid bearings on hollow bosses connected to an interior of an enclosure, with no rolling members connected to the shaft is described. A high pressure working fluid is forced through the hollow bosses to operate the bearings. Additionally, the shaft is provided with a reaction turbine that angularly vents a portion of the high pressure working fluid in order to rotate the shaft at high speed, up to 40,000 rpm. The seal or bearing is mounted in a bushing, in turn supported by rods to a shaking device that vibrates the seal or bearing as the shaft is rotated. A plurality of proximity sensors are mounted from outside the enclosure to sense shaft and seal bushing vibrations, and a plurality of pressure ports are disposed in the enclosure to allow sensing of dynamic and static pressures of the testing apparatus.

  12. Rotordynamics and bearing design of turbochargers (United States)

    Chen, Wen Jeng


    Turbochargers have gained significant attention in recent years. They are already widely used in automotive, locomotive, and marine applications with diesel engines. They are also applied in the aerospace application to increase the engine performance now. The turbochargers used in automotive and aerospace industry are very light-weight with operating speeds above 100,000 rpm. The turbochargers used in locomotive and marine applications are relatively heavy in size and power compared to the automotive and aerospace applications, and the maximum continuous operating speeds are around 30,000 rpm depending on the diesel engine power rating. Floating ring bushings, semi-floating dampers, ball bearings, and ball bearings with dampers are commonly used in automotive applications for small turbochargers. However, these bearings may not be appropriate for large turbochargers in locomotive and marine applications. Instead, multi-lobed bearings with and without squeeze film dampers are commonly used in these heavy-duty turbochargers. This paper deals with the rotordynamic characteristics of larger turbochargers in locomotive and marine applications. Various bearing designs are discussed. Bearing design parameters are studied and optimal values are suggested. Test results are also presented to support the analytical simulation.

  13. Improved Fatigue Life Bearing Development (United States)


    containing chromium , such as M5ONiI,, usually require special carburizing procedures. With the higher chromium contents, an oxide structure ( spinel ) i; assumed...such as carburizing, nitriding, or ion.implantation) or an overlay (such as chromium plating or TiN coating), was as follows: 1. A corrosion-resistant...preoxidation), and the subsequent carburization proccss proceeds more uniformly, presumably because of a depiction of chromium at the very surface. In

  14. Ancient DNA reveals differences in behaviour and sociality between brown bears and extinct cave bears. (United States)

    Fortes, Gloria G; Grandal-d'Anglade, Aurora; Kolbe, Ben; Fernandes, Daniel; Meleg, Ioana N; García-Vázquez, Ana; Pinto-Llona, Ana C; Constantin, Silviu; de Torres, Trino J; Ortiz, Jose E; Frischauf, Christine; Rabeder, Gernot; Hofreiter, Michael; Barlow, Axel


    Ancient DNA studies have revolutionized the study of extinct species and populations, providing insights on phylogeny, phylogeography, admixture and demographic history. However, inferences on behaviour and sociality have been far less frequent. Here, we investigate the complete mitochondrial genomes of extinct Late Pleistocene cave bears and middle Holocene brown bears that each inhabited multiple geographically proximate caves in northern Spain. In cave bears, we find that, although most caves were occupied simultaneously, each cave almost exclusively contains a unique lineage of closely related haplotypes. This remarkable pattern suggests extreme fidelity to their birth site in cave bears, best described as homing behaviour, and that cave bears formed stable maternal social groups at least for hibernation. In contrast, brown bears do not show any strong association of mitochondrial lineage and cave, suggesting that these two closely related species differed in aspects of their behaviour and sociality. This difference is likely to have contributed to cave bear extinction, which occurred at a time in which competition for caves between bears and humans was likely intense and the ability to rapidly colonize new hibernation sites would have been crucial for the survival of a species so dependent on caves for hibernation as cave bears. Our study demonstrates the potential of ancient DNA to uncover patterns of behaviour and sociality in ancient species and populations, even those that went extinct many tens of thousands of years ago. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. In Vitro Durability - Pivot bearing with Diamond Like Carbon for Ventricular Assist Devices

    CERN Document Server

    de Sá, Rosa Corrêa Leoncio; Leão, Tarcísio Fernandes; da Silva, Evandro Drigo; da Fonseca, Jeison Willian Gomes; da Silva, Bruno Utiyama; Leal, Edir Branzoni; Moro, João Roberto; de Andrade, Aron José Pazin; Bock, Eduardo Guy Perpétuo


    Institute Dante Pazzanese of Cardiology (IDPC) develops Ventricular Assist Devices (VAD) that can stabilize the hemodynamics of patients with severe heart failure before, during and/or after the medical practice; can be temporary or permanent. The ADV's centrifugal basically consist of a rotor suspended for system pivoting bearing; the PIVOT is the axis with movement of rotational and the bearing is the bearing surface. As a whole system of an implantable VAD should be made of long-life biomaterial so that there is no degradation or deformation during application time; surface modification techniques have been widely studied and implemented to improve properties such as biocompatibility and durability of applicable materials. The Chemical Vapour Deposition technique allows substrates having melting point higher than 300 {\\deg}C to be coated, encapsulated, with a diamond like carbon film (DLC); The test simulated the actual conditions in which the system of support remains while applying a ADV. The results hav...

  16. Polar bears: the fate of an icon. (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T


    Polar bears are one of the most iconic animals on our planet. Worldwide, even people who would never see one are drawn to these charismatic arctic ice hunters. They are the world's largest terrestrial carnivore, and despite being born on land, they spend most of their lives out on the sea ice and are considered a marine mammal. Current global studies estimate there are around 20,000 animals in some 19 discrete circumpolar populations. Aside from pregnant females denning in the winter months to give birth, the white bears do not hibernate. They spend their winters on the sea ice hunting seals, an activity they are spectacularly adapted for. Research on these animals is incredibly difficult because of the inhospitable surroundings they inhabit and how inaccessible they make the bears. For many years, the sum of our understanding of the natural history of polar bears came from tracks, scats, the remains of their kills, abandoned dens, and anecdotal observations of native hunters, explorers, and early biologists. Nonetheless, the last 40 years have seen a much better picture of their biology emerge thanks to, first, dedicated Canadian researchers and, later, truly international efforts of workers from many countries. Veterinarians have contributed to our knowledge of the bears by delivering and monitoring anesthesia, obtaining blood samples, performing necropsies, investigating their reproduction, conducting radiotelemetry studies, and examining their behavior. Recently, new technologies have been developed that revolutionize the study of the lives and natural history of undisturbed polar bears. These advances include better satellite radiotelemetry equipment and the development of remote-controlled miniature devices equipped with high-definition cameras. Such new modalities provide dramatic new insights into the life of polar bears. The remarkable degree of specialized adaptation to life on the sea ice that allowed the bears to be successful is the very reason that

  17. Rolling Bearing Life Prediction, Theory, and Application (United States)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.


    A tutorial is presented outlining the evolution, theory, and application of rolling-element bearing life prediction from that of A. Palmgren, 1924; W. Weibull, 1939; G. Lundberg and A. Palmgren, 1947 and 1952; E. Ioannides and T. Harris, 1985; and E. Zaretsky, 1987. Comparisons are made between these life models. The Ioannides-Harris model without a fatigue limit is identical to the Lundberg-Palmgren model. The Weibull model is similar to that of Zaretsky if the exponents are chosen to be identical. Both the load-life and Hertz stress-life relations of Weibull, Lundberg and Palmgren, and Ioannides and Harris reflect a strong dependence on the Weibull slope. The Zaretsky model decouples the dependence of the critical shear stress-life relation from the Weibull slope. This results in a nominal variation of the Hertz stress-life exponent. For 9th- and 8th-power Hertz stress-life exponents for ball and roller bearings, respectively, the Lundberg- Palmgren model best predicts life. However, for 12th- and 10th-power relations reflected by modern bearing steels, the Zaretsky model based on the Weibull equation is superior. Under the range of stresses examined, the use of a fatigue limit would suggest that (for most operating conditions under which a rolling-element bearing will operate) the bearing will not fail from classical rolling-element fatigue. Realistically, this is not the case. The use of a fatigue limit will significantly overpredict life over a range of normal operating Hertz stresses. Since the predicted lives of rolling-element bearings are high, the problem can become one of undersizing a bearing for a particular application.

  18. Mass Loss Rates of Fasting Polar Bears. (United States)

    Pilfold, Nicholas W; Hedman, Daryll; Stirling, Ian; Derocher, Andrew E; Lunn, Nicholas J; Richardson, Evan


    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have adapted to an annual cyclic regime of feeding and fasting, which is extreme in seasonal sea ice regions of the Arctic. As a consequence of climate change, sea ice breakup has become earlier and the duration of the open-water period through which polar bears must rely on fat reserves has increased. To date, there is limited empirical data with which to evaluate the potential energetic capacity of polar bears to withstand longer fasts. We measured the incoming and outgoing mass of inactive polar bears (n = 142) that were temporarily detained by Manitoba Conservation and Water Stewardship during the open-water period near the town of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, in 2009-2014. Polar bears were given access to water but not food and held for a median length of 17 d. Median mass loss rates were 1.0 kg/d, while median mass-specific loss rates were 0.5%/d, similar to other species with high adiposity and prolonged fasting capacities. Mass loss by unfed captive adult males was identical to that lost by free-ranging individuals, suggesting that terrestrial feeding contributes little to offset mass loss. The inferred metabolic rate was comparable to a basal mammalian rate, suggesting that while on land, polar bears can maintain a depressed metabolic rate to conserve energy. Finally, we estimated time to starvation for subadults and adult males for the on-land period. Results suggest that at 180 d of fasting, 56%-63% of subadults and 18%-24% of adult males in this study would die of starvation. Results corroborate previous assessments on the limits of polar bear capacity to withstand lengthening ice-free seasons and emphasize the greater sensitivity of subadults to changes in sea ice phenology.

  19. A circumpolar monitoring framework for polar bears (United States)

    Vongraven, Dag; Aars, Jon; Amstrup, Steven C.; Atkinson, Stephen N.; Belikov, Stanislav; Born, Erik W.; DeBruyn, T.D.; Derocher, Andrew E.; Durner, George M.; Gill, Michael J.; Lunn, Nicholas J.; Obbard, Martyn E.; Omelak, Jack; Ovsyanikov, Nikita; Peacock, Elizabeth; Richardson, E.E.; Sahanatien, Vicki; Stirling, Ian; Wiig, Øystein


    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) occupy remote regions that are characterized by harsh weather and limited access. Polar bear populations can only persist where temporal and spatial availability of sea ice provides adequate access to their marine mammal prey. Observed declines in sea ice availability will continue as long as greenhouse gas concentrations rise. At the same time, human intrusion and pollution levels in the Arctic are expected to increase. A circumpolar understanding of the cumulative impacts of current and future stressors is lacking, long-term trends are known from only a few subpopulations, and there is no globally coordinated effort to monitor effects of stressors. Here, we describe a framework for an integrated circumpolar monitoring plan to detect ongoing patterns, predict future trends, and identify the most vulnerable polar bear subpopulations. We recommend strategies for monitoring subpopulation abundance and trends, reproduction, survival, ecosystem change, human-caused mortality, human–bear conflict, prey availability, health, stature, distribution, behavioral change, and the effects that monitoring itself may have on polar bears. We assign monitoring intensity for each subpopulation through adaptive assessment of the quality of existing baseline data and research accessibility. A global perspective is achieved by recommending high intensity monitoring for at least one subpopulation in each of four major polar bear ecoregions. Collection of data on harvest, where it occurs, and remote sensing of habitat, should occur with the same intensity for all subpopulations. We outline how local traditional knowledge may most effectively be combined with the best scientific methods to provide comparable and complementary lines of evidence. We also outline how previously collected intensive monitoring data may be sub-sampled to guide future sampling frequencies and develop indirect estimates or indices of subpopulation status. Adoption of this framework

  20. Polar bears in a warming climate. (United States)

    Derocher, Andrew E; Lunn, Nicholas J; Stirling, Ian


    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) live throughout the ice-covered waters of the circumpolar Arctic, particularly in near shore annual ice over the continental shelf where biological productivity is highest. However, to a large degree under scenarios predicted by climate change models, these preferred sea ice habitats will be substantially altered. Spatial and temporal sea ice changes will lead to shifts in trophic interactions involving polar bears through reduced availability and abundance of their main prey: seals. In the short term, climatic warming may improve bear and seal habitats in higher latitudes over continental shelves if currently thick multiyear ice is replaced by annual ice with more leads, making it more suitable for seals. A cascade of impacts beginning with reduced sea ice will be manifested in reduced adipose stores leading to lowered reproductive rates because females will have less fat to invest in cubs during the winter fast. Non-pregnant bears may have to fast on land or offshore on the remaining multiyear ice through progressively longer periods of open water while they await freeze-up and a return to hunting seals. As sea ice thins, and becomes more fractured and labile, it is likely to move more in response to winds and currents so that polar bears will need to walk or swim more and thus use greater amounts of energy to maintain contact with the remaining preferred habitats. The effects of climate change are likely to show large geographic, temporal and even individual differences and be highly variable, making it difficult to develop adequate monitoring and research programs. All ursids show behavioural plasticity but given the rapid pace of ecological change in the Arctic, the long generation time, and the highly specialised nature of polar bears, it is unlikely that polar bears will survive as a species if the sea ice disappears completely as has been predicted by some.

  1. White-beaked dolphins trapped in the ice and eaten by polar bears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Aars


    Full Text Available Polar bears (Ursus maritimus depend on sea ice, where they hunt ice-associated seals. However, they are opportunistic predators and scavengers with a long list of known prey species. Here we report from a small fjord in Svalbard, Norwegian High Arctic, a sighting of an adult male polar bear preying on two white-beaked dolphins (Lagenorhynchus albirostris on 23 April 2014. This is the first record of this species as polar bear prey. White-beaked dolphins are frequent visitors to Svalbard waters in summer, but have not previously been reported this far north in early spring. We suggest they were trapped in the ice after strong northerly winds the days before, and possibly killed when forced to surface for air at a small opening in the ice. The bear had consumed most parts of one dolphin. When observed he was in the process of covering the mostly intact second dolphin with snow. Such caching behaviour is generally considered untypical of polar bears. During the following ice-free summer and autumn, at least seven different white-beaked dolphin carcasses were observed in or near the same area. We suggest, based on the area and the degree to which these dolphins had decayed, that they were likely from the same pod and also suffered death due to entrapment in the ice in April. At least six different polar bears were seen scavenging on the carcasses.

  2. Study of design parameters for squeeze film air journal bearing – excitation frequency and amplitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wang


    Full Text Available The paper presents a design of squeeze film air journal bearing based on the design rules derived from CFX and FEA simulation study of an air film in between two flat plates, one of which was driven in a sinusoidal manner. The rules are that the oscillation frequency should be at least 15 kHz and that the oscillation amplitude be as large as possible to ensure a greater film thickness and to allow the bearing to reach its stable equilibrium quickly. The proposed journal bearing is made from AL2024-T3, of 20.02 mm outer diameter, 600 mm length and 2 mm thickness. Three 20-mm long fins are on the outer surface of the bearing tube and are spaced 120° apart; three longitudinal flats are milled equi-spaced between the fins and two piezoelectric actuators are mounted lengthwise on each flat. Such a design produces a modal shape on the bearing tube which resembles a triangle. When excited in this mode at the frequency of 16.37 kHz, and a voltage of 75 V AC with 75 V DC offset acting on the piezoelectric actuators, the air gap underneath of the bearing tube behaves as a squeeze air film with a response amplitude of 3.22 μm. The three design rules were validated by experiments.

  3. Freeform turning lathe with direct drives and aerostatic bearing (United States)

    Guan, Chao-liang; Dai, Yi-fan; Yin, Zi-qiang; Yang, Fan


    More and more precision freeform parts are required by defense technology and national economy today and in the future. The applications of freeform parts have traditionally conformed to the limitations imposed by practical limits on high effective fabricating technology. Single point diamond turning is one of the important methods of machining freeform surface parts. Generally speaking, optical freeform surfaces have complex geometrical surface shapes and require ultra smooth surface (roughness down to 10nm) and high form accuracy (form accuracy down to several ten nanometers). So, the ultra precision turning lathe must improve the motion accuracy, dynamic stiffness and bandwidth of every axis. Direct drive technology combined with aerostatic bearing do not affect by frication and eliminate the micro-backlash and creeping; reduce the number of transmission element, shorten the transmitted chains and be propitious to improve dynamic stiffness and bandwidth. This paper presents a ultra precision diamond turning lathe with linear motor and aerostatic guide drive system. Combined with the lathe a FTS (Fast Tool Servo) system driven by voice coil actor is use to machining free form surface. The turning experiments show that this lathe can satisfy the requirement of machine freeform surface.

  4. Noise reduction of rotating machinery by viscoelastic bearing supports.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillema, H.G.


    The demand for silent rolling bearing applications, such as electric motors and gearboxes, has resulted in an investigation of viscoelastic bearing supports. By placing a thin viscoelastic layer between the bearing outer ring and the surrounding structure, vibrations of the shaft-bearing arrangement

  5. Vibration Propagation of Gear Dynamics in a Gear-Bearing-Housing System Using Mathematical Modeling and Finite Element Analysis (United States)

    Parker, Robert G.; Guo, Yi; Eritenel, Tugan; Ericson, Tristan M.


    Vibration and noise caused by gear dynamics at the meshing teeth propagate through power transmission components to the surrounding environment. This study is devoted to developing computational tools to investigate the vibro-acoustic propagation of gear dynamics through a gearbox using different bearings. Detailed finite element/contact mechanics and boundary element models of the gear/bearing/housing system are established to compute the system vibration and noise propagation. Both vibration and acoustic models are validated by experiments including the vibration modal testing and sound field measurements. The effectiveness of each bearing type to disrupt vibration propagation is speed-dependent. Housing plays an important role in noise radiation .It, however, has limited effects on gear dynamics. Bearings are critical components in drivetrains. Accurate modeling of rolling element bearings is essential to assess vibration and noise of drivetrain systems. This study also seeks to fully describe the vibro-acoustic propagation of gear dynamics through a power-transmission system using rolling element and fluid film wave bearings. Fluid film wave bearings, which have higher damping than rolling element bearings, could offer an energy dissipation mechanism that reduces the gearbox noise. The effectiveness of each bearing type to disrupt vibration propagation in explored using multi-body computational models. These models include gears, shafts, rolling element and fluid film wave bearings, and the housing. Radiated noise is mapped from the gearbox surface to surrounding environment. The effectiveness of rolling element and fluid film wave bearings in breaking the vibro-acoustic propagation path from the gear to the housing is investigated.

