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Sample records for th1 immune response

  1. Food preservatives sodium benzoate and propionic acid and colorant curcumin suppress Th1-type immune response in vitro.

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    Maier, Elisabeth; Kurz, Katharina; Jenny, Marcel; Schennach, Harald; Ueberall, Florian; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2010-07-01

    Food preservatives sodium benzoate and propionic acid and colorant curcumin are demonstrated to suppress in a dose-dependent manner Th1-type immune response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro. Results show an anti-inflammatory property of compounds which however could shift the Th1-Th2-type immune balance towards Th2-type immunity. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of Probiotic Consortium on TH1 and TH2 Immune Response

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    Gulnara Shakhabayeva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main role of probiotics is to maintain homeostasis in the intestines and improve bowel protective function. The aim of the present study is to investigate immuno-modulatory effects of a probiotic consortium. Methods: Observations were carried out in vitro. The presence of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IgA, IgM, and IgE was studied using a solid-phase enzyme immunosorbent assay on the VECTOR-BEST sets (Russia. Results: Immunomodulatory properties of the probiotic consortium were studied, which consisted of the following strains: Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, and Bifidobacterium bifidum. Elevated concentrations of INFγ in control samples decreased 3.9 times (p < 0.05 after a saturation of blood with the probiotic consortium. Significant reduction of cytokine levels after the probiotic effects of the consortium was observed in IL-10 by 2.1 times (p < 0.05 and IgA by 1.87 times (p < 0.0005. There was a significant increase in the levels of IL-4, IgE, IL-6, and IL-8 by 1.3 (p < 0.005, 1.1 (p < 0.5, 18.0 (p < 0.005, and 6 (p < 0.05 times, respectively, in comparison with the control samples. IL-4 and INFγ have different effects on the synthesis of IgE. Soluble low affinity receptors FcεRII (CD23 in association with IL-4 facilitate a differentiation of the B-lymphocytes in IgE-synthesizing cells, while γ-INF inhibits this process. It is known that the intracellular expression of γ-INF and IL-4 is the most reliable marker for Th1 and Th2 immune responses, respectively. The conducted studies determined that the ratio of INF-γ/IL-4 was 0.9 (control 4.8, P < 0.005 after the saturation of the blood cells with probiotic consortium. NF-γ/IL4 ratio decreased by 5.3 times compared with a control value, which indicates a reduction in the functional activity of Th1 type lymphocytes in comparison with the

  3. Immunization with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells induces Th1 immune response in Balb/C mice

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    Martins, Estefania M.N.; Andrade, Antero S.R. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN/MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: estefaniabio@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: antero@cdtn.br; Resende, Maria Aparecida de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: maresend@mono.icb.ufmg.br; Reis, Bernardo S.; Goes, Alfredo M. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia], e-mail: goes@mono.icb.ufmg.br, e-mail: brsgarbi@mono.icb.ufmg.br

    2009-07-01

    Paracoccidioides brasiliensis is the agent of paracoccidioidomycosis, the most prevalent mycosis in Latin America. To date, there is no effective vaccine. In our laboratory yeast cells of P. brasiliensis were attenuated by gamma irradiation. We defined an absorbed dose in which the pathogen loses the reproductive ability, while retaining the morphology, the synthesis and secretion of proteins and the oxidative metabolism. The immunization with these cells was able to confer protection in BALB/c mice. The aim of the present work was evaluate the immune response pathway activated in mice immunized with P. brasiliensis radioattenuated yeast cells. The protector effect was evaluated in BALB/c mice groups immunized once or twice, respectively. Each group was divided in three sub groups that were challenge 30, 45 or 60 days after the immunization. These groups were called G1A, G1B and G1C in the group immunized once and G2A, G2B and G2C in the group immunized twice. Recovery of CFUs and cytokines determination (IFN - {gamma}, IL - 10 and IL IV 4) were performed three months post challenge. Quantitative RT-PCR was the method of choice used to quantify the expression of cytokines. The sera were collected weekly to evaluate the IgG antibody titers and the IgG1 and IgG2a pattern in the course of infection. A significant reduction in CFUs recovery was verified 90 days post challenge in mice submitted to one immunization: 73.0%, 96.0% and 76.3% for sub-groups G1A, G1B and G1C, respectively. In the group submitted to two immunizations, a remarkable increase in the protection was obtained. No CFUs was recovered from sub-groups G2B and G2C and very few CFUs (reduction of 98.6%) were recovered from the lungs of sub group G2A. In mice submitted to one immunization, Th1 and Th2 cytokines were simultaneously produced. In the group submitted to two immunizations, levels of IL-10 and IL-4 were very low, while IFN-{gamma} production was maintained indicating that a Th1 pattern was

  4. Long-Lasting Effects of BCG Vaccination on Both Heterologous Th1/Th17 Responses and Innate Trained Immunity

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    Kleinnijenhuis, Johanneke; Quintin, Jessica; Preijers, Frank

    2013-01-01

    We have recently shown that BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccination in healthy volunteers induces epigenetic reprogramming of monocytes, leading to increased cytokine production in response to nonrelated pathogens for up to 3 months after vaccination. This phenomenon was named 'trained immunity......'. In the present study we assessed whether BCG was able to induce long-lasting effects on both trained immunity and heterologous T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 immune responses 1 year after vaccination. The production of TNFα and IL-1β to mycobacteria or unrelated pathogens was higher after 2 weeks and 3 months...... in proinflammatory cytokine production after stimulation with the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide. The heterologous production of Th1 (IFN-γ) and Th17 (IL-17 and IL-22) immune responses to nonmycobacterial stimulation remained strongly elevated even 1 year after BCG vaccination. In conclusion, BCG induces sustained...

  5. Long-lasting effects of BCG vaccination on both heterologous Th1/Th17 responses and innate trained immunity.

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    Kleinnijenhuis, Johanneke; Quintin, Jessica; Preijers, Frank; Benn, Christine Stabell; Joosten, Leo A B; Jacobs, Cor; van Loenhout, Joke; Xavier, Ramnik J; Aaby, Peter; van der Meer, Jos W M; van Crevel, Reinout; Netea, Mihai G

    2014-01-01

    We have recently shown that BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccination in healthy volunteers induces epigenetic reprogramming of monocytes, leading to increased cytokine production in response to nonrelated pathogens for up to 3 months after vaccination. This phenomenon was named 'trained immunity'. In the present study we assessed whether BCG was able to induce long-lasting effects on both trained immunity and heterologous T helper 1 (Th1) and Th17 immune responses 1 year after vaccination. The production of TNFα and IL-1β to mycobacteria or unrelated pathogens was higher after 2 weeks and 3 months postvaccination, but these effects were less pronounced 1 year after vaccination. However, monocytes recovered 1 year after vaccination had an increased expression of pattern recognition receptors such as CD14, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and mannose receptor, and this correlated with an increase in proinflammatory cytokine production after stimulation with the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide. The heterologous production of Th1 (IFN-γ) and Th17 (IL-17 and IL-22) immune responses to nonmycobacterial stimulation remained strongly elevated even 1 year after BCG vaccination. In conclusion, BCG induces sustained changes in the immune system associated with a nonspecific response to infections both at the level of innate trained immunity and at the level of heterologous Th1/Th17 responses. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel

  6. Immunization with Brucella VirB proteins reduces organ colonization in mice through a Th1-type immune response and elicits a similar immune response in dogs.

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    Pollak, Cora N; Wanke, María Magdalena; Estein, Silvia M; Delpino, M Victoria; Monachesi, Norma E; Comercio, Elida A; Fossati, Carlos A; Baldi, Pablo C

    2015-03-01

    VirB proteins from Brucella spp. constitute the type IV secretion system, a key virulence factor mediating the intracellular survival of these bacteria. Here, we assessed whether a Th1-type immune response against VirB proteins may protect mice from Brucella infection and whether this response can be induced in the dog, a natural host for Brucella. Splenocytes from mice immunized with VirB7 or VirB9 responded to their respective antigens with significant and specific production of gamma interferon (IFN-γ), whereas interleukin-4 (IL-4) was not detected. Thirty days after an intraperitoneal challenge with live Brucella abortus, the spleen load of bacteria was almost 1 log lower in mice immunized with VirB proteins than in unvaccinated animals. As colonization reduction seemed to correlate with a Th1-type immune response against VirB proteins, we decided to assess whether such a response could be elicited in the dog. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from dogs immunized with VirB proteins (three subcutaneous doses in QuilA adjuvant) produced significantly higher levels of IFN-γ than cells from control animals upon in vitro stimulation with VirB proteins. A skin test to assess specific delayed-type hypersensitivity was positive in 4 out of 5 dogs immunized with either VirB7 or VirB9. As both proteins are predicted to locate in the outer membrane of Brucella organisms, the ability of anti-VirB antibodies to mediate complement-dependent bacteriolysis of B. canis was assessed in vitro. Sera from dogs immunized with either VirB7 or VirB9, but not from those receiving phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), produced significant bacteriolysis. These results suggest that VirB-specific responses that reduce organ colonization by Brucella in mice can be also elicited in dogs. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Lithocholic acid controls adaptive immune responses by inhibition of Th1 activation through the Vitamin D receptor

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    Puchner, Teresa; Korkmaz, H. Inci; Vos, Mariska; Soeters, Maarten R.; de Vries, Carlie J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids are established signaling molecules next to their role in the intestinal emulsification and uptake of lipids. We here aimed to identify a potential interaction between bile acids and CD4+ Th cells, which are central in adaptive immune responses. We screened distinct bile acid species for their potency to affect T cell function. Primary human and mouse CD4+ Th cells as well as Jurkat T cells were used to gain insight into the mechanism underlying these effects. We found that unconjugated lithocholic acid (LCA) impedes Th1 activation as measured by i) decreased production of the Th1 cytokines IFNγ and TNFαα, ii) decreased expression of the Th1 genes T-box protein expressed in T cells (T-bet), Stat-1 and Stat4, and iii) decreased STAT1α/β phosphorylation. Importantly, we observed that LCA impairs Th1 activation at physiological relevant concentrations. Profiling of MAPK signaling pathways in Jurkat T cells uncovered an inhibition of ERK-1/2 phosphorylation upon LCA exposure, which could provide an explanation for the impaired Th1 activation. LCA induces these effects via Vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling since VDR RNA silencing abrogated these effects. These data reveal for the first time that LCA controls adaptive immunity via inhibition of Th1 activation. Many factors influence LCA levels, including bile acid-based drugs and gut microbiota. Our data may suggest that these factors also impact on adaptive immunity via a yet unrecognized LCA-Th cell axis. PMID:28493883

  8. Lithocholic acid controls adaptive immune responses by inhibition of Th1 activation through the Vitamin D receptor.

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    Thijs W H Pols

    Full Text Available Bile acids are established signaling molecules next to their role in the intestinal emulsification and uptake of lipids. We here aimed to identify a potential interaction between bile acids and CD4+ Th cells, which are central in adaptive immune responses. We screened distinct bile acid species for their potency to affect T cell function. Primary human and mouse CD4+ Th cells as well as Jurkat T cells were used to gain insight into the mechanism underlying these effects. We found that unconjugated lithocholic acid (LCA impedes Th1 activation as measured by i decreased production of the Th1 cytokines IFNγ and TNFαα, ii decreased expression of the Th1 genes T-box protein expressed in T cells (T-bet, Stat-1 and Stat4, and iii decreased STAT1α/β phosphorylation. Importantly, we observed that LCA impairs Th1 activation at physiological relevant concentrations. Profiling of MAPK signaling pathways in Jurkat T cells uncovered an inhibition of ERK-1/2 phosphorylation upon LCA exposure, which could provide an explanation for the impaired Th1 activation. LCA induces these effects via Vitamin D receptor (VDR signaling since VDR RNA silencing abrogated these effects. These data reveal for the first time that LCA controls adaptive immunity via inhibition of Th1 activation. Many factors influence LCA levels, including bile acid-based drugs and gut microbiota. Our data may suggest that these factors also impact on adaptive immunity via a yet unrecognized LCA-Th cell axis.

  9. Competition for antigen between Th1 and Th2 responses determines the timing of the immune response switch during Mycobaterium avium subspecies paratuberulosis infection in ruminants.

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    Gesham Magombedze

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Johne's disease (JD, a persistent and slow progressing infection of ruminants such as cows and sheep, is caused by slow replicating bacilli Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP infecting macrophages in the gut. Infected animals initially mount a cell-mediated CD4 T cell response against MAP which is characterized by the production of interferon gamma (Th1 response. Over time, Th1 response diminishes in most animals and antibody response to MAP antigens becomes dominant (Th2 response. The switch from Th1 to Th2 response occurs concomitantly with disease progression and shedding of the bacteria in feces. Mechanisms controlling this Th1/Th2 switch remain poorly understood. Because Th1 and Th2 responses are known to cross-inhibit each other, it is unclear why initially strong Th1 response is lost over time. Using a novel mathematical model of the immune response to MAP infection we show that the ability of extracellular bacteria to persist outside of macrophages naturally leads to switch of the cellular response to antibody production. Several additional mechanisms may also contribute to the timing of the Th1/Th2 switch including the rate of proliferation of Th1/Th2 responses at the site of infection, efficiency at which immune responses cross-inhibit each other, and the rate at which Th1 response becomes exhausted over time. Our basic model reasonably well explains four different kinetic patterns of the Th1/Th2 responses in MAP-infected sheep by variability in the initial bacterial dose and the efficiency of the MAP-specific T cell responses. Taken together, our novel mathematical model identifies factors of bacterial and host origin that drive kinetics of the immune response to MAP and provides the basis for testing the impact of vaccination or early treatment on the duration of infection.

  10. Recent progress in understanding host immune response to Avian Coccidiosis: Th1 and Th17 responses

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    Host-pathogen interaction leading to protection against coccidiosis is complex, involving many aspects of innate and adaptive immunity to intracellular parasites. The etiologic agent of avian coccidiosis is Eimeria, a genus of eukaryotic obligate intracellular parasites belonging to the phylum Apico...

  11. Th1 and Th2 immune responses related to pelvic endometriosis Resposta imunológica Th1 e Th2 relacionada à endometriose pélvica

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    Sergio Podgaec

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed the relationship between clinical characteristics of endometriosis and Th1/Th2 immune response patterns. METHODS: A prospective study was performed with 65 patients with endometriosis (Group A and 33 without the disease (Group B. Measurement of IL 2, 4 and 10, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma was carried out in peripheral blood and peritoneal fluid. RESULTS: Serum TNF-alpha was higher in patients with endometriosis who had deep dyspareunia compared to controls (mean 4.5 pg/ml and 2.3 pg/ml, pOBJETIVO: Este estudo analisa a relação entre as características clínicas da endometriose e os padrões da resposta imune Th1/Th2. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo realizado com 65 pacientes com endometriose (Grupo A e 33 pacientes sem a doença (Grupo B. Foram realizadas avaliação no fluido peritoneal e sangue periférico de IL 2, 4 e 10, TNF-alfa e IFN-gama. A significância foi estabelecida em p < 0,05. RESULTADOS: TNF-alfa encontrava-se elevado em pacientes com endometriose que apresentavam dispareunia de profundidade comparado com controle (média 4,5 pg/ml e 2,3 pg/ml, p< 0,05. Dentre essas pacientes (n=32, 65,5% apresentavam endometriose profunda. Pacientes com endometriose e infertilidade apresentavam concentrações maiores de IL-2 no fluido peritoneal quando comparadas com controle (média 5,9 pg/ml e 0,2 pg/ml, p< 0,05, sendo que neste grupo, 63,5% (n=14 apresentavam endometriose profunda. Foi observada também maior concentração de IL-10 nas pacientes que apresentavam endometriose ovariana quando comparadas às sem esse tipo de endometriose, assim como quando comparadas às pacientes do grupo controle (média 50pg/ml, 18,7pg/ml e 25,7pg/ml, p<0,05. CONCLUSÃO: Estes resultados sugerem que quando dados clínicos específicos associam-se a uma produção elevada de certas citocinas, ocorre um padrão de resposta Th1 que pode estar associado à endometriose profunda.

  12. Induction of antigen-specific Th1-type immune responses by gamma-irradiated recombinant Brucella abortus RB51.

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    Sanakkayala, Neelima; Sokolovska, Anna; Gulani, Jatinder; Hogenesch, Harm; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Boyle, Stephen M; Schurig, Gerhardt G; Vemulapalli, Ramesh

    2005-12-01

    Brucella abortus strain RB51 is an attenuated rough mutant used as the live vaccine against bovine brucellosis in the United States and other countries. We previously reported the development of strain RB51 as a bacterial vaccine vector for inducing Th1-type immune responses against heterologous proteins. Because safety concerns may preclude the use of strain RB51-based recombinant live vaccines, we explored the ability of a gamma-irradiated recombinant RB51 strain to induce heterologous antigen-specific immune responses in BALB/c mice. Exposure of strain RB51G/LacZ expressing Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase to a minimum of 300 kilorads of gamma radiation resulted in complete loss of replicative ability. These bacteria, however, remained metabolically active and continued to synthesize beta-galactosidase. A single intraperitoneal inoculation of mice with 10(9) CFU equivalents of gamma-irradiated, but not heat-killed, RB51G/LacZ induced a beta-galactosidase-specific Th1-type immune response. Though no obvious differences were detected in immune responses to B. abortus-specific antigens, mice vaccinated with gamma-irradiated, but not heat-killed, RB51G/LacZ developed significant protection against challenge with virulent B. abortus. In vitro experiments indicated that gamma-irradiated and heat-killed RB51G/LacZ induced maturation of dendritic cells; however, stimulation with gamma-irradiated bacteria resulted in more interleukin-12 secretion. These results suggest that recombinant RB51 strains exposed to an appropriate minimum dose of gamma radiation are unable to replicate but retain their ability to stimulate Th1 immune responses against the heterologous antigens and confer protection against B. abortus challenge in mice.

  13. Comparison of innate and Th1-type host immune responses inOesophagostomum dentatumandTrichuris suisinfections in pigs

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    Andreasen, Annette; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Klaver, Elsenoor J.

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated details of the innate and Th1/Treg type associated host immune responses in Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum mono- and co-infected pigs and in vitro in stimulated porcine dendritic cell cultures. Forty-eight pigs were allocated into a 2-factorial design...... with two groups trickle inoculated with 10 T. suis eggs/kg/day (Group T) or 20 O. dentatum L3/kg/day (O). Another group (OT) was infected with both parasites. Group C remained uninfected. Expression of innate and Th1/Treg cell associated genes in gut mucosa and associated lymph nodes was determined by q......PCR at necropsy day 35 and 71. Gene expression showed suppressed/inhibited Th1 and Treg type immune reactions, in accordance with previous findings of a predominant Th2 type immune response to both nematodes. The in vitro part examined production of TNF-α in porcine dendritic cells (DC) exposed to T. suis and...

  14. Th1 and Th2 immune response to P30 and ROP18 peptides in human toxoplasmosis.

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    Torres-Morales, Elizabeth; Taborda, Laura; Cardona, Nestor; De-la-Torre, Alejandra; Sepulveda-Arias, Juan Carlos; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso; Gomez-Marin, Jorge Enrique

    2014-10-01

    We determined the specific lymphocyte proliferative response and cytokine profile production regarding Toxoplasma P30 (2017 from virulent and non-virulent strain) and ROP18 protein-derived peptides (from clonal lineages I, II and III) in 19 patients having ocular toxoplasmosis, five suffering chronic asymptomatic infection, nine with congenital toxoplasmosis and eight Toxoplasma negative people. A Beckman Coulter FC500 flow cytometer was used for determining antigen-specific T cells (CD3+ CD4+ or CD3+ CD8+ cells) in peripheral blood culture. IFN γ and IL10 levels were determined in culture supernatants. Specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell response to total antigen and P30- and ROP18-derived peptides was observed in infected people. Ocular toxoplasmosis patients had a preferential Th2 response after antigenic stimulation. Non-virulent peptide 2017 was able to shift response toward Th1 in congenitally infected children and virulent peptide 2017 induced a Th2 response in chronically infected, asymptomatic people. An immune response in human toxoplasmosis after ex vivo antigenic stimulation was Th1- or Th2-skewed, depending on a patient's clinical condition. Colombian ocular toxoplasmosis patients' immune response was Th2-skewed, regardless of the nature of antigen stimulus.

  15. Host Th1/Th2 immune response to Taenia solium cyst antigens in relation to cyst burden of neurocysticercosis.

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    Tharmalingam, J; Prabhakar, A T; Gangadaran, P; Dorny, P; Vercruysse, J; Geldhof, P; Rajshekhar, V; Alexander, M; Oommen, A

    2016-10-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC), Taenia solium larval infection of the brain, is an important cause of acquired seizures in endemic countries, which relate to number, location and degenerating cysts in the brain. Multicyst infections are common in endemic countries although single-cyst infection prevails in India. Single-cyst infections in an endemic country suggest a role for host immunity limiting the infection. This study examined ex vivo CD4(+) T cells and in vitro Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses to T. solium cyst antigens of peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy subjects from endemic and nonendemic regions and of single- and multicyst-infected patients for association with cyst burden of NCC. T. solium cyst antigens elicited a Th1 cytokine response in healthy subjects of T. solium-endemic and T. solium-non-endemic regions and those with single-cyst infections and a Th2 cytokine response from subjects with multicyst neurocysticercosis. Multicyst neurocysticercosis subjects also exhibited low levels of effector memory CD4(+) T cells. Th1 cytokine response of T. solium exposure and low infectious loads may aid in limiting cyst number. Th2 cytokines and low effector T cells may enable multiple-cyst infections to establish and persist. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Babassu aqueous extract (BAE as an adjuvant for T helper (Th1-dependent immune responses in mice of a Th2 immune response-prone strain

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    Nascimento Flavia RF

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aqueous extract of a Brazilian palm-tree fruit - the babassu - (BAE exerts a clear immunostimulative activity in vivo. In the present work, the possibility that BAE can promote Th1 immune responses in mice of a Th2 immune response-prone strain - the BALB/c was investigated. BAE itself, and preparations consisting of Leishmania amazonensis promastigote extract (LE, adsorbed or not to Al(OH3, and in the presence or not of BAE, were used as immunogens. LE and Al(OH3 have been shown to preferentially elicit Th2 immune responses. Results The addition of BAE to LE-containing immunogenic preparations, adsorbed or not to Al(OH3, clearly promoted the in vitro production of interferon γ (IFN-γ, a major Th1-dependent cytokine, and not of interleukin (IL-4 (a Th2-dependent cytokine, by LE-stimulated splenocytes of immunized BALB/c mice. It also promoted the in vivo formation of IgG2a anti-LE antibodies. However, immunization with LE by itself led to an increased production of IL-4 by LE-stimulated splenocytes, and this production, albeit not enhanced, was not reduced by the addition of BAE to the immunogen. On the other hand, the IL-4 production by LE-stimulated splenocytes was significantly lower in mice immunized with a preparation containing Al(OH3-adsorbed LE and BAE than in mice immunized with the control preparation of Al(OH3-adsorbed LE without BAE. Moreover, an increased production of IFN-γ, and not of IL-4, was observed in the culture supernatants of splenocytes, from BAE-immunized mice, which were in vitro stimulated with BAE or which received no specific in vitro stimulus. No differences in IL-10 (an immunoregulatory cytokine levels in the supernatants of splenocytes from mice that were injected with BAE, in relation to splenocytes from control mice, were observed. The spontaneous ex vivo production of NO by splenocytes of mice that had been injected with BAE was significantly higher than the production of NO by

  17. The Mycobacterium bovis BCG prime-Rv0577 DNA boost vaccination induces a durable Th1 immune response in mice.

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    Gu, Dongqing; Chen, Wei; Mi, Youjun; Gong, Xueli; Luo, Tao; Bao, Lang

    2016-04-01

    Tuberculosis remains a major global health problem and effective vaccines are urgently needed. In this study, we used the combined DNA- and protein-based vaccines of immunodominant antigen Rv0577 to boost BCG and evaluated their immunogenicity in BALB/c mice. Our data suggest that the booster vaccine may substantially enhance the immunogenicity of BCG and strengthen both CD4+ T cell-mediated Th1 and CD8+ T cell-mediated cytolytic responses. Compared with the protein-based vaccine, the DNA-based vaccine can induce more durable Th1 immune response, characterized by high levels of antibody response, proliferation response, percentages of CD4+/CD8+ and cytokine secretion in antigen-stimulated splenocyte cultures. In conclusion, we for the first time, developed a protein- and plasmid DNA-based booster vaccine based on Rv0577. Our findings suggest that antigen Rv0577-based DNA vaccine is immunogenic and can efficiently boost BCG, which could be helpful in the design of an efficient vaccination strategy against TB. © The Author 2016. Published by ABBS Editorial Office in association with Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  18. Human Monocyte-Derived Dendritic Cells Exposed to Microorganisms Involved in Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis Induce a Th1-Polarized Immune Response

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    Pallandre, Jean-René; Borg, Christophe; Loeffert, Sophie; Gbaguidi-Haore, Houssein; Millon, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is an immunoallergic disease characterized by a prominent interstitial infiltrate composed predominantly of lymphocytes secreting inflammatory cytokines. Dendritic cells (DCs) are known to play a pivotal role in the lymphocytic response. However, their cross talk with microorganisms that cause HP has yet to be elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the initial interactions between human monocyte-derived DCs (MoDCs) and four microorganisms that are different in nature (Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula [actinomycetes], Mycobacterium immunogenum [mycobacteria], and Wallemia sebi and Eurotium amstelodami [filamentous fungi]) and are involved in HP. Our objectives were to determine the cross talk between MoDCs and HP-causative agents and to determine whether the resulting immune response varied according to the microbial extract tested. The phenotypic activation of MoDCs was measured by the increased expression of costimulatory molecules and levels of cytokines in supernatants. The functional activation of MoDCs was measured by the ability of MoDCs to induce lymphocytic proliferation and differentiation in a mixed lymphocytic reaction (MLR). E. amstelodami-exposed (EA) MoDCs expressed higher percentages of costimulatory molecules than did W. sebi-exposed (WS), S. rectivirgula-exposed (SR), or M. immunogenum-exposed (MI) MoDCs (P < 0.05, Wilcoxon signed-rank test). EA-MoDCs, WS-MoDCs, SR-MoDCs, and MI-MoDCs induced CD4+ T cell proliferation and a Th1-polarized immune response. The present study provides evidence that, although differences were initially observed between MoDCs exposed to filamentous fungi and MoDCs exposed to bacteria, a Th1 response was ultimately promoted by DCs regardless of the microbial extract tested. PMID:23720369

  19. Epitope based recombinant BCG vaccine elicits specific Th1 polarized immune responses in BALB/c mice.

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    Christy, Aparna Josephine; Dharman, Karthika; Dhandapaani, Gayatri; Palaniyandi, Kannan; Gupta, Umesh D; Gupta, Pushpa; Ignacimuthu, S; Narayanan, Sujatha

    2012-02-08

    Developing an efficacious vaccine is one of the highest priorities in tuberculosis research. A vaccine based on T cell epitopes representing multiple antigens is an ideal approach to generate effective cellular immunity against the disease. In the present study, we have selected four T cell epitopes from four well defined Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens, Ag85C (Rv2903c), 10-kDa culture filtrate protein (CFP-10) (Rv3874), PPE68 (Rv3873) and INV (Rv1478). The epitope encoding genes were grafted into a Cpn 10 based epitope delivery system. The cpn 10-epitope chimeras were further cloned and expressed in BCG to obtain four rBCGs (BCG::CFP, BCG::FBP, BCG::PPE and BCG::INV). Both cellular and humoral immune responses induced by these r-BCG strains were evaluated in BALB/c mice after subcutaneous injection of a single dose of 1×10(6)CFU of the individual rBCGs. Compared to the parent BCG immunized animals the splenocytes derived from rBCG vaccinated groups showed greater antigen specific proliferation, characterized with higher IFN-γ response and reduced IL-4 secretion. Also rBCG vaccination was able to induce specific humoral immune response with an enhanced IgG2a/IgG1 ratio. The rBCGs therefore favor an epitope specific Th1 type response, which is known to be important for mycobacterial immunity. Further when two of the rBCGs (BCG::CFP and BCG::FBP) were tested for their protective efficacy both the rBCGs were comparable to BCG in a H37Rv challenge study performed in guinea pigs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Levamisole promotes murine bone marrow derived dendritic cell activation and drives Th1 immune response in vitro and in vivo.

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    Fu, Yubing; Wang, Ting; Xiu, Lei; Shi, Xiaojie; Bian, Ziyao; Zhang, Yongli; Ruhan, A; Wang, Xiao

    2016-02-01

    Our lab previously found that levamisole (LMS) as an adjuvant enhanced the efficacy of vaccine against infectious pathogens. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms remain to be defined. In this study, we showed that BALB/c bone marrow-derived DC stimulated with LMS resulted in enhanced cell-surface expression of CD80, CD86, CD40 and MHC class II, as well as enhanced production of IL-12p70, TNF-α and IL-1β. Interestingly, the LMS activated DCs were able to stimulate CD4(+) T cell proliferation and facilitated Th1 differentiation by increasing the secretion of IFN-γ in an allogeneic mixed leukocyte reaction. Furthermore, to confirm the in vitro data, we investigated the effect of LMS on antigen-specific antibody and cytokine production in BALB/c mice. Immunization with LMS plus OVA showed that anti-OVA IgG2a and IFN-γ were increased significantly compared with OVA alone in BALB/c mice. In conclusion, our results suggested that murine bone marrow-derived DC, played a crucial role in the effect of LMS on the induction of Th1 responses, which probably was due to its ability to promote DC maturation and secrete proinflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Vitamin E-rich Nanoemulsion Enhances the Antitumor Efficacy of Low-Dose Paclitaxel by Driving Th1 Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jun; Dong, Wujun; Yang, Yanfang; Hao, Huazhen; Liao, Hengfeng; Wang, Bangyuan; Han, Xue; Jin, Yiqun; Xia, Xuejun; Liu, Yuling

    2017-06-01

    To overcome the drawbacks of high dose regimen and improve the outcomes of chemotherapy at a low dose, an immunotherapeutic nanoemulsion based combination of chemotherapeutic agent (paclitaxel) with immunomodulatory agent (vitamin E) was developed and evaluated for their antitumor effect against breast cancer. A total of five nanoemulsions loaded with various content of vitamin E were prepared and characterized. The immunoregulatory effects of vitamin E along with the overall antitumor efficacy of vitamin E-rich nanoemulsion with a low dose of paclitaxel were investigated through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Vitamin E-rich nanoemulsion exhibited relatively narrow size distribution, high entrapment efficiency and controlled in vitro release profile. In RAW264.7 cells, vitamin E-rich nanoemulsion significantly enhanced the secretion of Th1 cytokines and down-regulated the secretion of Th2 cytokine. In a co-culture system, vitamin E-rich nanoemulsion induced a high apoptosis rate in MDA-MB-231 cells as compared with vitamin E-low nanoemulsion. Furthermore, vitamin E-rich nanoemulsion exhibited superior in vivo antitumor efficacy in comparison with Taxol and vitamin E-low nanoemulsion at a paclitaxel dose of 4 mg/kg. Vitamin E-rich nanoemulsion has great potential for the treatment of breast cancers with a low dose of paclitaxel via driving Th1 immune response.

  2. Enhancement of a TH1 Immune Response in Amphotericin B-Treated Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis

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    Washington R. Cuna

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to investigate the effects of treatment of human leishmaniasis, the cytokines produced by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL under treatment with amphotericin B were determined during the active disease from cocultures of cells and Leishmania (Viannia braziliensis antigens. PBMC of these patients exhibited a nonsignificant marginal increased production of TNF-α upon antigen stimulation. However, under the same antigenic stimulus, patients with active MCL presented higher IFN-γ production compared to patients with CL. This increased IFN-γ production was accompanied by a drastically augmented IL-12 synthesis from cells of MCL patients. The highlighted T cell responses could be relevant for sound control measures of protozoan infections with emphasis on the combined usage of immunoenhancing agents and antiprotozoal drugs.

  3. Heavy metal mediated innate immune responses of the Indian green frog, Euphlyctis hexadactylus (Anura: Ranidae): Cellular profiles and associated Th1 skewed cytokine response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayawardena, Uthpala A.; Ratnasooriya, Wanigasekara D.; Wickramasinghe, Deepthi D.; Udagama, Preethi V., E-mail: dappvr@yahoo.com

    2016-10-01

    Immune cell and cytokine profiles in relation to metal exposure though much studied in mammals has not been adequately investigated in amphibians, due mainly to lack of suitable reagents for cytokine profiling in non-model species. However, interspecies cross reactivity of cytokines permitted us to assay levels of IFNγ, TNFα, IL6 and IL10in a common anuran, the Indian green frog (Euphlyctis hexadactylus), exposed to heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn and Pb, at ~ 5 ppm each) under field and laboratory settings in Sri Lanka. Enumeration of immune cells in blood and melanomacrophages in the liver, assay of serum and hepatic cytokines, and Th1/Th2 cytokine polarisation were investigated. Immune cell counts indicated overall immunosuppression with decreasing total WBC and splenocyte counts while neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio increased with metal exposure, indicating metal mediated stress. Serum IL6 levels of metal exposed frogs reported the highest (~ 9360 pg/mL) of all cytokines tested. Significantly elevated IFNγ production (P < 0.05) was evident in heavy metal exposed frogs. Th1/Th2 cytokine ratio in both serum and liver tissue homogenates was Th1 skewed due to significantly higher production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IFNγ in serum and TNFα in the liver (P < 0.01).Metal mediated aggregations of melanomacrophages in the liver were positively and significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with the hepatic expression of TNFα, IL6 and IL10 activity. Overall, Th1 skewed response may well be due to oxidative stress mediated nuclear factor κ-light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) which enhances the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Xenobiotic stress has recently imposed an unprecedented level of threat to wildlife, particularly to sensitive species such as amphibians. Therefore, understanding the interactions between physiological stress and related immune responses is fundamental to conserve these environmental sentinels in the face of emerging eco

  4. Bordetella pertussis infection induces a mucosal IL-17 response and long-lived Th17 and Th1 immune memory cells in nonhuman primates.

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    Warfel, J M; Merkel, T J

    2013-07-01

    Despite near universal vaccine coverage, the bacterial pathogen Bordetella pertussis has re-emerged as a major public health concern. We recently developed a baboon (Papio anubis) model of pertussis that provides an excellent model of human pertussis. Using this model, the immune response to pertussis was characterized by measuring cytokines in the nasopharyngeal mucosa of infected baboons. Notably, we observed mucosal expression of interleukin-17 (IL-17) as well as IL-6, IL-23, and several cytokines and chemokines that are orchestrated by IL-17 immune responses. We also found substantial populations of circulating B. pertussis-specific Th17 and Th1 cells in convalescent animals >2 years post-infection consistent with a role in immunological memory to pertussis. Collectively, these data shed important light on the innate and adaptive immune responses to pertussis in a primate infection model and suggest that Th17 and Th1 immune responses contribute to the immunity conferred by natural pertussis infection.

  5. Interferon-γ Added During Bacillus Calmette-Guerin Induced Dendritic Cell Maturation Stimulates Potent Th1 Immune Responses

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    Pestano Linda A

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Dendritic cells (DC are increasingly prepared in vitro for use in immunotherapy trials. Mature DC express high levels of surface molecules needed for T cell activation and are superior at antigen-presentation than immature DC. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG is one of several products known to induce DC maturation, and interferon (IFN-γ has been shown to enhance the activity of DC stimulated with certain maturation factors. In this study, we investigated the use of IFN-γ in combination with the powerful maturation agent, BCG. The treatment of immature DC with IFN-γ plus BCG led to the upregulation of CD54, CD80, and CD86 in comparison with BCG treatment alone. In MLR or recall immune responses, the addition of IFN-γ at the time of BCG-treatment did not increase the number of antigen-specific T cells but enhanced the development of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells. In primary immune responses, on the other hand, BCG and IFN-γ co-treated DC stimulated higher proportions of specific T cells as well as IFN-γ secretion by these T cells. Thus the use of IFN-γ during BCG-induced DC maturation differentially affects the nature of recall versus naïve antigen-specific T-cell responses. IFN-γ co-treatment with BCG was found to induce IL-12 and, in some instances, inhibit IL-10 secretion by DC. These findings greatly enhance the potential of BCG-matured dendritic cells for use in cancer immunotherapy.

  6. Co-existence of Echinococcus granulosus infection and cancer metastasis in the liver correlates with reduced Th1 immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turhan, N; Esendagli, G; Ozkayar, O; Tunali, G; Sokmensuer, C; Abbasoglu, O

    2015-01-01

    A possible relationship between cancer and Echinococcus granulosus infection has been postulated. As T cells are critical players in immune responses against both infections and malignancies, in an experimental model of secondary echinococcosis and breast cancer, this study aims to observe the progression of cancer and to determine the characters of T-cell responses. 4T1 breast tumour cells were subcutaneously injected into mammary region, whereas protoscoleces were intraperitoneally inoculated into the mice. Hydatid cysts, tumours and metastases were determined with macroscopic and histopathological evaluation. T cells found in spleen, liver and tumour were characterised by flow cytometric analysis of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD25, CCR5, CCR3, IL-4 and IFN-γ. In the mice inoculated both with protoscoleces and with breast tumour cells, increased frequency of cancer metastasis was observed in the liver. The amount of CD4(+) T cells was increased in the liver and in the spleen of mice infected with E. granulosus. However, co-existence of echinococcosis and metastatic lesions in the liver was associated with significant reduction in the IFN-γ(+) and CCR5(+) Th1 cells and increase in the CD25(+) T cells. Our results may indicate an immunological link between cystic echinococcosis and cancer that allows tumour metastasis to flourish in the liver. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The systemic immune state of super-shedder mice is characterized by a unique neutrophil-dependent blunting of TH1 responses.

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    Smita Gopinath

    Full Text Available Host-to-host transmission of a pathogen ensures its successful propagation and maintenance within a host population. A striking feature of disease transmission is the heterogeneity in host infectiousness. It has been proposed that within a host population, 20% of the infected hosts, termed super-shedders, are responsible for 80% of disease transmission. However, very little is known about the immune state of these super-shedders. In this study, we used the model organism Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, an important cause of disease in humans and animal hosts, to study the immune state of super-shedders. Compared to moderate shedders, super-shedder mice had an active inflammatory response in both the gastrointestinal tract and the spleen but a dampened T(H1 response specific to the secondary lymphoid organs. Spleens from super-shedder mice had higher numbers of neutrophils, and a dampened T cell response, characterized by higher levels of regulatory T cells (T(regs, fewer T-bet(+ (T(H1 T cells as well as blunted cytokine responsiveness. Administration of the cytokine granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF and subsequent neutrophilia was sufficient to induce the super-shedder immune phenotype in moderate-shedder mice. Similar to super-shedders, these G-CSF-treated moderate-shedders had a dampened T(H1 response with fewer T-bet(+ T cells and a loss of cytokine responsiveness. Additionally, G-CSF treatment inhibited IL-2-mediated TH1 expansion. Finally, depletion of neutrophils led to an increase in the number of T-bet(+ T(H1 cells and restored their ability to respond to IL-2. Taken together, we demonstrate a novel role for neutrophils in blunting IL-2-mediated proliferation of the TH1 immune response in the spleens of mice that are colonized by high levels of S. Typhimurium in the gastrointestinal tract.

  8. Characterization of onion lectin (Allium cepa agglutinin) as an immunomodulatory protein inducing Th1-type immune response in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasanna, Vaddi K; Venkatesh, Yeldur P

    2015-06-01

    Onion (Allium cepa), a bulb crop of economic importance, is known to have many health benefits. The major objective of the present study is to address the immunomodulatory properties of onion lectin (A. cepa agglutinin; ACA). ACA was purified from onion extract by D-mannose-agarose chromatography (yield: ~1 mg/kg). ACA is non-glycosylated and showed a molecular mass of ~12 kDa under reducing/non-reducing SDS-PAGE; glutaraldehyde cross-linking indicated that ACA is a non-covalent tetramer of ~12 kDa subunits. Its N-terminal sequence (RNVLLNNEGL; UniProt KB Accn. C0HJM8) showed 70-90% homology to mannose-specific Allium agglutinins. ACA showed specific hemagglutination activity of 8200 units/mg and is stable in the pH range 6-10 and up to 45° C. The immunomodulatory activity of ACA was assessed using the macrophage cell line, RAW264.7 and rat peritoneal macrophages; at 0.1 μg/well, it showed a significant increase (6-8-fold vs. control) in the production of nitric oxide at 24h, and significantly stimulated (2-4-fold vs. control) the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-12) at 24h. ACA (0.1 μg/well) enhanced the proliferation of murine thymocytes by ~4 fold (vs. control) at 24h; however, ACA does not proliferate B cell-enriched rat splenocytes. Further, it significantly elevated the expression levels of cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-2) over the control in murine thymocytes. Taken together, purified ACA induces a Th1-type immune response in vitro. Though present in low amounts, ACA may contribute to the immune-boosting potential of the popular spice onion since considerable amounts are consumed on a daily basis universally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Immunization of Mice with a Live Transconjugant Shigella Hybrid Strain Induced Th1 and Th17 Cell-Mediated Immune Responses and Confirmed Passive Protection Against Heterologous Shigellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nag, D; Koley, H; Sinha, R; Mukherjee, P; Sarkar, C; Withey, J H; Gachhui, R

    2016-02-01

    An avirulent, live transconjugant Shigella hybrid (LTSHΔstx) strain was constructed in our earlier study by introducing a plasmid vector, pPR1347, into a Shiga toxin gene deleted Shigella dysenteriae 1. Three successive oral administrations of LTSHΔstx to female adult mice produced comprehensive passive heterologous protection in their offspring against challenge with wild-type shigellae. Production of NO and different cytokines such asIL-12p70, IL-1β and IL-23 in peritoneal mice macrophages indicated that LTSHΔstx induced innate and adaptive immunity in mice. Furthermore, production of IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-17 in LTSH-primed splenic CD4+ T cell suggested that LTSHΔstx may induce Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated immune responses. Exponential increase of the serum IgG and IgA titre against whole shigellae was observed in immunized adult mice during and after the immunization with the highest peak on day 35. Antigen-specific sIgA was also determined from intestinal lavage of immunized mice. The stomach extracts of neonates from immunized mice, mainly containing mother's milk, contained significant levels of anti-LTSHΔstx immunoglobulin. These studies suggest that the LTSHΔstx could be a new live oral vaccine candidate against shigellosis in the near future. © 2015 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  10. Experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis may occur in the context of a polarized Th1- or Th2-type immune response in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saoudi, A; Bernard, I; Hoedemaekers, A

    1999-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) is a T cell-dependent, Ab-mediated autoimmune disease induced in rats by a single immunization with acetylcholine receptor (AChR). Although polarized Th1 responses have been shown to be crucial for the development of mouse EAMG, the role of Th cell...

  11. Cathepsin B in antigen-presenting cells controls mediators of the Th1 immune response during Leishmania major infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris J Gonzalez-Leal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Resistance and susceptibility to Leishmania major infection in the murine model is determined by the capacity of the host to mount either a protective Th1 response or a Th2 response associated with disease progression. Previous reports involving the use of cysteine cathepsin inhibitors indicated that cathepsins B (Ctsb and L (Ctsl play important roles in Th1/Th2 polarization during L. major infection in both susceptible and resistant mouse strains. Although it was hypothesized that these effects are a consequence of differential patterns of antigen processing, the mechanisms underlying these differences were not further investigated. Given the pivotal roles that dendritic cells and macrophages play during Leishmania infection, we generated bone-marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC and macrophages (BMM from Ctsb-/- and Ctsl-/- mice, and studied the effects of Ctsb and Ctsl deficiency on the survival of L. major in infected cells. Furthermore, the signals used by dendritic cells to instruct Th cell polarization were addressed: the expression of MHC class II and co-stimulatory molecules, and cytokine production. We found that Ctsb-/- BMDC express higher levels of MHC class II molecules than wild-type (WT and Ctsl-/- BMDC, while there were no significant differences in the expression of co-stimulatory molecules between cathepsin-deficient and WT cells. Moreover, both BMDC and BMM from Ctsb-/- mice significantly up-regulated the levels of interleukin 12 (IL-12 expression, a key Th1-inducing cytokine. These findings indicate that Ctsb-/- BMDC display more pro-Th1 properties than their WT and Ctsl-/- counterparts, and therefore suggest that Ctsb down-regulates the Th1 response to L. major. Moreover, they propose a novel role for Ctsb as a regulator of cytokine expression.

  12. Th1-type immune response to a Coccidioides immitis antigen delivered by an attenuated strain of the non-invasive enteropathogen Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Anisia J; Benitez, Jorge A

    2005-03-01

    The antigen-2 or proline rich antigen (Ag2/PRA) from Coccidioides immitis, known to protect mice against experimental Coccidioidomycosis, was expressed in the genetically attenuated cholera vaccine candidate Vibrio cholerae 638 and its thymine auxotrophic derivative 638T. Intranasal immunization of mice with strains producing Ag2/PRA induced serum vibriocidal antibody and Ag2/PRA-specific total IgG responses in outbred Swiss Webster and inbred BALB/c mice. Analysis of IgG subclasses showed a predominance of IgG2a subclass antibodies. Lymphocytes from immunized mice stimulated with pure Ag2/PRA showed a significant proliferative response with production of interferon-gamma. Positive selection for plasmid maintenance in vivo did not enhance immune response to Ag2/PRA. These results demonstrate that genetically attenuated strains of the non-invasive pathogen V. cholerae can be used to express and deliver foreign antigens to stimulate a Th1 type of immune response.

  13. DDA/TDB liposomes containing soluble Leishmania major antigens induced a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response in BALB/c mice

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    Mansure Hojatizade

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Leishmaniasis is a complex parasitic disease that represents a major public health problem. Despite numerous attempts over the past decades, yet there is no effective vaccine against human leishmaniasis probably due to the lack of suitable adjuvants. In this study, a first generation liposomal-based Leishmania vaccine was developed using soluble Leishmania major antigens (SLA and á, Ü-trehalose6, 6'-dibehenat (TDB as an immunostimulatory adjuvant. In this liposome structure, the cationic lipid Dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA provides intrinsic adjuvant activity and cholesterol was added as a membrane stabilizer. Liposomes containing SLA were prepared.Materials and Methods: BALB/c mice were subcutaneously (sc immunized with Lip (DDA/TDB/CHOL-SLA+, Lip (DDA/TDB-SLA+, Lip (DDA-SLA+, Lip (DDA/CHOL-SLA+, SLA or Tris-HCl buffer. Immunization was done every two weeks for three weeks. The immunized mice were then challenged sc in the left footpad with 1×106 stationary phase L. major promastigotes (50 ìl, at 2 weeks after last booster injection.Results: mice immunized with any of the liposomal formulations containing SLA (Lip-SLA+, substantially increased footpad swelling and parasite loads of foot and spleen with no significant difference compared to Tris-HCl buffer or SLA alone. Lip-SLA+ formulations induced a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response characterized by IFN-ã and IL-4 production as well as high levels of IgG1 anti-Leishmania antibody. Conclusion: immunization with liposomes containing DDA and/or TDB in combination with SLA induces a mixed Th1/Th2 immune response and is not an appropriate strategy for preferential induction of a Th1 response and protection against leishmaniasis.

  14. Immunization of Mice by BCG Formulated HCV Core Protein Elicited Higher Th1-Oriented Responses Compared to Pluronic-F127 Copolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanian, Maryam; Memarnejadian, Arash; Mahdavi, Mehdi; Sadat, Seyed Mehdi; Motevali, Fatemeh; Vahabpour, Rouhollah; Khanahmad, Hossein; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Roohvand, Farzin

    2013-01-01

    Background A supreme vaccine for Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection should elicit strong Th1-oriented cellular responses. In the absence of a Th1-specific adjuvant, immunizations by protein antigens generally induce Th2-type and weak cellular responses. Objectives To evaluate the adjuvant effect of BCG in comparison with nonionic copolymer-Pluronic F127 (F127) as a classic adjuvant in the formulation of HCV core protein (HCVcp) as a candidate vaccine for induction of Th1 immune responses. Materials and Methods Expression of N-terminally His-Tagged HCVcp (1-122) by pIVEX2.4a-core vector harboring the corresponding gene under the control of arabinose-inducible (araBAD) promoter was achieved in BL21-AI strain of E.coli and purified through application of nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni-NTA) chromatography. Mice were immunized subcutaneously (s.c.) in base of the tail with 100 μl of immunogen (F127+HCVcp or BCG+HCVcp; 5 μgHCVcp/mouse/dose) or control formulations (PBS, BCG, F127) at weeks 0, 3, 6. Total and subtypes of IgG, as well as cellular immune responses (Proliferation, In vivo CTL and IFN-γ/IL-4 ELISpot assays against a strong and dominant H2-d restricted, CD8+-epitopic peptide, core 39-48; RRGPRLGVRA of HCVcp) were compared in each group of immunized animals. Results Expression and purification of core protein around the expected size (21 kDa) was confirmed by Western blotting. The HCVcp + BCG vaccinated mice showed significantly higher lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ production but lower levels of cell lysis (45% versus 62% in CTL assay) than the HCVcp+F127 immunized animals. “Besides, total anti-core IgG and IgG1 levels were significantly higher in HCVcp + F127 immunized mice as compared to HCVcp + BCG vaccinated animals, indicating relatively higher efficacy of F127 for the stimulation of humoral and Th2-oriented immune responses”. Conclusions Results showed that HCVcp + BCG induced a moderate CTL and mixed Th1/Th2 immune responses with higher levels of

  15. Effects of intestinal bacteria-derived p-cresyl sulfate on Th1-type immune response in vivo and in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, Takahiro, E-mail: takahiro-shiba@yakult.co.jp; Kawakami, Koji; Sasaki, Takashi; Makino, Ikuyo; Kato, Ikuo; Kobayashi, Toshihide; Uchida, Kazumi; Kaneko, Kimiyuki

    2014-01-15

    Protein fermentation by intestinal bacteria generates various compounds that are not synthesized by their hosts. An example is p-cresol, which is produced from tyrosine. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) accumulate high concentrations of intestinal bacteria-derived p-cresyl sulfate (pCS), which is the major metabolite of p-cresol, in their blood, and this accumulation contributes to certain CKD-associated disorders. Immune dysfunction is a CKD-associated disorder that frequently contributes to infectious diseases among CKD patients. Although some studies imply pCS as an etiological factor, the relation between pCS and immune systems is poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the immunological effects of pCS derived from intestinal bacteria in mice. For this purpose, we fed mice a tyrosine-rich diet that causes the accumulation of pCS in their blood. The mice were shown to exhibit decreased Th1-driven 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene-induced contact hypersensitivity response. The concentration of pCS in blood was negatively correlated with the degree of the contact hypersensitivity response. In contrast, the T cell-dependent antibody response was not influenced by the accumulated pCS. We also examined the in vitro cytokine responses by T cells in the presence of pCS. The production of IFN-γ was suppressed by pCS. Further, pCS decreased the percentage of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells. Our results suggest that intestinal bacteria-derived pCS suppressesTh1-type cellular immune responses. - Highlights: • Mice fed a tyrosine-rich diet accumulated p-cresyl sulfate in their blood. • p-Cresyl sulfate negatively correlated with contact hypersensitivity response. • The in vitro production of IFN-γ was suppressed by p-cresyl sulfate. • p-Cresyl sulfate decreased the percentage of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells in vitro.

  16. Th1 immune response to H. pylori infection varies according to the age of the patients and influences the gastric inflammatory patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire de Melo, Fabrício; Rocha, Gifone Aguiar; Rocha, Andreia Maria Camargos; Teixeira, Kádima Nayara; Pedroso, Silvia Helena Souza Pietra; Pereira Junior, João Bosco; Fonseca de Castro, Lúcia Porto; Cabral, Mônica Maria Demas Álvares; Carvalho, Simone Diniz; Bittencourt, Paulo Fernando Souto; de Oliveira, Celso Afonso; Queiroz, Dulciene Maria de Magalhães

    2014-05-01

    To compare children and adults in respect to the effect of H. pylori infection on the gastric concentrations of cytokines linked to innate and Th1 immune response, as well as to investigate the changes in the gastric concentrations of the studied cytokines according to the age. We studied 245 children (142 H. pylori-negative and 103 H. pylori-positive) and 140 adults (40 H. pylori-negative and 100 H. pylori-positive). The gastric concentrations of cytokines representative of the innate and Th1 response were higher in the H. pylori-positive than in the -negative children and adults. The gastric concentrations of IL-1α and TNF-α were significantly higher, while those of IL-2, IL-12p70 and IFN-γ were lower in the infected children than in the infected adults. In the infected children, the gastric concentration of IL-1α, IL-2, IL-12p70 and IFN-γ increased, whereas in adults, the gastric concentrations of IFN-γ and IL-12p70 decreased with the aging. Increased gastric concentration of Th1 associated cytokines correlated with increased degree of gastritis that is the background lesion for the development of the H. pylori associated severe diseases. Concluding, Th1 response to H. pylori infection varies according to the age and seems to have determinant implication in the H. pylori infection outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Lower Baseline Germinal Center Activity and Preserved Th1 Immunity are Associated with Hepatitis B Vaccine Response in Treated HIV Infection

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    Robert M. Paris

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Why HIV-infected individuals have poor responses to standard dose and schedule hepatitis B virus immunization is not well understood. Methods: We compared the serologic and cellular immune profiles of treated HIV-infected individuals with similar durations of infection and preserved CD4 counts (>350 cells/microliter by hepatitis B vaccine (HBV response before and after vaccination. Results: Similar levels of immune activation and plasma cytokine profile were found between non-responders and responders. The baseline plasma levels of CXCL-13, a surrogate of germinal center reactivity, were significantly lower in HBV responders compared to HBV non-responders and were a predictor of both vaccine response and titer. Furthermore, response to HBV vaccination was associated with a significantly higher frequency of circulating IgGhigh memory B cells post vaccination and preserved Th1 antigen-specific T-cell responses. Conclusions: Taken together, our data suggest that preserved Th1 responses are associated with hepatitis B vaccine response in treated HIV infection.

  18. Long-Lasting Effects of BCG Vaccination on Both Heterologous Th1/Th17 Responses and Innate Trained Immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinnijenhuis, J.; Quintin, J.; Preijers, F.W.M.B.; Benn, C.S.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Jacobs, C.W.; Loenhout, J. van; Xavier, R.J.; Aaby, P.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Crevel, R. van; Netea, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    We have recently shown that BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guerin) vaccination in healthy volunteers induces epigenetic reprogramming of monocytes, leading to increased cytokine production in response to nonrelated pathogens for up to 3 months after vaccination. This phenomenon was named 'trained immunity'.

  19. Lithocholic acid controls adaptive immune responses by inhibition of Th1 activation through the Vitamin D receptor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pols, Thijs W. H.; Puchner, Teresa; Korkmaz, H. Inci; Vos, Mariska; Soeters, Maarten R.; de Vries, Carlie J. M.

    2017-01-01

    Bile acids are established signaling molecules next to their role in the intestinal emulsification and uptake of lipids. We here aimed to identify a potential interaction between bile acids and CD4+ Th cells, which are central in adaptive immune responses. We screened distinct bile acid species for

  20. CryJ-LAMP DNA Vaccines for Japanese Red Cedar Allergy Induce Robust Th1-Type Immune Responses in Murine Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Su

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergies caused by Japanese Red Cedar (JRC pollen affect up to a third of Japanese people, necessitating development of an effective therapeutic. We utilized the lysosomal targeting property of lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1 to make DNA vaccines that encode LAMP-1 and the sequences of immunodominant allergen CryJ1 or CryJ2 from the JRC pollen. This novel strategy is designed to skew the CD4 T cell responses to the target allergens towards a nonallergenic Th1 response. CryJ1-LAMP and CryJ2-LAMP were administrated to BALB/c mice and antigen-specific Th1-type IgG2a and Th2-type IgG1 antibodies, as well as IgE antibodies, were assayed longitudinally. We also isolated different T cell populations from immunized mice and adoptively transferred them into naïve mice followed by CryJ1/CryJ2 protein boosts. We demonstrated that CryJ-LAMP immunized mice produce high levels of IFN-γ and anti-CryJ1 or anti-CryJ2 IgG2a antibodies and low levels of IgE antibodies, suggesting that a Th1 response was induced. In addition, we found that CD4+ T cells are the immunological effectors of DNA vaccination in this allergy model. Together, our results suggest the CryJ-LAMP Vaccine has a potential as an effective therapeutic for JRC induced allergy by skewing Th1/Th2 responses.

  1. ESAT-6- and CFP-10-specific Th1, Th22 and Th17 cells in tuberculous pleurisy may contribute to the local immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, D; Yang, B Y; Li, L; Ma, J J; Zhang, X L; Lao, S H; Wu, C Y

    2011-04-01

    Th1 cell-mediated adaptive immune response is very important but may not be sufficient to control Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) infection. The roles of the various T cell subsets and cytokines in the inflammatory processes are not clearly elucidated. We investigated whether Th1, Th22 and Th17 cells mediated cellular immunity at the local site of M. tuberculosis infection in patients with tuberculous pleurisy (TBP). The results showed that the cytokines IFN-γ and IL-22 but not IL-17 were elevated in tubercular pleural fluid. Following stimulation with immune-dominant peptides of early secreted antigenic target-6 (ESAT-6), culture filtrate protein-10 (CFP-10) or Bacille Calmette-Guerin, pleural fluid mononuclear cells expressed high levels of cytokines IFN-γ, IL-22 and IL-17 as revealed by mRNA and protein measurements. In addition, we showed that cytokines IFN-γ, IL-22 and IL-17 were produced in M. tuberculosis-specific immune response by distinct subsets of CD4+ T cells with the phenotype of CD45RA-CD62L-CCR7+CD27+ . Our results demonstrated for the first time that ESAT-6- and CFP-10-specific Th1, Th22 and Th17 cells existed in the patients with TBP and might play an essential role against M. tuberculosis infection. The findings of this study raised the possibility of unravelling the critical targets for therapeutic intervention in chronic inflammatory diseases such as TBP. © 2011 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Immunology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. A De-O-acylated Lipooligosaccharide-Based Adjuvant System Promotes Antibody and Th1-Type Immune Responses to H1N1 Pandemic Influenza Vaccine in Mice

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    Ji In Ryu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccine adjuvants are agents that are used to promote immune responses to vaccine antigens and thereby to enhance the protective efficacy of the vaccines. In this study, we investigated the adjuvant activity of CIA06, an adjuvant system that is composed of a toll-like receptor 4 agonist de-O-acylated lipooligosaccharide (dLOS and aluminum hydroxide, on the H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine Greenflu-S® in mice. CIA06 significantly enhanced influenza-specific serum IgG, hemagglutination-inhibition, and virus-neutralizing antibody titers, which eliminated vaccine dose-dependency in the antibody response. Mice immunized with the CIA06-adjuvanted Greenflu-S showed Th1-type-predominant cytokine profiles, and both CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were induced. Immunization of mice with the CIA06-adjuvanted vaccine reduced the mortality and morbidity of mice upon lethal challenges with influenza virus, and no excessive inflammatory responses were observed in the lung tissues of the immunized mice after viral infection. These data suggest that the dLOS-based adjuvant system CIA06 can be used to promote the immune responses to influenza vaccine or to spare antigen dose without causing harmful inflammatory responses.

  3. PLGA nano/micro particles encapsulated with pertussis toxoid (PTd) enhances Th1/Th17 immune response in a murine model.

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    Li, Pan; Asokanathan, Catpagavalli; Liu, Fang; Khaing, Kyi Kyi; Kmiec, Dorota; Wei, Xiaoqing; Song, Bing; Xing, Dorothy; Kong, Deling

    2016-11-20

    Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) based nano/micro particles were investigated as a potential vaccine platform for pertussis antigen. Presentation of pertussis toxoid as nano/micro particles (NP/MP) gave similar antigen-specific IgG responses in mice compared to soluble antigen. Notably, in cell line based assays, it was found that PLGA based nano/micro particles enhanced the phagocytosis of fluorescent antigen-nano/micro particles by J774.2 murine monocyte/macrophage cells compared to soluble antigen. More importantly, when mice were immunised with the antigen-nano/micro particles they significantly increased antigen-specific Th1 cytokines INF-γ and IL-17 secretion in splenocytes after in vitro re-stimulation with heat killed Bordetalla pertussis, indicating the induction of a Th1/Th17 response. Also, presentation of pertussis antigen in a NP/MP formulation is able to provide protection against respiratory infection in a murine model. Thus, the NP/MP formulation may provide an alternative to conventional acellular vaccines to achieve a more balanced Th1/Th2 immune response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Keratinocytes determine Th1 immunity during early experimental leishmaniasis.

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    Jan M Ehrchen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Experimental leishmaniasis is an excellent model system for analyzing Th1/Th2 differentiation. Resistance to Leishmania (L. major depends on the development of a L. major specific Th1 response, while Th2 differentiation results in susceptibility. There is growing evidence that the microenvironment of the early affected tissue delivers the initial triggers for Th-cell differentiation. To analyze this we studied differential gene expression in infected skin of resistant and susceptible mice 16h after parasite inoculation. Employing microarray technology, bioinformatics, laser-microdissection and in-situ-hybridization we found that the epidermis was the major source of immunomodulatory mediators. This epidermal gene induction was significantly stronger in resistant mice especially for several genes known to promote Th1 differentiation (IL-12, IL-1beta, osteopontin, IL-4 and for IL-6. Expression of these cytokines was temporally restricted to the crucial time of Th1/2 differentiation. Moreover, we revealed a stronger epidermal up-regulation of IL-6 in the epidermis of resistant mice. Accordingly, early local neutralization of IL-4 in resistant mice resulted in a Th2 switch and mice with a selective IL-6 deficiency in non-hematopoietic cells showed a Th2 switch and dramatic deterioration of disease. Thus, our data indicate for the first time that epidermal cytokine expression is a decisive factor in the generation of protective Th1 immunity and contributes to the outcome of infection with this important human pathogen.

  5. A Schistosoma japonicum chimeric protein with a novel adjuvant induced a polarized Th1 immune response and protection against liver egg burdens

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    Xue Xiangyang

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schitosomiasis japonica is still a significant public health problem in China. A protective vaccine for human or animal use represents an important strategy for long-term control of this disease. Due to the complex life cycle of schistosomes, different vaccine design approaches may be necessary, including polyvalent subunit vaccines. In this study, we constructed four chimeric proteins (designated SjGP-1~4 via fusion of Sj26GST and four individual paramyosin fragments. We tested these four proteins as vaccine candidates, and investigated the effect of deviating immune response on protection roles in mice. Methods The immunogencity and protection efficacy of chimeric proteins were evaluated in mice. Next, the chimeric protein SjGP-3 was selected and formulated in various adjuvants, including CFA, ISA 206, IMS 1312 and ISA 70M. The titers of antigen-specific IgG, IgE and IgG subclass were measured. The effect of adjuvant on cytokine production and percentages of CD3+CD8-IFN-γ+ cells and CD3+CD8-IL-4+ cells were analyzed at different time points. Worm burdens and liver egg counts in different adjuvant groups were counted to evaluate the protection efficacy against cercarial challenge. Results Immunization of mice with chimeric proteins provided various levels of protection. Among the four proteins, SjGP-3 induced the highest level of protection, and showed enhanced protective efficacy compared with its individual component Sj26GST. Because of this, SjGP-3 was further formulated in various adjuvants to investigate the effect of adjuvant on immune deviation. The results revealed that SjGP-3 formulated in veterinary adjuvant ISA 70M induced a lasting polarized Th1 immune response, whereas the other adjuvants, including CFA, ISA 206 and IMS 1312, generated a moderate mixed Th1/Th2 response after immunization but all except for IMS 1312 shifted to Th2 response after onset of eggs. More importantly, the SjGP-3/70M formulation induced

  6. [EFFECT OF 4-METHYLPYRAZOLE ON IMMUNE RESPONSE, FUNCTION OF Th1 AND Th2 LYMPHOCYTES, AND CYTOKINE CONCENTRATION IN RAT BLOOD AFTER ACUTE METHANOL POISONING].

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    Zabrodskii, P F; Maslyakov, V V; Gromov, M S

    2016-01-01

    It was established in experiments on noninbred albino rats that the acute intoxication with methanol (1.0 LD50) decreased cellular and humoral immune responses, Th2-lymphocyte activity (to a greater extent as compared to the function of Th1 cells), reduced the blood concentration of immunoregulatory (IFN-g, IL-2, IL-4) and proinflammatory (TNF, IL-1b, IL-6) cytokines on the average by 36.5% (p Methanol antidote 4-methylpyrazole (non-competitive inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase) administered upon acute intoxication with methanol at a dose of 1.0 DL50 partially reduces the intoxication-induced suppression of humoral and cellular immune response, activity of T-helper cells, and production of IL-4 and restores blood levels of TNF, IL-1b, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-2, IL-6 to the control values.

  7. SjCRT, a recombinant Schistosoma japonicum calreticulin, induces maturation of dendritic cells and a Th1-polarized immune response in mice

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    Lizhen Ma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that immunization of radiation-attenuated (RA schistosoma cercariae or schistosomula can induce high levels of protective immunity against schistosoma cercariae reinfection in many animals. Many studies have shown that the Th1 cellular immune response is crucial for the protective effect elicited by RA schistosomula. However, the molecular mechanism of this strong protective immunity remains unclear. Methods The expression profiles of Schistosoma japonicum calreticulin (SjCRT in RA and normal schistosoma-derived cells were investigated by flow cytometry. The effect of recombinant SjCRT (rSjCRT on mouse dendritic cells (DCs was determined by FACS, ELISA and RT-PCR analysis. We also analyzed the effects of SjCRT on the activation of spleen cells from mice immunized with rSjCRT by detecting lymphocyte proliferation and the cytokine profiles of splenocytes. Results We found that the expression level of SjCRT in the cells from RA larvae was significantly higher than that in cells from normal schistosomula at early stages of development (day 4. The results of effect of rSjCRT on mouse DCs showed that rSjCRT could induce phenotypic and functional maturation of DCs, and SjCRT bound to the surface of DCs through the CD91 receptor and could be engulfed by DCs. The results of activation of splenocytes from mice immunized with rSjCRT also demonstrate that rSjCRT can effectively stimulate the proliferative response of splenic lymphocytes, elicit splenocytes from immunized mice to secrete high levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-4, and activate CD4+ T cells to produce high levels of IFN-γ. Conclusion SjCRT is one of the immunostimulatory molecules released from RA schistosomula cells, might play a crucial role in conferring a Th1-polarized immune response induced by RA cercariae/schistosomula in mice, and is a candidate molecule responsible for the high levels of protective immunity induced by RA schistosomula.

  8. A novel recombinant Leishmania donovani p45, a partial coding region of methionine aminopeptidase, generates protective immunity by inducing a Th1 stimulatory response against experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

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    Gupta, Reema; Kushawaha, Pramod K; Tripathi, Chandra Dev Pati; Sundar, Shyam; Dube, Anuradha

    2012-05-01

    The development of a vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) conferring long-lasting immunity remains a challenge. Identification and proteomic characterization of parasite proteins led to the detection of p45, a member of the methionine aminopeptidase family. To our knowledge the present study is the first known report that describes the molecular and immunological characterization of p45. Recombinant Leishmania donovani p45 (rLdp45) induced cellular responses in cured hamsters and generated Th1-type cytokines from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of cured/endemic VL patients. Immunization with rLdp45 exerted considerable prophylactic efficacy (∼85%) supported by an increase in mRNA expression of iNOS, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-12 and decrease in TGF-β and IL-4, indicating its potential as a vaccine candidate against VL. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Pre-existing adenovirus immunity modifies a complex mixed Th1 and Th2 cytokine response to an Ad5/HIV-1 vaccine candidate in humans.

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    Samuel O Pine

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of the recent Step Study highlight a need to clarify the effects of pre-existing natural immunity to a vaccine vector on vaccine-induced T-cell responses. To investigate this interaction, we examined the relationship between pre-existing Ad5 immunity and T-cell cytokine response profiles in healthy, HIV-uninfected recipients of MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag vaccine (HVTN 050, ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT00849732. Participants were grouped by baseline Ad5 neutralizing antibody titer as either Ad5-seronegative (titer ≤18; n = 36 or Ad5-seropositive (titer >200; n = 34. Samples from vaccine recipients were analyzed for immune responses to either HIV-1 Gag peptide pools or Ad5 empty vector using an ex vivo assay that measures thirty cytokines in the absence of long-term culture. The overall profiles of cytokine responses to Gag and Ad5 had similar combinations of induced Th1- and Th2-type cytokines, including IFN-γ, IL-2, TNF-α, IP-10, IL-13, and IL-10, although the Ad5-specific responses were uniformly higher than the Gag-specific responses (p<0.0001 for 9 out of 11 significantly expressed analytes. At the peak response time point, PBMC from Ad5-seronegative vaccinees secreted significantly more IP-10 in response to Gag (p = 0.008, and significantly more IP-10 (p = 0.0009, IL-2 (p = 0.006 and IL-10 (p = 0.05 in response to Ad5 empty vector than PBMC from Ad5-seropositive vaccinees. Additionally, similar responses to the Ad5 vector prior to vaccination were observed in almost all subjects, regardless of Ad5 neutralizing antibody status, and the levels of secreted IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-1Ra and GM-CSF were blunted following vaccination. The cytokine response profile of Gag-specific T cells mirrored the Ad5-specific response present in all subjects before vaccination, and included a number of Th1- and Th2-associated cytokines not routinely assessed in current vaccine trials, such as IP-10, IL-10, IL-13, and GM-CSF. Together, these

  10. Immunopathology and Th1/Th2 immune response of Campylobacter jejuni-induced paralysis resembling Guillain-Barré syndrome in chicken.

