How can urban studies research engage fruitfully with hip-hop? This contribution responds to the essays by David Beer and Martin Lamotte on ‘street music’, urban ethnography and ghettoized communities. It discusses how a social science engagement with hip-hop texts might differ from cultural studies
Sanchez, Deborah M.
This study explores the epistemology present in hip-hop music and its reflection in the writing of one African American student in a postsecondary transitional English class. An integration of hip-hop and academic literacy practices in the student's essay challenges the supremacy of a "standard" academic English and deficit perspectives about…
This review explores Edmin's "Science education for the hip-hop generation" by documenting how he frames hip-hop as a means to access urban student culture. He argues that hip-hop is more than a mere music genre, but rather a culture that provides young people with ways of connecting to the world. Two primary ideas emerged as central to his work. First, he contends that students develop communal relationships and collective identities based on the common experiences expressed in hip-hop. Second, he identifies how the conscious recognition of institutional oppression serves a central feature in urban schools. Emdin's rich, and personal call for a greater understanding of hip-hop culture provides the text with an unmatched strength. He skillfully uses personal narratives from his own experience as well as quotes and references from hip-hop songs to make the nuances of hip hop transparent to science educators. Conversely, the limitation of this text is found in its unfulfilled promise to provide pragmatic examples of how to engage in a hip-hop based science education. Emdin's work is ultimately valuable as it extends our current knowledge about urban students and hip-hop in meaningful ways.
Silvia Anggreni Purba
Pertunjukan Teater Karo Hip Hop Kontemporer KAI. The performance of Karo Theater collaborated with Hip Hop stems from a simple idea to collaborate Karo cultural traditions with popular culture. The performances can be enjoyed without having limitation on the language and culture. The process of combining two different cultures is a form of hybrid culture, and it may occur due to the globalization process. Through the process of deposition of the observations and strong impression, this performance is then brought into the form of Hip Hop as a preferred form which is energetic, personal and global. This performance is part of a modern tragedy with its destructive character which has explored the emotion and has presented it to the audiences. The exploration of Karo cultural tradition and Hip Hop dance as a language of symbols is able to reinforce words. The movement is not revealed by the verbal phrase but is presented through the movement of Hip Hop dance. The interpretation of the legend and texts into movement is carried out through the training process at the laboratory as a searching process and experiment, and afterward can be realized by considering the basic elements of Hip Hop, Karo cultural elements and performance. Karo Hip Hop Theatre is expected to become a preferred aesthetic form of a modern theater without losing its tradition form. Keyword: a contemporary Karo theater, Hip Hop, hybrid culture.
Kruse, Adam J.
This article offers considerations for music teachers interested in including hip-hop music in their classrooms but who might feel concerned with or overwhelmed by issues of appropriateness. Two concerns related to hip-hop music are examined: language and negative social themes. Commercial interests in hip-hop music have created a simulacrum (or…
V diplomskem delu smo raziskovali, kako so se hip hop oblačila razvijala skozi obdobja v hip hop kulturi. V teoretičnem deli smo ugotavljali ozadje in dejavnike, ki so vplivali na razvoj hip hop kulture, v empiričnem delu diplomske naloge pa smo izvedli anketni vprašalnik z glavnimi akterji hip hop kulture na slovenski hip hop sceni. Rezultati, ki smo jih dobili, kažejo da so imela oblačila velik vpliv na prepoznavnost in razvoj hip hop kulture po celem svetu. K temu so največ pripomogli ustv...
Social activism and education have been associated with hip-hop since it emerged in New York City 38 years ago. Therefore, it might not be surprising that universities have become interested in hip-hop. This article aims to highlight this "hip-hop academisation" and analyse the discursive mechanisms that manifest in these academisation…
Dolberry, Maurice E.
Hip hop has moved from being considered a type of music into being understood as a culture in which a prominent type of music originates. Hip hop culture has a philosophy and epistemological constructs as well. This study analyzed those constructs to determine how conceptions of science factor in hip hop worldviews. Pedagogical models in culturally responsive teaching and Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, and Mathematics (STEAM) education were also examined to discern their philosophical connections with hip hop culture. These connections were used to create two theoretical models. The first one, Hip Hop Science, described how scientific thought functions in hip hop culture. The second model, Hip Hop STEAM Pedagogy, proposes how hip hop culture can inform STEAM teaching practices. The study began by using Critical Race Theory to create a theoretical framework proposing how the two theoretical models could be derived from the philosophical and pedagogical concepts. Content analysis and narrative inquiry were used to analyze data collected from scholarly texts, hip hop songs, and interviews with hip hop-responsive educators. The data from these sources were used initially to assess the adequacy of the proposed theoretical framework, and subsequently to improve its viability. Four overlapping themes emerged from the data analyses, including hip hop-resistance to formal education; how hip hop culture informs pedagogical practice in hip hop-responsive classrooms; conceptions of knowledge and reality that shape how hip hoppers conduct scientific inquiry; and hip hop-based philosophies of effective teaching for hip hoppers as a marginalized cultural group. The findings indicate that there are unique connections between hip hop epistemology, sciencemindedness, and pedagogical practices in STEAM education. The revised theoretical framework clarified the nature of these connections, and supported claims from prior research that hip hop culture provides viable sites of
Hall, Marcella Runell
Hip-hop music and culture are often cited as being public pedagogy, meaning the music itself has intrinsic educational value. Non-profit organizations and individual educators have graciously taken the lead in utilizing hip-hop to educate. As the academy continues to debate its effectiveness, teachers and community organizers are moving forward.…
Over the last 30 years, the hip-hop movement has risen from the margins to become the preeminent force in US popular culture. In more recent times academics have begun to harness the power of hip-hop culture and use it as a means of infusing transformative knowledge into the mainstream academic discourse. On many college campuses, hip-hop's…
Full Text Available In this essay, the author examines how Hip-Hop can be mobilized in anti-racism educational initatives. The author claims that existing research on Hip-Hop and white adolescents suggests a negative corrleation between white youths' engagement with Hip-Hop and their understanding of how race and racism function in American society. In response to this research, the author argues Hip-Hop's diverse racial discourses and ideologies must be made the subject of direct and critical inquiry in secondary and post-secondary classrooms to maximize its democratic potential. The author outlines specific approaches for how teachers can employ Hip-Hop in anti-racism curricula in secondary and post-secondary classrooms. Collectively, the essay serves as a preliminary investigation of Hip-Hop pedagogies of race and whiteness.
Justin W Bonny
Full Text Available Expertise within gaming (e.g., chess, video games and kinesthetic (e.g., sports, classical dance activities has been found to be linked with specific cognitive skills. Some of these skills, working memory, mental rotation, problem solving, are linked to higher performance in science, technology, math, and engineering (STEM disciplines. In the present study, we examined whether experience in a different activity, hip hop dance, is also linked to cognitive abilities connected with STEM skills as well as social cognition ability. Dancers who varied in hip hop and other dance style experience were presented with a set of computerized tasks that assessed working memory capacity, mental rotation speed, problem solving efficiency, and theory of mind. We found that, when controlling for demographic factors and other dance style experience, those with greater hip hop dance experience were faster at mentally rotating images of hands at greater angle disparities and there was a trend for greater accuracy at identifying positive emotions displayed by cropped images of human faces. We suggest that hip hop dance, similar to other more technical activities such as video gameplay, tap some specific cognitive abilities that underlie STEM skills. Furthermore, we suggest that hip hop dance experience can be used to reach populations who may not otherwise be interested in other kinesthetic or gaming activities and potentially enhance select sociocognitive skills.
Fasilitas Pelatihan dan Pergelaran Seni Tari Hip Hop di Surabaya merupakan fasilitas yang disediakan bagi semua penari Hip Hop di Surabaya untuk berlatih menari dan mempertunjukan tarian Hip Hop. Fasilitas ini tersedia bagi semua penari Hip Hop termasuk penari difable, mengingat kaum difable juga dapat menari Hip Hop. Namun karena di Surabaya belum memiliki fasilitas yang memadai bagi semua penari Hip Hop termasuk penari difable untuk menari dan memiliki tempat pertunjukan yang berkarakter Hi...
Hill, Mandy J.; Hallmark, Camden J.; McNeese, Marlene; Blue, Nike; Ross, Michael W.
The goal of this paper was to determine the effectiveness of the HIP HOP for HIV Awareness intervention, an innovative model utilising an exchange of an HIV test for a hip hop concert ticket, in a metropolitan city among African American youth and young adults. A subset of intervention participants participated in standardised testing, sex…
Full Text Available HIP-HOP GUAYAQUIL: CULTURES ITINÉRANTES ET IDENTITES LOCALES. Le hip-hop est un style de musique contemporaine caractérisé par une orchestration duvres lyriques rapées, la superposition de morceaux de musique enregistrés dans le passé par différents artistes, et une instrumentation électronique, tout cela sur des rythmes de basse réguliers et constants. Le hip-hop, musique accompagnée de ses propres danses et de sa mode, est le produit du déplacement et de la transformation dune variété didéologies politiques de la communauté noire qui se constituent à partir de relations qui se modifient entre elles, et en relation avec les cultures dominantes contre lesquelles elles luttent quotidiennement. À lorigine, le hip-hop est lié à des mouvements didentité de jeunes noirs. Dans cet article, il est intéressant détudier le rôle du hip-hop dans la formulation dune identité entre jeunes métisses et noirs des secteurs populaires de Guayaquil. Cet exemple illustre la nécessité dinclure dans lanalyse les dimensions politiques des processus de traduction du global au niveau local. El hip-hop es un género de música contemporánea caracterizado por la orquestación de líricas que son rapeadas, superposición de fragmentos de música grabada en el pasado por diferentes artistas, e instrumentación electrónica, todo ello sobre ritmos de bajo regulares y constantes. Como un tipo de música acompañado por sus propias formas de danza y moda, el hip-hop es producto del viaje y la transformación de una variedad de ideologías políticas de la comunidad negra que se constituyen a sí mismas en relaciones cambiantes entre sí y en relación a las culturas dominantes contra las cuales luchan cotidianamente. El hip-hop está ligado, en su contexto originario, a políticas de identidad defendidas por jóvenes negros. Lo que interesa explorar en este artículo es el papel del hip-hop en la formulación de una identidad
Bronner, Shaw; Ojofeitimi, Sheyi; Woo, Helen
Hip hop dance has many styles including breakdance (breaking), house, popping and locking, funk, streetdance, krumping, Memphis jookin', and voguing. These movements combine the complexity of dance choreography with the challenges of gymnastics and acrobatic movements. Despite high injury rates in hip hop dance, particularly in breakdance, to date there are no published biomechanical studies in this population. The purpose of this study was to compare representative hip hop steps found in breakdance (toprock and breaking) and house and provide descriptive statistics of the angular displacements that occurred in these sequences. Six expert female hip hop dancers performed three choreographed dance sequences, top rock, breaking, and house, to standardized music-based tempos. Hip, knee, and ankle kinematics were collected during sequences that were 18 to 30 sec long. Hip, knee, and ankle three-dimensional peak joint angles were compared in repeated measures ANOVAs with post hoc tests where appropriate (pHip hop maximal joint angles exceeded reported activities of daily living and high injury sports such as gymnastics. Hip hop dancers work at weight-bearing joint end ranges where muscles are at a functional disadvantage. These results may explain why lower extremity injury rates are high in this population.
Gorlewski, Julie; Porfilio, Brad J.
Based upon the life histories of six Indigenous hip hop artists of the Beat Nation artist collective, this essay captures how Indigenous hip hop has the potential to revolutionize environmental education. Hip hop provides Indigenous youth an emancipatory space to raise their opposition to neocolonial controls of Indigenous territories that…
Horton, Akesha Monique
Hip-hop has exploded around the world among youth. It is not simply an American source of entertainment; it is a global cultural movement that provides a voice for youth worldwide who have not been able to express their "cultural world" through mainstream media. The emerging field of critical hip-hop pedagogy has produced little…
This thesis is focused on Romani music and its importance for the Romani culture. It examines the popularity of hip-hop among the young Romani generation and Romani hip- hip production. It attempts to define the role of hip-hop culture in young Romanies' lives.
The linguistic dimensions of globalized hip-hop cannot be understood simply as a byproduct of English as an American export. As hip-hop mobilizes, it is common (and arguably necessary) for global hip-hop communities to struggle through purposeful, semiotically rooted dialectics over what constitutes "authentic" and respectable forms of…
Walker, Matthew W; Navarro, Mario A; Hoffman, Leah; Wagner, Dana E; Stalgaitis, Carolyn A; Jordan, Jeffrey W
Peer crowds, peer groups with macro-level connections and shared norms that transcend geography and race/ethnicity, have been linked to risky health behaviors. Research has demonstrated that Hip Hop peer crowd identification, which is common among multicultural youth, is associated with increased risk of tobacco use. To address this, the FDA Center for Tobacco Products created Fresh Empire, the first national tobacco education campaign tailored for Hip Hop youth aged 12-17 who are multicultural (Hispanic, African American, Asian-Pacific Islander, or Multiracial). As part of campaign development, peer crowd (Hip Hop, Mainstream, Popular, Alternative, Country) and cigarette smoking status were examined for the first time with a nationally recruited sample. Youth were recruited via targeted social media advertisements. Participants aged 13-17 (n = 5153) self-reported peer crowd identification via the I-Base Survey™ and cigarette smoking status. Differences in smoking status by peer crowd were examined using chi-square and followed up with z-tests to identify specific differences. Alternative youth were most at risk of cigarette smoking, followed by Hip Hop. Specifically, Hip Hop youth were significantly less likely to be Non-susceptible Non-triers than Popular, Mainstream, and Country youth, and more likely to be Experimenters than Popular and Mainstream youth. Representative studies show that Alternative is relatively small compared to other high-risk crowds, such as the Hip Hop peer crowd. The current research underscores the potential utility of interventions tailored to larger at-risk crowds for campaigns like Fresh Empire. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Ángela Garcés Montoya.
Full Text Available This article is part of the research project, “Youth musical mediations,” that explores the appropriation of alternative means of communication which allow the young to develop identities sharply differentiated from those the adult world. In particular, the article examines the world of hip hop in Medellín and the ways that youth participate in it. To follow key trajectories of women in hip hop, their voices, feelings, and memories must be uncovered. This will allow us to see how the few women who are currently part of hip hop scene in Medellín and Colombia enter, move through, and persevere in it. Since women constitute only a small percentage of the youth who live and remake hip hop in Medellín, it is important to understand how they manage to live in a male-colored world. If hip hop is about strength, denunciation, confrontation, and resistance, it seems that these qualities are more appropriate for men than for women
This thesis involves history of hip hop, its specifics and elements, it talks about influence of hip hip subculture on teenagers and points to positive and negative aspects connected to this culture style. In this way is work sectionalized into chapters. First part talks about history of hip hop, connection between religion and hip hop and also about Czech hip hop. Second part specifies on main elements of hip hop culture as DJing, MCing, breakdance, beatbox and graffiti. Last part focuses on...
Kruse, Adam J.
Music education scholarship in the areas of popular, vernacular, and participatory musicianship has grown in the past decades; however, music education research concerned specifically with hip-hop has been relatively scarce. Because hip-hop music can differ tremendously from the traditional western genres with which many music educators are most…
Hip-hop has become relevant to the field of education because of its implications for understanding language, learning, identity, curriculum, and other areas. This integrative review provides historical context and cohesion for the burgeoning and discursive body of hip-hop scholarship by framing it according to three heuristic categories and…
Alex S. Porco
Full Text Available Disabled bodies and disabling spaces— especially the recording studio— shape the sound iconicity of hip-hop vocal performances. The disabled voice is the audible sign by which hip-hop artists trouble cultural definitions of the self and other; exceptionalism and failure; the natural and techno-mediated; comedy and tragedy; and aesthetic play and seriousness. Hip-hop vocal performances also function as self-conscious acts of transvaluation that challenge the discursive dominance of ableism. A materialist approach to vocal performance resists reducing voice to a silent metaphor for race, oppositionality, or liberation; and it emphasizes, instead, the physiological and social processes that render hip-hop voices unique, particular, and audible. It emphasizes the agency hip-hop artists possess in seeking out disabled bodies and assuming disabled identities for aesthetic and political ends. Thus, the body is returned to the analysis of style.
Porfilio, Brad J., Ed.; Viola, Michael J., Ed.
Illuminating hip-hop as an important cultural practice and a global social movement, this collaborative project highlights the emancipatory messages and cultural work generated by the organic intellectuals of global hip-hop. Contributors describe the social realities--globalization, migration, poverty, criminalization, and racism--youth are…
Hip hop culture has been celebrated in the media and scholarship as a universal youth language, part of a global hip hop nation, and a type of counter-public. This article examines the everyday meanings and practices of hip hop among hip hop activists in Kampala, Uganda, specifically within...... the Batuuze rap group. Rather than portraying hip hop as a counter-public of the disempowered, I argue that the Batuuze engagement is based on what I call moral economy that enables the negotiation of connections in social and cultural networks towards what is considered a good life. Here, the hip hop nation...... is less of an alternative public sphere and more a way of articulating and contextualizing the world in a specific locality, which produces connections and opportunities in the young rappers’ lives....
Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel; Weinstein, Hannah; Parker, Richard
Hip-Hop culture is a key social medium through which many young men and women from communities of colour in the USA construct their gender. In this study, we focused on the Hip-Hop club scene in New York City with the intention of unpacking narratives of gender dynamics from the perspective of young men and women, and how these relate to their sexual experiences. We conducted a three-year ethnographic study that included ethnographic observations of Hip-Hop clubs and their social scene, and in-depth interviews with young men and young women aged 15-21. This paper describes how young people negotiate gender relations on the dance floor of Hip-Hop clubs. The Hip-Hop club scene represents a context or setting where young men's masculinities are contested by the social environment, where women challenge hypermasculine privilege and where young people can set the stage for what happens next in their sexual and emotional interactions. Hip-Hop culture therefore provides a window into the gender and sexual scripts of many urban minority youth. A fuller understanding of these patterns can offer key insights into the social construction of sexual risk, as well as the possibilities for sexual health promotion, among young people in urban minority populations.
Full Text Available Music listeners have difficulty correctly understanding and remembering song lyrics. However, results from the present study support the hypothesis that young adults can learn African-American English (AAE vocabulary from listening to hip-hop music. Non-African-American participants first gave free-response definitions to AAE vocabulary items, after which they answered demographic questions as well as questions addressing their social networks, their musical preferences, and their knowledge of popular culture. Results from the survey show a positive association between the number of hip-hop artists listened to and AAE comprehension vocabulary scores. Additionally, participants were more likely to know an AAE vocabulary item if the hip-hop artists they listen to use the word in their song lyrics. Together, these results suggest that young adults can acquire vocabulary through exposure to hip-hop music, a finding relevant for research on vocabulary acquisition, the construction of adolescent and adult identities, and the adoption of lexical innovations.
Kruse, Adam J.
In this article, I offer four principles relevant to hip-hop cultures (keep it real, flip the script, make some noise, and stay fresh) and explore how these principles might affect music classrooms. I argue that a music classroom that works to keep it real, flip the script, make some noise, and stay fresh might go beyond teaching hip-hop skills…
Ojofeitimi, S; Bronner, S; Woo, H
Hip hop dance has rapidly become a popular international art form. There is limited information on injury patterns in this population. The purpose of this study was to determine injury incidence and patterns among three groups of hip hop dancers. Three hundred and twelve intermediate, advanced, and expert hip hop dancers were recruited at battles, dance conferences, clubs, and on dance related web sites within the United States and internationally. A Web-based survey was conducted over a 6-month period. Inclusion criteria included intermediate and advanced level dancers over the age of 13. Dancers were divided into three main categories: Breakers, Popper/Lockers, and New Schoolers. Separate analysis of variances were used to compare injury pattern differences between groups. Two hundred and thirty-two dancers reported a total of 738 injuries. Five hundred and six of these (sustained by 205 dancers) were time-loss (TL) injuries. Annual injury incidence was 237% (162% involving TL). Lower extremity injuries were 52% and upper extremity injuries 32% of total injuries. Breakers had a higher injury incidence compared with Popper/Lockers, and New Schoolers. Hip hop dancers report injury rates that are higher than other dance forms but similar to gymnastics. These dancers should be educated concerning injury prevention, biomechanics, and use of protective equipment. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Buchanan, Ian P.
Using a critical race lens, this narrative study employs a focus group design to explore the intersections between black males, hip hop culture and schooling experiences. To provide a sociocultural grounding, this study first reviews the research literature around hip hop culture.s sociocultural development and its impact as a culture force that…
Tobias, Evan S.
Excluding Hip Hop culture and rap music from music education misses opportunities for addressing key aspects of popular culture, society, and students' lives. This article addresses intersections of Hip Hop, gender, and music education to forward potential Hip Hop praxis. After tracing related scholarship, I discuss and problematize…
Bonny, Justin W; Lindberg, Jenna C; Pacampara, Marc C
Expertise within gaming (e.g., chess, video games) and kinesthetic (e.g., sports, classical dance) activities has been found to be linked with specific cognitive skills. Some of these skills, working memory, mental rotation, problem solving, are linked to higher performance in science, technology, math, and engineering (STEM) disciplines. In the present study, we examined whether experience in a different activity, hip hop dance, is also linked to cognitive abilities connected with STEM skills as well as social cognition ability. Dancers who varied in hip hop and other dance style experience were presented with a set of computerized tasks that assessed working memory capacity, mental rotation speed, problem solving efficiency, and theory of mind. We found that, when controlling for demographic factors and other dance style experience, those with greater hip hop dance experience were faster at mentally rotating images of hands at greater angle disparities and there was a trend for greater accuracy at identifying positive emotions displayed by cropped images of human faces. We suggest that hip hop dance, similar to other more technical activities such as video gameplay, tap some specific cognitive abilities that underlie STEM skills. Furthermore, we suggest that hip hop dance experience can be used to reach populations who may not otherwise be interested in other kinesthetic or gaming activities and potentially enhance select sociocognitive skills.
Adjapong, Edmund S.; Emdin, Christopher
A significant amount of research regarding Hip-Hop Based Education (HHBE) fails to provide insight on how to incorporate elements of Hip-Hop into daily teaching practices; rather Hip-Hop based educators focus mainly on incorporating Hip-Hop culture into curricula. This study explores the benefits of using two specific Hip-Hop pedagogical practices…
Lindsey, Treva B.
This essay brings together key theoretical interventions in hip-hop feminism to explore the continued, but undervalued, significance of hip-hop feminism in urban education. More specifically, the essay challenges narrow conceptualizations of the "hip hop subject" as Black and male by using hip-hop feminist theory to incorporate the lived…
Multilingualism and Hip Hop Consumption in Nigeria: Accounting for the Local Acceptance of a Global Phenomenon Hip-Hop und Mehrsprachigkeit in Nigeria: Zur Erklärung der lokalen Akzeptanz eines globalen Phänomens
Olusegun Fariudeen Liadi
Full Text Available Hip hop music has enjoyed global popularity and patronage on a level that has transcended that of most other music genres. It is perhaps due to the genre’s worldwide popularity that many forms of hip hop have sprung up across the globe. The Nigerian version of the music has been overwhelmingly accepted by a good number of youths in the country irrespective of class, religion and social status. However, there is some speculation as to what factors are responsible for the recent sudden boom in the popular consumption of this genre among the youth, since hip hop has been a feature of the Nigerian musical landscape since the 1980s. With the aid of qualitative data collection instruments – thirty in-depth interviews and six key informant interviews among hip hop fans and club DJs, respectively – the study establishes the centrality of multilingualism as a primary reason for the acceptance of hip hop among Nigerian youth.Hip-Hop-Musik ist weltweit in einem Maße populär, das die meisten anderen Musikrichtungen übertrifft. Vielleicht hat diese weltweite Beliebtheit dazu geführt, dass rund um den Globus unterschiedliche Formen des Hip-Hop aus dem Boden geschossen sind. Die nigerianische Version dieser Musikrichtung wird von einer überwältigenden Zahl Jugendlicher im Land angenommen, unabhängig von sozialem Status und Religionszugehörigkeit. Es wird jedoch darüber spekuliert, welche Faktoren den jüngsten plötzlichen Boom in dieser Musikrichtung erklären, denn Hip-Hop ist schon seit den 1980er Jahren Teil der nigerianischen Musiklandschaft. Mit Hilfe einer qualitativen Datenerhebung – 30 detaillierte Interviews sowie sechs Interviews mit Schlüsselpersonen unter Hip-Hop-Fans und Club-DJs – kann der Autor die Mehrsprachigkeit als wichtigsten Grund für die Akzeptanz des Hip-Hop unter nigerianischen Jugendlichen ermitteln.
This article revisits the central impulse behind early advocacy for ethnographic approaches to hip hop--that critics should try as much as possible to limit their own certainties around what hip hop can and might mean. While ethnographic approaches can engender the kinds of personal dislocations that allow for this negotiation, they do not…
This review explores Edmin's "Science education for the hip-hop generation" by documenting how he frames hip-hop as a means to access urban student culture. He argues that hip-hop is more than a mere music genre, but rather a culture that provides young people with ways of connecting to the world. Two primary ideas emerged as central to…
Т М Кожелупенко
Full Text Available This article is devoted to such notions of sociolinguistics as subculture and the language of conflict. These aspects are studied by the example of the rapidly developing hip-hop subculture and rap-texts as its main component.
Full Text Available Soñando se resiste. Hip-hop; en la calle y al parque. Varios autores. Alcaldía Mayor de Bogotá, Secretaría de Cultura, Recreación y Deporte, Orquesta Filarmónica de Bogotá, Bogotá, 2010, 180 págs.
Beachum, Floyd D.
Hip-hop music has been embraced worldwide by youth, pummeled in the media for supposedly increasing social misery and hailed as a significant musical breakthrough. Hip-hop culture has transcended musical boundaries and now impacts speech, clothing, mannerisms, movies, websites, television programming, magazines, and energy drinks (Dyson, 2007;…
Fernando Luiz Cardoso
Full Text Available Analisaram-se aspectos da corporeidade e sexualidade em dançarinos de hip hop e axé (35 homens e 49 mulheres comparativamente a indivíduos não-dançarinos expectadores da plateia (21 homens e 19 mulheres, via questionário anônimo. Os dançarinos de axé foram os mais satisfeitos com suas vidas sexuais, com as preliminares sexuais e os que mais gostavam de se masturbarem em relação aos de hip hop e plateia. Dançarinos do axé apresentaram uma sexualidade mais vinculada ao conhecimento corporal e conexões afetivas. Em ambos estilos, os dançarinos homens davam maior ênfase à genitália e a libido em relação aos aspectos da afetividade.We analyzed selected aspects of the bodyness and sexuality of hip hop and axé dancers (35 men and 49 women in comparison with non-dancer controls (21 men and 19 women through anonymous questionnaire. The axé dancers were the most satisfied with their sexual lives, with sexual preliminaries and who liked more to masturbate when compared with the hip hop dancers and controls. Axé dancers of both sexes presented a strong link between their sexuality and their corporal knowledge and affective connections. Men dancers were more focused in their genitals and gave stronger sexual emphasis to libido rather than affectivity.
By observing and analyzing live performances, music, visual art, interviews, television shows, and online discourse, this dissertation traces the ways in which Filipino American hip hop performance remembers the racialized histories of the Filipino body. Through both quotidian and spectacular performances in hip hop, Filipino Americans have been contributing to crucial forms of knowledge that help unpack the terms of Filipino and American culture. Hip hop culture, I argue, operates as a produ...
Callahan, J. Sean; Grantham, Tarek C.
One would be hard-pressed to deny the impact that hip hop is having on gifted students. More specifically, because hip hop is a creative and exciting male-dominated culture, gifted males gravitate to hip hop culture. From the perspective of two Black men from two different generations, this article was inspired by discussions about the role of hip…
Adults gain a wealth of knowledge from listening to the voices of children through intentional observations and interactions [Owocki, G., and Y. M. Goodman. 2002. "Kidwatching: Documenting Children's Literacy Development." Portsmouth: Heinemann]. Hip Hop play may provide optimal opportunities for teachers to tap into the young minds of…
One fundamental breakthrough in the field of hip-hop education in recent years is the shift from understanding hip-hop solely as content to understanding hip-hop also as aesthetic form. In this article, I chart the roots of this shift across disciplines and focus on what it might mean for the future of hip-hop education, pedagogy, and research in…
Emdin, Christopher; Lee, Okhee
Background/Context: With the ever increasing diversity of schools, and the persistent need to develop teaching strategies for the students who attend today's urban schools, hip-hop culture has been proposed to be a means through which urban youth can find success in school. As a result, studies of the role of hip-hop in urban education have grown…
In response to neoliberal policies that have been in place since 1985, Bolivian young people have increasingly used hip hop music as a means of protest and to reclaim social and political participation. Hip hop in Latin America tells the story of the struggles that marginalized people have suffered, and speaks to the effects of international…
Hill, Marc Lamont
For over a decade, educators have looked to capitalize on the appeal of hip-hop culture, sampling its language, techniques, and styles as a way of reaching out to students. But beyond a fashionable hipness, what does hip-hop have to offer our schools? In this revelatory new book, Marc Lamont Hill shows how a serious engagement with hip-hop culture…
Durham, Aisha S.
The film documentary titled "Hip Hop: beyond beats and rhymes" captures ongoing conversations among scholars, cultural critics, and hip hop insiders about the state of African Americans by interrogating distinct expressive forms associated with hip hop culture. Durham draws from two scenes to describe her memories as the researched…
Brown, Ruth Nicole, Ed.; Kwakye, Chamara Jewel, Ed.
"Wish To Live: The Hip-hop Feminism Pedagogy Reader" moves beyond the traditional understanding of the four elements of hip-hop culture--rapping, breakdancing, graffiti art, and deejaying--to articulate how hip-hop feminist scholarship can inform educational practices and spark, transform, encourage, and sustain local and global youth…
Gonzalo del Moral Arroyo
Full Text Available Los objetivos de este estudio son, en primer lugar, conocer la visión sobre el bullying que proporcionan las canciones de hip-hop en español sistematizando sus aportaciones de cara a un mejor aprovechamiento de las mismas como recurso educativo, y en segundo lugar, crear una lista de canciones de hip-hop en español que traten el tema del bullying con el fin de poder utilizarlas como herramientas preventivas en el trabajo con niños y adolescentes. Se propone un diseño cualitativo, analizando el contenido de las letras de las canciones siguiendo los pasos de la Teoría General Inductiva y complementándolo con el análisis cuantitativo de las visualizaciones de los vídeos de dichas canciones en Youtube. Se concluye que las canciones de hip-hop en español seleccionadas favorecen los procesos empáticos con la víctima al poner de manifiesto sus procesos de pensamiento y sus sentimientos así como fomentan entre los testigos el rol de defensor, connotando positivamente los valores implicados en la asunción del mismo.
Harakeh, Zeena; Bogt, Tom F M Ter
Music may influence young people's behavior through its lyrics. Substance use references occur more frequently in rap/hip-hop than in other music genres. The aim was to examine whether the exposure to rap/hip-hop lyrics referring to substance use affected cigarette smoking. An experiment with a 3-group between subject design was conducted among 74 daily-smoking young adults ranging in age from 17 to 25 years old. Three conditions were tested in a mobile lab (camper vehicle) from May to December 2011, i.e., regular chart pop music (N = 28), rap/hip-hop with non-frequent references to substance use (N = 24), and rap/hip-hop with frequent references to substance use (N = 22). One-way ANOVA showed that participants listening to substance use infused rap/hip-hop songs felt significantly less pleasant, liked the songs less, and comprehended the songs less compared to participants listening to pop songs. Poisson loglinear analyses revealed that compared to the pop music condition, none of the two rap/hip-hop music conditions had a significant effect on acute smoking. Thus, contrary to expectations, the two different rap/hip-hop conditions did not have a significantly different effect on acute smoking. Listening to rap/hip-hop, even rap hip/hop with frequent referrals to substance use (primarily alcohol and drug use, and general smoking referrals), does not seem to encourage cigarette smoking among Dutch daily-smoking young adults, at least short term.
Rumeenia sopran Nelly Miricioiu Vincenzo Bellini ooperi "Norma" nimiosas Nederlandse Operas Amsaterdamis 7.-28. märtsini. 4. märtsil Tallinna klubis Hollywood üritusel "Hip-Hop Café" New Yorgi duo Camp Lo. Ameerika poplaulja Madonna võttis vastu filmirolli
This article discusses the rich cultural resources embedded with German hip-hop music and its potential impact on the foreign language classroom. In particular, this article suggests methods and materials for integrating German hip-hop music in the discussion of recent controversial cultural events and attitudes in German after the "Wende."
The critiques of rap artists and other participants in hip-hop culture provide data for teachers and researchers to investigate the attitudes of US urban youth towards schooling. This study explores the complex relationships between hip-hop and science education by examining how rap lyrics project beliefs about schooling, the relevance of existing…
Sulé, V. Thandi
Sense of belonging is recognized as a factor contributing to persistence to graduation. Furthermore, interactional diversity is associated with learning and civic outcomes--touted higher education goals. Hip-hop culture, one of the most influential cultural creations of the mid-20th century, has succeeded in attracting devotees from diverse…
This article draws from a qualitative study often Black male K-12 teachers from the Hip Hop Generation who are closely connected to Hip Hop culture and have been effective in addressing the academic and social needs of Black boys. Through an analysis of their social, educational and cultural experiences, this article highlights three organizing…
Talley, Clarence, Sr.
Art has a way of helping students better understand and appreciate the world around them, particularly the things that are most important to them. Hip hop is one of those generational genres that capture the attention of young students like few other things do. Drawing on this genre to get students to create art is an excellent way to demonstrate…
Aleksandrova, Tatjana, 1945-
Erateatrikooli KS, mida juhib Svetlana Krassman, lavastus A. Pushkini poeemi "Jevgeni Onegin" motiividel. Noortelavastuse muusikalises seades kasutatakse klassikalise muusika aranzheeringuid ja räppi, kostüümidraamat koos hip-hop rõivastiiliga
Drawing on interviews with creators of Christian hip hop music in South Africa, this article demonstrates that this genre of popular music and youth culture is utilised as a form of pedagogy to transmit religious beliefs and values to contemporary youth. The pedagogical aspects of hip hop have been recognised in research on the topic, but the…
Full Text Available The article explores the trauma of the racist attacks of Hoyerswerda, Rostock-Lichtenhagen, Mölln and Solingen in the early 1990s and their impact on the Turkish community in Germany using the example of rap lyrics composed during those years. Hip-hop culture in Germany is primarily appropriated by male immigrant youths, especially with Turkish roots. During the first years of German rap (early 1990s, it is thus natural that the themes of the rappers were dominated by issues of social integration, multicultural coexistence and, after traumatic events of the racist attacks, of xenophobia and racism. After a short introduction to Turkish-German hip-hop culture (general features, social and cultural implications, Kanaksta Rap and the Kanak Attak community, the article provides some lyrics (in German and Turkish and an analysis of the reception of the attacks in German hip-hop culture, especially in the production of the rap formation Cartel, a merging of several hip-hop groups with mainly Turkish elements.
Maria Natália Matias-Rodrigues
Full Text Available Este trabajo es el resultado de una investigación realizada en la maestría en psicología donde discutimos la experiencia de mujeres jóvenes raperas. Partimos de un enfoque cualitativo para realizar: observaciones al Movimiento Hip Hop en la ciudad de Recife-Nordeste de Brasil; entrevistas semi-estructuradas a mujeres jóvenes raperas y análisis a diez composiciones de Rap producidas por mujeres. Percibimos en el Movimiento Hip Hop, que si bien valora la presencia de mujeres, todavía continúa reproduciendo discursos hegemónicos relacionados con las desigualdades de género. La participación de las mujeres en este Movimiento ha contribuido a desestabilizar la dicotomía público / privada; ellas, a través de sus músicas, consiguen espacios de visibilidad, pueden desafiar los códigos del género del Movimiento Hip Hop, proponiendo nuevas formas de pensar y de tener voz y voto, en una sociedad marcada por los valores machistas. Palabras clave autoras: movimiento hip hop.
Cristiano Nunes Alves
Full Text Available This paper examines the thickness of the circuit hip hop in the region of Campinas and it’s a part of an inventory made in fifteen cities of the region, between 2003 and 2005. The circuit hip hop growing in Campinas since the decade of 1980, and has been expanding in the context of urbanization and metropolis. We noticed some residual cultural component in places involves, among others, the alternative production involved by a technically and territorial division of labor spurred by circuits upside of information. The culture of the streets and these circuits, survive to the urban division and fragmentation. It is, therefore, a study of the region of Campinas as a place that houses technical, informational and communicational densities. We analyzed geographical conditions of contemporary life in this region, inquiring about the communication and the informational components in the use of the territory.
Full Text Available This essay examines Afro-Americanophilia in the German Democratic Republic by analyzing the cultural transfer of hip-hop between 1983 and 1990. It argues that the individuals who participated in this transfer from the United States into East Germany shared an appreciation of African Americans and Black culture and thus facilitated the import, growth, and dissemination of breakdance, graffiti, rap, and deejaying. Focusing on three individuals, it details the specific characteristics of their Afro-Americanophilia and scrutinizes their roles for the hip-hop scene in state socialism. While a cultural critic interpreted hip-hop as ‘second culture,’ which, according to Marxist-Leninist ideology, was to be endorsed as international working-class culture, a radio host from East Berlin spread information and music throughout the country, equipping the teenage audience with what they needed for their own practice of hip-hop. Finally, a look at a graffiti writer from Dresden shows how hip-hop artists imagined themselves into the community of hip-hop in New York City and fashioned themselves as Black youth living in the Bronx.
Jared A. Ball
Full Text Available Hip-hop remains a viable method for the teaching of radical theory, emancipatory journalism and Africana Media Theory. Fight Club is an emergent model that builds from existing hip-hop traditions of freetyle battling where critical thought and intellectual challenges of hueristic norms are upended. This article argues in favor of bringing the Fight Club model into the classroom which allows for heightened student engagement and the inclusion of radical theoretical approaches to the study of mass media, communication and journalism.
Robinson, Cendrine; Seaman, Elizabeth L; Montgomery, LaTrice; Winfrey, Adia
African-American children and adolescents experience an undue burden of disease for many health outcomes compared to their White peers. More research needs to be completed for this priority population to improve their health outcomes and ameliorate health disparities. Integrating hip hop music or hip hop dance into interventions may help engage African-American youth in health interventions and improve their health outcomes. We conducted a review of the literature to characterize hip hop interventions and determine their potential to improve health. We searched Web of Science, Scopus, PsycINFO, and EMBASE to identify studies that assessed hip hop interventions. To be included, studies had to (1) be focused on a psychosocial or physical health intervention that included hip hop and (2) present quantitative data assessing intervention outcomes. Twenty-three articles were identified as meeting all inclusion criteria and were coded by two reviewers. Articles were assessed with regards to sample characteristics, study design, analysis, intervention components, and results. Hip hop interventions have been developed to improve health literacy, health behavior, and mental health. The interventions were primarily targeted to African-American and Latino children and adolescents. Many of the health literacy and mental health studies used non-experimental study designs. Among the 12 (of 14) health behavior studies that used experimental designs, the association between hip hop interventions and positive health outcomes was inconsistent. The number of experimental hip hop intervention studies is limited. Future research is required to determine if hip hop interventions can promote health.
