WorldWideScience

Sample records for tgf-beta superfamily members

  1. Expression of TGF-beta superfamily growth factors, their receptors, the associated SMADs and antagonists in five isolated size-matched populations of pre-antral follicles from normal human ovaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Stine Gry; Andersen, Kasper; Clement, Christian Alexandro

    2014-01-01

    In mammals, members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily are known to have key roles in the regulation of follicular growth and development. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of TGFsuperfamily growth factors, their receptors, downstream SMAD signalling m...... growth. Moreover, the presence of multiple TGF-β/BMP antagonists imply that certain growth factors are subjected to local regulation on different levels which address another important level of intraovarian regulation of follicle development in humans.......In mammals, members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily are known to have key roles in the regulation of follicular growth and development. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of TGFsuperfamily growth factors, their receptors, downstream SMAD signalling...... molecules and TGF- β/BMP antagonists during early human folliculogenesis.Human preantral follicles were enzymatically isolated from surplus ovarian tissue obtained from women having ovarian cortical tissue frozen for fertility preservation. A total of 348 human preantral follicles, ranging from 40 to 200 µm...

  2. Expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) receptors and expression of TGF beta 1, TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1993-01-01

    A panel of 21 small cell lung cancer cell (SCLC) lines were examined for the presence of Transforming growth factor beta receptors (TGF beta-r) and the expression of TGF beta mRNAs. By the radioreceptor assay we found high affinity receptors to be expressed in six cell lines. scatchard analysis......(r) = 65,000 and 90,000 and the betaglycan (type III) with M(r) = 280,000. Northern blotting showed expression of TGF beta 1 mRNA in ten, TGF beta 2 mRNA in two and TGF beta 3 mRNA in seven cell lines. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence that a large proportion of a broad panel of SCLC cell...... lines express TGF beta-receptors and also produce TGF beta mRNAs....

  3. Smad7 induces tumorigenicity by blocking TGF-beta-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Sunil K; Beauchamp, R Daniel; Datta, Pran K

    2005-07-01

    Smad proteins play a key role in the intracellular signaling of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of extracellular polypeptides that initiate signaling to regulate a wide variety of biological processes. The inhibitory Smad, Smad7, has been shown to function as intracellular antagonists of TGF-beta family signaling and is upregulated in several cancers. To determine the effect of Smad7-mediated blockade of TGF-beta signaling, we have stably expressed Smad7 in a TGF-beta-sensitive, well-differentiated, and non-tumorigenic cell line, FET, that was derived from human colon adenocarcinoma. Smad7 inhibits TGF-beta-induced transcriptional responses by blocking complex formation between Smad 2/3 and Smad4. While Smad7 has no effect on TGF-beta-induced activation of p38 MAPK and ERK, it blocks the phosphorylation of Akt by TGF-beta and enhances TGF-beta-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun. FET cells expressing Smad7 show anchorage-independent growth and enhance tumorigenicity in athymic nude mice. Smad7 blocks TGF-beta-induced growth inhibition by preventing TGF-beta-induced G1 arrest. Smad7 inhibits TGF-beta-mediated downregulation of c-Myc, CDK4, and Cyclin D1, and suppresses the expression of p21(Cip1). As a result, Smad7 inhibits TGF-beta-mediated downregulation of Rb phosphorylation. Furthermore, Smad7 inhibits the apoptosis of these cells. Together, Smad7 may increase the tumorigenicity of FET cells by blocking TGF-beta-induced growth inhibition and by inhibiting apoptosis. Thus, this study provides a mechanism by which a portion of human colorectal tumors may become refractory to tumor-suppressive actions of TGF-beta that might result in increased tumorigenicity.

  4. TGFsuperfamily signaling in testis formation and early male germline development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Julia C; Wakitani, Shoichi; Loveland, Kate L

    2015-09-01

    The TGF-β ligand superfamily contains at least 40 members, many of which are produced and act within the mammalian testis to facilitate formation of sperm. Their progressive expression at key stages and in specific cell types determines the fertility of adult males, influencing testis development and controlling germline differentiation. BMPs are essential for the interactive instructions between multiple cell types in the early embryo that drive initial specification of gamete precursors. In the nascent foetal testis, several ligands including Nodal, TGF-βs, Activins and BMPs, serve as key masculinizing switches by regulating male germline pluripotency, somatic and germline proliferation, and testicular vascularization and architecture. In postnatal life, local production of these factors determine adult testis size by regulating Sertoli cell multiplication and differentiation, in addition to specifying germline differentiation and multiplication. Because TGFsuperfamily signaling is integral to testis formation, it affects processes that underlie testicular pathologies, including testicular cancer, and its potential to contribute to subfertility is beginning to be understood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Histone deacetylase 4 promotes TGF-beta1-induced synovium-derived stem cell chondrogenesis but inhibits chondrogenically differentiated stem cell hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Ming; Chen, Demeng; Li, Jingting; Wei, Lei

    2009-12-01

    The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily members play diverse roles in cartilage development and maintenance. TGF-beta up-regulates chondrogenic gene expression by enhancing transcription factor SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 9 (Sox9) and inhibits osteoblast differentiation by repressing runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2). Recently, histone deacetylases (HDACs) were reported to act as negative regulators of chondrocyte hypertrophy. It was speculated that HDAC4 may promote TGF-beta1-induced MSC chondrogenesis. In this study, the adenovirus-mediated HDAC4 gene (Ad.HDAC4) was utilized to infect synovium-derived stem cells (SDSCs). Adenovirus-mediated LacZ (Ad.LacZ) served as a control. The infected cells were centrifuged to form SDSC pellets followed by incubation in a serum-free chondrogenic medium for 15 days with or without 10ng/mL TGF-beta1. Transfection efficiency was determined in SDSCs using Ad.LacZ. Cytotoxicity was measured using lactate dehydrogenase assay. Histology, immunostaining, biochemical analysis, and real-time polymerase chain reaction were performed to assess chondrogenesis at protein and mRNA levels in infected SDSCs. Our data demonstrated that supplementation with TGF-beta1 could initiate and promote SDSC chondrogenesis; however, TGF-beta1 alone was insufficient to fully differentiate SDSCs into chondrocytes. Ad.HDAC4 could be efficiently transfected into SDSCs. Without TGF-beta1 treatment, HDAC4 had no effect on SDSC chondrogenesis; however, in the presence of TGF-beta1, HDAC4 could speed up and maintain a high level of chondrogenesis while down-regulating the hypertrophic marker - type X collagen expression. This study is the first report showing that HDAC4 overexpression promotes TGF-beta1-induced SDSC chondrogenesis but inhibits chondrogenically differentiated stem cell hypertrophy. The mechanism underlying this process needs further investigation.

  6. The effect of TGF-beta2 on MMP-2 production and activity in highly metastatic human bladder carcinoma cell line 5637.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehnavi, Ehsan; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Samiei, Shahram; Ataei, Zahra; Aryan, Hajar

    2009-06-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily regulates matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), which intrinsically regulate various cell behaviors leading to metastasis. We investigated the effect of TGF-beta(2) on MMP-2 regulation in human bladder carcinoma cell line 5637. Zymography, ELISA, and real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that TGF-beta(2) stimulated MMP-2 production, but the transcription of its gene remained unchanged. Wortmannin could not inhibit MMP-2 secretion and activity and conversely the amount of the protein and its enzymatic activity were increased. These data suggest that TGF-beta(2) increased MMP-2 at the posttranscriptional level and this upregulation was independent of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway.

  7. Role of TGF-β signaling in inherited and acquired myopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burks Tyesha N

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The transforming growth factor-beta (TGFsuperfamily consists of a variety of cytokines expressed in many different cell types including skeletal muscle. Members of this superfamily that are of particular importance in skeletal muscle are TGF-β1, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, and myostatin. These signaling molecules play important roles in skeletal muscle homeostasis and in a variety of inherited and acquired neuromuscular disorders. Expression of these molecules is linked to normal processes in skeletal muscle such as growth, differentiation, regeneration, and stress response. However, chronic elevation of TGF-β1, MAPKs, and myostatin is linked to various features of muscle pathology, including impaired regeneration and atrophy. In this review, we focus on the aberrant signaling of TGF-β in various disorders such as Marfan syndrome, muscular dystrophies, sarcopenia, and critical illness myopathy. We also discuss how the inhibition of several members of the TGF-β signaling pathway has been implicated in ameliorating disease phenotypes, opening up novel therapeutic avenues for a large group of neuromuscular disorders.

  8. Meeting report - TGFsuperfamily: signaling in development and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying E; Newfeld, Stuart J

    2013-11-01

    The latest advances on the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling pathways were reported at the July 2013 FASEB Summer Research Conference 'The TGFSuperfamily: Development and Disease'. The meeting was held in Steamboat Springs, Colorado, USA at 6700 feet above sea level in the Rocky Mountains. This was the seventh biannual meeting in the series. In attendance were investigators from a broad range of disciplines with a common interest in the mechanics of TGF-β and BMP signaling pathways, their normal developmental and homeostatic functions, and the diseases associated with pathway misregulation.

  9. D-Ribulose 5-Phosphate 3-Epimerase: Functional and Structural Relationships to Members of the Ribulose-Phosphate Binding (beta/alpha)8-Barrel Superfamily

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akana,J.; Federov, A.; Federov, E.; Novak, W.; Babbitt, P.; Almo, S.; Gerlt, J.

    2006-01-01

    The 'ribulose phosphate binding' superfamily defined by the Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database is considered the result of divergent evolution from a common ({beta}/{alpha}){sub 8}-barrel ancestor. The superfamily includes D-ribulose 5-phosphate 3-epimerase (RPE), orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC), and 3-keto-L-gulonate 6-phosphate decarboxylase (KGPDC), members of the OMPDC suprafamily, as well as enzymes involved in histidine and tryptophan biosynthesis that utilize phosphorylated metabolites as substrates. We now report studies of the functional and structural relationships of RPE to the members of the superfamily. As suggested by the results of crystallographic studies of the RPEs from rice and Plasmodium falciparum, the RPE from Streptococcus pyogenes is activated by Zn{sup 2+} which binds with a stoichiometry of one ion per polypeptide. Although wild type RPE has a high affinity for Zn{sup 2+} and inactive apoenzyme cannot be prepared, the affinity for Zn{sup 2+} is decreased by alanine substitutions for the two histidine residues that coordinate the Zn{sup 2+} ion (H34A and H67A); these mutant proteins can be prepared in an inactive, metal-free form and activated by exogenous Zn{sup 2+}. The crystal structure of the RPE was solved at 1.8 Angstroms resolution in the presence of D-xylitol 5-phosphate, an inert analogue of the D-xylulose 5-phosphate substrate. This structure suggests that the 2,3-enediolate intermediate in the 1,1-proton transfer reaction is stabilized by bidentate coordination to the Zn{sup 2+} that also is liganded to His 34, Asp 36, His 67, and Asp 176; the carboxylate groups of the Asp residues are positioned also to function as the acid/base catalysts. Although the conformation of the bound analogue resembles those of ligands bound in the active sites of OMPDC and KGPDC, the identities of the active site residues that coordinate the essential Zn{sup 2+} and participate as acid/base catalysts

  10. TGF{beta} induces proHB-EGF shedding and EGFR transactivation through ADAM activation in gastric cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebi, Masahide [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Kataoka, Hiromi, E-mail: hkataoka@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Shimura, Takaya; Kubota, Eiji; Hirata, Yoshikazu; Mizushima, Takashi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Mamoru; Mabuchi, Motoshi; Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Tanida, Satoshi; Kamiya, Takeshi [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Higashiyama, Shigeki [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime (Japan); Joh, Takashi [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan)

    2010-11-19

    Research highlights: {yields} TGF{beta} induces EGFR transactivation through proHB-EGF shedding by activated ADAM members in gastric cancer cells. {yields} TGF{beta} induces nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF cleaved by ADAM members. {yields} TGF{beta} enhances cell growth by EGFR transactivation and HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and ADAM inhibitors block these effects. {yields} Silencing of ADAM17 also blocks EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and cancer cell growth by TGF{beta}. {yields} ADAM17 may play a crucial role in this TGF{beta}-HB-EGF signal transduction. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF{beta}) is known to potently inhibit cell growth. Loss of responsiveness to TGF{beta} inhibition on cell growth is a hallmark of many types of cancer, yet its mechanism is not fully understood. Membrane-anchored heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (proHB-EGF) ectodomain is cleaved by a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) members and is implicated in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation. Recently, nuclear translocation of the C-terminal fragment (CTF) of pro-HB-EGF was found to induce cell growth. We investigated the association between TGF{beta} and HB-EGF signal transduction via ADAM activation. Materials and methods: The CCK-8 assay in two gastric cancer cell lines was used to determine the effect for cell growth by TGF{beta}. The effect of two ADAM inhibitors was also evaluated. Induction of EGFR phosphorylation by TGF{beta} was analyzed and the effect of the ADAM inhibitors was also examined. Nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF by shedding through ADAM activated by TGF{beta} was also analyzed. EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation, and cell growth were examined under the condition of ADAM17 knockdown. Result: TGF{beta}-induced EGFR phosphorylation of which ADAM inhibitors were able to inhibit. TGF{beta} induced shedding of proHB-EGF allowing HB-EGF-CTF to

  11. Analysis of interleukin (IL)-1 beta and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta-induced signal transduction pathways in IL-2 and TGF-beta secretion and proliferation in the thymoma cell line EL4.NOB-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siese, A; Jaros, P P; Willig, A

    1999-02-01

    In the present study we investigated the interleukin (IL)-1beta and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1)-mediated proliferation, and production of IL-2 and TGF-beta, in the murine T-cell line, EL4.NOB-1. This cell line is resistant to TGF-beta concerning growth arrest but not autoinduction or suppression of IL-1-induced IL-2 production. When cocultured with IL-1beta, TGF-beta showed growth-promoting activity that could be antagonized by adding the phosphatidyl choline-dependent phospholipase C (PC-PLC) inhibitor, D609. Using specific enzyme inhibitors of protein kinases (PK) C and A, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), phospholipase A2 (PLA2), phosphatidylinositol-dependent (PI)-PLC and PC-PLC, we showed that IL-1beta-induced IL-2 synthesis was dependent on all investigated kinases and phospholipases, except PC-PLC. TGF-beta1 was able to inhibit IL-2 synthesis by the activation of PKA and MAPK. The same kinases are involved in TGF-beta autoinduction that is accompanied by a secretion of the active but not the latent growth factor and is antagonized by IL-1beta. Addition of the PI-PLC inhibitor, ET 18OCH3, or the PLA2 inhibitor (quinacrine) alone, resulted in secretion of latent TGF-beta and, in the case of ET 18OCH3, active TGF-beta. These data implicate a role for PI-PLC and PLA2 in the control of latency and secretion. Analysis of specific tyrosine activity and c-Fos expression showed synergistic but no antagonistic effects. These events are therefore not involved in IL- and TGF-beta-regulated IL-2 and TGF-beta production, but might participate in IL-1/TGF-beta-induced growth promotion.

  12. TGF-beta and 'adaptive' Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wanjun; Konkel, Joanne E

    2010-02-01

    In naïve T cells transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) induces Foxp3, a transcription factor essential for programming and developing T regulatory cells (Treg cells). This finding reveals a physiological factor which can turn on the Foxp3 gene and establishes an experimental approach to induce antigen-specific Treg cells as a potential therapy for human diseases. While this role for TGF-beta is well confirmed, several critical questions remain largely unanswered and await further investigation. In this regard, it is imperative to understand the molecular pathways by which TGF-beta signaling initiates and regulates Foxp3 expression. It is also important to elucidate which factors and/or cytokines influence the TGF-beta-mediated conversion of naïve T cells and how to create an immunologically regulatory milieu to facilitate Treg cell generation in vivo. In this short article, we will highlight the key findings and recent progress in the field, discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying the TGF-beta-mediated induction of Foxp3, and attempt to outline the challenges ahead.

  13. GARP (LRRC32) is essential for the surface expression of latent TGF-beta on platelets and activated FOXP3+ regulatory T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dat Q; Andersson, John; Wang, Rui; Ramsey, Heather; Unutmaz, Derya; Shevach, Ethan M

    2009-08-11

    TGF-beta family members are highly pleiotropic cytokines with diverse regulatory functions. TGF-beta is normally found in the latent form associated with latency-associated peptide (LAP). This latent complex can associate with latent TGFbeta-binding protein (LTBP) to produce a large latent form. Latent TGF-beta is also found on the surface of activated FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs), but it is unclear how it is anchored to the cell membrane. We show that GARP or LRRC32, a leucine-rich repeat molecule of unknown function, is critical for tethering TGF-beta to the cell surface. We demonstrate that platelets and activated Tregs co-express latent TGF-beta and GARP on their membranes. The knockdown of GARP mRNA with siRNA prevented surface latent TGF-beta expression on activated Tregs and recombinant latent TGF-beta1 is able to bind directly with GARP. Confocal microscopy and immunoprecipitation strongly support their interactions. The role of TGF-beta on Tregs appears to have dual functions, both for Treg-mediated suppression and infectious tolerance mechanism.

  14. TGF-beta1 expression in EL4 lymphoma cells overexpressing growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, John T; Weigent, Douglas A

    2006-03-01

    Our previous studies show that growth hormone overexpression (GHo) upregulates the expression of the IGF-1R and IGF-2R resulting in the protection of the EL4 lymphoma cell line from apoptosis. In this study, we report that GHo also increases TGF-beta1 protein expression measured by luciferase promoter assay, Western analysis, and ELISA. Further, the data show that antibody to TGF-betaR2 decreases TGF-beta1 promoter activity to the level of vector alone control cells. GHo cells treated with (125)I-rh-latent TGF-beta1 showed increased activation of latent TGF-beta1 as measured by an increase in the active 24kDa, TGF-beta1 compared to vector alone control cells. The ability of endogenous GH to increase TGF-beta1 expression is blocked in EL4 cells by antisense but not sense oligodeoxynucleotides or in cells cultured with antibody to growth hormone (GH). The data suggest that endogenous GH may protect from apoptosis through the IGF-1R receptor while limiting cellular growth through increased expression and activation of TGF-beta1.

  15. Fibronectin regulates the activation of THP-1 cells by TGF-beta1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, A C; Fu, L

    2001-03-01

    To determine how fibronectin regulates the immunomodulatory effects of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta on THP-1 cells. THP-1 monocytic cell line. THP-1 cells were primed for 48 h in the presence or absence of 250 pM TGF-beta1. Assays or assessments carried out, together with statistical test applied. We found that adherence to fibronectin dramatically modulates the effects of TGF-beta1 on the human monocytic cell line THP-1. TGF-beta did not significantly affect constitutive interleukin (IL)-8 secretion or IL-1beta-induced IL-8 secretion from suspended cells. In contrast, TGF-beta stimulated IL-8 secretion as well as augmented IL-1beta-induced IL-8 secretion from adherent cells. The differential effects of TGF-beta1 on IL-8 secretion from suspended and adherent cells could not be explained by differences in IL-1 receptor antagonist production. The effects of fibronectin on TGF-beta1 induced IL-8 secretion from THP-1 cells were mimicked by adhesion to immobilized anti-a4beta1 integrin antibody and to a fibronectin fragment containing the CS-1 domain. These results indicate that alpha4beta1-mediated adhesion to fibronectin may play a key role during inflammation by profoundly influencing the effects of TGF-beta1 on monocytes.

  16. ALK and TGF-Beta Resistance in Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH‐15‐1‐0650 TITLE: ALK and TGF-Beta Resistance in Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Xin-Hua Feng CONTRACTING...and TGF-Beta Resistance in Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH‐15‐1‐0650 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Xin-Hua Feng...response is a hallmark in human cancer . However, the mechanisms underlying TGF- resistance in breast cancer have not been elucidated. Anaplastic

  17. Proteomic profiling of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells upon TGF-beta stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Daojing; Park, Jennifer S.; Chu, Julia S.F.; Ari, Krakowski; Luo, Kunxin; Chen, David J.; Li, Song

    2004-08-08

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into different types of cells, and have tremendous potential for cell therapy and tissue engineering. Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF-{beta}) plays an important role in cell differentiation and vascular remodeling. We showed that TGF-{beta} induced cell morphology change and an increase in actin fibers in MSCs. To determine the global effects of TGF-{beta} on MSCs, we employed a proteomic strategy to analyze the effect of TGF-{beta} on the human MSC proteome. By using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and electrospray ionization coupled to Quadrupole/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometers, we have generated a proteome reference map of MSCs, and identified {approx}30 proteins with an increase or decrease in expression or phosphorylation in response to TGF-{beta}. The proteins regulated by TGF-{beta} included cytoskeletal proteins, matrix synthesis proteins, membrane proteins, metabolic enzymes, etc. TGF-{beta} increased the expression of smooth muscle (SM) {alpha}-actin and decreased the expression of gelsolin. Over-expression of gelsolin inhibited TGF-{beta}-induced assembly of SM {alpha}-actin; on the other hand, knocking down gelsolin expression enhanced the assembly of {alpha}-actin and actin filaments without significantly affecting {alpha}-actin expression. These results suggest that TGF-{beta} coordinates the increase of {alpha}-actin and the decrease of gelsolin to promote MSC differentiation. This study demonstrates that proteomic tools are valuable in studying stem cell differentiation and elucidating the underlying molecular mechanisms.

  18. Acquired TGF beta 1 sensitivity and TGF beta 1 expression in cell lines established from a single small cell lung cancer patient during clinical progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, P; Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K

    1996-01-01

    Three small cell lung cancer cell lines established from a single patient during longitudinal follow-up were examined for in vitro expression of TGF beta and TGF beta receptors, i.e. the components of an autocrine loop. GLC 14 was established prior to treatment, GLC 16 on relapse after chemotherapy...... was found in GLC 16 and GLC 19. These cell lines were also growth inhibited by exogenously administrated TGF beta 1. TGF beta 1 mRNA and protein in its latent form was only expressed in the radiotherapy-resistant cell line, GLC 19. The results indicate that disease progression in this patient was paralleled...... II receptor gene, as examined by Southern blotting. Also, the type I receptor could not be detected by ligand binding assay in this cell line, despite expression of mRNA for this receptor. This agrees with previous findings that type I receptor cannot bind TGF beta 1 without co-expression of the type...

  19. Expression of SMAD signal transduction molecules in the pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Michael; Hougaard, D.; Nielsen, Jens Høiriis

    2001-01-01

    Members of the TGF-beta superfamily of cytokines have been implicated in pancreatic cancer, pancreatitis and in regulation and differentiation of pancreatic endocrine and exocrine cells. Different TGF-beta members signal through phosphorylation of different signal transduction proteins, which eve...

  20. TGF beta-1 dependent fast stimulation of ATM and p53 phosphorylation following exposure to ionizing radiation does not involve TGF beta-receptor I signalling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegman, Erwin M.; Blaese, Marcet A.; Loeffler, Heidi; Coppes, Rob P.; Rodemann, H. Peter

    Background and purpose: It has been proposed that radiation induced stimulation of ATM and downstream components involves activation of TGF beta-1 and that this may be due to TGF beta-1-receptor I-Smad signalling. Therefore, the aim of this study was to clarify the distinct role of TGF

  1. Serum TGF-beta2 and TGF-beta3 are increased and positively correlated to pain, functionality, and radiographic staging in osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Stilianos; Drygiannakis, Ioannis; Kazakos, Kostantinos; Papanas, Nikolaos; Kolios, George; Kouroumalis, Elias; Verettas, Dionysios-Alexandros

    2010-08-11

    The goal of this study was to verify or reject the hypothesis that systematic differences exist in various profibrotic or antifibrotic factors between osteoarthritic patients and controls, as well as between different stages of osteoarthritis. The study group comprised 63 patients with knee osteoarthritis and 18 controls. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)1, -2, -3; tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 protein levels; and gelatinolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1, -2, -3, -9 activities were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and gelatin zymography, respectively. Visual analog scale scores, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) scores, Lequesne clinical osteoarthritis scales, and Kellgren-Lawrence radiographic grading were recorded for each patient.Transforming growth factor-beta2 and -3 (in contrast to TGF-beta1 and TIMP-1) serum protein levels were significantly higher in osteoarthritic patients compared to controls (210%+/-14% [P<.001] and 232%+/-7% [P<10(-7)], respectively). Additionally, TGF-beta2 and -3 were strongly positively correlated to Kellgren-Lawrence radiographic grading of the disease (P<10(-5) and P<10(-7), respectively). Moreover, TGF-beta2 correlated positively with the WOMAC scale (P=.007). However, TIMP-1 decreased as osteoarthritis progressed clinically, but remained irrelevant to radiographic staging. Furthermore, activities of MMP-2 and -9, but not MMP-1+/-3, were lower in patients with osteoarthritis. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Plasma TGF beta level in rats after hemithoracic irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vujaskovic, Z; Down, JD; vanWaarde, MAWH; vanAssen, AJ; Szabo, BG; Konings, AWT

    Changes in TGF-beta plasma levels were observed 18 weeks after hemithoracic irradiation in rats. This coincides with an increase in the breathing frequency, being most pronounced between 22 and 28 weeks after irradiation. The correlation suggests a potential role of the circulating TGF-beta in the

  3. Akt interacts directly with Smad3 to regulate the sensitivity to TGF-beta induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conery, Andrew R; Cao, Yanna; Thompson, E Aubrey; Townsend, Courtney M; Ko, Tien C; Luo, Kunxin

    2004-04-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) induces both apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest in some cell lines, but only growth arrest in others. It is not clear how this differential response to TGF-beta is specified. Smad proteins are critical mediators of TGF-beta signalling. After stimulation by TGF-beta, Smad2 and Smad3 become phosphorylated by the activated TGF-beta receptor kinases, oligomerize with Smad4, translocate to the nucleus and regulate the expression of TGF-beta target genes. Here we report that the sensitivity to TGF-beta induced apoptosis is regulated by crosstalk between the Akt/PKB serine/threonine kinase and Smad3 through a mechanism that is independent of Akt kinase activity. Akt interacts directly with unphosphorylated Smad3 to sequester it outside the nucleus, preventing its phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. This results in inhibition of Smad3-mediated transcription and apoptosis. Furthermore, the ratio of Smad3 to Akt correlates with the sensitivity of cells to TGF-beta induced apoptosis. Alteration of this ratio changes the apoptotic, but not the growth-inhibitory, responses of cells to TGF-beta. These findings identify an important determinant of sensitivity to TGF-beta-induced apoptosis that involves crosstalk between the TGF-beta and phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) pathways.

  4. The antifibrotic effects of TGF-{beta}1 siRNA on hepatic fibrosis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Qing; Liu, Qi [Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Infectious Diseases, Ministry of Education, Instituted for Virus Hepatitis and Department of Infectious Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Xu, Ning [The Second Hospital of YuLin, Shanxi Province (China); Qian, Ke-Li; Qi, Jing-Hu; Sun, Yin-Chun; Xiao, Lang [Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Infectious Diseases, Ministry of Education, Instituted for Virus Hepatitis and Department of Infectious Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China); Shi, Xiao-Feng, E-mail: sxff2003@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology for Infectious Diseases, Ministry of Education, Instituted for Virus Hepatitis and Department of Infectious Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing (China)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} We constructed CCL4 induced liver fibrosis model successfully. {yields} We proofed that the TGF-{beta}1 siRNA had a definite therapy effect to CCL4 induced liver fibrosis. {yields} The therapy effect of TGF-{beta}1 siRNA had dose-dependent. -- Abstract: Background/aims: Hepatic fibrosis results from the excessive secretion of matrix proteins by hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), which proliferate during fibrotic liver injury. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-{beta}1 is the dominant stimulus for extracellular matrix (ECM) production by stellate cells. Our study was designed to investigate the antifibrotic effects of using short interference RNA (siRNA) to target TGF-{beta}1 in hepatic fibrosis and its mechanism in rats exposed to a high-fat diet and carbon tetrachloride (CCL4). Methods: A total of 40 healthy, male SD (Sprague-Dawley) rats were randomly divided into five even groups containing of eight rats each: normal group, model group, TGF-{beta}1 siRNA 0.125 mg/kg treatment group, TGF-{beta}1 siRNA 0.25 mg/kg treatment group and TGF-{beta}1 siRNA negative control group (0.25 mg/kg). CCL4 and a high-fat diet were used for 8 weeks to induce hepatic fibrosis. All the rats were then sacrificed to collect liver tissue samples. A portion of the liver samples were soaked in formalin for Hematoxylin-Eosin staining, classifying the degree of liver fibrosis, and detecting the expression of type I and III collagen and TGF-{beta}1; the remaining liver samples were stored in liquid nitrogen to be used for detecting TGF-{beta}1 by Western blotting and for measuring the mRNA expression of type I and III collagen and TGF-{beta}1 by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results: Comparing the TGF-{beta}1 siRNA 0.25 mg/kg treatment group to the model group, the TGF-{beta}1 siRNA negative control group and the TGF-{beta}1 siRNA 0.125 mg/kg treatment group showed significantly reduced levels of pathological changes, protein expression and the m

  5. TGF-{beta}-stimulated aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin via the ERK signaling pathway in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Eun Jee [Department of Ophthalmology, National Health Insurance Corporation Ilsan Hospital, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Ji Na; Jung, Sun-Ah [Konyang University Myunggok Medical Research Institute, Kim' s Eye Hospital, Konyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jin Won [Department of Biology, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joon H., E-mail: joonhlee@konyang.ac.kr [Konyang University Myunggok Medical Research Institute, Kim' s Eye Hospital, Konyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF-{beta} induces aberrant expression of {beta}III in RPE cells via the ERK pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF-{beta} increases O-GlcNAc modification of {beta}III in RPE cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mature RPE cells have the capacity to express a neuron-associated gene by TGF-{beta}. -- Abstract: The class III {beta}-tubulin isotype ({beta}{sub III}) is expressed exclusively by neurons within the normal human retina and is not present in normal retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells in situ or in the early phase of primary cultures. However, aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin has been observed in passaged RPE cells and RPE cells with dedifferentiated morphology in pathologic epiretinal membranes from idiopathic macular pucker, proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) has been implicated in dedifferentiation of RPE cells and has a critical role in the development of proliferative vitreoretinal diseases. Here, we investigated the potential effects of TGF-{beta} on the aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin and the intracellular signaling pathway mediating these changes. TGF-{beta}-induced aberrant expression and O-linked-{beta}-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNac) modification of class III {beta}-tubulin in cultured RPE cells as determined using Western blotting, RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. TGF-{beta} also stimulated phosphorylation of ERK. TGF-{beta}-induced aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin was significantly reduced by pretreatment with U0126, an inhibitor of ERK phosphorylation. Our findings indicate that TGF-{beta} stimulated aberrant expression of class III {beta}-tubulin via activation of the ERK signaling pathway. These data demonstrate that mature RPE cells have the capacity to express a neuron-associated gene in response to TGF-{beta} stimulation and provide useful information

  6. PKB/Akt modulates TGF-beta signalling through a direct interaction with Smad3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, Ingrid; Montmarquette, Annie; Michnick, Stephen W

    2004-04-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) has a major role in cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in many cell types. Integration of the TGF-beta pathway with other signalling cascades that control the same cellular processes may modulate TGF-beta responses. Here we report the discovery of a new functional link between TGF-beta and growth factor signalling pathways, mediated by a physical interaction between the serine-threonine kinase PKB (protein kinase B)/Akt and the transcriptional activator Smad3. Formation of the complex is induced by insulin, but inhibited by TGF-beta stimulation, placing PKB-Smad3 at a point of convergence between these two pathways. PKB inhibits Smad3 by preventing its phosphorylation, binding to Smad4 and nuclear translocation. In contrast, Smad3 does not inhibit PKB. Inhibition of Smad3 by PKB occurs through a kinase-activity-independent mechanism, resulting in a decrease in Smad3-mediated transcription and protection of cells against TGF-beta-induced apoptosis. Consistently, knockdown of the endogenous PKB gene with small-interfering RNA (siRNA) has the opposite effect. Our results suggest a very simple mechanism for the integration of signals arising from growth-factor- and TGF-beta-mediated pathways.

  7. TGF-{beta} receptors, in a Smad-independent manner, are required for terminal skeletal muscle differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droguett, Rebeca; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Santander, Cristian [Centro de Regulacion Celular y Patologia, Centro de Regeneracion y Envejecimiento (CARE), Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, MIFAB, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Brandan, Enrique, E-mail: ebrandan@bio.puc.cl [Centro de Regulacion Celular y Patologia, Centro de Regeneracion y Envejecimiento (CARE), Departamento de Biologia Celular y Molecular, MIFAB, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile)

    2010-09-10

    Skeletal muscle differentiation is strongly inhibited by transforming growth factor type {beta} (TGF-{beta}), although muscle formation as well as regeneration normally occurs in an environment rich in this growth factor. In this study, we evaluated the role of intracellular regulatory Smads proteins as well as TGF-{beta}-receptors (TGF-{beta}-Rs) during skeletal muscle differentiation. We found a decrease of TGF-{beta} signaling during differentiation. This phenomenon is explained by a decline in the levels of the regulatory proteins Smad-2, -3, and -4, a decrease in the phosphorylation of Smad-2 and lost of nuclear translocation of Smad-3 and -4 in response to TGF-{beta}. No change in the levels and inhibitory function of Smad-7 was observed. In contrast, we found that TGF-{beta}-R type I (TGF-{beta}-RI) and type II (TGF-{beta}-RII) increased on the cell surface during skeletal muscle differentiation. To analyze the direct role of the serine/threonine kinase activities of TGF-{beta}-Rs, we used the specific inhibitor SB 431542 and the dominant-negative form of TGF-{beta}-RII lacking the cytoplasmic domain. The TGF-{beta}-Rs were important for successful muscle formation, determined by the induction of myogenin, creatine kinase activity, and myosin. Silencing of Smad-2/3 expression by specific siRNA treatments accelerated myogenin, myosin expression, and myotube formation; although when SB 431542 was present inhibition in myosin induction and myotube formation was observed, suggesting that these last steps of skeletal muscle differentiation require active TGF-{beta}-Rs. These results suggest that both down-regulation of Smad regulatory proteins and cell signaling through the TGF-{beta} receptors independent of Smad proteins are essential for skeletal muscle differentiation.

  8. Regulation of the friction coefficient of articular cartilage by TGF-beta1 and IL-1beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuRaine, Grayson; Neu, Corey P; Chan, Stephanie M T; Komvopoulos, Kyriakos; June, Ronald K; Reddi, A Hari

    2009-02-01

    Articular cartilage functions to provide a low-friction surface for joint movement for many decades of life. Superficial zone protein (SZP) is a glycoprotein secreted by chondrocytes in the superficial layer of articular cartilage that contributes to effective boundary lubrication. In both cell and explant cultures, TGF-beta1 and IL-1beta have been demonstrated to, respectively, upregulate and downregulate SZP protein levels. It was hypothesized that the friction coefficient of articular cartilage could also be modulated by these cytokines through SZP regulation. The friction coefficient between cartilage explants (both untreated and treated with TGF-beta1 or IL-1beta) and a smooth glass surface due to sliding in the boundary lubrication regime was measured with a pin-on-disk tribometer. SZP was quantified using an enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay and localized by immunohistochemistry. Both TGF-beta1 and IL-1beta treatments resulted in the decrease of the friction coefficient of articular cartilage in a location- and time-dependent manner. Changes in the friction coefficient due to the TGF-beta1 treatment corresponded to increased depth of SZP staining within the superficial zone, while friction coefficient changes due to the IL-1beta treatment were independent of SZP depth of staining. However, the changes induced by the IL-1beta treatment corresponded to changes in surface roughness, determined from the analysis of surface images obtained with an atomic force microscope. These findings demonstrate that the low friction of articular cartilage can be modified by TGF-beta1 and IL-1beta treatment and that the friction coefficient depends on multiple factors, including SZP localization and surface roughness.

  9. Equine endometrial fibrosis correlates with 11beta-HSD2, TGF-beta1 and ACE activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjam, V K; Evans, T J

    2006-03-27

    Endometrial periglandular fibrosis (EPF) contributes to embryonic and fetal loss in mares. Equine EPF correlates inversely with conception and successful gestation. In the modified Kenney endometrial biopsy classification system, EPF categories I, IIA, IIB, and III correspond to minimal, mild, moderate, and severe fibrosis (+/-inflammation), respectively. Paraffin sections of biopsy specimens were stained with H&E, and picrosirius red (specific for fibrillar collagens types I and III), to determine %EPCVF. Endometrial ACE-binding activity, TGF-beta1 and 11beta-HSD2 activities were also measured. Ultrastructural changes in EPF categories IIB and III endometria strongly suggested myofibroblastic transformation. ACE-binding activity was highest in EPF category IIB; however, endometrial TGF-beta1 and 11beta-HSD2 activities were significantly correlated to the severity of EPF (P<0.05). We conclude that, locally generated angiotensin II initiates the expression of TGF-beta1 resulting in myofibroblastic transformation. 11Beta-HSD2 in concert appears to modulate the severity of endometrial fibrosis.

  10. Essential role of TGF-beta/Smad pathway on statin dependent vascular smooth muscle cell regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rodríguez-Vita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitors (also called statins exert proven beneficial effects on cardiovascular diseases. Recent data suggest a protective role for Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-beta in atherosclerosis by regulating the balance between inflammation and extracellular matrix accumulation. However, there are no studies about the effect of statins on TGF-beta/Smad pathway in atherosclerosis and vascular cells. METHODOLOGY: In cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs statins enhanced Smad pathway activation caused by TGF-beta. In addition, statins upregulated TGF-beta receptor type II (TRII, and increased TGF-beta synthesis and TGF-beta/Smad-dependent actions. In this sense, statins, through Smad activation, render VSMCs more susceptible to TGF-beta induced apoptosis and increased TGF-beta-mediated ECM production. It is well documented that high doses of statins induce apoptosis in cultured VSMC in the presence of serum; however the precise mechanism of this effect remains to be elucidated. We have found that statins-induced apoptosis was mediated by TGF-beta/Smad pathway. Finally, we have described that RhoA inhibition is a common intracellular mechanisms involved in statins effects. The in vivo relevance of these findings was assessed in an experimental model of atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E deficient mice: Treatment with Atorvastatin increased Smad3 phosphorylation and TRII overexpression, associated to elevated ECM deposition in the VSMCs within atheroma plaques, while apoptosis was not detected. CONCLUSIONS: Statins enhance TGF-beta/Smad pathway, regulating ligand levels, receptor, main signaling pathway and cellular responses of VSMC, including apoptosis and ECM accumulation. Our findings show that TGF-beta/Smad pathway is essential for statins-dependent actions in VSMCs.

  11. Expression profiling of genes regulated by TGF-beta: Differential regulation in normal and tumour cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Takashi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TGF-beta is one of the key cytokines implicated in various disease processes including cancer. TGF-beta inhibits growth and promotes apoptosis in normal epithelial cells and in contrast, acts as a pro-tumour cytokine by promoting tumour angiogenesis, immune-escape and metastasis. It is not clear if various actions of TGF-beta on normal and tumour cells are due to differential gene regulations. Hence we studied the regulation of gene expression by TGF-beta in normal and cancer cells. Results Using human 19 K cDNA microarrays, we show that 1757 genes are exclusively regulated by TGF-beta in A549 cells in contrast to 733 genes exclusively regulated in HPL1D cells. In addition, 267 genes are commonly regulated in both the cell-lines. Semi-quantitative and real-time qRT-PCR analysis of some genes agrees with the microarray data. In order to identify the signalling pathways that influence TGF-beta mediated gene regulation, we used specific inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase, ERK kinase, JNK kinase and integrin signalling pathways. The data suggest that regulation of majority of the selected genes is dependent on at least one of these pathways and this dependence is cell-type specific. Interestingly, an integrin pathway inhibitor, RGD peptide, significantly affected TGF-beta regulation of Thrombospondin 1 in A549 cells. Conclusion These data suggest major differences with respect to TGF-beta mediated gene regulation in normal and transformed cells and significant role of non-canonical TGF-beta pathways in the regulation of many genes by TGF-beta.

  12. High LET Radiation Can Enhance TGF(Beta) Induced EMT and Cross-Talk with ATM Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Minli; Hada, Megumi; Huff, Janice; Pluth, Janice M.; Anderson, Janniffer; ONeill, Peter; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2010-01-01

    The TGF(Beta) pathway has been shown to regulate or directly interact with the ATM pathway in the response to radiation in mammary epithelial cells. We investigated possible interactions between the TGF(Beta) and ATM pathways following simulated space radiation using hTERT immortalized human esophageal epithelial cells (EPC-hTERT), mink lung epithelial cells (Mv1lu), and several human fibroblast cell lines. TGF(Beta) is a key modulator of the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT), important in cancer progression and metastasis. The implication of EMT by radiation also has several lines of developing evidence, however is poorly understood. The identification of TGF(Beta) induced EMT can be shown in changes to morphology, related gene over expression or down regulation, which can be detected by RT-PCR, and immunostaining and western blotting. In this study, we have observed morphologic and molecular alternations consistent with EMT after Mv1lu cells were treated with TGF(Beta) High LET radiation enhanced TGF(Beta) mediated EMT with a dose as low as 0.1Gy. In order to consider the TGF(Beta) interaction with ATM we used a potent ATM inhibitor Ku55933 and investigated gene expression changes and Smad signaling kinetics. Ku559933 was observed to reverse TGF(Beta) induced EMT, while this was not observed in dual treated cells (radiation+TGF(Beta)). In EPC-hTERT cells, TGF(Beta) alone was not able to induce EMT after 3 days of application. A combined treatment with high LET, however, significantly caused the alteration of EMT markers. To study the function of p53 in the process of EMT, we knocked down P53 through RNA interference. Morphology changes associated with EMT were observed in epithelial cells with silenced p53. Our study indicates: high LET radiation can enhance TGF(Beta) induced EMT; while ATM is triggering the process of TGF(Beta)-induced EMT, p53 might be an essential repressor for EMT phenotypes.

  13. Possible role of TIEG1 as a feedback regulator of myostatin and TGF-{beta} in myoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyake, Masato; Hayashi, Shinichiro; Iwasaki, Shunsuke; Chao, Guozheng; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Kouichi; Ohwada, Shyuichi; Aso, Hisashi [Laboratory of Functional Morphology, Department of Animal Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, 1-1 Tsutsumidori-Amamiyamachi, Aoba-Ku, Sendai 981-8555 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Takahiro, E-mail: ty1010@bios.tohoku.ac.jp [Laboratory of Functional Morphology, Department of Animal Biology, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, 1-1 Tsutsumidori-Amamiyamachi, Aoba-Ku, Sendai 981-8555 (Japan)

    2010-03-19

    Myostatin and TGF-{beta} negatively regulate skeletal muscle development and growth. Both factors signal through the Smad2/3 pathway. However, the regulatory mechanism of myostatin and TGF-{beta} signaling remains unclear. TGF-{beta} inducible early gene (TIEG) 1 is highly expressed in skeletal muscle and has been implicated in the modulation of TGF-{beta} signaling. These findings prompted us to investigate the effect of TIEG1 on myostatin and TGF-{beta} signaling using C2C12 myoblasts. Myostatin and TGF-{beta} induced the expression of TIEG1 and Smad7 mRNAs, but not TIEG2 mRNA, in proliferating C2C12 cells. When differentiating C2C12 myoblasts were stimulated by myostatin, TIEG1 mRNA was up-regulated at a late stage of differentiation. In contrast, TGF-{beta} enhanced TIEG1 expression at an early stage. Overexpression of TIEG1 prevented the transcriptional activation of Smad by myostatin and TGF-{beta} in both proliferating or differentiating C2C12 cells, but the expression of Smad2 and Smad7 mRNAs was not affected. Forced expression of TIEG1 inhibited myogenic differentiation but did not cause more inhibition than the empty vector in the presence of myostatin or TGF-{beta}. These results demonstrate that TIEG1 is one possible feedback regulator of myostatin and TGF-{beta} that prevents excess action in myoblasts.

  14. TGF-beta3 is expressed in taste buds and inhibits proliferation of primary cultured taste epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shin-ichi; Kawai, Takayuki; Kamakura, Takashi; Ookura, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-betas), expressed in various tissues, play important roles in embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis through their effects on cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cell death, and cell motility. However, expression of TGF-beta signaling components and their biological effect on taste epithelia has not been elucidated. We performed expression analysis of TGF-beta signaling components in taste epithelia and found that the TGF-beta3 mRNA was specifically expressed in taste buds. Type II TGF-betas receptor (TbetaR-II) mRNA was specifically expressed in the tongue epithelia including the taste epithelia. To elucidate the biological function of TGF-beta3 in taste epithelia, we performed proliferation assay with primary cultured taste epithelial cells. In the presence of TGF-beta3, percentage of BrdU-labeled cells decreased significantly, suggesting that the TGF-beta3 inhibited the proliferation of cultured taste epithelial cells through inhibiting cell-cycle entry into S phase. By quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay, we found that the TGF-beta3 resulted in an increased level of expression of p15Ink4b and p21Cip1, suggesting that the TGF-beta3 inhibited the taste epithelial cell proliferation through inhibiting G1cyclin-Cdk complexes. Taken together, these results suggested that the TGF-beta3 may regulate taste epithelial cell homeostasis through controlling cell proliferation.

  15. DMPD: TGF-beta signaling from receptors to the nucleus. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 10611754 TGF-beta signaling from receptors to the nucleus. Roberts AB. Microbes Inf...ect. 1999 Dec;1(15):1265-73. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show TGF-beta signaling from receptors to the nucleus.... PubmedID 10611754 Title TGF-beta signaling from receptors to the nucleus. Authors Roberts AB. Publicat

  16. The change of transforming growth factor {beta} 1 (TGF- {beta} 1) expression by melatonin in irradiated lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Seong Soon; Choi, Ihl Bohng [College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-09-15

    The changed expressions of TGF- {beta} 1, as a key cytokine in the fibrotic process, due to melatonin with potent antioxidative effects, were investigated in the irradiated lung using fibrosis-sensitive C57BL/6 mice. Female C57BL/6 mice were divided into control irradiation-only, and melatonin (300 mg/kg i.p. 1 hr before irradiation) pretreatment groups. The thoraces of the mice were irradiated with a single dose of 12 Gy. The mRNA expressions of TGF-{beta} 1 in the lung tissue 2 and 4 weeks after irradiation were quantified using semiquantitive RT-PCR, and the cellular origin and expression levels of TGF- {beta} 1 protein were identified using immunohistochemical staining. The relative mRNA expression levels in the irradiation-only and melatonin pretreatment group 2 and 4 weeks after irradiation were 1.92- and 1.80-fold ({rho} = 0.064) and 2.38- and 1.94-fold ({rho} = 0.004) increased, respectively compared to those in the control group. Increased expressions of TGF- {beta} 1 protein were prominently detected in regions of histopathological radiation injury, with alveolar macrophages and septal epithelial cells serving as important sources of TGF- {beta} 1 expression. At 2 and 4 weeks after irradiation, the expression levels of protein were 15.8% vs. 16.9% ({rho} = 0.565) and 36.1% vs. 25.7% ({rho} = 0.009), respectively. The mRNA and protein expressions of TGF- {beta} 1 in the lung tissue following thoracic irradiation with 12 Gy were significantly decreased by melatonin pretreatment at 4 weeks. These results indicate that melatonin may have a possible application as an antifibrotic agent in radiation-induced lung injury.

  17. TGF-beta induces connexin43 gene expression in normal murine mammary gland epithelial cells via activation of p38 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacheau, Charlotte; Fontaine, Juliette; Loy, Jennifer; Mauviel, Alain; Verrecchia, Franck

    2008-12-01

    One of the shared physiological roles between TGF-beta and connexin family members is to inhibit epithelial cell cycle progression and consequently, to provide protection against malignant transformation. Herein, we demonstrated that TGF-beta1 induces the expression of connexin43 (Cx43) in normal murine mammary gland (NMuMG) cell lines at the protein and mRNA levels, and transcriptionally. Using overexpression of a truncated dominant-negative form of Cx43, we determined that the modulation of gap junctional communication by TGF-beta1 plays a key role in the control of NMuMG cells proliferation by TGF-beta1. In addition, using overexpression of truncated dominant-negative forms of either Smad2 or Smad3, and MDA-MB-468 human breast carcinoma cells deficient for Smad4, we determined that the Smad cascade is not implicated in TGF-beta1 effect on Cx43 expression. Using specific pharmacologic inhibitors for JNK, ERK, p38, and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, we demonstrated the cooperative role of p38 and PI3K/AKT signaling in TGF-beta1-induced Cx43 expression and gap junctional communication. Furthermore, transfection of a c-jun antisense expression vector significantly prevented TGF-beta1-induced Cx43 gene expression demonstrating the involvement of c-Jun/AP-1 pathway together with p38 and PI3K/AKT pathways in mediating TGF-beta1-induced Cx43 gene expression.

  18. Ionizing radiation predisposes non-malignant human mammaryepithelial cells to undergo TGF beta-induced epithelial to mesenchymaltransition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andarawewa, Kumari L.; Erickson, Anna C.; Chou, William S.; Costes, Sylvain; Gascard, Philippe; Mott, Joni D.; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2007-04-06

    Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}) is a tumor suppressor during the initial stage of tumorigenesis, but it can switch to a tumor promoter during neoplastic progression. Ionizing radiation (IR), both a carcinogen and a therapeutic agent, induces TGF{beta}, activation in vivo. We now show that IR sensitizes human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to undergo TGF{beta}-mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Non-malignant HMEC (MCF10A, HMT3522 S1 and 184v) were irradiated with 2 Gy shortly after attachment in monolayer culture, or treated with a low concentration of TGF{beta} (0.4 ng/ml), or double-treated. All double-treated (IR+TGF{beta}) HMEC underwent a morphological shift from cuboidal to spindle-shaped. This phenotype was accompanied by decreased expression of epithelial markers E-cadherin, {beta}-catenin and ZO-1, remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, and increased expression of mesenchymal markers N-cadherin, fibronectin and vimentin. Furthermore, double-treatment increased cell motility, promoted invasion and disrupted acinar morphogenesis of cells subsequently plated in Matrigel{trademark}. Neither radiation nor TGF{beta} alone elicited EMT, even though IR increased chronic TGF{beta} signaling and activity. Gene expression profiling revealed that double treated cells exhibit a specific 10-gene signature associated with Erk/MAPK signaling. We hypothesized that IR-induced MAPK activation primes non-malignant HMEC to undergo TGF{beta}-mediated EMT. Consistent with this, Erk phosphorylation were transiently induced by irradiation, persisted in irradiated cells treated with TGF{beta}, and treatment with U0126, a Mek inhibitor, blocked the EMT phenotype. Together, these data demonstrate that the interactions between radiation-induced signaling pathways elicit heritable phenotypes that could contribute to neoplastic progression.

  19. Age-Dependent Decrease in Serum Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-Beta 1 in Healthy Japanese Individuals; Population Study of Serum TGF-Beta 1 Level in Japanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Okamoto

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1, a multi-functional cytokine, is involved in regulating a variety of cellular activities and the serum/plasma TGF-β1 level is altered with various diseases. However, most published reports have described adult patients, and so we investigated the clinical significance of serum TGF-β1 level in pediatric patients. The diagnostic application of the measurement of serum TGF-β1 level depends critically on the control value, however, there is no information on the control value of serum TGF-β1 for children.

  20. Angiotensin II increases CTGF expression via MAPKs/TGF-{beta}1/TRAF6 pathway in atrial fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Jun [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of medicine, Shanghai (China); Liu, Xu, E-mail: xkliuxu@yahoo.cn [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of medicine, Shanghai (China); Wang, Quan-xing, E-mail: shmywqx@126.com [National Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Tan, Hong-wei [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of medicine, Shanghai (China); Guo, Meng [National Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Jiang, Wei-feng; Zhou, Li [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Chest Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of medicine, Shanghai (China)

    2012-10-01

    The activation of transforming growth factor-{beta}1(TGF-{beta}1)/Smad signaling pathway and increased expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) induced by angiotensin II (AngII) have been proposed as a mechanism for atrial fibrosis. However, whether TGF{beta}1/non-Smad signaling pathways involved in AngII-induced fibrogenetic factor expression remained unknown. Recently tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6)/TGF{beta}-associated kinase 1 (TAK1) has been shown to be crucial for the activation of TGF-{beta}1/non-Smad signaling pathways. In the present study, we explored the role of TGF-{beta}1/TRAF6 pathway in AngII-induced CTGF expression in cultured adult atrial fibroblasts. AngII (1 {mu}M) provoked the activation of P38 mitogen activated protein kinase (P38 MAPK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2(ERK1/2) and c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK). AngII (1 {mu}M) also promoted TGF{beta}1, TRAF6, CTGF expression and TAK1 phosphorylation, which were suppressed by angiotensin type I receptor antagonist (Losartan) as well as p38 MAPK inhibitor (SB202190), ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD98059) and JNK inhibitor (SP600125). Meanwhile, both TGF{beta}1 antibody and TRAF6 siRNA decreased the stimulatory effect of AngII on TRAF6, CTGF expression and TAK1 phosphorylation, which also attenuated AngII-induced atrial fibroblasts proliferation. In summary, the MAPKs/TGF{beta}1/TRAF6 pathway is an important signaling pathway in AngII-induced CTGF expression, and inhibition of TRAF6 may therefore represent a new target for reversing Ang II-induced atrial fibrosis. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MAPKs/TGF{beta}1/TRAF6 participates in AngII-induced CTGF expression in atrial fibroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TGF{beta}1/TRAF6 participates in AngII-induced atrial fibroblasts proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRAF6 may represent a new target for reversing Ang II-induced atrial fibrosis.

  1. Mesenchymal stem cells maintain TGF-beta-mediated chondrogenic phenotype in alginate bead culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlhorn, A T; Schmal, H; Kaiser, S

    2006-01-01

    cultured in osteogenic medium after TGF-beta-mediated chondroinduction. Gene expression of col2a1, aggrecan, COMP, alkaline phosphatase (AP), and correlating protein synthesis was analyzed. After short-term stimulation with TGF-beta, MSCs maintained a chondrogenic phenotype. Chondrogenic gene expression...

  2. TGF-beta receptor 2 downregulation in tumour-associated stroma worsens prognosis and high-grade tumours show more tumour-associated macrophages and lower TGF-beta1 expression in colon carcinoma: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacman, David; Merkel, Susanne; Croner, Roland; Papadopoulos, Thomas; Brueckl, Wolfgang; Dimmler, Arno

    2007-01-01

    Histological phenotype and clinical behaviour of malignant tumours are not only dependent on alterations in the epithelial cell compartment, but are affected by their interaction with inflammatory cells and tumour-associated stroma. Studies in animal models have shown influence of tumour-associated macrophages (TAM) on histological grade of differentiation in colon carcinoma. Disruption of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signalling in tumour cells is related to more aggressive clinical behaviour. Expression data of components of this pathway in tumour-associated stroma is limited. Tissue micro arrays of 310 colon carcinomas from curatively resected patients in UICC stage II and III were established. In a first step we quantified amount of CD68 positive TAMs and expression of components of TGF-beta signalling (TGF-beta1, TGF-beta receptors type 1 and 2, Smad 3 and 4) in tumour and associated stroma. Further we analyzed correlation to histological and clinical parameters (histological grade of differentiation (low-grade (i.e. grade 1 and 2) vs. high-grade (i.e. grade 3 and 4)), lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, 5 year cancer related survival) using Chi-square or Fisher's exact test, when appropriate, to compare frequencies, Kaplan-Meier method to calculate 5-year rates of distant metastases and cancer-related survival and log rank test to compare the rates of distant metastases and survival. To identify independent prognostic factors Cox regression analysis including lymph node status and grading was performed. High-grade tumours and those with lymph node metastases showed higher rates of TAMs and lower expression of TGF-beta1. Loss of nuclear Smad4 expression in tumor was associated with presence of lymph node metastasis, but no influence on prognosis could be demonstrated. Decrease of both TGF-beta receptors in tumour-associated stroma was associated with increased lymph node metastasis and shorter survival. Stromal TGF-beta receptor 2

  3. Role of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF) beta in the physiopathology of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo-Gil, Elena; Galindo-Izquierdo, María

    2014-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is a cytokine with pleiotropic functions in hematopoiesis, angiogenesis, cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. Although its role in rheumatoid arthritis is not well defined, TGF-β activation leads to functional immunomodulatory effects according to environmental conditions. The function of TGF-β in the development of arthritis in murine models has been extensively studied with controversial results. Recent findings point to a non-relevant role for TGF-β in a mice model of collagen-induced arthritis. The study of TGF-β on T-cell responses has shown controversial results as an inhibitor or promoter of the inflammatory response. This paper presents a review of the role of TGF-β in animal models of arthritis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Suppressed Gastric Mucosal TGF-beta1 Increases Susceptibility to H. pylori-Induced Gastric Inflammation and Ulceration: A Stupid Host Defense Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yunjeong; Han, Sang Uk; Kim, Yoon Jae; Kim, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Shin Tae; Kim, Seong-Jin; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2010-03-01

    Loss of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) exhibits a similar pathology to that seen in a subset of individuals infected with Helicobacter pylori, including propagated gastric inflammation, oxidative stress, and autoimmune features. We thus hypothesized that gastric mucosal TGF-beta1 levels could be used to determine the outcome after H. pylori infection. Northern blot for the TGF-beta1 transcript, staining of TGF-beta1 expression, luciferase reporter assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for TGF-beta1 levels were performed at different times after H. pylori infection. The TGF-beta1 level was markedly lower in patients with H. pylori-induced gastritis than in patients with a similar degree of gastritis induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. There was a significant negative correlation between the severity of inflammation and gastric mucosal TGF-beta1 levels. SNU-16 cells showing intact TGF-beta signaling exhibited a marked decrease in TGF-beta1 expression, whereas SNU-638 cells defective in TGF-beta signaling exhibited no such decrease after H. pylori infection. The decreased expressions of TGF-beta1 in SNU-16 cells recovered to normal after 24 hr of H. pylori infection, but lasted very spatial times, suggesting that attenuated expression of TGF-beta1 is a host defense mechanism to avoid attachment of H. pylori. H. pylori infection was associated with depressed gastric mucosal TGF-beta1 for up to 24 hr, but this apparent strategy for rescuing cells from H. pylori attachment exacerbated the gastric inflammation.

  5. TGF-beta receptor 2 downregulation in tumour-associated stroma worsens prognosis and high-grade tumours show more tumour-associated macrophages and lower TGF-beta1 expression in colon carcinoma: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papadopoulos Thomas

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histological phenotype and clinical behaviour of malignant tumours are not only dependent on alterations in the epithelial cell compartment, but are affected by their interaction with inflammatory cells and tumour-associated stroma. Studies in animal models have shown influence of tumour-associated macrophages (TAM on histological grade of differentiation in colon carcinoma. Disruption of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta signalling in tumour cells is related to more aggressive clinical behaviour. Expression data of components of this pathway in tumour-associated stroma is limited. Methods Tissue micro arrays of 310 colon carcinomas from curatively resected patients in UICC stage II and III were established. In a first step we quantified amount of CD68 positive TAMs and expression of components of TGF-beta signalling (TGF-beta1, TGF-beta receptors type 1 and 2, Smad 3 and 4 in tumour and associated stroma. Further we analyzed correlation to histological and clinical parameters (histological grade of differentiation (low-grade (i.e. grade 1 and 2 vs. high-grade (i.e. grade 3 and 4, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, 5 year cancer related survival using Chi-square or Fisher's exact test, when appropriate, to compare frequencies, Kaplan-Meier method to calculate 5-year rates of distant metastases and cancer-related survival and log rank test to compare the rates of distant metastases and survival. To identify independent prognostic factors Cox regression analysis including lymph node status and grading was performed. Results High-grade tumours and those with lymph node metastases showed higher rates of TAMs and lower expression of TGF-beta1. Loss of nuclear Smad4 expression in tumor was associated with presence of lymph node metastasis, but no influence on prognosis could be demonstrated. Decrease of both TGF-beta receptors in tumour-associated stroma was associated with increased lymph node metastasis and

  6. The disintegrin and metalloproteinase ADAM12 contributes to TGF-beta signaling through interaction with the type II receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atfi, Azeddine; Dumont, Emmanuelle; Colland, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) regulates a wide variety of biological processes through two types of Ser/Thr transmembrane receptors: the TGF-beta type I receptor and the TGF-beta type II receptor (TbetaRII). Upon ligand binding, TGF-beta type I receptor activated by TbetaRII propagat......RII protein presumably by suppressing the association of TbetaRII with Smad7. These results define ADAM12 as a new partner of TbetaRII that facilitates its trafficking to early endosomes in which activation of the Smad pathway is initiated....

  7. Constraint-based modeling and kinetic analysis of the Smad dependent TGF-beta signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhike Zi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Investigation of dynamics and regulation of the TGF-beta signaling pathway is central to the understanding of complex cellular processes such as growth, apoptosis, and differentiation. In this study, we aim at using systems biology approach to provide dynamic analysis on this pathway. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We proposed a constraint-based modeling method to build a comprehensive mathematical model for the Smad dependent TGF-beta signaling pathway by fitting the experimental data and incorporating the qualitative constraints from the experimental analysis. The performance of the model generated by constraint-based modeling method is significantly improved compared to the model obtained by only fitting the quantitative data. The model agrees well with the experimental analysis of TGF-beta pathway, such as the time course of nuclear phosphorylated Smad, the subcellular location of Smad and signal response of Smad phosphorylation to different doses of TGF-beta. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The simulation results indicate that the signal response to TGF-beta is regulated by the balance between clathrin dependent endocytosis and non-clathrin mediated endocytosis. This model is useful to be built upon as new precise experimental data are emerging. The constraint-based modeling method can also be applied to quantitative modeling of other signaling pathways.

  8. Expression of a TGF-{beta} regulated cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor in normal and immortalized airway epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tierney, L.A.; Bloomfield, C.; Johnson, N.F. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Tumors arising from epithelial cells, including lung cancers are frequently resistant to factors that regulate growth and differentiation in normal in normal cells. Once such factor is transforming growth factor-{Beta} (TGF-{Beta}). Escape from the growth-inhibitory effects of TGF-{Beta} is thought to be a key step in the transformation of airway epithelial cells. most lung cancer cell lines require serum for growth. In contrast, normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells are exquisitely sensitive to growth-inhibitory and differentiating effects of TGF-{Beta}. The recent identification of a novel cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p15{sup INK4B}, which is regulated by TGF-{Beta}, suggests a mechanism by which TGF-{Beta} mediates growth arrest in NHBE cells. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to determine if p15{sup INK4B} is induced by TGF-{Beta} in NHBE cells or immortalized bronchial epithelial (R.1) cells and if that induction corresponds to a G1/S cell-cycle arrest; (2) to determine the temporal relationship between p15{sup INK4B} induction, cell-cycle arrest, and the phosphorylation state of the pRB because it is thought that p15{sup INK4B} acts indirectly by preventing phosphorylation of the RB gene product. In this study, expression of p15{sup INK4B} was examined in NHBE cells and R.1 cells at different time intervals following TGF-{Beta} treatment. The expression of this kinase inhibitor and its relationship to the cell and the pRb phosphorylation state were examined in cells that were both sensitive (NHBE) and resistant (R.1) to the effects of TGF-{Beta}. These results suggest that the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p15{sup INK4B}, is involved in airway epithelial cell differentiation and that loss or reduction of expression plays a role in the resistance of transformed or neoplastic cells to the growth-inhibitory effects of TGF-{Beta}.

  9. The roles of TGF-beta1 gene transfer on collagen formation during Achilles tendon healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yu; Mao, ZeBing; Wei, XueLei; Lin, Lin; Chen, LianXu; Wang, HaiJun; Fu, Xin; Zhang, JiYing; Yu, ChangLong

    2009-05-29

    Collagen content and cross-linking are believed to be major determinants of tendon structural integrity and function. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 on the collagen content and cross-linking of Achilles tendons, and on the histological and biomechanical changes occurring during Achilles tendon healing in rabbits. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transfected with the TGF-beta1 gene were surgically implanted into experimentally injured Achilles tendons. Collagen proteins were identified by immunohistochemical staining and fiber bundle accumulation was revealed by Sirius red staining. Achilles tendons treated with TGF-beta1-transfected BMSCs showed higher concentrations of collagen I protein, more rapid matrix remodeling, and larger fiber bundles. Thus TGF-beta1 can promote mechanical strength in healing Achilles tendons by regulating collagen synthesis, cross-link formation, and matrix remodeling.

  10. Emergence, development and diversification of the TGF-beta signalling pathway within the animal kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huminiecki, Lukasz; Goldovsky, Leon; Freilich, Shiri; Moustakas, Aristidis; Ouzounis, Christos; Heldin, Carl-Henrik

    2009-02-03

    The question of how genomic processes, such as gene duplication, give rise to co-ordinated organismal properties, such as emergence of new body plans, organs and lifestyles, is of importance in developmental and evolutionary biology. Herein, we focus on the diversification of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) pathway -- one of the fundamental and versatile metazoan signal transduction engines. After an investigation of 33 genomes, we show that the emergence of the TGF-beta pathway coincided with appearance of the first known animal species. The primordial pathway repertoire consisted of four Smads and four receptors, similar to those observed in the extant genome of the early diverging tablet animal (Trichoplax adhaerens). We subsequently retrace duplications in ancestral genomes on the lineage leading to humans, as well as lineage-specific duplications, such as those which gave rise to novel Smads and receptors in teleost fishes. We conclude that the diversification of the TGF-beta pathway can be parsimoniously explained according to the 2R model, with additional rounds of duplications in teleost fishes. Finally, we investigate duplications followed by accelerated evolution which gave rise to an atypical TGF-beta pathway in free-living bacterial feeding nematodes of the genus Rhabditis. Our results challenge the view of well-conserved developmental pathways. The TGF-beta signal transduction engine has expanded through gene duplication, continually adopting new functions, as animals grew in anatomical complexity, colonized new environments, and developed an active immune system.

  11. Liver cancer-derived hepatitis C virus core proteins shift TGF-beta responses from tumor suppression to epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Battaglia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection and associated liver cirrhosis represent a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC development. TGF-beta is an important driver of liver fibrogenesis and cancer; however, its actual impact in human cancer progression is still poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of HCC-derived HCV core natural variants on cancer progression through their impact on TGF-beta signaling. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We provide evidence that HCC-derived core protein expression in primary human or mouse hepatocyte alleviates TGF-beta responses in terms or growth inhibition or apoptosis. Instead, in these hepatocytes TGF-beta was still able to induce an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT, a process that contributes to the promotion of cell invasion and metastasis. Moreover, we demonstrate that different thresholds of Smad3 activation dictate the TGF-beta responses in hepatic cells and that HCV core protein, by decreasing Smad3 activation, may switch TGF-beta growth inhibitory effects to tumor promoting responses. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data illustrate the capacity of hepatocytes to develop EMT and plasticity under TGF-beta, emphasize the role of HCV core protein in the dynamic of these effects and provide evidence for a paradigm whereby a viral protein implicated in oncogenesis is capable to shift TGF-beta responses from cytostatic effects to EMT development.

  12. Elucidation of IL-1/TGF-beta interactions in mouse chondrocyte cell line by genome-wide gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takahashi, N; Rieneck, K; van der Kraan, P M

    2005-01-01

    To elucidate the antagonism between interleukin-1 (IL-1) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) at the gene expression level, as IL-1 and TGF-beta are postulated to be critical mediators of cartilage degeneration/protection in rheumatic diseases....

  13. TGF-beta Sma/Mab signaling mutations uncouple reproductive aging from somatic aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijing Luo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Female reproductive cessation is one of the earliest age-related declines humans experience, occurring in mid-adulthood. Similarly, Caenorhabditis elegans' reproductive span is short relative to its total life span, with reproduction ceasing about a third into its 15-20 day adulthood. All of the known mutations and treatments that extend C. elegans' reproductive period also regulate longevity, suggesting that reproductive span is normally linked to life span. C. elegans has two canonical TGF-beta signaling pathways. We recently found that the TGF-beta Dauer pathway regulates longevity through the Insulin/IGF-1 Signaling (IIS pathway; here we show that this pathway has a moderate effect on reproductive span. By contrast, TGF-beta Sma/Mab signaling mutants exhibit a substantially extended reproductive period, more than doubling reproductive span in some cases. Sma/Mab mutations extend reproductive span disproportionately to life span and act independently of known regulators of somatic aging, such as Insulin/IGF-1 Signaling and Dietary Restriction. This is the first discovery of a pathway that regulates reproductive span independently of longevity and the first identification of the TGF-beta Sma/Mab pathway as a regulator of reproductive aging. Our results suggest that longevity and reproductive span regulation can be uncoupled, although they appear to normally be linked through regulatory pathways.

  14. IGF-binding proteins mediate TGF-beta 1-induced apoptosis in bovine mammary epithelial BME-UV1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewska, Małgorzata; Motyl, Tomasz

    2004-10-01

    TGF-beta 1 is an antiproliferative and apoptogenic factor for mammary epithelial cells (MEC) acting in an auto/paracrine manner and thus considered an important local regulator of mammary tissue involution. However, the apoptogenic signaling pathway induced by this cytokine in bovine MEC remains obscure. The present study was focused on identification of molecules involved in apoptogenic signaling of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) in the model of bovine mammary epithelial cell line (BME-UV1). Laser scanning cytometry (LSC), Western blot and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) were used for analysis of expression and activity of TGF-beta 1-related signaling molecules. The earliest response occurring within 1-2 h after TGF-beta 1 administration was an induction and activation of R-Smads (Smad2 and Smad3) and Co-Smad (Smad4). An evident formation of Smad-DNA complexes began from 2nd hour after MEC exposure to TGF-beta 1. Similarly to Smads, proteins of AP1 complex: phosphorylated c-Jun and JunD appeared to be early reactive molecules; however, an increase in their expression was detected only in cytosolic fraction. In the next step, an increase of IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and IGFBP-4 expression was observed from 6th hour followed by a decrease in the activity of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt), which occurred after 24 h of MEC exposure to TGF-beta 1. The decrease in PKB/Akt activity coincided in time with the decline of phosphorylated Bad expression (inactive form). Present study supported additional evidence that stimulation of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) was associated with complete abrogation of TGF-beta 1-induced activation of Bad and Bax and in the consequence protection against apoptosis. In conclusion, apoptotic effect of TGF-beta 1 in bovine MEC is mediated by IGFBPs and occurs through IGF-I sequestration, resulting in inhibition of PKB/Akt-dependent survival pathway.

  15. TGF-{beta}1 increases invasiveness of SW1990 cells through Rac1/ROS/NF-{kappa}B/IL-6/MMP-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binker, Marcelo G. [Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8 (Canada); CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Binker-Cosen, Andres A. [CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gaisano, Herbert Y. [Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8 (Canada); Cosen, Rodica H. de [CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cosen-Binker, Laura I., E-mail: laura.cosen.binker@utoronto.ca [Departments of Medicine and Physiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 1A8 (Canada); CBRHC Research Center, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-02-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Rac1 mediates TGF-{beta}1-induced SW1990 invasion through MMP-2 secretion and activation. {yields} NADPH-generated ROS act downstream of Rac1 in TGF-{beta}1-challenged SW1990 cells. {yields} TGF-{beta}1-stimulated ROS activate NF-{kappa}B in SW1990 cells. {yields} NF{kappa}B-induced IL-6 release is required for secretion and activation of MMP-2 in SW1990 cells. -- Abstract: Human pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis have been found to correlate with increased levels of active matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2). The multifunctional cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) has been shown to increase both secretion of MMP-2 and invasion by several pancreatic cancer cell types. In the present study, we investigated the signaling pathway involved in TGF-{beta}1-promoted MMP-2 secretion and invasion by human pancreatic cancer cells SW1990. Using specific inhibitors, we found that stimulation of these tumor cells with TGF-{beta}1 induced secretion and activation of the collagenase MMP-2, which was required for TGF-{beta}1-stimulated invasion. Our results also indicate that signaling events involved in TGF-{beta}1-enhanced SW1990 invasiveness comprehend activation of Rac1 followed by generation of reactive oxygen species through nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase, activation of nuclear factor-kappa beta, release of interleukin-6, and secretion and activation of MMP-2.

  16. TGF-beta1 modulates focal adhesion kinase expression in rat intestinal epithelial IEC-6 cells via stimulatory and inhibitory Smad binding elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Mary F; Ampasala, Dinakar R; Rishi, Arun K; Basson, Marc D

    2009-02-01

    TGF-beta and FAK modulate cell migration, differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, and TGF-beta promotes FAK transcription in intestinal epithelial cells via Smad-dependent and independent pathways. We utilized a 1320 bp FAK promoter-luciferase construct to characterize basal and TGF-beta-mediated FAK gene transcription in IEC-6 cells. Inhibiting JNK or Akt negated TGF-beta-stimulated promoter activity; ERK inhibition did not block the TGF-beta effect but increased basal activity. Co-transfection with Co-Smad4 enhanced the TGF-beta response while the inhibitory Smad7 abolished it. Serial deletions sequentially removing the four Smad binding elements (SBE) in the 5' untranslated region of the promoter revealed that the two most distal SBE's are positive regulators while SBE3 exerts a negative influence. Mutational deletion of two upstream p53 sites enhanced basal but did not affect TGF-beta-stimulated increases in promoter activity. TGF-beta increased DNA binding of Smad4, phospho-Smad2/3 and Runx1/AML1a to the most distal 435 bp containing 3 SBE and 2 AML1a sites by ChIP assay. However, although point mutation of SBE1 ablated the TGF-beta-mediated rise in SV40-promoter activity, mutation of AML1a sites did not. TGF-beta regulation of FAK transcription reflects a complex interplay between positive and negative non-Smad signals and SBE's, the last independent of p53 or AML1a.