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    Nyati, Kishan K; Prasad, Kashi N; Kharwar, Nagendra K; Soni, Priyanka; Husain, Nuzhat; Agrawal, Vinita; Jain, Arun K

    2012-05-01

    Immunopathogenesis of Campylobacter jejuni-associated Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is not yet well established probably due to lack of experimental model. Therefore, we studied the Th1/Th2 immune response and pathological changes in C. jejuni-induced chicken model for GBS. C. jejuni (5 × 10(9) CFU/ml) and placebo were fed to 30 chickens each. Stools of all birds were negative for C. jejuni by culture and PCR before experiment. The birds were regularly assessed for disease symptoms up to 30 days. Sciatic nerves from all chickens were examined at 5 days intervals by histopathology and immunohistochemistry, and also for the expression of Th1/Th2 cytokines. Twenty-two chickens (73.3%) developed diarrhea after C. jejuni infection; 18 (60.0%) experimental chickens developed GBS-like paralytic neuropathy. Pathology in the sciatic nerves of these chickens included perinodal and/or patchy demyelination, perivascular focal lymphocytic infiltration, myelin swelling and presence of macrophages within the nerve fibers on 10th-20th post-infection day (PID). Cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-2) were elevated in early phase (5th-15th PID) and TGF-β2, IL-10 and IL-4 in the recovery phase (25th-30th PID) of the disease. The study provides evidence that C. jejuni infection in the chicken can provide an experimental animal model of GBS.

  11. Schistosoma mansoni tegument protein Sm29 is able to induce a Th1-type of immune response and protection against parasite infection.

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    Fernanda C Cardoso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis continues to be a significant public health problem. This disease affects 200 million people worldwide and almost 800 million people are at risk of acquiring the infection. Although vaccine development against this disease has experienced more failures than successes, encouraging results have recently been obtained using membrane-spanning protein antigens from the tegument of Schistosoma mansoni. Our group recently identified Sm29, another antigen that is present at the adult worm tegument surface. In this study, we investigated murine cellular immune responses to recombinant (r Sm29 and tested this protein as a vaccine candidate. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We first show that Sm29 is located on the surface of adult worms and lung-stage schistosomula through confocal microscopy. Next, immunization of mice with rSm29 engendered 51%, 60% and 50% reduction in adult worm burdens, in intestinal eggs and in liver granuloma counts, respectively (p<0.05. Protective immunity in mice was associated with high titers of specific anti-Sm29 IgG1 and IgG2a and elevated production of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and IL-12, a typical Th1 response. Gene expression analysis of worms recovered from rSm29 vaccinated mice relative to worms from control mice revealed a significant (q<0.01 down-regulation of 495 genes and up-regulation of only 22 genes. Among down-regulated genes, many of them encode surface antigens and proteins associated with immune signals, suggesting that under immune attack schistosomes reduce the expression of critical surface proteins. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that Sm29 surface protein is a new vaccine candidate against schistosomiasis and suggests that Sm29 vaccination associated with other protective critical surface antigens is the next logical strategy for improving protection.

  12. A Built-In CpG Adjuvant in RSV F Protein DNA Vaccine Drives a Th1 Polarized and Enhanced Protective Immune Response

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    Yao Ma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most significant cause of acute lower respiratory infection in children. However, there is no licensed vaccine available. Here, we investigated the effect of five or 20 copies of C-Class of CpG ODN (CpG-C motif incorporated into a plasmid DNA vaccine encoding RSV fusion (F glycoprotein on the vaccine-induced immune response. The addition of CpG-C motif enhanced serum binding and virus-neutralizing antibody responses in BALB/c mice immunized with the DNA vaccines. Moreover, mice vaccinated with CpG-modified vaccines, especially with the higher 20 copies, resulted in an enhanced shift toward a Th1-biased antibody and T-cell response, a decrease in pulmonary pathology and virus replication, and a decrease in weight loss after RSV challenge. This study suggests that CpG-C motif, cloned into the backbone of DNA vaccine encoding RSV F glycoprotein, functions as a built-in adjuvant capable of improving the efficacy of DNA vaccine against RSV infection.

  13. Restoration of innate immune activation accelerates Th1-cell priming and protection following pulmonary mycobacterial infection.

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    Lai, Rocky; Jeyanathan, Mangalakumari; Shaler, Christopher R; Damjanovic, Daniela; Khera, Amandeep; Horvath, Carly; Ashkar, Ali A; Xing, Zhou

    2014-05-01

    The immune mechanisms underlying delayed induction of Th1-type immunity in the lungs following pulmonary mycobacterial infection remain poorly understood. We have herein investigated the underlying immune mechanisms for such delayed responses and whether a selected innate immune-modulating strategy can accelerate Th1-type responses. We have found that, in the early stage of pulmonary infection with attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb H37Ra), the levels of infection in the lung continue to increase logarithmically until days 14 and 21 postinfection in C57BL/6 mice. The activation of innate immune responses, particularly DCs, in the lung is delayed. This results in a delay in the subsequent downstream immune responses including the migration of antigen-bearing DCs to the draining lymph node (dLN), the Th1-cell priming in dLN, and the recruitment of Th1 cells to the lung. However, single lung mucosal exposure to the TLR agonist FimH postinfection is able to accelerate protective Th1-type immunity via facilitating DC migration to the lung and draining lymph nodes, enhancing DC antigen presentation and Th1-cell priming. These findings hold implications for the development of immunotherapeutic and vaccination strategies and suggest that enhancement of early innate immune activation is a viable option for improving Th1-type immunity against pulmonary mycobacterial diseases. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Genetically Modified Live Attenuated Leishmania donovani Parasites Induce Innate Immunity through Classical Activation of Macrophages That Direct the Th1 Response in Mice

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    Bhattacharya, Parna; Dey, Ranadhir; Dagur, Pradeep K.; Kruhlak, Michael; Ismail, Nevien; Debrabant, Alain; Joshi, Amritanshu B.; Akue, Adovi; Kukuruga, Mark; Takeda, Kazuyo; Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; McCoy, John Philip

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) causes significant mortality and there is no effective vaccine. Previously, we have shown that genetically modified Leishmania donovani parasites, here described as live attenuated parasites, induce a host protective adaptive immune response in various animal models. In this study, we demonstrate an innate immune response upon infection with live attenuated parasites in macrophages from BALB/c mice both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro infection of macrophages with live attenuated parasites (compared to that with wild-type [WT] L. donovani parasites) induced significantly higher production of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin-12 [IL-12], gamma interferon [IFN-γ], and IL-6), chemokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1/CCL-2, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α/CCL-3, and IP-10), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and nitric oxide, while concomitantly reducing anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and arginase-1 activities, suggesting a dominant classically activated/M1 macrophage response. The classically activated response in turn helps in presenting antigen to T cells, as observed with robust CD4+ T cell activation in vitro. Similarly, parasitized splenic macrophages from live attenuated parasite-infected mice also demonstrated induction of an M1 macrophage phenotype, indicated by upregulation of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-12, and inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 and downregulation of genes associated with the M2 phenotype, i.e., the IL-10, YM1, Arg-1, and MRC-1 genes, compared to WT L. donovani-infected mice. Furthermore, an ex vivo antigen presentation assay showed macrophages from live attenuated parasite-infected mice induced higher IFN-γ and IL-2 but significantly less IL-10 production by ovalbumin-specific CD4+ T cells, resulting in proliferation of Th1 cells. These data suggest that infection with live attenuated parasites promotes a state of classical activation (M1 dominant) in macrophages that

  15. Genetically Modified Live Attenuated Leishmania donovani Parasites Induce Innate Immunity through Classical Activation of Macrophages That Direct the Th1 Response in Mice.

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    Bhattacharya, Parna; Dey, Ranadhir; Dagur, Pradeep K; Kruhlak, Michael; Ismail, Nevien; Debrabant, Alain; Joshi, Amritanshu B; Akue, Adovi; Kukuruga, Mark; Takeda, Kazuyo; Selvapandiyan, Angamuthu; McCoy, John Philip; Nakhasi, Hira L

    2015-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) causes significant mortality and there is no effective vaccine. Previously, we have shown that genetically modified Leishmania donovani parasites, here described as live attenuated parasites, induce a host protective adaptive immune response in various animal models. In this study, we demonstrate an innate immune response upon infection with live attenuated parasites in macrophages from BALB/c mice both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro infection of macrophages with live attenuated parasites (compared to that with wild-type [WT] L. donovani parasites) induced significantly higher production of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-α], interleukin-12 [IL-12], gamma interferon [IFN-γ], and IL-6), chemokines (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1/CCL-2, macrophage inflammatory protein 1α/CCL-3, and IP-10), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and nitric oxide, while concomitantly reducing anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and arginase-1 activities, suggesting a dominant classically activated/M1 macrophage response. The classically activated response in turn helps in presenting antigen to T cells, as observed with robust CD4(+) T cell activation in vitro. Similarly, parasitized splenic macrophages from live attenuated parasite-infected mice also demonstrated induction of an M1 macrophage phenotype, indicated by upregulation of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-12, and inducible nitric oxide synthase 2 and downregulation of genes associated with the M2 phenotype, i.e., the IL-10, YM1, Arg-1, and MRC-1 genes, compared to WT L. donovani-infected mice. Furthermore, an ex vivo antigen presentation assay showed macrophages from live attenuated parasite-infected mice induced higher IFN-γ and IL-2 but significantly less IL-10 production by ovalbumin-specific CD4(+) T cells, resulting in proliferation of Th1 cells. These data suggest that infection with live attenuated parasites promotes a state of classical activation (M1 dominant) in macrophages that

  16. A Novel Prime and Boost Regimen of HIV Virus-Like Particles with TLR4 Adjuvant MPLA Induces Th1 Oriented Immune Responses against HIV.

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    Ethan Poteet

    Full Text Available HIV virus-like particles (VLPs present the HIV envelope protein in its native conformation, providing an ideal vaccine antigen. To enhance the immunogenicity of the VLP vaccine, we sought to improve upon two components; the route of administration and the additional adjuvant. Using HIV VLPs, we evaluated sub-cheek as a novel route of vaccine administration when combined with other conventional routes of immunization. Of five combinations of distinct prime and boost sequences, which included sub-cheek, intranasal, and intradermal routes of administration, intranasal prime and sub-cheek boost (IN+SC resulted in the highest HIV-specific IgG titers among the groups tested. Using the IN+SC regimen we tested the adjuvant VesiVax Conjugatable Adjuvant Lipid Vesicles (CALV + monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA at MPLA concentrations of 0, 7.5, 12.5, and 25 μg/dose in combination with our VLPs. Mice that received 12.5 or 25 μg/dose MPLA had the highest concentrations of Env-specific IgG2c (20.7 and 18.4 μg/ml respectively, which represents a Th1 type of immune response in C57BL/6 mice. This was in sharp contrast to mice which received 0 or 7.5 μg MPLA adjuvant (6.05 and 5.68 μg/ml of IgG2c respectively. In contrast to IgG2c, MPLA had minor effects on Env-specific IgG1; therefore, 12.5 and 25 μg/dose of MPLA induced the optimal IgG1/IgG2c ratio of 1.3. Additionally, the percentage of germinal center B cells increased significantly from 15.4% in the control group to 31.9% in the CALV + 25 μg MPLA group. These mice also had significantly more IL-2 and less IL-4 Env-specific CD8+ T cells than controls, correlating with an increased percentage of Env-specific central memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Our study shows the strong potential of IN+SC as an efficacious route of administration and the effectiveness of VLPs combined with MPLA adjuvant to induce Env specific Th1-oriented HIV-specific immune responses.

  17. Brucella abortus strain RB51 as a vector for heterologous protein expression and induction of specific Th1 type immune responses.

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    Vemulapalli, R; He, Y; Boyle, S M; Sriranganathan, N; Schurig, G G

    2000-06-01

    Brucella abortus strain RB51 is a stable, rough, attenuated mutant widely used as a live vaccine for bovine brucellosis. Our ultimate goal is to develop strain RB51 as a preferential vector for the delivery of protective antigens of other intracellular pathogens to which the induction of a strong Th1 type of immune response is needed for effective protection. As a first step in that direction, we studied the expression of a foreign reporter protein, beta-galactosidase of Escherichia coli, and the 65-kDa heat shock protein (HSP65) of Mycobacterium bovis in strain RB51. We cloned the promoter sequences of Brucella sodC and groE genes in pBBR1MCS to generate plasmids pBBSODpro and pBBgroE, respectively. The genes for beta-galactosidase (lacZ) and HSP65 were cloned in these plasmids and used to transform strain RB51. An enzyme assay in the recombinant RB51 strains indicated that the level of beta-galactosidase expression is higher under the groE promoter than under the sodC promoter. In strain RB51 containing pBBgroE/lacZ, but not pBBSODpro/lacZ, increased levels of beta-galactosidase expression were observed after subjecting the bacteria to heat shock or following internalization into macrophage-like J774A.1 cells. Mice vaccinated with either of the beta-galactosidase-expressing recombinant RB51 strains developed specific antibodies of predominantly the immunoglobulin G2a (IgG2a) isotype, and in vitro stimulation of their splenocytes with beta-galactosidase induced the secretion of gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), but not interleukin-4 (IL-4). A Th1 type of immune response to HSP65, as indicated by the presence of specific serum IgG2a, but not IgG1, antibodies, and IFN-gamma, but not IL-4, secretion by the specific-antigen-stimulated splenocytes, was also detected in mice vaccinated with strain RB51 containing pBBgroE/hsp65. Studies with mice indicated that expression of beta-galactosidase or HSP65 did not alter either the attenuation characteristics of strain RB51 or

  18. Unlipidated Outer Membrane Protein Omp16 (U-Omp16) from Brucella spp. as Nasal Adjuvant Induces a Th1 Immune Response and Modulates the Th2 Allergic Response to Cow’s Milk Proteins

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    Ibañez, Andrés E.; Smaldini, Paola; Coria, Lorena M.; Delpino, María V.; Pacífico, Lucila G. G.; Oliveira, Sergio C.; Risso, Gabriela S.; Pasquevich, Karina A.; Fossati, Carlos Alberto; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H.; Docena, Guillermo H.; Cassataro, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of novel mucosal adjuvants will help to develop new formulations to control infectious and allergic diseases. In this work we demonstrate that U-Omp16 from Brucella spp. delivered by the nasal route (i.n.) induced an inflammatory immune response in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung tissues. Nasal co-administration of U-Omp16 with the model antigen (Ag) ovalbumin (OVA) increased the amount of Ag in lung tissues and induced OVA-specific systemic IgG and T helper (Th) 1 immune responses. The usefulness of U-Omp16 was also assessed in a mouse model of food allergy. U-Omp16 i.n. administration during sensitization ameliorated the hypersensitivity responses of sensitized mice upon oral exposure to Cow’s Milk Protein (CMP), decreased clinical signs, reduced anti-CMP IgE serum antibodies and modulated the Th2 response in favor of Th1 immunity. Thus, U-Omp16 could be used as a broad Th1 mucosal adjuvant for different Ag formulations. PMID:23861971

  19. Unlipidated outer membrane protein Omp16 (U-Omp16 from Brucella spp. as nasal adjuvant induces a Th1 immune response and modulates the Th2 allergic response to cow's milk proteins.

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    Andrés E Ibañez

    Full Text Available The discovery of novel mucosal adjuvants will help to develop new formulations to control infectious and allergic diseases. In this work we demonstrate that U-Omp16 from Brucella spp. delivered by the nasal route (i.n. induced an inflammatory immune response in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL and lung tissues. Nasal co-administration of U-Omp16 with the model antigen (Ag ovalbumin (OVA increased the amount of Ag in lung tissues and induced OVA-specific systemic IgG and T helper (Th 1 immune responses. The usefulness of U-Omp16 was also assessed in a mouse model of food allergy. U-Omp16 i.n. administration during sensitization ameliorated the hypersensitivity responses of sensitized mice upon oral exposure to Cow's Milk Protein (CMP, decreased clinical signs, reduced anti-CMP IgE serum antibodies and modulated the Th2 response in favor of Th1 immunity. Thus, U-Omp16 could be used as a broad Th1 mucosal adjuvant for different Ag formulations.

  20. Induction of a T-Helper 1 (Th1) Immune Response in Mice by an Extract from the Pleurotus eryngii (Eringi) Mushroom

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    Kameyama, Natsuko; Ito, Akira; Imai, Soichi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract To assess the effect of edible mushroom extracts on the induction of T-helper 1 (Th1) immunity, we examined differences in interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-4 production in mice induced by hot-water extracts of 15 species of edible mushroom. Extracts from Agaricus bisporus, Flammulina velutipes, Hypsizigus marmoreus, Lentinula edodes, and Lyophyllum decastes induced both IFN-γ and IL-4 production in mice, whereas extracts from Pleurotus ostreatus only induced IL-4. In contrast, extracts from Agaricus blazei, Grifola frondosa, Morchella esculenta, Pholiota nameko, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, and Pleurotus eryngii induced only IFN-γ production. In particular, the extract from P. eryngii induced high levels of IFN-γ and reduced levels of IL-4. We further investigated the use of a trial immunogen using the P. eryngii extract as a Th1 immunostimulator. An oil-in-water emulsion of the hot-water extract from P. eryngii (immunostimulator) and ovalbumin (OVA; antigen) was used as a trial immunogen. This immunogen induced strong OVA-specific IgG2a antibody production in mice compared with the negative controls. In addition, OVA-specific IgG1 antibody levels were lower than those for the negative controls. Marked increases in serum IFN-γ levels and high-level production of IFN-γ in the culture supernatant from the CD4+ spleen cells in the trial immunogen group mice were observed. Our results suggested that the hot-water extract from P. eryngii induced Th1 immunity by acting as an immunostimulator. PMID:23134464

  1. Enhanced Th1 and Th2 immune response induction by Human Papilloma virus Type 16 E7 DNA vaccine in a tumoric murine model

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    Alireza Mohebbi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Human papilloma virus (HPV is known as the etiologic agent of cervical cancer and second common cancer among women. HPV viruses with the elevated risk of infection have more potentiality to cause cancer. The carcinogenesis in these viruses is accomplished by oncoproteins such as E7. Employing DNA vaccines which code specific antigens such as E7 is a novel therapeutic approach against such cancers. Methods: In the present study, plasmid coding HPV16 E7 was administered intracutaneously to C57BL/6 tumoric mice models for investigation of its immunostimulating potential. PcDNA3.1+ vector was used as control vector. After immunization, spleen of animals were removed. Then, release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH was evaluated to address the cytotoxic activity (CTL induced by cellular immunity in spleenocytes. Interferon-γ (IFN-γ and interleukin-4 (IL-4 cytokines were also analyzed as profiles of Th1 and Th2, respectively. Anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10 levels were also investigated in tumor microenvironments. Results: Our results showed that CTL activity was higher among samples receiving HPV16 E7 coding vector in comparison to the group receiving pcDNA3.1+ control vector (P < 0.05. Levels of IFN-γ and IL-4 were also higher in the group receiving HPV16 E7 plasmid in comparison to the control group (P < 0.05. Similarly, IL-10 levels were significantly lower in tumor carrying mice groups receiving HPV16 DNA vaccine compare to PBS and pcDNA3.1 receiving control groups. Conclusion: HPV16 E7 expressing DNA vaccine could increase the release of LDH due to immune system CTL activity. Elevation in IFN-γ and IL-4 levels as well as IL-10 reduction indicates an increase in both Th1 and Th2 profiles resulted by using potent DNA vaccine coding HPV16 E7 in tumor animal model.

  2. Immunization with Leishmania donovani protein disulfide isomerase DNA construct induces Th1 and Th17 dependent immune response and protection against experimental visceral leishmaniasis in Balb/c mice.

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    Amit, Ajay; Vijayamahantesh; Dikhit, Manas R; Singh, Ashish Kumar; Kumar, Vikash; Suman, Shashi S; Singh, Ashu; Kumar, Akhilesh; Thakur, Ajit Kumar; Das, Vidyanand Ravi; Das, Pradeep; Bimal, Sanjiva

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, the efficacy of Leishmania donovani protein disulfide isomerase (LdPDI) as a DNA vaccine was evaluated in BALB/C mice. Mice immunized with the LdPDI-DNA construct were found to be the most immuno-reactive, as the construct induced higher T-cell proliferation. The increased T-cell proliferation was associated with a substantial rise in Th1 and Th17+ CD4 cell response and triggered a higher proportion of CD8+ T cells for the release of interferon-gamma along with a reduced splenic parasite load on Days20 and 60 post challenge (PC). Furthermore, the vaccine construct triggered increased interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin(IL)-17A, and IL-22 release accompanied by decreased extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) 1/2 signaling and increased mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling coinciding with an increase in the amount of nitrite and reactive oxygen species (ROS)in vaccinating the splenocyts. We summarize from our data that the PDI-DNA construct of Leishmania donovani has the potential to elicit protective immunity through the pro-inflammatory cytokines of CD8+ and CD4+(Th1 and Th17) following an intervention in the downstream signaling event of ERK1/2 (probably through p38MAPK signaling). Therefore, the study suggests a new control against visceral leishmaniasis in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Increase in the Th1-Cell-Based Immune Response in Healthy Workers Exposed to Low-Dose Radiation - Immune System Status of Radiology Staff

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    Gholamreza Karimi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Radiation is one of the most important sources of free radical (such as reactive oxygen species production, which plays an essential role in the etiology of over hundred diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate some immune parameters and hematological indices in healthy workers of the Radiology Department, University Hospital of Mashhad, Iran. Methods: The study was performed on 50 healthy workers: 30 radiology staff as the case group and 20 laboratory workers as the control group. The radiation dose received by the radiology staff participating in the study was less than the annual maximum permissible level, 50 millisievert. Hematological parameters, lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine production were studied in both groups. Results: Among healthy radiology workers, the hematological indices did not differ statistically; however, their proliferation indices and IFN-γ levels showed significant increases in parallel with decreases in the IL-4 levels as compared

  4. Gender-specific effects of genetic variants within Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated immune response genes on the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis.

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    Rafael Cáliz

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to explore whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated immune response genes differentially influence the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA in women and men. In phase one, 27 functional/tagging polymorphisms in C-type lectins and MCP-1/CCR2 axis were genotyped in 458 RA patients and 512 controls. Carriers of Dectin-2 rs4264222T allele had an increased risk of RA (OR = 1.47, 95%CI 1.10-1.96 whereas patients harboring the DC-SIGN rs4804803G, MCP-1 rs1024611G, MCP-1 rs13900T and MCP-1 rs4586C alleles had a decreased risk of developing the disease (OR = 0.66, 95%CI 0.49-0.88; OR = 0.66, 95%CI 0.50-0.89; OR = 0.73, 95%CI 0.55-0.97 and OR = 0.68, 95%CI 0.51-0.91. Interestingly, significant gender-specific differences were observed for Dectin-2 rs4264222 and Dectin-2 rs7134303: women carrying the Dectin-2 rs4264222T and Dectin-2 rs7134303G alleles had an increased risk of RA (OR = 1.93, 95%CI 1.34-2.79 and OR = 1.90, 95%CI 1.29-2.80. Also five other SNPs showed significant associations only with one gender: women carrying the MCP-1 rs1024611G, MCP-1 rs13900T and MCP-1 rs4586C alleles had a decreased risk of RA (OR = 0.61, 95%CI 0.43-0.87; OR = 0.67, 95%CI 0.47-0.95 and OR = 0.60, 95%CI 0.42-0.86. In men, carriers of the DC-SIGN rs2287886A allele had an increased risk of RA (OR = 1.70, 95%CI 1.03-2.78, whereas carriers of the DC-SIGN rs4804803G had a decreased risk of developing the disease (OR = 0.53, 95%CI 0.32-0.89. In phase 2, we genotyped these SNPs in 754 RA patients and 519 controls, leading to consistent gender-specific associations for Dectin-2 rs4264222, MCP-1 rs1024611, MCP-1 rs13900 and DC-SIGN rs4804803 polymorphisms in the pooled sample (OR = 1.38, 95%CI 1.08-1.77; OR = 0.74, 95%CI 0.58-0.94; OR = 0.76, 95%CI 0.59-0.97 and OR = 0.56, 95%CI 0.34-0.93. SNP-SNP interaction analysis of significant SNPs also showed a

  5. Gender-specific effects of genetic variants within Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated immune response genes on the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáliz, Rafael; Canet, Luz María; Lupiañez, Carmen Belén; Canhão, Helena; Escudero, Alejandro; Filipescu, Ileana; Segura-Catena, Juana; Soto-Pino, María José; Expósito-Ruiz, Manuela; Ferrer, Miguel Ángel; García, Antonio; Romani, Lurdes; González-Utrilla, Alfonso; Vallejo, Teresa; Pérez-Pampin, Eva; Hemminki, Kari; Försti, Asta; Collantes, Eduardo; Fonseca, João Eurico; Sainz, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to explore whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Th1 and Th17 cell-mediated immune response genes differentially influence the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in women and men. In phase one, 27 functional/tagging polymorphisms in C-type lectins and MCP-1/CCR2 axis were genotyped in 458 RA patients and 512 controls. Carriers of Dectin-2 rs4264222T allele had an increased risk of RA (OR = 1.47, 95%CI 1.10-1.96) whereas patients harboring the DC-SIGN rs4804803G, MCP-1 rs1024611G, MCP-1 rs13900T and MCP-1 rs4586C alleles had a decreased risk of developing the disease (OR = 0.66, 95%CI 0.49-0.88; OR = 0.66, 95%CI 0.50-0.89; OR = 0.73, 95%CI 0.55-0.97 and OR = 0.68, 95%CI 0.51-0.91). Interestingly, significant gender-specific differences were observed for Dectin-2 rs4264222 and Dectin-2 rs7134303: women carrying the Dectin-2 rs4264222T and Dectin-2 rs7134303G alleles had an increased risk of RA (OR = 1.93, 95%CI 1.34-2.79 and OR = 1.90, 95%CI 1.29-2.80). Also five other SNPs showed significant associations only with one gender: women carrying the MCP-1 rs1024611G, MCP-1 rs13900T and MCP-1 rs4586C alleles had a decreased risk of RA (OR = 0.61, 95%CI 0.43-0.87; OR = 0.67, 95%CI 0.47-0.95 and OR = 0.60, 95%CI 0.42-0.86). In men, carriers of the DC-SIGN rs2287886A allele had an increased risk of RA (OR = 1.70, 95%CI 1.03-2.78), whereas carriers of the DC-SIGN rs4804803G had a decreased risk of developing the disease (OR = 0.53, 95%CI 0.32-0.89). In phase 2, we genotyped these SNPs in 754 RA patients and 519 controls, leading to consistent gender-specific associations for Dectin-2 rs4264222, MCP-1 rs1024611, MCP-1 rs13900 and DC-SIGN rs4804803 polymorphisms in the pooled sample (OR = 1.38, 95%CI 1.08-1.77; OR = 0.74, 95%CI 0.58-0.94; OR = 0.76, 95%CI 0.59-0.97 and OR = 0.56, 95%CI 0.34-0.93). SNP-SNP interaction analysis of significant SNPs also showed a significant

  6. Oral vaccination with a recombinant Salmonella vaccine vector provokes systemic HIV-1 subtype C Gag-specific CD4+ Th1 and Th2 cell immune responses in mice

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    Williamson Anna-Lise

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recombinant Salmonella vaccine vectors may potentially be used to induce specific CD4+ T cell responses against foreign viral antigens. Such immune responses are required features of vaccines against pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1. The aim of this study was to investigate the induction of systemic HIV-1-specific CD4+ T helper (Th responses in mice after oral immunization with a live attenuated Salmonella vaccine vector that expressed HIV-1 subtype C Gag. Groups of BALB/c mice were vaccinated orally three times (4 weeks apart with this recombinant Salmonella. At sacrifice, 28 days after the last immunization, systemic CD4+ Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunospot assay and cytometric bead array. HIV-1 Gag-specific IgG1 and IgG2a humoral responses in the serum were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Mice vaccinated with the recombinant Salmonella elicited both HIV-1-specific Th1 (interferon-gamma (IFN-γ and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and Th2 (interleukin-4 (IL-4 and interleukin-5 (IL-5 cytokine responses. The vaccine induced 70 (IFN-γ spot-forming units (SFUs/10e6 splenocytes and 238 IL-4 SFUs/10e6 splenocytes. Splenocytes from vaccinated mice also produced high levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines upon stimulation with a Gag CD4 peptide. The levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-5 were 7.5-, 29.1-, 26.2- and 89.3-fold above the background, respectively. Both HIV-1 Gag-specific IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies were detected in the sera of vaccinated mice. Conclusion The study highlights the potential of orally-delivered attenuated Salmonella as mucosal vaccine vectors for HIV-1 Subtype C Gag to induce Gag-specific CD4+ Th1 and Th2 cellular immune responses and antibodies which may be important characteristics required for protection against HIV-1 infection.

  7. Periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA) is a disorder of innate immunity and Th1 activation responsive to IL-1 blockade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanov, Silvia; Lapidus, Sivia; Chitkara, Puja; Feder, Henry; Salazar, Juan C.; Fleisher, Thomas A.; Brown, Margaret R.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Ward, Michael M.; Colbert, Robert A.; Sun, Hong-Wei; Wood, Geryl M.; Barham, Beverly K.; Jones, Anne; Aksentijevich, Ivona; Goldbach-Mansky, Raphaela; Athreya, Balu; Barron, Karyl S.; Kastner, Daniel L.

    2011-01-01

    The syndrome of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis (PFAPA) is the most common periodic fever disease in children. However, the pathogenesis is unknown. Using a systems biology approach we analyzed blood samples from PFAPA patients whose genetic testing excluded hereditary periodic fevers (HPFs), and from healthy children and pediatric HPF patients. Gene expression profiling could clearly distinguish PFAPA flares from asymptomatic intervals, HPF flares, and healthy controls. During PFAPA attacks, complement (C1QB, C2, SERPING1), IL-1–related (IL-1B, IL-1RN, CASP1, IL18RAP), and IFN-induced (AIM2, IP-10/CXCL10) genes were significantly overexpressed, but T cell-associated transcripts (CD3, CD8B) were down-regulated. On the protein level, PFAPA flares were accompanied by significantly increased serum levels of chemokines for activated T lymphocytes (IP-10/CXCL10, MIG/CXCL9), G-CSF, and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-18, IL-6). PFAPA flares also manifested a relative lymphopenia. Activated CD4+/CD25+ T-lymphocyte counts correlated negatively with serum concentrations of IP-10/CXCL10, whereas CD4+/HLA-DR+ T lymphocyte counts correlated positively with serum concentrations of the counterregulatory IL-1 receptor antagonist. Based on the evidence for IL-1β activation in PFAPA flares, we treated five PFAPA patients with a recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist. All patients showed a prompt clinical and IP-10/CXCL10 response. Our data suggest an environmentally triggered activation of complement and IL-1β/-18 during PFAPA flares, with induction of Th1-chemokines and subsequent retention of activated T cells in peripheral tissues. IL-1 inhibition may thus be beneficial for treatment of PFAPA attacks, with IP-10/CXCL10 serving as a potential biomarker. PMID:21478439

  8. Th1/Th2 balance and humoral immune response to potential antigens as early diagnostic method of equine Strongylus nematode infection

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    Faten A. M. Abo-Aziza

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the early diagnosis of strongyle infection based on early changes in Th1 and Th2 cytokines beside the diagnostic accuracy values and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and western blotting profiles using prepared strongyles antigens. Materials and Methods: A total of 73 donkeys had a mean age of 4-32 years old were parasitologically examined for strongyle infection. The early changes in Th1 and Th2 cytokines were determined, and the diagnostic accuracy values and SDS-PAGE and western blotting profiles were performed using prepared strongyles antigens; crude somatic Strongylus vulgaris (CSS, excretory-secretory S. vulgaris (ESS, crude somatic Cyathostomins (CSC, and excretory-secretory Cyathostomins (ESC. Results: The results revealed highest 437.04% and lowest 37.81% immunoglobulin G (IgG in high and low egg shedder groups when using ESC and CSS antigens, respectively. Antibodies index for ESS and CSC were significantly higher in moderate egg shedder group while that for ESS and CSC, ESC was significantly higher in high egg shedder group. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α/interleukin-4 (IL-4 balance in S. vulgaris infected donkeys was approximately equal in apparently healthy, low and high egg shedder groups while TNF-α < IL-4 in moderate egg shedder. In Cyathostomins infected animals, TNF-α/IL-4 balance was approximately equal in apparently healthy group while it was low in moderate and high egg shedder groups. The diagnostic accuracy showed that the higher specificity (46.6% and prevalence (95.40% were recorded by CSS and ESC antigens, respectively. However, SDS-PAGE and western blotting profiling proved that the band at molecular weight 25 kDa is exhibited by CSS antigen. Conclusion: Combination of detecting level of TNF-α/IL-4 balance, CSS antigen and IgG concentration is good tool for appropriate diagnosis of such infection. More advancement research must be

  9. Immunization with the DNA-encoding N-terminal domain of proteophosphoglycan of Leishmania donovani generates Th1-type immunoprotective response against experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

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    Samant, Mukesh; Gupta, Reema; Kumari, Shraddha; Misra, Pragya; Khare, Prashant; Kushawaha, Pramod Kumar; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh Anant; Dube, Anuradha

    2009-07-01

    Leishmania produce several types of mucin-like glycoproteins called proteophosphoglycans (PPGs) which exist as secretory as well as surface-bound forms in both promastigotes and amastigotes. The structure and function of PPGs have been reported to be species and stage specific as in the case of Leishmania major and Leishmania mexicana; there has been no such information available for Leishmania donovani. We have recently demonstrated that PPG is differentially expressed in sodium stibogluconate-sensitive and -resistant clinical isolates of L. donovani. To further elucidate the structure and function of the ppg gene of L. donovani, a partial sequence of its N-terminal domain of 1.6 kb containing the majority of antigenic determinants, was successfully cloned and expressed in prokaryotic as well as mammalian cells. We further evaluated the DNA-encoding N-terminal domain of the ppg gene as a vaccine in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) against the L. donovani challenge. The prophylactic efficacy to the tune of approximately 80% was observed in vaccinated hamsters and all of them could survive beyond 6 mo after challenge. The efficacy was supported by a surge in inducible NO synthase, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and IL-12 mRNA levels along with extreme down-regulation of TGF-beta, IL-4, and IL-10. A rise in the level of Leishmania-specific IgG2 was also observed which was indicative of enhanced cellular immune response. The results suggest the N-terminal domain of L. donovani ppg as a potential DNA vaccine against visceral leishmaniasis.

  10. Interleukin-12 augments a Th1-type immune response manifested as lymphocyte proliferation and interferon gamma production in Leishmania infantum-infected dogs.

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    Strauss-Ayali, Dalit; Baneth, Gad; Shor, Sharon; Okano, Fumiyoshi; Jaffe, Charles L

    2005-01-01

    The dog is the major reservoir for human visceral leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum. Interleukin-12 is considered to have an essential role in the development of both innate and adaptive immunity to Leishmania spp. and other intracellular pathogens. This study focused on the influence of IL-12 in experimental and natural canine visceral leishmaniasis. Responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to IL-12, interleukin-10 and Leishmania soluble antigen were evaluated in L. infantum experimentally infected oligosymptomatic beagles, uninfected beagles, naturally infected polysymptomatic dogs, and their matched uninfected controls. Leishmania soluble antigen induced strong peripheral blood mononuclear cells proliferation both in experimentally infected dogs (median stimulation index [SI]=15.01), and in naturally infected dogs (SI=8.86), but not by cells from the control groups. IL-12 addition further enhanced cell proliferation in naturally (SI=14.95), but not in experimentally infected animals. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from experimentally infected dogs were able to produce significant amounts of IFN-gamma (3.39 ng/ml) upon LSA stimulation, but no such production was detected in cells from naturally infected or control animals. Interestingly, addition of IL-12 reversed the inhibitory effect of LSA on IFN-gamma production by cells from polysymptomatic naturally infected dogs and the uninfected beagles (4.84 and 7.45 ng/ml, respectively), and further increased IFN-gamma production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from experimentally infected oligosymptomatic dogs (29.28 ng/ml). IFN-gamma mRNA expression correlated well with IFN-gamma production. Addition of IL-10 to Leishmania soluble antigen stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells inhibited proliferation and IFN-gamma production in experimentally infected dogs. Thus, the ability of IL-12 to augment IFN-gamma production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from dogs with experimental or

  11. Immunotherapeutic vitamin E nanoemulsion synergies the antiproliferative activity of paclitaxel in breast cancer cells via modulating Th1 and Th2 immune response.

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    Pawar, Vivek K; Panchal, Samir B; Singh, Yuvraj; Meher, Jaya Gopal; Sharma, Komal; Singh, Pankaj; Bora, Himangshu K; Singh, Akhilesh; Datta, Dipak; Chourasia, Manish K

    2014-12-28

    Paclitaxel (PTX) is used as first line treatment for metastatic breast cancer but the relief comes at a heavy cost in terms of accompanying adverse effects. The pharmaceutical credentials of PTX are further dampened by the intrinsically low aqueous solubility. In order to sideline such insidious tendencies, PTX was incorporated in a vitamin E nanoemulsion using high pressure homogenization. The encapsulation efficiency of PTX in nanoemulsion was 97.81±2.7% and a sustained drug release profile was obtained. PTX loaded nanoemulsion exhibited higher cytotoxicity in breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) when compared to free PTX and marketed formulation (Taxol). Cell cycle arrest study depicted that MCF-7 cells treated with PTX loaded nanoemulsion showed high arrest in G2-M phase. Moreover blank nanoemulsion induced additional apoptosis in breast cancer cells through G1-S arrest by disrupting mitochondrial membrane potential. Cytokine estimation study in macrophages showed that both PTX loaded nanoemulsion and blank nanoemulsion enhanced secretion of IL-12 and downregulated secretion of IL-4 and IL-10. Results suggest that inclusion of vitamin E in nanoemulsion opened multiple complementary molecular effects which not only magnified the principle antiproliferative activity of PTX but also independently showcased potential in restoring the proactive nature of the breast cancer slackened chronic immune response. In-vivo anticancer activity showed significantly improved efficacy of PTX loaded nanoemlsion compare to Taxol and free PTX. The list of plausible advantages of PTX nanoemulsification was further substantiated by acceptable haemolytic potential, reduced in-vivo toxicity and conveniently modified pharmacokinetic profile in which the AUC and MRT were extended considerably. Overall, there were strong evidences that developed formulation can serve as a viable alternative to currently available PTX options. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Starfish, Asterias amurensis and Asterina pectinifera, as potential sources of Th1 immunity-stimulating adjuvants.

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    Kawase, Osamu; Goo, Youn-Kyoung; Jujo, Hayato; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2011-02-01

    Saponin is the generic name of steroid or triterpene glycosides, and the capacities of some saponins to stimulate both Th1 immune response and production of cytotoxic T cells are useful as vaccine components against intracellular pathogens. Because saponins have been found commonly in starfish, we assessed the potential of starfish, Asterias amurensis and Asterina pectinifera, as adjuvant sources. Crude starfish saponins had hemolytic activities (EC(50)=10 to 100 µg/ml) and thin layer chromatography indicated heterogeneity of their constituents. When starfish saponis were subcutaneously injected into mice with ovalbumin (OVA), OVA-specific IgG, especially IgG2a instead of IgG1 was produced in mouse blood, suggesting starfish saponins stimulated Th1 type immunity and they were potential sources of new adjuvants.

  13. Human Rhinovirus Proteinase 2A Induces Th1 and Th2 Immunity in COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manisha; Lee, Seung-Hyo; Porter, Paul; Xu, Chuang; Ohno, Ayako; Atmar, Robert L.; Greenberg, Stephen B.; Bandi, Venkata; Gern, Jim; Amineva, Svetlana; Aminev, Alex; Skern, Tim; Smithwick, Pamela; Perusich, Sarah; Barrow, Nadia; Roberts, Luz; Corry, David B.; Kheradmand, Farrah

    2010-01-01

    Background Tobacco related lung diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are major causes of lung-related disability and death worldwide. Acute exacerbation of COPD (AE-COPD) is commonly associated with upper and lower respiratory viral infections and may result in respiratory failure in those with advanced lung disease. Objective We sought to determine the mechanism underlying COPD exacerbation, and host response to pathogen-derived factors. Methods Over a 24 months period, we assessed the viral causes for upper and lower respiratory infections in COPD (n=155) and control (n=103) subjects. We collected nasal and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and peripheral blood under baseline and exacerbated condition. We determined the effect of human rhinovirus (HRV) proteinases on T cell activation in humans, and in mice. Results HRVs are isolated from nasal and lung fluid from subjects with AE-COPD. BAL fluid, and CD4 T cells from COPD patients exhibited a type 1 T helper (Th1), and Th2 cell cytokine phenotype during acute infection. HRV-encoded proteinase 2A activated monocyte-derived dendritic cells in vitro, and induced strong Th1, and Th2 immune responses from CD4 T cells. Intranasal administration of recombinant rhinovirus proteinase 2A in mice resulted in an increase in airway hyperreactivity, lung inflammation, and IL-4 and IFN-γ production from CD4 T cells. Conclusion Our findings suggest that patients with severe COPD show Th1 and Th2 bias responses during AE-COPD. HRV-encoded proteinase 2A, like other microbial proteinases, could provide a Th1 and Th2-biasing adjuvant factor during upper and lower respiratory infection in patients with severe COPD. Alteration of the immune response to secreted viral proteinases may contribute to worsening of dyspnea and respiratory failure in COPD. PMID:20430426

  14. Honeybee (Apis mellifera Venom Reinforces Viral Clearance during the Early Stage of Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus through the Up-Regulation of Th1-Specific Immune Responses

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    Jin-A Lee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS is a chronic and immunosuppressive viral disease that is responsible for substantial economic losses for the swine industry. Honeybee venom (HBV is known to possess several beneficial biological properties, particularly, immunomodulatory effects. Therefore, this study aimed at evaluating the effects of HBV on the immune response and viral clearance during the early stage of infection with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV in pigs. HBV was administered via three routes of nasal, neck, and rectal and then the pigs were inoculated with PRRSV intranasally. The CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio and levels of interferon (IFN-γ and interleukin (IL-12 were significantly increased in the HBV-administered healthy pigs via nasal and rectal administration. In experimentally PRRSV-challenged pigs with virus, the viral genome load in the serum, lung, bronchial lymph nodes and tonsil was significantly decreased, as was the severity of interstitial pneumonia, in the nasal and rectal administration group. Furthermore, the levels of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-12 were significantly increased, along with up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β with HBV administration. Thus, HBV administration—especially via the nasal or rectal route—could be a suitable strategy for immune enhancement and prevention of PRRSV infection in pigs.

  15. Pegylation of DDA:TDB liposomal adjuvants reduces the vaccine depot effect and alters the Th1/Th2 immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Randip; Bramwell, Vincent W; Kirby, Daniel J; Perrie, Yvonne

    2012-02-28

    The adjuvant efficacy of cationic liposomes composed of dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide and trehalose dibehenate (DDA:TDB) is well established. Whilst the mechanism behind its immunostimulatory action is not fully understood, the ability of the formulation to promote a 'depot effect' is a consideration. The depot effect has been suggested to be primarily due to their cationic nature which results in electrostatic adsorption of the antigen and aggregation of the vesicles at the site of injection. The aim of the study was to further test this hypothesis by investigating whether sterically stabilising DDA:TDB with polyethylene glycol (PEG) reduces aggregation, and subsequently influences the formation of a depot at the site of injection. Results reported demonstrate that high (25%) levels of PEG was able to significantly inhibit the formation of a liposome depot and also severely limit the retention of antigen at the site, resulting in a faster drainage of the liposomes from the site of injection. This change in biodistribution profile was reflected in the immunisation response, where lower levels of IgG2b antibody and IFN-γ and higher level of IL-5 cytokine were found. Furthermore entrapping antigen within DDA:TDB liposomes did not improve antigen retention at the injection site compared surface adsorbed antigen. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Advax4 delta inulin combination adjuvant together with ECMX, a fusion construct of four protective mTB antigens, induces a potent Th1 immune response and protects mice against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Oliveira Santos, Bruno; Trentini, Monalisa Martins; Machado, Renato Beilner; Rúbia Nunes Celes, Mara; Kipnis, André; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Junqueira-Kipnis, Ana Paula

    2017-12-02

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a main public health concern and 10.4 million new cases occurred in 2015 around the world. BCG is the only approved vaccine against TB, but has variable efficacy and new vaccines are needed. We developed two new mTB vaccine candidates based on the recombinant fusion proteins, rCMX and rECMX formulated with Advax4, a new combination adjuvant combining delta inulin, CpG oligonucleotide and murabutide. BALB/c mice were immunized three times intramuscularly with these vaccine formulations. Injection of Advax4 alone increased the percentage of lymphatic endothelial cells and activated macrophages (F480/CD11b+) in the draining lymph nodes consistent with a chemotactic adjuvant effect. Advax4+CMX and Advax4+ECMX induced the highest levels of IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies against rCMX and rECMX, respectively. Immunized mice challenged with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) had increased vaccine-specific Th1 responses in the lungs together with reduced Mtb - associated alveolar damage, although only the Advax4+ECMX vaccine demonstrated significant reduction of lung bacterial load. This study confirmed Advax4+ECMX as a potential TB vaccine candidate, with potential for further optimization and clinical development.

  17. TLR2 and TLR4 signaling pathways are required for recombinant Brucella abortus BCSP31-induced cytokine production, functional upregulation of mouse macrophages, and the Th1 immune response in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia-Yun; Liu, Yuan; Gao, Xiao-Xue; Gao, Xiang; Cai, Hong

    2014-09-01

    Brucella abortus is a zoonotic Gram-negative pathogen that causes brucelosis in ruminants and humans. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize Brucella abortus and initiate antigen-presenting cell activities that affect both innate and adaptive immunity. In this study, we focused on recombinant Brucella cell-surface protein 31 (rBCSP31) to determine its effects on mouse macrophages. Our results demonstrated that rBCSP31 induced TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-12p40 production, which depended on the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) by stimulating the rapid phosphorylation of p38 and JNK and the activation of transcription factor NF-κB in macrophages. In addition, continuous exposure (>24 h) of RAW264.7 cells to rBCSP31 significantly enhanced IFN-γ-induced expression of MHC-II and the ability to present rBCSP31 peptide to CD4(+) T cells. Furthermore, we found that rBCSP31 could interact with both TLR2 and TLR4. The rBCSP31-induced cytokine production by macrophages from TLR2(-/-) and TLR4(-/-) mice was lower than that from C57BL/6 macrophages, and the activation of NF-κB and MAPKs was attenuated in macrophages from TLR2(-/-) and TLR4(-/-) mice. In addition, CD4(+) T cells from C57BL/6 mice immunized with rBCSP31 produced higher levels of IFN-γ and IL-2 compared with CD4(+) T cells from TLR2(-/-) and TLR4(-/-) mice. Macrophages from immunized C57BL/6 mice produced higher levels of IL-12p40 than those from TLR2(-/-) and TLR4(-/-) mice. Furthermore, immunization with rBCSP31 provided better protection in C57BL/6 mice than in TLR2(-/-) and TLR4(-/-) mice after B. abortus 2308 challenge. These results indicate that rBCSP31 is a TLR2 and TLR4 agonist that induces cytokine production, upregulates macrophage function and induces the Th1 immune response.

  18. Immunomodulatory effect of tea saponin in immune T-cells and T-lymphoma cells via regulation of Th1, Th2 immune response and MAPK/ERK2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Jyoti; Chaudhary, Narendra; Seo, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Min-Yong; Shin, Tai-Sun; Kim, Jong-Deog

    2014-06-01

    The anti-cancer activity of saponins and phenolic compounds present in green tea was previously reported. However, the immunomodulatory and adjuvanticity activity of tea saponin has never been studied. In this study, we investigated the immunomodulatory effect of tea saponin in T-lymphocytes and EL4 cells via regulation of cytokine response and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathway. Quantitative analysis of mRNA expression level of cytokines were performed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction following stimulation with tea saponin, ovalbumin (OVA) alone or tea saponin in combination with OVA. Tea saponin inhibited the proliferation of EL4 cells measured in a dose-dependent manner. No cytotoxicity effect of tea saponin was detected in T-lymphocytes; rather, tea saponin enhanced the proliferation of T-lymphocytes. Tea saponin with OVA increased the expression of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, IL-12, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and decreased the expression level of IL-10 and IL-8 in T-lymphocytes. Furthermore, tea saponin, in the presence of OVA, downregulated the MAPK signaling pathway via inhibition of IL-4, IL-8 and nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) in EL4 cells. Th1 cytokines enhancer and Th2 cytokines and NF-κB inhibitor, tea saponin can markedly inhibit the proliferation and invasiveness of T-lymphoma (EL4) cells, possibly due to TNF-α- and NF-κB-mediated regulation of MAPK signaling pathway.

  19. The inflammasome drives protective Th1 and Th17 cellular responses in disseminated candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Veerdonk, Frank L.; Joosten, Leo A.B.; Shaw, Patrick J.; Smeekens, Sanne P.; Malireddi, Subbarao; van der Meer, Jos W.M.; Kullberg, Bart-Jan; Netea, Mihai G.; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2014-01-01

    The Nlrp3 inflammasome has been proposed to play an important role in antifungal host defense. However, studies exploring the role of the inflammasome in antifungal host defense have been limited to the direct effects on IL-1β processing. Although IL-1β has important direct effects on the innate immune response, important effects of the caspase-1-dependent cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 are exerted on the initiation of adaptive cellular responses Th1 and Th17. No studies have been employed to assess the impact of the inflammasome on the Th1/Th17 defense mechanisms in-vivo during candidiasis. In the present study we demonstrate an essential role for caspase-1 and ASC in disseminated candidiasis through regulating antifungal Th1 and Th17 responses. Caspase-1−/− and ASC−/− mice display diminished Th1/Th17 responses, followed by increased fungal outgrowth and lower survival. These observations identify a critical role for the inflammasome in controlling protective adaptive immune responses during invasive fungal infection. PMID:21681738

  20. Academic stress-induced changes in Th1- and Th2-cytokine response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areej M. Assaf

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress stimulates physiological responses releasing catecholamines and corticoids, which act via corresponding receptors on immune cells, producing a shift in the cytokine balance. These responses are variable depending on the nature of stressors. The effect of the academic stress on the production of the Th1-cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8 and Th2-cytokines (IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 on 35 medical/health sciences students after completing their questionnaires was investigated. Blood samples were taken at three stages; baseline stage at the beginning, midterm and final academic examination stages. Plasma cortisol and cytokines were measured during the three stages. The last two stages were compared with the baseline non-stress period. Results of the stress induced during the final examination stage were the highest with a significant increase in cortisol release, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-1ra release with a shift in Th1:Th2 cytokines balance towards Th2. Whereby, the midterm stage did not show significant reduction in Th1-cytokines except for TNF-α, with an increase in IFN-γ level that was reduced in the third stage. Th2 cytokine, IL-1ra, had positive correlations with Th1 cytokines; IL-2 and IFN-γ in the second stage and IL-6 cytokine in the third stage. Cortisol was positively correlated with IL-8 in the last stage and heart rates had negative correlation with IL-10 in the first and last stages. Findings of this study indicate that exam stress down-regulates Th1 with a selective up-regulation of Th2-cytokines. In conclusion, Cortisol might have a role in suppressing the release of Th1- mediated cellular immune response which could increase the vulnerability among the students to infectious diseases.

  1. Academic stress-induced changes in Th1- and Th2-cytokine response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaf, Areej M; Al-Abbassi, Reem; Al-Binni, Maysaa

    2017-12-01

    Psychological stress stimulates physiological responses releasing catecholamines and corticoids, which act via corresponding receptors on immune cells, producing a shift in the cytokine balance. These responses are variable depending on the nature of stressors. The effect of the academic stress on the production of the Th1-cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8) and Th2-cytokines (IL-1ra, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10) on 35 medical/health sciences students after completing their questionnaires was investigated. Blood samples were taken at three stages; baseline stage at the beginning, midterm and final academic examination stages. Plasma cortisol and cytokines were measured during the three stages. The last two stages were compared with the baseline non-stress period. Results of the stress induced during the final examination stage were the highest with a significant increase in cortisol release, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-1ra release with a shift in Th1:Th2 cytokines balance towards Th2. Whereby, the midterm stage did not show significant reduction in Th1-cytokines except for TNF-α, with an increase in IFN-γ level that was reduced in the third stage. Th2 cytokine, IL-1ra, had positive correlations with Th1 cytokines; IL-2 and IFN-γ in the second stage and IL-6 cytokine in the third stage. Cortisol was positively correlated with IL-8 in the last stage and heart rates had negative correlation with IL-10 in the first and last stages. Findings of this study indicate that exam stress down-regulates Th1 with a selective up-regulation of Th2-cytokines. In conclusion, Cortisol might have a role in suppressing the release of Th1- mediated cellular immune response which could increase the vulnerability among the students to infectious diseases.

  2. Th1 and Th2 cytokine responses to academic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, D H; Fox, C

    2001-08-01

    Predominant Th2 profiles are associated with the worsening of asthma, and stress is speculated to induce a Th2 profile. The goals of this study were to examine the responses of the cytokines Th1 (IFN-gamma and IL-2) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-6) to a stressor and to look at the relationships between cytokine and psychological responses. Twenty-four students with and without a history of asthma completed questionnaires and gave blood samples during nonexam and exam periods. Cytokines were measured by ELISA from supernatants of stimulated mononuclear cells (MNC) and whole blood. During examinations, there were a significant decrease in IL-2 and a significant increase in IL-6 production (both cultures) and a significant decrease in IFN-gamma production (MNC cultures). Baseline IL-2 levels showed significant negative correlations with several stress and mood scores. Findings of this study indicate a down-regulation of Th1 and a selective up-regulation of Th2 cytokines during a stressful exposure. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Th1/Th2 cell dichotomy in acquired immunity to Bordetella pertussis: variables in the in vivo priming and in vitro cytokine detection techniques affect the classification of T cell subsets as Th1, Th2 or Th0

    OpenAIRE

    MILLS, KINGSTON

    1996-01-01

    PUBLISHED In studies of the mechanism of immunity to Bordetella pertussis in a murine respiratory infection model, we have previously demonstrated that natural infection of immunization with a whole cell vaccine induces a potent protective immune response, which is mediated by T-helper type-1 (Th1) cells. In contrast an acellular vaccine generates Th2 cells and is associated with delayed bacterial clearance following respiratory challenge. In the present study we have investigated the appa...

  4. Modulation of immune cells and Th1/Th2 cytokines in insulin-treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modulation of immune cells and Th1/Th2 cytokines in insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus. Magloire Pandoua Nekoua1, Rufine Fachinan1, Amidou K Atchamou1, Odilon Nouatin2,. Daniel Amoussou-Guenou3, Marcellin K Amoussou-Guenou4, Kabirou Moutairou1, Akadiri Yessoufou1. 1. Laboratory of Cell Biology and ...

  5. Th1-skewed tissue responses to a mycolyl glycolipid in mycobacteria-infected rhesus macaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Ayumi; Hattori, Yuki; Komori, Takaya [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Nakamura, Takashi [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita 12 Nishi 6, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0812 (Japan); Igarashi, Tatsuhiko, E-mail: tigarash@virus.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Primate Model, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Harashima, Hideyoshi, E-mail: harasima@pharm.hokudai.ac.jp [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita 12 Nishi 6, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0812 (Japan); Sugita, Masahiko, E-mail: msugita@virus.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Cell Regulation, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, 53 Kawahara-cho, Shogoin, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan)

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Glucose monomycolate (GMM) is a marker glycolipid for active tuberculosis. •Tissue responses to GMM involved up-regulation of Th1-attracting chemokines. •Th1-skewed local responses were mounted at the GMM-injected tissue. -- Abstract: Trehalose 6,6′-dimycolate (TDM) is a major glycolipid of the cell wall of mycobacteria with remarkable adjuvant functions. To avoid detection by the host innate immune system, invading mycobacteria down-regulate the expression of TDM by utilizing host-derived glucose as a competitive substrate for their mycolyltransferases; however, this enzymatic reaction results in the concomitant biosynthesis of glucose monomycolate (GMM) which is recognized by the acquired immune system. GMM-specific, CD1-restricted T cell responses have been detected in the peripheral blood of infected human subjects and monkeys as well as in secondary lymphoid organs of small animals, such as guinea pigs and human CD1-transgenic mice. Nevertheless, it remains to be determined how tissues respond at the site where GMM is produced. Here we found that rhesus macaques vaccinated with Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette–Guerin mounted a chemokine response in GMM-challenged skin that was favorable for recruiting T helper (Th)1 T cells. Indeed, the expression of interferon-γ, but not Th2 or Th17 cytokines, was prominent in the GMM-injected tissue. The GMM-elicited tissue response was also associated with the expression of monocyte/macrophage-attracting CC chemokines, such as CCL2, CCL4 and CCL8. Furthermore, the skin response to GMM involved the up-regulated expression of granulysin and perforin. Given that GMM is produced primarily by pathogenic mycobacteria proliferating within the host, the Th1-skewed tissue response to GMM may function efficiently at the site of infection.

  6. Th1-Th17 cells mediate protective adaptive immunity against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Lin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We sought to define protective mechanisms of immunity to Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans bloodstream infections in mice immunized with the recombinant N-terminus of Als3p (rAls3p-N vaccine plus aluminum hydroxide (Al(OH(3 adjuvant, or adjuvant controls. Deficiency of IFN-gamma but not IL-17A enhanced susceptibility of control mice to both infections. However, vaccine-induced protective immunity against both infections required CD4+ T-cell-derived IFN-gamma and IL-17A, and functional phagocytic effectors. Vaccination primed Th1, Th17, and Th1/17 lymphocytes, which produced pro-inflammatory cytokines that enhanced phagocytic killing of both organisms. Vaccinated, infected mice had increased IFN-gamma, IL-17, and KC, increased neutrophil influx, and decreased organism burden in tissues. In summary, rAls3p-N vaccination induced a Th1/Th17 response, resulting in recruitment and activation of phagocytes at sites of infection, and more effective clearance of S. aureus and C. albicans from tissues. Thus, vaccine-mediated adaptive immunity can protect against both infections by targeting microbes for destruction by innate effectors.

  7. Comparison of Th1- and Th2-associated immune reactivities stimulated by single versus multiple vaccination of mice with irradiated Schistosoma mansoni cercariae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caulada-Benedetti, Z.; Al-Zamel, F.; Sher, A.; James, S. (NIAID, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Mice immunized against Schistosoma mansoni by a single percutaneous exposure to radiation-attenuated parasite larvae demonstrate partial resistance to challenge infection that has been shown to correlate with development of cell-mediated immunity, whereas mice hyperimmunized by multiple exposure to attenuated larvae produce antibodies capable of transferring partial protection to naive recipients. Measurement of Ag-specific lymphokine responses in these animals suggested that the difference in resistance mechanisms may be due to the differential induction of Th subset response by the two immunization protocols. Thus, upon Ag stimulation, singly immunized mice predominantly demonstrated responses associated with Th1 reactivity, including IL-2 and IFN-gamma production, whereas multiply immunized animals showed increased IL-5, IL-4, and IgG1 antibody production associated with enhanced Th2 response. These responses demonstrated some degree of organ compartmentalization, with splenocytes demonstrating higher Th1-related lymphokine production and cells from draining lymph nodes showing stronger proliferation and Th2 type reactivity. However, hyperimmunized mice also continued to demonstrate substantial Th1-associated immune reactivity. Moreover, in vivo Ag challenge elicited activated larvacidal macrophages in hyperimmunized animals. These observations indicate that protective cell-mediated mechanisms associated with induction of CD4+ Th1 cell reactivity predominate in singly vaccinated mice. Further vaccination stimulates Th2 responses, such as enhanced IgG1 production, that may also contribute to protective immunity.

  8. A polysaccharide isolated from Agaricus blazei Murill (ABP-AW1) as a potential Th1 immunity-stimulating adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liran; Sun, Yongxu; Xu, Hao; Xu, Huiyu; Cong, Huan; Liu, Jicheng

    2013-10-01

    In the present study, a low molecular weight polysaccharide, ABP-AW1, isolated from Agaricus blazei Murill was assessed for its potential adjuvant activity. ABP-AW1 is considered to create a 'depot' of antigen at a subcutaneous injection site. ICR mice were immunized with 100 μg ovalbumin (OVA) alone or with 100 μg OVA formulated in 0.9% saline containing 200 μg aluminum (alum) or ABP-AW1 (50, 100 and 200 μg) on days 1 and 15. Two weeks after the secondary immunization, splenocyte proliferation, the expression of surface markers, cytokine production and the OVA-specific antibody levels in the serum were determined. The OVA/ABP-AW1 vaccine, in comparison with OVA alone, markedly increased the proliferation of splenic lymphocytes and elicited greater antigen-specific CD4+ T cell activation, as determined by splenic CD4+CD69+ T cells and Th1 cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ release. The combination of ABP-AW1 and OVA also enhanced IgG2b antibody responses to OVA. In conclusion, these data indicated that ABP-AW1 significantly enhanced the humoral and cellular immune responses against OVA in the mice, suggesting that ABP-AW1 stimulated Th1-type immunity. We suggest that ABP-AW1 may serve as a new adjuvant.

  9. Selective Enhancement of Systemic Th1 Immunity in Immunologically Immature Rats with an Orally Administered Bacterial Extract

    OpenAIRE

    Bowman, L. M.; Holt, P. G.

    2001-01-01

    Infant rats primed during the first week of life with soluble antigen displayed adult-equivalent levels of T-helper 2 (Th2)-dependent immunological memory development as revealed by production of secondary immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) antibody responses to subsequent challenge, but in contrast to adults failed to prime for Th1-dependent IgG2b responses. We demonstrate that this Th2 bias in immune function can be redressed by oral administration to neonates of a bacterial extract (Broncho-Vaxom OM...

  10. Neutrophils exert a suppressive effect on Th1 responses to intracellular pathogen Brucella abortus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías Barquero-Calvo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs are the first line of defense against microbial pathogens. In addition to their role in innate immunity, PMNs may also regulate events related to adaptive immunity. To investigate the influence of PMNs in the immune response during chronic bacterial infections, we explored the course of brucellosis in antibody PMN-depleted C57BL/6 mice and in neutropenic mutant Genista mouse model. We demonstrate that at later times of infection, Brucella abortus is killed more efficiently in the absence of PMNs than in their presence. The higher bacterial removal was concomitant to the: i comparatively reduced spleen swelling; ii augmented infiltration of epithelioid histiocytes corresponding to macrophages/dendritic cells (DCs; iii higher recruitment of monocytes and monocyte/DCs phenotype; iv significant activation of B and T lymphocytes, and v increased levels of INF-γ and negligible levels of IL4 indicating a balance of Th1 over Th2 response. These results reveal that PMNs have an unexpected influence in dampening the immune response against intracellular Brucella infection and strengthen the notion that PMNs actively participate in regulatory circuits shaping both innate and adaptive immunity.

  11. 5-Lipoxygenase negatively regulates Th1 response during Brucella abortus infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahel, Júlia Silveira; de Souza, Mariana Bueno; Gomes, Marco Túlio Ribeiro; Corsetti, Patricia P; Carvalho, Natalia B; Marinho, Fabio A V; de Almeida, Leonardo A; Caliari, Marcelo V; Machado, Fabiana Simão; Oliveira, Sergio Costa

    2015-03-01

    Brucella abortus is a Gram-negative bacterium that infects humans and cattle, causing a chronic inflammatory disease known as brucellosis. A Th1-mediated immune response plays a critical role in host control of this pathogen. Recent findings indicate contrasting roles for lipid mediators in host responses against infections. 5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) is an enzyme required for the production of the lipid mediators leukotrienes and lipoxins. To determine the involvement of 5-LO in host responses to B. abortus infection, we intraperitoneally infected wild-type and 5-LO-deficient mice and evaluated the progression of infection and concomitant expression of immune mediators. Here, we demonstrate that B. abortus induced the upregulation of 5-LO mRNA in wild-type mice. Moreover, this pathogen upregulated the production of the lipid mediators leukotriene B4 and lipoxin A4 in a 5-LO-dependent manner. 5-LO-deficient mice displayed lower bacterial burdens in the spleen and liver and less severe liver pathology, demonstrating an enhanced resistance to infection. Host resistance paralleled an increased expression of the proinflammatory mediators interleukin-12 (IL-12), gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) during the course of infection. Moreover, we demonstrated that 5-LO downregulated the expression of IL-12 in macrophages during B. abortus infection. Our results suggest that 5-LO has a major involvement in B. abortus infection, by functioning as a negative regulator of the protective Th1 immune responses against this pathogen. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Continuous and Discontinuous Cigarette Smoke Exposure Differentially Affects Protective Th1 Immunity against Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaler, Christopher R.; Horvath, Carly N.; McCormick, Sarah; Jeyanathan, Mangalakumari; Khera, Amandeep; Zganiacz, Anna; Kasinska, Joanna; Stampfli, Martin R.; Xing, Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is the leading cause of death due to a bacterial pathogen. Emerging epidemiologic evidence suggests that the leading risk factor associated with TB mortality is cigarette smoke exposure. Despite this, it remains poorly understood what is the effect of cigarette smoke exposure on anti-TB immunity and whether its potential detrimental effect can be reversed by cigarette smoking cessation. In our current study, we have investigated the impact of both continuous and discontinuous cigarette smoke exposure on the development of anti-mycobacterial type 1 immunity in murine models. We find that while continuous cigarette smoke exposure severely impairs type 1 immunity in the lung, a short-term smoking cessation allows rapid restoration of anti-mycobacterial immunity. The ability of continuous cigarette smoke exposure to dampen type 1 protective immunity is attributed locally to its affects on innate immune cells in the lung. Continuous cigarette smoke exposure locally, by not systemically, impairs APC accumulation and their production of TNF, IL-12, and RANTES, blunts the recruitment of CD4+IFN-γ+ T cells to the lung, and weakens the formation of granuloma. On the other hand, smoking cessation was found to help restore type 1 immunity by rapidly improving the functionality of lung APCs, enhancing the recruitment of CD4+IFN-γ+ T cells to the lung, and promoting the formation of granuloma. Our study for the first time demonstrates that continuous, but not discontinuous, cigarette smoke exposure severely impedes the lung expression of anti-TB Th1 immunity via inhibiting innate immune activation and lung T cell recruitment. Our findings thus suggest cigarette smoking cessation to be beneficial to the control of pulmonary TB. PMID:23527127

  13. IFN Regulatory Factor 3 Balances Th1 and T Follicular Helper Immunity during Nonlethal Blood-Stage Plasmodium Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Kylie R; Soon, Megan S F; Sebina, Ismail; Fernandez-Ruiz, Daniel; Davey, Gayle; Liligeto, Urijah N; Nair, Arya Sheela; Fogg, Lily G; Edwards, Chelsea L; Best, Shannon E; Lansink, Lianne I M; Schroder, Kate; Wilson, Jane A C; Austin, Rebecca; Suhrbier, Andreas; Lane, Steven W; Hill, Geoffrey R; Engwerda, Christian R; Heath, William R; Haque, Ashraful

    2018-01-10

    Differentiation of CD4+ Th cells is critical for immunity to malaria. Several innate immune signaling pathways have been implicated in the detection of blood-stage Plasmodium parasites, yet their influence over Th cell immunity remains unclear. In this study, we used Plasmodium-reactive TCR transgenic CD4+ T cells, termed PbTII cells, during nonlethal P. chabaudi chabaudi AS and P. yoelii 17XNL infection in mice, to examine Th cell development in vivo. We found no role for caspase1/11, stimulator of IFN genes, or mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein, and only modest roles for MyD88 and TRIF-dependent signaling in controlling PbTII cell expansion. In contrast, IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) was important for supporting PbTII expansion, promoting Th1 over T follicular helper (Tfh) differentiation, and controlling parasites during the first week of infection. IRF3 was not required for early priming by conventional dendritic cells, but was essential for promoting CXCL9 and MHC class II expression by inflammatory monocytes that supported PbTII responses in the spleen. Thereafter, IRF3-deficiency boosted Tfh responses, germinal center B cell and memory B cell development, parasite-specific Ab production, and resolution of infection. We also noted a B cell-intrinsic role for IRF3 in regulating humoral immune responses. Thus, we revealed roles for IRF3 in balancing Th1- and Tfh-dependent immunity during nonlethal infection with blood-stage Plasmodium parasites. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  14. Specific dietary oligosaccharides increase Th1 responses in a mouse respiratory syncytial virus infection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schijf, Marcel A; Kruijsen, Debby; Bastiaans, Jacqueline; Coenjaerts, Frank E J; Garssen, Johan; van Bleek, Grada M; van't Land, Belinda

    2012-11-01

    Breast feeding reduces the risk of developing severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in infants. In addition to maternal antibodies, other immune-modulating factors in human milk contribute to this protection. Specific dietary prebiotic oligosaccharides, similar to oligosaccharides present in human milk, were evaluated in a C57BL/6 mouse RSV infection model. During primary RSV infection, increased numbers of RSV-specific CD4(+) T cells producing gamma interferon (IFN-γ) were found in the lungs at days 8 to 10 postinfection in mice receiving diet containing short-chain galactooligosacharides, long-chain fructooligosaccharides, and pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides (termed scGOS/lcFOS/pAOS). In a Th2-skewed formalin-inactivated (FI)-RSV vaccination model, the prebiotic diet reduced RSV-specific Th2 cytokine (interleukin-4 [IL-4], IL-5, and IL-13)-producing CD4(+) T cells in the lung and the magnitude of airway eosinophilia at day 4 and 6 after infection. This was accompanied by a decreased influx of inflammatory dendritic cells (CD11b(+)/CD11c(+)) and increased numbers of IFN-γ-producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells at day 8 after viral challenge. These findings suggest that specific dietary oligosaccharides can influence trafficking and/or effector functions of innate immune, CD4(+), and CD8(+) T cell subsets in the lungs of RSV-infected mice. In our models, scGOS/lcFOS/pAOS had no effect on weight but increased viral clearance in FI-RSV-vaccinated mice 8 days after infection. The increased systemic Th1 responses potentiated by scGOS/lcFOS/pAOS might contribute to an accelerated Th1/Th2 shift of the neonatal immune system, which might favor protective immunity against viral infections with a high attack rate in early infancy, such as RSV.