Ni dhahiri kuwa haki za kijamii zinaweza kuwasilishwa kwa jamii pana kupitia sanaa ya hip hop. Makala haya basi, yanabainisha dhima na mchango wa muziki wa hip hop katika masuala ya haki za kijamii, yanafafanua changamoto za muziki huu katika kuwasilisha haki za kijamii na kutoa mapendekezo kwa makundi ...
Price, Robert J., Jr.
Adult education instructors and administrators, who typically are not members of the hip hop generation, often have little knowledge and understanding of rap music (also known as gangsta rap) and hip hop culture, and consequently do not take the black popular cultural phenomenon seriously as it relates to adult education. Adult educators,…
Lauzon, Robb Conrad; Cooke, Laquana
This article addresses and explores hip-hop's reclamation of space using transit as a public bulletin. It is situated within counter-publics discourse and couched in the theoretical frameworks offered by visual rhetorical theory. This article also discusses hip-hop counter-publics through guerrilla advertising by former graffiti artists, SKI and…
Torrence, Michael L.
The purpose of this ethnographic study was to examine Hip Hop in Poland through the lens of multiliteracies and situated learning. This analysis is concerned with the transmission of Hip Hop to and within Wroclaw, Poland, and its acculturation and assimilation in Wroclaw, Poland. Further, this study seeks to illustrate how professional Polish Hip…
Gibson, W; Campbell, A; Allison, G
Motor output in activities such as walking and hopping is suggested to be mediated neurally by purported stretch reflex augmentation of muscle output. Reflex EMG activity during these tasks has been frequently investigated in the soleus muscle; with alterations in reflex amplitude being associated with changes in hip joint angle/phase of the gait cycle. Previous work has focussed on reflex activity induced by an artificial perturbation or by induction of H-reflexes. As such, it is currently unknown if stretch reflex activity induced intrinsically (as part of the task) is modulated by changes in hip joint angle. This study investigated whether hip joint angle modulated reflex EMG 'burst' activity during a hopping task performed on a custom-built partially reclined sleigh. Ten subjects participated; EMG and kinematic data (VICON motor capture system) was collected for each hop cycle. Participants completed 5 sets of 30s of self-paced hopping in (1) hip neutral and (2) hip 60° flexion conditions. There was no difference in EMG 'burst' activity or in sagittal plane kinematics (knee/ankle) in the hopping task between the two conditions. The results indicate that during a functional task such as hopping, changes in hip angle do not alter the stretch reflex-like activity associated with landing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
de Paor-Evans, Adam
When one considers music culture in Manchester during the 1980s and 1990s, Hip Hop is not an obvious cultural arena for discussion. However, amidst the spectacle of The Haçienda, the pop boom of Factory Records and the evolution of rave subculture and form of dance music which produced the pop cultural phenomenon of Madchester; in the space of music between The Fall and The Charlatans where brief stardom was found by Inspiral Carpets, Northside and Candyflip, Mancunian Hip Hop was also evolvi...
Current scholarship suggests that many youths identify with hip-hop, especially youths of color. Study of this artistic form has been suggested as a means of helping youths acquire and become fluent in literacy practices. This article explores how the use of a hip-hop literacies curriculum addressed the literacy skills of urban ninth-grade English…
Music listeners have difficulty correctly understanding and remembering song lyrics. However, results from the present study support the hypothesis that young adults can learn African-American English (AAE) vocabulary from listening to hip-hop music. Non-African-American participants first gave free-response definitions to AAE vocabulary items, after which they answered demographic questions as well as questions addressing their social networks, their musical preferences, and their knowledge of popular culture. Results from the survey show a positive association between the number of hip-hop artists listened to and AAE comprehension vocabulary scores. Additionally, participants were more likely to know an AAE vocabulary item if the hip-hop artists they listen to use the word in their song lyrics. Together, these results suggest that young adults can acquire vocabulary through exposure to hip-hop music, a finding relevant for research on vocabulary acquisition, the construction of adolescent and adult identities, and the adoption of lexical innovations.
Wessel, Roger D.; Wallaert, Kerry A.
This study sought to determine how identification and engagement with the hip hop culture influenced the educational experiences of undergraduate students at a Midwestern, predominately White university by interviewing 11 students who self-identified as being immersed in the hip hop culture. Through a qualitative, phenomenological investigation,…
Cermak, Michael J.
This essay describes an educational initiative that used environmentally themed (green) hip-hop to stimulate learning in an environmental science classroom. Students were then challenged to compose their own green hip-hop and their lyrics demonstrated skills that have thematic consistency around what is called a Critical Ecological Literacy (CEL).…
Full Text Available L’ouvrage de Loïc Lafargue de Grangeneuve s’inscrit dans une recherche amorcée dans le cadre de sa thèse, qui portait sur les processus d’institutionnalisation des cultures urbaines dans le champ des politiques culturelles. Son travail est centré sur l’interaction entre, d’une part, les représentants de la culture hip-hop (rap, slam, danse hip-hop, graffiti… et d’autre part les institutions publiques : directions régionales des affaires culturelles (DRAC, responsables de la politique de la ...
Nelson, Gregory M; Huffman, Holly; Smith, David F
Functional steroid receptor complexes are assembled and maintained by an ordered pathway of interactions involving multiple components of the cellular chaperone machinery. Two of these components, Hop and Hip, serve as co-chaperones to the major heat shock proteins (Hsps), Hsp70 and Hsp90, and participate in intermediate stages of receptor assembly. In an effort to better understand the functions of Hop and Hip in the assembly process, we focused on a region of similarity located near the C-terminus of each co-chaperone. Contained within this region is a repeated sequence motif we have termed the DP repeat. Earlier mutagenesis studies implicated the DP repeat of either Hop or Hip in Hsp70 binding and in normal assembly of the co-chaperones with progesterone receptor (PR) complexes. We report here that the DP repeat lies within a protease-resistant domain that extends to or is near the C-terminus of both co-chaperones. Point mutations in the DP repeats render the C-terminal regions hypersensitive to proteolysis. In addition, a Hop DP mutant displays altered proteolytic digestion patterns, which suggest that the DP-repeat region influences the folding of other Hop domains. Although the respective DP regions of Hop and Hip share sequence and structural similarities, they are not functionally interchangeable. Moreover, a double-point mutation within the second DP-repeat unit of Hop that converts this to the sequence found in Hip disrupts Hop function; however, the corresponding mutation in Hip does not alter its function. We conclude that the DP repeats are important structural elements within a C-terminal domain, which is important for Hop and Hip function.
College campuses have become rich sites of hip-hop culture and knowledge production. Despite the attention that campus personnel and researchers have paid to student life, the field of higher education has often misunderstood the ways that hip-hop culture exists in college students' lives. Based upon in-depth interviews, observations of…
German hip hop music has proved productive, especially since 2000 when rap in Germany experienced something like a first crisis. As a response, German hip hop artists and record labels have ventured off in several different directions including other musical genres, different topics, and new approaches to German rap. This article discusses the…
Travis, Raphael, Jr.; Deepak, Anne
Hip-hop culture can be used as a conduit to enhanced cultural competence and practice skills through the individual and community empowerment framework. This framework is introduced as a tool for direct practice that allows social workers to understand the competing messages within hip-hop culture and how they may impact youths by promoting or…
Muusika- ja kunstikarnevalist "Beta Bubble" 1. apr. Tallinnas Von Krahlis. Pärnu taasühinenud hip-hop-bänd Noizmakaz (TommyBoy ja Alko) sõlmis lepingu plaadifirmaga Mindnote ja annab selle alt apr. keskel välja oma teise albumi "Valitud mõtted".1. apr. tuleb müügile Noizmakazi singel "Miski muu ei loe", debüüt "Social Poetry" ilmus aastal 2001
Kline, Paul W; Burnham, Jeremy; Yonz, Michael; Johnson, Darren; Ireland, Mary Lloyd; Noehren, Brian
Quadriceps strength and single-leg hop performance are commonly evaluated prior to return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). However, few studies have documented potential hip strength deficits after ACLR, or ascertained the relative contribution of quadriceps and hip strength to hop performance. Patients cleared for return to sports drills after ACLR were compared to a control group. Participants' peak isometric knee extension, hip abduction, hip extension, and hip external rotation (HER) strength were measured. Participants also performed single-leg hops, timed hops, triple hops, and crossover hops. Between-limb comparisons for the ACLR to control limb and the non-operative limb were made using independent two-sample and paired sample t tests. Pearson's correlations and stepwise multiple linear regression were used to determine the relationships and predictive ability of limb strength, graft type, sex, and limb dominance to hop performance. Sixty-five subjects, 20 ACLR [11F, age 22.8 (15-45) years, 8.3 ± 2 months post-op, mass 70.47 ± 12.95 kg, height 1.71 ± 0.08 m, Tegner 5.5 (3-9)] and 45 controls [22F, age 25.8 (15-45) years, mass 74.0 ± 15.2 kg, height 1.74 ± 0.1 m, Tegner 6 (3-7)], were tested. Knee extension (4.4 ± 1.5 vs 5.4 ± 1.8 N/kg, p = 0.02), HER (1.4 ± 0.4 vs 1.7 ± 0.5 N/kg, p = 0.04), single-leg hop (146 ± 37 vs 182 ± 38% limb length, p hop (417 ± 106 vs 519 ± 102% limb length, p hop (3.3 ± 2.0 vs 2.3 ± 0.6 s, p hop (364 ± 107 vs 446 ± 123% limb length, p = 0.01) were significantly impaired in the operative versus control subject limbs. Similar deficits existed between the operative and non-operative limbs. Knee extension and HER strength were significantly correlated with each of the hop tests, but only HER significantly predicted hop performance. After ACLR, patients have persistent HER strength, knee extension strength, and hop test deficits in the
Full Text Available The notion of a musical repertoire's "sound" is frequently evoked in journalism and scholarship, but what parameters comprise such a sound? This question is addressed through a statistically-driven corpus analysis of hip-hop music released during the genre's Golden Age era. The first part of the paper presents a methodology for developing, transcribing, and analyzing a corpus of 100 hip-hop tracks released during the Golden Age. Eight categories of aurally salient musical and production parameters are analyzed: tempo, orchestration and texture, harmony, form, vocal and lyric profiles, global and local production effects, vocal doubling and backing, and loudness and compression. The second part of the paper organizes the analysis data into three trend categories: trends of change (parameters that change over time, trends of prevalence (parameters that remain generally constant across the corpus, and trends of similarity (parameters that are similar from song to song. These trends form a generalized model of the Golden Age hip-hop sound which considers both global (the whole corpus and local (unique songs within the corpus contexts. By operationalizing "sound" as the sum of musical and production parameters, aspects of popular music that are resistant to traditional music-analytical methods can be considered.
This article introduces a dance that blends the traditional cultural heritage of the Philippines with modern music and moves. "Hip Hop Stick Dance" incorporates Tinikling (the Philippine national dance) and Arnis (a Filipino style of martial arts) to create a contemporary combination of rhythm, dance, and fitness. It was designed to introduce…
Tatiana Verônica Bezerra Galvão
Full Text Available O hip hop surge no Brasil na década de 80, firmando-se com um conjunto depropostas estéticas e políticas construídas a partir da periferia e voltadas para a reflexãoda realidade de miséria e exclusão social a que está submetida. A proposta é fazer ecoaro descontentamento que sempre existiu por meio de produções artísticas que têm acomunidade e seus problemas como protagonistas. Além de recusar estigmas comomarginalidade e violência, o hip hop acredita e investe na informação como caminhopara uma vida mais significativa. Para torná-la acessível à comunidade, ele vempassando por um processo de organização tal que permite o desenvolvimento e arealização de vários projetos sociais de cunho educativo.
Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A; Castellanos, Daniel H; Haliburton, Chanel S; del Aguila, Ernesto Vasquez; Weinstein, Hannah J; Parker, Richard G
We explored how young men's perceptions of and participation in hip hop culture--urban social and artistic expressions, such as clothing style, breakdancing, graffiti, and rap music--and how contextual factors of the hip hop scene may be associated with their condom use, condom-use self-efficacy, and sense of community. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 95 African American and Latino men aged 15 to 25 years as part of a 4-year ethnographic study in New York City. Differences in young men's perceptions of and levels of affiliation with hip hop culture were not statistically associated with differences in their sense of community or condom-use self-efficacy. Frequency of participation in the hip hop nightclub scene was the strongest factor negatively associated with condom use. Popular discourses on young men's health risks often blame youths' cultures such as the hip hop culture for increased risk practices but do not critically examine how risk emerges in urban young men's lives and what aspects of youths' culture can be protective. Further research needs to focus on contextual factors of risk such as the role of hip hop nightlife on increased HIV risk.
Love, Bettina L.
Hip hop music and culture have a complex identity in that hip hop is based in self-determination, resistance, and the long enduring fight for Black freedom, but was also created alongside the seductiveness of the material and psychological conditions of capitalism, sexism, and patriarchy. Hip hop pedagogy (HHP) as a pedagogical framework is…
Using daily experiences and existing identities as the subject matter, a hip-hop-centered class encourages students to develop a critical lens so that they can "envision a social order which supports their full humanity" (Shor, 1987, p. 48) and embraces the idea that hip-hop culture provides context for students to develop critical…
Henry, Wilma J.
The popularity of hip-hop among young Black college women, coupled with the deluge of negative and positive messages in this culture regarding these women's identity, signals an opportunity for the arrival of a contemporary, culturally relevant epistemology--hip-hop feminism. Through the lens of Black feminist theory, this article explores hip-hop…
Much more than a musical genre, hip-hop culture exists as an animating force in the lives of many young adults. This article looks beyond the moral concerns often associated with rap music to explore how hip-hop as a larger set of expressions and practices implicates the educational experiences, activities, and approaches for students. The article…
Kim, Jung; Pulido, Isaura
Culturally relevant pedagogy is a framework that conceptualizes the process of student learning as contingent upon educators' deep understanding of students' cultural backgrounds to co-construct knowledge and develop academic skills. Concurrently, there are a growing number of studies that explore hip-hop as a culturally relevant curriculum for…
Üheksandat korda toimuvast rahvusvahelisest tantsulaagrist ja tänavakultuuri tutvustavast noortelaagrist Camp of Hip-Hop, mis toimub Lääne Virumaal Käsmus. 28. juunil toimub kõigile huvilistele meelelahutusüritus Camp of Hip-Hop Championships, kus näitavad oma tantsuoskusi laagris osalejad ja maailmas tunnustatud koreograafid
Lawson, Carl J
The deaths of American hip-hop and rap recording artists often receive considerable media attention. However, these artists' deaths have not been examined as a distinct group like the deaths of rock, classical, jazz, and pop music artists. This is a seminal epidemiological analysis on the deaths of an understudied group, American hip-hop and rap music recording artists. Media reports were analyzed of the deaths of American hip-hop and rap music recording artists that occurred from January 1, 1987 to December 31, 2014. The decedents' age, sex, race, cause of death, stage names, and city and state of death were recorded for analysis. The most commonly reported cause of death was homicide. The 280 deaths were categorized as homicide (55%), unintentional injury (13%), cardiovascular (7%), undetermined/undisclosed (7%), cancer (6%), other (5%), suicide (4%), and infectious disease (3%). The mean reported age at death was 30 yrs (range 15-75) and the median was 29 yrs; 97% were male and 92% were black. All but one of the homicides were committed with firearms. Homicide was the most commonly reported cause of death. Public health focus and guidance for hip-hop and rap recording artists should mirror that for African-American men and adolescent males ages 15-54 yrs, for whom the leading causes of death are homicide, unintentional injury, and heart disease. Given the preponderance of homicide deaths in this analysis, premature mortality reduction efforts should focus on violence prevention and conflict mitigation.
Irby, Decoteau J.; Petchauer, Emery; Kirkland, David
Education scholars and practitioners have much to learn about engagement and motivation of Black males by directing their inquiries to more organic sites of hip-hop cultural production outside of schools. One such site is the hip-hop's informal labor economy where Black males engage in earning money through hip-hop cultural production. Labor…
Full Text Available The effervescence of organizational movements around the cultural practices of Hip Hop in the Valley of Aburrá, alternatives are thought of together and to propose structural changes to their environments, from social interventions with communities’ ways. That is why we consider it necessary to make a tour of the historical and social factors that have shaped what we now know as Hip Hop Culture, to generate with this a picture of their impact on the cultural scene at local and national level.
Prompted by a moment in the classroom in which the DJ becomes integral for the writing instructor, this article looks at how the hip-hop DJ and hip-hop DJ/Producer become the intrinsic examples for first-year college writing students to think about how they conduct revision in their writing. After a review of two seminal hip-hop books and other…
Coleman, M Nicole; Butler, Ebony O; Long, Amanda M; Fisher, Felicia D
Hip-hop media and Black-oriented reality television are powerful mechanisms for conveying and promoting stereotypes of Black women. Black women's sexuality is frequently presented as highly-salient in each medium. However, little is known about the impact of those images on Black women's sexuality and identity. The current study uses focus-group methodology to engage young adult Black in critical discussion of two predominant sexual scripts found in hip-hop music and Black-oriented reality television - the Freak and the Gold Digger. Analyses revealed shared and distinct aspects of each sexual script represented in both media and the impact of those scripts on participants' experiences. Implications for future research are discussed.
Söderman, Johan; Sernhede, Ove
Since hip-hop first appeared in New York over 35 years ago, it has been associated with social activism and education. Accordingly, it is not surprising that academic institutions in universities and K-12 schools are interested in hip-hop. In this article, we will highlight the "hip-hop academisation" and map out a new direction in a…
Full Text Available Este artigo propõe observar elementos gerais referentes à construção de um estilo de vida hip-hop em termos de suas origens históricas de uma cultura planetária e, em especial, como fator preponderante para a configuração geracional. Para isso, se discute algumas trajetórias biográficas concernentes a uma configuração da cultura hip-hop vivenciada por jovens do Distrito Federal, compreendida como mecanismo produtor de orientações coletivas para uma determinada visão de mundo.This article observes some general elements about the construction of hip hop's life style in terms of its historical origins of a planetary culture and in special, as around the young culture as preponderant factor for the generation configuration. Consequently, this paper analises some biographical trajectories about the configuration of the hip-hop culture lived deeply by young people in Brasilia (Federal Distric - Brazil, understood as a mechanism of its collective social role and vision of world.
Henry, Wilma J.; West, Nicole M.; Jackson, Andrea
This article explores unique issues regarding the effects of hip-hop culture on the identity development of young Black female college students. Through the lenses of womanist and Black feminist perspectives, the intersecting impact of race and gender are reviewed within the context of the competing influences of hip-hop on Black female identity.…
This paper is based on an exploration of communication and argumentation in urban science classrooms, and provides a description of the role that Hip-hop based education plays in supporting these major components of science education. The paper is intended to both support, and critique conventional uses of hip-hop based education, and provide…
This study illustrates a set of learning activities designed from two hip-hop aesthetics and explores their use among a classroom of African American preservice teachers who graduated from urban school districts. Based on the two hip-hop aesthetics of kinetic consumption and autonomy/distance, the specific goal of these learning activities is to…
Kelly, Lauren Leigh
This article explores the ways in which females who identify with hip-hop often develop and construct their identities in relation to media representations of blackness and femininity in hip-hop music and culture. In order for educators to support female students in constructing identities of empowerment and agency, they should be willing and able…
Irby, Decoteau J.; Hall, H. Bernard
Grounded in critical and culturally relevant theory, hip-hop-based education (HHBE) research documents the use of hip-hop in educational settings. Despite the richness of the emerging field, overreliance on teacher-researcher perspectives leaves much to be desired. Little is known of the extent and ways HHBE is used by nonresearching K-12…
Jaileila de Araújo Menezes
Full Text Available Este trabalho resulta de estudo de caso e pretende compreender como vem ocorrendo o diálogo entre a escola pública e o movimento hip hop, considerando-se os desafios para a construção de práticas educativas significativas para a juventude. Trata do caráter educativo do movimento, a partir das dimensões de construção da cidadania, da cultura política, da configuração do cenário sociopolítico e econômico, da subjetividade e da organização política. Para isso, acompanharam-se atividades desenvolvidas em uma crew do movimento, localizada em um bairro periférico da cidade de Recife, e a prática educativa desse movimento no contexto escolar circunscrito no Programa Escola Aberta. Visualizou-se, na experiência do movimento hip hop no programa, uma oportunidade de aprendizagem para a escola, no sentido de contextualizar seus saberes, de modo a ganhar maior adesão da comunidade escolar, em especial dos jovens. Nesse sentido, encontraram-se duas modalidades de apropriação das práticas educativas do movimento pela escola: instrumental e pedagógica, que sinalizam para a necessidade de inserção do programa na política educacional e nos projetos político-pedagógicos. Com o acompanhamento das atividades e as entrevistas, pôde-se problematizar a interface educação-segurança presente no programa como fator limitante para os aprendizados de participação esperados para a escola pública em contexto democrático. Evidencia-se essa situação nas oficinas de hip hop, em que jovens com a tarefa de educar outros jovens deparam-se com esse dilema ou simplesmente sucumbem a uma política que despotencializa suas práticas educativas. This paper results from a case study and aims to understand how there has been dialogue between the public school and hip hop movement, considering the challenges to building meaningful educational practices for youth. We treat the character education movement from the dimensions of the construction of
Baszile, Denise Taliaferro
Although hip hop culture has been one of the most significant urban youth movements over the last three decades, it has only recently gained attention within the educational literature as a force to be reckoned with. And even then, much of the literature seeks to understand how hip hop can be used to engage students in the official school…
Cristiano Tierno Siqueira
Full Text Available The objective of this inquiry was to understand and systemize the Educative Processes that characterize Practical the Social one of the Hip Hop of the city of São Carlos, interior of São Paulo; as these young ones if educate and as they educate other people of its communities, longing for to contribute for the valuation of the Movements of Youth and for the elaboration of politics that consider them. For in such a way, we follow some of its activities, as periodic weekly meetings, artistic events, educative activities and parties. The analysis of the data disclosed to some values gifts in the life of these people, as the love for what it becomes, the not arrogant, the necessity of the collective work, the responsibility and the belonging to a community. The men and the women of the Hip Hop invite-in opening the doors of the Schools and University, so that in we let us exempt them of the preconceptions that we construct every day, so that we learn with young of the Hip Hop, as well as with other people who fight for worthy conditions of life. We believe that this inquiry brings contributions to think the education that characterize Practical Social in not-pertaining to school spaces, as well as to rethink the education in the pertaining to school spaces.
Rodrigo Lages e Silva
Full Text Available Este artigo faz uma revisão das pesquisas acadêmicas sobre o Hip Hop, apontando a preponderância do conceito de identidade nas referidas teorizações. Neste sentido, pretende-se contextualizar a ascensão do conceito de identidade nas visões sobre o Hip Hop, em direção a sua conjugação com o conceito de cidadania. Tal lógica identitária está intimamente ligada à construção da noção de categorias desviantes. Forjada sob o pano de fundo da urbanização, a lógica identitária é a expressão acadêmica de uma racionalidade a que denominamos de paradigma preventivo, cuja função é antecipar-se a uma eventual potência violenta que os jovens moradores de periferia representariam. Portanto, trata-se de entender a fabricação do subúrbio e da juventude como problema social, analisando, assim, as concepções que dão sustentação aos ideais corretivos e moralizantes que as abordagens sobre o Hip Hop expressam através de uma ênfase nos seus benefícios identitários.
Priscila Saemi Matsunaga
Full Text Available Este artigo discute as representações sociais da mulher construídas pelo movimento hip hop. Este movimento constitui-se como uma possibilidade de manifestação política de jovens, bem como uma possibilidade de produção artística que, se inicialmente esteve mais presente em espaços não institucionalizados e voltados para a população que vive na periferia, atualmente é consumido por jovens de camadas econômicas distintas. A participação de mulheres, porém, ainda não é significativa (ainda que existam mulheres participando e ouve-se frequentemente músicas (ou raps que veiculam imagens negativas da mulher. Este estudo, portanto, analisa as representações sociais da mulher que estão presentes em letras de rap, problematizando como estas representações constroem, socialmente, modos de "ser" mulher.This paper discusses woman's social representations constructed by the hip-hop movement. This movement constitutes a possibility of younger generations to politically manifest themselves, as well as a possibility of artistic production that at the start was more present in non-institutionalized spaces and aimed at the populations living in marginal districts, it is now being currently consumed by youths of distinct social classes. However, the participation of women has not been significant (even though there are women taking part, and frequently negative images of women are conveyed from these songs (or raps. Thus, this study analyses the woman's social representations which are in rap lyrics, querying how such representations have built social ways of "being" a woman.
Premkumar, Ashish; Brown, Katherine; Mengesha, Biftu; Jackson, Andrea V
To evaluate the representation of abortion in contemporary hip-hop music, gaining insight into the myriad of attitudes of abortion in the black community. We used Genius, an online storehouse for lyrical content, to identify songs by querying the database for search terms related to family planning, including slang terms. We then cross-referenced identified songs using an online list of songs about abortion. We analyzed eligible songs using grounded theory in order to identify key themes. Of 6577 songs available, a total of 101 songs performed by 122 individual artists met inclusion criteria. The majority of artists were Black men; five artists were Black women. Key themes were: use of abortion as braggadocio; equating abortion with sin, genocide, or murder; male pressure for women to seek abortion; and the specific association of Planned Parenthood services with abortion. The moral and ethical themes surrounding abortion in hip-hop lyrics reveal a unique perspective within a marginalized community. The overall negative context of abortion in hip-hop lyrics needs to be reconciled with the gendered, economic, historical, political, racial and ethnic background of hip-hop and rap music in America. This study is the first to evaluate lyrical content from contemporary popular music in relation to abortion and family planning. Examining the intersection of reproductive rights and popular culture can provide a unique insight into the limited knowledge of the perspectives of abortion in the black community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Craig, Todd; Kynard, Carmen
This article seeks to introduce and situate a seldom-explored subject: the role and contribution of women hip-hop deejays in the testosterone-filled genre called hip-hop. Grounding the analysis in the interviews of six women deejays--Spinderella, Kuttin Kandi, Pam the Funkstress, Reborn, Shorty Wop and Natasha Diggs--"Sista Girl Rock"…
Tate, Jeremiah; Suckut, Tell; Wages, Jensen; Lyles, Heather; Perrin, Benjamin
Only a small amount of evidence exists linking hip abductor weakness to dynamic knee valgus during static and dynamic activities. The associations of hip extensor strength and hip kinematics during the landing of a single leg hop are not known. Purpose: To determine if relationships exist between hip extensor and abductor strength and hip kinematics in both involved and uninvolved limb during the landing phase of a single leg hop in recreational athletes post anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The presence of similar associations was also evaluated in healthy recreational athletes. Controlled Laboratory Study; Cross-sectional. Twenty-four recreational college-aged athletes participated in the study (12 post ACL reconstruction; 12 healthy controls). Sagittal and frontal plane hip kinematic data were collected for five trials during the landing of a single leg hop. Hip extensor and abductor isometric force production was measured using a hand-held dynamometer and normalized to participants' height and weight. Dependent and independent t-tests were used to analyze for any potential differences in hip strength or kinematics within and between groups, respectively. Pearson's r was used to demonstrate potential associations between hip strength and hip kinematics for both limbs in the ACL group and the right limb in the healthy control group. Independent t-tests revealed that participants post ACL reconstruction exhibited less hip extensor strength (0.18 N/Ht*BW vs. 0.25 N/Ht*BW, p=hip adduction (9.0 º vs. 0.8 º, p=hip extensor strength and maximum hip abduction/adduction angle in the involved limb. A moderate and direct relationship between hip abductor strength and maximum hip flexion angle was demonstrated in the both the involved ( r =.62) and uninvolved limb ( r =.65, p=.02). No significant associations were demonstrated between hip extensor or abductor strength and hip flexion and/or abduction/adduction angles in the healthy group. The
Williams, Olajide; DeSorbo, Alexandra; Noble, James; Gerin, William
Low thrombolysis rates for acute ischemic stroke are linked to delays in seeking immediate treatment due to low public stroke awareness. We aimed to assess whether "Child-Mediated Stroke Communication" could improve stroke literacy of parents of children enrolled in a school-based stroke literacy program called Hip Hop Stroke. Parents of children aged 9 to 12 years from 2 public schools in Harlem, New York City, were recruited to participate in stroke literacy questionnaires before and after their child's participation in Hip Hop Stroke, a novel Child-Mediated Stroke Communication intervention delivered in school auditoriums. Parental recall of stroke information communicated through their child was assessed 1-week after the intervention. Fifth and sixth grade students (n=182) were enrolled into Hip Hop Stroke. One hundred two parents were approached in person to participate; 75 opted to participate and 71 completed both the pretest and post-test (74% response rate and 95% retention rate). Parental stroke literacy improved after the program; before the program, 3 parents of 75 (3.9%) were able to identify the 5 cardinal stroke symptoms, distracting symptom (chest pains), and had an urgent action plan (calling 911) compared with 21 of 71 parents (29.6%) postintervention (P<0.001). The FAST mnemonic was known by 2 (2.7%) of participants before the program versus 29 (41%) after program completion (P<0.001). Knowledge of stroke signs and symptoms remains low among residents of this high-risk population. The use of Child-Mediated Stroke Communication suggests that school children aged 9 to 12 years may be effective conduits of critical stroke knowledge to their parents.
Norton, Nadjwa E. L.
In this article, the author combines multicultural feminist critical theories with the voices of Black and Latina/Latino young spiritual children to extend culturally responsive teaching. The author illuminates how children use their hip-hop writing to construct themselves as people who communicate with God, choose spiritual content for their…
Carin Carrer Gomes
Full Text Available Among the informational and corporative uses of São Paulo city and also its fragmentations, the Hip Hop movement emerged in 1980s brings new possibilities of using objects and actions that form the São Paulo city. Therefore, in the scrutiny here presented we sought to comprehend how a territory prepared to the capitalist interests hold and strengthen the emergence of movements such as the Hip Hop that favors the fusion of territorial corporative relationships to the shortage produced in those places, valuating and casting the conscience of using the territory by the place and culture.
Wilson, Jonathan A.J.
Whilst academic marketing literature exists on the value of Hip-Hop as a marketing tool, there appears to be less on Hip-Hop’s philosophical roots and why it proves to be so effective. This study attempts to fill this gap, investigating the apparent natural synergy with brand theory – in that they are both able to captivate and engage consumer-centric sub-cultural groups. Findings indicate that Brands and Hip-Hop weave themselves into the fabrics of society - creating social capital and provi...
Itoh, Hiromitsu; Takiguchi, Kohei; Shibata, Yohei; Okubo, Satoshi; Yoshiya, Shinichi; Kuroda, Ryosuke
[Purpose] Kinematic and kinetic characteristics of the limb during side-hopping and hip/knee interaction during this motion have not been clarified. The purposes of this study were to examine the biomechanical parameters of the knee during side hop and analyze its relationship with clinical measurements of hip function. [Subjects and Methods] Eleven male college rugby players were included. A three-dimensional motion analysis system was used to assess motion characteristics of the knee during side hop. In addition, hip range of motion and muscle strength were evaluated. Subsequently, the relationship between knee motion and the clinical parameters of the hip was analyzed. [Results] In the lateral touchdown phase, the knee was positioned in an abducted and externally rotated position, and increasing abduction moment was applied to the knee. An analysis of the interaction between knee motion and hip function showed that range of motion for hip internal rotation was significantly correlated with external rotation angle and external rotation/abduction moments of the knee during the lateral touchdown phase. [Conclusion] Range of motion for hip internal rotation should be taken into consideration for identifying the biomechanical characteristics in the side hop test results.
The influence of hip hop culture and music on African-American youth is profound and can be used as a tool to shape positive outcomes in education. Hip hop has been used effectively in the classroom to engage students and enhance their critical thinking (Gangloff-Bailey & Freeman, 2014). In addition, hip hop has been described as a socializer…
Kruse, Adam J.
This article focuses on a hip-hop perspective of school, schooling, and school music. The study involves applications of ethnographic (including autoethnographic) techniques within the framework of a holistic multiple case study. One case is an adult amateur hip-hop musician named Terrence (pseudonym), and the other is myself (a traditionally…
José Alberto Simões
Full Text Available Com o presente artigo pretende-se abordar o modo como a chamada cultura hip-hop, ainda que propagada globalmente, pode ser adoptada e adaptada ao nível local, produzindo desta forma simultaneamente convergência e divergência cultural. O foco desta análise será o percurso e a construção identitária de diversos protagonistas desta cultura, em torno de três dimensões interligadas: a etnicidade, a classe e o género. Para além de uma discussão teórica inicial sobre o modo como estas dimensões têm sido abordadas, pretende-se apresentar igualmente dados empíricos provenientes de uma pesquisa etnográfica realizada em Portugal, mais especificamente na área metropolitana da cidade de Lisboa. As conclusões a que se chegaram, ainda que específicas e contextuais, apresentam afinidades com outras sobre fenómenos idênticos, revelando-se importantes para a compreensão destas práticas e respectivas interpretações em diferentes contextos nacionais.With the present article we intend to explore the way the so called hip-hop culture, although globally available, tends to be adopted and adapted at a local level, hence creating both cultural convergence and divergence. The focus of this analysis will be the trajectory and identity construction of several hip-hop protagonists, considering three entwined dimensions: ethnicity, class and gender. Besides an initial theoretical discussion regarding the relevance of these dimensions, we also intend to present findings from an ethnographic research conducted in Portugal, more specifically in the metropolitan area of Lisbon. These results, although specific and contextual, show resemblance with other similar phenomena, thus being helpful in understanding these practices and corresponding interpretations throughout different national contexts.
Rowland, Ronald K.
Research historically has demonstrated that a generational disconnect between the popular cultures from which students and teachers define normative behavior can impact classroom management and student learning. The purpose of this study was to examine attitudes, beliefs and perceptions of high school faculty toward the hip-hop culture and its…
Kim, Sungwoon; Kim, Jingu
To investigate the potential psychological benefits of brief exercise and sport activities on positive mood alterations, 45 Korean high school and 232 undergraduate students enrolled in physical education and stress management classes voluntarily participated and were randomly assigned to one of four activities: aerobic exercise, body conditioning, hip-hop dancing, and ice skating. Mood changes from before to after exercise (2 pm to 3 pm) were measured based on a Korean translation of the Subjective Exercise Experiences Scale. The findings suggested that the aerobics and hip-hop dancing groups rated positive well-being higher than the body conditioning and ice skating groups. Immediately after exercise, psychological distress was rated lower in the aerobics and hip-hop dancing groups, as was fatigue.
Turner-Musa, Jocelyn O; Rhodes, Warren A; Harper, P Thandi Hicks; Quinton, Sylvia L
Substance use and HIV risk behaviors are increasing among African-American youth. Interventions that incorporate youth values and beliefs are needed to reduce this trajectory. Hip-hop plays an important role in the lives of many African-American youth and provides a context within which to prevent risky behaviors. The current study examines the efficacy of a hip-hop based substance use and HIV preventive intervention that targets African-American middle-school youth. The sample consists of 68 middle-school students who completed baseline and 6-month follow-up assessments. Findings suggest that students in the intervention group were significantly more likely to have higher knowledge of perception of drug risk and more knowledge about HIV/AIDS compared to students in the comparison group at the 6-month post-intervention assessment. Discussion is centered on implications of hip-hop as a viable approach for preventing substance use and HIV within a high-risk group.
Rodriguez, Louie F.
Hip hop culture is typically excluded from conventional educational spaces within the U.S. Drawing on the experiences of an educator who works with urban high school students and university level pre- and in-service educators, this article examines the role of hip hop culture for student engagement in two settings--an alternative high school…
Adjapong, Edmund S.
This dissertation explores the context of urban science education as it relates to the achievement and engagement of urban youth. This study provides a framework for Hip-Hop Pedagogy, an approach to teaching and learning anchored in the creative elements of Hip-Hop culture, in STEM as an innovative approach to teaching and learning demonstrates…
Adjapong, Edmund S.
This dissertation explores the context of urban science education as it relates to the achievement and engagement of urban youth. This study provides a framework for Hip-Hop Pedagogy, an approach to teaching and learning anchored in the creative elements of Hip-Hop culture, in STEM as an innovative approach to teaching and learning demonstrates the effect that Hip-Hop Pedagogy, as a culturally relevant approach to teaching has on teaching and learning in an urban science classroom. This study establishes practical tools and approaches, which were formed from by theory and research that transcend the traditional monolithic approaches to teaching science. Participants in this study are middle school students who attend an urban school in one of the largest school systems in the country. This research showed that as result of utilizing Hip-Hop pedagogical practices, students reported that they developed a deeper understanding of science content, students were more likely to identify as scientists, and students were provided a space and opportunities to deconstruct traditional classroom spaces and structures.
Barrabés, Esther; Cors, Josep Maria; Pinyol, Conxita; Soler, Jaume
Hip-hop solutions of the 2N-body problem with equal masses are shown to exist using an analytic continuation argument. These solutions are close to planar regular 2N-gon relative equilibria with small vertical oscillations. For fixed N, an infinity of these solutions are three-dimensional choreographies, with all the bodies moving along the same closed curve in the inertial frame.
Willigenburg, Nienke; Hewett, Timothy E
To define the relationship between Functional Movement Screen (FMS) scores and hop performance, hip strength, and knee strength in collegiate football players. Cross-sectional cohort. Freshmen of a Division I collegiate American football team (n = 59). The athletes performed the FMS, and also a variety of hop tests, isokinetic knee strength, and isometric hip strength tasks. We recorded total FMS score, peak strength, and hop performance, and we calculated asymmetries between legs on the different tasks. Spearman correlation coefficients quantified the relationships between these measures, and χ analyses compared the number of athletes with asymmetries on the different tasks. We observed significant correlations (r = 0.38-0.56, P ≤ 0.02) between FMS scores and hop distance but not between FMS scores and hip or knee strength (all P ≥ 0.21). The amount of asymmetry on the FMS test was significantly correlated to the amount of asymmetry on the timed 6-m hop (r = 0.44, P hip or knee strength asymmetries between limbs (all P ≥ 0.34). Functional Movement Screen score was positively correlated to hop distance, and limb asymmetry in FMS tasks was correlated to limb asymmetry in 6-m hop time in football players. No significant correlations were observed between FMS score and hip and knee strength or between FMS asymmetry and asymmetries in hip and knee strength between limbs. These results indicate that a simple hop for distance test may be a time-efficient and cost-efficient alternative to FMS testing in athletes and that functional asymmetries between limbs do not coincide with strength asymmetries.