  17. El factor de crecimiento transformante beta como blanco terapéutico Transforming growth factor-beta as a therapeutic target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Gálvez-Gastélum

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available El factor de crecimiento transformante beta (TGF-beta es una familia de proteínas que incluye al TGF-beta, activinas y a la proteína morfogénica de hueso (BMP, por sus siglas en inglés, citocinas que son secretadas y se relacionan estructuralmente en diferentes especies de metazoarios. Los miembros de la familia del TGF-beta regulan diferentes funciones celulares como proliferación, apoptosis, diferenciación, migración, y tienen un papel clave en el desarrollo del organismo. El TGF-beta está implicado en varias patologías humanas, incluyendo desórdenes autoinmunes y vasculares, así como enfermedades fibróticas y cáncer. La activación del receptor del TGF-beta propicia su fosforilación en residuos de serina/treonina y dispara la fosforilación de proteínas efectoras intracelulares (smad, que una vez activas se translocan al núcleo para inducir la transcripción de genes blanco, y así regular procesos y funciones celulares. Se están desarrollando novedosas estrategias terapéuticas encaminadas a corregir las alteraciones presentes en patologías que involucran al TGF-beta como actor principal.Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta family members include TGF-beta, activins, and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP. These proteins are structurally related cytokines secreted in diverse Metazoans. TGF-beta family members regulate cellular functions such as proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, and migration, and play an important role in organism development. Deregulated TGF-beta family signaling participates in various human pathologies including auto-immune diseases, vascular disorders, fibrotic disease, and cancer. Ligand-induced activation of TGF-beta family receptors with intrinsic serine/threonine kinase activity, triggers phosphorylation of the intracellular effectors of TGF-beta signaling, the Smads proteins. Once these proteins are activated they translocate into the nucleus, where they induce transcription of target

  18. Wnt and TGF-beta expression in the sponge Amphimedon queenslandica and the origin of metazoan embryonic patterning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Adamska

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The origin of metazoan development and differentiation was contingent upon the evolution of cell adhesion, communication and cooperation mechanisms. While components of many of the major cell signalling pathways have been identified in a range of sponges (phylum Porifera, their roles in development have not been investigated and remain largely unknown. Here, we take the first steps toward reconstructing the developmental signalling systems used in the last common ancestor to living sponges and eumetazoans by studying the expression of genes encoding Wnt and TGF-beta signalling ligands during the embryonic development of a sponge.Using resources generated in the recent sponge Amphimedon queenslandica (Demospongiae genome project, we have recovered genes encoding Wnt and TGF-beta signalling ligands that are critical in patterning metazoan embryos. Both genes are expressed from the earliest stages of Amphimedon embryonic development in highly dynamic patterns. At the time when the Amphimedon embryos begin to display anterior-posterior polarity, Wnt expression becomes localised to the posterior pole and this expression continues until the swimming larva stage. In contrast, TGF-beta expression is highest at the anterior pole. As in complex animals, sponge Wnt and TGF-beta expression patterns intersect later in development during the patterning of a sub-community of cells that form a simple tissue-like structure, the pigment ring. Throughout development, Wnt and TGF-beta are expressed radially along the anterior-posterior axis.We infer from the expression of Wnt and TGF-beta in Amphimedon that the ancestor that gave rise to sponges, cnidarians and bilaterians had already evolved the capacity to direct the formation of relatively sophisticated body plans, with axes and tissues. The radially symmetrical expression patterns of Wnt and TGF-beta along the anterior-posterior axis of sponge embryos and larvae suggest that these signalling pathways

  19. TGF-β-activated kinase-1: New insights into the mechanism of TGF-β signaling and kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Il Kim

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β is a multifunctional cytokine that regulates a wide variety of cellular functions, including cell growth, cellular differentiation, apoptosis, and wound healing. TGF-β1, the prototype member of the TGFsuperfamily, is well established as a central mediator of renal fibrosis. In chronic kidney disease, dysregulation of expression and activation of TGF-β1 results in the relentless synthesis and accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins that lead to the development of glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and ultimately to end-stage renal disease. Therefore, specific targeting of the TGF-β signaling pathway is seemingly an attractive molecular therapeutic strategy in chronic kidney disease. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that the multifunctionality of TGF-β1 is connected with the complexity of its cell signaling networks. TGF-β1 signals through the interaction of type I and type II receptors to activate distinct intracellular pathways. Although the Smad signaling pathway is known as a canonical pathway induced by TGF-β1, and has been the focus of many previous reviews, importantly TGF-β1 also induces various Smad-independent signaling pathways. In this review, we describe evidence that supports current insights into the mechanism and function of TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1, which has emerged as a critical signaling molecule in TGF-β-induced Smad-independent signaling pathways. We also discuss the functional role of TAK1 in mediating the profibrotic effects of TGF-β1.

  20. Evaluation of TGF beta1 expression and comparison the thickness of different aorta layers in experimental diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuce, G; Kalkan, S S; Esen, H H

    2011-01-01

    It was aimed to investigate the effects of experimental diabetes on TGF beta1 expression and tunica intima and media thickness in abdominal and thoracic aorta. Fourteen three months old female rats were divided into two groups, non-diabetic and streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic group. Hematoxylin-Eosin and Verhoeff's Van Gieson elastic staining and TGF beta1 immunohistochemistry staining were performed. Abdominal and thoracic intima and media thickness of aortas were measured with the oculometer. Evaluation of intima and media thickness measurements showed no significant statistical differences between non-diabetic and diabetic groups. TGF beta1 expression increased significantly in thoracic diabetic (TD) group. The 60 day duration of diabetes is not sufficiently enough time for the development of pathological changes that could lead to thickening in aortic intima-media layers. TGF beta1 expression was negative in the abdominal aorta that can predispose to the development of atherosclerosis, which could develop overtime. This finding may be interpreted as an appropriate basis for the development of atherosclerosis. In the thoracic aorta TGF beta1 may coordinate cellular events such as tissue repair (Fig. 5, Ref. 23).

  1. Bone morphogenetic proteins regulate osteoprotegerin and its ligands in human vascular smooth muscle cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Kirsten Quyen Nguyen; Olesen, Ping; Ledet, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The bone-related protein osteoprotegerin (OPG) may be involved in the development of vascular calcifications, especially in diabetes, where it has been found in increased amounts in the arterial wall. Experimental studies suggest that members of the TGF-superfamily are involved in the transformat......The bone-related protein osteoprotegerin (OPG) may be involved in the development of vascular calcifications, especially in diabetes, where it has been found in increased amounts in the arterial wall. Experimental studies suggest that members of the TGF-superfamily are involved...... in the transformation of human vascular smooth muscle cells (HVSMC) to osteoblast-like cells. In this study, we evaluated the effect of BMP-2, BMP-7 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta1) on the secretion and mRNA expression of OPG and its ligands receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappabeta ligand (RANKL......) and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in HVSMC. All three growth factors decreased OPG protein production significantly; these results were paralleled by reduced OPG mRNA expression. TRAIL mRNA levels were also decreased. RANKL mRNA expression declined when treated with TGF-beta1 but were...

  2. Combined effects of moderately elevated blood glucose and locally produced TGF-beta1 on glomerular morphology and renal collagen production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Søren; Nyengaard, Jens R; Wogensen, Lise

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a correlation between renal graft rejection and blood glucose (BG) levels. Furthermore, diabetic patients may develop non-diabetic renal diseases, which in some circumstances progress rapidly. Since transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta) levels are elevated in many renal...... diseases, the accelerated progression may be due to interactions between glucose and locally produced TGF-beta1. Therefore, we investigated the effect of mild hyperglycaemia on glomerular morphology and collagen production in TGF-beta1 transgenic mice. METHODS: To achieve BG concentrations of approximately...... 15 mmol/l in TGF-beta1 transgenic and non-transgenic mice, we used multiple streptozotocin (STZ) injections, and after 8 weeks, we measured the changes in glomerular morphology and total collagen content. We also analysed extracellular matrix (ECM) and protease mRNA levels using real-time polymerase...

  3. D-Ribulose 5-Phosphate 3-Epimerase: Functional and Structural Relationships to Members of the Ribulose-Phosphate Binding (beta/alpha)8-Barrel Superfamily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akana, J.; Federov, A.; Federov, E.; Novak, W.; Babbitt, P.; Almo, S.; Gerlt, J.

    2006-01-01

    The 'ribulose phosphate binding' superfamily defined by the Structural Classification of Proteins (SCOP) database is considered the result of divergent evolution from a common (β/α) 8 -barrel ancestor. The superfamily includes D-ribulose 5-phosphate 3-epimerase (RPE), orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC), and 3-keto-L-gulonate 6-phosphate decarboxylase (KGPDC), members of the OMPDC suprafamily, as well as enzymes involved in histidine and tryptophan biosynthesis that utilize phosphorylated metabolites as substrates. We now report studies of the functional and structural relationships of RPE to the members of the superfamily. As suggested by the results of crystallographic studies of the RPEs from rice and Plasmodium falciparum, the RPE from Streptococcus pyogenes is activated by Zn 2+ which binds with a stoichiometry of one ion per polypeptide. Although wild type RPE has a high affinity for Zn 2+ and inactive apoenzyme cannot be prepared, the affinity for Zn 2+ is decreased by alanine substitutions for the two histidine residues that coordinate the Zn 2+ ion (H34A and H67A); these mutant proteins can be prepared in an inactive, metal-free form and activated by exogenous Zn 2+ . The crystal structure of the RPE was solved at 1.8 Angstroms resolution in the presence of D-xylitol 5-phosphate, an inert analogue of the D-xylulose 5-phosphate substrate. This structure suggests that the 2,3-enediolate intermediate in the 1,1-proton transfer reaction is stabilized by bidentate coordination to the Zn 2+ that also is liganded to His 34, Asp 36, His 67, and Asp 176; the carboxylate groups of the Asp residues are positioned also to function as the acid/base catalysts. Although the conformation of the bound analogue resembles those of ligands bound in the active sites of OMPDC and KGPDC, the identities of the active site residues that coordinate the essential Zn 2+ and participate as acid/base catalysts are not conserved. We conclude that only the phosphate

  4. Evolution of Enzymatic Activities in the Enolase Superfamily: D-Mannonate Dhydratase from Novosphingobium aromaticivorans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakus,J.; Fedorov, A.; Fedorov, E.; Glasner, M.; Vick, J.; Babbitt, P.; Almo, S.; Gerlt, J.

    2007-01-01

    The d-mannonate dehydratase (ManD) function was assigned to a group of orthologous proteins in the mechanistically diverse enolase superfamily by screening a library of acid sugars. Structures of the wild type ManD from Novosphingobium aromaticivorans were determined at pH 7.5 in the presence of Mg2+ and also in the presence of Mg2+ and the 2-keto-3-keto-d-gluconate dehydration product; the structure of the catalytically active K271E mutant was determined at pH 5.5 in the presence of the d-mannonate substrate. As previously observed in the structures of other members of the enolase superfamily, ManD contains two domains, an N-terminal a+{beta} capping domain and a ({beta}/a)7{beta}-barrel domain. The barrel domain contains the ligands for the essential Mg2+, Asp 210, Glu 236, and Glu 262, at the ends of the third, fourth, and fifth {beta}-strands of the barrel domain, respectively. However, the barrel domain lacks both the Lys acid/base catalyst at the end of the second {beta}-strand and the His-Asp dyad acid/base catalyst at the ends of the seventh and sixth {beta}-strands, respectively, that are found in many members of the superfamily. Instead, a hydrogen-bonded dyad of Tyr 159 in a loop following the second {beta}-strand and Arg 147 at the end of the second {beta}-strand are positioned to initiate the reaction by abstraction of the 2-proton. Both Tyr 159 and His 212, at the end of the third {beta}-strand, are positioned to facilitate both syn-dehydration and ketonization of the resulting enol intermediate to yield the 2-keto-3-keto-d-gluconate product with the observed retention of configuration. The identities and locations of these acid/base catalysts as well as of cationic amino acid residues that stabilize the enolate anion intermediate define a new structural strategy for catalysis (subgroup) in the mechanistically diverse enolase superfamily. With these differences, we provide additional evidence that the ligands for the essential Mg2+ are the only

  5. TGF-beta1 inhibits Cx43 expression and formation of functional syncytia in cultured smooth muscle cells from human detrusor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Jochen; Heinrich, Marco; Schwalenberg, Thilo; Stolzenburg, Jens-Uwe

    2009-02-01

    Human detrusor smooth muscle cells (hBSMCs) are coupled by connexin 43 (Cx43)-positive gap junctions to form functional syncytia. Gap junctional communication likely is necessary for synchronised detrusor contractions and is supposed to be altered in voiding disturbances. Other authors have shown that the pleiotropic cytokine TGF-beta1 upregulates Cx43 expression in human aortic smooth muscle cells. In this study, we examined the TGF-beta1 effects on Cx43 expression in cultured hBSMCs. hBSMC cultures, established from patients undergoing cystectomy, were treated with recombinant human TGF-beta1. Cx43 expression was then examined by Western blotting, real-time PCR, and immunocytochemistry. Dye-injection experiments were used to study the size of functional syncytia. Dye-coupling experiments revealed stable formation of functional syncytia in passaged cell cultures (P1-P4). Stimulation with TGF-beta1 led to significant reduction of Cx43 immunoreactivity and coupling. Cx43 protein expression was significantly downregulated and Cx43 mRNA was only 30% of the control level. Interestingly, low phosphorylation species of Cx43 were particularly affected. Our experiments demonstrated a significant down regulation of connexin 43 by TGF-beta1 in cultured hBSMCs. These findings support the view that TGF-beta1 is involved in the pathophysiology of urinary bladder dysfunction.

  6. Activin Plays a Key Role in the Maintenance of Long-Term Memory and Late-LTP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageta, Hiroshi; Ikegami, Shiro; Miura, Masami; Masuda, Masao; Migishima, Rika; Hino, Toshiaki; Takashima, Noriko; Murayama, Akiko; Sugino, Hiromu; Setou, Mitsutoshi; Kida, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Hasegawa, Yoshihisa; Tsuchida, Kunihiro; Aosaki, Toshihiko; Inokuchi, Kaoru

    2010-01-01

    A recent study has revealed that fear memory may be vulnerable following retrieval, and is then reconsolidated in a protein synthesis-dependent manner. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms of these processes. Activin [beta]A, a member of the TGF-[beta] superfamily, is increased in activated neuronal circuits and regulates…

  7. Expression of podoplanin and TGF-beta in glandular odontogenic cyst and its comparison with developmental and inflammatory odontogenic cystic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaeddini, Mojgan; Eshghyar, Nosratollah; Etemad-Moghadam, Shahroo

    2017-01-01

    The number of studies investigating the immunohistochemical characteristics of glandular odontogenic cysts (GOCs) is limited, due to its rarity. TGF-beta has been suggested to induce podoplanin expression in some lesions. We aimed to evaluate and compare podoplanin and TGF-beta expression in GOC and other odontogenic cystic lesions. A total of 43 samples including five GOCs, 10 dentigerous cysts (DCs), eight unicystic ameloblastoma (UAs), and 20 radicular cysts (RCs) were selected and subjected to immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibodies against podoplanin and TGF-beta. Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test were used for statistical analysis along with Bonferroni for adjusting P-values (P < 0.05). Podoplanin immunoreactivity was observed in 80%, 70%, and 100% of DCs, RCs, and UAs, respectively, while none of the GOCs were positive for this marker (P = 0.004). Significant differences were only found in the GOC specimens. TGF-beta positivity occurred in the capsule and epithelium of all GOCs and DCs, while RCs and UAs demonstrated different expression percentages in the capsular and epithelial tissues. Epithelial TGF-beta showed significant differences among the studied lesions (P = 0.007) with the main difference found between DCs with RCs and DCs with UAs. Lack of podoplanin expression might be involved in the characteristic histologic and behavioral features of GOC, which seems to be unrelated to TGF-beta expression. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta1) promotes IL-2 mRNA expression through the up-regulation of NF-kappaB, AP-1 and NF-AT in EL4 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S H; Yea, S S; Jeon, Y J; Yang, K H; Kaminski, N E

    1998-12-01

    Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) has been previously shown to modulate interleukin 2 (IL-2) secretion by activated T-cells. In the present studies, we determined that TGF-beta1 induced IL-2 mRNA expression in the murine T-cell line EL4, in the absence of other stimuli. IL-2 mRNA expression was significantly induced by TGF-beta1 (0.1-1 ng/ml) over a relatively narrow concentration range, which led to the induction of IL-2 secretion. Under identical condition, we examined the effect of TGF-beta1 on the activity of nuclear factor AT (NF-AT), nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB), activator protein-1 (AP-1) and octamer, all of which contribute to the regulation of IL-2 gene expression. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that TGF-beta1 markedly increased NF-AT, NF-kappaB and AP-1 binding to their respective cognate DNA binding sites, whereas octamer binding remained constant, as compared with untreated cells. Employing a reporter gene expression system with p(NF-kappaB)3-CAT, p(NF-AT)3-CAT and p(AP-1)3-CAT, TGF-beta1 treatment of transfected EL4 cells induced a dose-related increase in chloramphenicol acetyltransferase activity that correlated well with the DNA binding profile found in the electrophoretic mobility shift assay studies. These results show that TGF-beta1, in the absence of any additional stimuli, up-regulates the activity of key transcription factors involved in IL-2 gene expression, including NF-AT, NF-kappaB and AP-1, to help promote IL-2 mRNA expression by EL4 cells.

  9. Spatial and temporal expression of immunoglobulin superfamily member 1 in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joustra, Sjoerd D.; Meijer, Onno C.; Heinen, Charlotte A.; Mol, Isabel M.; Laghmani, El Houari; Sengers, Rozemarijn M. A.; Carreno, Gabriela; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; Biermasz, Nienke R.; Bernard, Daniel J.; Wit, Jan M.; Oostdijk, Wilma; van Pelt, Ans M. M.; Hamer, Geert; Wagenaar, Gerry T. M.

    2015-01-01

    Loss-of-function mutations in the immunoglobulin superfamily member 1 (IGSF1) gene cause an X-linked syndrome of central hypothyroidism, macroorchidism, variable prolactin and GH deficiency, delayed pubertal testosterone rise, and obesity. To understand the pathophysiology of this syndrome,

  10. CDK2 phosphorylation of Smad2 disrupts TGF-beta transcriptional regulation in resistant primary bone marrow myeloma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baughn, Linda B; Di Liberto, Maurizio; Niesvizky, Ruben; Cho, Hearn J; Jayabalan, David; Lane, Joseph; Liu, Fang; Chen-Kiang, Selina

    2009-02-15

    Resistance to growth suppression by TGF-beta1 is common in cancer; however, mutations in this pathway are rare in hematopoietic malignancies. In multiple myeloma, a fatal cancer of plasma cells, malignant cells accumulate in the TGF-beta-rich bone marrow due to loss of both cell cycle and apoptotic controls. Herein we show that TGF-beta activates Smad2 but fails to induce cell cycle arrest or apoptosis in primary bone marrow myeloma and human myeloma cell lines due to its inability to activate G(1) cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors (p15(INK4b), p21(CIP1/WAF1), p27(KIP1), p57(KIP2)) or to repress c-myc and Bcl-2 transcription. Correlating with aberrant activation of CDKs, CDK-dependent phosphorylation of Smad2 on Thr(8) (pT8), a modification linked to impaired Smad activity, is elevated in primary bone marrow myeloma cells, even in asymptomatic monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Moreover, CDK2 is the predominant CDK that phosphorylates Smad2 on T8 in myeloma cells, leading to inhibition of Smad2-Smad4 association that precludes transcriptional regulation by Smad2. Our findings provide the first direct evidence that pT8 Smad2 couples dysregulation of CDK2 to TGF-beta resistance in primary cancer cells, and they suggest that disruption of Smad2 function by CDK2 phosphorylation acts as a mechanism for TGF-beta resistance in multiple myeloma.

  11. FXIIIA and TGF-beta over-expression produces normal musculo-skeletal phenotype in TG2-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarantino, U; Oliva, F; Taurisano, G; Orlandi, A; Pietroni, V; Candi, E; Melino, G; Maffulli, N

    2009-04-01

    Transglutaminase (TGs) enzymes and proteins crosslinking have for long time been implicated in the formation of hard tissue development, matrix maturation and mineralization. Among the TGs family members, in the context of connective tissue formation, TG2 and Factor XIII are expressed in cartilage by hypertrophic chondrocytes. Here, we analyse the morphological consequences of TG2 deficiency, during the development of skeletal elements. When TG2 is absent, there are not gross abnormalities in the development of the skeletal system, probably from compensatory mechanisms resulting in increased expression of FXIIIA and TGF-beta 1. In vivo other TGs may be involved in promoting chondrocytes and osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralisation.

  12. Role of TGF-beta1 in relation to exercise-induced type I collagen synthesis in human tendinous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, Katja; Langberg, Henning; Olesen, Jens L

    2003-01-01

    synthesis, is released from cultured tendon fibroblasts in response to mechanical loading. Thus TGF-beta1 could link mechanical loading and collagen synthesis in tendon tissue in vivo. Tissue levels of TGF-beta1 and type I collagen metabolism markers [procollagen I COOH-terminal propeptide (PICP) and COOH...... exercise (P insertion was markedly delayed by exercise compared with the decay seen in resting subjects...

  13. The Effect of 5 FU on the Expression of Transforming Growth Factor Beta-1 (Tgf-1 in Cultured Tendon Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Karacor Altuntas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of the treatment with 1 min exposures to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU  on the expression of TGF-beta 1 in cultured tendon cells. Fibroblasts cultured from the flexor tendons of dog paws were treated with 3 different doses of 5-FU ( control, 5-15-25 mgr /ml for 1 minute.  After 5-FU exposure  the expression of TGFbeta 1 were tested by real time Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR at 3rd and 7th days. There were no statistically significant differences in the expression levels of the TGF-b1 gene between the control group and all other groups on day 3 and 7 (p>0.05.However, when the percentage changes in the TGF-BETA1 gene expression on days 3–7 were compared, there were statistically significant differences and this was maximally observed with 89% +12 (p<0.05 in the group treated with 25-mg/ml 5-FU.  We conclude that 1min. 5-FU application may be  sufficient to prevent adhesions in tendon healing by limiting the expression of TGF-BETA1. 

  14. TNF and TNF Receptor Superfamily Members in HIV infection: New Cellular Targets for Therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor (TNF and TNF receptors (TNFR superfamily members are engaged in diverse cellular phenomena such as cellular proliferation, morphogenesis, apoptosis, inflammation, and immune regulation. Their role in regulating viral infections has been well documented. Viruses have evolved with numerous strategies to interfere with TNF-mediated signaling indicating the importance of TNF and TNFR superfamily in viral pathogenesis. Recent research reports suggest that TNF and TNFRs play an important role in the pathogenesis of HIV. TNFR signaling modulates HIV replication and HIV proteins interfere with TNF/TNFR pathways. Since immune activation and inflammation are the hallmark of HIV infection, the use of TNF inhibitors can have significant impact on HIV disease progression. In this review, we will describe how HIV infection is modulated by signaling mediated through members of TNF and TNFR superfamily and in turn how these latter could be targeted by HIV proteins. Finally, we will discuss the emerging therapeutics options based on modulation of TNF activity that could ultimately lead to the cure of HIV-infected patients.

  15. Role of TGF-beta1-independent changes in protein neosynthesis, p38alphaMAPK, and cdc42 in hydrogen peroxide-induced senescence-like morphogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chrétien, Aline; Dierick, Jean-François; Delaive, Edouard

    2008-01-01

    for p38(MAPK) activation, in turn triggering phosphorylation of L-caldesmon and HSP27. Cdc42 was also shown to be mainly responsible for the increase in TGF-beta1 mRNA level observed at 24 h after treatment with H(2)O(2) and onward. This study further clarified the mechanisms of senescence......The role of TGF-beta1 in hydrogen peroxide-induced senescence-like morphogenesis has been described. The aim of this work was to investigate whether TGF-beta1-independent changes in protein synthesis are involved in this morphogenesis and to study possible mechanisms occurring earlier than TGF-beta......1 overexpression. Among the multiple TGF-beta1-independent changes in protein neosynthesis, followed or not by posttranslational modifications, identified by proteomic analysis herein, those of ezrin, L-caldesmon, and HSP27 were particularly studied. Rho-GTPase cdc42 was shown to be responsible...

  16. Expression of porcine myostatin prodomain genomic sequence leads to a decrease in muscle growth, but significant intramuscular fat accretion in transgenic pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myostatin, a member of TGF-beta superfamily, is a dominant inhibitor of skeletal muscle development and growth. Previously, skeletal muscle-specific over-expression of myostatin prodomain cDNA (5’-region 886 nucleotide) dramatically increased growth performance and muscle mass in transgenic mice. I...

  17. Growth differentiation factor 15 deficiency protects against atherosclerosis by attenuating CCR2-mediated macrophage chemotaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jager, S.C.A.; Bermúdez, B.; Bot, I.; Koenen, R.R.; Bot, M.; Kavelaars, A.; de Waard, V.; Heijnen, C.J.; Muriana, F.J.G.; Weber, C.; van Berkel, T.J.C.; Kuiper, J.; Lee, S.J.; Abia, R.; Biessen, E.A.L.

    2011-01-01

    Growth differentiation factor (GDF) 15 is a member of the transforming growth factor. (TGF-beta) superfamily, which operates in acute phase responses through a currently unknown receptor. Elevated GDF-15 serum levels were recently identified as a risk factor for acute coronary syndromes. We show

  18. TGF-beta1 immunohistochemistry and promoter methylation in chronic renal failure rats treated with Uremic Clearance Granules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Bin Chen

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was the explain the mechanism related to therapeutic effects of Uremic Clearance Granules (Niaoduqing Keli in Chinese on adenine-induced Chronic Renal Failure in rats. Thirty 8-week-old male Wistar rats were selected and randomly divided in to 3 groups: Normal Control Group (NCGconsisted of 10 rats, Chronic Renal Failure Pathological Control Group (PCG 10 rats, and Uremic Clearance Granules Treatment Group (UCG 10 rats. Each rat in PCG and UCG was fed with adenine-enriched diets, containing 10 g adenine per kg food for 6 weeks. After fed with adenine, each rat in UCG was administered orally with 2 ml solution of Uremic Clearance Granules for 6 weeks. The concentration of Uremic Clearance Granules solution was 0.42 g/ml which was 10 times of human. On days 42 and 84, the serum levels of creatinine, Blood Urea Nitrogen and homocysteine were determined. The methylation of TGFbeta1 promoter was tested by methylation-specific PCR. TGF-beta1 mRNA and protein expression in rat renal cortex were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR and Immunohistochemistry. (1 Experimented on model of Chronic Renal Failure in rats, the preparation was proved to be able to reduce serum creatinine, Blood Urea Nitrogen, and homocysteine (p<0.05, improve renal function. (2 The expression of TGF-beta1 in mRNA and protein level were down-regulated. (3 TGF-beta1 promoter was demethylated at some loci in PCG, and was recovered in UCG. After treatment with Uremic Clearance Granules, the Chronic Renal Failure Wistar rat's kidney function was recovered. The recovery may be result of the remethylation of TGF-beta1 promoter and then lead to TGF-beta1 be transcripted and translated normally. The experimental study explain the molecular mechanism by which Uremic Clearance Granules treat Chronic Renal Failure.

  19. MEK/ERK and p38 MAPK regulate chondrogenesis of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells through delicate interaction with TGF-beta1/Smads pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J; Zhao, Z; Liu, J; Huang, N; Long, D; Wang, J; Li, X; Liu, Y

    2010-08-01

    This study was carried out to reveal functions and mechanisms of MEK/ERK and p38 pathways in chondrogenesis of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), and to investigate further any interactions between the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1)/Smads pathway in the process. Chondrogenic differentiation of rat BMSCs was initiated in micromass culture, in the presence of TGF-beta1, for 2 weeks. ERK1/2 and p38 kinase activities were investigated by Western Blot analysis. Specific MAPK inhibitors PD98059 and SB20350 were employed to investigate regulatory effects of MEK/ERK and p38 signals on gene expression of chondrocyte-specific markers, and TGF-beta1 downstream pathways of Smad2/3. ERK1/2 was phosphorylated in a rapid but transient manner, whereas p38 was activated in a slow and sustained way. The two MAPK subtypes played opposing roles in mediating transcription of cartilage-specific genes for Col2alpha and aggrecan. TGF-beta1-stimulated gene expression of chondrogenic regulators, Sox9, Runx2 and Ihh, was also affected by activity of PD98059 and SB203580, to different degrees. However, influences of MAPK inhibitors on gene expression were relatively minor when not treated with TGF-beta1. In addition, gene transcription of Smad2/3 was significantly upregulated by TGF-beta1, but was regulated more subtly by treatment with MAPK inhibitors. MAPK subtypes seemed to regulate chondrogenesis with a delicate balance, interacting with the TGF-beta1/Smads signalling pathway.

  20. GSK3 inactivation is involved in mitochondrial complex IV defect in transforming growth factor (TGF) {beta}1-induced senescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Hae-Ok; Jung, Hyun-Jung; Seo, Yong-Hak; Lee, Young-Kyoung [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 443-721 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Molecular Science and Technology, The Graduate School, Ajou University, Suwon 443-721 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Sung-Chul [Department of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 443-721 (Korea, Republic of); Seong Hwang, Eun [Department of Life Science, University of Seoul, Seoul 130-743 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Gyesoon, E-mail: ypeace@ajou.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon 443-721 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Molecular Science and Technology, The Graduate School, Ajou University, Suwon 443-721 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-10

    Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF {beta}1) induces Mv1Lu cell senescence by persistently producing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) through decreased complex IV activity. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the effect of TGF {beta}1 on mitochondrial complex IV activity. TGF {beta}1 progressively phosphorylated the negative regulatory sites of both glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) {alpha} and {beta}, corresponding well to the intracellular ROS generation profile. Pre-treatment of N-acetyl cysteine, an antioxidant, did not alter this GSK3 phosphorylation (inactivation), whereas pharmacological inhibition of GSK3 by SB415286 significantly increased mitochondrial ROS, implying that GSK3 phosphorylation is an upstream event of the ROS generation. GSK3 inhibition by SB415286 decreased complex IV activity and cellular O{sub 2} consumption rate and eventually induced senescence of Mv1Lu cell. Similar results were obtained with siRNA-mediated knockdown of GSK3. Moreover, we found that GSK3 not only exists in cytosol but also in mitochondria of Mv1Lu cell and the mitochondrial GSK3 binds complex IV subunit 6b which has no electron carrier and is topologically located in the mitochondrial intermembrane space. Involvement of subunit 6b in controlling complex IV activity and overall respiration rate was proved with siRNA-mediated knockdown of subunit 6b. Finally, TGF {beta}1 treatment decreased the binding of the subunit 6b to GSK3 and subunit 6b phosphorylation. Taken together, our results suggest that GSK3 inactivation is importantly involved in TGF {beta}1-induced complex IV defects through decreasing phosphorylation of the subunit 6b, thereby contributing to senescence-associated mitochondrial ROS generation.

  1. Temporal and spatial expression of TGF-beta1 in an Achilles tendon section model after application of platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyras, Dimitrios N; Kazakos, Konstantinos; Tryfonidis, Marios; Agrogiannis, George; Botaitis, Sotirios; Kokka, Anna; Drosos, George; Tilkeridis, Konstantinos; Verettas, Dionysios

    2010-09-01

    To investigate the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on TGF-beta1 expression during tendon healing. We used 48 skeletally mature New Zealand White rabbits. 24 rabbits received the PRP, and 24 rabbits served as an untreated control group. Equal numbers of animals were sacrificed at 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th week. The surgical procedure involved a transverse incision to transect the Achilles tendon. A volume of 1ml of PRP was then injected into the tendon mass in the PRP group. Histological and immunohistochemical evaluations with an anti-TGF-beta primary antibody were performed. The pattern of expression of TGF-beta1 in the PRP group was characterized by a significant upregulation during the first 2 weeks and subsequently significant downregulation in the 3rd and 4th week in comparison with the controls. Our results suggest that PRP may affect the tendon healing process by altering the expression of TGF-beta1. Copyright (c) 2009 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Evolution of Enzymatic Activities in the Enolase Superfamily: L-Rhamnonate Dehydratase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakus,J.; Fedorov, A.; Fedorov, E.; Glaner, M.; Hubbard, B.; Delli, J.; Babbitt, P.; Almo, S.; Gerlt, J.

    2008-01-01

    The l-rhamnonate dehydratase (RhamD) function was assigned to a previously uncharacterized family in the mechanistically diverse enolase superfamily that is encoded by the genome of Escherichia coli K-12. We screened a library of acid sugars to discover that the enzyme displays a promiscuous substrate specificity: l-rhamnonate (6-deoxy-l-mannonate) has the 'best' kinetic constants, with l-mannonate, l-lyxonate, and d-gulonate dehydrated less efficiently. Crystal structures of the RhamDs from both E. coli K-12 and Salmonella typhimurium LT2 (95% sequence identity) were obtained in the presence of Mg2+; the structure of the RhamD from S. typhimurium was also obtained in the presence of 3-deoxy-l-rhamnonate (obtained by reduction of the product with NaBH4). Like other members of the enolase superfamily, RhamD contains an N-terminal a + {beta} capping domain and a C-terminal ({beta}/a)7{beta}-barrel (modified TIM-barrel) catalytic domain with the active site located at the interface between the two domains. In contrast to other members, the specificity-determining '20s loop' in the capping domain is extended in length and the '50s loop' is truncated. The ligands for the Mg2+ are Asp 226, Glu 252 and Glu 280 located at the ends of the third, fourth and fifth {beta}-strands, respectively. The active site of RhamD contains a His 329-Asp 302 dyad at the ends of the seventh and sixth {beta}-strands, respectively, with His 329 positioned to function as the general base responsible for abstraction of the C2 proton of l-rhamnonate to form a Mg2+-stabilized enediolate intermediate. However, the active site does not contain other acid/base catalysts that have been implicated in the reactions catalyzed by other members of the MR subgroup of the enolase superfamily. Based on the structure of the liganded complex, His 329 also is expected to function as the general acid that both facilitates departure of the 3-OH group in a syn-dehydration reaction and

  3. Proteomics computational analyses suggest that baculovirus GP64 superfamily proteins are class III penetrenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Robert F

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the Baculoviridae encode two types of proteins that mediate virus:cell membrane fusion and penetration into the host cell. Alignments of primary amino acid sequences indicate that baculovirus fusion proteins of group I nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPV form the GP64 superfamily. The structure of these viral penetrenes has not been determined. The GP64 superfamily includes the glycoprotein (GP encoded by members of the Thogotovirus genus of the Orthomyxoviridae. The entry proteins of other baculoviruses, group II NPV and granuloviruses, are class I penetrenes. Results Class III penetrenes encoded by members of the Rhabdoviridae and Herpesviridae have an internal fusion domain comprised of beta sheets, other beta sheet domains, an extended alpha helical domain, a membrane proximal stem domain and a carboxyl terminal anchor. Similar sequences and structural/functional motifs that characterize class III penetrenes are located collinearly in GP64 of group I baculoviruses and related glycoproteins encoded by thogotoviruses. Structural models based on a prototypic class III penetrene, vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSV G, were established for Thogoto virus (THOV GP and Autographa california multiple NPV (AcMNPV GP64 demonstrating feasible cysteine linkages. Glycosylation sites in THOV GP and AcMNPV GP64 appear in similar model locations to the two glycosylation sites of VSV G. Conclusion These results suggest that proteins in the GP64 superfamily are class III penetrenes.

  4. Molecular role of TGF-beta, secreted from a new type of CD4+ suppressor T cell, NY4.2, in the prevention of autoimmune IDDM in NOD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, H S; Jun, H S; Utsugi, T; Yoon, J W

    1997-06-01

    A new type of CD4+ T cell clone (NY4.2) isolated from pancreatic islet-infiltrated lymphocytes of acutely diabetic non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice prevents the development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in NOD mice, as well as the recurrence of autoimmune diabetes in syngeneic islet-transplanted NOD mice. It has been demonstrated that the cytokine TGF-beta, secreted from the cells of this clone, is the substance which prevents autoimmune IDDM. This investigation was initiated to determine the molecular role TGF-beta plays in the prevention of autoimmune IDDM by determining its effect on IL-2-induced signal transduction in Con A-activated NOD mouse splenocytes and HT-2 cells. First, we determined whether TGF-beta, secreted from NY4.2 T cells, inhibits IL-2-dependent T cell proliferation in HT-2 cells (IL-2-dependent T cell line) and NOD splenocytes. We found that TGF-beta suppresses IL-2-dependent T cell proliferation. Second, we determined whether TGF-beta inhibits the activation of Janus kinases (JAKs), as well as signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) proteins, involved in an IL-2-induced signalling pathway that normally leads to the proliferation of T cells. We found that TGF-beta inhibited tyrosine phosphorylation of JAK1, JAK3, STAT3 and STAT5 in Con A blasts from NOD splenocytes and HT-2 cells. Third, we examined whether TGF-beta inhibits the cooperation between STAT proteins and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), especially extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2). We found that TGF-beta inhibited the association of STAT3 and STAT5 with ERK2 in Con A blasts from NOD splenocytes and HT-2 cells. On the basis of these observations, we conclude that TGF-beta may interfere with signal transduction via inhibition of the IL-2-induced JAK/STAT pathway and inhibition of the association of STAT proteins with ERK2 in T cells from NOD splenocytes, resulting in the inhibition of IL-2-dependent T cell proliferation. TGF-beta

  5. SNP analyses of growth factor genes EGF, TGF{beta}-1, and HGF reveal haplotypic association of EGF with autism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, Takao; Thanseem, Ismail; Kawai, Masayoshi; Sekine, Yoshimoto [Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Anitha, Ayyappan; Suda, Shiro [Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Yamada, Kazuo [Laboratory of Molecular Psychiatry, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Saitama (Japan); Tsujii, Masatsugu [Faculty of Sociology, Chukyo University, Toyota, Aichi (Japan); [The Osaka-Hamamatsu Joint Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan); Iwayama, Yoshimi; Hattori, Eiji; Toyota, Tomoko; Yoshikawa, Takeo [Laboratory of Molecular Psychiatry, RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Saitama (Japan); Miyachi, Taishi; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Sugihara, Gen-ichi; Matsuzaki, Hideo [The Osaka-Hamamatsu Joint Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan); Iwata, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Katsuaki [Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); Mori, Norio [Department of Psychiatry and Neurology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu 431-3192 (Japan); [The Osaka-Hamamatsu Joint Research Center for Child Mental Development, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University (Japan); Ouchi, Yasuomi [The Osaka-Hamamatsu Joint Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan); [The Positron Medical Center, Hamamatsu Medical Center, Hamamatsu (Japan); Sugiyama, Toshiro [Aichi Children' s Health and Medical Center, Obu, Aichi (Japan); Takei, Nori [The Osaka-Hamamatsu Joint Research Center for Child Mental Development, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu (Japan)

    2007-09-07

    Autism is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder diagnosed in early childhood. Growth factors have been found to play a key role in the cellular differentiation and proliferation of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is detected in several regions of the developing and adult brain, where, it enhances the differentiation, maturation, and survival of a variety of neurons. Transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF{beta}) isoforms play an important role in neuronal survival, and the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) has been shown to exhibit neurotrophic activity. We examined the association of EGF, TGF{beta}1, and HGF genes with autism, in a trio association study, using DNA samples from families recruited to the Autism Genetic Resource Exchange; 252 trios with a male offspring scored for autism were selected for the study. Transmission disequilibrium test revealed significant haplotypic association of EGF with autism. No significant SNP or haplotypic associations were observed for TGF{beta}1 or HGF. Given the role of EGF in brain and neuronal development, we suggest a possible role of EGF in the pathogenesis of autism.

  6. Regulatory CD8{sup +} T cells induced by exposure to all-trans retinoic acid and TGF-{beta} suppress autoimmune diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishi, Minoru [Department of Internal and Geriatric Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Yasuda, Hisafumi, E-mail: yasuda@med.kobe-u.ac.jp [Department of Internal and Geriatric Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan); Abe, Yasuhisa; Sasaki, Hirotomo; Shimizu, Mami; Arai, Takashi; Okumachi, Yasuyo; Moriyama, Hiroaki; Hara, Kenta; Yokono, Koichi; Nagata, Masao [Department of Internal and Geriatric Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1 Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017 (Japan)

    2010-03-26

    Antigen-specific regulatory CD4{sup +} T cells have been described but there are few reports on regulatory CD8{sup +} T cells. We generated islet-specific glucose-6-phosphatase catalytic subunit-related protein (IGRP)-specific regulatory CD8{sup +} T cells from 8.3-NOD transgenic mice. CD8{sup +} T cells from 8.3-NOD splenocytes were cultured with IGRP, splenic dendritic cells (SpDCs), TGF-{beta}, and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) for 5 days. CD8{sup +} T cells cultured with either IGRP alone or IGRP and SpDCs in the absence of TGF-{beta} and ATRA had low Foxp3{sup +} expression (1.7 {+-} 0.9% and 3.2 {+-} 4.5%, respectively). In contrast, CD8{sup +} T cells induced by exposure to IGRP, SpDCs, TGF-{beta}, and ATRA showed the highest expression of Foxp3{sup +} in IGRP-reactive CD8{sup +} T cells (36.1 {+-} 10.6%), which was approximately 40-fold increase compared with that before induction culture. CD25 expression on CD8{sup +} T cells cultured with IGRP, SpDCs, TGF-{beta}, and ATRA was only 7.42%, whereas CD103 expression was greater than 90%. These CD8{sup +} T cells suppressed the proliferation of diabetogenic CD8{sup +} T cells from 8.3-NOD splenocytes in vitro and completely prevented diabetes onset in NOD-scid mice in cotransfer experiments with diabetogenic splenocytes from NOD mice in vivo. Here we show that exposure to ATRA and TGF-{beta} induces CD8{sup +}Foxp3{sup +} T cells ex vivo, which suppress diabetogenic T cells in vitro and in vivo.

  7. The ATPase of the phi29 DNA packaging motor is a member of the hexameric AAA+ superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Chad; De Donatis, Gian Marco; Fang, Huaming; Guo, Peixuan

    2013-08-15

    The AAA+ superfamily of proteins is a class of motor ATPases performing a wide range of functions that typically exist as hexamers. The ATPase of phi29 DNA packaging motor has long been a subject of debate in terms of stoichiometry and mechanism of action. Here, we confirmed the stoichiometry of phi29 motor ATPase to be a hexamer and provide data suggesting that the phi29 motor ATPase is a member of the classical hexameric AAA+ superfamily. Native PAGE, EMSA, capillary electrophoresis, ATP titration, and binomial distribution assay show that the ATPase is a hexamer. Mutations in the known Walker motifs of the ATPase validated our previous assumptions that the protein exists as another member of this AAA+ superfamily. Our data also supports the finding that the phi29 DNA packaging motor uses a revolution mechanism without rotation or coiling (Schwartz et al., this issue). Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential effects of BMP-2 and TGF-beta1 on chondrogenic differentiation of adipose derived stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlhorn, A T; Niemeyer, P; Kaschte, K

    2007-01-01

    transcriptional regulation of Dlx-5, Msx-2 and Runx-2. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Encapsulated ASC were cultured for 14 days in medium containing TGF-beta1 and/or BMP-2. mRNA expression of the extracellular matrix molecules col2a1, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein, col10a1, alkaline phosphatase (AP......) and transcription factors Msx-2, Dlx-5 and Runx-2 was analysed. Release of glycosaminoglycans, collagen types II and X into the extracellular matrix was demonstrated. RESULTS: BMP-2 and TGF-beta1 induced a chondrogenic phenotype in ASC. Combined growth factor treatment had a synergistic effect on col10a1...

  9. The I kappa B kinase inhibitor ACHP strongly attenuates TGF beta 1-induced myofibroblast formation and collagen synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mia, Masum M.; Bank, Ruud A.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of a collagen-rich extracellular matrix (ECM) by myofibroblasts is a characteristic feature of fibrosis, a pathological state leading to serious organ dysfunction. Transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF beta 1) is a strong inducer of myofibroblast formation and subsequent

  10. Research of TGF-beta1 Inducing Lung Adencarcinoma PC9 Cells to Mesenchymal Cells Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng CHEN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective It has been proven that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT not only correlated with embryonic development but also could promote tumor invasion and metastasis. Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1 has been identified as the main inducer of tumor EMT. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of TGF-β1 on EMT and PI3K/AKT signaling pathway in lung adencarcinoma PC9 cells. Methods Cultured PC9 cells were treated with different concentrations of TGF-β1 for 48 h. The morphological changes were observed under phase-contrast microscopy; EMT relative marker protein changes were assessed by Western blot and immunoflurescence staining. In addition, the expression of AKT and P-AKT were also measured by Western blot. Results The data showed that TGF-β1 could induce PC9 morphological alteration from epithelial to mesenchymal and upregulate the expression of mesenchymal maker protein Fibronectin. Obviously, the expression of P-AKT was downregulated by TGF-β1 treatment for 48 h. Conclusion TGF-β1 might induce EMT of PC9 cells , accompanied by the changes of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.

  11. Overexpression of TGF-β1 enhances chondrogenic differentiation and proliferation of human synovium-derived stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Il; Ryu, Jae-Sung; Yeo, Jee Eun; Choi, Yun Jin; Kim, Yong Sang [Center for Stem Cell and Arthritis Research, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Yonsei Sarang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Kinarm [Center for Stem Cell Research, Institute of Advanced Biomedical Science, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Yong-Gon, E-mail: yonseranglab@daum.net [Center for Stem Cell and Arthritis Research, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Yonsei Sarang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Continuous TGF-β1 overexpression in hSD-MSCs did not influence their phenotypes. • Retroviral-mediated transduction of TGFB1 in hSD-MSCs enhances cell proliferation. • TGF-β1 overexpression did not effect to adipo- or osteogenic potential of hSD-MSCs. • TGF-β1 overexpression in hSD-MSCs could stimulate and accelerate chondrogenesis. - Abstract: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily proteins play a critical role in proliferation, differentiation, and other functions of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). During chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs, TGF-β up-regulates chondrogenic gene expression by enhancing the expression of the transcription factor SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box9 (Sox9). In this study, we investigated the effect of continuous TGF-β1 overexpression in human synovium-derived MSCs (hSD-MSCs) on immunophenotype, differentiation potential, and proliferation rate. hSD-MSCs were transduced with recombinant retroviruses (rRV) encoding TGF-β1. The results revealed that continuous overexpression of TGF-β1 did not affect their phenotype as evidenced by flow cytometry and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). In addition, continuous TGF-β1 overexpression strongly enhanced cell proliferation of hSD-MSCs compared to the control groups. Also, induction of chondrogenesis was more effective in rRV-TGFB-transduced hSD-MSCs as shown by RT-PCR for chondrogenic markers, toluidine blue staining and glycosaminoglycan (GAG)/DNA ratio. Our data suggest that overexpression of TGF-β1 positively enhances the proliferation and chondrogenic potential of hSD-MSCs.

  12. Overexpression of TGF-β1 enhances chondrogenic differentiation and proliferation of human synovium-derived stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Il; Ryu, Jae-Sung; Yeo, Jee Eun; Choi, Yun Jin; Kim, Yong Sang; Ko, Kinarm; Koh, Yong-Gon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Continuous TGF-β1 overexpression in hSD-MSCs did not influence their phenotypes. • Retroviral-mediated transduction of TGFB1 in hSD-MSCs enhances cell proliferation. • TGF-β1 overexpression did not effect to adipo- or osteogenic potential of hSD-MSCs. • TGF-β1 overexpression in hSD-MSCs could stimulate and accelerate chondrogenesis. - Abstract: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily proteins play a critical role in proliferation, differentiation, and other functions of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). During chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs, TGF-β up-regulates chondrogenic gene expression by enhancing the expression of the transcription factor SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box9 (Sox9). In this study, we investigated the effect of continuous TGF-β1 overexpression in human synovium-derived MSCs (hSD-MSCs) on immunophenotype, differentiation potential, and proliferation rate. hSD-MSCs were transduced with recombinant retroviruses (rRV) encoding TGF-β1. The results revealed that continuous overexpression of TGF-β1 did not affect their phenotype as evidenced by flow cytometry and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). In addition, continuous TGF-β1 overexpression strongly enhanced cell proliferation of hSD-MSCs compared to the control groups. Also, induction of chondrogenesis was more effective in rRV-TGFB-transduced hSD-MSCs as shown by RT-PCR for chondrogenic markers, toluidine blue staining and glycosaminoglycan (GAG)/DNA ratio. Our data suggest that overexpression of TGF-β1 positively enhances the proliferation and chondrogenic potential of hSD-MSCs

  13. Activated type I TGFbeta receptor (Alk5) kinase confers enhancedsurvival to mammary epithelial cells and accelerates mammary tumorprogression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muraoka-Cook, Rebecca S.; Shin, Incheol; Yi, Jae Youn; Easterly,Evangeline; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Yingling, Jonathan M.; Zent, Roy; Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2005-01-02

    The transforming growth factor-betas (TGF{beta}s) are members of a large superfamily of pleiotropic cytokines that also includes the activins and the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Members of the TGF{beta} family regulate complex physiological processes such cell proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, motility, and cell death, among others (Massague, 1998). Dysregulation of TGF{beta} signaling contributes to several pathological processes including cancer, fibrosis, and auto-immune disorders (Massague et al., 2000). The TGF{beta}s elicit their biological effects by binding to type II and type I transmembrane receptor serine-threonine kinases (T{beta}RII and T{beta}RI) which, in turn, phosphorylated Smad 2 and Smad 3. Phosphorylated Smad 2/3 associate with Smad 4 and, as a heteromeric complex, translocate to the nucleus where they regulate gene transcription. The inhibitory Smad7 down regulates TGF{beta} signaling by binding to activated T{beta}RI and interfering with its ability to phosphorylate Smad 2/3 (Derynck and Zhang, 2003; Shi and Massague, 2003). Signaling is also regulated by Smad proteolysis. TGF{beta} receptor-mediated activation results in multi-ubiquitination of Smad 2 in the nucleus and subsequent degradation of Smad 2 by the proteasome (Lo and Massague, 1999). Activation of TGF{beta} receptors also induces mobilization of a Smad 7-Smurf complex from the nucleus to the cytoplasm; this complex recognizes the activated receptors and mediates their ubiquitination and internalization via caveolin-rich vesicles, leading to termination of TGF{beta} signaling (Di Guglielmo et al., 2003). Other signal transducers/pathways have been implicated in TGF{beta} actions. These include the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (Jnk), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), protein phosphatase PP2A, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), and the family of Rho GTPases [reviewed in

  14. Cloning and primary immunological study of TGF-β1 and its receptors TβR I /TβR II in tilapia(Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xu-liang; Ma, Tai-yang; Wu, Jin-ying; Yi, Li-yuan; Wang, Jing-yuan; Gao, Xiao-ke; Li, Wen-sheng

    2015-07-01

    The transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) superfamily plays critical roles in tumor suppression, cell proliferation and differentiation, tissue morphogenesis, lineage determination, cell migration and apoptosis. Recently, TGF-β1, one important member of TGFsuperfamily, is suggested as an immune regulator in the teleost. In this study, we cloned the cDNAs of TGF-β1 and its receptors, TβR I and TβR II (including three isoforms) from tilapia (Genbank accession numbers: KP754231- KP754235). A tissue distribution profile analysis indicated that TGF-β1 was highly expressed in the head kidney, gill, spleen, kidney and PBLs (peripheral blood leukocytes); TβR I only showed considerable expression in the liver; and TβR II-2 was highly expressed in the kidney, gill, liver, head kidney and heart. We determined that the mRNA expressions of TGF-β and TβR I /TβR II-2 were significantly increased in tilapia head kidney and spleen leukocytes by the stimulation of Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or Poly I: C. We also examined their expressions in the spleen and head kidney of tilapia after IP injection of streptococcus agalactiae. The results showed that the mRNA expressions of these three genes all increased in the head kidney as early as 6 h post infection, and in the spleen 3 d post infection. In addition, the protein level of TGF-β1 was also up-regulated in the head kidney and the spleen after infection. Taken together, our data indicate that the TGF-β1-TβR I /TβR II-2 system functions potentially in tilapia immune system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. TGF-β's delay skeletal muscle progenitor cell differentiation in an isoform-independent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schabort, Elske J.; Merwe, Mathilde van der; Loos, Benjamin; Moore, Frances P.; Niesler, Carola U.

    2009-01-01

    Satellite cells are a quiescent heterogenous population of mononuclear stem and progenitor cells which, once activated, differentiate into myotubes and facilitate skeletal muscle repair or growth. The Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily members are elevated post-injury and their importance in the regulation of myogenesis and wound healing has been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. Most studies suggest a negative role for TGF-β on satellite cell differentiation. However, none have compared the effect of these three isoforms on myogenesis in vitro. This is despite known isoform-specific effects of TGF-β1, -β2 and -β3 on wound repair in other tissues. In the current study we compared the effect of TGF-β1, -β2 and -β3 on proliferation and differentiation of the C2C12 myoblast cell-line. We found that, irrespective of the isoform, TGF-β increased proliferation of C2C12 cells by changing the cellular localisation of PCNA to promote cell division and prevent cell cycle exit. Concomitantly, TGF-β1, -β2 and -β3 delayed myogenic commitment by increasing MyoD degradation and decreasing myogenin expression. Terminal differentiation, as measured by a decrease in myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression, was also delayed. These results demonstrate that TGF-β promotes proliferation and delays differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts in an isoform-independent manner

  16. Regulation of the Bioavailability of TGF-β and TGF-β-Related Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Ian B.; Rifkin, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    The bioavailability of members of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family is controlled by a number of mechanisms. Bona fide TGF-β is sequestered into the matrix in a latent state and must be activated before it can bind to its receptors. Here, we review the molecules and mechanisms that regulate the bioavailability of TGF-β and compare these mechanisms with those used to regulate other TGF-β family members. We also assess the physiological significance of various latent TGF-β activators, as well as other extracellular modulators of TGF-β family signaling, by examining the available in vivo data from knockout mouse models and other biological systems. PMID:27252363

  17. Molecular analysis of the TGF-beta controlled gene expression program in chicken embryo dermal myofibroblasts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kosla, Jan; Dvořák, Michal; Čermák, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 513, č. 1 (2013), s. 90-100 ISSN 0378-1119 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200520801 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : microarray * myofibroblastic phenotype * inhibition of TGF-beta signaling Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.082, year: 2013

  18. Toward a better understanding of the interaction between TGF-β family members and their ALK receptors

    KAUST Repository

    Romano, Valentina; Raimondo, Domenico; Calvanese, Luisa; D’ Auria, Gabriella; Tramontano, Anna; Falcigno, Lucia

    2012-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) proteins are a family of structurally related extracellular proteins that trigger their signaling functions through interaction with the extracellular domains of their cognate serine/threonine kinase receptors. The specificity of TGF-β/receptor binding is complex and gives rise to multiple functional roles. Additionally, it is not completely understood at the atomic level. Here, we use the most reliable computational methods currently available to study systems involving activin-like kinase (ALK) receptors ALK4 and ALK7 and their multiple TGF-β ligands. We built models for all these proteins and their complexes for which experimental structures are not available. By analyzing the surfaces of interaction in six different TGF-β/ALK complexes we could infer which are the structural distinctive features of the ligand-receptor binding mode. Furthermore, this study allowed us to rationalize why binding of the growth factors GDF3 and Nodal to the ALK4 receptor requires the Cripto co-factor, whilst binding to the ALK7 receptor does not. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

  19. Toward a better understanding of the interaction between TGF-β family members and their ALK receptors

    KAUST Repository

    Romano, Valentina

    2012-02-22

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) proteins are a family of structurally related extracellular proteins that trigger their signaling functions through interaction with the extracellular domains of their cognate serine/threonine kinase receptors. The specificity of TGF-β/receptor binding is complex and gives rise to multiple functional roles. Additionally, it is not completely understood at the atomic level. Here, we use the most reliable computational methods currently available to study systems involving activin-like kinase (ALK) receptors ALK4 and ALK7 and their multiple TGF-β ligands. We built models for all these proteins and their complexes for which experimental structures are not available. By analyzing the surfaces of interaction in six different TGF-β/ALK complexes we could infer which are the structural distinctive features of the ligand-receptor binding mode. Furthermore, this study allowed us to rationalize why binding of the growth factors GDF3 and Nodal to the ALK4 receptor requires the Cripto co-factor, whilst binding to the ALK7 receptor does not. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

  20. Collagen V-induced nasal tolerance downregulates pulmonary collagen mRNA gene and TGF-beta expression in experimental systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parra Edwin R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate collagen deposition, mRNA collagen synthesis and TGF-beta expression in the lung tissue in an experimental model of scleroderma after collagen V-induced nasal tolerance. Methods Female New Zealand rabbits (N = 12 were immunized with 1 mg/ml of collagen V in Freund's adjuvant (IM. After 150 days, six immunized animals were tolerated by nasal administration of collagen V (25 μg/day (IM-TOL daily for 60 days. The collagen content was determined by morphometry, and mRNA expressions of types I, III and V collagen were determined by Real-time PCR. The TGF-beta expression was evaluated by immunostaining and quantified by point counting methods. To statistic analysis ANOVA with Bonferroni test were employed for multiple comparison when appropriate and the level of significance was determined to be p Results IM-TOL, when compared to IM, showed significant reduction in total collagen content around the vessels (0.371 ± 0.118 vs. 0.874 ± 0.282, p p p = 0.026. The lung tissue of IM-TOL, when compared to IM, showed decreased immunostaining of types I, III and V collagen, reduced mRNA expression of types I (0.10 ± 0.07 vs. 1.0 ± 0.528, p = 0.002 and V (1.12 ± 0.42 vs. 4.74 ± 2.25, p = 0.009 collagen, in addition to decreased TGF-beta expression (p Conclusions Collagen V-induced nasal tolerance in the experimental model of SSc regulated the pulmonary remodeling process, inhibiting collagen deposition and collagen I and V mRNA synthesis. Additionally, it decreased TGF-beta expression, suggesting a promising therapeutic option for scleroderma treatment.

  1. Phosphatidylcholine Transfer Protein Interacts with Thioesterase Superfamily Member 2 to Attenuate Insulin Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Ersoy, Baran A.; Tarun, Akansha; D’Aquino, Katharine; Hancer, Nancy J.; Ukomadu, Chinweike; White, Morris F.; Michel, Thomas; Manning, Brendan D.; Cohen, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP) is a phospholipid-binding protein that is enriched in liver and that interacts with thioesterase superfamily member 2 (THEM2). Mice lacking either protein exhibit improved hepatic glucose homeostasis and are resistant to diet-induced diabetes. Insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) are key effectors of insulin signaling, which is attenuated in diabetes. We found that PC-TP inhibited IRS2, as evidenc...

  2. TGF-Beta Gene Polymorphisms in Food Allergic versus Non-Food Allergic Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    esophageal dysfunction (i.e. dysphagia, anorexia, early satiety, failure to thrive) in whom gastro - esophageal reflux disease has been ruled out by...W81XWH-11-1-0741 TITLE: TGF-Beta Gene Polymorphisms in Food Allergic versus Non-Food Allergic Eosinophilic Esophagitis PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...versus Non-Food Allergic Eosinophilic Esophagitis 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0741 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) David Broide MB

  3. Effective myofibroblast dedifferentiation by concomitant inhibition of TGF-beta signaling and perturbation of MAPK signaling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kosla, Jan; Dvořáková, Marta; Dvořák, Michal; Čermák, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 12 (2013), s. 363-373 ISSN 0171-9335 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200520801 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : PDGFB * Ha-Ras(G12V) * EGR4 * TGF-beta * Myofibroblast * FOXG1 * Microarrays Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.699, year: 2013

  4. Increase Concentration of Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β in Breast Milk of Mothers With Psychological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamak Shariat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown an imbalance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in depression and anxiety disorders. However, less attention has been paid to the role of cytokines in psychological disorder in mothers who breastfeed. This study looks at whether concentration levels of TGF-β2 are altered in anxious and depressive breastfeeding mothers. This study checked the concentration level of TGF-B2 in relation with psychological symptoms on 110 breastfeeding mothers; based on random sampling method with using of Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ and Spielberger Stress Scale (STAI in 2015 also TGF-β2 was measured in breast milk using ELISA. We used of Pearson Correlation Method, independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA to analyze the data. Psychological symptoms (Anxiety and depression showed positive correlation with TGF-Beta level in which relationships were significant (P=0.01. Psychological problems may be uniquely associated with the level of TGF-β in breast milk. More attention should be paid to the mental health of mothers during breastfeeding, and more research needs to be done in this subject to clarify the relationship between psychological variables with the level of TGF-β in breast milk.

  5. Axin and GSK3- control Smad3 protein stability and modulate TGF- signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xing; Ramirez, Alejandro; Waddell, David S; Li, Zhizhong; Liu, Xuedong; Wang, Xiao-Fan

    2008-01-01

    The broad range of biological responses elicited by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in various types of tissues and cells is mainly determined by the expression level and activity of the effector proteins Smad2 and Smad3. It is not fully understood how the baseline properties of Smad3 are regulated, although this molecule is in complex with many other proteins at the steady state. Here we show that nonactivated Smad3, but not Smad2, undergoes proteasome-dependent degradation due to the concerted action of the scaffolding protein Axin and its associated kinase, glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta (GSK3-beta). Smad3 physically interacts with Axin and GSK3-beta only in the absence of TGF-beta. Reduction in the expression or activity of Axin/GSK3-beta leads to increased Smad3 stability and transcriptional activity without affecting TGF-beta receptors or Smad2, whereas overexpression of these proteins promotes Smad3 basal degradation and desensitizes cells to TGF-beta. Mechanistically, Axin facilitates GSK3-beta-mediated phosphorylation of Smad3 at Thr66, which triggers Smad3 ubiquitination and degradation. Thr66 mutants of Smad3 show altered protein stability and hence transcriptional activity. These results indicate that the steady-state stability of Smad3 is an important determinant of cellular sensitivity to TGF-beta, and suggest a new function of the Axin/GSK3-beta complex in modulating critical TGF-beta/Smad3-regulated processes during development and tumor progression.

  6. HIV-1 stimulates nuclear entry of amyloid beta via dynamin dependent EEA1 and TGF-β/Smad signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    András, Ibolya E.; Toborek, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Clinical evidence indicates increased amyloid deposition in HIV-1-infected brains, which contributes to neurocognitive dysfunction in infected patients. Here we show that HIV-1 exposure stimulates amyloid beta (Aβ) nuclear entry in human brain endothelial cells (HBMEC), the main component of the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Treatment with HIV-1 and/or Aβ resulted in concurrent increase in early endosomal antigen-1 (EEA1), Smad, and phosphorylated Smad (pSmad) in nuclear fraction of HBMEC. A series of inhibition and silencing studies indicated that Smad and EEA1 closely interact by influencing their own nuclear entry; the effect that was attenuated by dynasore, a blocker of GTP-ase activity of dynamin. Importantly, inhibition of dynamin, EEA1, or TGF-β/Smad effectively attenuated HIV-1-induced Aβ accumulation in the nuclei of HBMEC. The present study indicates that nuclear uptake of Aβ involves the dynamin-dependent EEA1 and TGF-β/Smad signaling pathways. These results identify potential novel targets to protect against HIV-1-associated dysregulation of amyloid processes at the BBB level. - Highlights: • HIV-1 induces nuclear accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) in brain endothelial cells. • EEA-1 and TGF-Β/Smad act in concert to regulate nuclear entry of Aβ. • Dynamin appropriates the EEA-1 and TGF-Β/Smad signaling. • Dynamin serves as a master regulator of HIV-1-induced nuclear accumulation of Aβ

  7. HIV-1 stimulates nuclear entry of amyloid beta via dynamin dependent EEA1 and TGF-β/Smad signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    András, Ibolya E., E-mail: iandras@med.miami; Toborek, Michal, E-mail: mtoborek@med.miami.edu

    2014-04-15

    Clinical evidence indicates increased amyloid deposition in HIV-1-infected brains, which contributes to neurocognitive dysfunction in infected patients. Here we show that HIV-1 exposure stimulates amyloid beta (Aβ) nuclear entry in human brain endothelial cells (HBMEC), the main component of the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Treatment with HIV-1 and/or Aβ resulted in concurrent increase in early endosomal antigen-1 (EEA1), Smad, and phosphorylated Smad (pSmad) in nuclear fraction of HBMEC. A series of inhibition and silencing studies indicated that Smad and EEA1 closely interact by influencing their own nuclear entry; the effect that was attenuated by dynasore, a blocker of GTP-ase activity of dynamin. Importantly, inhibition of dynamin, EEA1, or TGF-β/Smad effectively attenuated HIV-1-induced Aβ accumulation in the nuclei of HBMEC. The present study indicates that nuclear uptake of Aβ involves the dynamin-dependent EEA1 and TGF-β/Smad signaling pathways. These results identify potential novel targets to protect against HIV-1-associated dysregulation of amyloid processes at the BBB level. - Highlights: • HIV-1 induces nuclear accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) in brain endothelial cells. • EEA-1 and TGF-Β/Smad act in concert to regulate nuclear entry of Aβ. • Dynamin appropriates the EEA-1 and TGF-Β/Smad signaling. • Dynamin serves as a master regulator of HIV-1-induced nuclear accumulation of Aβ.

  8. Proteomic Profiling of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Responses to Mechanical Strain and TGF-B1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurpinski, Kyle; Chu, Julia; Wang, Daojing; Li, Song

    2009-10-12

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a potential source of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) for constructing tissue-engineered vascular grafts. However, the details of how specific combinations of vascular microenvironmental factors regulate MSCs are not well understood. Previous studies have suggested that both mechanical stimulation with uniaxial cyclic strain and chemical stimulation with transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF-{beta}1) can induce smooth muscle markers in MSCs. In this study, we investigated the combined effects of uniaxial cyclic strain and TGF-{beta}1 stimulation on MSCs. By using a proteomic analysis, we found differential regulation of several proteins and genes, such as the up-regulation of TGF-{beta}1-induced protein ig-h3 (BGH3) protein levels by TGF-{beta}1 and up-regulation of calponin 3 protein level by cyclic strain. At the gene expression level, BGH3 was induced by TGF-{beta}1, but calponin 3 was not significantly regulated by mechanical strain or TGF-{beta}1, which was in contrast to the synergistic up-regulation of calponin 1 gene expression by cyclic strain and TGF-{beta}1. Further experiments with cycloheximide treatment suggested that the up-regulation of calponin 3 by cyclic strain was at post-transcriptional level. The results in this study suggest that both mechanical stimulation and TGF-{beta}1 signaling play unique and important roles in the regulation of MSCs at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, and that a precise combination of microenvironmental cues may promote MSC differentiation.

  9. TGF-beta1 modulates matrix metalloproteinase-13 expression in hepatic stellate cells by complex mechanisms involving p38MAPK, PI3-kinase, AKT, and p70S6k.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Carmen G; Hernández-Nazara, Zamira H; Domínguez Rosales, José-Alfredo; Morris, Elena R; Rincón, Ana Rosa; Rivas-Estilla, Ana María; Esteban-Gamboa, Andrés; Rojkind, Marcos

    2004-11-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), the main cytokine involved in liver fibrogenesis, induces expression of the type I collagen genes in hepatic stellate cells by a transcriptional mechanism, which is hydrogen peroxide and de novo protein synthesis dependent. Our recent studies have revealed that expression of type I collagen and matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13) mRNAs in hepatic stellate cells is reciprocally modulated. Because TGF-beta1 induces a transient elevation of alpha1(I) collagen mRNA, we investigated whether this cytokine was able to induce the expression of MMP-13 mRNA during the downfall of the alpha1(I) collagen mRNA. In the present study, we report that TGF-beta1 induces a rapid decline in steady-state levels of MMP-13 mRNA at the time that it induces the expression of alpha1(I) collagen mRNA. This change in MMP-13 mRNA expression occurs within the first 6 h postcytokine administration and is accompanied by a twofold increase in gene transcription and a fivefold decrease in mRNA half-life. This is followed by increased expression of MMP-13 mRNA, which reaches maximal values by 48 h. Our results also show that this TGF-beta1-mediated effect is de novo protein synthesis-dependent and requires the activity of p38MAPK, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, AKT, and p70(S6k). Altogether, our data suggest that regulation of MMP-13 by TGF-beta1 is a complex process involving transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms.

  10. The aldo-keto reductase superfamily homepage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyndman, David; Bauman, David R; Heredia, Vladi V; Penning, Trevor M

    2003-02-01

    The aldo-keto reductases (AKRs) are one of the three enzyme superfamilies that perform oxidoreduction on a wide variety of natural and foreign substrates. A systematic nomenclature for the AKR superfamily was adopted in 1996 and was updated in September 2000 (visit www.med.upenn.edu/akr). Investigators have been diligent in submitting sequences of functional proteins to the Web site. With the new additions, the superfamily contains 114 proteins expressed in prokaryotes and eukaryotes that are distributed over 14 families (AKR1-AKR14). The AKR1 family contains the aldose reductases, the aldehyde reductases, the hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases and steroid 5beta-reductases, and is the largest. Other families of interest include AKR6, which includes potassium channel beta-subunits, and AKR7 the aflatoxin aldehyde reductases. Two new families include AKR13 (yeast aldose reductase) and AKR14 (Escherichia coli aldehyde reductase). Crystal structures of many AKRs and their complexes with ligands are available in the PDB and accessible through the Web site. Each structure has the characteristic (alpha/beta)(8)-barrel motif of the superfamily, a conserved cofactor binding site and a catalytic tetrad, and variable loop structures that define substrate specificity. Although the majority of AKRs are monomeric proteins of about 320 amino acids in length, the AKR2, AKR6 and AKR7 family may form multimers. To expand the nomenclature to accommodate multimers, we recommend that the composition and stoichiometry be listed. For example, AKR7A1:AKR7A4 (1:3) would designate a tetramer of the composition indicated. The current nomenclature is recognized by the Human Genome Project (HUGO) and the Web site provides a link to genomic information including chromosomal localization, gene boundaries, human ESTs and SNPs and much more.

  11. Phylogenomic analysis of the GIY-YIG nuclease superfamily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bujnicki Janusz M

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The GIY-YIG domain was initially identified in homing endonucleases and later in other selfish mobile genetic elements (including restriction enzymes and non-LTR retrotransposons and in enzymes involved in DNA repair and recombination. However, to date no systematic search for novel members of the GIY-YIG superfamily or comparative analysis of these enzymes has been reported. Results We carried out database searches to identify all members of known GIY-YIG nuclease families. Multiple sequence alignments together with predicted secondary structures of identified families were represented as Hidden Markov Models (HMM and compared by the HHsearch method to the uncharacterized protein families gathered in the COG, KOG, and PFAM databases. This analysis allowed for extending the GIY-YIG superfamily to include members of COG3680 and a number of proteins not classified in COGs and to predict that these proteins may function as nucleases, potentially involved in DNA recombination and/or repair. Finally, all old and new members of the GIY-YIG superfamily were compared and analyzed to infer the phylogenetic tree. Conclusion An evolutionary classification of the GIY-YIG superfamily is presented for the very first time, along with the structural annotation of all (subfamilies. It provides a comprehensive picture of sequence-structure-function relationships in this superfamily of nucleases, which will help to design experiments to study the mechanism of action of known members (especially the uncharacterized ones and will facilitate the prediction of function for the newly discovered ones.

  12. Maternal breast milk transforming growth factor beta and feeding intolerance in preterm infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Brandy L.; Jilling, Tamas; Lapin, Brittany; Maheshwari, Akhil; Caplan, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Feeding intolerance occurs commonly in the NICU. Breast milk contains a large pool of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Few studies describe TGF-beta levels in preterm milk, and the relationship to feeding intolerance (FI) remains unexplored. We measured TGF-beta levels in preterm breast milk to investigate a correlation with FI in preterm infants. Methods Prospective observational trial of 100 mother-infant pairs, enrolling infants born below 32 weeks gestation and less than 1500 grams, and mothers who planned to provide breast milk. TGF-beta levels were measured using ELISA. Infant charts were reviewed for outcomes. Results TGF-beta declined postnatally, most elevated in colostrum (p<0.01). TGF-beta 2 levels were higher than TGF-beta 1 at all time points (p<0.01). Colostrum TGF-beta levels correlated inversely with birth weight (p<0.01) and gestational age (p<0.05). One week TGF-beta 2 levels were reduced in growth-restricted infants with FI (p<0.01). Of infants with NEC, TGF-beta 2 levels appeared low, but small sample size precluded meaningful statistical comparisons. Conclusions TGF-beta levels decline temporally in preterm milk. TGF-beta 1 colostrum levels correlate inversely with birth weight and gestational age. TGF-beta 2 may play a role in FI in growth-restricted infants. The relationship of TGF-beta 2 and NEC merits future investigation. PMID:24995914

  13. Transforming growth factor-beta messenger RNA and protein in murine colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whiting, C V; Williams, A M; Claesson, Mogens Helweg

    2001-01-01

    Using a CD4+ T-cell-transplanted SCID mouse model of colitis, we have analyzed TGF-beta transcription and translation in advanced disease. By in situ hybridization, the epithelium of both control and inflamed tissues transcribed TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 mRNAs, but both were expressed significantly...... farther along the crypt axis in disease. Control lamina propria cells transcribed little TGF-beta1 or TGF-beta3 mRNA, but in inflamed tissues many cells expressed mRNA for both isoforms. No TGF-beta2 message was detected in either control or inflamed tissues. Immunohistochemistry for latent and active TGF...