  15. T-bet-independent Th1 response induces intestinal immunopathology during Toxoplasma gondii infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Yglesias, Américo H; Burger, Elise; Araujo, Alessandra; Martin, Andrew T; Yarovinsky, Felix

    2018-01-03

    Coordinated production of IFN-γ by innate and adaptive immune cells is central for host defense, but can also trigger immunopathology. The investigation of the lymphoid cell-specific contribution to the IFN-γ-mediated intestinal pathology during Toxoplasma gondii infection identified CD4+ T cells as a key cell population responsible for IFN-γ-dependent intestinal inflammation and Paneth cell loss, where T-bet-dependent group 1 innate lymphoid cells have a minor role in driving the parasite-induced immunopathology. This was evident from the analysis of T-bet deficiency that did not prevent the intestinal inflammation and instead revealed that T-bet-deficient CD4+ Th1 cells are sufficient for T. gondii-triggered acute ileitis and Paneth cell loss. These results revealed that T-bet-independent Th1 effector cells are major functional mediators of the type I immunopathological response during acute gastrointestinal infection.Mucosal Immunology advance online publication, 3 January 2018 2017; doi:10.1038/mi.2017.102.

  16. Involvement of the Th1 subset of CD4+ T cells in acquired immunity to mouse infection with Trypanosoma equiperdum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perito, S; Calabresi, A; Romani, L; Puccetti, P; Bistoni, F

    1992-09-01

    Heat- or merthiolate-inactivated Trypanosoma equiperdum was administered to recipient mice that were subsequently challenged with viable inocula of the same stabilate. Only mice inoculated with merthiolate-killed parasites were completely protected from a challenge inoculum of 10(3) trypanosomes, an effect that was abolished by prior immunosuppression of mice. Immune sera from protected animals contained high levels of interferon (IFN)-gamma and specific IgG2a antibodies. Spleen cells from these mice produced high amounts of interleukin (IL)-2 and IFN-gamma in vitro in response to specific antigen or concanavalin A, whereas splenocytes from mice receiving heat-killed parasites produced high amounts of IL-6. In contrast, the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and colony-stimulating activity (CSA) was not significantly different in mice receiving either killed parasite preparation. The protection in immunized mice was associated with the detection of strong delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to T. equiperdum antigens, an effect that could be adoptively transferred onto naive recipients by specifically immune CD4+ lymphocytes. These results suggest that the development of protective immunity in mice to T. equiperdum by our immunization protocol may involve the activity of helper/DTH T cells, particularly those of the Th1 subset.

  17. Recombinant murine IL-12 promotes a protective Th1/cellular response in Mongolian gerbils infected with Sporothrix schenckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-García, Aurelio; Velarde-Félix, Jesús Salvador; Garibaldi-Becerra, Vicente; Rangel-Villalobos, Héctor; Torres-Bugarín, Olivia; Zepeda-Carrillo, Eloy Alfonso; Ruíz-Bernés, Salvador; Ochoa-Ramírez, Luis Antonio

    2015-02-01

    Sporotrichosis is a cutaneous fungal infection caused by Sporothrix schenckii. It is known to be mainly contained by Th1 responses. As IL-12 is crucial for Th1 response, we investigated if treatment with recombinant murine IL-12 (rmIL-12) promoted Th1 immunity and/or clinical improvement in an experimental sporotrichosis gerbil model. Gerbils were inoculated with S. schenckii in the footpad and treated with rmIL-12. Seven days post infection there was a significant increase in macrophage phagocytosis and oxidative burst, and in delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction in rmIL-12 treated gerbils, as well as a ∼10-fold increase of serum IFN-gamma and a decrease of IL-4 and IL-10. Moreover, rmIL-12 substantially decreased (∼70%) S. schenckii burden in liver and spleen and improved the clinical outcome preventing footpad ulcer and tail nodules observed in untreated gerbils. Our study demonstrates that rmIL-12 promotes Th1 immune response against S. schenckii favouring its clearance and preventing clinical symptoms.

  18. A nonallergenic birch pollen allergy vaccine consisting of hepatitis PreS-fused Bet v 1 peptides focuses blocking IgG toward IgE epitopes and shifts immune responses to a tolerogenic and Th1 phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marth, Katharina; Breyer, Isabella; Focke-Tejkl, Margarete; Blatt, Katharina; Shamji, Mohamed H; Layhadi, Janice; Gieras, Anna; Swoboda, Ines; Zafred, Domen; Keller, Walter; Valent, Peter; Durham, Stephen R; Valenta, Rudolf

    2013-04-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only allergen-specific and disease-modifying treatment for allergy. The construction and characterization of a vaccine for birch pollen allergy is reported. Two nonallergenic peptides, PA and PB, derived from the IgE-reactive areas of the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 were fused to the hepatitis B surface protein, PreS, in four recombinant fusion proteins containing different numbers and combinations of the peptides. Fusion proteins expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity showed a lack of IgE reactivity and allergenic activity when tested with sera and basophils from patients allergic to birch pollen. Compared to Bet v 1 allergen, peptides PA and PB showed reduced T cell activation in PBMCs from allergic patients, whereas PreS fusion proteins induced less IL-5 and more IL-10 and IFN-γ. Immunization of rabbits with the fusion proteins, in particular with a PreS fusion protein 2PAPB-PreS, containing two copies of each peptide, induced high levels of IgG Abs against the major IgE-reactive site on Bet v 1 and related allergens. These IgG Abs inhibited allergic patients' IgE binding to Bet v 1 better than did IgG induced by immunization with complete Bet v 1. Furthermore, 2PAPB-PreS-induced IgG inhibited Bet v 1-induced basophil activation in allergic patients and CD23-facilitated allergen presentation. Our study exemplifies novel beneficial features for a PreS carrier-based peptide vaccine for birch pollen, which, in addition to the established reduction in allergenic activity, include the enhanced focusing of blocking Ab responses toward IgE epitopes, immunomodulatory activity, and reduction of CD23-facilitated allergen presentation.

  19. Leprosy As a Complex Infection: Breakdown of the Th1 and Th2 Immune Paradigm in the Immunopathogenesis of the Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rodrigues de Sousa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease whose evolution involves complex immune mechanisms of the host that influence the clinical presentation of the disease. For many years, the main interpretation of the host defense response was based on characterization of the established immune paradigm between T helper (Th 1 and Th2 lymphocytes. However, with advances in the knowledge of immunology, new approaches have emerged along with the development of new immunological pathways that have changed the interpretation of the long-established paradigm of the polar forms of the disease, especially with the identification of new subtypes of T lymphocytes such as Th9, Th17, Th22, and Tregs. Thus, this review discusses the role of these new subtypes of T helper lymphocytes and how the development of the immune response of these cells modifies the pattern of the Th1/Th2 response in the immunopathogenesis of leprosy.

  20. Toxoplasma Co-infection Prevents Th2 Differentiation and Leads to a Helminth-Specific Th1 Response

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    Norus Ahmed

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Nematode infections, in particular gastrointestinal nematodes, are widespread and co-infections with other parasites and pathogens are frequently encountered in humans and animals. To decipher the immunological effects of a widespread protozoan infection on the anti-helminth immune response we studied a co-infection with the enteric nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus in mice previously infected with Toxoplasma gondii. Protective immune responses against nematodes are dependent on parasite-specific Th2 responses associated with IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IgE, and IgG1 antibodies. In contrast, Toxoplasma gondii infection elicits a strong and protective Th1 immune response characterized by IFN-γ, IL-12, and IgG2a antibodies. Co-infected animals displayed significantly higher worm fecundity although worm burden remained unchanged. In line with this, the Th2 response to H. polygyrus in co-infected animals showed a profound reduction of IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and GATA-3 expressing T cells. Co-infection also resulted in the lack of eosinophilia and reduced expression of the Th2 effector molecule RELM-β in intestinal tissue. In contrast, the Th1 response to the protozoan parasite was not diminished and parasitemia of T. gondii was unaffected by concurrent helminth infection. Importantly, H. polygyrus specific restimulation of splenocytes revealed H. polygyrus-reactive CD4+ T cells that produce a significant amount of IFN-γ in co-infected animals. This was not observed in animals infected with the nematode alone. Increased levels of H. polygyrus-specific IgG2a antibodies in co-infected mice mirrored this finding. This study suggests that polarization rather than priming of naive CD4+ T cells is disturbed in mice previously infected with T. gondii. In conclusion, a previous T. gondii infection limits a helminth-specific Th2 immune response while promoting a shift toward a Th1-type immune response.

  1. TH1 and TH2 response to Campylobacter jejuni antigen in Guillain-Barre syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyati, Kishan K; Prasad, Kashi N; Rizwan, Arshi; Verma, Avantika; Paliwal, Vimal K

    2011-04-01

    To determine the expression of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in lymphocytes from the progressive and recovery phases of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) after stimulation with Campylobacter jejuni outer membrane proteins. Case-control study. Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences. Sixty-five patients with GBS, 60 age- and sex-matched disease control individuals, and 68 healthy control individuals were included in the study. Lymphocytes from patients with GBS were stimulated with C jejuni outer membrane proteins, and the levels of different proinflammatory (T(H)1 [helper T cell, subtype 1]) and anti-inflammatory (T(H)2) cytokines were determined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In the progressive phase of the disease, the expressions of interferon γ (IFN-γ), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), IL-6, IL-10, and the IFN-γ:IL-4 ratio were significantly upregulated, but expressions of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and IL-4 were lower in patients compared with disease and healthy controls. In contrast, the levels of IFN-γ, IL-1β, TNF, IL-6, IL-10, and the IFN-γ:IL-4 ratio were significantly lower, but TGF-β1 and IL-4 were upregulated in the recovery phase of GBS patients compared with controls. Upregulation of T(H)1 cytokines in the early disease course may be associated with immune-mediated disease progression due to neuronal inflammation, but upregulation of T(H)2 immune response during the later phase aids recovery from the disease.

  2. Decreased gut microbiota diversity, delayed Bacteroidetes colonisation and reduced Th1 responses in infants delivered by caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Hedvig E; Abrahamsson, Thomas R; Jenmalm, Maria C; Harris, Keith; Quince, Christopher; Jernberg, Cecilia; Björkstén, Bengt; Engstrand, Lars; Andersson, Anders F

    2014-04-01

    The early intestinal microbiota exerts important stimuli for immune development, and a reduced microbial exposure as well as caesarean section (CS) has been associated with the development of allergic disease. Here we address how microbiota development in infants is affected by mode of delivery, and relate differences in colonisation patterns to the maturation of a balanced Th1/Th2 immune response. The postnatal intestinal colonisation pattern was investigated in 24 infants, born vaginally (15) or by CS (nine). The intestinal microbiota were characterised using pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes at 1 week and 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after birth. Venous blood levels of Th1- and Th2-associated chemokines were measured at 6, 12 and 24 months. Infants born through CS had lower total microbiota diversity during the first 2 years of life. CS delivered infants also had a lower abundance and diversity of the Bacteroidetes phylum and were less often colonised with the Bacteroidetes phylum. Infants born through CS had significantly lower levels of the Th1-associated chemokines CXCL10 and CXCL11 in blood. CS was associated with a lower total microbial diversity, delayed colonisation of the Bacteroidetes phylum and reduced Th1 responses during the first 2 years of life.

  3. Cytokine gene expression in a mouse model: The first instillations with viable bacillus Calmette-Guerin determine the succeeding Th1 response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Elizabeth C.; Rooijakkers, Sietske J.; Schamhart, Denis H.; Kurth, Karl-Heinz

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) therapy for superficial bladder cancer is immune dependent and activation of a Th1 immune response is probably required for clinical efficacy. Given the empirical approach to improving BCG therapy we investigated in a mouse model the consequences of

  4. Relative Contribution of Th1 and Th17 Cells in Adaptive Immunity to Bordetella pertussis: Towards the Rational Design of an Improved Acellular Pertussis Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Pádraig J.; Allen, Aideen C.; Walsh, Kevin; Misiak, Alicja; Lavelle, Ed C.; McLoughlin, Rachel M.; Mills, Kingston H. G.

    2013-01-01

    Whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis is a re-emerging infectious disease despite the introduction of safer acellular pertussis vaccines (Pa). One explanation for this is that Pa are less protective than the more reactogenic whole cell pertussis vaccines (Pw) that they replaced. Although Pa induce potent antibody responses, and protection has been found to be associated with high concentrations of circulating IgG against vaccine antigens, it has not been firmly established that host protection induced with this vaccine is mediated solely by humoral immunity. The aim of this study was to examine the relative contribution of Th1 and Th17 cells in host immunity to infection with B. pertussis and in immunity induced by immunization with Pw and Pa and to use this information to help rationally design a more effective Pa. Our findings demonstrate that Th1 and Th17 both function in protective immunity induced by infection with B. pertussis or immunization with Pw. In contrast, a current licensed Pa, administered with alum as the adjuvant, induced Th2 and Th17 cells, but weak Th1 responses. We found that IL-1 signalling played a central role in protective immunity induced with alum-adsorbed Pa and this was associated with the induction of Th17 cells. Pa generated strong antibody and Th2 responses, but was fully protective in IL-4-defective mice, suggesting that Th2 cells were dispensable. In contrast, Pa failed to confer protective immunity in IL-17A-defective mice. Bacterial clearance mediated by Pa-induced Th17 cells was associated with cell recruitment to the lungs after challenge. Finally, protective immunity induced by an experimental Pa could be enhanced by substituting alum with a TLR agonist that induces Th1 cells. Our findings demonstrate that alum promotes protective immunity through IL-1β-induced IL-17A production, but also reveal that optimum protection against B. pertussis requires induction of Th1, but not Th2 cells. PMID:23592988

  5. Molecular insight into the immune up-regulatory properties of the leaf extract of Ashwagandha and identification of Th1 immunostimulatory chemical entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sheema; Malik, Fayaz; Suri, Krishan A; Singh, Jaswant

    2009-10-09

    Withania somnifera, commonly called Ashwagandha in the Indian traditional system of medicine has been reported for several pharmacological activities. This study demonstrates, for the first time, the potential role of the chemically standardized leaf extract of W. somnifera (WSL) and it's identified component in activating immune system. WSL enhanced Th1 cytokine IFN-gamma expression in Con A primed splenocytes in vitro. When given orally for 2 weeks to BALB/c mice immunized with emulsion of OVA in Freund's adjuvant (OVA-FCA), it caused dose-dependent proliferation of T cells and improved their ability to secrete IL-2 and IFN-gamma, but moderately down-regulated Th2 cytokine IL-4. Flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte surface markers of T cells CD3(+), CD4(+) and CD8(+), and B cells CD19(+) indicated prominent enhancement in proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes. Further, the effect of WSL in immunized mice elicited up-regulation of beta-integrins LFA (CD11a) and Mac-1 (CD11b) in splenocytes. Co-stimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 that are important secondary signals for the activation of immune system elicited remarkable enhanced expression when observed in spleen-derived macrophages isolated from WSL treated mice. Chemical standardization of WSL suggested that the withanolide 2,3 dihydro-3-sulphonile withanone is a major constituent of WSL responsible for skewing to Th1 immune polarization by stimulating the expression of IFN-gamma and B cell switch over to secrete IgG2a while simultaneously enhancing the expression of co-stimulatory molecules and integrins. These studies demonstrate the possible usefulness of WSL and its major constituent WSL-2 as Th1 immune adjuvants for chronic infectious ailments where patients suffer from weakened Th1 immunity.

  6. NOD-Like Receptor P3 Inflammasome Controls Protective Th1/Th17 Immunity against Pulmonary Paracoccidioidomycosis

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    Claudia Feriotti

    2017-07-01

    CD8+ T cells expressing IFN-γ and IL-17 whereas those producing IL-4 and TGF-β appeared in increased frequencies. Histopathological studies showed that all deficient mouse strains developed more severe lesions containing elevated numbers of budding yeast cells resulting in increased mortality rates. Altogether, these findings led us to conclude that the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome has a crucial role in the immunoprotection against pulmonary PCM by promoting the expansion of Th1/Th17 immunity and reducing the suppressive control mediated by Treg cells.

  7. Neisseria gonorrhoeae selectively suppresses the development of Th1 and Th2 cells, and enhances Th17 cell responses, through TGF-β-dependent mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingru; Islam, Epshita A.; Jarvis, Gary A.; Gray-Owen, Scott D.; Russell, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    Infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae does not induce specific immunity or immune memory. Our previous studies in a murine model of vaginal gonococcal infection showed that innate immunity governed by Th17 cells was a critical aspect of the immune response elicited by this pathogen. Herein we show that N. gonorrhoeae selectively inhibited Th1 and Th2 cells and enhanced Th17 cell development through the induction of TGF-β. Whereas Th17 responses depended on gonococcal lipooligosaccharide acting through TLR4, the inhibitory effect of N. gonorrhoeae on Th1/Th2 responses involved gonococcal Opa proteins. In vitro Th17 responses to N. gonorrhoeae could be diverted to Th1/Th2 by blockade of TGF-β, but not by blockade of IL-17. The results reveal that N. gonorrhoeae suppresses Th1/Th2-mediated adaptive immune response through mechanisms dependent on TGF-β, and that this effect can be manipulated to promote the development of adaptive immunity. PMID:22354319

  8. Cytokines and Immune Responses in Murine Atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusters, Pascal J. H.; Lutgens, Esther

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the vessel wall characterized by activation of the innate immune system, with macrophages as the main players, as well as the adaptive immune system, characterized by a Th1-dominant immune response. Cytokines play a major role in the initiation and

  9. Interferon-Alpha Promotes Th1 Response and Epithelial Apoptosis via Inflammasome Activation in Human Intestinal MucosaSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Jarry

    2017-01-01

    . We show that IFN alpha is able to disrupt both epithelial and immune homeostasis in the human intestine, by activation of an innate immunity platform, the inflammasome, which drives a Th1 response and leads to epithelial barrier disruption. Keywords: Caspase-1, Mucosal Innate and Adaptive Immunity, Roferon, DKK1

  10. BCG dose reduction by decreasing the instillation frequency: Effects on local Th1/Th2 cytokine responses in a mouse model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Elizabeth C.; Rooyakkers, Sietske J.; Schamhart, Denis H. J.; de Reijke, Theo M.; Kurth, Karl-Heinz

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Based on the requirement of a Th1 immune response for clinical efficacy, and incited by the arbitrary induction scheme, frequent side effects and the empirical approach in improving BCG immunotherapy for superficial bladder cancer, an alternative intravesical BCG treatment schedule for

  11. DNA immunization against amyloid beta 42 has high potential as safe therapy for Alzheimer's disease as it diminishes antigen-specific Th1 and Th17 cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambracht-Washington, Doris; Qu, Bao-Xi; Fu, Min; Anderson, Larry D; Stüve, Olaf; Eagar, Todd N; Rosenberg, Roger N

    2011-08-01

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been strongly associated with the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides in brain, and immunotherapy targeting Aβ provides potential for AD prevention. A clinical trial in which AD patients were immunized with Aβ42 peptide was stopped when 6% of participants showed meningoencephalitis, apparently due to an inflammatory Th1 immune response. Previously, we and other have shown that Aβ42 DNA vaccination via gene gun generates a Th2 cellular immune response, which was shown by analyses of the respective antibody isotype profiles. We also determined that in vitro T cell proliferation in response to Aβ42 peptide re-stimulation was absent in DNA Aβ42 trimer-immunized mice when compared to Aβ42 peptide-immunized mice. To further characterize this observation prospectively and longitudinally, we analyzed the immune response in wild-type mice after vaccination with Aβ42 trimer DNA and Aβ42 peptide with Quil A adjuvant. Wild-type mice were immunized with short-term (1-3× vaccinations) or long-term (6× vacinations) immunization strategies. Antibody titers and isotype profiles of the Aβ42 specific antibodies, as well as cytokine profiles and cell proliferation studies from this longitudinal study were determined. Sufficient antibody titers to effectively reduce Aβ42, but an absent T cell proliferative response and no IFNγ or IL-17 secretion after Aβ42 DNA trimer immunization minimizes the risk of inflammatory activities of the immune system towards the self antigen Aβ42 in brain. Therefore, Aβ42 DNA trimer immunization has a high probability to be effective and safe to treat patients with early AD.

  12. Immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... viruses, and substances that appear foreign and harmful. Information The immune system protects the body from possibly harmful substances by ... reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Immune System and Disorders Read more Latest Health News Read ...

  13. Notch-ligand expression by NALT dendritic cells regulates mucosal Th1- and Th2-type responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuyama, Yoshiko; Tokuhara, Daisuke [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The Immunobiology Vaccine Center, The Institute of Oral Health Research, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0007 (United States); Division of Mucosal Immunology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 108-8639 (Japan); Sekine, Shinichi [Department of Preventive Dentistry, Graduate School of Dentistry, Osaka University, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kataoka, Kosuke [Department of Preventive Dentistry, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8504 (Japan); Markham, Jonathan D.; Irwin, Allyson R.; Moon, Grace H.; Tokuhara, Yuka; Fujihashi, Keiko [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The Immunobiology Vaccine Center, The Institute of Oral Health Research, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0007 (United States); Davydova, Julia; Yamamoto, Masato [Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Gilbert, Rebekah S. [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The Immunobiology Vaccine Center, The Institute of Oral Health Research, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0007 (United States); Fujihashi, Kohtaro, E-mail: kohtarof@uab.edu [Department of Pediatric Dentistry, The Immunobiology Vaccine Center, The Institute of Oral Health Research, The University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35294-0007 (United States)

    2012-02-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nasal Ad-FL effectively up-regulates APC function by CD11c{sup +} DCs in mucosal tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nasal Ad-FL induces Notch ligand (L)-expressing CD11c{sup +} DCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Notch L-expressing DCs support the induction of Th1- and Th2-type cytokine responses. -- Abstract: Our previous studies showed that an adenovirus (Ad) serotype 5 vector expressing Flt3 ligand (Ad-FL) as nasal adjuvant activates CD11c{sup +} dendritic cells (DCs) for the enhancement of antigen (Ag)-specific IgA antibody (Ab) responses. In this study, we examined the molecular mechanism for activation of CD11c{sup +} DCs and their roles in induction of Ag-specific Th1- and Th2-cell responses. Ad-FL activated CD11c{sup +} DCs expressed increased levels of the Notch ligand (L)-expression and specific mRNA. When CD11c{sup +} DCs from various mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues of mice given nasal OVA plus Ad-FL were cultured with CD4{sup +} T cells isolated from non-immunized OVA TCR-transgenic (OT II) mice, significantly increased levels of T cell proliferative responses were noted. Furthermore, Ad-FL activated DCs induced IFN-{gamma}, IL-2 and IL-4 producing CD4{sup +} T cells. Of importance, these APC functions by Ad-FL activated DCs were down-regulated by blocking Notch-Notch-L pathway. These results show that Ad-FL induces CD11c{sup +} DCs to the express Notch-ligands and these activated DCs regulate the induction of Ag-specific Th1- and Th2-type cytokine responses.

  14. Mycobacterium vaccae induces a strong Th1 response that subsequently declines in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijiao; Jiang, Yanlong; Cui, Ziyin; Yang, Wentao; Yue, Limin; Ma, Yingcong; Shi, Shaohua; Wang, Chunfang; Wang, Chunfeng; Qian, Aidong

    2016-12-30

    Mycobacterium (M.) vaccae is a fast-growing species of saprophytic bacteria that is widely distributed. To understand the host immune responses induced by M. vaccae isolated from bovine submaxillary lymph nodes, C57BL/6 mice were infected with reference strain M. bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and isolated M. vaccae using intraperitoneal injections. Comparison of the bacterial replication and organ pathology between M. vaccae and M. bovis BCG revealed that M. vaccae was more malignant than M. bovis in mice. We also demonstrated that serum from the M. vaccae-infected mice contained a higher expression level of gamma-interferon (IFN-γ), tumor necrosis factor alpha, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-12, IL-10 and transforming growth factor beta than did the other groups, especially after week 4. Furthermore, when the numbers of CD3⁺CD4⁺IFN-γ⁺ and CD3⁺CD4⁺IL4⁺cells in the infected mice were observed by flow cytometry, we found that a powerful T helper 1 (Th1) response was induced by M. vaccae infection, which was associated with the emergence of CD3⁺CD4⁺IFN-γ⁺cells. However, the Th1 response declined over time, which was associated with appearance of the CD4⁺CD25⁺FoxP3⁺ and CD4⁺CD25⁺CD152⁺Treg cell reaction. In addition, a strong Th2 response was found. Finally, we found that M. vaccae infection increased the production of type I IFNs, which was associated with a reduced Th1 response.

  15. A pcDNA-Ehcpadh vaccine against Entamoeba histolytica elicits a protective Th1-like response in hamster liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Máximo B; Rodríguez, Mario A; García-Rivera, Guillermina; Sánchez, Tomás; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Aguilar, Diana; Orozco, Esther

    2009-06-24

    DNA vaccines are promising tools to fight parasitic diseases, including amoebiasis caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. Here we studied the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine against this parasite composed by the EhCPADH surface complex encoding genes (Ehcp112 and Ehadh112). EhCPADH is formed by an adhesin (EhADH112) and a cysteine proteinase (EhCP112), both involved in the parasite virulence. We evaluated transcription, protein expression, immunological response and protection against hepatic amoebiasis in hamsters intradermally and intramuscularly immunized with a mixture of pcDNA-Ehadh112 and pcDNA-Ehcp112 plasmids. RT-PCR and immunohistochemical assays showed that both antigens were differentially expressed in spleen and liver of immunized animals. No significant antibody immune response was induced by either route. However, intradermally inoculated hamsters presented a robust Th1-like immune response, characterized by high levels of INF-gamma and TNF-alpha cytokines, detected in the liver of animals challenged with virulent trophozoites. Animals showed significant protection against amoebiasis manifested by a higher survival rate and a significant prevention of liver abscess formation. We conclude that a refinement of this DNA vaccine could be a good choice to control hepatic amoebiasis.

  16. Distinct DC subsets regulate adaptive Th1 and 2 responses during Trichuris muris infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demiri, M.; Müller-Luda, K.; Agace, William Winston

    2017-01-01

    Low- and high-dose infections with the murine large intestinal nematode Trichuris muris are associated with induction of adaptive Th1 and Th2 responses, respectively, in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). Classical dendritic cells (cDC) accumulate in the large intestinal mucosa and MLN upon T. muris...... response and clear a low-dose infection. Collectively, these results suggest that IRF4- and IRF8-dependent cDC act antagonistically during T. muris infection, and demonstrate that intestinal Th2 responses can be generated towards T. muris in the absence of IRF4-dependent cDC....

  17. The Mincle-activating adjuvant TDB induces MyD88-dependent Th1 and Th17 responses through IL-1R signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Desel

    Full Text Available Successful vaccination against intracellular pathogens requires the generation of cellular immune responses. Trehalose-6,6-dibehenate (TDB, the synthetic analog of the mycobacterial cord factor trehalose-6,6-dimycolate (TDM, is a potent adjuvant inducing strong Th1 and Th17 immune responses. We previously identified the C-type lectin Mincle as receptor for these glycolipids that triggers the FcRγ-Syk-Card9 pathway for APC activation and adjuvanticity. Interestingly, in vivo data revealed that the adjuvant effect was not solely Mincle-dependent but also required MyD88. Therefore, we dissected which MyD88-dependent pathways are essential for successful immunization with a tuberculosis subunit vaccine. We show here that antigen-specific Th1/Th17 immune responses required IL-1 receptor-mediated signals independent of IL-18 and IL-33-signaling. ASC-deficient mice had impaired IL-17 but intact IFNγ responses, indicating partial independence of TDB adjuvanticity from inflammasome activation. Our data suggest that the glycolipid adjuvant TDB triggers Mincle-dependent IL-1 production to induce MyD88-dependent Th1/Th17 responses in vivo.

  18. Interleukin-10 deficiency impairs regulatory T cell-derived neuropilin-1 functions and promotes Th1 and Th17 immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shimin; Gao, Xiang; Shen, Guobo; Wang, Wei; Li, Jingyu; Zhao, Jingyi; Wei, Yu-Quan; Edwards, Carl K

    2016-04-14

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) expand in peripheral lymphoid organs and can produce immunosuppressive cytokines to support tumor growth. IL-10 abrogation efficiently induces Treg formation but dampens tumoral neuropilin-1 (Nrp-1) Treg signaling, which simultaneously augments Th1 and Th17 immunity. These effects are associated with the plasticity and stability of Tregs and effector T cell functions that can limit tumorigenesis. Within the tumor microenvironment, there appears to be a "mutual antagonism" between immunoenhancement and immunosuppression mechanisms, eventually leading to decreased metastasis. In contrast, tumor progression is paralleled by a reduction in Nrp-1-producing Tregs controlled by the IL-10 and TGF-β1 levels. However, Th1, Th17 and Treg immunity is primarily regulated by IL-10 or Nrp-1 and not TGF-β1 except when combined with IL-10. These results emphasize the important implications for the therapeutic use of Tregs. The number of Treg cells must be maintained in a healthy and dynamic homeostatic range to prevent malignant diseases. Moreover, Treg-mediated immunosuppression can be limited by reducing tumor-derived Treg Nrp-1 levels.

  19. Intratumoral Th2 predisposition combines with an increased Th1 functional phenotype in clinical response to intravesical BCG in bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Renate; Gruenbacher, Georg; Culig, Zoran; Brunner, Andrea; Fuchs, Dietmar; Fritz, Josef; Gander, Hubert; Rahm, Andrea; Thurnher, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Th1-type immunity is considered to be required for efficient response to BCG in bladder cancer, although Th2 predisposition of BCG responders has recently been reported. The aim was to evaluate the relationship of Th1 and Th2 components in 23 patients undergoing BCG treatment. Peripheral blood, serum and urine samples were prospectively collected at baseline, during and after BCG. Th1 (neopterin, tryptophan, kynurenine, kynurenine-to-tryptophan ratio (KTR), IL-12, IFN-γ, soluble TNF-R75 and IL-2Rα) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-10) biomarkers as well as CD4 expression in T helper (Th), effector and regulatory T cells were determined. Local immune cell subsets were measured on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cancer tissue by immunohistochemistry to examine expression of transcription factors that control Th1 (T-bet) and Th2-type (GATA3) immunity. We confirmed a Th2 predisposition with a mean GATA3/T-bet ratio of 5.51. BCG responders showed significantly higher levels of urinary (p = 0.003) and serum neopterin (p = 0.012), kynurenine (p = 0.015), KTR (p = 0.005), IFN-γ (p = 0.005) and IL-12 (p = 0.003) during therapy, whereas levels of IL-10 decreased significantly (p BCG instillation. We observed a significant increase in CD4 expression in the Th cell population (p BCG response. Th2-promoting factors such as GATA3 may trigger Th1-type immune responses and thus contribute to the BCG success.

  20. Staphylococcus aureus-derived extracellular vesicles induce neutrophilic pulmonary inflammation via both Th1 and Th17 cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M-R; Hong, S-W; Choi, E-B; Lee, W-H; Kim, Y-S; Jeon, S G; Jang, M H; Gho, Y S; Kim, Y-K

    2012-10-01

    Recent evidence indicates that Staphylococcus aureus, one of the most important human pathogens, secretes vesicles into the extracellular milieu. To evaluate whether inhalation of S. aureus-derived extracellular vesicles (EV) is causally related to the pathogenesis of inflammatory pulmonary diseases. Staphylococcus aureus EV were prepared by sequential ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation. The innate immune response was evaluated in vitro after the application of EV to airway epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages. In vivo innate and adaptive immune responses were evaluated after airway exposure to EV. Adjuvant effects of EV on the development of hypersensitivity to inhaled allergens were also evaluated after airway sensitization with S. aureus EV and ovalbumin (OVA). Staphylococcus aureus and S. aureus EV were detected in house dust. Alveolar macrophages produced both tumor necrosis α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) after in vitro stimulation with S. aureus EV, whereas airway epithelial cells produced only IL-6. Repeated airway exposure to S. aureus EV induced both Th1 and Th17 cell responses and neutrophilic pulmonary inflammation, mainly via a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-dependent mechanism. In terms of adjuvant effects, airway sensitization with S. aureus EV and OVA resulted in neutrophilic pulmonary inflammation after OVA challenge alone. This phenotype was partly reversed by the absence of interferon γ (IFN-γ) or IL-17. Staphylococcus aureus EV can induce Th1 and Th17 neutrophilic pulmonary inflammation, mainly in a TLR2-dependent manner. Additionally, S. aureus EV enhance the development of airway hypersensitivity to inhaled allergens. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Intracellular Targeting of CEA Results in Th1-Type Antibody Responses Following Intradermal Genetic Vaccination by a Needle-Free Jet Injection Device

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    Susanne Johansson

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The route and method of immunization, as well as the cellular localization of the antigen, can influence the generation of an immune response. In general, intramuscular immunization results in Th1 responses, whereas intradermal delivery of DNA by gene gun immunization often results in more Th2 responses. Here we investigate how altering the cellular localization of the tumor antigen CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen affects the quality and amplitude of DNA vaccine-induced antibody responses in mice following intradermal delivery of DNA by a needle-free jet injection device (Biojector. CEA was expressed either in a membrane-bound form (wild-type CEA or in two truncated forms (CEA6 and CEA66 with cytoplasmic localization, where CEA66 was fused to a promiscuous T-helper epitope from tetanus toxin. Repeated intradermal immunization of BALB/c mice with DNA encoding wild-type CEA produced high antibody titers of a mixed IgG1/IgG2a ratio. In contrast, utilizing the DNA construct that resulted in intracellular targeting of CEA led to a reduced capacity to induce CEA-specific antibodies, but instead induced a Th1-biased immune response.

  2. Paradoxical Expansion of Th1 and Th17 Lymphocytes in Rheumatoid Arthritis Following Infliximab Treatment: a Possible Explanation for a Lack of Clinical Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talotta, Rossella; Berzi, Angela; Atzeni, Fabiola; Batticciotto, Alberto; Clerici, Mario; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo; Trabattoni, Daria

    2015-08-01

    The immunogenicity of anti-TNF-α drugs may affect their safety and efficacy. Infliximab (IFX), a chimeric monoclonal antibody, induces antibody formation in up to 60% of cases. Some studies have suggested the involvement of a Th1 response to TNFα blockers following immunization, but the triggering of Th17 responses has never been reported. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the immunogenicity of IFX affects the Th1, Th17 and Treg compartments in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients failing IFX therapy, and verify whether this may be responsible for treatment failure. The study involved 55 patients with RA (15 treatment-naïve patients; 20 IFX responders; 20 IFX non-responders) and 10 healthy controls. PBMCs were cultured in the presence/absence of IFX, and the variations in the percentage of Th1, Th17 and Treg lymphocytes following IFX treatment were analysed. IFX-specific Th1 and Th17 responses and an increase in IL-21 production were observed in patients failing IFX (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, and p < 0.01 respectively). In contrast, IFX incubation reduced significantly Th1 and Th17 responses and IL-21 production (p < 0.05) in successfully-treated subjects, but did not affect these responses in healthy controls or treatment-naïve patients. RA patients may have impaired peripheral tolerance, which could favour the development of an aberrant immunological response to biological drugs. The loss of therapeutic effectiveness of IFX and the onset of adverse events may be due to a paradoxical activation of Th17 or Th1 lymphocytes following sensitisation, thus worsening the patients' inflammatory status.

  3. The Leishmania promastigote surface antigen-2 (PSA-2) is specifically recognised by Th1 cells in humans with naturally acquired immunity to L. major

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, M; Handman, E; Kemp, K

    1998-01-01

    The promastigote surface antigen-2 (PSA-2) is a Leishmania parasite antigen, which can induce Th1-mediated protection against murine leishmaniasis when used as a vaccine. To evaluate PSA-2 as a human vaccine candidate the specific T-cell response to PSA-2 was characterised in individuals immune...... to cutaneous leishmaniasis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Sudanese individuals with a past history of self-healing cutaneous leishmaniasis proliferated vigorously in response to PSA-2 isolated from Leishmania major, whereas the antigen did not activate cells from presumably unexposed Danes...... and that these cells were the major source of interferon-gamma. The results show that Th1-like cells recognising PSA-2 are expanded during infection by L. major and that they maintain their Th1-like cytokine profile upon reactivation in vitro. Since immunity to cutaneous leishmaniasis is mediated by antigen...

  4. Coincident diabetes mellitus modulates Th1-, Th2-, and Th17-cell responses in latent tuberculosis in an IL-10- and TGF-β-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Nathella Pavan; Moideen, Kadar; George, Parakkal Jovvian; Dolla, Chandrakumar; Kumaran, Paul; Babu, Subash

    2016-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a risk factor for the development of active tuberculosis (TB), although its role in the TB-induced responses in latent TB (LTB) is not well understood. Since Th1, Th2, and Th17 responses are important in immunity to LTB, we postulated that coincident DM could alter the function of these CD4(+) T-cell subsets. To this end, we examined mycobacteria-induced immune responses in the whole blood of individuals with LTB-DM and compared them with responses of individuals without DM (LTB-NDM). T-cell responses from LTB-DM are characterized by diminished frequencies of mono- and dual-functional CD4(+) Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells at baseline and following stimulation with mycobacterial antigens-purified protein derivative, early secreted antigen-6, and culture filtrate protein-10. This modulation was at least partially dependent on IL-10 and TGF-β, since neutralization of either cytokine resulted in significantly increased frequencies of Th1 and Th2 cells but not Th17 cells in LTB-DM but not LTB individuals. LTB-DM is therefore characterized by diminished frequencies of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells, indicating that DM alters the immune response in latent TB leading to a suboptimal induction of protective CD4(+) T-cell responses, thereby providing a potential mechanism for increased susceptibility to active disease. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. A novel respiratory syncytial virus (RSV F subunit vaccine adjuvanted with GLA-SE elicits robust protective TH1-type humoral and cellular immunity in rodent models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacie L Lambert

    Full Text Available Illness associated with Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV remains an unmet medical need in both full-term infants and older adults. The fusion glycoprotein (F of RSV, which plays a key role in RSV infection and is a target of neutralizing antibodies, is an attractive vaccine target for inducing RSV-specific immunity.BALB/c mice and cotton rats, two well-characterized rodent models of RSV infection, were used to evaluate the immunogenicity of intramuscularly administered RSV vaccine candidates consisting of purified soluble F (sF protein formulated with TLR4 agonist glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA, stable emulsion (SE, GLA-SE, or alum adjuvants. Protection from RSV challenge, serum RSV neutralizing responses, and anti-F IgG responses were induced by all of the tested adjuvanted RSV sF vaccine formulations. However, only RSV sF + GLA-SE induced robust F-specific TH1-biased humoral and cellular responses. In mice, these F-specific cellular responses include both CD4 and CD8 T cells, with F-specific polyfunctional CD8 T cells that traffic to the mouse lung following RSV challenge. This RSV sF + GLA-SE vaccine formulation can also induce robust RSV neutralizing titers and prime IFNγ-producing T cell responses in Sprague Dawley rats.These studies indicate that a protein subunit vaccine consisting of RSV sF + GLA-SE can induce robust neutralizing antibody and T cell responses to RSV, enhancing viral clearance via a TH1 immune-mediated mechanism. This vaccine may benefit older populations at risk for RSV disease.

  6. Targeting beta- and alpha-adrenergic receptors differentially shifts Th1, Th2, and inflammatory cytokine profiles in immune organs to attenuate adjuvant arthritis

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    Dianne eLorton

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The sympathetic nervous system (SNS regulates host defense responses and restores homeostasis. SNS-immune regulation is altered in rheumatoid arthritis (RA and rodent models of RA, characterized by nerve remodeling in immune organs and defective adrenergic receptor (AR signaling to immune cell targets that typically promotes or suppresses inflammation via α- and β2-AR activation, respectively, and indirectly drives humoral immunity by blocking Th1 cytokine secretion. Here, we investigate how β2-AR stimulation and/or α-AR blockade at disease onset affects disease pathology and cytokine profiles in relevant immune organs from male Lewis rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA. Rats challenged to induce AA were treated with terbutaline (TERB, a β2-AR agonist (600 μg/kg/day and/or phentolamine (PHEN, an α-AR antagonist (5.0 mg/kg/day or vehicle from disease onset through severe disease. We report that in spleen, mesenteric (MLN and draining lymph node (DLN cells, TERB reduces proliferation, an effect independent of IL-2. TERB also fails to shift Th cytokines from a Th1 to Th2 profile in spleen and MLN (no effect on IFN-γ and DLN (greater IFN-γ cells. In splenocytes, TERB, PHEN and co-treatment (PT promotes an anti-inflammatory profile (greater IL-10 and lowers TNF-α (PT only. In DLN cells, drug treatments do not affect inflammatory profiles, except PT, which raised IL-10. In MLN cells, TERB or PHEN lowers MLN cell secretion of TNF-α or IL-10, respectively. Collectively, our findings indicate disrupted β2-AR, but not α-AR signaling in AA. Aberrant β2-AR signaling consequently derails the sympathetic regulation of lymphocyte expansion, Th cell differentiation, and inflammation in the spleen, DLNs and MLNs that is required for immune system homeostasis. Importantly, this study provides potential mechanisms through which reestablished balance between α- and β2-AR function in the immune system ameliorates inflammation and joint

  7. Polysaccharides from Ganoderma formosanum function as a Th1 adjuvant and stimulate cytotoxic T cell response in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pi, Chia-Chen; Chu, Ching-Liang; Lu, Chu-Ying; Zhuang, Yu-Jing; Wang, Cheng-Li; Yu, Yao-Hsuan; Wang, Hui-Yi; Lin, Chih-Chung; Chen, Chun-Jen

    2014-01-09

    The fungus of Ganoderma is a basidiomycete that possesses a variety of pharmacological effects and has been used in traditional Asian medicine for centuries. Ganoderma formosanum is a native Ganoderma species isolated in Taiwan, and we have previously demonstrated that PS-F2, a polysaccharide fraction purified from the submerged culture broth of G. formosanum, exhibits immunostimulatory properties in macrophages. In this study, we further characterized the adjuvant functions of PS-F2. In vitro, PS-F2 stimulated dendritic cells (DCs) to produce proinflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-12/IL-23 p40. PS-F2 also stimulated DCs to express the maturation markers CD40, CD80, CD86, and MHC class II. In a murine splenocyte culture, PS-F2 treatment resulted in elevated expression of T-bet and interferon (IFN)-γ in T lymphocytes. When used as an adjuvant in vivo with the ovalbumin (OVA) antigen, PS-F2 stimulated OVA-specific antibody production and primed IFN-γ production in OVA-specific T lymphocytes. PS-F2-adjuvated immunization also induced OVA-specific CTLs, which protected mice from a challenge with tumor cells expressing OVA. Collectively, our data show that PS-F2 functions as an adjuvant capable of inducing a Th1-polarized adaptive immune response, which would be useful in vaccines against viruses and tumors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Batf3-dependent CD103+ dendritic cells are major producers of IL-12 that drive local Th1 immunity against Leishmania major infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, María; Iborra, Salvador; Conde-Garrosa, Ruth; Sancho, David

    2015-01-01

    The role of different DC subsets in priming and maintenance of immunity against Leishmania major (L. major) infection is debated. The transcription factor basic leucine zipper transcription factor, ATF-like 3 (Batf3) is essential for the development of mouse CD103(+) DCs and some functions of CD8α(+) DCs. We found that CD103(+) DCs were significantly reduced in the dermis of Batf3-deficient C57BL/6 mice. Batf3(-/-) mice developed exacerbated and unresolved cutaneous pathology following a low dose of intradermal L. major infection in the ear pinnae. Parasite load was increased 1000-fold locally and expanded systemically. Batf3 deficiency did not affect L. major antigen presentation to T cells, which was directly exerted by CD8α(-) conventional DCs (cDCs) in the skin draining LN. However, CD4(+) T-cell differentiation in the LN and skin was skewed to nonprotective Treg- and Th2-cell subtypes. CD103(+) DCs are major IL-12 producers during L. major infection. Local Th1 immunity was severely hindered, correlating with impaired IL-12 production and reduction in CD103(+) DC numbers. Adoptive transfer of WT but not IL-12p40(-/-) Batf3-dependent DCs significantly improved anti-L. major response in infected Batf3(-/-) mice. Our results suggest that IL-12 production by Batf3-dependent CD103(+) DCs is crucial for maintenance of local Th1 immunity against L. major infection. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Immunology published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. TLR2 and TLR4 co-activation utilizes distinct signaling pathways for the production of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines in neonatal immune cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugitharini, V; Shahana, P; Prema, A; Berla Thangam, E

    2016-09-01

    Co-activation of TLR2 and TLR4 by gram negative and gram positive bacterial ligands induces a robust pro-inflammatory response in inflammatory cells. In order to understand the signaling mechanism, we aimed to delineate the signaling molecules involved in TLR2 and TLR4 co-activation in neonatal immune cells for the production of Th1/Th2/Th17 inflammatory cytokines. For this, we pretreated cord blood and peripheral blood mononuclear and human mast cells with specific signaling molecule inhibitors such as BAY117082, PD98059 and LY294002 and then stimulated with LPS and PGN and assayed for cytokines IL-6, IL-12/IL-23p40 (Th1), IL-13 (Th2), IL-23 (Th17) and RANTES secretion. We found that upon co-stimulation the phosphorylation of NFκBp65, ERK1/2 and Akt was found to be higher than when stimulated with individual ligands in CBMCs. Also, when compared to adult cells, neonatal cells were more potent in the activation of ERK and Akt through TLR2 and TLR4 co-activation. In addition, neonatal cells possess similar capacity to activate NFκB as that of adult cells for IL-6 secretion. Furthermore, all three signaling molecules were found to be involved in the production of Th17 cytokines which is detrimental during inflammation induced by infection in neonates whereas NFκB is mainly involved in the induction of pro-inflammatory response and Th2 cytokines production. In conclusion, different signaling molecules were utilized for the production of different cytokines in immune cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. IFN-α Boosting of Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Güerin-Vaccine Promoted Th1 Type Cellular Response and Protection against M. tuberculosis Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Santiago, C. E.

    2017-01-01

    The role of type I IFNs in the pathogenesis and control of mycobacterial infection is still controversial. It has been reported that type I IFNs exacerbated M. tuberculosis infection through hampering Th1 type cellular immune response. However, under certain conditions they can act as natural immune adjuvants for commercial vaccines. At this point, we have reported recently that successive IFN-alpha boosting of Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Güerin (BCG) vaccinated mice protected adult mice from intradermal M. lepraemurium infection and a difference in iNOS was observed. In the present work, we have found that intramuscular IFN-α boosting of Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Güerin (BCG) vaccine, either in vitro (human cell line or macrophages derived from PBMC) or in vivo (aerosol mouse model of MTb infection), promoted mostly the development of specific anti-antimycobacterial Th1 type cytokines (IFN-γ; IL-12, TNF-alpha, and IL-17; IL1β) while bacterial load reduction (0.9 logs versus PBS or BCG vaccine) was observed. These findings indicate that, under the experimental settings reported here, interferon alpha can drive or affect the TH cellular immune response in favour of BCG-inducing immunity against M. tuberculosis infection. PMID:29090221

  11. Bordetella pertussis commits human dendritic cells to promote a Th1/Th17 response through the activity of adenylate cyclase toxin and MAPK-pathways.

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    Giorgio Fedele

    Full Text Available The complex pathology of B. pertussis infection is due to multiple virulence factors having disparate effects on different cell types. We focused our investigation on the ability of B. pertussis to modulate host immunity, in particular on the role played by adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA, an important virulence factor of B. pertussis. As a tool, we used human monocyte derived dendritic cells (MDDC, an ex vivo model useful for the evaluation of the regulatory potential of DC on T cell immune responses. The work compared MDDC functions after encounter with wild-type B. pertussis (BpWT or a mutant lacking CyaA (BpCyaA-, or the BpCyaA- strain supplemented with either the fully functional CyaA or a derivative, CyaA*, lacking adenylate cyclase activity. As a first step, MDDC maturation, cytokine production, and modulation of T helper cell polarization were evaluated. As a second step, engagement of Toll-like receptors (TLR 2 and TLR4 by B. pertussis and the signaling events connected to this were analyzed. These approaches allowed us to demonstrate that CyaA expressed by B. pertussis strongly interferes with DC functions, by reducing the expression of phenotypic markers and immunomodulatory cytokines, and blocking IL-12p70 production. B. pertussis-treated MDDC promoted a mixed Th1/Th17 polarization, and the activity of CyaA altered the Th1/Th17 balance, enhancing Th17 and limiting Th1 expansion. We also demonstrated that Th1 effectors are induced by B. pertussis-MDDC in the absence of IL-12p70 through an ERK1/2 dependent mechanism, and that p38 MAPK is essential for MDDC-driven Th17 expansion. The data suggest that CyaA mediates an escape strategy for the bacterium, since it reduces Th1 immunity and increases Th17 responses thought to be responsible, when the response is exacerbated, for enhanced lung inflammation and injury.

  12. Oriental Medicine Samhwangsasim-tang Alleviates Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Suppressing Th1 Cell Responses and Upregulating Treg Cell Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min J; Choi, Jong H; Lee, Sung J; Cho, Ik-Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Oriental medicine Samhwangsasim-tang (SHSST) has traditionally been used in East Asia to treat hypertension and its complications. However, little is known about its potential value regarding the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we investigated whether SHSST has a beneficial effect in treating myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Onset-treatment with SHSST was found to alleviate neurological symptoms as well as demyelination and glial activation in the spinal cords from the EAE mice. The SHSST also attenuated the mRNA or protein expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1beta and tumor necrotic factor-alpha); chemokines (RANTES, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha); inducible nitric oxide synthase; and cyclooxygenase-2 in correspondence with the down-regulation of the nuclear factor-kappa B and mitogen-activated protein kinases signal pathways in the spinal cords from EAE mice. Interestingly, the protective effect of the SHSST was related to a decreased number of Th1 cells and an increased number of Treg cells in spinal cords from EAE mice. Taken together, our finding firstly suggested that SHSST could delay or mitigate EAE with a wide therapeutic time-window by suppressing Th1 cell responses and upregulating Treg cell responses. Also, our findings are strong enough to warrant further investigation of SHSST as a treatment for chronic autoimmune diseases including MS.

  13. Recombinant paracoccin reproduces the biological properties of the native protein and induces protective Th1 immunity against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection.

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    Ana Claudia Paiva Alegre

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paracoccin is a dual-function protein of the yeast Paracoccidioides brasiliensis that has lectin properties and N-acetylglucosaminidase activities. Proteomic analysis of a paracoccin preparation from P. brasiliensis revealed that the sequence matched that of the hypothetical protein encoded by PADG-3347 of isolate Pb-18, with a polypeptide sequence similar to the family 18 endochitinases. These endochitinases are multi-functional proteins, with distinct lectin and enzymatic domains. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The multi-exon assembly and the largest exon of the predicted ORF (PADG-3347, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli cells, and the features of the recombinant proteins were compared to those of the native paracoccin. The multi-exon protein was also used for protection assays in a mouse model of paracoccidioidomycosis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results showed that the recombinant protein reproduced the biological properties described for the native protein-including binding to laminin in a manner that is dependent on carbohydrate recognition-showed N-acetylglucosaminidase activity, and stimulated murine peritoneal macrophages to produce high levels of TNF-α and nitric oxide. Considering the immunomodulatory potential of glycan-binding proteins, we also investigated whether prophylactic administration of recombinant paracoccin affected the course of experimental paracoccidioidomycosis in mice. In comparison to animals injected with vehicle (controls, mice treated with recombinant paracoccin displayed lower pulmonary fungal burdens and reduced pulmonary granulomas. These protective effects were associated with augmented pulmonary levels of IL-12 and IFN-γ. We also observed that injection of paracoccin three days before challenge was the most efficient administration protocol, as the induced Th1 immunity was balanced by high levels of pulmonary IL-10, which may prevent the tissue damage caused by exacerbated

  14. MRSA Infections in HIV-Infected People Are Associated with Decreased MRSA-Specific Th1 Immunity.

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    Netanya S Utay

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available People with HIV infection are at increased risk for community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs. Lower CD4 T-cell counts, higher peak HIV RNA levels and epidemiological factors may be associated with increased risk but no specific immune defect has been identified. We aimed to determine the immunologic perturbations that predispose HIV-infected people to MRSA SSTIs. Participants with or without HIV infection and with MRSA SSTI, MRSA colonization or negative for MRSA were enrolled. Peripheral blood and skin biopsies from study participants were collected. Flow cytometry, flow cytometry with microscopy, multiplex assays of cell culture supernatants and immunohistochemistry were used to evaluate the nature of the immune defect predisposing HIV-infected people to MRSA infections. We found deficient MRSA-specific IFNγ+ CD4 T-cell responses in HIV-infected people with MRSA SSTIs compared to MRSA-colonized participants and HIV-uninfected participants with MRSA SSTIs. These IFNγ+ CD4 T cells were less polyfunctional in HIV-infected participants with SSTIs compared to those without SSTIs. However, IFNγ responses to cytomegalovirus and Mycobacterium avium antigens and MRSA-specific IL-17 responses by CD4 T cells were intact. Upon stimulation with MRSA, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV-infected participants produced less IL-12 and IL-15, key drivers of IFNγ production. There were no defects in CD8 T-cell responses, monocyte responses, opsonization, or phagocytosis of Staphylococcus aureus. Accumulation of CD3 T cells, CD4 T cells, IL-17+ cells, myeloperoxidase+ neutrophils and macrophage/myeloid cells to the skin lesions were similar between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected participants based on immunohistochemistry. Together, these results indicate that MRSA-specific IFNγ+ CD4 T-cell responses are essential for the control of initial and recurrent MRSA infections in HIV

  15. Murine neonates develop vigorous in vivo cytotoxic and Th1/Th2 responses upon exposure to low doses of NIMA-like alloantigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opiela, Shannon J; Levy, Robert B; Adkins, Becky

    2008-08-15

    Early life exposure to noninherited maternal antigens (NIMAs) may occur via transplacental transfer and/or breast milk. There are indications that early life exposure to NIMAs may lead to lifelong tolerance. However, there is mounting evidence that exposure to NIMAs may also lead to immunologic priming. Understanding how these different responses arise could be critical in transplantation with donor cells expressing NIMAs. We recently reported that murine neonates that received a transplant of low doses of NIMA-like alloantigens develop vigorous memory cytotoxic responses, as assessed by in vitro assays. Here, we demonstrate that robust allospecific cytotoxicity is also manifest in vivo. Importantly, at low doses, NIMA-expressing cells induced the development of in vivo cytotoxicity during the neonatal period. NIMA-exposed neonates also developed vigorous primary and memory allospecific Th1/Th2 responses that exceeded the responses of adults. Overall, we conclude that exposure to low doses of NIMA-like alloantigens induces robust in vivo cytotoxic and Th1/Th2 responses in neonates. These findings suggest that early exposure to low levels of NIMA may lead to long-term immunologic priming of all arms of T-cell adaptive immunity, rather than tolerance.

  16. The Glycosylated Rv1860 Protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Inhibits Dendritic Cell Mediated TH1 and TH17 Polarization of T Cells and Abrogates Protective Immunity Conferred by BCG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satchidanandam, Vijaya; Kumar, Naveen; Jumani, Rajiv S.; Challu, Vijay; Elangovan, Shobha; Khan, Naseem A.

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported interferon gamma secretion by human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in response to recombinant E. coli-expressed Rv1860 protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) as well as protection of guinea pigs against a challenge with virulent MTB following prime-boost immunization with DNA vaccine and poxvirus expressing Rv1860. In contrast, a Statens Serum Institute Mycobacterium bovis BCG (BCG-SSI) recombinant expressing MTB Rv1860 (BCG-TB1860) showed loss of protective ability compared to the parent BCG strain expressing the control GFP protein (BCG-GFP). Since Rv1860 is a secreted mannosylated protein of MTB and BCG, we investigated the effect of BCG-TB1860 on innate immunity. Relative to BCG-GFP, BCG-TB1860 effected a significant near total reduction both in secretion of cytokines IL-2, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10, and up regulation of co-stimulatory molecules MHC-II, CD40, CD54, CD80 and CD86 by infected bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDC), while leaving secreted levels of TGF-β unchanged. These effects were mimicked by BCG-TB1860His which carried a 6-Histidine tag at the C-terminus of Rv1860, killed sonicated preparations of BCG-TB1860 and purified H37Rv-derived Rv1860 glycoprotein added to BCG-GFP, but not by E. coli-expressed recombinant Rv1860. Most importantly, BMDC exposed to BCG-TB1860 failed to polarize allogeneic as well as syngeneic T cells to secrete IFN-γ and IL-17 relative to BCG-GFP. Splenocytes from mice infected with BCG-SSI showed significantly less proliferation and secretion of IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-17, but secreted higher levels of IL-10 in response to in vitro restimulation with BCG-TB1860 compared to BCG-GFP. Spleens from mice infected with BCG-TB1860 also harboured significantly fewer DC expressing MHC-II, IL-12, IL-2 and TNF-α compared to mice infected with BCG-GFP. Glycoproteins of MTB, through their deleterious effects on DC may thus contribute to suppress the generation of a TH1- and TH17-dominated

  17. DNA Immunization Against Amyloid beta 42 has High Potential as Safe Therapy for Alzheimer’s Disease as it Diminishes Antigen-Specific Th1 and Th17 Cell Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambracht-Washington, Doris; Qu, Bao-Xi; Fu, Min; Anderson, Larry D.; Stüve, Olaf; Eagar, Todd N.

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has been strongly associated with the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides in brain, and immunotherapy targeting Aβ provides potential for AD prevention. A clinical trial in which AD patients were immunized with Aβ42 peptide was stopped when 6% of participants showed meningoencephalitis, apparently due to an inflammatory Th1 immune response. Previously, we and other have shown that Aβ42 DNA vaccination via gene gun generates a Th2 cellular immune response, which was shown by analyses of the respective antibody isotype profiles. We also determined that in vitro T cell proliferation in response to Aβ42 peptide re-stimulation was absent in DNA Aβ42 trimer-immunized mice when compared to Aβ42 peptide-immunized mice. To further characterize this observation prospectively and longitudinally, we analyzed the immune response in wild-type mice after vaccination with Aβ42 trimer DNA and Aβ42 peptide with Quil A adjuvant. Wild-type mice were immunized with short-term (1–3× vaccinations) or long-term (6× vacinations) immunization strategies. Antibody titers and isotype profiles of the Aβ42 specific antibodies, as well as cytokine profiles and cell proliferation studies from this longitudinal study were determined. Sufficient antibody titers to effectively reduce Aβ42, but an absent T cell proliferative response and no IFNγ or IL-17 secretion after Aβ42 DNA trimer immunization minimizes the risk of inflammatory activities of the immune system towards the self antigen Aβ42 in brain. Therefore, Aβ42 DNA trimer immunization has a high probability to be effective and safe to treat patients with early AD. PMID:21625960

  18. Clinical influence of different intracanal medications on Th1-type and Th2-type cytokine responses in apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinho, Frederico C; Nascimento, Gustavo G; Leite, Fabio R M; Gomes, Ana P M; Freitas, Lilian F; Camões, Izabel C G

    2015-02-01

    This clinical study assessed the influence of different intracanal medications on Th1-type and Th2-type cytokine responses in apical periodontitis and monitored the levels of bacteria from primarily infection during endodontic procedures. Thirty primarily infected teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups according to the medication selected: chlorhexidine (CHX), 2% CHX gel; Ca(OH)2/SSL, Ca(OH)2 + SSL; and Ca(OH)2/CHX, Ca(OH)2 + 2% CHX gel (all, n = 10). Bacterial sample was collected from root canals, and the interstitial fluid was sampled from lesions. Culture techniques were used to determine bacterial counts (colony-forming units/mL). Th1 (tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, and interleukin [IL]-2) and Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. All intracanal medication protocols were effective in reducing the bacterial load from root canals (all P type cytokines in apical lesions (all P .05). Both Ca(OH)2 treatment protocols significantly increased the levels of Th2-type cytokines (P .05). Thus, chlorhexidine medication showed the lowest effectiveness in increasing the levels of Th2-type cytokine. After treatment, regardless of the type of medication, the linear regression analysis indicated the down-regulation of Th2-type cytokines by Th1-type cytokines. All intracanal medication protocols were effective in reducing bacterial load and lowering the levels of Th1-type cytokines. Thus, the use of Ca(OH)2 medications contributed to the increase in the Th2-type cytokine response in apical periodontitis. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Indications of Th1 and Th17 responses in cerebrospinal fluid from patients with Lyme neuroborreliosis: a large retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malmvall Bo-Eric

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies indicate that successful resolution of Lyme neuroborreliosis (NB is associated with a strong T helper (Th 1-type cytokine response in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF followed by a down-regulating Th2 response, whereas the role of the recently discovered Th17 cytokine response is unknown. Methods To investigate the relative contribution of different Th associated cytokine/chemokine responses, we used a multiple bead array to measure the levels of CXCL10 (Th1 marker, CCL22 (Th2 marker, IL-17 (Th17 marker and CXCL8 (general inflammation marker, in serum and in CSF from untreated patients with confirmed NB (n = 133, and non-NB patients (n = 96, and related the findings to clinical data. Samples from patients with possible early NB (n = 15 and possible late NB (n = 19 were also analysed, as well as samples from an additional control group with orthopaedic patients (n = 17, where CSF was obtained at spinal anaesthesia. Results The most prominent differences across groups were found in the CSF. IL-17 was elevated in CSF in 49% of the patients with confirmed NB, but was not detectable in the other groups. Patients with confirmed NB and possible early NB had significantly higher CSF levels of CXCL10, CCL22 and CXCL8 compared to both the non-NB group and the control group (p Borrelia-antibodies. Conclusion Our results support the notion that early NB is dominated by a Th1-type response, eventually accompanied by a Th2 response. Interestingly, IL-17 was increased exclusively in CSF from patients with confirmed NB, suggesting a hitherto unknown role for Th17 in NB. However, for conclusive evidence, future prospective studies are needed.

  20. Berberine Attenuates Inflammation Associated with Delayed-Type Hypersensitivity via Suppressing Th1 Response and Inhibiting Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhigang; Chen, Zhe; Chen, Tao; Yi, Tao; Zheng, Zhou; Fan, Hong; Chen, Zebin

    2017-02-01

    Berberine, one of the active alkaloids from Rhizoma Coptidis, has been indicated to have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. The aim of this study was to determine the role of berberine on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) and its potential mechanisms. Berberine treatment significantly reduced footpad swelling, inflammatory cells infiltration, anti-OVA IgG levels, IgE concentration in serum, and the tetramer(+)CD8(+) cells. In homogenized footpad tissue, the production of Th1-mediated cytokines including IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-2 were suppressed following the administration of berberine. Detailed studies revealed that berberine prevented differentiation into Th1 cells in the OVA-primed lymphocytes, resulting from suppressing the expression of T-bet and secretion of IFN-γ but not IL-4. Concanavalin A stimulation assay and MTT assay also indicated inhibiting effect of berberine treatment on IFN-γ production and decreased cytotoxicity in lymphocytes proliferation, respectively. Additionally, berberine obviously decreased the cell apoptosis and enzymatic activity of caspase-3, which was further confirmed by the facts that berberine clearly lowered Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and expression of cleaved caspase-3 protein. On correlation analysis, the percentage of apoptotic cells showed a significant positive relationship with IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio of supernatant from footpad tissue in berberine-treated DTH mice. These results demonstrated that berberine attenuated Th1-mediated inflammation in OVA-induced DTH by curbing Th1 response and inhibiting cell apoptosis, suggesting a therapeutic potential for berberine for the treatment of type IV hypersensitivity.

  1. Maintenance of Th1 hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific responses in individuals with acute HCV who achieve sustained virological clearance after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Jacqueline K; Dore, Gregory J; Hellard, Margaret; Yeung, Barbara; Rawlinson, William D; White, Peter A; Kaldor, John M; Lloyd, Andrew R; Ffrench, Rosemary A

    2013-11-01

    T-cell responses against hepatitis C are believed to be critical in achieving both natural and treatment-induced clearance. However, rapid clearance of antigen with early treatment of primary infection may result in reduced or poorly sustained cellular immunity. This study longitudinally examined Th1 and Th2 hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific cytokine production and T-cell effector function from subjects enrolled in the Australian Trial in Acute Hepatitis C comparing three groups: treatment-induced clearance (sustained virological response [SVR]), treatment non-response, and untreated spontaneous clearance. HCV-specific T-cell responses were characterized by HCV peptide ELISpot, in vitro cytokine production, and T-cell flow cytometry assays. Treated subjects with a sustained virological response (SVR) displayed a better maintenance of HCV-specific Th1 responses compared to treatment non-responders (higher interferon [IFN]-γ and interleukin (IL)-2 magnitude at week 24, broader IFN-γ responses at weeks 24 and 48, P < 0.05) and significantly increased IFN-γ responses between screening and week 48 (magnitude P = 0.026, breadth P = 0.009). Treatment-induced viral clearance was also associated with a trend toward decreased IL-10 responses (screening to week 48, P = 0.070), higher expression of CD45RO (P = 0.042) and CD38 (P = 0.088) on CD4+ T cells, and higher IFN-γR expression (CD56+ IFN-γR+ P = 0.033) compared to treatment non-responders. Untreated subjects with viral clearance also displayed high magnitude and broad HCV-specific IFN-γ and IL-2 responses early in infection; however, IFN-γ responses were not as well maintained compared to treated subjects with a SVR (week 48 magnitude, breadth P = 0.064). Treatment-induced viral clearance of recent HCV infection is associated with maintenance of HCV-specific Th1 responses. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Cellular immune response in intraventricular experimental neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Vania B L; Lima, Sarah B; Matos-Silva, Hidelberto; Vinaud, Marina C; Loyola, Patricia R A N; Lino, Ruy S

    2016-03-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is considered a neglected parasitic infection of the human central nervous system. Its pathogenesis is due to the host immune response, stage of evolution and location of the parasite. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in situ and systemic immune response through cytokines dosage (IL-4, IL-10, IL-17 and IFN-γ) as well as the local inflammatory response of the experimental NCC with Taenia crassiceps. The in situ and systemic cellular and inflammatory immune response were evaluated through the cytokines quantification at 7, 30, 60 and 90 days after inoculation and histopathological analysis. All cysticerci were found within the cerebral ventricles. There was a discrete intensity of inflammatory cells of mixed immune profile, polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells, at the beginning of the infection and predominance of mononuclear cells at the end. The systemic immune response showed a significant increase in all the analysed cytokines and predominance of the Th2 immune profile cytokines at the end of the infection. These results indicate that the location of the cysticerci may lead to ventriculomegaly. The acute phase of the infection showed a mixed Th1/Th17 profile accompanied by high levels of IL-10 while the late phase showed a Th2 immune profile.

  3. Liposome delivery of Chlamydia muridarum major outer membrane protein primes a Th1 response that protects against genital chlamydial infection in a mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jon; Jensen, Klaus Thorleif; Follmann, Frank

    2008-01-01

    reported as being important for raising protective immunity. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice vaccinated with native refolded Chlamydia muridarum major outer membrane protein (MOMP) adjuvanted with either Th1-promoting cationic adjuvant formulation 1 (CAF01) or T helper cells type 2-promoting aluminum hydroxide (alum......BACKGROUND: Immunity to chlamydia is thought to rely on interferon (IFN)-gamma-secreting T helper cells type 1 (Th1) with an additional effect of secreted antibodies. A need for Th1-polarizing adjuvants in experimental chlamydia vaccines has been demonstrated, and antigen conformation has also been......) received a genital inoculation of 1.5 x 10(5) inclusion-forming units of C. muridarum. The role played by CD4(+) T cells in MOMP/CAF01-raised immunity was investigated by depleting CD4(+) T cells in vaccinated mice, and antigen conformation dependence was evaluated by vaccination with recombinant MOMP...