Sulé, Venice Thandi
Given the prevalence of racial segregation in the U.S., college is an opportunity to prepare students for diversity through cross-racial interaction. Hip-hop, a culture steeped in black and Latino experiences, has significant white supporters. Through diversity and critical whiteness frameworks, this research considers how white hip-hop collegians…
Prier, Darius D.
"Culturally Relevant Teaching" centers hip-hop culture as a culturally relevant form of critical pedagogy in urban pre-service teacher education programs. In this important book, Darius D. Prier explores how hip-hop artists construct a sense of democratic education and pedagogy with transformative possibilities in their schools and communities. In…
Garley, Matthew E.
The influence of English on German has been an ongoing subject of intense popular and academic interest in the German sphere. In order to better understand this language contact situation, this research project investigates anglicisms--instances of English language material in a German language context--in the German hip hop community, where the…
Straddling between the purely political and the poetically artistic, I am arguing, is a Global Hip-Hop Nation (GHHN), which is yet to be charted and its cartography is yet to be demarcated. Taking two examples, the first a Hip-Hop song from within the Arab Spring and the second from the "favelas" in Brazil, my intent is to show what…
Ross, Jasmine N; Coleman, Nicole M
Concerns have been expressed in the common discourse and scholarly literature about the negative influence of Hip-Hop on its young listeners' ideas about sex and sexuality. Most of the scholarly literature has focused on the impact of this urban, Black media on young African American girls' sexual self-concept and behaviours. In response to this discourse, Stephens and Phillips (2003) proposed a Hip-Hop sexual scripting model that theorises about specific sexual scripts for young African American women. Their model includes eight different sexual scripts including the Gold Digger script. The present study proposes a ninth emerging script - the Video Girl. Participants were 18 female African American college students, between the ages of 18 and 30 years old from a large urban public university in the Southwest USA. Using q-methodology the present study found support for the existence of a Video Girl script. In addition, the data indicates that this script is distinct but closely related to Stephens and Phillips' Gold Digger script. These findings support their theory by suggesting that Hip-Hop sexual scripts are salient and hold real meaning for this sample.
López, R. D.; Heraldo, S. E.; Nawman, M. A.; Gerry, V. R.; Gerry, M. A.
Professionals and educators in the science, technology, engineering, art, and mathematics (STEAM) field rely heavily on scientific communication to convey innovations, concepts, and evidence-based policy. The geosciences presents itself as a unique field to communicate respective scientific endeavors, as research efforts have direct impacts on the Earth's resources and understanding natural processes. Several of the authors have previously composed musical pieces that integrated Earth Sciences with music, utilizing this as mechanism to not only foster creativity, but to also establish more dynamic outreach efforts. Unfortunately, geoscience does not readily present itself as a field that is easily accessible to minorities - particularly women, people of color, and those from disadvantaged communities. However, music is somewhat of a universal form of communication that is accessible to everyone. It is through the intersection of hip-hop and geoscience, that topics can be introduced to communities in unique ways. Flows in Hydrogeology was a previous project that several of the authors produced as a means to connect with youth who identify with the hip-hop community, while encouraging inquiry in the STEAM fields. Several of the authors grew up and still reside in some of the most violent cities in the United States of America. The authors have utilized their respective backgrounds in both upbringing and career endeavors to help bridge the gap between science and disadvantaged communities. The musical piece, Changes in the Climate, illustrates the power of understanding the changes in one's life and surrounding world via delivery of concepts with hip-hop and rap. Therefore this musical composition not only integrates STEAM and music, but also serves as mechanism for outreach and encouraging diversity. Such actions could yield the success of accessing untapped potential, while fostering unique opportunities for future collaboration between professionals in geoscience
Kea, J; Kramer, J; Forwell, L; Birmingham, T
Single group, test-retest. To determine: (1) hip abduction and adduction torques during concentric and eccentric muscle actions, (2) medial and lateral one-leg hop distances, (3) the test-retest reliability of these measurements, and (4) the relationship between isokinetic measures of hip muscle strength and hop distances in elite ice hockey players. The skating motion used in ice hockey requires strong contractions of the hip and knee musculature. However, baseline scores for hip strength and hop distances, their test-retest reliability, and measures of the extent to which these tests are related for this population are not available. The dominant leg of 27 men (mean age 20 +/- 3 yrs) was tested on 2 occasions. Hip abduction and adduction movements were completed at 60 degrees.s(-1) angular velocity, with the subject lying on the non-test side and the test leg moving vertically in the subject's coronal plane. One-leg hops requiring jumping from and landing on the same leg without losing balance were completed in the medial and lateral directions. Hip adduction torques were significantly greater than abduction torques during both concentric and eccentric muscle actions, while no significant difference was observed between medial and lateral hop distances. Although hop test scores produced excellent ICCs (> 0.75) when determined using scores on 1 occasion, torques needed to be averaged over 2 test occasions to reach this level. Correlations between the strength and hop tests ranged from slight to low (r = -0.26 to 0.27) and were characterized by wide 95% confidence intervals (-0.54 to 0.61). Isokinetic tests of hip abduction and adduction did not provide a strong indication of performance during sideways hop tests. Although isokinetic tests can provide a measure of muscular strength under specific test conditions, they should not be relied upon as a primary indicator of functional abilities or readiness to return to activity.
Hallman, Heidi L.
This article provides a rich representation of how in-school practices that recruit students' "out-of-school" literacies, such as hip hop, can be used as critical bridges in students' learning. Hip hop, conceptualized in this article as an "out-of-school" literacy, works as a vehicle for curricular change at Eastview School for Pregnant and…
Heliana Castro Alves
Full Text Available Hip Hop is considered an artistic movement of social protest, which forms a symbolic guiding system of cultural practices and youth attitudes, enabling citizenship and social recognition. This study aimed to describe and analyze the use of hip hop as a strategy for the construction of identity, awareness, participation and social inclusion of young people in the daily life of peripheral communities from the perspective of cultural rights. This is a case study with a qualitative approach. Data collection took place over a year using 10 semi-structured interviews and footage of artistic and cultural workshops in the occupational therapeutic context, working at the interface between the social, the cultural field and the field of non-formal education. The thematic content analysis created three themes: Identity Construction and rescue the life course; Hip Hop as an expression of social reality; Social inclusion and participation. This research suggests that Hip Hop can be a useful resource in socio-educational practices, enabling critical reflection of young people in social vulnerability on their contexts, the rescue of the life course, identity construction and social participation.
Chung, Sheng Kuan
Media programs like hip-hop music videos are powerful aesthetic agents that inspire teenagers. Thus, they have tremendous influence on young people's identity formation, lifestyle choices, and knowledge construction which are manifested in the ways teens dress, express themselves, behave, and interact with each other. However, because of the…
Irby, Decoteau J.; Hall, H. Bernard; Hill, Marc L.
Hip-hop-based education (HHBE) research analyzes how hip-hop culture is used to produce favorable educational outcomes. Despite its richness, the work reveals little about how to prepare practicing K-12 teachers to use HHBE toward the critical ends reflected in extant HHBE literature. In this article, we challenge many tacit assumptions of HHBE…
Willigenburg, Nienke; Hewett, Timothy E.
Objective To define the relationship between FMS™ scores and hop performance, hip strength, and knee strength in collegiate football players. Design Cross-sectional cohort. Participants Freshmen of a division I collegiate American football team (n=59). Main Outcome Measures The athletes performed the FMS™, as well as a variety of hop tests, isokinetic knee strength and isometric hip strength tasks. We recorded total FMS™ score, peak strength and hop performance, and we calculated asymmetries between legs on the different tasks. Spearman’s correlation coefficients quantified the relationships these measures, and chi-square analyses compared the number of athletes with asymmetries on the different tasks. Results We observed significant correlations (r=0.38–0.56, p≤0.02) between FMS™ scores and hop distance, but not between FMS™ scores and hip or knee strength (all p≥0.21). The amount of asymmetry on the FMS™ test was significantly correlated to the amount of asymmetry on the timed 6m hop (r=0.44, phip or knee strength asymmetries between limbs (all p≥0.34). Conclusions FMS™ score was positively correlated to hop distance, and limb asymmetry in FMS™ tasks was correlated to limb asymmetry in 6m hop time in football players. No significant correlations were observed between FMS™ score and hip and knee strength, or between FMS™ asymmetry and asymmetries in hip and knee strength between limbs. These results indicate that a simple hop for distance test may be a time and cost efficient alternative to FMS™ testing in athletes and that functional asymmetries between limbs do not coincide with strength asymmetries. PMID:26886801
Hernandez, Diana; Weinstein, Hannah; Munoz-Laboy, Miguel
Youth's perceptions of violence within their social environments can provide relevant insights into the gender-based interpersonal violence epidemic in inner-city communities. To explore this issue, we examined two sets of narratives with young men and women, aged 15 to 21, involved in hip-hop culture in New York City. In the analysis, we reveal…
Don Scardino lavastatud John Lennoni elu ja heliloomingu pinnalt sündinud muusikali etendamisest Ameerikas. Erkki Otsmani esinemisest 24. sept. Euroopa keelte päeva raames Krakovis. Los Angelese hip-hop-muusika plaadifirma Stones Throw sügisene Euroopa-turnee sel nädalal Tallinnas: Rock Café's 24. sept. esinevad MCd Wildchild, Declaime ja MED
Full Text Available This paper examines the phenomenon of Roma hip hop in Serbia, its origins and popularization through music workshops for Roma children organized by the non-governmental organization R-Point. The paper analyzes a supposedly liberatory cultural practice, and argues that its designing „from above“, through non-governmental agencies' projects whose declarative aim is to help the Roma, actually petrifies their identity, reducing their entire cultural output to certain elements attractive to the dominant culture and traditionally recognized as „Roma“.
Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Stolley, Melinda R; Schiffer, Linda; Van Horn, Linda; KauferChristoffel, Katherine; Dyer, Alan
Hip-Hop to Health Jr. was a diet/physical activity intervention designed to reduce gains in BMI (kilograms per meter squared) in preschool minority children. Twelve predominantly Latino Head Start centers participated in a group-randomized trial conducted between Fall 2001 and Winter 2003. Six centers were randomized to a culturally proficient 14-week (three times weekly) diet/physical activity intervention. Parents participated by completing weekly homework assignments. The children in the other six centers received a general health intervention that did not address either diet or physical activity. The primary outcome was change in BMI, and secondary outcomes were changes in dietary intake and physical activity. Measures were collected at baseline, post-intervention, and at Years 1 and 2 follow-up. There were no significant differences between intervention and control schools in either primary or secondary outcomes at post-intervention, Year 1, or Year 2 follow-ups. When Hip-Hop to Health Jr. was conducted in predominantly black Head Start centers, it was effective in reducing subsequent increases in BMI in preschool children. In contrast, when the program was conducted in Latino centers, it was not effective. Although the intervention did not prevent excessive weight gain in Latino children, it was very well received. Future interventions with this population may require further cultural tailoring and a more robust parent intervention.
Full Text Available Offering secure and anonymous communications in mobile ad hoc networking environments is essential to achieve confidence and privacy, thus promoting widespread adoption of this kind of networks. In addition, some minimum performance levels must be achieved for any solution to be practical and become widely adopted. In this paper, we propose and implement HOP, a novel solution based on cryptographic Host Identity Protocol (HIP that offers security and user-level anonymity in MANET environments while maintaining good performance levels. In particular, we introduce enhancements to the authentication process to achieve Host Identity Tag (HIT relationship anonymity, along with source/destination HIT anonymity when combined with multihoming. Afterward we detail how we integrate our improved version of HIP with the OLSR routing protocol to achieve efficient support for pseudonyms. We implemented our proposal in an experimental testbed, and the results obtained show that performance levels achieved are quite good, and that the integration with OLSR is achieved with a low overhead.
Thibeault, Matthew D.
In this article, the author describes a true story about Dwayne Carter Jr., a rapper most music educators probably don't know but one who is beloved throughout the world as "Lil Wayne." Critics overwhelmingly proclaimed Lil Wayne the top rapper in the hip-hop game, and the album and his work leading up to it were universally regarded as some of…
Nestor, Siim, 1974-
Keskkooli-noorte hip-hop-kollektiiv BAP presenteerib oma vastilmunud albumit "Who Am I?" 28. veebr. Tallinna Kunstigümnaasiumis, kaastegev äsja albumi "Tabamata Ime" ilmutanud ansambel Luarvik-Luarvik
Viviane Melo de Mendonça Magro
Full Text Available Este artigo pretende discorrer sobre o cotidiano de adolescentes urbanos, mais especificamente as culturas juvenis, com o objetivo de apreender outros significados de ser adolescente no contexto contemporâneo e suas implicações em processos educativos. Diante da diversidade de culturas juvenis existentes atualmente, ressaltamos o movimento hip hop. Os adolescentes participantes desse movimento são descritos como protagonistas de seu próprio processo educativo, no qual deixam de ser meros atores e agentes de um modelo social e se tornam "autores de si próprios"; ou seja, no hip hop eles resgatam a educação como uma formação de "autores-cidadãos". Portanto, a visibilidade de outros modos de ser adolescente, que estão presentes no contexto de educação não-formal e informal das culturas juvenis, pode contribuir para uma compreensão da adolescência urbana que reconhece o adolescente como um sujeito capaz de formular questões relevantes e ações significativas no campo social.
This article theorizes and charts the implementation of a learning activity designed from the hip-hop aesthetic of sampling. The purpose of this learning activity was to enable recent urban school graduates to reflect upon their previous schooling experiences as a platform for future learning in higher education. This article illustrates what…
Prier, Darius D.
In this article, the social imagination of community-based sites of urban resistance enable out-of-school literacy practices in Black popular culture to foreground the contemporary context in which youth empowerment is nurtured in out-of-school learning settings. Second, the author chronicles how youth advocates in hip-hop--based community…
Sato, Nahoko; Nunome, Hiroyuki; Ikegami, Yasuo
The evaluation of hip hop dancers presently lacks clearly defined criteria and is often dependent on the subjective impressions of judges. Our study objective was to extract hidden motion characteristics that could potentially distinguish the skill levels of hip hop dancers and to examine the relationship between performance kinematics and judging scores. Eleven expert, six nonexpert, and nine novice dancers participated in the study, where each performed the "wave" motion as an experimental task. The movements of their upper extremities were captured by a motion capture system, and several kinematic parameters including the propagation velocity of the wave were calculated. Twelve judges evaluated the performances of the dancers, and we compared the kinematic parameters of the three groups and examined the relationship between the judging scores and the kinematic parameters. We found the coefficient of variation of the propagation velocity to be significantly different among the groups (P < .01) and highly correlated with the judging scores (r = -0.800, P < .01). This revealed that the variation of propagation velocity was the most dominant variable representing the skill level of the dancers and that the smooth propagation of the wave was most closely related to the evaluation by judges.
Quested, Eleanor; Duda, Joan L
Grounded in the self-determination theoretical framework (SDT) formulated by Deci and Ryan, and specifically the basic needs mini-theory (BNT), this study examined the relationship between perceptions of the motivational climate manifested in hip hop environments, satisfaction of the three basic needs, and indicators of well- and ill-being among hip hop dancers. Fifty-nine hip hop dancers (mean age: 20.29 years) completed a questionnaire assessing the variables of interest in the study. Perceptions of a task-involving climate were positively associated with satisfaction of the needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Perceptions of an ego-involving climate negatively predicted relatedness. Satisfaction of the need for competence was positively associated with positive affect, and negatively linked to negative affect. Competence need satisfaction significantly mediated the relationship between a perceived task-involving climate and positive and negative affective states. In sum, the findings provided partial support for the facets of SDT and BNT. The results also indicated that promoting the task-involving features of dance learning environments may be beneficial to dancers' well-being.
This article reports on preliminary findings of three prominent Kenyan hip-hop artists, Jua Cali, Abbas Kubaff, and Nazizi Hirji, as they theorize and construct emergent ethnicities vis-à-vis their translingual practices. Using in-depth phenomenological interviews, observations of their everyday language use, and analysis of their language choices…
Stephens, T; Braithwaite, R L; Taylor, S E
Currently little attention has been directed, with the exception of peer education efforts, to constructively develop new and innovative ways to promote HIV/AIDS primary prevention among African American (AA) adolescents and young adults. With this in mind, the aim of this conceptual effort is to present a HIV/AIDS preventive counseling protocol developed for use with AA young adults that makes use of hip-hop music, a form of music popularized by young AAs. The author contend that an increased understanding of the relationships that many AA young adults have with hip-hop music may be used by disease prevention personnel to educate these populations about protective factors for HIV. Making use of hip-hop music is one strategy for integrating counseling in prevention and health maintenance. The overall implications of using hip-hop music in health promotion are unlimited. First, this method makes use of cultural relevant materials to address the educational and health needs of the target community. Second, it is grounded in an approach that serves to stimulate cooperative learning based on peer developed content. Moreover, the use of this medium can be applied to other health promotion activities such as violence/harm reduction and substance abuse prevention, upon reviews of songs for appropriate content. The authors contend that such an approach holds heuristic value in dealing with HIV/AIDS prevention among AA young adults. Additional testing of the intervention is warranted in the refinement of this innovative intervention.
Alim, H. Samy
This article focuses on the emergence of what the author refers to as "global ill-literacies," that is, the hybrid, transcultural linguistic and literacy practices of Hip Hop youth in local and global contexts, as well as the pedagogical possibilities that scholars open up as they engage these forms. By reviewing a broad but focused range of…
Fco. Javier González García-Mamely
Full Text Available La oratura en África ha jugado un papel vital a lo largo de los milenios como un (único medio de preservar y transmitir la historia, la cultura y el imaginario de cada comunidad. El griot es un claro modelo de las artes orales, pero ha sufrido cambios drásticos en su modo de vida y en los recursos narrativos de los que dispone. Tras el mecenazgo de los grandes reyes y las sucesivas llegadas del islam, el colonialismo y los procesos de modernización y occidentalización, los griots se han tenido que adaptar a nuevos patrones, audiencias y medios de comunicación, convirtiéndose en políticos o en figuras del espectáculo. La aparición del rap y el hip-hop reclamando ser los “modernos griots” ha ocasionado una respuesta crítica y una atracción viral hacia el nuevo fenómeno, sea éste un nuevo género o una reinvención de la oratura del antiguo griot.
In recent times, contemporary discourse on the analysis of popular music has taken the front burner. This is as a result of the growing trend of this genre in the stream of world music and the numerous awards being won by Nigerian hip hop artistes both at home and abroad. This paper examines the music of Innocent “2 ...
Love, Bettina L.
This article explores the utilization of the theory of a Black ratchet imagination as a methodological perspective to examine the multiple intersections of Black and queer identity constructions within the space of hip hop. In particular, I argue for the need of a methodological lens that recognizes, appreciates, and struggles with the fluidity,…
Ladson-Billings, Gay and among others have demonstrated the strong need for educational curriculum and practice to respond to the specific academic, cultural, and social needs of culturally unique, minoritized students. This article focuses on culturally responsive leadership practices for students with Hip-Hop identity performatives. This…
Full Text Available A partir de referências da etnomusicologia, este artigo discute a abordagem da questão do hip hop e da música rap, enquanto estilo integrado no fluxo global de mercadorias, de idéias, estilos, ou como matéria linguística e cultural, que é central na vida de muitos jovens pertencentes aos subúrbios dos grandes centros urbanos, mas também apreciado por um público mais vasto.
Jongeren die deel uitmaken van jeugdsubculturen als hip-hop, techno-scene, metal, punk en skinheads, gebruiken vaker drugs, zijn vaker dronken, spijbelen vaker en beginnen eerder aan seks. Roma-jongeren zijn minder vaak dronken. Dat concludeert Daniela Bobáková op basis van een onderzoek onder deze
Guilherme Dornelas Camara
Full Text Available This paper discusses the organizational practices of hip hop groups from Porto Alegre, southern Brazil, as they appropriate foreign experience and rationally guide their social action. The aim of this work is to investigate these practices, based on the formulations of Brazilian sociologist Alberto Guerreiro Ramos, as they are enunciated in the works The Sociological Reduction and The New Science of Organizations. This approach offers fruitful material to broaden the theory and may be subsidiary to this kind of socio-cultural study, explaining why it is pertinent in this field. In this sense, the hip hop movement can be viewed as valuable when it comes to understanding phenomena which, due to (and in spite of being originally transnational, or even "foreign", act or interact worldwide. Examining the organization practices and social action of these groups also helped identify a concern with the production of cultural artifacts that represent and form a symbolism that is historically and culturally located. Another issue that was broached concerns the market since for those groups it is not a category absent from their struggles and actions, but the economic criteria are incidental in relation to their members' motivation.
Shelby-Caffey, Crystal; Byfield, Lavern; Solbrig, Stephanie
If an educator is to take a critical stance, teach students to do the same, and design lessons that engage students in thoughtful discussions and actions surrounding issues of social justice, then discussions of politics, race, culture, economics and systems of power are crucial to this work, and the use of hip-hop is a worthwhile endeavour. In…
The purpose of this article is to show how the rappers' talk about hip-hop and its connection to pedagogy and social activism parallel the Scandinavian tradition of folkbildning. Scandinavian folkbildning can be seen as a movement to provide voluntary education for the general population. It can also be the name of the process of learning in which…
Edwards, Erica; Esposito, Jennifer
In this article, Erica Edwards and Jennifer Esposito review the fourth season of "Love and Hip Hop New York," which is just a small part of the larger "Love and Hip Hop" reality TV series, which characterizes love through narrow representations of race, gender, and sexuality. Their analysis reports that this television program…
The article is asort of analysis of hip hop lyrics in the context of their importance for identity formation process of young generation. Rap music, as one of the elements of hip hop culture, is a kind of special innovation for its audience. With rising interest for this musical genre and hip hop culture the discussion on formulating the issues through the prism of rap music’s message has been increasing. The article presents certain aspects of making sense to the reality, w...
This study examines past and contemporary configurations of Tamil identity as expressed through the different religious folk and musical experiences of the minority diasporic community in Malaysia. It seeks to show how deeply felt experiences of the colonial past still influence contemporary expressions of identity by Tamil hip-hop musicians in the context of the popular music industry in post-colonial Malaysia. In doing so, what is revealed is how narratives of identity within the Tamil dias...
Larson, Scott J.
Suggests that contemporary hip-hop music may be dominant in worldwide youth culture. It has evolved from the violence of "gangsta rap" toward more broadly popular mainstream themes of retreat into drugs and illicit sexuality. States that adults need to engage youth in communication about the exploitative values inherent in these cultural…
Based on the experience of teaching the history of American hip hop music to a classroom of Canadian university students, the author considers the disjuncture between the cultural orientations of herself and her students. The author considers teaching methods to solve the place-based disjuncture that often occurs when teaching genres such as hip…
Gosine, Kevin; Tabi, Emmanuel
Historically rooted in Black and Latino youth subcultures of New York City, Hip-Hop emerged as a form of sociocultural expression by which young people, particularly those socially and culturally marginalized by race and class, voice their discontent, anger, and struggles, make sense of their social realities, and exercise resistance. In a White,…
Turner, K. C. Nat; Hayes, Nini, Visaya; Way, Kate
This article features key findings from a study that highlights the transformative impact of a pedagogical approach that employs Critical Multimodal Hip Hop Production (CMHHP). The study took place in an extended day program in a northern California public middle school among a group of 30, urban, African American, Chicano/a/Latino/a, and Asian…
Jaileila Araújo Menezes
Full Text Available O movimento hip-hop tem, em sua composição social, jovens pobres que se organizam de modos diversos. Na cidade de Recife, localizamos diferentes formas político-organizativas convivendo simultaneamente, uma associação, uma rede, inúmeras crews (posses e grupos que não obedecem a uma territorialidade, nem buscam seguir a tradição de estar articulados em todos os elementos. O objetivo deste texto é evidenciar os conflitos sociais que tal movimento instaura, as tensões que provoca no sistema de referências com o qual se relaciona e as instabilidades que ele causa na lógica hegemônica. Para tanto, apresentamos a dinâmica do movimento, seu sistema de referências, tensões, conflitos e antagonismos com os quais ele trabalha. Identificamos três conflitos principais: a juventude pobre no contexto da sociedade de consumo; a mídia e sua relação com a indústria cultural; e a afro-descendência. Os antagonismos se colocam na formulação de um campo ético-político referente à participação convencional e não convencional.
In this article, Christopher Emdin articulates what he considers a necessary stance on the education of urban youth of color who are deeply embedded in hip-hop. He brings singer/songwriter Stevie Wonder and Maxine Greene into the discussion to highlight the ways that these youth can be imagined differently and taught to their strengths and gifts,…
Rosangela Carrilo Moreno
Full Text Available ¿Qué es lo que lleva a algunos jóvenes a envolverse con la militancia política, creando o participando de grupos de interés? Esta cuestión es discutida a partir de los resultados de un estudio sobre un grupo de rappers involucrado con el movimiento hip-hop en la ciudad de Campinas, estado de São Paulo. Sus disposiciones para la militancia son analizadas como resultado de las condiciones objetivas y subjetivas en que se dio su socialización, aprendidas a través del estudio de la trayectoria social de sus familias. Sin embargo, la entrada concreta en la militancia es analizada como resultado, nunca definitivo, de los encuentros y de las interacciones desarrolladas en el interior de redes de relaciones de varios tipos, inclusive afectivas, que se localizan en un espacio social concretizado en instituciones, modos de actuar y de pensar que orientan microdecisiones cotidianas, incluyendo aquellas asociadas a la acción política.
Love, Bettina L.
Hip-Hop-Based Education (HHBE) has resulted in many positive educational outcomes, ranging from teaching academic skills to teaching critical reflection at secondary levels. Given what HHBE initiatives have accomplished, it is troubling that there is an absence of attention to these methods in education programs for elementary and early childhood…
The present article explores discourses surrounding the bodies of Black women and girls as they engage the meanings of Black womanhood in (American) society in an afterschool setting. Drawing on Black and hip hop feminisms, African American literacies, and critical discourse perspectives, the author analyzes two young girls' narratives, which…
Prier, Darius; Beachum, Floyd
While much of mainstream qualitative research has focused on conventional methodology, in terms of axis of inquiry, epistemology, and approaches to ground the theory of its questions to construct knowledge, educational researchers have yet to conceptually develop an alternative praxis in our work which takes into account hip-hop culture. More…
Esta tese discute os processos de resistência realizados em ações de milhares de jovens do hip-hop que, no mundo contemporâneo, participam ativamente na produção de conhecimento e ressignificação das periferias brasileiras. Trata-se de uma voz que se impõe face às construções simbólicas homogeneizantes produzidas pelo pensamento dominante, em torno de valores e da criação de desejos em concordância estrita com aqueles do sistema econômico hegemônico. Entende-se que a base da...
Артур Нарманович Мамедов
Full Text Available This paper uses the theory of speech acts and the underlying concept of pragmalinguistics to determine the types of speech acts and their classification in the German advertising printed texts. We ascertain that the advertising of cars and accessories, household appliances and computer equipment, watches, fancy goods, food, pharmaceuticals, and financial, insurance, legal services and also airline advertising is dominated by a pragmatic principle, which is based on demonstrating information about the benefits of a product / service. This influences the frequent usage of certain speech acts. The dominant form of exposure is to inform the recipient-user about the characteristics of the advertised product. This information is fore-grounded by means of stylistic and syntactic constructions specific to the advertisement (participial constructions, appositional constructions which contribute to emphasize certain notional components within the framework of the advertising text. Stylistic and syntactic devices of reduction (parceling constructions convey the author's idea. Other means like repetitions, enumerations etc are used by the advertiser to strengthen his selling power. The advertiser focuses the attention of the consumer on the characteristics of the product seeking to convince him of the utility of the product and to influence his/ her buying behavior.
Sato, Nahoko; Nunome, Hiroyuki; Ikegami, Yasuo
In hip-hop dance contests, a procedure for evaluating performances has not been clearly defined, and objective criteria for evaluation are necessary. It is assumed that most hip-hop dance techniques have common motion characteristics by which judges determine the dancer's skill level. This study aimed to extract motion characteristics that may be linked to higher evaluations by judges. Ten expert and 12 nonexpert dancers performed basic rhythmic movements at a rate of 100 beats per minute. Their movements were captured using a motion capture system, and eight judges evaluated the performances. Four kinematic parameters, including the amplitude of the body motions and the phase delay, which indicates the phase difference between two joint angles, were calculated. The two groups showed no significant differences in terms of the amplitudes of the body motions. In contrast, the phase delay between the head motion and the other body parts' motions of expert dancers who received higher scores from the judges, which was approximately a quarter cycle, produced a loop-shaped motion of the head. It is suggested that this slight phase delay was related to the judges' evaluations and that these findings may help in constructing an objective evaluation system.
In recent years, scholarship on Black womanhood has become more closely connected to postmodern discourses on identity and resistance, following in the footsteps of Audre Lorde's claim that identity and sexuality have emancipatory potential. However, in the post-hip-hop era, feminists and media critics have once again brought up the idea of who controls the image. The purpose of this study is to describe possible sites of self-definition by Black women in music videos while accounting for the cultural industries that reproduce and exploit Black women's sexuality. Using textual analysis and the perspective of a noted music video performer, Melyssa Ford, this study articulates the expanse of ambiguity that lies between the images of Black womanhood that bombard consumers of BET and MTV and the selfconceptualization of the women who play those roles.
Aiyegbusi Ayoola Ibifubara
Full Text Available Background: Dancers are highly trained athletes who are at significant risk of injury due to the repetitive nature of their movement. It is hypothesized that injury patterns will be determined by the peculiar movement patterns and physical requirements of specific dance genres. This study was therefore undertaken to determine the association between the flexibility of the lower limb muscles and the pattern and risk of injury among professional dancers in three different dance genres. Methods: Eighty two professional dancers recruited from four (4 dance companies in Lagos State Nigeria presented as 28 indigenous African dancers, 26 ballet dancers and 28 hip hop dancers. A modified questionnaire on the epidemiology of dance injuries was administered to all participants and the degree of flexibility of the hip muscles measured by goniometry prior to warm up and stretching. Major Findings: There was a significant relationship between the flexibility of the hamstrings and injury occurrence in all the dance groups. The flexibility of the medial rotators, and the adductor group of muscles were significantly (p<0.05 related to injury occurrence respectively in the indigenous and ballet participants while a significant relationship (p<0.05 was seen between injury occurrence and flexibility of the adductors and medial rotators among hip-hop participants. Conclusion: The flexibility of the lower limb muscles is an intrinsic and a major factor contributing to injury among professional dancers. There is therefore a need to develop a stretching protocol for the different dance genres to prevent injury.
My thesis presents Hip Hop as a continuation of the African American protest tradition. Drawing upon literature from recognized African American protest movements, including abolitionism, antilynching campaigns, the Civil Rights movement and Black Power, I present Hip Hop as the current embodiment of the protest aesthetic. My work develops the existing understanding of the African American protest aesthetic through the creation of three rhetorical devices or identifiers, embodied by all canon...
Beachum, Floyd D.; McCray, Carlos R.
"Cultural Collision and Collusion" addresses the complexity of problems that surround youth culture and school culture. By broadening the scholarly dialogue and examining and disseminating relevant research to practitioners, the book seeks to provide insight into youth culture and some manifestations of popular culture (e.g., hip-hop). In…
Stokes, Carla E
Despite the importance of media in the lives of girls, sexuality researchers have largely overlooked how Black American adolescent girls engage with media to construct sexual self-definitions and explore their emerging sexuality. This study investigated sexual scripts, self-definition, and hip hop culture in internet home pages constructed by Black girls aged 14-17 years residing in southern states in the USA. Although some girls in the sample constructed sexual self-representations that mirrored sexual scripts portrayed in the media, hip hop, and youth cyberculture, others resisted stereotypical representations of Black female sexuality. This paper discusses the dominant sexual scripts that emerged from in-depth analysis of 27 home pages constructed by girls residing in Georgia. The focus is on 'Freaks', 'Virgins', 'Down-Ass Chicks/Bitches', 'Pimpettes', and Resisters. Findings suggest that a one-size-fits-all approach to sexuality education may fail to address key contextual issues of relevance to girls and young women. Innovative sexuality and media education strategies that respond to the significance of media in the lives of Black American girls and young women are needed.
Sato, Nahoko; Nunome, Hiroyuki; Ikegami, Yasuo
In hip-hop dance, the elements of motion that discriminate the skill levels of dancers and that influence the evaluations by judges have not been clearly identified. This study set out to extract these motion characteristics from the side-step movements of hip-hop dancing. Eight expert and eight non-expert dancers performed side-step movements, which were recorded using a motion capture system. Nine experienced judges evaluated the dancers' performances. Several parameters, including the range of motion (ROM) of the joint angles (neck, trunk, hip, knee, and face inclination) and phase delays between these angular motions were calculated. A quarter-cycle phase delay between the neck motion and other body parts, seen only in the expert dancers, is highlighted as an element that can distinguish dancers' skill levels. This feature of the expert dancers resulted in a larger ROM during the face inclination than that for the non-expert dancers. In addition, the experts exhibited a bottom-to-top segmental sequence in the horizontal direction while the non-experts did not demonstrate any such sequential motion. Of these kinematic parameters, only the ROM of the face inclination was highly correlated to the judging score and is regarded as being the most appealing element of the side-step movement.
Markström, Jonas L; Tengman, Eva; Häger, Charlotte K
Little is known regarding movement strategies in the long term following injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), and even less about comparisons of reconstructed and deficient knees in relation to healthy controls. The present purpose was to compare trunk, hip, and knee kinematics during a one-leg vertical hop (VH) ~20 years post-ACL injury between persons treated with surgery and physiotherapy (ACL R ), solely physiotherapy (ACL PT ), and controls (CTRL). Between-leg kinematic differences within groups were also investigated. Sixty-six persons who suffered unilateral ACL injury on average 23 ± 2 years ago (32 ACL R , 34 ACL PT ) and 33 controls performed the VH. Peak trunk, hip, and knee angles during Take-off and Landing phases recorded with a 3D motion capture system were analysed with multivariate statistics. Significant group effects during both Take-off and Landing were found, with ACL PT differing from CTRL in Take-off with a combination of less knee flexion and knee internal rotation, and from both ACL R and CTRL in Landing with less hip and knee flexion, knee internal rotation, and greater hip adduction. ACL R also presented different kinematics to ACL PT and CTRL in Take-off with a combination of greater trunk flexion, hip flexion, hip internal rotation, and less knee abduction, and in Landing with greater trunk flexion and hip internal rotation. Further, different kinematics and hop height were found between legs within groups in both Take-off and Landing for both ACL groups, but not for CTRL. Different kinematics for the injured leg for both ACL groups compared to CTRL and between treatment groups, as well as between legs within treatment groups, indicate long-term consequences of injury. Compensatory mechanisms for knee protection seem to prevail over time irrespective of initial treatment, possibly increasing the risk of re-injury and triggering the development of osteoarthritis. Detailed investigation of movement strategies during the VH
Full Text Available The relevance of this article is related to the fact that nowadays advertising has a very strong impact both on the consumer market, political and cultural life of society, and on the language and its development as a system. Advertising has given rise to the development of a special set of stylistic features of a text, formed under the influence of reviving advertising traditions in the Russian language and under the active impact of energetic and pushy European advertising. The purpose of this study is to explore stylistic features of informative and comparative advertising texts. The object of research is Russian-language advertising in printed media and on television. In the end of the article we made conclusions about groups of language means used for different stylistic devices in informative and comparative advertising texts. Analysis of stylistic features of modern informative and comparative advertising texts can be of great interest to specialists in the field of theoretical studies of modern advertising.
Barrabés, Esther; Cors, Josep M.; Pinyol, Conxita; Soler, Jaume
We show the existence of families of hip-hop solutions in the equal-mass 2 N-body problem which are close to highly eccentric planar elliptic homographic motions of 2 N bodies plus small perpendicular non-harmonic oscillations. By introducing a parameter ɛ, the homographic motion and the small amplitude oscillations can be uncoupled into a purely Keplerian homographic motion of fixed period and a vertical oscillation described by a Hill type equation. Small changes in the eccentricity induce large variations in the period of the perpendicular oscillation and give rise, via a Bolzano argument, to resonant periodic solutions of the uncoupled system in a rotating frame. For small ɛ≠0, the topological transversality persists and Brouwer’s fixed point theorem shows the existence of this kind of solutions in the full system.
Romero, Andrea J
The primary purpose of the current study was to develop, implement, and evaluate a hip hop dance intervention, Latin Active, among low-income Mexican-American adolescents. Mexican-descent adolescents tend to have disproportionate rates of low physical activity, overweight status, and obesity. A 5-week intervention design with pretest and post-test self-report measures. Charter middle school (grades 6-9) health/science classes in a low-income neighborhood were the setting for the Latin Active intervention. Overall, 81 participants were recruited; 73 (n = 41, female; n = 32, male) provided active parental consent to complete pretest/post-test surveys. Intervention . The Latin Active program included 10 interactive 50-minute lessons that were delivered twice a week during science/health classes. The curriculum was created on the basis of Social Cognitive Theory, Critical Hip Hop Pedagogy, and feedback from key stakeholders. The lessons focused on increasing physical activity as well as neighborhood barriers. The self-report pretest (n = 73) and post-test (n = 56) surveys included measures for frequency of vigorous physical activity, self-efficacy, and neighborhood barriers. Analysis . Paired-sample t-test analyses were conducted to assess mean differences from pretest to post-test results for intervention outcomes by gender. The Latin Active program (with 77% retention at post-test) significantly increased vigorous physical activity and dance (p hip hop physical activity program, Latin Active demonstrated preliminary efficacy to increase girl's vigorous physical activity and boy's perception of neighborhood barriers to physical activity. Future research will need to use a randomized, controlled design and investigate the effect of the program on measures of body mass index.
Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Stolley, Melinda R; Schiffer, Linda; Kong, Angela; Braunschweig, Carol L; Gomez-Perez, Sandra L; Odoms-Young, Angela; Van Horn, Linda; Christoffel, Katherine Kaufer; Dyer, Alan R
This pilot study tested the feasibility of Family-Based Hip-Hop to Health, a school-based obesity prevention intervention for 3-5-year-old Latino children and their parents, and estimated its effectiveness in producing smaller average changes in BMI at 1-year follow-up. Four Head Start preschools administered through the Chicago Public Schools were randomly assigned to receive a Family-Based Intervention (FBI) or a General Health Intervention (GHI). Parents signed consent forms for 147 of the 157 children enrolled. Both the school-based and family-based components of the intervention were feasible, but attendance for the parent intervention sessions was low. Contrary to expectations, a downtrend in BMI Z-score was observed in both the intervention and control groups. While the data reflect a downward trend in obesity among these young Hispanic children, obesity rates remained higher at 1-year follow-up (15%) than those reported by the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2009-2010) for 2-5-year-old children (12.1%). Developing evidence-based strategies for obesity prevention among Hispanic families remains a challenge. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.