  6. Comment on "Nuclear genomic sequences reveal that polar bears are an old and distinct bear lineage". (United States)

    Nakagome, Shigeki; Mano, Shuhei; Hasegawa, Masami


    Based on nuclear and mitochondrial DNA, Hailer et al. (Reports, 20 April 2012, p. 344) suggested early divergence of polar bears from a common ancestor with brown bears and subsequent introgression. Our population genetic analysis that traces each of the genealogies in the independent nuclear loci does not support the evolutionary model proposed by the authors.

  7. Dust/Regolith for Surface Exploration (United States)

    Peters, Benjamin


    System-wide dust protection is a key design driver for xEMUsurface operations, and development of dust proof mechanisms, bearings, materials, and coatings coupled with specific operations and surface architecture development is critical for success.

  8. Identifying lubricant options for compressor bearing designs (United States)

    Karnaz, J.; Seeton, C.; Dixon, L.


    Today’s refrigeration and air conditioning market is not only driven by the environmental aspects of the refrigerants, but also by the energy efficiency and reliability of system operation. Numerous types of compressor designs are used in refrigeration and air conditioning applications which means that different bearings are used; and in some cases, multiple bearing types within a single compressor. Since only one lubricant is used, it is important to try to optimize the lubricant to meet the various demands and requirements for operation. This optimization entails investigating different types of lubricant chemistries, viscosities, and various formulation options. What makes evaluating these options more challenging is the refrigerant which changes the properties of the lubricant delivered to the bearing. Once the lubricant and refrigerant interaction are understood, through various test methods, then work can start on collaborating with compressor engineers on identifying the lubricant chemistry and formulation options. These interaction properties are important to the design engineer to make decisions on the adequacy of the lubricant before compressor tests are started. This paper will discuss the process to evaluate lubricants for various types of compressors and bearing design with focus on what’s needed for current refrigerant trends. In addition, the paper will show how the lubricant chemistry choice can be manipulated through understanding of the bearing design and knowledge of interaction with the refrigerant to maximize performance. Emphasis will be placed on evaluation of synthetic lubricants for both natural and synthetic low GWP refrigerants.

  9. Nitrogen-Bearing, Indigenous Carbonaceous Matter in the Nakhla Mars Meteorite (United States)

    Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Messenger, S.; Rahman, Z.; Gibson, E. K.; Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.


    We report the identification of discrete assemblages of nitrogen (N)-rich organic matter entrapped within interior fracture surfaces of the martian meteorite Nakhla. Based on context, composition and isotopic measurements this organic matter is of demonstrably martian origin. The presence of N-bearing organic species is of considerable importance to the habitable potential and chemical evolution of the martian regolith.


    Near-stream and upslope soil chemical properties were analyzed to infer linkages between soil and surface water chemistry at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine [BBWM]. Organic and mineral soil samples were collected along six 20 m transects perpendicular to the stream and one 200 ...

  11. Ice-bearing deposits in the southern mid-latitude regions of Terra Cimmeria, Mars (United States)

    Adeli, S.; Hauber, E.; Jaumann, R.; Michael, G.; Fawdon, P.


    We report here the presence of a newly observed well-preserved glacial-like and ice-bearing deposit, named Valley Fill Deposit (VFD), on the surface of Terra Cimmeria, located in the southern mid-latitude regions of Mars.

  12. A Study of Static Performance of Fixed Inclined Slider Bearings – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the performance of a fixed inclined slider bearing whose surfaces are lubricated by a non Newtonian power law lubricant is investigated numerically. Based on the power law model, the modified Reynolds equation is derived and solved using the finite element method. The effect of flow index on pressure ...

  13. Effect of semi-circular wavy liner on performance of journal bearing (United States)

    Sheriff, Jamaluddin Md.; Osman, Kahar; Asral


    The amount of lubricant present in a bearing can affect its performance. This study compares the load carrying capacity of wavy and smooth surfaces liner bearing so that the potential advantages of the former could be identified. Both types of bearing used palm oil as lubricant and computational analysis was developed to predict the numerical data for full film lubrication condition. The bearing model was 60 mm in diameter and its ratio of length to diameter was 0.5 with clearance and amplitude of 250μm and 200μm respectively. All cases studied included temperature effect under steady flow conditions with speed between 200 and 5000 rpm. The results show, for low eccentricity ratio, semi circular wavy liner bearings were able to produce higher load carrying capacity. The results also show that the overall temperature drop for wavy liner surfaces was higher for all test conditions. The shaft speeds, however, have no direct effect on the magnitude of the load carrying capacity.

  14. Level of Denture Cleanliness Influences the Presence of Denture Stomatitis on Maxillary Denture Bearing-Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winatty Krisma


    Full Text Available Plaque accumulation on internal surface of denture is a common problem among removable denture wearers. Poor denture cleanliness can increase colonization of Candida albicans and cause inflammatory reaction of denture-bearing mucosa, i.e. denture stomatitis. Objective: To find out the effect of denture cleanliness level on denture stomatitis on maxillary denture-bearing mucosa in a group of removable denture wearers who received prosthodontic treatment at Poliklinik Gigi RSMH Palembang and to investigate the denture hygiene habits of removable denture wearers. Methods: Thirty subjects participated in this study. Denture cleanliness level was assessed with disclosing solution to disclose denture plaque on internal surface of maxillary denture. Cleanliness level was graded according to Budtz-Jorgensen. Intraoral examination was done to determine any visible signs of denture stomatitis. Data referring to denture hygiene habits of removable denture wearers was collected from interview using questionnaire. Data were analyzed using the Komolgorov-Smirnov test. Results: Result of the study showed that 40% subjects had poor upper denture cleanliness. Denture stomatitis was observed on maxillary denture-bearing mucosa in 43.3% subjects. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed that there was a significant effect of denture cleanliness level on denture stomatitis on maxillary denture-bearing mucosa (p<0.05. Conclusion: Denture cleanliness level influence the occurence of denture stomatitis on maxillary denture bearing-mucosa in a group of removable denture wearers who received prosthodontic treatment.

  15. Microstructural and Material Quality Effects on Rolling Contact Fatigue of Highly Elastic Intermetallic NiTi Ball Bearings (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Howard, S. Adam; Thomas, Fransua; Stanford, Malcolm K.


    Rolling element bearings made from highly-elastic intermetallic materials (HIM)s, such as 60NiTi, are under development for applications that require superior corrosion and shock resistance. Compared to steel, intermetallics have been shown to have much lower rolling contact fatigue (RCF) stress capability in simplified 3-ball on rod (ASTM STP 771) fatigue tests. In the 3-ball tests, poor material quality and microstructural flaws negatively affect fatigue life but such relationships have not been established for full-scale 60NiTi bearings. In this paper, 3-ball-on-rod fatigue behavior of two quality grades of 60NiTi are compared to the fatigue life of full-scale 50mm bore ball bearings made from the same materials. 60NiTi RCF rods with material or microstructural flaws suffered from infant mortality failures at all tested stress levels while high quality 60NiTi rods exhibited no failures at lower stress levels. Similarly, tests of full-scale bearings made from flawed materials exhibited early surface fatigue and through crack type failures while bearings made from high quality material did not fail even in long-term tests. Though the full-scale bearing test data is yet preliminary, the results suggest that the simplified RCF test is a good qualitative predictor of bearing performance. These results provide guidance for materials development and to establish minimum quality levels required for successful bearing operation and life.

  16. Method for changing removable bearing for a wind turbine generator (United States)

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Jansen, Patrick Lee; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya


    A wind generator having removable change-out bearings includes a rotor and a stator, locking bolts configured to lock the rotor and stator, a removable bearing sub-assembly having at least one shrunk-on bearing installed, and removable mounting bolts configured to engage the bearing sub-assembly and to allow the removable bearing sub-assembly to be removed when the removable mounting bolts are removed.

  17. Removable bearing arrangement for a wind turbine generator (United States)

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Jansen, Patrick Lee; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya


    A wind generator having removable change-out bearings includes a rotor and a stator, locking bolts configured to lock the rotor and stator, a removable bearing sub-assembly having at least one shrunk-on bearing installed, and removable mounting bolts configured to engage the bearing sub-assembly and to allow the removable bearing sub-assembly to be removed when the removable mounting bolts are removed.

  18. Superconducting Meissner Effect Bearings for Cryogenic Turbomachines. Phase 2 (United States)


    significant sources of damping being squeeze - film damping in the gap and any structural damping in the bearings . The first of these damping sources is dependent... bearing / damper , that the gas bearing could be stabilized at cryogenic temperatures. Figure 12 shows the hybrid gas/Meissner-effect bearing . The tilt-pad...Housing TurbomachineAssembly with T Meissner Dampers and Self-Acting Tilt-Pad Gas Bearings In-Une Heaters Manually Controlled Uquid Nitrogen -j T

  19. Bearing tester data compilation, analysis and reporting and bearing math modeling, volume 1 (United States)

    Marshall, D. D.; Montgomery, E. E.; New, L. S.; Stone, M. A.; Tiller, B. K.


    Thermal and mechanical models of high speed angular contact ball bearings operating in LOX and LN2 were developed and verified with limited test data in an effort to further understand the parameters that determine or effect the SSME turbopump bearing operational characteristics and service life. The SHABERTH bearing analysis program which was adapted to evaluate shaft bearing systems in cryogenics is not capable of accommodating varying thermal properties and two phase flow. A bearing model with this capability was developed using the SINDA thermal analyzer. Iteration between the SHABERTH and the SINDA models enable the establishment of preliminary bounds for stable operation in LN2. These limits were established in terms of fluid flow, fluid inlet temperature, and axial load for a shaft speed of 30,000 RPM.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Chertov


    Full Text Available Summary. Today the only way to eliminate contact with the product during the manufacturing process is to provide a support surface under its support surface air buffer layer formed due to the expiration of the working environment through holes perforated gas distribution grids forms. There proposed the method of contactless formation of products consisting of composite materials by the means of air buffer in the article. The results of theoretical and experimental investigations of hydro-gas-dynamic processes occurring when casting of organic- mineral composite material onto the bearing air buffer expressed in the form of mathematical description realizing original hypotheses reflected in the choice of transformation algorithm and limiting conditions are presented. On the base of obtained mathematical model the algorithm of calculation of optimum parameters of transporting systems with discretely powered gas buffer is developed. The method of deduction of a semi-finished product on the gas buffer, which allows to level the pressure field under the bearing surface of the deduction object due to the usage of devices of pseudo fluidized granular material in pneumatic chambers is offered. The application of this method allows to eliminate the possibility of contact between the composite material and the working surface of the equipment and also to reduce the cost of production of pneumatic devices, to improve operational characteristics of this equipment. Submitted depending allowed to develop the methodology and implementation of engineering calculation device for non-contact casting composite materials on air buffer, semi-industrial and industrial variants were created and put into production.

  1. Bear bile: dilemma of traditional medicinal use and animal protection (United States)

    Feng, Yibin; Siu, Kayu; Wang, Ning; Ng, Kwan-Ming; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Nagamatsu, Tadashi; Tong, Yao


    Bear bile has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for thousands of years. Modern investigations showed that it has a wide range of pharmacological actions with little toxicological side effect and the pure compounds have been used for curing hepatic and biliary disorders for decades. However, extensive consumption of bear bile made bears endangered species. In the 1980's, bear farming was established in China to extract bear bile from living bears with "Free-dripping Fistula Technique". Bear farming is extremely inhumane and many bears died of illness such as chronic infections and liver cancer. Efforts are now given by non-governmental organizations, mass media and Chinese government to end bear farming ultimately. At the same time, systematic research has to be done to find an alternative for bear bile. In this review, we focused on the literature, laboratory and clinical results related to bear bile and its substitutes or alternative in English and Chinese databases. We examined the substitutes or alternative of bear bile from three aspects: pure compounds derived from bear bile, biles from other animals and herbs from TCM. We then discussed the strategy for stopping the trading of bear bile and issues of bear bile related to potential alternative candidates, existing problems in alternative research and work to be done in the future. PMID:19138420

  2. Powder metallurgy bearings for advanced rocket engines (United States)

    Fleck, J. N.; Killman, B. J.; Munson, H.E.


    Traditional ingot metallurgy was pushed to the limit for many demanding applications including antifriction bearings. New systems require corrosion resistance, better fatigue resistance, and higher toughness. With conventional processing, increasing the alloying level to achieve corrosion resistance results in a decrease in other properties such as toughness. Advanced powder metallurgy affords a viable solution to this problem. During powder manufacture, the individual particle solidifies very rapidly; as a consequence, the primary carbides are very small and uniformly distributed. When properly consolidated, this uniform structure is preserved while generating a fully dense product. Element tests including rolling contact fatigue, hot hardness, wear, fracture toughness, and corrosion resistance are underway on eleven candidate P/M bearing alloys and results are compared with those for wrought 440C steel, the current SSME bearing material. Several materials which offer the promise of a significant improvement in performance were identified.

  3. Active Magnetic Bearings – Magnetic Forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølhede, Klaus


    Parameter identification procedures and model validation are major steps towards intelligent machines supported by active magnetic bearings (AMB). The ability of measuring the electromagnetic bearing forces, or deriving them from measuring the magnetic flux, strongly contributes to the model...... of the work is the characterization of magnetic forces by using two experimental different experimental approaches. Such approaches are investigated and described in details. A special test rig is designed where the 4 poles - AMB is able to generate forces up to 1900 N. The high precision characterization...... of the magnetic forces are led by using different experimental tests: (I) by using hall sensors mounted directly on the poles (precise measurements of the magnetic flux) and by an auxiliary system, composed of strain gages and flexible beams attached to the rotor; (II) by measuring the input current and bearing...

  4. Demography of the Yellowstone grizzly bears (United States)

    Pease, C.M.; Mattson, D.J.


    We undertook a demographic analysis of the Yellowstone grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) to identify critical environmental factors controlling grizzly bear vital rates, and thereby to help evaluate the effectiveness of past management and to identify future conservation issues. We concluded that, within the limits of uncertainty implied by the available data and our methods of data analysis, the size of the Yellowstone grizzly bear population changed little from 1975 to 1995. We found that grizzly bear mortality rates are about double in years when the whitebark pine crop fails than in mast years, and that the population probably declines when the crop fails and increases in mast years. Our model suggests that natural variation in whitebark pine crop size over the last two decades explains more of the perceived fluctuations in Yellowstone grizzly population size than do other variables. Our analysis used demographic data from 202 radio-telemetered bears followed between 1975 and 1992 and accounted for whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) crop failures during 1993-1995. We used a maximum likelihood method to estimate demographic parameters and used the Akaike Information Criteria to judge the significance of various independent variables. We identified no independent variables correlated with grizzly bear fecundity. In order of importance, we found that grizzly bear mortality rates are correlated with season, whitebark pine crop size (mast vs. nonmast year), sex, management-trapping status (never management-trapped vs. management-trapped once or more), and age. The mortality rate of bears that were management-trapped at least once was almost double that of bears that were never management-trapped, implying a source/sink (i.e., never management-trapped/management-trapped) structure. The rate at which bears move between the source and sink, estimated as the management-trapping rate (h), is critical to estimating the finite rate of increase, I>I?. We quantified h by

  5. Hydrolyzable polyureas bearing hindered urea bonds. (United States)

    Ying, Hanze; Cheng, Jianjun


    Hydrolyzable polymers are widely used materials that have found numerous applications in biomedical, agricultural, plastic, and packaging industrials. They usually contain ester and other hydrolyzable bonds, such as anhydride, acetal, ketal, or imine, in their backbone structures. Here, we report the first design of hydrolyzable polyureas bearing dynamic hindered urea bonds (HUBs) that can reversibly dissociate to bulky amines and isocyanates, the latter of which can be further hydrolyzed by water, driving the equilibrium to facilitate the degradation of polyureas. Polyureas bearing 1-tert-butyl-1-ethylurea bonds that show high dynamicity (high bond dissociation rate), in the form of either linear polymers or cross-linked gels, can be completely degraded by water under mild conditions. Given the simplicity and low cost for the production of polyureas by simply mixing multifunctional bulky amines and isocyanates, the versatility of the structures, and the tunability of the degradation profiles of HUB-bearing polyureas, these materials are potentially of very broad applications.

  6. Soft tissue damage after minimally invasive THA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oldenrijk, Jakob; Hoogland, Piet V. J. M.; Tuijthof, Gabriëlle J. M.; Corveleijn, Ruby; Noordenbos, Tom W. H.; Schafroth, Matthias U.


    Methods 5 surgeons each performed a total hip arthroplasty on 5 fresh frozen cadaver hips, using either a MIS anterior, MIS anterolateral, MIS 2-incision, MIS posterior, or lateral transgluteal approach. Postoperatively, the hips were dissected and muscle damage color-stained. We measured

  7. Le CRDI en Thaïlande

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    les petits éleveurs de volaille survivent aux mesures de lutte contre la grippe aviaire. □ les collectivités pauvres tirent profit de la biotechnologie. □ les mégavilles prospèrent tout en s'attaquant aux problèmes environnementaux. Soutien accordé par le CRDI depuis 1971. 260 activités d'une valeur de 43 millions cad. CRDI.