  4. Enhancement of the Th1-phenotype immune system by the intake of Oyster mushroom (Tamogitake extract in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study

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    Aiko Tanaka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus cornucopiae (Oyster mushroom, Tamogitake has long been eaten as a functional food for enhancement of the immune system, but its effectiveness has not been well confirmed in humans. To this end, we set up a double-blind placebo-controlled human clinical trial to investigate the potential of Oyster mushrooms with respect to the up-regulation of the immune system. The subjects ingested Oyster mushroom extract for 8 weeks. We measured the serum cytokine levels involved in regulation of the immune system, including interferon (IFN-γ, interleukin (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, and tumor-necrosis factor (TNF-α. We found that intake of Oyster mushroom extract elevated IFN-γ (P = 0.013 and IL-12, whereas serum levels of IL-10 and IL-13 and other cytokines were minimally changed. We also measured natural killer (NK cell activity, the levels of which tended to increase, but not significantly. Taken together, these facts suggest that Oyster mushrooms have the potential to enhance the immune system, through Th1 phenotype potentiation as the macrophage-IL-12 – IFN-γ pathway. This results in activation of the cell-mediated immune system as exemplified by up-regulation of NK cell activity. Oyster mushroom extract may be beneficial for the prevention of various diseases, including infectious diseases and cancer, due to its stimulation of the immune system.

  5. Immunomodulator-based enhancement of anti smallpox immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Osmarie; Miranda, Eric; Ramírez, Maite; Santos, Saritza; Rivera, Carlos; Vázquez, Luis; Sánchez, Tomás; Tremblay, Raymond L; Ríos-Olivares, Eddy; Otero, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The current live vaccinia virus vaccine used in the prevention of smallpox is contraindicated for millions of immune-compromised individuals. Although vaccination with the current smallpox vaccine produces protective immunity, it might result in mild to serious health complications for some vaccinees. Thus, there is a critical need for the production of a safe virus-free vaccine against smallpox that is available to everyone. For that reason, we investigated the impact of imiquimod and resiquimod (Toll-like receptors agonists), and the codon-usage optimization of the vaccinia virus A27L gene in the enhancement of the immune response, with intent of producing a safe, virus-free DNA vaccine coding for the A27 vaccinia virus protein. We analyzed the cellular-immune response by measuring the IFN-γ production of splenocytes by ELISPOT, the humoral-immune responses measuring total IgG and IgG2a/IgG1 ratios by ELISA, and the TH1 and TH2 cytokine profiles by ELISA, in mice immunized with our vaccine formulation. The proposed vaccine formulation enhanced the A27L vaccine-mediated production of IFN-γ on mouse spleens, and increased the humoral immunity with a TH1-biased response. Also, our vaccine induced a TH1 cytokine milieu, which is important against viral infections. These results support the efforts to find a new mechanism to enhance an immune response against smallpox, through the implementation of a safe, virus-free DNA vaccination platform.

  6. Suppression of allergic reactions by dehulled adlay in association with the balance of TH1/TH2 cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Bi-Fong; Lin, Jin-Yuarn; Kuo, Ching-Chuan; Chiang, Wenchang

    2003-06-18

    Dehulled adlay is known as a natural Chinese medicine having antiallergic activity, although its mechanism remains unclear. This study examined the effects of dehulled adlay on antigen-specific antibody and cytokine production. Mice were immunized three times with ovalbumin (OVA) in alum adjuvant. It was found that oral administration of dehulled adlay in mice suppressed the production of IgE against OVA antigen. Serum anti-OVA IgG(2a) antibody levels were significantly increased in mice after oral administration of dehulled adlay. Furthermore, the production of IL-2 by OVA-stimulated splenocytes was augmented in dehulled adlay-fed mice. Although dehulled adlay had no effect on the serum anti-OVA IgG(1) antibody levels, it had a great capacity to reduce IL-5 secretion by means of OVA-stimulated splenocytes. Hydrothermal processes, including steaming and extrusion cooking, did not change the capacity of dehulled adlay to suppress IgE production. Three fractions of dehulled alday, including methanolic extract, warm water extract, and residue, were obtained. The methanolic extract exhibited the greatest capacity to reduce anti-OVA IgE production. These results suggest that dehulled adlay has a modulating ability to shift the balance from Th2 to Th1 dominance in the T cell mediated immune system and may be beneficial for the treatment of allergic disorders.

  7. Protective Live Oral Brucellosis Vaccines Stimulate Th1 and Th17 Cell Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, Beata; Skyberg, Jerod A.; Yang, Xinghong; Thornburg, Theresa; Walters, Nancy; Pascual, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Zoonotic transmission of brucellosis often results from exposure to Brucella-infected livestock, feral animals, or wildlife or frequently via consumption of unpasteurized milk products or raw meat. Since natural infection of humans often occurs by the oral route, mucosal vaccination may offer a means to confer protection for both mucosal and systemic tissues. Significant efforts have focused on developing a live brucellosis vaccine, and deletion of the znuA gene involved in zinc transport has been found to attenuate Brucella abortus. A similar mutation has been adapted for Brucella melitensis and tested to determine whether oral administration of ΔznuA B. melitensis can confer protection against nasal B. melitensis challenge. A single oral vaccination with ΔznuA B. melitensis rapidly cleared from mice within 2 weeks and effectively protected mice upon nasal challenge with wild-type B. melitensis 16M. In 83% of the vaccinated mice, no detectable brucellae were found in their spleens, unlike with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-dosed mice, and vaccination also enhanced the clearance of brucellae from the lungs. Moreover, vaccinated gamma interferon-deficient (IFN-γ−/−) mice also showed protection in both spleens and lungs, albeit protection that was not as effective as in immunocompetent mice. Although IFN-γ, interleukin 17 (IL-17), and IL-22 were stimulated by these live vaccines, only RB51-mediated protection was codependent upon IL-17 in BALB/c mice. These data suggest that oral immunization with the live, attenuated ΔznuA B. melitensis vaccine provides an attractive strategy to protect against inhalational infection with virulent B. melitensis. PMID:21768283

  8. The combination of early and rapid type I IFN, IL-1α, and IL-1β production are essential mediators of RNA-like adjuvant driven CD4+ Th1 responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel F Madera

    Full Text Available There is a growing need for novel vaccine adjuvants that can provide safe and potent T-helper type 1 (Th1 activity. RNA-like immune response modifiers (IRMs are candidate T-cell adjuvants that skew acquired immune responses towards a Th1 phenotype. We set out to delineate the essential signaling pathways by which the RNA-like IRMs, resiquimod (R-848 and polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C, augment CD4+ T-helper 1 (Th1 responses. Highly purified murine conventional dendritic cells (cDCs and conventional CD4+ T-cells were co-cultured in allogeneic and MHC congenic mixed leukocyte reactions. The activation of CD4+ Th1 cells was examined utilizing cells from mice deficient in specific RNA-sensing pattern recognition receptors and signaling mediators. R-848 and poly I:C stimulation of Type I interferon production and signaling in cDCs was essential but not sufficient for driving CD4+ Th1 responses. The early and rapid production of IL-1α and IL-1β was equally critical for the optimal activation of Th1 CD4+ T-cells. R-848 activation of Toll-like receptor 7/MyD88-dependent signaling in cDCs led to a rapid upregulation of pro-IL-1α and pro-IL-1β production compared to poly I:C activation of MyD88-independent signaling pathways. The in vitro data show that CD4+ T-cell adjuvant activity of RNA-like IRMs is mediated by a critical combination of early and rapid Type I interferon, IL-1α and IL-1β production. These results provide important insights into the key signaling pathways responsible for RNA-like IRM CD4+ Th1 activation. A better understanding of the critical signaling pathways by which RNA-like IRMs stimulate CD4+ Th1 responses is relevant to the rational design of improved vaccine adjuvants.

  9. A Polysaccharide isolated from the liquid culture of Lentinus edodes (Shiitake) mushroom mycelia containing black rice bran protects mice against salmonellosis through upregulation of the Th1 immune reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Phil; Park, Sun Ok; Lee, Sang Jong; Nam, Seok Hyun; Friedman, Mendel

    2014-03-19

    The present study investigated the antibacterial effect of a bioprocessed polysaccharide (BPP) isolated from Lentinus edodes liquid mycelial culture supplemented with black rice bran against murine salmonellosis. BPP was not bactericidal in vitro, it did, however, stimulate uptake of the bacteria into RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells, as indicated by increased colony-forming unit (CFU) counts of the contents of the lysed macrophages incubated with Salmonella Typhimurium for 30 and 60 min. Two hours postinfection, the bacterial counts drastically increased in the macrophages, but 4 and 8 h postinfection BPP extract-treated cells showed lower bacterial counts than the vehicle (saline phosphate pH 7.4 buffer, PBS)-treated control. BPP elicited altered morphology and markedly elevated inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) mRNA and protein expression in the infected macrophage cells. BPP also activated leukocytes in S. Typhimurium-infected mice, as determined by spleen lymphocyte proliferation and IFN-γ levels in mice sera. ELISA analysis on cytokine production by Th1 and Th2 immune cells from splenocytes of infected mice showed significant increases in the levels of the following Th1 cytokines: IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, and IL-12. Histology assays of the livers of mice infected with a sublethal dose (1 × 10(4) CFU) of S. Typhimurium showed that BPP, administered daily through an intraperitoneal (ip) or oral route, protected against necrosis of the liver, a biomarker of in vivo salmonellosis. The lifespan of mice similarly infected with a lethal dose of S. Typhimurium (1 × 10(5) CFU) was significantly extended by ip injection or oral administration of the BPP without side effects. These results suggest that the activity of BPP against bacterial infection in mice occurs mainly through the activation of macrophage-mediated immune response resulting from augmented Th1 immunity. The significance of the results for microbial food safety and human health and further

  10. Sequential Immune Responses: The Weapons of Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Charles D; Ley, Klaus; Buchmann, Kurt; Canton, Johnathan

    2015-01-01

    Sequential immune responses (SIR) is a new model that describes what 'immunity' means in higher animals. Existing models, such as self/nonself discrimination or danger, focus on how immune responses are initiated. However, initiation is not protection. SIR describes the actual immune responses that provide protection. SIR resulted from a comprehensive analysis of the evolution of immune systems that revealed that several very different types of host innate responses occur (and at different tempos) which together provide host protection. SIR1 uses rapidly activated enzymes like the NADPH oxidases and is present in all animal cells. SIR2 is mediated by the first 'immune' cells: macrophage-like cells. SIR3 evolved in animals like invertebrates and provides enhanced protection through advanced macrophage recognition and killing of pathogens and through other innate immune cells such as neutrophils. Finally, in vertebrates, macrophages developed SIR4: the ability to present antigens to T cells. Though much slower than SIR1-3, adaptive responses provide a unique new protection for higher vertebrates. Importantly, newer SIR responses were added on top of older, evolutionarily conserved functions to provide 'layers' of host protection. SIR transcends existing models by elucidating the different weapons of immunity that provide host protection in higher animals. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Intestinal immune response to chicken Coccidiosis in the context of Th1 and Th17 response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coccidiosis is one of the most economically important diseases of the chickens caused by several different Eimeria spp. The primary target tissue of Eimeria parasites is the intestinal mucosa and coccidiosis infection destroys intestinal epithelium resulting in nutrient malabsorption, body weight lo...

  12. Regulation of IL-12p40 by HIF controls Th1/Th17 responses to prevent mucosal inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, E; Naudin, C; Nolan, G; Goggins, B J; Burns, G; Mateer, S W; Latimore, J K; Minahan, K; Plank, M; Foster, P S; Callister, R; Veysey, M; Walker, M M; Talley, N J; Radford-Smith, G; Keely, S

    2017-09-01

    Intestinal inflammatory lesions are inherently hypoxic, due to increased metabolic demands created by cellular infiltration and proliferation, and reduced oxygen supply due to vascular damage. Hypoxia stabilizes the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF) leading to a coordinated induction of endogenously protective pathways. We identified IL12B as a HIF-regulated gene and aimed to define how the HIF-IL-12p40 axis influenced intestinal inflammation. Intestinal lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL) were characterized in wild-type and IL-12p40 -/- murine colitis treated with vehicle or HIF-stabilizing prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitors (PHDi). IL12B promoter analysis was performed to examine hypoxia-responsive elements. Immunoblot analysis of murine and human LPL supernatants was performed to characterize the HIF/IL-12p40 signaling axis. We observed selective induction of IL-12p40 following PHDi-treatment, concurrent with suppression of Th1 and Th17 responses in murine colitis models. In the absence of IL-12p40, PHDi-treatment was ineffective. Analysis of the IL12B promoter identified canonical HIF-binding sites. HIF stabilization in LPLs resulted in production of IL-12p40 homodimer which was protective against colitis. The selective induction of IL-12p40 by HIF-1α leads to a suppression of mucosal Th1 and Th17 responses. This HIF-IL12p40 axis may represent an endogenously protective mechanism to limit the progression of chronic inflammation, shifting from pro-inflammatory IL-12p70 to an antagonistic IL-12p40 homodimer.

  13. Th1 stimulatory proteins of Leishmania donovani: comparative cellular and protective responses of rTriose phosphate isomerase, rProtein disulfide isomerase and rElongation factor-2 in combination with rHSP70 against visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Anil Kumar; Khare, Prashant; Joshi, Sumit; Kushawaha, Pramod Kumar; Sundar, Shyam; Dube, Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    In visceral leishmaniasis, the recovery from the disease is always associated with the generation of Th1-type of cellular responses. Based on this, we have previously identified several Th1-stimulatory proteins of Leishmania donovani -triose phosphate isomerase (TPI), protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and elongation factor-2 (EL-2) etc. including heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) which induced Th1-type of cellular responses in both cured Leishmania patients/hamsters. Since, HSPs, being the logical targets for vaccines aimed at augmenting cellular immunity and can be early targets in the immune response against intracellular pathogens; they could be exploited as vaccine/adjuvant to induce long-term immunity more effectively. Therefore, in this study, we checked whether HSP70 can further enhance the immunogenicity and protective responses of the above said Th1-stimulatory proteins. Since, in most of the studies, immunogenicity of HSP70 of L. donovani was assessed in native condition, herein we generated recombinant HSP70 and tested its potential to stimulate immune responses in lymphocytes of cured Leishmania infected hamsters as well as in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of cured patients of VL either individually or in combination with above mentioned recombinant proteins. rLdHSP70 alone elicited strong cellular responses along with remarkable up-regulation of IFN-γ and IL-12 cytokines and extremely lower level of IL-4 and IL-10. Among the various combinations, rLdHSP70 + rLdPDI emerged as superior one augmenting improved cellular responses followed by rLdHSP70 + rLdEL-2. These combinations were further evaluated for its protective potential wherein rLdHSP70 + rLdPDI again conferred utmost protection (∼80%) followed by rLdHSP70 + rLdEL-2 (∼75%) and generated a strong cellular immune response with significant increase in the levels of iNOS transcript as well as IFN-γ and IL-12 cytokines which was further supported by the high level of IgG2 antibody

  14. Impaired Th1 immunity in ovarian cancer patients is mediated by TNFR2+ Tregs within the tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, Chindu; Scalzo-Inguanti, Karen; Madondo, Mutsa; Hallo, Julene; Flanagan, Katie; Quinn, Michael; Plebanski, Magdalena

    2013-10-01

    Ovarian cancer is a prevalent gynecological malignancy with potent immune-suppression capabilities; regulatory T cells (Tregs) are significant contributors to this immune-suppression. As ovarian cancer patients present with high levels of TNF and Tregs expressing TNFR2 are associated with maximal suppressive capacity, we investigated TNFR2+ Tregs within these patients. Indeed, TNFR2+ Tregs from tumor-associated ascites were the most potent suppressor T cell fraction. They were abundantly present within the ascites and more suppressive than peripheral blood TNFR2+ Tregs in patients. The increased suppressive capacity can be explained by a distinct cell surface expression profile, which includes high levels of CD39, CD73, TGF-β and GARP. Additionally, CD73 expression level on TNFR2+ Tregs was inversely correlated with IFN-γ production by effector T cells. This Treg fraction can be selectively recruited into the ascites from the peripheral blood of patients. Targeting TNFR2+ Tregs may offer new approaches to enhance the poor survival rates of ovarian cancer. © 2013.

  15. Non-Esterified Fatty Acids Profiling in Rheumatoid Arthritis: Associations with Clinical Features and Th1 Response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rodríguez-Carrio

    Full Text Available Since lipid compounds are known to modulate the function of CD4+ T-cells and macrophages, we hypothesize that altered levels of serum non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA may underlie rheumatoid arthritis (RA pathogenesis.Serum levels of NEFA (palmitic, stearic, palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, γ-linoleic, arachidonic -AA-, linolenic, eicosapentaenoic -EPA- and docosahexaenoic -DHA- were quantified by LC-MS/MS after methyl-tert-butylether (MTBE-extraction in 124 RA patients and 56 healthy controls (HC. CD4+ phenotype was studied by flow cytometry. TNFα, IL-8, VEGF, GM-CSF, IFNγ, IL-17, CCL2, CXCL10, leptin and resistin serum levels were quantified by immunoassays. The effect of FA on IFNγ production by PBMC was evaluated in vitro.Lower levels of palmitic (p<0.0001, palmitoleic (p = 0.002, oleic (p = 0.010, arachidonic (p = 0.027, EPA (p<0.0001 and DHA (p<0.0001 were found in RA patients, some NEFA being altered at onset. Cluster analysis identified a NEFA profile (hallmarked by increased stearic and decreased EPA and DHA overrepresented in RA patients compared to HC (p = 0.002, being associated with clinical features (RF, shared epitope and erosions, increased IFNγ expression in CD4+ T-cells (p = 0.002 and a Th1-enriched serum milieu (IFNγ, CCL2 and CXCL10, all p<0.005. In vitro assays demonstrated that imbalanced FA could underlie IFNγ production by CD4+ T-cells. Finally, changes on NEFA levels were associated with clinical response upon TNFα-blockade.An altered NEFA profile can be found in RA patients associated with clinical characteristics of aggressive disease and enhanced Th1 response. These results support the relevance of lipidomic studies in RA and provide a rationale for new therapeutic targets.

  16. Antibody Production and Th1-biased Response Induced by an Epitope Vaccine Composed of Cholera Toxin B Unit and Helicobacter pylori Lpp20 Epitopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Chen, Zhongbiao; Ye, Jianbin; Ning, Lijun; Luo, Jun; Zhang, Lili; Jiang, Yin; Xi, Yue; Ning, Yunshan

    2016-06-01

    The epitope vaccine is an attractive potential for prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Lpp20 is one of major protective antigens which trigger immune response after H. pylori invades host and has been considered as an excellent vaccine candidate for the control of H. pylori infection. In our previous study, one B-cell epitope and two CD4(+) T-cell epitopes of Lpp20 were identified. In this study, an epitope vaccine composed of mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) and these three identified Lpp20 epitopes were constructed to investigate the efficacy of this epitope vaccine in mice. The epitope vaccine including CTB, one B-cell, and two CD4(+) T-cell epitopes of Lpp20 was constructed and named CTB-Lpp20, which was then expressed in Escherichia coli and used for intraperitoneal immunization in BALB/c mice. The immunogenicity, specificity, and ability to induce antibodies against Lpp20 and cytokine secretion were evaluated. After that, CTB-Lpp20 was intragastrically immunized to investigate the prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy in infected mice. The results indicated that the epitope vaccine CTB-Lpp20 possessed good immunogenicity and immunoreactivity and could elicit specific high level of antibodies against Lpp20 and the cytokine of IFN-γ and IL-17. Additionally, CTB-Lpp20 significantly decreased H. pylori colonization in H. pylori challenging mice, and the protection was correlated with IgG, IgA, and sIgA antibody and Th1-type cytokines. This study will be better for understanding the protective immunity of epitope vaccine, and CTB-Lpp20 may be an alternative strategy for combating H. pylori invasion. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Sequential Immune Responses: The Weapons of Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Charles D.; Ley, Klaus; Buchmann, Kurt; Canton, Johnathan

    2016-01-01

    Sequential immune responses (SIR) is a new model that describes what ‘immunity’ means in higher animals. Existing models, such as self/nonself discrimination or danger, focus on how immune responses are initiated. However, initiation is not protection. SIR describes the actual immune responses that provide protection. SIR resulted from a comprehensive analysis of the evolution of immune systems that revealed that several very different types of host innate responses occur (and at different tempos) which together provide host protection. SIR1 uses rapidly activated enzymes like the NADPH oxidases and is present in all animal cells. SIR2 is mediated by the first ‘immune’ cells: macrophage-like cells. SIR3 evolved in animals like invertebrates and provides enhanced protection through advanced macrophage recognition and killing of pathogens and through other innate immune cells such as neutrophils. Finally, in vertebrates, macrophages developed SIR4: the ability to present antigens to T cells. Though much slower than SIR1–3, adaptive responses provide a unique new protection for higher vertebrates. Importantly, newer SIR responses were added on top of older, evolutionarily conserved functions to provide ‘layers’ of host protection. SIR transcends existing models by elucidating the different weapons of immunity that provide host protection in higher animals. PMID:25871013

  18. Interleukin-6 Induced "Acute" Phenotypic Microenvironment Promotes Th1 Anti-Tumor Immunity in Cryo-Thermal Therapy Revealed By Shotgun and Parallel Reaction Monitoring Proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ting; Liu, Ping; Zhou, Yong; Liu, Kun; Yang, Li; Moritz, Robert L; Yan, Wei; Xu, Lisa X

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-thermal therapy has been emerged as a promising novel therapeutic strategy for advanced breast cancer, triggering higher incidence of tumor regression and enhanced remission of metastasis than routine treatments. To better understand its anti-tumor mechanism, we utilized a spontaneous metastatic mouse model and quantitative proteomics to compare N-glycoproteome changes in 94 serum samples with and without treatment. We quantified 231 highly confident N-glycosylated proteins using iTRAQ shotgun proteomics. Among them, 53 showed significantly discriminated regulatory patterns over the time course, in which the acute phase response emerged as the most enhanced pathway. The anti-tumor feature of the acute response was further investigated using parallel reaction monitoring target proteomics and flow cytometry on 23 of the 53 significant proteins. We found that cryo-thermal therapy reset the tumor chronic inflammation to an "acute" phenotype, with up-regulation of acute phase proteins including IL-6 as a key regulator. The IL-6 mediated "acute" phenotype transformed IL-4 and Treg-promoting ICOSL expression to Th1-promoting IFN-γ and IL-12 production, augmented complement system activation and CD86(+)MHCII(+) dendritic cells maturation and enhanced the proliferation of Th1 memory cells. In addition, we found an increased production of tumor progression and metastatic inhibitory proteins under such "acute" environment, favoring the anti-metastatic effect. Moreover, cryo-thermal on tumors induced the strongest "acute" response compared to cryo/hyperthermia alone or cryo-thermal on healthy tissues, accompanying by the most pronounced anti-tumor immunological effect. In summary, we demonstrated that cryo-thermal therapy induced, IL-6 mediated "acute" microenvironment shifted the tumor chronic microenvironment from Th2 immunosuppressive and pro-tumorigenic to Th1 immunostimulatory and tumoricidal state. Moreover, the magnitude of "acute" and "danger" signals play a key

  19. Mucosal Administration of CpG Oligodeoxynucleotide Elicits Strong CC and CXC Chemokine Responses in the Vagina and Serves as a Potent Th1-Tilting Adjuvant for Recombinant gD2 Protein Vaccination against Genital Herpes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengvall, Sara; Lundqvist, Annika; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Cohen, Gary H.; Harandi, Ali M.

    2006-01-01

    Although sexually transmitted pathogens are capable of inducing pathogen-specific immune responses, vaginal administration of nonreplicating antigens elicits only weak, nondisseminating immune responses. The present study was undertaken to examine the potential of CpG-containing oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN) for induction of chemokine responses in the genital tract mucosa and also as a vaginal adjuvant in combination with glycoprotein D of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) for induction of antigen-specific immune responses. We found that a single intravaginal administration of CpG ODN in mice stimulates a rapid and potent response of CC chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein 1α (MIP-1α), MIP-1β, and RANTES as well as of CXC chemokines MIP-2 and IP-10 in the vagina and/or the genital lymph nodes. Importantly, intravaginal vaccination with recombinant gD2 in combination with CpG ODN gave rise to a strong antigen-specific Th1-like immune response in the genital lymph nodes as well as the spleens of the vaccinated mice. Further, such an immunization scheme conferred both systemic and mucosal immunoglobulin G antibody responses as well as protection against an otherwise lethal vaginal challenge with HSV-2. These results illustrate the potential of CpG ODN for induction of potent chemokine responses in the genital tract and also as a vaginal adjuvant for generation of Th1-type mucosal and systemic immune responses towards a nonreplicating antigen derived from a sexually transmitted pathogen. These data have implications for the development of a mucosal vaccine against genital herpes and possibly other sexually transmitted diseases. PMID:16699008

  20. Enhancement of Th1-biased protective immunity against avian influenza H9N2 virus via oral co-administration of attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chicken interferon-α and interleukin-18 along with an inactivated vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Md

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Control of currently circulating re-assorted low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI H9N2 is a major concern for both animal and human health. Thus, an improved LPAI H9N2 vaccination strategy is needed to induce complete immunity in chickens against LPAI H9N2 virus strains. Cytokines play a crucial role in mounting both the type and extent of an immune response generated following infection with a pathogen or after vaccination. To improve the efficacy of inactivated LPAI H9N2 vaccine, attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium was used for oral co-administration of chicken interferon-α (chIFN-α and chicken interleukin-18 (chIL-18 as natural immunomodulators. Results Oral co-administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIFN-α and chIL-18, prior to vaccination with inactivated AI H9N2 vaccine, modulated the immune response of chickens against the vaccine antigen through enhanced humoral and Th1-biased cell-mediated immunity, compared to chickens that received single administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing either chIFN-α or chIL-18. To further test the protective efficacy of this improved vaccination regimen, immunized chickens were intra-tracheally challenged with a high dose of LPAI H9N2 virus. Combined administration of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium expressing chIFN-α and chIL-18 showed markedly enhanced protection compared to single administration of the construct, as determined by mortality, clinical severity, and feed and water intake. This enhancement of protective immunity was further confirmed by reduced rectal shedding and replication of AIV H9N2 in different tissues of challenged chickens. Conclusions Our results indicate the value of combined administration of chIFN-α and chIL-18 using a Salmonella vaccine strain to generate an effective immunization strategy in chickens against LPAI H9N2.

  1. Extracellular vesicles, especially derived from Gram-negative bacteria, in indoor dust induce neutrophilic pulmonary inflammation associated with both Th1 and Th17 cell responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y-S; Choi, E-J; Lee, W-H; Choi, S-J; Roh, T-Y; Park, J; Jee, Y-K; Zhu, Z; Koh, Y-Y; Gho, Y S; Kim, Y-K

    2013-04-01

    Many bacterial components in indoor dust can evoke inflammatory pulmonary diseases. Bacteria secrete nanometre-sized vesicles into the extracellular milieu, but it remains to be determined whether bacteria-derived extracellular vesicles in indoor dust are pathophysiologically related to inflammatory pulmonary diseases. To evaluate whether extracellular vesicles (EV) in indoor air are related to the pathogenesis of pulmonary inflammation and/or asthma. Indoor dust was collected from a bed mattress in an apartment. EV were prepared by sequential ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation. Innate and adaptive immune responses were evaluated after airway exposure of EV. Repeated intranasal application of indoor-dust-induced neutrophilic pulmonary inflammation accompanied by lung infiltration of both Th1 and Th17 cells. EV 50-200 nm in diameter were present (102.5 μg protein concentration/g dust) in indoor dust. These vesicles were internalized by airway epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages, and this process was blocked by treatment of polymyxin B (an antagonist of lipopolysaccharide, an outer-membrane component of Gram-negative bacteria). Intranasal application of 0.1 or 1 μg of these vesicles for 4 weeks elicited neutrophilic pulmonary inflammation. This phenotype was accompanied by lung infiltration of both Th1 and Th17 cells, which were reversed by treatment of polymyxin B. Serum dust EV-reactive IgG1 levels were significantly higher in atopic children with asthma than in atopic healthy children and those with rhinitis or dermatitis. Indoor dust EV, especially derived from Gram-negative bacteria, is a possible causative agent of neutrophilic airway diseases. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. STAT1‐associated intratumoural TH1 immunity predicts chemotherapy resistance in high‐grade serous ovarian cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Katrina K; Le Page, Cécile; Ren, Runhan; Meunier, Liliane; Clément, Isabelle; Tyrishkin, Kathrin; Peterson, Nichole; Kendall‐Dupont, Jennifer; Childs, Timothy; Francis, Julie‐Ann; Graham, Charles H; Craig, Andrew W; Squire, Jeremy A; Mes‐Masson, Anne‐Marie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract High‐grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSC) accounts for 70% of all epithelial ovarian cancers but clinical management is challenged by a lack of accurate prognostic and predictive biomarkers of chemotherapy response. This study evaluated the role of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 1 (STAT1) as an independent prognostic and predictive biomarker and its correlation with intratumoural CD8+ T cells in a second independent biomarker validation study. Tumour STAT1 expression and intratumoural CD8+ T cell infiltration were assessed by immunohistochemistry as a multicentre validation study conducted on 734 chemotherapy‐naïve HGSCs. NanoString‐based profiling was performed to correlate expression of STAT1 target genes CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 with CD8A transcript expression in 143 primary tumours. Multiplexed cytokine analysis of pre‐treatment plasma from resistant and sensitive patients was performed to assess systemic levels of STAT1‐induced cytokines. STAT1 was validated as a prognostic and predictive biomarker in both univariate and multivariate models and its expression correlated significantly with intra‐epithelial CD8+ T cell infiltration in HGSC. STAT1 levels increased the prognostic and predictive value of intratumoural CD8+ T cells, confirming their synergistic role as biomarkers in HGSC. In addition, expression of STAT1 target genes (CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11) correlated significantly with levels of, and CD8A transcripts from intratumoural CD8+ T cells within the resistant and sensitive tumours. Our findings provide compelling evidence that high levels of STAT1, STAT1‐induced chemokines and CD8+ T cells correlate with improved chemotherapy response in HGSC. These results identify STAT1 and its target genes as novel biomarkers of chemosensitivity in HGSC. These findings provide new translational opportunities for patient stratification for immunotherapies based on emerging biomarkers of inflammation in HGSC. An improved

  3. Host immune responses to Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai, Miwa; Pradipta, Ariel; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2018-02-02

    Toxoplasma gondii can infect homoeothermic animals including humans and cause lethal toxoplasmosis in immunocompromised individuals. When hosts are infected with T. gondii, the cells induce immune responses against T. gondii. The pathogen infection is recognized by immune sensors that directly detect T. gondii structural components, leading to production of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Antigen-presenting cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells strongly activate T cells and induce development of Th1 cells and antigen-specific killer CD8 T cells. These T cells and Group 1 innate lymphoid cells are main producers of IFN-γ, which robustly stimulates cell-autonomous immunity in cells infected with T. gondii. IFN-γ-inducible effectors such as IFN-inducible GTPases, inducible nitric oxide synthase and indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase differentially play important roles in suppression of T. gondii growth and its direct killing in anti-T. gondii cell-autonomous immune responses. In this review, we will describe our current knowledge of innate, adaptive and IFN-γ-mediated cell-autonomous immunity against T. gondii infection. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2018. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Toll-like receptor 9 is required for full host resistance to Mycobacterium avium infection but plays no role in induction of Th1 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Natália B; Oliveira, Fernanda S; Durães, Fernanda V; de Almeida, Leonardo A; Flórido, Manuela; Prata, Luana O; Caliari, Marcelo V; Appelberg, Rui; Oliveira, Sérgio C

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the role of Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in innate immunity to Mycobacterium avium, TLR9, TLR2, and MyD88 knockout (KO) mice were infected with this bacterium. Bacterial burdens were higher in the spleens, livers, and lungs of infected TLR9 KO mice than in those of C57BL/6 mice, indicating that TLR9 is required for efficient control of M. avium infection. However, TLR9 KO or TLR2 KO spleen cells displayed normal M. avium-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) responses. This finding was confirmed by determining the number of splenic CD4(+) T cells producing IFN-γ by flow cytometry. Furthermore, TLR2 and MyD88, but not TLR9, played a major role in interleukin-12 and TNF-α production by M. avium-infected macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). We also found that major histocompatibility complex class II molecule expression on DCs is regulated by TLR2 and MyD88 signaling but not by TLR9. Finally, lack of TLR9, TLR2, or MyD88 reduced the numbers of macrophages, epithelioid cells, and lymphocytes in M. avium-induced granulomas but only MyD88 deficiency affected the number of liver granulomas. In summary, our data demonstrated that the involvement of TLR9 in the control of M. avium infection is not related to the induction of Th1 responses.

  5. Increased Th1/Th17 Responses Contribute to Low-Grade Inflammation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiajia; Wang, Wenzhan; Li, Qiuming

    2017-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the primary cause of senior blindness in developed countries. Mechanisms underlying initiation and development of AMD remained known. We examined the CD4+ T cell compartments and their functions in AMD patients. AMD patients presented significantly higher frequencies of interferon (IFN)-γ-expressing and interleukin (IL)-17-expressing CD4+ T cells than healthy controls. The levels of IFN-γ and IL-17 expression by CD4+ T cells were significantly higher in AMD patients. These IFN-γ-expressing Th1 cells and IL-17-expressing Th17 cells could be selectively enriched by surface CCR3+ and CCR4+CCR6+ expression, respectively. Th1 and Th17 cells from AMD patients promoted the differentiation of monocytes toward M1 macrophages, which were previously associated with retinal damage. Th1 and Th17 cells also increased the level of MHC class I expression in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE)-1 cells, while Th1 cells increased the frequency of MHC class II-expressing RPE-1 cells. These proinflammatory effects were partly, but not entirely, induced by the secretion of IFN-γ and IL-17. This study demonstrated an enrichment of Th1 cells and Th17 cells in AMD patients. These Th1 and Th17 cells possessed proinflammatory roles in an IFN-γ- and IL-17-dependent fashion, and could potentially serve as therapeutic targets. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Increased Th1/Th17 Responses Contribute to Low-Grade Inflammation in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajia Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is the primary cause of senior blindness in developed countries. Mechanisms underlying initiation and development of AMD remained known. Methods: We examined the CD4+ T cell compartments and their functions in AMD patients. Results: AMD patients presented significantly higher frequencies of interferon (IFN-γ-expressing and interleukin (IL-17-expressing CD4+ T cells than healthy controls. The levels of IFN-γ and IL-17 expression by CD4+ T cells were significantly higher in AMD patients. These IFN-γ-expressing Th1 cells and IL-17-expressing Th17 cells could be selectively enriched by surface CCR3+ and CCR4+CCR6+ expression, respectively. Th1 and Th17 cells from AMD patients promoted the differentiation of monocytes toward M1 macrophages, which were previously associated with retinal damage. Th1 and Th17 cells also increased the level of MHC class I expression in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE-1 cells, while Th1 cells increased the frequency of MHC class II-expressing RPE-1 cells. These proinflammatory effects were partly, but not entirely, induced by the secretion of IFN-γ and IL-17. Conclusions: This study demonstrated an enrichment of Th1 cells and Th17 cells in AMD patients. These Th1 and Th17 cells possessed proinflammatory roles in an IFN-γ- and IL-17-dependent fashion, and could potentially serve as therapeutic targets.

  7. Intratumoral delivery of IL-18 naked DNA induces T-cell activation and Th1 response in a mouse hepatic cancer model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joh Jae-Won

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The novel cytokine, interleukin (IL-18, is a strong interferon-γ inducer and costimulatory factor in Th1 cell activation. IL-18 triggers IFN-γ production and enhances cytolytic activity in both T and NK cells. However, the exact mechanism of antitumor action of IL-18 remains to be clarified. To determine the effects of IL-18 plasmid DNA on hepatic cancer in mice, CT26 murine colon adenocarcinoma cells were established in mouse liver. Methods Plasmid vectors encoding IL-18 were transferred directly into the liver 7 days after tumor injection to restrict IL-18 expression within the tumor site. The IL-18 protein level was increased in the liver 4 days after plasmid injection, and a marked antitumoral effect was observed at day 7. Antitumor effects were evaluated by measuring tumor regression, immune cell population, and IFN-γ production. Results The IL-18 plasmid controlled the growth of hepatic tumors and proliferation of splenic immune cells. Moreover, treatment of CT26 tumors with the IL-18 plasmid significantly enhanced the population of the effector T and NK cells in the spleen and peripheral blood. In spleen, the population of CD4+CD62Low cells was augmented in response to IL-18 on day 7. These results are consistent with the increase in CD4+ T cells secreting IFN-γ, but not CD8+ T cells. The marked reduction of tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice was associated with the maintenance of IFN-γ production in spleen in response to IL-18. These antitumoral effects were maintained until 14 days after plasmid injection. Conclusion Our results suggest that direct plasmid DNA transfer of IL-18 with no accompanying reagents to augment transfection efficiency may be useful in tumor immunotherapy.

  8. Caribbean and La Réunion Chikungunya Virus Isolates Differ in Their Capacity To Induce Proinflammatory Th1 and NK Cell Responses and Acute Joint Pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Teck-Hui; Her, Zhisheng; Tan, Jeslin J L; Lum, Fok-Moon; Lee, Wendy W L; Chan, Yi-Hao; Ong, Ruo-Yan; Kam, Yiu-Wing; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Gallian, Pierre; Rénia, Laurent; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Ng, Lisa F P

    2015-08-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne arthralgic alphavirus that has garnered international attention as an important emerging pathogen since 2005. More recently, it invaded the Caribbean islands and the Western Hemisphere. Intriguingly, the current CHIKV outbreak in the Caribbean is caused by the Asian CHIKV genotype, which differs from the La Réunion LR2006 OPY1 isolate belonging to the Indian Ocean lineage. Here, we adopted a systematic and comparative approach against LR2006 OPY1 to characterize the pathogenicity of the Caribbean CNR20235 isolate and consequential host immune responses in mice. Ex vivo infection using primary mouse tail fibroblasts revealed a weaker replication efficiency by CNR20235 isolate. In the CHIKV mouse model, CNR20235 infection induced an enervated joint pathology characterized by moderate edema and swelling, independent of mononuclear cell infiltration. Based on systemic cytokine analysis, localized immunophenotyping, and gene expression profiles in the popliteal lymph node and inflamed joints, two pathogenic phases were defined for CHIKV infection: early acute (2 to 3 days postinfection [dpi]) and late acute (6 to 8 dpi). Reduced joint pathology during early acute phase of CNR20235 infection was associated with a weaker proinflammatory Th1 response and natural killer (NK) cell activity. The pathological role of NK cells was further demonstrated as depletion of NK cells reduced joint pathology in LR2006 OPY1. Taken together, this study provides evidence that the Caribbean CNR20235 isolate has an enfeebled replication and induces a less pathogenic response in the mammalian host. The introduction of CHIKV in the Americas has heightened the risk of large-scale outbreaks due to the close proximity between the United States and the Caribbean. The immunopathogenicity of the circulating Caribbean CHIKV isolate was explored, where it was demonstrated to exhibit reduced infectivity resulting in a weakened joint pathology. Analysis of

  9. Impacts of cigarette smoking on immune responsiveness: Up and down or upside down?

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Feifei; Liang, Chun-Ling; Liu, Huazhen; Zeng, Yu-Qun; Hou, Shaozhen; Huang, Song; Lai, Xiaoping; Dai, Zhenhua

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with numerous diseases and poses a serious challenge to the current healthcare system worldwide. Smoking impacts both innate and adaptive immunity and plays dual roles in regulating immunity by either exacerbation of pathogenic immune responses or attenuation of defensive immunity. Adaptive immune cells affected by smoking mainly include T helper cells (Th1/Th2/Th17), CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells and memory T/B lymphocytes while innate im...

  10. Immunomodulator-based enhancement of anti smallpox immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmarie Martínez

    Full Text Available The current live vaccinia virus vaccine used in the prevention of smallpox is contraindicated for millions of immune-compromised individuals. Although vaccination with the current smallpox vaccine produces protective immunity, it might result in mild to serious health complications for some vaccinees. Thus, there is a critical need for the production of a safe virus-free vaccine against smallpox that is available to everyone. For that reason, we investigated the impact of imiquimod and resiquimod (Toll-like receptors agonists, and the codon-usage optimization of the vaccinia virus A27L gene in the enhancement of the immune response, with intent of producing a safe, virus-free DNA vaccine coding for the A27 vaccinia virus protein.We analyzed the cellular-immune response by measuring the IFN-γ production of splenocytes by ELISPOT, the humoral-immune responses measuring total IgG and IgG2a/IgG1 ratios by ELISA, and the TH1 and TH2 cytokine profiles by ELISA, in mice immunized with our vaccine formulation.The proposed vaccine formulation enhanced the A27L vaccine-mediated production of IFN-γ on mouse spleens, and increased the humoral immunity with a TH1-biased response. Also, our vaccine induced a TH1 cytokine milieu, which is important against viral infections.These results support the efforts to find a new mechanism to enhance an immune response against smallpox, through the implementation of a safe, virus-free DNA vaccination platform.

  11. Intestinal Irradiation and Fibrosis in a Th1-Deficient Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linard, Christine, E-mail: christine.linard@irsn.fr [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Billiard, Fabienne; Benderitter, Marc [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Changes in the Th1/Th2 immune balance may play a role in increasing the incidence of radiation-induced toxicity. This study evaluates the consequences of Th1 deficiency on intestinal response (fibrosis and T cell trafficking) to abdominal irradiation and examines in mucosa and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) the differential involvement of the two Th1 pathways, T-bet/STAT1 and IL-12/STAT4, in controlling this balance in mice. Methods and Materials: Using T-bet-deficient mice (T-bet{sup -/-}), we evaluated the mRNA and protein expression of the Th1 pathways (IFN-{gamma}, T-bet/STAT1, and IL-12/STAT4) and the CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} populations in ileal mucosa and MLN during the first 3 months after 10 Gy abdominal irradiation. Results: The T-bet-deficient mice showed an increased fibrotic response to radiation, characterized by higher TGF-{beta}1, col3a1 expression, and collagen deposition in mucosa compared with wild-type mice. This response was associated with drastically lower expression of IFN-{gamma}, the hallmark Th1 cytokine. Analysis of the Th1 expression pathways, T-bet/STAT1 and IL-12/STAT4, showed their equal involvement in the failure of Th1 polarization. A minimal IFN-{gamma} level depended on the IL-23-p19/STAT4 level. In addition, the radiation-induced deficiency in the priming of Th1 by IFN-{gamma} was related to the defective homing capacity of CD8{sup +} cells in the mucosa. Conclusion: Irradiation induces Th2 polarization, and the Th2 immune response may play a role in potentiating irradiation-induced intestinal collagen deposition.

  12. Effects of alcohol consumption on the allergen-specific immune response in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan; Roursgaard, Martin; Hersoug, Lars-Georg

    2008-01-01

    There is evidence that chronic alcohol consumption impairs the T-helper 1 (Th1) lymphocyte-regulated cell-mediated immune response possibly favoring a Th2 deviation of the immune response. Moreover, a few epidemiological studies have linked alcohol consumption to allergen-specific IgE sensitization....

  13. Remune. Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Derhsing; Jones, Taff

    2002-03-01

    The Immune Response Corp (IRC) is developing Remune, a potential HIV therapeutic vaccine. Remune is based on the Salk Immunogen, which is derived from an HIV isolate which has been inactivated by chemical depletion of glycoprotein 120 (gp120). Preliminary data suggested that Remune, in combination with antiviral drug therapy, results in undetectable levels of HIV. Phase III trials commenced in May 1997 and it was initially expected that registration filings would be made in 1999. However, following interim analysis of the 2500-patient, multicenter, double-blind, pivotal phase III study (study 806) in May 1999, an independent panel recommended concluding the clinical endpoint trial and IRC and licensee, Agouron, decided to pursue alternative regulatory strategies, including initiating two additional phase III surrogate marker trials. Despite this, Agouron gave IRC notice of termination of its continued development in July 2001. In August 2001, IRC informed Agouron that, due to the total number of endpoints to date falling short of that previously assumed by Agouron, it did not intend to continue Agouron's Study 202 of Remune. In July 2001, licensee Trinity Medical Group filed an NDA with the governing health authorities in Thailand for Remune. The Thai FDA certified Immune Response's Remune manufacturing facility as being in compliance with GMP standards, following an on site inspection by Thai officials in November 2001 that was performed as a requirement of Trinity's Thai NDA. As a result of this certification, Trinity expected that a "timely determination" could be made by the Thai FDA. Rhĵne-Poulenc Rorer discontinued its part in the development of Remune, with all manufacturing, marketing and distribution rights reverting to IRC. After Agouron returned rights to Remune in July 2001, IRC heldfull rights in the US, Europe and Japan, while collaborating with its partners Trinity Medical Group and Roemmers Laboratory in the Southeast Asian and Latin American

  14. Elongation factor-2, a Th1 stimulatory protein of Leishmania donovani, generates strong IFN-γ and IL-12 response in cured Leishmania-infected patients/hamsters and protects hamsters against Leishmania challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushawaha, Pramod K; Gupta, Reema; Sundar, Shyam; Sahasrabuddhe, Amogh A; Dube, Anuradha

    2011-12-15

    In visceral leishmaniasis, Th1 types of immune responses correlate with recovery from and resistance to disease, and resolution of infection results in lifelong immunity against the disease. Leishmanial Ags that elicit proliferative and cytokine responses in PBMCs from cured/exposed/Leishmania patients have been characterized through proteomic approaches, and elongation factor-2 is identified as one of the potent immunostimulatory proteins. In this study, we report the cloning and expression of Leishmania donovani elongation factor-2 protein (LelF-2) and its immunogenicity in PBMCs of cured/exposed Leishmania-infected patients and hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). Leishmania-infected cured/exposed patients and hamsters exhibited significantly higher proliferative responses to recombinant Lelf-2 (rLelF-2) than those with L. donovani-infected hosts. The soluble L. donovani Ag stimulated PBMCs of cured/exposed and Leishmania patients to produce a mixed Thl/Th2-type cytokine profile, whereas rLelF-2 stimulated the production of IFN-γ, IL-12, and TNF-α but not IL-4 or IL-10. Further, rLelF-2 downregulated LPS-induced IL-10 as well as soluble L. donovani Ag-induced IL-4 production by Leishmania patient PBMCs. The immunogenicity of rLelF-2 was also checked in hamsters in which rLelF-2 generates strong IL-12- and IFN-γ-mediated Th1 immune response. This was further supported by a remarkable increase in IgG2 Ab level. We further demonstrated that rLelF-2 was able to provide considerable protection (∼65%) to hamsters against L. donovani challenge. The efficacy was supported by the increased inducible NO synthase mRNA transcript and Th1-type cytokines IFN-γ, IL-12, and TNF-α and downregulation of IL-4, IL-10, and TGF-β. Hence, it is inferred that rLelF-2 elicits a Th1 type of immune response exclusively and confers considerable protection against experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

  15. The role of CD154-CD40 versus CD28-B7 costimulatory pathways in regulating allogeneic Th1 and Th2 responses in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kishimoto, K; Dong, V M; Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh

    2000-01-01

    We used signal transducer and activator of transcription 4 (STAT4) and STAT6 gene knockout (-/-) mice as recipients of fully mismatched cardiac allografts to study the role of T-cell costimulatory pathways in regulating allogeneic T-helper 1 (Th1) versus Th2 responses in vivo. STAT4(-/-) mice hav...

  16. Distinct Roles of Th17 and Th1 Cells in Inflammatory Responses Associated with the Presentation of Paucibacillary Leprosy and Leprosy Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M B; de Oliveira, D T; Cazzaniga, R A; Varjão, C S; Dos Santos, P L; Santos, M L B; Correia, C B; Faria, D R; Simon, M do V; Silva, J S; Dutra, W O; Reed, S G; Duthie, M S; de Almeida, R P; de Jesus, A R

    2017-07-01

    It is well established that helper T cell responses influence resistance or susceptibility to Mycobacterium leprae infection, but the role of more recently described helper T cell subsets in determining severity is less clear. To investigate the involvement of Th17 cells in the pathogenesis of leprosy, we determined the immune profile with variant presentations of leprosy. Firstly, IL-17A, IFN-γ and IL-10 were evaluated in conjunction with CD4 + T cell staining by confocal microscopy of lesion biopsies from tuberculoid (TT) and lepromatous leprosy (LL) patients. Secondly, inflammatory cytokines were measured by multiplex assay of serum samples from Multibacillary (MB, n = 28) and Paucibacillary (PB, n = 23) patients and household contacts (HHC, n = 23). Patients with leprosy were also evaluated for leprosy reaction occurrence: LR+ (n = 8) and LR- (n = 20). Finally, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were analysed by flow cytometry used to determine the phenotype of cytokine-producing cells. Lesions from TT patients were found to have more CD4 + IL-17A + cells than those from LL patients. Higher concentrations of IL-17A and IL-1β were observed in serum from PB than MB patients. The highest serum IFN-γ concentrations were, however, detected in sera from MB patients that developed leprosy reactions (MB LR + ). Together, these results indicate that Th1 cells were associated with both the PB presentation and also with leprosy reactions. In contrast, Th17 cells were associated with an effective inflammatory response that is present in the PB forms but were not predictive of leprosy reactions in MB patients. © 2017 The Foundation for the Scandinavian Journal of Immunology.

  17. Beyond the basics: immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krost, William S; Mistovich, Joseph J; Limmer, Daniel D

    2008-06-01

    The human immune response is arguably among the most difficult processes for an EMS provider to understand. The immune system provides front-line defense to any potentially inflammatory process, with the goal of destroying or inactivating pathogens, abnormal cells and foreign substances. The system includes the thymus, spleen, lymph nodes, lymphoid tissues (as in the GI tract and bone marrow), macrophages, lymphocytes, including B and T cells, and antibodies, among others. On the surface, the skin and stomach acid serve as physical barriers to invasion. This article will primarily concentrate on the immune response to allergies, but will discuss some other immune disorders to illustrate the role of the immune system in common disease processes.

  18. What about Th1/Th2 in cutaneous leishmaniasis vaccine discovery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campos-Neto A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The T helper cell type 1 (Th1 response is essential to resist leishmaniasis, whereas the Th2 response favors the disease. However, many leishmanial antigens, which stimulate a Th1 immune response during the disease or even after the disease is cured, have been shown to have no protective action. Paradoxically, antigens associated with an early Th2 response have been found to be highly protective if the Th1 response to them is generated before infection. Therefore, finding disease-associated Th2 antigens and inducing a Th1 immune response to them using defined vaccination protocols is an interesting unorthodox alternative approach to the discovery of a leishmania vaccine.

  19. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) evades the human adaptive immune system by skewing the Th1/Th2 cytokine balance toward increased levels of Th2 cytokines and IgE, markers of allergy--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Yechiel

    2006-10-01

    discussed. The aim of the present review is to base RSV pathogenicity on the numerous very good analyses of the virus genes and to suggest a therapeutic approach to treatment that is directed at preventing the inhibitory effects of Th2 cytokines on the adaptive immune system of the patients, instead of inhibiting RSV replication by antivirals. The review of the molecular research on the role of the viral fusion (F) and attachment (G) glycoproteins of RSV provided information on their role in the virus infection: early in infection the F glycoprotein induces Th1 cells to release the Th1 cytokines IL-2, IL-12 and IFN-gamma to activate precursors CTLs (pCTLs) to become anti-RSV CTLs. The G and sG glycoproteins attach to FKNR1(+) ciliary respiratory epithelial cells as well as directly to eosinophils to the lungs. The sG T cell antigen can also induce the release of large amounts of Th2 cytokines from CD4(+) T cells and from FCepsilonRI(+) mast cells, basophils and monocytes. By comparison to HIV-1 gp120 it is possible to show that in the G and sG proteins the T cell antigen resembles the CD4(+) T cell superantigen (=allergen) domain of HIV-1 gp120 which aggregates with IgE/FCepsilonRI(+) hematopoietic cells. The increased IL-4 level in the serum inhibits the adaptive immune response: IL-4Ralpha(+) Th1 cells stop Th1 cytokine synthesis and IL-4Ralpha(+) B cells stop the synthesis of antiviral IgG and IgA and switch to IgE synthesis. In addition, the hematopoietic cells release histamine and prostaglandin which induce wheezing. The gradual increase of sG molecules creates a gradient of fractalkine (FKN) which directs IL-5-activated eosinophils to the lungs of the patient.

  20. New concepts in immunity to Neisseria gonorrhoeae: innate responses and suppression of adaptive immunity favor the pathogen, not the host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingru eLiu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that gonorrhea can be acquired repeatedly with no apparent development of protective immunity arising from previous episodes of infection. Symptomatic infection is characterized by a purulent exudate, but the host response mechanisms are poorly understood. While the remarkable antigenic variability displayed by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and its capacity to inhibit complement activation allow it to evade destruction by the host’s immune defenses, we propose that it also has the capacity to avoid inducing specific immune responses. In a mouse model of vaginal gonococcal infection, N. gonorrhoeae elicits Th17-driven inflammatory- immune responses, which recruit innate defense mechanisms including an influx of neutrophils. Concomitantly, N. gonorrhoeae suppresses Th1- and Th2-dependent adaptive immunity, including specific antibody responses, through a mechanism involving TGF-β and regulatory T cells. Blockade of TGF-β alleviates the suppression of specific anti-gonococcal responses and allows Th1 and Th2 responses to emerge with the generation of immune memory and protective immunity. Genital tract tissues are naturally rich in TGF-β, which fosters an immunosuppressive environment that is important in reproduction. In exploiting this niche, N. gonorrhoeae exemplifies a well-adapted pathogen that proactively elicits from its host innate responses that it can survive and concomitantly suppresses adaptive immunity. Comprehension of these mechanisms of gonococcal pathogenesis should allow the development of novel approaches to therapy and facilitate the development of an effective vaccine.

  1. Memory Th1 Cells Are Protective in Invasive Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brown, Aisling F

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms of protective immunity to Staphylococcus aureus infection in humans remain elusive. While the importance of cellular immunity has been shown in mice, T cell responses in humans have not been characterised. Using a murine model of recurrent S. aureus peritonitis, we demonstrated that prior exposure to S. aureus enhanced IFNγ responses upon subsequent infection, while adoptive transfer of S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells was protective in naïve mice. Translating these findings, we found that S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells were also significantly expanded during human S. aureus bloodstream infection (BSI). These Th1 cells were CD45RO+, indicative of a memory phenotype. Thus, exposure to S. aureus induces memory Th1 cells in mice and humans, identifying Th1 cells as potential S. aureus vaccine targets. Consequently, we developed a model vaccine comprising staphylococcal clumping factor A, which we demonstrate to be an effective human T cell antigen, combined with the Th1-driving adjuvant CpG. This novel Th1-inducing vaccine conferred significant protection during S. aureus infection in mice. This study notably advances our understanding of S. aureus cellular immunity, and demonstrates for the first time that a correlate of S. aureus protective immunity identified in mice may be relevant in humans.

  2. Memory Th1 Cells Are Protective in Invasive Staphylococcus aureus Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisling F Brown

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of protective immunity to Staphylococcus aureus infection in humans remain elusive. While the importance of cellular immunity has been shown in mice, T cell responses in humans have not been characterised. Using a murine model of recurrent S. aureus peritonitis, we demonstrated that prior exposure to S. aureus enhanced IFNγ responses upon subsequent infection, while adoptive transfer of S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells was protective in naïve mice. Translating these findings, we found that S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells were also significantly expanded during human S. aureus bloodstream infection (BSI. These Th1 cells were CD45RO+, indicative of a memory phenotype. Thus, exposure to S. aureus induces memory Th1 cells in mice and humans, identifying Th1 cells as potential S. aureus vaccine targets. Consequently, we developed a model vaccine comprising staphylococcal clumping factor A, which we demonstrate to be an effective human T cell antigen, combined with the Th1-driving adjuvant CpG. This novel Th1-inducing vaccine conferred significant protection during S. aureus infection in mice. This study notably advances our understanding of S. aureus cellular immunity, and demonstrates for the first time that a correlate of S. aureus protective immunity identified in mice may be relevant in humans.

  3. Memory Th1 Cells Are Protective in Invasive Staphylococcus aureus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Stephen J.; Leech, John M.; O’Keeffe, Kate M.; Mac Aogáin, Micheál; O’Halloran, Dara P.; Lacey, Keenan A.; Tavakol, Mehri; Hearnden, Claire H.; Fitzgerald-Hughes, Deirdre; Humphreys, Hilary; Fennell, Jérôme P.; van Wamel, Willem J.; Foster, Timothy J.; Geoghegan, Joan A.; Lavelle, Ed C.; Rogers, Thomas R.; McLoughlin, Rachel M.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms of protective immunity to Staphylococcus aureus infection in humans remain elusive. While the importance of cellular immunity has been shown in mice, T cell responses in humans have not been characterised. Using a murine model of recurrent S. aureus peritonitis, we demonstrated that prior exposure to S. aureus enhanced IFNγ responses upon subsequent infection, while adoptive transfer of S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells was protective in naïve mice. Translating these findings, we found that S. aureus antigen-specific Th1 cells were also significantly expanded during human S. aureus bloodstream infection (BSI). These Th1 cells were CD45RO+, indicative of a memory phenotype. Thus, exposure to S. aureus induces memory Th1 cells in mice and humans, identifying Th1 cells as potential S. aureus vaccine targets. Consequently, we developed a model vaccine comprising staphylococcal clumping factor A, which we demonstrate to be an effective human T cell antigen, combined with the Th1-driving adjuvant CpG. This novel Th1-inducing vaccine conferred significant protection during S. aureus infection in mice. This study notably advances our understanding of S. aureus cellular immunity, and demonstrates for the first time that a correlate of S. aureus protective immunity identified in mice may be relevant in humans. PMID:26539822

  4. Poly(I:C) adjuvant strongly enhances parasite-inhibitory antibodies and Th1 response against Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein-1 (42-kDa fragment) in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrizi, Akram Abouie; Rezvani, Niloufar; Zakeri, Sedigheh; Gholami, Atefeh; Babaeekhou, Laleh

    Malaria vaccine development has been confronted with various challenges such as poor immunogenicity of malaria vaccine candidate antigens, which is considered as the main challenge. However, this problem can be managed using appropriate formulations of antigens and adjuvants. Poly(I:C) is a potent Th1 inducer and a human compatible adjuvant capable of stimulating both B- and T-cell immunity. Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 142 (PfMSP-142) is a promising vaccine candidate for blood stage of malaria that has faced several difficulties in clinical trials, mainly due to improper adjuvants. Therefore, in the current study, poly(I:C), as a potent Th1 inducer adjuvant, was evaluated to improve the immunogenicity of recombinant PfMSP-142, when compared to CFA/IFA, as reference adjuvant. Poly(I:C) produced high level and titers of anti-PfMSP-142 IgG antibodies in which was comparable to CFA/IFA adjuvant. In addition, PfMSP-142 formulated with poly(I:C) elicited a higher ratio of IFN-γ/IL-4 (23.9) and IgG2a/IgG1 (3.77) with more persistent, higher avidity, and titer of IgG2a relative to CFA/IFA, indicating a potent Th1 immune response. Poly(I:C) could also help to induce anti-PfMSP-142 antibodies with higher growth-inhibitory activity than CFA/IFA. Altogether, the results of the current study demonstrated that poly(I:C) is a potent adjuvant that can be appropriate for being used in PfMSP-142-based vaccine formulations.

  5. Th1 versus Th2 T cell polarization by whole-cell and acellular childhood pertussis vaccines persists upon re-immunization in adolescence and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Tara; Dillon, Myles B C; da Silva Antunes, Ricardo; Paul, Sinu; Peters, Bjoern; Crotty, Shane; Lindestam Arlehamn, Cecilia S; Sette, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The recent increase in cases of whooping cough among teenagers in the US suggests that the acellular Bordetella pertussis vaccine (aP) that became standard in the mid 1990s might be relatively less effective than the whole-bacteria formulation (wP) previously used since the 1950s. To understand this effect, we compared antibody and T cell responses to a booster immunization in subjects who received either the wP or aP vaccine as their initial priming dose in childhood. Antibody responses in wP- and aP-primed donors were similar. Magnitude of T cell responses was higher in aP-primed individuals. Epitope mapping revealed the T cell immunodominance patterns were similar for both vaccines. Further comparison of the ratios of IFNγ and IL-5 revealed that IFNγ strongly dominates the T cell response in wP-primed donors, while IL-5 is dominant in aP primed individuals. Surprisingly, this differential pattern is maintained after booster vaccination, at times from eighteen years to several decades after the original aP/wP priming. These findings suggest that childhood aP versus wP vaccination induces functionally different T cell responses to pertussis that become fixed and are unchanged even upon boosting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Virus-like nanostructures for tuning immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammadov, Rashad; Cinar, Goksu; Gunduz, Nuray; Goktas, Melis; Kayhan, Handan; Tohumeken, Sehmus; Topal, Ahmet E.; Orujalipoor, Ilghar; Delibasi, Tuncay; Dana, Aykutlu; Ide, Semra; Tekinay, Ayse B.; Guler, Mustafa O.

    2015-11-01

    Synthetic vaccines utilize viral signatures to trigger immune responses. Although the immune responses raised against the biochemical signatures of viruses are well characterized, the mechanism of how they affect immune response in the context of physical signatures is not well studied. In this work, we investigated the ability of zero- and one-dimensional self-assembled peptide nanostructures carrying unmethylated CpG motifs (signature of viral DNA) for tuning immune response. These nanostructures represent the two most common viral shapes, spheres and rods. The nanofibrous structures were found to direct immune response towards Th1 phenotype, which is responsible for acting against intracellular pathogens such as viruses, to a greater extent than nanospheres and CpG ODN alone. In addition, nanofibers exhibited enhanced uptake into dendritic cells compared to nanospheres or the ODN itself. The chemical stability of the ODN against nuclease-mediated degradation was also observed to be enhanced when complexed with the peptide nanostructures. In vivo studies showed that nanofibers promoted antigen-specific IgG production over 10-fold better than CpG ODN alone. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing the modulation of the nature of an immune response through the shape of the carrier system.

  7. Effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus paracasei L9 on mouse systemic immunity and the immune response in the intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yuanbo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A probiotic strain Lactobacillus paracasei L9,which was isolated from human intestine, was investigated for its immunomodulatory activity in vivo. Results showed that L9 improved systemic immunity by enhancing the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages, the proliferation ratio of splenocytes, the IgG level in the serum and the level of IgA in the mucosa. Further, L9induced theTh1-polarized immune response by elevating the IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio in the mucosa. This effect was confirmed by the enhanced IL-12-inducing activity of macrophages after in vitro stimulation of L9. Also detected was increased expression of TLR-2mRNA in the mucosa. We predict that L9 could enhance innate immunity by activating TLR-2 in the mucosa, and enhance acquired immunity by promoting Th1 polarization through induced production of IL-12 by macrophages.

  8. Antibiotic resistance free plasmid DNA expressing LACK protein leads towards a protective Th1 response against Leishmania infantum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, I; Alonso, A; Peris, A; Marcen, J M; Abengozar, M A; Alcolea, P J; Castillo, J A; Larraga, V

    2009-11-12

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis is a serious public health concern in the Mediterranean basin since dogs are the main Leishmania infantum reservoir. However, there is not a vaccination method in veterinary use in this area, and therefore the development of a vaccine against this parasite is essential for the possible control of the disease. Previous reports have shown the efficacy of heterologous prime-boost vaccination with the pCIneo plasmid and the poxvirus VV (both Western Reserve and MVA strains) expressing L. infantum LACK antigen against canine leishmaniasis. As pCIneo-LACK plasmid contains antibiotic resistance genes, its use as a profilactic method is not recommended. Hence, the antibiotic resistance gene free pORT-LACK plasmid is a more suitable tool for its use as a vaccine. Here we report the protective and immunostimulatory effect of the prime-boost pORT-LACK/MVA-LACK vaccination tested in a canine experimental model. Vaccination induced a reduction in clinical signs and in parasite burden in the liver, an induction of the Leishmania-specific T cell activation, as well as an increase of the expression of Th1 type cytokines in PBMC and target organs.

  9. Immune responses in space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, G.

    1998-01-01

    Space flight has been shown to have profound effects on immunological parameters of humans, monkeys and rodents. These studies have been carried out by a number of different laboratories. Among the parameters affected are leukocyte blastogenesis, natural killer cell activity, leukocyte subset distribution, cytokine production - including interferons and interleukins, and macrophage maturation and activity. These changes start to occur only after a few days space flight, and some changes continue throughout long-term space flight. Antibody responses have received only very limited study, and total antibody levels have been shown to be increased after long-term space flight. Several factors could be involved in inducing these changes. These factors could include microgravity, lack of load-bearing, stress, acceleration forces, and radiation. The mechanism(s) for space flight-induced changes in immune responses remain(s) to be established. Certainly, there can be direct effects of microgravity, or other factors, on cells that play a fundamental role in immune responses. However, it is now clear that there are interactions between the immune system and other physiological systems that could play a major role. For example, changes occurring in calcium use in the musculoskeletal system induced by microgravity or lack of use could have great impact on the immune system. Most of the changes in immune responses have been observed using samples taken immediately after return from space flight. However, there have been two recent studies that have used in-flight testing. Delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to common recall antigens of astronauts and cosmonauts have been shown to be decreased when tested during space flights. Additionally, natural killer cell and blastogenic activities are inhibited in samples taken from rats during space flight. Therefore, it is now clear that events occurring during space flight itself can affect immune responses. The biological

  10. Host immune responses that promote initial HIV spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendelsdorf, K; Dean, G; Hu, Shuhua; Nordone, S; Banks, H T

    2011-11-21

    The host inflammatory response to HIV invasion is a necessary component of the innate antiviral activity that vaccines and early interventions seek to exploit/enhance. However, the response is dependent on CD4+ T-helper cell 1 (Th1) recruitment and activation. It is this very recruitment of HIV-susceptible target cells that is associated with the initial viral proliferation. Hence, global enhancement of the inflammatory response by T-cells and dendritic cells will likely feed viral propagation. Mucosal entry sites contain inherent pathways, in the form of natural regulatory T-cells (nTreg), that globally dampen the inflammatory response. We created a model of this inflammatory response to virus as well as inherent nTreg-mediated regulation of Th1 recruitment and activation. With simulations using this model we sought to address the net effect of nTreg activation and its specific functions as well as identify mechanisms of the natural inflammatory response that are best targeted to inhibit viral spread without compromising initial antiviral activity. Simulation results provide multiple insights that are relevant to developing intervention strategies that seek to exploit natural immune processes: (i) induction of the regulatory response through nTreg activation expedites viral proliferation due to viral production by nTreg itself and not to reduced Natural Killer (NK) cell activity; (ii) at the same time, induction of the inflammation response through either DC activation or Th1 activation expedites viral proliferation; (iii) within the inflammatory pathway, the NK response is an effective controller of viral proliferation while DC-mediated stimulation of T-cells is a significant driver of viral proliferation; and (iv) nTreg-mediated DC deactivation plays a significant role in slowing viral proliferation by inhibiting T-cell stimulation, making this function an aide to the antiviral immune response. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Anti-CD20 therapy induces a memory Th1 response through the IFN-γ/IL-12 axis and prevents protumor regulatory T-cell expansion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligne, C; Metidji, A; Fridman, W-H; Teillaud, J-L

    2015-04-01

    The long-lasting clinical response by lymphoma patients to anti-CD20 therapy has been attributed to the induction of an anti-tumor adaptive immunity. We previously demonstrated that a CD4-dependent mechanism is responsible for the long-term protection of CD20(+) tumor-bearing mice by anti-CD20 treatment. Here, we compare tumor immunity in tumor-bearing animals that did or did not receive anti-CD20 treatment. Splenic CD4(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) expanded substantially in untreated mice that exhibited then a reduced survival, whereas Tregs depletion led to long-term survival of the animals, suggesting the establishment of a Treg-dependent immunosuppressive environment after tumor injection. Strikingly, anti-CD20 therapy reversed the initial expansion of Tregs, and was accompanied by a marked increase in the number of Th1 cells, with no detectable change in Th2 and Th17 cell numbers. Interleukin-12 serum level was also increased by the anti-CD20 treatment, and activated myeloid dendritic cells producing interleukin-12 could be detected in lymph nodes of treated animals, while interferon-γ blockade strongly reduced survival. Also, CD4(+) effector memory T cells were evidenced in surviving animals, and the transfer of CD4(+) T cells induced long-term protection. Thus, anti-CD20 therapy promotes strong anti-tumor adaptive immunity, opposes Treg expansion and inhibits tumor cells from maintaining an immunosuppressive environment.