  14. Toll-like receptor triggered dendritic cell maturation and IL-12 secretion are necessary to overcome T-cell inhibition by glioma-associated TGF-beta2.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grauer, O.M.; Poschl, P.; Lohmeier, A.; Adema, G.J.; Bogdahn, U.

    2007-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are able to secrete large amounts of immunosuppressive cytokines like transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-beta2) and regularly escape from immune surveillance. Many strategies have been developed to induce potent anti-glioma responses, among those the use of dendritic cells (DC)

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray studies of TON-1713 from Thermococcus onnurineus NA1, a putative member of the haloacid dehalogenase superfamily

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Binh Van; Lee, Hyun Sook; Cho, Yona; Kang, Sung Gyun; Kim, Dong Young; Kim, Yang-Gyun; Kim, Kyeong Kyu

    2007-01-01

    A putative member of the haloacid dehalogenase superfamily from T. onnurineus has been expressed, purified and crystallized using 1.6 M magnesium sulfate as a precipitant. The crystals belonged to the triclinic space group P1 and diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution. The haloacid dehalogenase (HAD) protein superfamily is one of the largest enzyme families and shows hydrolytic activity towards diverse substrates. Structural analyses of enzymes belonging to the HAD family are required to elucidate the molecular basis underlying their broad substrate specificity and reaction mechanism. For this purpose, TON-1713, a hypothetical protein from Thermococcus onnurineus that is a member of the HAD superfamily, was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized at 295 K using 1.6 M magnesium sulfate as a precipitant. X-ray diffraction data were collected to 1.8 Å resolution using a synchrotron-radiation source. The crystals belong to the triclinic space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 52.5, b = 65.8, c = 203.4 Å, α = 71.1, β = 79.9, γ = 74.3°

  16. Structural mutations of C-domains in members of the Ig superfamily. Consequences for the interactions between the T cell antigen receptor and the zeta 2 homodimer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, C; Rubin, B; Caspar-Bauguil, S

    1992-01-01

    Several molecules belonging to the Ig superfamily are expressed together with noncovalently associated subunits. This applies for membrane-bound IgM and IgD, some of the FcR, and the Ti dimers of the TCR. The interactions between members of the Ig superfamily and their associated subunits are sti...

  17. Molecular cloning of a peroxisomal Ca2+-dependent member of the mitochondrial carrier superfamily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Franz E.; Minestrini, Gianluca; Dyer, James H.; Werder, Moritz; Boffelli, Dario; Compassi, Sabina; Wehrli, Ernst; Thomas, Richard M.; Schulthess, Georg; Hauser, Helmut

    1997-01-01

    A cDNA from a novel Ca2+-dependent member of the mitochondrial solute carrier superfamily was isolated from a rabbit small intestinal cDNA library. The full-length cDNA clone was 3,298 nt long and coded for a protein of 475 amino acids, with four elongation factor-hand motifs located in the N-terminal half of the molecule. The 25-kDa N-terminal polypeptide was expressed in Escherichia coli, and it was demonstrated that it bound Ca2+, undergoing a reversible and specific conformational change as a result. The conformation of the polypeptide was sensitive to Ca2+ which was bound with high affinity (Kd ≈ 0.37 μM), the apparent Hill coefficient for Ca2+-induced changes being about 2.0. The deduced amino acid sequence of the C-terminal half of the molecule revealed 78% homology to Grave disease carrier protein and 67% homology to human ADP/ATP translocase; this sequence homology identified the protein as a new member of the mitochondrial transporter superfamily. Northern blot analysis revealed the presence of a single transcript of about 3,500 bases, and low expression of the transporter could be detected in the kidney but none in the liver. The main site of expression was the colon with smaller amounts found in the small intestine proximal to the ileum. Immunoelectron microscopy localized the transporter in the peroxisome, although a minor fraction was found in the mitochondria. The Ca2+ binding N-terminal half of the transporter faces the cytosol. PMID:9238007

  18. The zinc transporter SLC39A13/ZIP13 is required for connective tissue development; its involvement in BMP/TGF-beta signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Fukada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zinc (Zn is an essential trace element and it is abundant in connective tissues, however biological roles of Zn and its transporters in those tissues and cells remain unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report that mice deficient in Zn transporter Slc39a13/Zip13 show changes in bone, teeth and connective tissue reminiscent of the clinical spectrum of human Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS. The Slc39a13 knockout (Slc39a13-KO mice show defects in the maturation of osteoblasts, chondrocytes, odontoblasts, and fibroblasts. In the corresponding tissues and cells, impairment in bone morphogenic protein (BMP and TGF-beta signaling were observed. Homozygosity for a SLC39A13 loss of function mutation was detected in sibs affected by a unique variant of EDS that recapitulates the phenotype observed in Slc39a13-KO mice. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Hence, our results reveal a crucial role of SLC39A13/ZIP13 in connective tissue development at least in part due to its involvement in the BMP/TGF-beta signaling pathways. The Slc39a13-KO mouse represents a novel animal model linking zinc metabolism, BMP/TGF-beta signaling and connective tissue dysfunction.

  19. Functional analysis of the Escherichia coli genome for members of the alpha/beta hydrolase family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Godzik, A; Skolnick, J; Fetrow, J S

    1998-01-01

    Database-searching methods based on sequence similarity have become the most commonly used tools for characterizing newly sequenced proteins. Due to the often underestimated functional diversity in protein families and superfamilies, however, it is difficult to make the characterization specific and accurate. In this work, we have extended a method for active-site identification from predicted protein structures. The structural conservation and variation of the active sites of the alpha/beta hydrolases with known structures were studied. The similarities were incorporated into a three-dimensional motif that specifies essential requirements for the enzymatic functions. A threading algorithm was used to align 651 Escherichia coli open reading frames (ORFs) to one of the members of the alpha/beta hydrolase fold family. These ORFs were then screened according to our three-dimensional motif and with an extra requirement that demands conservation of the key active-site residues among the proteins that bear significant sequence similarity to the ORFs. 17 ORFs from E. coli were predicted to have hydrolase activity and their putative active-site residues were identified. Most were in agreement with the experiments and results of other database-searching methods. The study further suggests that YHET_ECOLI, a hypothetical protein classified as a member of the UPF0017 family (an uncharacterized protein family), bears all the hallmarks of the alpha/beta hydrolase family. The novel feature of our method is that it uses three-dimensional structural information for function prediction. The results demonstrate the importance and necessity of such a method to fill the gap between sequence alignment and function prediction; furthermore, the method provides a way to verify the structure predictions, which enables an expansion of the applicable scope of the threading algorithms.

  20. Immunoglobulin superfamily members encoded by viruses and their multiple roles in immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farré, Domènec; Martínez-Vicente, Pablo; Engel, Pablo; Angulo, Ana

    2017-05-01

    Pathogens have developed a plethora of strategies to undermine host immune defenses in order to guarantee their survival. For large DNA viruses, these immune evasion mechanisms frequently rely on the expression of genes acquired from host genomes. Horizontally transferred genes include members of the immunoglobulin superfamily, whose products constitute the most diverse group of proteins of vertebrate genomes. Their promiscuous immunoglobulin domains, which comprise the building blocks of these molecules, are involved in a large variety of functions mediated by ligand-binding interactions. The flexible structural nature of the immunoglobulin domains makes them appealing targets for viral capture due to their capacity to generate high functional diversity. Here, we present an up-to-date review of immunoglobulin superfamily gene homologs encoded by herpesviruses, poxviruses, and adenoviruses, that include CD200, CD47, Fc receptors, interleukin-1 receptor 2, interleukin-18 binding protein, CD80, carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules, and signaling lymphocyte activation molecules. We discuss their distinct structural attributes, binding properties, and functions, shaped by evolutionary pressures to disarm specific immune pathways. We include several novel genes identified from extensive genome database surveys. An understanding of the properties and modes of action of these viral proteins may guide the development of novel immune-modulatory therapeutic tools. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. The structure of hookworm platelet inhibitor (HPI), a CAP superfamily member from Ancylostoma caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dongying; Francischetti, Ivo M B; Ribeiro, Jose M C; Andersen, John F

    2015-06-01

    Secreted protein components of hookworm species include a number of representatives of the cysteine-rich/antigen 5/pathogenesis-related 1 (CAP) protein family known as Ancylostoma-secreted proteins (ASPs). Some of these have been considered as candidate antigens for the development of vaccines against hookworms. The functions of most CAP superfamily members are poorly understood, but one form, the hookworm platelet inhibitor (HPI), has been isolated as a putative antagonist of the platelet integrins αIIbβ3 and α2β1. Here, the crystal structure of HPI is described and its structural features are examined in relation to its possible function. The HPI structure is similar to those of other ASPs and shows incomplete conservation of the sequence motifs CAP1 and CAP2 that are considered to be diagnostic of CAP superfamily members. The asymmetric unit of the HPI crystal contains a dimer with an extensive interaction interface, but chromatographic measurements indicate that it is primarily monomeric in solution. In the dimeric structure, the putative active-site cleft areas from both monomers are united into a single negatively charged depression. A potential Lys-Gly-Asp disintegrin-like motif was identified in the sequence of HPI, but is not positioned at the apex of a tight turn, making it unlikely that it interacts with the integrin. Recombinant HPI produced in Escherichia coli was found not to inhibit the adhesion of human platelets to collagen or fibrinogen, despite having a native structure as shown by X-ray diffraction. This result corroborates previous analyses of recombinant HPI and suggests that it might require post-translational modification or have a different biological function.

  2. Maintaining the immunological balance in parasitic infections: a role for TGF-ß?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omer, F M; Kurtzhals, J A; Riley, E M

    2000-01-01

    on the one hand and prevention of immune-mediated pathology on the other. In this article, Fakhereldin Omer, Jørgen Kurtzhals and Eleanor Riley review the immunoregulatory properties of TGF-beta in the context of parasitic infections. Data from murine malaria infections suggest that TGF-beta modifies...

  3. An orphan viral TNF receptor superfamily member identified in lymphocystis disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontejo, Sergio M; Sánchez, Carolina; Martín, Rocío; Mulero, Victoriano; Alcami, Antonio; Alejo, Alí

    2013-06-07

    Lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) is a large icosahedral dsDNA-containing virus of the Lymphocystivirus genus within the Iridoviridae family that can cause disease in more than 140 marine and freshwater fish species. While several isolates have been charcaterized and classified into distinct genotypes the complete genomic sequence is currently only available from two species, the LCDV-1, isolated from flounder (Platichtys flesus) in Europe and the LCDV-C, isolated from Japanese cultured flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in China. Analysis of the genome of LCDV-C showed it to encode a protein named LDVICp016 with similarities to the Tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily with immunomodulatory potential. We have expressed and purified the recombinant protein LDVICp016 and screened for potential interaction partners using surface plasmon resonance. Commercially available human and mouse members of the TNF superfamily (TNFSF), along with a representative set of fish-derived TNFSF were tested.We have found the LDVICp016 protein to be secreted and we have identified a second viral TNFR encoded by ORF 095 of the same virus. None of the 42 tested proteins were found to interact with LDVICp016. We show that LDVICp016 is a secreted protein belonging to the TNF receptor family that may be part of a larger gene family in Lymphocystiviruses. While the ligand of this protein remains unknown, possibly due to the species specific nature of this interaction, further investigations into the potential role of this protein in the blockade of immune responses in its fish host are required.

  4. Transforming growth factor beta stimulation of biglycan gene expression is potentially mediated by sp1 binding factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Anne-Marie; Xie, Zhongjian; Young, Marian Frances

    2004-01-01

    . In this study, we have investigated the mechanism by which TGF-beta(1), TGF-beta(2) and TGF-beta(3) stimulate biglycan mRNA expression in the osteoblastic cell line MG-63. The cells were transfected with a series of deletional human biglycan promoter constructs and a region in the biglycan 5' DNA was found...... to respond to TGF-beta(1) with increased transcriptional activity in a dose-dependent manner. Also TGF-beta(2) and TGF-beta(3), two structurally highly related TGF-beta isoforms stimulated biglycan transcription. A TGF-beta responsive region was identified within the first 218 bp of the human biglycan...... was abrogated by mithramycin, an inhibitor of Sp1 binding to GC-rich DNA sequences. A mutation in the Sp1 site at -216 to -208 within the -218 biglycan promoter construct substantially diminished the transcriptional up-regulation by TGF-beta(1). Taken together this data shows for the first time that TGF-beta(1...

  5. Potential targets of transforming growth factor-beta1 during inhibition of oocyte maturation in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelland Eric

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TGF-beta is a multifunctional growth factor involved in regulating a variety of cellular activities. Unlike mammals, the function of TGF-beta in the reproduction of lower vertebrates, such as fish, is not clear. Recently, we showed that TGF-beta1 inhibits gonadotropin- and 17alpha, 20beta-dihydroxyprogesterone (DHP-induced maturation in zebrafish. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms underlying this action. Method To determine if the effect of TGF-beta1 on oocyte maturation involves transcription and/or translation, ovarian follicles were pre-treated with actinomycin D, a blocker of transcription, and cyclohexamide, an inhibitor of translation, and incubated with hCG or DHP, either alone or in combination with TGF-beta1 and oocyte maturation scored. To determine the effect of TGF-beta1 on mRNA levels of several key effectors of oocyte maturation, three sets of experiments were performed. First, follicles were treated with control medium or TGF-beta1 for 2, 6, 12, and 24 h. Second, follicles were treated with different concentrations of TGF-beta1 (0 to 10 ng/ml for 18 h. Third, follicles were incubated with hCG in the absence or presence of TGF-beta1 for 18 h. At the end of each experiment, total RNA was extracted and reverse transcribed. PCR using primers specific for 20beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20beta-HSD which is involved in DHP production, follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR, luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR, the two forms of membrane progestin receptor: mPR-alpha and mPR-beta, as well as GAPDH (control, were performed. Results Treatment with actinomycin D, a blocker of transcription, reduced the inhibitory effect of TGF-beta1 on DHP-induced oocyte maturation, indicating that the inhibitory action of TGF-beta1 is in part due to regulation of gene transcription. Treatment with TGF-beta1 caused a dose and time-dependent decrease in mRNA levels of 20beta-HSD, LHR and mPR-beta in

  6. Transforming growth factor-beta and nitrates in epithelial ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, A; Kassim, S K; Ahmed, M I; Fayed, S T

    1999-12-01

    The role of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and nitric oxide (NO) in ovarian neoplasia is still not clear. We studied the expression of TGF-beta by enzyme immunoassay, and nitrates (as a stable end product of NO) in 127 ovarian tissues (36 normal, 37 benign, and 54 malignant). Ploidy status and synthetic phase fraction (SPF) were also assessed by flow cytometry. Mean ranks of TGF-beta, nitrate, and SPF were significant among different groups (X2 = 12.01, P = 0.0025, X2 = 67.42, P = 0.000, X2 = 9.06, P = 0.011 respectively). Nitrate mean ranks were significant among different FIGO stages of the disease (X2 = 17.6, P = 0.000). A significant correlation was shown between TGF-beta, and nitrate levels in all tissues (r = 0.24, P = 0.01), as well as in malignant tissues (r = 0.3, P = 0.026). Cutoff values were determined for both TGF-beta (290 pg/mg protein), and nitrates (310 nmole/mg non protein nitrogenous substances). At these cut-offs, nitrates showed a sensitivity of 93% and 84% specificity for malignant versus normal cases, while TGF-beta had 76% sensitivity, and 82.4% specificity for poor versus good outcome. Patients with epithelial ovarian cancer were followed up for a total of 40 months. Survival analysis showed that patients with TGF-beta above the cut-off had worse prognosis (X2 = 12.69, P = 0.004). The present results suggest that malignant transformation of ovarian tissues is associated with increased TGF-beta and NO production. NO level is related to the development and progression of epithelial ovarian cancer, while high levels of TGF-beta could be of prognostic significance.

  7. Asporin and transforming growth factor-beta gene expression in osteoblasts from subchondral bone and osteophytes in osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakao, Kei; Takahashi, Kenji A; Arai, Yuji; Saito, Masazumi; Honjyo, Kuniaki; Hiraoka, Nobuyuki; Kishida, Tsunao; Mazda, Osam; Imanishi, Jiro; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2009-11-01

    To clarify the significance of subchondral bone and osteophytes in the pathology of osteoarthritis (OA), we investigated the expression of asporin (ASPN), transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3, and runt-related transcription factor-2 (Runx2) genes involved in bone metabolism. Osteoblasts were isolated from 19 patients diagnosed with knee OA and from 4 patients diagnosed with femoral neck fracture. Osteoblast expression of mRNA encoding ASPN, TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2, TGF-beta3, and Runx2 was analyzed using real-time RT-PCR. Expression of ASPN, TGF-beta1, and TGF-beta3 mRNA in the subchondral bone and osteophytes of OA patients increased compared with that of non-OA patients. The ratio of ASPN to TGF-beta1 mRNA in patients with severe cartilage damage was higher than that in patients with mild cartilage damage. The increased ratio of ASPN mRNA to TGF-beta1 mRNA in patients with severe relative to mild cartilage damage indicates that increased ASPN mRNA expression was significantly associated with the severity of cartilage degeneration. This finding suggests that ASPN may regulate TGF-beta1-mediated factors in the development of OA, which may provide clues as to the underlying pathology of OA.

  8. Clinical significance of determination of serum collagen type IV (IV-C) and transforming growth factor beta1(TGF-β1) levels in patients with diabetic nephropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Hongfang; Peng Liang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of determination of serum collagen type IV (IV-C) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β 1 ) levels in patients with diabetic nephropathy. Methods: Serum IV-C levels ( with RIA) and TGF-β 1 levels (with ELISA) were determined in 30 controls and 105 patients with type II diabetis mellitus (45 with diabetic nephropathy and 60 without nephropathy). Results: The serum levels of IV-C and TGF-β 1 in diabetic patients with nephropathy were significantly higher than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Serum IV-C and TGF-β 1 , levels increased gradually as the diabetic nephropathy got more severe, they could be used as sensitive markers for early diagnosis of development of diabetic nephropathy. (authors)

  9. Interleukin-1 beta Attenuates Myofibroblast Formation and Extracellular Matrix Production in Dermal and Lung Fibroblasts Exposed to Transforming Growth Factor-beta 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mia, Masum M.; Boersema, Miriam; Bank, Ruud A.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most potent pro-fibrotic cytokines is transforming growth factor (TGF beta). TGF beta is involved in the activation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, resulting in the hallmark of fibrosis: the pathological accumulation of collagen. Interleukin-1 beta (IL1 beta) can influence the

  10. Effect of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) receptor I kinase inhibitor on prostate cancer bone growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Xinhai; Li, Zhi-Gang; Yingling, Jonathan M; Yang, Jun; Starbuck, Michael W; Ravoori, Murali K; Kundra, Vikas; Vazquez, Elba; Navone, Nora M

    2012-03-01

    Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of prostate cancer (PCa) bone metastasis. In this study, we tested the antitumor efficacy of a selective TGF-β receptor I kinase inhibitor, LY2109761, in preclinical models. The effect of LY2109761 on the growth of MDA PCa 2b and PC-3 human PCa cells and primary mouse osteoblasts (PMOs) was assessed in vitro by measuring radiolabeled thymidine incorporation into DNA. In vivo, the right femurs of male SCID mice were injected with PCa cells. We monitored the tumor burden in control- and LY2109761-treated mice with MRI analysis and the PCa-induced bone response with X-ray and micro-CT analyses. Histologic changes in bone were studied by performing bone histomorphometric evaluations. PCa cells and PMOs expressed TGF-β receptor I. TGF-β1 induced pathway activation (as assessed by induced expression of p-Smad2) and inhibited cell growth in PC-3 cells and PMOs but not in MDA PCa 2b cells. LY2109761 had no effect on PCa cells but induced PMO proliferation in vitro. As expected, LY2109761 reversed the TGF-β1-induced pathway activation and growth inhibition in PC-3 cells and PMOs. In vivo, LY2109761 treatment for 6weeks resulted in increased volume in normal bone and increased osteoblast and osteoclast parameters. In addition, LY2109761 treatment significantly inhibited the growth of MDA PCa 2b and PC-3 in the bone of SCID mice (p<0.05); moreover, it resulted in significantly less bone loss and change in osteoclast-associated parameters in the PC-3 tumor-bearing bones than in the untreated mice. In summary, we report for the first time that targeting TGF-β receptors with LY2109761 can control PCa bone growth while increasing the mass of normal bone. This increased bone mass in nontumorous bone may be a desirable side effect of LY2109761 treatment for men with osteopenia or osteoporosis secondary to androgen-ablation therapy, reinforcing the benefit of effectively controlling PCa growth

  11. A novel nonsteroidal antifibrotic oligo decoy containing the TGF-beta element found in the COL1A1 gene which regulates murine schistosomiasis liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boros, D L; Singh, K P; Gerard, H C; Hudson, A P; White, S L; Cutroneo, K R

    2005-08-01

    Schistosomiasis mansoni disseminated worm eggs in mice and humans induce granulomatous inflammations and cumulative fibrosis causing morbidity and possibly mortality. In this study, intrahepatic and I.V. injections of a double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide decoy containing the TGF-beta regulatory element found in the distal promoter of the COL1A1 gene into worm-infected mice suppressed TGF-beta1, COL1A1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, and decreased COL3A1 mRNAs to a lesser extent. Sequence comparisons within the mouse genome found homologous sequences within the COL3A1, TGF-beta1, and TIMP-1 5' flanking regions. Cold competition gel mobility shift assays using these homologous sequences with 5' and 3' flanking regions found in the natural COL1A1 gene showed competition. Competitive gel mobility assays in a separate experiment showed no competition using a 5-base mutated or scrambled sequence. Explanted liver granulomas from saline-injected mice incorporated 10.45 +/- 1.7% (3)H-proline into newly synthesized collagen, whereas decoy-treated mice showed no collagen synthesis. Compared with the saline control schistosomiasis mice phosphorothioate double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide treatment decreased total liver collagen content (i.e. hydroxy-4-proline) by 34%. This novel molecular approach has the potential to be employed as a novel antifibrotic treatment modality. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 and IGFBP-5 mediate TGF-β- and myostatin-induced suppression of proliferation in porcine embryonic myogenic cell cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamanga-Sollo, E.; Pampusch, M.S.; White, M.E.; Hathaway, M.R.; Dayton, W.R.

    2005-01-01

    We have previously shown that cultured porcine embryonic myogenic cells (PEMC) produce both insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-3 and IGFBP-5 and secrete these proteins into their media. Exogenously added recombinant porcine (rp) IGFBP-3 and rpIGFBP-5 act via IGF-dependent and IGF-independent mechanisms to suppress proliferation of PEMC cultures. Furthermore, immunoneutralization of endogenous IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5 in the PEMC culture medium results in increased DNA synthesis rate suggesting that endogenous IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5 suppress PEMC proliferation. TGFsuperfamily members myostatin and TGF-β 1 have also been shown to suppress proliferation of myogenic cells, and treatment of cultured PEMC with either TGF-β 1 or myostatin significantly (P 1 and myostatin. Here, we show that immunoneutralization of IGFBP-5 also significantly (P 1 or myostatin-treated PEMC cultures restores Long-R3-IGF-I-stimulated DNA synthesis rates to 90% of the levels observed in control cultures receiving no TGF-β 1 or myostatin treatment (P 1 or myostatin-treated PEMC cultures, phosphosmad2 levels in these cultures were not affected. These findings strongly suggest that IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-5 affect processes downstream from receptor-mediated Smad phosphorylation that facilitate the ability of TGF-β and myostatin to suppress proliferation of PEMC

  13. Crystal structure and potential physiological role of zebra fish thioesterase superfamily member 2 (fTHEM2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Shanshan; Li, Han; Gao, Feng; Zhou, Ying, E-mail: zhouying@moon.ibp.ac.cn

    2015-08-07

    Thioesterase superfamily member 2 (THEM2) is an essential protein for mammalian cell proliferation. It belongs to the hotdog-fold thioesterase superfamily and catalyzes hydrolysis of thioester bonds of acyl-CoA in vitro, while its in vivo function remains unrevealed. In this study, Zebra fish was selected as a model organism to facilitate the investigations on THEM2. First, we solved the crystal structure of recombinant fTHEM2 at the resolution of 1.80 Å, which displayed a similar scaffolding as hTHEM2. Second, functional studies demonstrated that fTHEM2 is capable of hydrolyzing palmitoyl-CoA in vitro. In addition, injection of morpholino against fTHEM2 at one-cell stage resulted in distorted early embryo development, including delayed cell division, retarded development and increased death rate. The above findings validated our hypothesis that fTHEM2 could serve as an ideal surrogate for studying the physiological functions of THEM2. - Highlights: • The crystal structure of recombinant fTHEM2 is presented. • fTHEM2 is capable of hydrolyzing palmitoyl-CoA. • The influence of fTHEM2 on early embryo development is demonstrated.

  14. Key role of the endothelial TGF-β/ALK1/endoglin signaling pathway in humans and rodents pulmonary hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Gore

    Full Text Available Mutations affecting transforming growth factor-beta (TGFsuperfamily receptors, activin receptor-like kinase (ALK-1, and endoglin (ENG occur in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH. To determine whether the TGF-β/ALK1/ENG pathway was involved in PAH, we investigated pulmonary TGF-β, ALK1, ALK5, and ENG expressions in human lung tissue and cultured pulmonary-artery smooth-muscle-cells (PA-SMCs and pulmonary endothelial cells (PECs from 14 patients with idiopathic PAH (iPAH and 15 controls. Seeing that ENG was highly expressed in PEC, we assessed the effects of TGF-β on Smad1/5/8 and Smad2/3 activation and on growth factor production by the cells. Finally, we studied the consequence of ENG deficiency on the chronic hypoxic-PH development by measuring right ventricular (RV systolic pressure (RVSP, RV hypertrophy, and pulmonary arteriolar remodeling in ENG-deficient (Eng+/- and wild-type (Eng+/+ mice. We also evaluated the pulmonary blood vessel density, macrophage infiltration, and cytokine expression in the lungs of the animals. Compared to controls, iPAH patients had higher serum and pulmonary TGF-β levels and increased ALK1 and ENG expressions in lung tissue, predominantly in PECs. Incubation of the cells with TGF-β led to Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation and to a production of FGF2, PDGFb and endothelin-inducing PA-SMC growth. Endoglin deficiency protected mice from hypoxic PH. As compared to wild-type, Eng+/- mice had a lower pulmonary vessel density, and no change in macrophage infiltration after exposure to chronic hypoxia despite the higher pulmonary expressions of interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. The TGF-β/ALK1/ENG signaling pathway plays a key role in iPAH and experimental hypoxic PH via a direct effect on PECs leading to production of growth factors and inflammatory cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of PAH.

  15. Quantitation of TGF-beta1 mRNA in porcine mesangial cells by comparative kinetic RT/PCR: comparison with ribonuclease protection assay and in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceol, M; Forino, M; Gambaro, G; Sauer, U; Schleicher, E D; D'Angelo, A; Anglani, F

    2001-01-01

    Gene expression can be examined with different techniques including ribonuclease protection assay (RPA), in situ hybridisation (ISH), and quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT/PCR). These methods differ considerably in their sensitivity and precision in detecting and quantifying low abundance mRNA. Although there is evidence that RT/PCR can be performed in a quantitative manner, the quantitative capacity of this method is generally underestimated. To demonstrate that the comparative kinetic RT/PCR strategy-which uses a housekeeping gene as internal standard-is a quantitative method to detect significant differences in mRNA levels between different samples, the inhibitory effect of heparin on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced-TGF-beta1 mRNA expression was evaluated by RT/PCR and RPA, the standard method of mRNA quantification, and the results were compared. The reproducibility of RT/PCR amplification was calculated by comparing the quantity of G3PDH and TGF-beta1 PCR products, generated during the exponential phases, estimated from two different RT/PCR (G3PDH, r = 0.968, P = 0.0000; TGF-beta1, r = 0.966, P = 0.0000). The quantitative capacity of comparative kinetic RT/PCR was demonstrated by comparing the results obtained from RPA and RT/PCR using linear regression analysis. Starting from the same RNA extraction, but using only 1% of the RNA for the RT/PCR compared to RPA, significant correlation was observed (r = 0.984, P = 0.0004). Moreover the morphometric analysis of ISH signal was applied for the semi-quantitative evaluation of the expression and localisation of TGF-beta1 mRNA in the entire cell population. Our results demonstrate the close similarity of the RT/PCR and RPA methods in giving quantitative information on mRNA expression and indicate the possibility to adopt the comparative kinetic RT/PCR as reliable quantitative method of mRNA analysis. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Effects of ultrasound on Transforming Growth Factor-beta genes in bone cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Harle

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic ultrasound (US is a widely used form of biophysical stimulation that is increasingly applied to promote fracture healing. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta, which is encoded by three related but different genes, is known to play a major part in bone growth and repair. However, the effects of US on the expression of the TGF-beta genes and the physical acoustic mechanisms involved in initiating changes in gene expression in vitro, are not yet known. The present study demonstrates that US had a differential effect on these TGF-beta isoforms in a human osteoblast cell line, with the highest dose eliciting the most pronounced up-regulation of both TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta3 at 1 hour after treatment and thereafter declining. In contrast, US had no effect on TGF-beta2 expression. Fluid streaming rather than thermal effects or cavitation was found to be the most likely explanation for the gene responses observed in vitro.

  17. The pleiotropic roles of transforming growth factor beta inhomeostasis and carcinogenesis of endocrine organs.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleisch, Markus C.; Maxwell, Christopher A.; Barcellos-Hoff,Mary-Helen

    2006-01-13

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a ubiquitous cytokine that plays a critical role in numerous pathways regulating cellular and tissue homeostasis. TGF-beta is regulated by hormones and is a primary mediator of hormone response in uterus, prostate and mammary gland. This review will address the role of TGF-beta in regulating hormone dependent proliferation and morphogenesis. The subversion of TGF-beta regulation during the processes of carcinogenesis, with particular emphasis on its effects on genetic stability and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), will also be examined. An understanding of the multiple and complex mechanisms of TGF-beta regulation of epithelial function, and the ultimate loss of TGF-beta function during carcinogenesis, will be critical in the design of novel therapeutic interventions for endocrine-related cancers.

  18. TGF-b and a specific TGF-b inhibitor regulate pericentrin B and MYH9 in glioma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Óscar Álzate

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant gliomas are heterogeneous, highly invasive vascular tumours. The multifunctional cytokine, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-P, is expressed by grade III/IV gliomas and promotes tumour angiogenesis, invasión and immune escape. It has been shown previously that a small TGF-P receptor type I (TGF-(3-RI molecule inhibitor (SB-431542 blocks TGF-(3-mediated signal transduction, induction of angiogenic factor expression and cellular motility. As glioma cell lines display differential sensitivity to TGF-P, it was expected that they would also be differentially impacted by disruption of TGF-P signalling. Differential in gel expression (DIGE analysis and mass spectrometry was used in this work for determining protein regulation effects of both TGF-P and SB-431542 on human glioma cell lines. It was found that pericentrin B and non muscle myosin were differentially expressed in fragments which likely resulted from protease activation by the tumour growth mechanism. These results suggest that both pericentrin B and non-muscle myosin might be potential glioma biomarkers. Key words: DIGE, proteomics, glioma, TGF-P, mass spectrometry, non muscle myosin, pericentrin B.

  19. Effect of the association of IGF-I, IGF-II, bFGF, TGF-beta1, GM-CSF, and LIF on the development of bovine embryos produced in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, J A; Tainturier, D; Peña, M A; Martal, J

    2010-03-15

    This study examined the influence of the following growth factors and cytokines on early embryonic development: insulin-like growth factors I and II (IGF-I, IGF-II), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), transforming growth factor (TGF-beta), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Synthetic oviduct fluid (SOF) was used as the culture medium. We studied the development of bovine embryos produced in vitro and cultured until Day 9 after fertilization. TGF-beta1, bFGF, GM-CSF, and LIF used on their own significantly improved the yield of hatched blastocysts. IGF-I, bFGF, TGF-beta1, GM-CSF, and LIF significantly accelerated embryonic development, especially the change from the expanded blastocyst to hatched blastocyst stages. Use of a combination of these growth factors and cytokines (GF-CYK) in SOF medium produced higher percentages of blastocysts and hatched blastocysts than did use of SOF alone (45% and 22% vs. 24% and 12%; PGM-CSF, produces similar results to 10% fetal calf serum for the development of in vitro-produced bovine embryos. This entirely synthetic method of embryo culture has undeniable advantages for the biosecurity of embryo transfer. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression of HSP27, HSP72 and MRP proteins in in vitro co-culture of colon tumour cell spheroids with normal cells after incubation with rhTGF- beta1 and/or CPT-11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduch, Roman; Jakubowicz-Gil, Joanna; Kandefer-Szerszen, Martyna

    2009-12-01

    We studied the expression of inducible heat shock protein (HSP27, HSP72) and multidrug-resistance protein (MRP) in co-cultures of human colon carcinoma cell spheroids obtained from different grades of tumour with normal human colon epithelium, myofibroblast and endothelial cell monolayers. We also measured the influence of recombinant human transforming growth factor beta1 (rhTGF-beta1) and camptothecin (CPT-11), added as single agents or in combination, on the levels of the HSPs, MRP, interleukin (IL)-6 and nitric oxide (NO). An immunoblotting analysis with densitometry showed that rhTGF-beta1 and/or CPT-11 increased HSP27, HSP72 and MRP expression in tumour cells and myofibroblasts, as well as in co-cultures compared with appropriate controls. By contrast, in colonic epithelium, inhibition of HSPs and MRP was comparable with that of the control. In endothelial cells, HSP72 was undetectable. Direct interaction of colon tumour spheroids with normal myofibroblasts caused a significant, tumour-grade dependent increase in IL-6 production. Production of IL-6 was significantly lowered by rhTGF-beta1 and/or CPT-11. Tumour cell spheroids cultivated alone produced larger amounts of NO than normal cells. In co-culture, the level of the radical decreased compared with the sum of NO produced by the monocultures of the two types of cells. rhTGF-beta1 and/or CPT-11 decreased NO production both in tumour and normal cell monocultures and their co-cultures. In conclusion, direct interactions between tumour and normal cells influence the expression of HSP27, HSP72 and MRP, and alter IL-6 and NO production. rhTGF-beta1 and/or CPT-11 may potentate resistance to chemotherapy by increasing HSP and MRP expression but, on the other hand, they may limit tumour cell spread by decreasing the level of some soluble mediators of inflammation (IL-6 and NO).

  1. Transient receptor potential channel superfamily: Role in lower urinary tract function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Teruyuki; Imamura, Tetsuya; Nakazawa, Masaki; Hiragata, Shiro; Nagai, Takashi; Minagawa, Tomonori; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, Masakuni; Domen, Takahisa; Ishizuka, Osamu

    2015-11-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms associated with neurogenic bladder and overactive bladder syndrome are mediated in part by members of the transient receptor potential channel superfamily. The best studied member of this superfamily is the vanilloid receptor. Other transient receptor potential channels, such as the melastatin receptor and the ankyrin receptor, are also active in the pathogenesis of lower urinary tract dysfunction. However, the detailed mechanisms by which the transient receptor potential channels contribute to lower urinary tract symptoms are still not clear, and the therapeutic benefits of modulating transient receptor potential channel activity have not been proved in the clinical setting. In the present review, to better understand the pathophysiology and therapeutic potential for lower urinary tract symptoms, we summarize the presence and role of different members of the transient receptor potential channel superfamily in the lower urinary tract. © 2015 The Japanese Urological Association.

  2. Transforming growth factor-beta. En potent multifunktionel voekstfaktor for normale og maligne celler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, P; Damstrup, L; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1992-01-01

    The polypeptide growth factor transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a multifunctional regulator of basic cellular functions: proliferation, differentiation, cell adhesion and interactions with the extracellular matrix. TGF-beta is part of a regulatory network of which our knowledge is sti...... possibilities for therapeutic intervention in the physiological and patophysiological functions of TGF-beta. Udgivelsesdato: 1992-Nov-30...

  3. Evaluation of the transforming growth factor-beta activity in normal and dry eye human tears by CCL-185 cell bioassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaofen; De Paiva, Cintia S; Rao, Kavita; Li, De-Quan; Farley, William J; Stern, Michael; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2010-09-01

    To develop a new bioassay method using human lung epithelial cells (CCL-185) to assess activity of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) in human tear fluid from normal subjects and patients with dry eye. Two epithelial cell lines, mink lung cells (CCL-64) and human lung cells (CCL-185), were compared to detect the active form of TGF-beta by BrdU incorporation (quantitation of cell DNA synthesis) and WST assay (metabolic activity of viable cells). The effect of TGF-beta on the growth of CCL-185 cells was observed microscopically. Human tears from normal control subjects and patients with dry eye (DE) with and without Sjögren syndrome were evaluated for TGF-beta concentration by Luminex microbead assay, and TGF-beta activity by the CCL-185 cell growth inhibition bioassay. The metabolic activity of viable CCL-185 cells, measured by WST, was shown to be proportional to the TGF-beta1 concentration (R = 0.919) and confirmed by BrdU assay (R = 0.969). Compared with CCL-185, metabolic activity of viable cells and DNA synthesis, measured by WST and BrdU incorporation assays, were shown to be less proportional to the TGF-beta1 concentration in the CCL-64 line (R = 0.42 and 0.17, respectively). Coincubation with human anti-TGF-beta1 antibody (MAB-240) yielded a dose-dependent inhibition of TGF-beta1 (0.3 ng/mL) activity. CCL-185 cell growth observed microscopically was noted to decrease in response to increasing TGF-beta1 concentrations. Levels of immuodetectable TGF-beta1 and TGF-beta2 were similar in normal and DE tears. TGF-beta bioactivity in DE human tears measured by the CCL-185 cells assay was found to be higher (9777.5 +/- 10481.9 pg/mL) than those in normal controls (4129.3 +/- 1342.9 pg/mL) (P tears and 37.6% TGF-beta in normal tears were found to be biologically active. The CCL-185 cell assay was found to be a suitable tool for assessing TGF-beta activity in human tears. Tear TGF-beta bioactivity increases in DE, particularly in Sjögren syndrome, where

  4. Effects of transforming growth factor-beta on long-term human cord blood monocyte cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orcel, P.; Bielakoff, J.; De Vernejoul, M.C.

    1990-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) modulates growth and differentiation in many cell types and is abundant in bone matrix. We recently showed that human cord blood monocytes cultured in the presence of 1,25(OH)2D3 acquire some features of osteoclast precursors. Since TGF-beta has been shown to influence bone resorption in organ culture, we have studied the effect of TGF-beta (1-1,000 pg/ml) on cord blood monocyte cultures. These cells were cultured on plastic substrate during 3 weeks in the presence of 20% horse serum and 10(-9) M 1,25(OH)2D3. TGF-beta, from a concentration of 10 pg/ml in the culture medium, decreased in a dose dependent manner the formation of multinucleated cells. At a concentration of TGF-beta of 1 ng/ml, the multinucleated cells were reduced to 2.1% +/- 0.3%, compared to 19.3% +/- 1.5% in control cultures. TGF-beta inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the proliferation of cord blood monocytes as assessed by 3H-thymidine incorporation at 7 and 14 days of culture. The fusion index was also decreased by 3 weeks of treatment with TGF-beta. Indomethacin did not reverse the inhibitory effects of TGF-beta. The expression of the osteoclastic phenotype was assessed using two different antibodies: 23C6, a monoclonal antibody directed against the vitronectin receptor, which is highly expressed by osteoclasts but not by adult monocytes, and an antibody to HLA-DR, which is not present on osteoclast. TGF-beta decreased the expression of HLA-DR and increased in a dose-dependent manner the proportion of 23C6-labeled cells; these results suggest that TGF-beta could modulate a differentiation effect to the osteoclastic phenotype. However, when cord blood monocytes were cultured on devitalized rat calvariae prelabeled with 45Ca, TGF-beta did not induce any 45Ca release from bone cultured with monocytes

  5. HAb18G/CD147 is involved in TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and hepatocellular carcinoma invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Ning-Yu; Wu, Jiao; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Bian, Huijie

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) induced by the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is involved in hepatocarcinogenesis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis. HAb18G/CD147, a member of the immunoglobulin family, plays an important role in tumor invasion and metastasis. HAb18G/CD147 promotes EMT of hepatocytes through TGF-β signaling and is transcriptionally regulated by Slug. We investigated the role of HAb18G/CD147 in TGF-β-induced EMT in HCC invasion. Two human HCC cell lines, SMMC-7721 and HepG2, were used to determine the role of HAb18G/CD147 in EMT. Upregulation of HAb18G/CD147 induced by the high doses of TGF-β1 in SMMC-7721 (5 ng/mL) and HepG2 cells (10 ng/mL) (P CD147 upregulation was coupled with upregulation of Snail1 and Slug. CD147 knockout significantly decreased the expression of N-cadherin and vimentin, and colony formation ability of SMMC-7721 cells. TGF-β1 enhanced the migration capacity of SMMC-7721 cells, which was markedly attenuated by CD147 knockdown. Thus, HAb18G/CD147 is involved in TGF-β-induced EMT and HCC invasion. © 2014 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  6. Molecular and Functional Characterization of Mouse S5D-SRCRB: A New Group B Member of the Scavenger Receptor Cysteine-Rich Superfamily

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miró-Julià, Cristina; Roselló, Sandra; Martínez, Vanesa G

    2011-01-01

    The scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily (SRCR-SF) members are transmembrane and/or secreted receptors exhibiting one or several repeats of a cysteine-rich protein module of ∼100 aa, named scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR). Two types of SRCR domains (A or B) have been reported, which...... differ in the number of coding exons and intradomain cysteines. Although no unifying function has been reported for SRCR-SF members, recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) was recently shown for some of them. In this article, we report the structural and functional characterization...

  7. MicroRNA-26a modulates transforming growth factor beta-1-induced proliferation in human fetal lung fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaoou; Liu, Lian; Shen, Yongchun; Wang, Tao; Chen, Lei; Xu, Dan; Wen, Fuqiang

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Endogenous miR-26a inhibits TGF-beta 1 induced proliferation of lung fibroblasts. • miR-26a induces G1 arrest through directly targeting 3′-UTR of CCND2. • TGF indispensable receptor, TGF-beta R I, is regulated by miR-26a. • miR-26a acts through inhibiting TGF-beta 2 feedback loop to reduce TGF-beta 1. • Collagen type I and connective tissue growth factor are suppressed by miR-26a. - Abstract: MicroRNA-26a is a newly discovered microRNA that has a strong anti-tumorigenic capacity and is capable of suppressing cell proliferation and activating tumor-specific apoptosis. However, whether miR-26a can inhibit the over-growth of lung fibroblasts remains unclear. The relationship between miR-26a and lung fibrosis was explored in the current study. We first investigated the effect of miR-26a on the proliferative activity of human lung fibroblasts with or without TGF-beta1 treatment. We found that the inhibition of endogenous miR-26a promoted proliferation and restoration of mature miR-26a inhibited the proliferation of human lung fibroblasts. We also examined that miR-26a can block the G1/S phase transition via directly targeting 3′-UTR of CCND2, degrading mRNA and decreasing protein expression of Cyclin D2. Furthermore, we showed that miR-26a mediated a TGF-beta 2-TGF-beta 1 feedback loop and inhibited TGF-beta R I activation. In addition, the overexpression of miR-26a also significantly suppressed the TGF-beta 1-interacting-CTGF–collagen fibrotic pathway. In summary, our studies indicated an essential role of miR-26a in the anti-fibrotic mechanism in TGF-beta1-induced proliferation in human lung fibroblasts, by directly targeting Cyclin D2, regulating TGF-beta R I as well as TGF-beta 2, and suggested the therapeutic potential of miR-26a in ameliorating lung fibrosis

  8. MicroRNA-26a modulates transforming growth factor beta-1-induced proliferation in human fetal lung fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaoou [Division of Pulmonary Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy of China, West China Hospital, West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Department of Respiratory Medicine, West China Hospital, West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Liu, Lian [Division of Pulmonary Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy of China, West China Hospital, West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Shen, Yongchun; Wang, Tao; Chen, Lei; Xu, Dan [Division of Pulmonary Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy of China, West China Hospital, West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Department of Respiratory Medicine, West China Hospital, West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Wen, Fuqiang, E-mail: wenfuqiang.scu@gmail.com [Division of Pulmonary Diseases, State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy of China, West China Hospital, West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Department of Respiratory Medicine, West China Hospital, West China School of Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2014-11-28

    Highlights: • Endogenous miR-26a inhibits TGF-beta 1 induced proliferation of lung fibroblasts. • miR-26a induces G1 arrest through directly targeting 3′-UTR of CCND2. • TGF indispensable receptor, TGF-beta R I, is regulated by miR-26a. • miR-26a acts through inhibiting TGF-beta 2 feedback loop to reduce TGF-beta 1. • Collagen type I and connective tissue growth factor are suppressed by miR-26a. - Abstract: MicroRNA-26a is a newly discovered microRNA that has a strong anti-tumorigenic capacity and is capable of suppressing cell proliferation and activating tumor-specific apoptosis. However, whether miR-26a can inhibit the over-growth of lung fibroblasts remains unclear. The relationship between miR-26a and lung fibrosis was explored in the current study. We first investigated the effect of miR-26a on the proliferative activity of human lung fibroblasts with or without TGF-beta1 treatment. We found that the inhibition of endogenous miR-26a promoted proliferation and restoration of mature miR-26a inhibited the proliferation of human lung fibroblasts. We also examined that miR-26a can block the G1/S phase transition via directly targeting 3′-UTR of CCND2, degrading mRNA and decreasing protein expression of Cyclin D2. Furthermore, we showed that miR-26a mediated a TGF-beta 2-TGF-beta 1 feedback loop and inhibited TGF-beta R I activation. In addition, the overexpression of miR-26a also significantly suppressed the TGF-beta 1-interacting-CTGF–collagen fibrotic pathway. In summary, our studies indicated an essential role of miR-26a in the anti-fibrotic mechanism in TGF-beta1-induced proliferation in human lung fibroblasts, by directly targeting Cyclin D2, regulating TGF-beta R I as well as TGF-beta 2, and suggested the therapeutic potential of miR-26a in ameliorating lung fibrosis.

  9. Improvement of macrophage dysfunction by administration of anti-transforming growth factor-beta antibody in EL4-bearing hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, H; Tsuru, S; Shiraishi, A

    1994-11-01

    An experimental therapy for improvement of macrophage dysfunction caused by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) was tried in EL4 tumor-bearing mice. TGF-beta was detected in cell-free ascitic fluid from EL4-bearers, but not in that from normal mice, by western blot analysis. The ascites also showed growth-suppressive activity against Mv1Lu cells, and the suppressive activity was potentiated by transient acidification. To investigate whether the functions of peritoneal macrophages were suppressed in EL4-bearers, the abilities to produce nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation were measured. Both abilities of macrophages in EL4-bearing mice were suppressed remarkably on day 9, and decreased further by day 14, compared with non-tumor-bearing controls. TGF-beta activity was abrogated by administration of anti-TGF-beta antibody to EL4-bearing mice. While a large amount of TGF-beta was detected in ascitic fluid from control EL4-bearers, little TGF-beta was detectable in ascites from EL4-bearers given anti-TGF-beta antibody. Furthermore, while control macrophages exhibited little or no production of nitric oxide and TNF-alpha on LPS stimulation in vitro, macrophages from EL4-bearers administered with anti-TGF-beta antibody showed the same ability as normal macrophages. These results clearly indicate that TGF-beta contributes to macrophage dysfunction and that the administration of specific antibody for TGF-beta reverses macrophage dysfunction in EL4-bearing hosts.

  10. Expression and autoregulation of transforming growth factor beta receptor mRNA in small-cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, P; Spang-Thomsen, M; Poulsen, H S

    1996-01-01

    In small-cell lung cancer cell lines resistance to growth inhibition by transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta 1, was previously shown to correlate with lack of TGF-beta receptor I (RI) and II (RII) proteins. To further investigate the role of these receptors, the expression of mRNA for RI, RII...... and beta-glycan (RIII) was examined. The results showed that loss of RII mRNA correlated with TGF-beta 1 resistance. In contrast, RI-and beta-glycan mRNA was expressed by all cell lines, including those lacking expression of these proteins. According to Southern blot analysis, the loss of type II m......RNA was not due to gross structural changes in the gene. The effect of TGF-beta 1 on expression of TGF-beta receptor mRNA (receptor autoregulation) was examined by quantitative Northern blotting in four cell lines with different expression of TGF-beta receptor proteins. In two cell lines expressing all three TGF...

  11. Radioinduced intestinal fibrosis: from molecular mechanisms to therapy applications. Contribution of the TGF--{beta}1, of the CTGF and of the transduction pathway of the Rho/ROCK signal; La fibrose intestinale radio-induite: des mecanismes moleculaires aux applications therapeutiques. Roles du TGF-{beta}1, du CTGF et de la voie de transduction du signal Rho/ROCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haydont, V

    2006-12-15

    Delayed radiation enteritis is an intestinal fibrosis induced by accidental or therapeutic radiation for pelvic and abdominal cancer treatments. Studies of molecular mechanisms involved in the development and maintenance of fibrosis have showed the respective contribution of CTGF, low TGF-{beta}1 concentrations and Rho/ROCK pathway. Thus, based on the relationship between CTGF, TGF-{beta}1 and Rho pathway, 2 therapeutics strategies have been develop. First, a pravastatin curative gift leads to a fibro-lysis involving an inhibition of Rho and in cascade a reduction of CTGF expression and extracellular matrix deposition. The data suggest that reversal of established radiation fibrosis in the gut is possible. Second, a pravastatin prophylactic gift prevents the installation of a chronic fibrosis but does not protect the tumor. On the base of these results, the radiation therapy department of the Institut Gustave Roussy will soon initiate 2 clinical trials. (author)

  12. Transforming growth factor: beta signaling is essential for limb regeneration in axolotls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lévesque

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Axolotls (urodele amphibians have the unique ability, among vertebrates, to perfectly regenerate many parts of their body including limbs, tail, jaw and spinal cord following injury or amputation. The axolotl limb is the most widely used structure as an experimental model to study tissue regeneration. The process is well characterized, requiring multiple cellular and molecular mechanisms. The preparation phase represents the first part of the regeneration process which includes wound healing, cellular migration, dedifferentiation and proliferation. The redevelopment phase represents the second part when dedifferentiated cells stop proliferating and redifferentiate to give rise to all missing structures. In the axolotl, when a limb is amputated, the missing or wounded part is regenerated perfectly without scar formation between the stump and the regenerated structure. Multiple authors have recently highlighted the similarities between the early phases of mammalian wound healing and urodele limb regeneration. In mammals, one very important family of growth factors implicated in the control of almost all aspects of wound healing is the transforming growth factor-beta family (TGF-beta. In the present study, the full length sequence of the axolotl TGF-beta1 cDNA was isolated. The spatio-temporal expression pattern of TGF-beta1 in regenerating limbs shows that this gene is up-regulated during the preparation phase of regeneration. Our results also demonstrate the presence of multiple components of the TGF-beta signaling machinery in axolotl cells. By using a specific pharmacological inhibitor of TGF-beta type I receptor, SB-431542, we show that TGF-beta signaling is required for axolotl limb regeneration. Treatment of regenerating limbs with SB-431542 reveals that cellular proliferation during limb regeneration as well as the expression of genes directly dependent on TGF-beta signaling are down-regulated. These data directly implicate TGF-beta

  13. New insights into potential functions for the protein 4.1superfamily of proteins in kidney epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calinisan, Venice; Gravem, Dana; Chen, Ray Ping-Hsu; Brittin,Sachi; Mohandas, Narla; Lecomte, Marie-Christine; Gascard, Philippe

    2005-06-17

    Members of the protein 4.1 family of adapter proteins are expressed in a broad panel of tissues including various epithelia where they likely play an important role in maintenance of cell architecture and polarity and in control of cell proliferation. We have recently characterized the structure and distribution of three members of the protein 4.1 family, 4.1B, 4.1R and 4.1N, in mouse kidney. We describe here binding partners for renal 4.1 proteins, identified through the screening of a rat kidney yeast two-hybrid system cDNA library. The identification of putative protein 4.1-based complexes enables us to envision potential functions for 4.1 proteins in kidney: organization of signaling complexes, response to osmotic stress, protein trafficking, and control of cell proliferation. We discuss the relevance of these protein 4.1-based interactions in kidney physio-pathology in the context of their previously identified functions in other cells and tissues. Specifically, we will focus on renal 4.1 protein interactions with beta amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP), 14-3-3 proteins, and the cell swelling-activated chloride channel pICln. We also discuss the functional relevance of another member of the protein 4.1 superfamily, ezrin, in kidney physiopathology.

  14. Aqueous transforming growth factor-beta-I levels in rabbit eyes after excimer laser photoablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, K; Gürelik, G; Okur, H; Bilgihan, A; Hasanreisoglu, B; Imir, T

    1997-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) plays an important role in anterior segment wound healing, by controlling the cell proliferation and differentiation, angiogenesis, extracellular matrix composition and mediating the immunosuppressive properties of the aqueous humor. The present study was undertaken to clarify the possible changes of aqueous humor TGF-betaI levels after excimer laser photoablation. Twenty-eight New Zealand rabbits were divided into four groups of 7 rabbits each. Group 1 served as control, the central 7 mm of corneal epithelium was removed in groups 2, 3 and 4. We performed 50-microm corneal photoablation in group 3, and 100-microm ablation in group 4. After 48 h we measured the TGF-betaI levels of the aqueous humor by ELISA method. The mean TGF-betaI value of the aqueous humor was found to be 162.94+/-13.73 pg/ml in the control group. Mechanical deepithelialization did not change the TGF-betaI levels of the aqueous humor (p > 0.05). There was no significant difference between the 50-microm photoablated group and the controls (p > 0.05), but the TGF-betaI levels of the 100-microm photoablated group were found to be significantly higher than those of both the control group and 50-microm photoablated group (p < 0.05). Many factors and cytokines may induce corneal haze and myopic regression after excimer laser photoablation; our study demonstrated that TGF-betaI is one of these factors and there is a positive correlation between the depth of corneal photoablation and aqueous TGF-betaI concentrations.

  15. IL1-and TGF beta-Nox4 signaling, oxidative stress and DNA damage response are shared features of replicative, oncogene-induced, and drug-induced paracrine 'Bystander senescence'

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubáčková, Soňa; Krejčíková, Kateřina; Bartek, Jiří; Hodný, Zdeněk

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 12 (2012), 932-951 ISSN 1945-4589 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/08/1418; GA ČR GAP301/10/1525 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : senescence-associated secretome * DNA damage response * cytokines * JAK/STAT3 * TGF beta * NF kappa B * IL6 * IL beta * Nox4 * autocrine and paracrine signaling * tumor Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.696, year: 2012

  16. Effects of transforming growth factor-beta on growth and differentiation of the continuous rat thyroid follicular cell line, FRTL-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, J.C. III; Ranganathan, G.; Hay, I.D.; Nelson, R.E.; Jiang, N.S.

    1988-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta) has been shown to influence the growth and differentiation of many widely varied cell types in vitro, including some that are endocrinologically active. We have investigated the previously unknown effects of this unique growth factor in the differentiated rat thyroid follicular cell line FRTL-5. The cells demonstrated specific, high affinity binding of TGF beta, and as with other epithelial cells, the growth of these thyroid follicular cells was potently inhibited by addition of TGF beta to the culture medium. TGF beta caused a significant reduction in TSH-sensitive adenylate cyclase activity in the cells. The addition of (Bu)2cAMP along with the growth factor to cultures partially reversed the characteristic morphological changes seen with TGF beta, but did not reverse the growth inhibition. To further investigate the possible mechanisms of the effects of TGF beta on the cells, we measured the influence of the growth factor on [125I]TSH binding. TGF beta did not compete for specific TSH-binding sites; however, exposure of the cells to TGF beta for 12 or more h resulted in a dose-dependent down-regulation of TSH receptors that was fully reversible. While cellular proliferation was potently inhibited by TGF beta, differentiated function, as manifest by iodine-trapping ability, was stimulated by the growth factor. This stimulation of iodine uptake was independent of, and additive to, the stimulatory effects of TSH. Finally, FRTL-5 cells in serum-free medium and in response to TSH were shown to secrete TGF beta-like activity that competed for [125I]TGF beta in a RRA. These studies suggest that TGF beta may represent an autocrine mechanism of controlling the growth response to TSH in thyroid follicular cells, while allowing the continuance of differentiated function

  17. MetaSINEs: Broad Distribution of a Novel SINE Superfamily in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Hidenori; Plazzi, Federico; Passamonti, Marco; Okada, Norihiro

    2016-02-12

    SINEs (short interspersed elements) are transposable elements that typically originate independently in each taxonomic clade (order/family). However, some SINE families share a highly similar central sequence and are thus categorized as a SINE superfamily. Although only four SINE superfamilies (CORE-SINEs, V-SINEs, DeuSINEs, and Ceph-SINEs) have been reported so far, it is expected that new SINE superfamilies would be discovered by deep exploration of new SINEs in metazoan genomes. Here we describe 15 SINEs, among which 13 are novel, that have a similar 66-bp central region and therefore constitute a new SINE superfamily, MetaSINEs. MetaSINEs are distributed from fish to cnidarians, suggesting their common evolutionary origin at least 640 Ma. Because the 3' tails of MetaSINEs are variable, these SINEs most likely survived by changing their partner long interspersed elements for retrotransposition during evolution. Furthermore, we examined the presence of members of other SINE superfamilies in bivalve genomes and characterized eight new SINEs belonging to the CORE-SINEs, V-SINEs, and DeuSINEs, in addition to the MetaSINEs. The broad distribution of bivalve SINEs suggests that at least three SINEs originated in the common ancestor of Bivalvia. Our comparative analysis of the central domains of the SINEs revealed that, in each superfamily, only a restricted region is shared among all of its members. Because the functions of the central domains of the SINE superfamilies remain unknown, such structural information of SINE superfamilies will be useful for future experimental and comparative analyses to reveal why they have been retained in metazoan genomes during evolution. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  18. IL-6 inhibits upregulation of membrane-bound TGF-beta 1 on CD4+ T cells and blocking IL-6 enhances oral tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Chantal; Rezende, Rafael Machado; M'Hamdi, Hanane; da Cunha, Andre Pires; Weiner, Howard L.

    2016-01-01

    Oral administration of antigen induces regulatory T cells that express latent membrane-bound TGF-beta (LAP) and that have been shown to play an important role in the induction of oral tolerance. We developed an in vitro model to study modulation of LAP+ on CD4+ T cells. The combination of anti-CD3 mAb, anti-CD28 mAb and recombinant IL-2 induced expression of LAP on naïve CD4+ T cells, independent of FoxP3 or exogenous TGF-β. In vitro generated CD4+LAP+FoxP3− T cells were suppressive in vitro, inhibiting proliferation of naïve CD4+ T cells and IL-17A secretion by Th17 cells. Assessing the impact of different cytokines and neutralizing antibodies against cytokines we found that LAP induction was decreased in the presence of IL-6 and IL-21, and to a lesser extent by IL-4 and TNFα. IL-6 abrogated the in vitro induction of CD4+LAP+ T cells by STAT3 dependent inhibition of Lrrc32 (GARP), the adapter protein that tethers TGF-beta to the membrane. Oral tolerance induction was enhanced in mice lacking expression of IL-6R by CD4+ T cells and by treatment of wild-type mice with neutralizing anti-IL-6 mAb. These results suggest that pro-inflammatory cytokines interfere with oral tolerance induction and that blocking the IL-6 pathway is a potential strategy for enhancing oral tolerance in the setting of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. PMID:28039301

  19. Functional diversity of the superfamily of K⁺ transporters to meet various requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diskowski, Marina; Mikusevic, Vedrana; Stock, Charlott; Hänelt, Inga

    2015-09-01

    The superfamily of K+ transporters unites proteins from plants, fungi, bacteria, and archaea that translocate K+ and/or Na+ across membranes. These proteins are key components in osmotic regulation, pH homeostasis, and resistance to high salinity and dryness. The members of the superfamily are closely related to K+ channels such as KcsA but also show several striking differences that are attributed to their altered functions. This review highlights these functional differences, focusing on the bacterial superfamily members KtrB, TrkH, and KdpA. The functional variations within the family and comparison to MPM-type K+ channels are discussed in light of the recently solved structures of the Ktr and Trk systems.

  20. Designer TGFβ superfamily ligands with diversified functionality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George P Allendorph

    Full Text Available Transforming Growth Factor--beta (TGFβ superfamily ligands, including Activins, Growth and Differentiation Factors (GDFs, and Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs, are excellent targets for protein-based therapeutics because of their pervasiveness in numerous developmental and cellular processes. We developed a strategy termed RASCH (Random Assembly of Segmental Chimera and Heteromer, to engineer chemically-refoldable TGFβ superfamily ligands with unique signaling properties. One of these engineered ligands, AB208, created from Activin-βA and BMP-2 sequences, exhibits the refolding characteristics of BMP-2 while possessing Activin-like signaling attributes. Further, we find several additional ligands, AB204, AB211, and AB215, which initiate the intracellular Smad1-mediated signaling pathways more strongly than BMP-2 but show no sensitivity to the natural BMP antagonist Noggin unlike natural BMP-2. In another design, incorporation of a short N-terminal segment from BMP-2 was sufficient to enable chemical refolding of BMP-9, without which was never produced nor refolded. Our studies show that the RASCH strategy enables us to expand the functional repertoire of TGFβ superfamily ligands through development of novel chimeric TGFβ ligands with diverse biological and clinical values.

  1. Effects of transforming growth factor-beta1 and vascular endothelial growth factor 165 gene transfer on Achilles tendon healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yu; Mao, ZeBin; Wei, XueLei; Lin, Lin; Chen, LianXu; Wang, HaiJun; Fu, Xin; Zhang, JiYing; Yu, Changlong

    2009-07-01

    Repaired Achilles tendons typically take weeks before they are strong enough to handle physiological loads. Gene therapy is a promising treatment for Achilles tendon defects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the histological/biomechanical effects of Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) and vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF(165)) gene transfer on Achilles tendon healing in rabbits. Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (BMSCs) were transduced with adenovirus carrying human TGF-beta1 cDNA (Ad-TGF-beta1), human VEGF(165) cDNA (Ad-VEGF(165)), or both (PIRES-TGF-beta1/VEGF(165)) Viruses, no cDNA (Ad-GFP), and the BMSCs without gene transfer and the intact tendon were used as control. BMSCs were surgically implanted into the experimentally injured Achilles tendons. TGF-beta1 distribution, cellularity, nuclear aspect ratio, nuclear orientation angle, vascular number, collagen synthesis, and biomechanical features were measured at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after surgery. The TGF-beta1 and TGF beta 1/VEGF(165) co-expression groups exhibited improved parameters compared with other groups, while the VEGF(165) expression group had a negative impact. In the co-expression group, the angiogenesis effects of VEGF(165) were diminished by TGF-beta1, while the collagen synthesis effects of TGF-beta1 were unaltered by VEGF(165). Thus treatment with TGF-beta1 cDNA-transduced BMSCs grafts is a promising therapy for acceleration and improvement of tendon healing, leading to quicker recovery and improved biomechanical properties of Achilles tendons.

  2. Reversal of acute and chronic synovial inflammation by anti-transforming growth factor beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, S M; Allen, J B; Costa, G L; Wong, H L; Dasch, J R

    1993-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) induces leukocyte recruitment and activation, events central to an inflammatory response. In this study, we demonstrate that antagonism of TGF-beta with a neutralizing antibody not only blocks inflammatory cell accumulation, but also tissue pathology in an experimental model of chronic erosive polyarthritis. Intraarticular injection of monoclonal antibody 1D11.16, which inhibits both TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 bioactivity, into animals receiving an arthropathic dose of bacterial cell walls significantly inhibits arthritis. Inhibition was observed with a single injection of 50 micrograms antibody, and a 1-mg injection blocked acute inflammation > 75% compared with the contralateral joints injected with an irrelevant isotype control antibody (MOPC21) as quantitated by an articular index (AI = 0.93 +/- 0.23 for 1D11.16, and AI = 4.0 +/- 0 on day 4; p histopathologic and radiologic evidence of a therapeutic response. These data implicate TGF-beta as a profound agonist not only in the early events responsible for synovial inflammation, but also in the chronicity of streptococcal cell wall fragment-induced inflammation culminating in destructive pathology. Interrupting the cycle of leukocyte recruitment and activation with TGF-beta antagonists may provide a mechanism for resolution of chronic destructive lesions.

  3. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of perakine reductase, a new member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily from higher plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, Cindy [Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 5, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Mueller, Uwe [Berliner Elektronenspeicherring-Gesellschaft für Synchrotronstrahlung mbH, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Panjikar, Santosh [European Molecular Biology Laboratory Hamburg, Outstation Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestrasse 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany); Sun, Lianli [Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 5, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Department of TCM and Natural Drug Research, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 513 Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, 310058 Hangzhou (China); Ruppert, Martin [Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 5, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Zhao, Yu [Department of TCM and Natural Drug Research, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 513 Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, 310058 Hangzhou (China); Stöckigt, Joachim [Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 5, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Department of TCM and Natural Drug Research, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 513 Zijingang Campus, Zhejiang University, 310058 Hangzhou (China)

    2006-12-01

    Perakine reductase, a novel member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily of higher plants, is involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids in the Indian medicinal plant Rauvolfia serpentina. The enzyme has been crystallized in C-centered orthorhombic space group and diffracts to 2.0 Å resolution. Perakine reductase (PR) is a novel member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily from higher plants. PR from the plant Rauvolfia serpentina is involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids by performing NADPH-dependent reduction of perakine, yielding raucaffrinoline. However, PR can also reduce cinnamic aldehyde and some of its derivatives. After heterologous expression of a triple mutant of PR in Escherichia coli, crystals of the purified and methylated enzyme were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique at 293 K with 100 mM sodium citrate pH 5.6 and 27% PEG 4000 as precipitant. Crystals belong to space group C222{sub 1} and diffract to 2.0 Å, with unit-cell parameters a = 58.9, b = 93.0, c = 143.4 Å.

  4. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of perakine reductase, a new member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily from higher plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, Cindy; Mueller, Uwe; Panjikar, Santosh; Sun, Lianli; Ruppert, Martin; Zhao, Yu; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    Perakine reductase, a novel member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily of higher plants, is involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids in the Indian medicinal plant Rauvolfia serpentina. The enzyme has been crystallized in C-centered orthorhombic space group and diffracts to 2.0 Å resolution. Perakine reductase (PR) is a novel member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily from higher plants. PR from the plant Rauvolfia serpentina is involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids by performing NADPH-dependent reduction of perakine, yielding raucaffrinoline. However, PR can also reduce cinnamic aldehyde and some of its derivatives. After heterologous expression of a triple mutant of PR in Escherichia coli, crystals of the purified and methylated enzyme were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique at 293 K with 100 mM sodium citrate pH 5.6 and 27% PEG 4000 as precipitant. Crystals belong to space group C222 1 and diffract to 2.0 Å, with unit-cell parameters a = 58.9, b = 93.0, c = 143.4 Å

  5. Absence of transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor is associated with poorer prognosis in HER2-negative breast tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paiva, C E; Drigo, S A; Rosa, F E

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clinical relevance of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)-signalling pathway in breast carcinomas (BCs) remained elusive. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of TGF-beta1 and transforming growth factor-beta type II receptor (TGF-betaRII) expression levels in t...

  6. Growth regulation of simian and human AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines by TGF-β1 and IL-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levy Laura S

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (AIDS-NHL is the second most frequent cancer associated with AIDS, and is a frequent cause of death in HIV-infected individuals. Experimental analysis of AIDS-NHL has been facilitated by the availability of an excellent animal model, i.e., simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (SAIDS in the rhesus macaque consequent to infection with simian immunodeficiency virus. A recent study of SAIDS-NHL demonstrated a lymphoma-derived cell line to be sensitive to the growth inhibitory effects of the ubiquitous cytokine, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta. The authors concluded that TGF-beta acts as a negative growth regulator of the lymphoma-derived cell line and, potentially, as an inhibitory factor in the regulatory network of AIDS-related lymphomagenesis. The present study was conducted to assess whether other SAIDS-NHL and AIDS-NHL cell lines are similarly sensitive to the growth inhibitory effects of TGF-beta, and to test the hypothesis that interleukin-6 (IL-6 may represent a counteracting positive influence in their growth regulation. Methods Growth stimulation or inhibition in response to cytokine treatment was quantified using trypan blue exclusion or colorimetric MTT assay. Intracellular flow cytometry was used to analyze the activation of signaling pathways and to examine the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins and distinguishing hallmarks of AIDS-NHL subclass. Apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometric analysis of cell populations with sub-G1 DNA content and by measuring activated caspase-3. Results Results confirmed the sensitivity of LCL8664, an immunoblastic SAIDS-NHL cell line, to TGF-beta1-mediated growth inhibition, and further demonstrated the partial rescue by simultaneous treatment with IL-6. IL-6 was shown to activate STAT3, even in the presence of TGF-beta1, and thereby to activate proliferative and anti-apoptotic pathways. By comparison, human AIDS-NHL cell lines

  7. Endoglin negatively regulates transforming growth factor beta1-induced profibrotic responses in intestinal fibroblasts.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burke, J P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Fibroblasts isolated from strictures in Crohn\\'s disease (CD) exhibit reduced responsiveness to stimulation with transforming growth factor (TGF) beta1. TGF-beta1, acting through the smad pathway, is critical to fibroblast-mediated intestinal fibrosis. The membrane glycoprotein, endoglin, is a negative regulator of TGF-beta1. METHODS: Intestinal fibroblasts were cultured from seromuscular biopsies of patients undergoing intestinal resection for CD strictures or from control patients. Endoglin expression was assessed using confocal microscopy, flow cytometry and western blot. The effect of small interfering (si) RNA-mediated knockdown and plasmid-mediated overexpression of endoglin on fibroblast responsiveness to TGF-beta1 was assessed by examining smad phosphorylation, smad binding element (SBE) promoter activity, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression and ability to contract collagen. RESULTS: Crohn\\'s stricture fibroblasts expressed increased constitutive cell-surface and whole-cell endoglin relative to control cells. Endoglin co-localized with filamentous actin. Fibroblasts treated with siRNA directed against endoglin exhibited enhanced TGF-beta1-mediated smad-3 phosphorylation, and collagen contraction. Cells transfected with an endoglin plasmid did not respond to TGF-beta1 by exhibiting SBE promoter activity or producing CTGF. CONCLUSION: Fibroblasts from strictures in CD express increased constitutive endoglin. Endoglin is a negative regulator of TGF-beta1 signalling in the intestinal fibroblast, modulating smad-3 phosphorylation, SBE promoter activity, CTGF production and collagen contraction.