  8. Drivers of hibernation in the brown bear. (United States)

    Evans, A L; Singh, N J; Friebe, A; Arnemo, J M; Laske, T G; Fröbert, O; Swenson, J E; Blanc, S


    Hibernation has been a key area of research for several decades, essentially in small mammals in the laboratory, yet we know very little about what triggers or ends it in the wild. Do climatic factors, an internal biological clock, or physiological processes dominate? Using state-of-the-art tracking and monitoring technology on fourteen free-ranging brown bears over three winters, we recorded movement, heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), body temperature (Tb), physical activity, ambient temperature (TA), and snow depth to identify the drivers of the start and end of hibernation. We used behavioral change point analyses to estimate the start and end of hibernation and convergent cross mapping to identify the causal interactions between the ecological and physiological variables over time. To our knowledge, we have built the first chronology of both ecological and physiological events from before the start to the end of hibernation in the field. Activity, HR, and Tb started to drop slowly several weeks before den entry. Bears entered the den when snow arrived and when ambient temperature reached 0 °C. HRV, taken as a proxy of sympathetic nervous system activity, dropped dramatically once the bear entered the den. This indirectly suggests that denning is tightly coupled to metabolic suppression. During arousal, the unexpected early rise in Tb (two months before den exit) was driven by TA, but was independent of HRV. The difference between Tb and TA decreased gradually suggesting that bears were not thermoconforming. HRV increased only three weeks before exit, indicating that late activation of the sympathetic nervous system likely finalized restoration of euthermic metabolism. Interestingly, it was not until TA reached the presumed lower critical temperature, likely indicating that the bears were seeking thermoneutrality, that they exited the den. We conclude that brown bear hibernation was initiated primarily by environmental cues, but terminated by

  9. Grizzly bear habitat selection is scale dependent. (United States)

    Ciarniello, Lana M; Boyce, Mark S; Seip, Dale R; Heard, Douglas C


    The purpose of our study is to show how ecologists' interpretation of habitat selection by grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) is altered by the scale of observation and also how management questions would be best addressed using predetermined scales of analysis. Using resource selection functions (RSF) we examined how variation in the spatial extent of availability affected our interpretation of habitat selection by grizzly bears inhabiting mountain and plateau landscapes. We estimated separate models for females and males using three spatial extents: within the study area, within the home range, and within predetermined movement buffers. We employed two methods for evaluating the effects of scale on our RSF designs. First, we chose a priori six candidate models, estimated at each scale, and ranked them using Akaike Information Criteria. Using this method, results changed among scales for males but not for females. For female bears, models that included the full suite of covariates predicted habitat use best at each scale. For male bears that resided in the mountains, models based on forest successional stages ranked highest at the study-wide and home range extents, whereas models containing covariates based on terrain features ranked highest at the buffer extent. For male bears on the plateau, each scale estimated a different highest-ranked model. Second, we examined differences among model coefficients across the three scales for one candidate model. We found that both the magnitude and direction of coefficients were dependent upon the scale examined; results varied between landscapes, scales, and sexes. Greenness, reflecting lush green vegetation, was a strong predictor of the presence of female bears in both landscapes and males that resided in the mountains. Male bears on the plateau were the only animals to select areas that exposed them to a high risk of mortality by humans. Our results show that grizzly bear habitat selection is scale dependent. Further, the

  10. Influence of technological factors on characteristics of hybrid fluid-film bearings (United States)

    Koltsov, A.; Prosekova, A.; Rodichev, A.; Savin, L.


    The influence of the parameters of micro- and macrounevenness on the characteristics of a hybrid bearing with slotted throttling is considered in the present paper. The quantitative assumptions of calculation of pressure distribution, load capacity, lubricant flow rate and power loss due to friction in a radial hybrid bearing with slotted throttling are taken into account, considering the shape, dimensions and roughness of the support surfaces inaccuracies. Numerical simulation of processes in the lubricating layer is based on the finite-difference solution of the Reynolds equation using an uneven orthogonal computational grid with adaptive condensation. The results of computational and physical experiments are presented.

  11. Local Attitudes towards Bear Management after Illegal Feeding and Problem Bear Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fraser


    Full Text Available The “pot bears” received international media attention in 2010 after police discovered the intentional feeding of over 20 black bears during the investigation of an alleged marijuana-growing operation in Christina Lake, British Columbia, Canada. A two-phase random digit dialing survey of the community was conducted in 2011 to understand local perspectives on bear policy and management, before and after a summer of problem bear activity and government interventions. Of the 159 households surveyed in February 2011, most had neutral or positive attitudes towards bears in general, and supported the initial decision to feed the food-conditioned bears until the autumn hibernation. In contrast to wildlife experts however, most participants supported relocating the problem bears, or allowing them to remain in the area, ahead of killing; in part this arose from notions of fairness despite the acknowledged problems of relocation. Most locals were aware of the years of feeding but did not report it, evidently failing to see it as a serious form of harm, even after many bears had been killed. This underscores the importance of preventive action on wildlife feeding and the need to narrow the gap between public and expert opinion on the likely effects of relocation versus killing.

  12. Sparse Signal Representations of Bearing Fault Signals for Exhibiting Bearing Fault Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Peng


    Full Text Available Sparse signal representations attract much attention in the community of signal processing because only a few coefficients are required to represent a signal and these coefficients make the signal understandable. For bearing faults’ diagnosis, bearing faults signals collected from transducers are often overwhelmed by strong low-frequency periodic signals and heavy noises. In this paper, a joint signal processing method is proposed to extract sparse envelope coefficients, which are the sparse signal representations of bearing fault signals. Firstly, to enhance bearing fault signals, particle swarm optimization is introduced to tune the parameters of wavelet transform and the optimal wavelet transform is used for retaining one of the resonant frequency bands. Thus, sparse wavelet coefficients are obtained. Secondly, to reduce the in-band noises existing in the sparse wavelet coefficients, an adaptive morphological analysis with an iterative local maximum detection method is developed to extract sparse envelope coefficients. Simulated and real bearing fault signals are investigated to illustrate how the sparse envelope coefficients are extracted. The results show that the sparse envelope coefficients can be used to represent bearing fault features and identify different localized bearing faults.

  13. Modeling of rolling element bearing mechanics. Computer program user's manual (United States)

    Greenhill, Lyn M.; Merchant, David H.


    This report provides the user's manual for the Rolling Element Bearing Analysis System (REBANS) analysis code which determines the quasistatic response to external loads or displacement of three types of high-speed rolling element bearings: angular contact ball bearings, duplex angular contact ball bearings, and cylindrical roller bearings. The model includes the defects of bearing ring and support structure flexibility. It is comprised of two main programs: the Preprocessor for Bearing Analysis (PREBAN) which creates the input files for the main analysis program, and Flexibility Enhanced Rolling Element Bearing Analysis (FEREBA), the main analysis program. This report addresses input instructions for and features of the computer codes. A companion report addresses the theoretical basis for the computer codes. REBANS extends the capabilities of the SHABERTH (Shaft and Bearing Thermal Analysis) code to include race and housing flexibility, including such effects as dead band and preload springs.

  14. Modeling of rolling element bearing mechanics. Theoretical manual (United States)

    Merchant, David H.; Greenhill, Lyn M.


    This report documents the theoretical basis for the Rolling Element Bearing Analysis System (REBANS) analysis code which determines the quasistatic response to external loads or displacement of three types of high-speed rolling element bearings: angular contact ball bearings; duplex angular contact ball bearings; and cylindrical roller bearings. The model includes the effects of bearing ring and support structure flexibility. It is comprised of two main programs: the Preprocessor for Bearing Analysis (PREBAN) which creates the input files for the main analysis program; and Flexibility Enhanced Rolling Element Bearing Analysis (FEREBA), the main analysis program. A companion report addresses the input instructions for and features of the computer codes. REBANS extends the capabilities of the SHABERTH (Shaft and Bearing Thermal Analysis) code to include race and housing flexibility, including such effects as dead band and preload springs.

  15. Testing and Evaluation of the Bear Medical Systems, Inc. Bear 33 Volume Ventilator System (United States)


    the ventilator and humidifier were attached to a Michigan Instruments Model 1600 mechanical lung analyzer, which simulated the patient’s lungs. We...AD-A241 836 USAFSAM-TR-90-22 TESTING AND EVALUATION OF THE BEAR MEDICAL SYSTEMS, INC. BEAR 33 VOLUME VENTILATOR SYSTEM Teresa R. Lewis, Captain, USAF...Medical Systems, Inc. PE - 62202F Bear 33 Volume Ventilator System PR - 7930 6. AUTHOR(S) TA - 16 WU - 12 Teresa R. Lewis, and Thomas E. Philbeck, Jr. 7

  16. Design of an oil squeeze film damper bearing for a multimass flexible-rotor bearing system (United States)

    Cunningham, R. E.; Gunter, E. J., Jr.; Fleming, D. P.


    A single-mass flexible-rotor analysis was used to optimize the stiffness and damping of a flexible support for a symmetric five-mass rotor. The flexible, damped support attenuates the amplitudes of motions and forces transmitted to the support bearings when the rotor operates through and above its first bending critical speed. An oil squeeze film damper was designed based on short bearing lubrication theory. The damper design was verified by an unbalance response computer program. Rotor amplitudes were reduced by a factor of 16 and loads reduced by a factor of 36 compared with the same rotor with rigid bearing supports.

  17. Load Bearing Equipment for Bone and Muscle (United States)

    Shackelford, Linda; Griffith, Bryan


    Resistance exercise on ISS has proven effective in maintaining bone mineral density and muscle mass. Exploration missions require exercise with similar high loads using equipment with less mass and volume and greater safety and reliability than resistance exercise equipment used on ISS (iRED, ARED, FWED). Load Bearing Equipment (LBE) uses each exercising person to create and control the load to the partner.

  18. On Controllable Elastohydrodynamic Fluid Film Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Martin Asger

    This thesis gives a theoretical description of the active tilting-pad journal bearing (ATPJB). It provides the qualified reader with the tools to model an ATPJB, while staying clear of pitfalls. The model is based on well known techniques and allows for local stability analyses, harmonic stationa...

  19. Load-Bearing Capacity of Roof Trusses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Damkilde, Lars; Munch-Andersen, J.


    systems such as roof trusses are established and statistical characteristics of the load bearing capacity are determined. The results show that there is a significant increase in the characteristic (nominal) value and a reduction in the coefficient of variation (COV) for typical loads such as permanent...

  20. Minimization and identification of conducted emission bearing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    LISN)), the electronics interface circuits are used to measure high frequency common mode current, bearing current and to min- imize the conducted noise from the system. The LISN will prevent the EMI noise entering the system from the supply ...

  1. Rotor Vibration Reduction via Active Hybrid Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicoletti, Rodrigo; Santos, Ilmar


    The use of fluid power to reduce and control rotor vibration in rotating machines is investigated. An active hybrid bearing is studied, whose main objective is to reduce wear and vibration between rotating and stationary machinery parts. By injecting pressurised oil into the oil film, through...... with experiment, and simulations show the feasibility of controlling shaft vibration through this active device....

  2. Recreation in the Bear Lake basin


    Palacios, Patsy; Luecke, Chris; Robinson, Justin


    Bear Lake has a long history of recreation and tourism. Activities such as waterskiing, swimming, and sailing are popular during the summer seasons. In the winter snowmobilers and ice anglers are drawn to the area. In January, fishing for the rare Bonneville cicso is a major event for local fishermen and tourists. No other lake in the continental United States offers such an opportunity....

  3. The economics of roadside bear viewing (United States)

    Richardson, Leslie; Rosen, Tatjana; Gunther, Kerry; Schwartz, Chuck


    Viewing bears along roadside habitats is a popular recreational activity in certain national parks throughout the United States. However, safely managing visitors during traffic jams that result from this activity often requires the use of limited park resources. Using unique visitor survey data, this study quantifies economic values associated with roadside bear viewing in Yellowstone National Park, monetary values that could be used to determine whether this continued use of park resources is warranted on economic grounds. Based on visitor expenditure data and results of a contingent visitation question, it is estimated that summer Park visitation would decrease if bears were no longer allowed to stay along roadside habitats, resulting in a loss of 155 jobs in the local economy. Results from a nonmarket valuation survey question indicate that on average, visitors to Yellowstone National Park are willing to pay around $41 more in Park entrance fees to ensure that bears are allowed to remain along roads within the Park. Generalizing this value to the relevant population of visitors indicates that the economic benefits of allowing this wildlife viewing opportunity to continue could outweigh the costs of using additional resources to effectively manage these traffic jams.

  4. Flexure bearing cryocoolers at Thales Cryogenics (United States)

    Meijers, M.; Benschop, A. A. J.; Mullié, J. C.


    Thales Cryogenics (NL) and Thales Cryogenie (F), formerly known as Signal Usfa and Cryotechnologies, closely co-operate in the field of production and development of linear and rotary cryocoolers. Over the past years, Thales Cryogenics has developed a complete range of Stirling cryocoolers with flexure bearings. In this paper the main design features of the flexure bearing compressor are explained. With these flexure bearing cryocoolers, which are available in slip-on configuration as well as IDCA (Integrated Detector Cooler Assembly), up to 6 W @80 K cooling power can be obtained. Also a pulse tube cryocooler with a specified cooling power of 500 mW @80 K has been developed. Two specific production machines have been developed and introduced in the production line. With this equipment Thales Cryogenics has been able to further improve the quality and reproducibility of its coolers. Up to now, several flexure bearing cryocoolers have been built and integrated in various new commercial and military applications requiring long life cryocoolers. Besides this, Thales Cryogenics is active in several space applications in co-operation with Air Liquide/DTA.

  5. Heavy Bearings Exploitation Energy and Reduction Methods (United States)

    Szekely, V. G.; Cioară, R.


    The global trend of resource conservation so as “not to compromise the ability of future generation's development” is the fundamental basis of the concept of sustainable development. Concordant with this, the energy efficiency of products is increasingly discussed and frequently taken into account in the design stage. In more cases a product is more appreciated and more attractive as the energy consumption and its associated materials are lower. In the production stage, said consumption advantages primarily the manufacturer, particularly through low consumption thereof. In the operational phase, low energy and materials consumption represents an user advantage and it's a major argument in the decision to purchase and use a particular product. Heavy bearings are frequent products used in wind turbines that are producing non-conventional “clean” energy, as windmills. An enhanced energy efficiency bearing contributes to the enhancement of the overall efficiency of the wind turbines. Based on a suitable mathematical model, this paper identifies and recommends courses of action to reduce the operating energy of heavy bearing through the “cage” - which is the subject of a much larger research - with the highest priority. The identified actions may constitute from a set of requirements for the design stage of the heavy bearing predominantly oriented towards innovation-invention.

  6. Thermo-hydrodynamic lubrication in hydrodynamic bearings

    CERN Document Server

    Bonneau, Dominique; Souchet, Dominique


    This Series provides the necessary elements to the development and validation of numerical prediction models for hydrodynamic bearings. This book describes the thermo-hydrodynamic and the thermo-elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication. The algorithms are methodically detailed and each section is thoroughly illustrated.

  7. Telemetry experiments with a hibernating black bear (United States)

    Craighead, J. J.; Varney, J. R.; Sumner, J. S.; Craighead, F. C., Jr.


    The objectives of this research were to develop and test telemetry equipment suitable for monitoring physiological parameters and activity of a hibernating bear in its den, to monitor this data and other environmental information with the Nimbus 3 IRLS data collection system, and to refine immobilizing, handling, and other techniques required in future work with wild bears under natural conditions. A temperature-telemetering transmitter was implanted in the abdominal cavity of a captive black bear and body temperature data was recorded continuously during a 3 month hibernation period. Body temperatures ranging between 37.5 and 31.8 C were observed. Body temperature and overall activity were influenced by disturbances and ambient den temperature. Nychthemeral temperature changes were not noticable. A load cell weight recording device was tested for determining weight loss during hibernation. Monitoring of data by satellite was not attempted. The implanted transmitter was removed and the bear was released with a radiolocation collar at the conclusion of the experiment.

  8. Additive Manufacturing for Low Volume Bearings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tate, John G. [Schaeffler Group USA, Spartanburg, SC (United States); Richardson, Bradley S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Love, Lonnie J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    ORNL worked with the Schaeffler Group USA to explore additive manufacturing techniques that might be appropriate for prototyping of bearing cages. Multiple additive manufacturing techniques were investigated, including e-beam, binder jet and multiple laser based processes. The binder jet process worked best for the thin, detailed cages printed.

  9. Computing Operating Characteristics Of Bearing/Shaft Systems (United States)

    Moore, James D.


    SHABERTH computer program predicts operating characteristics of bearings in multibearing load-support system. Lubricated and nonlubricated bearings modeled. Calculates loads, torques, temperatures, and fatigue lives of ball and/or roller bearings on single shaft. Provides for analysis of reaction of system to termination of supply of lubricant to bearings and other lubricated mechanical elements. Valuable in design and analysis of shaft/bearing systems. Two versions of SHABERTH available. Cray version (LEW-14860), "Computing Thermal Performances Of Shafts and Bearings". IBM PC version (MFS-28818), written for IBM PC-series and compatible computers running MS-DOS.

  10. Grievous Temporal and Occipital Injury Caused by a Bear Attack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampath Chandra Prasad


    Full Text Available Bear attacks are reported from nearly every part of the world. The chance of a human encountering a bear increases as the remote bear territory diminishes. The sloth bear is one of the three species of bears found in India, which inhabits the forests of India and its neighboring countries. Here we describe a teenager who came to us with a critical injury involving the face, temporal and occipital bones inflicted by a sloth bear attack. He underwent a temporal exploration, facial nerve decompression, pinna reconstruction, and occipital bone repair to save him from fatality.

  11. Microstructure and Properties of Laser Additive Manufacturing TC Bearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Jiao-xi


    Full Text Available In order to solve the problem of uneven wear of TC bearing that conventional method brought and improve its service life,wear-resistant coating was fabricated on the surface of steel parts matrix with the method of laser additive manufacture. The Cr3C2/Fe based alloy was deposited by laser cladding technique on the inner-sleeve cylindrical and outer-sleeve bore of TC bearing with two different process parameters. The high-performance coating was obtained respectively, of cracks free,no pores and with good metallurgical quality. The morphology of the laser cladding coating was observed by scanning electronic microscope (SEM,the composition was analyzed by EDS,the phase transformation was characterized by XRD. The wear resistance,corrosion resistance and hardness of the laser cladding layer were tested by friction and wear tester,salt spray test chamber and digital micro-hardness tester respectively. The results show that the average micro-hardness of composite coating is HV700. The wear resistance of the composite coating is about 3 times as much as the Ni-based alloy. The corrosion resistance is close to 316L stainless steel.

  12. [Management of weight-bearing area fracture of acetabulum]. (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-tong; Wang, Pan-feng; Zhang, Chun-cai


    Acetabulum, as the important factor for weight bearing of the upper body, has its unique anatomic features and complicated physiological function. The integrity and stability of the lunata articular surface in the dome region of acetabulum, is the important base to bear the physiological function of acetabulum. The fracture related to this part will cause relation change of contact area and stress between head of femur and acetabulum. Furthermore, the deep anatomical position of the dome region, the complicated surrounding anatomical relation, and the irregular bony structure will also increase the difficulty of surgical treatment. Especially for some complicated comminuted or compressed fracture, even with good explosions, it is hard to get satisfied anatomical reduction. Consequently,forward traumatic arthritis has greater probability of occurrence. Therefore, the clinical research on the fracture in the dome region of acetabulum was getting more and more attention worldly. This paper intended to review the relation of fracture classifications and anatomic features, physiological function,diagnostic criteria,and also its clinical treating countermeasure.