  12. A novel method of modifying immune responses by vaccination with lipiodol-siRNA mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijian Li

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The dendritic cell (DC possesses the ability to stimulate both T helper 1 (Th1 and Th2 responses depending on activation stimuli. Although it is known that chemically or genetically modified DC can be used therapeutically to steer immune responses towards either Th1 or Th2, cellular therapy with ex vivo manipulated DC is clinically difficult. Here we demonstrate a novel method of switching immune responses from Th1 to Th2 through in vivo immune modulation by administration of siRNA. We demonstrate that siRNA targeting of the IL-12p35 gene leads to a Th2 bias in vitro through an IL-10 dependent mechanism. In vivo administration of siRNA admixed with the oil-based contrast agent lipiodol in the presence of antigen and adjuvant induced a deviation in recall response to reduced production of IFN-γ and augmented IL-4 response using either KLH or ovalbumin. This simple method of in vivo modification of immune response possesses therapeutic potential in Th1-mediated diseases such as multiple sclerosis and autoimmune diabetes.

  13. Immune Responses in Hookworm Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Alex; Prociv, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Hookworms infect perhaps one-fifth of the entire human population, yet little is known about their interaction with our immune system. The two major species are Necator americanus, which is adapted to tropical conditions, and Ancylostoma duodenale, which predominates in more temperate zones. While having many common features, they also differ in several key aspects of their biology. Host immune responses are triggered by larval invasion of the skin, larval migration through the circulation and lungs, and worm establishment in the intestine, where adult worms feed on blood and mucosa while injecting various molecules that facilitate feeding and modulate host protective responses. Despite repeated exposure, protective immunity does not seem to develop in humans, so that infections occur in all age groups (depending on exposure patterns) and tend to be prolonged. Responses to both larval and adult worms have a characteristic T-helper type 2 profile, with activated mast cells in the gut mucosa, elevated levels of circulating immunoglobulin E, and eosinoophilia in the peripheral blood and local tissues, features also characteristic of type I hypersensitivity reactions. The longevity of adult hookworms is determined probably more by parasite genetics than by host immunity. However, many of the proteins released by the parasites seem to have immunomodulatory activity, presumably for self-protection. Advances in molecular biotechnology enable the identification and characterization of increasing numbers of these parasite molecules and should enhance our detailed understanding of the protective and pathogenetic mechanisms in hookworm infections. PMID:11585781

  14. Interleukin-12 Induces a Th1-Like Response to Burkholderia mallei and Limited Protection in BALB/c Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    dependent on the concentration of IL-12. Mahon et al. [21] demonstrated that IL-12 increased the efficacy of a Bordetella pertussis acellular vaccine...Interleukin-12 is pro- duced by macrophages in response to live or killed Bordetella per- tussis and enhances the efficacy of an acellular pertussis

  15. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Latent Antigen Rv2029c from the Multistage DNA Vaccine A39 Drives TH1 Responses via TLR-mediated Macrophage Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Su

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Targeting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB latent antigens comprises a crucial strategy for the development of alternative tuberculosis (TB vaccine(s that protects against TB reactivation. Here, we generated a multistage DNA vaccine, A39, containing the early antigens Ag85A and Rv3425 as well as the latency-associated protein Rv2029c, which conferred protective immunity in a pre-exposure mouse model. Moreover, administration of the A39 vaccination after MTB exposure inhibited reactivation and resulted in significantly lower bacterial loads in the lungs and spleen of mice, compared to those in the control population. Subsequently, we investigated the effect of Rv2029c on innate immunity and characterized the molecular details of the interaction of this protein with the host via iTRAQ proteomic and biochemical assay analyses. Rv2029c activated macrophages, triggered the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and promoted toll-like receptor/mitogen-activated protein kinase (TLR/MAPK-dependent macrophage apoptosis. Furthermore, Rv2029c treatment enhanced the ability of Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG-infected macrophages to present antigens to CD4+ T cells in vitro, which correlated with an increase in MHC-II expression. Lastly, Rv2029c-treated macrophages activated T cells, effectively polarized CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to secrete IFN-γ and IL-2, and specifically expanded a population of CD44highCD62LlowCD4+/CD8+ effector/memory cells, indicating that Rv2029c, as a specific recall antigen, contributes to Th1 polarization in T cell immunity. These results suggest that Rv2029c and A39 comprise promising targets for the development of next-generation clinical TB therapeutic vaccines.

  16. Comprehensive Profiling of Immune Responses in MARV Survivors Demonstrates Robust Th1-Skewing with Short Lived Neutralizing Antibody Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-29

    unprecedented scale, spanning two years and infecting more than 28,000 individuals. Previously, the largest filovirus outbreaks had numbered in the tens to...virus (BDBV) have all caused outbreaks that numbered over 100 cases – twice, in the cases of MARV and SUDV. EBOV may garner much of the attention , but

  17. An NLRP3 inflammasome-triggered Th2-biased adaptive immune response promotes leishmaniasis

    OpenAIRE

    Gurung, Prajwal; Karki, Rajendra; Vogel, Peter; WATANABE, Makiko; Bix, Mark; Lamkanfi, Mohamed; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a major tropical disease that can present with cutaneous, mucocutaneous, or visceral manifestation and affects millions of individuals, causing substantial morbidity and mortality in-third-world countries. The development of a Th1-adaptive immune response is associated with resistance to developing Leishmania major (L. major) infection. Inflammasomes are key components of the innate immune system that contribute to host defense against bacterial and viral pathogens; however, ...

  18. Evaluation of Th1-like, Th2-like and immunomodulatory cytokine mRNA expression in the skin of dogs with immunomodulatory-responsive lymphocytic-plasmacytic pododermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breathnach, Rory M; Fanning, Shay; Mulcahy, Grace; Bassett, Hugh F; Jones, Boyd R; Daly, Paul

    2006-10-01

    The term immunomodulatory-responsive lymphocytic-plasmacytic pododermatitis (ImR-LPP) has previously been proposed to denote a subpopulation of dogs with idiopathic pododermatitis. The objective of this study was to quantify the expression of mRNA encoding Th(1)-like [interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-12], Th(2)-like [IL-4 and IL-6] and immunomodulatory cytokines [IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta] in lesional ImR-LPP, nonlesional ImR-LPP and healthy control pedal skin. Gene transcripts were quantified using TaqMan real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays. The skin of dogs with ImR-LPP had significant overexpression of IL-6 mRNA (P < 0.05) and significant underexpression of IL-12 mRNA (P < 0.01) compared to healthy controls. In addition, lesional ImR-LPP skin had significantly higher levels of IL-10 transcripts compared to healthy control pedal skin (P < 0.05). Although not attaining significance (P = 0.07), a trend towards reduced TGF-beta mRNA expression in lesional ImR-LPP skin was also evident. There were no significant differences in the levels of IFN-gamma or IL-2 mRNA transcripts among the three skin sample sources. IL-4 mRNA was detected in only one lesional sample. These results suggest that the pathogenesis of ImR-LPP may be associated with a T-cell-mediated inflammatory response characterized by impaired Th(1)-like, but enhanced Th(2)-like cytokine expression.

  19. Immune responses to pertussis antigens in infants and toddlers after immunization with multicomponent acellular pertussis vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadugba, Olajumoke O; Wang, Li; Chen, Qingxia; Halasa, Natasha B

    2014-12-01

    Given the resurgence of pertussis despite high rates of vaccination with the diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine, a better understanding of vaccine-induced immune responses to Bordetella pertussis is needed. We investigated the antibody, cell-mediated, and cytokine responses to B. pertussis antigens in children who received the primary vaccination series (at 2, 4, and 6 months) and first booster vaccination (at 15 to 18 months) with 5-component acellular pertussis (aP) vaccine. The majority of subjects demonstrated a 4-fold increase in antibody titer to all four pertussis antigens (pertussis toxin [PT], pertactin [PRN], filamentous hemagglutinin [FHA], and fimbriae [FIM]) following the primary series and booster vaccination. Following the primary vaccine series, the majority of subjects (52 to 67%) mounted a positive T cell proliferative response (stimulation index of ≥ 3) to the PT and PRN antigens, while few subjects (7 to 12%) mounted positive proliferative responses to FHA and FIM. One month after booster vaccination (age 16 to 19 months), our study revealed significant increase in gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production in response to the PT and FIM antigens, a significant increase in IL-2 production with the PT, FHA, and PRN antigens, and a lack of significant interleukin-4 (IL-4) secretion with any of the antigens. While previous reports documented a mixed Th1/Th2 or Th2-skewed response to DTaP vaccine in children, our data suggest that following the first DTaP booster, children aged 16 to 19 months have a cytokine profile consistent with a Th1 response, which is known to be essential for clearance of pertussis infection. To better define aP-induced immune responses following the booster vaccine, further studies are needed to assess cytokine responses pre- and postbooster in DTaP recipients. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  20. Delayed Activation Kinetics of Th2- and Th17 Cells Compared to Th1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duechting, Andrea; Przybyla, Anna; Kuerten, Stefanie; Lehmann, Paul V

    2017-09-12

    During immune responses, different classes of T cells arise: Th1, Th2, and Th17. Mobilizing the right class plays a critical role in successful host defense and therefore defining the ratios of Th1/Th2/Th17 cells within the antigen-specific T cell repertoire is critical for immune monitoring purposes. Antigen-specific Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells can be detected by challenging peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) with antigen, and establishing the numbers of T cells producing the respective lead cytokine, IFN-γ and IL-2 for Th1 cells, IL-4 and IL-5 for Th2, and IL-17 for Th-17 cells, respectively. Traditionally, these cytokines are measured within 6 h in flow cytometry. We show here that 6 h of stimulation is sufficient to detect peptide-induced production of IFN-γ, but 24 h are required to reveal the full frequency of protein antigen-specific Th1 cells. Also the detection of IL-2 producing Th1 cells requires 24 h stimulation cultures. Measurements of IL-4 producing Th2 cells requires 48-h cultures and 96 h are required for frequency measurements of IL-5 and IL-17 secreting T cells. Therefore, accounting for the differential secretion kinetics of these cytokines is critical for the accurate determination of the frequencies and ratios of antigen-specific Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells.

  1. Parasitic infection and the polarized Th2 immune response can alter a vaccine-induced immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Tara M; Nelson, Robin G; Boyer, Jean D

    2003-06-01

    The AIDS epidemic in the Developing World represents a major global crisis. It is imperative that we develop an effective vaccine. Vaccines are economically the most efficient means of controlling viral infections. However, the development of a vaccine against HIV-1 has been a formidable task, and in developing countries chronic parasitic infection adds another level of complexity to AIDS vaccine development. Helminthic and protozoan infections, common in developing countries, can result in a constant state of immune activation that is characterized by a dominant Th2 type of cytokine profile, high IgE levels, and eosinophilia. Such an immune profile may have an adverse impact on the efficacy of vaccines, in particular, an HIV-1 vaccine. Indeed, the CD8 cellular immune response and the corresponding Th1 type cytokines that enhance the CD8 cellular immune response are important for clearing many viral infections. It is believed that an antigen specific CD8 cellular immune response will be an important component of an HIV-1 vaccine.

  2. Tailored immune responses: novel effector helper T cell subsets in protective immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Ervin E; Comerford, Iain; Fenix, Kevin A; Bastow, Cameron R; Gregor, Carly E; McKenzie, Duncan R; McColl, Shaun R

    2014-02-01

    Differentiation of naïve CD4⁺ cells into functionally distinct effector helper T cell subsets, characterised by distinct "cytokine signatures," is a cardinal strategy employed by the mammalian immune system to efficiently deal with the rapidly evolving array of pathogenic microorganisms encountered by the host. Since the T(H)1/T(H)2 paradigm was first described by Mosmann and Coffman, research in the field of helper T cell biology has grown exponentially with seven functionally unique subsets having now been described. In this review, recent insights into the molecular mechanisms that govern differentiation and function of effector helper T cell subsets will be discussed in the context of microbial infections, with a focus on how these different helper T cell subsets orchestrate immune responses tailored to combat the nature of the pathogenic threat encountered.

  3. Tailored immune responses: novel effector helper T cell subsets in protective immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervin E Kara

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Differentiation of naïve CD4⁺ cells into functionally distinct effector helper T cell subsets, characterised by distinct "cytokine signatures," is a cardinal strategy employed by the mammalian immune system to efficiently deal with the rapidly evolving array of pathogenic microorganisms encountered by the host. Since the T(H1/T(H2 paradigm was first described by Mosmann and Coffman, research in the field of helper T cell biology has grown exponentially with seven functionally unique subsets having now been described. In this review, recent insights into the molecular mechanisms that govern differentiation and function of effector helper T cell subsets will be discussed in the context of microbial infections, with a focus on how these different helper T cell subsets orchestrate immune responses tailored to combat the nature of the pathogenic threat encountered.

  4. Cellular immune responses to respiratory viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Helden, M.J.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/30484117X

    2011-01-01

    When a respiratory virus successfully infects the lungs, cascades of immune responses are initiated aimed to remove the pathogen. Immediate non-specific protection is provided by the innate immune system and this reduces the viral load during the first days of infection. The adaptive immune response

  5. Metabolic regulation of immune responses: therapeutic opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Assmann, Nadine; Finlay, David K.

    2016-01-01

    Immune cell metabolism is dynamically regulated in parallel with the substantial changes in cellular function that accompany immune cell activation. While these changes in metabolism are important for facilitating the increased energetic and biosynthetic demands of activated cells, immune cell metabolism also has direct roles in controlling the functions of immune cells and shaping the immune response. A theme is emerging wherein nutrients, metabolic enzymes, and metabolites can act as an ext...

  6. Development of a nasal vaccine for chronic hepatitis B infection that uses the ability of hepatitis B core antigen to stimulate a strong Th1 response against hepatitis B surface antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, J C; Lobaina, Y; Muzio, V; García, D; Pentón, E; Iglesias, E; Pichardo, D; Urquiza, D; Rodríguez, D; Silva, D; Petrovsky, N; Guillén, G

    2004-10-01

    There are estimated to be 350 million chronic carriers of hepatitis B infection worldwide. Patients with chronic hepatitis B are at risk of liver cirrhosis with associated mortality because of hepatocellular carcinoma and other complications. An important goal, therefore, is the development of an effective therapeutic vaccine against chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV). A major barrier to the development of such a vaccine is the impaired immune response to HBV antigens observed in the T cells of affected patients. One strategy to overcome these barriers is to activate mucosal T cells through the use of nasal vaccination because this may overcome the systemic immune downregulation that results from HBV infection. In addition, it may be beneficial to present additional HBV epitopes beyond those contained in the traditional hepatitis B surface antigen (HbsAg) vaccine, for example, by using the hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg). This is advantageous because HBcAg has a unique ability to act as a potent Th1 adjuvant to HbsAg, while also serving as an immunogenic target. In this study we describe the effect of coadministration of HBsAg and HBcAg as part of a strategy to develop a more potent and effective HBV therapeutic vaccine. Copyright 2004 Australasian Society for Immunology Inc.

  7. Characterization of murine immune responses to allergenic diisocyanates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearman, R J; Spence, L M; Kimber, I

    1992-02-01

    Chemicals may cause contact allergy. Some allergens may, in addition, cause respiratory sensitization. In previous investigations we have found that contact and respiratory sensitizers induce differential immune responses in mice characteristic of TH1 and TH2 T helper cell activation, respectively. In the present study we have examined immune responses in mice following topical exposure to three allergenic diisocyanates; diphenylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate (MDI), dicyclohexylmethane-4,4'-diisocyanate (HMDI), and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI). All three chemicals are contact allergens. MDI is in addition a known human respiratory allergen. HMDI and IPDI appear not to induce respiratory sensitization or at least do so very rarely. Exposure of mice to all chemicals resulted in a vigorous lymphocyte proliferative response in lymph nodes draining the site of application, and each caused contact sensitization. In common with other respiratory allergens, MDI induced an increase in the serum concentration of IgE and provoked considerably more IgG2b than IgG2a anti-hapten antibody; responses consistent with a preferential activation of TH2 cells. In contrast, under conditions where both caused lymph node cell proliferation and contact sensitization, neither HMDI nor IPDI induced a measurable antibody response of any class. These data provide additional evidence that different classes of chemical allergen cause divergent immune responses in mice. The possibility that these characteristics may facilitate not only the identification, but also classification, of chemical allergens is discussed.

  8. Metabolic regulation of immune responses: therapeutic opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, Nadine; Finlay, David K

    2016-06-01

    Immune cell metabolism is dynamically regulated in parallel with the substantial changes in cellular function that accompany immune cell activation. While these changes in metabolism are important for facilitating the increased energetic and biosynthetic demands of activated cells, immune cell metabolism also has direct roles in controlling the functions of immune cells and shaping the immune response. A theme is emerging wherein nutrients, metabolic enzymes, and metabolites can act as an extension of the established immune signal transduction pathways, thereby adding an extra layer of complexity to the regulation of immunity. This Review will outline the metabolic configurations adopted by different immune cell subsets, describe the emerging roles for metabolic enzymes and metabolites in the control of immune cell function, and discuss the therapeutic implications of this emerging immune regulatory axis.

  9. Immune response to fungal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, R D

    1989-01-01

    In general, fungi are saprophytes that are well adapted to grow in nature supported by diverse nutritional substrates. For fungi, in contrast to many other microorganisms that infect humans, parasitism is an accidental phenomenon rather than an obligatory requirement for survival. Thus, with progressive improvement in our capabilities to prolong survival of patients with global defects in host defense mechanisms, clinical experience suggests that human tissues may support growth of numerous species of saprophytic fungi that share the capacity to grow at 37 degrees C. Normally, however, a broad array of natural and acquired host defense mechanisms make the occurrence of progressive, systemic, life-threatening mycoses extremely rare events. When one or another of these host defense mechanisms is compromised, one of a variety of significant fungal infections may then progress. Mycoses may be broadly categorized into those controlled largely by natural cellular defenses vs. acquired cell-mediated immunity. Notwithstanding data that permit such general classification of host factors controlling one or another invasive mycosis, the diverse structural and antigenic properties of individual fungi create unique patterns of infections in individual, characteristic host settings. Thus, while some broad generalizations are possible, definition of predisposing factors for specific individual mycoses (and, ultimately, prospects for corrective immunotherapy) requires careful characterization of diverse features of fungal forms mediating divergent immune responses.

  10. Effect of Malnutrition on the Expression of Cytokines Involved in Th1 Cell Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Torres, Cristina; González-Martínez, Haydeé; Miliar, Angel; Nájera, Oralia; Graniel, Jaime; Firo, Verónica; Alvarez, Catalina; Bonilla, Edmundo; Rodríguez, Leonor

    2013-01-01

    Malnutrition is a common cause of secondary immune deficiency and has been linked to an increased susceptibility to infection in humans. Malnutrition specifically affects T-cell-mediated immune responses. The aim of this study was to assess in lymphocytes from malnourished children the expression levels of IL-12, IL-18 and IL-21, molecules that induce the differentiation of T cells related to the immunological cellular response (Th1 response) and the production of cytokines related to the immunological cellular response (Th1 cytokines). We found that the expression levels of IL-12, IL-18 and IL-21 were significantly diminished in malnourished children compared to well-nourished children and were coincident with lower plasmatic levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ (Th1 cytokines). In this study, we show for the first time that the gene expression and intracellular production of cytokines responsible for Th1 cell differentiation (IL-12, IL-18 and IL-21) are diminished in malnourished children. As expected, this finding was related to lower plasmatic levels of IL-2 and IFN-γ. The decreased expression of Th1 cytokines observed in this study may contribute to the deterioration of the immunological Type 1 (cellular) response. We hypothesize that the decreased production of IL-12, IL-18 and IL-21 in malnourished children contributes to their inability to eradicate infections. PMID:23429441

  11. Antigen experience shapes phenotype and function of memory Th1 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaruni Khanolkar

    Full Text Available Primary and secondary (boosted memory CD8 T cells exhibit differences in gene expression, phenotype and function. The impact of repeated antigen stimulations on memory CD4 T cells is largely unknown. To address this issue, we utilized LCMV and Listeria monocytogenes infection of mice to characterize primary and secondary antigen (Ag-specific Th1 CD4 T cell responses. Ag-specific primary memory CD4 T cells display a CD62L(loCCR7(hi CD27(hi CD127(hi phenotype and are polyfunctional (most produce IFNγ, TNFα and IL-2. Following homologous prime-boost immunization we observed pathogen-specific differences in the rate of CD62L and CCR7 upregulation on memory CD4 T cells as well as in IL-2+IFNγco-production by secondary effectors. Phenotypic and functional plasticity of memory Th1 cells was observed following heterologous prime-boost immunization, wherein secondary memory CD4 T cells acquired phenotypic and functional characteristics dictated by the boosting agent rather than the primary immunizing agent. Our data also demonstrate that secondary memory Th1 cells accelerated neutralizing Ab formation in response to LCMV infection, suggesting enhanced capacity of this population to provide quality help for antibody production. Collectively these data have important implications for prime-boost vaccination strategies that seek to enhance protective immune responses mediated by Th1 CD4 T cell responses.

  12. IL-4 attenuates Th1-associated chemokine expression and Th1 trafficking to inflamed tissues and limits pathogen clearance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Lazarski

    Full Text Available Interleukin 4 (IL-4 plays a central role in the orchestration of Type 2 immunity. During T cell activation in the lymph node, IL-4 promotes Th2 differentiation and inhibits Th1 generation. In the inflamed tissue, IL-4 signals promote innate and adaptive Type-2 immune recruitment and effector function, positively amplifying the local Th2 response. In this study, we identify an additional negative regulatory role for IL-4 in limiting the recruitment of Th1 cells to inflamed tissues. To test IL-4 effects on inflammation subsequent to Th2 differentiation, we transiently blocked IL-4 during ongoing dermal inflammation (using anti-IL-4 mAb and analyzed changes in gene expression. Neutralization of IL-4 led to the upregulation of a number of genes linked to Th1 trafficking, including CXCR3 chemokines, CCL5 and CCR5 and an associated increase in IFNγ, Tbet and TNFα genes. These gene expression changes correlated with increased numbers of IFNγ-producing CD4+ T cells in the inflamed dermis. Moreover, using an adoptive transfer approach to directly test the role of IL-4 in T cell trafficking to the inflamed tissues, we found IL-4 neutralization led to an early increase in Th1 cell recruitment to the inflamed dermis. These data support a model whereby IL-4 dampens Th1-chemokines at the site of inflammation limiting Th1 recruitment. To determine biological significance, we infected mice with Leishmania major, as pathogen clearance is highly dependent on IFNγ-producing CD4+ T cells at the infection site. Short-term IL-4 blockade in established L. major infection led to a significant increase in the number of IFNγ-producing CD4+ T cells in the infected ear dermis, with no change in the draining LN. Increased lymphocyte influx into the infected tissue correlated with a significant decrease in parasite number. Thus, independent of IL-4's role in the generation of immune effectors, IL-4 attenuates lymphocyte recruitment to the inflamed/infected dermis and

  13. IL-4 attenuates Th1-associated chemokine expression and Th1 trafficking to inflamed tissues and limits pathogen clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarski, Christopher A; Ford, Jill; Katzman, Shoshana D; Rosenberg, Alexander F; Fowell, Deborah J

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin 4 (IL-4) plays a central role in the orchestration of Type 2 immunity. During T cell activation in the lymph node, IL-4 promotes Th2 differentiation and inhibits Th1 generation. In the inflamed tissue, IL-4 signals promote innate and adaptive Type-2 immune recruitment and effector function, positively amplifying the local Th2 response. In this study, we identify an additional negative regulatory role for IL-4 in limiting the recruitment of Th1 cells to inflamed tissues. To test IL-4 effects on inflammation subsequent to Th2 differentiation, we transiently blocked IL-4 during ongoing dermal inflammation (using anti-IL-4 mAb) and analyzed changes in gene expression. Neutralization of IL-4 led to the upregulation of a number of genes linked to Th1 trafficking, including CXCR3 chemokines, CCL5 and CCR5 and an associated increase in IFNγ, Tbet and TNFα genes. These gene expression changes correlated with increased numbers of IFNγ-producing CD4+ T cells in the inflamed dermis. Moreover, using an adoptive transfer approach to directly test the role of IL-4 in T cell trafficking to the inflamed tissues, we found IL-4 neutralization led to an early increase in Th1 cell recruitment to the inflamed dermis. These data support a model whereby IL-4 dampens Th1-chemokines at the site of inflammation limiting Th1 recruitment. To determine biological significance, we infected mice with Leishmania major, as pathogen clearance is highly dependent on IFNγ-producing CD4+ T cells at the infection site. Short-term IL-4 blockade in established L. major infection led to a significant increase in the number of IFNγ-producing CD4+ T cells in the infected ear dermis, with no change in the draining LN. Increased lymphocyte influx into the infected tissue correlated with a significant decrease in parasite number. Thus, independent of IL-4's role in the generation of immune effectors, IL-4 attenuates lymphocyte recruitment to the inflamed/infected dermis and limits pathogen

  14. Maternal immunity enhances systemic recall immune responses upon oral immunization of piglets with F4 fimbriae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ut V; Melkebeek, Vesna; Devriendt, Bert; Goetstouwers, Tiphanie; Van Poucke, Mario; Peelman, Luc; Goddeeris, Bruno M; Cox, Eric

    2015-06-23

    F4 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) cause diarrhoea and mortality in piglets leading to severe economic losses. Oral immunization of piglets with F4 fimbriae induces a protective intestinal immune response evidenced by an F4-specific serum and intestinal IgA response. However, successful oral immunization of pigs with F4 fimbriae in the presence of maternal immunity has not been demonstrated yet. In the present study we aimed to evaluate the effect of maternal immunity on the induction of a systemic immune response upon oral immunization of piglets. Whereas F4-specific IgG and IgA could be induced by oral immunization of pigs without maternal antibodies and by intramuscular immunization of pigs with maternal antibodies, no such response was seen in the orally immunized animals with maternal antibodies. Since maternal antibodies can mask an antibody response, we also looked by ELIspot assays for circulating F4-specific antibody secreting cells (ASCs). Enumerating the F4-specific ASCs within the circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and the number of F4-specific IgA ASCs within the circulating IgA(+) B-cells revealed an F4-specific immune response in the orally immunized animals with maternal antibodies. Interestingly, results suggest a more robust IgA booster response by oral immunization of pigs with than without maternal antibodies. These results demonstrate that oral immunization of piglets with F4-specific maternal antibodies is feasible and that these maternal antibodies seem to enhance the secondary systemic immune response. Furthermore, our ELIspot assay on enriched IgA(+) B-cells could be used as a screening procedure to optimize mucosal immunization protocols in pigs with maternal immunity.

  15. Visualization of Immune Responses in the Cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Victor L

    2017-11-01

    The eye has become a useful site for the investigation and understanding of local and systemic immune responses. The ease of access and transparency of the cornea permits direct visualization of ocular structures, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels, allowing for the tracking of normal and pathological biological processes in real time. As a window to the immune system, we have used the eye to dissect the mechanisms of corneal inflammatory reactions that include innate and adaptive immune responses. We have identified that the ocular microenvironment regulates these immune responses by recruiting different populations of inflammatory cells to the cornea through local production of selected chemokines. Moreover, crosstalk between T cells and macrophages is a common and crucial step in the development of ocular immune responses to corneal alloantigens. This review summarizes the data generated by our group using intravital fluorescent confocal microscopy to capture the tempo, magnitude, and function of innate and adaptive corneal immune responses.

  16. Noninvasive imaging of immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashidian, Mohammad; Keliher, Edmund J; Bilate, Angelina M; Duarte, Joao N; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory R; Jacobsen, Johanne Tracey; Cragnolini, Juanjo; Swee, Lee Kim; Victora, Gabriel D; Weissleder, Ralph; Ploegh, Hidde L

    2015-05-12

    At their margins, tumors often contain neutrophils, dendritic cells, and activated macrophages, which express class II MHC and CD11b products. The interplay between stromal cells, tumor cells, and migratory cells such as lymphocytes creates opportunities for noninvasive imaging of immune responses. We developed alpaca-derived antibody fragments specific for mouse class II MHC and CD11b products, expressed on the surface of a variety of myeloid cells. We validated these reagents by flow cytometry and two-photon microscopy to obtain images at cellular resolution. To enable noninvasive imaging of the targeted cell populations, we developed a method to site-specifically label VHHs [the variable domain (VH) of a camelid heavy-chain only antibody] with (18)F or (64)Cu. Radiolabeled VHHs rapidly cleared the circulation (t1/2 ≈ 20 min) and clearly visualized lymphoid organs. We used VHHs to explore the possibility of imaging inflammation in both xenogeneic and syngeneic tumor models, which resulted in detection of tumors with remarkable specificity. We also imaged the infiltration of myeloid cells upon injection of complete Freund's adjuvant. Both anti-class II MHC and anti-CD11b VHHs detected inflammation with excellent specificity. Given the ease of manufacture and labeling of VHHs, we believe that this method could transform the manner in which antitumor responses and/or infectious events may be tracked.

  17. Dichotomy of the human T cell response to Leishmania antigens. II. Absent or Th2-like response to gp63 and Th1-like response to lipophosphoglycan-associated protein in cells from cured visceral leishmaniasis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Hey, A S; Jardim, A

    1994-01-01

    The T cell response to different Leishmania donovani antigens was investigated using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from Kenyans cured of visceral leishmaniasis and non-exposed Danes. Crude promastigote and amastigote antigens both induced proliferation and interferon-gamma (IFN...... in five of 17 samples from cured patients. Four of the five responding cultures produced IL-4, i.e. the response to this antigen was of the Th2 type. Furthermore, sera from acutely ill visceral leishmaniasis patients contained high levels of IgG antibodies to gp63. The Th2-like response to gp63...... in patients cured of visceral leishmaniasis differs from the Th1-like response to the same antigen observed in patients cured of cutaneous leishmaniasis....

  18. Lack of host gut microbiota alters immune responses and intestinal granuloma formation during schistosomiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzscheiter, M; Layland, L E; Loffredo-Verde, E; Mair, K; Vogelmann, R; Langer, R; Wagner, H; Prazeres da Costa, C

    2014-02-01

    Fatalities from schistosome infections arise due to granulomatous, immune-mediated responses to eggs that become trapped in host tissues. Schistosome-specific immune responses are characterized by initial T helper type 1 (Th1) responses and our previous studies demonstrated that myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (Myd88)-deficient mice failed to initiate such responses in vivo. Paradoxically, schistosomal antigens fail to stimulate innate cells to release proinflammatory cytokines in vitro. Since Schistosoma mansoni infection is an intestinal disease, we hypothesized that commensal bacteria could act as bystander activators of the intestinal innate immune system to instigate Th1 responses. Using a broad spectrum of orally administered antibiotics and anti-mycotics we analysed schistosome-infected mice that were simultaneously depleted of gut bacteria. After depletion there was significantly less inflammation in the intestine, which was accompanied by decreased intestinal granuloma development. In contrast, liver pathology remained unaltered. In addition, schistosome-specific immune responses were skewed and faecal egg excretion was diminished. This study demonstrates that host microbiota can act as a third partner in instigating helminth-specific immune responses. © 2013 British Society for Immunology.

  19. HYPOTHALAMIC NEUROHORMONES AND IMMUNE RESPONSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Luis eQuintanar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive examination of the current literature describing the neural-immune interactions, with emphasis on the most recent findings of the effects of neurohormones on immune system. Particularly, the role of hypothalamic hormones such as Thyrotropin-releasing hormone, Corticotropin-releasing hormone and Gonadotropin-releasing hormone. In the past few years, interest has been raised in extrapituitary actions of these neurohormones due to their receptors have been found in many non-pituitary tissues. Also, the receptors are present in immune cells, suggesting an autocrine or paracrine role within the immune system. In general, these neurohormones have been reported to exert immunomodulatory effects on cell proliferation, immune mediators release and cell function. The implications of these findings in understanding the network of hypothalamic neuropeptides and immune system are discussed.

  20. Construction, purification, and characterization of a chimeric TH1 antagonist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier-González Luís

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TH1 immune response antagonism is a desirable approach to mitigate some autoimmune and inflammatory reactions during the course of several diseases where IL-2 and IFN-γ are two central players. Therefore, the neutralization of both cytokines could provide beneficial effects in patients suffering from autoimmune or inflammatory illnesses. Results A chimeric antagonist that can antagonize the action of TH1 immunity mediators, IFN-γ and IL-2, was designed, engineered, expressed in E. coli, purified and evaluated for its in vitro biological activities. The TH1 antagonist molecule consists of the extracellular region for the human IFNγ receptor chain 1 fused by a four-aminoacid linker peptide to human 60 N-terminal aminoacid residues of IL-2. The corresponding gene fragments were isolated by RT-PCR and cloned in the pTPV-1 vector. E. coli (W3110 strain was transformed with this vector. The chimeric protein was expressed at high level as inclusion bodies. The protein was partially purified by pelleting and washing. It was then solubilized with strong denaturant and finally refolded by gel filtration. In vitro biological activity of chimera was demonstrated by inhibition of IFN-γ-dependent HLA-DR expression in Colo 205 cells, inhibition of IFN-γ antiproliferative effect on HEp-2 cells, and by a bidirectional effect in assays for IL-2 T-cell dependent proliferation: agonism in the absence versus inhibition in the presence of IL-2. Conclusion TH1 antagonist is a chimeric protein that inhibits the in vitro biological activities of human IFN-γ, and is a partial agonist/antagonist of human IL-2. With these attributes, the chimera has the potential to offer a new opportunity for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.

  1. Immune response of patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis challenged with a symbiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Maria Angela Martins; Borra, Ricardo Carneiro; Hirata, Cleonice Hitomi Watashi; de Oliveira Penido, Norma

    2017-10-01

    There are indications that Th1 polarization of immune response plays an important role in the pathogenesis of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), and that the use of probiotics can stimulate immune regulatory activity, influencing the course of the disease. The aim of this study was to characterize the initial immune profile of RAS patients and evaluate clinical and serological response following a challenge with symbiotic treatment containing fructooligosaccharide, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium. The immune responses of the 45 patients with RAS, submitted to symbiotic or placebo for 120 days, in relation to 30 RAS-free controls, were evaluated over a period of 6 months. Peripheral blood was collected from all patients at 0 (T0), 120 (T4), and 180 days (T6) after the start of treatment and Th1 (IL12-p70, IFN-γ), Th2 (IL-4), Treg (IL-10), Th17 (IL-17A), inflammatory (TNF-α, IL-6)-associated cytokines, and clinical parameters were quantified. At T0, significant differences were found in the serological levels of the IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-6 cytokines of the RAS patients in comparison with the controls. It was observed that the cytokine profile of the RAS group was comprised of 2 distinct clusters: a pure Th2 and a Mixed (Th1/Th2) subtype and that symbiotic treatment induced an improvement in pain and an increase in IFN-γ levels, producing a reduction in Th2 response. In RAS, symbiotic treatment based on a fructooligosaccharide, Lactobacillus, and Bifidobacterium composition produced an alteration in the Th2 serological immune profile in the direction of Th1 and improved pain symptomatology. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. C5a negatively regulates toll-like receptor 4-induced immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawlisch, Heiko; Belkaid, Yasmine; Baelder, Ralf; Hildeman, David; Gerard, Craig; Köhl, Jörg

    2005-04-01

    The complement system and the Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are two central arms of innate immunity that are critical to host defense as well as the development of adaptive immunity. Most pathogens activate both complement and TLRs, suggesting the potential for crosstalk between the two systems. We show here that the complement-derived C5a anaphylatoxin negatively regulates TLR4- and CD40-induced synthesis of IL-12 family cytokines (IL-12, IL-23, and IL-27) from inflammatory macrophages (M phi s) by extracellular signal-regulated kinase- and phosphoinositide 3 kinase-dependent pathways. This decreased cytokine response translates into a decreased T helper type 1 (Th1) response in vitro and in vivo. Accordingly, we found enhanced Th1 immunity in C5a receptor-deficient mice, something that conferred protection from Leishmania major infection. Our findings identify the negative impact of C5a on IL-12 family cytokines as an important mechanism for regulating Th1 polarization in response to innate and adaptive immune network activation.

  3. Impacts of cigarette smoking on immune responsiveness: Up and down or upside down?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Feifei; Liang, Chun-Ling; Liu, Huazhen; Zeng, Yu-Qun; Hou, Shaozhen; Huang, Song; Lai, Xiaoping; Dai, Zhenhua

    2017-01-03

    Cigarette smoking is associated with numerous diseases and poses a serious challenge to the current healthcare system worldwide. Smoking impacts both innate and adaptive immunity and plays dual roles in regulating immunity by either exacerbation of pathogenic immune responses or attenuation of defensive immunity. Adaptive immune cells affected by smoking mainly include T helper cells (Th1/Th2/Th17), CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells, CD8+ T cells, B cells and memory T/B lymphocytes while innate immune cells impacted by smoking are mostly DCs, macrophages and NK cells. Complex roles of cigarette smoke have resulted in numerous diseases, including cardiovascular, respiratory and autoimmune diseases, allergies, cancers and transplant rejection etc. Although previous reviews have described the effects of smoking on various diseases and regional immunity associated with specific diseases, a comprehensive and updated review is rarely seen to demonstrate impacts of smoking on general immunity and, especially on major components of immune cells. Here, we aim to systematically and objectively review the influence of smoking on major components of both innate and adaptive immune cells, and summarize cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying effects of cigarette smoking on the immune system. The molecular pathways impacted by cigarette smoking involve NFκB, MAP kinases and histone modification. Further investigations are warranted to understand the exact mechanisms responsible for smoking-mediated immunopathology and to answer lingering questions over why cigarette smoking is always harmful rather than beneficial even though it exerts dual effects on immune responses.

  4. Mononuclear cells from patients recovered from cutaneous leishmaniasis respond to Leishmania major amastigote class I nuclease with a predominant Th1-like response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajnia, S; Mahboudi, F; Ajdari, S; Reiner, N E; Kariminia, A; Alimohammadian, M H

    2005-01-01

    The Leishmania major amastigote class I nuclease (LmaCIN) is a developmentally regulated protein that is highly expressed in the amastigote stage of L. major. This protein is homologous to the P4 nuclease of L. pifanoi, which has been shown to induce protective immune response in a murine model. To evaluate LmaCIN as a potential human vaccine candidate, cellular immune responses to recombinant LmaCIN were examined in individuals recovered from Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients recovered from L. major infection were cultured either with recombinant LmaCIN or autoclaved L. major (ALM) as control. rLmaCIN induced significant proliferation of PBMC from 90% of recovered patients. Phenotypic analysis of proliferating cells showed that CD8+ cells were the predominant cell type proliferating in response to rLmaC1N. Screening of culture supernatants for cytokines showed that rLmaCIN induced high levels of interferon (IFN)-γ (mean ± s.e.m.: 1398 ± 179 pg/ml) associated with little interleukin (IL)-10 and little or no IL-5 production. These findings show that LmaCIN is immunogenic in humans during L. major infection and that it can elicit immunological responses relevant to immunoprophylaxis of leishmaniasis. PMID:15730396

  5. Influence of aluminum-based adjuvant on the immune response to multiantigenic formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Enrique; Franch, Orisley; Carrazana, Yamilka; Lobaina, Yadira; García, Daymir; Sanchez, Jorge; García, José; Urquiza, Dioslaida; Muzio, Verena; Guillén, Gerardo; Aguilar, Julio C

    2006-01-01

    Several adjuvants have been described and tested in humans. However, the aluminum-based adjuvants remain the most widely used component in vaccines today. Emerging data suggest that aluminum phosphate and aluminum hydroxide adjuvants do not promote a strong commitment to the helper T cell type 2 (Th2) pathway when they are coadministered with some Th1 adjuvants. In this regard, subtle differences between both aluminum-based adjuvants have been demonstrated. We have previously shown that subcutaneous immunization, in aluminum phosphate, of a mixture comprising the surface and core antigens of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the multiepitopic protein CR3 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 elicits a CR3-specific Th1 immune response. In these experiments, the antigens were adjuvated at the same time. As the final selection of the best adjuvant should be based on experimental evidence, we asked whether aluminum hydroxide allows a better Th1 immune deviation than aluminum phosphate. We also studied several ways to mix the antigens and the impact on CR3-specific interferon (IFN)-gamma secretion. Our findings indicate that aluminum hydroxide allows better Th1 immunodeviation than aluminum phosphate adjuvant for the mixture of HBV antigens and CR3. In addition, CR3-specific IFN-gamma secretion of the various formulations tested was the same irrespective of the order in which the antigens were combined.

  6. Tryptophan and the immune response

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moffett, John R; Namboodiri, Ma Aryan

    2003-01-01

    ... that break down tryptophan through this pathway are found in numerous cell types, including cells of the immune system. Some of these enzymes are induced by immune activation, including the rate limiting enzyme present in macrophages and dendritic cells, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). It has recently been found that inhibition of IDO can ...

  7. Cytotoxic effector functions of T cells are not required for protective immunity against fatal Rickettsia typhi infection in a murine model of infection: Role of TH1 and TH17 cytokines in protection and pathology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Moderzynski

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Endemic typhus caused by Rickettsia (R. typhi is an emerging febrile disease that can be fatal due to multiple organ pathology. Here we analyzed the requirements for protection against R. typhi by T cells in the CB17 SCID model of infection. BALB/c wild-type mice generate CD4+ TH1 and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells both of which are sporadically reactivated in persistent infection. Either adoptively transferred CD8+ or CD4+ T cells protected R. typhi-infected CB17 SCID mice from death and provided long-term control. CD8+ T cells lacking either IFNγ or Perforin were still protective, demonstrating that the cytotoxic function of CD8+ T cells is not essential for protection. Immune wild-type CD4+ T cells produced high amounts of IFNγ, induced the release of nitric oxide in R. typhi-infected macrophages and inhibited bacterial growth in vitro via IFNγ and TNFα. However, adoptive transfer of CD4+IFNγ-/- T cells still protected 30-90% of R. typhi-infected CB17 SCID mice. These cells acquired a TH17 phenotype, producing high amounts of IL-17A and IL-22 in addition to TNFα, and inhibited bacterial growth in vitro. Surprisingly, the neutralization of either TNFα or IL-17A in CD4+IFNγ-/- T cell recipient mice did not alter bacterial elimination by these cells in vivo, led to faster recovery and enhanced survival compared to isotype-treated animals. Thus, collectively these data show that although CD4+ TH1 cells are clearly efficient in protection against R. typhi, CD4+ TH17 cells are similarly protective if the harmful effects of combined production of TNFα and IL-17A can be inhibited.

  8. The effects of psychological stress on humans: increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and a Th1-like response in stress-induced anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, M; Song, C; Lin, A; De Jongh, R; Van Gastel, A; Kenis, G; Bosmans, E; De Meester, I; Benoy, I; Neels, H; Demedts, P; Janca, A; Scharpé, S; Smith, R S

    1998-04-01

    There is some evidence that, in humans and experimental animals, psychological stress may suppress or enhance immune functions, depending on the nature of the stressor and the immune variables under consideration. The possibility that psychological stress may affect the production of pro-inflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines was investigated in 38 medical students, who had blood samplings a few weeks before and after as well as one day before an academic examination. Psychological stress significantly increased the stimulated production of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and IL-10. Students with high stress perception during the stressful condition had a significantly higher production of TNF-alpha, IL-6, IL-1Ra and IFN-gamma than students with a low-stress perception. Students with a high anxiety response had a significantly higher production of IFN-gamma and a lower production of the negative immunoregulatory cytokines, IL-10 and IL-4, than students without anxiety. These findings suggest that, in humans, changes in the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and IFN-gamma, and negative immunoregulatory cytokines, IL-10 and IL-4, take part in the homeostatic responses to psychological stress and that stress-induced anxiety is related to a T-helper-1-like response.

  9. Transcription factor IRF8 controls Th1-like regulatory T-cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonyong; Kim, Hyeong Su; Baek, Song Yi; Lee, Gap Ryol

    2016-11-01

    Recent studies have suggested that regulatory T (Treg) cells comprise a heterogeneous population that regulates various aspects of the immune response, and that Treg cells use the factors that are expressed in their target cells to regulate them. We searched for factors that regulate Th1 response in Treg cells using a meta-analysis. In the process, we discovered that transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 8 (IRF8) was selectively expressed in Treg and Th1 cells. IRF8-deficient Treg cells showed defective expression of CXCR3 and aberrant expression of the Il4 and Il17 genes. Upon treatment with alpha galactosyl-C18-ceramide (αGal-C18-Cer), IRF8-deficient mice showed defective Treg cell recruitment in the liver. Eliciting Th1 immune response by anti-CD40 antibody injection in mice induced IRF8 expression in Treg cells. The expression of IRF8 was induced by Foxp3 in Treg cells. IRF8 had no effect on T-bet expression in Treg and vice versa. Thus, our results strongly suggest that IRF8 controls Th1 immune response in Treg cells independent of T-bet.

  10. Mucosal immune responses induced by transcutaneous vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, L B; Clements, J D; Freytag, L C

    2012-01-01

    The skin has been investigated as a site for vaccine delivery only since the late 1990s. However, much has been discovered about the cell populations that reside in the skin, their active role in immune responses, and the fate of trans- cutaneously applied antigens. Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) is a safe, effective means of inducing immune responses against a number of pathogens. One of the most notable benefits of TCI is the induction of immune responses in both systemic and mucosal compartments. This chapter focuses on the transport of antigen into and beyond intact skin, the cutaneous sentinel cell populations that play a role in TCI, and the types of mucosal immune responses that have been generated. A number of in vivo studies in murine models have provided information about the broad responses induced by TCI. Cellular and humoral responses and protection against challenge have been noted in the gastrointestinal, reproductive, and respiratory tracts. Clinical trials have demonstrated the benefits of this vaccine delivery route in humans. As with other routes of immunization, the type of vaccine formulation and choice of adjuvant may be critical for achieving appropriate responses and can be tailored to activate specific immune-responsive cells in the skin to increase the efficacy of TCI against mucosal pathogens.

  11. Social Behavior, Prolactin and the Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    on the immune processes. (Locke, Ader, Besedovsky, Hall, Solomon & Strom, 1985). The term psychoneuroimmunology has been coined by researchers to...which demonstrate that experimental manipulations of hormone levels can either augment or depress immune responses and similar findings have been...34mind and immunity" covering a five year period (Locke and Hornig-Rohan, 1983) and a collection of seminal papers on psychoneuroimmunology (Locke, et

  12. Predicting the Role of IL-10 in the Regulation of the Adaptive Immune Responses in Mycobacterium avium Subsp. paratuberculosis Infections Using Mathematical Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesham Magombedze

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes Johne's disease (JD in cattle and other animals. The hallmark of MAP infection in the early stages is a strong protective cell-mediated immune response (Th1-type, characterized by antigen-specific γ-interferon (IFN-γ. The Th1 response wanes with disease progression and is supplanted by a non-protective humoral immune response (Th2-type. Interleukin-10 (IL-10 is believed to play a critical role in the regulation of host immune responses to MAP infection and potentially orchestrate the reversal of Th1/Th2 immune dominance during disease progression. However, how its role correlates with MAP infection remains to be completely deciphered. We developed mathematical models to explain probable mechanisms for IL-10 involvement in MAP infection. We tested our models with IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ, and MAP fecal shedding data collected from calves that were experimentally infected and followed over a period of 360 days in the study of Stabel and Robbe-Austerman (2011. Our models predicted that IL-10 can have different roles during MAP infection, (i it can suppress the Th1 expression, (ii can enhance Th2 (IL-4 expression, and (iii can suppress the Th1 expression in synergy with IL-4. In these predicted roles, suppression of Th1 responses was correlated with increased number of MAP. We also predicted that Th1-mediated responses (IFN-γ can lead to high expression of IL-10 and that infection burden regulates Th2 suppression by the Th1 response. Our models highlight areas where more experimental data is required to refine our model assumptions, and further test and investigate the role of IL-10 in MAP infection.

  13. Antimicrobial peptides in innate immune responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, O.E.; Borregaard, N.; Cole, A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are ancient effector molecules in the innate immune response of eukaryotes. These peptides are important for the antimicrobial efficacy of phagocytes and for the innate immune response mounted by epithelia of humans and other mammals. AMPs are generated either by de...... novo synthesis or by proteolytic cleavage from antimicrobially inactive proproteins. Studies of human diseases and animal studies have given important clues to the in vivo role of AMPs. It is now evident that dysregulation of the generation of AMPs in innate immune responses plays a role in certain...

  14. The TLR4 Agonist Vaccine Adjuvant, GLA-SE, Requires Canonical and Atypical Mechanisms of Action for TH1 Induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Dubois Cauwelaert

    Full Text Available The Toll-like receptor 4 agonist glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant formulated in a stable emulsion (GLA-SE promotes strong TH1 and balanced IgG1/IgG2 responses to protein vaccine antigens. This enhanced immunity is sufficient to provide protection against many diseases including tuberculosis and leishmaniasis. To better characterize the adjuvant action it is important to understand how the different cytokines and transcription factors contribute to the initiation of immunity. In the present study using T-bet-/- and IL-12-/- mice and a blocking anti-IFNαR1 monoclonal antibody, we define mechanisms of adjuvant activity of GLA-SE. In accordance with previous studies of TLR4 agonist based adjuvants, we found that TH1 induction via GLA-SE was completely dependent upon T-bet, a key transcription factor for IFNγ production and TH1 differentiation. Consistent with this, deficiency of IL-12, a cytokine canonical to TH1 induction, ablated TH1 induction via GLA-SE. Finally we demonstrate that the innate immune response to GLA-SE, including rapid IFNγ production by memory CD8+ T cells and NK cells, was contingent on type I interferon, a cytokine group whose association with TH1 induction is contextual, and that they contributed to the adjuvant activity of GLA-SE.

  15. Sex-Based Selectivity of PPARγ Regulation in Th1, Th2, and Th17 Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Jai Park

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ has recently been recognized to regulate adaptive immunity through Th17 differentiation, Treg functions, and TFH responses. However, its role in adaptive immunity and autoimmune disease is still not clear, possibly due to sexual differences. Here, we investigated in vitro treatment study with the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone to compare Th1, Th2, and Th17 differentiation in male and female mouse splenic T cells. Pioglitazone treatment significantly inhibited various effector T cell differentiations including Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells from female naïve T cells, but it selectively reduced IL-17 production in male Th17 differentiation. Interestingly, pioglitazone and estradiol (E2 co-treatment of T cells in males inhibited differentiation of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells, suggesting a mechanism for the greater sensitivity of PPARγ to ligand treatment in the regulation of effector T cell differentiation in females. Collectively, these results demonstrate that PPARγ selectively inhibits Th17 differentiation only in male T cells and modulates Th1, Th2, and Th17 differentiation in female T cells based on different level of estrogen exposure. Accordingly, PPARγ could be an important immune regulator of sexual differences in adaptive immunity.

  16. Cholinergic Modulation of Type 2 Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goele Bosmans

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the bidirectional relationship between the nervous and immune system has become increasingly clear, and its role in both homeostasis and inflammation has been well documented over the years. Since the introduction of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, there has been an increased interest in parasympathetic regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses, including T helper 2 responses. Increasing evidence has been emerging suggesting a role for the parasympathetic nervous system in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases, including allergic rhinitis, asthma, food allergy, and atopic dermatitis. In this review, we will highlight the role of cholinergic modulation by both nicotinic and muscarinic receptors in several key aspects of the allergic inflammatory response, including barrier function, innate and adaptive immune responses, and effector cells responses. A better understanding of these cholinergic processes mediating key aspects of type 2 immune disorders might lead to novel therapeutic approaches to treat allergic diseases.

  17. Innate immune response to Burkholderia mallei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikh, Kamal U; Mott, Tiffany M

    2017-06-01

    Burkholderia mallei is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the highly contagious and often the fatal disease, glanders. With its high rate of infectivity via aerosol and recalcitrance toward antibiotics, this pathogen is considered a potential biological threat agent. This review focuses on the most recent literature highlighting host innate immune response to B. mallei. Recent studies focused on elucidating host innate immune responses to the novel mechanisms and virulence factors employed by B. mallei for survival. Studies suggest that pathogen proteins manipulate various cellular processes, including host ubiquitination pathways, phagosomal escape, and actin-cytoskeleton rearrangement. Immune-signaling molecules such as Toll-like receptors, nucleotode-binding oligomerization domain, myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88, and proinflammatory cytokines such as interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-α, play key roles in the induction of innate immune responses. Modifications in B. mallei lipopolysaccharide, in particular, the lipid A acyl groups, stimulate immune responses via Toll-like receptor4 activation that may contribute to persistent infection. Mortality is high because of septicemia and immune pathogenesis with B. mallei exposure. An effective innate immune response is critical to controlling the acute phase of the infection. Both vaccination and therapeutic approaches are necessary for complete protection against B. mallei.

  18. Surviving Sepsis: Taming a Deadly Immune Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe August 2014 Print this issue Surviving Sepsis Taming a Deadly Immune Response En español Send ... Mouth? Looking at Lupus Wise Choices Signs of Sepsis Sepsis can be hard to spot, because its ...

  19. Molecular signatures of the evolving immune response in mice following a Bordetella pertussis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeven, René H M; Brummelman, Jolanda; Pennings, Jeroen L A; Nijst, Olaf E M; Kuipers, Betsy; Blok, Laura E R; Helm, Kina; van Riet, Elly; Jiskoot, Wim; van Els, Cecile A C M; Han, Wanda G H; Kersten, Gideon F A; Metz, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide resurgence of pertussis necessitates the need for improvement of pertussis vaccines and vaccination strategies. Since natural infections induce a longer-lasting immunity than vaccinations, detailed knowledge of the immune responses following natural infection can provide important clues for such improvement. The purpose was to elucidate the kinetics of the protective immune response evolving after experimental Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis) infection in mice. Data were collected from (i) individual analyses, i.e. microarray, flow cytometry, multiplex immunoassays, and bacterial clearance; (ii) twelve time points during the infection; and (iii) different tissues involved in the immune responses, i.e. lungs, spleen and blood. Combined data revealed detailed insight in molecular and cellular sequence of events connecting different phases (innate, bridging and adaptive) of the immune response following the infection. We detected a prolonged acute phase response, broad pathogen recognition, and early gene signatures of subsequent T-cell recruitment in the lungs. Activation of particular transcription factors and specific cell markers provided insight into the time course of the transition from innate towards adaptive immune responses, which resulted in a broad spectrum of systemic antibody subclasses and splenic Th1/Th17 memory cells against B. pertussis. In addition, signatures preceding the local generation of Th1 and Th17 cells as well as IgA in the lungs, considered key elements in protection against B. pertussis, were established. In conclusion, molecular and cellular immunological processes in response to live B. pertussis infection were unraveled, which may provide guidance in selecting new vaccine candidates that should evoke local and prolonged protective immune responses.

  20. Molecular signatures of the evolving immune response in mice following a Bordetella pertussis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René H M Raeven

    Full Text Available Worldwide resurgence of pertussis necessitates the need for improvement of pertussis vaccines and vaccination strategies. Since natural infections induce a longer-lasting immunity than vaccinations, detailed knowledge of the immune responses following natural infection can provide important clues for such improvement. The purpose was to elucidate the kinetics of the protective immune response evolving after experimental Bordetella pertussis (B. pertussis infection in mice. Data were collected from (i individual analyses, i.e. microarray, flow cytometry, multiplex immunoassays, and bacterial clearance; (ii twelve time points during the infection; and (iii different tissues involved in the immune responses, i.e. lungs, spleen and blood. Combined data revealed detailed insight in molecular and cellular sequence of events connecting different phases (innate, bridging and adaptive of the immune response following the infection. We detected a prolonged acute phase response, broad pathogen recognition, and early gene signatures of subsequent T-cell recruitment in the lungs. Activation of particular transcription factors and specific cell markers provided insight into the time course of the transition from innate towards adaptive immune responses, which resulted in a broad spectrum of systemic antibody subclasses and splenic Th1/Th17 memory cells against B. pertussis. In addition, signatures preceding the local generation of Th1 and Th17 cells as well as IgA in the lungs, considered key elements in protection against B. pertussis, were established. In conclusion, molecular and cellular immunological processes in response to live B. pertussis infection were unraveled, which may provide guidance in selecting new vaccine candidates that should evoke local and prolonged protective immune responses.

  1. Primary vaccination with the LiESP/QA-21 vaccine (CaniLeish) produces a cell-mediated immune response which is still present 1 year later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Javier; Vouldoukis, Ioannis; Schreiber, Paul; Martin, Virginie; McGahie, David; Gueguen, Sylvie; Cuisinier, Anne-Marie

    2014-04-15

    Canine leishmaniasis, an important zoonotic disease of dogs, is the result of an ineffective and inappropriate immune response to infection with Leishmania infantum. It is widely accepted that the appropriate immune response is characterised by a T-helper (Th)1-dominated profile in an overall mixed Th1/Th2 response. The absence of a strong Th1 response is associated with progression to the clinical disease. Thus, there is a need for an effective vaccine that could modulate the immune response to a more appropriate profile against the parasite. In this study we measured the impact of the LiESP/QA-21 canine vaccine, recently launched commercially in Europe, on selected humoral and cellular immune markers for one year after a primary vaccination course. The humoral response to vaccination was characterised by a predominantly IgG2 profile. Vaccinated dogs developed long-lasting cell-mediated immune responses against L. infantum, specifically with a stronger ability of macrophages to reduce intracellular parasite burdens in co-culture with autologous lymphocytes compared to control dogs (p=0.0002), which was correlated with induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and production of nitric oxide (NO) derivatives. These results confirm that vaccination with LiESP/QA-21 is capable of inducing an appropriate Th1-dominated immune profile which persists for a full year. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Human placenta-derived adherent cells induce tolerogenic immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Morschauser, Andrew; Zhang, Xin; Lu, Xiaohua; Gleason, Joseph; He, Shuyang; Chen, Hong-Jung; Jankovic, Vladimir; Ye, Qian; Labazzo, Kristen; Herzberg, Uri; Albert, Vivian R; Abbot, Stewart E; Liang, Bitao; Hariri, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Human placenta-derived adherent cells (PDAC cells) are a culture expanded, undifferentiated mesenchymal-like population derived from full-term placental tissue, with immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. PDA-001 (cenplacel-L), an intravenous formulation of PDAC cells, is in clinical development for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the immunoregulatory properties of PDAC cells, we investigated their effects on immune cell populations, including T cells and dendritic cells (DC) in vitro and in vivo. PDAC cells suppressed T-cell proliferation in an OT-II T-cell adoptive transfer model, reduced the severity of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and ameliorated inflammation in a delayed type hypersensitivity response model. In vitro, PDAC cells suppressed T-cell proliferation and inhibited Th1 and Th17 differentiation. Analysis of tissues derived from PDAC cell-treated animals revealed diminished CD86 expression on splenic DC, suggesting that they can also modulate DC populations. Furthermore, PDAC cells modulate the differentiation and maturation of mouse bone marrow-derived DC. Similarly, human DC differentiated from CD14+ monocytes in the presence of PDAC cells acquired a tolerogenic phenotype. These tolerogenic DC failed to induce allogeneic T-cell proliferation and differentiation toward Th1, but skewed T-cell differentiation toward Th2. Inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase-2 activity resulted in a significant, but not complete, abrogation of PDAC cells' effects on DC phenotype and function, implying a role for prostaglandin E2 in PDAC-mediated immunomodulation. This study identifies modulation of DC differentiation toward immune tolerance as a key mechanism underlying the immunomodulatory activities of PDAC cells. PMID:25505962

  3. Innate immune response to Burkholderia mallei

    OpenAIRE

    Kamal U Saikh; Mott, Tiffany M.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Burkholderia mallei is a facultative intracellular pathogen that causes the highly contagious and often the fatal disease, glanders. With its high rate of infectivity via aerosol and recalcitrance toward antibiotics, this pathogen is considered a potential biological threat agent. This review focuses on the most recent literature highlighting host innate immune response to B. mallei. Recent findings Recent studies focused on elucidating host innate immune responses to the no...

  4. Ferulic Acid Induces Th1 Responses by Modulating the Function of Dendritic Cells and Ameliorates Th2-Mediated Allergic Airway Inflammation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Chen Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the immunomodulatory effects of ferulic acid (FA on antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs in vitro and its antiallergic effects against ovalbumin- (OVA- induced Th2-mediated allergic asthma in mice. The activation of FA-treated bone marrow-derived DCs by lipopolysaccharide (LPS stimulation induced a high level of interleukin- (IL- 12 but reduced the expression levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF- α. Compared to control-treated DCs, FA significantly enhanced the expressions of Notch ligand Delta-like 4 (Dll4, MHC class II, and CD40 molecules by these DCs. Furthermore, these FA-treated DCs enhanced T-cell proliferation and Th1 cell polarization. In animal experiments, oral administration of FA reduced the levels of OVA-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE and IgG1 and enhanced IgG2a antibody production in serum. It also ameliorated airway hyperresponsiveness and attenuated eosinophilic pulmonary infiltration in dose-dependent manners. In addition, FA treatment inhibited the production of eotaxin, Th2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, and proinflammatory cytokines but promoted the Th1 cytokine interferon- (IFN- γ production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and the culture supernatant of spleen cells. These findings suggest that FA exhibits an antiallergic effect via restoring Th1/Th2 imbalance by modulating DCs function in an asthmatic mouse model.

  5. Anti-tumor immune response after photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Pawel; Castano, Ana P.; Wu, Mei X.; Kung, Andrew L.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2009-06-01

    Anti-tumor immunity is stimulated after PDT due a number of factors including: the acute inflammatory response caused by PDT, release of antigens from PDT-damaged tumor cells, priming of the adaptive immune system to recognize tumor-associated antigens (TAA), and induction of heat-shock proteins. The induction of specific CD8+ T-lymphocyte cells that recognize major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) restricted epitopes of TAAs is a highly desirable goal in cancer therapy as it would allow the treatment of tumors that may have already metastasized. The PDT killed tumor cells may be phagocytosed by dendritic cells (DC) that then migrate to draining lymph nodes and prime naÃve T-cells that recognize TAA epitopes. We have carried out in vivo PDT with a BPD-mediated vascular regimen using a pair of BALB/c mouse colon carcinomas: CT26 wild type expressing the naturally occurring retroviral antigen gp70 and CT26.CL25 additionally expressing beta-galactosidase (b-gal) as a model tumor rejection antigen. PDT of CT26.CL25 cured 100% of tumors but none of the CT26WT tumors (all recurred). Cured CT26.CL25 mice were resistant to rechallenge. Moreover mice with two bilateral CT26.CL25 tumors that had only one treated with PDT demonstrated spontaneous regression of 70% of untreated contralateral tumors. T-lymphocytes were isolated from lymph nodes of PDT cured mice that recognized a particular peptide specific to b-gal antigen. T-lymphocytes from LN were able to kill CT26.CL25 target cells in vitro but not CT26WT cells as shown by a chromium release assay. CT26.CL25 tumors treated with PDT and removed five days later had higher levels of Th1 cytokines than CT26 WT tumors showing a higher level of immune response. When mice bearing CT26WT tumors were treated with a regimen of low dose cyclophosphamide (CY) 2 days before, PDT led to 100% of cures (versus 0% without CY) and resistance to rechallenge. Low dose CY is thought to deplete regulatory T-cells (Treg, CD4+CD25+foxp

  6. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv1987 induces Th2 immune responses and enhances Mycobacterium smegmatis survival in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Shanshan; Shi, Xiaoxia; Deng, Guoying; Chen, Lina; Xin, Yi; Ma, Yufang

    2017-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis can interfere with host immune response and escape clearance through its specific antigens. M. tuberculosis Rv1987 encoded by region of difference (RD)-2 gene is a secretory protein with immunogenic potency. Here, we investigated the impact of Rv1987 on host cytokine responses and T cell polarization in mouse aerosol model. A recombinant M. smegmatis mc2155 strain that overexpressed Rv1987 protein (named MS1987) was constructed and used to infect C57BL/6 mice. The mc2155 harbored the empty vector (named MSVec) was as a control. The results showed that MS1987 challenged mice promoted Th2-biased cytokine responses with lower secretion of IFN-γ but higher production of IL-4 and Rv1987-specific IgG antibody compared to MSVec infected mice. Neutrophilic inflammation and high bacterial burden were observed in the lung tissues of MS1987 infected mice probably own to the failed Th1 cell immunity. Besides, subcutaneous injection of Rv1987 protein could mediate the Th1 cytokine responses caused by M. bovis BCG in mice. These results indicated that M. tuberculosis Rv1987 protein could modulate host immune response towards Th2 profile, which probably contributed to the immune evasion of bacteria from host elimination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Dichotomy of the human T cell response to Leishmania antigens. I. Th1-like response to Leishmania major promastigote antigens in individuals recovered from cutaneous leishmaniasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, M; Hey, A S; Kurtzhals, J A

    1994-01-01

    The T cell response to antigens from Leishmania major promastigotes was investigated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Sudanese individuals with a history of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), Sudanese individuals with positive DTH reaction in the leishmanin skin test but with no history...

  8. Reduction of IL-17A Might Suppress the Th1 Response and Promote the Th2 Response by Boosting the Function of Treg Cells during Silica-Induced Inflammatory Response In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Silica inhalation can induce chronic lung inflammation and fibrosis. Upon silica stimulation, activated macrophages trigger the T-lymphocyte which can differentiate into many different types of Th cells, including the recently discovered Th17 cells. IL-17A, the typical Th17 cytokine, is reported in some inflammatory diseases. However, the role of IL-17A in silica-induced inflammatory response is still not clear. The regulatory mechanism of silica-induced Th17 response also needs to be investigated. So we established a mice primary cell coculture system (macrophage and lymphocyte to investigate the role of IL-17A in silica-induced inflammatory response in vitro, by using anti-IL-17A mAb and IL-1Ra. Both anti-IL-17A mAb and IL-1Ra decreased the level of IL-17A and increased the function of Treg cells. The Th1 response was suppressed and the Th2 response was promoted by the addition of anti-IL-17A mAb or IL-1Ra. IL-1Ra treatment decreased the level of IL-6, whereas the levels of IL-23 and ROR-γt were increased. Our study demonstrated that IL-17A reduction altered the pattern of silica-induced Th responses by boosting the function of Treg cells in vitro. Blocking the function of IL-1 signal pathway could suppress the level of IL-17A, which played the major role in modulating silica-induced Th responses in vitro.

  9. Lipophilic fractions from the marine sponge Halichondria sitiens decrease secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by dendritic cells and decrease their ability to induce a Th1 type response by allogeneic CD4+ T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Xiaxia; Oskarsson, Jon T; Omarsdottir, Sesselja; Freysdottir, Jona; Hardardottir, Ingibjorg

    2017-12-01

    Halichondria (Halichondriidae) marine sponges contain components possessing various biological activities, but immunomodulation is not among the ones reported. This study evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of fractions/compounds from Halichondria sitiens Schmidt. Crude dichloromethane/methanol extracts of H. sitiens were subjected to various chromatographic techniques to obtain fractions/compounds with immunomodulatory activity, using bioassay-guided isolation. The effects of the fractions/compounds were determined by measuring secretion of cytokines and expression of surface molecules by dendritic cells (DCs) and their ability to stimulate and modify cytokine secretion by allogeneic CD4+ T cells. The bioactive fractions were chemically analyzed to identify the immunomodulatory constituents by 1D, 2D NMR, and HRMS data. Several lipophilic fractions from H. sitiens at 10 μg/mL decreased secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-12p40 and IL-6 by the DCs, with maximum inhibition being 64% and 25%, respectively. In addition, fractions B3b3F and B3b3J decreased the ability of DCs to induce T cell secretion of IFN-γ. Fraction B3b3 induced morphological changes in DCs, characterized by extreme elongation of dendrites and cell clustering. Chemical screening revealed the presence of glycerides and some minor unknown constituents in the biologically active fractions. One new glyceride, 2,3-dihydroxypropyl 2-methylhexadecanoate (1), was isolated from one fraction and two known compounds, 3-[(1-methoxyhexadecyl)oxy]propane-1,2-diol (2) and monoheptadecanoin (3), were identified in another, but none of them had immunomodulatory activity. These results demonstrate that several lipophilic fractions from H. sitiens have anti-inflammatory effects on DCs and decrease their ability to induce a Th1 type immune response.

  10. The Immune Response to Helicobacter pylori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Gubina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The immune response to Helicobacter pylori involves different mechanisms that are both protective and damaging to the host. The innate and the adaptive immune responses lead to inflammatory as well as anti-inflammatory responses, allowing for persistence of many infections. Thus, developing new therapeutics and effective vaccines against H. pylori has proven to be arduous. Despite many immunisation experiments, using various routes of immunisation with classical as well as recombinant H. pylori vaccines (urease, CagA, HP-NAP, HspA, DNA, chimeric molecules, live vectors, microspheres, no effective vaccine is currently available for humans. New directions for successful vaccine construction should follow a profound knowledge of immunopathological events during natural H. pylori infection and factors leading to resolution of infection: mandatory is a new knowledge about the interplay of the innate response to H. pylori, mucosal inflammation, H. pylori virulence factors inducing immune responses, regulation of the adaptive responses to H. pylori as well as construction of novel vaccine platforms for achieving a broad immune response, leading to a sterilizing immunity.