Schönfeldt-Aultman, Scott M.; Morrison, Carmen
Alex U. Inn is the co-founder and one of the two MCs of the hip-hop drag king group, Momma's Boyz. Momma's Boyz celebrated their tenth anniversary in 2014. Carmen Morrison is the offstage name of Alex U. Inn, though "Carmen" now goes by Alex offstage, as well. Within this interview, the names "Carmen" and "Alex" are…
Williams, Olajide; Leighton-Herrmann, Ellyn; DeSorbo, Alexandra; Hecht, Mindy; Hedmann, Monique; Huq, Saima; Gerin, William; Chinchilli, Vernon; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Noble, James
Stroke is the fifth leading cause of death and the leading cause of serious long-term adult disability in the US. Acute stroke treatments with intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular therapy are proven to reduce disability, however a critical limitation on their effectiveness is the narrow time window for administration, which is 4.5 hours and 6 hours respectively from the onset of symptoms. Our overarching goal is to reduce pre-hospital delays to acute stroke treatments in economically disadvantaged minority communities where the greatest delays exist, using Hip Hop Stroke. Hip Hop Stroke (HHS) is a school-based, child-mediated, culturally-tailored stroke communication multimedia intervention developed using validated models of behavior change and designed to improve stroke literacy (knowledge of stroke symptoms, the urgent need to call 911, and prevention measures) of 4 th , 5 th and 6 th grade students and their parents residing in poor urban communities. Children in the intervention arm will receive the HHS intervention, while those in the attentional control arm will receive standardized nutrition education based on the USDA's MyPyramid program. Children will be trained and motivated to share stroke information with their parents or other adult caregiver. Both children and parents will complete a stroke knowledge assessment at baseline, immediately following the program, and at 3-months post-program. The primary outcome is the effect of the child mediation on parental stroke literacy. Stroke literate children, a captive audience in school systems, may represent a viable channel for spreading stroke information into households of poor urban communities where mass media stroke campaigns have shown the lowest penetration. These children may also call 911 when witnessing a stroke in their homes or communities. The HHS program may highlight the potential role of children in the chain of stroke recovery as a strategy for reducing prehospital delays to acute stroke
Full Text Available Background: Advertising communication tends to shorten the use of the language means. This characteristic explains the deliberate usage of such linguistic constructions that primarily influence the potential consumer. The role of advertising has increased in the modern world. Its strengthening intensifies the interest in the study of this social phenomenon among the scientists in various fields. The relevance of the study is obvious due to the fact that the issues of verbal influence on the recipient remains unexplored in modern Ukrainian linguistics. Purpose: clarifying the role of manipulative formulas in pragmatic implementation of advertisement guidelines. Results: This article makes an attempt to define and describe a set of basic communicative and pragmatic properties in modern advertising texts. The research represents main communicative and speech characteristics of advertising texts. The author analyzes the role of evaluation in producing the impact of communicative effect on the recipient. Also it reveals the efficiency of using impact-oriented language means in advertising texts. Discussion: Hidden evaluation of the advertised goods / services is an effective communicative pragmatic tool influencing the buyer. The latent assessment is provided by manipulative formulas (all, million; №1, leader; 100%; professional, expert.
Maria Angeles Garcia-Carpintero Muñoz
Full Text Available Estudio cuantitativo de corte transversal realizado en dos series consecutivas, correspondientes a 2007 (S1 y 2008 (S2, que comprende 350 personas, entre 15-29 años, con objetivo de conocer el perfil de los adolescentes y jóvenes en la cultura hip hop de Sevilla, España, detectar comportamientos sexuales de riesgo en la vida cotidiana. Los datos fueron recogidos a través de cuestionario autoaplicado con análisis estadístico. Población sexualmente activa (91%, iniciando sus experiencias sexuales antes de 16,5 años. La mayoría reportes heterosexualidad, usa anticonceptivos. Se concluye que la imagen de este colectivo se une a los estereotipos masculinos viriles, constituyendo el imaginario diario del grupo. Es necesario intervenciones directas para la promoción de la salud y prevención de enfermedades, antes de la adolescencia, de servicios de salud, la familia y la escuela, que implica la educación sexual y el amor, teniendo en cuenta el imaginario social y lo cotidiano.
Full Text Available Time Synchronized Channel Hopping (TSCH is an existing Medium Access Control scheme which enables robust communication through channel hopping and high data rates through synchronization. It is based on a time-slotted architecture, and its correct functioning depends on a schedule which is typically computed by a central node. This paper presents, to our knowledge, the first scheduling algorithm for TSCH networks which both is distributed and which copes with mobile nodes. Two variations on scheduling algorithms are presented. Aloha-based scheduling allocates one channel for broadcasting advertisements for new neighbors. Reservation- based scheduling augments Aloha-based scheduling with a dedicated timeslot for targeted advertisements based on gossip information. A mobile ad hoc motorized sensor network with frequent connectivity changes is studied, and the performance of the two proposed algorithms is assessed. This performance analysis uses both simulation results and the results of a field deployment of floating wireless sensors in an estuarial canal environment. Reservation-based scheduling performs significantly better than Aloha-based scheduling, suggesting that the improved network reactivity is worth the increased algorithmic complexity and resource consumption.
This thesis presents a selective survey of the specifics of the language of the hip hop culture in the United States of America, which is closely connected with African-American English. Theoretical part is an introduction to hip hop culture, its history, language it uses; studies that deal with the language of hip-hop (especially sociolinguistics) are presented , as well as modes of discourse and the association with African-American English. Afterwards artists are whose lyrics are used for ...
This essay examines Afro-Americanophilia in the German Democratic Republic by analyzing the cultural transfer of hip-hop between 1983 and 1990. It argues that the individuals who participated in this transfer from the United States into East Germany shared an appreciation of African Americans and Black culture and thus facilitated the import, growth, and dissemination of breakdance, graffiti, rap, and deejaying. Focusing on three individuals, it details the specific characteristics of their A...
Tom, Miye Nadya
This paper presents a broad-reaching effort to interrogate enduring colonial legacies as experienced by Native American youth in the United States of America and Black Portuguese youth of Cape Verdean origin in Portugal. As part of its methodological approach, it uses hip-hop - a cultural movement composed of four elements including rap music - to examine how youth from specific communities access knowledge which is denied to them in schools, give revolutionary voice to their realities, and broadcast perspectives on race, place and belonging. When knowledge is negated in learning institutions, non-formal education created by youth is a powerful force in re-affirming tradition and transformation. Hip-hop becomes a medium to create alternative educational projects addressing the needs of youth in San Francisco, USA, and Lisbon, Portugal, where this research was conducted.
Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Stolley, Melinda R; Schiffer, Linda; Van Horn, Linda; KauferChristoffel, Katherine; Dyer, Alan
To assess the impact of a culturally proficient dietary/physical activity intervention on changes in body mass index (BMI) (kg/m 2 ). Randomized controlled trial (Hip-Hop to Health Jr.) conducted between September 1999 and June 2002 in 12 Head Start preschool programs in Chicago, Illinois. Intervention children had significantly smaller increases in BMI compared with control children at 1-year follow-up, 0.06 vs 0.59 kg/m 2 ; difference -0.53 kg/m 2 (95% CI -0.91 to -0.14), P = .01; and at 2-year follow-up, 0.54 vs 1.08 kg/m 2 ; difference -0.54 kg/m 2 (95% CI -0.98 to -0.10), P = .02, with adjustment for baseline age and BMI. The only significant difference between intervention and control children in food intake/physical activity was the Year 1 difference in percent of calories from saturated fat, 11.6% vs 12.8% ( P = .002). Hip-Hop to Health Jr. was effective in reducing subsequent increases in BMI in preschool children. This represents a promising approach to prevention of overweight among minority children in the preschool years.
Williams, Olajide; Noble, James M
Public stroke recognition is poor and poses a barrier to acute stroke treatment. We describe a stroke literacy program that teaches elementary school children in high-risk communities to recognize stroke and form an urgent action plan; we then present results of an intervention study using the program. "Hip-Hop" Stroke uses culturally and age-appropriate music and dance to enhance an interactive didactic curriculum including the FAST mnemonic (Facial droop, Arm weakness, Speech disturbance, Time to call 911). The program occurred in central Harlem, New York City, a community with high stroke risk. During the 2006 to 2007 school year, 582 fourth, fifth, and sixth graders (9 to 11 years of age) participated in 1-hour sessions over 3 consecutive days. Stroke knowledge was tested before and after the program with a 94% group participant retention. Students learned and retained knowledge well for stroke localization (20% correct before intervention, 93% correct immediately afterward, and 86% correct after 3-month delay; Phip-hop music may improve retention of stroke knowledge among the youth.
Full Text Available This study seeks to demystify the tradition of Older Scots flyting—a form of poetic invective unique to the late medieval Scottish court. Hip Hop battle raps provide a modern venue for exploring the motivations and potential rewards for engaging in this sort of technical poetic contest. The two forms, though culturally and historically distant, both exhibit analogous rhetorical techniques, which make this comparison possible. Each form is concerned with poetic identity—this is evident through each poet’s identification with specific communities or classes; while the concern with demonstrating superior technical skill is also essential to these invectives and is often highlighted through the manipulation of traditional forms and tropes. As an extension of this comparison, we hope to recover something of the tone and purpose of the medieval tradition, namely, that the poets who engaged in these public invectives were actually amicable rivals competing for increased court status and wealth.
Full Text Available The thrust of the study explicates the utilization of grammatical and lexical devices in the texts of advertisements in Nigeria. This exploration aimed at demonstrating the way that advertising professionals wisely move from disjunctive organic elements to clause complexes as a convincing strategy. The advertisements of UBA®, Toyota®, Wema®, etisalat®, Standard Chartered® and Stanbic IBTC® were chosen as analyzable data to explain the behavior of the clause and its complexes in advertising. The conceptual framework is cohesion. Cohesive facilities have been applied as sub-concepts to interpret the constituents of the texts. The study demonstrates that reference, repetition, synonym, fragmented structure are deployed as inciting devices in the discursive strategy. In that sense, the study has the capacity to assist scholars to understand the nature of linguistic elements in clause complexes of advertisements. The analysis also reveals to advertising experts the cohesive resources that can help communicators to achieve intended goals of excitement. The study illuminates the extent at which advertisers take advantage of and associate with events in society to campaign their goods and services to consumers.
N. A. Metlitskaya
Full Text Available The article deals with the linguistic database for the system of automatic generation of English advertising texts on cosmetics and perfumery. The database for such a system includes two main blocks: automatic dictionary (that contains semantic and morphological information for each word, and semantic-syntactical formulas of the texts in a special formal language SEMSINT. The database is built on the result of the analysis of 30 English advertising texts on cosmetics and perfumery. First, each word was given a unique code. For example, N stands for nouns, A – for adjectives, V – for verbs, etc. Then all the lexicon of the analyzed texts was distributed into different semantic categories. According to this semantic classification each word was given a special semantic code. For example, the record N01 that is attributed to the word «lip» in the dictionary means that this word refers to nouns of the semantic category «part of a human’s body».The second block of the database includes the semantic-syntactical formulas of the analyzed advertising texts written in a special formal language SEMSINT. The author gives a brief description of this language, presenting its essence and structure. Also, an example of one formalized advertising text in SEMSINT is provided.
Welbeck, Timothy N.
Hip-hop is an African folk art birthed in America. Whether one simply observes the tonal language that puffs the breath of life into the lyric prose of rap music, the poly-rhythms of the "boom-bap" rhythmic phrasings that became a fixture of New York rap music in the late 1980s, the winding syncopation from the pounding "808"…
Full Text Available Desde principios de los años noventa, inicio de la crisis y las transformaciones de la sociedad cubana, en la fisonomía de la cuidad de La Habana se hace presente un nuevo tipo de jóvenes y de cultura juvenil: los raperos cubanos se mueven en una esfera de traducción y encuentro con fenómenos culturales globales, cuya recepción en Cuba es sólo reciente. El movimiento vivo y creciente del hip hop articula su compromiso con las circunstancias cambiadas de su contexto cultural, social y económico, mediante diversas manifestaciones estéticas y representaciones de variada medialidad. Su afán de entender e interpretar los procesos de la realidad que los rodea lleva a los raperos a establecer relaciones múltiples con diferentes campos de la sociedad y cultura cubanas de hoy. En su estética alternativa se refleja –a pesar de los esfuerzos cooptativos por parte de las instancias de política cultural– la creciente diversificación de la sociedad cubana.
Ogunwale, B; Clarke, J; Young, D; Mohammed, A; Patil, S; Meek, R M D
With increased use of the internet for health information and direct to consumer advertising from medical companies, there is concern about the quality of information available to patients. The aim of this study was to examine the quality of health information on the internet for hip resurfacing. An assessment tool was designed to measure quality of information. Websites were measured on credibility of source; usability; currentness of the information; content relevance; content accuracy/completeness and disclosure/bias. Each website assessed was given a total score, based on number of scores achieved from the above categories websites were further analysed on author, geographical origin and possession of an independent credibility check. There was positive correlation between the overall score for the website and the score of each website in each assessment category. Websites by implant companies, doctors and hospitals scored poorly. Websites with an independent credibility check such as Health on the Net (HoN) scored twice the total scores of websites without. Like other internet health websites, the quality of information on hip resurfacing websites is variable. This study highlights methods by which to assess the quality of health information on the internet and advocates that patients should look for a statement of an "independent credibility check" when searching for information on hip resurfacing.
Hernández Torres, Jorge; Papandreou, Nikolaos; Chomilier, Jacques
The co-chaperone Hop [heat shock protein (HSP) organising protein] is known to bind both Hsp70 and Hsp90. Hop comprises three repeats of a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain, each consisting of three TPR motifs. The first and last TPR domains are followed by a domain containing several dipeptide (DP) repeats called the DP domain. These analyses suggest that the hop genes result from successive recombination events of an ancestral TPR-DP module. From a hydrophobic cluster analysis of homologous Hop protein sequences derived from gene families, we can postulate that shifts in the open reading frames are at the origin of the present sequences. Moreover, these shifts can be related to the presence or absence of biological function. We propose to extend the family of Hop co-chaperons into the kingdom of bacteria, as several structurally related genes have been identified by hydrophobic cluster analysis. We also provide evidence of common structural characteristics between hop and hip genes, suggesting a shared precursor of ancestral TPR-DP domains.
James D. Griffith
Full Text Available Female escorts represent an occupational group that charges a fee for sex, which can be regarded as an extreme form of short-term mating. The present study examined if the fees charged by escorts are related to traits typically associated with female short-term mate value. A total of 2,925 advertisements for female escorts offering sexual services in the United States were examined, as a customized software program was used to download all the advertisements from an online escort directory. The advertisement content was coded, and relationships between advertised physical characteristics and the hourly rate charged by female escorts were examined. The analyses showed that higher fees were associated with female escorts who advertised a waist-to-hip ratio near 0.7, lower weight and body mass index, younger age, and photographic displays of breast and buttocks nudity. The findings provide evidence that evolutionarily relevant traits associated with female short-term mate value are systematically related to fees charged for sexual services.
Rosangela Carrilo Moreno
Full Text Available Resumo O grau em que movimentos sociais podem se desenvolver associados a partidos políticos é uma questão relevante para a democracia participativa. Este artigo examina os efeitos ambíguos da aliança estabelecida entre jovens artistas e políticos profissionais numa grande cidade do interior paulista, no início dos anos 2000. O artigo explora uma abordagem interacionista da militância, percebendo-a como atividade social dinâmica e sublinhando sua dimensão temporal. Apoiando-se em entrevistas, o artigo mostra como a relação estabelecida entre jovens e um partido político contribuiu efetivamente para a construção do movimento hip hop da cidade. Progressivamente, no entanto, o crescente engajamento com as atividades partidárias dificultou uma maior dedicação à carreira artística por parte dos jovens, fazendo aumentar sua dependência com relação aos benefícios distribuídos pelo partido e, consequentemente, gerando disputas entre eles. Ocorrendo no período em que ingressavam na vida adulta, o processo culminou com a dissolução do grupo. Ao mostrar como essas relações se desenvolveram, o artigo revela as possibilidades e limites associados à interdependência entre movimentos sociais e partidos políticos, principalmente nos casos em que tais partidos assumem o governo.
Tom, Miye Nadya
This paper presents a broad-reaching effort to interrogate enduring colonial legacies as experienced by Native American youth in the United States of America and Black Portuguese youth of Cape Verdean origin in Portugal. As part of its methodological approach, it uses hip-hop--a cultural movement composed of four elements including rap music--to…
Papandreou, Nikolaos; Chomilier, Jacques
The co-chaperone Hop [heat shock protein (HSP) organising protein] is known to bind both Hsp70 and Hsp90. Hop comprises three repeats of a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domain, each consisting of three TPR motifs. The first and last TPR domains are followed by a domain containing several dipeptide (DP) repeats called the DP domain. These analyses suggest that the hop genes result from successive recombination events of an ancestral TPR–DP module. From a hydrophobic cluster analysis of homologous Hop protein sequences derived from gene families, we can postulate that shifts in the open reading frames are at the origin of the present sequences. Moreover, these shifts can be related to the presence or absence of biological function. We propose to extend the family of Hop co-chaperons into the kingdom of bacteria, as several structurally related genes have been identified by hydrophobic cluster analysis. We also provide evidence of common structural characteristics between hop and hip genes, suggesting a shared precursor of ancestral TPR–DP domains. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12192-008-0083-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18987995
White, Jaclyn M; Dunham, Emilia; Rowley, Blake; Reisner, Sari L; Mimiaga, Matthew J
Sexually explicit media may perpetuate racial and sexual norms among men who have sex with men. While men may be exposed to sexually explicit media in the online settings where they seek sex with other men, no studies to our knowledge have explored the relationship between the racial and sexual content of advertisements appearing in these spaces. In 2011, using a detailed codebook, 217 sexually explicit advertisements on a male sex-seeking website were coded for themes, actor characteristics and sexual acts depicted. Multivariable logistic regression models examined the association between skin colour, theme, sexual acts and condomless sex acts. Nearly half (45%) featured a 'thug' theme (a style emphasising Black masculinity/hip-hop culture), 21% featured a college theme and 44% featured condomless sex. Advertisements featuring only Black men, advertisements featuring Black men with men of other skin tones and advertisements depicting a thug theme were positively associated with depictions of condomless sex. Online sexually explicit advertisements featuring Black themes and actors more frequently depicted condomless sex than advertisements with White men alone. Future research should examine whether depictions of Black men engaging in condomless sex in online advertisements influence the sexual norms and cognitions of Black men who have sex with men and their partners.
Traikovskaya Natalya Petrovna
Full Text Available The article deals with phonetic and lexical-morphological language means participating in the process of extracting implicit information in English-speaking advertising texts for men and women. The functioning of phonetic means of the English language is not the basis for implication of information in advertising texts. Lexical and morphological means play the role of markers of relevant information, playing the role of the activator ofimplicit information in the texts of advertising.
Full Text Available A Mobile Ad-hoc NETwork (MANET is Multi Administrative Domain (MAD if each network node belongs to an independent authority, that is each node owns its resources and there is no central authority owning all network nodes. One of the main obstructions in designing Service Advertising, Discovery and Delivery (SADD protocol for MAD MANETs is the fact that, in an attempt to increase their own visibility, network nodes tend to flood the network with their advertisements. In this paper, we present a SADD protocol for MAD MANET, based on Bloom filters, that effectively prevents advertising floods due to such misbehaving nodes. Our results with the ns-2 simulator show that our SADD protocol is effective in counteracting advertising floods, it keeps low the collision rate as well as the energy consumption while ensuring that each peer receives all messages broadcasted by other peers.
Kivlan, Benjamin R; Carcia, Christopher R; Christoforetti, John J; Martin, RobRoy L
Dancers commonly experience anterior hip pain caused by femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) that interrupts training and performance in dance. A paucity of literature exists to guide appropriate evaluation and management of FAI among dancers. The purpose of this study was to determine if dancers with clinical signs of FAI have differences in hip range of motion, strength, and hop test performance compared to healthy dancers. Quasi-experimental, cohort comparison. Fifteen dancers aged between 18- 21 years with clinical signs of FAI that included anterior hip pain and provocative impingement tests were compared to 13 age-matched dancers for passive hip joint range of motion, isometric hip strength, and performance of the medial triple hop, lateral triple hop, and cross-over hop tests. No statistically significant differences in range of motion were noted for flexion (Healthy = 145° + 7°; FAI = 147° + 10°; p=0.59), internal rotation (Healthy = 63° + 7°; FAI = 61° + 11°; p=0.50), and external rotation (Healthy = 37° + 9°; FAI = 34° + 12°; p=0.68) between the two groups. Hip extension strength was significantly less in the dancers with FAI (224 + 55 Newtons) compared to the healthy group (293 ± 58 Newtons; F(1,26) = 10.2; p=0.004). No statistically significant differences were noted for flexion, internal rotation, external rotation, abduction, or adduction isometric strength. The medial triple hop test was significantly less in the FAI group (354 ± 43 cm) compared to the healthy group (410 ± 50 cm; F(1,26) = 10.3; p = 0.004). Similar results were observed for the lateral hop test, as the FAI group (294 ± 38 cm) performed worse than the healthy controls (344 ± 54cm; F(1,26) = 7.8; p = 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference between the FAI group (2.7 ± 0.92 seconds) and the healthy group (2.5 ± 0.75 seconds) on the crossover hop
Kong, Angela; Buscemi, Joanna; Stolley, Melinda R.; Schiffer, Linda A.; Kim, Yoonsang; Braunschweig, Carol L.; Gomez-Perez, Sandra L.; Blumstein, Lara B.; Van Horn, Linda; Dyer, Alan R.; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.
Introduction The preschool years provide a unique window of opportunity to intervene on obesity-related lifestyle risk factors during the formative years of a child’s life. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a preschool-based obesity prevention effectiveness trial at 1-year follow-up. Design RCT. Settings/participants Primarily African American children (aged 3–5 years, N=618) attending Head Start preschool programs administered by Chicago Public Schools. Methods Eighteen preschools were randomly assigned in 2007–2008 to receive either: (1) a 14-week teacher-delivered intervention focused on healthy lifestyle behaviors; or (2) a 14-week teacher-delivered general health curriculum (control group). Main outcome measures The primary outcome, BMI, was measured at baseline, post-intervention, and 1-year follow-up. Diet and screen time behaviors were also assessed at these time points. Multilevel mixed effects models were used to test for between-group differences. Data were analyzed in 2014. Results Significant between-group differences were observed in diet, but not in BMI z-score or screen time at 1-year follow-up. Diet differences favored the intervention arm over controls in overall diet quality (p=0.02) and in subcomponents of diet quality, as measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2005, and in fruit intake (servings/day, excludes juice) (p=0.02). Diet quality worsened more among controls than the intervention group at 1-year follow-up. Conclusions The adaptation of Hip-Hop to Health Jr. produced modest benefits in diet quality, but did not significantly impact weight gain trajectory. Not unlike other effectiveness trials, this real-world version delivered by Head Start teachers produced fewer benefits than the more rigorous efficacy trial. It is important to understand and build upon the lessons learned from these types of trials so that we can design, implement, and disseminate successful evidence-based programs more widely and effectively
Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Stolley, Melinda R; Schiffer, Linda A; Braunschweig, Carol L; Gomez, Sandra L; Van Horn, Linda; Dyer, Alan R
The preschool years offer an opportunity to interrupt the trajectory toward obesity in black children. The Hip-Hop to Health Jr. Obesity Prevention Effectiveness Trial was a group-randomized controlled trial assessing the feasibility and effectiveness of a teacher-delivered weight control intervention for black preschool children. The 618 participating children were enrolled in 18 schools administered by the Chicago Public Schools. Children enrolled in the nine schools randomized to the intervention group received a 14-week weight control intervention delivered by their classroom teachers. Children in the nine control schools received a general health intervention. Height and weight, physical activity, screen time, and diet data were collected at baseline and postintervention. At postintervention, children in the intervention schools engaged in more moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) than children in the control schools (difference between adjusted group means = 7.46 min/day, P = 0.02). Also, children in the intervention group had less total screen time (-27.8 min/day, P = 0.05). There were no significant differences in BMI, BMI Z score, or dietary intake. It is feasible to adapt an obesity prevention program to be taught by classroom teachers. The intervention showed positive influences on physical activity and screen time, but not on diet. Measuring diet and physical activity in preschool children remains a challenge, and interventions delivered by classroom teachers require both intensive initial training and ongoing individualized supervision.
Kollock, Roger; Van Lunen, Bonnie L.; Ringleb, Stacie I.; Oñate, James A.
Context: Insufficient hip and thigh strength may increase an athlete's susceptibility to injury. However, screening for strength deficits using isometric and isokinetic instrumentation may not be practical in all clinical scenarios. Objective: To determine if functional performance tests are valid indicators of hip and thigh strength. Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Sixty-two recreationally athletic men (n = 30, age = 21.07 years, height = 173.84 cm, mass = 81.47 kg) and women (n = 32, age = 21.03 years, height = 168.77 cm, mass = 68.22 kg) participants were recruited. Intervention(s): During session 1, we measured isometric peak force and rate of force development for 8 lower extremity muscle groups, followed by an isometric endurance test. During session 2, participants performed functional performance tests. Main Outcome Measure(s): Peak force, rate of force development, fatigue index, hop distance (or height), work (joules), and number of hops performed during the 30-second lateral-hop test were assessed. The r values were squared to calculate r 2. We used Pearson correlations to evaluate the associations between functional performance and strength. Results: In men, the strongest relationship was observed between triple-hop work and hip-adductor peak force (r2 = 50, P ≤ .001). Triple-hop work also was related to hip-adductor (r2 = 38, P ≤ .01) and hip-flexor (r2 = 37, P ≤ .01) rate of force development. For women, the strongest relationships were between single-legged vertical-jump work and knee-flexor peak force (r2 = 0.44, P ≤ .01) and single-legged vertical-jump height and knee-flexor peak force (r2 = 0.42, P ≤ .01). Single-legged vertical-jump height also was related to knee-flexor rate of force development (r2 = 0.49, P ≤ .001). The 30-second lateral-hop test did not account for a significant portion of the variance in strength endurance. Conclusions: Hop tests alone did not
Beaulac, Julie; Olavarria, Marcela; Kristjansson, Elizabeth
Participation in physical activity is important for the positive development and well-being of youth. A community- academic partnership was formed to improve access to physical activity for youth in one disadvantaged community in Ottawa, Canada. After consulting this community, a new hip-hop dance intervention was implemented. Adolescents aged 11 to 16 years participated in one of two 3-month sessions. A girls-only and a boys-and-girls format were offered both sessions. This article investigates the implementation of the intervention from the perspective of the youth participants, parents, staff, and researchers. Multiple methods were used, including document review, observation, questionnaire, focus groups, and interviews. Overall, the consistency and quality of program implementation were moderately satisfactory; however, important concerns were noted and this program appeared to be only partially delivered as planned. These findings will be discussed in terms of suggestions for improving the implementation of this intervention and similar recreation programs prioritizing disadvantaged communities.
Fitzgibbon, M. L.; Stolley, M. R.; Schiffer, L.; Braunschweig, C. L.; Gomez, S. L.; Van Horn, L.; Dyer, A.
The preschool years offer an opportunity to interrupt the trajectory toward obesity in black children. The Hip-Hop to Health Jr. Obesity Prevention Effectiveness Trial was a group-randomized controlled trial assessing the feasibility and effectiveness of a teacher-delivered weight control intervention for black preschool children. The 618 participating children were enrolled in 18 schools administered by the Chicago Public Schools. Children enrolled in the 9 schools randomized to the intervention group received a 14-week weight control intervention delivered by their classroom teachers. Children in the 9 control schools received a general health intervention. Height and weight, physical activity, screen time, and diet data were collected at baseline and post-intervention. At post-intervention, children in the intervention schools engaged in more moderate-to vigorous physical activity than children in the control schools (difference between adjusted group means=7.46 min/day, p=.02). Also, children in the intervention group had less total screen time (−27.8 min/day, p=.05). There were no significant differences in BMI, BMI Z score, or dietary intake. It is feasible to adapt an obesity prevention program to be taught by classroom teachers. The intervention showed positive influences on physical activity and screen time, but not diet. Measuring diet and physical activity in preschool children remains a challenge, and interventions delivered by classroom teachers require both intensive initial training and ongoing individualized supervision. PMID:21193852
Full Text Available In the internet, a worm is usually propagated in a random multi-hop contact manner. However, the attacker will not likely select this random multi-hop propagation approach in a mobile sensor network. This is because multi-hop worm route paths to random vulnerable targets can be often breached due to node mobility, leading to failure of fast worm spread under this strategy. Therefore, an appropriate propagation strategy is needed for mobile sensor worms. To meet this need, we discuss a hop-by-hop worm propagation model in mobile sensor networks. In a hop-by-hop worm propagation model, benign nodes are infected by worm in neighbor-to-neighbor spread manner. Since worm infection occurs in hop-by-hop contact, it is not substantially affected by a route breach incurred by node mobility. We also propose the carryover epidemic model to deal with the worm infection quota deficiency that might occur when employing an epidemic model in a mobile sensor network. We analyze worm infection capability under the carryover epidemic model. Moreover, we simulate hop-by-hop worm propagation with carryover epidemic model by using an ns-2 simulator. The simulation results demonstrate that infection quota carryovers are seldom observed where a node’s maximum speed is no less than 20 m/s.
Under the situation of economic globalization today, the internationalization of advertising is becoming more and more obvious. All enterprises in all countries are meeting the same international, global problem, the problem of advertising translation. When dealing with advertising translation, we should take full account of language habits and cultural background of target customers. Therefore, it turns out to be important that we should be familiar with the language characteristics and translation skills of English advertisements. In this paper, I will introduce the language characteristics of English advertisements from three aspects of words, syntax and rhetorical devices, and introduce skills of advertising translation.
Full Text Available In the context of the glocalization of business, it is becoming increasingly important to better understand the cross-linguistic persuasive communication conveyed through media, such as advertisement, which is considered one of the most active form of modern media. In achieving this goal, intertextuality study in the pragmatic field proves to be helpful. Employing quantitative and qualitative approaches, we compare English and Chinese texts of advertisements in Cosmopolitan, the most sellable female fashion magazine, with the study focused on lexical, thematic and cultural intertextuality. It is found that the glocalization of advertisement for female products and services are dependent on local culture and language. The analysis of intertextuality between two texts will contribute to researches on female advertisements and international marketing strategy.
UKHOVA LARISA VLADIMIROVNA
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the assessment of controversial advertising texts. Advertising texts are in an area of high speech responsibility, as they operate in the legislative field. The ambiguity in understanding implicitly expressed in-formation by the addressee is the focus of the authors’ attention. Implicit information causes difficulties in the process of linguistic expertise of advertising texts. The article proposes a phased algorithm to identify the covert meaning of the statements in its interpretation by the target audience.
Sakkiah, Sugunadevi; Thangapandian, Sundarapandian; John, Shalini; Lee, Keun Woo
This study was performed to find the selective chemical features for Aurora kinase-B inhibitors using the potent methods like Hip-Hop, virtual screening, homology modeling, molecular dynamics and docking. The best hypothesis, Hypo1 was validated toward a wide range of test set containing the selective inhibitors of Aurora kinase-B. Homology modeling and molecular dynamics studies were carried out to perform the molecular docking studies. The best hypothesis Hypo1 was used as a 3D query to screen the chemical databases. The screened molecules from the databases were sorted based on ADME and drug like properties. The selective hit compounds were docked and the hydrogen bond interactions with the critical amino acids present in Aurora kinase-B were compared with the chemical features present in the Hypo1. Finally, we suggest that the chemical features present in the Hypo1 are vital for a molecule to inhibit the Aurora kinase-B activity.
James W. Perkinson
Full Text Available The following essay investigates the animating force of jester-humour and trickster-critique as necessary components of prophetic consciousness and social movement. Climate change devastation coupled with racialised socio-economic predation today faces social movement with a stark demand. The root-work necessary enjoins challenge of human presumption about the meaning of life at the most basic level. The locus from which such a depth-exploration will be elaborated here is postindustrial Detroit, on the part of a poet-activist-educator who will insist that ‘jesterism’ as ‘prophetic animation’ cannot merely be ‘talked about’, but begs performance and embodiment – even in the process of writing and theorising. Indigenous wisdom and folk spirituality will supply historical perspective in asserting laughter as both antidote to trauma and tactic of critique – whether looking at traditional African practices of tricksterism reincarnate in everyday street life in Detroit, medieval Christian celebrations of the Feast of Fools subverting official Church orthodoxies in feudal Europe, or the postmodern insurgence of hip-hop beats and tags in challenging corporate gentrification and church capitulation at the emblematic heart of de-industrialisation.
Wren, Tishya A L; Mueske, Nicole M; Brophy, Christopher H; Pace, J Lee; Katzel, Mia J; Edison, Bianca R; VandenBerg, Curtis D; Zaslow, Tracy L
Study Design Retrospective cohort. Background Return to sport (RTS) protocols after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) often include assessment of hop distance symmetry. However, it is unclear if movement deficits are present regardless of hop symmetry. Objectives To assess biomechanics and symmetry of adolescent athletes following ACLR during a single leg hop for distance. Methods Forty-six patients with ACLR (5-12 months post-surgery; 27 female; age 15.6, SD 1.7 years) were classified as asymmetric (operative limb hop distance biomechanics were compared among operative and contralateral limbs and 24 symmetric controls (12 female; age 14.7, SD 1.5 years) using ANOVA. Results Compared to controls, asymmetric patients hopped a shorter distance on their operative limb (P<0.001), while symmetric patients hopped an intermediate distance on both sides (P≥0.12). During landing, operative limbs, regardless of hop distance, exhibited lower knee flexion moments compared to controls and the contralateral side (P≤0.04) with lower knee energy absorption than the contralateral side (P≤0.006). During take-off, both symmetric and asymmetric patients had less hip extension and smaller ankle range of motion on the operative side compared with controls (P≤0.05). Asymmetric patients also had lower hip range of motion on the operative, compared with the contralateral, side (P=0.001). Conclusion Both symmetric and asymmetric patients offloaded the operative knee; symmetric patients achieved symmetry in part by hopping a shorter distance on the contralateral side. Therefore, hop distance symmetry may not be an adequate test of single limb function and RTS readiness. Level of Evidence 2b. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, Epub 30 Mar 2018. doi:10.2519/jospt.2018.7817.
Full Text Available The role of language in the construction of socio-cultural reality is inevitable. That is why text is used as a pillar that supports the explication of the intended purpose of images applied in multifaceted ad plates. It is a phenomenal tradition that has remained strong in ad campaigns. Advertisers make images and text as discrete components that are inseparable. Images and texts are sedimentary devices in ads, which we can consider as the social position that motivates this enquiry. After the selection of ten ads from various social strata, semiotics viewed from the stances of Saussure and Peirce has been applied along with social semiotics to analyze the ads. The study reveals that ads and advertisers are keen to the promotion of culture with the use of images with textual collaboration. Reference to antiquity has been exposed as a very useful material in ads because it fascinates the public by reproducing their about-to-be-forgotten cultural heritage. Social exercises in the ads create side attractions that lead to assorted photographic entertainment. Besides boosting the audience social knowledge, socio-cultural reproduction experienced in ads can propel the concerned agencies to repackage our cultural beauties as a means of economic growth and emancipation. Keywords: Advertising, Consumer, Language Function, Social System, Semiotics
Seegenschmiedt, M. Heinrich; Keilholz, Ludwig; Martus, Peter; Goldmann, Axel; Woelfel, Rainer; Henning, Friedrich; Sauer, Rolf
Purpose: Experimental and clinical data support effectiveness of perioperative radiotherapy to prevent heterotopic ossification after hip surgery or trauma. Since 1987, two prospectively randomized trials were performed in patients with high-risk factors to develop heterotopic ossification: the first (HOP 1) to assess the prophylactic efficacy of postoperative low vs. medium dose radiotherapy, and the second (HOP 2) to assess the prophylactic efficacy of pre vs. postoperative radiotherapy. Methods and Material: 410 patients with high risk to develop heterotopic ossifications about the hip following hip surgery were recruited. Between June 1987 and June 1992, 249 patients were randomized in HOP 1 to postoperative 'low dose' (5 x 2 Gy; total: 10 Gy) or 'medium dose' (5 x 3.5 Gy; total: 17.5 Gy) radiotherapy. Between July 1992 and December 1995, 161 patients were randomized in HOP 2 to either 1 x 7 Gy preoperatively (≤4 h before surgery) or 5 x 3.5 Gy (total: 17.5 Gy) postoperatively (≤96 h after surgery). With exception of age and type of implant (cemented vs. uncemented prosthesis) all confounding patient variables (gender, prior surgery) and predisposing risk factors were similarly distributed between both trials and treatment arms. Portals encompassed the peri acetabular and intertrochanteric soft tissues. Radiographs were obtained prior and immediately after surgery and at least 6 months after surgery to assess the extent of ectopic bone formation about the hip. Modified Brooker grading was used to score the extent of heterotopic ossification. Harris scoring was applied to evaluate the functional hip status. If the scores decreased from immediate post or preoperative status, respectively, to the last follow-up, radiological or functional failures were assumed. Results: Effective prophylaxis was achieved in 227 (91%) hips of HOP 1 and in 142 (88%) of HOP 2. In HOP 1, 15 (11%) radiological failures were observed in the low-dose group compared to 7 (6%) in the
Williams, Olajide; DeSorbo, Alexandra; Sawyer, Vanessa; Apakama, Donald; Shaffer, Michele; Gerin, William; Noble, James
We explored the effect of a culturally targeted calorie label intervention on food purchasing behavior of elementary school students. We used a quasi-experimental design with two intervention schools and one control school to assess food purchases of third through fifth graders at standardized school food sales before and after the intervention (immediate and delayed) in schools. The intervention comprised three 1-hour assembly-style hip-hop-themed multimedia classes. A mean total of 225 children participated in two baseline preintervention sales with and without calorie labels; 149 children participated in immediate postintervention food sales, while 133 children participated in the delayed sales. No significant change in purchased calories was observed in response to labels alone before the intervention. However, a mean decline in purchased calories of 20% (p < .01) and unhealthy foods (p < .01) was seen in immediately following the intervention compared to baseline purchases, and this persisted without significant decay after 7 days and 12 days. A 3-hour culturally targeted calorie label intervention may improve food-purchasing behavior of children. © 2015 Society for Public Health Education.