  13. Bearing capacity of Skirt circular footing on sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Z. EL Wakil


    Full Text Available Skirts are used to improve the bearing capacity of shallow footings on sandy soil by constraining the soil beneath and containing the plastic flow of soil. They are used as an alternative to deep foundations in soils with low strength at the surface. As there has been available little work studying the performance of skirted foundation, we are performing eighteen laboratory experiments on circular steel footings of different diameters and different skirt lengths. The aim of these experiments is to shed some lights on the effects of skirts on the bearing capacity of shallow footings. The effects of skirt length and the relative density of sand on the ultimate load attained were investigated. From the accomplished laboratory tests, it was found that skirts improve appreciably the sustainability of shallow footings to applied load as they increase the ultimate load of shallow footings by some up to 6.25 times for the current study conditions and variables. The performance of skirted footing depends upon the relative density of sand and on the skirt length to footing diameter ratio. Skirts are more beneficial in case of footings on loose sand than in case of medium and dense sand.

  14. Yellowstone grizzly bear investigations: Annual report of the Interagency Grizzly Bear Study Team, 2001 (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles C.; Haroldson, Mark A.


    The contents of this Annual Report summarize results of monitoring and research from the 2001 field season. The report also contains a summary of nuisance grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) management actions.

  15. Yellowstone grizzly bear investigations: Annual report of the Interagency Grizzly Bear Study Team, 2004 (United States)

    Schwartz, Charles C.; Haroldson, Mark A.; West, Karrie K.


    The contents of this Annual Report summarize results of monitoring and research from the 2004 field season. The report also contains a summary of nuisance grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) management actions.

  16. Static weight-bearing patterns of below-knee amputees using patellar-tendon-bearing prostheses. (United States)

    Tibarewala, D N; Ganguli, S


    While the weight-bearing patterns under human feet during dynamic conditions (i.e. walking or running) have been investigated by many scientists, only a few studies have been reported on such patterns during erect standing posture. This paper describes an investigation where a system composed of strain gauge load cells has been employed to study the static weight-bearing patterns of a group fo below-knee amputees using patellar-tendon-bearing prostheses, and of a matching group of normal persons. Experimental data were analysed to recognize the static weight-bearing patterns; it has been found that specific patterns exist for normal person as well as for healthy and affected sides of the amputees. It has been indicated how these findings could be used to define a performance index proportional to stance disability.

  17. Kenai Peninsula Brown Bear Studies : Report of the Interagency Brown Bear Study Team, 1986 (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes work conducted during the 1986 field season on brown bear (Ursus arctos) from the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska. Ground surveys were conducted to...

  18. Effect of Different Bearing Ratios on the Friction between Ultrahigh Molecular Weight Polyethylene Ski Bases and Snow. (United States)

    Rohm, Sebastian; Knoflach, Christoph; Nachbauer, Werner; Hasler, Michael; Kaserer, Lukas; van Putten, Joost; Unterberger, Seraphin H; Lackner, Roman


    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of surfaces with different bearing ratios, but similar roughness heights, on the friction between ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) and snow. On a linear tribometer positioned inside a cold chamber, the different samples were tested over a wide range of velocities and snow temperatures. The surface roughness was measured with a focus variation microscope and analyzed using the bearing ratio curve and its parameters. The surface energy was investigated by measuring the contact angles of a polar (water) and nonpolar (diiodmethane) liquid. The friction tests showed that the bearing ratio had a major effect on the friction between UHMWPE and snow. For temperatures close to the melting point a surface with wide grooves and narrow plateaus (nonbearing surface) performed well. For cold conditions, the friction was less for a surface with narrow grooves and wide plateaus (bearing surface). Interpretations of the results are given on the basis of mixed friction, with lubricated friction being dominant at higher snow temperatures and solid-solid interaction at lower ones.

  19. Flotation of copper-bearing shale in solutions of inorganic salts and organic reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratajczak Tomasz


    Full Text Available Flotation data on copper-bearing shale in aqueous solutions of inorganic electrolytes (NaCl, Na2SO4, KPF6, NH4Cl and organic reagents (ethylamine, propylamine as frothers were presented and discussed. The relationships between shale flotation, surface tension of aqueous solution and foam height during bubbling with air in the flotation system were presented. It has been found that flotation of shale in the presence of inorganic salts the yield was directly proportional to the surface tension of the aqueous solution of salt and inversely proportional to the height of the foam. On the other hand, for organic reagents solutions (short chain amines, a reverse effect has been observed in relation to the inorganic compounds studied, that is the yield of copper-bearing shale flotation and the foam height were inversely proportional to the surface tension of the amine solution.

  20. Fixed or mobile-bearing total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liau Jiann-Jong


    Full Text Available Abstract Fixed and mobile-bearing in total knee arthroplasty are still discussed controversially. In this article, biomechanical and clinical aspects in both fixed and mobile-bearing designs were reviewed. In biomechanical aspect, the mobile-bearing design has proved to provide less tibiofemoral contact stresses under tibiofemoral malalignment conditions. It also provides less wear rate in in-vitro simulator test. Patients with posterior stabilized mobile-bearing knees had more axial tibiofemoral rotation than patients with posterior stabilized fixed-bearing knees during gait as well as in a deep knee-bend activity. However, in clinical aspect, the mid-term or long-term survivorship of mobile-bearing knees has no superiority over that of fixed-bearing knees. The theoretical advantages for mobile-bearing design to provide a long-term durability have not been demonstrated by any outcome studies. Finally, the fixed-bearing design with all-polyethylene tibial component is suggested for relatively inactive, elder people. The mobile-bearing design is suggested for younger or higher-demand patients due to the potential for reduced polyethylene wear and more normal kinematics response after joint replacement. For younger surgeon, the fixed-bearing design is suggested due to less demand for surgical technique. For experienced surgeon, one familiar surgical protocol and instrumentation is suggested rather than implant design, either fixed-bearing or mobile-bearing.

  1. The Impact of Convective Fluid Inertia Forces on Operation of Tilting-Pad Journal Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hagemann


    Full Text Available This paper presents a combination of experimental data, CFD analyses, and bearing code predictions on emergence of convective inertia fluid forces within the lube oil flow of tilting-pad journal bearings. Concordantly, experimental data and CFD analyses show a significant rise of local pressure at the transition between inlet and leading edge of tilting-pad, especially for high-speed applications with surface speeds up to 100 m/s. This effect can be related to convective inertia forces within fluid flow as cross-sections and flow character rapidly change at the pad entrance. An energy-based approach is implemented in the bearing code in order to provide enhanced boundary conditions for Reynolds equation considering this effect. As a result, predictions of bearing code achieved significant improved correlation with measured pressure distributions and CFD-data. Further, beside the local influence, a nonnegligible impact on characteristic parameters of bearing operation such as maximum temperature and stiffness and damping coefficients is observed. Finally, the results are critically analyzed and requirements to gain more distinct and reliable data are specified.

  2. Gait analysis of fixed bearing and mobile bearing total knee prostheses during walking: do mobile bearings offer functional advantages? (United States)

    Urwin, Samuel G; Kader, Deiary F; Caplan, Nick; St Clair Gibson, Alan; Stewart, Su


    Limited previous findings have detailed biomechanical advantages following implantation with mobile bearing (MB) prostheses after total knee replacement (TKR) surgery during walking. The aim of this study was to compare three dimensional spatiotemporal, kinematic, and kinetic parameters during walking to examine whether MBs offer functional advantages over fixed bearing (FB) designs. Sixteen patients undergoing primary unilateral TKR surgery were randomised to receive either a FB (n=8) or MB (n=8) total knee prosthesis. Eight age and gender matched controls underwent the same protocol on one occasion. A 12 camera Vicon system integrated with four force plates was used. Patients were tested pre-surgery and nine months post-surgery. No significant differences between FB and MB groups were found at any time point in the spatiotemporal parameters. The MB group was found to have a significantly reduced frontal plane knee range of motion (ROM) at pre-surgery than the FB group (FB=14.92±4.02°; MB=8.87±4.82°), with the difference not observed post-surgery. No further significant kinematic or kinetic differences were observed between FB and MB groups. Fixed bearing and MB groups both displayed spatiotemporal, kinematic, and kinetic differences when compared to controls. Fixed bearing and MB groups differed from controls in six and five parameters at nine months post-surgery, respectively. No functional advantages were found in knees implanted with MB prostheses during walking, with both groups indicative of similar differences when compared to normal knee biomechanics following prosthesis implantation. Level II. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Land protection plan : Bear River Watershed Conservation Area (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is establishing a conservation area for the Bear River watershed in Idaho, Utah, and Wyoming. The Bear River Watershed...

  4. Kodiak brown bear population on Kodiak Island, Alaska (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Methods and estimates of the Brown bear population on Kodiak Island. The total number of Kodiak Brown Bears on Kodiak Island has been estimated to be 1669. Three...

  5. Population Parameters and Harvest Characteristics of Black Bears in Georgia (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes findings of black bear distribution and population trends throughout Georgia and evaluates black bear harvest trends from 1992 to 2002....

  6. Properties of stainless high-strength chrome steels for bearings (United States)

    Talyzin, V. M.; Burkin, V. S.; Doronin, V. M.


    Steel 40Kh11M3F-Sh has fairly high resistance to contact fatigue stresses at elevated temperatures and can be recommended for bearings operating in aggressive media at such temperatures, including large bearings.

  7. Trichinella and polar bears: a limited risk for humans. (United States)

    Dupouy-Camet, J; Bourée, P; Yera, H


    In this review, we identified 63 cases reported since World War II of human trichinellosis linked to the consumption of parasitized polar bear (Ursus maritimus) meat. This low number contrasts to the numerous cases of human trichinellosis related to consumption of the meat of black (U. americanus) or brown bears (U. arctos). The prevalence of Trichinella infection is high in bears, but larval muscular burden is usually lower in polar bears compared to other bear species. Polar bears, therefore, seem to play a limited role in the transmission of trichinellosis to humans, as native residents living in the Arctic traditionally consume well-cooked bear meat, and travellers and foreign hunters have only limited access to this protected species due to the declining polar bear population.

  8. Self-Bearing Motor-Generator for Flywheels Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Self-bearing or ?bearingless? motors perform both motor and bearing support functions but such devices have not yet achieved speeds above 15,000 rpm. The innovation...

  9. Polar bear den survey, Arctic National Wildlife Range (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In conjunction with the Polar Bear Research Project being supervised by Mr. Jack Lentfer of the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife two Polar Bear den surveys...

  10. A plan for the management of the Kodiak brown bear (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Management districts will be used as a tool to manage the population of bear on Kodiak Island. Theoretically, 204 bear may be taken off the refuge annually without...

  11. Interchangeable Bearings for Profile and Weight Trade Studies Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Air-Lock, Incorporated is proposing to design fully sealed shoulder and arm bearings with interchangeable bearing housings. The interchangeable housings shall be...

  12. Muslim Midwives between Traditions and Modernities Des sages-femmes musulmanes entre traditions et modernités. Être et devenir bidan kampung dans la province de Satun de Thaïlande méridionnale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Merli


    Full Text Available This article portrays the life and activity of Muslim indigenous midwives in Satun province, Southern Thailand. Their art is transmitted almost exclusively through the maternal line and their traditional knowledge has been modified, transformed and reinvented but never abandoned, even as new biomedical information and techniques have been imparted during formal training. The indigenous midwives combine new knowledge with their more traditional practices such as use of incantations, ritual expertise, pre- and postpartum massages. They maintain their status in their communities thanks to their capacity to relate to both traditional and biomedical worlds. The reception of new equipment and the burden of bureaucratic control represent new elements in their lives and create a gap with the new generation of midwives.Cet article traite de la vie et des activités des sages-femmes musulmanes de la province de Satun, en Thaïlande méridionale. Leur art a été presque exclusivement transmis en ligne maternelle et leur savoir traditionnel s’est trouvé modifié, transformé et réinventé sans jamais être abandonné, alors même que des connaissances et des techniques biomédicales leur ont été transmises lors de formations officielles. Ces sages-femmes locales combinent les connaissances nouvelles avec leurs pratiques plus traditionnelles telles que l’usage d’incantations, l’expertise rituelle et les massages pré- et post-partum. Elles conservent leur statut au sein de leur communauté grâce à leur capacité à se rattacher à la fois aux mondes traditionnel et biomédical. L’arrivée de nouveaux équipements et le poids du contrôle bureaucratique représentent de nouveaux éléments dans leur vie et entraînent un décalage avec la nouvelle génération des sages-femmes.

  13. Evaluation Of Residual Stresses In Inner Ring Of The Bearings (United States)

    Malotová, Šárka; Hemžský, Pavel; Pitela, David; Nicielnik, Henryk; Šoková, Dagmar; Kyncl, Ladislav; Mrázik, Jozef


    Residual stresses are undesirable and it should not be underestimated. They occur in many components and it is necessary to identify and try to avoid them. For detection the Residual stresses, there are many methods, but not all are suitable, because they can completely destroy of the components. The article deals with the evaluation of Residual stresses in the inner rings of Bearings, which are made from steel 100Cr6 (ČSN 14 109.4. The surfaces were turning at different cutting parameters and subsequently are evaluated Residual stresses. The stresses have been evaluated by non - destructive method X - Ray. The experiment was realized in cooperation Faculty of Mechanical Engineering VSB - TU Ostrava and Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of ZU Zilina - machining in the laboratories of ZU Žilina, Slovak Republic.

  14. Improved Oil-Off Survivability of Tapered Roller Bearings. (United States)


    dispensed to the bearing surfaces under the influence of the centrifugal forces, the elevated temperatures at the higher speeds, ana iso ’.y :apillar, acti...79.98 28500 0.108 845.33 749.49 111.01 L225800 0.170 786.72 743.97 37.23 37000 0.165 980.47 912.90 111.01 6500 1.930 1042.52 1030.11 253.05 6500... 28500 0.108 122.6 108.7 16.1 L225800 0.170 114.1 107.9 5.4 37000 0.165 142.2 132.4 16.1 6500 1.930 151.2 149.4 36.7 6500 0.483 74.5 67.4 19.3 XC1933 3.500

  15. Groundwater flux and nutrient loading in the northeast section of Bear Lake, Muskegon County, Michigan, 2015 (United States)

    Totten, Alexander R.; Maurer, Jessica A.; Duris, Joseph W.


    Bear Lake in North Muskegon, Michigan, is listed as part of the Muskegon Lake area of concern as designated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. This area of concern was designated as a result of eutrophication and beneficial use impairments. On the northeast end of Bear Lake, two man-made retention ponds (Willbrandt Pond East and Willbrandt Pond West), formerly used for celery farming, may contribute nutrients to Bear Lake. Willbrandt Ponds (East and West) were previously muck fields that were actively used for celery farming from the early 1900s until 2002. The restoration and reconnection of the Willbrandt Ponds into Bear Lake prompted concerns of groundwater nutrient loading into Bear Lake. Studies done by the State of Michigan and Grand Valley State University revised initial internal phosphorus load estimates and indicated an imbalance in the phosphorus budget in Bear Lake. From June through November 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) did an investigative study to quantify the load of nutrients from shallow groundwater around the Willbrandt Ponds in an effort to update the phosphorus budget to Bear Lake. Seven sampling locations were established, including five shallow groundwater wells and two surface-water sites, in the Willbrandt pond study area and Bear Lake. A total of 12 nutrient samples and discrete water-level measurements were collected from each site from June through November 2015. Continuous water-level data were recorded for both surface-water monitoring locations for the entire sampling period.Water-level data indicated that Willbrandt Pond West had the highest average water-level elevation of all sites monitored, which indicated the general direction of flux is from Willbrandt Pond West to Bear Lake. Nutrient and chloride loading from Willbrandt Pond West to Bear Lake was calculated using two distinct methods: Dupuit and direct seepage methods. Shallow groundwater loading calculations were determined by using groundwater levels to

  16. Spatial Distribution of Black Bear Incident Reports in Michigan


    McFadden-Hiller, Jamie E.; Beyer, Dean E.; Belant, Jerrold L.


    Interactions between humans and carnivores have existed for centuries due to competition for food and space. American black bears are increasing in abundance and populations are expanding geographically in many portions of its range, including areas that are also increasing in human density, often resulting in associated increases in human-bear conflict (hereafter, bear incidents). We used public reports of bear incidents in Michigan, USA, from 2003-2011 to assess the relative contributions o...

  17. Interaction of Reinforced Elastomeric Bearings in Bridge Construction (United States)

    Nittmannová, Ľubica; Magura, Martin


    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the behavior of reinforced elastomeric bearings under various loads. They are made of special types of bearings. The experimental verification of these special bearings has been tested on various types of loading. The results of the experimental measurements are compared with the results of the numerical modeling and calculations according to the standard assumptions in STN EN 1337-3. In the conclusion, the results are summarized for the selected types of bearings.

  18. Developments for the calculation of heavily loaded journal bearings


    Barrett, D. J. S.


    This thesis describes the development of an ElastoHydroDynamic (EHD) bearing calculation. The effect of body forces is shown to be important for highly loaded bearings in reciprocating internal combustion engines. Extension of the program to rotating machinery includes an examination of instability in the shaft bearings of a turbocharger. The development of a parameter to predict cavitation damage in a bearing is promising. Several calculation results using the program are s...

  19. Differential Bearing Estimation for RF Tags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lédeczi Ákos


    Full Text Available Fusing spatially distributed observations in wireless sensor networks or asset tracking in a shipyard are just two-example applications where the location of radio nodes needs to be known. Localization and tracking of wireless nodes have been an active research area, yet a universal solution has not emerged so far. This paper introduces a novel method for bearing estimation based on a rotating antenna generating a Doppler shifted RF signal. The small frequency change can be measured even on low-cost resource constrained nodes using a radio interferometric technique introduced previously. Bearing information between anchors nodes at known locations and RF tags at unknown positions can be derived. A few such measurements provide enough information to enable accurate node localization.

  20. Gravimeter using high-temperature superconductor bearing.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, J. R.