  8. Latent transforming growth factor beta1 activation in situ: quantitative and functional evidence after low-dose gamma-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, E. J.; Segarini, P.; Tsang, M. L.; Carroll, A. G.; Barcellos-Hoff, M. H.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    The biological activity of transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta) is controlled by its secretion as a latent complex in which it is noncovalently associated with latency-associated peptide (LAP). Activation is the extracellular process in which TGF-beta is released from LAP, and is considered to be a primary regulatory control. We recently reported rapid and persistent changes in TGF-beta immunoreactivity in conjunction with extracellular matrix remodeling in gamma-irradiated mouse mammary gland. Our hypothesis is that these specific changes in immunoreactivity are indicative of latent TGF-beta activation. In the present study, we determined the radiation dose response and tested whether a functional relationship exists between radiation-induced TGF-beta and collagen type III remodeling. After radiation exposures as low as 0.1 Gy, we detected increased TGF-beta immunoreactivity in the mammary epithelium concomitant with decreased LAP immunostaining, which are events consistent with activation. Quantitative image analysis demonstrated a significant (P=0.0005) response at 0.1 Gy without an apparent threshold and a linear dose response to 5 Gy. However, in the adipose stroma, loss of LAP demonstrated a qualitative threshold at 0.5 Gy. Loss of LAP paralleled induction of collagen III immunoreactivity in this tissue compartment. We tested whether TGF-beta mediates collagen III expression by treating animals with TGF-beta panspecific monoclonal antibody, 1D11.16, administered i.p. shortly before irradiation. Radiation-induced collagen III staining in the adipose stroma was blocked in an antibody dose-dependent manner, which persisted through 7 days postirradiation. RNase protection assay revealed that radiation-induced elevation of total gland collagen III mRNA was also blocked by neutralizing antibody treatment. These data provide functional confirmation of the hypothesis that radiation exposure leads to latent TGF-beta activation, support our interpretation of the

  9. Requirement of a novel splicing variant of human histone deacetylase 6 for TGF-{beta}1-mediated gene activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Yan [Department of Medicine, Tulane School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Nguyen, Hong T. [Graduate Program in Biomedical Sciences, Tulane School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Lasky, Joseph A. [Department of Medicine, Tulane School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Cao, Subing [Graduate Program in Biomedical Sciences, Tulane School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Li, Cui [Department of Medicine, Tulane School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Hunan 41008 (China); Hu, Jiyao; Guo, Xinyue; Burow, Matthew E. [Department of Medicine, Tulane School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Shan, Bin, E-mail: bshan@tulane.edu [Department of Medicine, Tulane School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States)

    2010-02-19

    Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) belongs to the family of class IIb HDACs and predominantly deacetylates non-histone proteins in the cytoplasm via the C-terminal deacetylase domain of its two tandem deacetylase domains. HDAC6 modulates fundamental cellular processes via deacetylation of {alpha}-tubulin, cortactin, molecular chaperones, and other peptides. Our previous study indicates that HDAC6 mediates TGF-{beta}1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in A549 cells. In the current study, we identify a novel splicing variant of human HDAC6, hHDAC6p114. The hHDAC6p114 mRNA arises from incomplete splicing and encodes a truncated isoform of the hHDAC6p114 protein of 114 kDa when compared to the major isoform hHDAC6p131. The hHDAC6p114 protein lacks the first 152 amino acids from N-terminus in the hHDAC6p131 protein, which harbors a nuclear export signal peptide and 76 amino acids of the N-terminal deacetylase domain. hHDAC6p114 is intact in its deacetylase activity against {alpha}-tubulin. The expression hHDAC6p114 is elevated in a MCF-7 derivative that exhibits an EMT-like phenotype. Moreover, hHDAC6p114 is required for TGF-{beta}1-activated gene expression associated with EMT in A549 cells. Taken together, our results implicate that expression and function of hHDAC6p114 is differentially regulated when compared to hHDAC6p131.

  10. Integrin Beta 3 Regulates Cellular Senescence by Activating the TGF-β Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rapisarda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cellular senescence is an important in vivo mechanism that prevents the propagation of damaged cells. However, the precise mechanisms regulating senescence are not well characterized. Here, we find that ITGB3 (integrin beta 3 or β3 is regulated by the Polycomb protein CBX7. β3 expression accelerates the onset of senescence in human primary fibroblasts by activating the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β pathway in a cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous manner. β3 levels are dynamically increased during oncogene-induced senescence (OIS through CBX7 Polycomb regulation, and downregulation of β3 levels overrides OIS and therapy-induced senescence (TIS, independently of its ligand-binding activity. Moreover, cilengitide, an αvβ3 antagonist, has the ability to block the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP without affecting proliferation. Finally, we show an increase in β3 levels in a subset of tissues during aging. Altogether, our data show that integrin β3 subunit is a marker and regulator of senescence.

  11. Higher TGF-beta With Lower CD124 and TSLP, But No Difference in PAR-2 Expression in Bronchial Biopsy of Bronchial Asthma Patients in Comparison With COPD Patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matěj, R.; Vašáková, M.; Kukal, J.; Šterclová, M.; Olejár, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 7 (2014), s. 543-549 ISSN 1541-2016 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : bronchial asthma * chronic obstructive pulmonary disease * TGF-beta * TSPL * CD124 * PAR-2 Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.012, year: 2014

  12. Increased transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and pSMAD3 signaling in a Murine Model for Contrast Induced Kidney Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilari, Sreenivasulu; Yang, Binxia; Sharma, Amit; McCall, Deborah L; Misra, Sanjay

    2018-04-26

    We tested the hypothesis that post-contrast acute kidney injury (PC-AKI) occurs due to increase in transforming growth factor beta (Tgf-β) and pSMAD3 signaling in a murine model of PC-AKI. Mice had nephrectomy performed and twenty-eight days later, 100-μL of radio-contrast (Vispaque 320) or saline was administered via the jugular vein. Animals were sacrificed at 2, 7, and 28 days later and the serum BUN, creatinine, urine protein levels, and kidney weights were assessed. In human kidney-2 (HK-2) cells, gene and protein expression with cellular function was assessed following inhibition of TGFβR-1 plus contrast exposure. After contrast administration, the average serum creatinine is significantly elevated at all time points. The average gene expression of connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf), Tgfβ-1, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (Mmp-9), and collagen IVa (Col IVa) are significantly increased at 2 days after contrast administration (P < 0.05). Cellular proliferation is decreased and there is increased apoptosis with tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Contrast administered to HK-2 cells results in increased pSMAD3 levels and gene expression of Ctgf, Tgfβ-1, Tgfβ-2, Col IVa, Mmp-9, and caspase/7 activity with a decrease in proliferation (all, P < 0.05). TGFβR-1 inhibition decreased the expression of contrast mediated pro-fibrotic genes in HK-2 cells with no change in the proliferation and apoptosis.

  13. Feedback regulation of TGF-β signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaohua; Xiong, Xiangyang; Chen, Ye-Guang

    2018-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multi-functional polypeptide that plays a critical role in regulating a broad range of cellular functions and physiological processes. Signaling is initiated when TGF-β ligands bind to two types of cell membrane receptors with intrinsic Ser/Thr kinase activity and transmitted by the intracellular Smad proteins, which act as transcription factors to regulate gene expression in the nucleus. Although it is relatively simple and straight-forward, this TGF-β/Smad pathway is regulated by various feedback loops at different levels, including the ligand, the receptor, Smads and transcription, and is thus fine-tuned in terms of signaling robustness, duration, specificity, and plasticity. The precise control gives rise to versatile and context-dependent pathophysiological functions. In this review, we firstly give an overview of TGF-β signaling, and then discuss how each step of TGF-β signaling is finely controlled by distinct modes of feedback mechanisms, involving both protein regulators and miRNAs. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. TGF-β2 and TGF-β3 from cultured β-amyloid-treated or 3xTg-AD-derived astrocytes may mediate astrocyte-neuron communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapella, Laura; Cerruti, Matteo; Biocotino, Isabella; Stevano, Alessio; Rocchio, Francesca; Canonico, Pier Luigi; Grilli, Mariagrazia; Genazzani, Armando A; Lim, Dmitry

    2018-02-01

    Astrocytes participate in the development and resolution of neuroinflammation in numerous ways, including the release of cytokines and growth factors. Among many, astrocytes release transforming growth factors beta (TGF-β) TGF-β1, TGF-β2 and TGF-β3. TGF-β1 is the most studied isoform, while production and release of TGF-β2 and TGF-β3 by astrocytes have been poorly characterized. Here, we report that purified cultures of hippocampal astrocytes produce mainly TGF-β3 followed by TGF-β2 and TGF-β1. Furthermore, astrocytes release principally the active form of TGF-β3 over the other two. Changes in release of TGF-β were sensitive to the calcineurin (CaN) inhibitor FK506. Starvation had no effect on TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 while TGF-β2 mRNA was significantly up-regulated in a CaN-dependent manner. We further investigated production and release of astroglial TGF-β in Alzheimer's disease-related conditions. Oligomeric β-amyloid (Aβ) down-regulated TGF-β1, while up-regulating TGF-β2 and TGF-β3, in a CaN-dependent manner. In cultured hippocampal astrocytes from 3xTg-AD mice, TGF-β2 and TGF-β3, but not TGF-β1, were up-regulated, and this was CaN-independent. In hippocampal tissues from symptomatic 3xTg-AD mice, TGF-β2 was up-regulated with respect to control mice. Finally, treatment with recombinant TGF-βs showed that TGF-β2 and TGF-β3 significantly reduced PSD95 protein in cultured hippocampal neurons, and this effect was paralleled by conditioned media from Aβ-treated astrocytes or from astrocytes from 3xTg-AD mice. Taken together, our data suggest that TGF-β2 and TGF-β3 are produced by astrocytes in a CaN-dependent manner and should be investigated further in the context of astrocyte-mediated neurodegeneration. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. How to find soluble proteins: a comprehensive analysis of alpha/beta hydrolases for recombinant expression in E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth Sandra

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In screening of libraries derived by expression cloning, expression of active proteins in E. coli can be limited by formation of inclusion bodies. In these cases it would be desirable to enrich gene libraries for coding sequences with soluble gene products in E. coli and thus to improve the efficiency of screening. Previously Wilkinson and Harrison showed that solubility can be predicted from amino acid composition (Biotechnology 1991, 9(5:443–448. We have applied this analysis to members of the alpha/beta hydrolase fold family to predict their solubility in E. coli. alpha/beta hydrolases are a highly diverse family with more than 1800 proteins which have been grouped into homologous families and superfamilies. Results The predicted solubility in E. coli depends on hydrolase size, phylogenetic origin of the host organism, the homologous family and the superfamily, to which the hydrolase belongs. In general small hydrolases are predicted to be more soluble than large hydrolases, and eukaryotic hydrolases are predicted to be less soluble in E. coli than prokaryotic ones. However, combining phylogenetic origin and size leads to more complex conclusions. Hydrolases from prokaryotic, fungal and metazoan origin are predicted to be most soluble if they are of small, medium and large size, respectively. We observed large variations of predicted solubility between hydrolases from different homologous families and from different taxa. Conclusion A comprehensive analysis of all alpha/beta hydrolase sequences allows more efficient screenings for new soluble alpha/beta hydrolases by the use of libraries which contain more soluble gene products. Screening of hydrolases from families whose members are hard to express as soluble proteins in E. coli should first be done in coding sequences of organisms from phylogenetic groups with the highest average of predicted solubility for proteins of this family. The tools developed here can be used

  16. Study of collagen metabolism and regulation after {beta} radiation injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yinghui, Zhou; Lan, Xu; Shiliang, Wu; Hao, Qiu; Zhi, Jiang; Youbin, Tu; Xueguang, Zhang [Suzhou Medical College (China)

    2001-04-01

    The animal model of {beta} radiation injury was established by the {beta} radiation produced by the linear accelerator; and irradiated NIH 3T3 cells were studied. In the experiment the contents of total collagen, collagen type I and type III were measured. The activity of MMPs-1 were tested. The contents of TGF-{beta}{sub 1}, IL-6 were also detected. The results showed that after exposure to {beta} radiation, little change was found in the content of total collagen, but the content of collagen I decreased and the content of collagen III, MMPs-1 activity increased; the expression of TGF-{beta}{sub 1}, IL-6 increased. The results suggest that changes in the metabolism of collagen play an important role in the irradiated injury of the skin; TGF-{beta}{sub 1}, IL-6 may be essential in the regulation of the collagen metabolism.

  17. High value of the radiobiological parameter Dq correlates to expression of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor in a panel of small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, S; Krarup, M; Nørgaard, P

    1998-01-01

    Our panel of SCLC cell lines have previously been examined for their radiobiological characteristics and sensitivity to treatment with TGF beta 1. In this study we examined the possible correlations between radiobiological parameters and the expression of the TGF beta type II receptor (TGF beta......-rII). We have, in other studies, shown that the presence of TGF beta-rII was mandatory for transmitting the growth inhibitory effect of TGF beta. The results showed a statistically significant difference in Dq, i.e. the shoulder width of the survival curve, between cell lines expressing TGF beta......-rII and cell lines which did not express the receptor (P = 0.01). Cell lines expressing TGF beta-rII had a high Dq-value. TGF beta-rII expression did not correlate with any other radiobiological parameters. We suggest that an intact growth inhibitory pathway mediated by the TGF beta-rII may have a significant...

  18. Transforming growth factor-beta1 adsorbed to tricalciumphosphate coated implants increases peri-implant bone remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, M.; Overgaard, S; Glerup, H

    2001-01-01

    inserted bilaterally into the femoral condyles of 10 skeletally mature mongrel dogs. The implants were initially surrounded by a 2 mm gap. Implants with 0.3 microg rhTGF-beta1 were compared with implants without growth factor. The dogs were sacrificed after six weeks. Bone remodeling was evaluated...... by histomorphometry on Goldner-stained undecalcified sections. The bone volume in the gap was increased significantly from 17.6% in the control group to 25.6% in the rhTGF-beta1 group (p = 0.03). Also bone surface was increased in the rhTGF-beta1 group. The osteoclast covered surfaces were increased from 3.......6% in the control group to 5.9% in the rhTGF-beta1 group (p = 0.02). In the surrounding trabecular bone no significant changes in bone remodeling parameters was demonstrated. This study suggests that rhTGF-beta1 adsorbed onto TCP-ceramic coated implants accelerates repair activity in the newly formed bone close...

  19. Transforming growth factor β (CiTGF-β) gene expression is induced in the inflammatory reaction of Ciona intestinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizzini, Aiti; Di Falco, Felicia; Parrinello, Daniela; Sanfratello, Maria Antonietta; Cammarata, Matteo

    2016-02-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF-β) is a well-known component of a regulatory cytokines superfamily that has pleiotropic functions in a broad range of cell types and is involved, in vertebrates, in numerous physiological and pathological processes. In the current study, we report on Ciona intestinalis molecular characterisation and expression of a transforming growth factor β homologue (CiTGF-β). The gene organisation, phylogenetic tree and modelling supported the close relationship with the mammalian TGF suggesting that the C. intestinalis TGF-β gene shares a common ancestor in the chordate lineages. Functionally, real-time PCR analysis showed that CiTGF-β was transcriptionally upregulated in the inflammatory process induced by LPS inoculation, suggesting that is involved in the first phase and significant in the secondary phase of the inflammatory response in which cell differentiation occurs. In situ hybridisation assays revealed that the genes transcription was upregulated in the pharynx, the main organ of the ascidian immune system, and expressed by cluster of hemocytes inside the pharynx vessels. These data supported the view that CiTGF-β is a potential molecule in immune defence systems against bacterial infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The dynamics of TGF-β in dental pulp, odontoblasts and dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Takahiko; Yamakoshi, Yasuo; Yamazaki, Hajime; Karakida, Takeo; Chiba, Risako; Hu, Jan C-C; Nagano, Takatoshi; Yamamoto, Ryuji; Simmer, James P; Margolis, Henry C; Gomi, Kazuhiro

    2018-03-13

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is critical for cell proliferation and differentiation in dental pulp. Here, we show the dynamic mechanisms of TGF-β in porcine dental pulp, odontoblasts and dentin. The mRNA of latent TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 is predominantly expressed in odontoblasts, whereas the mRNA expression level of latent TGF-β2 is high in dental pulp. TGF-β1 is a major isoform of TGF-β, and latent TGF-β1, synthesized in dental pulp, is primarily activated by matrix metalloproteinase 11 (MMP11). Activated TGF-β1 enhances the mRNA expression levels of MMP20 and full-length dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) in dental pulp cells, coinciding with the induction of odontoblast differentiation. Latent TGF-β1 synthesized in odontoblasts is primarily activated by MMP2 and MMP20 in both odontoblasts and dentin. The activity level of TGF-β1 was reduced in the dentin of MMP20 null mice, although the amount of latent TGF-β1 expression did not change between wild-type and MMP20 null mice. TGF-β1 activity was reduced with the degradation of DSPP-derived proteins that occurs with ageing. We propose that to exert its multiple biological functions, TGF-β1 is involved in a complicated dynamic interaction with matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and/or DSPP-derived proteins present in dental pulp, odontoblasts and dentin.

  1. CD177: A member of the Ly-6 gene superfamily involved with neutrophil proliferation and polycythemia vera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettinotti Maria

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genes in the Leukocyte Antigen 6 (Ly-6 superfamily encode glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI anchored glycoproteins (gp with conserved domains of 70 to 100 amino acids and 8 to 10 cysteine residues. Murine Ly-6 genes encode important lymphocyte and hematopoietic stem cell antigens. Recently, a new member of the human Ly-6 gene superfamily has been described, CD177. CD177 is polymorphic and has at least two alleles, PRV-1 and NB1. CD177 was first described as PRV-1, a gene that is overexpressed in neutrophils from approximately 95% of patients with polycythemia vera and from about half of patients with essential thrombocythemia. CD177 encodes NB1 gp, a 58–64 kD GPI gp that is expressed by neutrophils and neutrophil precursors. NB1 gp carries Human Neutrophil Antigen (HNA-2a. Investigators working to identify the gene encoding NB1 gp called the CD177 allele they described NB1. NB1 gp is unusual in that neutrophils from some healthy people lack the NB1 gp completely and in most people NB1 gp is expressed by a subpopulation of neutrophils. The function of NB1 gp and the role of CD177 in the pathogenesis and clinical course of polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia are not yet known. However, measuring neutrophil CD177 mRNA levels has become an important marker for diagnosing the myeloproliferative disorders polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia.

  2. Factor de crecimiento transformante beta-1: estructura, función y mecanismos de regulación en cáncer Transforming growth factor beta-1: structure, function and regulation mechanisms in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Peralta-Zaragoza

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available El factor de crecimiento transformante beta-1 (TGF-beta1 es sintetizado por muchas estirpes celulares como linfocitos, macrófagos y células dendríticas, y su expresión regula de manera autócrina o parácrina la diferenciación, proliferación y el estado de activación de éstas y muchas otras células. En general, el TGF-beta1 tiene propiedades pleiotrópicas en el contexto de la respuesta inmune durante el desarrollo de infecciones y procesos neoplásicos; sin embargo, los mecanismos de acción y regulación de la expresión de esta citocina aún no se comprenden del todo. En la presente revisión se describen las propiedades biológicas y los procesos moleculares que regulan la expresión del TGF-beta1, para entender los efectos de esta citocina durante la proliferación y la diferenciación celular. El conocimiento de los mecanismos moleculares de la regulación del TGF-beta1 puede representar una importante estrategia de tratamiento del cáncer. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.htmlTransforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-beta1 is produced by several cell lineages such as lymphocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, and its expression serves in both autocrine and paracrine modes to control the differentiation, proliferation, and state of activation of these and other cells. In general, TGF-beta1 has pleiotropic properties on the immune response during the development of infection diseases and cancer; however, the mechanisms of action and regulation of gene expression of this cytokine are poorly understood, In this review, the biological properties and the molecular mechanisms that regulate TGF-beta1 gene expression are described, to understand the role of this cytokine in growth and cell differentiation. The knowledge of molecular mechanisms of gene expression of TGF-beta1 may serve to develop new cancer therapies. The English version of this paper is available at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  3. Production and action of transforming growth factor-beta in human osteoblast cultures: dependence on cell differentiation and modulation by calcitriol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, M; Kveiborg, Marie; Eriksen, E F

    2000-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) plays an important role in skeletal remodelling. However, few studies have examined its effects on cultured human osteoblasts. Our aim is to characterise the biological effects of TGF-beta1 on human osteoblasts and to examine the interaction between TGF-...

  4. The TGF-β/Smad4 Signaling Pathway in Pancreatic Carcinogenesis and Its Clinical Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunjida Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC is one of the most fatal human cancers due to its complicated genomic instability. PDAC frequently presents at an advanced stage with extensive metastasis, which portends a poor prognosis. The known risk factors associated with PDAC include advanced age, smoking, long-standing chronic pancreatitis, obesity, and diabetes. Its association with genomic and somatic mutations is the most important factor for its aggressiveness. The most common gene mutations associated with PDAC include KRas2, p16, TP53, and Smad4. Among these, Smad4 mutation is relatively specific and its inactivation is found in more than 50% of invasive pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Smad4 is a member of the Smad family of signal transducers and acts as a central mediator of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β signaling pathways. The TGF-β signaling pathway promotes many physiological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, proliferation, fibrosis, and scar formation. It also plays a major role in the development of tumors through induction of angiogenesis and immune suppression. In this review, we will discuss the molecular mechanism of TGF-β/Smad4 signaling in the pathogenesis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma and its clinical implication, particularly potential as a prognostic factor and a therapeutic target.

  5. LAP TGF-Beta Subset of CD4+CD25+CD127− Treg Cells is Increased and Overexpresses LAP TGF-Beta in Lung Adenocarcinoma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islas-Vazquez, Lorenzo; Aguilar-Cazares, Dolores; Meneses-Flores, Manuel; Galicia-Velasco, Miriam; Romero-Garcia, Susana; Camacho-Mendoza, Catalina; Lopez-Gonzalez, Jose Sullivan

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Adenocarcinoma, the most commonly diagnosed histologic type of lung cancer, is associated with smoking. Cigarette smoke promotes inflammation on the airways, which might be mediated by Th17 cells. This inflammatory environment may contribute to tumor development. In contrast, some reports indicate that tumors may induce immunosuppressive Treg cells to dampen immune reactivity, supporting tumor growth and progression. Thus, we aimed to analyze whether chronic inflammation or immunosuppression predominates at the systemic level in lung adenocarcinoma patients, and several cytokines and Th17 and Treg cells were studied. Higher proportions of IL-17-producing CD4+ T-cells were found in smoking control subjects and in lung adenocarcinoma patients compared to nonsmoking control subjects. In addition, lung adenocarcinoma patients increased both plasma concentrations of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10, and proportions of Latency Associated Peptide (LAP) TGF-β subset of CD4+CD25+CD127− Treg cells, which overexpressed LAP TGF-β. This knowledge may lead to the development of immunotherapies that could inhibit the suppressor activity mediated by the LAP TGF-β subset of CD4+CD25+CD127− Treg cells to promote reactivity of immune cells against lung adenocarcinoma cells. PMID:26582240

  6. LAP TGF-Beta Subset of CD4+CD25+CD127− Treg Cells is Increased and Overexpresses LAP TGF-Beta in Lung Adenocarcinoma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Islas-Vazquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Adenocarcinoma, the most commonly diagnosed histologic type of lung cancer, is associated with smoking. Cigarette smoke promotes inflammation on the airways, which might be mediated by Th17 cells. This inflammatory environment may contribute to tumor development. In contrast, some reports indicate that tumors may induce immunosuppressive Treg cells to dampen immune reactivity, supporting tumor growth and progression. Thus, we aimed to analyze whether chronic inflammation or immunosuppression predominates at the systemic level in lung adenocarcinoma patients, and several cytokines and Th17 and Treg cells were studied. Higher proportions of IL-17-producing CD4+ T-cells were found in smoking control subjects and in lung adenocarcinoma patients compared to nonsmoking control subjects. In addition, lung adenocarcinoma patients increased both plasma concentrations of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10, and proportions of Latency Associated Peptide (LAP TGF-β subset of CD4+CD25+CD127− Treg cells, which overexpressed LAP TGF-β. This knowledge may lead to the development of immunotherapies that could inhibit the suppressor activity mediated by the LAP TGF-β subset of CD4+CD25+CD127− Treg cells to promote reactivity of immune cells against lung adenocarcinoma cells.

  7. Role for transforming growth factor-beta1 in alport renal disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, R; Kalluri, R; Rodgers, K D; Shield, C F; Meehan, D T; Cosgrove, D

    1999-11-01

    Alport syndrome results from mutations in either the alpha3(IV), alpha4(IV), or alpha5(IV) collagen genes. The disease is characterized by a progressive glomerulonephritis usually associated with a high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss. A mouse model for an autosomal form of Alport syndrome [collagen alpha3(IV) knockout] was produced and characterized. In this study, the model was exploited to demonstrate a potential role for transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) in Alport renal disease pathogenesis. Kidneys from normal and Alport mice, taken at different stages during the course of renal disease progression, were analyzed by Northern blot, in situ hybridization, and immunohistology for expression of TGF-beta1 and components of the extracellular matrix. Normal and Alport human kidney was examined for TGF-beta1 expression using RNase protection. The mRNAs encoding TGF-beta1 (in both mouse and human), entactin, fibronectin, and the collagen alpha1(IV) and alpha2(IV) chains were significantly induced in total kidney as a function of Alport renal disease progression. The induction of these specific mRNAs was observed in the glomerular podocytes of animals with advanced disease. Type IV collagen, laminin-1, and fibronectin were markedly elevated in the tubulointerstitium at 10 weeks, but not at 6 weeks, suggesting that elevated expression of specific mRNAs on Northern blots reflects events associated with tubulointerstitial fibrosis. The concomitant accumulation of mRNAs encoding TGF-beta1 and extracellular matrix components in the podocytes of diseased kidneys may reflect key events in Alport renal disease progression. These data suggest a role for TGF-beta1 in both glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage associated with Alport syndrome.

  8. Expression of TGF-β3 in Isolated Fibroblasts from Foreskin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Mahmoudi Rad

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The multifunctional transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β is a glycoprotein that exists in three isoforms. TGF-β3 expression increases in fetal wound healing and reduces fibronectin and collagen I and III deposition, and also improves the architecture of the neodermis which is a combination of blood vessels and connective tissue during wound healing. Fibroblasts are key cells in the wound healing process. TGF-β3 plays a critical role in scar-free wound healing and fibroblast actions in the wound healing process. The aim of this study was to express the TGF-β3 gene (tgf-b3 in human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF’s. Methods: We obtained HFF’s from a newborn and a primary fibroblast culture was prepared. The cells were transfected with TGF-β3-pCMV6-XL5 plasmid DNA by both lipofection and electroporation. Expression of TGF-β3 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: The highest TGF-β3 expression (8.3-fold greater than control was obtained by lipofection after 72 hours using 3 μl of transfection reagent. Expression was 1.4-fold greater than control by electroporation. Conclusions: In this study, we successfully increased TGF-β3 expression in primary fibroblast cells. In the future, grafting these transfected fibroblasts onto wounds can help the healing process without scarring.

  9. Transforming growth factor beta 1 modulates extracellular matrix organization and cell-cell junctional complex formation during in vitro angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merwin, J R; Anderson, J M; Kocher, O; Van Itallie, C M; Madri, J A

    1990-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) is angiogenic in vivo. In two-dimensional (2-D) culture systems microvascular endothelial cell proliferation is inhibited up to 80% by TGF-beta 1; however, in three-dimensional (3-D) collagen gels TGF-beta 1 is found to have no effect on proliferation while eliciting the formation of calcium and magnesium dependent tube-like structures mimicking angiogenesis. DNA analyses performed on 3-D cell cultures reveal no significant difference in the amount of DNA or cell number in control versus TGF-beta 1 treated cultures. In 2-D cultures TGF-beta 1 is known to increase cellular fibronectin accumulation; however, in 3-D cultures no difference is seen between control and TGF-beta 1 treated cells as established by ELISA testing for type IV collagen, fibronectin, and laminin. In 3-D cultures there is increased synthesis and secretion of type V collagen in both control and TGF-beta 1 treated cultures over 2-D cultures. Even though an equal amount of type V collagen is seen in both 3-D conditions, there is a reorganization of the protein with concentration along an organizing basal lamina in TGF-beta 1 treated cultures. EM morphological analyses on 3-D cultures illustrate quiescent, control cells lacking cell contacts. In contrast, TGF-beta 1 treated cells show increased pseudopod formation, cell-cell contact, and organized basal lamina-like material closely apposed to the "abluminal" plasma membranes. TGF-beta 1 treated cells also appear to form junctional complexes between adjoining cells. Immunofluorescence using specific antibodies to the tight junction protein ZO-1 results in staining at apparent cell-cell junctions in the 3-D cultures. Northern blots of freshly isolated microvascular endothelium, 2-D and 3-D cultures, using cDNA and cRNA probes specific for the ZO-1 tight junction protein, reveal the presence of the 7.8 kb mRNA. Western blots of rat epididymal fat pad endothelial cells (RFC) monolayer lysates probed with

  10. Structural and Biochemical Investigation of PglF from Campylobacter jejuni Reveals a New Mechanism for a Member of the Short Chain Dehydrogenase/Reductase Superfamily

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riegert, Alexander S. [Department; Thoden, James B. [Department; Schoenhofen, Ian C. [National; Watson, David C. [National; Young, N. Martin [National; Tipton, Peter A. [Department; Holden, Hazel M. [Department

    2017-11-03

    Within recent years it has become apparent that protein glycosylation is not limited to eukaryotes. Indeed, in Campylobacter jejuni, a Gram-negative bacterium, more than 60 of its proteins are known to be glycosylated. One of the sugars found in such glycosylated proteins is 2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxy-α-d-glucopyranose, hereafter referred to as QuiNAc4NAc. The pathway for its biosynthesis, initiating with UDP-GlcNAc, requires three enzymes referred to as PglF, PglE, and PlgD. The focus of this investigation is on PglF, an NAD+-dependent sugar 4,6-dehydratase known to belong to the short chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily. Specifically, PglF catalyzes the first step in the pathway, namely, the dehydration of UDP-GlcNAc to UDP-2-acetamido-2,6-dideoxy-α-d-xylo-hexos-4-ulose. Most members of the SDR superfamily contain a characteristic signature sequence of YXXXK where the conserved tyrosine functions as a catalytic acid or a base. Strikingly, in PglF, this residue is a methionine. Here we describe a detailed structural and functional investigation of PglF from C. jejuni. For this investigation five X-ray structures were determined to resolutions of 2.0 Å or better. In addition, kinetic analyses of the wild-type and site-directed variants were performed. On the basis of the data reported herein, a new catalytic mechanism for a SDR superfamily member is proposed that does not require the typically conserved tyrosine residue.

  11. TGF-b y un inhibidor específico de TGF-b regulan pericentrina B y MYH9 en células de glioma TGF-b and a specific TGF-b inhibitor regulate pericentrin B and MYH9 in glioma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rich Jeremy N.

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Malignant gliomas are heterogeneous, highly invasive vascular tumours. The multifunctional cytokine, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-P, is expressed by grade III/IV gliomas and promotes tumour angiogenesis, invasión and immune escape. It has been shown previously that a small TGF-P receptor type I (TGF-(3-RI molecule inhibitor (SB-431542 blocks TGF-(3-mediated signal transduction, induction of angiogenic factor expression and cellular motility. As glioma cell lines display differential sensitivity to TGF-P, it was expected that they would also be differentially impacted by disruption of TGF-P signalling. Differential in gel expression (DIGE analysis and mass spectrometry was used in this work for determining protein regulation effects of both TGF-P and SB-431542 on human glioma cell lines. It was found that pericentrin B and non muscle myosin were differentially expressed in fragments which likely resulted from protease activation by the tumour growth mechanism. These results suggest that both pericentrin B and non-muscle myosin might be potential glioma biomarkers. Key words: DIGE, proteomics, glioma, TGF-P, mass spectrometry, non muscle myosin, pericentrin B.Los gliomas malignos son tumores vasculares heterogéneos altamente invasivos. El factor de transformación de creci­miento P (TGF-P es una citoquina multifuncional que es expresada por gliomas de grado III /IV y promueve angiogenesis de tumores, invasión y escape inmunológico. Recientemente se demostró que una pequeña molécula inhibidora (SB-431542 del receptor de TGF-P tipo I (TGF-P-RI, bloquea la señal de transducción mediada por TGF-P, la inducción del factor angiogénico de expresión y la movilidad celular. Ya que las líneas celulares de gliomas mues­tran sensitividad diferencial a TGF-P, se esperaba que también mostrarían impacto diferencial por el bloqueo de la señal de TGF-p. En el presente trabajo se usó un análisis diferencial en gel (DIGE, por sus

  12. A global view of structure-function relationships in the tautomerase superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Rebecca; Baas, Bert-Jan; Akiva, Eyal; Holliday, Gemma L; Polacco, Benjamin J; LeVieux, Jake A; Pullara, Collin R; Zhang, Yan Jessie; Whitman, Christian P; Babbitt, Patricia C

    2018-02-16

    The tautomerase superfamily (TSF) consists of more than 11,000 nonredundant sequences present throughout the biosphere. Characterized members have attracted much attention because of the unusual and key catalytic role of an N-terminal proline. These few characterized members catalyze a diverse range of chemical reactions, but the full scale of their chemical capabilities and biological functions remains unknown. To gain new insight into TSF structure-function relationships, we performed a global analysis of similarities across the entire superfamily and computed a sequence similarity network to guide classification into distinct subgroups. Our results indicate that TSF members are found in all domains of life, with most being present in bacteria. The eukaryotic members of the cis -3-chloroacrylic acid dehalogenase subgroup are limited to fungal species, whereas the macrophage migration inhibitory factor subgroup has wide eukaryotic representation (including mammals). Unexpectedly, we found that 346 TSF sequences lack Pro-1, of which 85% are present in the malonate semialdehyde decarboxylase subgroup. The computed network also enabled the identification of similarity paths, namely sequences that link functionally diverse subgroups and exhibit transitional structural features that may help explain reaction divergence. A structure-guided comparison of these linker proteins identified conserved transitions between them, and kinetic analysis paralleled these observations. Phylogenetic reconstruction of the linker set was consistent with these findings. Our results also suggest that contemporary TSF members may have evolved from a short 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase-like ancestor followed by gene duplication and fusion. Our new linker-guided strategy can be used to enrich the discovery of sequence/structure/function transitions in other enzyme superfamilies. © 2018 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. An engineered transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) monomer that functions as a dominant negative to block TGF-β signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sun Kyung; Barron, Lindsey; Hinck, Cynthia S.; Petrunak, Elyse M.; Cano, Kristin E.; Thangirala, Avinash; Iskra, Brian; Brothers, Molly; Vonberg, Machell; Leal, Belinda; Richter, Blair; Kodali, Ravindra; Taylor, Alexander B.; Du, Shoucheng; Barnes, Christopher O.; Sulea, Traian; Calero, Guillermo; Hart, P. John; Hart, Matthew J.; Demeler, Borries; Hinck, Andrew P. (Texas-HSC); (NRCC); (Pitt)

    2017-02-22

    The transforming growth factor β isoforms, TGF-β1, -β2, and -β3, are small secreted homodimeric signaling proteins with essential roles in regulating the adaptive immune system and maintaining the extracellular matrix. However, dysregulation of the TGF-β pathway is responsible for promoting the progression of several human diseases, including cancer and fibrosis. Despite the known importance of TGF-βs in promoting disease progression, no inhibitors have been approved for use in humans. Herein, we describe an engineered TGF-β monomer, lacking the heel helix, a structural motif essential for binding the TGF-β type I receptor (TβRI) but dispensable for binding the other receptor required for TGF-β signaling, the TGF-β type II receptor (TβRII), as an alternative therapeutic modality for blocking TGF-β signaling in humans. As shown through binding studies and crystallography, the engineered monomer retained the same overall structure of native TGF-β monomers and bound TβRII in an identical manner. Cell-based luciferase assays showed that the engineered monomer functioned as a dominant negative to inhibit TGF-β signaling with a Ki of 20–70 nM. Investigation of the mechanism showed that the high affinity of the engineered monomer for TβRII, coupled with its reduced ability to non-covalently dimerize and its inability to bind and recruit TβRI, enabled it to bind endogenous TβRII but prevented it from binding and recruiting TβRI to form a signaling complex. Such engineered monomers provide a new avenue to probe and manipulate TGF-β signaling and may inform similar modifications of other TGF-β family members.

  14. Self-Assembly in the Ferritin Nano-Cage Protein Superfamily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Protein self-assembly, through specific, high affinity, and geometrically constraining protein-protein interactions, can control and lead to complex cellular nano-structures. Establishing an understanding of the underlying principles that govern protein self-assembly is not only essential to appreciate the fundamental biological functions of these structures, but could also provide a basis for their enhancement for nano-material applications. The ferritins are a superfamily of well studied proteins that self-assemble into hollow cage-like structures which are ubiquitously found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Structural studies have revealed that many members of the ferritin family can self-assemble into nano-cages of two types. Maxi-ferritins form hollow spheres with octahedral symmetry composed of twenty-four monomers. Mini-ferritins, on the other hand, are tetrahedrally symmetric, hollow assemblies composed of twelve monomers. This review will focus on the structure of members of the ferritin superfamily, the mechanism of ferritin self-assembly and the structure-function relations of these proteins.

  15. Smad signaling pathway is a pivotal component of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 regulation by transforming growth factor beta in human chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Hamid Yaqoob; Ricci, Gemma; Zafarullah, Muhammad

    2008-09-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta1) promotes cartilage matrix synthesis and induces tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-3 (TIMP-3), which inhibits matrix metalloproteinases, aggrecanases and TNF-alpha-converting enzyme implicated in articular cartilage degradation and joint inflammation. TGF-beta1 activates Akt, ERK and Smad2 pathways in chondrocytes. Here we investigated previously unexplored roles of specific Smads in TGF-beta1 induction of TIMP-3 gene by pharmacological and genetic knockdown approaches. TGF-beta1-induced Smad2 phosphorylation and TIMP-3 protein expression could be inhibited by the Smad2/3 phosphorylation inhibitors, PD169316 and SB203580 and by Smad2-specific siRNA. Specific inhibitor of Smad3 (SIS3) and Smad3 siRNA abolished TGF-beta induction of TIMP-3. Smad2/3 siRNAs also down regulated TIMP-3 promoter-driven luciferase activities, suggesting transcriptional regulation. SiRNA-driven co-Smad4 knockdown abrogated TIMP-3 augmentation by TGF-beta. TIMP-3 promoter deletion analysis revealed that -828 deletion retains the original promoter activity while -333 and -167 deletions display somewhat reduced activity suggesting that most of the TGF-beta-responsive, cis-acting elements are found in the -333 fragment. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis confirmed binding of Smad2 and Smad4 with the -940 and -333 promoter sequences. These results suggest that receptor-activated Smad2 and Smad3 and co-Smad4 critically mediate TGF-beta-stimulated TIMP-3 expression in human chondrocytes and TIMP-3 gene is a target of Smad signaling pathway.

  16. Synergistic effects of 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 and TGF-beta1 on the production of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 in human bone marrow stromal cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveiborg, Marie; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Kassem, M

    2002-01-01

    actions on components of the IGF-system. We report that co-treatment with TGF-beta1 and calcitriol resulted in a synergistic increase in IGFBP-3 production, thereby suggesting that the effects of these factors on hMS osteoblast differentiation may involve the observed increase in IGFBP-3....

  17. Effects of transforming growth factor beta 1 on the regulation of osteoclastic development and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattersley, G.; Chambers, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF) beta 1 is a multifunctional cytokine with powerful effects on osteoblastic cells. Its role in the regulation of osteoclast generation and function, however, is unclear. It has been reported both to stimulate and to inhibit resorption in organ culture and to inhibit multinuclear cell formation in bone marrow cultures. We tested the effects of TGF-beta 1 on bone resorption by osteoclasts isolated from neonatal rat long bones. We found potent stimulation of osteoclastic bone resorption, mediated by osteoblastic cells, with an EC50 of 10 pg/ml, considerably lower than that of well-documented osteotropic hormones. Stimulation was not mediated by Swiss mouse 3T3 cells, a nonosteoblastic cell line. TGF-beta 1 strongly inhibited the generation of calcitonin receptor (CTR)-positive cells in mouse bone marrow cultures, but as for isolated osteoclasts, bone resorption per CTR-positive cell was increased. The inhibition of CTR-positive cell formation was associated with suppression of maturation of other bone marrow derivatives and may be related more to the known ability of TGF-beta 1 to suppress the proliferation of primitive hematopoietic cells than to a specific role of TGF-beta 1 in osteoclast generation

  18. Transforming growth factor-beta stimulates wound healing and modulates extracellular matrix gene expression in pig skin. I. Excisional wound model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaglino, D; Nanney, L B; Kennedy, R; Davidson, J M

    1990-09-01

    The effect of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) on matrix gene expression has been investigated during the process of wound repair, where the formation of new connective tissue represents a critical step in restoring tissue integrity. Split-thickness excisional wounds in the pig were studied by in situ hybridization in order to obtain subjective findings on the activity and location of cells involved in matrix gene expression after the administration of recombinant TGF-beta 1. Data focus on the stimulatory role of this growth factor in granulation tissue formation, on the enhanced mRNA content of collagen types I and III, fibronectin, TGF-beta 1 itself, and on the reduction in stromelysin mRNA, suggesting that increased matrix formation measured after treatment with TGF-beta 1 is due to fibroplasia regulated by the abundance of mRNAs for several different structural, matrix proteins as well as inhibition of proteolytic phenomena elicited by metalloproteinases. These studies reveal elastin mRNA early in the repair process, and elastin mRNA expression is enhanced by administration of TGF-beta 1. Moreover, we show that TGF-beta 1 was auto-stimulating in wounds, accounting, at least in part, for the persistent effects of single doses of this multipotential cytokine.

  19. Opposite Smad and chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor inputs in the regulation of the collagen VII gene promoter by transforming growth factor-beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calonge, María Julia; Seoane, Joan; Massagué, Joan

    2004-05-28

    A critical component of the epidermal basement membrane, collagen type VII, is produced by keratinocytes and fibroblasts, and its production is stimulated by the cytokine transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). The gene, COL7A1, is activated by TGF-beta via Smad transcription factors in cooperation with AP1. Here we report a previously unsuspected level of complexity in this regulatory process. We provide evidence that TGF-beta may activate the COL7A1 promoter by two distinct inputs operating through a common region of the promoter. One input is provided by TGF-beta-induced Smad complexes via two Smad binding elements that function redundantly depending on the cell type. The second input is provided by relieving the COL7A1 promoter from chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor (COUP-TF)-mediated transcriptional repression. We identified COUP-TFI and -TFII as factors that bind to the TGF-beta-responsive region of the COL7A1 promoter in an expression library screening. COUP-TFs bind to a site between the two Smad binding elements independently of Smad or AP1 and repress the basal and TGF-beta-stimulated activities of this promoter. We provide evidence that endogenous COUP-TF activity represses the COL7A1 promoter. Furthermore, we show that TGF-beta addition causes a rapid and profound down-regulation of COUP-TF expression in keratinocytes and fibroblasts. The results suggest that TGF-beta signaling may exert tight control over COL7A1 by offsetting the balance between opposing Smad and COUP-TFs.

  20. Simulation of TGF-Beta Activation by Low-Dose HZE Radiation in a Cell Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Ianik; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2009-01-01

    High charge (Z) and energy (E) (HZE) nuclei comprised in the galactic cosmic rays are main contributors to space radiation risk. They induce many lesions in living matter such as non-specific oxidative damage and the double-strand breaks (DSBs), which are considered key precursors of early and late effects of radiation. There is increasing evidence that cells respond collectively rather than individually to radiation, suggesting the importance of cell signaling1. The transforming growth factor (TGF ) is a signaling peptide that is expressed in nearly all cell type and regulates a large array of cellular processes2. TGF have been shown to mediate cellular response to DNA damage3 and to induce apoptosis in non-irradiated cells cocultured with irradiated cells4. TFG molecules are secreted by cells in an inactive complex known as the latency-associated peptide (LAP). TGF is released from the LAP by a conformational change triggered by proteases, thrombospondin-1, integrins, acidic conditions and .OH radical5. TGF then binds to cells receptors and activates a cascade of events mediated by Smad proteins6, which might interfere with the repair of DNA. Meanwhile, increasingly sophisticated Brownian Dynamics (BD) algorithms have appeared recently in the literature7 and can be applied to study the interaction of molecules with receptors. These BD computer models have contributed to the elucidation of signal transduction, ligand accumulation and autocrine loops in the epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor (EFGR) system8. To investigate the possible roles of TGF in an irradiated cell culture, our Monte-Carlo simulation codes of the radiation track structure9 will be used to calculate the activation of TFG triggered by .OH produced by low doses of HZE ions. The TGF molecules will then be followed by a BD algorithm in a medium representative of a cell culture to estimate the number of activated receptors.

  1. The Role of the TGF-β Coreceptor Endoglin in Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Pérez-Gómez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoglin (CD105 is an auxiliary membrane receptor of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β that interacts with type I and type II TGF-β receptors and modulates TGF-β signaling. Endoglin is overexpressed in the tumor-associated vascular endothelium, where it modulates angiogenesis. This feature makes endoglin a promising target for antiangiogenic cancer therapy. In addition, recent studies on human and experimental models of carcinogenesis point to an important tumor cell–autonomous role of endoglin by regulating proliferation, migration, invasion, and metastasis. These studies suggest that endoglin behaves as a suppressor of malignancy in experimental and human epithelial carcinogenesis, although it can also promote metastasis in other types of cancer. In this review, we evaluate the implication of endoglin in tumor development underlying studies developed in our laboratories in recent years.

  2. Evolution of Enzymatic Activities in the Enolase Superfamily: L-Fuconate Dehydratase from Xanthomonas campestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yew,W.; Fedorov, A.; Fedorov, E.; Rakus, J.; Pierce, R.; Almo, S.; Gerlt, J.

    2006-01-01

    Many members of the mechanistically diverse enolase superfamily have unknown functions. In this report the authors use both genome (operon) context and screening of a library of acid sugars to assign the L-fuconate dehydratase (FucD) function to a member of the mandelate racemase (MR) subgroup of the superfamily encoded by the Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris str. ATCC 33913 genome (GI: 21233491). Orthologues of FucD are found in both bacteria and eukaryotes, the latter including the rTS beta protein in Homo sapiens that has been implicated in regulating thymidylate synthase activity. As suggested by sequence alignments and confirmed by high-resolution structures in the presence of active site ligands, FucD and MR share the same active site motif of functional groups: three carboxylate ligands for the essential Mg2+ located at the ends of th third, fourth, and fifth-strands in the (/)7-barrel domain (Asp 248, Glu 274, and Glu 301, respectively), a Lys-x-Lys motif at the end of the second-strand (Lys 218 and Lys 220), a His-Asp dyad at the end of the seventh and sixth-strands (His 351 and Asp 324, respectively), and a Glue at the end of the eighth-strand (Glu 382). The mechanism of the FucD reaction involves initial abstraction of the 2-proton by Lys 220, acid catalysis of the vinylogous-elimination of the 3-OH group by His 351, and stereospecific ketonization of the resulting 2-keto-3-deoxy-L-fuconate product. Screening of the library of acid sugars revealed substrate and functional promiscuity: In addition to L-fuconate, FucD also catalyzes the dehydration of L-galactonate, D-arabinonate, D-altronate, L-talonate, and D-ribonate. The dehydrations of L-fuconate, L-galactonate, and D-arabinonate are initiated by abstraction of the 2-protons by Lys 220. The dehydrations of L-talonate and D-ribonate are initiated by abstraction of the 2-protons by His 351; however, protonation of the enediolate intermediates by the conjugate acid of Lys 220 yields L

  3. Ionizing Radiation Promotes Migration and Invasion of Cancer Cells Through Transforming Growth Factor-Beta-Mediated Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Yongchun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Department of Radiation Medicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Liu Junye; Li Jing; Zhang Jie [Department of Radiation Medicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Xu Yuqiao [Department of Pathology, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Zhang Huawei; Qiu Lianbo; Ding Guirong [Department of Radiation Medicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Su Xiaoming [Department of Radiation Oncology, 306th Hospital of PLA, Beijing (China); Mei Shi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Guo Guozhen, E-mail: guozhenguo@hotmail.com [Department of Radiation Medicine, College of Preventive Medicine, Xijing Hospital Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China)

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: To examine whether ionizing radiation enhances the migratory and invasive abilities of cancer cells through transforming growth factor (TGF-{beta})-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Methods and Materials: Six cancer cell lines originating from different human organs were irradiated by {sup 60}Co {gamma}-ray at a total dose of 2 Gy, and the changes associated with EMT, including morphology, EMT markers, migration and invasion, were observed by microscope, Western blot, immunofluorescence, scratch assay, and transwell chamber assay, respectively. Then the protein levels of TGF-{beta} in these cancer cells were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the role of TGF-{beta} signaling pathway in the effect of ionizing radiation on EMT was investigate by using the specific inhibitor SB431542. Results: After irradiation with {gamma}-ray at a total dose of 2 Gy, cancer cells presented the mesenchymal phenotype, and compared with the sham-irradiation group the expression of epithelial markers was decreased and of mesenchymal markers was increased, the migratory and invasive capabilities were strengthened, and the protein levels of TGF-{beta} were enhanced. Furthermore, events associated with EMT induced by IR in A549 could be reversed through inhibition of TGF-{beta} signaling. Conclusions: These results suggest that EMT mediated by TGF-{beta} plays a critical role in IR-induced enhancing of migratory and invasive capabilities in cancer cells.

  4. Regeneration of hyaline cartilage by cell-mediated gene therapy using transforming growth factor beta 1-producing fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K H; Song, S U; Hwang, T S; Yi, Y; Oh, I S; Lee, J Y; Choi, K B; Choi, M S; Kim, S J

    2001-09-20

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) has been considered as a candidate for gene therapy of orthopedic diseases. The possible application of cell-mediated TGF-beta gene therapy as a new treatment regimen for degenerative arthritis was investigated. In this study, fibroblasts expressing active TGF-beta 1 were injected into the knee joints of rabbits with artificially made cartilage defects to evaluate the feasibility of this therapy for orthopedic diseases. Two to 3 weeks after the injection there was evidence of cartilage regeneration, and at 4 to 6 weeks the cartilage defect was completely filled with newly grown hyaline cartilage. Histological analyses of the regenerated cartilage suggested that it was well integrated with the adjacent normal cartilage at the sides of the defect and that the newly formed tissue was indeed hyaline cartilage. Our findings suggest that cell-mediated TGF-beta 1 gene therapy may be a novel treatment for orthopedic diseases in which hyaline cartilage damage has occurred.

  5. Inactivation of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, S; Nørgaard, P; Abrahamsen, N

    1999-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) exerts a growth inhibitory effect on many cell types through binding to two types of receptors, the type I and II receptors. Resistance to TGF-beta due to lack of type II receptor (RII) has been described in some cancer types including small cell lung...

  6. The 1.8-Å resolution crystal structure of YDR533Cp from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A member of the DJ-1/ThiJ/PfpI superfamily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark A.; Amour, Courtney V. St.; Collins, Jennifer L.; Ringe, Dagmar; Petsko, Gregory A.

    2004-01-01

    The yeast gene YDR533C encodes a protein belonging to the DJ-1/ThiJ/PfpI superfamily. This family includes the human protein DJ-1, which is mutated in autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson's disease. The function of DJ-1 and its yeast homologue YDR533Cp is unknown. We report here the crystal structure of YDR533Cp at 1.8-Å resolution. The structure indicates that the closest relative to YDR533Cp is the Escherichia coli heat shock protein Hsp31 (YedU), which has both chaperone and protease activity. As expected, the overall fold of the core domain of YDR533Cp is also similar to that of DJ-1 and the bacterial protease PfpI. YDR533Cp contains a possible catalytic triad analogous to that of Hsp31 and an additional domain that is present in Hsp31 but is not seen in DJ-1 and other members of the family. The cysteine in this triad (Cys-138) is oxidized in this crystal structure, similar to modifications seen in the corresponding cysteine in the crystal structure of DJ-1. YDR533Cp appears to be a dimer both in solution and the crystal, but this dimer is formed by a different interface than that found in Hsp31 or other members of the superfamily. PMID:14745011

  7. In silico investigation of ADAM12 effect on TGF-β receptors trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LeMeur Nolwenn

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transforming growth factor beta is known to have pleiotropic effects, including differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. However the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The regulation and effect of TGF-β signaling is complex and highly depends on specific protein context. In liver, we have recently showed that the disintegrin and metalloproteinase ADAM12 interacts with TGF-β receptors and modulates their trafficking among membranes, a crucial point in TGF-β signaling and development of fibrosis. The present study aims to better understand how ADAM12 impacts on TGF-β receptors trafficking and TGF-β signaling. Findings We extracted qualitative biological observations from experimental data and defined a family of models producing a behavior compatible with the presence of ADAM12. We computationally explored the properties of this family of models which allowed us to make novel predictions. We predict that ADAM12 increases TGF-β receptors internalization rate between the cell surface and the endosomal membrane. It also appears that ADAM12 modifies TGF-β signaling shape favoring a permanent response by removing the transient component observed under physiological conditions. Conclusion In this work, confronting differential models with qualitative biological observations, we obtained predictions giving new insights into the role of ADAM12 in TGF-β signaling and hepatic fibrosis process.

  8. Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein interacts with thioesterase superfamily member 2 to attenuate insulin signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersoy, Baran A; Tarun, Akansha; D'Aquino, Katharine; Hancer, Nancy J; Ukomadu, Chinweike; White, Morris F; Michel, Thomas; Manning, Brendan D; Cohen, David E

    2013-07-30

    Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP) is a phospholipid-binding protein that is enriched in liver and that interacts with thioesterase superfamily member 2 (THEM2). Mice lacking either protein exhibit improved hepatic glucose homeostasis and are resistant to diet-induced diabetes. Insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2) and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) are key effectors of insulin signaling, which is attenuated in diabetes. We found that PC-TP inhibited IRS2, as evidenced by insulin-independent IRS2 activation after knockdown, genetic ablation, or chemical inhibition of PC-TP. In addition, IRS2 was activated after knockdown of THEM2, providing support for a role for the interaction of PC-TP with THEM2 in suppressing insulin signaling. Additionally, we showed that PC-TP bound to tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (TSC2) and stabilized the components of the TSC1-TSC2 complex, which functions to inhibit mTORC1. Preventing phosphatidylcholine from binding to PC-TP disrupted interactions of PC-TP with THEM2 and TSC2, and disruption of the PC-TP-THEM2 complex was associated with increased activation of both IRS2 and mTORC1. In livers of mice with genetic ablation of PC-TP or that had been treated with a PC-TP inhibitor, steady-state amounts of IRS2 were increased, whereas those of TSC2 were decreased. These findings reveal a phospholipid-dependent mechanism that suppresses insulin signaling downstream of its receptor.

  9. MP20, the second most abundant lens membrane protein and member of the tetraspanin superfamily, joins the list of ligands of galectin-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donaldson Paul J

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although MP20 is the second most highly expressed membrane protein in the lens its function remains an enigma. Putative functions for MP20 have recently been inferred from its assignment to the tetraspanin superfamily of integral membrane proteins. Members of this family have been shown to be involved in cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration, and adhesion. In this study, we show that MP20 associates with galectin-3, a known adhesion modulator. Results MP20 and galectin-3 co-localized in selected areas of the lens fiber cell plasma membrane. Individually, these proteins purified with apparent molecular masses of 60 kDa and 22 kDa, respectively. A 104 kDa complex was formed in vitro upon mixing the purified proteins. A 102 kDa complex of MP20 and galectin-3 could also be isolated from detergent-solubilized native fiber cell membranes. Binding between MP20 and galectin-3 was disrupted by lactose suggesting the lectin site was involved in the interaction. Conclusions MP20 adds to a growing list of ligands of galectin-3 and appears to be the first representative of the tetraspanin superfamily identified to possess this specificity.

  10. Analysis of the active site mechanism of Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase I: a member of the phospholipase D superfamily

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Stefan; Comeaux, Evan Q.; Jafari, Nauzanene; Bharatham, Nagakumar; Bashford, Donald; White, Stephen W.; van Waardenburg, Robert C.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase I (Tdp1) is a member of the phospholipase D superfamily and hydrolyzes 3′phospho-DNA adducts via two conserved catalytic histidines, one acting as the lead nucleophile and the second as a general acid/base. Substitution of the second histidine specifically to arginine contributes to the neurodegenerative disease SCAN1. We investigated the catalytic role of this histidine in the yeast protein (His432) using a combination of X-ray crystallography, biochemistry, yeast genetics and theoretical chemistry. The structures of wild type Tdp1 and His432Arg both show a phosphorylated form of the nucleophilic histidine that is not observed in the structure of His432Asn. The phosphohistidine is stabilized in the His432Arg structure by the guanidinium group that also restricts access of a nucleophilic water molecule to the Tdp1-DNA intermediate. Biochemical analyses confirm that His432Arg forms an observable and unique Tdp1-DNA adduct during catalysis. Substitution of His432 by Lys does not affect catalytic activity or yeast phenotype, but substitution with Asn, Gln, Leu, Ala, Ser and Thr all result in severely compromised enzymes and Top1-camptothecin dependent lethality. Surprisingly, His432Asn did not show a stable covalent Tdp1-DNA intermediate which suggests another catalytic defect. Theoretical calculations revealed that the defect resides in the nucleophilic histidine and that the pKa of this histidine is crucially dependent upon the second histidine and the incoming phosphate of the substrate. This represents a unique example of substrate-activated catalysis that applies to the entire phospholipase D superfamily. PMID:22155078

  11. Growth/differentiation factor-15: prostate cancer suppressor or promoter?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaňhara, P.; Hampl, A.; Kozubík, Alois; Souček, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 4 (2012), s. 320-328 ISSN 1365-7852 R&D Projects: GA MZd NS9600; GA MZd NS9956 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : MACROPHAGE-INHIBITORY CYTOKINE-1 * GROWTH-DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR-15 * TGF-BETA SUPERFAMILY Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.811, year: 2012

  12. Evolutionary and molecular foundations of multiple contemporary functions of the nitroreductase superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiva, Eyal; Copp, Janine N; Tokuriki, Nobuhiko; Babbitt, Patricia C

    2017-11-07

    Insight regarding how diverse enzymatic functions and reactions have evolved from ancestral scaffolds is fundamental to understanding chemical and evolutionary biology, and for the exploitation of enzymes for biotechnology. We undertook an extensive computational analysis using a unique and comprehensive combination of tools that include large-scale phylogenetic reconstruction to determine the sequence, structural, and functional relationships of the functionally diverse flavin mononucleotide-dependent nitroreductase (NTR) superfamily (>24,000 sequences from all domains of life, 54 structures, and >10 enzymatic functions). Our results suggest an evolutionary model in which contemporary subgroups of the superfamily have diverged in a radial manner from a minimal flavin-binding scaffold. We identified the structural design principle for this divergence: Insertions at key positions in the minimal scaffold that, combined with the fixation of key residues, have led to functional specialization. These results will aid future efforts to delineate the emergence of functional diversity in enzyme superfamilies, provide clues for functional inference for superfamily members of unknown function, and facilitate rational redesign of the NTR scaffold. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  13. Quantification of transforming growth factor-beta in biological material using cells transfected with a plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 promoter-luciferase construct

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanWaarde, MAWH; VanAssen, AJ; Kampinga, HH; Konings, AWT; Vujaskovic, Z

    1997-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), a multifunctional cytokine, can be quantified by a variety of bioassays or immunoassays. One of the disadvantages of these techniques is that they require sample purification to remove components that interfere with the TGF-beta signal. In the current

  14. Both ERK/MAPK and TGF-Beta/Smad Signaling Pathways Play a Role in the Kidney Fibrosis of Diabetic Mice Accelerated by Blood Glucose Fluctuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyun Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The notion that diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of renal fibrosis prompted us to investigate the effects of blood glucose fluctuation (BGF under high glucose condition on kidney in the mice. Methods. The diabetic and BGF animal models were established in this study. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and RT-PCR analysis were applied to detect the expression of type I collagen, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP1, metalloproteinase inhibitor 1 (TIMP1, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1, phosphorylated-ERK, p38, smad2/3, and Akt. Results. BGF treatment increased type I collagen synthesis by two times compared with the control. The expression of MMP1 was reduced markedly while TIMP1 synthesis was enhanced after BGF treatment. ERK phosphorylation exhibits a significant increase in the mice treated with BGF. Furthermore, BGF can markedly upregulate TGF-β1 expression. The p-smad2 showed 2-fold increases compared with the only diabetic mice. However, p-AKT levels were unchanged after BGF treatment. Conclusions. These data demonstrate that BGF can accelerate the trend of kidney fibrosis in diabetic mice by increasing collagen production and inhibiting collagen degradation. Both ERK/MAPK and TGF-β/smad signaling pathways seem to play a role in the development of kidney fibrosis accelerated by blood glucose fluctuation.

  15. Progressive loss of sensitivity to growth control by retinoic acid and transforming growth factor-beta at late stages of human papillomavirus type 16-initiated transformation of human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creek, K E; Geslani, G; Batova, A; Pirisi, L

    1995-01-01

    Retinoids (vitamin A and its natural and synthetic derivatives) have shown potential as chemopreventive agents, and diets poor in vitamin A and/or its precursor beta-carotene have been linked to an increased risk of cancer at several sites including the cervix. Human papillomavirus (HPV) plays an important role in the etiology of cervical cancer. We have developed an in vitro model of cancer progression using human keratinocytes (HKc) immortalized by HPV16 DNA (HKc/HPV16). Although immortal, early passage HKc/HPV16, like normal HKc, require epidermal growth factor (EGF) and bovine pituitary extract (BPE) for proliferation and undergo terminal differentiation in response to serum and calcium. However, following prolonged culture, growth factor independent HKc/HPV16 lines that no longer require EGF and BPE can be selected (HKc/GFI). Further selection of HKc/GFI produces lines that are resistant to serum- and calcium- induced terminal differentiation (HKc/DR). HKc/DR, but not early passage HKc/HPV16, are susceptible to malignant conversion following transfection with viral Harvey ras or Herpes simplex virus type II DNA. We have investigated the sensitivity of low to high passage HKc/HPV16 and HKc/GFI to growth control by all-trans-retinoic acid (RA, an active metabolite of vitamin A). Early passage HKc/HPV16 are very sensitive to growth inhibition by RA, and in these cells RA decreases the expression of the HPV16 oncogenes E6 and E7. However, as the cells progress in culture they lose their sensitivity to RA. Growth inhibition by RA may be mediated through the cytokine transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), a potent inhibitor of epithelial cell proliferation. RA treatment of HKc/HPV16 and HKc/GFI results in a dose-and time-dependent induction (maximal of 3-fold) in secreted levels of TGF-beta. Also, Northern blot analysis of mRNA isolated from HKc/HPV16 demonstrated that RA treatment induced TGF-beta 1 and TGF-beta 2 expression about 3- and 50-fold, respectively

  16. Transforming growth factor. beta. sub 1 is present at sites of extracellular matrix gene expression in human pulmonary fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broekelmann, T.J.; Limper, A.H.; McDonald, J.A. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)); Colby, T.V. (Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States))

    1991-08-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is an inexorably fatal disorder characterized by connective tissue deposition within the terminal air spaces resulting in loss of lung function and eventual respiratory failure. Previously, the authors demonstrated that foci of activated fibroblasts expressing high levels of fibronectin, procollagen, and smooth muscle actin and thus resembling those found in healing wounds are responsible for the connective tissue deposition and scarring in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, they now demonstrate the presence of transforming growth factor {beta}{sub 1} (TGF-{beta}{sub 1}), a potent profibrotic cytokine, in the foci containing these activated fibroblasts. These results suggest that matrix-associated TGF-{beta}{sub 1} may serve as a stimulus for the persistent expression of connective tissue genes. One potential source of the TGF-{beta}{sub 1} is the alveolar macrophage, and they demonstrate the expression of abundant TGF-{beta}{sub 1} mRNA in alveolar macrophages in lung tissue from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

  17. TGF-β1 increases invasiveness of SW1990 cells through Rac1/ROS/NF-κB/IL-6/MMP-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binker, Marcelo G.; Binker-Cosen, Andres A.; Gaisano, Herbert Y.; Cosen, Rodica H. de; Cosen-Binker, Laura I.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Rac1 mediates TGF-β1-induced SW1990 invasion through MMP-2 secretion and activation. → NADPH-generated ROS act downstream of Rac1 in TGF-β1-challenged SW1990 cells. → TGF-β1-stimulated ROS activate NF-κB in SW1990 cells. → NFκB-induced IL-6 release is required for secretion and activation of MMP-2 in SW1990 cells. -- Abstract: Human pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis have been found to correlate with increased levels of active matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2). The multifunctional cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) has been shown to increase both secretion of MMP-2 and invasion by several pancreatic cancer cell types. In the present study, we investigated the signaling pathway involved in TGF-β1-promoted MMP-2 secretion and invasion by human pancreatic cancer cells SW1990. Using specific inhibitors, we found that stimulation of these tumor cells with TGF-β1 induced secretion and activation of the collagenase MMP-2, which was required for TGF-β1-stimulated invasion. Our results also indicate that signaling events involved in TGF-β1-enhanced SW1990 invasiveness comprehend activation of Rac1 followed by generation of reactive oxygen species through nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase, activation of nuclear factor-kappa beta, release of interleukin-6, and secretion and activation of MMP-2.

  18. Osteocyte-Intrinsic TGF-β Signaling Regulates Bone Quality through Perilacunar/Canalicular Remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha S. Dole

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Poor bone quality contributes to bone fragility in diabetes, aging, and osteogenesis imperfecta. However, the mechanisms controlling bone quality are not well understood, contributing to the current lack of strategies to diagnose or treat bone quality deficits. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β signaling is a crucial mechanism known to regulate the material quality of bone, but its cellular target in this regulation is unknown. Studies showing that osteocytes directly remodel their perilacunar/canalicular matrix led us to hypothesize that TGF-β controls bone quality through perilacunar/canalicular remodeling (PLR. Using inhibitors and mice with an osteocyte-intrinsic defect in TGF-β signaling (TβRIIocy−/−, we show that TGF-β regulates PLR in a cell-intrinsic manner to control bone quality. Altogether, this study emphasizes that osteocytes are key in executing the biological control of bone quality through PLR, thereby highlighting the fundamental role of osteocyte-mediated PLR in bone homeostasis and fragility.

  19. Osteocyte-Intrinsic TGF-β Signaling Regulates Bone Quality through Perilacunar/Canalicular Remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dole, Neha S; Mazur, Courtney M; Acevedo, Claire; Lopez, Justin P; Monteiro, David A; Fowler, Tristan W; Gludovatz, Bernd; Walsh, Flynn; Regan, Jenna N; Messina, Sara; Evans, Daniel S; Lang, Thomas F; Zhang, Bin; Ritchie, Robert O; Mohammad, Khalid S; Alliston, Tamara

    2017-11-28

    Poor bone quality contributes to bone fragility in diabetes, aging, and osteogenesis imperfecta. However, the mechanisms controlling bone quality are not well understood, contributing to the current lack of strategies to diagnose or treat bone quality deficits. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling is a crucial mechanism known to regulate the material quality of bone, but its cellular target in this regulation is unknown. Studies showing that osteocytes directly remodel their perilacunar/canalicular matrix led us to hypothesize that TGF-β controls bone quality through perilacunar/canalicular remodeling (PLR). Using inhibitors and mice with an osteocyte-intrinsic defect in TGF-β signaling (TβRII ocy-/- ), we show that TGF-β regulates PLR in a cell-intrinsic manner to control bone quality. Altogether, this study emphasizes that osteocytes are key in executing the biological control of bone quality through PLR, thereby highlighting the fundamental role of osteocyte-mediated PLR in bone homeostasis and fragility. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. [Association of the tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms in transforming growth factor beta-1 gene with hypertension in the Han nationality population in Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian-feng; Shi, Xiao-peng; Zhao, Dan; Deng, Feng-mei; Zhong, Hua; Wang, Gang; Wang, Zhen-huan; Chen, Xiong-ying; He, Fang

    2010-06-01

    Essential hypertension (EH) was a complex disease resulted from the interaction of cumulative effect of multiple genetic and environment factors. The relationship between the genetic polymorphisms in the transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), the blood levels and EH have been investigated, but the conclusions were different. Therefore, we investigate the relationship between the tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) (rs1800469, rs2241716, rs11466345, rs2241715, rs4803455) in TGF-beta1 gene, blood levels and EH in the Han nationality population in Xinjiang, to clarity the pattern of linkage disequilibrium (LD) and the feature of the structure of haplotype. Based on the case-control study,we selected 732 (365 EH patients,367 controls) Han Chinese population from the Boertonggu countryside of Shawan region in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China by random cluster sampling. After questionnaire and physical examination, we collected blood samples, and the blood levels of TGF-beta1 were quantified using sandwich ELISA. The polymorphisms of TGF-beta1 gene in the study groups were detected with SNaPshot system. The case-control study in a large group was carried out separately for each of the tSNP and followed up by haplotypes analyses to determine the relation between tSNPs of TGF-beta1 gene and EH in the Han population. (1) The frequencies of alleles A, G of rs11466345 of TGF-beta1 gene in EH group and control group were as follows: 69.7%, 30.3%, 74.4%, 25.6%, respectively. It was demonstrated that the G allele of the rs11466345 polymorphism occurred at a significantly higher frequency in EH patients than in healthy controls (30.3% vs. 25.6%, P 0.05). (2)Except the site of rs11466345, the other tSNPs were in strong LD, and no statistical differences were observed in haplotypes distribution in the followup study between case-control groups (P > 0.05). (3) There were no difference of TGF-beta1 levels between the different genotypes and alleles in

  1. L6E9 Myoblasts Are Deficient of Myostatin and Additional TGF- Members Are Candidates to Developmentally Control Their Fiber Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Rossi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work provides evidence that the robust myoblast differentiation observed in L6E9 cells is causally linked to deficiency of myostatin, which, conversely, has been found to be expressed in C2C12 cells. However, despite the absence of endogenous myostatin, L6E9 myoblasts expressed functional Activin receptors type II (ActRIIs and follistatin as well as the highly related TGF- members Activins and GDF11, suggesting that in this cell line the regulation of fiber size might be under the control of multiple regulators regardless of myostatin. In line with this hypothesis, delivery of a dominant-negative ActRIIb form or the increase of follistatin, as obtained via Trichostatin treatment or stable transfection of a short human follistatin form, enhanced the L6E9 cell differentiation and further increased the size of myotubes, suggesting that L6E9 myoblasts provide a spontaneous myostatin knock-out in vitro model to study TGF- ligands involved in developmental regulation of fiber size.

  2. Heterogeneous engineered cartilage growth results from gradients of media-supplemented active TGF-β and is ameliorated by the alternative supplementation of latent TGF-β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albro, Michael B; Nims, Robert J; Durney, Krista M; Cigan, Alexander D; Shim, Jay J; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana; Hung, Clark T; Ateshian, Gerard A

    2016-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) has become one of the most widely utilized mediators of engineered cartilage growth. It is typically exogenously supplemented in the culture medium in its active form, with the expectation that it will readily transport into tissue constructs through passive diffusion and influence cellular biosynthesis uniformly. The results of this investigation advance three novel concepts regarding the role of TGF-β in cartilage tissue engineering that have important implications for tissue development. First, through the experimental and computational analysis of TGF-β concentration distributions, we demonstrate that, contrary to conventional expectations, media-supplemented exogenous active TGF-β exhibits a pronounced concentration gradient in tissue constructs, resulting from a combination of high-affinity binding interactions and a high cellular internalization rate. These gradients are sustained throughout the entire culture duration, leading to highly heterogeneous tissue growth; biochemical and histological measurements support that while biochemical content is enhanced up to 4-fold at the construct periphery, enhancements are entirely absent beyond 1 mm from the construct surface. Second, construct-encapsulated chondrocytes continuously secrete large amounts of endogenous TGF-β in its latent form, a portion of which undergoes cell-mediated activation and enhances biosynthesis uniformly throughout the tissue. Finally, motivated by these prior insights, we demonstrate that the alternative supplementation of additional exogenous latent TGF-β enhances biosynthesis uniformly throughout tissue constructs, leading to enhanced but homogeneous tissue growth. This novel demonstration suggests that latent TGF-β supplementation may be utilized as an important tool for the translational engineering of large cartilage constructs that will be required to repair the large osteoarthritic defects observed clinically. Copyright © 2015

  3. Evolution and Diversity of the Ras Superfamily of Small GTPases in Prokaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuichet, Kristin; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    The Ras superfamily of small GTPases are single domain nucleotide-dependent molecular switches that act as highly tuned regulators of complex signal transduction pathways. Originally identified in eukaryotes for their roles in fundamental cellular processes including proliferation, motility, polarity, nuclear transport, and vesicle transport, recent studies have revealed that single domain GTPases also control complex functions such as cell polarity, motility, predation, development and antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Here, we used a computational genomics approach to understand the abundance, diversity, and evolution of small GTPases in prokaryotes. We collected 520 small GTPase sequences present in 17% of 1,611 prokaryotic genomes analyzed that cover diverse lineages. We identified two discrete families of small GTPases in prokaryotes that show evidence of three distinct catalytic mechanisms. The MglA family includes MglA homologs, which are typically associated with the MglB GTPase activating protein, whereas members of the Rup (Ras superfamily GTPase of unknown function in prokaryotes) family are not predicted to interact with MglB homologs. System classification and genome context analyses support the involvement of small GTPases in diverse prokaryotic signal transduction pathways including two component systems, laying the foundation for future experimental characterization of these proteins. Phylogenetic analysis of prokaryotic and eukaryotic GTPases supports that the last universal common ancestor contained ancestral MglA and Rup family members. We propose that the MglA family was lost from the ancestral eukaryote and that the Ras superfamily members in extant eukaryotes are the result of vertical and horizontal gene transfer events of ancestral Rup GTPases. PMID:25480683

  4. Transforming growth factor-beta 1, 2, and 3 can inhibit epithelial tissue outgrowth on smooth and microgrooved substrates.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walboomers, X.F.; Dalton, B.A.; Evans, M.D.; Steele, J.G.; Jansen, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we describe the influence of parallel surface microgrooves, and of TGF-beta, on the outgrowth of corneal epithelial tissue. Microgrooves (depth 1 microm, width 1-10 microm) were made in polystyrene culturing surfaces. These surfaces were left untreated, or loaded with TGF-beta 1, 2,

  5. TGF-β1 accelerates the DNA damage response in epithelial cells via Smad signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeeyong; Kim, Mi-Ra; Kim, Hyun-Ji; An, You Sun; Yi, Jae Youn, E-mail: yjy_71@kcch.re.kr

    2016-08-05

    The evidence suggests that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) regulates the DNA-damage response (DDR) upon irradiation, and we previously reported that TGF-β1 induced DNA ligase IV (Lig4) expression and enhanced the nonhomologous end-joining repair pathway in irradiated cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of TGF-β1 on the irradiation-induced DDRs of A431 and HaCaT cells. Cells were pretreated with or without TGF-β1 and irradiated. At 30 min post-irradiation, DDRs were detected by immunoblotting of phospho-ATM, phospho-Chk2, and the presence of histone foci (γH2AX). The levels of all three factors were similar right after irradiation regardless of TGF-β1 pretreatment. However, they soon thereafter exhibited downregulation in TGF-β1-pretreated cells, indicating the acceleration of the DDR. Treatment with a TGF-β type I receptor inhibitor (SB431542) or transfections with siRNAs against Smad2/3 or DNA ligase IV (Lig4) reversed this acceleration of the DDR. Furthermore, the frequency of irradiation-induced apoptosis was decreased by TGF-β1 pretreatment in vivo, but this effect was abrogated by SB431542. These results collectively suggest that TGF-β1 could enhance cell survival by accelerating the DDR via Smad signaling and Lig4 expression. -- Highlights: •TGF-β1 pretreatment accelerates γ-radiation-induced DNA damage response. •TGF-β1-accelerated DNA damage response is dependent on Smad signaling and DNA Ligase IV. •TGF-β1 pretreatment protects epithelial cells from γ-radiation in vivo.