Full Text Available The focus of this article is to highlight the potential of popular culture to become an agent of leftist populist politics in contemporary Serbia. The authors observe the hip-hop collective “The Bombs of the Nineties”, whose music tackles topics from recent history, and who subvert the fashion style of the 1990s “Dizel” subculture, which is often connected to Serbian nationalism and war profiteering. The paper analyses the relationships “The Bombs of the Nineties” create between their practices, class warfare and leftist discourses, aiming to show the potentials and threats those relationships introduce. Following Ernesto Laclau’s understanding of populism as a “hegemonic political articulation of demands”, we assume that “The Bombs of the Nineties” could represent a solid populist political agent in that they attempt to reveal and draw attention to the “unfulfilled demands” of disempowered Serbian youth. On the other hand, the counter-intuitive merge of ideologies they operate, and the limited impact of their strategies on the official politics could be an obstacle to the expansion of their message.
Rigg, Khary K; Estreet, Anthony T
Over the past two decades, the demographic profile of MDMA (ecstasy/molly) users has changed. In particular, African American MDMA use has risen in some cities. One explanation of this new trend is the drug's recent popularity (as molly) in hip-hop/rap (HHR) music. Several top rappers endorse the drug as a way to have fun or get women "loose." There are currently no studies, however, that investigate the extent to which African American MDMA users listen to HHR music or the influence that these pro-MDMA messages have on their use of the drug. To address this gap, the current study used survey data to (a) identify the extent to which HHR music is listened to by African American MDMA users and (b) assess the perceived influence of HHR music on their decision to begin using. Qualitative interview data are also presented to contextualize the influence of these messages on their use of MDMA. The findings of this study suggest that African American MDMA users are high consumers of HHR music and that pro-MDMA messages in HHR music are influencing their expectations of the drug and their decision to initiate use. These findings add to the limited amount of research on African American MDMA use and have the potential to inform future interventions.
Sidnéa Nunes Ferreira
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2013n64p111 Drawing on Fairclough’s (1995 three-dimensional framework of discourse analysis of communicative events, in this paper we carry out a multimodal analysis of a diners Club international magazine advertisement. Moving from the description of how textimage (Mitchell 1995 constructs a problem-solution structure in the advertisement to the discussion of its discourse and sociocultural practices, the paper foregrounds a multi-layered ideological message, besides the construal of a need (problem for a product (solution. Through its multimodal structure, the advertisement seems to tap on two important sociological issues: the avoidance of human togetherness and the colonization of travelling by consumer markets (bauman 2007.
Ahmed Hamada, Hamada; Hussein Draz, Amira; Koura, Ghada Mohamed; Saab, Ibtissam M
[Purpose] This study was carried out to investigate the carryover effect of hip and knee exercises program on functional performance (single legged hop test as functional performance test and Kujala score for functional activities). [Subjects and Methods] Thirty patients with patellofemoral pain syndrome were randomly assigned into two equal groups. Group (A) consisted of 15 patients undergoing hip strengthening exercises for four weeks then measuring all variables followed by additional four weeks of knee exercises program then measuring all variables again. Group (B): consisted of 15 patients undergoing knee exercises program for four weeks then measuring all variables followed by additional four weeks of hip strengthening exercises then measuring all variables. Functional abilities and knee muscles performance were assessed using Kujala questionnaire and single legged hop test respectively pre and after the completion of the first 4 weeks then after 8 weeks for both groups. [Results] Significantly increase in Kujala questionnaire in group A compared with group B was observed. While, there were significant increase in single legged hop performance test in group B compared with group A. [Conclusion] Starting with hip exercises improve the performance of subjects more than functional activities while starting with knee exercises improve the functional activities of subjects more than performance.
Denis De Keukeleire
Full Text Available Beer brewing is an intricate process encompassing mixing and further elaboration of four essential raw materials, including barley malt, brewing water, hops and yeast. Particularly hops determine to a great extent typical beer qualities such as bitter taste, hoppy flavour, and foam stability. Conversely, hop-derived bitter acids account for an offending lightstruck flavour, which is formed on exposure of beer to light. These various processes are presented in detail, while due emphasis is placed on state-of-the-art hop technology, which provides brewers with efficient means to control bitterness, foam, and light-stability thereby allowing for the production of beers with consistent quality.
Full Text Available In this paper, a unified analytical framework for performance analysis of multi-hop wireless packet networks is developed. The effect of coupling between the hops on the degradation of the delay-throughput characteristics and the probability of blocking is investigated. The issue of hop decoupling is addressed.
Full Text Available Five cultivars of hop were extracted by the method of supercritical fluid extraction using carbon dioxide (SFE–CO2 as extractant. The extraction (50 g of hop sample using a CO2 flow rate of 97.725 L/h was done in the two steps: 1. extraction at 150 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (sample of series A was obtained and, after that, the same sample of hop was extracted in the second step: 2. extraction at 300 bar and 40 °C for 2.5 h (sample of series B was obtained. The Magnum cultivar was chosen for the investigation of the extraction kinetics. For the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the obtained hop extracts, the GC-MS method was used. Two of four themost common compounds of hop aroma (a-humulene and b-caryophyllene were detected in samples of series A. In addition, isomerized a-acids and a high content of b-acids were detected. The a-acids content in the samples of series B was the highest in the extract of the Magnum cultivar (it is a bitter variety of hop. The low contents of a-acids in all the other hop samples resulted in extracts with low a-acids content, i.e., that contents were under the prescribed a-acids content.
Stolley, Melinda R; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Dyer, Alan; Van Horn, Linda; KauferChristoffel, Katherine; Schiffer, Linda
The prevalence of obesity in the United States is a significant public health problem. Many obesity-related risk factors are more prevalent in minority populations. Given the recalcitrant nature of weight loss interventions for adults, prevention of overweight and obesity has become a high priority. The present study reports baseline data from an obesity prevention intervention developed for minority preschool children. Hip-Hop to Health Jr. is a 5-year randomized controlled intervention that targets 3- to 5-year-old minority children enrolled in 24 Head Start programs. Our primary aim is to test the effect of the intervention on change in body mass index. Data were collected on sociodemographic, anthropometric, behavioral, and cognitive variables for the children and parents at baseline. Participants included 416 black children, 337 black parents, 362 Latino children, and 309 Latino parents. Using body mass index for age and sex > or = the 95th percentile as the definition of overweight, 15% of the black children and 28% of the Latino children were overweight. More than 75% of the parents were either overweight or obese. The development of interventions to effectively prevent or control obesity early in life is crucial. These data highlight the escalating problem of weight control in minority populations.
Ольга Викторовна Соколова
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the comparison of poetical and advertising discourses and to the exposure of the communicative strategies specific of these types of texts (the category of ‘addressness’, the grammatical and semantic manner of a deictic expression, etc..
Pfaf-Šovljanski Ivana I.
Full Text Available The hop of Magnum cultivar was extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide (SFE-as extractant. Extraction was carried out in the two steps: the first one being carried out at 150 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (Extract A, and the second was the extraction of the same hop sample at 300 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (Extract B. Extraction kinetics of the system hop-SFE-CO2 was investigated. Two of four most common compounds of hop aroma (α-humulene and β-caryophyllene were detected in Extract A. Isomerised α-acids and β-acids were detected too. a-Acid content in Extract B was high (that means it is a bitter variety of hop. Mathematical modeling using empirical model characteristic time model and simple single sphere model has been performed on Magnum cultivar extraction experimental results. Characteristic time model equations, best fitted experimental results. Empirical model equation, fitted results well, while simple single sphere model equation poorly approximated the results.
The role of language in the construction of socio-cultural reality is inevitable. That is why text is used as a pillar that supports the explication of the intended purpose of images applied in multifaceted ad plates. It is a phenomenal tradition that has remained strong in ad campaigns. Advertisers make images and text as discrete components that…
Full Text Available Hop stunt was a mysterious disorder that first emerged in the 1940s in commercial hops in Japan. To investigate the origin of this disorder, we infected hops with natural Hop stunt viroid (HpSVd isolates derived from four host species (hop, grapevine, plum and citrus, which except for hop represent possible sources of the ancestral viroid. These plants were maintained for 15 years, then analyzed the HpSVd variants present. Here we show that the variant originally found in cultivated grapevines gave rise to various combinations of mutations at positions 25, 26, 54, 193, and 281. However, upon prolonged infection, these variants underwent convergent evolution resulting in a limited number of adapted mutants. Some of them showed nucleotide sequences identical to those currently responsible for hop stunt epidemics in commercial hops in Japan, China, and the United States. Therefore, these results indicate that we have successfully reproduced the original process by which a natural HpSVd variant naturally introduced into cultivated hops was able to mutate into the HpSVd variants that are currently present in commercial hops. Furthermore, and importantly, we have identified cultivated grapevines as a symptomless reservoir in which HSVd can evolve and be transmitted to hop crops to cause epidemics.
广告用语的翻译对进出口商品的宣传效果和营销结果意义重大,本文根据广告用语的目的及其主要功能,提出了"功能相似"的翻译原则,并分析了广告用语常用的翻译策略.%The translation of advertisements has a great influence on publicity campaigns and marketing effects of import & export commodities. According to the purposes and functions of advertisement texts, the article ad-vances the translating principle of it, i.e. "similar function", and analyses its usual translsting strategies.
Full Text Available A challenge in teaching English composition is helping students envision plagiarism as “borrowing” – showing love to author(s and/or text(s that further their argument(s, versus “stealing” – biting someone’s style and words. Alastair Pennycook (1996 and Sarah Wakefield (2006 have contributed pieces to the elaborate plagiarism/citation puzzle, while Houston Baker situated the hip-hop DJ in seminal text Black Studies, Rap and the Academy (1993. Merging these moments introduces critical questions: Did Diddy invent “the remix” or become the illest beat-biter ever? How did DJ/Producers Pete Rock and Large Professor pay homage to previous musical genres to further hip-hop remix production without just taking 4-8 bar samples, copying sources and claiming unethical ownership? And how can this discussion provide students a window into citation conversations? This article will remix these “texts” to introduce the idea of DJ Rhetoric to discuss plagiarism. Through the lens of the hip-hop DJ in writing classrooms, one can foster an appreciation of the difference between “love and theft” in student citation. This article will couple examples from hip-hop music/culture while simultaneously remixing interviews from various hip-hop DJ/producers to help answer these difficult questions.
Full Text Available As an intrinsic part of the Internet of Things (IoT ecosystem, machine-to-machine (M2M communications are expected to provide ubiquitous connectivity between machines. Millimeter-wave (mmWave communication is another promising technology for the future communication systems to alleviate the pressure of scarce spectrum resources. For this reason, in this paper, we consider multi-hop M2M communications, where a machine-type communication (MTC device with the limited transmit power relays to help other devices using mmWave. To be specific, we focus on hop distance statistics and their impacts on system performances in multi-hop wireless networks (MWNs with directional antenna arrays in mmWave for M2M communications. Different from microwave systems, in mmWave communications, wireless channel suffers from blockage by obstacles that heavily attenuate line-of-sight signals, which may result in limited per-hop progress in MWNs. We consider two routing strategies aiming at different types of applications and derive the probability distributions of their hop distances. Moreover, we provide their baseline statistics assuming the blockage-free scenario to quantify the impact of blockages. Based on the hop distance analysis, we propose a method to estimate the end-to-end performances (e.g., outage probability, hop count, and transmit energy of the mmWave MWNs, which provides important insights into mmWave MWN design without time-consuming and repetitive end-to-end simulation.
Full Text Available Mobile shopping is increasing in prevalence and has become a necessary part of many people's daily lives. However, one main channel for mobile shopping, mobile shopping applications (apps, has not been thoroughly investigated. This study focused on mobile text advertising delivered from mobile shopping apps using the intention to purchase as the dependent variable for testing its marketing effect. In the context of a promotion focus vs. a prevention focus, we used Higgins' regulatory focus theory combined with Ajzen's TPB and Herzog's U&G to analyze the mechanism by which consumers formulate an intention to purchase in a mobile advertising context. This empirical study surveyed 320 consumers who had made a purchase using a mobile shopping app in the previous month. The results showed that infotainment, irritation, and subjective norms were significantly associated with attitudes; in turn, attitudes mediated the impact of these three factors on the intention to purchase. Moreover, a high promotion focus not only strengthened the positive effect of infotainment on attitudes but also intensified the mediation effect of attitudes between infotainment and the intention to purchase. A high prevention focus also consolidated the negative effect of irritation on attitudes as well as reinforced the mediation effect of attitudes between irritation and the intention to purchase. Furthermore, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control collectively impacted the intention to purchase. These findings shed light on ways to customize goods information in mobile advertising and have strong theoretical and practical implications.
Артур Нарманович Мамедов
Full Text Available The article highlights stylistic and syntactic devices of expansion, which act as compositional means, vary normative syntactic structure of an advertising text, contribute to sense formation, creating conditions for the purpose of advertiser’s intent. By means of these language elements expressing invariant tactic sense the advertiser consciously expands and/or complicates the informative complex of dicteme, an acting text unit, transmitting superfluous impressive information together with factual one. Combination of factual and impressive items of information activates both rational and emotional perceptional channels of prospective consumer, intensifies the positioning process of an advertised article.
Simmons, Cailey; Noble, James M; Leighton-Herrmann, Ellyn; Hecht, Mindy F; Williams, Olajide
Community-level determinants of stroke knowledge among children are unknown but could meaningfully impact public stroke education campaigns. We explored for associations between community- and school-level quality measures relative to baseline stroke knowledge among children participating in the Hip Hop Stroke program. Baseline stroke knowledge assessments were performed in 2839 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students (ages 9-11 years) from November 2005 to April 2014. Knowledge was assessed relative to school performance grade (SPG, graded A-F; a school-level measure determined by the New York City [NYC] Department of Education) and economic need index (ENI, range: 0-2; a community-level, within-school measure of subsidized housing and meals with higher scores indicating more socioeconomic distress). Schools studied included those with SPG = B (n = 196), SPG = C (n = 1590), and SPG = D (n = 1053) and mean ENI = .85 (standard deviation: .23). A composite assessment of knowledge, including 4 stroke symptoms (blurred vision, facial droop, sudden headache, and slurred speech), was conducted consistently since 2006. Overall, students correctly identified a mean of 1.74 stroke symptoms (95% confidence interval: 1.70-1.79; possible range: 0-4, expected value of chance response alone or no knowledge = 2). For quartiles of ENI, mean knowledge scores are as follows: ENI Q1 = 2.00, ENI Q2 = 2.09, ENI Q3 = 1.46, and ENI Q4 = 1.56 (ENI Q3 and ENI Q4 versus ENI Q1 , P < .001). For SPG, SPG = B schools: 2.09, SPG = C: 1.83, and SPG = D: 1.56 (SPG = C and SPG = D versus SPG = B schools, P ≤ .05). Children's stroke knowledge was lowest in NYC communities with greater economic need and lower school performance. These findings could guide stroke education campaign implementation strategies. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Williams, Olajide; Leighton-Herrmann Quinn, Ellyn; Teresi, Jeanne; Eimicke, Joseph P; Kong, Jian; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Noble, James
Deficiencies in stroke preparedness cause major delays to stroke thrombolysis, particularly among economically disadvantaged minorities. We evaluated the effectiveness of a stroke preparedness intervention delivered to preadolescent urban public school children on the stroke knowledge/preparedness of their parents. We recruited 3070 fourth through sixth graders and 1144 parents from 22 schools into a cluster randomized trial with schools randomized to the HHS (Hip-Hop Stroke) intervention or attentional control (nutrition classes). HHS is a 3-hour culturally tailored, theory-based, multimedia stroke literacy intervention targeting school children, which systematically empowers children to share stroke information with parents. Our main outcome measures were stroke knowledge/preparedness of children and parents using validated surrogates. Among children, it was estimated that 1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0%-1%) of controls and 2% (95% CI, 1%-4%; P =0.09) of the intervention group demonstrated optimal stroke preparedness (perfect scores on the knowledge/preparedness test) at baseline, increasing to 57% (95% CI, 44%-69%) immediately after the program in the intervention group compared with 1% (95% CI, 0%-1%; P <0.001) among controls. At 3-month follow-up, 24% (95% CI, 15%-33%) of the intervention group retained optimal preparedness, compared with 2% (95% CI, 0%-3%; P <0.001) of controls. Only 3% (95% CI, 2%-4%) of parents in the intervention group could identify all 4 letters of the stroke FAST (Facial droop, Arm weakness, Speech disturbance, Time to call 911) acronym at baseline, increasing to 20% at immediate post-test (95% CI, 16%-24%) and 17% at 3-month delayed post-test (95% CI, 13%-21%; P =0.0062), with no significant changes (3% identification) among controls. Four children, all in the intervention group, called 911 for real-life stroke symptoms, in 1 case overruling a parent's wait-and-see approach. HHS is an effective, intergenerational model for
Kong, Angela; Buscemi, Joanna; Stolley, Melinda R; Schiffer, Linda A; Kim, Yoonsang; Braunschweig, Carol L; Gomez-Perez, Sandra L; Blumstein, Lara B; Van Horn, Linda; Dyer, Alan R; Fitzgibbon, Marian L
The preschool years provide a unique window of opportunity to intervene on obesity-related lifestyle risk factors during the formative years of a child's life. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a preschool-based obesity prevention effectiveness trial at 1-year follow-up. RCT. Primarily African American children (aged 3-5 years, N=618) attending Head Start preschool programs administered by Chicago Public Schools. Eighteen preschools were randomly assigned in 2007-2008 to receive either (1) a 14-week teacher-delivered intervention focused on healthy lifestyle behaviors or (2) a 14-week teacher-delivered general health curriculum (control group). The primary outcome, BMI, was measured at baseline, postintervention, and 1-year follow-up. Diet and screen time behaviors were also assessed at these time points. Multilevel mixed effects models were used to test for between-group differences. Data were analyzed in 2014. Significant between-group differences were observed in diet, but not in BMI z-score or screen time at 1-year follow-up. Diet differences favored the intervention arm over controls in overall diet quality (p=0.02) and in subcomponents of diet quality, as measured by the Healthy Eating Index-2005, and in fruit intake (servings/day, excludes juice) (p=0.02). Diet quality worsened more among controls than the intervention group at 1-year follow-up. The adaptation of Hip-Hop to Health Jr. produced modest benefits in diet quality but did not significantly impact weight gain trajectory. Not unlike other effectiveness trials, this real-world version delivered by Head Start teachers produced fewer benefits than the more rigorous efficacy trial. It is important to understand and build upon the lessons learned from these types of trials so that we can design, implement, and disseminate successful evidence-based programs more widely and effectively. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00241878. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of
O. B. Ivanchenko
Full Text Available The problem of developing beer drinks with added fruits, berries or extract's of plant is very actual problem. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using syrup and rose hips in technology Ales. In the work explored the form of the introduction of rose hips, as well as the stage of application, and the maximum allowable amount of additive. The proportion of syrup in different dose was 20 25 and 30% by weight of malt. Syrup made at the stage of wort boiling with hops. Rose hips were added to the number 15,20 and 25 g/l for 5 minutes before the end of wort boiling. The influence of introduced additives on the activity of yeast were studied. It is shown that the biomass growth and activity of yeast in all the variants of the experiment are practically the same. The article discusses the effect of different concentrations of rose hip syrup and insertion of the fruit on the fermentation and quality of final beer. The introduction of the investigated concentrations of the syrup does not impact greatly on the course of fermentation, physico-chemical parameters and organoleptic characteristics of the beverage. Samples with the addition of syrup to the basic characteristics are similar to control sample. They are distinguished caramel taste, aggravated by the increasing share of the syrup. It is shown that the optimal form to make the herbal supplement of rose hips in the technology of production of Ales are rose hips. The most balanced organoleptic characteristics was the sample with the rose hips in a quantity of 0,4 kg on 1 dal Ale.
Seegenschmiedt, M. Heinrich; Keiholz, Ludwig; Martus, Peter; Woelfel, Rainer; Henning, Friedrich; Sauer, Rolf
BACKGROUND: In-vivo data (Kantorowitz et al., 1991) indicate the efficacy of pre- and postoperative radiotherapy (RT) in suppressing development of heterotopic ossification (HO) after hip surgery. Since 1987 two prospective randomized trials were initiated at our institution to assess the comparative efficacy of 'high-dose RT' versus 'low-dose RT' (HOP study 1) and 'preoperative RT' versus 'postoperative RT' (HOP study 2). A control arm without radiotherapy (RT) was avoided, as only those patients (pts) were entered, who had a very high risk to develop HO after hip arthroplasty. PATIENTS and METHODS: In HOP study 1 (accrual: June 1987 - June 1992), 249 pts were randomized between the following postoperative RT schedules: 'low-dose RT' with 5 x 2 Gy, 10 Gy total RT dose (N = 129) versus 'high dose RT' with 5 x 3.5 Gy, 17.5 Gy total RT dose (N = 121); RT was applied with daily fractionation starting at postoperative day 1 - 4. In HOP study 2 (accrual : July 1992 - July 1995), 161 pts were randomized between 'preoperative RT' using a single dose of 7 Gy (N = 80 pts) and postoperative RT with 5 x 3.5 Gy (N = 51 pts). In both studies only patients were includes with one or multiple of the following risk factors for HO: ipsi- (55%) or contralateral HO (33%), hypertrophic osteoarthritis (48%), repeated hip surgery, acetabular fracture or severe hip trauma (43%); 62% of all pts had at least two risk factors. The structure of the relevant and possibly confounding patient and disease parameters and risk factors was similar in each of the treatment arms within the two randomized studies. - The assessment of 'treatment failures' was based upon the comparison of the amount of HO seen on the immediately postoperative radiograph as compared to radiographs obtained at least 6 months after surgery (Brooker Score). Any progression of HO by Brooker score was regarded as treatment failure. RESULTS: At last FU, in January 1996 both studies 369 of 410 pts (90%) had received an effective
Bozic, Kevin J; Smith, Amanda R; Hariri, Sanaz; Adeoye, Sanjo; Gourville, John; Maloney, William J; Parsley, Brian; Rubash, Harry E
Direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) has become an influential factor in healthcare delivery in the United States. We evaluated the influence of DTCA on surgeon and patient opinions and behavior in orthopaedics by surveying orthopaedic surgeons who perform hip and knee arthroplasties and patients who were scheduled to have hip or knee arthro-plasty. Respondents were asked for their opinions of and experiences with DTCA, including the influence of DTCA on surgeon and patient decision making. Greater than 98% of surgeon respondents had experience with patients who were exposed to DTCA. The majority of surgeon respondents reported DTCA had an overall negative impact on their practice and their interaction with patients (74%), and their patients often were confused or misinformed about the appropriate treatment for their condition based on an advertisement (77%). Fifty-two percent of patient respondents recalled seeing or hearing advertisements related to hip or knee arthroplasty. These patients were more likely to request a specific type of surgery or brand of implant from their surgeon and to see more than one surgeon before deciding to have surgery. Direct-to-consumer advertising seems to play a substantial role in surgeon and patient decision making in orthopaedics. Future efforts should be aimed at improving the quality and accuracy of information contained in consumer-directed advertisements related to orthopaedic implants and procedures.
Full Text Available pairs in inter-working multi-hop wireless networks can be evaluated based on the availability of radio links and communication routes. This paper presents an analytical study of the link and route availability in inter-working multi-hop wireless networks....
Nining W. Kusnanik
Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to determine the effect of single leg hop progression and double legs hop progression exercise to increase speed and explosive power of leg muscles. Plyometric is one of the training methods that can increase explosive power. There are many models of plyometric training including single leg hop progression and double leg hop progression. This research was experimental using match subject design techniques. The subjects of this study were 39 students who joined basketball school club. There were 3 groups in this study: Group 1 were 13 students who given sin¬gle leg hop progression exercise, Group 2 were 13 students who given double legs hop progression exercise, Group 3 were 13 students who given conventional exercise. The data was collected during pre test and post test by testing 30m speed running and vertical jump. The data was analyzed using Analysis of Varians (Anova. It was found that there were significantly increased on speed and explosive power of leg muscles of Group 1 and Group 2. It can be stated that single leg hop progression exercise was more effective than double leg hop progression exercise. The recent findings supported the hypothesis that single leg hop progression and double legs hop progression exercise can increase speed and explosive power of leg muscles. These finding were supported by some previous studies (Singh, et al, 2011; Shallaby, H.K., 2010. The single leg hop progression is more effective than double legs hop progression. This finding was consistent with some previous evidences (McCurdy, et al, 2005; Makaruk et al, 2011.
Full Text Available This work investigates secure cluster‐aided multi‐hop randomize‐and‐forward networks. We present a hop‐by‐hop multi‐hop transmission scheme with relay selection, which evaluates for each cluster the relays that can securely receive the message. We propose an analytical model to derive the secure connectivity probability (SCP of the hop‐by‐hop transmission scheme. For comparison, we also analyze SCPs of traditional end‐to‐end transmission schemes with two relay‐selection policies. We perform simulations, and our analytical results verify that the proposed hop‐by‐hop scheme is superior to end‐to‐end schemes, especially with a large number of hops or high eavesdropper channel quality. Numerical results also show that the proposed hop‐by‐hop scheme achieves near‐optimal performance in terms of the SCP.
Lienlaf, Maritza; Morales, Juan Pablo; Díaz, María Inés; Díaz, Rodrigo; Bruce, Elsa; Siegel, Freddy; León, Gloria; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro
AIM: To evaluate how widely Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) HopE and HopV porins are expressed among Chilean isolates and how seroprevalent they are among infected patients in Chile. METHODS: H. pylori hopE and hopV genes derived from strain CHCTX-1 were cloned by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli AD494 (DE3). Gel-purified porins were used to prepare polyclonal antibodies. The presence of both genes was tested by PCR in a collection of H. pylori clinical isolates and their expression was detected in lysates by immunoblotting. Immune responses against HopE, HopV and other H. pylori antigens in sera from infected and non-infected patients were tested by Western blotting using these sera as first antibody on recombinant H. pylori antigens. RESULTS: PCR and Western blotting assays revealed that 60 and 82 out of 130 Chilean isolates carried hopE and hopV genes, respectively, but only 16 and 9, respectively, expressed these porins. IgG serum immunoreactivity evaluation of 69 H. pylori-infected patients revealed that HopE and HopV were infrequently recognized (8.7% and 10.1% respectively) compared to H. pylori VacA (68.1%) and CagA (59.5%) antigens. Similar values were detected for IgA serum immunoreactivity against HopE (11.6%) and HopV (10.5%) although lower values for VacA (42%) and CagA (17.4%) were obtained when compared to the IgG response. CONCLUSION: A scarce expression of HopE and HopV among Chilean isolates was found, in agreement with the infrequent seroconversion against these antigens when tested in infected Chilean patients. PMID:20082477
Vogler, Joseph H; Csiernik, Alexander J; Yorgey, Marissa K; Harrison, Jerrod J; Games, Kenneth E
inconsistent throughout the literature. In descending order, based on frequency of appearance in the literature, the PPTs were (1) 1-legged hop for distance, (2) vertical jump, (3) Star Excursion Balance Test, (4) shuttle run, (5) 6-m timed hop, (6) triple hop, (7) 40-yd sprint, (8) triple crossover hop for distance, (9) 6-m timed crossover hop, (10) T-agility, (11) hexagon hop, (12) medial hop, (13) lateral hop, and (14) multi-stage fitness (beep test). The Star Excursion Balance Test in the anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral directions was the only test that could help identify injury risk. The 1-legged hop for distance and hexagon hop showed a moderate ability to differentiate between normal and unstable ankles. In dancers, the medial hop in dancers differentiated between painful and normal hips with moderate evidence. Very little evidence supports the use of PPTs for athletes with lower extremity injuries. A panel of experts needs to standardize the names and methods of widely accepted tests.
Background: Advertising communication tends to shorten the use of the language means. This characteristic explains the deliberate usage of such linguistic constructions that primarily influence the potential consumer. The role of advertising has increased in the modern world. Its strengthening intensifies the interest in the study of this social phenomenon among the scientists in various fields. The relevance of the study is obvious due to the fact that the issues of verbal influence on the r...
Andre Serra Bley
Full Text Available Asymmetry in the alignment of the lower limbs during weight-bearing activities is associated with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS, caused by an increase in patellofemoral (PF joint stress. High neuromuscular demands are placed on the lower limb during the propulsion phase of the single leg triple hop test (SLTHT, which may influence biomechanical behavior. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to compare kinematic, kinetic and muscle activity in the trunk and lower limb during propulsion in the SLTHT using women with PFPS and pain free controls. The following measurements were made using 20 women with PFPS and 20 controls during propulsion in the SLTHT: kinematics of the trunk, pelvis, hip, and knee; kinetics of the hip, knee and ankle; and muscle activation of the gluteus maximus (GM, gluteus medius (GMed, biceps femoris (BF and vastus lateralis (VL. Differences between groups were calculated using three separate sets of multivariate analysis of variance for kinematics, kinetics, and electromyographic data. Women with PFPS exhibited ipsilateral trunk lean; greater trunk flexion; greater contralateral pelvic drop; greater hip adduction and internal rotation; greater ankle pronation; greater internal hip abductor and ankle supinator moments; lower internal hip, knee and ankle extensor moments; and greater GM, GMed, BL, and VL muscle activity. The results of the present study are related to abnormal movement patterns in women with PFPS. We speculated that these findings constitute strategies to control a deficient dynamic alignment of the trunk and lower limb and to avoid PF pain. However, the greater BF and VL activity and the extensor pattern found for the hip, knee, and ankle of women with PFPS may contribute to increased PF stress.
Ramskov, D; Pedersen, M B; Kastrup, K
normative values of maximal eccentric hip abduction strength in novice runners. METHODS: Novice healthy runners (n = 831) were recruited through advertisements at a hospital and a university. Maximal eccentric hip abduction strength was measured with a hand-held dynamometer. The demographic variables...... was found, p values were identified using a regression equation adjusting for age and gender. Based on this, the equation to calculate normative values for relative eccentric hip abduction strength became: (1.600 + (age * -0.005) + (gender (1 = male / 0 = female) * 0.215) ± 1 or 2 * 0......PURPOSE: Low eccentric strength of the hip abductors, might increase the risk of patellofemoral pain syndrome and iliotibial band syndrome in runners. No normative values for maximal eccentric hip abduction strength have been established. Therefore the purpose of this study was to establish...
Oladokun, Olayide; James, Sue; Cowley, Trevor; Dehrmann, Frieda; Smart, Katherine; Hort, Joanne; Cook, David
The impact of hop variety and hop aroma on perceived beer bitterness intensity and character was investigated using analytical and sensory methods. Beers made from malt extract were hopped with 3 distinctive hop varieties (Hersbrucker, East Kent Goldings, Zeus) to achieve equi-bitter levels. A trained sensory panel determined the bitterness character profile of each singly-hopped beer using a novel lexicon. Results showed different bitterness character profiles for each beer, with hop aroma also found to change the hop variety-derived bitterness character profiles of the beer. Rank-rating evaluations further showed the significant effect of hop aroma on selected key bitterness character attributes, by increasing perceived harsh and lingering bitterness, astringency, and bitterness intensity via cross-modal flavour interactions. This study advances understanding of the complexity of beer bitterness perception by demonstrating that hop variety selection and hop aroma both impact significantly on the perceived intensity and character of this key sensory attribute. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fischer, Gary J [Albuquerque, NM
The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.
Full Text Available The activity of vitamin E, total content of tocols and the content of individual isomers: α-tocopherols, β-tocopherols, γ-tocopherols and δ-tocopherols was monitored in samples of hop cones of the world-important Saaz variety. Hop cone samples originated from hop-breeding area Tršice, Czech Republic. The method used for the determination of vitamin E in barley was modified and used for this quantitative analysis. The results indicate that monitored characteristics are influenced by the year of harvest (2010 or 2011 but also by the age of hop-gardens (hop bucks. High values of vitamin E activity (up to 67.79 mg.kg−1 and total content of tocols (up to 76.31 mg.kg−1 in hop cones are worth further attention from the viewpoint of alternative use of hops.
María Pilar Castañeda-Ojeda
Full Text Available The effector repertoire of the olive pathogen P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 includes two members of the HopAO effector family, one of the most diverse T3E families of the P. syringae complex. The study described here explores the phylogeny of these dissimilar members, HopAO1 and HopAO2, among the complex and reveals their activities as immune defense suppressors. Although HopAO1 is predominantly encoded by phylogroup 3 strains isolated from woody organs of woody hosts, both HopAO1 and HopAO2 are phylogenetically clustered according to the woody/herbaceous nature of their host of isolation, suggesting host specialization of the HopAO family across the P. syringae complex. HopAO1 and HopAO2 translocate into plant cells and show hrpL-dependent expression, which allows their classification as actively deployed type III effectors. Our data also show that HopAO1 and HopAO2 possess phosphatase activity, a hallmark of the members of this family. Both of them exert an inhibitory effect on early plant defense responses, such as ROS production and callose deposition, and are able to suppress ETI responses induced by the effectorless polymutant of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (DC3000D28E in Nicotiana. Moreover, we demonstrate that a ΔhopAO1 mutant of P. savastanoi NCPBB 3335 exhibits a reduced fitness and virulence in olive plants, which supports the relevance of this effector during the interaction of this strain with its host plants. This work contributes to the field with the first report regarding functional analysis of HopAO homologs encoded by P. syringae or P. savastanoi strains isolated from woody hosts.
Hongyan, Lin; Zhankui, Chen
Mobile shopping is increasing in prevalence and has become a necessary part of many people's daily lives. However, one main channel for mobile shopping, mobile shopping applications (apps), has not been thoroughly investigated. This study focused on mobile text advertising delivered from mobile shopping apps using the intention to purchase as the dependent variable for testing its marketing effect. In the context of a promotion focus vs. a prevention focus, we used Higgins' regulatory focus theory combined with Ajzen's TPB and Herzog's U&G to analyze the mechanism by which consumers formulate an intention to purchase in a mobile advertising context. This empirical study surveyed 320 consumers who had made a purchase using a mobile shopping app in the previous month. The results showed that infotainment, irritation, and subjective norms were significantly associated with attitudes; in turn, attitudes mediated the impact of these three factors on the intention to purchase. Moreover, a high promotion focus not only strengthened the positive effect of infotainment on attitudes but also intensified the mediation effect of attitudes between infotainment and the intention to purchase. A high prevention focus also consolidated the negative effect of irritation on attitudes as well as reinforced the mediation effect of attitudes between irritation and the intention to purchase. Furthermore, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control collectively impacted the intention to purchase. These findings shed light on ways to customize goods information in mobile advertising and have strong theoretical and practical implications.
Hongyan, Lin; Zhankui, Chen
Mobile shopping is increasing in prevalence and has become a necessary part of many people's daily lives. However, one main channel for mobile shopping, mobile shopping applications (apps), has not been thoroughly investigated. This study focused on mobile text advertising delivered from mobile shopping apps using the intention to purchase as the dependent variable for testing its marketing effect. In the context of a promotion focus vs. a prevention focus, we used Higgins' regulatory focus theory combined with Ajzen's TPB and Herzog's U&G to analyze the mechanism by which consumers formulate an intention to purchase in a mobile advertising context. This empirical study surveyed 320 consumers who had made a purchase using a mobile shopping app in the previous month. The results showed that infotainment, irritation, and subjective norms were significantly associated with attitudes; in turn, attitudes mediated the impact of these three factors on the intention to purchase. Moreover, a high promotion focus not only strengthened the positive effect of infotainment on attitudes but also intensified the mediation effect of attitudes between infotainment and the intention to purchase. A high prevention focus also consolidated the negative effect of irritation on attitudes as well as reinforced the mediation effect of attitudes between irritation and the intention to purchase. Furthermore, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control collectively impacted the intention to purchase. These findings shed light on ways to customize goods information in mobile advertising and have strong theoretical and practical implications. PMID:28690564
Hongyan, Lin; Zhankui, Chen
Mobile shopping is increasing in prevalence and has become a necessary part of many people's daily lives. However, one main channel for mobile shopping, mobile shopping applications (apps), has not been thoroughly investigated. This study focused on mobile text advertising delivered from mobile shopping apps using the intention to purchase as the dependent variable for testing its marketing effect. In the context of a promotion focus vs. a prevention focus, we used Higgins' regulatory focus t...
Full Text Available To overcome the disadvantages of a non-cooperative frequency hopping communication system, such as a high sampling rate and inadequate prior information, parameter estimation based on Blind Compressed Sensing (BCS is proposed. The signal is precisely reconstructed by the alternating iteration of sparse coding and basis updating, and the hopping frequencies are directly estimated based on the results. Compared with conventional compressive sensing, blind compressed sensing does not require prior information of the frequency hopping signals; hence, it offers an effective solution to the inadequate prior information problem. In the proposed method, the signal is first modeled and then reconstructed by Orthonormal Block Diagonal Blind Compressed Sensing (OBD-BCS, and the hopping frequencies and hop period are finally estimated. The simulation results suggest that the proposed method can reconstruct and estimate the parameters of noncooperative frequency hopping signals with a low signal-to-noise ratio.
Full Text Available The language is very dynamic, consequently, there are great hallenges for the framing of words into classes. That happens because the understanding generated by a particular word is linked to the context, and also anchored in syntactic and semantic roles that are able to play in the environment of linguistic usage. In this article, we will focus on the use of this adjective class that grammatically does not have syntactic autonomy and assigns grades to the class of the noun, binds to it intrinsically, forming, as an attribute or predicate, one indivisible phrase. However, the inter-subjective game of adjective is mostly composed by the constitutive process of the communicative act. It expresses different feelings and its use causes numerous effects in the actors who interpret them according to their linguistic and discursive skills. Thus, exposing the corpus statements selected from text advertising, we consider valuable the presentation of this article, in which we display according to argumentative theories, a study about the adjective based on Neves (2000 and Castilho (2010.
Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Stolley, Melinda R; Dyer, Alan R; VanHorn, Linda; KauferChristoffel, Katherine
BACKGROUND; The increasing prevalence of overweight among children in the United States presents a national health priority. Higher rates of overweight/obesity among minority women place their children at increased risk. Although increased rates of overweight are observed in 4- to 5-year-old children, they are not observed in 2- to 3-year-old children. Therefore, early prevention efforts incorporating families are critical. The primary aim of Hip-Hop to Health Jr. is to alter the trajectory toward overweight/obesity among preschool African-American and Latino children. This 5-year randomized intervention is conducted in 24 Head Start programs, where each site is randomized to either a 14-week dietary/physical activity intervention or a general health intervention. This paper presents the rationale and design of the study. Efficacy of the intervention will be determined by weight change for the children and parent/caretaker. Secondary measures include reductions in dietary fat and increases in fiber, fruit/vegetable intake, and physical activity. Baseline data will be presented in future papers. The problem of overweight/obesity is epidemic in the United States. Behaviors related to diet and physical activity are established early in life and modeled by family members. Early intervention efforts addressing the child and family are needed to prevent obesity later in life. This paper describes a comprehensive, family-oriented obesity prevention program for minority preschool children. Copyright 2002 American Health Foundation and Elsevier Science (USA).