    We have developed a sensitive gravimeter concept that uses an extremely low-friction bearing based on a permanent magnet (PM) levitated over a high-temperature superconductor (HTS). A mass is attached to the PM by means of a cantilevered beam, and the combination of PM and HTS forms a bearing platform that has low resistance to rotational motion but high resistance to horizontal, vertical, or tilting motion. The combination acts as a low-loss torsional pendulum that can be operated in any orientation. Gravity acts on the cantilevered beam and attached mass, accelerating them. Variations in gravity can be detected by time-of-flight acceleration, or by a control coil or electrode that would keep the mass stationary. Calculations suggest that the HTS gravimeter would be as sensitive as present-day superconducting gravimeters that need cooling to liquid helium temperatures, but the HTS gravimeter needs cooling only to liquid nitrogen temperatures.

  1. Static Load Distribution in Ball Bearings (United States)

    Ricci, Mario


    A numerical procedure for computing the internal loading distribution in statically loaded, single-row, angular-contact ball bearings when subjected to a known combined radial and thrust load is presented. The combined radial and thrust load must be applied in order to avoid tilting between inner and outer rings. The numerical procedure requires the iterative solution of Z + 2 simultaneous nonlinear equations - where Z is the number of the balls - to yield an exact solution for axial and radial deflections, and contact angles. Numerical results for a 218 angular-contact ball bearing have been compared with those from the literature and show significant differences in the magnitudes of the ball loads, contact angles, and the extent of the loading zone.

  2. Trichinella surveillance in black bears (Ursus americanus) from Oregon, USA. (United States)

    Mortenson, J A; Kent, M L; Fowler, D R; Chomel, B B; Immell, D A


    We used serology and muscle digestion to test black bears (Ursus americanus) from western Oregon, USA, for Trichinella. Results indicate black bears in Oregon are not part of a sylvatic cycle for Trichinella, and risk of human exposure to Trichinella larvae from eating black bear meat from Oregon appears low.

  3. Mechanical design problems associated with turbopump fluid film bearings (United States)

    Evces, Charles R.


    Most high speed cryogenic turbopumps for liquid propulsion rocket engines currently use ball or roller contact bearings for rotor support. The operating speeds, loads, clearances, and environments of these pumps combine to make bearing wear a limiting factor on turbopump life. An example is the high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP) used in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). Although the HPOTP design life is 27,000 seconds at 30,000 rpms, or approximately 50 missions, bearings must currently be replaced after 2 missions. One solution to the bearing wear problem in the HPOTP, as well as in future turbopump designs, is the utilization of fluid film bearings in lieu of continuous contact bearings. Hydrostatic, hydrodynamic, and damping seal bearings are all replacement candidates for contact bearings in rocket engine high speed turbomachinery. These three types of fluid film bearings have different operating characteristics, but they share a common set of mechanical design opportunities and difficulties. Results of research to define some of the mechanical design issues are given. Problems considered include transient strat/stop rub, non-operational rotor support, bearing wear inspection and measurement, and bearing fluid supply route. Emphasis is given to the HPOTP preburner pump (PBP) bearing, but the results are pertinent to high-speed cryogenic turbomachinery in general.

  4. Evaluation of SHABERTH: A bearing simulation computer program (United States)


    To investigate lubrication effects on bearing thermal performance, an investigation was performed to determine the feasibility of using the SKF program SHABERTH for simulating the performance of cryogenically lubricated ball bearings. As a part of this study, the particular application chosen for SHABERTH was to simulate the performance of the Space Shuttle main engine turbo-pump and pre-burner bearing system.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Polyuga


    Full Text Available In the article the description of structural bearing types for roadway bridges and their classification is given. Special attention is paid to effective bearings with elastomeric materials – rubber, pot, spherical ones. Characteristic defects of structural bearings and demands of serviceability are noticed.

  6. On the future of controllable fluid film bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Ilmar


    lubrication regimes, i.e., as tilting-pad journal bearings, multi-recess journal bearings and plain journal bearings. After a comprehensive overview of the theoretical and experimental technological advancements achieved in university laboratories, the feasibility of industrial applications is highlighted......, trying to foresee the future trends of such mechatronic devices....

  7. Identification of dynamic properties of radial air-foil bearings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arora, Vikas; Arora, V.; van der Hoogt, Peter; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; de Boer, Andries


    Air-foil bearings (AFBs) are self acting hydrodynamic bearings made from sheet metal foils comprised of at least two layers. The innermost “top foil” layer traps a gas pressure film that supports a load while the layer or layers underneath provide an elastic foundation. Air-foil bearings are

  8. 77 FR 5201 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD (United States)


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD... across Bear Creek, mile 3.4, between Dundalk and Sparrows Point, MD. The proposed change will alter the... Avenue across Bear Creek, mile 3.4 between Dundalk and Sparrows Point, MD. This change would require the...

  9. 77 FR 77070 - Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC; (United States)


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC; Notice of Intent To File License Application...-filing Process. b. Project No.: 2727-086. c. Dated Filed: October 24, 2012. d. Submitted By: Black Bear Hydro Partners, LLC (Black Bear Hydro). e. Name of Project: Ellsworth Hydroelectric Project. f. Location...

  10. 77 FR 73967 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD (United States)


    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD... highway bridge at Wise Avenue across Bear Creek, mile 3.4, between Dundalk and Sparrows Point, MD. The... Regulation; Bear Creek, Dundalk, MD'' in the Federal Register (77 FR 5201). The rulemaking concerned would...

  11. 49 CFR 230.103 - Tender roller bearing journal boxes. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tender roller bearing journal boxes. 230.103... Locomotives and Tenders Running Gear § 230.103 Tender roller bearing journal boxes. Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition. ...

  12. Elastic support of magnetic fluids bearing (United States)

    Wang, Zhuang; Hu, Zhengdong; Huang, Wei; Wang, Xiaolei


    In this paper, a kind of gas support generated by the magnetic fluids seal is investigated numerically and experimentally. Theoretical analysis and experimental tests both indicate that the load carrying capacity of the bearing is mainly determined by the sealing capacity of the magnetic fluids. The experiments also reveal that the load capacity may change with the volumes of magnetic fluids and the air sealed by magnetic fluids.

  13. Annular Pressure Seals and Hydrostatic Bearings (United States)


    scale). The equation below presents a close form expression for estimation of the added mass coefficient (MXX) in a seal or squeeze film damper [14...Arauz & L. San Andrés, “ASME Journal of Tribology, 120, pp. 221-233, 1998. [14] Squeeze Film Dampers : Operation, Models and Technical Issues, L. San...fluid film bearing technology with very low number of parts and no DN limit operation. Details on the bulk- flow analysis of turbulent flow

  14. Drivers of hibernation in the brown bear


    Evans, Alina; Singh, N.J.; Friebe, A.; Arnemo, Jon M.; Laske, T.G.; Fröbert, O.; Swenson, Jon E.; Blanc, S.


    Background Hibernation has been a key area of research for several decades, essentially in small mammals in the laboratory, yet we know very little about what triggers or ends it in the wild. Do climatic factors, an internal biological clock, or physiological processes dominate? Using state-of-the-art tracking and monitoring technology on fourteen free-ranging brown bears over three winters, we recorded movement, heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), body temperature (Tb), physical a...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürcan SAMTAŞ


    Full Text Available The magnetic bearing consists of levitating a shaft so that it is free to rotate about its axis. The magnetic bearing has the advantages of being very quiet work and very cleanliness because there is no mechanical friction or lubricants. The shaft has two permanent magnets attached to it. These two magnets determine a straight line rotation axis of the rotor shaft. The magnets are radially levitated and centered within a cavity by a passive permanent magnetic field in the adding stator housing assembly. The levitation and centering of the shaft axially is stabilized by a closed loop electronic servo circuit that regulates an electromagnetic field in the stator housing that pushes and pulls on the shaft magnets. The rotor weight can be between one gram and forty five thousand, four hundred grams. In 1985, the first magnetic bearing was developed that it had used to applications of gas turbines and other compressors. In these days, they can be used by many applications which are Medical, Transportation, Machine and Tools Industry, Aerospace, Vacuum and Clean room Environments... etc.

  16. The bearing capacity of the assemblies through compression with intermediate biconical elements (United States)

    Grigore, N.; Nae, I.


    The assemblies through elastic compression are made through forced contact between the mating surfaces of the pieces to be assembled. These assemblies function due to friction force developed between surfaces under pressure contact. If the surfaces in contact present elastic deformations, the assembly is removable, if not, the assembly is non-removable. This research presents the calculus algorithm of the capable torque of an assembly with biconical intermediate elements. To verify the accuracy of the theoretical results this research contains the appliance used to obtain the experimental value of the bearing capacity of the assemblies through compression with intermediate biconical elements.

  17. Documentation of roller-bearing effect on butterfly inspired grooves (United States)

    Gautam, Sashank; Lang, Amy


    Butterfly wings are covered with scales in a roof shingle pattern which align together to form grooves. The increase or decrease of laminar friction drag depends on the flow orientation to the scales. Flow in the longitudinal direction to the grooves encounters increased surface area which increases the friction drag. However, in the transverse direction, for low Re laminar flow, a single vortex is formed inside each groove and is predicted to remain stable due to the very low Re of the flow in each cavity. These embedded vortices act as roller bearings to the flow above, such that the fluid from the outer boundary layer does not mix with fluid inside the cavities. This leads to a reduction of skin friction drag when compared to a smooth surface. When the cavity flow Re is increased beyond a critical point, the vortex becomes unstable and the low-momentum fluid in the grooves mixes with the outer boundary layer flow, increasing the drag. The objective of this experiment is to determine the critical Re where the embedded vortex transitions from a stable to an unstable state using DPIV. Subsequently, for steady vortex conditions, a comparison of skin friction drag between the grooved and flat plate can show that the butterfly scaled surface can result in sub-laminar friction drag. The National Science Foundation (Grant No. 1335848).

  18. Conflict bear translocation: investigating population genetics and fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The Asiatic black bear population in Dachigam landscape, Jammu and Kashmir is well recognized as one of the highest density bear populations in India. Increasing incidences of bear-human interactions and the resultant retaliatory killings by locals have become a serious threat to the survivorship of black bears in the Dachigam landscape. The Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu and Kashmir has been translocating bears involved in conflicts, henceforth 'conflict bears' from different sites in Dachigam landscape to Dachigam National Park as a flagship activity to mitigate conflicts. We undertook this study to investigate the population genetics and the fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park. We identified 109 unique genotypes in an area of ca. 650 km2 and observed bear population under panmixia that showed sound genetic variability. Molecular tracking of translocated bears revealed that mostly bears (7 out of 11 bears returned to their capture sites, possibly due to homing instincts or habituation to the high quality food available in agricultural croplands and orchards, while only four bears remained in Dachigam National Park after translocation. Results indicated that translocation success was most likely to be season dependent as bears translocated during spring and late autumn returned to their capture sites, perhaps due to the scarcity of food inside Dachigam National Park while bears translocated in summer remained in Dachigam National Park due to availability of surplus food resources. Thus, the current management practices of translocating conflict bears, without taking into account spatio-temporal variability of food resources in Dachigam landscape seemed to be ineffective in mitigating conflicts on a long-term basis. However, the study highlighted the importance of molecular tracking of bears to understand their movement patterns and socio-biology in tough terrains like Dachigam landscape.

  19. Conflict bear translocation: investigating population genetics and fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park, Jammu and Kashmir, India. (United States)

    Mukesh; Sharma, Lalit Kumar; Charoo, Samina Amin; Sathyakumar, Sambandam


    The Asiatic black bear population in Dachigam landscape, Jammu and Kashmir is well recognized as one of the highest density bear populations in India. Increasing incidences of bear-human interactions and the resultant retaliatory killings by locals have become a serious threat to the survivorship of black bears in the Dachigam landscape. The Department of Wildlife Protection in Jammu and Kashmir has been translocating bears involved in conflicts, henceforth 'conflict bears' from different sites in Dachigam landscape to Dachigam National Park as a flagship activity to mitigate conflicts. We undertook this study to investigate the population genetics and the fate of bear translocation in Dachigam National Park. We identified 109 unique genotypes in an area of ca. 650 km2 and observed bear population under panmixia that showed sound genetic variability. Molecular tracking of translocated bears revealed that mostly bears (7 out of 11 bears) returned to their capture sites, possibly due to homing instincts or habituation to the high quality food available in agricultural croplands and orchards, while only four bears remained in Dachigam National Park after translocation. Results indicated that translocation success was most likely to be season dependent as bears translocated during spring and late autumn returned to their capture sites, perhaps due to the scarcity of food inside Dachigam National Park while bears translocated in summer remained in Dachigam National Park due to availability of surplus food resources. Thus, the current management practices of translocating conflict bears, without taking into account spatio-temporal variability of food resources in Dachigam landscape seemed to be ineffective in mitigating conflicts on a long-term basis. However, the study highlighted the importance of molecular tracking of bears to understand their movement patterns and socio-biology in tough terrains like Dachigam landscape.

  20. Ammonia Bearing Species on Ceres: Implication on Origin and Evolution (United States)

    De Sanctis, M. C.; Ammannito, E.; Raponi, A.; Marchi, S.; Ciarniello, M.; McSween, H. Y., Jr.; McCord, T. B.; Capaccioni, F.; Capria, M. T.; Carrorro, F. G.; Longobardo, A.; Tosi, F.; Fonte, S.; Giardino, M.; Palomba, E.; Magni, G.; Zambon, F.; Pieters, C. M.; McFadden, L. A.; Raymond, C. A.


    The Visible and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIR) on board the Dawn spacecraft observed Ceres' surface acquiring spectra since January 2015. Here we report the average Ceres spectrum, including the spectral range previously precluded from telescopic measurements due to telluric atmospheric absorptions. The data indicate that the surface is very dark: average albedo of 0.090 ±0.006 at 0.55 µm, consistent with HST data (Li et al., 2006). Ceres' average spectrum is characterized by a prominent absorption band at 2.7 micron. Weaker absorption bands are observed between 3.05-3.1, 3.3-3.4 and 3.9-4 micron; the visible and near-IR ranges lack prominent bands. We modelled the spectra of Ceres using Hapke theory. Results of the spectral modelling indicate that extensive water ice is not present in surface spectra acquired so far. The best fit is obtained with a mixture of ammoniated phyllosilicates mixed with other clays, Mg-carbonates, and dark material, like magnetite (De Sanctis et al. 2015, submitted). The presence of ammonia bearing materials across the surface has implications for the origin of Ceres and its internal structure and evolution. Higher spatial resolution spectra are being acquired to address the small scale mineralogy across this dwarf planet. References: Li, et al., Photometric analysis of 1 Ceres and surface mapping from HST observations. Icarus 182, 143-160 (2006). De Sanctis et al., Ammoniated phyllosilicates on dwarf planet Ceres reveal an outer solar system origin, Nature submitted, (2015). This work is supported the Italian Space Agencies, NASA, and from the German Space Agency. Support of the Dawn Instrument, Operations, and Science Teams is acknowledged.

  1. Physiologic responses of grizzly bears to different methods of capture. (United States)

    Cattet, Marc R; Christison, Katina; Caulkett, Nigel A; Stenhouse, Gordon B


    The physiologic effects of two methods of capture, chemical immobilization of free-ranging (FR) bears by remote injection from a helicopter and physical restraint (PR) by leg-hold snare prior to chemical immobilization, were compared in 46 grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) handled during 90 captures between 1999 and 2001. Induction dosages and times were greater for FR bears than PR bears, a finding consistent with depletion of, or decreased sensitivity to, catecholamines. Free-ranging bears also had higher rectal temperatures 15 min following immobilization and temperatures throughout handling that correlated positively with induction time. Physically restrained bears had higher white blood cell counts, with more neutrophils and fewer lymphocytes and eosinophils, than did FR bears. This white blood cell profile was consistent with a stress leukogram, possibly affected by elevated levels of serum cortisol. Serum concentrations of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatine kinase were higher in PR bears that suggested muscle injury. Serum concentrations of sodium and chloride also were higher in PR bears and attributed to reduced body water volume through water deprivation and increased insensible water loss. Overall, different methods of capture resulted in different patterns of physiologic disturbance. Reducing pursuit and drug induction times should help to minimize increase in body temperature and alteration of acid-base balance in bears immobilized by remote injection. Minimizing restraint time and ensuring snare-anchoring cables are short should help to minimize loss of body water and prevent serious muscle injury in bears captured by leg-hold snare.

  2. Rolling Bearing Steels - A Technical and Historical Perspective (United States)

    Zaretsky, Erwin V.


    Starting about 1920 it becomes easier to track the growth of bearing materials technology. Until 1955, with few exceptions, comparatively little progress was made in this area. AISI 52100 and some carburizing grades (AISI 4320, AISI 9310) were adequate for most applications. The catalyst to quantum advances in high-performance rolling-element bearing steels was the advent of the aircraft gas turbine engine. With improved bearing manufacturing and steel processing together with advanced lubrication technology, the potential improvements in bearing life can be as much as 80 times that attainable in the late 1950s or as much as 400 times that attainable in 1940. This paper summarizes the chemical, metallurgical and physical aspects of bearing steels and their effect on rolling bearing life and reliability. The single most important variable that has significantly increased bearing life and reliability is vacuum processing of bearing steel. Differences between through hardened, case carburized and corrosion resistant steels are discussed. The interrelation of alloy elements and carbides and their effect on bearing life are presented. An equation relating bearing life, steel hardness and temperature is given. Life factors for various steels are suggested and discussed. A relation between compressive residual stress and bearing life is presented. The effects of retained austenite and grain size are discussed.

  3. Effect of fluid compressibility on journal bearing performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimofte, F. (NASA, Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States))


    An analysis was undertaken to determine the effect of fluid film compressibility on the performance of fluid film bearings. A new version of the Reynolds equation was developed, using a polytropic expansion, for both steady-state and dynamic conditions. Polytropic exponents from 1 (isothermal) to 1000 (approaching an incompressible liquid) were evaluated for two bearing numbers, selected from a range of practical interest for cryogenic application, and without cavitation. Bearing loads were insensitive to fluid compressibility for low bearing numbers, as was expected. The effect of compressibility on attitude angle was significant, even when the bearing number was low. A small amount of fluid compressibility was enough to obtain stable running conditions. Incompressible liquid lacked stability at all conditions. Fluid compressibility can be used to control the bearing dynamic coefficients, thereby influencing the dynamic behavior of the rotor-bearing system. 14 refs.