  6. Systematic classification of the His-Me finger superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonska, Jagoda; Matelska, Dorota; Steczkiewicz, Kamil; Ginalski, Krzysztof

    2017-11-16

    The His-Me finger endonucleases, also known as HNH or ββα-metal endonucleases, form a large and diverse protein superfamily. The His-Me finger domain can be found in proteins that play an essential role in cells, including genome maintenance, intron homing, host defense and target offense. Its overall structural compactness and non-specificity make it a perfectly-tailored pathogenic module that participates on both sides of inter- and intra-organismal competition. An extremely low sequence similarity across the superfamily makes it difficult to identify and classify new His-Me fingers. Using state-of-the-art distant homology detection methods, we provide an updated and systematic classification of His-Me finger proteins. In this work, we identified over 100 000 proteins and clustered them into 38 groups, of which three groups are new and cannot be found in any existing public domain database of protein families. Based on an analysis of sequences, structures, domain architectures, and genomic contexts, we provide a careful functional annotation of the poorly characterized members of this superfamily. Our results may inspire further experimental investigations that should address the predicted activity and clarify the potential substrates, to provide more detailed insights into the fundamental biological roles of these proteins. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  7. Evolutionary history, structural features and biochemical diversity of the NlpC/P60 superfamily of enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantharaman, Vivek; Aravind, L

    2003-01-01

    Peptidoglycan is hydrolyzed by a diverse set of enzymes during bacterial growth, development and cell division. The N1pC/P60 proteins define a family of cell-wall peptidases that are widely represented in various bacterial lineages. Currently characterized members are known to hydrolyze D-gamma-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelate or N-acetylmuramate-L-alanine linkages. Detailed analysis of the N1pC/P60 peptidases showed that these proteins define a large superfamily encompassing several diverse groups of proteins. In addition to the well characterized P60-like proteins, this superfamily includes the AcmB/LytN and YaeF/YiiX families of bacterial proteins, the amidase domain of bacterial and kinetoplastid glutathionylspermidine synthases (GSPSs), and several proteins from eukaryotes, phages, poxviruses, positive-strand RNA viruses, and certain archaea. The eukaryotic members include lecithin retinol acyltransferase (LRAT), nematode developmental regulator Egl-26, and candidate tumor suppressor H-rev107. These eukaryotic proteins, along with the bacterial YaeF/poxviral G6R family, show a circular permutation of the catalytic domain. We identified three conserved residues, namely a cysteine, a histidine and a polar residue, that are involved in the catalytic activities of this superfamily. Evolutionary analysis of this superfamily shows that it comprises four major families, with diverse domain architectures in each of them. Several related, but distinct, catalytic activities, such as murein degradation, acyl transfer and amide hydrolysis, have emerged in the N1pC/P60 superfamily. The three conserved catalytic residues of this superfamily are shown to be equivalent to the catalytic triad of the papain-like thiol peptidases. The predicted structural features indicate that the N1pC/P60 enzymes contain a fold similar to the papain-like peptidases, transglutaminases and arylamine acetyltransferases.

  8. 3-Phosphoinositide-dependent PDK1 negatively regulates transforming growth factor-beta-induced signaling in a kinase-dependent manner through physical interaction with Smad proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Hyun-A; Jung, Haiyoung; Kim, Kyong-Tai; Ha, Hyunjung

    2007-04-20

    We have reported previously that PDK1 physically interacts with STRAP, a transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) receptor-interacting protein, and enhances STRAP-induced inhibition of TGF-beta signaling. In this study we show that PDK1 coimmunoprecipitates with Smad proteins, including Smad2, Smad3, Smad4, and Smad7, and that this association is mediated by the pleckstrin homology domain of PDK1. The association between PDK1 and Smad proteins is increased by insulin treatment but decreased by TGF-beta treatment. Analysis of the interacting proteins shows that Smad proteins enhance PDK1 kinase activity by removing 14-3-3, a negative regulator of PDK1, from the PDK1-14-3-3 complex. Knockdown of endogenous Smad proteins, including Smad3 and Smad7, by transfection with small interfering RNA produced the opposite trend and decreased PDK1 activity, protein kinase B/Akt phosphorylation, and Bad phosphorylation. Moreover, coexpression of Smad proteins and wild-type PDK1 inhibits TGF-beta-induced transcription, as well as TGF-beta-mediated biological functions, such as apoptosis and cell growth arrest. Inhibition was dose-dependent on PDK1, but no inhibition was observed in the presence of an inactive kinase-dead PDK1 mutant. In addition, confocal microscopy showed that wild-type PDK1 prevents translocation of Smad3 and Smad4 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, as well as the redistribution of Smad7 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm in response to TGF-beta. Taken together, our results suggest that PDK1 negatively regulates TGF-beta-mediated signaling in a PDK1 kinase-dependent manner via a direct physical interaction with Smad proteins and that Smad proteins can act as potential positive regulators of PDK1.

  9. Evaluation of members of the TGF beta superfamily as candidates for the oocyte factors that control mouse cumulus expansion and steroidogenesis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vanderhyden, B. C.; Macdonald, E. A.; Nagyová, Eva; Dhawan, A.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 61, - (2003), s. 55-70 ISSN 1470-1626 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5045102 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5045916 Keywords : mouse Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.606, year: 2003

  10. Downregulation of TGF-β Receptor-2 Expression and Signaling through Inhibition of Na/K-ATPase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer La

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β is a multi-functional cytokine implicated in the control of cell growth and differentiation. TGF-β signals through a complex of TGF-β receptors 1 and 2 (TGFβR1 and TGFβR2 that phosphorylate and activate Smad2/3 transcription factors driving transcription of the Smad-target genes. The Na+/K+-ATPase is an integral plasma membrane protein critical for maintaining the electro-chemical gradient of Na+ and K+ in the cell. We found that inhibition of the Na+/K+ ATPase by ouabain results in a dramatic decrease in the expression of TGFβR2 in human lung fibrobalsts (HLF at the mRNA and protein levels. This was accompanied by inhibition of TGF-β-induced Smad phosphorylation and the expression of TGF-β target genes, such as fibronectin and smooth muscle alpha-actin. Inhibition of Na+/K+ ATPase by an alternative approach (removal of extracellular potassium had a similar effect in HLF. Finally, treatment of lung alveolar epithelial cells (A549 with ouabain also resulted in the downregulation of TGFβR2, the inhibition of TGF-β-induced Smad phosphorylation and of the expression of mesenchymal markers, vimentin and fibronectin. Together, these data demonstrate a critical role of Na+/K+-ATPase in the control of TGFβR2 expression, TGF-β signaling and cell responses to TGF-β.

  11. Inhibition of transforming growth factor-beta1-induced signaling and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition by the Smad-binding peptide aptamer Trx-SARA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bryan M; Hoffmann, F Michael

    2006-09-01

    Overexpression of the inhibitory Smad, Smad7, is used frequently to implicate the Smad pathway in cellular responses to transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling; however, Smad7 regulates several other proteins, including Cdc42, p38MAPK, and beta-catenin. We report an alternative approach for more specifically disrupting Smad-dependent signaling using a peptide aptamer, Trx-SARA, which comprises a rigid scaffold, the Escherichia coli thioredoxin A protein (Trx), displaying a constrained 56-amino acid Smad-binding motif from the Smad anchor for receptor activation (SARA) protein. Trx-SARA bound specifically to Smad2 and Smad3 and inhibited both TGF-beta-induced reporter gene expression and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in NMuMG murine mammary epithelial cells. In contrast to Smad7, Trx-SARA had no effect on the Smad2 or 3 phosphorylation levels induced by TGF-beta1. Trx-SARA was primarily localized to the nucleus and perturbed the normal cytoplasmic localization of Smad2 and 3 to a nuclear localization in the absence of TGF-beta1, consistent with reduced Smad nuclear export. The key mode of action of Trx-SARA was to reduce the level of Smad2 and Smad3 in complex with Smad4 after TGF-beta1 stimulation, a mechanism of action consistent with the preferential binding of SARA to monomeric Smad protein and Trx-SARA-mediated disruption of active Smad complexes.

  12. Radical SAM, A Novel Protein Superfamily Linking Unresolved Steps in Familiar Biosynthetic Pathways with Radical Mechanisms: Functional Characterization Using New Analysis and Information Visualization Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sofia, Heidi J.; Chen, Guang; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Reyes Spindola, Jorge F.; Miller, Nancy E.

    2001-03-01

    A large protein superfamily with over 500 members has been discovered and analyzed using powerful new bioinformatics and information visualization methods. Evidence exists that these proteins generate a 5?-deoxyadenosyl radical by reductive cleavage of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) through an unusual Fe-S center. Radical SAM superfamily proteins function in DNA precursor, vitamin, cofactor, antibiotic, and herbicide biosynthesis in a collection of basic and familiar pathways. One of the members is interferon-inducible and is considered a candidate drug target for osteoporosis. The identification of this superfamily suggests that radical-based catalysis is important in a number of previously well-studied but unresolved biochemical pathways.

  13. Temporally and spatially dynamic germ cell niches in Botryllus schlosseri revealed by expression of a TGF-beta family ligand and vasa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam D. Langenbacher

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Germ cells are specified during early development and are responsible for generating gametes in the adult. After germ cells are specified, they typically migrate to a particular niche in the organism where they reside for the remainder of its lifetime. For some model organisms, the specification and migration of germ cells have been extensively studied, but how these events occur in animals that reproduce both sexually and asexually is not well understood. Results We have identified a novel TGF-β family member in Botryllus schlosseri, tgfβ-f, and found that it is expressed by follicle cell progenitors and the differentiated follicle and support cells surrounding the maturing gametes. Using the expression of tgfβ-f and the germ cell marker vasa, we have found that nearly all germ cells in Botryllus are associated with tgfβ-f-expressing follicle progenitors in clusters consisting solely of those two cell types. These clusters were mostly small, consisting of ten or fewer cells, and generally contained between a 2:1 and 1:1 ratio of follicle progenitors to germ cells. Clusters of germ and follicle progenitor cells were primarily localized to niches in the primary and secondary buds, but could also be found in other locations including the vasculature. We analyzed the location of germ cell clusters throughout the asexual life cycle of Botryllus and found that at the stage when germ cells are first detected in the secondary bud niche, a dramatic change in the size and location of germ/follicle cell clusters also occurred. Conclusions Our findings suggest that germ/follicle cell clusters have predictable migratory patterns during the weekly asexual developmental cycle in Botryllus. An increased number of small clusters and the presence of clusters in the vasculature coinciding with the appearance of clusters in the secondary bud suggest that fragmentation of clusters and the migration of smaller clusters through the vasculature

  14. Rosiglitazone stimulates the release and synthesis of insulin by enhancing GLUT-2, glucokinase and BETA2/NeuroD expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo-Sup; Noh, Jung-Hyun; Hong, Seung-Hyun; Hwang, You-Cheol; Yang, Tae-Young; Lee, Myung-Shik; Kim, Kwang-Won; Lee, Moon-Kyu

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, and its ligands, the thiazolidinediones, might directly stimulate insulin release and insulin synthesis in pancreatic β-cells. In the present study, we examined the effects of rosiglitazone (RGZ) on insulin release and synthesis in pancreatic β-cell (INS-1). Insulin release and synthesis were stimulated by treatment with RGZ for 24 h. RGZ upregulated the expressions of GLUT-2 and glucokinase (GCK). Moreover, it was found that RGZ increased the expression of BETA2/NeuroD gene which could regulate insulin gene expression. These results suggest that RGZ could stimulate the release and synthesis of insulin through the upregulation of GLUT-2, GCK, and BETA2/NeuroD gene expression

  15. Deficiency of thioredoxin binding protein-2 (TBP-2 enhances TGF-β signaling and promotes epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Masaki

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β has critical roles in regulating cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT of various cancer cells. TGF-β-induced EMT is an important step during carcinoma progression to invasion state. Thioredoxin binding protein-2 (TBP-2, also called Txnip or VDUP1 is downregulated in various types of human cancer, and its deficiency results in the earlier onset of cancer. However, it remains unclear how TBP-2 suppresses the invasion and metastasis of cancer.In this study, we demonstrated that TBP-2 deficiency increases the transcriptional activity in response to TGF-β and also enhances TGF-β-induced Smad2 phosphorylation levels. Knockdown of TBP-2 augmented the TGF-β-responsive expression of Snail and Slug, transcriptional factors related to TGF-β-mediated induction of EMT, and promoted TGF-β-induced spindle-like morphology consistent with the depletion of E-Cadherin in A549 cells.Our results indicate that TBP-2 deficiency enhances TGF-β signaling and promotes TGF-β-induced EMT. The control of TGF-β-induced EMT is critical for the inhibition of the invasion and metastasis. Thus TBP-2, as a novel regulatory molecule of TGF-β signaling, is likely to be a prognostic indicator or a potential therapeutic target for preventing tumor progression.

  16. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 stimulates synthesis of proteoglycan aggregates in calf articular cartilage organ cultures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, T.I.

    1991-01-01

    Previous work showed that transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1), added alone to bovine cartilage organ cultures, stimulated [35S]sulfate incorporation into macromolecular material but did not investigate the fidelity of the stimulated system to maintain synthesis of cartilage-type proteoglycans. This paper provides evidence that chondrocytes synthesize the appropriate proteoglycan matrix under TGF-beta 1 stimulation: (1) there is a coordinated increase in hyaluronic acid and proteoglycan monomer synthesis, (2) link-stable proteoglycan aggregates are assembled, (3) the hybrid chondroitin sulfate/keratan sulfate monomeric species is synthesized, and (4) there is an increase in protein core synthesis. Some variation in glycosylation patterns was observed when proteoglycans synthesized under TGF-beta 1 stimulation were compared to those synthesized under basal conditions. Thus comparing TGF-beta 1 to basal samples respectively, the monomers were larger (Kav on Sepharose CL-2B = 0.29 vs 0.41), the chondroitin sulfate chains were longer by approximately 3.5 kDa, the percentage of total glycosaminoglycan in keratan sulfate increased slightly from approximately 4% (basal) to approximately 6%, and the unsulfated disaccharide decreased from 28% (basal) to 12%. All of these variations are in the direction of a more anionic proteoglycan. Since the ability of proteoglycans to confer resiliency to the cartilage matrix is directly related to their anionic nature, these changes would presumably have a beneficial effect on tissue function

  17. Plasma transforming growth factor beta levels in breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sminia, P; Barten, AD; Van Waarde, MAWH; Vujaskovic, Z; Van Tienhoven, G

    1998-01-01

    We investigated whether the concentration of circulating transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) yields diagnostic value in breast cancer. Blood was collected from twenty stage I and II breast cancer patients both prior to treatment and after surgical excision of the tumour. Both latent and

  18. TGF-beta-induced early gene-1 overexpression promotes oxidative stress protection and actin cytoskeleton rearrangement in human skin fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Chloe; Sobilo, Lauren; Toumi, Hechmi; Mondon, Philippe; Lespessailles, Eric; Ossant, Fédéric; Kurfurst, Robin; Pichon, Chantal

    2016-06-01

    Transforming growth factor beta inducible early gene-1 (TIEG-1), a member of the Krüppel-like factor, was identified as a primary response gene for TGF-β. The role of TIEG-1 in skin repair has been mainly addressed in vivo on TIEG-1 null mice model and the mechanism remains unexplored. We investigated the modulation of TIEG-1 expression in normal human skin fibroblasts by either down-expressing or overexpressing the gene. We evaluated reactive oxygen species production and the cell viability of treated cells. The effect of TIEG-1 overexpression was monitored by wound healing assay and immunofluorescence staining of actin fibers organization and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Western blots were carried out to identify the level of expression or phosphorylation of key proteins such as cofilin, Rho GTPases, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK). TIEG-1 down-regulation had a deleterious effect on the cell viability. It was significantly reduced (65±5%) and exposure to ultraviolet further increased this effect (47±3%). By contrast, cells overexpressing TIEG-1 had a reduced reactive oxygen species production (75%) compared to control and mock-transfected cells. This overexpression also resulted in formation of actin stress fibers and increased α-SMA expression and an enhanced wound healing feature. RhoB GTPase was upregulated and phosphorylation of cofilin and p38 MAPK was observed. TIEG-1 overexpression in normal human skin fibroblasts results in improved resistance to oxidative stress, myofibroblast-like conversion that involved RhoB signaling pathway with cofilin and p38 MAPK proteins activation. This study enlightens the role of TIEG-1 role in skin biology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of excimer laser irradiation on the expression of Th17, Treg, TGF-beta1, and IL-6 in patients with psoriasis vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Guo-Xin; Li, Xin-Zhong

    2017-11-01

    The effects of laser irradiation on the expression of T helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T (Treg) cells and their related cytokines, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), respectively, in the peripheral blood of patients with psoriasis vulgaris were investigated. 38 patients with psoriasis vulgaris in the stable state were selected as the treatment group that was treated twice a week for eight weeks. Another 38 healthy persons were chosen as the control group. Before and after treatment, the percentages of Th17 cells and Treg cells in the patients’ peripheral blood were detected using flow cytometry, the content of TGF-β1 and IL-6 in the patients’ sera were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the extent and severity of lesions were determined by weighing the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI). After laser treatment, the percentage of Th17 cells, the Th17/Treg cell ratio and the level of IL-6 in the peripheral blood of patients with psoriasis in the treatment group were significantly lower than those of the same patients before the treatment (P  psoriasis vulgaris was 84.21%, and the PASI score was significantly lower (P  psoriasis vulgaris.

  20. Transforming growth factor-beta1 stimulates the production of insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 in human bone marrow stromal osteoblast progenitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveiborg, Marie; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Eriksen, E F

    2001-01-01

    While transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) regulates proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblast precursor cells, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not known. Several hormones and locally acting growth factors regulate osteoblast functions through changes in the insulin......-like growth factors (IGFs) and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). Thus, we studied the effects of TGF-beta1 on IGFs and IGFBPs in human marrow stromal (hMS) osteoblast precursor cells. TGF-beta1 increased the steady-state mRNA level of IGF-I up to 8.5+/-0.6-fold (P...

  1. A cluster of coregulated genes determines TGF-beta-induced regulatory T-cell (Treg) dysfunction in NOD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alise, Anna Morena; Ergun, Ayla; Hill, Jonathan A; Mathis, Diane; Benoist, Christophe

    2011-05-24

    Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) originate in the thymus, but the Treg phenotype can also be induced in peripheral lymphoid organs or in vitro by stimulation of conventional CD4(+) T cells with IL-2 and TGF-β. There have been divergent reports on the suppressive capacity of these TGF-Treg cells. We find that TGF-Tregs derived from diabetes-prone NOD mice, although expressing normal Foxp3 levels, are uniquely defective in suppressive activity, whereas TGF-Tregs from control strains (B6g7) or ex vivo Tregs from NOD mice all function normally. Most Treg-typical transcripts were shared by NOD or B6g7 TGF-Tregs, except for a small group of differentially expressed genes, including genes relevant for suppressive activity (Lrrc32, Ctla4, and Cd73). Many of these transcripts form a coregulated cluster in a broader analysis of T-cell differentiation. The defect does not map to idd3 or idd5 regions. Whereas Treg cells from NOD mice are normal in spleen and lymph nodes, the NOD defect is observed in locations that have been tied to pathogenesis of diabetes (small intestine lamina propria and pancreatic lymph node). Thus, a genetic defect uniquely affects a specific Treg subpopulation in NOD mice, in a manner consistent with a role in determining diabetes susceptibility.

  2. Glycosaminoglycan and transforming growth factor beta1 changes in human plasma and urine during the menstrual cycle, in vitro fertilization treatment, and pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Muro, Pierina; Capobianco, Giampiero; Formato, Marilena; Lepedda, Antonio Junior; Cherchi, Gian Mario; Gordini, Laila; Dessole, Salvatore

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) and glycosaminoglycans (GAG) changes in human plasma and urine during the menstrual cycle, IVF-ET, and pregnancy. Prospective clinical study. University hospital. Thirteen women with apparently normal menstrual cycle (group 1); 18 women undergoing IVF-ET (group 2); and 14 low-risk pregnant women (group 3). We assayed plasma and urine concentrations of TGF-beta1, urine content, and distribution of GAG. Blood and urine samples were collected during days 2 to 3, 12 to 13, and 23 to 24 in group 1; in group 2, samples were obtained at menstrual phase, oocyte pick-up day, and 15 days after ET; in group 3, samples were obtained during gestational weeks 10-12, 22-24, and 30-32 and 1 month after delivery. Changes in TGF-beta1 and GAG content. The mean value of total urinary trypsin inhibitor/chondroitin sulfate (UTI/CS) showed a distinct peak at day 12 of the menstrual cycle in the fertile women in whom we monitored the ovulatory period. In the IVF-ET group, GAG distribution and TGF-beta1 levels showed significant differences during the cycle. We observed increased levels of plasma TGF-beta1 15 days after ET. A significant increase of total UTI/CS value with increasing gestation was detected. Transforming growth factor beta1 and GAG levels could represent an additional tool to monitor reproductive events and could be useful, noninvasive markers of ovulation and ongoing pregnancy.

  3. Comparative analysis of cation/proton antiporter superfamily in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chu-Yu; Yang, Xiaohan; Xia, Xinli; Yin, Weilun

    2013-06-01

    The cation/proton antiporter superfamily is associated with the transport of monovalent cations across membranes. This superfamily was annotated in the Arabidopsis genome and some members were functionally characterized. In the present study, a systematic analysis of the cation/proton antiporter genes in diverse plant species was reported. We identified 240 cation/proton antiporters in alga, moss, and angiosperm. A phylogenetic tree was constructed showing these 240 members are separated into three families, i.e., Na(+)/H(+) exchangers, K(+) efflux antiporters, and cation/H(+) exchangers. Our analysis revealed that tandem and/or segmental duplications contribute to the expansion of cation/H(+) exchangers in the examined angiosperm species. Sliding window analysis of the nonsynonymous/synonymous substitution ratios showed some differences in the evolutionary fate of cation/proton antiporter paralogs. Furthermore, we identified over-represented motifs among these 240 proteins and found most motifs are family specific, demonstrating diverse evolution of the cation/proton antiporters among three families. In addition, we investigated the co-expressed genes of the cation/proton antiporters in Arabidopsis thaliana. The results showed some biological processes are enriched in the co-expressed genes, suggesting the cation/proton antiporters may be involved in these biological processes. Taken together, this study furthers our knowledge on cation/proton antiporters in plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of IGFBP7 in Diabetic Nephropathy: TGF-β1 Induces IGFBP7 via Smad2/4 in Human Renal Proximal Tubular Epithelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Watanabe

    Full Text Available Tubular injury is one of the important determinants of progressive renal failure in diabetic nephropathy (DN, and TGF-β1 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of tubulointerstitial disease that characterizes proteinuric renal disease. The aim of this study was to identify novel therapeutic target molecules that play a role in the tubule damage of DN. We used an LC-MS/MS-based proteomic technique and human renal proximal epithelial cells (HRPTECs. Urine samples from Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 46 were used to quantify the candidate protein. Several proteins in HRPTECs in cultured media were observed to be driven by TGF-β1, one of which was 33-kDa IGFBP7, which is a member of IGFBP family. TGF-β1 up-regulated the expressions of IGFBP7 mRNA and protein in a dose- and time-dependent fashion via Smad2 and 4, but not MAPK pathways in HRPTECs. In addition, the knockdown of IGFBP7 restored the TGF-β1-induced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT. In the immunohistochemical analysis, IGFBP7 was localized to the cytoplasm of tubular cells but not that of glomerular cells in diabetic kidney. Urinary IGFBP7 levels were significantly higher in the patients with macroalbuminuria and were correlated with age (r = 0.308, p = 0.037, eGFR (r = -0.376, p = 0.01, urinary β2-microglobulin (r = 0.385, p = 0.008, and urinary N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG (r = 0.502, p = 0.000. A multivariate regression analysis identified urinary NAG and age as determinants associated with urinary IGFBP7 levels. In conclusion, our data suggest that TGF-β1 enhances IGFBP7 via Smad2/4 pathways, and that IGFBP7 might be involved in the TGF-β1-induced tubular injury in DN.

  5. GSTA3 Attenuates Renal Interstitial Fibrosis by Inhibiting TGF-Beta-Induced Tubular Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Fibronectin Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Xiao

    Full Text Available Tubular epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT has been widely accepted as the underlying mechanisms of renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS plays a vital role in tubular EMT process. The purpose of this study was to investigate the involved molecular mechanisms in TGF-beta-induced EMT and identify the potential role of glutathione S-transferase alpha 3 (GSTA3 in this process. The iTRAQ screening was performed to identify protein alterations of the rats underwent unilateral-ureteral obstruction (UUO. Protein expression of GSTA3 in patients with obstructive nephropathy and UUO rats was detected by immunohistochemistry. Protein and mRNA expression of GSTA3 in UUO rats and NRK-52E cells were determined by Western blot and RT-PCR. siRNA and overexpression plasmid were transfected specifically to assess the role of GSTA3 in RIF. The generation of ROS was measured by dichlorofluorescein fluorescence analysis. GSTA3 protein and mRNA expression was significantly reduced in UUO rats. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that GSTA3 expression was reduced in renal cortex in UUO rats and patients with obstructive nephropathy. Treating with TGF-β1 down-regulated GSTA3 expression in NRK-52E cells, which have been found to be correlated with the decreased expression in E-cadherin and megalin and increased expression in α-smooth muscle actin. Furthermore, knocking down GSTA3 in NRK-52 cells led to increased production of ROS and tubular EMT, whereas overexpressing GSTA3 ameliorated ROS production and prevented the occurrence of tubular EMT. GSTA3 plays a protective role against tubular EMT in renal fibrosis, suggesting GSTA3 is a potential therapeutic target for RIF.

  6. Celastrol inhibits TGF-β1-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition by inhibiting Snail and regulating E-cadherin expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyereen; Lee, Minjae [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Sung-Wuk, E-mail: swjang@amc.seoul.kr [Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-09

    Highlights: •We investigated the effects of celastrol on TGF-β1-induced EMT in epithelial cells. •Celastrol regulates TGF-β1-induced morphological changes and E-cadherin expression. •Celastrol inhibits TGF-β1-induced Snail expression. •Celastrol strongly suppresses TGF-β1-induced invasion in MDCK and A549 cells. -- Abstract: The epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a pivotal event in the invasive and metastatic potentials of cancer progression. Celastrol inhibits the proliferation of a variety of tumor cells including leukemia, glioma, prostate, and breast cancer; however, the possible role of celastrol in the EMT is unclear. We investigated the effect of celastrol on the EMT. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) induced EMT-like morphologic changes and upregulation of Snail expression. The downregulation of E-cadherin expression and upregulation of Snail in Madin–Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) and A549 cell lines show that TGF-β1-mediated the EMT in epithelial cells; however, celastrol markedly inhibited TGF-β1-induced morphologic changes, Snail upregulation, and E-cadherin expression. Migration and invasion assays revealed that celastrol completely inhibited TGF-β1-mediated cellular migration in both cell lines. These findings indicate that celastrol downregulates Snail expression, thereby inhibiting TGF-β1-induced EMT in MDCK and A549 cells. Thus, our findings provide new evidence that celastrol suppresses lung cancer invasion and migration by inhibiting TGF-β1-induced EMT.

  7. Immunohistochemical expression of TGF-β1 and MMP-9 in periapical lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvares, Pâmella Recco; Arruda, José Alcides Almeida de; Silva, Leorik Pereira da; Nascimento, George João Ferreira do; Silveira, Maria Fonseca da; Sobral, Ana Paula Veras

    2017-07-03

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1) in periapical lesion samples correlated with the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate and thickness of the epithelial lining. Forty-five cases of periapical lesions (23 periapical granulomas and 22 radicular cysts) were subjected to morphological and immunohistochemical analyses using anti-MMP-9 and anti-TGF-β1 antibodies. The data were analyzed using the following tests: non-parametric Mann-Whitney, chi-square, Fisher's exact test and Spearman's correlation test (Pperiapical granulomas presented infiltrate grade III, in contrast with 32% of radicular cysts (Pcysts revealed the presence of atrophic epithelium in 86% of the cysts. The immunostaining of MMP-9 was score 2 in 67% of the granulomas and 77% of the cysts. Both lesions were predominantly score 1 for TGF-β1. Significant differences were confirmed between the expression scores of TGF-β1 and MMP-9 in periapical granulomas (p = 0.004) and in radicular cysts (p periapical granulomas and radicular cysts. This immunoregulatory cytokine seems more representative in asymptomatic lesions. The extracellular matrix remodeling process dependent on MMP-9 seems to be similar for both periapical granulomas and radicular cysts. TGF-β1 and MMP-9 may play an important role in the maintenance of periapical lesions.

  8. Epithelial cells prime the immune response to an array of gut-derived commensals towards a tolerogenic phenotype through distinct actions of thymic stromal lymphopoietin and transforming growth factor-beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Louise Hjerrild; Fink, Lisbeth Nielsen; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2007-01-01

    in DC priming of naive T cells with elevated levels of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and markedly reduced levels of bacteria-induced interferon-gamma production. Caco2 cell production of IL-8, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and TGF-beta increases upon microbial stimulation in a strain...

  9. CD147 Immunoglobulin Superfamily Receptor Function and Role in Pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Iacono, Kathryn T.; Brown, Amy L.; Greene, Mark I.; Saouaf, Sandra J.

    2007-01-01

    The immunoglobulin superfamily member CD147 plays an important role in fetal, neuronal, lymphocyte and extracellular matrix development. Here we review the current understanding of CD147 expression and protein interactions with regard to CD147 function and its role in pathologic conditions including heart disease, Alzheimer’s disease, stroke and cancer. A model linking hypoxic conditions found within the tumor microenvironment to up-regulation of CD147 expression and tumor progression is intr...

  10. XIAP gene expression and function is regulated by autocrine and paracrine TGF-β signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Themsche Céline

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP is often overexpressed in cancer cells, where it plays a key role in survival and also promotes invasiveness. To date however, the extracellular signals and intracellular pathways regulating its expression and activity remain incompletely understood. We have previously showed that exposure to each of the three TGF-β (transforming growth factor beta isoforms upregulates XIAP protein content in endometrial carcinoma cells in vitro. In the present study, we have investigated the clinical relevance of TGF-β isoforms in endometrial tumours and the mechanisms through which TGF-β isoforms regulate XIAP content in uterine cancer cells. Methods TGF-β isoforms immunoreactivity in clinical samples from endometrial tumours was assessed using immunofluorescence. Two model cancer cell lines (KLE endometrial carcinoma cells and HeLa cervical cancer cells and pharmacological inhibitors were used to investigate the signalling pathways regulating XIAP expression and activity in response to autocrine and paracrine TGF-β in cancer cell. Results We have found immunoreactivity for each TGF-β isoform in clinical samples from endometrial tumours, localizing to both stromal and epithelial/cancer cells. Blockade of autocrine TGF-β signaling in KLE endometrial carcinoma cells and HeLa cervical cancer cells reduced endogenous XIAP mRNA and protein levels. In addition, each TGF-β isoform upregulated XIAP gene expression when given exogenously, in a Smad/NF-κB dependent manner. This resulted in increased polyubiquitination of PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog on chromosome ten, a newly identified substrate for XIAP E3 ligase activity, and in a XIAP-dependent decrease of PTEN protein levels. Although each TGF-β isoform decreased PTEN content in a XIAP- and a Smad-dependent manner, decrease of PTEN levels in response to only one isoform, TGF-β3, was blocked by PI3-K inhibitor LY294002. Conclusions

  11. Enhanced differentiation of human embryonic stem cells to mesenchymal progenitors by inhibition of TGF-beta/Activin/Nodal signaling using SB-431542

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Amer; Harkness, Linda; Schrøder, Henrik Daa

    2010-01-01

    Directing differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) into specific cell types using an easy and reproducible protocol is a prerequisite for the clinical use of hESC in regenerative medicine procedures. Here, we report a protocol for directing the differentiation of hESC into mesenchymal...... in vivo. Interestingly, SB-OG cells cultured in 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) developed into a homogeneous population of mesenchymal progenitors that expressed CD markers characteristic of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC): CD44(+) (100%), CD73(+) (98%), CD146(+) (96%) and CD166(+) (88%) with the ability...... progenitor cells. We demonstrate that inhibition of TGF-beta/Activin/Nodal signaling during embryoid bodies (EB) formation using SB-431542 (SB) in serum free medium, markedly up-regulated paraxial mesodermal markers (TBX6, TBX5), and several myogenic developmental markers including early myogenic...

  12. Apoptotic role of TGF-β mediated by Smad4 mitochondria translocation and cytochrome c oxidase subunit II interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Lijuan; Qiu, Tao; Cao, Xu; Wan, Mei

    2011-07-01

    Smad4, originally isolated from the human chromosome 18q21, is a key factor in transducing the signals of the TGFsuperfamily of growth hormones and plays a pivotal role in mediating antimitogenic and proapoptotic effects of TGF-β, but the mechanisms by which Smad4 induces apoptosis are elusive. Here we report that Smad4 directly translocates to the mitochondria of apoptotic cells. Smad4 gene silencing by siRNA inhibits TGF-β-induced apoptosis in Hep3B cells and UV-induced apoptosis in PANC-1 cells. Cell fractionation assays demonstrated that a fraction of Smad4 translocates to mitochondria after long time TGF-β treatment or UV exposure, during which the cells were under apoptosis. Smad4 mitochondria translocation during apoptosis was also confirmed by fluorescence observation of Smad4 colocalization with MitoTracker Red. We searched for mitochondria proteins that have physical interactions with Smad4 using yeast two-hybrid screening approach. DNA sequence analysis identified 34 positive clones, five of which encoded subunits in mitochondria complex IV, i.e., one clone encoded cytochrome c oxidase COXII, three clones encoded COXIII and one clone encoded COXVb. Strong interaction between Smad4 with COXII, an important apoptosis regulator, was verified in yeast by β-gal activity assays and in mammalian cells by immunoprecipitation assays. Further, mitochondrial portion of cells was isolated and the interaction between COXII and Smad4 in mitochondria upon TGF-β treatment or UV exposure was confirmed. Importantly, targeting Smad4 to mitochondria using import leader fusions enhanced TGF-β-induced apoptosis. Collectively, the results suggest that Smad4 promote apoptosis of the cells through its mitochondrial translocation and association with mitochondria protein COXII. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Altered whole kidney blood flow autoregulation in a mouse model of reduced beta-ENaC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoni, Samira C; Chiposi, Rumbidzayi; McKey, Susan E; Ryan, Michael J; Drummond, Heather A

    2010-02-01

    Renal blood flow (RBF) autoregulation is mediated by at least two mechanisms, the fast acting myogenic response (approximately 5 s) and slow acting tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF; approximately 25 s). Previous studies suggest epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) family proteins, beta-ENaC in particular, mediate myogenic constriction in isolated renal interlobar arteries. However, it is unknown whether beta-ENaC-mediated myogenic constriction contributes to RBF autoregulation in vivo. Therefore, the goal of this investigation was to determine whether the myogenic mediated RBF autoregulation is inhibited in a mouse model of reduced beta-ENaC (m/m). To address this goal, we evaluated the temporal response of RBF and renal vascular resistance (RVR) to a 2-min step increase in mean arterial pressure (MAP). Pressure-induced changes in RBF and RVR at 0-5, 6-25, and 110-120 s after step increase in MAP were used to assess the contribution of myogenic and TGF mechanisms and steady-state autoregulation, respectively. The rate of the initial increase in RVR, attributed to the myogenic mechanism, was reduced by approximately 50% in m/m mice, indicating the speed of the myogenic response was inhibited. Steady-state autoregulation was similar between beta-ENaC +/+ and m/m mice. Although the rate of the secondary increase in RVR, attributed to TGF, was similar in beta-ENaC +/+ and m/m mice, however, it occurred over a longer period (+10 s), which may have allowed TGF to compensate for a loss in myogenic autoregulation. Our findings suggest beta-ENaC is an important mediator of renal myogenic constriction-mediated RBF autoregulation in vivo.

  14. Immunohistochemical expression of TGF-β1 and MMP-9 in periapical lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmella Recco ÁLVARES

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β1 in periapical lesion samples correlated with the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate and thickness of the epithelial lining. Forty-five cases of periapical lesions (23 periapical granulomas and 22 radicular cysts were subjected to morphological and immunohistochemical analyses using anti-MMP-9 and anti-TGF-β1 antibodies. The data were analyzed using the following tests: non-parametric Mann-Whitney, chi-square, Fisher’s exact test and Spearman’s correlation test (P<0.05. Analysis of inflammatory infiltrate revealed that 78% of periapical granulomas presented infiltrate grade III, in contrast with 32% of radicular cysts (P<0.001. Morphological evaluation of the epithelial thickness in radicular cysts revealed the presence of atrophic epithelium in 86% of the cysts. The immunostaining of MMP-9 was score 2 in 67% of the granulomas and 77% of the cysts. Both lesions were predominantly score 1 for TGF-β1. Significant differences were confirmed between the expression scores of TGF-β1 and MMP-9 in periapical granulomas (p = 0.004 and in radicular cysts (p < 0.001. Expression of TGF-β1 was different for periapical granulomas and radicular cysts. This immunoregulatory cytokine seems more representative in asymptomatic lesions. The extracellular matrix remodeling process dependent on MMP-9 seems to be similar for both periapical granulomas and radicular cysts. TGF-β1 and MMP-9 may play an important role in the maintenance of periapical lesions.

  15. Historical perspectives on tumor necrosis factor and its superfamily: 25 years later, a golden journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Bharat B; Gupta, Subash C; Kim, Ji Hye

    2012-01-19

    Although activity that induced tumor regression was observed and termed tumor necrosis factor (TNF) as early as the 1960s, the true identity of TNF was not clear until 1984, when Aggarwal and coworkers reported, for the first time, the isolation of 2 cytotoxic factors: one, derived from macrophages (molecular mass 17 kDa), was named TNF, and the second, derived from lymphocytes (20 kDa), was named lymphotoxin. Because the 2 cytotoxic factors exhibited 50% amino acid sequence homology and bound to the same receptor, they came to be called TNF-α and TNF-β. Identification of the protein sequences led to cloning of their cDNA. Based on sequence homology to TNF-α, now a total of 19 members of the TNF superfamily have been identified, along with 29 interacting receptors, and several molecules that interact with the cytoplasmic domain of these receptors. The roles of the TNF superfamily in inflammation, apoptosis, proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis, and morphogenesis have been documented. Their roles in immunologic, cardiovascular, neurologic, pulmonary, and metabolic diseases are becoming apparent. TNF superfamily members are active targets for drug development, as indicated by the recent approval and expanding market of TNF blockers used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, Crohns disease, and osteoporosis, with a total market of more than US $20 billion. As we learn more about this family, more therapeutics will probably emerge. In this review, we summarize the initial discovery of TNF-α, and the insights gained regarding the roles of this molecule and its related family members in normal physiology and disease.

  16. TGF-β mimic proteins form an extended gene family in the murine parasite Heligmosomoides polygyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Danielle J; Harcus, Yvonne; White, Madeleine P J; Gregory, William F; Nahler, Janina; Stephens, Ian; Toke-Bjolgerud, Edward; Hewitson, James P; Ivens, Alasdair; McSorley, Henry J; Maizels, Rick M

    2018-04-01

    We recently reported the discovery of a new parasite-derived protein that functionally mimics the immunosuppressive cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. The Heligmosomoides polygyrus TGF-β Mimic (Hp-TGM) shares no homology to any TGF-β family member, however it binds the mammalian TGF-β receptor and induces expression of Foxp3, the canonical transcription factor of both mouse and human regulatory T cells. Hp-TGM consists of five atypical Complement Control Protein (CCP, Pfam 00084) domains, each lacking certain conserved residues and 12-15 amino acids longer than the 60-70 amino acids consensus domain, but with a recognizable 3-cysteine, tryptophan, cysteine motif. We now report on the identification of a family of nine related Hp-TGM homologues represented in the secreted proteome and transcriptome of H. polygyrus. Recombinant proteins from five of the nine new TGM members were tested for TGF-β activity, but only two were functionally active in an MFB-F11 reporter assay, and by the induction of T cell Foxp3 expression. Sequence comparisons reveal that proteins with functional activity are similar or identical to Hp-TGM across the first three CCP domains, but more variable in domains 4 and 5. Inactive proteins diverged in all domains, or lacked some domains entirely. Testing truncated versions of Hp-TGM confirmed that domains 1-3 are essential for full activity in vitro, while domains 4 and 5 are not required. Further studies will elucidate whether these latter domains fulfill other functions in promoting host immune regulation during infection and if the more divergent family members play other roles in immunomodulation. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Prognostic value of plasma transforming growth factor-beta in patients with glioblastoma multiforme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, M. C.; Sminia, P.; Barten-van Rijbroek, A. D.; Gonzalez Gonzalez, D.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated whether the postoperative concentration of circulating transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) yields prognostic value in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (gbm). Blood was collected from 20 healthy volunteers and in 28 patients with mainly glioblastoma multiforme (gbm), both

  18. Dual specificity of activin type II receptor ActRIIb in dorso-ventral patterning during zebrafish embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaso, H; Suzuki, A; Tada, M; Ueno, N

    1999-04-01

    Members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily are thought to regulate specification of a variety of tissue types in early embryogenesis. These effects are mediated through a cell surface receptor complex, consisting of two classes of ser/thr kinase receptor, type I and type II. In the present study, cDNA encoding zebrafish activin type II receptors, ActRIIa and ActRIIb was cloned and characterized. Overexpression of ActRIIb in zebrafish embryos caused dorsalization of embryos, as observed in activin-overexpressing embryos. However, in blastula stage embryos, ActRIIb induced formation of both dorsal and ventro-lateral mesoderm. It has been suggested that these inducing signals from ActRIIb are mediated through each specific type I receptor, TARAM-A and BMPRIA, depending on activin and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), respectively. In addition, it was shown that a kinase-deleted form of ActRIIb (dnActRIIb) suppressed both activin- and BMP-like signaling pathways. These results suggest that ActRIIb at least has dual roles in both activin and BMP signaling pathways during zebrafish embryogenesis.

  19. Regulation of human lung fibroblast C1q-receptors by transforming growth factor-beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurton, J; Soto, H; Narayanan, A S; Raghu, G

    1999-03-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are two polypeptide mediators which are believed to play a role in the evolution of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We have evaluated the effect of these two substances on the expression of receptors for collagen (cC1q-R) and globular (gC1q-R) domains of C1q and on type I collagen in human lung fibroblasts. Two fibroblast subpopulations differing in C1q receptor expression were obtained by culturing human lung explants in medium containing fresh human serum and heated plasma-derived serum and separating them based on C1q binding [Narayanan, Lurton and Raghu: Am J Resp Cell Mol Biol. 1998; 17:84]. The cells, referred to as HH and NL cells, respectively, were exposed to TGF-beta and TNF-alpha in serum-free conditions. The levels of mRNA were assessed by in situ hybridization and Northern analysis, and protein levels compared after SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. NL cells exposed to TGF-beta and TNF-alpha contained 1.4 and 1.6 times as much cC1q-R mRNA, respectively, whereas in HH cells cC1q-R mRNA increased 2.0- and 2.4-fold. The gC1q-R mRNA levels increased to a lesser extent in both cells. These increases were not reflected in protein levels of CC1q-R and gC1q-R, which were similar to or less than controls. Both TGF-beta and TNF-alpha also increased procollagen [I] mRNA levels in both cells. Overall, TNF-alpha caused a greater increase and the degree of response by HH fibroblasts to both TGF-beta and TNF-alpha was higher than NL cells. These results indicated that TGF-beta and TNF-alpha upregulate the mRNA levels for cC1q-R and collagen and that they do not affect gC1q-R mRNA levels significantly. They also indicated different subsets of human lung fibroblasts respond differently to inflammatory mediators.

  20. CXXC5 suppresses hepatocellular carcinoma by promoting TGF-β-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaohua; Wu, Jingyi; Jiang, Quanlong; Cheng, Hao; Han, Jing-Dong J; Chen, Ye-Guang

    2018-02-01

    Evading TGF-β-mediated growth inhibition is often associated with tumorigenesis in liver, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To better understand the functions and the underlying molecular mechanisms of TGF-β in HCC initiation and progression, we carried out transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) to identify the target genes of TGF-β. CXXC5, a member of the CXXC-type zinc finger domain-containing protein family, was identified as a novel TGF-β target gene in Hep3B HCC cells. Knockdown of CXXC5 attenuated the expression of a substantial portion of TGF-β target genes and ameliorated TGF-β-induced growth inhibition or apoptosis of Hep3B cells, suggesting that CXXC5 is required for TGF-β-mediated inhibition of HCC progression. Analysis of the TCGA database indicated that CXXC5 expression is reduced in the majority of HCC tissue samples in comparison to that in normal tissues. Furthermore, CXXC5 associates with the histone deacetylase HDAC1 and competes its interaction with Smad2/3, thereby abolishing the inhibitory effect of HDAC1 on TGF-β signaling. These observations together suggest that CXXC5 may act as a tumor suppressor by promoting TGF-β signaling via a positive feedback loop, and reveal a strategy for HCC to bypass TGF-β-mediated cytostasis by disrupting the positive feedback regulation. Our findings shed new light on TGF-β signaling regulation and demonstrate the function of CXXC5 in HCC development.

  1. Fetal antigen 1 (FA1), a circulating member of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) superfamily

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Krogh, T N; Støving, René Klinkby

    1997-01-01

    We describe an ELISA technique for quantification of fetal antigen 1 (FA1), a glycoprotein belonging to the EGF-superfamily. The ELISA is based on immunospecifically purified polyclonal antibodies and has a dynamic range of 0.7-5.3 ng/ml, intra- and inter-assay C.V.s of less than 3.2% and an aver......We describe an ELISA technique for quantification of fetal antigen 1 (FA1), a glycoprotein belonging to the EGF-superfamily. The ELISA is based on immunospecifically purified polyclonal antibodies and has a dynamic range of 0.7-5.3 ng/ml, intra- and inter-assay C.V.s of less than 3.......2% and an average recovery of 105% in serum and 98% in urine. Comparison of FA1 in amniotic fluid, serum and urine revealed parallel titration curves, identical elution volumes following size chromatography, immunological identity and similar profiles when analysed by MALDI-MS. The reference interval for serum FA1...... was 12.3-46.6 ng/ml and the levels were 10 times higher in patients with renal failure. FA1 showed no diurnal variation, no variation during the menstrual cycle and was not influenced by the acute phase reaction. In humans (n = 10) the renal clearance of FA1 was 11 ml/min and an identical high renal...

  2. The Neuroprotective Functions of Transforming Growth Factor Beta Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Lovas

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β proteins are multifunctional cytokines whose neural functions are increasingly recognized. The machinery of TGF-β signaling, including the serine kinase type transmembrane receptors, is present in the central nervous system. However, the 3 mammalian TGF-β subtypes have distinct distributions in the brain suggesting different neural functions. Evidence of their involvement in the development and plasticity of the nervous system as well as their functions in peripheral organs suggested that they also exhibit neuroprotective functions. Indeed, TGF-β expression is induced following a variety of types of brain tissue injury. The neuroprotective function of TGF-βs is most established following brain ischemia. Damage in experimental animal models of global and focal ischemia was shown to be attenuated by TGF-βs. In addition, support for their neuroprotective actions following trauma, sclerosis multiplex, neurodegenerative diseases, infections, and brain tumors is also accumulating. The review will also describe the potential mechanisms of neuroprotection exerted by TGF-βs including anti-inflammatory, -apoptotic, -excitotoxic actions as well as the promotion of scar formation, angiogenesis, and neuroregeneration. The participation of these mechanisms in the neuroprotective effects of TGF-βs during different brain lesions will also be discussed.

  3. Repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects by cultured mesenchymal stem cells transfected with the transforming growth factor {beta}{sub 1} gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Xiaodong [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Zheng Qixin [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Yang Shuhua [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Shao Zengwu [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Yuan Quan [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Pan Zhengqi [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Tang Shuo [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Liu Kai [Department of Orthopaedics, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430022 (China); Quan Daping [Institute of Polymer Science, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2006-12-15

    Articular cartilage repair remains a clinical and scientific challenge with increasing interest focused on the combined techniques of gene transfer and tissue engineering. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-{beta}{sub 1}) is a multifunctional molecule that plays a central role in promotion of cartilage repair, and inhibition of inflammatory and alloreactive immune response. Cell mediated gene therapy can allow a sustained expression of TGF-{beta}{sub 1} that may circumvent difficulties associated with growth factor delivery. The objective of this study was to investigate whether TGF-{beta}{sub 1} gene modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could enhance the repair of full-thickness articular cartilage defects in allogeneic rabbits. The pcDNA{sub 3}-TGF-{beta}{sub 1} gene transfected MSCs were seeded onto biodegradable poly-L-lysine coated polylactide (PLA) biomimetic scaffolds in vitro and allografted into full-thickness articular cartilage defects in 18 New Zealand rabbits. The pcDNA{sub 3} gene transfected MSCs/biomimetic scaffold composites and the cell-free scaffolds were taken as control groups I and II, respectively. The follow-up times were 2, 4, 12 and 24 weeks. Macroscopical, histological and ultrastructural studies were performed. In vitro SEM studies found that abundant cartilaginous matrices were generated and completely covered the interconnected pores of the scaffolds two weeks post-seeding in the experimental groups. In vivo, the quality of regenerated tissue improved over time with hyaline cartilage filling the chondral region and a mixture of trabecular and compact bone filling the subchondral region at 24 weeks post-implantation. Joint repair in the experimental groups was better than that of either control group I or II, with respect to: (1) synthesis of hyaline cartilage specific extracellular matrix at the upper portion of the defect; (2) reconstitution of the subchondral bone at the lower portion of the defect and (3) inhibition of

  4. Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP-4 and BMP-7 regulate differentially Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-β1 in normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Clare M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Airway remodelling is thought to be under the control of a complex group of molecules belonging to the Transforming Growth Factor (TGF-superfamily. The Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs belong to this family and have been shown to regulate fibrosis in kidney and liver diseases. However, the role of BMPs in lung remodelling remains unclear. BMPs may regulate tissue remodelling in asthma by controlling TGF-β-induced profibrotic functions in lung fibroblasts. Methods Cell cultures were exposed to TGF-β1 alone or in the presence of BMP-4 or BMP-7; control cultures were exposed to medium only. Cell proliferation was assessed by quantification of the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine. The expression of the mRNA encoding collagen type I and IV, tenascin C and fibronectin in normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF was determined by real-time quantitative PCR and the main results were confirmed by ELISA. Cell differentiation was determined by the analysis of the expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA by western blot and immunohistochemistry. The effect on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP activity was assessed by zymography. Results We have demonstrated TGF-β1 induced upregulation of mRNAs encoding the extracellular matrix proteins, tenascin C, fibronectin and collagen type I and IV when compared to unstimulated NHLF, and confirmed these results at the protein level. BMP-4, but not BMP-7, reduced TGF-β1-induced extracellular matrix protein production. TGF-β1 induced an increase in the activity of the pro-form of MMP-2 which was inhibited by BMP-7 but not BMP-4. Both BMP-4 and BMP-7 downregulated TGF-β1-induced MMP-13 release compared to untreated and TGF-β1-treated cells. TGF-β1 also induced a myofibroblast-like transformation which was partially inhibited by BMP-7 but not BMP-4. Conclusions Our study suggests that some regulatory properties of BMP-7 may be tissue or cell type specific and unveil a potential regulatory role for

  5. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of perakine reductase, a new member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily from higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Cindy; Mueller, Uwe; Panjikar, Santosh; Sun, Lianli; Ruppert, Martin; Zhao, Yu; Stöckigt, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    Perakine reductase (PR) is a novel member of the aldo-keto reductase enzyme superfamily from higher plants. PR from the plant Rauvolfia serpentina is involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids by performing NADPH-dependent reduction of perakine, yielding raucaffrinoline. However, PR can also reduce cinnamic aldehyde and some of its derivatives. After heterologous expression of a triple mutant of PR in Escherichia coli, crystals of the purified and methylated enzyme were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique at 293 K with 100 mM sodium citrate pH 5.6 and 27% PEG 4000 as precipitant. Crystals belong to space group C2221 and diffract to 2.0 Å, with unit-cell parameters a = 58.9, b = 93.0, c = 143.4 Å. PMID:17142919

  6. Factor de crecimiento transformante beta-1: estructura, función y mecanismos de regulación en cáncer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peralta-Zaragoza Oscar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available El factor de crecimiento transformante beta-1 (TGF-beta1 es sintetizado por muchas estirpes celulares como linfocitos, macrófagos y células dendríticas, y su expresión regula de manera autócrina o parácrina la diferenciación, proliferación y el estado de activación de éstas y muchas otras células. En general, el TGF-beta1 tiene propiedades pleiotrópicas en el contexto de la respuesta inmune durante el desarrollo de infecciones y procesos neoplásicos; sin embargo, los mecanismos de acción y regulación de la expresión de esta citocina aún no se comprenden del todo. En la presente revisión se describen las propiedades biológicas y los procesos moleculares que regulan la expresión del TGF-beta1, para entender los efectos de esta citocina durante la proliferación y la diferenciación celular. El conocimiento de los mecanismos moleculares de la regulación del TGF-beta1 puede representar una importante estrategia de tratamiento del cáncer. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html

  7. The FTO (fat mass and obesity associated gene codes for a novel member of the non-heme dioxygenase superfamily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade-Navarro Miguel A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic variants in the FTO (fat mass and obesity associated gene have been associated with an increased risk of obesity. However, the function of its protein product has not been experimentally studied and previously reported sequence similarity analyses suggested the absence of homologs in existing protein databases. Here, we present the first detailed computational analysis of the sequence and predicted structure of the protein encoded by FTO. Results We performed a sequence similarity search using the human FTO protein as query and then generated a profile using the multiple sequence alignment of the homologous sequences. Profile-to-sequence and profile-to-profile based comparisons identified remote homologs of the non-heme dioxygenase family. Conclusion Our analysis suggests that human FTO is a member of the non-heme dioxygenase (Fe(II- and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases superfamily. Amino acid conservation patterns support this hypothesis and indicate that both 2-oxoglutarate and iron should be important for FTO function. This computational prediction of the function of FTO should suggest further steps for its experimental characterization and help to formulate hypothesis about the mechanisms by which it relates to obesity in humans.

  8. Down-regulation of connective tissue growth factor by inhibition of transforming growth factor beta blocks the tumor-stroma cross-talk and tumor progression in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzocca, Antonio; Fransvea, Emilia; Dituri, Francesco; Lupo, Luigi; Antonaci, Salvatore; Giannelli, Gianluigi

    2010-02-01

    Tumor-stroma interactions in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are of key importance to tumor progression. In this study, we show that HCC invasive cells produce high levels of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and generate tumors with a high stromal component in a xenograft model. A transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) receptor inhibitor, LY2109761, inhibited the synthesis and release of CTGF, as well as reducing the stromal component of the tumors. In addition, the TGF-beta-dependent down-regulation of CTGF diminished tumor growth, intravasation, and metastatic dissemination of HCC cells by inhibiting cancer-associated fibroblast proliferation. By contrast, noninvasive HCC cells were found to produce low levels of CTGF. Upon TGF-beta1 stimulation, noninvasive HCC cells form tumors with a high stromal content and CTGF expression, which is inhibited by treatment with LY2109761. In addition, the acquired intravasation and metastatic spread of noninvasive HCC cells after TGF-beta1 stimulation was blocked by LY2109761. LY2109761 interrupts the cross-talk between cancer cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts, leading to a significant reduction of HCC growth and dissemination. Interestingly, patients with high CTGF expression had poor prognosis, suggesting that treatment aimed at reducing TGF-beta-dependent CTGF expression may offer clinical benefits. Taken together, our preclinical results indicate that LY2109761 targets the cross-talk between HCC and the stroma and provide a rationale for future clinical trials.

  9. DHT selectively reverses Smad3-mediated/TGF-beta-induced responses through transcriptional down-regulation of Smad3 in prostate epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kyung; Wang, Hui; Krebs, Tracy L; Wang, Bingcheng; Kelley, Thomas J; Danielpour, David

    2010-10-01

    Androgens suppress TGF-β responses in the prostate through mechanisms that are not fully explored. We have recently reported that 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) suppresses the ability of TGF-β to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis of prostatic epithelial cells and provided evidence that such suppression was fueled by transcriptional down-regulation of TGF-β receptor II (ΤβRII). We now show that androgen receptor (AR) activated by DHT suppresses the TGF-β-induced phosphorylation of Sma- and Mad-related protein (Smad)3 in LNCaP cells overexpressing TβRII under the control of a cytomegalovirus promoter, which is not regulated by DHT, suggesting that transcriptional repression of TβRII alone does not fully account for the impact of DHT on TGF-β responses. Instead, we demonstrate that such suppression occurs through loss of total Smad3, resulting from transcriptional suppression of Smad3. We provide evidence that DHT down-regulates the promoter activity of Smad3 in various prostate cancer cell lines, including NRP-154+AR, DU145+AR, LNCaP, and VCaP, at least partly through androgen-dependent inactivation of Sp1. Moreover, we show that overexpression of Smad3 reverses the ability of DHT to protect against TGF-β-induced apoptosis in NRP-154+AR, supporting our model that loss of Smad3 by DHT is involved in the protection against TGF-β-induced apoptosis. Together, these findings suggest that deregulated/enhanced expression and activation of AR in prostate carcinomas may intercept the tumor suppressor function of TGF-β through transcriptional suppression of Smad3, thereby providing new mechanistic insight into the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer.

  10. Tacrolimus increases Nox4 expression in human renal fibroblasts and induces fibrosis-related genes by aberrant TGF-beta receptor signalling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Kern

    Full Text Available Chronic nephrotoxicity of immunosuppressives is one of the main limiting factors in the long-term outcome of kidney transplants, leading to tissue fibrosis and ultimate organ failure. The cytokine TGF-β is considered a key factor in this process. In the human renal fibroblast cell line TK-173, the macrolide calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus (FK-506 induced TGF-β-like effects, manifested by increased expression of NAD(PH-oxidase 4 (Nox4, transgelin, tropomyosin 1, and procollagen α1(V mRNA after three days. The macrolide mTOR inhibitor rapamycin had similar effects, while cyclosporine A did not induce fibrose-related genes. Concentration dependence curves were sigmoid, where mRNA expression was induced already at low nanomolar levels of tacrolimus, and reached saturation at 100-300 nM. The effects were independent of extracellular TGF-β as confirmed by the use of neutralizing antibodies, and thus most likely caused by aberrant TGF-β receptor signaling, where binding of tacrolimus to the regulatory FKBP12 protein results in a "leaky" TGF-β receptor. The myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin was neither induced by tacrolimus nor by TGF-β1, indicating an incomplete activation of TK-173 fibroblasts under culture conditions. Tacrolimus- and TGF-β1-induced Nox4 protein upregulation was confirmed by Western blotting, and was accompanied by a rise in intracellular H2O2 concentration. Si-RNA mediated knock-down of Nox4 expression prevented up-regulation of procollagen α1(V mRNA in tacrolimus-treated cells, but induced procollagen α1(V expression in control cells. Nox4 knock-down had no significant effect on the other genes tested. TGF-β is a key molecule in fibrosis, and the constant activation of aberrant receptor signaling by tacrolimus might contribute to the long-term development of interstitial kidney fibrosis in immunosuppressed patients. Nox4 levels possibly play a regulatory role in these processes.

  11. TGF-β2 inhibits AKT activation and FGF-2-induced corneal endothelial cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jiawei; Lu Zhenyu; Reinach, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The corneal endothelial cells form a boundary layer between anterior chamber and cornea. This single cell layer is important to maintain cornea transparency by eliciting net fluid transport into the anterior chamber. Injuries of the corneal endothelial layer in humans lead to corneal swelling and translucence. This hindrance is thought to be due to limited proliferative capacity of the endothelial layer. Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) and transforming growth factor-beta 2 (TGF-β2) are both found in aqueous humor, and these two cytokines promote and inhibit cell growth, respectively. The intracellular signaling mechanisms by which TGF-β2 suppresses the mitogenic response to FGF-2, however, remain unclear. We have addressed this question by investigating potential crosstalk between FGF-2-induced and TGF-β2-regulated intracellular signaling events in cultured bovine corneal endothelial (BCE) cells. We found that TGF-β2 and FGF-2 oppositely affect BCE cell proliferation and TGF-β2 can override the stimulating effects of FGF-2 by increasing COX-2 expression in these cells. Consistent with these findings, overexpression of COX-2 significantly reduced FGF-2-induced cell proliferation whereas a COX-2 specific inhibitor NS398 reversed the effect of TGF-β2 on FGF-2-induced cell proliferation. The COX-2 product prostaglandin E2 (PGE-2) blocks FGF-2-induced cell proliferation. Whereas FGF-2 stimulates cell proliferation by activating the AKT pathway, TGF-β2 and PGE-2 both inhibit this pathway. In accordance with the effect of PGE-2, cAMP also inhibits FGF-2-induced AKT activation. These findings suggest that the mitogenic response to FGF-2 in vivo in the corneal endothelial layer may be inhibited by TGF-β2-induced suppression of the PI3-kinase/AKT signaling pathway

  12. [The mechanism of vasculogenesis: the critical role of transforming growth factor-beta 1 in the formation of vessel-like structures during the differentiation in vitro of murine embryonic stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsung, H C; Yao, Z

    1996-09-01

    When ES-5 cells were transfected with an exogenous porcine TGF-beta 1 gene, one can obtain clones of genetically modified ES cells with over-expression of the transfected gene. We called the genetically modified ES-5 cells as ES-T cells. When ES-T cells were used to study their differentiation in vitro by all trans-retinoic acid (RA), it was soon noticed that embryoid bodies of ES-T cells can exclusively differentiate into endothelial cells and vessel-like structures, but not in their parent ES-5 cells. The above result is the first indication that the differentiation of tubular structures in embryoid bodies of ES-T cells may somehow be related to TGF-beta 1. To demonstrate further the role of TGF-beta 1 in the formation of vessel-like structures, the cultured ES-5 cells in the presence of added rhTGF-beta 1 were closely followed in the course of their differentiation. We have, thus, demonstrated the promoting effects of exogenous rhTGF-beta 1 in the formation of vessel-like structures, morphologically similar to those structures derived from ES-T6 cells, during the differentiation of ES-5 cells, both in monolayer culture, in three dimensional collagen gel and in embryoid bodies cultured on gelatin-coated tissue culture wells. Addition of suitable amount of anti-TGF-beta 1 monoclonal antibody IgG (TB21) to the culture medium of embryoid bodies of ES-T6 cells could effectively abolish the formation of vessel-like structures induced by retinoic acid. The percentage of the inhibition was very high, giving a figure comparable to that of atypical vessel-like structures formed in the control embryoid bodies from their parent ES-5 cells. The flat epithelial-like cells and round cells differentiated from embryoid bodies of ES-T6 cells were stained rather strongly for laminin and type IV collagen by immunofluorescent procedure. The above results indicate clearly that TGF-beta 1 is a crucial factor in organizing the differentiated derivatives (endothelial-like cells and

  13. Solution structure and phylogenetics of Prod1, a member of the three-finger protein superfamily implicated in salamander limb regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acely Garza-Garcia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Following the amputation of a limb, newts and salamanders have the capability to regenerate the lost tissues via a complex process that takes place at the site of injury. Initially these cells undergo dedifferentiation to a state competent to regenerate the missing limb structures. Crucially, dedifferentiated cells have memory of their level of origin along the proximodistal (PD axis of the limb, a property known as positional identity. Notophthalmus viridescens Prod1 is a cell-surface molecule of the three-finger protein (TFP superfamily involved in the specification of newt limb PD identity. The TFP superfamily is a highly diverse group of metazoan proteins that includes snake venom toxins, mammalian transmembrane receptors and miscellaneous signaling molecules. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: With the aim of identifying potential orthologs of Prod1, we have solved its 3D structure and compared it to other known TFPs using phylogenetic techniques. The analysis shows that TFP 3D structures group in different categories according to function. Prod1 clusters with other cell surface protein TFP domains including the complement regulator CD59 and the C-terminal domain of urokinase-type plasminogen activator. To infer orthology, a structure-based multiple sequence alignment of representative TFP family members was built and analyzed by phylogenetic methods. Prod1 has been proposed to be the salamander CD59 but our analysis fails to support this association. Prod1 is not a good match for any of the TFP families present in mammals and this result was further supported by the identification of the putative orthologs of both CD59 and N. viridescens Prod1 in sequence data for the salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The available data suggest that Prod1, and thereby its role in encoding PD identity, is restricted to salamanders. The lack of comparable limb-regenerative capability in other adult vertebrates could be

  14. Evaluation of transformation growth factor beta1, interleukin-10, and interferon-gamma in male symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs naturally infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Ana Paula Ferreira Lopes; Dossi, Ana Cláudia Silva; de Oliveira Vasconcelos, Rosemeri; Munari, Danísio Prado; de Lima, Valéria Marçal Felix

    2007-02-28

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the immunomodulatory role of TGF-beta1, IL-10, and INF-gamma in spleen and liver extracts and supernatant cultures of white spleen cells from male symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs, naturally infected by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi. Thirty dogs from Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil, an endemic leishmaniosis area, were selected by positive ELISA serological reaction for Leishmania sp. and divided into two groups: asymptomatic (n=15) and symptomatic (n=15) consisting of animals with at least three characteristic signs (fever, dermatitis, lymphoadenopathy, onychogryphosis, weight loss, cachexia, locomotion problems, conjunctivitis, epistaxis, hepatosplenomegaly, edema, and apathy). After euthanasia, spleen and liver fragments were collected for ex vivo quantification of TGF-beta1, IL-10, and INF-gamma. Naturally active in vitro produced TGF-beta1 was also evaluated in spleen cell culture supernatant. Spleen and liver extract of asymptomatic dogs had higher mean TGF-beta1 levels than symptomatic dogs. High concentrations of IL-10 were found in spleen, and mainly in liver extract of both groups. Higher INF-gamma concentrations were found in spleen extracts of symptomatic dogs, and in liver extracts of asymptomatic dogs. Extract of this cytokine was lower in spleen extract. Although INF-gamma is being produced in canine infection, mean levels of TGF-beta1 and IL-10 from spleen and liver extracts were quantitatively much higher; suggesting that immune response in both asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs was predominantly type Th2.

  15. Lead induces chondrogenesis and alters transforming growth factor-beta and bone morphogenetic protein signaling in mesenchymal cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuscik, Michael J; Ma, Lin; Buckley, Taylor; Puzas, J Edward; Drissi, Hicham; Schwarz, Edward M; O'Keefe, Regis J

    2007-09-01

    It has been established that skeletal growth is stunted in lead-exposed children. Because chondrogenesis is a seminal step during skeletal development, elucidating the impact of Pb on this process is the first step toward understanding the mechanism of Pb toxicity in the skeleton. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that Pb alters chondrogenic commitment of mesenchymal cells and to assess the effects of Pb on various signaling pathways. We assessed the influence of Pb on chondrogenesis in murine limb bud mesenchymal cells (MSCs) using nodule formation assays and gene analyses. The effects of Pb on transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling was studied using luciferase-based reporters and Western analyses, and luciferase-based assays were used to study cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein (CREB), beta-catenin, AP-1, and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) signaling. We also used an ectopic bone formation assay to determine how Pb affects chondrogenesis in vivo. Pb-exposed MSCs showed enhanced basal and TGF-beta/BMP induction of chondrogenesis, evidenced by enhanced nodule formation and up-regulation of Sox-9, type 2 collagen, and aggrecan, all key markers of chondrogenesis. We observed enhanced chondrogenesis during ectopic bone formation in mice preexposed to Pb via drinking water. In MSCs, Pb enhanced TGF-beta but inhibited BMP-2 signaling, as measured by luciferase reporter assays and Western analyses of Smad phosphorylation. Although Pb had no effect on basal CREB or Wnt/beta-catenin pathway activity, it induced NFkappaB signaling and inhibited AP-1 signaling. The in vitro and in vivo induction of chondrogenesis by Pb likely involves modulation and integration of multiple signaling pathways including TGF-beta, BMP, AP-1, and NFkappaB.

  16. Evolution of Enzymatic Activities in the Enolase Superfamily: Stereochemically Distinct Mechanisms in Two Families of cis,cis-Muconate Lactonizing Enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, A.; Fedorov, A; Fedorov, E; Schnoes, A; Glasner, M; Burley, S; Babbitt, P; Almo, S; Gerlt, J

    2009-01-01

    The mechanistically diverse enolase superfamily is a paradigm for elucidating Nature's strategies for divergent evolution of enzyme function. Each of the different reactions catalyzed by members of the superfamily is initiated by abstraction of the a-proton of a carboxylate substrate that is coordinated to an essential Mg2+. The muconate lactonizing enzyme (MLE) from Pseudomonas putida, a member of a family that catalyzes the syn-cycloisomerization of cis,cis-muconate to (4S)-muconolactone in the e-ketoadipate pathway, has provided critical insights into the structural bases for evolution of function within the superfamily. A second, divergent family of homologous MLEs that catalyzes anti-cycloisomerization has been identified. Structures of members of both families liganded with the common (4S)-muconolactone product (syn, Pseudomonas fluorescens, gi 70731221; anti, Mycobacterium smegmatis, gi 118470554) document that the conserved Lys at the end of the second e-strand in the (e/a)7e-barrel domain serves as the acid catalyst in both reactions. The different stereochemical courses (syn and anti) result from different structural strategies for determining substrate specificity: although the distal carboxylate group of the cis,cis-muconate substrate attacks the same face of the proximal double bond, opposite faces of the resulting enolate anion intermediate are presented to the conserved Lys acid catalyst. The discovery of two families of homologous, but stereochemically distinct, MLEs likely provides an example of 'pseudoconvergent' evolution of the same function from different homologous progenitors within the enolase superfamily, in which different spatial arrangements of active site functional groups and substrate specificity determinants support catalysis of the same reaction.

  17. Evolution of Enzymatic Activities in the Enolase Superfamily: Stereochemically Distinct Mechanisms in Two Families of cis,cis-Muconate Lactonizing Enzymes†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Ayano; Fedorov, Alexander A.; Fedorov, Elena V.; Schnoes, Alexandra M.; Glasner, Margaret E.; Brown, Shoshana; Rutter, Marc E.; Bain, Kevin; Chang, Shawn; Gheyi, Tarun; Sauder, J. Michael; Burley, Stephen K.; Babbitt, Patricia C.; Almo, Steven C.; Gerlt, John A.