This work is devoted to the Russian language advertising, which examines in an independent system. It aims are analyzing the text of Russian advertising in terms of its information and formal structure. It focuses on a specific aesthetic qualities of language, which the text uses. Work is further focused on the categorization of neologisms and neologisation of the Russian advertising. Next focus is on loanwords from the English language. Used research methods are descriptive and comparative. ...
Full Text Available This article concerns the periodic discrete Schrodinger equation with nonlinear hopping on the infinite integer lattice. We obtain the existence of gap solitons by the linking theorem and concentration compactness method together with a periodic approximation technique. In addition, the behavior of such solutions is studied as $\\alpha\\to 0$. Notice that the nonlinear hopping can be sign changing.
Full Text Available Advertising design is a discursive planning that does not only build an identity as brand value or graphic development, but also as Semiotics suggests, it produces a narrative level outlining the advertising story. The use of media, construction of characters, storytelling, organization of advertisement, are all expressions of this narrative level which in turn depends on a “context” or expression process from which they are built. This article aims to identify the different forms of narrative production in relation to three types of advertising discourse (Discourse Phase 1, Phase 2 and hyperadvertising as well as evaluate its contrasts and expressions within the advertising communication and consumer society.
McEwan, Alexandra; Crouch, Alan; Robertson, Heather; Fagan, Patricia
The Torres Indigenous Hip Hop Project (the Project) was conducted in the Torres and Northern Peninsula Area of Queensland during early 2010. This paper provides a critical analysis of project outcomes and identifies criteria that may form a suitable framework for the assessment of proposals for sexual health promotion using performing arts-based approaches in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander settings. A case study method was used. The first phase of analysis assessed whether project objectives were met using data collected during project planning and implementation. The second phase used these findings, augmented by interviews with key personnel, to respond to the question 'How could this be done better?'. The Project required significant human and organisational implementation support. The project was successful in facilitating event-specific community mobilisation. It raised awareness of sexual health disadvantage and engaged effectively with the target group. It laid important groundwork to progress school-based and community mechanisms to address regional youth disadvantage. Against these benefits are issues of opportunity cost and the need for ongoing resources to capitalise on the opportunities created. With substantial support and planning, such approaches can play an important role in engaging young people and bridging the gap between clinical interventions and improvements in health deriving from community-driven strategies. SO WHAT? This paper contributes to existing literature by identifying key elements of an effective approach to using performing arts in sexual health promotion in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander settings. It also provides guidance when consideration is being given to investment in resource-intensive health promotion initiatives.
Артур Нарманович Мамедов
Full Text Available Informative capacity of participial construction of source and target languages contributes to a more complex and multi aspect image of an expensive car. Dangling participles and attributive clauses placed after the determined word are being used in translation of extended adjectives with participles I and II. These grammatical transformations connected with reconstruction of semantic structure remain logically rational argumentation of an advertising text of the source language.
Full Text Available This article examines the text of the English-language advertising as a special type of discourse, which morphological and syntactic features are directly dependent on the target audience, which this type of text is created for, and provides some observations made in the course of practical linguistic studies of English advertisement texts. A proportional system of the most general male and female social roles is worked out here that helps to analyze different types of advertisement texts according to their grammatical functions, which helps not only to detect their impact in our everyday life but also gives a field for the further development of advertisement as a type of discourse.
The hopping process, which differs substantially from conventional transport processes in crystals, is the central process in the transport phenomena discussed in this book. Throughout the book the term ``hopping'' is defined as the inelastic tunneling transfer of an electron between two localized electronic states centered at different locations. Such processes do not occur in conventional electronic transport in solids, since localized states are not compatible with the translational symmetry of crystals.The rapid growth of interest in hopping transport has followed in the footsteps of the
Full Text Available Heat shock proteins (Hsps play an important role in the development and pathogenicity of malaria parasites. One of the most prominent functions of Hsps is to facilitate the folding of other proteins. Hsps are thought to play a crucial role when malaria parasites invade their host cells and during their subsequent development in hepatocytes and red blood cells. It is thought that Hsps maintain proteostasis under the unfavourable conditions that malaria parasites encounter in the host environment. Although heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 is capable of independent folding of some proteins, its functional cooperation with heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90 facilitates folding of some proteins such as kinases and steroid hormone receptors into their fully functional forms. The cooperation of Hsp70 and Hsp90 occurs through an adaptor protein called Hsp70-Hsp90 organising protein (Hop. We previously characterised the Hop protein from Plasmodium falciparum (PfHop. We observed that the protein co-localised with the cytosol-localised chaperones, PfHsp70-1 and PfHsp90 at the blood stages of the malaria parasite. In the current study, we demonstrated that PfHop is a stress-inducible protein. We further explored the direct interaction between PfHop and PfHsp70-1 using far Western and surface plasmon resonance (SPR analyses. The interaction of the two proteins was further validated by co-immunoprecipitation studies. We observed that PfHop and PfHsp70-1 associate in the absence and presence of either ATP or ADP. However, ADP appears to promote the association of the two proteins better than ATP. In addition, we investigated the specific interaction between PfHop TPR subdomains and PfHsp70-1/ PfHsp90, using a split-GFP approach. This method allowed us to observe that TPR1 and TPR2B subdomains of PfHop bind preferentially to the C-terminus of PfHsp70-1 compared to PfHsp90. Conversely, the TPR2A motif preferentially interacted with the C-terminus of PfHsp90. Finally, we
A. A. Sogorin
Full Text Available The basic directions of advertising studying as part of the research subject of separate social and humanitarian sciences. The definition of advertising is given. It’s considered as a holistic socioeconomic phenomenon, which consists of three basic components: advertising as a product, the final incarnation in the material and ideal forms of the customer’s ideas; advertising as an activity that is advertising as a profession; advertising as an integral part of the social space of the individual. The boundaries of the social and humanitarian scientific field are defined. Accordingly, the study presents the main aspects of advertising in terms of art learning, sociology, cultural studies, history, psychology, political science, philosophy and linguistics. It is proved that the study of sociohumanitarian field is characterized with a permanent disciplinary interaction in the case study of advertising (the pairing of linguistics and psychology, political science and psychology, sociology and psychology. The chief strategies of advertising research within social and humanitarian fields include: a single basic approach strategy: the recognition of advertising as a twoway communication process; communication strategy: the rejection of research within the subject of a separate discipline, active interaction with the related sciences on the subject of the study; application of the principle of mutual academic enrichment; future strategy: focus on new technologies, methods, implementation of schemes of advertising in the social space, the attempts of futurological analysis. The article demonstrates the importance of interdisciplinary scientific cooperation in the study of advertising as a social phenomenon.
Kim, Gho; Lee, Jang-Han
This research was conducted to examine the level of consumers' visual attention to Internet advertising. It was predicted that consumers' search type would influence visual attention to advertising. Specifically, it was predicted that more attention to advertising would be attracted in the exploratory search condition than in the goal-directed search condition. It was also predicted that there would be a difference in visual attention depending on the advertisement type (advertising type: text vs. pictorial advertising). An eye tracker was used for measurement. Results revealed that search condition and advertising type influenced advertising effectiveness.
P. V. Yurlov
Full Text Available On the modern level of History development its local and social fields are increasingly getting popular since they meet the requirements of innovation and actuality of scientific work. These fields allow to lead in the research new, often alternative, sources revealing new facets of traditional issues of precise historical period. In this work the author on the base of advertising texts in newspapers using quantity and content analysis researches the changes of business climate, main forms of companies organization, and their development in Yeniseyskaya guberniya in the 1920s. Moreover, taking newspaper advertisements the author highlights the periods of business activity having got it as a result of market and political conjuncture. The length of each period is 2 years and caused by the economic crisis in 1923, 1925, 1927 and 1929. Thus, materials of advertisements prove sinusoidal development of business through the periods of ups and downs and give the opportunity for researching market behavior of local entrepreneurs.
Full Text Available This paper considers spectrally efficient differential frequency hopping (DFH system design. Relying on time-frequency diversity over large spectrum and high speed frequency hopping, DFH systems are robust against hostile jamming interference. However, the spectral efficiency of conventional DFH systems is very low due to only using the frequency of each channel. To improve the system capacity, in this paper, we propose an innovative high order differential frequency hopping (HODFH scheme. Unlike in traditional DFH where the message is carried by the frequency relationship between the adjacent hops using one order differential coding, in HODFH, the message is carried by the frequency and phase relationship using two-order or higher order differential coding. As a result, system efficiency is increased significantly since the additional information transmission is achieved by the higher order differential coding at no extra cost on either bandwidth or power. Quantitative performance analysis on the proposed scheme demonstrates that transmission through the frequency and phase relationship using two-order or higher order differential coding essentially introduces another dimension to the signal space, and the corresponding coding gain can increase the system efficiency.
Full Text Available Advertising is often critiqued for not respecting rules of ethics both in the process of advertisement design and in the way it influences society. The main concern of advertisers as representatives of companies that seek profit making is to increase sales, win new clients, increase the demand for the product they want to be presented in as nice and colorful advertisement as possible. They pretend that their product is the best, has unique qualities, better than their competitor´s, it has a better cost and brings much more benefits. That is the reason why the great challenge in advertising is to create sales efficient and at the same time moral and true advertising messages.
Alina Irina GHIRVU
Full Text Available This paper proposes a model of advertising competition based on the Cournot oligopoly model using a dynamic system, the equilibrium points of which can be determined analytically. We consider several cases for explaining the way in which firms will adapt their own advertising volume, depending on the number and the advertising volume of their competitors, in the context of an online video game used for advertising purposes. The dynamic setup is given by online Internet connection that allows interaction and communication and the high level of technology that permits nowadays real-time advertising insertions.
Folta, Sara C; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Economos, Christina; Bell, Rick; Meltzer, Rachel
To determine whether the contents of food and beverage advertisements are associated with physical activity and athletic ability more often than those for toys and games, and to describe persuasive techniques used in advertising food and beverages to children. A content analysis of advertisements during 31 hours of school-age children's television programming. Chi-square tests were used to examine differences in depictions of physical activity. Types of persuasive techniques were tabulated and, within each advertisement, categorized as implicit or explicit. Food and beverage ads depicted children engaged in physical activity and associated the advertised product with athletic ability significantly more than toy and game ads. Food was most often associated with fun and good times (75%), pleasant taste (54.1%), being hip or cool (43.2%), and feelings of happiness (43.2%). These findings raise concern that greater levels of physical activity and athletic ability in food advertising, in which the product is frequently associated with fun, may promote overconsumption, especially of calorie-dense, nutrient-poor foods. Further research would elucidate whether this concern is warranted. On the other hand, since food advertisements are presumably effective, health educators can use these techniques to formulate messages for nutritious foods. This concept should be tested with well-designed interventions.
Julia S. Navoloka
Full Text Available This article is devoted to the identification and consideration of the function of hashtags in the social network Instagram. Together with the media component, the hashtag-text is an advertising creolized text, which is a full-fledged information tool, and serves to attract the attention of the target audience. Most hashtag-texts are devoted to advertising goods and services for women. This is due to the fact that women are more likely to believe in advertising and therefore respond more often to it. To transfer important and relevant information in such advertising, a minimum amount of language material is used, often represented by hybrid hashtag texts, which allows the audience to adequately perceive information.
Full Text Available The secure location of node is significant in the WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks of the troop frontier defence system. The wormhole attack is a big threat in the secure location. The credibility of the beacon node was used to determine the malicious nodes produced by wormhole attack in the WSN. The estimated method of multibeacon nodes was adopted to improve DV-HOP algorithm after excluding the malicious nodes. In this paper, we compared the basic DV-HOP algorithm and the improved DV-HOP algorithm in the coverage percentage and the error of network localization by simulating. The simulation results indicate that the improved DV-HOP algorithm makes the localization coverage percentage can reach 90% on a certain scale of the network, and it makes the error percentage lower when the number of beacons is different.
We propose joint user-and-hop scheduling over dual-hop block-fading broadcast channels in order to exploit multi-user diversity gains and multi-hop diversity gains all together. To achieve this objective, the first and second hops are scheduled opportunistically based on the channel state information. The joint scheduling problem is formulated as maximizing the weighted sum of the long term achievable rates of the users under a stability constraint, which means that in the long term the rate received by the relay should equal the rate transmitted by it, in addition to power constraints. We show that this problem is equivalent to a single-hop broadcast channel by treating the source as a virtual user with an optimal weight that maintains the stability constraint. We show how to obtain the source weight either off-line based on channel statistics or on real-time based on channel measurements. Furthermore, we consider special cases including the maximum sum-rate scheduler and the proportional fair scheduler. We also show how to extend the scheme into one that allows multiple user scheduling via superposition coding with successive decoding. Numerical results demonstrate that our proposed joint scheduling scheme enlarges the rate region as compared to scheduling schemes that exploit the diversity gains partially.
Ni Wayan Sukarini
Full Text Available This study concerns with text and semiotics analysis on the use of language in public service advertising (PSA. PSA in this study is the text which is especially on health. There are three problems that are analysed in this research, namely: (1 grammatical structure and the lexical of the text; (2 the relationship of trichotomies (representamen, object, and interpretant with the three components of sign in nonverbal aspect; and (3 ideologies and messages conveyed in the verbal and nonverbal signs. Three methods applied in this research respectively including descriptive, qualitative, and interpretative. The type of data was the written one which was taken from printed media in the forms of poster and brochure. The data was collected through five procedures, they are clipping, numbering, coding, picturing, and documenting. As a scientific writing, a number of theories must be applied for the analysis. The relevant theories are semantics, semiotics, speech act, hermeneutics, language function, and text structure. These six theories were applied eclecticly in analysing the grammatical structure, lexicals, signs, and the structure of texts in order to elaborate the meaning, ideology, and message which were being conveyed through the texts of PSA. The result of the analysis showed that the grammatical structure applied in the PSA of health could be classified into the simple structure in the forms of phrase, clause, and sentence. The use of verbs dominated initially in order to express the imperative meaning but still had the purpose of being persuasive. Kinds of lexicals found were very close to disease, reproduction, and health either the general terms, for example victims, medicine or the specific ones like HIV/AIDS, Odha, perinatal, nifas, jampersal, sadari. From the nonverbal aspect, the relationship of trichotomy with the three of sign components are more realistics in the Object with its three sub components. Triadic relationship of three sub
Ni Wayan Sukarini
Full Text Available This study concerns with text and semiotics analysis on the use of language in public service advertising (PSA. PSA in this study is the text which is especially on health. There are three problems that are analysed in this research, namely: (1 grammatical structure and the lexical of the text; (2 the relationship of trichotomies (representamen, object, and interpretant with the three components of sign in nonverbal aspect; and (3 ideologies and messages conveyed in the verbal and nonverbal signs. Three methods applied in this research respectively including descriptive, qualitative, and interpretative. The type of data was the written one which was taken from printed media in the forms of poster and brochure. The data was collected through five procedures, they are clipping, numbering, coding, picturing, and documenting. As a scientific writing, a number of theories must be applied for the analysis. The relevant theories are semantics, semiotics, speech act, hermeneutics, language function, and text structure. These six theories were applied eclecticly in analysing the grammatical structure, lexicals, signs, and the structure of texts in order to elaborate the meaning, ideology, and message which were being conveyed through the texts of PSA. The result of the analysis showed that the grammatical structure applied in the PSA of health could be classified into the simple structure in the forms of phrase, clause, and sentence. The use of verbs dominated initially in order to express the imperative meaning but still had the purpose of being persuasive. Kinds of lexicals found were very close to disease, reproduction, and health either the general terms, for example victims, medicine or the specific ones like HIV/AIDS, Odha, perinatal, nifas, jampersal, sadari. From the nonverbal aspect, the relationship of trichotomy with the three of sign components are more realistics in the Object with its three sub components. Triadic relationship of three sub
Ali, Nasir; Ghosh, Subhasis
We report the variable range hopping in ZnO films grown by RF magnetron sputtering in different argon and oxygen partial pressure. It has been found that Mott variable range hopping dominant over Efros variable range hopping in all ZnO films. It also has been found that hopping distance and energy increases with increasing oxygen partial pressure.
Full Text Available Traditional advertising media used as a main TV, radio and print media. When the Internet has become one of the most important channels of communication between people, advertising has proposed to use this new medium to promote products and services on the market. Currently, more than 50% of the western countries population and share increasingly larger of population from other countries have Internet access, which creates a huge potential for online advertising.
Full Text Available The hop aphid Phorodon humuli (Schrank (Hemiptera: Aphididae is a serious pest in most areas where hops are grown. A field trial was performed on a hop yard throughout 2002, 2003 and 2004 in León (Spain in order to analyse the population development of Phorodon humuli and its natural enemies, as well as to determine the most effective integrated program of insecticide treatments. The basic population development pattern of P. humuli was similar in the three years: the population peaked between mid to late June, and then decreased in late June/early July, rising again and reaching another peak in mid-July, after which it began to decline, rising once more in late August; this last rise is characteristic of Spain and has not been recorded in the rest of Europe. The hop aphid’s main natural enemy found on the leaves was Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae. The multiple regression analysis showed that aphids are positively related with the presence of beetle eggs and mean daily temperatures and negatively related with maximum daily temperature integral above 27ºC in plots without insecticide treatment. The most effective program of insecticide (imidacloprid treatments consisted of an initial treatment in June and a second treatment in the second half of July or at the beginning of August. However, a single treatment in June would be sufficient when in this last period the maximum daily temperatures were higher than 27ºC for at least 15 days, avoiding in this way the harmful effects of imidacloprid on predators.
Avdonin, A.; Skupiński, P.; Grasza, K.
A simple description of the Hall effect in the hopping regime of conductivity in semiconductors is presented. Expressions for the Hall coefficient and Hall mobility are derived by considering averaged equilibrium electron transport in a single triangle of localization sites in a magnetic field. Dependence of the Hall coefficient is analyzed in a wide range of temperature and magnetic field values. Our theoretical result is applied to our experimental data on temperature dependence of Hall effect and Hall mobility in ZnO. - Highlights: • Expressions for Hall coefficient and mobility for hopping conductivity are derived. • Theoretical result is compared with experimental curves measured on ZnO. • Simultaneous action of free and hopping conduction channels is considered. • Non-linearity of hopping Hall coefficient is predicted.
Avdonin, A., E-mail: email@example.com [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Skupiński, P. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Grasza, K. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warszawa (Poland)
A simple description of the Hall effect in the hopping regime of conductivity in semiconductors is presented. Expressions for the Hall coefficient and Hall mobility are derived by considering averaged equilibrium electron transport in a single triangle of localization sites in a magnetic field. Dependence of the Hall coefficient is analyzed in a wide range of temperature and magnetic field values. Our theoretical result is applied to our experimental data on temperature dependence of Hall effect and Hall mobility in ZnO. - Highlights: • Expressions for Hall coefficient and mobility for hopping conductivity are derived. • Theoretical result is compared with experimental curves measured on ZnO. • Simultaneous action of free and hopping conduction channels is considered. • Non-linearity of hopping Hall coefficient is predicted.
... The effectiveness ratings for HOPS are as follows:Body odor. Early research suggests that applying a deodorant that ... specific zinc salt to the underarm can reduce body odor. Insomnia. Some research suggests that taking a combination ...
随着世界全球化和商业化的发展,广告已经普遍存在于人们的生活之中,并影响着人们.广告不仅是一种商品推销的手段,也是一种文化传递的交流手段.因此,对于商家来说一则有效的广告不仅要考虑说什么,还要考虑如何说,而对于译者来说,主要考虑的是该如何有效的传达广告所传递的信息,达到预期的目的.因此,研究英文广告文本及其翻译策略显得尤为必要.本文旨在通过对纽马克翻译理论的研究,尤其是他基于语言的不同功能所提出的翻译理论及两大核心翻译方法—语义翻译和交际翻译,来探析不同类型广告英语的翻译策略,力求通过利用这些翻译策略使原语广告与译语广告产生同样的效果.通过对纽马克翻译理论的研究以及对不同类型英文广告的分析,本文最后得出结论:在广告英语的翻译过程中没有所谓的万能或通用翻译法,应根据不同类型的广告灵活选择适当的翻译法.%Nowadays, with the development of the world's globalization and commercialization, more and more foreign commodities are pouring into China, also, more and more Chinese products commodities are pouring into foreign countries. Advertising has been influencing us pervasively in our daily life. It is not only the means of commodity marketing, but also the transmitter of culture. To the sellers, an effec-tive advertising involves not only what to say but also how to say. While to the translators, what they concern most is how to convey the information appropriately and effectively. Therefore, it is necessary to study English advertising texts (EAT) and their translation strategies. This essay focuses on the translation theories of Peter New Mark, es-pecially the functions of language and the two major translation meth-ods---semantic translation (ST) and communicative translation (CT), with the hope of finding more effective translation strategy for different types of
Jung, Haejoon; Lee, In-Ho
As an intrinsic part of the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem, machine-to-machine (M2M) communications are expected to provide ubiquitous connectivity between machines. Millimeter-wave (mmWave) communication is another promising technology for the future communication systems to alleviate the pressure of scarce spectrum resources. For this reason, in this paper, we consider multi-hop M2M communications, where a machine-type communication (MTC) device with the limited transmit power relays to help other devices using mmWave. To be specific, we focus on hop distance statistics and their impacts on system performances in multi-hop wireless networks (MWNs) with directional antenna arrays in mmWave for M2M communications. Different from microwave systems, in mmWave communications, wireless channel suffers from blockage by obstacles that heavily attenuate line-of-sight signals, which may result in limited per-hop progress in MWNs. We consider two routing strategies aiming at different types of applications and derive the probability distributions of their hop distances. Moreover, we provide their baseline statistics assuming the blockage-free scenario to quantify the impact of blockages. Based on the hop distance analysis, we propose a method to estimate the end-to-end performances (e.g., outage probability, hop count, and transmit energy) of the mmWave MWNs, which provides important insights into mmWave MWN design without time-consuming and repetitive end-to-end simulation.
Adina Claudia NEAMŢU
Full Text Available Campaign and especially advertising campaign represents one of the variables of the marketing mix, an important one, being difficult to separate its contribution from the one of the other elements. Irrespective of the specific object that is behind an advertising company, the investment will be retrieved only if the right information is transmitted to the right persons in the right way. This is difficult to accomplish if the advertising responsible in that firm do not understand appropriately: the market nature; the product nature; the distribution channels nature; the communication channels nature – available advertising supports and their features
Full Text Available The aim of this work is determination rheological properties of hopped wort and malt wort and their comparison. In the paper following rheological properties has been described: the dependence of viscosity on a temperature of a sample and hysteresis loop test. The time dependence test was performed for a confirmation thixotropic behaviour. Based on measured values Arrhenius mathematical model has been applied. The activation energy was determined by using of this model. Tests have been carried out in the temperature range from 5 °C to 40 °C. Rheological tests proved that malt wort behaves as Newtonian fluid in all temperatures and hopped wort behaves as non-Newtonian fluid at low temperatures. Thixotropic behaviour is caused by the content of the rests of hops heads or malt scraps.
Sakamoto, Kanta; Konings, Wil N
For brewing industry, beer spoilage bacteria have been problematic for centuries. They include some lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus lindneri and Pediococcus damnosus, and some Gram-negative bacteria such as Pectinatus cerevisiiphilus, Pectinatus frisingensis and Megasphaera cerevisiae. They can spoil beer by turbidity, acidity and the production of unfavorable smell such as diacetyl or hydrogen sulfide. For the microbiological control, many advanced biotechnological techniques such as immunoassay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) have been applied in place of the conventional and time-consuming method of incubation on culture media. Subsequently, a method is needed to determine whether the detected bacterium is capable of growing in beer or not. In lactic acid bacteria, hop resistance is crucial for their ability to grow in beer. Hop compounds, mainly iso-alpha-acids in beer, have antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria. They act as ionophores which dissipate the pH gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane and reduce the proton motive force (pmf). Consequently, the pmf-dependent nutrient uptake is hampered, resulting in cell death. The hop-resistance mechanisms in lactic acid bacteria have been investigated. HorA was found to excrete hop compounds in an ATP-dependent manner from the cell membrane to outer medium. Additionally, increased proton pumping by the membrane bound H(+)-ATPase contributes to hop resistance. To energize such ATP-dependent transporters hop-resistant cells contain larger ATP pools than hop-sensitive cells. Furthermore, a pmf-dependent hop transporter was recently presented. Understanding the hop-resistance mechanisms has enabled the development of rapid methods to discriminate beer spoilage strains from nonspoilers. The horA-PCR method has been applied for bacterial control in breweries. Also, a discrimination method was developed based on ATP pool measurement in lactobacillus cells. However
Full Text Available One of the methods used by companies, which want to forest all the arrivals, is use effective advertisements aiming to bring out the properties of the product. Advertisement on consumers’ behaviors is one of the effective methods in creating demand for the product. It is a tool used in order to be distinguished in all respects of competition becoming widespread day by day. This study discusses advertisement ethics especially the ads on TV. Advertisement, by its nature, may have a have a misleading hidden character and cause unfair competition. The approach developed by consumers against such kinds of advertisements has been studied via data obtained by survey method. Consumers’ opinions on advertisement ethics were taken via Likert scale. The methods used for evaluating these surveys are Kolmogorov Smirnov test and One-Sample t-test.
Full Text Available The article replies to the question, whether the advertisement can exist without ethical principles or ethics should be the basis of the advertisement. One can say that the ethical opinion of the advertisement does not depend on content and the form of advertising content exclusively, but also on recipients consciousness. The advertisement appeals to the emotions more than to the intellect, thus restricting the area of conscious and based on rational premises choice, so it is morally bad. It is not that the moral evil immanently underlines the advertisement, but it concerns the mechanisms which cause that the advertisement turns out to be effective. The only admissible form of the advertisement would be the reliable full information about the advantages and flaws of the concrete advertised product. The only admissible form of the advertisement would be the reliable full information about the advantages and defects of the concrete advertised product. The most serious difficulty connected with the ethical opinion of the advertisement is the fact that the advertisement is the indispensable link of the present economy, and everyone who accepts the free market and perceives the positives of the economic growth, should also accept the advertisement. The advertisement constitutes the element of the economic activity, so in consequence the responsibility first of all lies with enterprises for its far-reaching results.
This paper is an analysis of advertisement translation under skopos theory.It is explained that the nature of advertisement translation under skopos theory is reconstructing the information of the source text to persuade target audience.Three translation strategies are put forward in translating advertisements.
Full Text Available Promotional activities are very often based on advertising and diverse types of public relations. In order to attract consumers' attention and achieve communication goals set by the corporate strategy, advertisers frequently use rhetorical elements in advertising discourse. The advertisers try to convey a desired message and to communicate with the recipient of the message by using various rhetorical figures. It is argued that understanding the structure and function of rhetorical figures in advertising requires a "text- and reader-aware approach". The use of rhetorical figures in advertising has been overlooked in consumer research. This paper shows that the use of rhetorical elements in the advertising discourse is very frequent, but at the same time it is questioned if the function of the rhetorical figures is just a communication with the target market (which is a base of communication models and if the consequences of linguistic influences are much more serious. The complex nature of advertising language with various rhetorical figures (thropes and schemes do not just stimulate recipients to demonstrate a desirable behavior, but indirectly it constructs a concept of desirable lifestyle and it induces them to identify themselves with the explained model. Moreover, the analyzed corpus included advertising slogans of social responsible companies as well as advertising campaigns with elements of diverse ideologies. In the time of digitization and a rapid information flow, consumer's attention is less dedicated to the advertising messages. Therefore, it should be expected that in the future advertisers will have to adjust linguistic, audio and visual techniques to the unfocused message recipients.
Henrique Antônio Berwanger de Amorim Cabrita
Full Text Available Hip arthroscopy is a safe method for treating a variety of pathological conditions that were unknown until a decade ago. Femoroacetabular impingement is the commonest of these pathological conditions and the one with the best results when treated early on. The instruments and surgical technique for hip arthroscopy continue to evolve. New indications for hip arthroscopy has been studied as the ligamentum teres injuries, capsular repair in instabilities, dissection of the sciatic nerve and repair of gluteal muscles tears (injuries to the hip rotator cuff, although still with debatable reproducibility. The complication rate is low, and ever-better results with fewer complications should be expected with the progression of the learning curve.
This paper clarifies advertising systems unique to Japan. As typical of Japanese advertising systems, advertising expression tend to adopt soft sell and transformational type. The advertising expression is explained not only by the cultural value but also marketing behavior of advertisers and the characteristics of Advertising transactions. As to marketing behavior channel-oriented marketing behavior has an impact on advertising expressions. As to characteristics of Advertising transactions, ...
Full Text Available Advertising may be examined as a particular form of rhetoric the aims of which are the same as of rhetoric, namely to affect mind, will, feelings, and to persuade. The theory of rhetoric, the main object of which is discourse not only in narrow meaning (as verbal expression of ideas (i.e. to say text, but also in broad meaning – as a communicative act between the addresser and the addressee since its interdisciplinary nature provides the right tools to explore the advertising discourse. The theory of rhetoric is successfully applied in development of advertising discourse, because it helps to foresee the communicative act between the addresser and the addressee. Advertising and rhetoric are combined by many common elements, but the same goal is the most important: both, rhetoric and advertising seek for persuasion through verbal and non-verbal measures. The paper deals with the analysis of the inventive level of advertising discourse, i.e., eristic arguments, spread of ways of proofing / persuasion. Eristic argumentation is a dominant argumentation type in advertising. This method of persuasion is a way to create truth visibility although it is just superficial. The most typical schemes of eristic argumentation used in advertising are as follows: argumentum ad vanitatem (appeal to the vanity of the addressee, argumentum ad verecundiam (appeal to the authority, argumentum baculinum (method of “whip” argument, argumentum ad novitatem (appeal to novelty. The article shows the usage of eristic arguments in Lithuanian commercial ads.
Full Text Available Advertising has reached new dimensions in incorporating and exploiting patterns of message transmission on certain products and services offered to the market. Therefore, advertising has become the subject of an important multidisciplinary approach, scientific analysis and research. Multiplying the cognition from different domains of human activity along with technical and scientific innovations, the advertisment has become one of the most intense communication codes which are realized in a constant interaction between an individual and the world. In order to be present in consumer's consciousness and subconsciousness, advertising simoulaneously uses our ethical, moral, mental, social communication and other cognition. The word and the language, as important media used in advertising, play an important role. The aim of this study is to analyze the linguistic code of an advertisment and language strategies of advertisers. The objective of linguistic analysis of advertisments is to confirm that the advertisment is a part of multimedial discourse which is not realized its linguistic code, but all other paralinguistic elements are present. The analysis will be carried out on a corpus consisting of advertisments published in daily newspapers from 2000-2002. The linguistic features will be analyzed as well as the relation of linguistic code with other paralinguistic codes used in advertising.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine internet advertising, to understand its strengths and weaknesses, to compare the content and potential of traditional media with Web sites and to describe the specific types of internet advertising. The paper also tries to present some facts and figures regarding internet advertising.
Full Text Available In this paper we present and experimentally validate a control method for regulating both the forward speed and the apex height of a one-legged hopping robot, using only a single actuator. The control method is based on a dynamic model of the hopping robot and makes use of the dynamic coupling of the vertical and forward motions of the robot. The control is applied first to a simulated model of the robot and shown to track a desired forward robot speed and a desired apex height. Then the SAHR (single actuator hopping robot hardware is introduced and is used as an experimental platform with which to evaluate the performance of the control method. The control method is applied to the physical setup and is shown to lead to a stable hopping gait with a desired forward speed and apex height, despite the unmodelled disturbances met on the laboratory floor.
Full Text Available In this paper we shall consider grosso modo actual opinions regarding advertising and advertising ethics. The emergence of the Internet aroused hope that advertising ethics is not the ultimate oxymoron (Beltramini, 2003. In spite of a negative connotation that postmodernism and globalization added to advertising theory and practice, the appearance of the Internet has really changed business philosophy regarding advertising and emphasized its ethical dimension. Results of our research confirm this thesis.
How does advertising position itself in consumer culture? In what ways does it 'create' desire and wants? This richly illustrated, incisive text produces the most complete critical introduction to advertising culture.\\ud \\ud Advertising in Modern and Postmodern Times: \\ud provides a comprehensive discussion of the main theories\\ud shows you how real adverts work, together with reproductions of advertising images and copy\\ud demonstrates how advertising constructs subjects\\ud provides an instr...
Full Text Available In prevailing competition-based market economy, organizations have to search factors influencing advertising effectiveness. This research aims at developing the model of the influence of advertising appeal on advertising effectiveness. While achieving the aim of the article, the analysis and synthesis of scientific literature is provided. Furthermore, traditional marketing research methods as well as neuromarketing research methods are applied in order to determine the influences of different advertising appeals on advertising effectiveness. As a research result, the model of the influence of advertising appeal on advertising effectiveness is elaborated. Accordingly, this research fills the gap in scientific literature by determining the influences of emotional and rational appeals on print / outdoor advertising effectiveness in the context of convenience product category. Moreover, by answering the research question, the contribution to the field emerges in integrating both marketing theory and neuroscience in order to analyze and evaluate consumer behavior.
Full Text Available In recent years, the advertising sector has been strongly criticised due to its sexist representation of gender. The messages in advertisements are the result of a careful manufacturing process, which reflects the values and attitudes of the professionals involved in their creation. The main research hypothesis of this article is that the persistence of sexist stereotypes in advertising is related to the absence of women in the creative departments of advertising agencies. In this sense, the objective of this work is to examine the situation of women within the Galician advertising sector, and particularly women’s participation in ads production. This study, which has been carried out from the production perspective, also compares the situation of women in the Galician advertising agencies with the general situation of women in the national advertising sector.
Full Text Available In human and animal motor control several sensory organs contribute to a network of sensory pathways modulating the motion depending on the task and the phase of execution to generate daily motor tasks such as locomotion. To better understand the individual and joint contribution of reflex pathways in locomotor tasks, we developed a neuromuscular model that describes hopping movements. In this model, we consider the influence of proprioceptive length (LFB, velocity (VFB and force feedback (FFB pathways of a leg extensor muscle on hopping stability, performance and efficiency (metabolic effort. Therefore, we explore the space describing the blending of the monosynaptic reflex pathway gains. We call this reflex parameter space a sensor-motor map. The sensor-motor maps are used to visualize the functional contribution of sensory pathways in multisensory integration. We further evaluate the robustness of these sensor-motor maps to changes in tendon elasticity, body mass, segment length and ground compliance. The model predicted that different reflex pathway compositions selectively optimize specific hopping characteristics (e.g., performance and efficiency. Both FFB and LFB were pathways that enable hopping. FFB resulted in the largest hopping heights, LFB enhanced hopping efficiency and VFB had the ability to disable hopping. For the tested case, the topology of the sensor-motor maps as well as the location of functionally optimal compositions were invariant to changes in system designs (tendon elasticity, body mass, segment length or environmental parameters (ground compliance. Our results indicate that different feedback pathway compositions may serve different functional roles. The topology of the sensor-motor map was predicted to be robust against changes in the mechanical system design indicating that the reflex system can use different morphological designs, which does not apply for most robotic systems (for which the control often follows a
Full Text Available The long propagation delay in an underwater acoustic channel makes designing an underwater media access control (MAC protocol more challenging. In particular, handshaking-based MAC protocols widely used in terrestrial radio channels have been known to be inappropriate in underwater acoustic channels, because of the inordinately large latency involved in exchanging control packets. Furthermore, in the case of multi-hop relaying in a hop-by-hop handshaking manner, the end-to-end delay significantly increases. In this paper, we propose a new MAC protocol named cascading multi-hop reservation and transmission (CMRT. In CMRT, intermediate nodes between a source and a destination may start handshaking in advance for the next-hop relaying before handshaking for the previous node is completed. By this concurrent relaying, control packet exchange and data delivery cascade down to the destination. In addition, to improve channel utilization, CMRT adopts a packet-train method where multiple data packets are sent together by handshaking once. Thus, CMRT reduces the time taken for control packet exchange and accordingly increases the throughput. The performance of CMRT is evaluated and compared with that of two conventional MAC protocols (multiple-access collision avoidance for underwater (MACA-U and MACA-U with packet trains (MACA-UPT. The results show that CMRT outperforms other MAC protocols in terms of both throughput and end-to-end delay.
Full Text Available Research suggests that banner advertisements used in online marketing are often overlooked, especially when positioned horizontally on webpages. Such inattention invariably gives rise to an inability to remember advertising brands and messages, undermining the effectiveness of this marketing method. Recent interest has focused on whether human faces within banner advertisements can increase attention to the information they contain, since the gaze cues conveyed by faces can influence where observers look. We report an experiment that investigated the efficacy of faces located in banner advertisements to enhance the attentional processing and memorability of banner contents. We tracked participants’ eye movements when they examined webpages containing either bottom-right vertical banners or bottom-centre horizontal banners. We also manipulated facial information such that banners either contained no face, a face with mutual gaze or a face with averted gaze. We additionally assessed people’s memories for brands and advertising messages. Results indicated that relative to other conditions, the condition involving faces with averted gaze increased attention to the banner overall, as well as to the advertising text and product. Memorability of the brand and advertising message was also enhanced. Conversely, in the condition involving faces with mutual gaze, the focus of attention was localised more on the face region rather than on the text or product, weakening any memory benefits for the brand and advertising message. This detrimental impact of mutual gaze on attention to advertised products was especially marked for vertical banners. These results demonstrate that the inclusion of human faces with averted gaze in banner advertisements provides a promising means for marketers to increase the attention paid to such adverts, thereby enhancing memory for advertising information.
Full Text Available At first, marketing practitioners and academics consider standardized approaches to marketing and advertising strategies in globalization, and then some studies proved that the standardization of advertising across culture is not valid. Therefore, cross cultural advertising takes local culture into account when conveying messages in advertisements. Cross cultural understanding is very important in order to produce successful localized advertising that would reflect the cultural values and norms of intended audience. Challenge in cross cultural advertising is the problem of communicating to people of diverse cultural background. Cross cultural solutions are applied in areas such as language, communication style, images and cultural values. Cross cultural advertising is simply about using common sense and analyzing how the different elements of an advertising campaign are impacted by culture and modifying them to best speak to the target audience. Other challenges are determining between standardization and adaptation of cultural values content of advertising when facing different people from diverse cultures. In academic side, the challenge is preparing students to design advertisements that communicate effectively to diverse cultures.