  4. Computer-aided selection of materials for cryogenic turbopump bearings (United States)

    Maurer, R. E.; Pallini, R. A.


    The life requirement for the angular contact ball bearings in the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) high-pressure-oxygen turbopump (HPOTP) is 7.5 hours. In actual operation, significantly shorter service life has been experienced. The objective of this current program is to identify bearing materials and/or materials processing techniques offering significant potential for extending HPOTP bearing performance life. A thermomechanical analysis of the HPOTP shaft/bearing system was performed with the SHABERTH (SHaft-BEaring-THermal) computer program. Bearing fatigue life, ball-race contact stress, heat generation rate, bulk ring temperatures, and circumferential stress in the inner rings were quantified as functions of radial load, thrust load, and ball-race contact friction. The analysis results were used to formulate criteria that are being used for the selection of special materials for future turbopump bearings.

  5. Effect of fluid compressibility on journal bearing performance (United States)

    Dimofte, Florin


    An analysis was undertaken to determine the effect of fluid film compressibility on the performance of fluid film bearings. A new version of the Reynolds equation was developed, using a polytropic expansion, for both steady-state and dynamic conditions. Polytropic exponents from 1 (isothermal) to 1000 (approaching an incompressible liquid) were evaluated for two bearing numbers, selected from a range of practical interest for cryogenic application, and without cavitation. Bearing loads were insensitive to fluid compressibility for low bearing numbers, as was expected. The effect of compressibility on attitude angle was significant, even when the bearing number was low. A small amount of fluid compressibility was enough to obtain stable running conditions. Incompressible liquid lacked stability at all conditions. Fluid compressibility can be used to control the bearing dynamic coefficients, thereby influencing the dynamic behavior of the rotor-bearing system.

  6. Greenhouse gas mitigation can reduce sea-ice loss and increase polar bear persistence. (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C; Deweaver, Eric T; Douglas, David C; Marcot, Bruce G; Durner, George M; Bitz, Cecilia M; Bailey, David A


    On the basis of projected losses of their essential sea-ice habitats, a United States Geological Survey research team concluded in 2007 that two-thirds of the world's polar bears (Ursus maritimus) could disappear by mid-century if business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions continue. That projection, however, did not consider the possible benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation. A key question is whether temperature increases lead to proportional losses of sea-ice habitat, or whether sea-ice cover crosses a tipping point and irreversibly collapses when temperature reaches a critical threshold. Such a tipping point would mean future greenhouse gas mitigation would confer no conservation benefits to polar bears. Here we show, using a general circulation model, that substantially more sea-ice habitat would be retained if greenhouse gas rise is mitigated. We also show, with Bayesian network model outcomes, that increased habitat retention under greenhouse gas mitigation means that polar bears could persist throughout the century in greater numbers and more areas than in the business-as-usual case. Our general circulation model outcomes did not reveal thresholds leading to irreversible loss of ice; instead, a linear relationship between global mean surface air temperature and sea-ice habitat substantiated the hypothesis that sea-ice thermodynamics can overcome albedo feedbacks proposed to cause sea-ice tipping points. Our outcomes indicate that rapid summer ice losses in models and observations represent increased volatility of a thinning sea-ice cover, rather than tipping-point behaviour. Mitigation-driven Bayesian network outcomes show that previously predicted declines in polar bear distribution and numbers are not unavoidable. Because polar bears are sentinels of the Arctic marine ecosystem and trends in their sea-ice habitats foreshadow future global changes, mitigating greenhouse gas emissions to improve polar bear status would have conservation benefits throughout

  7. Greenhouse gas mitigation can reduce sea-ice loss and increase polar bear persistence (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Deweaver, E.T.; Douglas, D.C.; Marcot, B.G.; Durner, G.M.; Bitz, C.M.; Bailey, D.A.


    On the basis of projected losses of their essential sea-ice habitats, a United States Geological Survey research team concluded in 2007 that two-thirds of the worlds polar bears (Ursus maritimus) could disappear by mid-century if business-as-usual greenhouse gas emissions continue. That projection, however, did not consider the possible benefits of greenhouse gas mitigation. A key question is whether temperature increases lead to proportional losses of sea-ice habitat, or whether sea-ice cover crosses a tipping point and irreversibly collapses when temperature reaches a critical threshold. Such a tipping point would mean future greenhouse gas mitigation would confer no conservation benefits to polar bears. Here we show, using a general circulation model, that substantially more sea-ice habitat would be retained if greenhouse gas rise is mitigated. We also show, with Bayesian network model outcomes, that increased habitat retention under greenhouse gas mitigation means that polar bears could persist throughout the century in greater numbers and more areas than in the business-as-usual case. Our general circulation model outcomes did not reveal thresholds leading to irreversible loss of ice; instead, a linear relationship between global mean surface air temperature and sea-ice habitat substantiated the hypothesis that sea-ice thermodynamics can overcome albedo feedbacks proposed to cause sea-ice tipping points. Our outcomes indicate that rapid summer ice losses in models and observations represent increased volatility of a thinning sea-ice cover, rather than tipping-point behaviour. Mitigation-driven Bayesian network outcomes show that previously predicted declines in polar bear distribution and numbers are not unavoidable. Because polar bears are sentinels of the Arctic marine ecosystem and trends in their sea-ice habitats foreshadow future global changes, mitigating greenhouse gas emissions to improve polar bear status would have conservation benefits throughout

  8. Synthesis of a polyhistidine-bearing amphipol and its use for immobilizing membrane proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giusti, Fabrice; Kessler, Pascal; Hansen, Randi Westh


    Amphipols (APols) are short amphipathic polymers that stabilize membrane proteins (MPs) in aqueous solutions. In the present study, A8-35, a polyacrylate-based APol, was grafted with hexahistidine tags (His6-tags). The synthesis and characterization of this novel functionalized APol, named Hist......APol, are described. Its ability to immobilize MPs on nickel ion-bearing surfaces was tested using two complementary methods, immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Compared to a single His6-tag fused at one extremity of a MP, the presence of several His6-tags carried...... by the APol belt surrounding the transmembrane domain of a MP increases remarkably the affinity of the protein/APol complex for nickel ion-bearing SPR chips, whereas it does not show such a strong effect on an IMAC resin. HistAPol-mediated immobilization, which allows reversibility of the interaction and easy...

  9. Mystery of Foil Air Bearings for Oil-free Turbomachinery Unlocked: Load Capacity Rule-of-thumb Allows Simple Estimation of Performance (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Valco, Mark J.


    The Oil-Free Turbomachinery team at the NASA Glenn Research Center has unlocked one of the mysteries surrounding foil air bearing performance. Foil air bearings are self-acting hydrodynamic bearings that use ambient air, or any fluid, as their lubricant. In operation, the motion of the shaft's surface drags fluid into the bearing by viscous action, creating a pressurized lubricant film. This lubricating film separates the stationary foil bearing surface from the moving shaft and supports load. Foil bearings have been around for decades and are widely employed in the air cycle machines used for cabin pressurization and cooling aboard commercial jetliners. The Oil-Free Turbomachinery team is fostering the maturation of this technology for integration into advanced Oil-Free aircraft engines. Elimination of the engine oil system can significantly reduce weight and cost and could enable revolutionary new engine designs. Foil bearings, however, have complex elastic support structures (spring packs) that make the prediction of bearing performance, such as load capacity, difficult if not impossible. Researchers at Glenn recently found a link between foil bearing design and load capacity performance. The results have led to a simple rule-of-thumb that relates a bearing's size, speed, and design to its load capacity. Early simple designs (Generation I) had simple elastic (spring) support elements, and performance was limited. More advanced bearings (Generation III) with elastic supports, in which the stiffness is varied locally to optimize gas film pressures, exhibit load capacities that are more than double those of the best previous designs. This is shown graphically in the figure. These more advanced bearings have enabled industry to introduce commercial Oil-Free gas-turbine-based electrical generators and are allowing the aeropropulsion industry to incorporate the technology into aircraft engines. The rule-of-thumb enables engine and bearing designers to easily size and

  10. Polar bear attacks on humans: Implications of a changing climate (United States)

    Wilder, James; Vongraven, Dag; Atwood, Todd C.; Hansen, Bob; Jessen, Amalie; Kochnev, Anatoly A.; York, Geoff; Vallender, Rachel; Hedman, Daryll; Gibbons, Melissa


    Understanding causes of polar bear (Ursus maritimus) attacks on humans is critical to ensuring both human safety and polar bear conservation. Although considerable attention has been focused on understanding black (U. americanus) and grizzly (U. arctos) bear conflicts with humans, there have been few attempts to systematically collect, analyze, and interpret available information on human-polar bear conflicts across their range. To help fill this knowledge gap, a database was developed (Polar Bear-Human Information Management System [PBHIMS]) to facilitate the range-wide collection and analysis of human-polar bear conflict data. We populated the PBHIMS with data collected throughout the polar bear range, analyzed polar bear attacks on people, and found that reported attacks have been extremely rare. From 1870–2014, we documented 73 attacks by wild polar bears, distributed among the 5 polar bear Range States (Canada, Greenland, Norway, Russia, and United States), which resulted in 20 human fatalities and 63 human injuries. We found that nutritionally stressed adult male polar bears were the most likely to pose threats to human safety. Attacks by adult females were rare, and most were attributed to defense of cubs. We judged that bears acted as a predator in most attacks, and that nearly all attacks involved ≤2 people. Increased concern for both human and bear safety is warranted in light of predictions of increased numbers of nutritionally stressed bears spending longer amounts of time on land near people because of the loss of their sea ice habitat. Improved conflict investigation is needed to collect accurate and relevant data and communicate accurate bear safety messages and mitigation strategies to the public. With better information, people can take proactive measures in polar bear habitat to ensure their safety and prevent conflicts with polar bears. This work represents an important first step towards improving our understanding of factors influencing

  11. Are PEEK-on-Ceramic Bearings an Option for Total Disc Arthroplasty? An In Vitro Tribology Study. (United States)

    Siskey, Ryan; Ciccarelli, Lauren; Lui, Melissa K C; Kurtz, Steven M


    the primary sources of wear and demonstrated an abrasive wear mechanism. Under idealized and impingement conditions, the ceramic core also demonstrated slight polishing of the articulating surface but the change in mass was unmeasurable. During abrasive testing, the titanium transfer on the core was shown to polish over 5 MC of testing. In all cases and consistent with previous studies of other PEEK bearing couples, the particle size was primarily < 2 µm and morphology was smooth and spheroidal. Overall, the idealized PEEK-on-ceramic wear rate (0.7 ± 0.1 mm3/MC) appears comparable to the published wear rates for other polymer-on-hard bearing couples (0.3-6.7 mm3/MC) and within the range of 0.2 to 1.9 mm3/MC reported for PEEK-on-PEEK cervical disc designs. The particles, based on size and morphology, also suggest the wear mechanism is comparable between the PEEK-on-ceramic couple and other polymer-on-ceramic orthopaedic couples. The PEEK-on-ceramic bearing considered in this study is a novel bearing couple for use in total disc arthroplasty devices and will require clinical evaluation to fully assess the bearing couple and total disc design. However, the wear rates under idealized and adverse conditions, and particle size and morphology, suggest that PEEK-on-ceramic bearings may be a reasonable alternative to polyethylene-on-CoCr and metal-on-metal bearings currently used in cervical TDRs.

  12. Condition monitoring of induction motor bearing based on bearing damage index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel R.K.


    Full Text Available The rolling element bearings are used broadly in many machinery applications. It is used to support the load and preserve the clearance between stationary and rotating machinery elements. Unfortunately, rolling element bearings are exceedingly prone to premature failures. Vibration signal analysis has been widely used in the faults detection of rotating machinery and can be broadly classified as being a stationary or non-stationary signal. In the case of the faulty rolling element bearing the vibration signal is not strictly phase locked to the rotational speed of the shaft and become “transient” in nature. The purpose of this paper is to briefly discuss the identification of an Inner Raceway Fault (IRF and an Outer Raceway Fault (ORF with the different fault severity levels. The conventional statistical analysis was only able to detect the existence of a fault but unable to discriminate between IRF and ORF. In the present work, a detection technique named as bearing damage index (BDI has been proposed. The proposed BDI technique uses wavelet packet node energy coefficient analysis method. The well-known combination of Hilbert transform (HT and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT has been carried out in order to identify the IRF and ORF faults. The results show that wavelet packet node energy coefficients are not only sensitive to detect the faults in bearing but at the same time they are able to detect the severity level of the fault. The proposed bearing damage index method for fault identification may be considered as an ‘index’ representing the health condition of rotating machines.

  13. Trophic cascades from wolves to grizzly bears or changing abundance of bears and alternate foods? (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon M


    This is a Forum article commenting on: Ripple, W. J., Beschta, R. L., Fortin, J. K., & Robbins, C. T. (2014) Trophic cascades from wolves to grizzly bears in Yellowstone. Journal of Animal Ecology, 83, 223-233. Comparisons Ripple et al. (2014) used to demonstrate increased fruit availability and consumption by grizzly bears post-wolf reintroduction are flawed and tenuous at best. Importantly, a more parsimonious (than trophic cascades) hypothesis, not sufficiently considered by Ripple et al., exists and is better supported by available data I review. Published 2015. This article is a U. S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Trophic cascades from wolves to grizzly bears or changing abundance of bears and alternate foods? (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.


    This is a Forum article commenting on: Ripple, W. J., Beschta, R. L., Fortin, J. K., & Robbins, C. T. (2014) Trophic cascades from wolves to grizzly bears in Yellowstone. Journal of Animal Ecology, 83, 223–233. Comparisons Ripple et al. (2014) used to demonstrate increased fruit availability and consumption by grizzly bears post-wolf reintroduction are flawed and tenuous at best. Importantly, a more parsimonious (than trophic cascades) hypothesis, not sufficiently considered by Ripple et al., exists and is better supported by available data I review.

  15. Internet Blogs, Polar Bears, and Climate-Change Denial by Proxy


    Harvey, Jeffrey A.; van den Berg, Daphne; Ellers, Jacintha; Kampen, Remko; Crowther, Thomas W.; Roessingh, Peter; Verheggen, Bart; Nuijten, Rascha J.M.; Post, Eric; Lewandowsky, Stephan; Stirling, Ian; Balgopal, Meena; Amstrup, Steven C.; Mann, Michael E.


    Increasing surface temperatures, Arctic sea-ice loss, and other evidence of anthropogenic global warming (AGW) are acknowledged by every major scientific organization in the world. However, there is a wide gap between this broad scientific consensus and public opinion. Internet blogs have strongly contributed to this consensus gap by fomenting misunderstandings of AGW causes and consequences. Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have become a “poster species” for AGW, making them a target of those d...

  16. Serologic survey of Toxoplasma gondii in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) and black bears (Ursus americanus), from Alaska, 1988 to 1991. (United States)

    Chomel, B B; Zarnke, R L; Kasten, R W; Kass, P H; Mendes, E


    We tested 644 serum samples from 480 grizzly bears and 40 black bears from Alaska (USA), collected between 1988 and 1991, for Toxoplasma gondii antibodies, using a commercially available latex agglutination test (LAT). A titer > or = 64 was considered positive. Serum antibody prevalence for T. gondii in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos) was 18% (87 of 480). Prevalence ranged from 9% (seven of 77) on Kodiak Island to 28% (15 of 54) in northern Alaska. Prevalence was directly correlated to age. No grizzly bears grizzly bears captured north of the Arctic Circle. Antibody prevalence in black bears (Ursus americanus) from Interior Alaska was 15% (six of 40), similar to the prevalence in grizzly bears from the same area (13%; five of 40).

  17. Are organohalogen contaminants a bears (Ursus maritimus)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Dietz, Rune; Leifsson, PS


    Tissues of polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from East Greenland contain the highest concentrations of organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) among subpopulations of any mammalian species in the Arctic. Negative associations also have been found between OHC concentrations and bone mineral density and liver......PBDE, polychlorinated biphenyl, and hexachlorocyclohexane concentrations. The lesions were consistent with those reported previously in highly OHC-contaminated Baltic seal populations and exposed laboratory animals. The renal lesions were a result of aging. However, based on the above statistical findings as well...... status among wildlife populations and humans relying on food resources that are contaminated with OHCs....

  18. Population dynamics of Yellowstone grizzly bears (United States)

    Knight, Richard R.; Eberhardt, L.L.


    Data on the population of grizzly bears in the environs of Yellowstone National Park suggest that the population has not recovered from the reductions following closure of garbage dumps in 1970 and 1971, and may continue to decline. A computer simulation model indicates that the risk of extirpation over the next 30 yr is small, if the present population parameters continue to prevail. A review and further analysis of the available data brings out the importance of enhancing adult female survival if the population is to recover, and assesses various research needs. In particular, a reliable index of population trend is needed to augment available data on the population.

  19. Bearing capacity of mixed soil model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Khodashenas Pelkoo


    Full Text Available The main objective of this research is improvement of red soil with addition of construction materials. This method could provide a scientific way to create a soil foundation with sufficient stability against geo-technical problems or instabilities. Laboratory tests have been conducted to assess the behavior of red soil, when amended with different types of gravels, soils and sand under compacted conditions with Optimum Moisture Content (OMC. Safe bearing capacity of all models, have been calculated to identify best and worst soil mixed model.

  20. Flexure Based Linear and Rotary Bearings (United States)

    Voellmer, George M. (Inventor)


    A flexure based linear bearing includes top and bottom parallel rigid plates; first and second flexures connecting the top and bottom plates and constraining exactly four degrees of freedom of relative motion of the plates, the four degrees of freedom being X and Y axis translation and rotation about the X and Y axes; and a strut connecting the top and bottom plates and further constraining exactly one degree of freedom of the plates, the one degree of freedom being one of Z axis translation and rotation about the Z axis.

  1. Experimental investigations of active air bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Ilmar; Morosi, Stefano


    . Implementing active lubrication adds however a considerable number of parameters and variables. The performance of a good control system lays most importantly on a good choice of control gains, which in general are different depending on the goal of the controller. Optimum tuning of the control loop...... prototype active bearing offers several promising performance enhancements. Synchronous vibrations can be effectively addressed ensuring safe operation across the critical speeds; whirling instability is suppressed; intervening on the software, rather than the hardware can modify the response of the system...