    2009-01-01

    The mechanistically diverse enolase superfamily is a paradigm for elucidating Nature’s strategies for divergent evolution of enzyme function. Each of the different reactions catalyzed by members of the superfamily is initiated by abstraction of the α-proton of a carboxylate substrate that is coordinated to an essential Mg2+. The muconate lactonizing enzyme (MLE) from Pseudomonas putida, a member of a family that catalyzes the syn-cycloisomerization of cis,cis-muconate to (4S)-muconolactone in the β-ketoadipate pathway, has provided critical insights into the structural bases for evolution of function within the superfamily. A second, divergent family of homologues MLEs that catalyzes anti-cycloisomerization has been identified. Structures of members of both families liganded with the common (4S)-muconolactone product (syn, Pseudomonas fluorescens, GI:70731221; anti, Mycobacterium smegmatis, GI:118470554) document that the conserved Lys at the end of the second β-strand in the (β/α)7β-barrel domain serves as the acid catalyst in both reactions. The different stereochemical courses (syn and anti) result from different structural strategies for determining substrate specificity: although the distal carboxylate group of the cis,cis-muconate substrate attacks the same face of the proximal double bond, opposite faces of the resulting enolate anion intermediate are presented to the conserved Lys acid catalyst. The discovery of two families of homologous, but stereochemically distinct, MLEs likely provides an example of “pseudoconvergent” evolution of the same function from different homologous progenitors within the enolase superfamily, in which different spatial arrangements of active site functional groups and substrate specificity determinants support catalysis of the same reaction. PMID:19220063

  18. Identification of the bacteria-binding peptide domain on salivary agglutinin (gp-340/DMBT1), a member of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich superfamily

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bikker, Floris J; Ligtenberg, Antoon J M; Nazmi, Kamran

    2002-01-01

    Salivary agglutinin is encoded by DMBT1 and identical to gp-340, a member of the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily. Salivary agglutinin/DMBT1 is known for its Streptococcus mutans agglutinating properties. This 300-400 kDa glycoprotein is composed of conserved peptide motifs: 14...... containing exclusively SRCR and SID domains that binds to S. mutans. To define more closely the S. mutans-binding domain, consensus-based peptides of the SRCR domains and SIDs were designed and synthesized. Only one of the SRCR peptides, designated SRCRP2, and none of the SID peptides bound to S. mutans....... Strikingly, this peptide was also able to induce agglutination of S. mutans and a number of other bacteria. The repeated presence of this peptide in the native molecule endows agglutinin/DMBT1 with a general bacterial binding feature with a multivalent character. Moreover, our studies demonstrate...

  19. CTRP6 inhibits fibrogenesis in TGF-β1-stimulated human dermal fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Rong-hui, E-mail: fan_ronghuixa@163.com [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital, Xi’an 710068 (China); Zhu, Xiu-mei; Sun, Yao-wen [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital, Xi’an 710068 (China); Peng, Hui-zi [Department of Cosmetology Plastic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi 710061 (China); Wu, Hang-li; Gao, Wen-jie [Department of Burn and Plastic Surgery, Shaanxi Provincial People’s Hospital, Xi’an 710068 (China)

    2016-07-08

    Skin fibrosis is characterized by excessive proliferation of fibroblasts and overproduction of extracellular matrix (ECM). C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein 6 (CTRP6), a member of CTRPs, has been involved in the development of cardiac fibrosis. However, the function and detailed regulatory mechanism of CTRP6 in skin fibrosis remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CTRP6 on the activation of human dermal fibroblasts. Our results showed that CTRP6 was lowly expressed in scar tissues and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-treated dermal fibroblasts. CTRP6 overexpression significantly inhibited the proliferation of dermal fibroblasts, as well as suppressed the expression of ECM in TGF-β1-treated dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, CTRP6 overexpression markedly inhibited TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of Smad3 in dermal fibroblasts. In conclusion, the data reported here demonstrate that CTRP6 is able to inhibit the proliferation and ECM expression in human dermal fibroblasts through suppressing the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway. These findings suggest that CTRP6 may be a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of skin fibrosis. -- Highlights: •CTRP6 expression was decreased in scar tissues and TGF-β1-treated dermal fibroblasts. •CTRP6 inhibits TGF-β1-induced the proliferation of dermal fibroblasts. •CTRP6 inhibits expression of collagen type I and α-SMA. •CTRP6 inhibits the activation of TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway in dermal fibroblasts.

  20. CTRP6 inhibits fibrogenesis in TGF-β1-stimulated human dermal fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Rong-hui; Zhu, Xiu-mei; Sun, Yao-wen; Peng, Hui-zi; Wu, Hang-li; Gao, Wen-jie

    2016-01-01

    Skin fibrosis is characterized by excessive proliferation of fibroblasts and overproduction of extracellular matrix (ECM). C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein 6 (CTRP6), a member of CTRPs, has been involved in the development of cardiac fibrosis. However, the function and detailed regulatory mechanism of CTRP6 in skin fibrosis remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CTRP6 on the activation of human dermal fibroblasts. Our results showed that CTRP6 was lowly expressed in scar tissues and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-treated dermal fibroblasts. CTRP6 overexpression significantly inhibited the proliferation of dermal fibroblasts, as well as suppressed the expression of ECM in TGF-β1-treated dermal fibroblasts. Furthermore, CTRP6 overexpression markedly inhibited TGF-β1-induced phosphorylation of Smad3 in dermal fibroblasts. In conclusion, the data reported here demonstrate that CTRP6 is able to inhibit the proliferation and ECM expression in human dermal fibroblasts through suppressing the TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway. These findings suggest that CTRP6 may be a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of skin fibrosis. -- Highlights: •CTRP6 expression was decreased in scar tissues and TGF-β1-treated dermal fibroblasts. •CTRP6 inhibits TGF-β1-induced the proliferation of dermal fibroblasts. •CTRP6 inhibits expression of collagen type I and α-SMA. •CTRP6 inhibits the activation of TGF-β1/Smad3 signaling pathway in dermal fibroblasts.

  1. The short mRNA isoform of the immunoglobulin superfamily, member 1 gene encodes an intracellular glycoprotein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    Full Text Available Mutations in the immunoglobulin superfamily, member 1 gene (IGSF1/Igsf1 cause an X-linked form of central hypothyroidism. The canonical form of IGSF1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein with 12 immunoglobulin (Ig loops. The protein is co-translationally cleaved into two sub-domains. The carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD, which contains the last 7 Ig loops, is trafficked to the plasma membrane. Most pathogenic mutations in IGSF1 map to the portion of the gene encoding the CTD. IGSF1/Igsf1 encodes a variety of transcripts. A little studied, but abundant splice variant encodes a truncated form of the protein, predicted to contain the first 2 Ig loops of the full-length IGSF1. The protein (hereafter referred to as IGSF1 isoform 2 or IGSF1-2 is likely retained in most individuals with IGSF1 mutations. Here, we characterized basic biochemical properties of the protein as a foray into understanding its potential function. IGSF1-2, like the IGSF1-CTD, is a glycoprotein. In both mouse and rat, the protein is N-glycosylated at a single asparagine residue in the first Ig loop. Contrary to earlier predictions, neither the murine nor rat IGSF1-2 is secreted from heterologous or homologous cells. In addition, neither protein associates with the plasma membrane. Rather, IGSF1-2 appears to be retained in the endoplasmic reticulum. Whether the protein plays intracellular functions or is trafficked through the secretory pathway under certain physiologic or pathophysiologic conditions has yet to be determined.

  2. Anorexia-cachexia and obesity treatment may be two sides of the same coin: role of the TGF-b superfamily cytokine MIC-1/GDF15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, V W W; Lin, S; Brown, D A; Salis, A; Breit, S N

    2016-02-01

    Anorexia-cachexia associated with cancer and other diseases is a common and often fatal condition representing a large area of unmet medical need. It occurs most commonly in advanced cancer and is probably a consequence of molecules released by tumour cells, or tumour-associated interstitial or immune cells. These may then act directly on muscle to cause atrophy and/or may cause anorexia, which then leads to loss of both fat and lean mass. Although the aetiological triggers for this syndrome are not well characterized, recent data suggest that MIC-1/GDF15, a transforming growth factor-beta superfamily cytokine produced in large amounts by cancer cells and as a part of other disease processes, may be an important trigger. This cytokine acts on feeding centres in the hypothalamus and brainstem to cause anorexia leading to loss of lean and fat mass and eventually cachexia. In animal studies, the circulating concentrations of MIC-1/GDF15 required to cause this syndrome are similar to those seen in patients with advanced cancer, and at least some epidemiological studies support an association between MIC-1/GDF15 serum levels and measures of nutrition. This article will discuss its mechanisms of central appetite regulation, and the available data linking this action to anorexia-cachexia syndromes that suggest it is a potential target for therapy of cancer anorexia-cachexia and conversely may also be useful for the treatment of severe obesity.

  3. Subdivision of the MDR superfamily of medium-chain dehydrogenases/reductases through iterative hidden Markov model refinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persson Bengt

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Medium-chain Dehydrogenases/Reductases (MDR form a protein superfamily whose size and complexity defeats traditional means of subclassification; it currently has over 15000 members in the databases, the pairwise sequence identity is typically around 25%, there are members from all kingdoms of life, the chain-lengths vary as does the oligomericity, and the members are partaking in a multitude of biological processes. There are profile hidden Markov models (HMMs available for detecting MDR superfamily members, but none for determining which MDR family each protein belongs to. The current torrential influx of new sequence data enables elucidation of more and more protein families, and at an increasingly fine granularity. However, gathering good quality training data usually requires manual attention by experts and has therefore been the rate limiting step for expanding the number of available models. Results We have developed an automated algorithm for HMM refinement that produces stable and reliable models for protein families. This algorithm uses relationships found in data to generate confident seed sets. Using this algorithm we have produced HMMs for 86 distinct MDR families and 34 of their subfamilies which can be used in automated annotation of new sequences. We find that MDR forms with 2 Zn2+ ions in general are dehydrogenases, while MDR forms with no Zn2+ in general are reductases. Furthermore, in Bacteria MDRs without Zn2+ are more frequent than those with Zn2+, while the opposite is true for eukaryotic MDRs, indicating that Zn2+ has been recruited into the MDR superfamily after the initial life kingdom separations. We have also developed a web site http://mdr-enzymes.org that provides textual and numeric search against various characterised MDR family properties, as well as sequence scan functions for reliable classification of novel MDR sequences. Conclusions Our method of refinement can be readily applied to

  4. Osteoarthritic human cartilage is more sensitive to transforming growth factor beta than is normal cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lafeber, F. P.; Vander Kraan, P. M.; Huber-Bruning, O.; Vanden Berg, W. B.; Bijlsma, J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease, characterized by the destruction of the articular cartilage. One of the first changes in the osteoarthritic articular cartilage is a reduction in proteoglycan content. In this study we demonstrate that transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta), a

  5. Cancer-associated fibroblasts regulate keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion via TGF-β-dependent pathways in genotype-specific oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, N; Hassona, Y; Celentano, A; Lim, K P; Manchella, S; Parkinson, E K; Prime, S S

    2017-01-01

    The interrelationship between malignant epithelium and the underlying stroma is of fundamental importance in tumour development and progression. In the present study, we used cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) derived from genetically unstable oral squamous cell carcinomas (GU-OSCC), tumours that are characterized by the loss of genes such as TP53 and p16 INK4A and with extensive loss of heterozygosity, together with CAFs from their more genetically stable (GS) counterparts that have wild-type TP53 and p16 INK4A and minimal loss of heterozygosity (GS-OSCC). Using a systems biology approach to interpret the genome-wide transcriptional profile of the CAFs, we show that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family members not only had biological relevance in silico but also distinguished GU-OSCC-derived CAFs from GS-OSCC CAFs and fibroblasts from normal oral mucosa. In view of the close association between TGF-β family members, we examined the expression of TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 in the different fibroblast subtypes and showed increased levels of active TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 in CAFs from GU-OSCC. CAFs from GU-OSCC, but not GS-OSCC or normal fibroblasts, induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and down-regulated a broad spectrum of cell adhesion molecules resulting in epithelial dis-cohesion and invasion of target keratinocytes in vitro in a TGF-β-dependent manner. The results demonstrate that the TGF-β family of cytokines secreted by CAFs derived from genotype-specific oral cancer (GU-OSCC) promote, at least in part, the malignant phenotype by weakening intercellular epithelial adhesion. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Effect of botulinum toxin type A on transforming growth factor beta1 in fibroblasts derived from hypertrophic scar: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhibo; Zhang, Fengmin; Lin, Weibin; Zhang, Miaobo; Liu, Ying

    2010-08-01

    Hypertrophic scar is a common dermal disease. Numerous treatments are currently available but they do not always yield excellent therapeutic results. Hence, alternatives are needed. Recent basic and clinical research has shown that botulinum toxin type A (BTXA) has antihypertrophic scar properties but the molecular mechanism for this action is unknown. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of BTXA on transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1) in fibroblasts derived from hypertrophic scar and further elucidate its actual mechanism. Fibroblasts were isolated from tissue specimens of hypertrophic scar. Fibroblasts were treated with BTXA and the difference in proliferation between treated and nontreated cells was analyzed through the MTT method from the first to the fifth day after treatment. Proteins of TGF-beta1 were checked using ELISA in fibroblasts with BTXA and without BTXA from the first to the fifth day. The growth of the fibroblast treated with BTXA was obviously slower than that of the fibroblast without BTXA treatment (p < 0.01), which showed that BTXA effectively inhibited the growth of fibroblasts. Proteins of TGF-beta1 between fibroblasts with BTXA and fibroblasts without BTXA are statistically significant (p < 0.01). These results suggest that BTXA effectively inhibited the growth of fibroblasts derived from hypertrophic scar and in turn caused a decrease in TGF-beta1 protein, indicating that BTXA-based therapies for hypertrophic scar are promising and worth investigating further.

  7. Functional Diversity of Haloacid Dehalogenase Superfamily Phosphatases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: BIOCHEMICAL, STRUCTURAL, AND EVOLUTIONARY INSIGHTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Nocek, Boguslaw; Brown, Greg; Makarova, Kira S; Flick, Robert; Wolf, Yuri I; Khusnutdinova, Anna; Evdokimova, Elena; Jin, Ke; Tan, Kemin; Hanson, Andrew D; Hasnain, Ghulam; Zallot, Rémi; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Babu, Mohan; Savchenko, Alexei; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Edwards, Aled M; Koonin, Eugene V; Yakunin, Alexander F

    2015-07-24

    The haloacid dehalogenase (HAD)-like enzymes comprise a large superfamily of phosphohydrolases present in all organisms. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome encodes at least 19 soluble HADs, including 10 uncharacterized proteins. Here, we biochemically characterized 13 yeast phosphatases from the HAD superfamily, which includes both specific and promiscuous enzymes active against various phosphorylated metabolites and peptides with several HADs implicated in detoxification of phosphorylated compounds and pseudouridine. The crystal structures of four yeast HADs provided insight into their active sites, whereas the structure of the YKR070W dimer in complex with substrate revealed a composite substrate-binding site. Although the S. cerevisiae and Escherichia coli HADs share low sequence similarities, the comparison of their substrate profiles revealed seven phosphatases with common preferred substrates. The cluster of secondary substrates supporting significant activity of both S. cerevisiae and E. coli HADs includes 28 common metabolites that appear to represent the pool of potential activities for the evolution of novel HAD phosphatases. Evolution of novel substrate specificities of HAD phosphatases shows no strict correlation with sequence divergence. Thus, evolution of the HAD superfamily combines the conservation of the overall substrate pool and the substrate profiles of some enzymes with remarkable biochemical and structural flexibility of other superfamily members. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Berberine Suppresses Cell Motility Through Downregulation of TGF-β1 in Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmin Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Transforming growth factor-beta proteins (TGF-βs are multifunctional growth factors and powerful modulators of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT in a variety of cancer types including breast and lung cancer cells. Here, we demonstrated the inhibitory effect of berberine (BBR on tumor growth and metastasis of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC cells via suppression of TGF-β1 expression. Methods: The levels of mRNA expression were analyzed by real-time PCR. The levels of MMP-2, MMP-9 and TGF-β1 protein expression were analyzed by zymography and confocal microscopy, respectively. Cell migration was analyzed by wound healing assay. Tumorigenicity of TNBC cells such as tumor growth and metastasis was analyzed using xenograft models. Results: In a clinical data set, aberrant TGF-β1 expression was associated with poor prognosis of breast cancer patients. Our in vitro results using TNBC cells showed that the expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9 and the capacity for cell migration were increased by TGF-β1 treatment. In contrast, basal levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were suppressed by a specific TGF-β receptor I inhibitor, SB431542. In addition, TGF-β1–induced MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression and cell migration were decreased by SB431542. Interestingly, we showed for the first time that BBR decreased the level of TGF-β1, but not TGF-β2, in TNBC cells. Furthermore, BBR significantly decreased the level of MMP-2 expression as well as the capacity for cell migration in TNBC cells. Finally, we examined the effect of BBR on in vivo tumor growth and lung metastasis in MDA-MB231 and 4T1 breast cancer xenograft models and showed that both were significantly decreased following BBR treatment. Conclusion: BBR suppresses tumorigenicity of TNBC cells through inhibition of TGF-β1 expression. Therefore, we demonstrate that BBR could be a promising drug for treatment of TNBC.

  9. The role of TGF-β in the pathophysiology of peritoneal endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Vicky J; Ahmad, S F; Duncan, W Colin; Horne, Andrew W

    2017-09-01

    Endometriosis is estimated to affect 6-10% of women of reproductive age and it is associated with chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhoea and subfertility. It is currently managed surgically or medically but symptoms recur in up to 75% of cases and available medical treatments have undesirable side effects. Endometriosis is defined as the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterus with lesions typically found on the peritoneum. The aetiology of endometriosis is uncertain but there is increasing evidence that transforming growth factor (TGF)-β plays a major role. A descriptive review was undertaken of the published literature on the expression pattern of TGF-β ligands and signalling molecules in women with and without endometriosis, and on the potential roles of TGF-β signalling in the development and progression of peritoneal endometriosis. The current understanding of the TGF-β signalling pathway is summarized. We searched the Pubmed database using the terms 'transforming growth factor beta' and 'endometriosis' for studies published between 1995 and 2016. The initial search identified 99 studies and these were used as the basic material for this review. We also extended our remit for important older publications. In addition, we searched the reference lists of studies used in this review for additional studies we judged as relevant. Studies which were included in the review focused on peritoneal endometriosis only as increasing evidence suggests that ovarian and deep endometriosis may have a differing pathophysiology. Thus, a final 95 studies were included in the review. TGF-β1 is reported to be increased in the peritoneal fluid, serum, ectopic endometrium and peritoneum of women with endometriosis compared to women without endometriosis, and TGF-β1-null mice have reduced endometriosis lesion growth when compared to their wild-type controls. Studies in mice and women have indicated that increasing levels of TGF-β ligands are associated with decreased

  10. Evodiamine attenuates TGF-β1-induced fibroblast activation and endothelial to mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qing-Qing; Xiao, Yang; Jiang, Xiao-Han; Yuan, Yuan; Yang, Zheng; Chang, Wei; Bian, Zhou-Yan; Tang, Qi-Zhu

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of evodiamine on fibroblast activation in cardiac fibroblasts and endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Neonatal rat cardiac fibroblasts were stimulated with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) to induce fibroblast activation. After co-cultured with evodiamine (5, 10 μM), the proliferation and pro-fibrotic proteins expression of cardiac fibroblasts were evaluated. HUVECs were also stimulated with TGF-β1 to induce EndMT and treated with evodiamine (5, 10 μM) at the same time. The EndMT response in the HUVECs was evaluated as well as the capacity of the transitioned endothelial cells migrating to surrounding tissue. As a result, Evodiamine-blunted TGF-β1 induced activation of cardiac fibroblast into myofibroblast as assessed by the decreased expressions of α-SMA. Furthermore, evodiamine reduced the increased protein expression of fibrosis markers in neonatal and adult rat cardiac fibroblasts induced by TGF-β1. HUVECs stimulated with TGF-β1 exhibited lower expression levels of CD31, CD34, and higher levels of α-SMA, vimentin than the control cells. This phenotype was eliminated in the HUVECs treated with both 5 and 10 μM evodiamine. Evodiamine significantly reduced the increase in migration ability that occurred in response to TGF-β1 in HUVECs. In addition, the activation of Smad2, Smad3, ERK1/2, and Akt, and the nuclear translocation of Smad4 in both cardiac fibroblasts and HUVEC were blocked by evodiamine treatment. Thus, evodiamine could prevent cardiac fibroblasts from activation into myofibroblast and protect HUVEC against EndMT. These effects may be mediated by inhibition of the TGFβ pathway in both cardiac fibroblasts and HUVECs.

  11. Increasing the effectiveness of hematopoiesis in myelodysplastic syndromes: erythropoiesis-stimulating agents and transforming growth factor-β superfamily inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mies, Anna; Platzbecker, Uwe

    2017-07-01

    Patients with lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are mainly affected by chronic anemia and fatigue. Treatment strategies aim to improve anemia and quality of life, as well as iron overload due to red blood cell transfusion support. To promote proliferation and differentiation of erythropoiesis, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) such as erythropoietin (EPO) and mimetics are applied as first-line therapy in a large fraction of lower-risk MDS patients. In general, ESAs yield favorable responses in about half of the patients, although responses are often short-lived. In fact, many ESA-refractory patients harbor defects in late-stage erythropoiesis downstream of EPO action. Novel transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily inhibitors sotatercept and luspatercept represent a promising approach to alleviate anemia by stimulating erythroid differentiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Phase I study of transforming growth factor-beta 3 mouthwashes for prevention of chemotherapy-induced mucositis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wymenga, ANM; van der Graaf, WTA; Hofstra, LS; Spijkervet, FKL; Timens, W; Timmer-Bosscha, H; Sluiter, WJ; van Buuren, AHJAW; Mulder, NH; de Vries, EGE

    The purpose of this study was to establish the safety and tolerability of recombinant transforming growth factor-beta 3 (TGF-beta 3; CGP 46614) mouthwashes intended for prevention of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. Local effects were especially analyzed by objective and subjective measurements of

  13. The blood level of transforming growth factor-beta rises in the early stages of acute protein and energy deficit in the weanling mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jennifer M; Woodward, Bill

    2010-03-01

    Plasma transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta levels are high in the advanced stages of acute (wasting) pre-pubescent deficits of protein and energy. Consequently, this potently anti-inflammatory cytokine may help to sustain the depression of inflammatory immune competence in acute malnutrition. Our objective was to determine if plasma TGF-beta levels rise during the early stages of acute malnutrition and, secondarily, to confirm the elevation reported previously in advanced weight loss. In two experiments, male and female C57BL/6J mice, initially 19 d old, consumed ad libitum a complete purified diet (group C), or in restricted daily quantities (group R) or had free access to an isoenergetic low-protein diet (group LP). TGF-beta bioactivity in platelet-poor plasma was determined via inhibition of Mv1Lu mink lung cell proliferation after 3 d (Expt 1, early stage) or 14 d (Expt 2, advanced stage) of dietary intervention. At 3 d, mean plasma TGF-beta bioactivities were 802 (C), 2952 (R) and 4678 (LP) pg/ml, and after 14 d mean bioactivities were 1786 (C), 5360 (R) and 5735 (LP) pg/ml. At both time points, the malnourished groups differed from age-matched controls (P TGF-beta concentration, and this cytokine joins corticosterone and IL-10 as a third anti-inflammatory hormone temporally positioned to contribute to the initiation (and maintenance) of malnutrition-associated immune depression. This investigation contributes new insight into the active anti-inflammatory form of immune competence that appears to prevail in acute pre-pubescent malnutrition.

  14. Polymorphisms of the transforming growth factor-beta 1 gene in relation to myocardial infarction and blood pressure. The Etude Cas-Témoin de l'Infarctus du Myocarde (ECTIM) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambien, F; Ricard, S; Troesch, A; Mallet, C; Générénaz, L; Evans, A; Arveiler, D; Luc, G; Ruidavets, J B; Poirier, O

    1996-11-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) plays an important role in the modulation of cellular growth and differentiation and the production and degradation of the extracellular matrix. A number of experimental results suggest that TGF-beta 1 may be involved in cardiovascular physiopathology. In the present study, we assessed whether the TGF-beta 1 gene is a candidate gene for coronary heart disease or hypertension. We screened the coding region and 2181 bp upstream of the TGF-beta gene for polymorphisms and identified seven polymorphisms: 3 in the upstream region of the gene at positions -988, -800, and -509 from the first transcribed nucleotide; 1 in a nontranslated region at position +72; 2 in the signal peptide sequence Leu10-->Pro, Arg25-->Pro; and 1 in the region of the gene coding for the precursor part of the protein not present in the active form, Thr263-->Ile. We analyzed these TGF-beta 1 polymorphisms in 563 patients with myocardial infarction and 629 control subjects from four regions in Northern Ireland and France. The Pro25 allele was more frequent in patients than in control subjects in Belfast (P < .01) and Strasbourg (P < .05). The TGF-beta 1 polymorphisms were not associated with the degree of angiographically assessed coronary artery disease in patients. The presence of a Pro25 allele was associated with a lower systolic pressure in the four control groups (P < .002), and a history of hypertension was significantly less frequent in homozygotes or heterozygotes for Pro25 than in hormozygotes for Arg25 (odds ratio, 0.43, 95% confidence interval, 0.19 to 0.92; P < .03). Since the Pro25 allele was associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction and a reduced risk of hypertension, we favor a cautious interpretation of these apparently inconsistent results. Other studies will need to verify whether these associations are real.

  15. Comparative immunoexpression of ICAM-1, TGF-β1 and ki-67 in periapical and residual cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, R; Armada, L; Dos Santos, T-C; Pires, F-R

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the immunohistochemical expression of ki-67, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in inflammatory periapical cysts and residual cysts. The study sample was composed by 25 periapical cysts and 25 residual cysts and immunohistochemical reactions were carried out using antibodies directed against ICAM-1, TGF-β1 and ki-67. Clinical, radiological, gross, histological and immunohistochemical data were tabulated for descriptive and comparative analysis using the SPSS software and differences were considered statistically significant when pcysts compared to periapical cysts (p=0.017). Results from the present study suggest that some specific inflammatory stimuli on residual cysts would modulate their mechanisms of etiopathogenesis, growing and repair.

  16. Transforming growth factor β2 (TGF-β2 in pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis: An immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh V Kamath

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSF is a potentially malignant oral disorder causing fibrosis of the oral mucosa. Commonly associated with the habit of chewing areca nut in its raw or refined forms, the progressive fibrosis causes intense debility and probable malignant transformation. Arecoline, flavinoids and tannins in the areca nut may activate pro-fibrotic cytokines like transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β leading to fibrosis. TGF-β and its isoforms probably represent the major pathway in the deposition of collagen fibers in this condition. Very little is known of the role of TGF-β2, as compared withTGF-β1, in OSF. The present study aims to evaluate TGF-β2 immunohistochemically in OSF with a view to understanding its role in the pathogenesis. Materials and Methods: TGF-β2 antibody was detected immunohistochemically on archival paraffin sections of 70 cases of various grades of OSF, 10 cases of normal oral mucosa and five cases of scar tissue. The presence and distribution of the antibody was noted and a quantification of the positive areas was also done using image analyses software and correlated in proportion to the rest of the tissue. Results: Expression of TGF-β2 was more in all grades of OSF when compared with that of normal oral mucosa but less than that expressed in scar tissue. The antibody was detected in epithelium, around the blood vessels, in areas of inflammatory infiltrate, fibroblasts and in muscles. The intensity and proportion of expression paralleled increasing grades of OSF. There was increased expression of the antibody in the epithelium, which is probably the source, but no correlation to epithelial changes (hyperplasia, atrophy or dysplasia was noted. Conclusion: TGF-β2 is a prominent cytokine in the TGF-β induced pathway of fibrosis but probably plays a contributory role to the main isoform TGF-β1. Its role as a marker of malignant transformation, as seen in other systemic malignant

  17. Extracellular Matrix (ECM) Multilayer Membrane as a Sustained Releasing Growth Factor Delivery System for rhTGF-β3 in Articular Cartilage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Hyug; Kim, Moon Suk; Kim, Young Jick; Choi, Byung Hyune; Lee, Chun Tek; Park, So Ra; Min, Byoung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant human transforming growth factor beta-3 (rhTGF-β3) is a key regulator of chondrogenesis in stem cells and cartilage formation. We have developed a novel drug delivery system that continuously releases rhTGF-β3 using a multilayered extracellular matrix (ECM) membrane. We hypothesize that the sustained release of rhTGF-β3 could activate stem cells and result in enhanced repair of cartilage defects. The properties and efficacy of the ECM multilayer-based delivery system (EMLDS) are investigated using rhTGF-β3 as a candidate drug. The bioactivity of the released rhTGF-ß3 was evaluated through chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) using western blot and circular dichroism (CD) analyses in vitro. The cartilage reparability was evaluated through implanting EMLDS with endogenous and exogenous MSC in both in vivo and ex vivo models, respectively. In the results, the sustained release of rhTGF-ß3 was clearly observed over a prolonged period of time in vitro and the released rhTGF-β3 maintained its structural stability and biological activity. Successful cartilage repair was also demonstrated when rabbit MSCs were treated with rhTGF-β3-loaded EMLDS ((+) rhTGF-β3 EMLDS) in an in vivo model and when rabbit chondrocytes and MSCs were treated in ex vivo models. Therefore, the multilayer ECM membrane could be a useful drug delivery system for cartilage repair. PMID:27258120

  18. Extracellular Matrix (ECM Multilayer Membrane as a Sustained Releasing Growth Factor Delivery System for rhTGF-β3 in Articular Cartilage Repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Sim Yang

    Full Text Available Recombinant human transforming growth factor beta-3 (rhTGF-β3 is a key regulator of chondrogenesis in stem cells and cartilage formation. We have developed a novel drug delivery system that continuously releases rhTGF-β3 using a multilayered extracellular matrix (ECM membrane. We hypothesize that the sustained release of rhTGF-β3 could activate stem cells and result in enhanced repair of cartilage defects. The properties and efficacy of the ECM multilayer-based delivery system (EMLDS are investigated using rhTGF-β3 as a candidate drug. The bioactivity of the released rhTGF-ß3 was evaluated through chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs using western blot and circular dichroism (CD analyses in vitro. The cartilage reparability was evaluated through implanting EMLDS with endogenous and exogenous MSC in both in vivo and ex vivo models, respectively. In the results, the sustained release of rhTGF-ß3 was clearly observed over a prolonged period of time in vitro and the released rhTGF-β3 maintained its structural stability and biological activity. Successful cartilage repair was also demonstrated when rabbit MSCs were treated with rhTGF-β3-loaded EMLDS ((+ rhTGF-β3 EMLDS in an in vivo model and when rabbit chondrocytes and MSCs were treated in ex vivo models. Therefore, the multilayer ECM membrane could be a useful drug delivery system for cartilage repair.

  19. Modulation role of angelica sinensis on transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) expression induced by radiation in the lung tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Conghua; Zhou Yunfeng; Peng Gang; Zhou Fuxiang; Zhang Gong; Liang Chen; Liu Hui; Chen Ji; Xia Mingtong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the ability of Angelica Sinensis to affect the radiation- induced TGF-β 1 release in the animal model, so as to find an effective method to reduce the lung toxicity after thoracic irradiation. Methods: The thoraces of C57BL/6 mice were exposed to either sham irradiation or single fraction of 12 Gy. Four study groups were defined: those that received neither irradiation nor Angelica Sinensis (NT group), those that received Angelica Sinensis but no irradiation (AS group), those that underwent irradiation without Angelica Sinensis (XRT group) and those that received both Angelica Sinensis and irradiation (AS/XRT group). Treated and sham-irradiated control mice were sacrificed at times corresponding to the latent period (1, 24, 72 hours and 1 week postirradiation), the pneumonic phase (2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks postirradiation), and the beginning of the fibrotic phase (24 weeks postirradiation) . The TGF-β 1 mRNA expressions in the lung tissue were quantified by real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Immunohistochemical Streptavidin-Peroxidase method and positive cell counting were used for objective quantification of TGF-β 1 protein expression. Results: NT and AS groups exhibited low levels of TGF-β 1 protein expression with positive cell counts between 9 and 31. And there is an significantly elevated level of TGF-β 1 positive inflammatory cells in XRT group (P 1 in XRT group was significantly higher than the nonirradiated groups (P 1 response on mRNA level, but the statistical comparison of the TNF-αmRNA expression between the XRT and AS/XRT treatment-group was not significant (P=0.054). Conclusion: This study demonstrates a significant radiation-induced increase of TGF-β 1 (on mRNA and protein level) in the lung tissue, and the predominant localisation of TGF-β 1 in areas of inflammatory cell infiltrates suggests involvement of this cytokine in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced lung injury

  20. Role of a new member of IGFBP superfamily, IGFBP-rP10, in proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Yasuaki; Tsukazaki, Tomoo; Hirata, Kazunari; Xin Cheng; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2004-01-01

    Bone regeneration is critically regulated by various molecules. To identify the new genes involved in bone regeneration, we performed microarray-based gene expression analysis using a mouse bone regeneration model. We identified a new member of the IGFBP superfamily, designated IGFBP-rP10, whose expression is up-regulated at the early phase of bone regeneration. IGFBP-rP10 consists of an IGFBP homologous domain followed by a Kazal-type protein inhibitor domain and an immunoglobulin G-like domain. A real-time-based RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that various tissues including bone expressed IGFBP-rP10 mRNA in various degrees, and confirmed an up-regulation at the early phase of bone regeneration. In situ hybridization revealed that osteoblastic cells expressed IGFPB-rP10 mRNA during bone regeneration. Bone morphogenetic protein-2 increased the expression level of IGFBP-rP10 mRNA in various cells including C3H10T1/2, MC3T3-E1, C2C12, and primary murine osteoblastic cells. The addition of recombinant mouse IGFBP-rP10 promoted the proliferation of these cells but failed to stimulate alkaline phosphatase activity. These results suggest that IGFBP-rP10 is involved in the proliferation of osteoblasts during bone formation and bone regeneration

  1. TGF-β Blockade Reduces Mortality and Metabolic Changes in a Validated Murine Model of Pancreatic Cancer Cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Stephanie H; Tomkötter, Lena; Vahle, Anne-Kristin; Rokosh, Rae; Avanzi, Antonina; Mahmood, Syed Kashif; Deutsch, Michael; Alothman, Sara; Alqunaibit, Dalia; Ochi, Atsuo; Zambirinis, Constantinos; Mohaimin, Tasnima; Rendon, Mauricio; Levie, Elliot; Pansari, Mridul; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Pachter, H Leon; Tippens, Daniel; Malik, Hassan; Boutajangout, Allal; Wisniewski, Thomas; Miller, George

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is a debilitating condition characterized by a combination of anorexia, muscle wasting, weight loss, and malnutrition. This condition affects an overwhelming majority of patients with pancreatic cancer and is a primary cause of cancer-related death. However, few, if any, effective therapies exist for both treatment and prevention of this syndrome. In order to develop novel therapeutic strategies for pancreatic cancer cachexia, appropriate animal models are necessary. In this study, we developed and validated a syngeneic, metastatic, murine model of pancreatic cancer cachexia. Using our model, we investigated the ability of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) blockade to mitigate the metabolic changes associated with cachexia. We found that TGF-β inhibition using the anti-TGF-β antibody 1D11.16.8 significantly improved overall mortality, weight loss, fat mass, lean body mass, bone mineral density, and skeletal muscle proteolysis in mice harboring advanced pancreatic cancer. Other immunotherapeutic strategies we employed were not effective. Collectively, we validated a simplified but useful model of pancreatic cancer cachexia to investigate immunologic treatment strategies. In addition, we showed that TGF-β inhibition can decrease the metabolic changes associated with cancer cachexia and improve overall survival.

  2. TGF-β Blockade Reduces Mortality and Metabolic Changes in a Validated Murine Model of Pancreatic Cancer Cachexia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie H Greco

    Full Text Available Cancer cachexia is a debilitating condition characterized by a combination of anorexia, muscle wasting, weight loss, and malnutrition. This condition affects an overwhelming majority of patients with pancreatic cancer and is a primary cause of cancer-related death. However, few, if any, effective therapies exist for both treatment and prevention of this syndrome. In order to develop novel therapeutic strategies for pancreatic cancer cachexia, appropriate animal models are necessary. In this study, we developed and validated a syngeneic, metastatic, murine model of pancreatic cancer cachexia. Using our model, we investigated the ability of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β blockade to mitigate the metabolic changes associated with cachexia. We found that TGF-β inhibition using the anti-TGF-β antibody 1D11.16.8 significantly improved overall mortality, weight loss, fat mass, lean body mass, bone mineral density, and skeletal muscle proteolysis in mice harboring advanced pancreatic cancer. Other immunotherapeutic strategies we employed were not effective. Collectively, we validated a simplified but useful model of pancreatic cancer cachexia to investigate immunologic treatment strategies. In addition, we showed that TGF-β inhibition can decrease the metabolic changes associated with cancer cachexia and improve overall survival.

  3. TGF-β Blockade Reduces Mortality and Metabolic Changes in a Validated Murine Model of Pancreatic Cancer Cachexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokosh, Rae; Avanzi, Antonina; Mahmood, Syed Kashif; Deutsch, Michael; Alothman, Sara; Alqunaibit, Dalia; Ochi, Atsuo; Zambirinis, Constantinos; Mohaimin, Tasnima; Rendon, Mauricio; Levie, Elliot; Pansari, Mridul; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Daley, Donnele; Barilla, Rocky; Pachter, H. Leon; Tippens, Daniel; Malik, Hassan; Boutajangout, Allal; Wisniewski, Thomas; Miller, George

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cachexia is a debilitating condition characterized by a combination of anorexia, muscle wasting, weight loss, and malnutrition. This condition affects an overwhelming majority of patients with pancreatic cancer and is a primary cause of cancer-related death. However, few, if any, effective therapies exist for both treatment and prevention of this syndrome. In order to develop novel therapeutic strategies for pancreatic cancer cachexia, appropriate animal models are necessary. In this study, we developed and validated a syngeneic, metastatic, murine model of pancreatic cancer cachexia. Using our model, we investigated the ability of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) blockade to mitigate the metabolic changes associated with cachexia. We found that TGF-β inhibition using the anti-TGF-β antibody 1D11.16.8 significantly improved overall mortality, weight loss, fat mass, lean body mass, bone mineral density, and skeletal muscle proteolysis in mice harboring advanced pancreatic cancer. Other immunotherapeutic strategies we employed were not effective. Collectively, we validated a simplified but useful model of pancreatic cancer cachexia to investigate immunologic treatment strategies. In addition, we showed that TGF-β inhibition can decrease the metabolic changes associated with cancer cachexia and improve overall survival. PMID:26172047

  4. Comparative genomic study of ALDH gene superfamily in Gossypium: A focus on Gossypium hirsutum under salt stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yating Dong

    Full Text Available Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs are a superfamily of enzymes which play important role in the scavenging of active aldehydes molecules. In present work, a comprehensive whole-genomic study of ALDH gene superfamily was carried out for an allotetraploid cultivated cotton species, G. hirsutum, as well as in parallel relative to their diploid progenitors, G. arboreum and G. raimondii. Totally, 30 and 58 ALDH gene sequences belong to 10 families were identified from diploid and allotetraploid cotton species, respectively. The gene structures among the members from same families were highly conserved. Whole-genome duplication and segmental duplication might be the major driver for the expansion of ALDH gene superfamily in G. hirsutum. In addition, the expression patterns of GhALDH genes were diverse across tissues. Most GhALDH genes were induced or repressed by salt stress in upland cotton. Our observation shed lights on the molecular evolutionary properties of ALDH genes in diploid cottons and their alloallotetraploid derivatives. It may be useful to mine key genes for improvement of cotton response to salt stress.

  5. Evolutionarily conserved substrate substructures for automated annotation of enzyme superfamilies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranyee A Chiang

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of enzymes affects how well a species can adapt to new environmental conditions. During enzyme evolution, certain aspects of molecular function are conserved while other aspects can vary. Aspects of function that are more difficult to change or that need to be reused in multiple contexts are often conserved, while those that vary may indicate functions that are more easily changed or that are no longer required. In analogy to the study of conservation patterns in enzyme sequences and structures, we have examined the patterns of conservation and variation in enzyme function by analyzing graph isomorphisms among enzyme substrates of a large number of enzyme superfamilies. This systematic analysis of substrate substructures establishes the conservation patterns that typify individual superfamilies. Specifically, we determined the chemical substructures that are conserved among all known substrates of a superfamily and the substructures that are reacting in these substrates and then examined the relationship between the two. Across the 42 superfamilies that were analyzed, substantial variation was found in how much of the conserved substructure is reacting, suggesting that superfamilies may not be easily grouped into discrete and separable categories. Instead, our results suggest that many superfamilies may need to be treated individually for analyses of evolution, function prediction, and guiding enzyme engineering strategies. Annotating superfamilies with these conserved and reacting substructure patterns provides information that is orthogonal to information provided by studies of conservation in superfamily sequences and structures, thereby improving the precision with which we can predict the functions of enzymes of unknown function and direct studies in enzyme engineering. Because the method is automated, it is suitable for large-scale characterization and comparison of fundamental functional capabilities of both characterized

  6. Evolutionarily conserved substrate substructures for automated annotation of enzyme superfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Ranyee A; Sali, Andrej; Babbitt, Patricia C

    2008-08-01

    The evolution of enzymes affects how well a species can adapt to new environmental conditions. During enzyme evolution, certain aspects of molecular function are conserved while other aspects can vary. Aspects of function that are more difficult to change or that need to be reused in multiple contexts are often conserved, while those that vary may indicate functions that are more easily changed or that are no longer required. In analogy to the study of conservation patterns in enzyme sequences and structures, we have examined the patterns of conservation and variation in enzyme function by analyzing graph isomorphisms among enzyme substrates of a large number of enzyme superfamilies. This systematic analysis of substrate substructures establishes the conservation patterns that typify individual superfamilies. Specifically, we determined the chemical substructures that are conserved among all known substrates of a superfamily and the substructures that are reacting in these substrates and then examined the relationship between the two. Across the 42 superfamilies that were analyzed, substantial variation was found in how much of the conserved substructure is reacting, suggesting that superfamilies may not be easily grouped into discrete and separable categories. Instead, our results suggest that many superfamilies may need to be treated individually for analyses of evolution, function prediction, and guiding enzyme engineering strategies. Annotating superfamilies with these conserved and reacting substructure patterns provides information that is orthogonal to information provided by studies of conservation in superfamily sequences and structures, thereby improving the precision with which we can predict the functions of enzymes of unknown function and direct studies in enzyme engineering. Because the method is automated, it is suitable for large-scale characterization and comparison of fundamental functional capabilities of both characterized and uncharacterized

  7. Analysis of the transforming growth factor-beta1 pathway and extracellular matrix formation as a hybrid system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musters, M.W.J.M.; Riel, van N.A.W.

    2004-01-01

    It is generally accepted that aging of the vascular system plays an important role in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent experimental findings have indicated the involvement of the cytokine transforming growth factor-/spl beta//sub 1/ (TGF-/spl beta//sub 1/) in these vascular aging processes. This

  8. miR-466a Targeting of TGF-β2 Contributes to FoxP3+ Regulatory T Cell Differentiation in a Murine Model of Allogeneic Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Becker

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The promise of inducing immunological tolerance through regulatory T cell (Treg control of effector T cell function is crucial for developing future therapeutic strategies to treat allograft rejection as well as inflammatory autoimmune diseases. In the current study, we used murine allograft rejection as a model to identify microRNA (miRNA regulation of Treg differentiation from naïve CD4 cells. We performed miRNA expression array in CD4+ T cells in the draining lymph node (dLN of mice which received syngeneic or allogeneic grafts to determine the molecular mechanisms that hinder the expansion of Tregs. We identified an increase in miRNA cluster 297-669 (C2MC after allogeneic transplantation, in CD4+ T cells, such that 10 of the 27 upregulated miRNAs were all from this cluster, with one of its members, mmu-miR-466a-3p (miR-466a-3p, targeting transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-β2, as identified through reporter luciferase assay. Transfection of miR-466a-3p in CD4+ T cells led to a decreased inducible FoxP3+ Treg generation while inhibiting miR-466a-3p expression through locked nucleic acid resulting in increased Tregs and a reduction in effector T cells. Furthermore, in vivo inhibition of miR-466a-3p in an allogeneic skin-graft model attenuated T cell response against the graft through an increase in TGF-β2. TGF-β2 was as effective as TGF-β1 at both inducing Tregs and through adoptive transfer, mitigating host effector T cell response against the allograft. Together, the current study demonstrates for the first time a new role for miRNA-466a-3p and TGF-β2 in the regulation of Treg differentiation and thus offers novel avenues to control inflammatory disorders.

  9. GARP (LRRC32) is essential for the surface expression of latent TGF-β on platelets and activated FOXP3+ regulatory T cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dat Q.; Andersson, John; Wang, Rui; Ramsey, Heather; Unutmaz, Derya; Shevach, Ethan M.

    2009-01-01

    TGF-β family members are highly pleiotropic cytokines with diverse regulatory functions. TGF-β is normally found in the latent form associated with latency-associated peptide (LAP). This latent complex can associate with latent TGFβ-binding protein (LTBP) to produce a large latent form. Latent TGF-β is also found on the surface of activated FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), but it is unclear how it is anchored to the cell membrane. We show that GARP or LRRC32, a leucine-rich repeat molecule of unknown function, is critical for tethering TGF-β to the cell surface. We demonstrate that platelets and activated Tregs co-express latent TGF-β and GARP on their membranes. The knockdown of GARP mRNA with siRNA prevented surface latent TGF-β expression on activated Tregs and recombinant latent TGF-β1 is able to bind directly with GARP. Confocal microscopy and immunoprecipitation strongly support their interactions. The role of TGF-β on Tregs appears to have dual functions, both for Treg-mediated suppression and infectious tolerance mechanism. PMID:19651619

  10. Cartilage acidic protein 1, a new member of the beta-propeller protein family with amyloid propensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Liliana; Morgado, Isabel; Guerreiro, Marta; Cardoso, João C R; Melo, Eduardo P; Power, Deborah M

    2017-02-01

    Cartilage acidic protein1 (CRTAC1) is an extracellular matrix protein of chondrogenic tissue in humans and its presence in bacteria indicate it is of ancient origin. Structural modeling of piscine CRTAC1 reveals it belongs to the large family of beta-propeller proteins that in mammals have been associated with diseases, including amyloid diseases such as Alzheimer's. In order to characterize the structure/function evolution of this new member of the beta-propeller family we exploited the unique characteristics of piscine duplicate genes Crtac1a and Crtac1b and compared their structural and biochemical modifications with human recombinant CRTAC1. We demonstrate that CRTAC1 has a beta-propeller structure that has been conserved during evolution and easily forms high molecular weight thermo-stable aggregates. We reveal for the first time the propensity of CRTAC1 to form amyloid-like structures, and hypothesize that the aggregating property of CRTAC1 may be related to its disease-association. We further contribute to the general understating of CRTAC1's and beta-propeller family evolution and function. Proteins 2017; 85:242-255. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A Short Peptide That Mimics the Binding Domain of TGF-β1 Presents Potent Anti-Inflammatory Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emília R Vaz

    Full Text Available The transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1 is a pleiotropic cytokine with multiple roles in development, wound healing, and immune regulation. TGF-β1-mediated immune dysfunction may lead to pathological conditions, such as inflammation. Chronic inflammatory process is characterized by a continuous release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and the inhibition or the blockage of these cytokines signaling pathways are considered a target treatment. In this context, despite the high numbers of TGF-β-targeted pathways, the inducible regulatory T cells (iTreg to control inflammation seems to be a promising approach. Our aim was to develop novel peptides through phage display (PhD technology that could mimic TGF-β1 function with higher potency. Specific mimetic peptides were obtained through a PhD subtraction strategy from whole cell binding using TGF-β1 recombinant as a competitor during elution step. We have selected a peptide that seems to play an important role on cellular differentiation and modulation of TNF-α and IL-10 cytokines. The synthetic pm26TGF-β1 peptide tested in PBMC significantly down-modulated TNF-α and up-regulated IL-10 responses, leading to regulatory T cells (Treg phenotype differentiation. Furthermore, the synthetic peptide was able to decrease leukocytes rolling in BALB/C mice and neutrophils migration during inflammatory process in C57BL/6 mice. These data suggest that this peptide may be useful for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, especially because it displays potent anti-inflammatory properties and do not exhibit neutrophils' chemoattraction.

  12. Structural analysis of papain-like NlpC/P60 superfamily enzymes with a circularly permuted topology reveals potential lipid binding sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingping Xu

    Full Text Available NlpC/P60 superfamily papain-like enzymes play important roles in all kingdoms of life. Two members of this superfamily, LRAT-like and YaeF/YiiX-like families, were predicted to contain a catalytic domain that is circularly permuted such that the catalytic cysteine is located near the C-terminus, instead of at the N-terminus. These permuted enzymes are widespread in virus, pathogenic bacteria, and eukaryotes. We determined the crystal structure of a member of the YaeF/YiiX-like family from Bacillus cereus in complex with lysine. The structure, which adopts a ligand-induced, "closed" conformation, confirms the circular permutation of catalytic residues. A comparative analysis of other related protein structures within the NlpC/P60 superfamily is presented. Permutated NlpC/P60 enzymes contain a similar conserved core and arrangement of catalytic residues, including a Cys/His-containing triad and an additional conserved tyrosine. More surprisingly, permuted enzymes have a hydrophobic S1 binding pocket that is distinct from previously characterized enzymes in the family, indicative of novel substrate specificity. Further analysis of a structural homolog, YiiX (PDB 2if6 identified a fatty acid in the conserved hydrophobic pocket, thus providing additional insights into possible function of these novel enzymes.

  13. Autocrine production of TGF-β confers resistance to apoptosis after an epithelial-mesenchymal transition process in hepatocytes: Role of EGF receptor ligands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, Gaelle del; Murillo, Miguel M.; Alvarez-Barrientos, Alberto; Bertran, Esther; Fernandez, Margarita; Sanchez, Aranzazu; Fabregat, Isabel

    2006-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) induces apoptosis in fetal rat hepatocytes. However, a subpopulation of these cells survives, concomitant with changes in phenotype, reminiscent of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We have previously suggested that EMT might confer cell resistance to apoptosis (Valdes et al., Mol. Cancer Res., 1: 68-78, 2002). However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for this resistance are not explored yet. In this work, we have isolated and subcultured the population of hepatocytes that suffered the EMT process and are resistant to apoptosis (TGF-β-treated fetal hepatocytes: TβT-FH). We prove that they secrete mitogenic and survival factors, as analyzed by the proliferative and survival capacity of conditioned medium. Inhibition of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) sensitizes TβT-FH to die after serum withdrawal. TβT-FH expresses high levels of transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α) and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (HB-EGF) and shows constitutive activation of the EGFR pathway. A blocking anti-TGF-α antibody restores the capacity of cells to die. TGF-β, which is expressed by TβT-FH, mediates up-regulation of TGF-α and HB-EGF expression in those cells. In summary, results suggest that an autocrine loop of TGF-β confers resistance to apoptosis after an EMT process in hepatocytes, through the increase in the expression of EGFR ligands

  14. Regulation of brown adipocyte metabolism by myostatin/follistatin signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajan eSingh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity develops from perturbations of cellular bioenergetics, when energy uptake exceeds energy expenditure, and represents a major risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other conditions. Brown adipose tissue (BAT has long been known to dissipate energy as heat and contribute to energy expenditure, but its presence and physiological role in adult human physiology has been questioned for years. Recent demonstrations of metabolically active brown fat depots in adult humans have revolutionized current therapeutic approaches for obesity-related diseases. The balance between white adipose tissue (WAT and BAT affects the systemic energy balance and is widely believed to be the key determinant in the development of obesity and related metabolic diseases. Members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFsuperfamily play an important role in regulating overall energy homeostasis by modulation of brown adipocyte characteristics. Inactivation of TGF-β/Smad3/myostatin (Mst signaling promotes browning of white adipocytes, increases mitochondrial biogenesis and protects mice from diet-induced obesity, suggesting the need for development of a novel class of TGF-β/Mst antagonists for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic diseases. We recently described an important role of follistatin (Fst, a soluble glycoprotein that is known to bind and antagonize Mst actions, during brown fat differentiation and the regulation of cellular metabolism. Here we highlight various investigations performed using different in vitro and in vivo models to support the contention that targeting TGF-β/Mst signaling enhances brown adipocyte functions and regulates energy balance, reducing insulin resistance and curbing the development of obesity and diabetes.

  15. Anxiety-like behavior as an early endophenotype in the TgF344-AD rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentkowski, Nathan S; Berkowitz, Laura E; Thompson, Shannon M; Drake, Emma N; Olguin, Carlos R; Clark, Benjamin J

    2018-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive cognitive decline and the presence of aggregates of amyloid beta (plaques) and hyperphosphorylated tau (tangles). Early diagnosis through neuropsychological testing is difficult due to comorbidity of symptoms between AD and other types of dementia. As a result, there is a need to identify the range of behavioral phenotypes expressed in AD. In the present study, we utilized a transgenic rat (TgF344-AD) model that bears the mutated amyloid precursor protein as well as presenilin-1 genes, resulting in progressive plaque and tangle pathogenesis throughout the cortex. We tested young adult male and female TgF344-AD rats in a spatial memory task in the Morris water maze and for anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze. Results indicated that regardless of sex, TgF344-AD rats exhibited increased anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus-maze, which occurred without significant deficits in the spatial memory. Together, these results indicate that enhanced anxiety-like behavior represents an early-stage behavioral marker in the TgF344-AD rat model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. GARP (LRRC32) is essential for the surface expression of latent TGF-β on platelets and activated FOXP3+ regulatory T cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Dat Q.; Andersson, John; Wang, Rui; Ramsey, Heather; Unutmaz, Derya; Shevach, Ethan M.

    2009-01-01

    TGF-β family members are highly pleiotropic cytokines with diverse regulatory functions. TGF-β is normally found in the latent form associated with latency-associated peptide (LAP). This latent complex can associate with latent TGFβ-binding protein (LTBP) to produce a large latent form. Latent TGF-β is also found on the surface of activated FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), but it is unclear how it is anchored to the cell membrane. We show that GARP or LRRC32, a leucine-rich repeat molecule ...

  17. Exogenous modulation of TGF-β1 influences TGF-βR-III-associated vascularization during wound healing in irradiated tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehrhan, F.; Schultze-Mosgau, S.; Grabenbauer, G.G.; Roedel, F.; Amann, K.

    2004-01-01

    Background and purpose: Following preoperative radiotherapy prior to ablative surgery of squamous epithelial cell carcinomas of the head and neck region, wound-healing disorders occur. Previous experimental studies showed altered expression of transforming growth factor-(TGF-)β isoforms following surgery in irradiated graft beds. Altered levels of TGF-β 1 are reported to promote fibrosis and to suppress vascularization during wound healing, whereas expression of TGF-β receptor-III (TGF-βR-III) is associated with vascularization. The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of anti-TGF-β 1 treatment on TGF-βR-III-associated vascularization in the transition area between irradiated graft bed and graft. Material and methods: Wistar rats (male, weight 300-500 g) underwent preoperative irradiation of the head and neck region with 40 Gy (four fractions of 10 Gy each; n=16 animals). A free myocutaneous gracilis flap taken from the groin was then transplanted to the neck in all rats. The time interval between operation and transplantation was 4 weeks. Eight animals received 1 μg anti-TGF-β 1 into the graft bed by intradermal injection on days 1-7 after surgery. On days 3, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 120, skin samples were taken from the transition area between transplant and graft bed and from the graft bed itself. Immunohistochemistry was performed using the ABC-POX method to analyze the TGF-βR-III and E-selection expression. Histomorphometry was performed to analyze the percentage and the area of positively stained vessels. Results: A significantly higher expression of TGF-βR-III was seen in the irradiated and anti-TGF-β 1 -treated graft bed in comparison to the group receiving preoperative irradiation followed by transplantation alone. The percentage of TGF-βR-III positively staining capillaries from the total amount of capillaries in the anti-TGF-β 1 -treated graft bed was higher than in the group irradiated only. The total area of capillaries was also higher

  18. Molecular fingerprinting of TGFbeta-treated embryonic maxillary mesenchymal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, M M; Mukhopadhyay, P; Greene, R M

    2003-11-01

    The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF(beta)) family represents a class of signaling molecules that plays a central role in normal embryonic development, specifically in development of the craniofacial region. Members of this family are vital to development of the secondary palate where they regulate maxillary and palate mesenchymal cell proliferation and extracellular matrix synthesis. The function of this growth factor family is particularly critical in that perturbation of either process results in a cleft of the palate. While the cellular and phenotypic effects of TGF(beta) on embryonic craniofacial tissue have been extensively cataloged, the specific genes that function as downstream mediators of TGF(beta) in maxillary/palatal development are poorly defined. Gene expression arrays offer the ability to conduct a rapid, simultaneous assessment of hundreds to thousands of differentially expressed genes in a single study. Inasmuch as the downstream sequelae of TGF(beta) action are only partially defined, a complementary DNA (cDNA) expression array technology (Clontech's Atlas Mouse cDNA Expression Arrays), was utilized to delineate a profile of differentially expressed genes from TGF(beta)-treated primary cultures of murine embryonic maxillary mesenchymal cells. Hybridization of a membrane-based cDNA array (1178 genes) was performed with 32P-labeled cDNA probes synthesized from RNA isolated from either TGF(beta)-treated or vehicle-treated embryonic maxillary mesenchymal cells. Resultant phosphorimages were subject to AtlasImage analysis in order to determine differences in gene expression between control and TGF(beta)-treated maxillary mesenchymal cells. Of the 1178 arrayed genes, 552 (47%) demonstrated detectable levels of expression. Steady state levels of 22 genes were up-regulated, while those of 8 other genes were down-regulated, by a factor of twofold or greater in response to TGF(beta). Affected genes could be grouped into three general functional

  19. Evolution of plant virus movement proteins from the 30K superfamily and of their homologs integrated in plant genomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mushegian, Arcady R., E-mail: mushegian2@gmail.com [Division of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, National Science Foundation, 4201 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22230 (United States); Elena, Santiago F., E-mail: sfelena@ibmcp.upv.es [Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Plantas, CSIC-UPV, 46022 València (Spain); The Santa Fe Institute, Santa Fe, NM 87501 (United States)

    2015-02-15

    Homologs of Tobacco mosaic virus 30K cell-to-cell movement protein are encoded by diverse plant viruses. Mechanisms of action and evolutionary origins of these proteins remain obscure. We expand the picture of conservation and evolution of the 30K proteins, producing sequence alignment of the 30K superfamily with the broadest phylogenetic coverage thus far and illuminating structural features of the core all-beta fold of these proteins. Integrated copies of pararetrovirus 30K movement genes are prevalent in euphyllophytes, with at least one copy intact in nearly every examined species, and mRNAs detected for most of them. Sequence analysis suggests repeated integrations, pseudogenizations, and positive selection in those provirus genes. An unannotated 30K-superfamily gene in Arabidopsis thaliana genome is likely expressed as a fusion with the At1g37113 transcript. This molecular background of endopararetrovirus gene products in plants may change our view of virus infection and pathogenesis, and perhaps of cellular homeostasis in the hosts. - Highlights: • Sequence region shared by plant virus “30K” movement proteins has an all-beta fold. • Most euphyllophyte genomes contain integrated copies of pararetroviruses. • These integrated virus genomes often include intact movement protein genes. • Molecular evidence suggests that these “30K” genes may be selected for function.

  20. Plasma levels of Transforming Growth Factor Beta in HIV-1 patients with oral candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, A; Asadikaram, G; Nakhaee, N; Hadizadeh, S; Ayatollahi Mousavi, A

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: TGF-β is a potent regulator and suppressor of the immune system and overproduction of this cytokine may contribute to immunosuppression in HIV-infected patients. Increasing population of immunosuppressed patients has resulted in increasingly frequent of fungal infections, including oral candidiasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the plasma levels of TGF-β under in vivo conditions. Materials and Methods: Seventy- two samples were obtained from the oral cavities of HIV-positive Iranian patients and cultured on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar and CHROMagar. Also blood samples were obtained to assess TGF-β levels using ELISA technique. Results: Thirty-three out of 72 oral samples yielded candida isolates, Candida albicans in 14 and non-albicans candida in 19.Fungal infection decreased significantly more TGF-β level than non-fungal infection also HIV negative were significantly more TGF-β than HIV positive. Conclusion: Our findings suggest a significant interaction between fungal infection and HIV on expression of Transforming Growth Factor Beta. PMID:28680977

  1. Crystal Structure of Homoserine Transacetylase from Haemophilus Influenzae Reveals a New Family of alpha/beta-Hydrolases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirza,I.; Nazi, I.; Korczynska, M.; Wright, G.; Berghuis, A.

    2005-01-01

    Homoserine transacetylase catalyzes one of the required steps in the biosynthesis of methionine in fungi and several bacteria. We have determined the crystal structure of homoserine transacetylase from Haemophilus influenzae to a resolution of 1.65 A. The structure identifies this enzyme to be a member of the alpha/beta-hydrolase structural superfamily. The active site of the enzyme is located near the end of a deep tunnel formed by the juxtaposition of two domains and incorporates a catalytic triad involving Ser143, His337, and Asp304. A structural basis is given for the observed double displacement kinetic mechanism of homoserine transacetylase. Furthermore, the properties of the tunnel provide a rationale for how homoserine transacetylase catalyzes a transferase reaction vs. hydrolysis, despite extensive similarity in active site architecture to hydrolytic enzymes.

  2. The emergence of non-cytolytic NK1.1+ T cells in the long-term culture of murine tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes: a possible role of transforming growth factor-beta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamada, K; Harada, M; Ito, O; Takenoyama, M; Mori, T; Matsuzaki, G; Nomoto, K

    1996-12-01

    The mechanism by which murine tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) decreased their anti-tumour activity during an in vitro culture with interleukin-2 (IL-2) was investigated. A phenotype analysis revealed that the TIL cultured for 7 days (TIL-d7) were exclusively NKI.1- CD4- CD8+ CD3+ cells and that this population was replaced by natural killer (NK)1.1+ CD4- CD8 CD3+ cells by day 27 (TIL-d27) during the culture of TIL. The TIL-d7 cells showed a cytolytic activity against B16 melanoma, whereas the TIL-d27 cells had lost this activity, suggesting that the decrease in the anti tumour effect of TIL during the culture with IL-2 was due to their populational change. Analysis on the characteristics of the TIL-d27 cells revealed that they expressed skewed T-cell receptor (TCR) V beta 5 and increased mRNA expression of V alpha 14. In addition, they expressed transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) mRNA. Interestingly, TGF-beta augmented the proliferation of TIL-d27 cells under the presence of IL-2, but suppressed that of TIL-d7 cells. Moreover, the proliferation of TIL-d27 cells was suppressed by anti-TGF-beta monoclonal antibody. Collectively, these results suggest that, in contrast to its suppressive effect on anti-tumour effector T cells. TGF-beta could be an autocrine growth factor for NKL1.1+ T cells and thereby induce non-cytolytic NK1.1+ T cells in the long-term culture of TIL.

  3. Main trends of karyotype evolution in the superfamily Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Gokhman

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available An overview of karyotype evolution in the superfamily Chalcidoidea is given. Structural types of chromosome sets in the superfamily are listed. Main pathways of karyotypic change in the Chalcidoidea are outlined. The chromosome set containing eleven subtelo- or acrocentrics is considered as an ancestral karyotype for the superfamily. Multiple independent reductions in n values through chromosomal fusions presumably occurred in various groups of chalcid families.

  4. Beta-elemene blocks epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 through Smad3-mediated down-regulation of nuclear transcription factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Zhang

    Full Text Available Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT is the first step required for breast cancer to initiate metastasis. However, the potential of drugs to block and reverse the EMT process are not well explored. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of beta-elemene (ELE, an active component of a natural plant-derived anti-neoplastic agent in an established EMT model mediated by transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1. We found that ELE (40 µg/ml blocked the TGF-β1-induced phenotypic transition in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. ELE was able to inhibit TGF-β1-mediated upregulation of mRNA and protein expression of nuclear transcription factors (SNAI1, SNAI2, TWIST and SIP1, potentially through decreasing the expression and phosphorylation of Smad3, a central protein mediating the TGF-β1 signalling pathway. These findings suggest a potential therapeutic benefit of ELE in treating basal-like breast cancer.

  5. A comprehensive analysis of the Omp85/TpsB protein superfamily structural diversity, taxonomic occurrence, and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Eva; Lithgow, Trevor

    2014-01-01

    Members of the Omp85/TpsB protein superfamily are ubiquitously distributed in Gram-negative bacteria, and function in protein translocation (e.g., FhaC) or the assembly of outer membrane proteins (e.g., BamA). Several recent findings are suggestive of a further level of variation in the superfamily, including the identification of the novel membrane protein assembly factor TamA and protein translocase PlpD. To investigate the diversity and the causal evolutionary events, we undertook a comprehensive comparative sequence analysis of the Omp85/TpsB proteins. A total of 10 protein subfamilies were apparent, distinguished in their domain structure and sequence signatures. In addition to the proteins FhaC, BamA, and TamA, for which structural and functional information is available, are families of proteins with so far undescribed domain architectures linked to the Omp85 β-barrel domain. This study brings a classification structure to a dynamic protein superfamily of high interest given its essential function for Gram-negative bacteria as well as its diverse domain architecture, and we discuss several scenarios of putative functions of these so far undescribed proteins. PMID:25101071

  6. Two different groups of signal sequence in M-superfamily conotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Jiang, Hui; Han, Yu-Hong; Yuan, Duo-Duo; Chi, Cheng-Wu

    2008-04-01

    M-superfamily conotoxins can be divided into four branches (M-1, M-2, M-3 and M-4) according to the number of amino acid residues in the third Cys loop. In general, it is widely accepted that the conotoxin signal peptides of each superfamily are strictly conserved. Recently, we cloned six cDNAs of novel M-superfamily conotoxins from Conus leopardus, Conus marmoreus and Conus quercinus, belonging to either M-1 or M-3 branch. These conotoxins, judging from the putative peptide sequences deducted from cDNAs, are rich in acidic residues and share highly conserved signal and pro-peptide region. However, they are quite different from the reported conotoxins of M-2 and M-4 branches even in their signal peptides, which in general are considered highly conserved for each superfamily of conotoxins. The signal sequences of M-1 and M-3 conotoxins composed of 24 residues start with MLKMGVVL-, while those of M-2 and M-4 conotoxins composed of 25 residues start with MMSKLGVL-. It is another example that different types of signal peptides can exist within a superfamily besides the I-conotoxin superfamily. In addition to the different disulfide connectivity of M-1 conotoxins from that of M-4 or M-2 conotoxins, the sequence alignment, preferential Cys codon usage and phylogenetic tree analysis suggest that M-1 and M-3 conotoxins have much closer relationship, being different from the conotoxins of other two branches (M-4 and M-2) of M-superfamily.

  7. [Effects of exogenous TGF-β3 on the expression of endogenous TGF-β3 in hepatic stellate cell-T6 (HSC-T6)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Deng, Liang; Qian, Wei; Zhou, Jian-ning; Xu, Ke-shu

    2011-11-01

    To investigate the effects of exogenous TGF-β3 on the expression of endogenous TGF-b3 in hepatic stellate cell (HSC). HSCs were cultured and divided into two groups: TGF-β3 group and blank control group, the cells of TGF-β3 group were exposed to TGF-b3 (10 ng/ml), whereas the blank control group was not treated. The cells were incubated in the presence of exogenous TGF-β3 and then (1) were harvested at 0h, 1h, 2h, 4h, 12h, 24h, and real time PCR was performed to detect the mRNA expression of endogenous TGF-β3. (2) The cells were collected at 0h, 1h, 6h, 12h, and western-blot was used to detect the protein synthesis of endogenous TGF-β3 in HSC; (3) The cell culture supernatant was harvested at 0h, 1h, 2h, 4h, 8h, 14h, 24h, and ELISA was performed to measure the total protein of extracellular TGF-β3; HSCs were treated with TGF-β3 (10 ng/ml) for 2h. The cells were then incubated in serum-free medium and the cell culture supernatant was harvested at 2.25h, 2.5h, 3h, 4h, 6h, 10h and 14h. ELISA was used to detect the extracellular secret ion of endogenous TGF-β3 by HSCs. (1) Exogenous TGF-β3 treatment induced a marked increase in TGF-β3 mRNA expression. By 2h of exogenous TGF-β3 treatment, maximal TGF-β3 mRNA expression levels (2.796 ± 0.518) of 2.74 fold above control values (1.022 ± 0.038) was reached (P endogenous TGF-β3 was found between two groups. (P > 0.05); (3) The total expression level of TGF-β3 reached a peak [(18.931 ± 2.904) ng/ml] at 4h after TGF-β3 treatment (1.89-fold higher than basic TGF-β3 (10 ng/ml). After that, it slowly declined. The expression peak [(0.835 ± 0.027) ng/ml] induction of extracellular secreted TGF-β3 was at 3h (32.12-fold higher than control [(0.026 ± 0.022) ng/ml], (P Exogenous TGF-β3 could increase the expression of endogenous TGF-β3 mRNA and extracellular secreted TGF-β3 protein obviously.

  8. Annotating Enzymes of Uncertain Function: The Deacylation of d-Amino Acids by Members of the Amidohydrolase Superfamily

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, J.; Fedorov, A; Xu, C; Brown, S; Fedorov, E; Babbitt, P; Almo, S; Raushel, F

    2009-01-01

    The catalytic activities of three members of the amidohydrolase superfamily were discovered using amino acid substrate libraries. Bb3285 from Bordetella bronchiseptica, Gox1177 from Gluconobacter oxidans, and Sco4986 from Streptomyces coelicolor are currently annotated as d-aminoacylases or N-acetyl-d-glutamate deacetylases. These three enzymes are 22-34% identical to one another in amino acid sequence. Substrate libraries containing nearly all combinations of N-formyl-d-Xaa, N-acetyl-d-Xaa, N-succinyl-d-Xaa, and l-Xaa-d-Xaa were used to establish the substrate profiles for these enzymes. It was demonstrated that Bb3285 is restricted to the hydrolysis of N-acyl-substituted derivatives of d-glutamate. The best substrates for this enzyme are N-formyl-d-glutamate (k{sub cat}/K{sub m} = 5.8 x 10{sup 6} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}), N-acetyl-d-glutamate (k{sub cat}/K{sub m} = 5.2 x 10{sup 6} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}), and l-methionine-d-glutamate (k{sub cat}/K{sub m} = 3.4 x 10{sup 5} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}). Gox1177 and Sco4986 preferentially hydrolyze N-acyl-substituted derivatives of hydrophobic d-amino acids. The best substrates for Gox1177 are N-acetyl-d-leucine (k{sub cat}/K{sub m} = 3.2 x 104 M{sup -1} s-1), N-acetyl-d-tryptophan (kcat/Km = 4.1 x 104 M-1 s-1), and l-tyrosine-d-leucine (kcat/Km = 1.5 x 104 M-1 s-1). A fourth protein, Bb2785 from B. bronchiseptica, did not have d-aminoacylase activity. The best substrates for Sco4986 are N-acetyl-d-phenylalanine and N-acetyl-d-tryptophan. The three-dimensional structures of Bb3285 in the presence of the product acetate or a potent mimic of the tetrahedral intermediate were determined by X-ray diffraction methods. The side chain of the d-glutamate moiety of the inhibitor is ion-paired to Arg-295, while the {alpha}-carboxylate is ion-paired with Lys-250 and Arg-376. These results have revealed the chemical and structural determinants for substrate specificity in this protein. Bioinformatic analyses of an additional {approx}250

  9. Evolutionary history and stress regulation of the lectin superfamily in higher plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramachandran Srinivasan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lectins are a class of carbohydrate-binding proteins. They play roles in various biological processes. However, little is known about their evolutionary history and their functions in plant stress regulation. The availability of full genome sequences from various plant species makes it possible to perform a whole-genome exploration for further understanding their biological functions. Results Higher plant genomes encode large numbers of lectin proteins. Based on their domain structures and phylogenetic analyses, a new classification system has been proposed. In this system, 12 different families have been classified and four of them consist of recently identified plant lectin members. Further analyses show that some of lectin families exhibit species-specific expansion and rapid birth-and-death evolution. Tandem and segmental duplications have been regarded as the major mechanisms to drive lectin expansion although retrogenes also significantly contributed to the birth of new lectin genes in soybean and rice. Evidence shows that lectin genes have been involved in biotic/abiotic stress regulations and tandem/segmental duplications may be regarded as drivers for plants to adapt various environmental stresses through duplication followed by expression divergence. Each member of this gene superfamily may play specialized roles in a specific stress condition and function as a regulator of various environmental factors such as cold, drought and high salinity as well as biotic stresses. Conclusions Our studies provide a new outline of the plant lectin gene superfamily and advance the understanding of plant lectin genes in lineage-specific expansion and their functions in biotic/abiotic stress-related developmental processes.

  10. Two differentially regulated Arabidopsis genes define a new branch of the DFR superfamily

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, L; Lauvergeat, V; Naested, H

    2001-01-01

    that, whereas high expression of AtCRL1 in mature seeds declines during subsequent vegetative growth, transcriptional activity from the AtCRL2 promoter increases during vegetative growth. Expression of both genes is restricted to vascular tissue. Based upon their homology to proteins involved in lignin......Two tandem genes were identified on Arabidopsis chromosome II (AtCRL1 and AtCRL2) encoding proteins with homology to members of the dihydroflavonol-4-reductase (DFR) superfamily. The encoded CRL1 and CRL2 proteins share 87% mutual amino acid sequence identity whereas their promoter regions...

  11. Transforming Growth Factor-Beta and Oxidative Stress Interplay: Implications in Tumorigenesis and Cancer Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstić, Jelena; Trivanović, Drenka; Mojsilović, Slavko; Santibanez, Juan F.