Seino Evangeline Agwa Fomukong
Full Text Available There are many purposes for using language which determine how the writer or speaker chooses words, syntactic expressions and figurative language. This is as a result of the fact that language has a very powerful effect over people, their actions and thoughts. This is seen in the use of language in various discourse types which include advertisements. The powerful influence language has on people therefore makes encoders to be choosy in the use of language, especially in advertisement because they have to persuade the readers. Consequently they make the language of advertisements positive and emphasize on the superiority of their products. This study discusses the advertisement of Dangote Cement on billboards in Bamenda, North West Region, Cameroon, analysing what is communicated, how it is communicated and the interpretation. The analysis used as tools the Textual Conceptual Functions as given by Jeffries (2016, uncovering ideologies and social meanings expressed in Dangote Cement advertisement using the following apparatus: prioritisation, implying and assumption, listing, naming and description. The study has emphasized the structural analysis and the role of context to reveal functions and underlying meanings of the text. It also concludes that the advertisers use different stylistic devices that carry positivity, and a common ground that makes the readers identify with the advertisements, urging them go for the Dangote Cement. Keywords: stylistics, language, context, advertisements, ideologies, Dangote
Full Text Available Increasingly audacious steps in advertising are made to affect the customer and to encourage them to buy the advertised goods. Advertising is highly important in gaining a foothold in the business environment. Usually, the advertising texts fail to meet the norms of the standard Lithuanian language. The aim of this article is to compare the language of the advertising booklets of two pharmacies. The linguistic analysis of the advertising booklets of Camelia and Euro Pharmacy for March 2014 showed that in terms of language errors the booklets of the two pharmacies were similar, and the character of the errors was identical in both cases. The advertising booklets of both pharmacies contained lexical, syntactic, morphological, and logical errors. The advertising booklet of the Camelia pharmacy presents 121 items, which advertising descriptions contain 55.3% of language errors. The advertising booklet of the Euro Pharmacy presents advertising descriptions of 103 items, where language errors comprise 57.2%. The majority of the errors detected in the advertising booklets of the two pharmacies are lexical (Camelia – 33.8%, and Euro Pharmacy – 37.3% or syntactic (Camelia – 27.9%, and Euro Pharmacy – 37.3%. Both publications contain nearly equal numbers of lexical errors (Camelia – 17.6%, and Euro Pharmacy – 18.7%. The greatest difference was observed in the number of morphological errors (Camelia – 20.7%, and Euro Pharmacy – 5.7%. In addition to that, the name of the Camelia pharmacy is in conflict with the norms of both Lithuanian and Latin languages.
General concepts of hopping-type transport and localization are reviewed. Disorder, electronic correlations and atomic displacements, effects ignored in electronic band structure calculations, foster localization of electronic charge carriers. Examples are given that illustrate the efficacy of these effects in producing localization. This introduction is followed by a brief discussion of the relation between hopping-type transport and localization. The fundamentals of the formation, localization, and hopping transport of small polarons and/or bipolarons is then described. Electronic transport in boron carbides is presented as an example of the adiabatic hopping of small bipolarons. Finally, the notion of vibrational hopping is introduced. The high-temperature thermal diffusion in boron carbides is presented as a potential application of this idea
Full Text Available Since advertisement is an important strategy of firms to improve market share, this paper highlights duopoly advertisement under the Hotelling model. A model of advertisement under spatial duopoly is established, and corresponding effects of brand values and transportation costs are all captured. This study presents the proportion of sales revenue spending on advertisement. The condition for free-rider in advertisement investment is discussed. Under firms with the identical brand values, if firms' advertisement points to corresponding consumers, price and advertisement investment are all reduced. Therefore, advertisement is discussed under spatial competition in this work.
José M. Páez-Borrallo
Full Text Available Time-hopping ultra-wideband technology presents some very attractive features for future indoor wireless systems in terms of achievable transmission rate and multiple access capabilities. This paper develops an algorithm to design time-hopping system simulators specially suitable for ultra-wideband, which takes advantage of some of the specific characteristics of this kind of systems. The algorithm allows an improvement of both the time capabilities and the achievable sampling rate and can be used to research into the influence of different parameters on the performance of the system. An additional result is the validation of a new general performance formula for time-hopping ultra-wideband systems with multipath channels.
Bley, Andre Serra; Correa, João Carlos Ferrari; Dos Reis, Amir Curcio; Rabelo, Nayra Deise Dos Anjos; Marchetti, Paulo Henrique; Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia
Asymmetry in the alignment of the lower limbs during weight-bearing activities is associated with patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS), caused by an increase in patellofemoral (PF) joint stress. High neuromuscular demands are placed on the lower limb during the propulsion phase of the single leg triple hop test (SLTHT), which may influence biomechanical behavior. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to compare kinematic, kinetic and muscle activity in the trunk and lower limb during propulsion in the SLTHT using women with PFPS and pain free controls. The following measurements were made using 20 women with PFPS and 20 controls during propulsion in the SLTHT: kinematics of the trunk, pelvis, hip, and knee; kinetics of the hip, knee and ankle; and muscle activation of the gluteus maximus (GM), gluteus medius (GMed), biceps femoris (BF) and vastus lateralis (VL). Differences between groups were calculated using three separate sets of multivariate analysis of variance for kinematics, kinetics, and electromyographic data. Women with PFPS exhibited ipsilateral trunk lean; greater trunk flexion; greater contralateral pelvic drop; greater hip adduction and internal rotation; greater ankle pronation; greater internal hip abductor and ankle supinator moments; lower internal hip, knee and ankle extensor moments; and greater GM, GMed, BL, and VL muscle activity. The results of the present study are related to abnormal movement patterns in women with PFPS. We speculated that these findings constitute strategies to control a deficient dynamic alignment of the trunk and lower limb and to avoid PF pain. However, the greater BF and VL activity and the extensor pattern found for the hip, knee, and ankle of women with PFPS may contribute to increased PF stress.
Full Text Available Radio advertising, although it seems to be the "poor relative" on the advertising market, is avery interesting topic of study, because it uses language to a very large extent. In a relatively shorttime, a maximum of information is transmitted that causes emotions and raises the interest of asmany people as possible for a product or brand, all wrapped up in a coherent text of 60 to 100words . In radio advertising, the text is the one that has priority, being the star because themessage is based on the text. For this reason, radio discourse may be a research object of interestto linguists, and this has led us to pay close attention to it.
Full Text Available The economic growth that characterized the interwar period meant the development of Romanian advertising. But it‘s alleged against many sins. For example, the press was accused of endangering the health of readers by hosting the pages of newspaper advertisements made for all sorts of dubious products. Some authors claim that ―abuse pattern‖ was a trigger for suicide. Also in some texts show that behind the advertising contracts were blackmail. Aesthetic aspect which the applicant made in an unprofessional manne r gave him large cities is another point from the ―sins‖ of interwar Romanian advertising. In the years between the two world wars, publications, central or local, host their pages many articles in different authorities debated how the Romanian disclosure was made. Our study aimed at precisely these texts, which were supposed to be some ―manual‖, it is true that small for all those interested in advertising. The documentation sources used for their drafting have been as testified by some authors, schools taught courses at commercial and advertising conferences that were broadcast on radio stations abroad
Full Text Available Public sphere is a social space, open to active individual access and free discussion, rescued from state intervention, where communicative action free from violence and individual benefits is undertaken; and rational-critical discourse is built. Political advertisement is the type advertising which aims at directing voters or the government to a particular action, having them adopt a certain view or approach. The concept of political advertising emerged with the practice of using commercial advertising techniques to promote a party, candidate or an idea. Justice and Development Party (JDP, has been ruling Turkey since 2002. The leader of the party is Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. It is a conservative party and has carried out some practices that could be regarded as negative. Anti-secular attitudes are also among these practices. Thus, analysing the political advertisements of JDP has proved to be interesting. Public sphere studies are mostly conducted through news stories and columns in media. In that sense, it is significant to analyse political advertisements in terms of public sphere. In this study, the political advertisements of the ruling Justice and Development Party (JDP in the process of Turkish General Parliamentary Election, 2011 have been analysed. The political advertisements in question have been analysed via Sabah newspaper. The reason for choosing Sabah is that it supports JDP as an example of partisan press. The samples have been taken from 2 weeks before the elections. Accordingly, as a full-page advertisement is published every day, 14 political advertisement analyses have been conducted in total. Political advertisements have been analysed using qualitative text analysis. As the study follows the path of public place-political advertising relationship, it finds meaning in itself.
Full Text Available Advertising spokesperson is one of the undeniably important factors affecting advertising effectiveness. However, advertising spokesperson has to have some particular features to be effective. Various previous researches resulted in determination of different features of advertising spokesperson and their effectiveness; i.e. type of a spokesperson (celebrity vs. a regular person; gender and race of a spokesperson; etc. were found to have an impact on the spokesperson’s effectiveness. However, the research on the impact of shooting color temperature on its effectiveness is still scarce. Moreover, an assumption can be made that color temperature might cause a different effect depending on advertising spokesperson’s gender. The aim of this paper is to fill this gap by analyzing the relationship between spokesperson’s gender and advertising color temperature in a framework of advertising effectiveness. Neuromarketing research methods were applied to meet the aim and to determine the guidelines for its usage in advertising.
Full Text Available Hop market and beer industry have always been of secondary relevance in Italy as compared to grape and wine sector. Hence, hop cultivars and the information for growing hops have been generated almost entirely from the major hop production countries. Identifying cultivars that perform well in Mediterranean environments is therefore essential to successfully start hop cultivation and breeding activity in this new growing region. To evaluate the intraspecific diversity of hop in Central Italy, 20 female hop genotypes with different origin were screened during three growing seasons (2013-2015 in an experimental hop yard. Cones yield, plant height and crop phenology were evaluated to determine which cultivars were best suited to the Mediterranean climate. Moreover, given the rising interest for the development of local beers with distinguishing aroma, a sensory analysis was performed and beers flavoured with locally produced and imported cones were compared. A significant diversity among cultivars was found for all parameters investigated. The results indicated that weather condition during flowering and development of cones markedly affected yield and plant height. Cones yield was negatively correlated with thermal time (r=–0.5, P<0.05 to harvest and positively with plant height (r=0.56, P<0.05. Cascade, Hallertauer Magnum, Hersbrucker Spat and Yeoman showed the best adaptability to the Mediterranean growing conditions as they were the top-performing cultivars across the three years. Sensory analysis evidenced the importance of cultivar selection as determining factor for flavouring properties of beers. In general, results showed that the origin of cones strongly affected the mouth feel of beers. More complex and appreciated aroma profiles were identified for beers flavoured with local cones than those hopped with commercial products.
Jose Sebastian Rufian
Full Text Available The Pseudomonas syringae type III-secreted effector HopZ1a is a member of the HopZ / YopJ superfamily of effectors that triggers immunity in Arabidopsis. We have previously shown that HopZ1a suppresses both local (effector-triggered immunity, ETI and systemic immunity (systemic acquired resistance, SAR triggered by the heterologous effector AvrRpt2. HopZ1a has been shown to possess acetyltransferase activity, and this activity is essential to trigger immunity in Arabidopsis. HopZ1a acetyltransferase activity has been reported to require the auto-acetylation of the effector on a specific lysine (K289 residue. In this paper we analyze the relevance of autoacetylation of lysine residue 289 in HopZ1a ability to suppress plant defenses, and on the light of the results obtained, we also revise its relevance for HopZ1a avirulence activity. Our results indicate that, while the HopZ1aK289R mutant is impaired to some degree in its virulence and avirulence activities, is by no means phenotypically equivalent to the catalytically inactive HopZ1aC216A, since it is still able to trigger a defense response that induces detectable macroscopic HR and effectively protects Arabidopsis from infection, reducing growth of P. syringae within the plant. We also present evidence that the HopZ1aK289R mutant still displays virulence activities, partially suppressing both ETI and SAR.
Full Text Available Fingerprinting attacks are one of the most severe threats to the security of networks. Fingerprinting attack aims to obtain the operating system information of target hosts to make preparations for future attacks. In this paper, a fingerprint hopping method (FPH is proposed based on software-defined networks to defend against fingerprinting attacks. FPH introduces the idea of moving target defense to show a hopping fingerprint toward the fingerprinting attackers. The interaction of the fingerprinting attack and its defense is modeled as a signal game, and the equilibriums of the game are analyzed to develop an optimal defense strategy. Experiments show that FPH can resist fingerprinting attacks effectively.
VIRGIL - ION POPOVICI
Full Text Available In DEX, commercial advertising is defined as the (commercial activity which aimes by advertising (by prints, radio, television, movies, etc., to point out public interest on certain goods, books, show, the use of services etc. A famous, advertised product remains in our memory. Many of us ask somehow annoyed: How some of the brands remain in our memory, although we believe that we are not strongly influenced by advertisements? Interest publicity led to the creation of specialized agencies and organizations at a very broad diversification methods but advertising means.With advertising, the companies using various methods and means of popularizing notify the assortment of goods offered for sale population, of its quality, how to use and the price. In this regard propaganda to persuade consumers through various forms of advertising seeks not only to ensure its capture attention and conversion of formats such motivations in buying certain actions.
Chernyavskaya Elena Sergeevna
Full Text Available The article aims at describing the intonation and sound characteristics of advertising phonetic style. On the basis of acoustic analysis of transcripts of radio advertising tape recordings, broadcasted at different radio stations, as well as in the result of processing the representative part of phrases with the help of special computer programs, the author determines the parameters of superfix means. The article proves that the stylistic parameters of advertising phonetic style are oriented on modern orthoepy, and that the originality of radio advertising sounding is determined by two tendencies – the reduction of stressed vowels duration in the terminal and non-terminal word and the increase of pre-tonic and post-tonic vowels duration of non-terminal word in a phrase. The article also shows that the peculiarity of rhythmic structure of terminal and non-terminal word in radio advertising is formed by means of leveling stressed and unstressed sounds in length. The specificity of intonational structure of an advertising text consists in the following peculiarities: matching of syntactic and syntagmatic division, which allows to denote the blocks of semantic models, forming the text of radio advertising; the allocation of keywords into separate syntagmas; the design of informative parts of advertising text by means of symmetric length correlation of minimal speech segments; the combination of interstyle prosodic elements in the framework of sounding text. Thus, the conducted analysis allowed to conclude, that the texts of sounding advertising are designed using special pronunciation style, marked by sound duration.
Martens, Craig C., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [University of California, Irvine, California 92697-2025 (United States)
In this paper, we describe a new and fully coherent stochastic surface hopping method for simulating mixed quantum-classical systems. We illustrate the approach on the simple but unforgiving problem of quantum evolution of a two-state quantum system in the limit of unperturbed pure state dynamics and for dissipative evolution in the presence of both stationary and nonstationary random environments. We formulate our approach in the Liouville representation and describe the density matrix elements by ensembles of trajectories. Population dynamics are represented by stochastic surface hops for trajectories representing diagonal density matrix elements. These are combined with an unconventional coherent stochastic hopping algorithm for trajectories representing off-diagonal quantum coherences. The latter generalizes the binary (0,1) “probability” of a trajectory to be associated with a given state to allow integers that can be negative or greater than unity in magnitude. Unlike existing surface hopping methods, the dynamics of the ensembles are fully entangled, correctly capturing the coherent and nonlocal structure of quantum mechanics.
Svetlana Anatolyevna Chubay
Full Text Available To obtain the most complete understanding of the features of political advertising, the author characterizes its specific features allocated by modern researchers. The problem of defining the notion of political advertising is studied in detail. The analysis of definitions available in professional literature has allowed the author to identify a number of key features that characterize political advertising as an independent type of promotional activity. These features include belonging to the forms of mass communication, implemented through different communication channels; the presence of characteristics typical of any advertising as a form of mass communication (strategies and concepts promoting the program, ideas; an integrated approach to the selection of communication channels, means and the methods of informing the addressers that focus on the audience; the formation of psychological attitude to voting; the image nature; the manipulative potential. It is shown that the influence is the primary function of political advertising – it determines the key characteristics common to this type of advertising. Political advertising, reflecting the essence of the political platform of certain political forces, setting up voters for their support, forming and introducing into the mass consciousness a definite idea of the character of these political forces, creates the desired psychological attitude to the voting. The analysis of definitions available in professional literature has allowed the author to formulate an operational definition of political advertising, which allowed to include the features that distinguish political advertising from other forms of political communication such as political PR which is traditionally mixed with political advertising.
Nilsson Plymoth, Anders
As more and more applications and services in our society now depend on the Internet, it is important that dynamically deployed wireless multi hop networks are able to gain access to the Internet and other infrastructure networks and services. This thesis proposes and evaluates solutions for providing multi hop Internet Access. It investigates how ad hoc networks can be combined with wireless and mesh networks in order to create wireless multi hop access networks. When several access points t...
Chehimi, Fadi; Coulton, Paul; Edwards, Reuben
Directing advertising to mobile phones currently is limited to commercial text messages, short-code text-back messages, two dimensional (2D) images, or wireless access protocol (WAP) clickable push links. All of these traditional methods do not facilitate advertising approach were consumers can interact with prospective purchases. In this paper we introduce a novel and highly interactive location- and permission-based advertising system that allows 3D product adverts to be displayed on users'...
Full Text Available In this paper, I investigate the co-evolution of fast and slow strategy spread and game strategies in populations of spatially distributed agents engaged in a one off evolutionary dilemma game. Agents are characterized by a pair of traits, a game strategy (cooperate or defect and a binary 'advertising' strategy (advertise or don't advertise. Advertising, which comes at a cost [Formula: see text], allows investment into faster propagation of the agents' traits to adjacent individuals. Importantly, game strategy and advertising strategy are subject to the same evolutionary mechanism. Via analytical reasoning and numerical simulations I demonstrate that a range of advertising costs exists, such that the prevalence of cooperation is significantly enhanced through co-evolution. Linking costly replication to the success of cooperators exposes a novel co-evolutionary mechanism that might contribute towards a better understanding of the origins of cooperation-supporting heterogeneity in agent populations.
The research involves the following two parts: the first part is the analysis of the advertising language;the second part is to analyze the register, namely apply the advertising context to a wider social context to find a more effective communicative means. The stylistics enables one to make the discourse analysis of the advertising texts both from a microcosmic and a macroscopic perspective. The twofold demonstrative function points out a new theoretical way for advertising research.
Castañeda-Ojeda, María Pilar; Moreno-Pérez, Alba; Ramos, Cayo; López-Solanilla, Emilia
The effector repertoire of the olive pathogen P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi NCPPB 3335 includes two members of the HopAO effector family, one of the most diverse T3E families of the P. syringae complex. The study described here explores the phylogeny of these dissimilar members, HopAO1 and HopAO2, among the complex and reveals their activities as immune defense suppressors. Although HopAO1 is predominantly encoded by phylogroup 3 strains isolated from woody organs of woody hosts, both HopAO1 and HopAO2 are phylogenetically clustered according to the woody/herbaceous nature of their host of isolation, suggesting host specialization of the HopAO family across the P. syringae complex. HopAO1 and HopAO2 translocate into plant cells and show hrpL-dependent expression, which allows their classification as actively deployed type III effectors. Our data also show that HopAO1 and HopAO2 possess phosphatase activity, a hallmark of the members of this family. Both of them exert an inhibitory effect on early plant defense responses, such as ROS production and callose deposition, and are able to suppress ETI responses induced by the effectorless polymutant of P. syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (DC3000D28E) in Nicotiana. Moreover, we demonstrate that a ΔhopAO1 mutant of P. savastanoi NCPBB 3335 exhibits a reduced fitness and virulence in olive plants, which supports the relevance of this effector during the interaction of this strain with its host plants. This work contributes to the field with the first report regarding functional analysis of HopAO homologs encoded by P. syringae or P. savastanoi strains isolated from woody hosts. PMID:28529516
Although particle hopping models have been introduced into traffic science in the 19509, their systematic use has only started recently. Two reasons for this are, that they are advantageous on modem computers, and that recent theoretical developments allow analytical understanding of their properties and therefore more confidence for their use. In principle, particle hopping models fit between microscopic models for driving and fluiddynamical models for traffic flow. In this sense, they also help closing the conceptual gap between these two. This paper shows connections between particle hopping models and traffic flow theory. It shows that the hydrodynamical limits of certain particle hopping models correspond to the Lighthill-Whitham theory for traffic flow, and that only slightly more complex particle hopping models produce already the correct traffic jam dynamics, consistent with recent fluid-dynamical models for traffic flow. By doing so, this paper establishes that, on the macroscopic level, particle hopping models are at least as good as fluid-dynamical models. Yet, particle hopping models have at least two advantages over fluid-dynamical models: they straightforwardly allow microscopic simulations, and they include stochasticity.
Full Text Available Modern consumer is inhabitant of a "Global Village" as well as of its own national culture which largely influences his creation of a system of values, beliefs and style of life in general. According to adopted values and styles, consumers from different cultures have different buying behavior, different needs and preferences related to a product and they have their favorite advertising styles. As advertising reflects culture, symbols and rituals which are used are even more emphasized and strengthen cultural values, which are then used as a strong advertising style characteristic. Global advertisers are increasingly faced with different environment meaning. A fact that has been proved in practice is that standardized approach to advertising does not transmit values in a correct way, so the advertisers that want to achieve long term success must differentiate their brands to competitors'. In modern market environment strategy "Think globally, act locally" proved to be adequate for advertising in modern international market.
Full Text Available Even though advertising has great power, there are often to be heard the critics on methods and techniques used, and on the way it influences social values, consumer life style, their preferences and behavior. Critics often claim that advertising is false and misleading, very offensive and even irritating. Exploitation of some target groups is mentioned, where biggest critics are on advertising on for children. Many believe that advertising has to be only informal. Audience has to be free of persuasion, subjective and overwhelmed claims, offensive suggestions and advertisements which manipulate consumers in order to force them buy certain product.
Full Text Available Hop is a plant used by humankind for thousands of years. This plant is one of the main and indispensable raw materials for the beer production. It is used for various dishes preparation in the cuisine. Hop is also used to inhibit bacterial contamination. The hop extracts are used for its sedative, antiseptic and antioxidant properties in medicine, as a part of many phytopharmaceuticals. The present paper have focused on the extraction of polyphenolic compounds from 4 samples of hop pellets varieties of Aurora, Saaz, Lublin and Saphir, on the analyzing of bioactive substances (polyphenolics and flavonoids in prepared extracts and on the determination of antioxidant activity. The highest content of polyphenolic substances was determined in the sample Lublin (153.06 mg gallic acid (GAE/g and Saaz (151.87 mg GAE/g. The amount of flavonoids in the samples was descending order Saaz > Saphir > Aurora > Lublin. Hops, as plant, is known by high content of antioxidant active substances. Antioxidant activity was determined using three independent spectrofotometric methods, radical scavenging assays using 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. The sample Aurora showed the highest ability to scavenge of ABTS radical cation. Antioxidant activity continued to decline in a row Saphir> Lublin> Saaz. The same trend was also observed by using the FRAP assay. The most effective DPPH radical scavengering activity had the sample Saaz a Saphir (p>0.05.doi:10.5219/270 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE
Masculinity and Nationalism in East African Hip-Hop Music · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Ewan Mwangi, 5-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tvl.v41i2.29671 ...
Full Text Available Growing number of advertising agencies, substantial increase of advertising budgets of both local and international companies in Serbia and proliferation of advertising messages targeting Serbian consumers in recent years have contributed to a belief that advertising in Serbia has been a brand new phenomenon brought in during its transition to a market economy. The truth however is quite different. Therefore, the paper aims to show and discuss historical evidence confirming that advertising practice in Serbia is more than two centuries old. In this paper, the history of advertising in Serbia is followed since 1791, when the first print advertisement offering calendar to families and farmers in Serbia appeared in a newspaper. Four periods of advertising development have been described: 1 early beginnings, 2 interwar period, 3 socialist advertising and 4 advertising in transition.
The project called High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments (HOPS) has been funded by NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) program during April, 2012 â€" April, 2015. HOPS is an enabler for science missions with extremely high data processing rates. In this three-year effort of HOPS, Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) and 3-D Winds were of interest in particular. As for ASCENDS, HOPS replaces time domain data processing with frequency domain processing while making the real-time on-board data processing possible. As for 3-D Winds, HOPS offers real-time high-resolution wind profiling with 4,096-point fast Fourier transform (FFT). HOPS is adaptable with quick turn-around time. Since HOPS offers reusable user-friendly computational elements, its FPGA IP Core can be modified for a shorter development period if the algorithm changes. The FPGA and memory bandwidth of HOPS is 20 GB/sec while the typical maximum processor-to-SDRAM bandwidth of the commercial radiation tolerant high-end processors is about 130-150 MB/sec. The inter-board communication bandwidth of HOPS is 4 GB/sec while the effective processor-to-cPCI bandwidth of commercial radiation tolerant high-end boards is about 50-75 MB/sec. Also, HOPS offers VHDL cores for the easy and efficient implementation of ASCENDS and 3-D Winds, and other similar algorithms. A general overview of the 3-year development of HOPS is the goal of this presentation.
Zhao, Xiangwu; Quan, Houde; Cui, Peizhang
Frequency Hopping (FH) communication is a technology of spread spectrum communication. It has strong anti-interference, anti-interception and security capabilities, and has been widely applied in the field of communications. Synchronization technology is one of the most crucial technologies in frequency hopping communication. The speed of synchronization establishment and the reliability of synchronous system directly affect the performance of frequency hopping communication system. Therefore, the research of synchronization technology in frequency hopping communication has important value.
Tsunoyama, Kazuhisa; Amini, Ata; Sternberg, Michael J E; Muggleton, Stephen H
In chemoinformatics, searching for compounds which are structurally diverse and share a biological activity is called scaffold hopping. Scaffold hopping is important since it can be used to obtain alternative structures when the compound under development has unexpected side-effects. Pharmaceutical companies use scaffold hopping when they wish to circumvent prior patents for targets of interest. We propose a new method for scaffold hopping using inductive logic programming (ILP). ILP uses the observed spatial relationships between pharmacophore types in pretested active and inactive compounds and learns human-readable rules describing the diverse structures of active compounds. The ILP-based scaffold hopping method is compared to two previous algorithms (chemically advanced template search, CATS, and CATS3D) on 10 data sets with diverse scaffolds. The comparison shows that the ILP-based method is significantly better than random selection while the other two algorithms are not. In addition, the ILP-based method retrieves new active scaffolds which were not found by CATS and CATS3D. The results show that the ILP-based method is at least as good as the other methods in this study. ILP produces human-readable rules, which makes it possible to identify the three-dimensional features that lead to scaffold hopping. A minor variant of a rule learnt by ILP for scaffold hopping was subsequently found to cover an inhibitor identified by an independent study. This provides a successful result in a blind trial of the effectiveness of ILP to generate rules for scaffold hopping. We conclude that ILP provides a valuable new approach for scaffold hopping.
Hassan Ali Al-Ababneh
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of one of the most important concepts and marketing events which is advertising. The author studies the history of the formation of modern advertising and covers the main interpretations of the concept of advertising. The article presents the data on the chronology of the formation of the key objectives of the advertising process and the basic classification of types of advertising, its purpose and place in the marketing mix. It sets out the classification and content of the basic concepts of marketing. The article considers the potential effectiveness of the basic types of advertising communications, and especially the impact of these promotional activities on the perception of the end user. Particular attention is paid to the study of certain promising areas of advertising, namely, advertising at airports and in airplanes, it is a special case of transit advertising. The author describes the identified advantages and disadvantages of this direction of marketing communications as well as the analysis of statistical data on the effectiveness of advertising at airports and in airplanes. It is suggested to consider this type of advertising as promising and effective in the conditions of modern times because there is the tendency to increase the dynamic potential users of the specified mode of transport and, as a consequence, it is possible with certainty to predict the transformation of potential passengers into real consumers of the studied type of advertising
Full Text Available For new generation wireless communication networks,this paper studies the optimization of the capacity and end-to-end throughput of the MIMO-OFDM based multi-hop relay systems.A water-filling power allocation method is proposed to improve the channel capacity and the throughput of the MIMO-OFDM system based multi-hop relay system in the Lognormal-Rayleigh shadowing compound channels.Simulations on the capacity and throughput show that the water-filling algorithm can improve the system throughput effectively in the MIMO-OFDM multi-hop relay system.
Dyre, Jeppe; Schrøder, Thomas
semiconductors). These universalities are subject of much current interest, for instance interpreted in the context of simple hopping models. In the present paper we first discuss the temperature dependence of the dc conductivity in hopping models and the importance of the percolation phenomenon. Next......, the experimental (quasi)universality of the ac conductivity is discussed. It is shown that hopping models are able to reproduce the experimental finding that the response obeys time-temperature superposition, while at the same time a broad range of activation energies is involved in the conduction process. Again...
De Reyck, B.; Degraeve, Z.
We describe a broadcast scheduling system developed for a precision marketing firm specialized in location-sensitive permission-based mobile advertising using SMS (Short Message Service) text messaging. Text messages containing advertisements were sent to registered customers when they were shopping in one of two shopping centers in the vicinity of London. The ads typically contained a limited-time promotional offer. The company's problem was deciding which ads to send out to which customers ...
Giuliodori, Mauricio J.; Lujan, Heidi L.; Janbaih, Hussein; DiCarlo, Stephen E.
We developed a model to demonstrate how a hopping kangaroo breathes. Interestingly, a kangaroo uses less energy to breathe while hopping than while standing still. This occurs, in part, because rather than using muscle power to move air into and out of the lungs, air is pulled into (inspiration) and pushed out of (expiration) the lungs as the…
Woods, J L; Gent, D H
The hop looper, Hypena humuli Harris, is a reemergent pest of hop that often requires treatment to mitigate crop damage. In 4 yr of field trials, plots treated with fungicides were observed to sustain less hop looper defoliation compared with nontreated plots. Further investigation revealed that abundance of hop looper and associated defoliation were reduced when the fungicide pyraclostrobin was applied in late July to early August. Two other fungicides possessing active ingredients in the same chemical family (quinone outside inhibitor) did not reduce abundance of hop looper or its defoliation. Pyraclostrobin is efficacious against powdery mildew diseases, and the application timing evaluated in these studies corresponds with a period of juvenile susceptibility of hop cones to the disease. Use of fungicides containing pyraclostrobin at this time may have the ancillary benefit of reducing hop looper damage, potentially obviating the need for broad-spectrum insecticides later in the season. Follow-up studies are warranted to determine whether pyraclostrobin may inhibit other lepidopteran species.
Kalytczak, Marcelo Martins; Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia; Dos Reis, Amir Curcio; Bley, André Serra; Biasotto-Gonzalez, Daniela Aparecida; Correa, João Carlos Ferrari; Politti, Fabiano
This study aimed to compare the concentric and eccentric activity and the temporal order of peak activity of the hip and knee muscles between women with patellofemoral pain (PFP) and healthy women during the single leg triple hop test (SLTHT). Electromyographic (EMG) and Kinematic data were collected from 14 healthy women (CG) and 14 women diagnosed with PFP (PFG) during a single session of the single leg triple hop test. Integral surface electromyography (iEMG) data of the hip and knee muscles in eccentric and concentric phases and the length of time that each muscle needed to reach the maximal peak of muscle activity were calculated. The iEMG in the eccentric phase was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than the concentric phase, for the gluteus maximus and gluteus medius muscles (CG and PFG) and for the vastus lateralis muscle (PFG). The vastus lateralis muscle was the first muscle to reach the highest peak of activity in the PFG, and the third to reach this peak in the CG. In the present study, the activity of the vastus lateralis muscle during the eccentric phase of the jump was greater than concentric phase, as a temporal anticipation of its peak in activity among women with PFP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Where would the world be without advertising? Stuart Henderson Britt strongly believed in it. Hesaid: “Doing business without advertising is like winking at a girl in the dark. You know what youare doing, but she doesn’t.” The work reviews the evolution of advertising, highlighting theuncontestable part played by it within organizations and society in general and it focuses on anessential element of it, that is the advertising print. The purpose of this paperwork is to highlight thenecessary rules for the making of a quality print, with the help of a comparative study on prints ofeight organizations. The print represents an exercise of writing and design, in words and images, fortransmitting the advertising message. The fulfillment of this task depends on the perspicacity,imagination and the creativity of the maker.
Sajjacholapunt, Pitch; Ball, Linden J
Research suggests that banner advertisements used in online marketing are often overlooked, especially when positioned horizontally on webpages. Such inattention invariably gives rise to an inability to remember advertising brands and messages, undermining the effectiveness of this marketing method. Recent interest has focused on whether human faces within banner advertisements can increase attention to the information they contain, since the gaze cues conveyed by faces can influence where observers look. We report an experiment that investigated the efficacy of faces located in banner advertisements to enhance the attentional processing and memorability of banner contents. We tracked participants' eye movements when they examined webpages containing either bottom-right vertical banners or bottom-center horizontal banners. We also manipulated facial information such that banners either contained no face, a face with mutual gaze or a face with averted gaze. We additionally assessed people's memories for brands and advertising messages. Results indicated that relative to other conditions, the condition involving faces with averted gaze increased attention to the banner overall, as well as to the advertising text and product. Memorability of the brand and advertising message was also enhanced. Conversely, in the condition involving faces with mutual gaze, the focus of attention was localized more on the face region rather than on the text or product, weakening any memory benefits for the brand and advertising message. This detrimental impact of mutual gaze on attention to advertised products was especially marked for vertical banners. These results demonstrate that the inclusion of human faces with averted gaze in banner advertisements provides a promising means for marketers to increase the attention paid to such adverts, thereby enhancing memory for advertising information.
S, venkatesh; N, senthilkumar
In global advertising ‘humor’ is the most effective emotion used in advertising compared to other emotional appeals. Advertisers and researchers more interested in Humor in advertising for more than 100 years. But there is no review paper for Impact of humor in advertising till twenty two years of time, in between period there was lot of research outcomes published about humor in advertising. The purpose of this paper to get detailed review about Impact of humor in advertising for 40 years an...
Raza Syed Hassan
Full Text Available The link between the advertising appeal, attitude and behavioral intention is dynamic in nature, however, little research has been pursued towards explaining the mediating role of attitude towards the advertising in link of the advertising appeal with the behavioral intention. Researchers have identified the importance of the attitude in the connection of the advertising appeal within the framework of the (TPB which remains unaddressed in the explicating the mediation of the attitude in relationship of advertising appeal and behavioral intention. This paper aims to provide insight of the attitude towards the advertising as the mediating factor in explaining the relationship between the advertising appeal and behavioral intention. In addition, this paper is only a theoretical exploration, it is expected that this work lead towards an explanation of the mediating role of the attitude to address the relation of advertising appeal and intention which may be studied further to determine the empirical finding about the other dynamic of the (TPB.
Full Text Available Background. The number of patients undergoing hip arthroplasty revision is constantly growing. Especially, complex problem is extensive loss of bone stock and pelvic discontinuity that requires reconstruction. Case report. The paper presented a 50-year old patient, who ten years ago underwent a total cement artrhroplasty of the left hip. A year after the primary operation the patient had difficulties in walking without crutches. Problems intensified in the last five years, the patient had severe pain, totally limited movement in the left hip and could not walk at all. Radiographically, we found loose femoral component, massive loss of bone stock of proximal femur, acetabular protrusion and a consequent pelvic discontinuity. Clinically, a completely disfunctional left hip joint was registered (Harris hip score - 7.1. We performed total rearthroplasty by a custom- made Waldemar Link total hip prosthesis with acetabular antiprotrusio cage and compensation of bone defects with a graft from the bone bank. A year after the operation, we found clinically an extreme improvement in Harris hip score - 87.8. Radiographically, we found stability of implanted components, a complete graft integration and bone bridging across the site of pelvic discontinuity. Conclusion. Pelvic discontinuity and massive loss of proximal femoral bone stock is a challenging and complex entity. Conventional prostheses cannot provide an adequate fixation and stability of the hip. Application of custom-made prosthesis (measured specifically for a patient and additional alografting bone defects is a good method in revision surgery after unsuccessful hip arthroplasty with extensive bone defects.
Full Text Available A novel scheme for two-hop relaying defined as space division duplex (SDD relaying is proposed. In SDD relaying, multiple antenna beamforming techniques are applied at the intermediate relay station (RS in order to separate downlink and uplink signals of a bi-directional two-hop communication between two nodes, namely, S1 and S2. For conventional amplify-and-forward two-hop relaying, there appears a loss in spectral efficiency due to the fact that the RS cannot receive and transmit simultaneously on the same channel resource. In SDD relaying, this loss in spectral efficiency is circumvented by giving up the strict separation of downlink and uplink signals by either time division duplex or frequency division duplex. Two novel concepts for the derivation of the linear beamforming filters at the RS are proposed; they can be designed either by a three-step or a one-step concept. In SDD relaying, receive signals at S1 are interfered by transmit signals of S1, and receive signals at S2 are interfered by transmit signals of S2. An efficient method in order to combat this kind of interference is proposed in this paper. Furthermore, it is shown how the overall spectral efficiency of SDD relaying can be improved if the channels from S1 and S2 to the RS have different qualities.
Oosterveld, A.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.
Hop pectins were extracted from spent hops using acid extraction conditions and were characterized chemically. The acid extraction of spent hops resulted in a yield of 2°containing 59 f polysaccharides. The hop pectins under investigation had a relatively high molecular weight and an intrinsic
Hopping conductivity is enhanced when exposed to microwave (MW) fields. Data taken on several Anderson-localized systems and granular-aluminium are presented to illustrate the generality of the phenomenon. It is suggested that the effect is due to a field-enhanced hopping, which is the ac version of a non-ohmic effect familiar from studies in the dc transport regime.