  2. Predictive factors for metal ion levels in metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty. (United States)

    Kasparek, Maximilian F; Renner, Lisa; Faschingbauer, Martin; Waldstein, Wenzel; Weber, Michael; Boettner, Friedrich


    Although metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) and hip resurfacings (HR) have similar bearing surfaces and comparable wear rates, metal ion levels and risk of failure are higher for MoM-THA. The mechanism behind the increased metal ion levels in large head MoM-THA is not completely understood. The current study aims to identify predictive factors for increased metal ion levels in unilateral and bilateral large head MoM-THA. 99 Birmingham modular MoM-THA in 87 patients with metal ion levels at least 36 months after index procedure were analyzed. Mean follow-up time was 61.3 months (range 37-108) and the relationship of the following variables (gender, age, BMI, follow-up time, UCLA Activity Score, cup inclination, femoral head size, bilateral surgery) on metal ion levels were analyzed with multivariate regression models. Multivariate regression analysis revealed that bilateral MoM-THA surgery (p MoM-THA (p = 0.004) were positively correlated with chromium levels. Positive independent predictors for the cobalt-chromium ratio in the multivariate analysis were overall follow-up time (p = 0.004), bilateral MoM-THA (p MoM-THA, increased patient activity levels and female gender are associated with increased chromium levels. Patients with larger component size, longer follow-up time and bilateral MoM-THAs have an increased cobalt-chromium ratio. These patients might be at increased risk for adverse local soft tissue reactions secondary to corrosion. Continuous close monitoring is recommended and bearing-surface change should be discussed if local tissue reactions occur.

  3. A Generic Friction Model for Radial Slider Bearing Simulation Considering Elastic and Plastic Deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günter Offner


    Full Text Available The investigation of component dynamics is one of the main tasks of internal combustion engine (ICE simulation. This prediction is important in order to understand complex loading conditions, which happen in a running ICE. Due to the need for fuel saving, mechanical friction, in particular in radial slider bearings, is one important investigation target. A generic friction modeling approach for radial slider bearings, which can be applied to lubricated contact regimes, will be presented in this paper. Besides viscous friction, the approach considers in particular boundary friction. The parameterization of the friction model is done using surface material and surface roughness measurement data. Furthermore, fluid properties depending on the applied oil additives are being considered. The application of the model will be demonstrated for a typical engineering task of a connecting rod big end study to outline the effects of contact surface texture. AlSn-based and polymer coated bearing shells will be analyzed and compared with respect to friction reduction effects, running-in behavior and thermal load capabilities.

  4. Foothills model forest grizzly bear study : project update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This report updates a five year study launched in 1999 to ensure the continued healthy existence of grizzly bears in west-central Alberta by integrating their needs into land management decisions. The objective was to gather better information and to develop computer-based maps and models regarding grizzly bear migration, habitat use and response to human activities. The study area covers 9,700 square km in west-central Alberta where 66 to 147 grizzly bears exist. During the first 3 field seasons, researchers captured and radio collared 60 bears. Researchers at the University of Calgary used remote sensing tools and satellite images to develop grizzly bear habitat maps. Collaborators at the University of Washington used trained dogs to find bear scat which was analyzed for DNA, stress levels and reproductive hormones. Resource Selection Function models are being developed by researchers at the University of Alberta to identify bear locations and to see how habitat is influenced by vegetation cover and oil, gas, forestry and mining activities. The health of the bears is being studied by researchers at the University of Saskatchewan and the Canadian Cooperative Wildlife Health Centre. The study has already advanced the scientific knowledge of grizzly bear behaviour. Preliminary results indicate that grizzlies continue to find mates, reproduce and gain weight and establish dens. These are all good indicators of a healthy population. Most bear deaths have been related to poaching. The study will continue for another two years. 1 fig.

  5. Software Developed for Analyzing High- Speed Rolling-Element Bearings (United States)

    Fleming, David P.


    COBRA-AHS (Computer Optimized Ball & Roller Bearing Analysis--Advanced High Speed, J.V. Poplawski & Associates, Bethlehem, PA) is used for the design and analysis of rolling element bearings operating at high speeds under complex mechanical and thermal loading. The code estimates bearing fatigue life by calculating three-dimensional subsurface stress fields developed within the bearing raceways. It provides a state-of-the-art interactive design environment for bearing engineers within a single easy-to-use design-analysis package. The code analyzes flexible or rigid shaft systems containing up to five bearings acted upon by radial, thrust, and moment loads in 5 degrees of freedom. Bearing types include high-speed ball, cylindrical roller, and tapered roller bearings. COBRA-AHS is the first major upgrade in 30 years of such commercially available bearing software. The upgrade was developed under a Small Business Innovation Research contract from the NASA Glenn Research Center, and incorporates the results of 30 years of NASA and industry bearing research and technology.

  6. Surface Water & Surface Drainage (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This data set contains boundaries for all surface water and surface drainage for the state of New Mexico. It is in a vector digital data structure digitized from a...

  7. Rotor-Bearing Dynamics Technology Design Guide. Part 4. Cylindrical Roller Bearings (United States)


    45. (3) Crecelius, W.T. and Pirvics, J., "Computer Program Operation Manual on " SHABERTH " a Computer Program for the Analysis of the Steady State and...Operation Manual on " SHABERTH " a Computer Program for the Analysis of the Steady St""e and Transient Thermal Performance of Shaft Bearing Systems

  8. Dynamic modeling of moment wheel assemblies with nonlinear rolling bearing supports (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Han, Qinkai; Luo, Ruizhi; Qing, Tao


    Moment wheel assemblies (MWA) have been widely used in spacecraft attitude control and large angle slewing maneuvers over the years. Understanding and controlling vibration of MWAs is a crucial factor to achieving the desired level of payload performance. Dynamic modeling of a MWA with nonlinear rolling bearing supports is conducted. An improved load distribution analysis is proposed to more accurately obtain the contact deformations and angles between the rolling balls and raceways. Then, the bearing restoring forces are then obtained through iteratively solving the load distribution equations at every time step. The effects of preload condition, surface waviness, Hertz contact and elastohydrodynamic lubrication could all be reflected in the nonlinear bearing forces. Considering the mass imbalances of the flywheel, flexibility of supporting structures and rolling bearing nonlinearity, the dynamic model of a typical MWA is established based upon the energy theorem. Dynamic tests are conducted to verify the nonlinear dynamic model. The influences of flywheel mass eccentricity and inner/outer waviness amplitudes on the dynamic responses are discussed in detail. The obtained results would be useful for the design and vibration control of the MWA system.

  9. Anaerobic oral flora in the North American black bear (Ursus americanus) in eastern North Carolina. (United States)

    Clarke, Elsburgh O; Stoskopf, Michael K; Minter, Larry J; Stringer, Elizabeth M


    Microbial flora can provide insight into the ecology and natural history of wildlife in addition to improving understanding of health risks. This study examines the anaerobic oral flora of hunter killed black bears (Ursus americanus) in eastern North Carolina. Oral swabs from the buccal and lingual supragingival tooth surfaces of the first and second mandibular and maxillary molars of 22 black bears were inoculated onto Brucella Blood Agar plates supplemented with hemin and vitamin K after transport from the field using reduced oxoid nutrient broth. Sixteen anaerobic bacterial species, representing nine genera were identified using the RapID ANA II Micromethod Kit system and a number of organisms grown that could not be identified with the system. The most frequently identified anaerobes were Peptostreptococcus prevotii, Streptococcus constellatus, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The diversity in the anaerobic oral flora of black bear in eastern North Carolina suggests the importance of including these organisms in basic health risk assessment protocols and suggests a potential tool for assessment of bear/habitat interactions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Numerical prediction analysis of propeller bearing force for full-scale hull–propeller–rudder system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang


    Full Text Available The hybrid grid was adopted and numerical prediction analysis of propeller unsteady bearing force considering free surface was performed for mode and full-scale KCS hull–propeller–rudder system by employing RANS method and VOF model. In order to obtain the propeller velocity under self-propulsion point, firstly, the numerical simulation for self-propulsion test of full-scale ship is carried out. The results show that the scale effect of velocity at self-propulsion point and wake fraction is obvious. Then, the transient two-phase flow calculations are performed for model and full-scale KCS hull–propeller–rudder systems. According to the monitoring data, it is found that the propeller unsteady bearing force is fluctuating periodically over time and full-scale propeller's time-average value is smaller than model-scale's. The frequency spectrum curves are also provided after fast Fourier transform. By analyzing the frequency spectrum data, it is easy to summarize that each component of the propeller bearing force have the same fluctuation frequency and the peak in BFP is maximum. What's more, each component of full-scale bearing force's fluctuation value is bigger than model-scale's except the bending moment coefficient about the Y-axis.

  11. Static Indentation Load Capacity of the Superelastic 60NiTi for Rolling Element Bearings (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Moore, Lewis E., III; Clifton, Joshua S.


    The nickel-rich, binary nickel-titanium alloys, such as 60NiTi (60Ni-40Ti by wt%), are emerging as viable materials for use in mechanical components like rolling element bearings and gears. 60NiTi is a superelastic material that simultaneously exhibits high hardness and a relatively low elastic modulus (approx.100 GPa). These properties result in the potential to endure extremely high indentation loads such as those encountered in bearings, gears and other mechanical components. In such applications, quantifying the load that results in permanent deformation that can affect component performance and life is important. In this paper, the static load capacity is measured by conducting indentation experiments in which 12.7 mm diameter balls made from the ceramic Si3N4 are pressed into highly polished, hardened 60NiTi flat plates. Hertz stress calculations are used to estimate contact stress. The results show that the 60NiTi surface can withstand an approximately 3400 kN load before significant denting (>0.6 microns deep) occurs. This load capacity is approximately twice that of high performance bearing steels suggesting that the potential exists to make highly resilient bearings and components from such materials.

  12. Effect of carbon ion implantation on the tribology of metal-on-metal bearings for artificial joints. (United States)

    Koseki, Hironobu; Tomita, Masato; Yonekura, Akihiko; Higuchi, Takashi; Sunagawa, Sinya; Baba, Koumei; Osaki, Makoto


    Metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings have become popular due to a major advantage over metal-on-polymer bearings for total hip arthroplasty in that the larger femoral head and hydrodynamic lubrication of the former reduce the rate of wear. However, concerns remain regarding adverse reactions to metal debris including metallosis caused by metal wear generated at the taper-head interface and another modular junction. Our group has hypothesized that carbon ion implantation (CII) may improve metal wear properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the wear properties and friction coefficients of CII surfaces with an aim to ultimately apply these surfaces to MoM bearings in artificial joints. CII was applied to cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (Co-Cr-Mo) alloy substrates by plasma source ion implantation. The substrates were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and a 3D measuring laser microscope. Sliding contact tests were performed with a simple geometry pin-on-plate wear tester at a load of 2.5 N, a calculated contact pressure of 38.5 MPa (max: 57.8 MPa), a reciprocating velocity of 30 mm/s, a stroke length of 60 mm, and a reciprocating cycle count of 172,800 cycles. The surfaces of the CII substrates were generally featureless with a smooth surface topography at the same level as untreated Co-Cr-Mo alloy. Compared to the untreated Co-Cr-Mo alloy, the CII-treated bearings had lower friction coefficients, higher resistance to catastrophic damage, and prevented the adhesion of wear debris. The results of this study suggest that the CII surface stabilizes the wear status due to the low friction coefficient and low infiltration of partner materials, and these properties also prevent the adhesion of wear debris and inhibit excessive wear. Carbon is considered to be biologically inert; therefore, CII is anticipated to be applicable to the bearing surfaces of MoM prostheses.

  13. Individual effects of seasonal changes, visitor density, and concurrent bear behavior on stereotypical behaviors in captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus). (United States)

    Kelly, Krista R; Harrison, Michelle L; Size, Daniele D; MacDonald, Suzanne E


    Stereotypical behaviors in captive polar bears (Ursus maritimus) can be detrimental to their welfare. These behaviors can be reduced through enrichment programs but are often not completely eliminated, so identifying potential triggers is important. The present study investigated the influences of seasonal changes, visitor density, and concurrent bear activity on stereotypical behaviors exhibited by 3 captive polar bears at the Toronto Zoo. All bears exhibited these behaviors; however, individual differences were found in duration and form. The male exhibited less stereotypical behavior during spring, and the females exhibited less stereotypical behavior during winter. An increase in visitor density was associated with more stereotypical behavior in 1 female but less stereotypical behavior in the other 2 bears. All bears engaged in more stereotypical behaviors when the other bears were inactive, and 1 female engaged in more stereotypical behaviors when the other bears were out of sight. Further, when conspecifics were active, all bears engaged in less stereotypical behaviors. Given the variability among individual bears, future enrichment programs must be tailored to the needs of individuals to maximize efficacy.

  14. Research on Bearing Fault Diagnosis Using APSO-SVM Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangchun Yang


    Full Text Available According to the statistics, over 30 % of rotating equipment faults occurred in bearings. Therefore, the fault diagnosis of bearing has a great significance. To achieve effective bearing faults diagnosis, a diagnosis model based on support vector machine (SVM and accelerated particle swarm optimization (APSO for bearing fault diagnosis is proposed. Firstly, empirical mode decomposition (EMD is adopted to decompose the fault signal into sum of several intrinsic mode function (IMF. Then, the feature vectors for bearing fault diagnosis are obtained from the IMF energy. Finally, the fault mode is identified by SVM model which is optimized by APSO. The experiment results show that the proposed diagnosis method can identify the bearing fault type effectively.

  15. Hibernating bears as a model for preventing disuse osteoporosis. (United States)

    Donahue, Seth W; McGee, Meghan E; Harvey, Kristin B; Vaughan, Michael R; Robbins, Charles T


    The hibernating bear is an excellent model for disuse osteoporosis in humans because it is a naturally occurring large animal model. Furthermore, bears and humans have similar lower limb skeletal morphology, and bears walk plantigrade like humans. Black bears (Ursus americanus) may not develop disuse osteoporosis during long periods of disuse (i.e. hibernation) because they maintain osteoblastic bone formation during hibernation. As a consequence, bone volume, mineral content, porosity, and strength are not adversely affected by annual periods of disuse. In fact, cortical bone bending strength has been shown to increase with age in hibernating black bears without a significant change in porosity. Other animals require remobilization periods 2-3 times longer than the immobilization period to recover the bone lost during disuse. Our findings support the hypothesis that black bears, which hibernate for as long as 5-7 months annually, have evolved biological mechanisms to mitigate the adverse effects of disuse on bone porosity and strength.

  16. Vibration Transmission through Bearings with Application to Gearboxes (United States)

    Fleming, David P.


    Cabin noise has become a major concern to manufacturers and users of helicopters. Gear noise is the largest part of this unwanted sound. The crucial noise path is generally considered to be from the gears through the gear-supporting shafts and bearings into the gearbox case, and from there either through the gearbox mounts or the surrounding air to the helicopter cabin. If the noise, that is, the gear and shaft vibration, can be prevented from traveling through the gearbox bearings, then the noise cannot make its way into the helicopter cabin. Thus the vibration-transmitting properties of bearings are of paramount importance. This paper surveys the literature concerning evaluation of properties for the types of bearings used in helicopter gearboxes. A simple model is proposed to evaluate vibration transmission, using measured or calculated bearing stiffness and damping. Less-commonly used types of gearbox bearings (e.g., fluid film) are evaluated for their potential in reducing vibration transmission.

  17. Hyperspectral Mapping of Iron-bearing Minerals Associated with Dry and Ephemeral Lakes (United States)

    Farrand, W. H.; Bowen, B. B.


    This research project is utilizing data from the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) on the International Space Station (ISS) to examine a set of playas and ephemeral lakes in Australia and in the southwestern United States. HICO collects hyperspectral data from 0.35 to 1.08 μm thus excluding the SWIR vibrational overtone region of clays and carbonates. We are assessing the utility of HICO for detecting iron-bearing minerals and materials associated with playas and mapping their fractional abundance outside of the playa boundaries. Sites being investigated include the clastics-dominated Railroad Valley and Lunar Lake playas of Nevada, the evaporite-dominated Bonneville Salt Flats, and the acid-saline Lake Tyrrell of northwest Victoria, Australia. HICO, and supporting airborne hyperspectral datasets (AVIRIS and HyMap), are being converted from at-sensor radiance to surface reflectance using the FLAASH radiance transfer-based atmospheric correction software. Fe-bearing minerals and materials are determined through a standardized endmember detection approach using the commercial ENVI software and mapped using a variety of approaches including linear spectral mixture analysis, constrained energy minimization, and spectral feature fitting. Interpretations of remote data are guided by field-based observations and mapping. We are using the remote sensing data to assess the surface state of the playa (wet vs. dry, soft vs. hard). These factors have bearing in that dusts stripped from playa surfaces can affect nearby human communities and agricultural fields. Playas are also used for recreation and sometimes as transportation corridors and their physical state has important bearing for those functions. Assessing the types of minerals present has relevance for their impact as wind-entrained particulates that could have adverse effects on the health of humans, crops, or livestock.

  18. Population substructure and space use of Foxe Basin polar bears


    Sahanatien, Vicki; Peacock, Elizabeth; Derocher, Andrew E


    Climate change has been identified as a major driver of habitat change, particularly for sea ice-dependent species such as the polar bear (Ursus maritimus). Population structure and space use of polar bears have been challenging to quantify because of their circumpolar distribution and tendency to range over large areas. Knowledge of movement patterns, home range, and habitat is needed for conservation and management. This is the first study to examine the spatial ecology of polar bears in th...