    2015-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and oxidative stress/Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) both have pivotal roles in health and disease. In this review we are analyzing the interplay between TGF-β and ROS in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. They have contradictory roles in cancer progression since both can have antitumor effects, through the induction of cell death, senescence and cell cycle arrest, and protumor effects by contributing to cancer cell spreading, proliferation, survival, and metastasis. TGF-β can control ROS production directly or by downregulating antioxidative systems. Meanwhile, ROS can influence TGF-β signaling and increase its expression as well as its activation from the latent complex. This way, both are building a strong interplay which can be taken as an advantage by cancer cells in order to increment their malignancy. In addition, both TGF-β and ROS are able to induce cell senescence, which in one way protects damaged cells from neoplastic transformation but also may collaborate in cancer progression. The mutual collaboration of TGF-β and ROS in tumorigenesis is highly complex, and, due to their differential roles in tumor progression, careful consideration should be taken when thinking of combinatorial targeting in cancer therapies. PMID:26078812

  12. MicroRNA-29b regulates TGF-β1-mediated epithelial–mesenchymal transition of retinal pigment epithelial cells by targeting AKT2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Min; Li, Hui; Liu, Xiaoqiang; Xu, Ding; Wang, Fang, E-mail: milwang_122@msn.com

    2016-07-15

    The role of microRNA (miRNA) in proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) progression has not been studied extensively, especially in retinal pigment epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) which is the main reason for formation of PVR. In this study, we first investigated the miRNA expression profile in transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) mediated EMT of ARPE-19 cells. Among the five changed miRNAs, miR-29b showed the most significant downregulation. Enhanced expression of miR-29b could reverse TGF-β1 induced EMT through targeting Akt2. Akt2 downregulation could inhibit TGF-β1-induced EMT. Furthermore, inhibition of miR-29b in ARPE-19 cells directly triggered EMT process, which characterized by the phenotypic transition and the upregulation of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and downregulation of E-cadherin and zona occludin-1 (ZO-1) with increased cell migration. Akt2-shRNA also inhibited miR-29 inhibitor-induced EMT process. These data indicate that miR-29b plays an important role in TGF-β1-mediated EMT in ARPE-19 cells by targeting Akt2. - Highlights: • MiR-29b expression is decreased in TGF-β1-induced EMT of ARPE-19 cells. • MiR-29b inhibits TGF-β1-induced EMT in ARPE-19 cells. • MiR-29b inhibitor induces EMT in ARPE-19 cells. • Akt2 is the target for miR-29b. • Downregulation of Akt2 prevents TGF-β1-induced EMT of ARPE-19 cells.

  13. Differential Expression and Clinical Significance of Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Isoforms in GBM Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Laurent-Olivier; Poirier, Marie-Belle; Fortin, David

    2018-04-08

    Glioblastoma (GBM) represents the most common and aggressive malignant primary brain tumors in adults. Response to standard treatment is transitory and the survival of clinical trial cohorts are little more than 14 months. GBM are characterized by excessive proliferation, invasiveness, and radio-/chemoresistance features; which are strongly upregulated by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β). We hypothesized that TGF-β gene expression could correlate with overall survival (OS) and serve as a prognostic biomarker. TGF-β₁ and -β₂ expression were analyzed by qPCR in 159 GBM tumor specimens. Kaplan-Meier and multivariate analyses were used to correlate expression with OS and progression-free survival (PFS). In GBM, TGF-β₁ and -β₂ levels were 33- and 11-fold higher respectively than in non-tumoral samples. Kaplan-Meier and multivariate analyses revealed that high to moderate expressions of TGF-β₁ significantly conferred a strikingly poorer OS and PFS in newly diagnosed patients. Interestingly, at relapse, neither isoforms had meaningful impact on clinical evolution. We demonstrate that TGF-β₁ is the dominant isoform in newly diagnosed GBM rather than the previously acknowledged TGF-β₂. We believe our study is the first to unveil a significant relationship between TGF-β₁ expression and OS or PFS in newly diagnosed GBM. TGF-β₁ could serve as a prognostic biomarker or target affecting treatment planning and patient follow-up.

  14. Differential Expression and Clinical Significance of Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Isoforms in GBM Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent-Olivier Roy

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma (GBM represents the most common and aggressive malignant primary brain tumors in adults. Response to standard treatment is transitory and the survival of clinical trial cohorts are little more than 14 months. GBM are characterized by excessive proliferation, invasiveness, and radio-/chemoresistance features; which are strongly upregulated by transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β. We hypothesized that TGF-β gene expression could correlate with overall survival (OS and serve as a prognostic biomarker. TGF-β1 and -β2 expression were analyzed by qPCR in 159 GBM tumor specimens. Kaplan–Meier and multivariate analyses were used to correlate expression with OS and progression-free survival (PFS. In GBM, TGF-β1 and -β2 levels were 33- and 11-fold higher respectively than in non-tumoral samples. Kaplan–Meier and multivariate analyses revealed that high to moderate expressions of TGF-β1 significantly conferred a strikingly poorer OS and PFS in newly diagnosed patients. Interestingly, at relapse, neither isoforms had meaningful impact on clinical evolution. We demonstrate that TGF-β1 is the dominant isoform in newly diagnosed GBM rather than the previously acknowledged TGF-β2. We believe our study is the first to unveil a significant relationship between TGF-β1 expression and OS or PFS in newly diagnosed GBM. TGF-β1 could serve as a prognostic biomarker or target affecting treatment planning and patient follow-up.

  15. TGF Afterglows: A New Radiation Mechanism From Thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutjes, C.; Diniz, G.; Ferreira, I. S.; Ebert, U.

    2017-10-01

    Thunderstorms are known to create terrestrial gamma ray flashes (TGFs) which are microsecond-long bursts created by runaway of thermal electrons from propagating lightning leaders, as well as gamma ray glows that possibly are created by relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREA) that can last for minutes or more and are sometimes terminated by a discharge. In this work we predict a new intermediate thunderstorm radiation mechanism, which we call TGF afterglow, as it is caused by the capture of photonuclear neutrons produced by a TGF. TGF afterglows are milliseconds to seconds long; this duration is caused by the thermalization time of the intermediate neutrons. TGF afterglows indicate that the primary TGF has produced photons in the energy range of 10-30 MeV; they are nondirectional in contrast to the primary TGF. Gurevich et al. might have reported TGF afterglows in 2011.

  16. A Survey of the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) Gene Superfamily in the Salmon Louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Antoñanzas, Greta; Carmichael, Stephen N; Heumann, Jan; Taggart, John B; Gharbi, Karim; Bron, James E; Bekaert, Michaël; Sturm, Armin

    2015-01-01

    Salmon lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer, 1837), are fish ectoparasites causing significant economic damage in the mariculture of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar Linnaeus, 1758. The control of L. salmonis at fish farms relies to a large extent on treatment with anti-parasitic drugs. A problem related to chemical control is the potential for development of resistance, which in L. salmonis is documented for a number of drug classes including organophosphates, pyrethroids and avermectins. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) gene superfamily is found in all biota and includes a range of drug efflux transporters that can confer drug resistance to cancers and pathogens. Furthermore, some ABC transporters are recognised to be involved in conferral of insecticide resistance. While a number of studies have investigated ABC transporters in L. salmonis, no systematic analysis of the ABC gene family exists for this species. This study presents a genome-wide survey of ABC genes in L. salmonis for which, ABC superfamily members were identified through homology searching of the L. salmonis genome. In addition, ABC proteins were identified in a reference transcriptome of the parasite generated by high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of a multi-stage RNA library. Searches of both genome and transcriptome allowed the identification of a total of 33 genes / transcripts coding for ABC proteins, of which 3 were represented only in the genome and 4 only in the transcriptome. Eighteen sequences were assigned to ABC subfamilies known to contain drug transporters, i.e. subfamilies B (4 sequences), C (11) and G (2). The results suggest that the ABC gene family of L. salmonis possesses fewer members than recorded for other arthropods. The present survey of the L. salmonis ABC gene superfamily will provide the basis for further research into potential roles of ABC transporters in the toxicity of salmon delousing agents and as potential mechanisms of drug resistance.

  17. Comparative analysis of cystatin superfamily in platyhelminths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijiang Guo

    Full Text Available The cystatin superfamily is comprised of cysteine proteinase inhibitors and encompasses at least 3 subfamilies: stefins, cystatins and kininogens. In this study, the platyhelminth cystatin superfamily was identified and grouped into stefin and cystatin subfamilies. The conserved domain of stefins (G, QxVxG was observed in all members of platyhelminth stefins. The three characteristics of cystatins, the cystatin-like domain (G, QxVxG, PW, a signal peptide, and one or two conserved disulfide bonds, were observed in platyhelminths, with the exception of cestodes, which lacked the conserved disulfide bond. However, it is noteworthy that cestode cystatins had two tandem repeated domains, although the second tandem repeated domain did not contain a cystatin-like domain, which has not been previously reported. Tertiary structure analysis of Taenia solium cystatin, one of the cestode cystatins, demonstrated that the N-terminus of T. solium cystatin formed a five turn α-helix, a five stranded β-pleated sheet and a hydrophobic edge, similar to the structure of chicken cystatin. Although no conserved disulfide bond was found in T. solium cystatin, the models of T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin corresponded at the site of the first disulfide bridge of the chicken cystatin. However, the two models were not similar regarding the location of the second disulfide bridge of chicken cystatin. These results showed that T. solium cystatin and chicken cystatin had similarities and differences, suggesting that the biochemistry of T. solium cystatin could be similar to chicken cystatin in its inhibitory function and that it may have further functional roles. The same results were obtained for other cestode cystatins. Phylogenetic analysis showed that cestode cystatins constituted an independent clade and implied that cestode cystatins should be considered to have formed a new clade during evolution.

  18. Microglia and macrophages are major sources of locally produced transforming growth factor-beta1 after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehrmann, E; Kiefer, R; Christensen, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The potentially neurotrophic cytokine transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) is locally expressed following human stroke and experimental ischemic lesions, but the cellular source(s) and profile of induction have so far not been established in experimental focal cerebral ischemia. This stud...

  19. TGF-beta1 signaling plays a dominant role in the crosstalk between TGF-beta1 and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand in prostate epithelial cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Staršíchová, Andrea; Hrubá, E.; Slabáková, Eva; Pernicová, Zuzana; Procházková, Jiřina; Pěnčíková, K.; Šeda, Václav; Kabátková, Markéta; Vondráček, Jan; Kozubík, Alois; Machala, M.; Souček, Karel

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 8 (2012), s. 1665-1676 ISSN 0898-6568 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA310/07/0961 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : transforming growth factor-beta * aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand * prostate epithelial cells Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.304, year: 2012

  20. Targeting TGF-β Signaling by Antisense Oligonucleotide-mediated Knockdown of TGF-β Type I Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi U Kemaladewi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is caused by lack of functional dystrophin and results in progressive myofiber damage and degeneration. In addition, impaired muscle regeneration and fibrosis contribute to the progressive pathology of DMD. Importantly, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β is implicated in DMD pathology and is known to stimulate fibrosis and inhibit muscle regeneration. In this study, we present a new strategy to target TGF-β signaling cascades by specifically inhibiting the expression of TGF-β type I receptor TGFBR1 (ALK5. Antisense oligonucleotides (AONs were designed to specifically induce exon skipping of mouse ALK5 transcripts. AON-induced exon skipping of ALK5 resulted in specific downregulation of full-length receptor transcripts in vitro in different cell types, repression of TGF-β activity, and enhanced C2C12 myoblast differentiation. To determine the effect of these AONs in dystrophic muscles, we performed intramuscular injections of ALK5 AONs in mdx mice, which resulted in a decrease in expression of fibrosis-related genes and upregulation of Myog expression compared to control AON-injected muscles. In summary, our study presents a novel method to target TGF-β signaling cascades with potential beneficial effects for DMD.

  1. Identification of the S-transferase like superfamily bacillithiol transferases encoded by Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Varahenage R.; Lapek, John D.; Newton, Gerald L.; Gonzalez, David J.; Pogliano, Kit

    2018-01-01

    Bacillithiol is a low molecular weight thiol found in Firmicutes that is analogous to glutathione, which is absent in these bacteria. Bacillithiol transferases catalyze the transfer of bacillithiol to various substrates. The S-transferase-like (STL) superfamily contains over 30,000 putative members, including bacillithiol transferases. Proteins in this family are extremely divergent and are related by structural rather than sequence similarity, leaving it unclear if all share the same biochemical activity. Bacillus subtilis encodes eight predicted STL superfamily members, only one of which has been shown to be a bacillithiol transferase. Here we find that the seven remaining proteins show varying levels of metal dependent bacillithiol transferase activity. We have renamed the eight enzymes BstA-H. Mass spectrometry and gene expression studies revealed that all of the enzymes are produced to varying levels during growth and sporulation, with BstB and BstE being the most abundant and BstF and BstH being the least abundant. Interestingly, several bacillithiol transferases are induced in the mother cell during sporulation. A strain lacking all eight bacillithiol transferases showed normal growth in the presence of stressors that adversely affect growth of bacillithiol-deficient strains, such as paraquat and CdCl2. Thus, the STL bacillithiol transferases represent a new group of proteins that play currently unknown, but potentially significant roles in bacillithiol-dependent reactions. We conclude that these enzymes are highly divergent, perhaps to cope with an equally diverse array of endogenous or exogenous toxic metabolites and oxidants. PMID:29451913

  2. Pulmonary artery hypertension in childhood: The transforming growth factor-β superfamily-related genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Min Yuan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH is very rare in childhood, and it can be divided into heritable, idiopathic drug- and toxin-induced and other disease (connective tissue disease, human immunodeficiency virus infection, portal hypertension, congenital heart disease, or schistosomiasis-associated types. PAH could not be interpreted solely by pathophysiological theories. The impact of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily-related genes on the development of PAH in children remains to be clarified. Pertinent literature on the transforming growth factor-β superfamily-related genes in relation to PAH in children published after the year 2000 was reviewed and analyzed. Bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II gene mutation promotes cell division or prevents cell death, resulting in an overgrowth of cells in small arteries throughout the lungs. About 20% of individuals with a bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II gene mutation develop symptomatic PAH. In heritable PAH, bone morphogenetic protein receptor type II mutations may be absent; while mutations of other genes, such as type I receptor activin receptor-like kinase 1 and the type III receptor endoglin (both associated with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, caveolin-1 and KCNK3, the gene encoding potassium channel subfamily K, member 3, can be detected, instead. Gene mutations, environmental changes and acquired adjustment, etc. may explain the development of PAH. The researches on PAH rat model and familial PAH members may facilitate the elucidations of the mechanisms and further provide theories for prophylaxis and treatment of PAH. Key Words: bone morphogenetic proteins, mutation, pulmonary hypertension

  3. Neuropilin-1 and neuropilin-2 are differentially expressed in human proteinuric nephropathies and cytokine-stimulated proximal tubular cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramek, Herbert; Sarközi, Rita; Lauterberg, Christina; Kronbichler, Andreas; Pirklbauer, Markus; Albrecht, Rudolf; Noppert, Susie-Jane; Perco, Paul; Rudnicki, Michael; Strutz, Frank M; Mayer, Gert

    2009-11-01

    Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) and neuropilin-2 (NRP2) are transmembrane glycoproteins with large extracellular domains that interact with class 3 semaphorins, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family members, and ligands, such as hepatocyte growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor BB, transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), and fibroblast growth factor2 (FGF2). Neuropilins (NRPs) have been implicated in tumor growth and vascularization, as novel mediators of the primary immune response and in regeneration and repair; however, their role in renal pathophysiology is largely unknown. Here, we report upregulation of tubular and interstitial NRP2 protein expression in patients with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). In an additional cohort of patients with minimal change disease (MCD), membranous nephropathy (MN), and FSGS, elevated NRP2 mRNA expression in kidney biopsies inversely correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at the time of biopsy. Furthermore, upregulation of NRP2 mRNA correlated with post-bioptic decline of kidney function. Expression of NRP1 and NRP2 in human proximal tubular cells (PTCs) was differentially affected after stimulation with TGF-beta1, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), and oncostatin M (OSM). Although the pro-fibrotic mediators, TGF-beta1 and IL-1beta, induced upregulation of NRP2 expression but downregulation of NRP1 expression, OSM stimulated the expression of both NRP1 and NRP2. Basal and OSM-induced NRP1 mRNA expression, as well as TGF-beta1-induced NRP2 mRNA and protein expression were partially mediated by MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling. This is the first report suggesting a differential role of NRP1 and NRP2 in renal fibrogenesis, and TGF-beta1, IL-1beta, and OSM represent the first ligands known to stimulate NRP2 expression in mammalian cells.

  4. Connective Tissue Disorders and Cardiovascular Complications: The indomitable role of Transforming Growth Factor-beta signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Jason B.; Ikonomidis, John S.; Jones, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Marfan Syndrome (MFS) and Loeys-Dietz Syndrome (LDS) represent heritable connective tissue disorders that cosegregate with a similar pattern of cardiovascular defects (thoracic aortic aneurysm, mitral valve prolapse/regurgitation, and aortic dilatation with regurgitation). This pattern of cardiovascular defects appears to be expressed along a spectrum of severity in many heritable connective tissue disorders and raises suspicion of a relationship between the normal development of connective tissues and the cardiovascular system. Given the evidence of increased transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling in MFS and LDS, this signaling pathway may represent the common link in this relationship. To further explore this hypothetical link, this chapter will review the TGF-β signaling pathway, heritable connective tissue syndromes related to TGF-β receptor (TGFBR) mutations, and discuss the pathogenic contribution of TGF-β to these syndromes with a primary focus on the cardiovascular system. PMID:24443024

  5. Nuclear receptor TLX inhibits TGF-β signaling in glioblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Erik; Zhai, Qiwei; Zeng, Zhao-jun; Yoshida, Takeshi; Funa, Keiko

    2016-01-01

    TLX (also called NR2E1) is an orphan nuclear receptor that maintains stemness of neuronal stem cells. TLX is highly expressed in the most malignant form of glioma, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and is important for the proliferation and maintenance of the stem/progenitor cells of the tumor. Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) is a cytokine regulating many different cellular processes such as differentiation, migration, adhesion, cell death and proliferation. TGF-β has an important function in cancer where it can work as either a tumor suppressor or oncogene, depending on the cancer type and stage of tumor development. Since glioblastoma often have dysfunctional TGF-β signaling we wanted to find out if there is any interaction between TLX and TGF-β in glioblastoma cells. We demonstrate that knockdown of TLX enhances the canonical TGF-β signaling response in glioblastoma cell lines. TLX physically interacts with and stabilizes Smurf1, which can ubiquitinate and target TGF-β receptor II for degradation, whereas knockdown of TLX leads to stabilization of TGF-β receptor II, increased nuclear translocation of Smad2/3 and enhanced expression of TGF-β target genes. The interaction between TLX and TGF-β may play an important role in the regulation of proliferation and tumor-initiating properties of glioblastoma cells. - Highlights: • TLX knockdown enhances TGF-β dependent Smad signaling in glioblastoma cells • TLX knockdown increases the protein level of TGF-β receptor II. • TLX stabilizes and retains Smurf1 in the cytoplasm. • TLX enhances Smurf1-dependent ubiquitination and degradation of TGF-β receptor II.

  6. Nuclear receptor TLX inhibits TGF-β signaling in glioblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Erik; Zhai, Qiwei [Sahlgrenska Cancer Center at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Box 425, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Zeng, Zhao-jun [Sahlgrenska Cancer Center at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Box 425, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Molecular Biology Research Center, School of Life Sciences, Central South University, 110, Xiangya Road, Changsha, Hunan 410078 (China); Yoshida, Takeshi [Sahlgrenska Cancer Center at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Box 425, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Funa, Keiko, E-mail: keiko.funa@gu.se [Sahlgrenska Cancer Center at the Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Box 425, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2016-05-01

    TLX (also called NR2E1) is an orphan nuclear receptor that maintains stemness of neuronal stem cells. TLX is highly expressed in the most malignant form of glioma, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and is important for the proliferation and maintenance of the stem/progenitor cells of the tumor. Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) is a cytokine regulating many different cellular processes such as differentiation, migration, adhesion, cell death and proliferation. TGF-β has an important function in cancer where it can work as either a tumor suppressor or oncogene, depending on the cancer type and stage of tumor development. Since glioblastoma often have dysfunctional TGF-β signaling we wanted to find out if there is any interaction between TLX and TGF-β in glioblastoma cells. We demonstrate that knockdown of TLX enhances the canonical TGF-β signaling response in glioblastoma cell lines. TLX physically interacts with and stabilizes Smurf1, which can ubiquitinate and target TGF-β receptor II for degradation, whereas knockdown of TLX leads to stabilization of TGF-β receptor II, increased nuclear translocation of Smad2/3 and enhanced expression of TGF-β target genes. The interaction between TLX and TGF-β may play an important role in the regulation of proliferation and tumor-initiating properties of glioblastoma cells. - Highlights: • TLX knockdown enhances TGF-β dependent Smad signaling in glioblastoma cells • TLX knockdown increases the protein level of TGF-β receptor II. • TLX stabilizes and retains Smurf1 in the cytoplasm. • TLX enhances Smurf1-dependent ubiquitination and degradation of TGF-β receptor II.

  7. MetaSINEs: Broad Distribution of a Novel SINE Superfamily in Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Nishihara, Hidenori; Plazzi, Federico; Passamonti, Marco; Okada, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    SINEs (short interspersed elements) are transposable elements that typically originate independently in each taxonomic clade (order/family). However, some SINE families share a highly similar central sequence and are thus categorized as a SINE superfamily. Although only four SINE superfamilies (CORE-SINEs, V-SINEs, DeuSINEs, and Ceph-SINEs) have been reported so far, it is expected that new SINE superfamilies would be discovered by deep exploration of new SINEs in metazoan genomes. Here we de...

  8. At the Perphery of the Amidohydrolase Superfamily: Bh0493 from Bacillus halodurans Catalyzes the Isomerization of D-Galacturonate to D-Tagaturonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen,T.; Brown, S.; Fedorov, A.; Fedorov, E.; Babbitt, P.; Almo, S.; Raushel, F.

    2008-01-01

    The amidohydrolase superfamily is a functionally diverse set of enzymes that catalyzes predominantly hydrolysis reactions involving sugars, nucleic acids, amino acids, and organophosphate esters. One of the most divergent members of this superfamily, uronate isomerase from Escherichia coli, catalyzes the isomerization of d-glucuronate to d-fructuronate and d-galacturonate to d-tagaturonate and is the only uronate isomerase in this organism. A gene encoding a putative uronate isomerase in Bacillus halodurans (Bh0705) was identified based on sequence similarity to uronate isomerases from other organisms. Kinetic evidence indicates that Bh0705 is relatively specific for the isomerization of d-glucuronate to d-fructuronate, confirming this functional assignment. Despite a low sequence identity to all other characterized uronate isomerases, phylogenetic and network-based analysis suggests that a second gene in this organism, Bh0493, is also a uronate isomerase, although it is an outlier in the group, with <20% sequence identity to any other characterized uronate isomerase from another species. The elucidation of the X-ray structure at a resolution of 2.0 Angstroms confirms that Bh0493 is a member of the amidohydrolase superfamily with conserved residues common to other members of the uronate isomerase family. Functional characterization of this protein shows that unlike Bh0705, Bh0493 can utilize both d-glucuronate and d-galacturonate as substrates. In B. halodurans, Bh0705 is found in an operon for the metabolism of d-glucuronate, whereas Bh0493 is in an operon for the metabolism of d-galacturonate. These results provide the first identification of a uronate isomerase that operates in a pathway distinct from that for d-glucuronate. While most organisms that contain this pathway have only one gene for a uronate isomerase, sequence analysis and operon context show that five other organisms also appear to have two genes and one organism appears to have three genes for

  9. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition delays wound healing and blocks the latent transforming growth factor-beta1-promoted myofibroblast formation and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirastschijski, Ursula; Schnabel, Reinhild; Claes, Juliane

    2010-01-01

    applied topically to full-thickness skin excisional wounds in rats and its ability to inhibit the promotion of myofibroblast formation and function by the latent transforming-growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1). BB-94 delayed wound contraction, as well as all other associated aspects of wound healing examined......, including myofibroblast formation, stromal cell proliferation, blood vessel formation, and epithelial wound coverage. Interestingly, BB-94 dramatically increased the level of latent and active MMP-9. The increased levels of active MMP-9 may eventually overcome the ability of BB-94 to inhibit this MMP...... and may explain why wound contraction and other associated events of wound healing were only delayed and not completely inhibited. BB-94 was also found to inhibit the ability of latent TGF-beta1 to promote the formation and function of myofibroblasts. These results suggest that BB-94 could delay wound...

  10. Brain injury-associated biomarkers of TGF-beta1, S100B, GFAP, NF-L, tTG, AbetaPP, and tau were concomitantly enhanced and the UPS was impaired during acute brain injury caused by Toxocara canis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chien-Wei; Fan, Chia-Kwung; Kao, Ting-Chang; Ji, Dar-Der; Su, Kua-Eyre; Lin, Yun-Ho; Cho, Wen-Long

    2008-06-24

    Because the outcomes and sequelae after different types of brain injury (BI) are variable and difficult to predict, investigations on whether enhanced expressions of BI-associated biomarkers (BIABs), including transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), S100B, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), neurofilament light chain (NF-L), tissue transglutaminases (tTGs), beta-amyloid precursor proteins (AbetaPP), and tau are present as well as whether impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is present have been widely used to help delineate pathophysiological mechanisms in various BIs. Larvae of Toxocara canis can invade the brain and cause BI in humans and mice, leading to cerebral toxocariasis (CT). Because the parasitic burden is light in CT, it may be too cryptic to be detected in humans, making it difficult to clearly understand the pathogenesis of subtle BI in CT. Since the pathogenesis of murine toxocariasis is very similar to that in humans, it appears appropriate to use a murine model to investigate the pathogenesis of CT. BIAB expressions and UPS function in the brains of mice inoculated with a single dose of 250 T. canis embryonated eggs was investigated from 3 days (dpi) to 8 weeks post-infection (wpi) by Western blotting and RT-PCR. Results revealed that at 4 and 8 wpi, T. canis larvae were found to have invaded areas around the choroid plexus but without eliciting leukocyte infiltration in brains of infected mice; nevertheless, astrogliosis, an indicator of BI, with 78.9~142.0-fold increases in GFAP expression was present. Meanwhile, markedly increased levels of other BIAB proteins including TGF-beta1, S100B, NF-L, tTG, AbetaPP, and tau, with increases ranging 2.0~12.0-fold were found, although their corresponding mRNA expressions were not found to be present at 8 wpi. Concomitantly, UPS impairment was evidenced by the overexpression of conjugated ubiquitin and ubiquitin in the brain. Further studies are needed to determine whether there is an

  11. SEQUENCING AND SEQUENCE ANALYSIS OF MYOSTATIN GENE IN THE EXON 1 OF THE CAMEL (CAMELUS DROMEDARIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. SHAH, A. S. QURESHI1, M. REISSMANN2 AND H. J. SCHWARTZ3

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Myostatin, also called growth differentiation factor-8 (GDF-8, is a member of the mammalian growth transforming family (TGF-beta superfamily, which is expressed specifically in developing an adult skeletal muscle. Muscular hypertrophy allele (mh allele in the double muscle breeds involved mutation within the myostatin gene. Genomic DNA was isolated from the camel hair using NucleoSpin Tissue kit. Two animals of each of the six breeds namely, Marecha, Dhatti, Larri, Kohi, Sakrai and Cambelpuri were used for sequencing. For PCR amplification of the gene, a primer pair was designed from homolog regions of already published sequences of farm animals from GenBank. Results showed that camel myostatin possessed more than 90% homology with that of cattle, sheep and pig. Camel formed separate cluster from the pig in spite of having high homology (98% and showed 94% homology with cattle and sheep as reported in literature. Sequence analysis of the PCR amplified part of exon 1 (256 bp of the camel myostatin was identical among six camel breeds.

  12. Keanekaragaman Jenis Kupu-Kupu Superfamili Papilionoidae di Banyuwindu, Limbangan Kendal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Oqtafiana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Kupu-kupu turut memberi andil dalam mempertahankan keseimbangan ekosistem dan memperkaya keanekaragaman hayati. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui keanekaragaman jenis kupu-kupu superfamili Papilionoidae di Dukuh Banyuwindu Desa Limbangan Kecamatan Limbangan Kabupaten Kendal khususnya di habitat hutan sekunder, permukiman, Daerah Aliran Sungai (DAS dan persawahan.Populasi dalam penelitian ini adalah semua jenis kupu-kupu superfamili Papilionoidae yang ada di Banyuwindu, Limbangan Kendal. Sampel penelitian ini adalah jenis kupu-kupu superfamili Papilionoidae yang teramati di Banyuwindu Limbangan Kendal khususnya di habitat hutan sekunder, permukiman, DAS dan persawahan. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode Indeks Point Abudance (IPA atau metode titik hitung.Hasil penelitian ditemukan sebanyak 62 jenis kupu-kupu superfamili Papilionoidae yang terdiri dari 737 individu yang tergolong kedalam empat famili yaitu Papilionidae, Pieridae, Lycaenidae dan Nymphalidae. Hasil analisis indeks keanekaragaman jenis berkisar antara 2,74-3,09, indeks kemerataan jenis berkisar antara 0,86-0,87 dan memiliki dominansi berkisar antara 0,07-0,09. Indeks keanekaragaman jenis dan indeks kemerataan jenis tertinggi tercatat pada habitat permukiman yaitu 3,09 dan 0,87 dan memiliki dominansi 0,07 sedangkan terendah tercatat pada habitat persawahan yaitu 2,74 dan 0,86 dan memiliki dominansi 0,07.Butterfly also contribute in maintaining the ecological balance and enrich biodiversity. The aim of this research was to determine the diversity of butterflies’ superfamily Papilionoidae in Banyuwindu Hamlet Limbangan Sub district Kendal Regency, especially in the secondary forest habitat, settlements, river flow area (RFA and rice field. The population in this research were all kinds of butterflies’ Papilionoidae superfamily in Banyuwindu, Limbangan Kendal. The sample was kind of butterfly superfamily Papilionoidae that observed in Banyuwindu Limbangan Kendal

  13. Serum Transforming Growth Factor Beta-1 as an Index of Chemical Hepato carcinogenesis in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelgawad, M.R.; Fekry, A.E.; Edrees, G.; Ali, M.A.; Ghareeb, N.A.

    2008-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF β1) is an important mediator which controls liver cell proliferation and replication. The relation between TGF β1, Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and clinically thought hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in rats were investigated to clarify the clinical value of measuring peripheral serum TGF β1 and AFP in evaluation of HCC. Peripheral serum TGF β1 and AFP were measured during chemically induced hepato carcinogenesis. Male rats were given a genotoxic compound diethylnitrosamine (DEN) in drinking water for 149 days with control receiving drinking water only. Animals were killed at different times intervals 54, 86 and 149 days, serum TGF β1 levels were measured by, Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) and AFP levels were assayed by immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). In DEN treated rats 54 days, there was mild portal tract inflammatory cellular infiltrate, serum TGF β1 and AFP levels were both significantly elevated above control (P>0.05 and P<0.001). At 86 days there were moderate inflammation (portal and peri portal), serum TGF β1 and AFP levels were significantly increased, (P<0.001). At 149 days typical HCC were present in ten of ten rats and serum TGF β1 and AFP were both significantly elevated compared with controls, (P<0.001). It can be concluded that serum TGF β1 and AFP levels are elevated during chemically induced HCC and have roles during the stages of process (initiation, promotion and progression); both serum TGF β1 and AFP levels can be used in parallel as a non invasive tumor markers for early diagnosis and prognosis of HCC

  14. Inhibition of TGF-β Signaling in SHED Enhances Endothelial Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J G; Gong, T; Wang, Y Y; Zou, T; Heng, B C; Yang, Y Q; Zhang, C F

    2018-02-01

    Low efficiency of deriving endothelial cells (ECs) from adult stem cells hampers their utilization in tissue engineering studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether suppression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling could enhance the differentiation efficiency of dental pulp-derived stem cells into ECs. We initially used vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) to stimulate 2 dental pulp-derived stem cells (dental pulp stem cells and stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth [SHED]) and compared their differentiation capacity into ECs. We further evaluated whether the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor I (VEGF-RI)-specific ligand placental growth factor-1 (PlGF-1) could mediate endothelial differentiation. Finally, we investigated whether the TGF-β signaling inhibitor SB-431542 could enhance the inductive effect of VEGF-A on endothelial differentiation, as well as the underlying mechanisms involved. ECs differentiated from dental pulp-derived stem cells exhibited the typical phenotypes of primary ECs, with SHED possessing a higher endothelial differentiation potential than dental pulp stem cells. VEGFR1-specific ligand-PLGF exerted a negligible effect on SHED-ECs differentiation. Compared with VEGF-A alone, the combination of VEGF-A and SB-431542 significantly enhanced the endothelial differentiation of SHED. The presence of SB-431542 inhibited the phosphorylation of Suppressor of Mothers Against Decapentaplegic 2/3 (SMAD2/3), allowing for VEGF-A-dependent phosphorylation and upregulation of VEGFR2. Our results indicate that the combination of VEGF-A and SB-431542 could enhance the differentiation of dental pulp-derived stem cells into endothelial cells, and this process is mediated through enhancement of VEGF-A-VEGFR2 signaling and concomitant inhibition of TGF-β-SMAD2/3 signaling.

  15. Induction of gastric cancer cell adhesion through transforming growth factor-beta1-mediated peritoneal fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Xiao-Yang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peritoneal dissemination is one of the main causes of death in gastric cancer patients. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1, one of the most potent fibrotic stimuli for mesothelial cells, may play a key role in this processing. The purpose of this study is to elucidate the effects of TGF-β1 on regulation of gastric cancer adhesion to mesothelial cells. Methods Peritoneal tissues and peritoneal wash fluid were obtained for hematoxylin and eosin staining or ELISA to measure fibrosis and TGF-β1 levels, respectively. The peritoneal mesothelial cell line, HMrSV5, was used to determine the role of TGF-β1 in regulation of gastric cancer cell adhesion to mesothelial cells and expression of collagen, fibronectin, and Smad 2/3 by using adhesion assay, western blot, and RT-PCR. Results The data showed that TGF-β1 treatment was able to induce collagen III and fibronectin expression in the mesothelial cells, which was associated with an increased adhesion ability of gastric cancer cells, but knockdown of minimal sites of cell binding domain of extracellular matrix can partially inhibit these effects. Conclusion Peritoneal fibrosis induced by TGF-β1 may provide a favorable environment for the dissemination of gastric cancer.

  16. Melanophore migration and survival during zebrafish adult pigment stripe development require the immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecule Igsf11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Dae Seok; Inoue, Shinya; Patterson, Larissa B; Gordon, Tiffany N; Slingwine, Rebecca; Kondo, Shigeru; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Parichy, David M

    2012-01-01

    The zebrafish adult pigment pattern has emerged as a useful model for understanding the development and evolution of adult form as well as pattern-forming mechanisms more generally. In this species, a series of horizontal melanophore stripes arises during the larval-to-adult transformation, but the genetic and cellular bases for stripe formation remain largely unknown. Here, we show that the seurat mutant phenotype, consisting of an irregular spotted pattern, arises from lesions in the gene encoding Immunoglobulin superfamily member 11 (Igsf11). We find that Igsf11 is expressed by melanophores and their precursors, and we demonstrate by cell transplantation and genetic rescue that igsf11 functions autonomously to this lineage in promoting adult stripe development. Further analyses of cell behaviors in vitro, in vivo, and in explant cultures ex vivo demonstrate that Igsf11 mediates adhesive interactions and that mutants for igsf11 exhibit defects in both the migration and survival of melanophores and their precursors. These findings identify the first in vivo requirements for igsf11 as well as the first instance of an immunoglobulin superfamily member functioning in pigment cell development and patterning. Our results provide new insights into adult pigment pattern morphogenesis and how cellular interactions mediate pattern formation.

  17. Melanophore migration and survival during zebrafish adult pigment stripe development require the immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecule Igsf11.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Seok Eom

    Full Text Available The zebrafish adult pigment pattern has emerged as a useful model for understanding the development and evolution of adult form as well as pattern-forming mechanisms more generally. In this species, a series of horizontal melanophore stripes arises during the larval-to-adult transformation, but the genetic and cellular bases for stripe formation remain largely unknown. Here, we show that the seurat mutant phenotype, consisting of an irregular spotted pattern, arises from lesions in the gene encoding Immunoglobulin superfamily member 11 (Igsf11. We find that Igsf11 is expressed by melanophores and their precursors, and we demonstrate by cell transplantation and genetic rescue that igsf11 functions autonomously to this lineage in promoting adult stripe development. Further analyses of cell behaviors in vitro, in vivo, and in explant cultures ex vivo demonstrate that Igsf11 mediates adhesive interactions and that mutants for igsf11 exhibit defects in both the migration and survival of melanophores and their precursors. These findings identify the first in vivo requirements for igsf11 as well as the first instance of an immunoglobulin superfamily member functioning in pigment cell development and patterning. Our results provide new insights into adult pigment pattern morphogenesis and how cellular interactions mediate pattern formation.

  18. CREB binding protein is a required coactivator for Smad-dependent, transforming growth factor β transcriptional responses in endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Topper, James N.; DiChiara, Maria R.; Brown, Jonathan D.; Williams, Amy J.; Falb, Dean; Collins, Tucker; Gimbrone, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) superfamily of growth factors and cytokines has been implicated in a variety of physiological and developmental processes within the cardiovascular system. Smad proteins are a recently described family of intracellular signaling proteins that transduce signals in response to TGFsuperfamily ligands. We demonstrate by both a mammalian two-hybrid and a biochemical approach that human Smad2 and Smad4, two essential Smad proteins involved in mediating TG...

  19. The Role of Immunoglobulin Superfamily Cell Adhesion Molecules in Cancer Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Wai Wong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis is a major clinical problem and results in a poor prognosis for most cancers. The metastatic pathway describes the process by which cancer cells give rise to a metastatic lesion in a new tissue or organ. It consists of interconnecting steps all of which must be successfully completed to result in a metastasis. Cell-cell adhesion is a key aspect of many of these steps. Adhesion molecules belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily (Ig-SF commonly play a central role in cell-cell adhesion, and a number of these molecules have been associated with cancer progression and a metastatic phenotype. Surprisingly, the contribution of Ig-SF members to metastasis has not received the attention afforded other cell adhesion molecules (CAMs such as the integrins. Here we examine the steps in the metastatic pathway focusing on how the Ig-SF members, melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM, L1CAM, neural CAM (NCAM, leukocyte CAM (ALCAM, intercellular CAM-1 (ICAM-1 and platelet endothelial CAM-1 (PECAM-1 could play a role. Although much remains to be understood, this review aims to raise the profile of Ig-SF members in metastasis formation and prompt further research that could lead to useful clinical outcomes.

  20. Nuclear receptor TLX inhibits TGF-β signaling in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Erik; Zhai, Qiwei; Zeng, Zhao-Jun; Yoshida, Takeshi; Funa, Keiko

    2016-05-01

    TLX (also called NR2E1) is an orphan nuclear receptor that maintains stemness of neuronal stem cells. TLX is highly expressed in the most malignant form of glioma, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), and is important for the proliferation and maintenance of the stem/progenitor cells of the tumor. Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) is a cytokine regulating many different cellular processes such as differentiation, migration, adhesion, cell death and proliferation. TGF-β has an important function in cancer where it can work as either a tumor suppressor or oncogene, depending on the cancer type and stage of tumor development. Since glioblastoma often have dysfunctional TGF-β signaling we wanted to find out if there is any interaction between TLX and TGF-β in glioblastoma cells. We demonstrate that knockdown of TLX enhances the canonical TGF-β signaling response in glioblastoma cell lines. TLX physically interacts with and stabilizes Smurf1, which can ubiquitinate and target TGF-β receptor II for degradation, whereas knockdown of TLX leads to stabilization of TGF-β receptor II, increased nuclear translocation of Smad2/3 and enhanced expression of TGF-β target genes. The interaction between TLX and TGF-β may play an important role in the regulation of proliferation and tumor-initiating properties of glioblastoma cells. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Calcium-phosphate matrix with or without TGF-β3 improves tendon-bone healing after rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacevic, David; Fox, Alice J; Bedi, Asheesh; Ying, Liang; Deng, Xiang-Hua; Warren, Russell F; Rodeo, Scott A

    2011-04-01

    Rotator cuff tendon heals by formation of an interposed zone of fibrovascular scar tissue. Recent studies demonstrate that transforming growth factor-beta 3 (TGF-β(3)) is associated with tissue regeneration and "scarless" healing, in contrast to scar-mediated healing that occurs with TGF-β(1). Delivery of TGF-β(3) in an injectable calcium-phosphate matrix to the healing tendon-bone interface after rotator cuff repair will result in increased attachment strength secondary to improved bone formation and collagen organization and reduced scar formation of the healing enthesis. Controlled laboratory study. Ninety-six male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent unilateral detachment of the supraspinatus tendon followed by acute repair using transosseous suture fixation. Animals were allocated into 1 of 3 groups: (1) repair alone (controls, n = 32), (2) repair augmented by application of an osteoconductive calcium-phosphate (Ca-P) matrix only (n = 32), or (3) repair augmented with Ca-P matrix + TGF-β(3) (2.75 µg) at the tendon-bone interface (n = 32). Animals were euthanized at either 2 weeks or 4 weeks postoperatively. Biomechanical testing of the supraspinatus tendon-bone complex was performed at 2 and 4 weeks (n = 8 per group). Microcomputed tomography was utilized to quantitate bone microstructure at the repair site. The healing tendon-bone interface was evaluated with histomorphometry and immunohistochemical localization of collagen types I (COLI) and III (COLIII). Statistical analysis was performed using 2-way analysis of variance with significance set at P repair site is associated with new bone formation, increased fibrocartilage, and improved collagen organization at the healing tendon-bone interface in the early postoperative period after rotator cuff repair. The addition of TGF-β(3) significantly improved strength of the repair at 4 weeks postoperatively and resulted in a more favorable COLI/COLIII ratio. The delivery of TGF-β(3) with an injectable Ca-P matrix

  2. Transforming growth factor beta-1 An important biomarker for developing cardiovascular diseases in chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, E; Avci, G Alp; Ozcelik, B; Cevher, S Coskun; Suicmez, M

    2017-01-01

    Our study focuses on the determination and evaluation of TGF-β1 levels of patients receiving hemodialysis treatment because of chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure, characterized by irreversible loss of renal function, is a major public health problem in the world. Transforming growth factor-beta is a multifunctional cytokine involved in the cellular growth, differentiation, migration, apoptosis and immune regulation. Among the three TGF-β isoforms, TGF-β1 plays a key role in the pathogenesis of renal diseases. We studied 24 patients who were on regular hemodialysis, with non-diabetic nephropathy. 20 healthy people who proved to be in a good state of health and free from any signs of chronic diseases or disorders were enrolled as a control group. Serum samples were collected both before and after hemodialysis treatment from each patient. TGF-β1 levels were determined by Enzyme Immunoassay method. TGF-β1 levels were found significantly higher in the hemodialysis patients than those of the control groups. Also, the TGF-β1 was significantly reduced after hemodialysis treatment but it was still higher than in control groups. This result indicates that hemodialysis is an effective treatment method to decrease the serum TGF-B1 levels. Nevertheless, this decrease is not enough to reduce existing risks (Tab. 1, Fig. 2, Ref. 28).

  3. Prolonged peritoneal gene expression using a helper-dependent adenovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Limin; Shi, Chang-Xin; Ghayur, Ayesha; Zhang, Claire; Su, Je Yen; Hoff, Catherine M; Margetts, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a rare complication of peritoneal dialysis. The causes of EPS are not well defined and are likely multifactorial. A suitable animal model would facilitate research into the pathophysiology and treatment of EPS. We developed a helper-dependent adenovirus that expresses both green fluorescent protein (GFP) and active transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta1; HDAdTGF-beta1). Mice were administered HDAdTGF-beta1 via intraperitoneal injection and the response was compared with mice administered either first-generation adenovirus expressing TGF-beta1 (AdTGF-beta1) or control adenovirus (AdGFP). HDAdTGF-beta1-treated mice continued to express the GFP reporter transgene to day 74, the end of the observation period. Transgene expression lasted less than 28 days in the animals treated with first-generation adenoviruses. Animals treated with first-generation AdTGF-beta1 demonstrated submesothelial thickening and angiogenesis at day 7, with almost complete resolution by day 28. The HDAdTGF-beta1-treated mice demonstrated progressive peritoneal fibrosis with adhesion formation and encapsulation of bowels. Weight gain was significantly reduced in animals treated with HDAdTGF-beta1 compared to both the control-treated animals and the AdTGF-beta1-treated animals. Inflammation was not a major component of the fibroproliferative response. Peritoneal administration of a first-generation AdTGF-beta1 leads to transient gene expression, resulting in a resolving fibrotic response and histology similar to that seen in simple peritoneal sclerosis. Prolonged TGF-beta1 expression induced by the helper-dependent HDAdTGF-beta1 led to changes in peritoneal morphology resembling EPS. This suggests that TGF-beta1 may be a contributing factor in both simple peritoneal sclerosis and EPS. This model will be useful for elucidation of the mechanism of EPS and evaluation of potential treatment.

  4. Stellate Cell Activation and Imbalanced Expression of TGF-β1/TGF-β3 in Acute Autoimmune Liver Lesions Induced by ConA in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyun Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the pathogenic feature of liver injury, activation of hepatic stellate cells, and dynamic expression of TGF-β1/TGF-β3 to reveal their role in liver injury induced by ConA. Methods. Mice were randomly divided into control group and ConA treatment group. ConA (20 mg/kg was injected through vena caudalis in ConA treatment group; the controls received the same volume of saline injection. After injection for 2 h, 8 h, 24 h, and 48 h, animals were terminated. Blood, liver, and spleen were harvested. Liver function and histopathology were studied. α-SMA, vimentin, TGF-β1, and TGF-β3 were detected. Results. After ConA injection, liver damage started to increase. Expression of α-SMA, vimentin, TGF-β1, and TGF-β3 was significantly enhanced; all above indicators reached peak at 8 h; but from 24 h after ConA injection, TGF-β3 expression began to decline, while the TGF-β1/TGF-β3 ratio at 48 h was significantly lower than control. Conclusion. (1 Autoimmune liver injury induced by ConA showed time-based features, in which the most serious liver lesions happened at 8 h after ConA injection. (2 Early activation of HSC and imbalance expression of TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 existed in ConA-induced acute autoimmune liver injury, which may be associated with liver dysfunction and the mechanisms of progression to fibrosis.

  5. Inference of functional properties from large-scale analysis of enzyme superfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shoshana D; Babbitt, Patricia C

    2012-01-02

    As increasingly large amounts of data from genome and other sequencing projects become available, new approaches are needed to determine the functions of the proteins these genes encode. We show how large-scale computational analysis can help to address this challenge by linking functional information to sequence and structural similarities using protein similarity networks. Network analyses using three functionally diverse enzyme superfamilies illustrate the use of these approaches for facile updating and comparison of available structures for a large superfamily, for creation of functional hypotheses for metagenomic sequences, and to summarize the limits of our functional knowledge about even well studied superfamilies.

  6. Intramyocardial implantation of differentiated rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells enhanced by TGF-β1 improves cardiac function in heart failure rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lv, Y. [Department of Histology and Embryology, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei (China); Liu, B. [Department of Pathology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou, Hebei (China); Wang, H.P. [Department of Histology and Embryology, Hebei North University, Zhangjiakou, Hebei (China); Zhang, L. [Department of Histology and Embryology, Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei (China)

    2016-05-31

    The present study tested the hypotheses that i) transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) enhances differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) towards the cardiomyogenic phenotype and ii) intramyocardial implantation of the TGF-β1-treated MSCs improves cardiac function in heart failure rats. MSCs were treated with different concentrations of TGF-β1 for 72 h, and then morphological characteristics, surface antigens and mRNA expression of several transcription factors were assessed. Intramyocardial implantation of these TGF-β1-treated MSCs to infarcted heart was also investigated. MSCs were initially spindle-shaped with irregular processes. On day 28 after TGF-β1 treatment, MSCs showed fusiform shape, orientating parallel with one another, and were connected with adjoining cells forming myotube-like structures. Immunofluorescence revealed the expression of cardiomyocyte-specific proteins, α-sarcomeric actin and troponin T, in these cells. The mRNA expression of GATA4 and Nkx2.5 genes was slightly increased on day 7, enhanced on day 14 and decreased on day 28 while α-MHC gene was not expressed on day 7, but expressed slightly on day 14 and enhanced on day 28. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the induced cells had myofilaments, z line-like substances, desmosomes, and gap junctions, in contrast with control cells. Furthermore, intramyocardial implantation of TGF-β1-treated MSCs to infarcted heart reduced scar area and increased the number of muscle cells. This structure regeneration was concomitant with the improvement of cardiac function, evidenced by decreased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, increased left ventricular systolic pressure and increased maximal positive pressure development rate. Taken together, these results indicate that intramyocardial implantation of differentiated MSCs enhanced by TGF-β1 improved cardiac function in heart failure rats.

  7. Intramyocardial implantation of differentiated rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells enhanced by TGF-β1 improves cardiac function in heart failure rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Y.; Liu, B.; Wang, H.P.; Zhang, L.

    2016-01-01

    The present study tested the hypotheses that i) transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) enhances differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) towards the cardiomyogenic phenotype and ii) intramyocardial implantation of the TGF-β1-treated MSCs improves cardiac function in heart failure rats. MSCs were treated with different concentrations of TGF-β1 for 72 h, and then morphological characteristics, surface antigens and mRNA expression of several transcription factors were assessed. Intramyocardial implantation of these TGF-β1-treated MSCs to infarcted heart was also investigated. MSCs were initially spindle-shaped with irregular processes. On day 28 after TGF-β1 treatment, MSCs showed fusiform shape, orientating parallel with one another, and were connected with adjoining cells forming myotube-like structures. Immunofluorescence revealed the expression of cardiomyocyte-specific proteins, α-sarcomeric actin and troponin T, in these cells. The mRNA expression of GATA4 and Nkx2.5 genes was slightly increased on day 7, enhanced on day 14 and decreased on day 28 while α-MHC gene was not expressed on day 7, but expressed slightly on day 14 and enhanced on day 28. Transmission electron microscopy showed that the induced cells had myofilaments, z line-like substances, desmosomes, and gap junctions, in contrast with control cells. Furthermore, intramyocardial implantation of TGF-β1-treated MSCs to infarcted heart reduced scar area and increased the number of muscle cells. This structure regeneration was concomitant with the improvement of cardiac function, evidenced by decreased left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, increased left ventricular systolic pressure and increased maximal positive pressure development rate. Taken together, these results indicate that intramyocardial implantation of differentiated MSCs enhanced by TGF-β1 improved cardiac function in heart failure rats

  8. Opposing effects of PI3K/Akt and Smad-dependent signaling pathways in NAG-1-induced glioblastoma cell apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Zhang

    Full Text Available Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID activated gene-1 (NAG-1 is a divergent member of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGFsuperfamily. NAG-1 plays remarkable multifunctional roles in controlling diverse physiological and pathological processes including cancer. Like other TGF-β family members, NAG-1 can play dual roles during cancer development and progression by negatively or positively modulating cancer cell behaviors. In glioblastoma brain tumors, NAG-1 appears to act as a tumor suppressor gene; however, the precise underlying mechanisms have not been well elucidated. In the present study, we discovered that overexpression of NAG-1 induced apoptosis in U87 MG, U118 MG, U251 MG, and T98G cell lines via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway, but not in A172 and LN-229 cell lines. NAG-1 could induce the phosphorylation of PI3K/Akt and Smad2/3 in all six tested glioblastoma cell lines, except Smad3 phosphorylation in A172 and LN-229 cell lines. In fact, Smad3 expression and its phosphorylation were almost undetectable in A172 and LN-229 cells. The PI3K inhibitors promoted NAG-1-induced glioblastoma cell apoptosis, while siRNAs to Smad2 and Smad3 decreased the apoptosis rate. NAG-1 also stimulated the direct interaction between Akt and Smad3 in glioblastoma cells. Elevating the level of Smad3 restored the sensitivity to NAG-1-induced apoptosis in A172 and LN-229 cells. In conclusion, our results suggest that PI3K/Akt and Smad-dependent signaling pathways display opposing effects in NAG-1-induced glioblastoma cell apoptosis.

  9. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene Superfamily in Populus: Organization and Expression Divergence between Paralogous Gene Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng-Xia; Zang, Jian-Lei; Wang, Tan; Xie, Yu-Li; Zhang, Jin; Hu, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) constitute a superfamily of NAD(P)+-dependent enzymes that catalyze the irreversible oxidation of a wide range of reactive aldehydes to their corresponding nontoxic carboxylic acids. ALDHs have been studied in many organisms from bacteria to mammals; however, no systematic analyses incorporating genome organization, gene structure, expression profiles, and cis-acting elements have been conducted in the model tree species Populus trichocarpa thus far. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily was performed. A total of 26 Populus ALDH genes were found to be distributed across 12 chromosomes. Genomic organization analysis indicated that purifying selection may have played a pivotal role in the retention and maintenance of PtALDH gene families. The exon-intron organizations of PtALDHs were highly conserved within the same family, suggesting that the members of the same family also may have conserved functionalities. Microarray data and qRT-PCR analysis indicated that most PtALDHs had distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. The specificity of cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of the PtALDHs and the divergence of expression patterns between nine paralogous PtALDH gene pairs suggested that gene duplications may have freed the duplicate genes from the functional constraints. The expression levels of some ALDHs were up- or down-regulated by various abiotic stresses, implying that the products of these genes may be involved in the adaptation of Populus to abiotic stresses. Overall, the data obtained from our investigation contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily and provide insights into the function and evolution of ALDH gene families in vascular plants.

  10. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Gene Superfamily in Populus: Organization and Expression Divergence between Paralogous Gene Pairs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Xia Tian

    Full Text Available Aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs constitute a superfamily of NAD(P+-dependent enzymes that catalyze the irreversible oxidation of a wide range of reactive aldehydes to their corresponding nontoxic carboxylic acids. ALDHs have been studied in many organisms from bacteria to mammals; however, no systematic analyses incorporating genome organization, gene structure, expression profiles, and cis-acting elements have been conducted in the model tree species Populus trichocarpa thus far. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily was performed. A total of 26 Populus ALDH genes were found to be distributed across 12 chromosomes. Genomic organization analysis indicated that purifying selection may have played a pivotal role in the retention and maintenance of PtALDH gene families. The exon-intron organizations of PtALDHs were highly conserved within the same family, suggesting that the members of the same family also may have conserved functionalities. Microarray data and qRT-PCR analysis indicated that most PtALDHs had distinct tissue-specific expression patterns. The specificity of cis-acting elements in the promoter regions of the PtALDHs and the divergence of expression patterns between nine paralogous PtALDH gene pairs suggested that gene duplications may have freed the duplicate genes from the functional constraints. The expression levels of some ALDHs were up- or down-regulated by various abiotic stresses, implying that the products of these genes may be involved in the adaptation of Populus to abiotic stresses. Overall, the data obtained from our investigation contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of the Populus ALDH gene superfamily and provide insights into the function and evolution of ALDH gene families in vascular plants.

  11. ROLE OF ATP BINDING CASSETTE SUB-FAMILY MEMBER 2 (ABCG2) IN MOUSE EMBRYONIC STEM CELL DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATP binding cassette sub-family member 2 (ABCG2), is a member of the ABC transporter superfamily and a principal xenobiotic transporter. ABCG2 is also highly expressed in certain stem cell populations where it is thought to be related to stem cell plasticity, although the role o...

  12. Surgical management of macular holes: results using gas tamponade alone, or in combination with autologous platelet concentrate, or transforming growth factor beta 2.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Minihan, M

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Vitrectomy and gas tamponade has become a recognised technique for the treatment of macular holes. In an attempt to improve the anatomic and visual success of the procedure, various adjunctive therapies--cytokines, serum, and platelets--have been employed. A consecutive series of 85 eyes which underwent macular hole surgery using gas tamponade alone, or gas tamponade with either the cytokine transforming growth factor beta 2 (TGF-beta 2) or autologous platelet concentrate is reported. METHODS: Twenty eyes had vitrectomy and 20% SF6 gas tamponade; 15 had vitrectomy, 20% SF6 gas, and TGF-beta 2; 50 had vitrectomy, 16% C3F8 gas tamponade, and 0.1 ml of autologous platelet concentrate prepared during the procedure. RESULTS: Anatomic success occurred in 86% of eyes, with 96% of the platelet treated group achieving closure of the macular hole. Visual acuity improved by two lines or more in 65% of the SF6 only group, 33% of those treated with TGF-beta 2 and in 74% of the platelet treated group. In the platelet treated group 40% achieved 6\\/12 or better and 62% achieved 6\\/18 or better. The best visual results were obtained in stage 2 holes. CONCLUSION: Vitrectomy for macular holes is often of benefit and patients may recover good visual acuity, especially early in the disease process. The procedure has a number of serious complications, and the postoperative posturing requirement is difficult. Patients need to be informed of such concerns before surgery.

  13. Effects of type I/type II interferons and transforming growth factor-beta on B-cell differentiation and proliferation. Definition of costimulation and cytokine requirements for immunoglobulin synthesis and expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, D M; Tuo, W; Brown, W C; Goin, J

    1998-12-01

    In this report, we sought to determine the role of selected type I interferons [interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and interferon-tau (IFN-tau)], IFN-gamma and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) in the regulation of bovine antibody responses. B cells were stimulated via CD40 in the presence or absence of B-cell receptor (BCR) cross-linking. IFN-alpha enhanced IgM, IgG2 and IgA responses but did not enhance IgG1 responses. BCR signalling alone was more effective at inducing IgG2 responses with IFN-alpha than dual cross-linking with CD40. Recombinant ovine IFN-tau was less effective at inducing IgG2 responses when compared with IFN-alpha, though IgA responses were similar in magnitude following BCR cross-linking. At higher concentrations, IFN-tau enhanced IgA responses greater than twofold over the levels observed with IFN-alpha. Previous studies have shown that addition of IFN-gamma to BCR or pokeweed mitogen-activated bovine B cells stimulates IgG2 production. However, following CD40 stimulation alone, IFN-gamma was relatively ineffective at stimulating high-rate synthesis of any non-IgM isotype. Dual cross-linking via CD40 and the BCR resulted in decreased synthesis of IgM with a concomitant increase in IgA and similar levels of IgG2 production to those obtained via the BCR alone. We also assessed the effects of endogenous and exogenous TGF-beta on immunoglobulin synthesis by bovine B cells. Exogenous TGF-beta stimulates both IgG2 and IgA production following CD40 and BCR cross-linking in the presence of IL-2. Blocking endogenous TGF-beta did not inhibit the up-regulation of IgG2 or IgA by interferons.

  14. TGF-β signaling directly regulates transcription and functional expression of the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter 1, NBCe1 (SLC4A4), via Smad4 in mouse astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakipoor, Shokoufeh; Ophoven, Christian; Schrödl-Häußel, Magdalena; Feuerstein, Melanie; Heimrich, Bernd; Deitmer, Joachim W; Roussa, Eleni

    2017-08-01

    The electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1 (SLC4A4) expressed in astrocytes regulates intracellular and extracellular pH. Here, we introduce transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) as a novel regulator of NBCe1 transcription and functional expression. Using hippocampal slices and primary hippocampal and cortical astrocyte cultures, we investigated regulation of NBCe1 and elucidated the underlying signaling pathways by RT-PCR, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, intracellular H( + ) recording using the H( + ) -sensitive dye 2',7'-bis-(carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein, mink lung epithelial cell (MLEC) assay, and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Activation of TGF-β signaling significantly upregulated transcript, protein, and surface expression of NBCe1. These effects were TGF-β receptor-mediated and suppressed following inhibition of JNK and Smad signaling. Moreover, 4-aminopyridine (4AP)-dependent NBCe1 regulation requires TGF-β. TGF-β increased the rate and amplitude of intracellular H + changes upon challenging NBCe1 in wild-type astrocytes but not in cortical astrocytes from Slc4a4-deficient mice. A Smad4 binding sequence was identified in the NBCe1 promoter and Smad4 binding increased after activation of TGF-β signaling. The data show for the first time that NBCe1 is a direct target of TGF-β/Smad4 signaling. Through activation of the canonical pathway TGF-β acts directly on NBCe1 by binding of Smad4 to the NBCe1 promoter and regulating its transcription, followed by increased protein expression and transport activity. © 2017 The Authors GLIA Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Structure of the d-alanylgriseoluteic acid biosynthetic protein EhpF, an atypical member of the ANL superfamily of adenylating enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bera, Asim K.; Atanasova, Vesna; Gamage, Swarna; Robinson, Howard; Parsons, James F.

    2010-01-01

    The structure of EhpF from P. agglomerans has been solved alone and in complex with phenazine-1,6-dicarboxylate. Apo EhpF was solved and refined in two different space groups at 1.95 and 2.3 Å resolution and the EhpF–phenazine-1,6-dicarboxylate complex structure was determined at 2.8 Å resolution. The structure of EhpF, a 41 kDa protein that functions in the biosynthetic pathway leading to the broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound d-alanylgriseoluteic acid (AGA), is reported. A cluster of approximately 16 genes, including ehpF, located on a 200 kbp plasmid native to certain strains of Pantoea agglomerans encodes the proteins that are required for the conversion of chorismic acid to AGA. Phenazine-1,6-dicarboxylate has been identified as an intermediate in AGA biosynthesis and deletion of ehpF results in accumulation of this compound in vivo. The crystallographic data presented here reveal that EhpF is an atypical member of the acyl-CoA synthase or ANL superfamily of adenylating enzymes. These enzymes typically catalyze two-step reactions involving adenylation of a carboxylate substrate followed by transfer of the substrate from AMP to coenzyme A or another phosphopantetheine. EhpF is distinguished by the absence of the C-terminal domain that is characteristic of enzymes from this family and is involved in phosphopantetheine binding and in the second half of the canonical two-step reaction that is typically observed. Based on the structure of EhpF and a bioinformatic analysis, it is proposed that EhpF and EhpG convert phenazine-1,6-dicarboxylate to 6-formylphenazine-1-carboxylate via an adenylyl intermediate

  16. Inference of Functional Properties from Large-scale Analysis of Enzyme Superfamilies*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shoshana D.; Babbitt, Patricia C.

    2012-01-01

    As increasingly large amounts of data from genome and other sequencing projects become available, new approaches are needed to determine the functions of the proteins these genes encode. We show how large-scale computational analysis can help to address this challenge by linking functional information to sequence and structural similarities using protein similarity networks. Network analyses using three functionally diverse enzyme superfamilies illustrate the use of these approaches for facile updating and comparison of available structures for a large superfamily, for creation of functional hypotheses for metagenomic sequences, and to summarize the limits of our functional knowledge about even well studied superfamilies. PMID:22069325

  17. Thioesterase superfamily member 1 suppresses cold thermogenesis by limiting the oxidation of lipid droplet-derived fatty acids in brown adipose tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosuke Okada

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT plays a central role in energy homeostasis. Thioesterase superfamily member 1 (Them1, a BAT-enriched long chain fatty acyl-CoA thioesterase, is upregulated by cold and downregulated by warm ambient temperatures. Them1−/− mice exhibit increased energy expenditure and resistance to diet-induced obesity and diabetes, but the mechanistic contribution of Them1 to the regulation of cold thermogenesis remains unknown. Methods: Them1−/− and Them1+/+ mice were subjected to continuous metabolic monitoring to quantify the effects of ambient temperatures ranging from thermoneutrality (30 °C to cold (4 °C on energy expenditure, core body temperature, physical activity and food intake. The effects of Them1 expression on O2 consumption rates, thermogenic gene expression and lipolytic protein activation were determined ex vivo in BAT and in primary brown adipocytes. Results: Them1 suppressed thermogenesis in mice even in the setting of ongoing cold exposure. Without affecting thermogenic gene transcription, Them1 reduced O2 consumption rates in both isolated BAT and primary brown adipocytes. This was attributable to decreased mitochondrial oxidation of endogenous but not exogenous fatty acids. Conclusions: These results show that Them1 may act as a break on uncontrolled heat production and limit the extent of energy expenditure. Pharmacologic inhibition of Them1 could provide a targeted strategy for the management of metabolic disorders via activation of brown fat. Keywords: Energy expenditure, Fatty acyl-CoA, Acyl-CoA thioesterase, Mitochondria, Obesity

  18. Changes in Maternal Serum Transforming Growth Factor Beta-1 during Pregnancy: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandeep Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in circulating levels of maternal serum transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1, collected from 98 women (AGA at different gestational ages (10–38 weeks were measured and comparisons were made between levels in pregnant and nonpregnant controls and also between 10 women with small-for-gestational age (SGA and 7 with appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA fetuses. Maternal serum TGF-β1 levels at all stages of pregnancy were higher than those in normal healthy nonpregnant adults. The mean TGF-β1 levels in SGA pregnancies at 34-week gestation (32.5 + 3.2 ng/mL were significantly less than those in AGA pregnancies (39.2 + 9.8 ng/mL while at 38-week gestation, the levels were similar in the two groups (36.04 + 4.3 versus 36.7 + 7.0 ng/mL. This differential change in TGF-β1 levels is probably an important modulating factor in the aetiopathogenesis of abnormal intrauterine fetal growth.

  19. NEW MOLECULAR MEDICINE-BASED SCAR MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arno, Anna I; Gauglitz, Gerd G; Barret, Juan P; Jeschke, Marc G

    2014-01-01

    Keloids and hypertrophic scars are prevalent disabling conditions with still suboptimal treatments. Basic science and molecular-based medicine research has contributed to unravel new bench-to-bedside scar therapies, and to dissect the complex signaling pathways involved. Peptides such as transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily, with SMADs, Ski, SnoN, Fussels, endoglin, DS-Sily, Cav-1p, AZX100, thymosin-β4 and other related molecules may emerge as targets to prevent and treat keloids and hypertrophic scars. The aim of this review is to describe the basic complexity of these new molecular scar management strategies, and point out new fibrosis research lines. PMID:24438742

  20. Upregulation of TGF-beta 1 in neonates of mothers receiving Influenza A (H1N1) vaccination during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Anne Louise; Folsgaard, N.; Bisgaard, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Influenza vaccination of pregnant women is generally considered safe,but the effects on the immune system of the unborn child are unknown.Objectives: Our primary objective was to explore differences in cytokine and chemokine levels in nasal mucosal lining fluid in neonates of mothers...... vaccinated during or after pregnancy. Method: IFN-c, IL-1b, IL-2, -4, -5, -10, - 12p70, -13, -17, TNF-a, IL-8, eotaxin-1,eotaxin-3, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-4, MDC, MIP-1b, TGF-b1 and TARC were quantified in nasal mucosal lining fluid in neonates of mothers receiving Influenza A (H1N1v) vaccine during (n = 52......) or after pregnancy (n = 118) in our unselected Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood 2010 birth-cohort. Result: Neonates of mothers vaccinated during pregnancy showed a significant up-regulation of the immune-regulatory TGF-b1 (P = 0.0004), significant down regulation (P

  1. Transforming growth factor beta-1 expression in macrophages of human chronic periapical diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Z-Z; Li, J; Huang, S-G

    2017-03-30

    The objective of this study was to observe the distribution of macrophages (MPs) expressing transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) in tissue samples from patients with different human chronic periapical diseases. In this study, samples were collected from 75 volunteers, who were divided into three groups according to classified standards, namely, healthy control (N = 25), periapical granuloma (N = 25), and periapical cyst (N = 25). The samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin for more than 48 h, dehydrated, embedded, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathology. Double immunofluorescence was conducted to analyze the expression of TGF-β-CD14 double-positive MPs in periapical tissues. The number of double-positive cells (cells/mm 2 ) were significantly higher in the chronic periapical disease tissues (P periapical cyst group than in the periapical granuloma group (P periapical diseases. The TGF-β1-CD14 double-positive cells might play an important role in the pathology of human chronic periapical diseases.

  2. Large-Scale Analysis Exploring Evolution of Catalytic Machineries and Mechanisms in Enzyme Superfamilies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Nicholas; Dawson, Natalie L; Rahman, Syed A; Thornton, Janet M; Orengo, Christine A

    2016-01-29

    Enzymes, as biological catalysts, form the basis of all forms of life. How these proteins have evolved their functions remains a fundamental question in biology. Over 100 years of detailed biochemistry studies, combined with the large volumes of sequence and protein structural data now available, means that we are able to perform large-scale analyses to address this question. Using a range of computational tools and resources, we have compiled information on all experimentally annotated changes in enzyme function within 379 structurally defined protein domain superfamilies, linking the changes observed in functions during evolution to changes in reaction chemistry. Many superfamilies show changes in function at some level, although one function often dominates one superfamily. We use quantitative measures of changes in reaction chemistry to reveal the various types of chemical changes occurring during evolution and to exemplify these by detailed examples. Additionally, we use structural information of the enzymes active site to examine how different superfamilies have changed their catalytic machinery during evolution. Some superfamilies have changed the reactions they perform without changing catalytic machinery. In others, large changes of enzyme function, in terms of both overall chemistry and substrate specificity, have been brought about by significant changes in catalytic machinery. Interestingly, in some superfamilies, relatives perform similar functions but with different catalytic machineries. This analysis highlights characteristics of functional evolution across a wide range of superfamilies, providing insights that will be useful in predicting the function of uncharacterised sequences and the design of new synthetic enzymes. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Disparate phospho-Smad2 levels in advanced type 2 diabetes patients with diabetic nephropathy and early experimental db/db mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Lise Høj; Fog-Tonnesen, Morten; Nielsen Fink, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    Uncontrolled activation of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) family members is hypothesized to participate in type 2 diabetes (T2D) dependent diabetic nephropathy (DN). We evaluated and compared downstream activation of the Smad2-signaling pathway in kidney samples from T2D patients...... to kidneys from the T2D model of leptin receptor deficient db/db mouse. Furthermore, expression of TGF-β family members was evaluated to elucidate molecular mechanisms in the mouse model. Kidney samples from patients with advanced stages of DN showed elevated pSmad2 staining whereas db/db mouse kidneys...... surprisingly showed a decrease in pSmad2 in the tubular compartment. Structurally, kidney tissue showed dilated tubules and expanded glomeruli, but no clear fibrotic pattern was found in the diabetic mice. Selective TGF-β family members were up-regulated at the mRNA level. Antagonists of bone morphogenetic...

  4. Proliferation of Estrogen Receptor alpha Positive Mammary Epithelial Cells is Restrained by TGFbeta1 in Adult Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewan, Kenneth B.R.; Oketch-Rabah, Hellen A.; Ravani, Shraddha A.; Shyamala, G.; Moses, Harold L.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2005-03-03

    Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}1) is a potent inhibitor of mammary epithelial proliferation. In human breast, estrogen receptor {alpha} (ER{alpha}) cells rarely co-localize with markers of proliferation, but their increased frequency correlates with breast cancer risk. To determine whether TGF{beta}1 is necessary for the quiescence of ER{alpha}-positive population, we examined mouse mammary epithelial gland at estrus. Approximately 35% of cells showed TGF{beta}1 activation, which co-localized with nuclear receptor-phosphorylated Smad 2/3, indicating that TGF{beta} signaling is autocrine. Furthermore, nuclear Smad co-localized with nuclear ER{alpha}. To test whether TGF{beta} was functional, we examined genetically engineered mice with different levels of TGF{beta}1. ER{alpha} co-localization with markers of proliferation (i.e. Ki-67 or BrdU) at estrus was significantly increased in the mammary glands of Tgf{beta}1 C57/bl/129SV heterozygote mice. This relationship was maintained following pregnancy, but was absent at puberty. Conversely, mammary epithelial expression of constitutively active TGF{beta}1 via the MMTV promoter suppressed proliferation of ER{alpha} positive cells. Thus, TGF{beta}1 activation functionally restrains ER{alpha} positive cells from proliferating in adult mammary gland. Accordingly, we propose that TGF{beta}1 dysregulation may promote proliferation of ER{alpha} positive cells associated with breast cancer risk in humans.