  11. Immune Cell Responses and Cytokine Profile in Intestines of Mice Infected with Trichinella spiralis

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    Jing Ding

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal phase is critical for trichinellosis caused by Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis, as it determines both process and consequences of the disease. Several previous studies have reported that T. spiralis induces the initial predominance of a Th1 response during the intestine stage and a subsequent predominance of a Th2 response during the muscle stage. In the present study, immune cells and cytokine profile were investigated in the intestine of mice infected with T. spiralis. The results showed that the number of eosinophils, goblet cells, mucosal mast cells, and 33D1+ dendritic cells (DCs increased during the intestinal phase of the infection. Among these, eosinophils, goblet cells, and mucosal mast cells continued to increase until 17 days post infection (dpi, and the number of 33D1+ DCs increased compared to wild type; however, it did not change with the days of infection. The mRNA and protein levels of Th1 cytokines IL-2, IL-12, and IFN-γ and the Th2 cytokines IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, and TGF-β were all increased in the tissues of the small intestine in infected mice; however, in general, Th2 cytokines increased more than Th1 cytokines. In conclusion, our findings suggest that T. spiralis infection can induce an increase of small intestine mucosal immune cells and add further evidence to show that the intestinal mucosal immune system of infected mice was induced toward mixed Th1/Th2 phenotypes with the predominance of Th2 response at the early stage of infection.

  12. Immune Responses and Lassa Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russier, Marion; Pannetier, Delphine; Baize, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    Lassa fever is a hemorrhagic fever endemic to West Africa and caused by Lassa virus, an Old World arenavirus. It may be fatal, but most patients recover from acute disease and some experience asymptomatic infection. The immune mechanisms associated with these different outcomes have not yet been fully elucidated, but considerable progress has recently been made, through the use of in vitro human models and nonhuman primates, the only relevant animal model that mimics the pathophysiology and immune responses induced in patients. We discuss here the roles of the various components of the innate and adaptive immune systems in Lassa virus infection and in the control of viral replication and pathogenesis. PMID:23202504

  13. Immune responsiveness in chronic fatigue syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Milton, J. D.; Clements, G. B.; Edwards, R. H.

    1991-01-01

    We have endeavoured to find immunological indications of chronic virus infection in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (myalgic encephalomyelitis) and to investigate immune responsiveness to viruses in such patients in comparison with normal subjects and patients with muscular dystrophy. Levels of circulating IgM immune complexes were elevated (above the 95% normal control range) in 10 (17%) of 58 patients with chronic fatigue syndrome, which was not significantly different from the norma...

  14. Cyclopia Extracts Enhance Th1-, Th2-, and Th17-type T Cell Responses and Induce Foxp3+ Cells in Murine Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shiho; Miura, Yutaka; Hattori, Makoto; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Malherbe, Christiaan J; Muller, Christo J F; Joubert, Elizabeth; Yoshida, Tadashi

    2017-11-02

    Cyclopia genistoides, one of the traditional South African medicinal plants, and other species of the same genus offer noteworthy phenolic profiles, in particular high levels of the anti-allergic xanthone mangiferin. Hot water and 40% ethanol-water (v/v) extracts, prepared from C. genistoides, Cyclopia subternata, and Cyclopia maculata, were tested for immune-regulating activity in vitro using murine splenocytes and mesenteric lymph node cells. The 40% ethanol-water extracts of C. genistoides and C. subternata significantly enhanced production of several types of cytokines, including IL-4, IL-17, and IFN-γ, by antigen-stimulated splenocytes. A concentration-dependent response was observed, noticeably for IFN-γ production. The activity of the extracts did not correlate with the content of any of the major phenolic compounds, indicative that other extract constituents also play a role in immunomodulation. Additionally, the increased ratio of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells to total CD4(+) cells indicated induction of Foxp3(+) cells when mesenteric lymph node cells were cultured in the presence of these two extracts. This study is the first reporting immunostimulatory activity for Cyclopia, which are widely consumed as the herbal tea known as honeybush, underpinning further investigations into the potential use of its extracts as adjuvants for mucosal immunotherapy. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Altered Macrophage and Dendritic Cell Response in Mif−/− Mice Reveals a Role of Mif for Inflammatory-Th1 Response in Type 1 Diabetes

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    Yuriko Itzel Sánchez-Zamora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (Mif is highly expressed in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM. However, there is limited information about how Mif influences the activation of macrophages (Mφ and dendritic cells (DC in T1DM. To address this issue, we induced T1DM by administering multiple low doses of streptozotocin (STZ to Mif−/− or wild-type (Wt BALB/c mice. We found that Mif−/− mice treated with STZ (Mif−/−STZ developed lower levels of hyperglycemia, inflammatory cytokines, and specific pancreatic islet antigen- (PIAg- IgG and displayed reduced cellular infiltration into the pancreatic islets compared to Wt mice treated with STZ (WtSTZ. Moreover, Mφ and DC from Mif−/−STZ displayed lower expression of MHC-II, costimulatory molecules CD80, CD86, and CD40, Toll-like receptor- (TLR- 2, and TLR-4 than WtSTZ. These changes were associated with a reduced capacity of Mφ and DC from Mif−/−STZ to induce proliferation in ovalbumin-specific T cells. All the deficiencies observed in Mif−/−STZ were recovered by exogenous administration of recombinant Mif. These findings suggest that Mif plays a role in the molecular mechanisms of Mφ and DC activation and drives T cell responses involved in the pathology of T1DM. Therefore, Mif is a potential therapeutic target to reduce the pathology of T1DM.

  16. Altered Macrophage and Dendritic Cell Response in Mif−/− Mice Reveals a Role of Mif for Inflammatory-Th1 Response in Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Mendoza, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (Mif) is highly expressed in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, there is limited information about how Mif influences the activation of macrophages (Mφ) and dendritic cells (DC) in T1DM. To address this issue, we induced T1DM by administering multiple low doses of streptozotocin (STZ) to Mif−/− or wild-type (Wt) BALB/c mice. We found that Mif−/− mice treated with STZ (Mif−/−STZ) developed lower levels of hyperglycemia, inflammatory cytokines, and specific pancreatic islet antigen- (PIAg-) IgG and displayed reduced cellular infiltration into the pancreatic islets compared to Wt mice treated with STZ (WtSTZ). Moreover, Mφ and DC from Mif−/−STZ displayed lower expression of MHC-II, costimulatory molecules CD80, CD86, and CD40, Toll-like receptor- (TLR-) 2, and TLR-4 than WtSTZ. These changes were associated with a reduced capacity of Mφ and DC from Mif−/−STZ to induce proliferation in ovalbumin-specific T cells. All the deficiencies observed in Mif−/−STZ were recovered by exogenous administration of recombinant Mif. These findings suggest that Mif plays a role in the molecular mechanisms of Mφ and DC activation and drives T cell responses involved in the pathology of T1DM. Therefore, Mif is a potential therapeutic target to reduce the pathology of T1DM. PMID:27699180

  17. Predictive computational modeling of the mucosal immune responses during Helicobacter pylori infection.

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    Adria Carbo

    Full Text Available T helper (Th cells play a major role in the immune response and pathology at the gastric mucosa during Helicobacter pylori infection. There is a limited mechanistic understanding regarding the contributions of CD4+ T cell subsets to gastritis development during H. pylori colonization. We used two computational approaches: ordinary differential equation (ODE-based and agent-based modeling (ABM to study the mechanisms underlying cellular immune responses to H. pylori and how CD4+ T cell subsets influenced initiation, progression and outcome of disease. To calibrate the model, in vivo experimentation was performed by infecting C57BL/6 mice intragastrically with H. pylori and assaying immune cell subsets in the stomach and gastric lymph nodes (GLN on days 0, 7, 14, 30 and 60 post-infection. Our computational model reproduced the dynamics of effector and regulatory pathways in the gastric lamina propria (LP in silico. Simulation results show the induction of a Th17 response and a dominant Th1 response, together with a regulatory response characterized by high levels of mucosal Treg cells. We also investigated the potential role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ activation on the modulation of host responses to H. pylori by using loss-of-function approaches. Specifically, in silico results showed a predominance of Th1 and Th17 cells in the stomach of the cell-specific PPARγ knockout system when compared to the wild-type simulation. Spatio-temporal, object-oriented ABM approaches suggested similar dynamics in induction of host responses showing analogous T cell distributions to ODE modeling and facilitated tracking lesion formation. In addition, sensitivity analysis predicted a crucial contribution of Th1 and Th17 effector responses as mediators of histopathological changes in the gastric mucosa during chronic stages of infection, which were experimentally validated in mice. These integrated immunoinformatics approaches

  18. Predictive Computational Modeling of the Mucosal Immune Responses during Helicobacter pylori Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbo, Adria; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Pedragosa, Mireia; Viladomiu, Monica; Marathe, Madhav; Eubank, Stephen; Wendelsdorf, Katherine; Bisset, Keith; Hoops, Stefan; Deng, Xinwei; Alam, Maksudul; Kronsteiner, Barbara; Mei, Yongguo; Hontecillas, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    T helper (Th) cells play a major role in the immune response and pathology at the gastric mucosa during Helicobacter pylori infection. There is a limited mechanistic understanding regarding the contributions of CD4+ T cell subsets to gastritis development during H. pylori colonization. We used two computational approaches: ordinary differential equation (ODE)-based and agent-based modeling (ABM) to study the mechanisms underlying cellular immune responses to H. pylori and how CD4+ T cell subsets influenced initiation, progression and outcome of disease. To calibrate the model, in vivo experimentation was performed by infecting C57BL/6 mice intragastrically with H. pylori and assaying immune cell subsets in the stomach and gastric lymph nodes (GLN) on days 0, 7, 14, 30 and 60 post-infection. Our computational model reproduced the dynamics of effector and regulatory pathways in the gastric lamina propria (LP) in silico. Simulation results show the induction of a Th17 response and a dominant Th1 response, together with a regulatory response characterized by high levels of mucosal Treg) cells. We also investigated the potential role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) activation on the modulation of host responses to H. pylori by using loss-of-function approaches. Specifically, in silico results showed a predominance of Th1 and Th17 cells in the stomach of the cell-specific PPARγ knockout system when compared to the wild-type simulation. Spatio-temporal, object-oriented ABM approaches suggested similar dynamics in induction of host responses showing analogous T cell distributions to ODE modeling and facilitated tracking lesion formation. In addition, sensitivity analysis predicted a crucial contribution of Th1 and Th17 effector responses as mediators of histopathological changes in the gastric mucosa during chronic stages of infection, which were experimentally validated in mice. These integrated immunoinformatics approaches characterized the

  19. Modeling cancer-immune responses to therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dePillis, L G; Eladdadi, A; Radunskaya, A E

    2014-10-01

    Cancer therapies that harness the actions of the immune response, such as targeted monoclonal antibody treatments and therapeutic vaccines, are relatively new and promising in the landscape of cancer treatment options. Mathematical modeling and simulation of immune-modifying therapies can help to offset the costs of drug discovery and development, and encourage progress toward new immunotherapies. Despite advances in cancer immunology research, questions such as how the immune system interacts with a growing tumor, and which components of the immune system play significant roles in responding to immunotherapy are still not well understood. Mathematical modeling and simulation are powerful tools that provide an analytical framework in which to address such questions. A quantitative understanding of the kinetics of the immune response to treatment is crucial in designing treatment strategies, such as dosing, timing, and predicting the response to a specific treatment. These models can be used both descriptively and predictively. In this chapter, various mathematical models that address different cancer treatments, including cytotoxic chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and combinations of both treatments, are presented. The aim of this chapter is to highlight the importance of mathematical modeling and simulation in the design of immunotherapy protocols for cancer treatment. The results demonstrate the power of these approaches in explaining determinants that are fundamental to cancer-immune dynamics, therapeutic success, and the development of efficient therapies.

  20. Concomitant pleural and disseminated tuberculosis in AIDS: immune response or HIV infection compartmentalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuon, Felipe Francisco; Tonacio, Adriana Coracini; Gryschek, Ronaldo César

    2007-01-01

    Although, pleural (PT) and disseminated tuberculosis (DT) have been considered as extreme endpoints of the Th1-Th2 immunological spectrum of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, these conditions can occur together. The presence of PT and DT could be explained by (1) PT as primary condition, with progression of HIV infection possibly leading to dissemination of bacilli located in the pleura; (2) preexisting PT, with reinfection at lower LTCD4+ count explaining the DT form; (3) simultaneous acute PT and DT, considering immune compartmentalization phenomena in pleura. There are several important aspects of the immune response and its compartmentalization in co-infected patients with tuberculosis and HIV. PT and DT should not be always considered as extremes of the immunological response against M. tuberculosis, both diseases together may be explained after the understanding of compartmentalization of immune response. Associations between these entities are not so rare, while they remain incompletely explained. This brief review discusses several points of this contradictory association.

  1. Modulation of Dendritic Cell Activation and Subsequent Th1 Cell Polarization by Lidocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yeonseok

    2015-01-01

    Dendritic cells play an essential role in bridging innate and adaptive immunity by recognizing cellular stress including pathogen- and damage-associated molecular patterns and by shaping the types of antigen-specific T cell immunity. Although lidocaine is widely used in clinical settings that trigger cellular stress, it remains unclear whether such treatment impacts the activation of innate immune cells and subsequent differentiation of T cells. Here we showed that lidocaine inhibited the production of IL–6, TNFα and IL–12 from dendritic cells in response to toll-like receptor ligands including lipopolysaccharide, poly(I:C) and R837 in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, the differentiation of Th1 cells was significantly suppressed by the addition of lidocaine while the same treatment had little effect on the differentiation of Th17, Th2 and regulatory T cells in vitro. Moreover, lidocaine suppressed the ovalbumin-specific Th1 cell responses in vivo induced by the adoptive transfer of ovalbumin-pulsed dendritic cells. These results demonstrate that lidocaine inhibits the activation of dendritic cells in response to toll-like receptor signals and subsequently suppresses the differentiation of Th1 cell responses. PMID:26445366

  2. Immune responses to influenza virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreijtz, J H C M; Fouchier, R A M; Rimmelzwaan, G F

    2011-12-01

    Influenza viruses cause annual outbreaks of respiratory tract infection with attack rates of 5-10%. This means that humans are infected repeatedly with intervals of, on average, 10-20 years. Upon each infection subjects develop innate and adaptive immune responses which aim at clearing the infection. Strain-specific antibody responses are induced, which exert selective pressure on circulating influenza viruses and which drive antigenic drift of seasonal influenza viruses, especially in the hemagglutinin molecule. This antigenic drift necessitates updating of seasonal influenza vaccines regularly in order to match the circulating strains. Upon infection also virus-specific T cell responses are induced, including CD4+ T helper cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. These cells are mainly directed to conserved proteins and therefore display cross-reactivity with a variety of influenza A viruses of different subtypes. T cell mediated immunity therefore may contribute to so-called heterosubtypic immunity and may afford protection against antigenically distinct, potentially pandemic influenza viruses. At present, novel viral targets are identified that may help to develop broad-protective vaccines. Here we review the various arms of the immune response to influenza virus infections and their viral targets and discuss the possibility of developing universal vaccines. The development of such novel vaccines would imply that also new immune correlates of protection need to be established in order to facilitate assessment of vaccine efficacy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Immune response parameters during labor and early neonatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protonotariou, Efthimia; Chrelias, Charalampos; Kassanos, Demetrios; Kapsambeli, Helen; Trakakis, Eftihios; Sarandakou, Angeliki

    2010-01-01

    Selected cytokines, associated with Th1 and Th2 immune response and inflammation, were studied in order to evaluate the relation between their release into maternal and neonatal circulation, during labour, and after birth, in comparison with those in adults. Cytokine concentrations were determined by very sensitive immunoassays, in maternal serum (MS), umbilical cord (UC), neonatal serum, the 1st (1N) and 5th (5N) day postpartum and in adult controls. Both IL-2 and IL-4 cytokine concentrations in UC were markedly elevated, compared to adult and MS ones. IL-2 decreased significantly in 5N, while IL-4 remained unchanged. IFN-gamma UC values were significantly lower than those in adults and MS, increasing significantly in 5N. Neonatal serum sIL-2R and sIL-4R were markedly higher than those in adults and MS. IL-1beta, IL-6, sIL-6R, sTNFRI and sTNFRII concentrations in MS and all with TNF-alpha in neonatal serum were significantly higher than in adults. IFN-gamma, IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, IL-2R, IL-4R concentrations in MS, 1N and 5N were dependent on the mode of delivery. The results of this comparative study are indicative for a meaningful role for the studied cytokines and their receptors in: i) the development of neonatal immune system, ii) the regulation of immune response during labour and early life, and iii) the initiation of the processes of labour.

  4. Immune response in the adipose tissue of lean mice infected with the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Luzia; Moreira, João; Melo, Joana; Bezerra, Filipa; Marques, Raquel M; Ferreirinha, Pedro; Correia, Alexandra; Monteiro, Mariana P; Ferreira, Paula G; Vilanova, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    The adipose tissue can make important contributions to immune function. Nevertheless, only a limited number of reports have investigated in lean hosts the immune response elicited in this tissue upon infection. Previous studies suggested that the intracellular protozoan Neospora caninum might affect adipose tissue physiology. Therefore, we investigated in mice challenged with this protozoan if immune cell populations within adipose tissue of different anatomical locations could be differently affected. Early in infection, parasites were detected in the adipose tissue and by 7 days of infection increased numbers of macrophages, regulatory T (Treg) cells and T-bet(+) cells were observed in gonadal, mesenteric, omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Increased expression of interferon-γ was also detected in gonadal adipose tissue of infected mice. Two months after infection, parasite DNA was no longer detected in these tissues, but T helper type 1 (Th1) cell numbers remained above control levels in the infected mice. Moreover, the Th1/Treg cell ratio was higher than that of controls in the mesenteric and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Interestingly, chronically infected mice presented a marked increase of serum leptin, a molecule that plays a role in energy balance regulation as well as in promoting Th1-type immune responses. Altogether, we show that an apicomplexa parasitic infection influences immune cellular composition of adipose tissue throughout the body as well as adipokine production, still noticed at a chronic phase of infection when parasites were already cleared from that particular tissue. This strengthens the emerging view that infections can have long-term consequences for the physiology of adipose tissue. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Injury-induced immune responses in Hydra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Yvan; Buzgariu, Wanda; Reiter, Silke; Galliot, Brigitte

    2014-08-01

    The impact of injury-induced immune responses on animal regenerative processes is highly variable, positive or negative depending on the context. This likely reflects the complexity of the innate immune system that behaves as a sentinel in the transition from injury to regeneration. Early-branching invertebrates with high regenerative potential as Hydra provide a unique framework to dissect how injury-induced immune responses impact regeneration. A series of early cellular events likely require an efficient immune response after amputation, as antimicrobial defence, epithelial cell stretching for wound closure, migration of interstitial progenitors toward the wound, cell death, phagocytosis of cell debris, or reconstruction of the extracellular matrix. The analysis of the injury-induced transcriptomic modulations of 2636 genes annotated as immune genes in Hydra identified 43 genes showing an immediate/early pulse regulation in all regenerative contexts examined. These regulations point to an enhanced cytoprotection via ROS signaling (Nrf, C/EBP, p62/SQSMT1-l2), TNFR and TLR signaling (TNFR16-like, TRAF2l, TRAF5l, jun, fos-related, SIK2, ATF1/CREB, LRRC28, LRRC40, LRRK2), proteasomal activity (p62/SQSMT1-l1, Ced6/Gulf, NEDD8-conjugating enzyme Ubc12), stress proteins (CRYAB1, CRYAB2, HSP16.2, DnaJB9, HSP90a1), all potentially regulating NF-κB activity. Other genes encoding immune-annotated proteins such as NPYR4, GTPases, Swap70, the antiproliferative BTG1, enzymes involved in lipid metabolism (5-lipoxygenase, ACSF4), secreted clotting factors, secreted peptidases are also pulse regulated upon bisection. By contrast, metalloproteinases and antimicrobial peptide genes largely follow a context-dependent regulation, whereas the protease inhibitor α2macroglobulin gene exhibits a sustained up-regulation. Hence a complex immune response to injury is linked to wound healing and regeneration in Hydra. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights

  6. Damage signals in the insect immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eKrautz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Insects and mammals share an ancient innate immune system comprising both humoral and cellular responses. The insect immune system consists of the fat body, which secretes effector molecules into the hemolymph and several classes of hemocytes, which reside in the hemolymph and of protective border epithelia. Key features of wound- and immune responses are shared between insect and mammalian immune systems including the mode of activation by commonly shared microbial (nonself patterns and the recognition of these patterns by dedicated receptors. It is unclear how metazoan parasites in insects, which lack these shared motifs, are recognized. Research in recent years has demonstrated that during entry into the insect host, many eukaryotic pathogens leave traces that alert potential hosts of the damage they have afflicted. In accordance with terminology used in the mammalian immune systems, these signals have been dubbed danger- or damage-associated signals. Damage signals are necessary byproducts generated during entering hosts either by mechanical or proteolytic damage. Here, we briefly review the current stage of knowledge on how wound closure and wound healing during mechanical damage is regulated and how damage-related signals contribute to these processes. We also discuss how sensors of proteolytic activity induce insect innate immune responses. Strikingly damage-associated signals are also released from cells that have aberrant growth, including tumor cells. These signals may induce apoptosis in the damaged cells, the recruitment of immune cells to the aberrant tissue and even activate humoral responses. Thus, this ensures the removal of aberrant cells and compensatory proliferation to replace lost tissue. Several of these pathways may have been co-opted from wound healing and developmental processes.

  7. The immune response in autism: a new frontier for autism research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwood, Paul; Wills, Sharifia; Van de Water, Judy

    2006-07-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are part of a broad spectrum of neurodevelopmental disorders known as pervasive developmental disorders, which occur in childhood. They are characterized by impairments in social interaction, verbal and nonverbal communication and the presence of restricted and repetitive stereotyped behaviors. At the present time, the etiology of ASD is largely unknown, but genetic, environmental, immunological, and neurological factors are thought to play a role in the development of ASD. Recently, increasing research has focused on the connections between the immune system and the nervous system, including its possible role in the development of ASD. These neuroimmune interactions begin early during embryogenesis and persist throughout an individual's lifetime, with successful neurodevelopment contingent upon a normal balanced immune response. Immune aberrations consistent with a dysregulated immune response, which so far, have been reported in autistic children, include abnormal or skewed T helper cell type 1 (T(H)1)/T(H)2 cytokine profiles, decreased lymphocyte numbers, decreased T cell mitogen response, and the imbalance of serum immunoglobulin levels. In addition, autism has been linked with autoimmunity and an association with immune-based genes including human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRB1 and complement C4 alleles described. There is potential that such aberrant immune activity during vulnerable and critical periods of neurodevelopment could participate in the generation of neurological dysfunction characteristic of ASD. This review will examine the status of the research linking the immune response with ASD.

  8. Strongyloides infection in rodents: immune response and immune regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breloer, Minka; Abraham, David

    2017-03-01

    The human pathogenic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis infects approximately 30-100 million people worldwide. Analysis of the adaptive immune response to S. stercoralis beyond descriptive studies is challenging, as no murine model for the complete infection cycle is available. However, the combined employment of different models each capable of modelling some features of S. stercoralis life cycle and pathology has advanced our understanding of the immunological mechanisms involved in host defence. Here we review: (i) studies using S. stercoralis third stage larvae implanted in diffusion chambers in the subcutaneous tissue of mice that allow analysis of the immune response to the human pathogenic Strongyloides species; (ii) studies using Strongyloides ratti and Strongyloides venezuelensis that infect mice and rats to extend the analysis to the parasites intestinal life stage and (iii) studies using S. stercoralis infected gerbils to analyse the hyperinfection syndrome, a severe complication of human strongyloidiasis that is not induced by rodent specific Strongyloides spp. We provide an overview of the information accumulated so far showing that Strongyloides spp. elicits a classical Th2 response that culminates in different, site specific, effector functions leading to either entrapment and killing of larvae in the tissues or expulsion of parasitic adults from the intestine.

  9. Dectin-1 isoforms contribute to distinct Th1/Th17 cell activation in mucosal candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Agostinho; Giovannini, Gloria; De Luca, Antonella; D'Angelo, Carmen; Casagrande, Andrea; Iannitti, Rossana G; Ricci, Giovanni; Cunha, Cristina; Romani, Luigina

    2012-01-01

    The recognition of β-glucans by dectin-1 has been shown to mediate cell activation, cytokine production and a variety of antifungal responses. Here, we report that the functional activity of dectin-1 in mucosal immunity to Candida albicans is influenced by the genetic background of the host. Dectin-1 was required for the proper control of gastrointestinal and vaginal candidiasis in C57BL/6, but not BALB/c mice; in fact, the latter showed increased resistance in the absence of dectin-1. The susceptibility of dectin-1-deficient C57BL/6 mice to infection was associated with defects in IL-17A and aryl hydrocarbon receptor-dependent IL-22 production and in adaptive Th1 responses. In contrast, the resistance of dectin-1-deficient BALB/c mice was associated with increased IL-17A and IL-22 production and the skewing towards Th1/Treg immune responses that provide immunological memory. Disparate canonical/noncanonical NF-κB signaling pathways downstream of dectin-1 were activated in the two different mouse strains. Thus, the net activity of dectin-1 in antifungal mucosal immunity is dependent on the host's genetic background, which affects both the innate cytokine production and the adaptive Th1/Th17 cell activation upon dectin-1 signaling. PMID:22543832

  10. Chronic Schistosoma japonicum infection reduces immune response to vaccine against hepatitis B in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B and schistosomiasis are most prevalent in Africa and Asia, and co-infections of both are frequent in these areas. The immunomodulation reported to be induced by schistosome infections might restrict immune control of hepatitis B virus (HBV leading to more severe viral infection. Vaccination is the most effective measure to control and prevent HBV infection, but there is evidence for a reduced immune response to the vaccine in patients with chronic schistosomiasis japonica. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this paper, we demonstrate in a mouse model that a chronic Schistosoma japonicum infection can inhibit the immune response to hepatitis B vaccine (HBV vaccine and lead to lower production of anti-HBs antibodies, interferon-γ (IFN-γ and interleukin-2 (IL-2. After deworming with Praziquantel (PZQ, the level of anti-HBs antibodies gradually increased and the Th2-biased profile slowly tapered. At 16 weeks after deworming, the levels of anti-HBs antibodies and Th1/Th2 cytokines returned to the normal levels. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results suggest that the preexisting Th2-dominated immune profile in the host infected with the parasite may down-regulate levels of anti-HBs antibodies and Th1 cytokines. To improve the efficacy of HBV vaccination in schistosome infected humans it may be valuable to treat them with praziquantel (PZQ some time prior to HBV vaccination.

  11. The immune response to fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoham, Shmuel; Levitz, Stuart M

    2005-06-01

    During the past two decades, invasive fungal infections have emerged as a major threat to immunocompromised hosts. Patients with neoplastic diseases are at significant risk for such infections as a result of their underlying illness and its therapy. Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus and emerging pathogens, such as the zygomycetes, dark walled fungi, Trichosporon and Fusarium, are largely opportunists, causing infection when host defences are breached. The immune response varies with respect to the fungal species and morphotype encountered. The risk for particular infections differs, depending upon which aspect of immunity is impaired. This article reviews the current understanding of the role and relative importance of innate and adaptive immunity to common and emerging fungal pathogens. An understanding of the host response to these organisms is important in decisions regarding use of currently available antifungal therapies and in the design of new therapeutic modalities.

  12. Extracellular adenosine mediates a systemic metabolic switch during immune response

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bajgar, Adam; Kucerova, Katerina; Jonatova, Lucie; Tomcala, Ales; Schneedorferova, Ivana; Okrouhlik, Jan; Dolezal, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    Immune defense is energetically costly, and thus an effective response requires metabolic adaptation of the organism to reallocate energy from storage, growth, and development towards the immune system...

  13. Clostridium perfringens beta toxin DNA prime-protein boost elicits enhanced protective immune response in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solanki, Amit Kumar; Bhatia, Bharati; Kaushik, Himani; Deshmukh, Sachin K; Dixit, Aparna; Garg, Lalit C

    2017-07-01

    Clostridium perfringens beta toxin (CPB) is the primary pathogenic factor responsible for necrotic enteritis in sheep, cattle and humans. Owing to rapid progression of the disease, vaccination is the only possible recourse to avoid high mortality in animal farms and huge economic losses. The present study reports evaluation of a cpb gene-based DNA vaccine encoding the beta toxin of C. perfringens with homologous as well as heterologous booster strategy. Immunization strategy employing heterologous booster with heat-inactivated rCPB mounted stronger immune response when compared to that generated by homologous booster. Antibody isotyping and cytokine ELISA demonstrated the immune response to be Th1-biased mixed immune response. While moderate protection of immunized BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice against rCPB challenge was observed with homologous booster strategy, heterologous booster strategy led to complete protection. Thus, beta toxin-based DNA vaccine using the heterologous prime-boosting strategy was able to generate better immune response and conferred greater degree of protection against high of dose rCPB challenge than homologous booster regimen, making it an effective vaccination approach against C. perfringens beta toxin.

  14. Effects of PARP-1 Deficiency on Th1 and Th2 Cell Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sambucci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available T cell differentiation to effector Th cells such as Th1 and Th2 requires the integration of multiple synergic and antagonist signals. Poly(ADP-ribosylation is a posttranslational modification of proteins catalyzed by Poly(ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs. Recently, many reports showed that PARP-1, the prototypical member of the PARP family, plays a role in immune/inflammatory responses. Consistently, its enzymatic inhibition confers protection in several models of immune-mediated diseases, mainly through an inhibitory effect on NF-κB (and NFAT activation. PARP-1 regulates cell functions in many types of immune cells, including dendritic cells, macrophages, and T and B lymphocytes. Our results show that PARP-1KO cells displayed a reduced ability to differentiate in Th2 cells. Under both nonskewing and Th2-polarizing conditions, naïve CD4 cells from PARP-1KO mice generated a reduced frequency of IL-4+ cells, produced less IL-5, and expressed GATA-3 at lower levels compared with cells from wild type mice. Conversely, PARP-1 deficiency did not substantially affect differentiation to Th1 cells. Indeed, the frequency of IFN-γ+ cells as well as IFN-γ production, in nonskewing and Th1-polarizing conditions, was not affected by PARP-1 gene ablation. These findings demonstrate that PARP-1 plays a relevant role in Th2 cell differentiation and it might be a target to be exploited for the modulation of Th2-dependent immune-mediated diseases.

  15. Innate Immune Sensing and Response to Influenza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulendran, Bali; Maddur, Mohan S.

    2015-01-01

    Influenza viruses pose a substantial threat to human and animal health worldwide. Recent studies in mouse models have revealed an indispensable role for the innate immune system in defense against influenza virus. Recognition of the virus by innate immune receptors in a multitude of cell types activates intricate signaling networks, functioning to restrict viral replication. Downstream effector mechanisms include activation of innate immune cells and, induction and regulation of adaptive immunity. However, uncontrolled innate responses are associated with exaggerated disease, especially in pandemic influenza virus infection. Despite advances in the understanding of innate response to influenza in the mouse model, there is a large knowledge gap in humans, particularly in immunocom-promised groups such as infants and the elderly. We propose here, the need for further studies in humans to decipher the role of innate immunity to influenza virus, particularly at the site of infection. These studies will complement the existing work in mice and facilitate the quest to design improved vaccines and therapeutic strategies against influenza. PMID:25078919

  16. HPV - immune response to infection and vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley Margaret

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract HPV infection in the genital tract is common in young sexually active individuals, the majority of whom clear the infection without overt clinical disease. However most of those who develop benign lesions eventually mount an effective cell mediated immune (CMI response and the lesions regress. Failure to develop effective CMI to clear or control infection results in persistent infection and, in the case of the oncogenic HPVs, an increased probability of progression to CIN3 and invasive carcinoma. The prolonged duration of infection associated with HPV seems to be associated with effective evasion of innate immunity thus delaying the activation of adaptive immunity. Natural infections in animals show that neutralising antibody to the virus coat protein L1 is protective suggesting that this would be an effective prophylactic vaccine strategy. The current prophylactic HPV VLP vaccines are delivered i.m. circumventing the intra-epithelial immune evasion strategies. These vaccines generate high levels of antibody and both serological and B cell memory as evidenced by persistence of antibody and robust recall responses. However there is no immune correlate - no antibody level that correlates with protection. Recent data on how HPV infects basal epithelial cells and how antibody can prevent this provides a mechanistic explanation for the effectiveness of HPV VLP vaccines.

  17. Human iPSC-MSC-Derived Xenografts Modulate Immune Responses by Inhibiting the Cleavage of Caspases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng-Lin; Leng, Yun; Zhao, Bin; Gao, Chang; Du, Fei-Fei; Jin, Ning; Lian, Qi-Zhou; Xu, Shuang-Yue; Yan, Guo-Liang; Xia, Jun-Jie; Zhuang, Guo-Hong; Fu, Qing-Ling; Qi, Zhong-Quan

    2017-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) negatively modulate immune properties. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)-derived MSCs are alternative source of MSCs. However, the effects of iPSC-MSCs on T cells phenotypes in vivo remain unclear. We established an iPSC-MSC-transplanted host versus graft reaction mouse model using subcapsular kidney injection. Th1, Th2, regulatory T cells (Treg), and Th17 phenotypes and their cytokines were investigated in vivo and in vitro. The role of caspases and the soluble factors involved in the effects of MSCs were examined. We found that iPSC-MSC grafts led to more cell survival and less infiltration of inflammatory cells in mice. iPSC-MSC transplantation inhibited T cell proliferation, decreased Th1 and Th2 phenotypes and cytokines, upregulated Th17 and Treg subsets. Moreover, iPSC-MSCs inhibited the cleavage of caspases 3 and 8 and inhibition of caspases downregulated Th1, Th2 responses and upregulated Th17, Treg responses. Soluble factors were determined using protein array and TGF-β1/2/3, IL-10, and MCP-1 were found to be highly expressed in iPSC-MSCs. The administration of the soluble factors decreased Th1/2 response, upregulated Treg response and inhibited the cleavage of caspases. Our results demonstrate that iPSC-MSCs regulate T cell responses as a result of a combined action of the above soluble factors secreted by iPSC-MSCs. These factors suppress T cell responses by inhibiting the cleavage of caspases. These data provide a novel immunomodulatory mechanism for the underlying iPSC-MSC-based immunomodulatory effects on T cell responses. Stem Cells 2017;35:1719-1732. © 2017 The Authors STEM CELLS published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AlphaMed Press.

  18. Humoral immune response to AAV

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    Roberto eCalcedo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Adeno-associated virus (AAV is a member of the family parvoviridae that has been widely used as a vector for gene therapy because of its safety profile, its ability to transduce both dividing and non-dividing cells, and its low immunogenicity. AAV has been detected in many different tissues of several animal species but has not been associated with any disease. As a result of natural infections, antibodies to AAV can be found in many animals including humans. It has been shown that pre-existing AAV antibodies can modulate the safety and efficacy of AAV vector-mediated gene therapy by blocking vector transduction or by redirecting distribution of AAV vectors to tissues other than the target organ. This review will summarize antibody responses against natural AAV infections, as well as AAV gene therapy vectors and their impact in the clinical development of AAV vectors for gene therapy. We will also review and discuss the various methods used for AAV antibody detection and strategies to overcome neutralizing antibodies in AAV-mediated gene therapy.

  19. Humoral Immune Response to AAV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcedo, Roberto; Wilson, James M

    2013-10-18

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a member of the family Parvoviridae that has been widely used as a vector for gene therapy because of its safety profile, its ability to transduce both dividing and non-dividing cells, and its low immunogenicity. AAV has been detected in many different tissues of several animal species but has not been associated with any disease. As a result of natural infections, antibodies to AAV can be found in many animals including humans. It has been shown that pre-existing AAV antibodies can modulate the safety and efficacy of AAV vector-mediated gene therapy by blocking vector transduction or by redirecting distribution of AAV vectors to tissues other than the target organ. This review will summarize antibody responses against natural AAV infections, as well as AAV gene therapy vectors and their impact in the clinical development of AAV vectors for gene therapy. We will also review and discuss the various methods used for AAV antibody detection and strategies to overcome neutralizing antibodies in AAV-mediated gene therapy.

  20. The specificity of targeted vaccines for APC surface molecules influences the immune response phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnveig Grødeland

    Full Text Available Different diseases require different immune responses for efficient protection. Thus, prophylactic vaccines should prime the immune system for the particular type of response needed for protection against a given infectious agent. We have here tested fusion DNA vaccines which encode proteins that bivalently target influenza hemagglutinins (HA to different surface molecules on antigen presenting cells (APC. We demonstrate that targeting to MHC class II molecules predominantly induced an antibody/Th2 response, whereas targeting to CCR1/3/5 predominantly induced a CD8(+/Th1 T cell response. With respect to antibodies, the polarizing effect was even more pronounced upon intramuscular (i.m delivery as compared to intradermal (i.d. vaccination. Despite these differences in induced immune responses, both vaccines protected against a viral challenge with influenza H1N1. Substitution of HA with ovalbumin (OVA demonstrated that polarization of immune responses, as a consequence of APC targeting specificity, could be extended to other antigens. Taken together, the results demonstrate that vaccination can be tailor-made to induce a particular phenotype of adaptive immune responses by specifically targeting different surface molecules on APCs.

  1. A model of auto immune response

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, James K.; Kesson, Alison M.; King, Nicholas J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Background In this work, we develop a theoretical model of an auto immune response. This is based on modifications of standard second messenger trigger models using both signalling pathways and diffusion and a macro level dynamic systems approximation to the response of a triggering agent such as a virus, bacteria or environmental toxin. Results We show that there, in general, will be self damage effects whenever the triggering agent?s effect on the host can be separated into two distinct cla...

  2. The immune response in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis and the influence of zinc supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Rivero, Miguel; Verduguez-Orellana, Aleida; Montaño, Karen; Cloetens, Lieselotte; Rojas, Ernesto; Åkesson, Björn; Sejas, Edgar

    2015-02-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis triggers a varied immune response depending on parasite and host factors, which in turn can be influenced by nutrients. The resistance to the infection is associated with the Th1 type of cytokine production. The Th1 type can be reduced as a consequence of zinc deficiency, which may increase the risk for chronicity of the infection. Using in vitro and ex vivo models, we studied the influence of zinc supplementation on the immune response in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis treated with antimony and the data were also compared to those of matched controls. Twenty-nine patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (n=14 in zinc-supplemented group [45mg/day] and n=15 in placebo group) were treated by intramuscular injections of antimony for 20 days and took supplements for 60 days. Immunoglobulins in plasma and cell proliferation, IFN-γ production and CD markers of isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were measured. It was found that the cellular immune response of the patients maintained its activity as assessed by the ability of the PBMC to proliferate and produce IFN-γ in response to concanavalin A. Moreover, there was no difference in these variables between the zinc-supplemented and placebo groups after 60 days. The addition of zinc sulphate in vitro to PBMC reduced the IFN-γ production in the placebo group only. It is concluded that the cellular immune response of the cutaneous leishmaniasis patients remained active during treatment by antimony when compared to that of controls. It was not possible to document an additional effect of zinc supplementation for 60 days on the immune response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Myocardial Gene Expression of T-bet, GATA-3, Ror-γt, FoxP3, and Hallmark Cytokines in Chronic Chagas Disease Cardiomyopathy: An Essentially Unopposed TH1-Type Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Gabriel Nogueira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic Chagas disease cardiomyopathy (CCC, a late consequence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is an inflammatory cardiomyopathy with prognosis worse than those of noninflammatory etiology (NIC. Although the T cell-rich myocarditis is known to play a pathogenetic role, the relative contribution of each of the functional T cell subsets has never been thoroughly investigated. We therefore assessed gene expression of cytokines and transcription factors involved in differentiation and effector function of each functional T cell subset (TH1/TH2/TH17/Treg in CCC, NIC, and heart donor myocardial samples. Methods and Results. Quantitative PCR showed markedly upregulated expression of IFN-γ and transcription factor T-bet, and minor increases of GATA-3; FoxP3 and CTLA-4; IL-17 and IL-18 in CCC as compared with NIC samples. Conversely, cytokines expressed by TH2 cells (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 or associated with Treg (TGF-β and IL-10 were not upregulated in CCC myocardium. Expression of TH1-related genes such as T-bet, IFN-γ, and IL-18 correlated with ventricular dilation, FoxP3, and CTLA-4. Conclusions. Results are consistent with a strong local TH1-mediated response in most samples, possibly associated with pathological myocardial remodeling, and a proportionally smaller FoxP3+CTLA4+ Treg cell population, which is unable to completely curb IFN-γ production in CCC myocardium, therefore fueling inflammation.

  4. Th-1, Th-2 Cytokines Profile among Madurella mycetomatis Eumycetoma Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amre Nasr

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Eumycetoma is a progressive and destructive chronic granulomatous subcutaneous inflammatory disease caused by certain fungi, the most common being Madurella mycetomatis. The host defence mechanisms against fungi usually range from an early non-specific immune response to activation and induction of specific adaptive immune responses by the production of Th-1 and Th-2 cytokines. The aim of this study is to determine the levels of Th-1 and Th-2 cytokines in patients infected with Madurella mycetomatis, and the association between their levels and disease prognosis. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at the Mycetoma Research Centre, University of Khartoum, Sudan, where 70 patients with confirmed M. mycetomatis eumycetoma were enrolled; 35 with, and 35 without surgical excision. 70 healthy individuals from mycetoma endemic areas were selected as controls. The levels of serum cytokines were determined by cytometric bead array technique. Significantly higher levels of the Th-1 cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-2 were recorded in patients treated with surgical excision, compared to those treated without surgical excision. In contrast, the Th-2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6 and IL-10 were significantly lower in patients treated with surgical excision compared to those treated without surgical excision. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that cell-mediated immunity can have a role to play in the pathogenesis of eumycetoma.

  5. Ovine model for studying pulmonary immune responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel, D.D.; Chanana, A.D.

    1984-11-25

    Anatomical features of the sheep lung make it an excellent model for studying pulmonary immunity. Four specific lung segments were identified which drain exclusively to three separate lymph nodes. One of these segments, the dorsal basal segment of the right lung, is drained by the caudal mediastinal lymph node (CMLN). Cannulation of the efferent lymph duct of the CMLN along with highly localized intrabronchial instillation of antigen provides a functional unit with which to study factors involved in development of pulmonary immune responses. Following intrabronchial immunization there was an increased output of lymphoblasts and specific antibody-forming cells in efferent CMLN lymph. Continuous divergence of efferent lymph eliminated the serum antibody response but did not totally eliminate the appearance of specific antibody in fluid obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage. In these studies localized immunization of the right cranial lobe served as a control. Efferent lymphoblasts produced in response to intrabronchial antigen were labeled with /sup 125/I-iododeoxyuridine and their migrational patterns and tissue distribution compared to lymphoblasts obtained from the thoracic duct. The results indicated that pulmonary immunoblasts tend to relocate in lung tissue and reappear with a higher specific activity in pulmonary lymph than in thoracic duct lymph. The reverse was observed with labeled intestinal lymphoblasts. 35 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  6. Genetic polymorphism and immune response to tuberculosis in indigenous populations: a brief review

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    Renata Maronna Praça Longhi

    Full Text Available We systematically reviewed studies of the immune response to tuberculosis and the genetic polymorphisms associated with Th1-or Th2-mediated cytokine expression in indigenous populations. A bibliographic search was performed on the Medline and ISI databases and included studies published between January 1980 and October 2011. The search terms were tuberculosis, American Indians, Amerindian, indigenous, Indians, native people, aboriginal, immun*, host immune, immune response, cytokine*, polymorphism*, and gene. Regardless of their design, studies that evaluated immunoglobulin, cytokine levels and genetic polymorphisms that altered cytokine expression were included. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were performed in Latin America, and five investigated the Warao ethnic group of Venezuela. Most of the investigations indirectly evaluated the immune response. Higher anergy to the tuberculin skin test, higher IgG4 and IgM levels, higher IL-5 production and lower TNF-a, IL-12p40 and IFN-I production were found in the indigenous populations. The studies also reported a predominantly Th2-type response in these populations and a possibly higher susceptibility to tuberculosis. A better understanding of the relevant genetic polymorphisms and their role in immune regulation would help to clarify the immunogenetic mechanisms of TB infection in these populations. This information would be useful for identifying new treatments and preventing infection and progression to active disease.

  7. A strong adjuvant based on glycol-chitosan-coated lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles potentiates mucosal immune responses against the recombinant Chlamydia trachomatis fusion antigen CTH522

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Fabrice; Erbo Wern, Jeanette; Gavins, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    with the cationic surfactant dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide and the immunopotentiator trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate. Here we show that immunization with these lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPNs) coated with the mucoadhesive polymer chitosan enhances mucosal immune responses. Glycol chitosan (GC......-specific IgG/IgA antibodies, together with CTH522-specific interferon γ-producing Th1 cells. This study demonstrates that mucosal administration of chitosan-coated LPNs represents a promising strategy to modulate the magnitude of mucosal vaccine responses....

  8. Immune responses to Dermatophilus congolensis infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, N; Lloyd, D; Maillard, J C

    1999-07-01

    Complex mechanisms underly the establishment of dermatophilosis, an exudative and proliferative skin disease of ruminants. This multicomponent system involves the bacterium Dermatophilus congolensis, transmission by various routes including flies, host genetic factors and immunosuppression by Amblyomma variegatum ticks. Here, Nick Ambrose and colleagues summarize recent evidence for an association between A. variegatum and severe chronic dermatophilosis in cattle. Breed-based differences in resistance to dermatophilosis are probably related to immunity to ticks or resistance to the immunosuppressive effects of ticks. Immunity to dermatophilosis might involve non-classic responses mediated by CD1 antigen presentation and gammadelta T cells. Progress towards vaccination is further complicated by strain-specific acquired immunity to D. congolensis.

  9. Immune Responses and Lassa Virus Infection

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    Sylvain Baize

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Lassa fever is a hemorrhagic fever endemic to West Africa and caused by Lassa virus, an Old World arenavirus. It may be fatal, but most patients recover from acute disease and some experience asymptomatic infection. The immune mechanisms associated with these different outcomes have not yet been fully elucidated, but considerable progress has recently been made, through the use of in vitro human models and nonhuman primates, the only relevant animal model that mimics the pathophysiology and immune responses induced in patients. We discuss here the roles of the various components of the innate and adaptive immune systems in Lassa virus infection and in the control of viral replication and pathogenesis.

  10. LOCAL ANTIBODY AND CELLULAR IMMUNE RESPONSES TO INFLUENZA INFECTION AND VACCINATION

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    G. D. Petukhova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Local immune responses of mucous membranes of an organism are the first and most significant barriers preventing many virus infections, including influenza. The barrier against influenza infection is the mucosalassociated lymphoid tissue of the upper airways. It is considered, that nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT in rodents is an equivalent of lymphoid tissue in human Waldeyer’s ring. Present work is the first attempt to analyze and compare the development of cellular and antibody immune responses in NALT in a mouse model of experimental influenza infection using a pathogenic influenza A (H1N1 virus and an attenuated reassorted (2/6 genetic formula live influenza A (H1N1 vaccine.It was shown, that the vaccine strain inherits the ability to induce high-grade local antibody responses like as the virulent parental strain. However, the vaccine strain is inferior to virulent parental strain in capacity to stimulate production of circulating antibodies. Both parental and Р 2/6 strains are equally able to induce lymphoproliferative immune response in NALT lymphocytes. The attenuated reassortant virus is able to stimulate proliferation of Th (CD4+, B-cells (CD19+ and CTL (CD8+ in NALT. As shown by the cytokine activity testing (IFN-γ, IL-6, the attenuated reassortant virus activates both Th1- and Th2-lymphocytes in NALT.This data suggest that intranasal immunization with live attenuated reassortant viruses (genetic formula 2/6 results into active and balanced stimulation of both Th1-and Th2-immune responses at the primary site of infection (NALT.

  11. Pseudomonas aeruginosa alginate is refractory to Th1 immune response and impedes host immune clearance in a mouse model of acute lung infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Zhijun; Wu, Hong; Ciofu, Oana

    2003-01-01

    . The effect of alginate production on pathogenicity was investigated by using an acute lung infection mouse model that compared a non-mucoid P. aeruginosa strain, PAO1, to its constitutive alginate-overproducing derivative, Alg(+) PAOmucA22, and an alginate-defective strain, Alg(-) PAOalgD. Bacterial......Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic respiratory pathogen that accounts for most of the morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. In CF-affected lungs, the bacteria undergo conversion from a non-mucoid to a non-tractable mucoid phenotype, due to overproduction of alginate...... suspensions were instilled into the left bronchus and examined 24 and 48 h post-infection. The highest bacterial loads and the most severe lung pathology were observed with strain Alg(-) PAOalgD at 24 h post-infection, which may have been due to an increase in expression of bacterial elastase by the mutant...

  12. Multiscale modeling of mucosal immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Computational modeling techniques are playing increasingly important roles in advancing a systems-level mechanistic understanding of biological processes. Computer simulations guide and underpin experimental and clinical efforts. This study presents ENteric Immune Simulator (ENISI), a multiscale modeling tool for modeling the mucosal immune responses. ENISI's modeling environment can simulate in silico experiments from molecular signaling pathways to tissue level events such as tissue lesion formation. ENISI's architecture integrates multiple modeling technologies including ABM (agent-based modeling), ODE (ordinary differential equations), SDE (stochastic modeling equations), and PDE (partial differential equations). This paper focuses on the implementation and developmental challenges of ENISI. A multiscale model of mucosal immune responses during colonic inflammation, including CD4+ T cell differentiation and tissue level cell-cell interactions was developed to illustrate the capabilities, power and scope of ENISI MSM. Background Computational techniques are becoming increasingly powerful and modeling tools for biological systems are of greater needs. Biological systems are inherently multiscale, from molecules to tissues and from nano-seconds to a lifespan of several years or decades. ENISI MSM integrates multiple modeling technologies to understand immunological processes from signaling pathways within cells to lesion formation at the tissue level. This paper examines and summarizes the technical details of ENISI, from its initial version to its latest cutting-edge implementation. Implementation Object-oriented programming approach is adopted to develop a suite of tools based on ENISI. Multiple modeling technologies are integrated to visualize tissues, cells as well as proteins; furthermore, performance matching between the scales is addressed. Conclusion We used ENISI MSM for developing predictive multiscale models of the mucosal immune system during gut

  13. The innate and adaptive immune response to avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protective immunity against viruses is mediated by the early innate immune responses and later on by the adaptive immune responses. The early innate immunity is designed to contain and limit virus replication in the host, primarily through cytokine and interferon production. Most all cells are cap...

  14. Autophagy in the immune response to tuberculosis: clinical perspectives.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ní Cheallaigh, C

    2011-06-01

    A growing body of evidence points to autophagy as an essential component in the immune response to tuberculosis. Autophagy is a direct mechanism of killing intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis and also acts as a modulator of proinflammatory cytokine secretion. In addition, autophagy plays a key role in antigen processing and presentation. Autophagy is modulated by cytokines; it is stimulated by T helper type 1 (Th1) cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-γ, and is inhibited by the Th2 cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Vitamin D, via cathelicidin, can also induce autophagy, as can Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated signals. Autophagy-promoting agents, administered either locally to the lungs or systemically, could have a clinical application as adjunctive treatment of drug-resistant and drug-sensitive tuberculosis. Moreover, vaccines which effectively induce autophagy could be more successful in preventing acquisition or reactivation of latent tuberculosis.

  15. Quercetin and Its Anti-Allergic Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Mlcek

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Quercetin is the great representative of polyphenols, flavonoids subgroup, flavonols. Its main natural sources in foods are vegetables such as onions, the most studied quercetin containing foods, and broccoli; fruits (apples, berry crops, and grapes; some herbs; tea; and wine. Quercetin is known for its antioxidant activity in radical scavenging and anti-allergic properties characterized by stimulation of immune system, antiviral activity, inhibition of histamine release, decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines, leukotrienes creation, and suppresses interleukin IL-4 production. It can improve the Th1/Th2 balance, and restrain antigen-specific IgE antibody formation. It is also effective in the inhibition of enzymes such as lipoxygenase, eosinophil and peroxidase and the suppression of inflammatory mediators. All mentioned mechanisms of action contribute to the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating properties of quercetin that can be effectively utilized in treatment of late-phase, and late-late-phase bronchial asthma responses, allergic rhinitis and restricted peanut-induced anaphylactic reactions. Plant extract of quercetin is the main ingredient of many potential anti-allergic drugs, supplements and enriched products, which is more competent in inhibiting of IL-8 than cromolyn (anti-allergic drug disodium cromoglycate and suppresses IL-6 and cytosolic calcium level increase.

  16. Evolutionary responses of innate Immunity to adaptive immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innate immunity is present in all metazoans, whereas the evolutionarily more novel adaptive immunity is limited to jawed fishes and their descendants (gnathostomes). We observe that the organisms that possess adaptive immunity lack diversity in their innate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), rais...

  17. An NLRP3 inflammasome-triggered Th2-biased adaptive immune response promotes leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurung, Prajwal; Karki, Rajendra; Vogel, Peter; Watanabe, Makiko; Bix, Mark; Lamkanfi, Mohamed; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi

    2015-03-02

    Leishmaniasis is a major tropical disease that can present with cutaneous, mucocutaneous, or visceral manifestation and affects millions of individuals, causing substantial morbidity and mortality in third-world countries. The development of a Th1-adaptive immune response is associated with resistance to developing Leishmania major (L. major) infection. Inflammasomes are key components of the innate immune system that contribute to host defense against bacterial and viral pathogens; however, their role in regulating adaptive immunity during infection with protozoan parasites is less studied. Here, we demonstrated that the NLRP3 inflammasome balances Th1/Th2 responses during leishmaniasis. Mice lacking the inflammasome components NLRP3, ASC, or caspase 1 on a Leishmania-susceptible BALB/c background exhibited defective IL-1β and IL-18 production at the infection site and were resistant to cutaneous L. major infection. Moreover, we determined that production of IL-18 propagates disease in susceptible BALB/c mice by promoting the Th2 cytokine IL-4, and neutralization of IL-18 in these animals reduced L. major titers and footpad swelling. In conclusion, our results indicate that activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome is detrimental during leishmaniasis and suggest that IL-18 neutralization has potential as a therapeutic strategy to treat leishmaniasis patients.

  18. Debugging how bacteria manipulate the immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansonetti, Philippe J; Di Santo, James P

    2007-02-01

    Beyond the innate response that is elicited when tissues are infected, bacterial pathogens have evolved strategies to subvert the immune response and "recalibrate" it both qualitatively and quantitatively, thereby achieving a balance consistent with the survival of both the microbe and its infected host, a compromise that is likely the result of a long process of coevolution between pathogens and their hosts. By collaboratively studying the mechanisms employed, microbiologists and immunologists are fostering development of a renewed approach of infectious diseases that is expected to provide useful new concepts and applications for their control. In addition, the molecular strategies developed by bacteria to dampen immune mechanisms result from such strong and prolonged selective pressure for survival that they may point to original mechanisms and targets to conceive novel immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and anti-infectious molecules.

  19. Potent cross-reactive immune response against the wild-type and drug-resistant forms of HIV reverse transcriptase after the chimeric gene immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starodubova, Elizaveta; Boberg, Andreas; Ivanov, Alexander; Latyshev, Oleg; Petrakova, Natalia; Kuzmenko, Yulia; Litvina, Marina; Chernousov, Alexander; Kochetkov, Sergey; Karpov, Vadim; Wahren, Britta; Isaguliants, Maria G

    2010-02-23

    HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) can be considered as a target and an instrument of immunotherapy aimed at limiting the emergence and spread of drug-resistant HIV. The chimeric genes coding for the wild-type and multi-drug-resistant RT (RT1.14) fused to lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1) were injected intramuscularly into BALB/c mice. The immune response was assessed by ELISpot, cytokine ELISA intracellular IFN-gamma staining, and antibody ELISA. The genes for RT- and RT1.14-LAMP fusions (RT-LAMP and RT1.14-LAMP) were immunogenic generating a mixed Th1/Th2-profile of immune response, while the wild-type RT gene induced only weak immune response. Specific secretion of Th1-cytokines increased with increasing level of RT modification: RTresponse against epitopes harboring drug-resistance mutations and their wild-type variants. Gene immunization induced specific IgG (10(3)), and transient serum IgA (10(2)). Low immunogenicity of the parental RT may be explained by tolerance to the enzyme that is a common endogenous retroviral antigen. Potent immune recognition of RT after immunization with chimeric RT genes indicates that this tolerance could be overcome. Immunization with mutant HIV genes may represent an immunotherapeutical supplement to antiretroviral treatment preventing the emergence of drug resistance. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The CD28-related molecule ICOS is required for effective T cell-dependent immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, A J; Lehar, S; Lloyd, C; Tian, J; Delaney, T; Manning, S; Nguyen, T; Burwell, T; Schneider, H; Gonzalo, J A; Gosselin, M; Owen, L R; Rudd, C E; Gutierrez-Ramos, J C

    2000-07-01

    While CD28 is critical for expansion of naive T cells, recent evidence suggests that the activation of effector T cells is largely independent of CD28/B7. We suggest that ICOS, the third member of the CD28/CTLA-4 family, plays an important role in production of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, and IFNgamma from recently activated T cells and contributes to T cell-dependent B help in vivo. Inhibition of ICOS attenuates lung mucosal inflammation induced by Th2 but not Th1 effector populations. Our data indicate a critical function for the third member of the CD28 family in T cell-dependent immune responses.

  1. PBMC transcription profiles of pigs with divergent humoral immune responses and lean growth performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Marcel; Murani, Eduard; Ponsuksili, Siriluck; Wimmers, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The identification of key genes and regulatory networks in the transcriptomic responses of blood cells to antigen stimulation could facilitate the understanding of host defence and disease resistance. Moreover, genetic relationships between immunocompetence and the expression of other phenotypes, such as those of metabolic interest, are debated but incompletely understood in farm animals. Both positive and negative associations between immune responsiveness and performance traits such as weight gain or lean growth have been reported. We designed an in vivo microarray study of transcriptional changes in porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during the immune response to tetanus toxoid (TT) as a model antigen for combined cellular (Th1) and humoral (Th2) responses. The aim of the study was to investigate the responsiveness of PBMCs against the background of divergent lean growth (LG) performance and anti-TT antibody (AB) titers and to compare lean growth and humoral immune performance phenotypes. In general, high LG phenotypes had increased cellular immune response transcripts, while low AB phenotypes had increased transcripts for canonical pathways that represented processes of intracellular and second messenger signaling and immune responses. Comparison of lean growth phenotypes in the context of high AB titers revealed higher cellular immune response transcripts in high LG phenotypes. Similar comparisons in the context of low AB titers failed to identify any corresponding pathways. When high and low AB titer phenotypes were differentially compared, low AB phenotypes had higher cellular immune response transcripts on a low LG background and higher cell signaling, growth, and proliferation transcripts on a high LG background. Divergent phenotypes of both lean growth performance and humoral immune response are affected by significant and functional transcript abundance changes throughout the immune response. The selected high-performance phenotypes

  2. IFN-gamma and IL-10 mediate parasite-specific immune responses of cord blood cells induced by pregnancy-associated Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brustoski, K.; Moller, U.; Kramer, M.; Petelski, A.; Brenner, S.; Palmer, D.; Bongartz, M.; Kremsner, P.G.; Luty, A.J.F.; Krzych, U.

    2005-01-01

    Available evidence suggests that immune cells from neonates born to mothers with placental Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) infection are sensitized to parasite Ag in utero but have reduced ability to generate protective Th1 responses. In this study, we detected Pf Ag-specific IFN-gamma(+) T cells in cord

  3. Cellular immune responses towards regulatory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Stine Kiær

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes the results from two published papers identifying spontaneous cellular immune responses against the transcription factors Foxp3 and Foxo3. The tumor microenvironment is infiltrated by cells that hinder effective tumor immunity from developing. Two of these cell types, which have been linked to a bad prognosis for patients, are regulatory T cells (Treg) and tolerogenic dendritic cells (DC). Tregs inhibit effector T cells from attacking the tumor through various mechanisms, including secreted factors and cell-to-cell contact. Tregs express the transcription factor Foxp3, which is necessary for their development and suppressive activities. Tolerogenic DCs participate in creating an environment in the tumor where effector T cells become tolerant towards the tumor instead of attacking it. The transcription factor Foxo3 was recently described to be highly expressed by tolerogenic DCs and to programme their tolerogenic influence. This thesis describes for the first time the existence of spontaneous cellular immune responses against peptides derived from Foxp3 and Foxo3. We have detected the presence of cytotoxic T cells that recognise these peptides in an HLA-A2 restricted manner in cancer patients and for Foxp3 in healthy donors as well. In addition, we have demonstrated that the Foxp3- and Foxo3-specific CTLs recognize Foxp3- and Foxo3-expressing cancer cell lines and importantly, suppressive immune cells, namely Tregs and in vitro generated DCs. Cancer immunotherapy is recently emerging as an important treatment modality improving the survival of selected patients. The current progress is largely owing to targeting of the immune suppressive milieu that is dominating the tumor microenvironment. This is being done through immune checkpoint blockade with CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies and through lymphodepleting conditioning of patients and ex vivo activation of TILs in adoptive cell transfer. Several strategies are being explored for depletion of

  4. Immune response and immunopathology during toxoplasmosis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Christopher D.; Christian, David A.; Hunter, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite of medical and veterinary significance that is able to infect any warm-blooded vertebrate host. In addition to its importance to public health, several inherent features of the biology of T. gondii have made it an important model organism to study host-pathogen interactions. One factor is the genetic tractability of the parasite, which allows studies on the microbial factors that affect virulence and allows the development of tools that facilitate immune studies. Additionally, mice are natural hosts for T. gondii, and the availability of numerous reagents to study the murine immune system makes this an ideal experimental system to understand the functions of cytokines and effector mechanisms involved in immunity to intracellular microorganisms. In this article, we will review current knowledge of the innate and adaptive immune responses required for resistance to toxoplasmosis, the events that lead to the development of immunopathology, and the natural regulatory mechanisms that limit excessive inflammation during this infection. PMID:22955326

  5. Commensal Gram-negative bacteria prime human dendritic cells for enhanced IL-23 and IL-27 expression and enhanced Th1 development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Hermelijn H.; van Beelen, Astrid J.; Hessle, Christina; Westland, Robert; de Jong, Esther; Soeteman, Eelco; Wold, Agnes; Wierenga, Eddy A.; Kapsenberg, Martien L.

    2004-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are the main orchestrators of specific immune responses. Depending on microbial information they encounter in peripheral tissues, they promote the development of Th1, Th2 or unpolarized Th cell responses. In this study we have investigated the immunomodulatory effect of

  6. A longitudinal study of BCG vaccination in early childhood: the development of innate and adaptive immune responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Djuardi

    Full Text Available BCG vaccine drives a strong T helper 1 cellular immunity which is essential for the protection against mycobacteria, however recent studies suggest that BCG vaccination can have non-specific beneficial effects unrelated to tuberculosis. In the present cohort study the development of cytokine profiles following BCG vaccination was investigated. Immune responses to PPD were assessed before vaccination and at ages of 5 months, 1 year, and 2 years, followed by BCG scar measurement at 4 years of age. BCG was shown to induce both Th1 and Th2 type responses against PPD at about 5 months of age after vaccination, and while Th1 response was sustained, Th2 responses declined over time. However, BCG scar size was strongly correlated with Th2 responses to PPD at 5 months of age. Importantly, we observed no clear effects of BCG vaccination on innate immune responses in terms of early IL-10 or TNF-α production whereas some alterations in general adaptive immune responses to PHA were observed.

  7. Vaccine-mediated immune responses to experimental pulmonary Cryptococcus gattii infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok K Chaturvedi

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus gattii is a fungal pathogen that can cause life-threatening respiratory and disseminated infections in immune-competent and immune-suppressed individuals. Currently, there are no standardized vaccines against cryptococcosis in humans, underlying an urgent need for effective therapies and/or vaccines. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of intranasal immunization with C. gattii cell wall associated (CW and/or cytoplasmic (CP protein preparations to induce protection against experimental pulmonary C. gattii infection in mice. BALB/c mice immunized with C. gattii CW and/or CP protein preparations exhibited a significant reduction in pulmonary fungal burden and prolonged survival following pulmonary challenge with C. gattii. Protection was associated with significantly increased pro-inflammatory and Th1-type cytokine recall responses, in vitro and increased C. gattii-specific antibody production in immunized mice challenged with C. gattii. A number of immunodominant proteins were identified following immunoblot analysis of C. gattii CW and CP protein preparations using sera from immunized mice. Immunization with a combined CW and CP protein preparation resulted in an early increase in pulmonary T cell infiltrates following challenge with C. gattii. Overall, our studies show that C. gattii CW and CP protein preparations contain antigens that may be included in a subunit vaccine to induce prolonged protection against pulmonary C. gattii infection.

  8. Immune Response to Exercise During Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radom-Aizik, Shlomit

    2017-02-01

    Two papers were selected for this commentary. The first paper (Citation 1) suggests that a 10-week, moderate-intensity exercise program performed early after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is feasible in this fragile population, and might improve cell cytotoxicity by redistributing subpopulations of NK cells. This study adds to the growing evidence that enhancing immune cell surveillance (e.g., NK cells) in response to exercise could benefit cancer patients. The second paper (Citation 2) studied neutrophil-related mediators of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines in response to exercise in children compared with adults. The authors found age/maturation-related differences in these responses. The paper provides a valuable introduction to the current knowledge of maturational changes in immune mediators' response to exercise. Data about leukocyte function in response to exercise in healthy children and in children with clinical conditions is scant. The need for prospective large scale pediatric clinical exercise studies is clear. Molecular approaches to understand the mechanisms through which physical activity can improve health will help to shape guidelines that optimize the mode, frequency, intensity, and duration of the training intervention.

  9. Th1 Th2, Tc1 Tc2 cells of patients with otolaryngological diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuo Ohta

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines are important regulatory mediators secreted by T cells and other immunoactive cells. Based on the cytokine synthesis patterns, CD4 T cells can often be classified into at least two populations with different immune regulatory functions. The Th1 cells, producing interleukin (IL-2 and interferon (IFN-γ, are often associated with cell-mediated immune responses such as delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH, whereas Th2 cells, secreting IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13, usually provide B cell help and enhance allergic reactions. Naïve CD8 T cells, similar to CD4 T cells, can differentiate into at least two subsets of cytolytic effector cells with distinct cytokine patterns. The Tc1 cells secrete a Th 1 - like cytokine pattern, including IL-2 and IFN-γ. The Tc2 cells produce Th2 cytokines, including IL-4, IL-5 and 11—10. There is increasing evidence that Th1/Th2 and Tc1/Tc2 cytokine imbalance has been of patho- genetic importance in various diseases, such as allergic and autoimmune diseases. The present review article focuses on the evidence that the imbalance of Th1/Th2 and Tc1/Tc2 cytokines plays an important role in various otolaryngological diseases, such as Kimura's disease, Wegener's granulomatosism, acute perceptive hearing loss and Meniere's disease. It is concluded that the predominance of Th 1 or Th2 and Tc1 or Tc2 cells may contribute to the mechanism in the pathogenesis of these otolaryngological diseases.