  19. Spatial Distribution of Black Bear Incident Reports in Michigan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie E McFadden-Hiller

    Full Text Available Interactions between humans and carnivores have existed for centuries due to competition for food and space. American black bears are increasing in abundance and populations are expanding geographically in many portions of its range, including areas that are also increasing in human density, often resulting in associated increases in human-bear conflict (hereafter, bear incidents. We used public reports of bear incidents in Michigan, USA, from 2003-2011 to assess the relative contributions of ecological and anthropogenic variables in explaining the spatial distribution of bear incidents and estimated the potential risk of bear incidents. We used weighted Normalized Difference Vegetation Index mean as an index of primary productivity, region (i.e., Upper Peninsula or Lower Peninsula, primary and secondary road densities, and percentage land cover type within 6.5-km2 circular buffers around bear incidents and random points. We developed 22 a priori models and used generalized linear models and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC to rank models. The global model was the best compromise between model complexity and model fit (w = 0.99, with a ΔAIC 8.99 units from the second best performing model. We found that as deciduous forest cover increased, the probability of bear incident occurrence increased. Among the measured anthropogenic variables, cultivated crops and primary roads were the most important in our AIC-best model and were both positively related to the probability of bear incident occurrence. The spatial distribution of relative bear incident risk varied markedly throughout Michigan. Forest cover fragmented with agriculture and other anthropogenic activities presents an environment that likely facilitates bear incidents. Our map can help wildlife managers identify areas of bear incident occurrence, which in turn can be used to help develop strategies aimed at reducing incidents. Researchers and wildlife managers can use similar mapping

  20. Spatial Distribution of Black Bear Incident Reports in Michigan. (United States)

    McFadden-Hiller, Jamie E; Beyer, Dean E; Belant, Jerrold L


    Interactions between humans and carnivores have existed for centuries due to competition for food and space. American black bears are increasing in abundance and populations are expanding geographically in many portions of its range, including areas that are also increasing in human density, often resulting in associated increases in human-bear conflict (hereafter, bear incidents). We used public reports of bear incidents in Michigan, USA, from 2003-2011 to assess the relative contributions of ecological and anthropogenic variables in explaining the spatial distribution of bear incidents and estimated the potential risk of bear incidents. We used weighted Normalized Difference Vegetation Index mean as an index of primary productivity, region (i.e., Upper Peninsula or Lower Peninsula), primary and secondary road densities, and percentage land cover type within 6.5-km2 circular buffers around bear incidents and random points. We developed 22 a priori models and used generalized linear models and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) to rank models. The global model was the best compromise between model complexity and model fit (w = 0.99), with a ΔAIC 8.99 units from the second best performing model. We found that as deciduous forest cover increased, the probability of bear incident occurrence increased. Among the measured anthropogenic variables, cultivated crops and primary roads were the most important in our AIC-best model and were both positively related to the probability of bear incident occurrence. The spatial distribution of relative bear incident risk varied markedly throughout Michigan. Forest cover fragmented with agriculture and other anthropogenic activities presents an environment that likely facilitates bear incidents. Our map can help wildlife managers identify areas of bear incident occurrence, which in turn can be used to help develop strategies aimed at reducing incidents. Researchers and wildlife managers can use similar mapping techniques to

  1. Mid-term changes in blood metal ion levels after Articular Surface Replacement arthroplasty of the hip. (United States)

    Galea, V P; Laaksonen, I; Matuszak, S J; Connelly, J W; Muratoglu, O; Malchau, H


    Our first aim was to determine whether there are significant changes in the level of metal ions in the blood at mid-term follow-up, in patients with an Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) arthroplasty. Secondly, we sought to identify risk factors for any increases. The study involved 435 patients who underwent unilateral, metal-on-metal (MoM) hip resurfacing (HRA) or total hip arthroplasty (THA). These patients all had one measurement of the level of metal ions in the blood before seven years had passed post-operatively (early evaluation) and one after seven years had passed post-operatively (mid-term evaluation). Changes in ion levels were tested using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. We identified subgroups at the highest risk of increase using a multivariable linear logistic regression model. There were significant increases in the levels of metal ions for patients who underwent both MoM HRA (Chromium (Cr): 0.5 parts per billion (ppb); Cobalt (Co): 1.1 ppb) and MoM THA (Cr: 0.5 ppb; Co: 0.7 ppb). In a multivariable model considering MoM HRAs, the change in the levels of metal ions was influenced by female gender (Co: Odds Ratio (OR) 1.42; p = 0.002 and Cr: OR 1.08; p = 0.006). The change was found to be irrespective of the initial level for the MoM HRAs, whereas there was a negative relationship between the initial level and the change in the level for those with a MoM THA (Co: OR -0.43; p MoM HRA and those with a MoM THA. We recommend that the levels of metal ions be measured most frequently for women with a MoM HRA. While those with a MoM THA appear to stabilise at a certain level, the accuracy of this trend is not yet clear. Vigilant follow-up is still recommended. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B(4 Supple B):33-40. ©2017 Galea et al.

  2. Grizzly bears and mining in the Cheviot region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symbaluk, M.; Archibald, T. [Foothills Research Inst., Hinton, AB (Canada)


    This presentation described a grizzly bear research program conducted by the Foothill Research Institute at the Cheviot mine. The research program uses a satellite land classification protocol and remote sensing tools to map and identify the grizzly bear habitat. Modelling is also conducted to predict bear probabilities. Global information systems (GIS) are used to evaluate bear responses to human activities. Grizzly bear health and wellness is also assessed as part of the programs. Land maps are combined with global positioning systems (GPS) and resource selection function (RSF) models in order to map grizzly bear distribution. Data obtained from the program is used to inform decision-making and support policy development. Previous studies predicted that the grizzly bear population would disappear from the Cheviot mine area after 20 years of its being in operation. The research program provided real data to test predictions made during previous environmental assessments. Grizzly bear populations have actually increased in the mining area. It was concluded that the bears have moved more freely through industrial landscapes than previously predicted. tabs., figs.

  3. Grizzly bear density in Glacier National Park, Montana (United States)

    Kendall, K.C.; Stetz, J.B.; Roon, David A.; Waits, L.P.; Boulanger, J.B.; Paetkau, David


    We present the first rigorous estimate of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population density and distribution in and around Glacier National Park (GNP), Montana, USA. We used genetic analysis to identify individual bears from hair samples collected via 2 concurrent sampling methods: 1) systematically distributed, baited, barbed-wire hair traps and 2) unbaited bear rub trees found along trails. We used Huggins closed mixture models in Program MARK to estimate total population size and developed a method to account for heterogeneity caused by unequal access to rub trees. We corrected our estimate for lack of geographic closure using a new method that utilizes information from radiocollared bears and the distribution of bears captured with DNA sampling. Adjusted for closure, the average number of grizzly bears in our study area was 240.7 (95% CI = 202–303) in 1998 and 240.6 (95% CI = 205–304) in 2000. Average grizzly bear density was 30 bears/1,000 km2, with 2.4 times more bears detected per hair trap inside than outside GNP. We provide baseline information important for managing one of the few remaining populations of grizzlies in the contiguous United States.

  4. Coefficients of productivity for Yellowstone's grizzly bear habitat (United States)

    Mattson, David John; Barber, Kim; Maw, Ralene; Renkin, Roy


    This report describes methods for calculating coefficients used to depict habitat productivity for grizzly bears in the Yellowstone ecosystem. Calculations based on these coefficients are used in the Yellowstone Grizzly Bear Cumulative Effects Model to map the distribution of habitat productivity and account for the impacts of human facilities. The coefficients of habitat productivity incorporate detailed information that was collected over a 20-year period (1977-96) on the foraging behavior of Yellowstone's bears and include records of what bears were feeding on, when and where they fed, the extent of that feeding activity, and relative measures of the quantity consumed. The coefficients also incorporate information, collected primarily from 1986 to 1992, on the nutrient content of foods that were consumed, their digestibility, characteristic bite sizes, and the energy required to extract and handle each food. Coefficients were calculated for different time periods and different habitat types, specific to different parts of the Yellowstone ecosystem. Stratifications included four seasons of bear activity (spring, estrus, early hyperphagia, late hyperphagia), years when ungulate carrion and whitebark pine seed crops were abundant versus not, areas adjacent to (bear activity in each region, habitat type, and time period were incorporated into calculations, controlling for the effects of proximity to human facilities. The coefficients described in this report and associated estimates of grizzly bear habitat productivity are unique among many efforts to model the conditions of bear habitat because calculations include information on energetics derived from the observed behavior of radio-marked bears.

  5. Position estimation in magnetic bearings using inductance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, M.D.; Maslen, E.H. [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)


    A signal processing technique is presented by which the position of a rotor supported in magnetic bearings may be deduced from the bearing current waveform. The bearing currents are presumed to be developed with a bi-state switching amplifier which produces a substantial high frequency switching ripple. The amplitude of this ripple is a function of the power supply voltage, switching duty cycle, and bearing inductance. The inductance is predominantly a function of bearing air gap or, equivalently, rotor position while the duty cycle is primarily a function of developed bearing force. Ideally, the sensor signal processor should exactly extract the rotor position information while perfectly reflecting the bearing force information. When the bearing is a perfect inductor, these functional relationships are easily established and the gap dependence is monotonic. Since the voltage and duty cycle are both easily measured, the relationships can be inverted with a non-linear parameter estimator to extract the rotor position. One method of implementing this estimator is presented and its performance is evaluated by simulation. The method is demonstrated to produce a fairly wide bandwidth sensor with acceptably low feed-through of the bearing force.

  6. Gene transcription in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) from disparate populations (United States)

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Waters, Shannon C.; Meyerson, Randi; Rode, Karyn D.; Atwood, Todd C.


    Polar bears in the Beaufort (SB) and Chukchi (CS) Seas experience different environments due primarily to a longer history of sea ice loss in the Beaufort Sea. Ecological differences have been identified as a possible reason for the generally poorer body condition and reproduction of Beaufort polar bears compared to those from the Chukchi, but the influence of exposure to other stressors remains unknown. We use molecular technology, quantitative PCR, to identify gene transcription differences among polar bears from the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas as well as captive healthy polar bears. We identified significant transcriptional differences among a priori groups (i.e., captive bears, SB 2012, SB 2013, CS 2013) for ten of the 14 genes of interest (i.e., CaM, HSP70, CCR3, TGFβ, COX2, THRα, T-bet, Gata3, CD69, and IL17); transcription levels of DRβ, IL1β, AHR, and Mx1 did not differ among groups. Multivariate analysis also demonstrated separation among the groups of polar bears. Specifically, we detected transcript profiles consistent with immune function impairment in polar bears from the Beaufort Sea, when compared with Chukchi and captive polar bears. Although there is no strong indication of differential exposure to contaminants or pathogens between CS and SB bears, there are clearly differences in important transcriptional responses between populations. Further investigation is warranted to refine interpretation of potential effects of described stress-related conditions for the SB population.

  7. Modeling of Hybrid Permanent Magnetic-Gas Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morosi, Stefano; Santos, Ilmar


    . In the present paper both the technologies are combined with the aim of developing a new kind of hybrid permanent magnetic - gas bearing. This new kind of machine is intended to exploit the benefits of the two technologies while minimizing their drawbacks. The poor start-up and low speed operation performance...... of the gas bearing is balanced by the properties of the passive magnetic one. At high speeds the dynamic characteristics of the gas bearing are improved by offsetting the stator ring of the permanent magnetic bearing. Furthermore this design shows a kind of redundancy, which offers soft failure properties...

  8. On The Modeling Of Hybrid Aerostatic - Gas Journal Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morosi, Stefano; Santos, Ilmar


    of a compressible fluid film journal bearing. Control forces are generated by injecting pressurized air into the bearing gap through orifices located on the bearing walls. A modified form of the compressible Reynolds equation for active lubrication is derived. By solving this equation, stiffness and damping......Gas journal bearing have been increasingly adopted in modern turbo-machinery applications, as they meet the demands of operation at higher rotational speeds, in clean environment and great efficiency. Due to the fact that gaseous lubricants, typically air, have much lower viscosity than more...

  9. On The Modelling Of Hybrid Aerostatic - Gas Journal Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morosi, Stefano; Santos, Ilmar


    modeling for hybrid lubrication of a compressible fluid film journal bearing. Additional forces are generated by injecting pressurized air into the bearing gap through orifices located on the bearing walls. A modified form of the compressible Reynolds equation for active lubrication is derived. By solving......Gas journal bearing have been increasingly adopted in modern turbo-machinery applications, as they meet the demands of operation at higher rotational speeds, in clean environment and great efficiency. Due to the fact that gaseous lubricants, typically air, have much lower viscosity than more...

  10. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Gearbox 3 Planet Bearing Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jonathan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    The Gearbox Reliability Collaborative gearbox was redesigned to improve its load-sharing characteristics and predicted fatigue life. The most important aspect of the redesign was to replace the cylindrical roller bearings with preloaded tapered roller bearings in the planetary section. Similar to previous work, the strain gages installed on the planet tapered roller bearings were calibrated in a load frame. This report describes the calibration tests and provides the factors necessary to convert the measured units from dynamometer testing to bearing loads, suitable for comparison to engineering models.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekir Sadık ÜNLÜ


    Full Text Available Bronzes which copper based alloys is widely used because of properties physical, thermal and tribological as journal bearing material. This material that has tribological performance good conclusions gives at journal bearings. In this study, CuSn10 bronze that were manufactured journal bearings friction and wear properties has been examined and compared. SAE 1050 steel shaft has been used as counter abrader. Experiments have been carried out 10 N and 20 N loads, 750 and 1500 rpm, dry and lubricated conditions by using radial journal bearing wear test rig. As a results, high friction coefficient and weigh loss have been obtained at dry condition more than lubricated condition.

  12. Water retention curve for hydrate‐bearing sediments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dai, Sheng; Santamarina, J. Carlos


    .... The determination of the water retention curve for hydrate‐bearing sediments faces experimental difficulties, and most studies assume constant water retention curves regardless of hydrate saturation...

  13. Relationship of engine bearing wear and oil rheology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, D.H.


    Engine wear tests were conducted, using two different engine designs, with single and multigrade engine oils. In one engine there was a significant reduction in bearing wear when multigrade oils were used. For the other engine there was evidence of less bearing wear when multigrade oils were used. In both engines correlations were found among bearing wear, high-temperature high-shear-rate viscosity and oil elasticity. It has been shown that the minimum oil film thickness measured for the front main bearing in an operating engine is related to both oil viscosity and elasticity for multigrade oils. The study presented here is an attempt to extend that work to determine if the same oil rheological parameter can be used to establish a correlation to engine journal bearing wear. Two different engines were used and wear was measured for connecting rod big-ends bearings and main bearings. The results ranged from excellent to poor depending on the engine and bearing location within each engine. Despite the limited success in establishing correlations among the oil rheological properties and bearing wear, the results are being presented in the interest of stimulating further work in this important area.

  14. Roller Bearing Monitoring by New Subspace-Based Damage Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gautier


    Full Text Available A frequency-band subspace-based damage identification method for fault diagnosis in roller bearings is presented. Subspace-based damage indicators are obtained by filtering the vibration data in the frequency range where damage is likely to occur, that is, around the bearing characteristic frequencies. The proposed method is validated by considering simulated data of a damaged bearing. Also, an experimental case is considered which focuses on collecting the vibration data issued from a run-to-failure test. It is shown that the proposed method can detect bearing defects and, as such, it appears to be an efficient tool for diagnosis purpose.

  15. Analysis of bearing steel exposed to rolling contact fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K. T.; Fæster, Søren; Natarajan, Anand


    The objective of this work is to characterize fatigue damage in roller bearings under conditions of high load and slippage. A test rig constructed for rolling contact fatigue tests of rings is described, and test results are presented for rings taken from two spherical roller bearings. The prepar......The objective of this work is to characterize fatigue damage in roller bearings under conditions of high load and slippage. A test rig constructed for rolling contact fatigue tests of rings is described, and test results are presented for rings taken from two spherical roller bearings...

  16. Targeting Faulty Bearings for an Ocean Turbine Dynamometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Vendittis


    Full Text Available A real-time, vibrations-based condition monitoring method used to detect, localize, and identify a faulty bearing in an ocean turbine electric motor is presented in this paper. The electric motor is installed in a dynamometer emulating the functions of the actual ocean turbine. High frequency modal analysis and power trending are combined to assess the operational health of the dynamometer’s bearings across an array of accelerometers. Once a defect has been detected, envelope analysis is used to identify the exact bearing containing the defect. After a brief background on bearing fault detection, this paper introduces a simplified mathematical model of the bearing fault, followed with the signal processing approach used to detect, locate, and identify the fault. In the results section, effectiveness of the methods of bearing fault detection presented in this paper is demonstrated through processing data collected, first, from a controlled lathe setup and, second, from the dynamometer. By mounting a bearing containing a defect punched into its inner raceway to a lathe and placing an array of accelerometers along the length of lathe, the bearing fault is clearly detected, localized, and identified as an inner raceway defect. Through retroactively trending the data leading to the near-failure of one of the electric motors in the dynamometer, the authors identified a positive trend in energy levels for a specific frequency band present across the array of accelerometers and identify two bearings as possible sources of the fault.

  17. Development of the composite superconducting magnetic bearing for superconducting flywheel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaya, S.; Komura, K.; Kashima, N.; Kawashima, H.; Unisuga, S.; Kakiuchi, Y


    Superconducting magnetic bearing for flywheel requires the characteristics such as higher stiffness, lower loss and higher stability. There are two types of superconducting magnetic bearings, one is axial gap type and another is radial gap type and the characteristics of these types are quite different. We think that the supporting system of superconducting flywheel should support the rotor at one position near the center of gravity to minimize the cooling energy loss. We propose that the bearing composed of axial gap type and radial gap type is necessary from the result of this investigation, because the characteristics about both types of bearings should be compensated each other.

  18. Novel High Temperature Magnetic Bearings for Space Vehicle Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Previous high temperature magnetic bearings employed only electromagnets. The work proposed in this SBIR program seeks to utilize High Temperature Permanent Magnets...

  19. Interaction of Reinforced Elastomeric Bearings in Bridge Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nittmannová Ľubica


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the behavior of reinforced elastomeric bearings under various loads. They are made of special types of bearings. The experimental verification of these special bearings has been tested on various types of loading. The results of the experimental measurements are compared with the results of the numerical modeling and calculations according to the standard assumptions in STN EN 1337-3. In the conclusion, the results are summarized for the selected types of bearings.

  20. Design optimization and probabilistic analysis of a hydrodynamic journal bearing (United States)

    Liniecki, Alexander G.


    A nonlinear constrained optimization of a hydrodynamic bearing was performed yielding three main variables: radial clearance, bearing length to diameter ratio, and lubricating oil viscosity. As an objective function a combined model of temperature rise and oil supply has been adopted. The optimized model of the bearing has been simulated for population of 1000 cases using Monte Carlo statistical method. It appeared that the so called 'optimal solution' generated more than 50 percent of failed bearings, because their minimum oil film thickness violated stipulated minimum constraint value. As a remedy change of oil viscosity is suggested after several sensitivities of variables have been investigated.