  5. Ethanol Enhances TGF-β Activity by Recruiting TGF-β Receptors From Intracellular Vesicles/Lipid Rafts/Caveolae to Non-Lipid Raft Microdomains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shuan Shian; Chen, Chun-Lin; Huang, Franklin W; Johnson, Frank E; Huang, Jung San

    2016-04-01

    Regular consumption of moderate amounts of ethanol has important health benefits on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Overindulgence can cause many diseases, particularly alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The mechanisms by which ethanol causes both beneficial and harmful effects on human health are poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that ethanol enhances TGF-β-stimulated luciferase activity with a maximum of 0.5-1% (v/v) in Mv1Lu cells stably expressing a luciferase reporter gene containing Smad2-dependent elements. In Mv1Lu cells, 0.5% ethanol increases the level of P-Smad2, a canonical TGF-β signaling sensor, by ∼ 2-3-fold. Ethanol (0.5%) increases cell-surface expression of the type II TGF-β receptor (TβR-II) by ∼ 2-3-fold from its intracellular pool, as determined by I(125) -TGF-β-cross-linking/Western blot analysis. Sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation and indirect immunofluorescence staining analyses reveal that ethanol (0.5% and 1%) also displaces cell-surface TβR-I and TβR-II from lipid rafts/caveolae and facilitates translocation of these receptors to non-lipid raft microdomains where canonical signaling occurs. These results suggest that ethanol enhances canonical TGF-β signaling by increasing non-lipid raft microdomain localization of the TGF-β receptors. Since TGF-β plays a protective role in ASCVD but can also cause ALD, the TGF-β enhancer activity of ethanol at low and high doses appears to be responsible for both beneficial and harmful effects. Ethanol also disrupts the location of lipid raft/caveolae of other membrane proteins (e.g., neurotransmitter, growth factor/cytokine, and G protein-coupled receptors) which utilize lipid rafts/caveolae as signaling platforms. Displacement of these membrane proteins induced by ethanol may result in a variety of pathologies in nerve, heart and other tissues. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. TGF-β/Smad signaling in renal fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Ming eMeng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available TGF-β (transforming growth factor-β is well identified as a central mediator in renal fibrosis. TGF-β initiates canonical and non-canonical pathways to exert multiple biological effects. Among them, Smad signaling is recognized as a major pathway of TGF- signaling in progressive renal fibrosis. During fibrogenesis, Smad3 is highly activated, which is associated with the down-regulation of an inhibitory Smad7 via an ubiquitin E3-ligases-dependent degradation mechanism. The equilibrium shift between Smad3 and Smad7 leads to accumulation and activation of myofibroblasts, overproduction of ECM (extracellular matrix, and reduction in ECM degradation in the diseased kidney. Therefore, overexpression of Smad7 has been shown to be a therapeutic agent for renal fibrosis in various models of kidney diseases. In contrast, another downstream effecter of TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway, Smad2, exerts its renal protective role by counter-regulating the Smad3. Furthermore, recent studies demonstrated that Smad3 mediates renal fibrosis by down-regulating miR-29 and miR-200 but up-regulating miR-21 and miR-192. Thus, overexpression of miR-29 and miR-200 or down-regulation of miR-21 and miR-192 is capable of attenuating Smad3-mediated renal fibrosis in various mouse models of chronic kidney diseases. Taken together, TGF-/Smad signaling plays an important role in renal fibrosis. Targeting TGF-β/Smad3 signaling may represent a specific and effective therapy for chronic kidney diseases associated with renal fibrosis.

  7. Diversity, classification and function of the plant protein kinase superfamily

    OpenAIRE

    Lehti-Shiu, Melissa D.; Shiu, Shin-Han

    2012-01-01

    Eukaryotic protein kinases belong to a large superfamily with hundreds to thousands of copies and are components of essentially all cellular functions. The goals of this study are to classify protein kinases from 25 plant species and to assess their evolutionary history in conjunction with consideration of their molecular functions. The protein kinase superfamily has expanded in the flowering plant lineage, in part through recent duplications. As a result, the flowering plant protein kinase r...

  8. Reduced transforming growth factor-beta signaling in cartilage of old mice: role in impaired repair capacity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaney Davidson, E.N.; Scharstuhl, A.; Vitters, E.L.; Kraan, P.M. van der; Berg, W.B. van den

    2005-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common joint disease, mainly effecting the elderly population. The cause of OA seems to be an imbalance in catabolic and anabolic factors that develops with age. IL-1 is a catabolic factor known to induce cartilage damage, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta is an

  9. UPF201 Archaeal Specific Family Members Reveals Structural Similarity to RNA-Binding Proteins but Low Likelihood for RNA-Binding Function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, K.N.; Swaminathan, S.; Burley, S. K.

    2008-12-11

    We have determined X-ray crystal structures of four members of an archaeal specific family of proteins of unknown function (UPF0201; Pfam classification: DUF54) to advance our understanding of the genetic repertoire of archaea. Despite low pairwise amino acid sequence identities (10-40%) and the absence of conserved sequence motifs, the three-dimensional structures of these proteins are remarkably similar to one another. Their common polypeptide chain fold, encompassing a five-stranded antiparallel {beta}-sheet and five {alpha}-helices, proved to be quite unexpectedly similar to that of the RRM-type RNA-binding domain of the ribosomal L5 protein, which is responsible for binding the 5S- rRNA. Structure-based sequence alignments enabled construction of a phylogenetic tree relating UPF0201 family members to L5 ribosomal proteins and other structurally similar RNA binding proteins, thereby expanding our understanding of the evolutionary purview of the RRM superfamily. Analyses of the surfaces of these newly determined UPF0201 structures suggest that they probably do not function as RNA binding proteins, and that this domain specific family of proteins has acquired a novel function in archaebacteria, which awaits experimental elucidation.

  10. Sequence swapping does not result in conformation swapping for the beta4/beta5 and beta8/beta9 beta-hairpin turns in human acidic fibroblast growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaewon; Lee, Jihun; Brych, Stephen R; Logan, Timothy M; Blaber, Michael

    2005-02-01

    The beta-turn is the most common type of nonrepetitive structure in globular proteins, comprising ~25% of all residues; however, a detailed understanding of effects of specific residues upon beta-turn stability and conformation is lacking. Human acidic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-1) is a member of the beta-trefoil superfold and contains a total of five beta-hairpin structures (antiparallel beta-sheets connected by a reverse turn). beta-Turns related by the characteristic threefold structural symmetry of this superfold exhibit different primary structures, and in some cases, different secondary structures. As such, they represent a useful system with which to study the role that turn sequences play in determining structure, stability, and folding of the protein. Two turns related by the threefold structural symmetry, the beta4/beta5 and beta8/beta9 turns, were subjected to both sequence-swapping and poly-glycine substitution mutations, and the effects upon stability, folding, and structure were investigated. In the wild-type protein these turns are of identical length, but exhibit different conformations. These conformations were observed to be retained during sequence-swapping and glycine substitution mutagenesis. The results indicate that the beta-turn structure at these positions is not determined by the turn sequence. Structural analysis suggests that residues flanking the turn are a primary structural determinant of the conformation within the turn.

  11. The role of TGF-β1–miR-21–ROS pathway in bystander responses induced by irradiated non-small-cell lung cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y; Chen, X; Tian, W; Yin, X; Wang, J; Yang, H

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many studies have indicated an important implication of radiation-induced bystander effects (RIBEs) in cancer radiotherapy, but the detailed signalling remains unclear. Methods: The roles of tumour growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) and miR-21 in medium-mediated RIBEs in H1299 non-small-cell lung cancer cells were investigated using DNA damage, changes in proliferation and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as end points. SB431542, a specific inhibitor of TGF-β type 1 receptor kinases, was used to inhibit TGF-β1 pathways in irradiated and bystander cells. Exogenous miR-21 regulation was achieved through inhibitor or mimic transfection. Results: Compared with relative sham-radiation-conditioned medium, radiation-conditioned medium (RCM) from irradiated cells 1 h post radiation (1-h RCM) caused an increase in ROS levels and DNA damage in bystander cells, while 18-h RCM induced cell cycle delay and proliferation inhibition. All these effects were eliminated by TGF-βR1 inhibition. One-hour RCM upregulated miR-21 expression in bystander cells, and miR-21 inhibitor abolished bystander oxidative stress and DNA damage. Eighteen-hour RCM downregulated miR-21 of bystander cells, and miR-21 mimic eliminated bystander proliferation inhibition. Furthermore, the dysregulation of miR-21 was attenuated by TGF-βR1 inhibition. Conclusions: The TGF-β1–miR-21–ROS pathway of bystander cells has an important mediating role in RIBEs in H1299 cells. PMID:24992582

  12. Stability for Function Trade-Offs in the Enolase Superfamily 'Catalytic Module'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagatani, R.A.; Gonzalez, A.; Shoichet, B.K.; Brinen, L.S.; Babbitt, P.C.; /UC, San Francisco /SLAC, SSRL

    2007-07-12

    Enzyme catalysis reflects a dynamic interplay between charged and polar active site residues that facilitate function, stabilize transition states, and maintain overall protein stability. Previous studies show that substituting neutral for charged residues in the active site often significantly stabilizes a protein, suggesting a stability trade-off for functionality. In the enolase superfamily, a set of conserved active site residues (the ''catalytic module'') has repeatedly been used in nature in the evolution of many different enzymes for the performance of unique overall reactions involving a chemically diverse set of substrates. This catalytic module provides a robust solution for catalysis that delivers the common underlying partial reaction that supports all of the different overall chemical reactions of the superfamily. As this module has been so broadly conserved in the evolution of new functions, we sought to investigate the extent to which it follows the stability-function trade-off. Alanine substitutions were made for individual residues, groups of residues, and the entire catalytic module of o-succinylbenzoate synthase (OSBS), a member of the enolase superfamily from Escherichia coli. Of six individual residue substitutions, four (K131A, D161A, E190A, and D213A) substantially increased protein stability (by 0.46-4.23 kcal/mol), broadly consistent with prediction of a stability-activity trade-off. The residue most conserved across the superfamily, E190, is by far the most destabilizing. When the individual substitutions were combined into groups (as they are structurally and functionally organized), nonadditive stability effects emerged, supporting previous observations that residues within the module interact as two functional groups within a larger catalytic system. Thus, whereas the multiple-mutant enzymes D161A/E190A/D213A and K131A/K133A/D161A/E190A/D213A/K235A (termed 3KDED) are stabilized relative to the wild-type enzyme (by 1

  13. TGF-β1-elevated TRPM7 channel regulates collagen expression in hepatic stellate cells via TGF-β1/Smad pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Ling; Huang, Cheng; Meng, Xiaoming; Wu, Baoming; Ma, Taotao; Liu, Xuejiao; Zhu, Qian; Zhan, Shuxiang; Li, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) into myofibroblasts plays a critical role in the development of liver fibrosis, since myofibroblasts are the key cells responsible for excessive deposition of ECM proteins. Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7), a non-selective cation channel with protein serine/threonine kinase activity, has been demonstrated to function in the proliferation of activated HSCs. Here, we investigated the functional role of TRPM7 in collagen deposition in activated HSC-T6 cells (a rat hepatic stellate cell line). TRPM7 mRNA and protein were measured by Real-time PCR and Western blot in TGF-β1-activated HSC-T6 cells in vitro. Results demonstrated that TRPM7 protein was dramatically increased in fibrotic human livers. Stimulation of HSC-T6 cells with TGF-β1 increased TRPM7 mRNA and protein level in a time-dependent manner. Nevertheless, TGF-β1-elicited upregulation of TRPM7 in HSC-T6 cells was abrogated by SB431542 (TGF-β1 receptor blocker) or SIS3 (inhibitor of Smad3 phosphorylation). Additionally, blockade of TRPM7 channels with non-specific TRPM7 blocker 2-APB or synthetic siRNA targeting TRPM7 attenuated TGF-β1-induced expression of myofibroblast markers, as measured by the induction of α-SMA and Col1α1. Silencing TRPM7 also increased the ratio of MMPs/TIMPs by increasing MMP-13 expression and decreasing TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels. Strikingly, phosphorylation of p-Smad2 and p-Smad3, associated with collagen production, was decreased in TRPM7 deficient HSC-T6 cells. These observations suggested that TGF-β1 elevates TRPM7 expression in HSCs via Smad3-dependant mechanisms, which in turn contributes Smad protein phosphorylation, and subsequently increases fibrous collagen expression. Therefore, TRPM7 may constitute a useful target for the treatment of liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • Upregulation of TRPM7 protein in human fibrotic livers • Upregulation of TRPM7 by TGF-β1 elicited Smad signaling in HSC-T6 cells

  14. TGF-β1-elevated TRPM7 channel regulates collagen expression in hepatic stellate cells via TGF-β1/Smad pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Ling, E-mail: fangling_1984@126.com [School of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, Mei Shan Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Institute for Liver Diseases of Anhui Medical University, Mei Shan Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Key Laboratory of Anti-inflammatory and Immune Medicine, Anhui Medical University, Ministry of Education, Mei Shan Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Mei Shan Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Huang, Cheng; Meng, Xiaoming; Wu, Baoming; Ma, Taotao; Liu, Xuejiao; Zhu, Qian [School of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, Mei Shan Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Institute for Liver Diseases of Anhui Medical University, Mei Shan Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Key Laboratory of Anti-inflammatory and Immune Medicine, Anhui Medical University, Ministry of Education, Mei Shan Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Zhan, Shuxiang [School of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, Mei Shan Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Institute for Liver Diseases of Anhui Medical University, Mei Shan Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Key Laboratory of Anti-inflammatory and Immune Medicine, Anhui Medical University, Ministry of Education, Mei Shan Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Mei Shan Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Li, Jun, E-mail: lj@ahmu.edu.cn [School of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, Mei Shan Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Institute for Liver Diseases of Anhui Medical University, Mei Shan Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Key Laboratory of Anti-inflammatory and Immune Medicine, Anhui Medical University, Ministry of Education, Mei Shan Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China)

    2014-10-15

    Transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) into myofibroblasts plays a critical role in the development of liver fibrosis, since myofibroblasts are the key cells responsible for excessive deposition of ECM proteins. Transient receptor potential melastatin 7 (TRPM7), a non-selective cation channel with protein serine/threonine kinase activity, has been demonstrated to function in the proliferation of activated HSCs. Here, we investigated the functional role of TRPM7 in collagen deposition in activated HSC-T6 cells (a rat hepatic stellate cell line). TRPM7 mRNA and protein were measured by Real-time PCR and Western blot in TGF-β1-activated HSC-T6 cells in vitro. Results demonstrated that TRPM7 protein was dramatically increased in fibrotic human livers. Stimulation of HSC-T6 cells with TGF-β1 increased TRPM7 mRNA and protein level in a time-dependent manner. Nevertheless, TGF-β1-elicited upregulation of TRPM7 in HSC-T6 cells was abrogated by SB431542 (TGF-β1 receptor blocker) or SIS3 (inhibitor of Smad3 phosphorylation). Additionally, blockade of TRPM7 channels with non-specific TRPM7 blocker 2-APB or synthetic siRNA targeting TRPM7 attenuated TGF-β1-induced expression of myofibroblast markers, as measured by the induction of α-SMA and Col1α1. Silencing TRPM7 also increased the ratio of MMPs/TIMPs by increasing MMP-13 expression and decreasing TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 levels. Strikingly, phosphorylation of p-Smad2 and p-Smad3, associated with collagen production, was decreased in TRPM7 deficient HSC-T6 cells. These observations suggested that TGF-β1 elevates TRPM7 expression in HSCs via Smad3-dependant mechanisms, which in turn contributes Smad protein phosphorylation, and subsequently increases fibrous collagen expression. Therefore, TRPM7 may constitute a useful target for the treatment of liver fibrosis. - Highlights: • Upregulation of TRPM7 protein in human fibrotic livers • Upregulation of TRPM7 by TGF-β1 elicited Smad signaling in HSC-T6 cells

  15. Genome-wide identification of nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily genes in the copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Dae-Sik; Lee, Bo-Young; Kim, Hui-Su; Lee, Min Chul; Kyung, Do-Hyun; Om, Ae-Son; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2014-11-18

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) are a large superfamily of proteins defined by a DNA-binding domain (DBD) and a ligand-binding domain (LBD). They function as transcriptional regulators to control expression of genes involved in development, homeostasis, and metabolism. The number of NRs differs from species to species, because of gene duplications and/or lineage-specific gene losses during metazoan evolution. Many NRs in arthropods interact with the ecdysteroid hormone and are involved in ecdysone-mediated signaling in arthropods. The nuclear receptor superfamily complement has been reported in several arthropods, including crustaceans, but not in copepods. We identified the entire NR repertoire of the copepod Tigriopus japonicus, which is an important marine model species for ecotoxicology and environmental genomics. Using whole genome and transcriptome sequences, we identified a total of 31 nuclear receptors in the genome of T. japonicus. Nomenclature of the nuclear receptors was determined based on the sequence similarities of the DNA-binding domain (DBD) and ligand-binding domain (LBD). The 7 subfamilies of NRs separate into five major clades (subfamilies NR1, NR2, NR3, NR4, and NR5/6). Although the repertoire of NR members in, T. japonicus was similar to that reported for other arthropods, there was an expansion of the NR1 subfamily in Tigriopus japonicus. The twelve unique nuclear receptors identified in T. japonicus are members of NR1L. This expansion may be a unique lineage-specific feature of crustaceans. Interestingly, E78 and HR83, which are present in other arthropods, were absent from the genomes of T. japonicus and two congeneric copepod species (T. japonicus and Tigriopus californicus), suggesting copepod lineage-specific gene loss. We identified all NR receptors present in the copepod, T. japonicus. Knowledge of the copepod nuclear receptor repertoire will contribute to a better understanding of copepod- and crustacean-specific NR evolution.

  16. Analysis of the local kinetics and localization of interleukin-1 alpha, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta, during the course of experimental pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Pando, R; Orozco, H; Arriaga, K; Sampieri, A; Larriva-Sahd, J; Madrid-Marina, V

    1997-01-01

    A mouse model of pulmonary tuberculosis induced by the intratracheal instillation of live and virulent mycobacteria strain H37-Rv was used to examine the relationship of the histopathological findings with the local kinetics production and cellular distribution of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 alpha) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). The histopathological and immunological studies showed two phases of the disease: acute or early and chronic or advanced. The acute phase was characterized by inflammatory infiltrate in the alveolar-capillary interstitium, blood vessels and bronchial wall with formation of granulomas. During this acute phase, which lasted from 1 to 28 days, high percentages of TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha immunostained activated macrophages were observed principally in the interstium-intralveolar inflammatory infiltrate and in granulomas. Electron microscopy studies of these cells, showed extensive rough endoplasmic reticulum, numerous lysosomes and occasional mycobacteria. Double labelling with colloid gold showed that TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha were present in the same cells, but were confined to separate vacuoles near the Golgi area, and mixed in larger vacuoles near to cell membrane. The concentration of TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha as well as their respective mRNAs were elevated in the early phase, particularly at day 3 when the bacillary count decreased. A second peak was seen at days 14 and 21-28 when granulomas appeared and evolved to full maturation. In contrast, TGF-beta production and numbers of immunoreactive cells were low in comparison with the advanced phase of the disease. The chronic phase was characterized by histopathological changes indicative of more severity (i.e. pneumonia, focal necrosis and extensive interstitial fibrosis) with a decrease in the TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha production that coincided with the highest level of TGF-beta. The bacillary counts were highest as the macrophages

  17. Interactive surface in the PapD chaperone cleft is conserved in pilus chaperone superfamily and essential in subunit recognition and assembly.

    OpenAIRE

    Slonim, L N; Pinkner, J S; Brändén, C I; Hultgren, S J

    1992-01-01

    The assembly of adhesive pili in Gram-negative bacteria is modulated by specialized periplasmic chaperone systems. PapD is the prototype member of the superfamily of periplasmic pilus chaperones. Previously, the alignment of chaperone sequences superimposed on the three dimensional structure of PapD revealed the presence of invariant, conserved and variable amino acids. Representative residues that protruded into the PapD cleft were targeted for site directed mutagenesis to investigate the pi...

  18. The concomitant apoptosis and EMT underlie the fundamental functions of TGF-β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jianguo; Shi, Weiwei

    2018-01-01

    TGF-β's multipotent cellular effects and their relations are critical for TGF-β's pathophysiological functions. However, these effects may appear to be paradoxical in understanding TGF-β's functions. Apoptosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) are two fundamental events that are deeply linked to various physiological and disease-related processes. These two major cellular fates are subtly regulated and can be potently stimulated by TGF-β, which profoundly contribute to the biological roles of TGF-β. Moreover, these two events are also indirectly and directly correlated with TGF-β-mediated growth inhibition and are relevant to the current understanding of the roles of TGF-β in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. Although TGF-β-induced apoptosis and EMT can be singly independent cellular events, they can also be mutually exclusive but interrelated concomitant events in various cases. Thus, the modulation of apoptosis and EMT is essential for the seemingly paradoxical functions of TGF-β. However, the concomitant effect of TGF-β on apoptosis and EMT, the balance and regulated alterations of them are still been ignored or underestimated. This review focuses on the TGF-β-induced concomitant apoptosis and EMT. We aim to provide an insight in understanding their significance, balance, and modulation in TGF-β-mediated biological functions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Inhibition of TGFbeta1 Signaling Attenutates ATM Activity inResponse to Genotoxic Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirshner, Julia; Jobling, Michael F.; Pajares, Maria Jose; Ravani, Shraddha A.; Glick, Adam B.; Lavin, Martin J.; Koslov, Sergei; Shiloh, Yosef; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    2006-09-15

    Ionizing radiation causes DNA damage that elicits a cellular program of damage control coordinated by the kinase activity of ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein (ATM). Transforming growth factor {beta}1 (TGF{beta}), which is activated by radiation, is a potent and pleiotropic mediator of physiological and pathological processes. Here we show that TGF{beta} inhibition impedes the canonical cellular DNA damage stress response. Irradiated Tgf{beta}1 null murine epithelial cells or human epithelial cells treated with a small molecule inhibitor of TGF{beta} type I receptor kinase exhibit decreased phosphorylation of Chk2, Rad17 and p53, reduced {gamma}H2AX radiation-induced foci, and increased radiosensitivity compared to TGF{beta} competent cells. We determined that loss of TGF{beta} signaling in epithelial cells truncated ATM autophosphorylation and significantly reduced its kinase activity, without affecting protein abundance. Addition of TGF{beta} restored functional ATM and downstream DNA damage responses. These data reveal a heretofore undetected critical link between the microenvironment and ATM that directs epithelial cell stress responses, cell fate and tissue integrity. Thus, TGF{beta}1, in addition to its role in homoeostatic growth control, plays a complex role in regulating responses to genotoxic stress, the failure of which would contribute to the development of cancer; conversely, inhibiting TGF{beta} may be used to advantage in cancer therapy.

  20. Tacrolimus increases Nox4 expression in human renal fibroblasts and induces fibrosis-related genes by aberrant TGF-beta receptor signalling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, Georg; Mair, Sabine M; Noppert, Susie-Jane; Jennings, Paul; Schramek, Herbert; Rudnicki, Michael; Mueller, Gerhard A; Mayer, Gert; Koppelstaetter, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Chronic nephrotoxicity of immunosuppressives is one of the main limiting factors in the long-term outcome of kidney transplants, leading to tissue fibrosis and ultimate organ failure. The cytokine TGF-β is considered a key factor in this process. In the human renal fibroblast cell line TK-173, the

  1. TGF-β-induced IκB-ζ controls Foxp3 gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MaruYama, Takashi, E-mail: ta-maru@umin.ac.jp [Laboratory of Cell Recognition and Response, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); School of Medicine, Gifu University, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan)

    2015-08-21

    Inhibitor of kappa B (IκB)-ζ, a member of the nuclear IκB family of proteins, is induced by the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling pathway and plays a pivotal role in maintaining the balance of T helper (Th) cell subsets. IκB-ζ deficiency results in reduced percentages of Th17 cells and increased percentages of Th1 cells. In this study, the effects of IκB-ζ deficiency on T-cell subsets were examined further. The data showed that IκB-ζ-deficient T cells had a high capacity for generation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) when T cells were cultured under TGF-β stimulation in the presence of cytokine-neutralizing antibodies. Mechanistically, IκB-ζ itself negatively regulated activation of the Foxp3 promoter in a nuclear factor of kappaB-dependent manner. Thus, this study showed that IκB-ζ controlled Treg differentiation. - Highlights: • IκB-ζ-deficient T cells exhibited increased generation of Foxp3{sup +} Tregs. • IκB-ζ played a key role in Foxp3 gene expression. • Retroviral overexpression of IκB-ζ was achieved in T cells.

  2. TGF-β-induced IκB-ζ controls Foxp3 gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MaruYama, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Inhibitor of kappa B (IκB)-ζ, a member of the nuclear IκB family of proteins, is induced by the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling pathway and plays a pivotal role in maintaining the balance of T helper (Th) cell subsets. IκB-ζ deficiency results in reduced percentages of Th17 cells and increased percentages of Th1 cells. In this study, the effects of IκB-ζ deficiency on T-cell subsets were examined further. The data showed that IκB-ζ-deficient T cells had a high capacity for generation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) when T cells were cultured under TGF-β stimulation in the presence of cytokine-neutralizing antibodies. Mechanistically, IκB-ζ itself negatively regulated activation of the Foxp3 promoter in a nuclear factor of kappaB-dependent manner. Thus, this study showed that IκB-ζ controlled Treg differentiation. - Highlights: • IκB-ζ-deficient T cells exhibited increased generation of Foxp3 + Tregs. • IκB-ζ played a key role in Foxp3 gene expression. • Retroviral overexpression of IκB-ζ was achieved in T cells

  3. Attenuation of the progression of articular cartilage degeneration by inhibition of TGF-β1 signaling in a mouse model of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rebecca; Mian, Michelle; Fu, Martin; Zhao, Jing Ying; Yang, Liang; Li, Yefu; Xu, Lin

    2015-11-01

    Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) is implicated in osteoarthritis. We therefore studied the role of TGF-β1 signaling in the development of osteoarthritis in a developmental stage-dependent manner. Three different mouse models were investigated. First, the Tgf-β receptor II (Tgfbr2) was specifically removed from the mature cartilage of joints. Tgfbr2-deficient mice were grown to 12 months of age and were then euthanized for collection of knee and temporomandibular joints. Second, Tgfbr2-deficient mice were subjected to destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) surgery. Knee joints were then collected from the mice at 8 and 16 weeks after the surgery. Third, wild-type mice were subjected to DMM at the age of 8 weeks. Immediately after the surgery, these mice were treated with the Tgfbr2 inhibitor losartan for 8 weeks and then euthanized for collection of knee joints. All joints were characterized for evidences of articular cartilage degeneration. Initiation or acceleration of articular cartilage degeneration was not observed by the genetic inactivation of Tgfbr2 in the joints at the age of 12 months. In fact, the removal of Tgfbr2 and treatment with losartan both delayed the progression of articular cartilage degeneration induced by DMM compared with control littermates. Therefore, we conclude that inhibition of Tgf-β1 signaling protects adult knee joints in mice against the development of osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Upregulation of NOX2 and NOX4 Mediated by TGF-β Signaling Pathway Exacerbates Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Oxidative Stress Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Lou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Ischemic stroke is still one of the leading debilitating diseases with high morbidity and mortality. NADPH oxidase (NOX-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS play an important role in cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of ROS generation is still not fully elucidated. This study aims to explore the role of transforming growth beta (TGF-β signals in ROS generation. Methods: Sprague–Dawley rats were subjected to I/R injury, and PC-12 cells were challenged by hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R and/or treated with activin receptor-like kinase (ALK5 inhibitor Sb505124 or siRNA against ALK5. Brain damage was evaluated using neurological scoring, triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining, hematoxylin and eosin staining, infarct volume measurement, TUNEL staining, and caspase-3 activity measurement. Expression of TGF-β and oxidative stress-related genes was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot; NOX activity and ROS level were measured using spectrophotometry and fluorescence microscopy, respectively. Results: I/R contributed to severe brain damage (impaired neurological function, brain infarction, tissue edema, apoptosis, TGF-β signaling activation (upregulation of ALK5, phosphorylation of SMAD2/3 and oxidative stress (upregulation of NOX2/4, rapid release of ROS [oxidative burst]. However, Sb505124 significantly reversed these alterations and protected rats against I/R injury. As in the animal results, H/R also contributed to TGF-β signaling activation and oxidative stress. Likewise, the inhibition of ALK5 or ALK5 knockdown significantly reversed these alterations in PC-12 cells. Other than ALK5 knockdown, ALK5 inhibition had no effect on the expression of ALK5 in PC-12 cells. Conclusions: Our studies demonstrated that TGF-β signaling activation is involved in the regulation of NOX2/NOX4 expression and exacerbates cerebral I/R injury.

  5. BMP-7 enhances cell migration and αvβ3 integrin expression via a c-Src-dependent pathway in human chondrosarcoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Chieh Chen

    Full Text Available Bone morphogenic protein (BMP-7 is a member of the transforming growth factor (TGF-beta superfamily, which is originally identified based on its ability to induce cartilage and bone formation. In recent years, BMP-7 is also defined as a potent promoter of cell motility, invasion, and metastasis. However, there is little knowledge of the role of BMP-7 and its cellular function in chondrosarcoma cells. In the present study, we investigated the biological impact of BMP-7 on cell motility using transwell assay. In addition, the intracellular signaling pathways were also investigated by pharmacological and genetic approaches. Our results demonstrated that treatment with exogenous BMP-7 markedly increased cell migration by activating c-Src/PI3K/Akt/IKK/NF-κB signaling pathway, resulting in the transactivation of αvβ3 integrin expression. Indeed, abrogation of signaling activation, by chemical inhibition or expression of a kinase dead form of the protein attenuated BMP-7-induced expression of integrin αvβ3 and cell migration. These findings may provide a useful tool for diagnostic/prognostic purposes and even therapeutically in late-stage chondrosarcoma as an anti-metastatic agent.

  6. Expression and Function of Myostatin in Obesity, Diabetes, and Exercise Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David L.; Hittel, Dustin S.; McPherron, Alexandra C.

    2011-01-01

    Myostatin is a member of the transforming growth factor-beta/bone morphogenetic protein (TGF-β/BMP) super-family of secreted factors that functions as a potent inhibitor of skeletal muscle growth. Moreover, considerable evidence has accumulated that myostatin also regulates metabolism and that its inhibition can significantly attenuate the progression of obesity and diabetes. While at least part of these effects on metabolism can be attributable to myostatin’s influence over skeletal muscle growth and therefore on the total volume of metabolically active lean body mass, there is mounting evidence that myostatin affects the growth and metabolic state of other tissues, including the adipose and the liver. In addition, recent work has explored the role of myostatin in substrate mobilization, uptake and/or utilization of muscle independent of its effects on body composition. Finally, the effects of both endurance and resistance exercise on myostatin expression, as well as the potential role of myostatin in the beneficial metabolic adaptations occurring in response to exercise, have also begun to be delineated in greater detail. The purpose of this review is to summarize the work to date on the expression and function of myostatin in obesity, diabetes, and exercise adaptation. PMID:21364474

  7. Genome-wide analysis of the expansin gene superfamily reveals grapevine-specific structural and functional characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Dal Santo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Expansins are proteins that loosen plant cell walls in a pH-dependent manner, probably by increasing the relative movement among polymers thus causing irreversible expansion. The expansin superfamily (EXP comprises four distinct families: expansin A (EXPA, expansin B (EXPB, expansin-like A (EXLA and expansin-like B (EXLB. There is experimental evidence that EXPA and EXPB proteins are required for cell expansion and developmental processes involving cell wall modification, whereas the exact functions of EXLA and EXLB remain unclear. The complete grapevine (Vitis vinifera genome sequence has allowed the characterization of many gene families, but an exhaustive genome-wide analysis of expansin gene expression has not been attempted thus far. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identified 29 EXP superfamily genes in the grapevine genome, representing all four EXP families. Members of the same EXP family shared the same exon-intron structure, and phylogenetic analysis confirmed a closer relationship between EXP genes from woody species, i.e. grapevine and poplar (Populus trichocarpa, compared to those from Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa. We also identified grapevine-specific duplication events involving the EXLB family. Global gene expression analysis confirmed a strong correlation among EXP genes expressed in mature and green/vegetative samples, respectively, as reported for other gene families in the recently-published grapevine gene expression atlas. We also observed the specific co-expression of EXLB genes in woody organs, and the involvement of certain grapevine EXP genes in berry development and post-harvest withering. CONCLUSION: Our comprehensive analysis of the grapevine EXP superfamily confirmed and extended current knowledge about the structural and functional characteristics of this gene family, and also identified properties that are currently unique to grapevine expansin genes. Our data provide a model for the

  8. Transforming growth factor (type beta) promotes the addition of chondroitin sulfate chains to the cell surface proteoglycan (syndecan) of mouse mammary epithelia

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Cultured monolayers of NMuMG mouse mammary epithelial cells have augmented amounts of cell surface chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycan (GAG) when cultured in transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), presumably because of increased synthesis on their cell surface proteoglycan (named syndecan), previously shown to contain chondroitin sulfate and heparan sulfate GAG. This increase occurs throughout the monolayer as shown using soluble thrombospondin as a binding probe. However, comparison o...

  9. Role of TGF-β on cardiac structural and electrical remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ramos-Mondragón

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Roberto Ramos-Mondragón, Carlos A Galindo, Guillermo AvilaDepartamento de Bioquímica, Cinvestav-IPN, MéxicoAbstract: The type β transforming growth factors (TGF-βs are involved in a number of human diseases, including heart failure and myocardial arrhythmias. In fact, during the last 20 years numerous studies have demonstrated that TGF-β affects the architecture of the heart under both normal and pathological conditions. Moreover, TGF-β signaling is currently under investigation, with the aim of discovering potential therapeutic roles in human disease. In contrast, only few studies have investigated whether TGF-β affects electrophysiological properties of the heart. This fact is surprising since electrical remodeling represents an important substrate for cardiac disease. This review discusses the potential role of TGF-β on cardiac excitation-contraction (EC coupling, action potentials, and ion channels. We also discuss the effects of TGF-β on cardiac development and disease from structural and electrophysiological points of view.Keywords: transforming growth factor, ion channel, cardiac electrophysiology

  10. Computation-Facilitated Assignment of Function in the Enolase Superfamily: A Regiochemically Distinct Galactarate Dehydratase from Oceanobacillus iheyensis†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakus, John F.; Kalyanaraman, Chakrapani; Fedorov, Alexander A.; Fedorov, Elena V.; Mills-Groninger, Fiona P.; Toro, Rafael; Bonanno, Jeffrey; Bain, Kevin; Sauder, J. Michael; Burley, Stephen K.; Almo, Steven C.; Jacobson, Matthew P.; Gerlt, John A.

    2009-01-01

    The structure of an uncharacterized member of the enolase superfamily from Oceanobacillus iheyensis (GI: 23100298; IMG locus tag Ob2843; PDB Code 2OQY) was determined by the New York SGX Research Center for Structural Genomics (NYSGXRC). The structure contained two Mg2+ ions located 10.4 Å from one another, with one located in the canonical position in the (β/α)7β-barrel domain (although the ligand at the end of the fifth β-strand is His, unprecedented in structurally characterized members of the superfamily); the second is located in a novel site within the capping domain. In silico docking of a library of mono- and diacid sugars to the active site predicted a diacid sugar as a likely substrate. Activity screening of a physical library of acid sugars identified galactarate as the substrate (kcat = 6.8 s−1, KM = 620 μM; kcat/KM = 1.1 × 104 M−1 s−1), allowing functional assignment of Ob2843 as galactarate dehydratase (GalrD-II) The structure of a complex of the catalytically impaired Y90F mutant with Mg2+ and galactarate allowed identification of a Tyr 164-Arg 162 dyad as the base that initiates the reaction by abstraction of the α-proton and Tyr 90 as the acid that facilitates departure of the β-OH leaving group. The enzyme product is 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-threo-4,5-dihydroxyadipate, the enantiomer of the product obtained in the GalrD reaction catalyzed by a previously characterized bifunctional L-talarate/galactarate dehydratase (TalrD/GalrD). On the basis of the different active site structures and different regiochemistries, we recognize that these functions represent an example of apparent, not actual, convergent evolution of function. The structure of GalrD-II and its active site architecture allow identification of the seventh functionally and structurally characterized subgroup in the enolase superfamily. This study provides an additional example that an integrated sequence/structure-based strategy employing computational approaches is a viable

  11. Cloning and characterization of human liver cytosolic beta-glycosidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Graaf, M; Van Veen, IC; Van Der Meulen-Muileman, IH; Gerritsen, WR; Pinedo, HM; Haisma, HJ

    2001-01-01

    Cytosolic beta -glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21) from mammalian liver is a member of the family 1 glycoside hydrolases and is known for its ability to hydrolyse a range of beta -D-glycosides. including beta -D-glucoside acid beta -D-galactoside. We therefore refer to this enzyme as cytosolic beta

  12. CONVERGENCE AND DIVERGENCE IN EUROPEAN UNION: EVIDENCE FOR BETA CONVERGENCE AMONG NEW EU MEMBER STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Sorina Mihuț

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Convergence may be considered a central issue of the current economic literature, and not only, concentrating upon income distribution within different economies, but also focusing on different aspects of polarity and inequality that characterize especially the emerging economies. Testing convergence within economies may serve as a useful instrument for the validation of the economic growth models. While convergence was considered a defining element of the neoclassical growth models, the majority of the new endogenous growth models argue in favour of divergence across different economies. Testing convergence among European Union is even more challenging due to the high degree of heterogeneity that characterizes these economies. The recent accessions with ten new countries in 2004 and with another two in 2007 were considered only the first step towards assuring a sustainable convergence and finally adopting a common currency-the euro. A series of empirical studies concentrated upon testing convergence among EU, using as benchmark the real convergence quantified by the level of GDP/capita as an indicator for the living standards of every economy. The most popular approach rely on Beta and Sigma convergence, the first one being and indicator of the GDP/capita dispersion between different economies, and the later one being an estimator of the reverse relationship between GDP/capita and its initial level. The main purpose of this paper is to test Beta converge among the new EU member states, in order to obtained more information about the fact whether the poor countries are trying to catch-up with the more developed one. Also Beta convergence indicator embodies useful information about conditional and un-conditional convergence, two leading hypothesis within the neoclassical and endogenous growth models. For Beta convergence hypothesis to be valid it should be taken into consideration a ”catch-up” mechanism over a longer period of time

  13. Substrate stiffness promotes latent TGF-β1 activation in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang, Mingshu; Teng, Yao; Huang, Jianyong; Yuan, Yuan; Lin, Feng; Xiong, Chunyang

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was usually coupled with increased stiffness of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and elevated level of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). However, the mechanism by which substrate rigidity modulated TGF-β1 signaling transduction remained unknown. This paper investigated the molecular mechanism of how matrix stiffness regulating TGF-β1 signaling in HCC cells. By means of stiffness tunable collagen I-coated polyacrylamide (PA) gels, we found that the expressions of β1 integrin, p-FAK Y397 and p-Smad2 upregulated on stiffer gels as well as the content of TGF-β1 in culture media of HCC cells, which were inhibited by RGD blocking peptides, Y-27632 (ROCK inhibitor) or Blebbistatin (myosin II inhibitor). Cellular traction force was also significantly higher when plated on stiffer substrates but dramatically decreased after treatment with Y-27632 or Blebbistatin. Furthermore, the upregulation of p-Smad2 in the HCC cells on stiffer PA gels induced by exogenetic latent TGF-β1 was downregulated in the presence of RGD peptides. The nuclear translocation of Smad2 induced by latent TGF-β1 was inhibited by Y-27632 or Blebbistatin. Our results suggested that the extracellular matrix stiffness regulated latent TGF-β1 activation by cytoskeletal tension in HCC cells, showing that matrix stiffness was a key regulator involving the TGF-β1 activity in HCC cells. The current study presented a mechanism of how hepatocirrhosis developed into liver cancer. - Highlights: • TGF-β1 signaling pathway regulated by ECM stiffness was studied in hepatocellular carcinoma. • Matrix stiffness promoted latent TGF-β1 activation via β1 integrin-FAK-Rho GTPase pathway. • A mechanism of how hepatocirrhosis developed into liver cancer was presented.

  14. MB109 as bioactive human bone morphogenetic protein-9 refolded and purified from E. coli inclusion bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The development of chemical refolding of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily ligands has been instrumental to produce the recombinant proteins for biochemical studies and exploring the potential of protein therapeutics. The osteogenic human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (hBMP-2) and its Drosophila DPP homolog were the early successful cases of refolding into functional form. Despite the similarity in their three dimensional structure and amino acid sequences, several other TGFsuperfamily ligands could not be refolded readily by the same methods. Results Here, we report a comprehensive study on the variables of a rapid-dilution refolding method, including the concentrations of protein, salt, detergent and redox agents, pH, refolding duration and the presence of aggregation suppressors and host-cell contaminants, in order to identify the optimal condition to refold human BMP-9 (hBMP-9). To produce a recombinant form of hBMP-9 in E. coli cells, a synthetic codon-optimized gene was designed to encode the mature domain of hBMP-9 (Ser320 – Arg429) directly behind the first methionine, which we herein referred to as MB109. An effective purification scheme was also developed to purify the refolded MB109 to homogeneity with a final yield of 7.8 mg from 100 mg of chromatography-purified inclusion bodies as a starting material. The chemically refolded MB109 binds to ALK1, ActRIIb and BMPRII receptors with relatively high affinity as compared to other Type I and Type II receptors based on surface plasmon resonance analysis. Smad1-dependent luciferase assay in C2C12 cells shows that the MB109 has an EC50 of 0.61 ng/mL (25 pM), which is nearly the same as hBMP-9. Conclusion MB109 is prone to be refolded as non-functional dimer and higher order multimers in most of the conditions tested, but bioactive MB109 dimer can be refolded with high efficiency in a narrow window, which is strongly dependent on the pH, refolding duration, the presence of

  15. Incorporating pTGF-β1/calcium phosphate nanoparticles with fibronectin into 3-dimensional collagen/chitosan scaffolds: Efficient, sustained gene delivery to stem cells for chondrogenic differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X Cao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to prepare a 3-dimensional nanoparticle gene delivery system (3D-NGDS based on collagen/chitosan scaffolds, in which plasmid transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1/calcium phosphate nanoparticles mixed with fibronectin (FN were used to transfect mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterise the microstructure of 3-dimensional collagen/chitosan scaffolds. An analysis performed to quantify the TGF-b1 concentrations in MSC cultures revealed that the MSCs transfected with the 3D-NGDS showed remarkably high levels of TGF-b1 over long periods, retaining a concentration of TGF-b1 of approximately 10 ng/mL within two weeks, with the highest level (12.6 ng/mL being observed on the 6th day. An immunohistochemistry analysis for collagen type II revealed that much higher production of collagen II from the 9th to 15th day was observed in the 3D-NGDS-transfected MSCs than that in MSCs transfected by the Lipofectamine 2000 method. The glycosaminoglycan content of the 3D-NGDS was comparable to those treated with TGF-β1 as well as TGF-β1 plus dexamethasone, and was significantly higher than those treated with free plasmid and Lipofectamine 2000. A remarkable type I collagen expression inhibition of the 3D-NGDS at day 21 was observed via ELISA. These results suggested that transfection with the 3D-NGDS could successfully induce MSC chondrogenic differentiation in vitro without dexamethasone. In summary, the 3D-NGDS could be developed into a promising alternative method to transfer exogenous nucleic acid to MSCs in clinical trials.

  16. Microbial nitrilases: versatile, spiral forming, industrial enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuku, R N; Brady, D; Benedik, M J; Sewell, B T

    2009-03-01

    The nitrilases are enzymes that convert nitriles to the corresponding acid and ammonia. They are members of a superfamily, which includes amidases and occur in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The superfamily is characterized by having a homodimeric building block with a alpha beta beta alpha-alpha beta beta alpha sandwich fold and an active site containing four positionally conserved residues: cys, glu, glu and lys. Their high chemical specificity and frequent enantioselectivity makes them attractive biocatalysts for the production of fine chemicals and pharmaceutical intermediates. Nitrilases are also used in the treatment of toxic industrial effluent and cyanide remediation. The superfamily enzymes have been visualized as dimers, tetramers, hexamers, octamers, tetradecamers, octadecamers and variable length helices, but all nitrilase oligomers have the same basic dimer interface. Moreover, in the case of the octamers, tetradecamers, octadecamers and the helices, common principles of subunit association apply. While the range of industrially interesting reactions catalysed by this enzyme class continues to increase, research efforts are still hampered by the lack of a high resolution microbial nitrilase structure which can provide insights into their specificity, enantioselectivity and the mechanism of catalysis. This review provides an overview of the current progress in elucidation of structure and function in this enzyme class and emphasizes insights that may lead to further biotechnological applications.

  17. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signalling is increased in rheumatoid synovium but TGF-β blockade does not modify experimental arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo-Gil, E; Criado, G; Santiago, B; Dotor, J; Pablos, J L; Galindo, M

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the distribution of regulatory and inhibitory mothers against decapentaplegic homologue (Smad) proteins as markers of active transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signalling in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial tissue and to investigate the effect of TGF-β blockade in the development and progression of collagen-induced arthritis. The expression of Smad proteins in synovial tissues from RA, osteoarthritic and healthy controls was analysed by immunohistochemistry. Arthritis was induced in DBA/1 mice by immunization with chicken type-II collagen (CII). TGF-β was blocked in vivo with the specific peptide p17 starting at the time of immunization or on the day of arthritis onset. T cell population frequencies and specific responses to CII were analysed. The expression of cytokines and transcription factors was quantified in spleen and joint samples. Statistical differences between groups were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test or one-way analysis of variance (anova) using the Kruskal-Wallis test. p-Smad-2/3 and inhibitory Smad-7 expression were detected in RA and control tissues. In RA, most lymphoid infiltrating cells showed nuclear p-Smad-2/3 without Smad-7 expression. Treatment with TGF-β antagonist did not affect clinical severity, joint inflammation and cartilage damage in collagen-induced arthritis. Frequency of T cell subsets, mRNA levels of cytokines and transcription factors, specific proliferation to CII, serum interleukin (IL)-6 and anti-CII antibodies were comparable in p17 and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-treated groups. The pattern of Smad proteins expression demonstrates active TGF-β signalling in RA synovium. However, specific TGF-β blockade does not have a significant effect in the mice model of collagen-induced arthritis. © 2013 British Society for Immunology.

  18. Dose-dependent induction of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) in the lung tissue of fibrosis-prone mice after thoracic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebe, Claudia E.; Uthe, Daniela; Schmid, Kurt W.; Richter, Klaus D.; Wessel, Jan; Schuck, Andreas; Willich, Norman; Ruebe, Christian

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: The lung is the major dose-limiting organ for radiotherapy of cancer in the thoracic region. The pathogenesis of radiation-induced lung injury at the molecular level is still unclear. Immediate cellular damage after irradiation is supposed to result in cytokine-mediated multicellular interactions with induction and progression of fibrotic tissue reactions. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the acute and long-term effects of radiation on the gene expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) in a model of lung injury using fibrosis-sensitive C57BL/6 mice. Methods and Materials: The thoraces of C57BL/6 mice were irradiated with 6 and 12 Gy, respectively. Treated and sham-irradiated control mice were sacrificed at times corresponding to the latent period (1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 hours and 1 week postirradiation), the pneumonic phase (2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks postirradiation), and the beginning of the fibrotic phase (24 weeks postirradiation). The lung tissue from three different mice per dosage and time point was analyzed by a combination of polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunohistochemistry, and light microscopy. The mRNA expression of TGF-β was quantified by competitive reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR); the cellular origin of the TGF-β protein was identified by immunohistochemical staining (alkaline phosphatase-anti-alkaline phosphatase [APAAP]). The cytokine expression on mRNA and protein level was correlated with the histopathological alterations. Results: Following thoracic irradiation with a single dose of 12 Gy, radiation-induced TGF-β release in lung tissue was appreciable already within the first hours (1, 3, and 6 hours postirradiation) and reached a significant increase after 12 hours; subsequently (48 hours, 72 hours, and 1 week postirradiation) the TGF-β expression declined to basal levels. At the beginning of the pneumonic phase, irradiation-mediated stimulation of TGF-β release reached

  19. Regional localization of activin-βA, activin-βC, follistatin, proliferation, and apoptosis in adult and developing mouse prostate ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Elspeth; Zellhuber-McMillan, Sylvia; Risbridger, Gail; Marino, Francesco Elia

    2017-01-01

    Activins and inhibins, members of the TGFsuperfamily, are growth and differentiation factors involved in the regulation of several biological processes, including reproduction, development, and fertility. Previous studies have shown that the activin-β A subunit plays a pivotal role in prostate development. Activin-A inhibits branching morphogenesis in the developing prostate, and its expression is associated with increased apoptosis in the adult prostate. Follistatin, a structurally unrelated protein to activins, is an antagonist of activin-A. A balance between endogenous activin-A and follistatin is required to maintain prostatic branching morphogenesis. Deregulation of this balance leads to branching inhibition or excessive branching and increased maturation of the stroma surrounding the differentiating epithelial ducts. Recent work identified another member of the TGFsuperfamily, the activin-β C subunit, as a novel antagonist of activin-A. Over-expression of activin-C (β C -β C ) alters prostate homeostasis, by interfering with the activin-A signaling. The current study characterized the spatiotemporal localization of activin-A, activin-C and follistatin in the adult and developing mouse prostate using immunohistochemical analysis. Results showed activin-C and follistatin are differentially expressed during prostate development and suggested that the antagonistic property of follistatin is secondary to the action of activin-C. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence to support a role of activin-C in prostate development and provides new insights in the spatiotemporal localization of activins and their antagonists during mouse prostate development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Transforming growth factor-β1 induces expression of human coagulation factor XII via Smad3 and JNK signaling pathways in human lung fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonska, Ewa; Markart, Philipp; Zakrzewicz, Dariusz; Preissner, Klaus T; Wygrecka, Malgorzata

    2010-04-09

    Coagulation factor XII (FXII) is a liver-derived serine protease involved in fibrinolysis, coagulation, and inflammation. The regulation of FXII expression is largely unknown. Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) is a multifunctional cytokine that has been linked to several pathological processes, including tissue fibrosis by modulating procoagulant and fibrinolytic activities. This study investigated whether TGF-beta1 may regulate FXII expression in human lung fibroblasts. Treatment of human lung fibroblasts with TGF-beta1 resulted in a time-dependent increase in FXII production, activation of p44/42, p38, JNK, and Akt, and phosphorylation and translocation into the nucleus of Smad3. However, TGF-beta1-induced FXII expression was repressed only by the JNK inhibitor and JNK and Smad3 antisense oligonucleotides but not by MEK, p38, or phosphoinositide 3-kinase blockers. JNK inhibition had no effect on TGF-beta1-induced Smad3 phosphorylation, association with Smad4, and its translocation into the nucleus but strongly suppressed Smad3-DNA complex formation. FXII promoter analysis revealed that the -299/+1 region was sufficient for TGF-beta1 to induce FXII expression. Sequence analysis of this region detected a potential Smad-binding element at position -272/-269 (SBE-(-272/-269)). Chromatin immunoprecipitation and streptavidin pulldown assays demonstrated TGF-beta1-dependent Smad3 binding to SBE-(-272/-269). Mutation or deletion of SBE-(-272/-269) substantially reduced TGF-beta1-mediated activation of the FXII promoter. Clinical relevance was demonstrated by elevated FXII levels and its co-localization with fibroblasts in the lungs of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Our results show that JNK/Smad3 pathway plays a critical role in TGF-beta1-induced FXII expression in human lung fibroblasts and implicate its possible involvement in pathological conditions characterized by elevated TGF-beta1 levels.

  1. Pulsed Electromagnetic Field Regulates MicroRNA 21 Expression to Activate TGF-β Signaling in Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells to Enhance Osteoblast Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarajan Selvamurugan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs have been documented to promote bone fracture healing in nonunions and increase lumbar spinal fusion rates. However, the molecular mechanisms by which PEMF stimulates differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs into osteoblasts are not well understood. In this study the PEMF effects on hBMSCs were studied by microarray analysis. PEMF stimulation of hBMSCs’ cell numbers mainly affected genes of cell cycle regulation, cell structure, and growth receptors or kinase pathways. In the differentiation and mineralization stages, PEMF regulated preosteoblast gene expression and notably, the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β signaling pathway and microRNA 21 (miR21 were most highly regulated. PEMF stimulated activation of Smad2 and miR21-5p expression in differentiated osteoblasts, and TGF-β signaling was essential for PEMF stimulation of alkaline phosphatase mRNA expression. Smad7, an antagonist of the TGF-β signaling pathway, was found to be miR21-5p’s putative target gene and PEMF caused a decrease in Smad7 expression. Expression of Runx2 was increased by PEMF treatment and the miR21-5p inhibitor prevented the PEMF stimulation of Runx2 expression in differentiating cells. Thus, PEMF could mediate its effects on bone metabolism by activation of the TGF-β signaling pathway and stimulation of expression of miR21-5p in hBMSCs.

  2. Multipoint Space Measurements of TGF's with the TRYAD Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, J.; Briggs, M. S.; Jenke, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Terrestrial RaY Analysis and Detection (TRYAD) is a twin 6U cubesat mission designed to detect Terrestrial Gamma-ray Flashes (TGF's) from low earth orbit. Current observations of TGF's are predominantly done from single point measurements; the objective of this mission is to capture two simultaneous observations to identify a characteristic beam profile. Working models for production of TGF's suggest two main scenarios exist: one being creation in the lightening step leader which results in a wider beam profile, the other is a larger field effect in the storm resulting in a narrow beam. The TRYAD detector consists of four plastic scintillation bars that will detect flux correlated with GPS position and time. Both satellites will fly at a controlled separation of several hundred kilometers gathering data over the tropics. The data gathered from the spacecraft are matched to lightening data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) to get ground and time localization along with the two point flux measurement. TRYAD will fly in 2019. We will present simulations describing TRYADs ability to discriminate between current TGF models, the TRYAD science instrument, along with its capabilities and impact for TGF science.

  3. Investigation of six-membered carbocyclic compounds as a molecular switch block of room temperature phosphorescence in nondeoxygenated {beta}-cyclodextrin solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Hairong; Wei Yansheng; Jin Weijun; Liu Changsong

    2003-05-07

    An aerated aqueous solution, intense room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) of nitrogen heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be observed when micro amounts of six-membered carbocyclic compounds (6-MCCs) are introduced in {beta}-cyclodextrin ({beta}-CD) solution. In order to find the predominating factors of the enhanced phosphorescence observed with this novel approach, 22 typical phosphors of NHCs and PAHs were carefully screened and served as model compounds. The role of the inner heavy atom, the substituent group and the host-guest molecules space-matching on the RTP of different phosphors were investigated. The results demonstrated that the enhancement effects of cyclohexane, bromocyclohexane and cyclohexanol for the RTP of NHCs and PAHs have precedence over traditional halide alkanes such as 1,2-dibromoethane (DBE), exhibiting an obvious sequence as following: cyclohexane > bromocyclohexane > cyclohexanol. This new approach compared with other RTP methods is simple, convenient and fast.

  4. The role of TGF-β in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja-Khan, Nazia; Urbanek, Margrit; Rodgers, Raymond J; Legro, Richard S

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder characterized by chronic oligoanovulation and hyperandrogenism and associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular risk. In recent years, genetic studies have linked PCOS to a dinucleotide marker D19S884 in the fibrillin 3 gene. Fibrillins make up the major component of microfibrils in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and interact with molecules in the ECM to regulate transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling. Therefore, variations in fibrillin 3 and subsequent dysregulation of TGF-β may contribute to the pathogenesis of PCOS. Here, we review the evidence from genetic studies supporting the role of TGF-β in PCOS and describe how TGF-β dysregulation may contribute to (1) the fetal origins of PCOS, (2) reproductive abnormalities in PCOS, and (3) cardiovascular and metabolic abnormalities in PCOS.

  5. Hsp90 inhibition differentially destabilises MAP kinase and TGF-beta signalling components in cancer cells revealed by kinase-targeted chemoproteomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haupt, Armin; Dahl, Andreas; Lappe, Michael; Lehrach, Hans; Gonzalez, Cayetano; Drewes, Gerard; Lange, Bodo MH; Joberty, Gerard; Bantscheff, Marcus; Fröhlich, Holger; Stehr, Henning; Schweiger, Michal R; Fischer, Axel; Kerick, Martin; Boerno, Stefan T

    2012-01-01

    The heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is required for the stability of many signalling kinases. As a target for cancer therapy it allows the simultaneous inhibition of several signalling pathways. However, its inhibition in healthy cells could also lead to severe side effects. This is the first comprehensive analysis of the response to Hsp90 inhibition at the kinome level. We quantitatively profiled the effects of Hsp90 inhibition by geldanamycin on the kinome of one primary (Hs68) and three tumour cell lines (SW480, U2OS, A549) by affinity proteomics based on immobilized broad spectrum kinase inhibitors ('kinobeads'). To identify affected pathways we used the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway classification. We combined Hsp90 and proteasome inhibition to identify Hsp90 substrates in Hs68 and SW480 cells. The mutational status of kinases from the used cell lines was determined using next-generation sequencing. A mutation of Hsp90 candidate client RIPK2 was mapped onto its structure. We measured relative abundances of > 140 protein kinases from the four cell lines in response to geldanamycin treatment and identified many new potential Hsp90 substrates. These kinases represent diverse families and cellular functions, with a strong representation of pathways involved in tumour progression like the BMP, MAPK and TGF-beta signalling cascades. Co-treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132 enabled us to classify 64 kinases as true Hsp90 clients. Finally, mutations in 7 kinases correlate with an altered response to Hsp90 inhibition. Structural modelling of the candidate client RIPK2 suggests an impact of the mutation on a proposed Hsp90 binding domain. We propose a high confidence list of Hsp90 kinase clients, which provides new opportunities for targeted and combinatorial cancer treatment and diagnostic applications

  6. Effects of EG-VEGF, VEGF and TGF-β1 on pregnancy outcome in patients undergoing IVF-ET treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Min-zhi; Zhao, Xiao-ming; Lin, Yi; Sun, Zhao-gui; Zhang, Hui-qin

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the correlation of endocrine gland-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (EG-VEGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) with the corresponding reproductive outcome in patients who received in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET). Sixty-seven women undergoing IVF-ET at a university tertiary hospital were recruited for a prospective study. Concentrations of EG-VEGF, VEGF and TGF-β1 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in follicular fluid (FF) collected during oocyte retrieval (OR) and in serum collected 2 days after OR. In FF, concentrations of both EG-VEGF and VEGF were negatively correlated with peak E2 and the number of MII oocytes retrieved, and positively correlated with each other. In serum, concentrations of all the three growth factors were positively correlated with the rate of good quality embryo, and with one another. Patients in the pregnancy group had lower peak E2 concentrations and higher serum EG-VEGF concentrations than those in the non-pregnancy group, but such tendency was not observed in the case of VEGF and TGF-β1. Both concentrations of EG-VEGF and VEGF in FF were negatively correlated with ovarian response and oocyte maturation. Concentrations of all the three growth factors in serum were positively correlated with embryo quality, but only serum concentrations of EG-VEGF were associated with the pregnancy outcome.

  7. Dating the onset of some mutations in myostatin gene determining the double muscled phenotype in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nardone

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth differentiation factor 8 (GDF8 or myostatin is a member of the transforming growth factor β (TGFsuperfamily, which includes proteins that mediate key events in cell growth and development through signal transduction. In the absence of myostatin, the skeletal musculature of mice is two to three times greater in mass than that of wild-type mice (McPherron et al., 1997. Several cattle breeds are characterized by double muscling phenotype and GDF8 has been extensively investigated in cattle.A large number of variants have been identified in these species,most of which are silent or neutral.........

  8. Characterization of pancreatic lesions from MT-tgf alpha, Ela-myc and MT-tgf alpha/Ela-myc single and double transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Dezhong Joshua; Wang, Yong; Wu, Jiusheng; Adsay, Nazmi Volkan; Grignon, David; Khanani, Fayyaz; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2006-07-05

    In order to identify good animal models for investigating therapeutic and preventive strategies for pancreatic cancer, we analyzed pancreatic lesions from several transgenic models and made a series of novel findings. Female MT-tgf alpha mice of the MT100 line developed pancreatic proliferation, acinar-ductal metaplasia, multilocular cystic neoplasms, ductal adenocarcinomas and prominent fibrosis, while the lesions in males were less severe. MT-tgf alpha-ES transgenic lines of both sexes developed slowly progressing lesions that were similar to what was seen in MT100 males. In both MT100 and MT-tgf alpha-ES lines, TGF alpha transgene was expressed mainly in proliferating ductal cells. Ela-myc transgenic mice with a mixed C57BL/6, SJL and FVB genetic background developed pancreatic tumors at 2-7 months of age, and half of the tumors were ductal adenocarcinomas, similar to what was reported originally by Sandgren et al 1. However, in 20% of the mice, the tumors metastasized to the liver. MT100/Ela-myc and MT-tgf alpha-ES/Ela-myc double transgenic mice developed not only acinar carcinomas and mixed carcinomas as previously reported but also various ductal-originated lesions, including multilocular cystic neoplasms and ductal adenocarcinomas. The double transgenic tumors were more malignant and metastasized to the liver at a higher frequency (33%) compared with the Ela-myc tumors. Sequencing of the coding region of p16ink4, k-ras and Rb cDNA in small numbers of pancreatic tumors did not identify mutations. The short latency for tumor development, the variety of tumor morphology and the liver metastases seen in Ela-myc and MT-tgf alpha/Ela-myc mice make these animals good models for investigating new therapeutic and preventive strategies for pancreatic cancer.

  9. Association of Marek's Disease induced immunosuppression with activation of a novel regulatory T cells in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angila Gurung

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Marek's Disease Virus (MDV is an alphaherpesvirus that infects chickens, transforms CD4+ T cells and causes deadly lymphomas. In addition, MDV induces immunosuppression early during infection by inducing cell death of the infected lymphocytes, and potentially due to activation of regulatory T (Treg-cells. Furthermore, immunosuppression also occurs during the transformation phase of the disease; however, it is still unknown how the disease can suppress immune response prior or after lymphoma formation. Here, we demonstrated that chicken TGF-beta+ Treg cells are found in different lymphoid tissues, with the highest levels found in the gut-associated lymphoid tissue (cecal tonsil: CT, fostering an immune-privileged microenvironment exerted by TGF-beta. Surprisingly, significantly higher frequencies of TGF-beta+ Treg cells are found in the spleens of MDV-susceptible chicken lines compared to the resistant line, suggesting an association between TGF-beta+ Treg cells and host susceptibility to lymphoma formation. Experimental infection with a virulent MDV elevated the levels of TGF-beta+ Treg cells in the lungs as early as 4 days post infection, and during the transformation phase of the disease in the spleens. In contrast to TGF-beta+ Treg cells, the levels of CD4+CD25+ T cells remained unchanged during the infection and transformation phase of the disease. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that the induction of TGF-beta+ Treg cells is associated with pathogenesis of the disease, as the vaccine strain of MDV did not induce TGF-beta+ Treg cells. Similar to human haematopoietic malignant cells, MDV-induced lymphoma cells expressed high levels of TGF-beta but very low levels of TGF-beta receptor I and II genes. The results confirm that COX-2/ PGE2 pathway is involved in immunosuppression induced by MDV-lymphoma cells. Taken together, our results revealed a novel TGF-beta+ Treg subset in chickens that is activated during MDV infection and tumour

  10. Transient receptor potential vanilloid-3 (TRPV3) activation plays a central role in cardiac fibrosis induced by pressure overload in rats via TGF-β1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Qi, Hanping; E, Mingyao; Shi, Pilong; Zhang, Qianhui; Li, Shuzhi; Wang, Ye; Cao, Yonggang; Chen, Yunping; Ba, Lina; Gao, Jingquan; Huang, Wei; Sun, Hongli

    2018-02-01

    Cardiac fibrosis is a common pathologic change along with pressure overload. Recent studies indicated that transient receptor potential (TRP) channels played multiple roles in heart. However, the functional role of transient receptor potential vanilloid-3 (TRPV3) in cardiac fibrosis remained unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the relationship between TRPV3 activation and pressure overload-induced cardiac fibrosis. Pressure overload rats were successfully established by abdominal aortic constriction (AAC), and cardiac fibrosis was simulated by 100 nM angiotensin II (Ang II) in neonatal cardiac fibroblasts. Echocardiographic parameters, cardiac fibroblast proliferation, cell cycle, intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ), and the protein expressions of collagen I, collagen III, transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β 1 ), cyclin E, and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) were measured. Echocardiographic and histological measurements suggested that the activation of TRPV3 exacerbated the cardiac dysfunction and increased interstitial fibrosis in pressure overload rats. Further results showed that TRPV3 activation upregulated the expressions of collagen I, collagen III, TGF-β 1 , cyclin E, and CDK2 in vivo and in vitro. At the same time, blocking TGF-β 1 pathway could partially reverse the effect of TRPV3 activation. These results suggested that TRPV3 activation exacerbated cardiac fibrosis by promoting cardiac fibroblast proliferation through TGF-β 1 /CDK2/cyclin E pathway in the pressure-overloaded rat hearts.

  11. Trisonic Gas-Dynamics Facility (TGF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: The TGF is a two-foot square, continuous-flow, closed-circuit wind tunnel which is optimal for conducting research experiments. The facility provides a...

  12. Serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1, members of the TGF-beta superfamily and follistatin do not reflect different stages of dynapenia and sarcopenia in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Marlene; Halper, Barbara; Oesen, Stefan; Franzke, Bernhard; Stuparits, Petra; Tschan, Harald; Bachl, Norbert; Strasser, Eva-Maria; Quittan, Michael; Ploder, Martin; Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Wessner, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    There is a high need for blood-based biomarkers detecting age-related changes in muscular performance at an early stage. Therefore, we investigated whether serum levels of growth and differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), activin A, myostatin, follistatin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) would reflect age- and physical performance-related differences between young (22-28 years) and elderly (65-92 years) females. Isokinetic peak torque of knee extension (PTE) was measured in young females to obtain reference values for the discrimination of different stages of age-associated muscle weakness. Additionally, elderly women were screened for sarcopenia using the algorithm of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (low muscle mass in addition to low PTE and/or low walking speed). IGF-1 levels were higher and GDF-15 levels were lower in young females in comparison to the elderly (p sarcopenia in elderly women. However, due to the associations of IGF-1 and GDF-15 with correlates of muscle mass and function, these parameters remain promising candidates in a potential set of blood-based biomarkers to diagnose sarcopenia and/or dynapenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The proliferative cytokines TGF-β and VEGF in pleural effusions post-coronary artery bypass graft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António MS Chibante

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgeries can impact on the pericardium and pleural space, leading to inflammation which can cause effusion. Aim: To study the role of the proliferative cytokines TGF-β and VEGF in the fluids of 16 transudates and 43 pleural effusions of patients who underwent CABG at the Heart Unit and Pulmonology Unit of the University Hospital of São Paulo. Levels of cytokines were assessed 2, 24 and 48 hours post-surgery. Results: The pleural effusion after CABG is an exsudative mobilizer of TGF-β and VEGF cytokines immediately after surgery. The TGF-β concentrations were elevated 2 hours after surgery but started to fall soon after, reaching transudate levels after 48 hours. VEGF levels were high in the first 2 hours post surgery and tended to maintain the same concentrations for at least 48 hours after surgery. Conclusions: Based on the results obtained, TGF-β is a cytokine that seems to work as a trigger, leading the pleural mesothelial cell to express VEGF a cause of pleural effusion in CABG surgeries. Resumo: A cirurgia de revascularização do miocárdio envolve o acometimento, tanto do pericárdio como da pleura, conduzindo ao favorecimento de processos inflamatórios responsáveis pelo desenvolvimento de derrames nestes compartimentos. Objectivo: Estudar o comportamento das citocinas proliferativas TGF-β (factor beta de transformação do crescimento e VEGF (factor de crescimento do endotélio vascular nos líquidos de 16 transudatos e de 43 derrames pleurais de doentes submetidos a cirurgias de revascularização do miocárdio provenientes do Instituto de Coração e do Serviço de Pneumologia da Universidade do São Paulo nos intervalos de 2, 24 e 48 horas de pós-operatório. Resultados: O derrame pleural pós-revascularização do miocárdio é um exsudato mobilizador de TGF-β e VEGF no pós-operatório imediato. Os níveis de TGF

  14. Reduced Transforming Growth Factor-β Activity in the Endometrium of Women With Heavy Menstrual Bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Maybin, Jacqueline A.; Boswell, Lyndsey; Young, Vicky J.; Duncan, William C.; Critchley, Hilary O. D.

    2017-01-01

    Context: Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is common and incapacitating. Aberrant menstrual endometrial repair may result in HMB. The transforming growth factor (TGF)-β superfamily contributes to tissue repair, but its role in HMB is unknown. Objective: We hypothesized that TGF-β1 is important for endometrial repair, and women with HMB have aberrant TGF-β1 activity at menses. Participants/Setting: Endometrial biopsies were collected from women, and menstrual blood loss objectively measured [HMB ...

  15. A Novel Human TGF-β1 Fusion Protein in Combination with rhBMP-2 Increases Chondro-Osteogenic Differentiation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Claros

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β is involved in processes related to the differentiation and maturation of osteoprogenitor cells into osteoblasts. Rat bone marrow (BM cells were cultured in a collagen-gel containing 0.5% fetal bovine serum (FBS for 10 days in the presence of rhTGF (recombinant human TGF-β1-F2, a fusion protein engineered to include a high-affinity collagen-binding decapeptide derived from von Willebrand factor. Subsequently, cells were moderately expanded in medium with 10% FBS for 4 days and treated with a short pulse of rhBMP (recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 for 4 h. During the last 2 days, dexamethasone and β-glycerophosphate were added to potentiate osteoinduction. Concomitant with an up-regulation of cell proliferation, DNA synthesis levels were determined. Polymerase chain reaction was performed to reveal the possible stemness of these cells. Osteogenic differentiation was evaluated in terms of alkaline phosphatase activity and mineralized matrix formation as well as by mRNA expression of osteogenic marker genes. Moreover, cells were placed inside diffusion chambers and implanted subcutaneously into the backs of adult rats for 4 weeks. Histological study provided evidence of cartilage and bone-like tissue formation. This experimental procedure is capable of selecting cell populations from BM that, in the presence of rhTGF-β1-F2 and rhBMP-2, achieve skeletogenic potential in vitro and in vivo.

  16. Evolutionary Expansion of the Amidohydrolase Superfamily in Bacteria in Response to the Synthetic Compounds Molinate and Diuron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugrue, Elena; Fraser, Nicholas J.; Hopkins, Davis H.; Carr, Paul D.; Khurana, Jeevan L.; Oakeshott, John G.; Scott, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The amidohydrolase superfamily has remarkable functional diversity, with considerable structural and functional annotation of known sequences. In microbes, the recent evolution of several members of this family to catalyze the breakdown of environmental xenobiotics is not well understood. An evolutionary transition from binuclear to mononuclear metal ion coordination at the active sites of these enzymes could produce large functional changes such as those observed in nature, but there are few clear examples available to support this hypothesis. To investigate the role of binuclear-mononuclear active-site transitions in the evolution of new function in this superfamily, we have characterized two recently evolved enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of the synthetic herbicides molinate (MolA) and phenylurea (PuhB). In this work, the crystal structures, mutagenesis, metal ion analysis, and enzyme kinetics of both MolA and PuhB establish that these enzymes utilize a mononuclear active site. However, bioinformatics and structural comparisons reveal that the closest putative ancestor of these enzymes had a binuclear active site, indicating that a binuclear-mononuclear transition has occurred. These proteins may represent examples of evolution modifying the characteristics of existing catalysts to satisfy new requirements, specifically, metal ion rearrangement leading to large leaps in activity that would not otherwise be possible. PMID:25636851

  17. TGF-β1 of no avail as prognostic marker in lyme disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Schumann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background. Within the present in vivo study using the wild type mouse strains C3H/HeN and FVB/N it was intended to (1 measure TGF-β1 expression in the course of lyme disease, (2 examine the potential correlation of TGF-β1 expression with the clinical outcome of a Borrelia infection (with a focus on lyme arthritis, (3 develop a diagnostic tool based on the endogenous factor TGF-β1 to predict the progressivity of lyme disease.Findings. In the course of lyme disease there was an increase in the serum content of active TGF-β1, which became significant 56 days post infection (p < 0.001. The serum concentration of total TGF-β1 in the course of infection initially decreased then rebounded and subsequently dropped again. Despite considerable individual variations in active TGF-β1 serum concentrations there were no identifiable dissimilarities in the clinical appearance of the mice. Likewise, no correlation could be seen between the serum content of active TGF-β1 and the severity of lyme arthritis of tibiotarsal joints of infected mice.Conclusions. The present study clearly shows that TGF-β1 is of no avail as prognostic marker in lyme disease. Hence, the search for an endogenous predictive factor, which can be determined in an easy and reliable manner, remains open.

  18. Vascular remodeling versus amyloid beta-induced oxidative stress in the cerebrovascular dysfunctions associated with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xin-Kang; Nicolakakis, Nektaria; Kocharyan, Ara; Hamel, Edith

    2005-11-30

    The roles of oxidative stress and structural alterations in the cerebrovascular dysfunctions associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) were investigated in transgenic mice overexpressing amyloid precusor protein (APP+) or transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF+). Age-related impairments and their in vitro reversibility were evaluated, and underlying pathogenic mechanisms were assessed and compared with those seen in AD brains. Vasoconstrictions to 5-HT and endothelin-1 were preserved, except in the oldest (18-21 months of age) TGF+ mice. Despite unaltered relaxations to sodium nitroprusside, acetylcholine (ACh) and calcitonin gene-related peptide-mediated dilatations were impaired, and there was an age-related deficit in the basal availability of nitric oxide (NO) that progressed more gradually in TGF+ mice. The expression and progression of these deficits were unrelated to the onset or extent of thioflavin-S-positive vessels. Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) was upregulated in pial vessels and around brain microvessels of APP+ mice, pointing to a role of superoxide in the dysfunctions elicited by amyloidosis. In contrast, vascular wall remodeling associated with decreased levels of endothelial NO synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 and increased contents of vascular endothelial growth factor and collagen-I and -IV characterized TGF+ mice. Exogenous SOD or catalase normalized ACh dilatations and NO availability in vessels from aged APP+ mice but had no effect in those of TGF+ mice. Increased perivascular oxidative stress was