  10. Odontoblasts in the dental pulp immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farges, Jean-Christophe; Keller, Jean-François; Carrouel, Florence; Durand, Stephanie H; Romeas, Annick; Bleicher, Françoise; Lebecque, Serge; Staquet, Marie-Jeanne

    2009-07-15

    Recent studies have demonstrated that human dental pulp cells sense pathogens and elicit innate and/or adaptive immunity. Particular attention has been paid to odontoblasts that are situated at the pulp-dentin interface and constitute the first line of defense to cariogenic bacteria entering dentin after enamel disruption. In this review, recent in vitro and in vivo data suggesting that odontoblasts initiate immune/inflammatory events within the dental pulp in response to cariogenic bacteria are discussed. These data include sensing of pathogens by Toll-like receptors (TLRs), production of chemokines upon cell stimulation with microbial by-products and induction of dendritic cell migration. Additional results presented here reveal that all TLR genes are expressed in the healthy human dental pulp that is thus well equipped to combat pathogens entering the tissue. Seventeen chemokine genes including CXCL12, CCL2, CXCL9, CX3CL1, CCL8, CXCL10, CCL16, CCL5, CXCL2, CCL4, CXCL11 and CCL3, and 9 chemokine receptor genes including CXCR4, CCR1, CCR5, CX3CR1, CCR10 and CXCR3, are also expressed in pulp. TLR2, CCL2 and CXCL1 are upregulated in odontoblasts both under caries lesions and upon stimulation with pathogen by-products. These molecules thus appear as preferential targets for the design of therapeutic agents able to reduce the immune/inflammatory response to cariogenic bacteria and favor pulp healing. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Antiviral immune responses of bats: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, M L; Schountz, T; Wang, L-F

    2013-02-01

    Despite being the second most species-rich and abundant group of mammals, bats are also among the least studied, with a particular paucity of information in the area of bat immunology. Although bats have a long history of association with rabies, the emergence and re-emergence of a number of viruses from bats that impact human and animal health has resulted in a resurgence of interest in bat immunology. Understanding how bats coexist with viruses in the absence of disease is essential if we are to begin to develop therapeutics to target viruses in humans and susceptible livestock and companion animals. Here, we review the current status of knowledge in the field of bat antiviral immunology including both adaptive and innate mechanisms of immune defence and highlight the need for further investigations in this area. Because data in this field are so limited, our discussion is based on both scientific discoveries and theoretical predictions. It is hoped that by provoking original, speculative or even controversial ideas or theories, this review may stimulate further research in this important field. Efforts to understand the immune systems of bats have been greatly facilitated in recent years by the availability of partial genome sequences from two species of bats, a megabat, Pteropus vampyrus, and a microbat, Myotis lucifugus, allowing the rapid identification of immune genes. Although bats appear to share most features of the immune system with other mammals, several studies have reported qualitative and quantitative differences in the immune responses of bats. These observations warrant further investigation to determine whether such differences are associated with the asymptomatic nature of viral infections in bats. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Immunization with Low Doses of Recombinant Postfusion or Prefusion Respiratory Syncytial Virus F Primes for Vaccine-Enhanced Disease in the Cotton Rat Model Independently of the Presence of a Th1-Biasing (GLA-SE) or Th2-Biasing (Alum) Adjuvant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider-Ohrum, Kirsten; Cayatte, Corinne; Bennett, Angie Snell; Rajani, Gaurav Manohar; McTamney, Patrick; Nacel, Krystal; Hostetler, Leigh; Cheng, Lily; Ren, Kuishu; O'Day, Terrence; Prince, Gregory A; McCarthy, Michael P

    2017-04-15

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection of children previously immunized with a nonlive, formalin-inactivated (FI)-RSV vaccine has been associated with serious enhanced respiratory disease (ERD). Consequently, detailed studies of potential ERD are a critical step in the development of nonlive RSV vaccines targeting RSV-naive children and infants. The fusion glycoprotein (F) of RSV in either its postfusion (post-F) or prefusion (pre-F) conformation is a target for neutralizing antibodies and therefore an attractive antigen candidate for a pediatric RSV subunit vaccine. Here, we report the evaluation of RSV post-F and pre-F in combination with glucopyranosyl lipid A (GLA) integrated into stable emulsion (SE) (GLA-SE) and alum adjuvants in the cotton rat model. Immunization with optimal doses of RSV F antigens in the presence of GLA-SE induced high titers of virus-neutralizing antibodies and conferred complete lung protection from virus challenge, with no ERD signs in the form of alveolitis. To mimic a waning immune response, and to assess priming for ERD under suboptimal conditions, an antigen dose de-escalation study was performed in the presence of either GLA-SE or alum. At low RSV F doses, alveolitis-associated histopathology was unexpectedly observed with either adjuvant at levels comparable to FI-RSV-immunized controls. This occurred despite neutralizing-antibody titers above the minimum levels required for protection and with no/low virus replication in the lungs. These results emphasize the need to investigate a pediatric RSV vaccine candidate carefully for priming of ERD over a wide dose range, even in the presence of strong neutralizing activity, Th1 bias-inducing adjuvant, and protection from virus replication in the lower respiratory tract.IMPORTANCE RSV disease is of great importance worldwide, with the highest burden of serious disease occurring upon primary infection in infants and children. FI-RSV-induced enhanced disease, observed in the 1960s

  13. Immune Response among Patients Exposed to Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan N. Fink

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Macrocyclic trichothecenes, mycotoxins produced by Stachybotrys chartarum, have been implicated in adverse reactions in individuals exposed to mold-contaminated environments. Cellular and humoral immune responses and the presence of trichothecenes were evaluated in patients with mold-related health complaints. Patients underwent history, physical examination, skin prick/puncture tests with mold extracts, immunological evaluations and their sera were analyzed for trichothecenes. T-cell proliferation, macrocyclic trichothecenes, and mold specific IgG and IgA levels were not significantly different than controls; however 70% of the patients had positive skin tests to molds. Thus, IgE mediated or other non-immune mechanisms could be the cause of their symptoms.

  14. DNA immunization with fusion of CTLA-4 to hepatitis B virus (HBV core protein enhanced Th2 type responses and cleared HBV with an accelerated kinetic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Yin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Typically, DNA immunization via the intramuscular route induces specific, Th1-dominant immune responses. However, plasmids expressing viral proteins fused to cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4 primed Th2-biased responses and were able to induced effective protection against viral challenge in the woodchuck model. Thus, we addressed the question in the mouse model how the Th1/Th2 bias of primed immune responses by a DNA vaccine influences hepatitis B virus (HBV clearance. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Plasmids expressing HBV core protein (HBcAg or HBV e antigen and HBcAg fused to the extracellular domain of CTLA-4 (pCTLA-4-HBc, CD27, and full length CD40L were constructed. Immunizations of these DNA plasmids induced HBcAg-specific antibody and cytotoxic T-cell responses in mice, but with different characteristics regarding the titers and subtypes of specific antibodies and intensity of T-cell responses. The plasmid pHBc expressing HBcAg induced an IgG2a-dominant response while immunizations of pCTLA-4-HBc induced a balanced IgG1/IgG2a response. To assess the protective values of the immune responses of different characteristics, mice were pre-immunized with pCTLA-4-HBc and pHBc, and challenged by hydrodynamic injection (HI of pAAV/HBV1.2. HBV surface antigen (HBsAg and DNA in peripheral blood and HBcAg in liver tissue were cleared with significantly accelerated kinetics in both groups. The clearance of HBsAg was completed within 16 days in immunized mice while more than 50% of the control mice are still positive for HBsAg on day 22. Stronger HBcAg-specific T-cell responses were primed by pHBc correlating with a more rapid decline of HBcAg expression in liver tissue, while anti-HBs antibody response developed rapidly in the mice immunized with pCTLA-4-HBc, indicating that the Th1/Th2 bias of vaccine-primed immune responses influences the mode of viral clearance. CONCLUSION: Viral clearance could be efficiently achieved by Th1/Th2-balanced

  15. Metabolic and adaptive immune responses induced in mice infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tissue-dwelling helminths are known to induce intestinal and systemic inflammation accompanied with host compensatory mechanisms to counter balance ... Furthermore, we showed for the first time that non-encapsulated T. zimbabwensis parasite plays a role in immunomodulating host Th1/Th17 type responses during ...

  16. Dichotomy of the T cell response to Leishmania antigens in patients suffering from cutaneous leishmaniasis; absence or scarcity of Th1 activity is associated with severe infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaafar, A; Kharazmi, A; Ismail, A

    1995-01-01

    The T cell response was studied in 25 patients suffering from cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania major with severe (n = 10) and mild (n = 15) disease manifestations. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from the patients were activated by sonicates of Leishmania promastigotes (LMP...

  17. A unique dermal dendritic cell subset that skews the immune response toward Th2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuichi Murakami

    Full Text Available Dendritic cell (DC subsets in the skin and draining lymph nodes (LNs are likely to elicit distinct immune response types. In skin and skin-draining LNs, a dermal DC subset expressing macrophage galactose-type C-type lectin 2 (MGL2/CD301b was found distinct from migratory Langerhans cells (LCs or CD103(+ dermal DCs (dDCs. Lower expression levels of Th1-promoting and/or cross-presentation-related molecules were suggested by the transcriptome analysis and verified by the quantitative real-time PCR analysis in MGL2(+ dDCs than in CD103(+ dDCs. Transfer of MGL2(+ dDCs but not CD103(+ dDCs from FITC-sensitized mice induced a Th2-type immune response in vivo in a model of contact hypersensitivity. Targeting MGL2(+ dDCs with a rat monoclonal antibody against MGL2 efficiently induced a humoral immune response with Th2-type properties, as determined by the antibody subclass. We propose that the properties of MGL2(+ dDCs, are complementary to those of CD103(+ dDCs and skew the immune response toward a Th2-type response.

  18. MECHANISMS OF IMMUNE RESPONSES IN CNIDARIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Darío Ocampo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The immune system maintains the integrity of the organisms through a complex network of molecules, cells, and tissues that recognize internal or external antigenic substances to neutralized and eliminate them. The mechanisms of immune response have evolved in a modular fashion, where members of a given module interact strongly among them, but weakly with members of other modules, providing robustness and evolvability to the immune system. Ancestral modules are the raw material for the generation of new modules through evolution. Thus, the study of immune systems in basal metazoans such as cnidarians seeks to determine the basic tool kit from which the metazoans started to construct their immune systems. In addition, understanding the immune mechanisms in cnidarians contributes to decipher the etiopathology of coral diseases of infectious nature that are affecting coral reefs worldwide.RESUMENEl sistema inmune mantiene la integridad de los organismos vivos por medio de una red compleja de moléculas, células y tejidos que reconocen sustancias antigénicas internas o externas para neutralizarlas y eliminarlas. Los mecanismos de respuesta inmune han evolucionado de una manera modular, en donde miembros de un módulo dado interactúan fuertemente entre sí, pero débilmente con componentes de otros módulos, otorgando así robustez y potencial evolutivo al sistema inmune. Módulos ancestrales representan el material básico para la generación de nuevos módulos durante el proceso evolutivo. Así, el estudio de sistemas inmunes en metazoarios basales como los cnidarios busca determinar cuales son los módulos ancestrales a partir de los cuales se constituyen los sistemas inmunes de animales derivados. Adicionalmente, el entendimiento de los mecanismos de respuesta inmune en cnidarios eventualmente contribuirá a descifrar la etiopatología de las enfermedades de corales de carácter infeccioso que está afectando los corales en el mundo.

  19. T cell metabolism and the immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbist, Katherine C; Wang, Ruoning; Green, Douglas R

    2012-12-01

    As T cells respond to pathogens, they must transition from a quiescent, naïve state, to a rapidly proliferating, active effector state, and back again to a quiescent state as they develop into memory cells. Such transitions place unique metabolic demands on the differentiating cells. T cells meet these demands by altering their metabolic profiles, which are, in turn, regulated by distinct signaling cascades and transcriptional programs. Here, we examine the metabolic profiles of T cells during an acute immune response and discuss the signal and transcriptional regulators of these metabolic changes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Flavobacterium psychrophilum - Experimental challenge and immune response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Maya Maria Mihályi

    The disease rainbow trout fry syndrome (RTFS) is caused by the bacterial fish pathogen Flavobacterium psychrophilum. It has been the cause of great losses of rainbow trout in aquacultures both in Denmark and around the world. It was estimated that RTFS resulted in the death of 88 million fry......) Establish an experimental infection model imitating natural infection, 2) examine the immune response in blood and selected organs, and 3) examine potential portals of entry for the bacterium. Previous experimental immersion-challenges involving F. psychrophilum have resulted in none or low mortality...

  1. Regulatory effects of Th1-type (IFN-γ, IL-12) and Th2-type cytokines (IL-10, IL-13) on parasite-specific cellular responsiveness in Onchocerca volvulus-infected humans and exposed endemic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboslay, P T; Lüder, C G K; Riesch, S; Geiger, S M; Banla, M; Batchassi, E; Stadler, A; Schulz-Key, H

    1999-01-01

    The present study investigated in vitro the regulatory effects of T helper 1 (Th1)-type (interferon-γ, IFN-γ; interleukin-12, IL-12) and Th2-type cytokines (IL-10, IL-13) on Onchocerca volvulus-specific cellular reactivity in onchocerciasis patients, and in exposed endemic control individuals presenting no clinical and parasitological signs of disease. In both patients and controls, addition of IL-10 dose-dependently depressed O. volvulus antigen (OvAg)-specific cellular proliferation, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients who were more sensitive to the suppressive effect of IL-10 than those from endemic controls. However, neutralization of IL-10 by specific antibody did not reverse cellular hyporesponsiveness. In contrast to the inhibitory effects of IL-10, exogenous IL-12 and IL-13 augmented PBMC proliferative responses to OvAg both in patients and controls (P volvulus-specific cellular responsiveness in humans. PMID:10447735

  2. Per-oral immunization with antigen-conjugated nanoparticles followed by sub-cutaneous boosting immunization induces long-lasting mucosal and systemic antibody responses in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savannah E Howe

    Full Text Available Food or water-borne enteric pathogens invade their hosts via intestinal mucosal surfaces, thus developing effective oral vaccines would greatly reduce the burden of infectious diseases. The nature of the antigen, as well as the mode of its internalization in the intestinal mucosa affects the ensuing immune response. We show that model protein antigen ovalbumin (Ova given per-orally (p.o. induces oral tolerance (OT, characterized by systemic IgG1-dominated antibody response, which cannot be boosted by sub-cutaneous (s.c. immunization with Ova in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA. Intestinal IgA generated in response to Ova feeding diminished over time and was abrogated by s.c. immunization with Ova+CFA. Humoral response to Ova was altered by administering Ova conjugated to 20 nm nanoparticles (NP-Ova. P.o. administration of NP-Ova induced systemic IgG1/IgG2c, and primed the intestinal mucosa for secretion of IgA. These responses were boosted by secondary s.c. immunization with Ova+CFA or p.o. immunization with NP-Ova. However, only in s.c.-boosted mice serum and mucosal antibody titers remained elevated for 6 months after priming. In contrast, s.c. priming with NP-Ova induced IgG1-dominated serum antibodies, but did not prime the intestinal mucosa for secretion of IgA, even after secondary p.o. immunization with NP-Ova. These results indicate that Ova conjugated to NPs reaches the internal milieu in an immunogenic form and that mucosal immunization with NP-Ova is necessary for induction of a polarized Th1/Th2 immune response, as well as intestinal IgA response. In addition, mucosal priming with NP-Ova, followed by s.c. boosting induces superior systemic and mucosal memory responses. These findings are important for the development of efficacious mucosal vaccines.

  3. Immune Response of Amebiasis and Immune Evasion by Entamoeba histolytica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is a protozoan parasite and the causative agent of amebiasis. It is estimated approximately 1% of humans are infected with E. histolytica, resulting in an estimate of 100,000 deaths annually. Clinical manifestations of amebic infection range widely from asymptomatic to severe symptoms, including dysentery and extra-intestinal abscesses. Like other infectious diseases, it is assumed that only ~20% of infected individuals develop symptoms, and genetic factors of both the parasite and humans as well as the environmental factors, e.g., microbiota, determine outcome of infection. There are multiple essential steps in amebic infection: degradation of and invasion into the mucosal layer, adherence to the intestinal epithelium, invasion into the tissues, and dissemination to other organs. While the mechanisms of invasion and destruction of the host tissues by the amebae during infection have been elucidated at the molecular levels, it remains largely uncharacterized how the parasite survive in the host by evading and attacking host immune system. Recently, the strategies for immune evasion by the parasite have been unraveled, including immunomodulation to suppress IFN-γ production, elimination of immune cells and soluble immune mediators, and metabolic alterations against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species to fend off the attack from immune system. In this review, we summarized the latest knowledge on immune reaction and immune evasion during amebiasis. PMID:27242782

  4. [Cerebral infarct and the immune response].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartko, D; Lesický, O; Buc, M

    1997-06-01

    There are only few data available regarding the immunological mechanisms for cerebral infarction. The aim of this study was to find out the humoral and cell-mediated immunity under the conditions of focal brain ischemia (CI). As a method for humoral immunity, the complement consumption test against a panel of 8 antigens, quantitative analysis of immunoglobins and fractionized sedimentation of erythrocytes were used in the group of pts with CI, and the group of atherosclerotics (AS) and hypertonics (VH), potential victims of focal brain ischemia. It was found that the occurrence of antibodies against the whole panel of antigens in the group of CI is significantly higher as compared with the healthy controls, but it is lower than that in the group of AS and VH. The occurrence of antibodies exclusively against only brain antigens and that in CSF is similar. No correlation to the location of ischemic lesion and the degree of neurological deficit score was found. These findings didn't change in 2 and 4 weeks as well as in 1 year after the onset of CI. The quantitative analysis of immunoglobins revealed statistically higher levels of IgA and lower levels of IgM in comparison with the controls. IgG were higher, but without statistical significance. Statistically significant higher levels of all immunoglobins in CSF were found. As similar trend of changes found also in the group of AS and VH. These results of humoral immunity confirmed by the results of fractionized sedimentation of erythrocytes with EP. The results can be interpreted as a possible change or disorder of central regulation of immunizing processes due to the latent (in AS and VH) of manifest (in CI) lesions of the brain. But the quality and quantity of this response might have been affected by the entire case history of the patients who survived cerebral infarction. The changes in immunity response of the organism in CI was shown also in cell-mediated immunity. The results a statistically significant

  5. T-cell immune responses to Bordetella pertussis infection and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedele, Giorgio; Cassone, Antonio; Ausiello, Clara Maria

    2015-10-01

    The recent immunological investigations, stemming from the studies performed in the nineties within the clinical trials of the acellular pertussis vaccines, have highlighted the important role played by T-cell immunity to pertussis in humans. These studies largely confirmed earlier investigations in the murine respiratory infection models that humoral immunity alone is not sufficient to confer protection against Bordetella pertussis infection and that T-cell immunity is required. Over the last years, knowledge of T-cell immune response to B. pertussis has expanded broadly, taking advantage of the general progress in the understanding of anti-bacterial immunity and of refinements in methods to approach immunological investigations. In particular, experimental models of B. pertussis infection highlighted the cooperative role played by T-helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells for protection. Furthermore, the new baboon experimental model suggested a plausible explanation for the differences observed in the strength and persistence of protective immunity induced by the acellular or whole-cell pertussis vaccines and natural infection in humans, contributing to explain the upsurge of recent pertussis outbreaks. Despite the progress, open questions remain, the answer to them will possibly provide better tools to fight one of the hardest-to-control vaccine preventable disease. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. [Immunology of HCV infection: the causes of impaired cellular immune response and the effect of antiviral treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pár, Gabriella; Berki, Tímea; Pálinkás, László; Balogh, Péter; Szereday, László; Halász, Melinda; Szekeres-Barthó, Júlia; Miseta, Attila; Hegedus, Géza; Mózsik, Gyula; Hunyady, Béla; Pár, Alajos

    2006-04-02

    The outcome of HCV infection and the response to antiviral treatment depend on both viral and host factors. Host immune response contributes not only to viral control, clinical recovery and protective immunity, but also to chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. Establishing immunological status and identifying pretreatment immunological factors associated with better response to therapy might be of importance in the understanding of the successful immune response and in the future of combination therapy to HCV infection. The authors delivered a review on the immunology of HCV infection and characterized the cause of impaired cellular immune response in chronic HCV infection. Natural killer (NK) cell activity, perforin and the inhibitory CD81 HCV co-receptor expression, and Th1/Th2 cytokine production of the monocytes and lymphocytes have been investigated. 42 patients with chronic hepatitis C, out of them 25 being on interferon (PEG-IFN) + ribavirin (RBV) therapy, 12 sustained virological responders, 26 HCV carriers with normal transaminase values and 22 healthy controls were studied. NK cell activity, perforin and CD81 expression, the IFNgamma, TNFalpha, IL-2 (Th1) and IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 (Th2) production of LPS stimulated monocytes and PMA + ionomycine stimulated lymphocytes were measured by flow-cytometry. In patients with chronic hepatitis C we demonstrated decreased NK cell activity associated with increased CD81 expression. The perforin expression of lymphocytes was also impaired in HCV patients. The pretreatment capacity of the macrophages to produce TNFalpha was predictive for sustained virological response. This increased TNFalpha production of the monocytes counteracted the observed impaired Th1 type cytokine production of the lymphocytes. IL-10 and IL-4 production showed positive correlation with HCV RNA levels, and negative correlation with histological activity index was noted. PEG-IFN + RBV treatment increased NK activity, perforin expression, Th1 type

  7. Modulation of the immune response by infection with Cryptosporidium spp. in children with allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guangorena-Gómez, J O; Maravilla-Domínguez, A; García-Arenas, G; Cervantes-Flores, M; Meza-Velázquez, R; Rivera-Guillén, M; Acosta-Saavedra, L C; Goytia-Acevedo, R C

    2016-08-01

    It has been demonstrated that the allergic response can be ameliorated by the administration of pathogen derivatives that activate Toll-like receptors and induce a Th1-type immune response (IR). Cryptosporidium is a parasite that promotes an IR via Toll-like receptors and elicits the production of Th1-type cytokines, which limit cryptosporidiosis. The aim of this study was to investigate allergy-related immune markers in children naturally infected with Cryptosporidium. In a cross-sectional study, 49 children with or without clinical diagnosis of allergies, oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. in the faeces were screened microscopically. We microscopically screened for leucocytes, examined T and B cells for allergy-related activation markers using flow cytometry and evaluated serum for total IgE using chemiluminescence. Children with allergies and Cryptosporidium in the faeces had significantly lower levels of total IgE, B cells, CD19(+) CD23(+) and CD19(+) CD124(+) cells as well as a greater percentage of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ(+) ) and IL-4(+) CD4(+) cells than children with allergies without Cryptosporidium. This is the first description of the modulation of the IR in children with allergic diseases in the setting of natural Cryptosporidium infection. Our findings suggest the involvement of CD4(+) cells producing IL-4 and IFN-γ in the IR to Cryptosporidium in naturally infected children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effect of murine exposure to gamma rays on the interplay between Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazy, Amany A.; Abu El-Nazar, Salma Y.; Ghoneim, Hossam E.; Taha, Abdul-Rahman M.; Abouelella, Amira M.

    2015-01-01

    Gamma radiation radiotherapy is one of the widely used treatments for cancer. There is an accumulating evidence that adaptive immunity is significantly contributes to the efficacy of radiotherapy. This study is carried out to investigate the effect of gamma rays on the interplay between Th1/Th2 response, splenocyte lymphoproliferative response to polyclonal mitogenic activators and lymphocytic capacity to produce IL-12 and IL-10 in mice. Results showed that exposure of intact spleens to different doses of γ-rays (5, 10, 20 Gy) caused spontaneous and dose-dependent immune stimulation manifested by enhanced cell proliferation and elevated IL-12 production with decreased IL-10 release (i.e., Th1 bias). While exposure of splenocytes suspension to different doses of γ-rays (5, 10, 20 Gy) showed activation in splenocytes stimulated by PWM at 5 Gy then a state of conventional immune suppression that is characterized by being dose-dependent and is manifested by decreased cell proliferation and IL-12 release accompanied by increase in IL-10 production (i.e., Th2 bias). In addition, we investigated the exposure of whole murine bodies to different doses of γ-rays and found that the exposure to low dose γ-rays (0.2 Gy) caused a state of immune stimulation terminated by a remarkable tendency for immune suppression. Exposure to 5 or 10 Gy of γ-rays resulted in a state of immune stimulation (Th1 bias), but exposure to 20 Gy showed a standard state of immune suppression (Th2 bias). The results indicated that apparently we can control the immune response by controlling the dose of γ-rays. PMID:25914644

  9. Effect of murine exposure to gamma rays on the interplay between Th1 and Th2 lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazy, Amany A; Abu El-Nazar, Salma Y; Ghoneim, Hossam E; Taha, Abdul-Rahman M; Abouelella, Amira M

    2015-01-01

    Gamma radiation radiotherapy is one of the widely used treatments for cancer. There is an accumulating evidence that adaptive immunity is significantly contributes to the efficacy of radiotherapy. This study is carried out to investigate the effect of gamma rays on the interplay between Th1/Th2 response, splenocyte lymphoproliferative response to polyclonal mitogenic activators and lymphocytic capacity to produce IL-12 and IL-10 in mice. Results showed that exposure of intact spleens to different doses of γ-rays (5, 10, 20 Gy) caused spontaneous and dose-dependent immune stimulation manifested by enhanced cell proliferation and elevated IL-12 production with decreased IL-10 release (i.e., Th1 bias). While exposure of splenocytes suspension to different doses of γ-rays (5, 10, 20 Gy) showed activation in splenocytes stimulated by PWM at 5 Gy then a state of conventional immune suppression that is characterized by being dose-dependent and is manifested by decreased cell proliferation and IL-12 release accompanied by increase in IL-10 production (i.e., Th2 bias). In addition, we investigated the exposure of whole murine bodies to different doses of γ-rays and found that the exposure to low dose γ-rays (0.2 Gy) caused a state of immune stimulation terminated by a remarkable tendency for immune suppression. Exposure to 5 or 10 Gy of γ-rays resulted in a state of immune stimulation (Th1 bias), but exposure to 20 Gy showed a standard state of immune suppression (Th2 bias). The results indicated that apparently we can control the immune response by controlling the dose of γ-rays.

  10. Immune responses to coiled coil supramolecular biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudra, Jai S; Tripathi, Pulak K; Hildeman, David A; Jung, Jangwook P; Collier, Joel H

    2010-11-01

    Self-assembly has been increasingly utilized in recent years to create peptide-based biomaterials for 3D cell culture, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine, but the molecular determinants of these materials' immunogenicity have remained largely unexplored. In this study, a set of molecules that self-assembled through coiled coil oligomerization was designed and synthesized, and immune responses against them were investigated in mice. Experimental groups spanned a range of oligomerization behaviors and included a peptide from the coiled coil region of mouse fibrin that did not form supramolecular structures, an engineered version of this peptide that formed coiled coil bundles, and a peptide-PEG-peptide triblock bioconjugate that formed coiled coil multimers and supramolecular aggregates. In mice, the native peptide and engineered peptide did not produce any detectable antibody response, and none of the materials elicited detectable peptide-specific T cell responses, as evidenced by the absence of IL-2 and interferon-gamma in cultures of peptide-challenged splenocytes or draining lymph node cells. However, specific antibody responses were elevated in mice injected with the multimerizing peptide-PEG-peptide. Minimal changes in secondary structure were observed between the engineered peptide and the triblock peptide-PEG-peptide, making it possible that the triblock's multimerization was responsible for this antibody response. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The innate and adaptive immune response induced by alveolar macrophages exposed to ambient particulate matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Ryohei; Eeden, Stephan F. van, E-mail: Stephan.vanEeden@hli.ubc.ca

    2011-12-15

    Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests that exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular events but the exact mechanism by which PM has adverse effects is still unclear. Alveolar macrophages (AM) play a major role in clearing and processing inhaled PM. This comprehensive review of research findings on immunological interactions between AM and PM provides potential pathophysiological pathways that interconnect PM exposure with adverse cardiovascular effects. Coarse particles (10 {mu}m or less, PM{sub 10}) induce innate immune responses via endotoxin-toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 pathway while fine (2.5 {mu}m or less, PM{sub 2.5}) and ultrafine particles (0.1 {mu}m or less, UFP) induce via reactive oxygen species generation by transition metals and/or polyaromatic hydrocarbons. The innate immune responses are characterized by activation of transcription factors [nuclear factor (NF)-{kappa}B and activator protein-1] and the downstream proinflammatory cytokine [interleukin (IL)-1{beta}, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-{alpha}] production. In addition to the conventional opsonin-dependent phagocytosis by AM, PM can also be endocytosed by an opsonin-independent pathway via scavenger receptors. Activation of scavenger receptors negatively regulates the TLR4-NF-{kappa}B pathway. Internalized particles are subsequently subjected to adaptive immunity involving major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) expression, recruitment of costimulatory molecules, and the modulation of the T helper (Th) responses. AM show atypical antigen presenting cell maturation in which phagocytic activity decreases while both MHC II and costimulatory molecules remain unaltered. PM drives AM towards a Th1 profile but secondary responses in a Th1- or Th-2 up-regulated milieu drive the response in favor of a Th2 profile.

  12. Neuroendocrine and Immune System Responses with Spaceflights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M.; Greenleaf, John E.; Jackson, Catherine G. R.

    1996-01-01

    Despite the fact that the first human was in space during 1961 and individuals have existed in a microgravity environment for more than a year, there are limited spaceflight data available on the responses of the neuroendocrine and immune systems. Because of mutual interactions between these respective integrative systems, it is inappropriate to assume that the responses of one have no impact on functions of the other. Blood and plasma volume consistently decrease with spaceflight; hence, blood endocrine and immune constituents will be modified by both gravitational and measurement influences. The majority of the in-flight data relates to endocrine responses that influence fluids and electrolytes during the first month in space. Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH), aldo-sterone. and anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) appear to be elevated with little change in the atrial natriuretic peptides (ANP). Flight results longer than 60 d show increased ADH variability with elevations in angiotensin and cortisol. Although post-flight results are influenced by reentry and recovery events, ACTH and ADH appear to be consistently elevated with variable results being reported for the other hormones. Limited in-flight data on insulin and growth hormone levels suggest they are not elevated to counteract the loss in muscle mass. Post-flight results from short- and long-term flights indicate that thyroxine and insulin are increased while growth hormone exhibits minimal change. In-flight parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels are variable for several weeks after which they remain elevated. Post-flight PTH was increased on missions that lasted either 7 or 237 d, whereas calcitonin concentrations were increased after 1 wk but decreased after longer flights. Leukocytes are elevated in flights of various durations because of an increase in neutrophils. The majority of post-flight data indicates immunoglobulin concentrations are not significantly changed from pre-flight measurements. However, the numbers of T

  13. Th1 and Th17 Cells in Tuberculosis: Protection, Pathology, and Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Lyadova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb infection ranges from a complete pathogen clearance through asymptomatic latent infection (LTBI to active tuberculosis (TB disease. It is now understood that LTBI and active TB represent a continuous spectrum of states with different degrees of pathogen “activity,” host pathology, and immune reactivity. Therefore, it is important to differentiate LTBI and active TB and identify active TB stages. CD4+ T cells play critical role during Mtb infection by mediating protection, contributing to inflammation, and regulating immune response. Th1 and Th17 cells are the main effector CD4+ T cells during TB. Th1 cells have been shown to contribute to TB protection by secreting IFN-γ and activating antimycobacterial action in macrophages. Th17 induce neutrophilic inflammation, mediate tissue damage, and thus have been implicated in TB pathology. In recent years new findings have accumulated that alter our view on the role of Th1 and Th17 cells during Mtb infection. This review discusses these new results and how they can be implemented for TB diagnosis and monitoring.

  14. [The influences of camel milk on the immune response of chronic hepatitis B patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltanat, Heinayat; Li, Hui; Xu, Yan; Wang, Jie; Liu, Fang; Geng, Xin-hui

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the influences of camel milk on the immune response of the chronic hepatitis B patients and its possible mechanism. After drinking camel milk for one year, 44 chronic hepatitis B patients were observed and the HBV-DNA, hepatitis B virus markers, ALT, IL-4 and INF-gamma levels in serum were detected. 60 chronic hepatitis B patients without any interventions for 1 year were taken as control. The level of Th1-type cytokine IFN-gamma in camel milk drinking group was significantly higher than that in the non-drinking camel milk group (Pcamel milk drinking group was significantly lower than that in the non-drinking camel milk group (Pcamel milk drinking group were near to those in the normal control group. The HBV-DNA negative rate of the camel milk drinking group (90.91%) was significantly higher than that of the non-drinking group (3.23%) (Pcamel milk drinking group (54.55%) was also higher than that of the non-drinking group (1.61%)(Pcamel milk drinking group (100%)and 7 cases in the non-drinking group(11.29%) turned back to the normal level, there was a significant difference between the two group (PCamel milk regulates the expression of Th1/Th2-type cytokines, and corrects the imbalance of Th1/Th2 cytokine network, which could strengthen the cellular immune response, inhibit the replication of virus DNA, and promote the recovery of the chronic hepatitis B patients.

  15. [Circulating levels of Th1- and Th2-chemokines increase in patients with early syphilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Anyou; Wang, Chenchen; Sun, Hong; Han, Hongfang; Wang, Fengchao; Zhang, Lunjun; Hu, Jianguo

    2017-03-01

    Objective To study the changes of plasma T helper type I (Th1)-and Th2-chemokine levels and analyze their roles in immune response and pathogenesis of early syphilis. Methods Heparin-anticoagulated peripheral blood was collected from 56 patients with early syphilis (primary syphilis, PS, n=22; secondary syphilis, SS, n=34) and healthy controls (HC, n=20). The levels of plasma Th1 chemokines including monokine induced by interferon-γ (MIG), interferon-γ inducible protein-10 (IP-10), interferon-inducible T-cell α chemoattractant (I-TAC) and Th2 chemokines including thymus-and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC), macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) were examined using ELISA. Meanwhile, the levels of plasma cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-4 and TNF-α) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were detected. Results The levels of plasma MIG, IP-10 and TARC, MDC in the patients with PS and SS were significantly higher than those in the healthy controls. Moreover, the level of I-TAC in the patients with SS was significantly higher than that in the healthy controls. In particular, the levels of plasma Th1 chemokines (MIG, IP-10 and I-TAC) in the patients with SS significantly increased compared with those with PS. However, no significant difference was observed in the levels of plasma Th2 chemokines (TARC and MDC) between the patients with PS and SS. The correlation analysis showed that there was an obvious positive correlation between IP-10 and MIG, I-TAC, IFN-γ, TNF-α levels in the patients with early syphilis. Furthermore, the levels of MIG and IP-10 were positively associated with plasma CRP in the patients with early syphilis. Conclusion Both Th1 chemokines and Th2 chemokines are involved in immune response of early syphilis.

  16. Neonatal BCG vaccination is associated with enhanced T-helper 1 immune responses to heterologous infant vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H. Libraty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal Bacille Calmette Guérin (BCG vaccination has been reported to have beneficial effects beyond preventing infantile tuberculous meningitis and miliary disease. We hypothesized that BCG vaccine given at birth would enhance T-helper 1 (Th1 immune responses to the first vaccines given later in infancy. We conducted a nested case-control study of neonatal BCG vaccination and its heterologous Th1 immune effects in 2–3 months old infants. BCG vaccination at birth was associated with an increased frequency of interferon-γ (IFN-γ producing spot-forming cells (SFC to tetanus toxoid 2–3 months later. The frequency of IFN-γ producing SFC to polioviruses 1–3 also trended higher among infants who received BCG vaccination at birth. The frequency of IFN-γ+/tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α+CD45RO+CD4+ T-cells upon stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA/Ionomycin was higher in 2–3 months old infants who received BCG vaccination at birth compared to those who did not. The circulating frequency of forkhead box P3 (FoxP3+ CD45RO+ regulatory CD4+ T-cells also trended lower in these infants. Neonatal BCG vaccination is associated with heterologous Th1 immune effects 2–3 months later.

  17. Lipopolysaccharide contamination of beta-lactoglobulin affects the immune response against intraperitoneally and orally administered antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Kjær, T.M.R.; Barkholt, Vibeke

    2004-01-01

    Microbial components in the environment are potent activators of the immune system with capacity to shift the active immune response towards priming of Th1 and/or Th2 cells. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a cell-wall component of Gram- negative bacteria, is extensively present in food products like cow......'s milk. It is not well established, however, how this presence of LPS affects oral tolerance induction. Methods: We studied the effect of LPS contamination in a commercial preparation of the cow milk protein beta-lactoglobulin (beta-LG) on antigen-specific immune responses. IgG1/IgG2a production upon...... as an enhanced beta-LG-specific IgG1 response upon intraperitoneal immunization. Oral tolerance induction to beta-LG was induced by aqueous solutions of beta-LG with and without LPS administration. Conversely, oral administration of w/o-emulsified beta-LG prevented oral tolerance to beta-LG only when the beta...

  18. Learned helplessness and immunization: sensitivity to response-reinforcer independence in immunized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, D A; Rosellini, R A; Plonsky, M; DeCola, J P

    1985-10-01

    In experiments 1 and 2, we examined the learned helplessness and immunization effects using a test in which appetitive responding was extinguished by delivering noncontingent reinforcers. Contrary to learned helplessness theory, "immunized" animals showed performance virtually identical to that of animals exposed only to inescapable shock, and different from nonshocked controls. Experiment 2 suggests that the helplessness effect and the lack of immunization are not due to direct response suppression resulting from shock. In Experiment 3, where the immunization effect was assessed by measuring the acquisition of a response to obtain food when there was a positive response-reinforcer contingency, immunization was observed. These results cannot be explained on the basis of proactive interference, but suggest that animals exposed to the immunization procedure acquire an expectancy of response-reinforcer independence during inescapable shock. Thus, immunization effects may reflect the differential expression of expectancies, rather than their differential acquisition as learned helplessness theory postulates.

  19. Enhancement of anamnestic immunospecific antibody response in orally immunized chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayo, Susan; Carlsson, Hans-Erik; Zagon, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    Production of immunospecific egg yolk antibodies (IgY antibodies) in egg laying hens through oral immunization is an attractive alternative to conventional antibody production in mammals for economic reasons as well as for animal welfare reasons. Oral immunization results in a systemic humoral...... of the immunization in week 18, demonstrating the presence of memory cells following the two initial oral immunizations. Considering that oral immunization results in approximately ten times lower concentrations of immunospecific antibodies in the egg yolk, compared to traditional subcutaneous immunization schemes...... response, but oral booster immunizations lack efficiency. The aim of the present study was to develop immunization schemes in which the concentration of immunospecific IgY would increase following oral booster immunizations. Two groups of egg laying hens (5 in each group) were immunized orally (each...

  20. Virus-like particle vaccine primes immune responses preventing inactivated-virus vaccine-enhanced disease against respiratory syncytial virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Hye Suk; Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Ko, Eun-Ju; Lee, Youri; Kwon, Young-Man; Kang, Sang-Moo

    2017-11-01

    Formalin inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (FI-RSV) vaccination caused vaccine-enhanced respiratory disease (ERD) upon exposure to RSV in children. Virus-like particles presenting RSV F fusion protein (F VLP) are known to increase T helper type-1 (Th1) immune responses and avoid ERD in animal models. We hypothesized that F VLP would prime immune responses preventing ERD upon subsequent exposure to ERD-prone FI-RSV. Here, we demonstrated that heterologous F VLP priming and FI-RSV boosting of mice prevented FI-RSV vaccine-enhanced lung inflammation and eosinophilia upon RSV challenge. F VLP priming redirected pulmonary T cells toward effector CD8 T cells producing Th1 cytokines and significantly suppressed pulmonary Th2 cytokines. This study suggests that RSV F VLP priming would modulate and shift immune responses to subsequent exposure to ERD-prone FI-RSV vaccine and RSV infection, suppressing Th2 immune-mediated pulmonary histopathology and eosinophilia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. The change in function of Th1 and Th2-lymphocytes and cytokine profile at chronic intoxication of ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.G. Lim and V.F.Grichin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In experiments in non-inbred rats, it has been established that chronic intoxication of ethanol (30 days, total dose – 6.0 LD50 essentially reduces concentration of cytokines IFNγ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 in blood, increases concentration of IL-6, reduces an interrelation IFNγ/IL-4 in comparison with the control, suppresses of immune responses, which displays the greater lesion of Th1-cells in comparison with Th2-lymphosytes.

  2. immune response can measuring immunity to hiv during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-11-01

    Nov 1, 2005 ... Failure to maintain T-cell homeostasis during HIV-1 infection11-13 results in compromised immunity, allowing development of opportunistic infections and progression to. AIDS. Loss of CD4+ T cells due to direct and indirect mechanisms14,15 is the primary cause of this imbalance and assessment of ...

  3. Cell-autonomous stress responses in innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Julien; Blander, J Magarian

    2017-01-01

    The innate immune response of phagocytes to microbes has long been known to depend on the core signaling cascades downstream of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which lead to expression and production of inflammatory cytokines that counteract infection and induce adaptive immunity. Cell-autonomous responses have recently emerged as important mechanisms of innate immunity. Either IFN-inducible or constitutive, these processes aim to guarantee cell homeostasis but have also been shown to modulate innate immune response to microbes and production of inflammatory cytokines. Among these constitutive cell-autonomous responses, autophagy is prominent and its role in innate immunity has been well characterized. Other stress responses, such as metabolic stress, the ER stress/unfolded protein response, mitochondrial stress, or the DNA damage response, seem to also be involved in innate immunity, although the precise mechanisms by which they regulate the innate immune response are not yet defined. Of importance, these distinct constitutive cell-autonomous responses appear to be interconnected and can also be modulated by microbes and PRRs, which add further complexity to the interplay between innate immune signaling and cell-autonomous responses in the mediation of an efficient innate immune response. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  4. Generalized immune activation and innate immune responses in simian immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosinger, Steven E; Sodora, Donald L; Silvestri, Guido

    2011-09-01

    Chronic immune activation is a key factor driving the immunopathogenesis of AIDS. During pathogenic HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infections, innate and adaptive antiviral immune responses contribute to chronic immune activation. In contrast, nonpathogenic SIV infections of natural hosts such as sooty mangabeys and African green monkeys (AGMs) are characterized by low immune activation despite similarly high viremia. This review focuses on the role of innate immune responses in SIV infection. Several studies have examined the role of innate immune responses to SIV as potential drivers of immune activation. The key result of these studies is that both pathogenic SIV infection of macaques and nonpathogenic SIV infections of natural hosts are associated with strong innate immune responses to the virus, high production of type I interferons by plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and upregulation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs). However, SIV-infected sooty mangabeys and AGMs (but not SIV-infected macaques) rapidly downmodulate the interferon response within 4-6 weeks of infection, thus resulting in a state of limited immune activation during chronic infection. Studies in nonhuman primates suggest that chronic innate/interferon responses may contribute to AIDS pathogenesis. Further, the ability of natural host species to resolve innate immune responses after infection provides a novel avenue for potential immunotherapy.

  5. Meeting report VLPNPV: Session 3: Immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Trudy G

    2014-01-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) and nano-particles (NP) are increasingly considered for both prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines for a wide variety of human and animal diseases. Indeed, 2 VLPs have already been licensed for use in humans, the human papilloma virus vaccine and the hepatitis B virus vaccine. (1) Reflecting this increased interest, a second international conference with a specific focus on VLPs and NP was held at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California, in June 2014. Approximately 100 attendees, hailing from many nations, came from academic institutions, research institutes, and biotech companies. A wide variety of topics were discussed, ranging from development and characterization of specific VLP and NP vaccine candidates to methods of production of these particles. Session three was focused on the general question of immune responses to VLPs.

  6. Dimethyl fumarate modulation of immune and antioxidant responses: application to HIV therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Alexander J.; Kolson, Dennis L.

    2013-01-01

    The persistence of chronic immune activation and oxidative stress in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected, antiretroviral drug-treated individuals are major obstacles to fully preventing HIV disease progression. The immune modulator and antioxidant dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is effective in treating immune-mediated diseases and it also has potential applications to limiting HIV disease progression. Among the relevant effects of DMF and its active metabolite monomethyl fumarate (MMF) are induction of a Th1 → Th2 lymphocyte shift, inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine signaling, inhibition of NF-κB nuclear translocation, inhibition of dendritic cell maturation, suppression of lymphocyte and endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression, and induction of the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response element (ARE) and effector genes. Associated with these effects are reduced lymphocyte and monocyte infiltration into psoriatic skin lesions in humans and immune-mediated demyelinating brain lesions in rodents, which confirms potent systemic and central nervous system (CNS) effects. In addition, DMF and MMF limit HIV infection in macrophages in vitro, albeit by unknown mechanisms. Finally, DMF and MMF also suppress neurotoxin production from HIV-infected macrophages, which drives CNS neurodegeneration. Thus, DMF might protect against systemic and CNS complications in HIV infection through its effective suppression of immune activation, oxidative stress, HIV replication, and macrophage-associated neuronal injury. PMID:23971529

  7. The rate of immune escape vanishes when multiple immune responses control an HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Deutekom, Hanneke W M; Wijnker, Gilles; de Boer, Rob J

    2013-09-15

    During the first months of HIV infection, the virus typically evolves several immune escape mutations. These mutations are found in epitopes in viral proteins and reduce the impact of the CD8⁺ T cells specific for these epitopes. Recent data show that only a subset of the epitopes escapes, that most of these escapes evolve early, and that the rate of immune escape slows down considerably. To investigate why the evolution of immune escape slows down over the time of infection, we have extended a consensus mathematical model to allow several immune responses to control the virus together. In the extended model, most escapes also occur early, and the immune escape rate becomes small later, and typically only a minority of the epitopes escape. We show that escaping one of the many immune responses provides little advantage after viral setpoint has been approached because the total killing rate hardly depends on the breadth of the immune response. If the breadth of the immune response slowly wanes during disease progression, the model predicts an increase in the rate of immune escape at late stages of infection. Overall, the most striking prediction of the model is that HIV evolves a small number of immune escapes, in both relative and absolute terms, when the CTL immune response is broad.

  8. Population-expression models of immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberg, Sean P.; Antia, Rustom; Nemenman, Ilya

    2013-06-01

    The immune response to a pathogen has two basic features. The first is the expansion of a few pathogen-specific cells to form a population large enough to control the pathogen. The second is the process of differentiation of cells from an initial naive phenotype to an effector phenotype which controls the pathogen, and subsequently to a memory phenotype that is maintained and responsible for long-term protection. The expansion and the differentiation have been considered largely independently. Changes in cell populations are typically described using ecologically based ordinary differential equation models. In contrast, differentiation of single cells is studied within systems biology and is frequently modeled by considering changes in gene and protein expression in individual cells. Recent advances in experimental systems biology make available for the first time data to allow the coupling of population and high dimensional expression data of immune cells during infections. Here we describe and develop population-expression models which integrate these two processes into systems biology on the multicellular level. When translated into mathematical equations, these models result in non-conservative, non-local advection-diffusion equations. We describe situations where the population-expression approach can make correct inference from data while previous modeling approaches based on common simplifying assumptions would fail. We also explore how model reduction techniques can be used to build population-expression models, minimizing the complexity of the model while keeping the essential features of the system. While we consider problems in immunology in this paper, we expect population-expression models to be more broadly applicable.

  9. Immune Responses to HCV and Other Hepatitis Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Su-Hyung; Rehermann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Summary Five human hepatitis viruses cause most acute and chronic liver disease worldwide. Over the past 25 years hepatitis C virus (HCV) in particular has received much interest because of its ability to persist in most immunocompetent adults and the lack of a protective vaccine. Here we examine innate and adaptive immune responses to HCV infection. Although HCV activates an innate immune response, it employs an elaborate set of mechanisms to evade interferon (IFN)-based antiviral immunity. By comparing innate and adaptive immune responses to HCV with those to hepatitis A and B viruses, we suggest that prolonged innate immune activation impairs the development of successful adaptive immune responses. Comparative immunology furthermore provides insights into the maintenance of immune protection. We conclude by discussing prospects for an HCV vaccine and future research needs for the hepatitis viruses. PMID:24439265

  10. Staphylococcus aureus strategies to evade the host acquired immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmann, Oliver; Medina, Eva

    2017-09-15

    Staphylococcus aureus poses a significant public-health problem. Infection caused by S. aureus can manifest as acute or long-lasting persistent diseases that are often refractory to antibiotic and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To develop more effective strategies for preventing or treating these infections, it is crucial to understand why the immune response is incapable to eradicate the bacterium. When S. aureus first infect the host, there is a robust activation of the host innate immune responses. Generally, S. aureus can survive this initial interaction due to the expression of a wide array of virulence factors that interfere with the host innate immune defenses. After this initial interaction the acquired immune response is the arm of the host defenses that will try to clear the pathogen. However, S. aureus is capable of maintaining infection in the host even in the presence of a robust antigen-specific immune response. Thus, understanding the mechanisms underlying the ability of S. aureus to escape immune surveillance by the acquired immune response will help uncover potentially important targets for the development of immune-based adjunctive therapies and more efficient vaccines. There are several lines of evidence that lead us to believe that S. aureus can directly or indirectly disable the acquired immune response. This review will discuss the different immune evasion strategies used by S. aureus to modulate the different components of the acquired immune defenses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. The immune response induced by DNA vaccine expressing nfa1 gene against Naegleria fowleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Sang-Hee; Sohn, Hae-Jin; Lee, Jinyoung; Chwae, Yong-Joon; Park, Sun; Kim, Kyongmin; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2012-12-01

    The pathogenic free-living amoeba, Naegleria fowleri, causes fatal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in experimental animals and in humans. The nfa1 gene that was cloned from N. fowleri is located on pseudopodia, especially amoebic food cups and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of N. fowleri. In this study, we constructed and characterized retroviral vector and lentiviral vector systems for nfa1 DNA vaccination in mice. We constructed the retroviral vector (pQCXIN) and the lentiviral vector (pCDH) cloned with the egfp-nfa1 gene. The expression of nfa1 gene in Chinese hamster ovary cell and human primary nasal epithelial cell transfected with the pQCXIN/egfp-nfa1 vector or pCDH/egfp-nfa1 vector was observed by fluorescent microscopy and Western blotting analysis. Our viral vector systems effectively delivered the nfa1 gene to the target cells and expressed the Nfa1 protein within the target cells. To evaluate immune responses of nfa1-vaccinated mice, BALB/c mice were intranasally vaccinated with viral particles of each retro- or lentiviral vector expressing nfa1 gene. DNA vaccination using viral vectors expressing nfa1 significantly stimulated the production of Nfa1-specific IgG subclass, as well as IgG levels. In particular, both levels of IgG2a (Th1) and IgG1 (Th2) were significantly increased in mice vaccinated with viral vectors. These results show the nfa1-vaccination induce efficiently Th1 type, as well as Th2 type immune responses. This is the first report to construct viral vector systems and to evaluate immune responses as DNA vaccination in N. fowleri infection. Furthermore, these results suggest that nfal vaccination may be an effective method for treatment of N. fowleri infection.

  12. Overcoming CD4 Th1 Cell Fate Restrictions to Sustain Antiviral CD8 T Cells and Control Persistent Virus Infection

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    Laura M. Snell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Viral persistence specifically inhibits CD4 Th1 responses and promotes Tfh immunity, but the mechanisms that suppress Th1 cells and the disease consequences of their loss are unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the loss of CD4 Th1 cells specifically leads to progressive CD8 T cell decline and dysfunction during viral persistence. Therapeutically reconstituting CD4 Th1 cells restored CD4 T cell polyfunctionality, enhanced antiviral CD8 T cell numbers and function, and enabled viral control. Mechanistically, combined interaction of PD-L1 and IL-10 by suppressive dendritic cell subsets inhibited new CD4 Th1 cells in both acute and persistent virus infection, demonstrating an unrecognized suppressive function for PD-L1 in virus infection. Thus, the loss of CD4 Th1 cells is a key event leading to progressive CD8 T cell demise during viral persistence with important implications for restoring antiviral CD8 T cell immunity to control persistent viral infection.

  13. Neonatal innate immunity - A translational perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belderbos, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Human newborns are highly susceptible to infections, which appears to be due to immaturity of the neonatal innate immune system. At birth, neonatal innate immune responses are characterized by decreased Th1-polarizing responses, whereas generation of Th2-polarizing and regulatory responses is

  14. Sex hormones and the immune response in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouman, Annechien; Heineman, Maas Jan; Faas, Marijke M.

    2005-01-01

    In addition to their effects on sexual differentiation and reproduction, sex hormones appear to influence the immune system. This results in a sexual dimorphism in the immune response in humans: for instance, females produce more vigorous cellular and more vigorous humoral immune reactions, are more

  15. Dendritic Cell Immune Responses in HIV-1 Controllers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Gayo, Enrique; Yu, Xu G

    2017-02-01

    Robust HIV-1-specific CD8 T cell responses are currently regarded as the main correlate of immune defense in rare individuals who achieve natural, drug-free control of HIV-1; however, the mechanisms that support evolution of such powerful immune responses are not well understood. Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized innate immune cells critical for immune recognition, immune regulation, and immune induction, but their possible contribution to HIV-1 immune defense in controllers remains ill-defined. Recent studies suggest that myeloid DCs from controllers have improved abilities to recognize HIV-1 through cytoplasmic immune sensors, resulting in more potent, cell-intrinsic type I interferon secretion in response to viral infection. This innate immune response may facilitate DC-mediated induction of highly potent antiviral HIV-1-specific T cells. Moreover, protective HLA class I isotypes restricting HIV-1-specific CD8 T cells may influence DC function through specific interactions with innate myelomonocytic MHC class I receptors from the leukocyte immunoglobulin-like receptor family. Bi-directional interactions between dendritic cells and HIV-1-specific T cells may contribute to natural HIV-1 immune control, highlighting the importance of a fine-tuned interplay between innate and adaptive immune activities for effective antiviral immune defense.

  16. Humoral and cellular immune responses to modified hepatitis B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    assay (ELISA), while cellular immune response was investigated by analysis of spleen cytokine profile. (TNFα, IFN γ and IL2) ... Keywords: Hepatitis B virus, Plasmid DNA, Vaccine, Spleen cytokines, Humoral and cellular immune responses. Tropical ..... factors associated with non-response to hepatitis. B vaccine included ...

  17. Vaccines against Human Carcinomas: Strategies to Improve Antitumor Immune Responses

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    Claudia Palena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple observations in preclinical and clinical studies support a role for the immune system in controlling tumor growth and progression. Various components of the innate and adaptive immune response are able to mediate tumor cell destruction; however, certain immune cell populations can also induce a protumor environment that favors tumor growth and the development of metastasis. Moreover, tumor cells themselves are equipped with various mechanisms that allow them to evade surveillance by the immune system. The goal of cancer vaccines is to induce a tumor-specific immune response that ultimately will reduce tumor burden by tipping the balance from a protumor to an antitumor immune environment. This review discusses common mechanisms that govern immune cell activation and tumor immune escape, and some of the current strategies employed in the field of cancer vaccines aimed at enhancing activation of tumor-specific T-cells with concurrent reduction of immunosuppression.

  18. Long-Term immune responses to Coxiella burnetii after vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersh, Gilbert J; Fitzpatrick, Kelly A; Self, Joshua S; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Massung, Robert F

    2013-02-01

    Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Infection with C. burnetii results in humoral and cellular immune responses, both of which are thought to contribute to protection against subsequent infection. Whole-cell formalin-inactivated vaccines have also been shown to induce both humoral and cellular immunity and provide protection. Whether measurement of cellular or humoral immunity is a better indicator of immune protection is not known, and the duration of immunity induced by natural infection or vaccination is also poorly understood. To better understand the measurement and duration of C. burnetii immunity, 16 people vaccinated against Q fever (0.2 to 10.3 years before analysis) and 29 controls with a low risk of Q fever exposure were tested for immune responses to C. burnetii by an indirect fluorescent-antibody test (IFA) to measure circulating antibody and by a gamma interferon release assay (IGRA) to measure cellular immunity. Among vaccinated subjects, the IFA detected antibodies in 13/16, and the IGRA also detected positive responses in 13/16. All of the vaccinated subjects had a positive response in at least one of the assays, whereas 8/29 control subjects were positive in at least one assay. There was not a correlation between time since vaccination and responses in these assays. These results show that IFA and IGRA perform similarly in detection of C. burnetii immune responses and that Q fever vaccination establishes long-lived immune responses to C. burnetii.

  19. The influence of innate and adaptative immune responses on the differential clinical outcomes of leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Adriana Barbosa de Lima; Simon, Marise do Vale; Cazzaniga, Rodrigo Anselmo; de Moura, Tatiana Rodrigues; de Almeida, Roque Pacheco; Duthie, Malcolm S; Reed, Steven G; de Jesus, Amelia Ribeiro

    2017-02-06

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae. According to official reports from 121 countries across five WHO regions, there were 213 899 newly diagnosed cases in 2014. Although leprosy affects the skin and peripheral nerves, it can present across a spectrum of clinical and histopathological forms that are strongly influenced by the immune response of the infected individuals. These forms comprise the extremes of tuberculoid leprosy (TT), with a M. leprae-specific Th1, but also a Th17, response that limits M. leprae multiplication, through to lepromatous leprosy (LL), with M. leprae-specific Th2 and T regulatory responses that do not control M. leprae replication but rather allow bacterial dissemination. The interpolar borderline clinical forms present with similar, but less extreme, immune biases. Acute inflammatory episodes, known as leprosy reactions, are complications that may occur before, during or after treatment, and cause further neurological damages that can cause irreversible chronic disabilities. This review discusses the innate and adaptive immune responses, and their interactions, that are known to affect pathogenesis and influence the clinical outcome of leprosy.

  20. Sterile inflammation induced by Carbopol elicits robust adaptive immune responses in the absence of pathogen-associated molecular patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartlan, Kate H; Krashias, George; Wegmann, Frank; Hillson, William R; Scherer, Erin M; Greenberg, Philip D; Eisenbarth, Stephanie C; Moghaddam, Amin E; Sattentau, Quentin J

    2016-04-27

    Carbopol is a polyanionic carbomer used in man for topical application and drug delivery purposes. However parenteral administration of Carbopol in animal models results in systemic adjuvant activity including strong pro-inflammatory type-1 T-cell (Th1) polarization. Here we investigated potential pathways of immune activation by Carbopol by comparison with other well-characterized adjuvants. Carbopol administration triggered rapid and robust leukocyte recruitment, pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion and antigen capture largely by inflammatory monocytes. The induction of antigen specific Th1 cells by Carbopol was found to occur via a non-canonical pathway, independent of MyD88/TRIF signaling and in the absence of pattern-recognition-receptor (PRR) activation typically associated with Th1/Ig2a induction. Using multispectral fluorescence imaging (Imagestream) and electron microscopy we demonstrated that phagocytic uptake of Carbopol particles followed by entry into the phagosomal/lysosomal pathway elicited conformational changes to the polymer and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. We therefore conclude that Carbopol may mediate its adjuvant activity via novel mechanisms of antigen presenting cell activation and Th1 induction, leading to enhanced IgG2a responses independent of microbial pattern recognition. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Immune Response to Bifidobacterium bifidum Strains Support Treg/Th17 Plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Patricia; González-Rodríguez, Irene; Gueimonde, Miguel; Margolles, Abelardo; Suárez, Ana

    2011-01-01

    In this work we analyzed the immune activation properties of different Bifidobacterium strains in order to establish their ability as inductors of specific effector (Th) or regulatory (Treg) responses. First, we determined the cytokine pattern induced by 21 Bifidobacterium strains in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Results showed that four Bifidobacterium bifidum strains showed the highest production of IL-17 as well as a poor secretion of IFNγ and TNFα, suggesting a Th17 profile whereas other Bifidobacterium strains exhibited a Th1-suggestive profile. Given the key role of Th17 subsets in mucosal defence, strains suggestive of Th17 responses and the putative Th1 Bifidobacterium breve BM12/11 were selected to stimulate dendritic cells (DC) to further determine their capability to induce the differentiation of naïve CD4+ lymphocytes toward different Th or Treg cells. All selected strains were able to induce phenotypic DC maturation, but showed differences in cytokine stimulation, DC treated with the putative Th17 strains displaying high IL-1β/IL-12 and low IL-12/IL-10 index, whereas BM12/11-DC exhibited the highest IL-12/IL-10 ratio. Differentiation of naïve lymphocytes confirmed Th1 polarization by BM12/11. Unexpectedly, any B. bifidum strain showed significant capability for Th17 generation, and they were able to generate functional Treg, thus suggesting differences between in vivo and vitro responses. In fact, activation of memory lymphocytes present in PBMCS with these bacteria, point out the presence in vivo of specific Th17 cells, supporting the plasticity of Treg/Th17 populations and the key role of commensal bacteria in mucosal tolerance and T cell reprogramming when needed. PMID:21966367

  2. Targeting the tumor microenvironment to enhance antitumor immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Jeught, Kevin; Bialkowski, Lukasz; Daszkiewicz, Lidia; Broos, Katrijn; Goyvaerts, Cleo; Renmans, Dries; Van Lint, Sandra; Heirman, Carlo; Thielemans, Kris; Breckpot, Karine

    2015-01-01

    The identification of tumor-specific antigens and the immune responses directed against them has instigated the development of therapies to enhance antitumor immune responses. Most of these cancer immunotherapies are administered systemically rather than directly to tumors. Nonetheless, numerous studies have demonstrated that intratumoral therapy is an attractive approach, both for immunization and immunomodulation purposes. Injection, recruitment and/or activation of antigen-presenting cells in the tumor nest have been extensively studied as strategies to cross-prime immune responses. Moreover, delivery of stimulatory cytokines, blockade of inhibitory cytokines and immune checkpoint blockade have been explored to restore immunological fitness at the tumor site. These tumor-targeted therapies have the potential to induce systemic immunity without the toxicity that is often associated with systemic treatments. We review the most promising intratumoral immunotherapies, how these affect systemic antitumor immunity such that disseminated tumor cells are eliminated, and which approaches have been proven successful in animal models and patients. PMID:25682197

  3. Live AttenuatedLeishmania donovaniCentrin Gene-Deleted Parasites Induce IL-23-Dependent IL-17-Protective Immune Response against Visceral Leishmaniasis in a Murine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Antara; Bhattacharya, Parna; Dagur, Pradeep K; Karmakar, Subir; Ismail, Nevien; Joshi, Amritanshu B; Akue, Adovi D; KuKuruga, Mark; McCoy, John Philip; Dey, Ranadhir; Nakhasi, Hira L

    2018-01-01

    No vaccine exists against visceral leishmaniasis. To develop effective vaccines, we have previously reported protective role of live attenuated centrin gene-deleted Leishmania donovani ( LdCen -/- ) parasites through induction of Th1 type immune response in mice, hamsters, and dogs. In this study, we specifically explored the role of Th17 cells in LdCen -/- -induced host protection in mice. Our results showed that compared with wild-type L. donovani infection, LdCen -/- parasites induce significantly higher expression of Th17 differentiation cytokines in splenic dendritic cells. There was also induction of IL-17 and its promoting cytokines in total splenocytes and in both CD4 and CD8 T cells following immunization with LdCen -/- Upon challenge with wild-type parasites, IL-17 and its differentiating cytokines were significantly higher in LdCen -/- -immunized mice compared with nonimmunized mice that resulted in parasite control. Alongside IL-17 induction, we observed induction of IFN-γ-producing Th1 cells as reported earlier. However, Th17 cells are generated before Th1 cells. Neutralization of either IL-17 or IFN-γ abrogated LdCen -/- -induced host protection further confirming the essential role of Th17 along with Th1 cytokines in host protection. Treatment with recombinant IL-23, which is required for stabilization and maintenance of IL-17, heightened Th17, and Tc17 responses in immunized mice splenocytes. In contrast, Th17 response was absent in immunized IL-23R -/- mice that failed to induce protection upon virulent Leishmania challenge suggesting that IL-23 plays an essential role in IL-17-mediated protection by LdCen -/- parasites. This study unveiled the role of IL-23-dependent IL-17 induction in LdCen -/- parasite-induced immunity and subsequent protection against visceral leishmaniasis.

  4. Differential immune responses in mice infected with the tissue-dwelling nematode Trichinella zimbabwensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onkoba, W N; Chimbari, M J; Kamau, J M; Mukaratirwa, S

    2016-09-01

    To improve diagnostic tools, immunotherapies and vaccine development for trichinellosis surveillance and control there is a need to understand the host immune responses induced during infection with Trichinella zimbabwensis, a tissue-dwelling nematode. In this study, we sought to determine immune responses induced in mice during T. zimbabwensis infection. The parasite strain used (Code ISS1209) was derived from a naturally infected crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) and is the main Trichinella species prevalent in southern Africa. Sixty 6- to 8-week-old female BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to two equal groups: T. zimbabwensis-infected (n= 30) and the non-infected control group (n= 30). Levels of serum tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-10 (IL-10), interleukin-4 (IL-4) as well as parasite-specific IgM, IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG3 antibody responses were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The cytokines and antibodies provided information on T-helper 1 (Th1)- and Th2-type, T-regulatory and antibody responses. Results showed that during the intestinal stage of infection, higher levels of parasite-specific IgM, IgG, IgG1 (P Trichinella-infected group compared with the non-infected control group. In the parasite establishment and tissue migration phases, levels of IgG1 and IgG3 were elevated (P <  0.001), while those of IgM (P <  0.01) declined on days 21 and 35 post infection (pi) compared to the enteric phase. Our findings show that distinct differences in Th1- and Th2-type and T-regulatory responses are induced during the intestinal, tissue migration and larval establishment stages of T. zimbabwensis infection.

  5. SYSTEMIC ANTIBODY AND CELLULAR IMMUNE RESPONSES IN INFLUENZA INFECTION AND POSTSVACCINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Donina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Post-infection immunity represents an immunogenicity standard for antiviral vaccines, including those against influenza. To estimate the immunogenic properties of vaccine preparations, it is necessary to compare the quantitative and qualitative parameters of immune responses to the vaccine strain and the virulent virus from which it is prepared. However, for ethical reasons, such human studies are difficult, because there is the possibility of pathogenic viral infection.The aim of this experimental work was to compare systemic immune responses to the pathogenic mouse influenza virus A (H1N1, and an attenuated reassortant virus, genetic formula 2/6 (R 2/6, an experimental analogue to the live influenza vaccine.It was shown, that R 2/6 lagged behind the pathogenic parental virus (PPV in activated induction of circulating IgG-antibodies, secretion of a marker Th1-cytokine IFN-γ by splenocytes, and CTL (CD8+ production in the spleen. On the other hand, R 2/6 was highly competitive with PPV, with regard to quantitative proliferative parameters of pooled splenocytes, stimulation of Th (CD4+ cells, B-cells (CD19+, and Th2-cytokine IL-2. IL-6 production in the spleen was poorly induced by both viruses.Thus, attenuation of influenza A (H1N1 virus by the 2/6 genetic reassortment differentially influences the induction of systemic immunity constituents. i.e., some parameters of immune response may be reduced, while others are not altered. When preparing vaccine strains for live influenza vaccines, an attention should be given first of all to increased induction of circulating antibodies that comprise the major components of antiviral immunity.

  6. Supplementation transgenic cow's milk containing recombinant human lactoferrin enhances systematic and intestinal immune responses in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiuling; Hu, Wenping; Zhao, Jie; Wang, Jianwu; Dai, Yunping; Zhao, Yaofeng; Meng, Qingyong; Li, Ning

    2014-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) plays an important role in the body's immune system. However, the immunomodulatory effects of supplementation transgenic cow's milk containing recombinant human LF (rhLF) on the systemic and intestinal immune systems in infants remain unclear. Our laboratory has used genetic engineer to produce transgenic cow secreted rhLF. To assess the immune responses we took piglets as an animal model for infants. Eighteen piglets at 7 days of age were fed ordinary milk, 1:1 mix of ordinary and rhLF milk, or rhLF milk (LFM) for 30 days. The incidence of diarrhea in piglets in natural condition was observed. The protein abundances of immunoglobulin (Ig)G, IgA, IgM, IgE, histamine, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 interferon, tumor necrosis factor in the plasma, spleen or intestine were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Intestinal structure was assessed by hematoxylin and eosin. The mRNA levels of immune and allergy-related genes were measured by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The results showed that LFM-fed significantly reduced incidence of diarrhea, enhanced humoral immunity, T helper (Th) 1, and Th2 cell responses, improved the structure of the intestinal mucosal and did not induce food allergy. LFM increased mRNA levels of toll-like receptor 2 and nuclear factor-κB p65 and decreased that of FCεRI β. In conclusion, rhLF-enriched formula could improve systematic and intestinal immune responses and did not elicit food allergies in neonatal piglets.

  7. Immune function trade-offs in response to parasite threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschman, Lucas J; Quade, Adam H; Zera, Anthony J; Warne, Robin W

    2017-04-01

    Immune function is often involved in physiological trade-offs because of the energetic costs of maintaining constitutive immunity and mounting responses to infection. However, immune function is a collection of discrete immunity factors and animals should allocate towards factors that combat the parasite threat with the highest fitness cost. For example, animals on dispersal fronts of expanding population may be released from density-dependent diseases. The costs of immunity, however, and life history trade-offs in general, are often context dependent. Trade-offs are often most apparent under conditions of unusually limited resources or when animals are particularly stressed, because the stress response can shift priorities. In this study we tested how humoral and cellular immune factors vary between phenotypes of a wing dimorphic cricket and how physiological stress influences these immune factors. We measured constitutive lysozyme activity, a humoral immune factor, and encapsulation response, a cellular immune factor. We also stressed the crickets with a sham predator in a full factorial design. We found that immune strategy could be explained by the selective pressures encountered by each morph and that stress decreased encapsulation, but not lysozyme activity. These results suggest a possible trade-off between humoral and cellular immunity. Given limited resources and the expense of immune factors, parasite pressures could play a key factor in maintaining insect polyphenism via disruptive selection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of acupuncture intervention on the intestinal mucosal inflammatory response and immune response balance in animals with ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Fan Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effect of acupuncture intervention on the intestinal mucosal inflammatory response and immune response balance in animals with ulcerative colitis (UC. Methods: Adult, male SPF SD rats were selected and randomly divided into the control group, UC group and acupuncture group, and then the acupuncture intervention was established after the UC animal model was established. 14 d after intervention, the expression of inflammatory mediators and Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg cytokines in intestinal mucosa, and the levels of inflammatory mediators and Th1/Th2/Th17/Treg cytokines in serum were detected. Results: NF-kB, HMGB-1, TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ and IL-17 mRNA expression in intestinal mucosa as well as HMGB-1, TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ and IL-17 levels in serum of UC group were significantly higher than those of control group while IL-4, IL-5 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression in intestinal mucosa as well as IL-4, IL-5 and TGF-β1 levels in serum were significantly lower than those of control group; NF-kB, HMGB-1, TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ and IL-17 mRNA expression in intestinal mucosa as well as HMGB-1, TNF-α, IL-1β, IFN-γ and IL-17 levels in serum of acupuncture group were significantly lower than those of UC group while IL-4, IL-5 and TGF-β1 mRNA expression in intestinal mucosa as well as IL-4, IL-5 and TGF-β1 levels in serum were significantly higher than those of UC group. Conclusions: Acupuncture intervention can regulate the intestinal mucosal inflammatory response and immune response of animals with ulcerative colitis.

  9. Immune Response And Anamnestic Immune Response In Children After A 3-Dose Primary Hepatitis B Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad Faheem; Sultan, Muhammad Ashraf; Saleemi, Ahmad Imran

    2016-01-01

    Diseases caused by Hepatitis B virus (HBV) have a worldwide distribution. Pakistan adopted the recommendations of World Health Organization (WHO) for routine universal infant vaccination against hepatitis B in 2002, currently being administered at 6, 10, and 14 weeks of age in a combination vaccine. This study was conducted to determine the immune response & anamnestic immune response in children, 9 months-10 years of age, after a 3dose primary Hepatitis B vaccination. This cross sectional study was conducted in the Department of Paediatrics, King Edward Medical University/Mayo Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan, from January to June, 2014. A total of 200 children of either sex between the ages of 9 months to 10 years, documented to have received 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccines according to Expanded Program of Immunization (6,10,14 weeks) schedule in infancy, were recruited by consecutive sampling. The level of serum antiHBsAb by ELIZA was measured. Children with antiHBs titers ≥10 mIU/mL were considered to be immune. Those with anti HBsAb levels <10 mIU/mL were offered a booster dose of infant recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. The second serum sample was obtained 21-28 days following the administration of the booster dose and the anamnestic immune response was measured. Data was analysed using SPSS 17 to determine the relation between time interval since last vaccination and antibody titer. Chi square test was applied. Of the 200 children, protective antibody response was found in 58%. Median serological response was 18.60 (range 2.82 - 65.15). Antibody levels were found to have a statistically significant ( pvalue 0.019) negative correlation with the time since last administration of vaccine. A booster dose of Hepatitis B vacci ne was administered to all nonresponders, with each registering a statistically significant (pvalue 0.00) anamnestic response. The vaccination schedule with short dosage interval was unable to provide protection to 42% of the study population

  10. Intranasal administration of antibody-bound respiratory syncytial virus particles efficiently primes virus-specific immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruijsen, Debby; Einarsdottir, Helga K; Schijf, Marcel A; Coenjaerts, Frank E; van der Schoot, Ellen C; Vidarsson, Gestur; van Bleek, Grada M

    2013-07-01

    Infants are protected from a severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in the first months of life by maternal antibodies or by prophylactically administered neutralizing antibodies. Efforts are under way to produce RSV-specific antibodies with increased neutralizing capacity compared to the currently licensed palivizumab. While clearly beneficial during primary infections, preexisting antibodies might affect the onset of adaptive immune responses and the ability to resist subsequent RSV infections. Therefore, we addressed the question of how virus neutralizing antibodies influence the priming of subsequent adaptive immune responses. To test a possible role of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) in this process, we compared the responses in C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and FcRn(-/-) mice. We observed substantial virus-specific T-cell priming and B-cell responses in mice primed with RSV IgG immune complexes resulting in predominantly Th1-type CD4(+) T-cell and IgG2c antibody responses upon live-virus challenge. RSV-specific CD8(+) T cells were primed as well. Activation of these adaptive immune responses was independent of FcRn. Thus, neutralizing antibodies that localize to the airways and prevent infection-related routes of antigen processing can still facilitate antigen presentation of neutralized virus particles and initiate adaptive immune responses against RSV.

  11. Saccharomyces uvarum mannoproteins stimulate a humoral immune response in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Patrícia Brito Darpossolo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Yeasts discarded in industrial processes can be used as a nutritional supplement and to extract cellular components with biotechnological aims. In this study, the humoral immune response of Swiss mice treated with mannoproteins (MP from the yeast Saccharomyces uvarum was evaluated. The mice were treated with MPs at different doses and times and inoculated with 2% sheep red blood cells. An increase in total Ig in mice treated with 100 μg of MP at the time of immunization or 24 h before was observed in the primary immune response; in the secondary immune response, an increase was observed in total Ig values for all groups, and an increase of IgG was observed in the mice treated with MPs (100 μg at the time of immunization or 24 h before. These results show that S. uvarum MPs present an immunostimulatory action on the humoral immune response in mice.

  12. Modelo natural de dicotomía TH1-TH2: La enfermedad de Hansen Th1-TH2 balance. Natural model: Hansen'disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. L Vaquero

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de Hansen producida por el Mycobacterium leprae, es una enfermedad infecciosa cuyo amplio espectro clínico e inmunopatológico se correlaciona con los diferentes patrones de respuesta Th1/Th2. La activación preferencial de esas subpoblaciones de linfocitos T CD4 juega un rol importante en su patogenia y constituye un modelo natural de esa dicotomía de la respuesta inmune. Ambas formas polares de la lepra presentan un perfil definido de secreción de citoquinas: Th1 (IL2 e IFN? en el polo tuberculoide y Th2 (IL4, IL5, IL10 en el polo lepromatoso. En el primer caso, la respuesta celular adecuada estimula la activación macrofágica y lleva a la destrucción del bacilo. Las lesiones son escasas y limitadas a la piel y nervios periféricos. En el segundo en cambio, la respuesta celular es casi nula y los bacilos se multiplican descontroladamente dentro de los macrófagos, llevando a la diseminación de las lesiones y afectación de otros órganos. La inmunidad humoral está exacerbada y hay un alto nivel de anticuerpos que no pueden eliminar el germen intracelular. Los factores que determinan la diferenciación hacia una respuesta Th1 ó Th2 no se han esclarecido totalmente. Se han postulado varias hipótesis que hacen referencia a factores genéticos, prevalencia de citoquinas en el microambiente celular, disfunción macrofágica; alteración en los receptores Toll de la inmunidad innata, en la expresión de moléculas coestimulatorias, etc En los últimos años se han descubierto nuevas subpoblaciones de linfocitos, (CD4+ CD25+, Tr1, Th3 y Th17 que estarían implicadas en la desregulación de estas respuestas inmunes.Hansen' disease, caused by Mycobacterium leprae, is an infectious illness whose wide clinical and immunopathologic spectrum correl with different Th1/Th2 responses patterns. The prefferencial activation of the CD4 T cells subset play an important rol in it's pathogenia and provides a natural model of that balance

  13. Immune response to Leishmania antigens in an AIDS patient with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis as a manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS): a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gois, Luana; Badaró, Roberto; Schooley, Robert; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios

    2015-02-03

    After the onset of HAART, some HIV-infected individuals under treatment present a exacerbated inflammation in response to a latent or a previously treated opportunistic pathogen termed immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Few reports of tegumentary leishmaniasis have been described in association with IRIS. Moreover, the immunopathogenesis of IRIS in association with Leishmania is unclear. The present study reports on a 29-year-old HIV-infected individual who developed mucocutaneous leishmaniasis associated with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) five months following highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Severe lesions resulted in the partial destruction of the nasal septum, with improvement observed 15 days after treatment with Amphotericin B and corticosteroids. The immune response of this patient was evaluated before and after the lesions healed. IRIS was diagnosed in association with high levels of TNF-α and IL-6. Decreased production of IFN-γ and a low IFN-γ/IL-10 ratio were also observed in response to Leishmania antigens. After receiving anti-leishmanial treatment, the individual's specific Th1 immune response was restored. The results suggest that the production of inflammatory cytokines by unstimulated T-lymphocytes could contribute to occurrence of leishmaniasis associated with IRIS.

  14. Seasonal changes in human immune responses to malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hviid, L; Theander, T G

    1993-01-01

    Cellular as well as humorol immune responses to malaria antigens fluctuate in time in individuals living in molono-endemic areas, particularly where malaria transmission is seasonal. The most pronounced changes are seen in association with clinical attacks, but osymptomatic infection can also lead...... to apparent immune depression. However, recent data have shown that seasonal variation in cellular immune responses may occur even in the absence of detectable porositaemia. Here, Lars Hviid and Thor G. Theonder review the seasonal variation in human immune responses to malaria, and discuss its possible...... causes and implications....

  15. HCV core protein modulates the immune response against the HBV surface antigen in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Julio C; Acosta-Rivero, Nelson; Dueñas-Carrera, Santiago; Morales Grillo, Juan; Pichardo, Dagmara; Urquiza, Dioslaida; Guillen, Gerardo; Muzio, Verena

    2003-10-10

    Mucosal vaccination is currently arousing a great deal of interest, since mucosally induced immunity is able to protect not only against microorganisms using mucosa as a door of entry, but also against those parenterally transmitted. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is considered a worldwide health problem and a current vaccine is not available. In the present work, immunogenicity of particulate HCcAg was evaluated, administered alone and also in formulations with the main protective antigen of HBV, the surface antigen (HBsAg), both by mucosal (i.n.) and parenteral (i.m) routes. HCcAg was able to induce strong immune responses after nasal as well as parenteral administration, developing a strong Th1-like antibody response in serum. Preliminary data also suggested the ability of HCcAg to efficiently enhance and modulate the host immune response against HBsAg. These results support the use of the particulate HCcAg in the rational design of candidates for HCV therapeutic or preventive vaccine strategies or inclusively in the development of future combined vaccines.

  16. Factors Associated With Pediatrician Responses to Alternative Immunization Schedule Requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Salini; Feemster, Kristen A; Buttenheim, Alison; Moser, Charlotte A; Field, Robert I; Mayer, Whitney; Carroll-Scott, Amy

    2017-02-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional online survey among 4 chapters of the American Academy of Pediatrics from July through October 2014 to describe characteristics of pediatricians and practices associated with practice-level responses to alternative immunization schedule requests. Among 374 pediatricians, 58% reported frequent alternative immunization schedule requests and 24% reported feeling comfortable using them. Pediatricians who work in practices that accommodate alternative immunization schedule requests have increased odds of having a high frequency of alternative immunization schedule requests, and beliefs that relationships with families would be negatively affected if they refused requests. Practices that discontinue care to families who request alternative immunization schedules have increased odds of being a private group practice and having a formal office vaccine policy. Pediatricians are frequently asked to use alternative immunization schedules and many are not comfortable using them. Practice-level responses to alternative immunization schedules are associated with characteristics of pediatricians and practices.

  17. Innate immune response development in nestling tree swallows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambaugh, T.; Houdek, B.J.; Lombardo, M.P.; Thorpe, P.A.; Caldwell, Hahn D.

    2011-01-01

    We tracked the development of innate immunity in nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and compared it to that of adults using blood drawn from nestlings during days 6, 12, and 18 of the ???20-day nestling period and from adults. Innate immunity was characterized using an in vitro assay of the ability of whole blood to kill Escherichia coli. The ability of whole blood to kill E. coli increased as nestlings matured. Neither this component of innate immunity nor right wing chord length on day18 were as developed as in adults indicating that development of the innate immune system and growth both continued after fledging. Narrow sense heritability analyses suggest that females with strong immune responses produced nestlings with strong immune responses. These data suggest nestling Tree Swallows allocated sufficient energy to support rapid growth to enable fledging by day 18, but that further development of innate immunity occurred post-fledging. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  18. Investigating the adaptive immune response in influenza and secondary bacterial pneumonia and nanoparticle based therapeutic delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthy, Krishnan V.

    In early 2000, influenza and its associated complications were the 7 th leading cause of death in the United States[1-4]. As of today, this major health problem has become even more of a concern, with the possibility of a potentially devastating avian flu (H5N1) or swine flu pandemic (H1N1). According to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), over 10 countries have reported transmission of influenza A (H5N1) virus to humans as of June 2006 [5]. In response to this growing concern, the United States pledged over $334 million dollars in international aid for battling influenza[1-4]. The major flu pandemic of the early 1900's provided the first evidence that secondary bacterial pneumonia (not primary viral pneumonia) was the major cause of death in both community and hospital-based settings. Secondary bacterial infections currently account for 35-40% mortality following a primary influenza viral infection [1, 6]. The first component of this work addresses the immunological mechanisms that predispose patients to secondary bacterial infections following a primary influenza viral infection. By assessing host immune responses through various immune-modulatory tools, such as use of volatile anesthetics (i.e. halothane) and Apilimod/STA-5326 (an IL-12/Il-23 transcription blocker), we provide experimental evidence that demonstrates that the overactive adaptive Th1 immune response is critical in mediating increased susceptibility to secondary bacterial infections. We also present data that shows that suppressing the adaptive Th1 immune response enhances innate immunity, specifically in alveolar macrophages, by favoring a pro anti-bacterial phenotype. The second component of this work addresses the use of nanotechnology to deliver therapeutic modalities that affect the primary viral and associated secondary bacterial infections post influenza. First, we used surface functionalized quantum dots for selective targeting of lung alveolar macrophages both in vitro and in vivo

  19. Innate immune memory: implications for development of pediatric immunomodulatory agents and adjuvanted vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levy, O.; Netea, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Unique features of immunity early in life include a distinct immune system particularly reliant on innate immunity, with weak T helper (Th)1-polarizing immune responses, and impaired responses to certain vaccines leading to a heightened susceptibility to infection. To these important aspects, we now

  20. Probiotics and the immune response to vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Thomas T; Bell, Iona

    2010-08-01

    Probiotics are bacteria, but sometimes fungi, which when taken by the oral route may give some health benefits. The most compelling evidence for beneficial effects of probiotics is in the prevention and reduction in the duration of symptoms related to gut infectious disease. There is also evidence to show that some specific probiotics are beneficial in Clostridium difficile diarrhoea in the elderly. As further and better controlled clinical studies have appeared, some specific probiotics also appear to have beneficial effects in perhaps preventing and reducing the duration of symptoms due to acquired upper respiratory tract infections. In an attempt to explain these effects, attention has turned to the effects of some specific probiotics on the immune system. There is evidence that some specific probiotics can alter monocyte and natural killer cell function in the blood. Evidence is also accumulating that taking some specific probiotics can boost antibody responses to oral and systemically administered vaccines. The effect when shown is modest and is not always seen in different studies to all vaccines, but there is enough of a trend to make the area worthy of further investigation, particularly to tease out the mechanisms involved.

  1. Importins and Exportins Regulating Allergic Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankita Aggarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of macromolecules is a well-controlled process involving importins and exportins. These karyopherins recognize and bind to receptor-mediated intracellular signals through specific signal sequences that are present on cargo proteins and transport into and out of the nucleus through nuclear pore complexes. Nuclear localization signals (NLS present on cargo molecules to be imported while nuclear export signals (NES on the molecules to be exported are recognized by importins and exportins, respectively. The classical NLS are found on many transcription factors and molecules that are involved in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases. In addition, several immune modulators, including corticosteroids and vitamin D, elicit their cellular responses by regulating the expression and activity of importin molecules. In this review article, we provide a comprehensive list of importin and exportin molecules and their specific cargo that shuttled between cytoplasm and the nucleus. We also critically review the role and regulation of specific importin and exportin involved in the transport of activated transcription factors in allergic diseases, the underlying molecular mechanisms, and the potential target sites for developing better therapeutic approaches.

  2. Molecular cloning and immune response analysis of putative variable lipoproteins from Mycoplasma mycoides subsp capri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C G; Hao, Y Q; Zhang, L; Hao, R X; Liu, X L; Huang, Z Y

    2014-03-12

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp capri is the cause of goat "MAKePS" (Mastitis, Arthritis, Keratoconjunctivitis, Pneumonia, Septicemia) syndrome. We identified three genes (GL_ 000459; 000461; 000462) as variable lipoprotein genes in the M. mycoides subsp capri str. PG3 genome by genomic information and comparative genomic analyses. To study the role of variable lipoproteins in M. mycoides subsp capri pathogenesis and evaluate the immunogenic and protective potentials of those proteins, we constructed the expression systems and expressed the mature peptide portion of the three proteins in E. coli. We also determined the titers and opsonophagocytosis activity of total IgG antibodies and the levels of Th1 and Th2 cytokines in sera, and we ran a lymphocyte proliferation assay in mice immunized with recombinant proteins His-tag-GL000459, His-tag-GL000461, and His-tag-GL000462. These three lipoproteins induced humoral and cellular immune responses in the immunized mice. Additionally, the whole blood opsonophagocitic in vitro assay demonstrated that the antibodies produced by the immunized groups can neutralize strain PG3; consequently, these three variable lipoproteins could be the major surface antigens in M. mycoides subsp capri str. PG3.

  3. Frequent adaptive immune responses against arginase-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenaite, Evelina; Mortensen, Rasmus Erik Johansson; Hansen, Morten

    2018-01-01

    The enzyme arginase-1 reduces the availability of arginine to tumor-infiltrating immune cells, thus reducing T-cell functionality in the tumor milieu. Arginase-1 is expressed by some cancer cells and by immune inhibitory cells, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and tumor-associated...

  4. IL10 polymorphisms influence neonatal immune responses, atopic dermatitis, and wheeze at age 3 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raedler, Diana; Illi, Sabina; Pinto, Leonardo Araujo; von Mutius, Erika; Illig, Thomas; Kabesch, Michael; Schaub, Bianca

    2013-03-01

    IL10 encodes for IL-10, an important anti-inflammatory cytokine with pleiotropic effects. It is crucial for development of immune tolerance, downregulates expression of TH1 cytokines, and is relevant for T-cell regulation. Several IL10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with inflammatory diseases, such as atopic diseases, which might have their onset during early immune maturation. We hypothesized that IL10 SNPs are associated with decreased regulatory T (Treg) cell numbers, TH2-skewed immune responses, and decreased IFN-γ levels in cord blood parallel with increased proinflammatory markers, subsequently leading to increased atopic diseases until 3 years. Eight genetic IL10 variants, represented by 4 linkage disequilibrium blocks (R(2) > 0.80) and 2 distal promoter SNPs, were genotyped in cord blood mononuclear cells of 200 healthy neonates. Cord blood mononuclear cells were cultured unstimulated or after stimulation with lipid A, peptidoglycan, PHA, house dust mite (Der p 1), or Der p 1 plus lipid A. mRNA expression of Treg cell-associated genes (forkhead box protein P3 [FOXP3], glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor [GITR], lymphocyte activation gene 3 [LAG3]), TH1/TH2 cytokines, TNF-α, and GM-CSF were assessed. Atopic and respiratory outcomes (atopic dermatitis [AD] and wheeze) were assessed by means of questionnaire at age 3 years. Carriers of 3 IL10 SNP blocks and both distal promoter SNPs showed reduced expression of Treg cell markers, reduced IL-5 levels, proinflammatory TNF-α and GM-CSF, and partially increased IFN-γ levels. The same SNPs presented as determinant for AD, wheeze, or symptoms of AD, wheeze, or both at age 3 years. Polymorphisms in IL10 influenced Treg cell marker expression and TH1/TH2 and proinflammatory cytokine secretion early in life. This was relevant for further development of immune-mediated diseases, such as AD and wheeze, in early childhood. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

  5. Risk factors for discordant immune response among HIV-infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-02

    Nov 2, 2012 ... Background. The therapeutic goal of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is sustained immune recovery and viral suppression. However, some patients experience poor CD4 cell count responses despite achieving viral suppression. Such discordant immune responses have been associated with poor clinical ...

  6. Suppression of Th1-mediated autoimmunity by embryonic stem cell-derived dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokunori Ikeda

    Full Text Available We herein demonstrate the immune-regulatory effect of embryonic stem cell-derived dendritic cells (ES-DCs using two models of autoimmune disease, namely non-obese diabetic (NOD mice and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. Treatment of pre-diabetic NOD mice with ES-DCs exerted almost complete suppression of diabetes development during the observation period for more than 40 weeks. The prevention of diabetes by ES-DCs was accompanied with significant reduction of insulitis and decreased number of Th1 and Th17 cells in the spleen. Development of EAE was also inhibited by the treatment with ES-DCs, and the therapeutic effect was obtained even if ES-DCs were administrated after the onset of clinical symptoms. Treatment of EAE-induced mice with ES-DCs reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells into the spinal cord and suppressed the T cell response to the myelin antigen. Importantly, the ES-DC treatment did not affect T cell response to an exogenous antigen. As the mechanisms underlying the reduction of the number of infiltrating Th1 cells, we observed the inhibition of differentiation and proliferation of Th1 cells by ES-DCs. Furthermore, the expression of VLA-4α on Th1 cells was significantly inhibited by ES-DCs. Considering the recent advances in human induced pluripotent stem cell-related technologies, these results suggest a clinical application for pluripotent stem cell-derived dendritic cells as a therapy for T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases.

  7. Apoptosis and other immune biomarkers predict influenza vaccine responsiveness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Furman, David; Jojic, Vladimir; Kidd, Brian; Shen‐Orr, Shai; Price, Jordan; Jarrell, Justin; Tse, Tiffany; Huang, Huang; Lund, Peder; Maecker, Holden T; Utz, Paul J; Dekker, Cornelia L; Koller, Daphne; Davis, Mark M

    ... (60 to >89 years) as models for strong and weak immune responses, respectively, and assayed their serological responses to influenza strains as well as a wide variety of other parameters, including gene expression...

  8. Innate responses induced by whole inactivated virus or subunit influenza vaccines in cultured dendritic cells correlate with immune responses in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maaike Stoel

    Full Text Available Vaccine development involves time-consuming and expensive evaluation of candidate vaccines in animal models. As mediators of both innate and adaptive immune responses dendritic cells (DCs are considered to be highly important for vaccine performance. Here we evaluated how far the response of DCs to a vaccine in vitro is in line with the immune response the vaccine evokes in vivo. To this end, we investigated the response of murine bone marrow-derived DCs to whole inactivated virus (WIV and subunit (SU influenza vaccine preparations. These vaccine preparations were chosen because they differ in the immune response they evoke in mice with WIV being superior to SU vaccine through induction of higher virus-neutralizing antibody titers and a more favorable Th1-skewed response phenotype. Stimulation of DCs with WIV, but not SU vaccine, resulted in a cytokine response that was comparable to that of DCs stimulated with live virus. Similarly, the gene expression profiles of DCs treated with WIV or live virus were similar and differed from that of SU vaccine-treated DCs. More specifically, exposure of DCs to WIV resulted in differential expression of genes in known antiviral pathways, whereas SU vaccine did not. The stronger antiviral and more Th1-related response of DCs to WIV as compared to SU vaccine correlates well with the superior immune response found in mice. These results indicate that in vitro stimulation of DCs with novel vaccine candidates combined with the assessment of multiple parameters, including gene signatures, may be a valuable tool for the selection of vaccine candidates.

  9. [The effect of psychic stress on the immune response].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimecki, Michał; Artym, Jolanta

    2004-03-24

    Linkage between the central nervous system and the immune system is obvious and is accomplished through the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic-adrenal medullary (SAM) axes. This review focuses on the effects of psychic stress in animals and humans on immune system function. The effects of stress depend on its duration, type, and intensity. Generally, mild stress enhances the immune response. The effects of stress also depend on the animal's behavioral profile, genetic background and preexposure to stressful conditions. Prenatal stress modifies the immune response of the offspring. Stress also modifies autoimmune reactions in animals and humans. Knowledge of the mediators and their receptors involved in the functioning of the HPA and SAM axes allows pharmacological intervention to alleviate the harmful effects of stress on the immune system. Our studies revealed a benefit of oral lactoferrin application in reversing stress-induced changes in the humoral and cellular immune response in mice.

  10. Immune response to recombinant Leishmania infantum lipophosphoglycan 3 plus CpG oligodeoxynucleotides in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirdel, L; Zavaran Hosseini, A

    2017-03-01

    Development of a protective antileishmanial vaccine is an urgent priority for successful control of different forms of leishmaniasis. The potential of a recombinant lipophosphoglycan 3 (rLPG3) expressed by Leishmania tarentolae was evaluated in combination with CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-ODN) as a Th1-promoting adjuvant against Leishmania infantum infection in BALB/c mice. First, mice were immunized subcutaneously with rLPG3 either alone or in combination with CpG-ODN. Next, the immunogenic and protective efficacies of this vaccine were analysed in immunized mice. It was observed that coadministration of rLPG3 with CpG-ODN led to enhance in a Th1 response to rLPG3 induced by itself as the IFN-γ production was promoted in association with the predominant presence of IgG2a antibodies in the sera. However, immunization with rLPG3 plus CpG-ODN induced partial protection against infectious challenge in BALB/c mice. Taken together, further studies are required to improve the protective efficacy using either more potent immune enhancers or vaccination strategies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. FORMATION OF INNATE AND ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT FLAVIVIRUS VACCINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Krylova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The review examines in a comparative perspective the key moments of formation of innate and adaptive immune responses to different types of current flavivirus vaccines: live attenuated against yellow fever virus and inactivated whole virus against tick-borne encephalitis virus. Particular attention is paid to the ability of these different vaccines, containing exogenous pathogen-associated molecular structures, to stimulate innate immunity. Live attenuated vaccine by infecting several subtypes of dendritic cells activates them through various pattern-recognition receptors, such as Tolland RIG-I-like receptors, which leads to significant production of proinflammatory cytokines, including interferon-α primary mediator of innate antiviral immunity. By simulating natural viral infection, this vaccine quickly spreads over the vascular network, and the dendritic cells, activated by it, migrate to the draining lymph nodes and trigger multiple foci of Tand B-cell activation. Inactivated vaccine stimulates the innate immunity predominantly at the injection site, and for the sufficient activation requires the presence in its composition of an adjuvant (aluminum hydroxide, which effects the formation and activation of inflammasomes, ensuring the formation and secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 that, in turn, trigger a cascade of cellular and humoral innate immune responses. We demonstrated the possibility of involvement in the induction of innate immunity, mediated by the inactivated vaccine, endogenous pathogenassociated molecular patterns (uric acid and host cell DNA, forming at the vaccine injection site. We discuss the triggering of Band T-cell responses by flavivirus vaccines that determine various duration of protection against various pathogens. A single injection of the live vaccine against yellow fever virus induces polyvalent adaptive immune response, including the production of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, Th1and Th2-cells and neutralizing antibodies

  12. Live Imaging of the Skin Immune Responses: Visualization of the Contact Hypersensitivity Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa, Gyohei; Honda, Tetsuya; Kabashima, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    A variety of immune cells are involved in cutaneous immune responses. Over the last decade, intravital imaging has become an important technique used to capture the dynamic behavior of immune cells in the physiological context. In this chapter, we describe essential techniques for visualizing immune cells in the skin, focusing on the contact hypersensitivity response. Using fluorescent dyes and transgenic reporter animals, many kinds of immune cells and skin components can be visualized in three dimensions and in a noninvasive manner.

  13. Turmeric (Curcuma longa) attenuates food allergy symptoms by regulating type 1/type 2 helper T cells (Th1/Th2) balance in a mouse model of food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hee Soon; See, Hye-Jeong; Jung, Sun Young; Choi, Dae Woon; Kwon, Da-Ae; Bae, Min-Jung; Sung, Ki-Seung; Shon, Dong-Hwa

    2015-12-04

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa) has traditionally been used to treat pain, fever, allergic and inflammatory diseases such as bronchitis, arthritis, and dermatitis. In particular, turmeric and its active component, curcumin, were effective in ameliorating immune disorders including allergies. However, the effects of turmeric and curcumin have not yet been tested on food allergies. Mice were immunized with intraperitoneal ovalbumin (OVA) and alum. The mice were orally challenged with 50mg OVA, and treated with turmeric extract (100mg/kg), curcumin (3mg/kg or 30 mg/kg) for 16 days. Food allergy symptoms including decreased rectal temperature, diarrhea, and anaphylaxis were evaluated. In addition, cytokines, immunoglobulins, and mouse mast cell protease-1 (mMCP-1) were evaluated using ELISA. Turmeric significantly attenuated food allergy symptoms (decreased rectal temperature and anaphylactic response) induced by OVA, but curcumin showed weak improvement. Turmeric also inhibited IgE, IgG1, and mMCP-1 levels increased by OVA. Turmeric reduced type 2 helper cell (Th2)-related cytokines and enhanced a Th1-related cytokine. Turmeric ameliorated OVA-induced food allergy by maintaining Th1/Th2 balance. Furthermore, turmeric was confirmed anti-allergic effect through promoting Th1 responses on Th2-dominant immune responses in immunized mice. Turmeric significantly ameliorated food allergic symptoms in a mouse model of food allergy. The turmeric as an anti-allergic agent showed immune regulatory effects through maintaining Th1/Th2 immune balance, whereas curcumin appeared immune suppressive effects. Therefore, we suggest that administration of turmeric including various components may be useful to ameliorate Th2-mediated allergic disorders such as food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and asthma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Immune response induction in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Babcock, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    The primary function of the immune response is protection of the host against infection with pathogens, including viruses. Since viruses can infect any tissue of the body, including the central nervous system (CNS), it is logical that cells of the immune system should equally have access to all...... tissues. Nevertheless, the brain and spinal cord are noted for their lack of immune presence. Relative to other organ systems, the CNS appears immunologically privileged. Furthermore, when immune responses do occur in the CNS, they are frequently associated with deleterious effects such as inflammatory...

  15. FEATURES OF IMMUNE RESPONSE AMONG MAJOR LYMPHOCYTE SUBPOPULATIONS FROM PERIPHERAL BLOOD DURING EXACERBATION OF CHRONIC GASTRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Matveeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify and evaluate the features of immune response for main subpopulations of peripheral blood lymphocytes during exacerbation of chronic gastritis, depending on the severity of gastric mucosal atrophy. A comprehensive survey of 122 patients with acute exacerbation of chronic gastritis was performed. The patients with chronic focal-atrophic and atrophic gastritis in acute stage were characterized by increased numbers of CD3+ lymphocytes, CD4+, CD8+ and CD16+ cell populations, decreased CD19+ lymphocyte counts in peripheral blood. During exacerbation of non-atrophic gastritis, an increase of CD4+ and CD16+ cell counts was associated with a decrease in the CD8+ and CD19+ lymphocytes. A concomitant increase in CD4+ cell numbers, as well as elevated IL-2 and IFNγ levels in peripheral blood of patients may reflect activation of cellular immunity, which could be induced by the dysplasia of gastric mucosa and co-infection with Helicobacter/herpesvirus. Domination of increased IL-2 and IFNγ over IL-4 and IL-10 levels suggests the Th1-profile of cellular immune response. Upon exacerbation of non-atrophic gastritis, the immunoregulatory index exceeded the values of clinically healthy subjects and those of patients with atrophic gastritis. We observed statistically significant differences for CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD19+ lymphocytes, immunoregulatory index, and serum levels of IL-2, depending on presence and severity of gastric mucosal atrophy. 

  16. A novel subset of helper T cells promotes immune responses by secreting GM-CSF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Roberts, A I; Liu, C; Ren, G; Xu, G; Zhang, L; Devadas, S; Shi, Yufang

    2013-01-01

    Helper T cells are crucial for maintaining proper immune responses. Yet, they have an undefined relationship with one of the most potent immune stimulatory cytokines, granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). By depleting major cytokines during the differentiation of CD4+ T cells in vitro, we derived cells that were found to produce large amounts of GM-CSF, but little of the cytokines produced by other helper T subsets. By their secretion of GM-CSF, this novel subset of helper T cells (which we have termed ThGM cells) promoted the production of cytokines by other T-cell subtypes, including type 1 helper T cell (Th1), type 2 helper T cell (Th2), type 1 cytotoxic T cell (Tc1), type 2 cytotoxic T cell (Tc2), and naive T cells, as evidenced by the fact that antibody neutralization of GM-CSF abolished this effect. ThGM cells were found to be highly prone to activation-induced cell death (AICD). Inhibitors of TRAIL or granzymes could not block AICD in ThGM cells, whereas inhibition of FasL/Fas interaction partially rescued ThGM cells from AICD. Thus, ThGM cells are a novel subpopulation of T helper cells that produce abundant GM-CSF, exhibit exquisite susceptibility to apoptosis, and therefore play a pivotal role in the regulation of the early stages of immune responses. PMID:24076588

  17. F1 Domain of theLeishmania (Leishmania) donovaniNucleoside Hydrolase Promotes a Th1 Response inLeishmania (Leishmania) infantumCured Patients and in Asymptomatic Individuals Living in an Endemic Area of Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Eugenia; Fernandez, Laura; Ibarra-Meneses, Ana Victoria; Santos, Micheli L B; Nico, Dirlei; de Luca, Paula M; Correa, Cristiane Bani; de Almeida, Roque Pacheco; Moreno, Javier; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B

    2017-01-01

    The Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani nucleoside hydrolase NH36 is the main antigen of the Leishmune ® vaccine and one of the promising candidates for vaccination against visceral leishmaniasis. The antigenicity of the N-terminal (F1), the central (F2), or the C-terminal recombinant domain (F3) of NH36 was evaluated using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from individuals infected with L. (L.) infantum from an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis of Spain. Both NH36 and F1 domains significantly increased the PBMC proliferation stimulation index of cured patients and infected asymptomatic individuals compared to healthy controls. Moreover, F1 induced a 19% higher proliferative response than NH36 in asymptomatic exposed subjects. In addition, in patients cured from visceral leishmaniasis, proliferation in response to NH36 and F1 was accompanied by a significant increase of IFN-γ and TNF-α secretion, which was 42-43% higher, in response to F1 than to NH36. The interleukin 17 (IL-17) secretion was stronger in asymptomatic subjects, in response to F1, as well as in cured cutaneous leishmaniasis after NH36 stimulation. While no IL-10 secretion was determined by F1, a granzyme B increase was detected in supernatants from cured patients after stimulation with either NH36 or F1. These data demonstrate that F1 is the domain of NH36 that induces a recall cellular response in individuals with acquired resistance to the infection by L. (L.) infantum . In addition, F1 and NH36 discriminated the IgG3 humoral response in patients with active visceral leishmaniasis due to L. (L.) donovani (Ethiopia) and L. (L.) infantum (Spain) from that of endemic and non-endemic area controls. NH36 showed higher reactivity with sera from L. (L.) donovani -infected individuals, indicating species specificity. We conclude that the F1 domain, previously characterized as an inducer of the Th1 and Th17 responses in cured/exposed patients infected with L. (L.) infantum chagasi , may also be

  18. F1 Domain of the Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani Nucleoside Hydrolase Promotes a Th1 Response in Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum Cured Patients and in Asymptomatic Individuals Living in an Endemic Area of Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Eugenia; Fernandez, Laura; Ibarra-Meneses, Ana Victoria; Santos, Micheli L. B.; Nico, Dirlei; de Luca, Paula M.; Correa, Cristiane Bani; de Almeida, Roque Pacheco; Moreno, Javier; Palatnik-de-Sousa, Clarisa B.

    2017-01-01

    The Leishmania (Leishmania) donovani nucleoside hydrolase NH36 is the main antigen of the Leishmune® vaccine and one of the promising candidates for vaccination against visceral leishmaniasis. The antigenicity of the N-terminal (F1), the central (F2), or the C-terminal recombinant domain (F3) of NH36 was evaluated using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from individuals infected with L. (L.) infantum from an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis of Spain. Both NH36 and F1 domains significantly increased the PBMC proliferation stimulation index of cured patients and infected asymptomatic individuals compared to healthy controls. Moreover, F1 induced a 19% higher proliferative response than NH36 in asymptomatic exposed subjects. In addition, in patients cured from visceral leishmaniasis, proliferation in response to NH36 and F1 was accompanied by a significant increase of IFN-γ and TNF-α secretion, which was 42–43% higher, in response to F1 than to NH36. The interleukin 17 (IL-17) secretion was stronger in asymptomatic subjects, in response to F1, as well as in cured cutaneous leishmaniasis after NH36 stimulation. While no IL-10 secretion was determined by F1, a granzyme B increase was detected in supernatants from cured patients after stimulation with either NH36 or F1. These data demonstrate that F1 is the domain of NH36 that induces a recall cellular response in individuals with acquired resistance to the infection by L. (L.) infantum. In addition, F1 and NH36 discriminated the IgG3 humoral response in patients with active visceral leishmaniasis due to L. (L.) donovani (Ethiopia) and L. (L.) infantum (Spain) from that of endemic and non-endemic area controls. NH36 showed higher reactivity with sera from L. (L.) donovani-infected individuals, indicating species specificity. We conclude that the F1 domain, previously characterized as an inducer of the Th1 and Th17 responses in cured/exposed patients infected with L. (L.) infantum chagasi, may also be

  19. F1 Domain of the Leishmania (Leishmania donovani Nucleoside Hydrolase Promotes a Th1 Response in Leishmania (Leishmania infantum Cured Patients and in Asymptomatic Individuals Living in an Endemic Area of Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Carrillo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Leishmania (Leishmania donovani nucleoside hydrolase NH36 is the main antigen of the Leishmune® vaccine and one of the promising candidates for vaccination against visceral leishmaniasis. The antigenicity of the N-terminal (F1, the central (F2, or the C-terminal recombinant domain (F3 of NH36 was evaluated using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from individuals infected with L. (L. infantum from an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis of Spain. Both NH36 and F1 domains significantly increased the PBMC proliferation stimulation index of cured patients and infected asymptomatic individuals compared to healthy controls. Moreover, F1 induced a 19% higher proliferative response than NH36 in asymptomatic exposed subjects. In addition, in patients cured from visceral leishmaniasis, proliferation in response to NH36 and F1 was accompanied by a significant increase of IFN-γ and TNF-α secretion, which was 42–43% higher, in response to F1 than to NH36. The interleukin 17 (IL-17 secretion was stronger in asymptomatic subjects, in response to F1, as well as in cured cutaneous leishmaniasis after NH36 stimulation. While no IL-10 secretion was determined by F1, a granzyme B increase was detected in supernatants from cured patients after stimulation with either NH36 or F1. These data demonstrate that F1 is the domain of NH36 that induces a recall cellular response in individuals with acquired resistance to the infection by L. (L. infantum. In addition, F1 and NH36 discriminated the IgG3 humoral response in patients with active visceral leishmaniasis due to L. (L. donovani (Ethiopia and L. (L. infantum (Spain from that of endemic and non-endemic area controls. NH36 showed higher reactivity with sera from L. (L. donovani-infected individuals, indicating species specificity. We conclude that the F1 domain, previously characterized as an inducer of the Th1 and Th17 responses in cured/exposed patients infected with L. (L. infantum chagasi, may

  20. The immune response to chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in cystic fibrosis patients is predominantly of the Th2 type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moser, C; Kjaergaard, S; Pressler, T

    2000-01-01

    Most cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection have a persistent acute type lung inflammation dominated by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and a pronounced antibody response against P. aeruginosa. We speculated whether this immune response in CF...... is of the Th2 type and whether a change to a Th1 type immune response could improve the prognosis. Therefore, we studied 14 CF patients with (CF +P) and 14 CF patients without (CF -P) chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection. The specific production of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-4 (IL-4......) by peripheral blood mononuclear cells was determined. Cells from CF +P patients had lower IFN-gamma (plung function was found (FVC: Rho = 0.637; p

  1. Comparative Assessment of Induced Immune Responses Following Intramuscular Immunization with Fusion and Cocktail of LeIF, LACK and TSA Genes Against Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in BALB/c Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maspi, Nahid; Ghaffarifar, Fatemeh; Sharifi, Zohreh; Dalimi, Abdolhossein; Dayer, Mohammad Saaid

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, we evaluated induced immune responses following DNA vaccine containing cocktail or fusion of LeIF, LACK and TSA genes or each gene alone. Mice were injected with 100 µg of each plasmid containing the gene of insert, plasmid DNA alone as the first control group or phosphate buffer saline as the second control group. Then, cellular and humoral responses, lesion size were measured for all groups. All vaccinated mice induced Th1 immune responses against Leishmania characterized by higher IFN-γ and IgG2a levels compared with control groups (p fusion and cocktail vaccines in comparison with LACK (p fusion and cocktail groups produced higher IgG2a values than groups vaccinated with a gene alone (p fusion DNA than three groups vaccinated with one gene alone (p fusion and cocktail groups. Overall, immunized mice with cocktail and fusion vaccines showed stronger Th1 response by production of higher IFN-γ and IgG2a and showed smaller mean lesion size. Therefore, use of multiple antigens can improve induced immune responses by DNA vaccination.

  2. Rotavirus immune responses and correlates of protection

    OpenAIRE

    Angel, Juana; Franco, Manuel A.; Greenberg, Harry B.

    2012-01-01

    Selected topics in the field of rotavirus immunity are reviewed focusing on recent developments that may improve efficacy and safety of current and future vaccines. Rotaviruses have developed multiple mechanisms to evade interferon-mediated innate immunity. Compared to more developed regions of the world, protection induced by natural infection and vaccination is reduced in developing countries where, among other factors, high viral challenge loads are common and where infants are infected at...

  3. A synthetic adjuvant to enhance and expand immune responses to influenza vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coler, Rhea N; Baldwin, Susan L; Shaverdian, Narek; Bertholet, Sylvie; Reed, Steven J; Raman, Vanitha S; Lu, Xiuhua; DeVos, Joshua; Hancock, Kathy; Katz, Jacqueline M; Vedvick, Thomas S; Duthie, Malcolm S; Clegg, Christopher H; Van Hoeven, Neal; Reed, Steven G

    2010-10-27

    Safe, effective adjuvants that enhance vaccine potency, including induction of neutralizing Abs against a broad range of variant strains, is an important strategy for the development of seasonal influenza vaccines which can provide optimal protection, even during seasons when available vaccines are not well matched to circulating viruses. We investigated the safety and ability of Glucopyranosyl Lipid Adjuvant-Stable Emulsion (GLA-SE), a synthetic Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 agonist formulation, to adjuvant Fluzone® in mice and non-human primates. The GLA-SE adjuvanted Fluzone vaccine caused no adverse reactions, increased the induction of T helper type 1 (T(H)1)-biased cytokines such as IFNγ, TNF and IL-2, and broadened serological responses against drifted A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 influenza variants. These results suggest that synthetic TLR4 adjuvants can enhance the magnitude and quality of protective immunity induced by influenza vaccines.

  4. A synthetic adjuvant to enhance and expand immune responses to influenza vaccines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhea N Coler

    Full Text Available Safe, effective adjuvants that enhance vaccine potency, including induction of neutralizing Abs against a broad range of variant strains, is an important strategy for the development of seasonal influenza vaccines which can provide optimal protection, even during seasons when available vaccines are not well matched to circulating viruses. We investigated the safety and ability of Glucopyranosyl Lipid Adjuvant-Stable Emulsion (GLA-SE, a synthetic Toll-like receptor (TLR4 agonist formulation, to adjuvant Fluzone® in mice and non-human primates. The GLA-SE adjuvanted Fluzone vaccine caused no adverse reactions, increased the induction of T helper type 1 (T(H1-biased cytokines such as IFNγ, TNF and IL-2, and broadened serological responses against drifted A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 influenza variants. These results suggest that synthetic TLR4 adjuvants can enhance the magnitude and quality of protective immunity induced by influenza vaccines.

  5. Role of Natural Immunomodulator (Aloe Vera in Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ening Wiedosari

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Aloe vera belongs to a group of Liliaceae family plant and cultivated worldwide. It possesses acemannan (acetylated mannan, which has a significant pharmacological property. The acemannan has an immunomodulatory activity when administered to animals. The major immunomodulating effect includes the activation of immune effector cells, such as lymphocytes and macrophages, resulting in the production of cytokines, interleukin (IL-1, IL-6, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα. In particular, this extract can modulate the differentiation capacity of CD4+T cells to mature into Th1 subsets and enhance the innate cytokine response. As a consequence, this extract will have a profound effect in controlling disease, caused by intracellular infectious agents (bacteria and viruses. However, further studies are needed to determine the immunomodulating effects of Aloe vera in multi-component extracts equivalent to what are being used commonly in traditional medicine.

  6. Evaluation of immune response elicited by inulin as an adjuvant with filarial antigens in mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalakshmi, N; Aparnaa, R; Kaliraj, P

    2014-10-01

    Filariasis caused by infectious parasitic nematodes has been identified as the second leading source of permanent and long-term disability in Sub-Saharan Africa, Asia and Latin America. Several vaccine candidates were identified from infective third-stage larvae (L3) which involves in the critical transition from arthropod to human. Hitherto studies of these antigens in combination with alum adjuvant have shown to elicit its characteristic Th2 responses. Inulin is a safe, non-toxic adjuvant that principally stimulates the innate immune response through the alternative complement pathway. In the present study, the immune response elicited by inulin and alum as adjuvants were compared with filarial antigens from different aetiological agents: secreted larval acidic protein 1 (SLAP1) from Onchocerca volvulus and venom allergen homologue (VAH) from Brugia malayi as single or as cocktail vaccines in mice model. The study revealed that inulin can induce better humoral response against these antigens than alum adjuvant. Antibody isotyping disclosed inulin's ability to elevate the levels of IgG2a and IgG3 antibodies which mediates in complement-dependent cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), respectively, in mice. Splenocyte analysis showed that T cells prestimulated with inulin have higher stimulation index (P inulin formulation had induced higher cytotoxicity with filarial antigens (as single P inulin to deplete the levels of Treg and brought a balance in Th1/Th2 arms against filarial antigens in mice. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A Controversial Role for IL-12 in Immune Response and Bone Resorption at Apical Periodontal Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Martins Queiroz-Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Periapical lesions are inflammatory conditions of tooth periapical tissues, triggered by dental pulp infection and characterized by exudation of immune cells to the affected tissues and production of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines. The inflammatory periapical reaction is mainly driven by Th1, Th2, and Th17 responses, and such polarization may modulate progression of the disease and expression of bone proresorptive cytokines. IL-12 is a potent inducer of IFN-γ production, which stimulates Th1 effector cells. Many evidences have shown a positive correlation between the bone resorptive cytokine IL-1β and the production of IL-12 and IFN-γ. Furthermore, IL-12 may have a potential role in the release of bone resorptive mediators and blockade of Th2 cytokines, affecting the progression of periapical bone loss. Nevertheless, IL-12 and IFN-γ have also been described as suppressors of osteoclast differentiation and activation, favoring bone maintenance. This paper focuses on the controversial roles of IL-12 in periapical lesions.

  8. Dendritic Cells Promoted by Ginseng Saponins Drive a Potent Th1 Polarization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Takei

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DC play a pivotal role in the initiation of T-cell-mediated immune responses, making them an attractive cellular adjuvant for use in cancer vaccines. The interaction of T cells with DC is crucial for directing T cell differentiation towards the Th1, Th2 or Th17 type, and several factors determining the direction of the T cell polarization. IL-12 plays a central role in the immune system, not only by augmenting the cytotoxic activity of T cells and NK cells and regulating IFN-γ production, but also by the capacity of IL-12 to promote the development of Th1 cells. Therefore, it is important to identify factors that might affect the differentiation, maturation and function of DC. Ginseng is a medicinal herb widely used in Asian countries, and many of its pharmacological actions are attributed to the ginsenosides. Moreover, T-cadinol and calamenene are sesquterpenes isolated from the heartwood of Cryptomeria japonica being pharmacologically active substances. We investigated whether M1 and M4, end products of steroidal ginseng saponins metabolized in digestive tracts, as well as T-cadinol and calamenene can drive DC maturation from human monocytes in vitro. Human monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for 6 days under standard conditions, followed by another 2 days in the presence of M1, M4, T-cadinol or calamenene. The expression levels of CD1a, CD80, CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR on M1-primed DC, M4-primed DC, T-cadinol-primed DC and calamenene-primed DC were enhanced with a concomitant decrease in endocytic activity. M1-primed DC, M4-primed DC, T-cadinol-primed DC or calamenene-primed DC enhanced the T cell stimulatory capacity in an allo MLR (allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction. Naïve T cells co-cultured with allogeneic M1-primed DC, M4-primed DC, T-cadinol-primed DC or calamenene-primed DC turned into typical Th1 cells, which produced large quantities of IFN-γ and released small amounts of IL-4 depending on IL-12 secretion

  9. Dendritic Cells Promoted by Ginseng Saponins Drive a Potent Th1 Polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Masao; Tachikawa, Eiichi; Umeyama, Akemi

    2008-04-18

    Dendritic cells (DC) play a pivotal role in the initiation of T-cell-mediated immune responses, making them an attractive cellular adjuvant for use in cancer vaccines. The interaction of T cells with DC is crucial for directing T cell differentiation towards the Th1, Th2 or Th17 type, and several factors determining the direction of the T cell polarization. IL-12 plays a central role in the immune system, not only by augmenting the cytotoxic activity of T cells and NK cells and regulating IFN-gamma production, but also by the capacity of IL-12 to promote the development of Th1 cells. Therefore, it is important to identify factors that might affect the differentiation, maturation and function of DC. Ginseng is a medicinal herb widely used in Asian countries, and many of its pharmacological actions are attributed to the ginsenosides. Moreover, T-cadinol and calamenene are sesquterpenes isolated from the heartwood of Cryptomeria japonica being pharmacologically active substances. We investigated whether M1 and M4, end products of steroidal ginseng saponins metabolized in digestive tracts, as well as T-cadinol and calamenene can drive DC maturation from human monocytes in vitro. Human monocytes were cultured with GM-CSF and IL-4 for 6 days under standard conditions, followed by another 2 days in the presence of M1, M4, T-cadinol or calamenene. The expression levels of CD1a, CD80, CD83, CD86 and HLA-DR on M1-primed DC, M4-primed DC, T-cadinol-primed DC and calamenene-primed DC were enhanced with a concomitant decrease in endocytic activity. M1-primed DC, M4-primed DC, T-cadinol-primed DC or calamenene-primed DC enhanced the T cell stimulatory capacity in an allo MLR (allogeneic mixed lymphocyte reaction). Naïve T cells co-cultured with allogeneic M1-primed DC, M4-primed DC, T-cadinol-primed DC or calamenene-primed DC turned into typical Th1 cells, which produced large quantities of IFN-gamma and released small amounts of IL-4 depending on IL-12 secretion. In the CTL

  10. Interplay between behavioural thermoregulation and immune response in mealworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Tamara P; Niemeyer, Hermann M; Kalergis, Alexis M; Bozinovic, Francisco

    2012-11-01

    Since the preferential body temperature should positively correlate with physiological performance, behavioural fever should enhance an organism's immune response under an immune challenge. Here we have studied the preferential body temperature (T(p)) and its consequences on immune response performance after an immune challenge in larvae of Tenebrio molitor. We evaluated T(p) and immune responses of larvae following a challenge with various concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and we studied the correlation between T(p) and two immune traits, namely antibacterial and phenoloxidase (PO) activities. Larvae that were immune challenged with higher LPS concentrations (C(50) and C(100)) preferred in average, warmer temperatures than did larvae challenged with lower concentrations (C(0) and C(25)). T(p) of C(25)-C(100) (challenged)-mealworms was 2.3°C higher than of C(0) (control) larvae. At lower LPS concentration immune challenge (C(0) and C(25)) antibacterial activity correlated positively with T(p), but at C(50) and C(100) correlation was lose. PO activity was higher at higher LPS concentration, but its magnitude of response did not correlate with T(p) Our data suggest that behavioural fever may have a positive effect on host performance by enhancing antibacterial response under a low pathogen load situation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Immune Response in Thyroid Cancer: Widening the Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Laura Sterian

    2014-01-01

    The association between thyroid cancer and thyroid inflammation has been repeatedly reported and highly debated in the literature. In fact, both molecular and epidemiological data suggest that these diseases are closely related and this association reinforces that the immune system is important for thyroid cancer progression. Innate immunity is the first line of defensive response. Unlike innate immune responses, adaptive responses are highly specific to the particular antigen that induced them. Both branches of the immune system may interact in antitumor immune response. Major effector cells of the immune system that directly target thyroid cancer cells include dendritic cells, macrophages, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, mast cells, and lymphocytes. A mixture of immune cells may infiltrate thyroid cancer microenvironment and the balance of protumor and antitumor activity of these cells may be associated with prognosis. Herein, we describe some evidences that immune response may be important for thyroid cancer progression and may help us identify more aggressive tumors, sparing the vast majority of patients from costly unnecessary invasive procedures. The future trend in thyroid cancer is an individualized therapy. PMID:25328756

  12. Enhancing the Immune Response to Recombinant Plague Antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    protection against rotavirus infection of mice stimulated by intranasal immunization with chimeric VP4 or VP6 protein. J Virol 1999;73(9):7574–81. [13] Choi...McNeal MM, Rae MN, Bean JA, Ward RL. Antibody-dependent and -independent protection following intranasal immunization of mice with rotavirus particles. J...Williamson ED, Sharp GJ, Eley SM, Vesey PM, Pepper TC, Titball RW, et al. Local and systemic immune response to a microencapsu- lated sub-unit vaccine for

  13. PDT-apoptotic tumor cells induce macrophage immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fei-fan; Xing, Da; Chen, Wei R.

    2008-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) functions as a cancer therapy through two major cell death mechanisms: apoptosis and necrosis. Immunological responses induced by PDT has been mainly associated with necrosis while apoptosis associated immune responses have not fully investigated. Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play an important role in regulating immune responses. In present study, we studied whether apoptotic tumor cells could induce immune response and how the HSP70 regulates immune response. The endocytosis of tumor cells by the activated macrophages was observed at single cell level by LSM. The TNF-α release of macrophages induced by co-incubated with PDT-apoptotic tumor cells was detected by ELISA. We found that apoptotic tumor cells treated by PDT could activate the macrophages, and the immune effect decreased evidently when HSP70 was blocked. These findings not only show that apoptosis can induce immunological responses, but also show HSP70 may serves as a danger signal for immune cells and induce immune responses to regulate the efficacy of PDT.

  14. The Bidirectional Relationship between Metabolism and Immune Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raval, Forum M; Nikolajczyk, Barbara S

    Immunometabolism investigates the multiple links between the immune system and metabolism. One main focus of immunometabolism investigates how obesity impacts the immune system and pro-inflammatory immune cell function, leading to metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). The second focus stresses the metabolic changes that dictate immune cell activation. Several groups have studied these two arms of the field individually, but work that integrates both topics will be required to develop an accurate understanding of how immune cells and metabolic pathways collaborate in obesity and obesity-associated T2D. Investigations of the relationships among obesity-induced changes in the nutritional environment, immune cell activation, and immune cell metabolism may lead to novel and efficacious therapies for obesity-associated disorders such as insulin resistance (IR) and T2D. This review outlines recent insights into two related processes: 1. the role that energy utilization plays in immune responses and 2. the immune cell functions that drive obesity and T2D. Herein, we begin to consider how shifts in available fuel sources in obesity and T2D impact the immune response to both pathogens and chronic over nutrition.

  15. Mycobacterium tuberculosislpdC, Rv0462, induces dendritic cell maturation and Th1 polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Deok Rim [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sung Jae; Kim, Woo Sik [Department of Microbiology, College of Medicine, Chungnam National University, Munwha-Dong, Jung-Ku, Daejeon 301-747 (Korea, Republic of); Noh, Kyung Tae; Park, Jin Wook; Son, Kwang Hee [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Won Sun [Department of Physiology, Kangwon National University, School of Medicine, Chuncheon 200-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Min-Goo [Department of Physiology, Korea University, College of Medicine, Anam-dong, Sungbuk-Gu, Seoul 136-705 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Daejin [Department of Anatomy, Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine, 221 Heuksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Yong Kyoo [Department of Pharmacology, Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine, 221 Heuksuk-Dong, Dongjak-Ku, Seoul 156-756 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, In Duk, E-mail: jungid@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yeong-Min, E-mail: immunpym@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, Pusan National University, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of); Research Institute of Convergence of Biomedical Science and Technology, Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital, Beom-eo Ri, Mulgum Eop, Yangsan, Gyeongsangnam-do 626-770 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} Treatment with Rv0462 induces the expression of surface molecules and the production of cytokines in DCs. {yields} Rv0462 induces the activation of MAPKs. {yields} Rv0462-treated DCs enhances the proliferation of CD4{sup +} T cells. -- Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the etiological factor of pulmonary tuberculosis, causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Activation of host immune responses for containment of mycobacterial infections involves participation of innate immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DCs). In this study, we demonstrated that the gene encoding lipoamide dehydrogenase C (lpdC) from M. tuberculosis, Rv0462, induce maturation and activation of DCs involved in the MAPKs signaling pathway. Moreover, Rv0462-treated DCs activated naive T cells, polarized CD4{sup +} and CD8{sup +} T cells to secrete IFN-{gamma} in syngeneic mixed lymphocyte reactions, which would be expected to contribute to Th1 polarization of the immune response. Our results suggest that Rv0462 can contribute to the innate and adaptive immune responses during tuberculosis infection, and thus modulate the clinical course of tuberculosis.

  16. The Role of the Immune Response in Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triozzi, Pierre L., E-mail: triozzp@ccf.org [Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States); Fernandez, Anthony P. [Departments of Dermatology and Anatomic Pathology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States)

    2013-02-28

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer. The Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is implicated in its pathogenesis. Immune mechanisms are also implicated. Patients who are immunosuppressed have an increased risk. There is evidence that high intratumoral T-cell counts and immune transcripts are associated with favorable survival. Spontaneous regressions implicate immune effector mechanisms. Immunogenicity is also supported by observation of autoimmune paraneoplastic syndromes. Case reports suggest that immune modulation, including reduction of immune suppression, can result in tumor regression. The relationships between MCPyV infection, the immune response, and clinical outcome, however, remain poorly understood. Circulating antibodies against MCPyV antigens are present in most individuals. MCPyV-reactive T cells have been detected in both MCC patients and control subjects. High intratumoral T-cell counts are also associated with favorable survival in MCPyV-negative MCC. That the immune system plays a central role in preventing and controlling MCC is supported by several observations. MCCs often develop, however, despite the presence of humoral and cellular immune responses. A better understanding on how MCPyV and MCC evade the immune response will be necessary to develop effective immunotherapies.

  17. Immuno-thermal ablations - boosting the anticancer immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovak, Ryan; Ludwig, Johannes M; Gettinger, Scott N; Herbst, Roy S; Kim, Hyun S

    2017-10-17

    The use of immunomodulation to treat malignancies has seen a recent explosion in interest. The therapeutic appeal of these treatments is far reaching, and many new applications continue to evolve. In particular, immune modulating drugs have the potential to enhance the systemic anticancer immune effects induced by locoregional thermal ablation. The immune responses induced by ablation monotherapy are well documented, but independently they tend to be incapable of evoking a robust antitumor response. By adding immunomodulators to traditional ablative techniques, several researchers have sought to amplify the induced immune response and trigger systemic antitumor activity. This paper summarizes the work done in animal models to investigate the immune effects induced by the combination of ablative therapy and immunomodulation. Combination therapy with radiofrequency ablation, cryoablation, and microwave ablation are all reviewed, and special attention has been paid to the addition of checkpoint blockades.

  18. War and peace: Factor VIII and the adaptive immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Maria T; Lai, Jesse D; Hough, Christine; Lillicrap, David

    2016-03-01

    The development of neutralizing anti-factor VIII (FVIII) antibodies (inhibitors) remains a major challenge for FVIII replacement therapy in hemophilia A patients. The adaptive immune response plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of inhibitors. In this review, we focus on our current understanding of FVIII interactions with cells of the adaptive immune system and the phenotype of the resultant response. Additionally, we examine both current and novel FVIII tolerance induction methods that function at the level of the adaptive immune response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Innate Immune Responses to Bladder Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Byron W; Abraham, Soman N

    2016-12-01

    Urinary tract infections are one of the most frequent bacterial infections of mankind. In spite of this frequency, the study of the immune system in the urinary tract has not attracted much attention. This could, in part, be attributable to the widespread use of antibiotics and similar antimicrobial agents, which for many decades have been both highly effective and relatively inexpensive to administer. In light of the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria among urinary tract infection isolates, interest in understanding the immune system in the urinary tract has grown. Several recent studies have revealed the existence of a powerful and highly coordinated innate immune system in the urinary tract designed to rapidly clear infecting pathogens; however, it also evokes harmful side effects.

  20. Rotavirus immune responses and correlates of protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Juana; Franco, Manuel A; Greenberg, Harry B

    2012-08-01

    Selected topics in the field of rotavirus immunity are reviewed focusing on recent developments that may improve efficacy and safety of current and future vaccines. Rotaviruses (RVs) have developed multiple mechanisms to evade interferon (IFN)-mediated innate immunity. Compared to more developed regions of the world, protection induced by natural infection and vaccination is reduced in developing countries where, among other factors, high viral challenge loads are common and where infants are infected at an early age. Studies in developing countries indicate that rotavirus-specific serum IgA levels are not an optimal correlate of protection following vaccination, and better correlates need to be identified. Protection against rotavirus following vaccination is substantially heterotypic; nonetheless, a role for homotypic immunity in selection of circulating postvaccination strains needs further study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cervical Carcinogenesis and Immune Response Gene Polymorphisms: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash M. Mehta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The local immune response is considered a key determinant in cervical carcinogenesis after persistent infection with oncogenic, high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV infections. Genetic variation in various immune response genes has been shown to influence risk of developing cervical cancer, as well as progression and survival among cervical cancer patients. We reviewed the literature on associations of immunogenetic single nucleotide polymorphism, allele, genotype, and haplotype distributions with risk and progression of cervical cancer. Studies on HLA and KIR gene polymorphisms were excluded due to the abundance on literature on that subject. We show that multiple genes and loci are associated with variation in risk of cervical cancer. Rather than one single gene being responsible for cervical carcinogenesis, we postulate that variations in the different immune response genes lead to subtle differences in the effectiveness of the antiviral and antitumour immune responses, ultimately leading to differences in risk of developing cervical cancer and progressive disease after HPV infection.

  2. Modulation of the innate immune responses in the striped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well-known that the innate immune mechanisms in fish serve as the first line of defence against wide variety of pathogens. In most of the situations, innate responses get induced and enhanced after the pathogen invasion. It would be interesting to look into the inducibility of various innate immune mechanisms and the ...

  3. Evidence of a humoral immune response against the prokaryotic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Although the BVDV non-structural N-terminal protease (Npro) acts as an interferon antagonist and subverts the host innate immunity, little is known about its immunogenicity. Hence, we expressed a recombinant BVDV Npro–His fusion protein (28 kDa) in E. coli and determined the humoral immune response generated by it ...

  4. Modulation of the immune response by emotional stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croiset, G; Heijnen, C J; Veldhuis, H D; de Wied, D; Ballieux, R E

    1987-01-01

    The influence of mild, emotional stress was investigated for its effect on the immune system by subjecting rats to the one-trial-learning passive avoidance test. The reactivity of the immune system was tested by determining the proliferative response after mitogenic stimulation in vitro as well as

  5. Hepatitis B Virus Vaccine immune response in Egyptian children 15 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egypt J Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2015;13(2):45-48. 45. Hepatitis B Virus Vaccine immune response in ... history suggestive of either chronic liver disease or chronic extrahepatic disease. All study candidates ... adolescents. Their ages ranged from 16-18 year with a definite history of receiving the primary immunization for ...

  6. Q fever in pregnant goats: humoral and cellular immune responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, H.I.J.; Post, J.; Gelderen, van E.; Zijderveld, van F.G.; Rebel, J.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis caused by the intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Both humoral and cellular immunity are important in the host defence against intracellular bacteria. Little is known about the immune response to C. burnetii infections in domestic ruminants even though these species are

  7. Regulatory role of pro-Th1 and pro-Th2 cytokines in modulating the activity of Th1 and Th2 cells when B cell and macrophages are used as antigen presenting cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrewala Javed N

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Presence of antigen presenting cells, expression of costimulatory molecules, the strength of first signal and cytokine milieu are quite important in influencing the reactivation of differentiated Th1 and Th2 cells. Results In the present study, we have analyzed the concerted action of pro-Th1 and pro-Th2 cytokines in the presence of B cells, peritoneal and splenic macrophages as antigen presenting cells and varied concentration of first (anti-CD3 Ab and second (B7-1 transfectant signals on the proliferation and cytokine secretion by Th1 and Th2 cells. Interesting observations were made that IFN-γ significantly augmented the secretion of IL-4 by Th2 cells when either B cells or splenic or peritoneal macrophages were used as APC. Further, IFN-γ significantly inhibited the proliferation of Th1 cells only in the presence of peritoneal macrophages. We have also observed that B cells could significantly respond to cytokines to further enhance the proliferation and cytokine release by Th1 and Th2 cells. But not much effect on addition of exogenous cytokines IL-1, IL-4, IL-5, IL-12 was observed on the proliferation of Th1 and Th2 cells in the presence of macrophages. In contrast, both IFN-γ and IL-2 significantly enhanced the production of IL-4 and IL-5 respectively, by Th2 cells in presence of B cells, splenic and peritoneal macrophages. Another important observation was that the addition of B7-1 transfectants in the cultures, which were stimulated with low dose of anti-CD3 Ab significantly, enhanced the proliferation and cytokine secretion. Conclusion This study indicates involvement of different type of APCs, cytokine milieu, dose of first and second signals in a concerted manner in the outcome of the immune response. The significance of this study is that the immunization with antigen along with costimulatory molecules may significantly reduce the dose of antigen and can generate better immune response than antigen alone.

  8. Blocking junctional adhesion molecule C enhances dendritic cell migration and boosts the immune responses against Leishmania major.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Ballet

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The recruitment of dendritic cells to sites of infections and their migration to lymph nodes is fundamental for antigen processing and presentation to T cells. In the present study, we showed that antibody blockade of junctional adhesion molecule C (JAM-C on endothelial cells removed JAM-C away from junctions and increased vascular permeability after L. major infection. This has multiple consequences on the output of the immune response. In resistant C57BL/6 and susceptible BALB/c mice, we found higher numbers of innate immune cells migrating from blood to the site of infection. The subsequent migration of dendritic cells (DCs from the skin to the draining lymph node was also improved, thereby boosting the induction of the adaptive immune response. In C57BL/6 mice, JAM-C blockade after L. major injection led to an enhanced IFN-γ dominated T helper 1 (Th1 response with reduced skin lesions and parasite burden. Conversely, anti JAM-C treatment increased the IL-4-driven T helper 2 (Th2 response in BALB/c mice with disease exacerbation. Overall, our results show that JAM-C blockade can finely-tune the innate cell migration and accelerate the consequent immune response to L. major without changing the type of the T helper cell response.

  9. Blocking junctional adhesion molecule C enhances dendritic cell migration and boosts the immune responses against Leishmania major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballet, Romain; Emre, Yalin; Jemelin, Stéphane; Charmoy, Mélanie; Tacchini-Cottier, Fabienne; Imhof, Beat A

    2014-12-01

    The recruitment of dendritic cells to sites of infections and their migration to lymph nodes is fundamental for antigen processing and presentation to T cells. In the present study, we showed that antibody blockade of junctional adhesion molecule C (JAM-C) on endothelial cells removed JAM-C away from junctions and increased vascular permeability after L. major infection. This has multiple consequences on the output of the immune response. In resistant C57BL/6 and susceptible BALB/c mice, we found higher numbers of innate immune cells migrating from blood to the site of infection. The subsequent migration of dendritic cells (DCs) from the skin to the draining lymph node was also improved, thereby boosting the induction of the adaptive immune response. In C57BL/6 mice, JAM-C blockade after L. major injection led to an enhanced IFN-γ dominated T helper 1 (Th1) response with reduced skin lesions and parasite burden. Conversely, anti JAM-C treatment increased the IL-4-driven T helper 2 (Th2) response in BALB/c mice with disease exacerbation. Overall, our results show that JAM-C blockade can finely-tune the innate cell migration and accelerate the consequent immune response to L. major without changing the type of the T helper cell response.

  10. SOCS2 and SOCS3 expression in ulcerative colitis and their correlation with inflammatory response and immune response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Huang1

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the correlation of SOCS2 and SOCS3 expression in ulcerative colitis tissue with inflammatory response and immune response. Methods: Ulcerative colitis lesions and normal mucosa from colonoscopic biopsy in Central Hospital of Zibo Mining Refco Group Ltd between May 2014 and July 2016 were selected and enrolled in UC group and control group respectively. RNA was extracted to determine mRNA expression of SOCS2 and SOCS3 as well as inflammatory response JAKs/STATs pathway molecules; protein was extracted to determine the contents of immune response cytokines. Results: SOCS2 mRNA expression in intestinal mucosa of UC group was not significantly different from that of control group, and SOCS3 mRNA expression was significantly lower than that of control group; JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, STAT1, STAT3 and STAT5 mRNA expression as well as IFN-γ and IL-17 protein contents in intestinal mucosa of UC group were significantly higher than those of control group while IL-4 and IL-10 protein contents were significantly lower than those of control group; JAK1, JAK2, JAK3, STAT1, STAT3 and STAT5 mRNA expression as well as IFN-γ and IL-17 protein contents in UC group of intestinal mucosa with low SOCS3 expression were significantly higher than those of intestinal mucosa with high SOCS3 expression while IL-4 and IL-10 protein contents were significantly lower than those of intestinal mucosa with high SOCS3 expression. Conclusion: Low expression of SOCS3 in ulcerative colitis can aggravate the inflammatory reaction and cause the imbalance of Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg immune response.

  11. Chronic pulmonary cavitary tuberculosis in rabbits: a failed host immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbian, Selvakumar; Tsenova, Liana; Yang, Guibin; O'Brien, Paul; Parsons,