Florian F. Dibra, MD
Full Text Available Background: Hip osteoarthritis typically manifests with groin or thigh pain. Other atypical pain patterns, including knee pain, have been described. Except for 2 case reports, there is no literature on this subject. Methods: From our institutional database, between 2011 and 2016, we identified 21 patients who were referred for treatment of knee pain but ultimately diagnosed with hip pathology as the cause of their pain. This group was evaluated for duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis, previous interventions, presence of walking aids, and symptom resolution after treatment of the hip pathology. Results: Fifteen of the 21 patients were referred from musculoskeletal providers (12 from orthopaedic surgeons. Prior to diagnosis of the hip etiology, 16 patients were reduced to major assistive devices including wheelchairs. Twelve of 21 patients had undergone surgical knee interventions, including total knee arthroplasty, with minimal to no relief of their pain. Seventeen of 21 referred patients underwent total hip arthroplasty at our institution. Fourteen patients had complete resolution of knee pain after total hip arthroplasty. Conclusions: Although knee pain referred from hip disease may be considered a basic and common knowledge, it continues to be an overlooked phenomenon. Most of the cases were misdiagnosed by musculoskeletal providers including orthopaedic surgeons and this highlights the need for continued education and awareness of this clinical scenario. Keywords: Hip pain, Knee pain, Referred pain, Delay in diagnosis, Unnecessary surgery
Full Text Available Emotions can transcend cultural, linguistic, demographic, and social boundaries. Emotions affect information processing and create a positive attitude toward the ad, which becomes associated with the brand. Objectives. This study investigates the role of pleasure (P, arousal (A and domination (D emotions in mobile’s photo camera advertisement and how each of them is influencing consumer attitude towards the advertisement and brand. Prior Work. Holbrook and Batra (1987 developed their own emotional scale based on these three dimensions (PAD, showing that these emotions mediate consumer responses to advertising. Approach. A 1*4 factorial experiment design method was adopted in order to measure the impact of independent variables (emotion type on dependent variables (attitude toward ad, attitude toward brand. Results. The results revealed that emotions like Pleasure (loving, friendly, grateful and Arousal (active, interested, excited, entertained influence consumers' attitudes towards brand and advertising. Value. Marketers need to understand the role of pleasure and arousal emotions when making advertising campaign; an effective promotion leads to persuading consumers. The results indicate that marketing practitioners should measure affective responses when testing an advertisement, as long as this action would predict brand attitude.
Full Text Available Research has revealed that much of what happens in our minds as a result of language use is still hidden from our conscious awareness. Advertisers know this phenomenon better. They use the manipulation of language to suggest something about their products without directly claiming it to be true. Although the advertisers use colours, symbols, and imagery in advertisements, “the most direct way to study ads is through an analysis of the language employed” as all the other aspects are meant to reinforce the language message. Ads are designed to have an effect on consumers while being laughed at, belittle and all but ignored. Some modern advertisements appear to be almost dissuading consumers from the product – but this is just a modern technique. This paper is going to analyze a series of language techniques used by advertisers to arrest our attention, to arouse our interest, to stimulate desire for a product and ultimately to motivate us to buy it. Once we become familiar with the language strategies used in advertising messages we will be more able to make our own buying decisions.
Americo, Tatiana A.; Chiarini, Luciana B.; Linden, Rafael
The co-chaperone hop/STI-1 is a ligand of the cell surface prion protein (PrP C ), and their interaction leads to signaling and biological effects. Among these, hop/STI-1 induces proliferation of A172 glioblastoma cells, dependent on both PrP C and activation of the Erk pathway. We tested whether clathrin-mediated endocytosis affects signaling induced by hop/STI-1. Both hyperosmolarity induced by sucrose and monodansyl-cadaverine blocked Erk activity induced by hop/STI-1, without affecting the high basal Akt activity typical of A172. The endocytosis inhibitors also affected the sub-cellular distribution of phosphorylated Erk, consistent with blockade of the latter's activity. The data indicate that signaling induced by hop/STI-1 depends on endocytosis. These findings are consistent with a role of sub-cellular trafficking in signal transduction following engagement by PrP C by ligands such as hop/STI-1, and may help help unravel both the functions of the prion protein, as well as possible loss-of-function components of prion diseases
Full Text Available Synthesis of minor prenylflavonoids found in hops and their non-natural derivatives were performed. The antiproliferative activity of the obtained compounds against some human cancer cell lines was investigated. Using xanthohumol isolated from spent hops as a lead compound, a series of minor hop prenylflavonoids and synthetic derivatives were obtained by isomerization, cyclisation, oxidative-cyclisation, oxidation, reduction and demethylation reactions. Three human cancer cell lines—breast (MCF-7, prostate (PC-3 and colon (HT-29—were used in antiproliferative assays, with cisplatin as a control compound. Five minor hop prenyl flavonoids and nine non-natural derivatives of xanthohumol have been synthetized. Syntheses of xanthohumol K, its dihydro- and tetrahydro-derivatives and 1″,2″,α,β-tetrahydroxanthohumol C were described for the first time. All of the minor hops prenyl flavonoids exhibited strong to moderate antiproliferative activity in vitro. The minor hops flavonoids xanthohumol C and 1″,2″-dihydroxanthohumol K and non-natural 2,3-dehydroisoxanthohumol exhibited the activity comparable to cisplatin. Results described in the article suggest that flavonoids containing chromane- and chromene-like moieties, especially chalcones, are potent antiproliferative agents. The developed new efficient, regioselective cyclisation reaction of the xanthohumol prenyl group to 1″,2″-dihydroxantohumol K may be used in the synthesis of other compounds with the chromane moiety.
In this paper, I investigate the co-evolution of fast and slow strategy spread and game strategies in populations of spatially distributed agents engaged in a one off evolutionary dilemma game. Agents are characterized by a pair of traits, a game strategy (cooperate or defect) and a binary 'advertising' strategy (advertise or don't advertise). Advertising, which comes at a cost [Formula: see text], allows investment into faster propagation of the agents' traits to adjacent individuals. Import...
Danenhower, Travis M.; Force, Leyna J.; Petersen, Kenneth J.; Betts, Thomas A.; Baker, Gary A.
Hops have been used for centuries to impart aroma and bitterness to beer. The cones of the female hop plant contain both essential oils, which include many of the fragrant components of hops, and a collection of compounds known as [alpha]- and [beta]-acids that are the precursors to bittering agents. In order for brewers to predict the ultimate…
Full Text Available The focus of this paper is to study the ethical issues that arise in print and television advertising and also analyzing the various types of unethical advertisement in India with reference to ASCI principles. Today the India’s advertising industry is expanding its business at a rapid rate. India’s advertising industry in very little time has carved a niche for itself and placed itself on a global map. But over the years advertising and marketing communication messages have created debatable ethical issues like surrogate advertising, puffery, unverified claims, women stereotype, comparative advertising, use of children in advertising etc. In today’s competitive market, advertisers are sometimes following the unethical practices to fight the competition. We have analyzed with the help of examples the different unethical practices used by advertisers in advertisements in India and also discussed some real life cases solved by CCC (Consumer complaint council following the necessary ASCI Codes for it.
Full Text Available The article analyzes the extent to which predictions based on the theory of evolutionary aesthetics are utilized by the advertising industry. The purpose of a comprehensive content analysis of print advertising is to determine whether the items indicated by evolutionists such as animals, flowers, certain types of landscapes, beautiful humans, and some colors are part of real advertising strategies. This article has shown that many evolutionary hypotheses (although not all of them are supported by empirical data. Along with these hypotheses, some inferences from Bourdieu’s cultural capital theory were tested. It turned out that advertising uses both biological schemata and cultural patterns to make an image more likable.
Full Text Available pairs in inter-working multi-hop wireless networks can be evaluated based on the availability and reliability of radio links that form the communication path linking the nodes. This paper presents an analytical study of the link and route availability...
Full Text Available In order to link a source-destination node pair in inter-working multi-hop wireless networks, links or routes must first be available. It is only after establishing the availability of links and routes between nodes that factors which affect...
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to identify the graphic advertising components: symbol, text, colour, to illustrate how they cooperate in order to create the advertising message, and to analyze the corelation product – advertising – consumer.
Full Text Available It is widely accepted that only informed consumers are protected from potential violation of their consumer rights. Advertising represents one of the main ways of informing consumers, so it is of crutial importance for it to include adequate information that can facilitate decision making proces regarding the purchase. With aim of preventing violation of basic consumer rights, advertising is regulated by legislation, both on EU level and on national level in Republic of Serbia, and while so special attention is dedicated to defining advertising that can possibly lead to deception of consumers. Authors of this paper are focused on analysing legislation and theoretical explanations of deceptive advertising. Results of the research regarding advertising in Serbia and ability of consumers to protect themselves from deceptive advertising are presented. The main aim of the authors is to contribute to increasing level of consumers' self-protection through increasing level of their counciousness on deceptive advertising and its concequences.
Full Text Available Cognitive radio networks (CRNs are considered an attractive technology to mitigate inefficiency in the usage of licensed spectrum. CRNs allow the secondary users (SUs to access the unused licensed spectrum and use a blind rendezvous process to establish communication links between SUs. In particular, quorum-based channel-hopping (CH schemes have been studied recently to provide guaranteed blind rendezvous in decentralized CRNs without using global time synchronization. However, these schemes remain vulnerable to jamming attacks. In this paper, we first analyze the limitations of quorum-based rendezvous schemes called asynchronous channel hopping (ACH. Then, we introduce a novel sequence sensing jamming attack (SSJA model in which a sophisticated jammer can dramatically reduce the rendezvous success rates of ACH schemes. In addition, we propose a fast and robust asynchronous rendezvous scheme (FRARS that can significantly enhance robustness under jamming attacks. Our numerical results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed scheme vastly outperforms the ACH scheme when there are security concerns about a sequence sensing jammer.
Full Text Available The objective of this study represent the advertising communication, while the main goal will be directional to creating of advertising model with specific retrospection in sport. The main tasks of this study are, the first conducting a situational analysis, then setting objectives for advertising, deciding on the budget funds, choosing the target market, creation of the advertising messages, selection of appropriate media, as well as evaluating effectiveness of advertising. During the making of this study, the author used descriptive method with consulting of competent literature. The previous author’ experience in this field was also so useful. Moreover, the author used the analytic method and parallel method that is the most productive if you make some inferences about some appearance. Consequently, the main outcome of this study was creation of conceptual model of advertising communication with special application in sport industry.
A. V. Mordovin
Full Text Available Advertising has passed a long way of development and today it is no longer limited to the printed press, static billboards, radio and television commercials. Digital technology has started a completely new era of digital advertising, which allows marketers and advertisers to target audiences with great precision. To meet the needs and expectations of customers who gain new personal experience through involvement in the process of continuous network communication advertisers make use of digital technologies that continue to develop intensively. Based on technological advances, new advertising technologies employ tracking methods to produce tailor-made advertisements that meet specific needs of customers, and new advertising platforms that can host new types of ads with dynamic content provide endless opportunities for marketers and advertisers. This paper will explore the key trends in the segment of digital advertising. In the process of this research methods of desk research and expert interviews were used. The received results can be used for updating of strategy and structure of marketing communications of the enterprises, their marketing budgets; in the educational process and for the further deepening of scientific and applied research.
Čeh, Barbara; Kač, Milica; Košir, Iztok J.; Abram, Veronika
The effect of water supply – especially of drought stress – on the content of some secondary metabolites in hops (Humulus lupulus L.) was studied. The experiment took place in 2006. Some relevant data from 2005 were included for comparison. Leaves and cones of nine hop cultivars grown under field conditions as well as in a pot experiment under three water regimes were analyzed. The cultivars ranged from those most grown in Slovenia to promising crossbreed being tested. Leaves were sampled from July 18, 2006 to August 18, 2006, while cones were picked in the time of technological maturity. Standard analytical methods were applied to determine the contents of xanthohumol, polyphenols and α-acids in hop leaves and hop cones. The contents of the secondary metabolites in question depended more on the cultivar under investigation than on the water supply, at least as far the growing conditions for a relatively normal development of the plant were met.
Full Text Available In a cellular network it's very difficult to make spectrum resource more efficiently. Device-to-Device (D2D technology enables new service opportunities, and provides high throughput and reliable communication while reducing the base station load. For better total performance, short-range D2D links and cellular links share the same radio resource and the management of interference becomes a crucial task. Here we argue that single-hop D2D technology can be used to further improve cellular networks performance if the key D2D radio resource management algorithms are suitably extended to support multi-hop D2D communications. Aiming to establish a new paradigm for the analysis and design of multi-hop D2D communications, We propose a radio resource allocation for multi-hop D2D routes based on interference avoidance approach in LTE-A networks. On top of that, we investigate the outage probability of D2D communication. We first introduce a new definition of outage probability by considering the maximum distance to be allowable for single-hop transmission. Then we study and analyze the outage performance of a multi-hop D2D route. We derive the general closed form expression of outage probability of the multi-hop D2D routes. The results demonstrate that the D2D radio, sharing the same resources as the cellular network, provide higher capacity compared to pure cellular communication where all the data is transmitted through the base station. They also demonstrate that the new method of calculation of D2D multi hop outage probability has better performance than classical method defined in the literature.
On the grounds of theoretical and empirical studies, the article analyses some interaction between the advertisement agencies and advertisement provider during the development of creative advertisement strategy. The following assumptions justifying the importance of interaction have been developed: namely, the need to integrate the knowledge and competence of advertisement agencies and advertisement provider, creativity of advertisement agencies and possible objective approach to the business...
Etxaniz, Josu; Aranguren, Gerardo
Intelligent systems are driven by the latest technological advances in many different areas such as sensing, embedded systems, wireless communications or context recognition. This paper focuses on some of those areas. Concretely, the paper deals with wireless communications issues in embedded systems. More precisely, the paper combines the multi-hop networking with Bluetooth technology and a quality of service (QoS) metric, the latency. Bluetooth is a radio license-free worldwide communication standard that makes low power multi-hop wireless networking available. It establishes piconets (point-to-point and point-to-multipoint links) and scatternets (multi-hop networks). As a result, many Bluetooth nodes can be interconnected to set up ambient intelligent networks. Then, this paper presents the results of the investigation on multi-hop latency with park and sniff Bluetooth low power modes conducted over the hardware test bench previously implemented. In addition, the empirical models to estimate the latency of multi-hop communications over Bluetooth Asynchronous Connectionless Links (ACL) in park and sniff mode are given. The designers of devices and networks for intelligent systems will benefit from the estimation of the latency in Bluetooth multi-hop communications that the models provide.
Percher, Ilana M.; Volotsenko, Irina; Frydman, Aviad; Shklovskii, Boris I.; Goldman, Allen M.
The behavior of a disordered amorphous thin film of superconducting indium oxide has been studied as a function of temperature and magnetic field applied perpendicular to its plane. A superconductor-insulator transition has been observed, though the isotherms do not cross at a single point. The curves of resistance versus temperature on the putative superconducting side of this transition, where the resistance decreases with decreasing temperature, obey two-dimensional Mott variable-range hopping of vortices over wide ranges of temperature and resistance. To estimate the parameters of hopping, the film is modeled as a granular system and the hopping of vortices is treated in a manner analogous to hopping of charges. The reason the long-range interaction between vortices over the range of magnetic fields investigated does not lead to a stronger variation of resistance with temperature than that of two-dimensional Mott variable-range hopping remains unresolved.
Bastida, Adolfo; Cruz, Carlos; Zuniga, Jose; Requena, Alberto
General equations that transition probabilities of the hopping algorithms in surface hopping calculations must obey to assure the equality between the average quantum and classical populations are derived. These equations are solved for two particular cases. In the first it is assumed that probabilities are the same for all trajectories and that the number of hops is kept to a minimum. These assumptions specify the collective probabilities (CP) algorithm, for which the transition probabilities depend on the average populations for all trajectories. In the second case, the probabilities for each trajectory are supposed to be completely independent of the results from the other trajectories. There is, then, a unique solution of the general equations assuring that the transition probabilities are equal to the quantum population of the target state, which is referred to as the independent probabilities (IP) algorithm. The fewest switches (FS) algorithm developed by Tully is accordingly understood as an approximate hopping algorithm which takes elements from the accurate CP and IP solutions. A numerical test of all these hopping algorithms is carried out for a one-dimensional two-state problem with two avoiding crossings which shows the accuracy and computational efficiency of the collective probabilities algorithm proposed, the limitations of the FS algorithm and the similarity between the results offered by the IP algorithm and those obtained with the Ehrenfest method
... unfair advertising. 1652.203-70 Section 1652.203-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF... CLAUSES Texts of FEHBP Clauses 1652.203-70 Misleading, deceptive, or unfair advertising. As prescribed in... Unfair Advertising (JAN 1991) (a) The Carrier agrees that any advertising material, including that...
Sydney is Australia’s advertising capital and the relationship between the city and the advertising industry stretches back to the earliest years of European settlement. Advertising helped propel commercial activity in Sydney and the advertising industry has been no less active in shaping Sydney, illuminating the city’s skyline and streetscape, and influencing the lives of all Sydneysiders – from suburban consumers to esteemed artists. Moreover, advertising has promoted the city itself as a ...
Whissell, C; McCall, L
Advertisements in men's, women's, girls', and boys' magazines (n = 38,195 words) were scored objectively in terms of 15 measures of linguistic style, e.g., use of common words, use of long words, use of specific words and emotional tone (pleasantness and activation, as measured by the Dictionary of Affect). There were several sex- and age-related differences among advertisements from different sources. Advertisements from boys' magazines were extremely active, those from women's and girls' magazines were shorter and unusually pleasant. In two follow-up studies (N = 122 volunteers), objective emotional measures of advertising text proved to be related to ratings of persuasion and of success of appeal for individual advertisements. The most preferred advertisement for women was pleasant and active, that for men unpleasant and active. When men and women created advertisements, women's were shorter and more pleasant.
Mowle, Elyse N; Georgia, Emily J; Doss, Brian D; Updegraff, John A
The purpose of this paper is to test the utility of regulatory focus theory principles in a real-world setting; specifically, Internet hosted text advertisements. Effect of compatibility of the ad text with the regulatory focus of the consumer was examined. Advertisements were created using Google AdWords. Data were collected for the number of views and clicks each ad received. Effect of regulatory fit was measured using logistic regression. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that there was a strong main effect for keyword, such that users were almost six times as likely to click on a promotion advertisement as a prevention advertisement, as well as a main effect for compatibility, such that users were twice as likely to click on an advertisement with content that was consistent with their keyword. Finally, there was a strong interaction of these two variables, such that the effect of consistent advertisements was stronger for promotion searches than for prevention searches. The effect of ad compatibility had medium to large effect sizes, suggesting that individuals' state may have more influence on advertising response than do individuals' traits (e.g. personality traits). Measurement of regulatory fit was limited by the constraints of Google AdWords. The results of this study provide a possible framework for ad creation for Internet advertisers. This paper is the first study to demonstrate the utility of regulatory focus theory in online advertising.
Full Text Available Abstract In wireless sensor networks (WSNs, location information plays an important role in many fundamental services which includes geographic routing, target tracking, location-based coverage, topology control, and others. One promising approach in sensor network localization is the determination of location based on hop counts. A critical priori of this approach that directly influences the accuracy of location estimation is the hop-distance relationship. However, most of the related works on the hop-distance relationship assume the unit-disk graph (UDG model that is unrealistic in a practical scenario. In this paper, we formulate the hop-distance relationship for quasi-UDG model in WSNs where sensor nodes are randomly and independently deployed in a circular region based on a Poisson point process. Different from the UDG model, quasi-UDG model has the non-uniformity property for connectivity. We derive an approximated recursive expression for the probability of the hop count with a given geographic distance. The border effect and dependence problem are also taken into consideration. Furthermore, we give the expressions describing the distribution of distance with known hop counts for inner nodes and those suffered from the border effect where we discover the insignificance of the border effect. The analytical results are validated by simulations showing the accuracy of the employed approximation. Besides, we demonstrate the localization application of the formulated relationship and show the accuracy improvement in the WSN localization.
Full Text Available This study investigates who is the responsible from the lack of ethics of advertisings’ content. 5 stakeholders (advertisers, advertising agencies, media, governmental and non-governmental organizations and, consumers are responsible from the ethics of preparation and broadcasting of the advertisings. Quantitative and qualitative data are collected to determine lack of ethics of the advertising. In this study 1103 questionnaires analyzed that collected from throughout Turkey. According to the result of this study, advertising agencies and the media are perceived as more responsible than the other stakeholders.
Maria Helena Cruz Pistori
Full Text Available This article analyzes two advertisements from the same brand, but produced in different local media: France and Brazil. It aims to pursue the interrelation and nexus needed between the verbal, visual and extraverbal dimensions to produce and understand the effects of persuasive sense. Concepts from ancient and modern Rhetoric, as well as dialogic discourse analysis notions and categories, inspired in the works of Bakhtin and the Circle, are the article’s theoretical-methodological basis. In the chosen advertisements, we observe the tense way they reflect and refract reality and how this is expressed in concrete utterances, constructed according to genre coercions. By analyzing the produced meaning effects, we especially highlight the presence of persuasion in different dialogic relationships allowed by the texts, audience importance in effect construction of text persuasive meaning, and proximity between advertisement and epidictic genre in ancient rhetoric. Persuasive dialogic relationships express broad and different spheres of human activity, in connection with the organization of social life, space and time; in fact, they are not aimed at product purchase, but at access to a way of life, which is linked to ideological values of privilege.
Full Text Available Abstract Objective To assess the incidence of total hip arthroplasty (THA in osteoarthritic patients who were treated by arthroscopic debridement and to evaluate factors that might influence the time interval from the first hip arthroscopy to THA. Design Retrospective clinical series Methods Follow-up data and surgical reports were retrieved from 564 records of osteoarthritic patients that have had hip arthroscopy between the years 2002 to 2009 with a mean follow-up time of 3.2 years (range, 1-6.4 years. The time interval between the first hip arthroscopy to THA was modelled as a function of patient age; level of cartilage damage; procedures performed and repeated arthroscopies with the use of multivariate regression analysis. Results Ninety (16% of all participants eventually required THA. The awaiting time from the first arthroscopy to a hip replacement was found to be longer in patients younger than 55 years and in a milder osteoarthritic stage. Patients that experienced repeated hip scopes had a longer time to THA than those with only a single procedure. Procedures performed concomitant with debridement and lavage did not affect the time interval to THA. Conclusions In our series of arthroscopic treatment of hip osteoarthritis, 16% required THA over a period of 7 years. Factors that influence the time to arthroplasty were age, degree of osteoarthritis and recurrent procedures.
Advertising agencies are the most significant organizations in the development of advertising and marketing worldwide. An advertising agency is an independent service company, composed of business, marketing and creative people, who develop, prepare, and place advertising in advertising media...... for their clients, the advertisers, who are in search of customers for their goods and services. Agencies thus mediate between three different but interlocking social groups: industry, media, and consumers. The history of advertising is largely the history of the advertising agencies that have served the needs....... This article is concerned with the origins, early developments, organization, compensation arrangements, and accounts of contemporary full-service advertising agencies....
This dissertation covers two areas of research that expand our knowledge on children’s advertising literacy (i.e., advertising-related knowledge). The first part addresses the development of children’s advertising literacy into adult-like levels. The second part focuses on the role of advertising literacy in reducing children’s susceptibility to advertising effects. In doing so, this dissertation not only deepens the existing theoretical and empirical insights on children’s advertising litera...
Lingg, G.; Nebel, G.; von Torklus, D.
In human genetics and orthopedics quite different answers have been given to the question of hereditary transmission and frequency of hip dysplasia in families of children with congenital hip dislocation. We therefore have made roentgenometric measurements of 110 parents of children with congenital hip dislocation. In 25% we found abnormal flat acetabulae, whereas 12% had pathologic deep hips. This may propose a new concept of morphology of congenital hip dysplasia.
Full Text Available Un panorama crítico de la historia de los bailes funk cariocas y su música y sus relaciones con la música negra norteamericana y la emergencia de un orgullo negro en la música popular brasileñaPalabras Clave: Baile funk, música soul, black soul, bailes black, hip-hop, música negra____________________________Abstract:A critical survey of the history of Rio de Janeiro bailes funk and their music in their relations with African North-American musics and the emergence of black pride in Brazilian popular music. Keywords: Baile funk, música soul, black soul, bailes black, hip-hop, black music
Full Text Available Native advertising is described both as a new way for promoters to engage audiences and as a new, clever, source of revenue for publishers and media agencies. The debates around its morality and the need for a wide accepted framework are often viewed as calls for creativity. Aside from the various forms, strategies and the need for clarification, the fact that native advertising works and its revenue estimates increase annually transforms the new type of ad into a clear objective for companies, marketers and publishers. Native advertising stopped being a buzzword and started being a marketing reality.
Full text: Now in its fourth year, BNFL's advertising strategy continues to evolve and build upon the communication achievements of previous years. The case study this year will reflect upon progress so far and will concentrate specifically on the 1998 campaign development. It will begin by briefly reiterating the role we believe advertising plays in the communications mix and by recapping on the theoretical framework upon which the strategy continues to be based. Last year, I presented a case study on the development of BNFL's second television advertisement and supporting media. This year, I will present opinion research data which indicates that BNFL has, indeed, begun to detach itself from the contentious debate which surrounds the nuclear industry in general. Verbatim comments from respondents demonstrate that BNFL is now being perceived more widely within the UK as a successful corporate entity. The presentation will concentrate on the decision-making and research process which led us to select the content of our third advertising campaign. One key consideration being the impact of BNR:s merger with Magnox Electric plc and how their activity was incorporated into the overall advertising strategy. Having established key image characteristics through describing BNFL's scientific achievements and, more recently, BNFL's fuel recycling capabilities, the presentation will outline why this time we have opted for a total capability' advertisement whilst endeavouring to retain the five key image criteria which are at the heart of the strategy. Specific areas covered will include our clearance of the advertisement through the UK's advertising regulatory bodies (the Broadcast Advertising Clearance Centre (BACC) and the Independent Television Commission (ITQ). This in itself will demonstrate the importance of gaining detailed substantiation and legal clearance of the advertising claims made. Finally, we will share our experiences of each production phase, not least, the
Strasser, A A; Tang, K Z; Tuller, M D; Cappella, J N
The Institute of Medicine report on potential reduced exposure products (PREPs) recommends that advertising and labelling be regulated to prevent explicitly or implicitly false or misleading claims. Belief that a product is less harmful may increase use or prevent smoking cessation. To determine the effect of altering advertisement features on smokers' beliefs of the harm exposure from a PREP. A Quest advertisement was digitally altered using computer software and presented to participants using web-based television recruitment contracted through a survey company. 500 current smokers completed demographic and smoking history questions, were randomised to view one of three advertisement conditions, then completed eight items assessing their beliefs of the harmfulness of the product. Advertisement conditions included the original, unaltered advertisement; a "red" condition where the cigarette packages were digitally altered to the colour red, implying increased harm potential; and a "no text" condition where all text was removed to reduce explicit product information. Polytomous logistic regression, using "incorrect," "unsure" and "correct" as outcomes, and advertisement type and covariates as predictors, was used for analyses. Participants randomised to the "no text" advertisement were less likely to be incorrect in their beliefs that Quest cigarettes are lower in tar, less addictive, less likely to cause cancer, have fewer chemicals, are healthier and make smoking safer. Smokers can form false beliefs about the harmfulness of PREP products based on how the PREPs are marketed. Careful examination must be undertaken to provide empirical evidence to better formulate regulatory principles of PREP advertising.
Full Text Available Advertising as a tool of communication, but mostly as a marketing tool is subject to many theories and explanatory and normative models. Its contents and performed functions are not yet defined in general recognized theory. Present article focuses on the analysis of advertising in terms of its specific persuasive effort and communication process. Advertising seen as a process is based on the general scheme of the marketing communication process, with a number of specific features related to its content. The persuasive effort is related to creation of favorable attitudes or reinforcing existing attitudes. This process of persuasion is closely linked to the concept of attitude. Most theories of advertising have explored the connection between persuasion and attitude, identifying possible responses that the receiver can give to advertising information. Following lines develop these two important aspects associated with advertising theory, even if they are not the only issues that are debated in the literature.
Full Text Available In this paper, we study the electronic conductance of molecular nanowires by considering the electron hopping between the first and second neighbors with the help Green’s function method at the tight-binding approach. We investigate three types of structures including linear uniform and periodic chains as well as poly(p-phenylene molecule which are embedded between two semi-infinite metallic leads. The results show that in the second neighbor approximation, the resonance, anti-resonance and Fano phenomena occur in the conductance spectra of these structures. Moreover, a new gap is observed at edge of the lead energy band wich its width depends on the value of the electron hopping energy between the second neighbors. In the systems including intrinsic gap, this hopping energy shifts the gap in the energy spectra.
Platonov K. A.
Full Text Available the article outlines special characteristics of banking advertising. It describes the main types of banking advertising as well as the main types of banking products and services. What is more, the authors discovered the peculiarities of advertising budgeting of a commercial bank, analyzes different methods of determining the advertising budget and controlling the work of an advertising department of a commercial bank.
Full Text Available Background:Osteoporosis is a major public health threat,and hip fracture is a serious consequence of osteoporosis.Apatient with an osteoporosis-related hip fracture has an increased risk for a second hip fracture.The effect of osteoporosis management on the risk of recurrent hip fracture was evaluated in this study.Methods:58 hip fracture patients older than 50yr and BMD < 2.5 were discharged from hospital with Ca-Vitamin D- Alendronate prescriptions, and followed up for 4 years to determine the rate of recurrent hip fractures. Rate of second hip fractures was compared with 58 hip fractures in the control group (without osteoporosis treatment which were also followed for 4 years. Results:72% of patients continued treatment for 2 years. There were no second hip fractures in the critical first 12 months in the treated group.Overall second hip fractures in osteoporosis treated and control groups were 3.4% and 8.6%(p<0.03, respectively.Conclusion:Management of hip fractures in the elderly should include bone mineral density determination and osteoporosis treatment to prevent further fractures.
Burmakina Natalya Alekseyevna
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the usage of expressive means of language in advertisements. The peculiarity of modern usage of expressive means of language in Krasnoyarsk press advertisements is stated.
Full Text Available In this thesis, our purpose is to show that using physiotherapy on patients with hip dysplasia from the very beginning, in the first months of life, helps treating them faster. Common literature proposes to use physiotherapy on patients with hip dysplasia either after their recovery or in the terminal phase of recovery, claiming that any earlier intervention will prolong the hip recovery. The effects of hip dysplasia reflect over the whole musculoskeletal system, while it hinders the knees (genu valgum, the ankles (ankle valgus, calcaneal valgus and the spine (scoliosis especially at the lumbar level. The most spectacular are at the hip level, that is why we made an analytical evaluation only for this joint. To show the importance of physiotherapy for children with hip dysplasia we started from the hypothesis: untimely treatment for children with hip dysplasia has improved results in functional recovery and in obtaining a better stability, without the necessity of orthopedics or surgical interventions. The research methods used in this study are: the observation method, the bibliographic study method, the experimental method, the graphics method and the statistical mathematical method to process the data and to represent the results graphically. In the end, the results obtained are significantly different from the initial evaluations and we came to the conclusion that starting an untimely analytical kinetic treatment and globally personalizing it to every patient improves stability and biomechanical parameters for the hip.
A. A. Sogorin
The basic directions of advertising studying as part of the research subject of separate social and humanitarian sciences. The definition of advertising is given. It’s considered as a holistic socioeconomic phenomenon, which consists of three basic components: advertising as a product, the final incarnation in the material and ideal forms of the customer’s ideas; advertising as an activity that is advertising as a profession; advertising as an integral part of the social space of the individ...
Mowle, Elyse N.; Georgia, Emily J.; Doss, Brian D.; Updegraff, John A.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to test the utility of regulatory focus theory principles in a real-world setting; specifically, Internet hosted text advertisements. Effect of compatibility of the ad text with the regulatory focus of the consumer was examined. Design/methodology/approach Advertisements were created using Google AdWords. Data were collected for the number of views and clicks each ad received. Effect of regulatory fit was measured using logistic regression. Findings Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that there was a strong main effect for keyword, such that users were almost six times as likely to click on a promotion advertisement as a prevention advertisement, as well as a main effect for compatibility, such that users were twice as likely to click on an advertisement with content that was consistent with their keyword. Finally, there was a strong interaction of these two variables, such that the effect of consistent advertisements was stronger for promotion searches than for prevention searches. Research limitations/implications The effect of ad compatibility had medium to large effect sizes, suggesting that individuals’ state may have more influence on advertising response than do individuals’ traits (e.g. personality traits). Measurement of regulatory fit was limited by the constraints of Google AdWords. Practical implications The results of this study provide a possible framework for ad creation for Internet advertisers. Originality/value This paper is the first study to demonstrate the utility of regulatory focus theory in online advertising. PMID:26430293
CANUTI Elisabetta; RAS Josephine; GRUNG Merete; ROTTGERS Rudiger; COSTA GOELA Priscilla; ARTUSO Florinda; CATALDI Dario
From 2009 to 2015, in the context of the MERIS (Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) validation activities, the JRC Marine Optical Laboratory organised four HPLC Intercomparison exercises for Phytoplankton Pigment measurements (HIP-1, HIP-2, HIP-3 and HIP-4), involving seven European accredited and reference laboratories. The objectives of these intercomparison exercises were: creating a reference community at European level for phytoplankton pigment analysis capable of supporting satel...
Aigul F. Khanova
Full Text Available The article considers some stylistic aspects of advertising database in Russia. It examines linguistic and stylistic properties and peculiarities of social advertising and the impact it has on public consciousness. It determines that social advertisements in Russia are characteristic of the vocabulary belonging to the low language norms which reflects cultural and ethical context. Figurative language and stylistic devices aim at appealing to emotions and make the advertisement more memorable. The authors deem it necessary to create a common database on social advertising in Russia in order to facilitate the analysis of economic impact and evaluate the capacity to exert effect on mainstream audience as well as determine strategies to build advertising campaigns.
Full Text Available This study uses credibility, informative, hedonic/ pleasure and good for economy to analyze the effect of the consumers' attitude towards advertising. Methodology of data collection is done by attitude scale using questioner with the number of respondents as many as 300 sheets distributed. The results showed that credibility, informative, hedonic/ pleasure and good for economy simultaneously have significant effect on the consumers' attitude towards advertising. Credibility has positive and significant effect on consumers' attitude towards advertising. Informative has positive and significant effect on the consumers' attitude towards advertising. Hedonic/ pleasure has positive and significant effect on the consumers' attitude towards advertising. Good for economy has positive and significant effect on the consumers' attitude towards advertising.
Indah Dwi Pratama
Full Text Available One factor that can interfere with the absorption rate of viewers on television advertisement is advertising avoidance which shows the difference between the number of viewers who watch advertisement programs and the number of viewers who watch television programs. The factors that affect advertising avoidance include the demography of the viewers (gender, age, area of residence, and social economic status, or SES, advertising attributes (the television stations, order of ads, genre of the program, and advertising sector, and competition (DayPart. The study attempted to measure the level of advertising avoidance in Indonesia and its relation to various factors that influence it by using the secondary data generated by Nielsen Audience Measurement Indonesia through Television Audience Measurement (TAM. The methods utilized consisted of the t-test independent sample, one way ANOVA, Tukey, Kruskal Wallis, and Dunn Bonferoni. The result showed that the level of advertising avoidance in Indonesia reached by 23%, with relatively similar results to the other studies in various countries. The hypothesis test results also showed a significant relationship between the advertising avoidance and demographic variables, advertising attributes, and competitions affecting this avoidance. On one hand, the findings of the study are expected to be useful for the advertisers to plan their advertisements on television so that they become more effective and efficient. On the other hand, television stations can utilize these findings as a development strategy to expand their audience segmentation and to accommodate the needs of the advertisers more optimally.Keywords: advertising avoidance, television advertisement, TAM, ANOVA, Tukey
Ostrianyn Serhii O.
Full Text Available The article is aimed at exploring means for optimizing the budgeting of advertising activity, the optimal distribution of the advertising budget among several products, advertised by a company, and several advertising channels used during the distribution of an advertisement. The current status of the optimizationized budgeting models in the world and in Ukraine was analyzed. The topicality of scientific developments in this direction has been substantiated. The model is based on the non-linear logistics function of the response value of sales for the costs of placement of an advertising message, including market saturation effects and the accumulation of promotional effect. A complex advertising budgeting model has been proposed, which includes the dynamic definition of a budget constraint based on the expected sales return from a byed advertising campaign whose budget is being optimized. The proposed model allows to schedule advertising activities in conditions of uncertainty and rapid change of environment.
Full Text Available A mechanical pruner serves for pruning new hopvine shoots in spring. The later yield depends on the right timing and quality of pruning. That is why hop pruning is one of the most important agrotechnical procedures. A double-disc mechanical pruner used on high trellises cannot be used on low trellises due to its large size. Abroad, for pruning hops on low trellises a specially adapted sprinkler is used (chemical pruning. With regard to the effort to minimize the chemical environmental burden, we opted for the design of the mechanical pruner. Firstly, the low trellis, mechanical pruner, and also elements used in the design of hydraulic circuit are described. Next part of the paper is devoted to the input requirements for both the hydraulic circuit and the mechanical pruner designs. Then a description of an adapted inter-axle carrier used for the experimental model of the hop mechanical pruner and of the effected field measurement follows, along with interpretation of the measured data. These data are depicted in clearly arranged graphs showing the dependency of pressure and hydraulic oil flow on the cutting disc rotational frequency.
O. I. Gerus
Full Text Available Using the theory of social fields by P. Bourdieu the article describes the features of the advertising as a symbolic cultural field functioning. Confined to the locality of its actions, advertising creates cultural forms, images, facilities, valuebased judgments that become widespread, claiming the role of human behavior that must be followed. The author defines advertising as a symbolic cultural field. To analyse the advertising field and determine the impact of advertising on learning and the formation of certain values and cultural patterns the author justifies application of critical discourse analysis (CDA. The meaning of notions «advertising discourse» and «discourses of advertising» are being exposed and delineated. The author propose and test research methodology of development and impact of advertising discourse on advertising consumers. The types of value discourses prevalent in the field of commercial advertising were identified. In the study, the author found that advertising discourses are dynamic entities that are changed according to time and the state of the society in which they operate. In particular, the discourses produced in advertising influences social context developments in society, the dominant values and attitudes.
Full Text Available Developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH or congenital hip dysplasia (CDH is the most prevalent developmental childhood hip disorder. It includes a wide spectrum of hip abnormalities ranging from dysplasia to subluxation and complete dislocation of the hip joint. The natural history of neglected DDH in adults is highly variable. The mean age of onset of symptoms is 34.5 years for dysplastic DDH, 32.5 years for low dislocation, 31.2 years for high dislocation with a false acetabulum, and 46.4 years for high dislocation without a false acetabulum. Thorough understanding of the bony and soft tissue deformities induced by dysplasia is crucial for the success of total hip arthroplasty. It is important to evaluate the existing acetabular deformity three-dimensionally, and customize the correction in accordance with the quantity and location of ace tabular deficiencies. Acetabular reconstruction in patients with DDH is hallenging. Interpretation of published data is difficult and should be done with caution because most series include patients with different types of hip disease. In general, the complication rate associated with THA is higher in patients with hip dysplasia than it is in patients with osteoarthritis. Overall, clinical and functional outcomes following THA in patients hip dysplasia (DDH differ from those treated for primary hip osteoarthritis, possibly due to the lower age and level of activity. Although function scores decline with age, the scores for pain and range of motion presented with a statistically significant improvement in the long-term.
Aggarwal Aditya K
Full Text Available 【Abstract】Femoral head fractures without dislocation or subluxation are extremely rare injuries. We report a neglected case of isolated comminuted fracture of femoral head without hip dislocation or subluxation of one year duration in a 36-year-old patient who sustained a high en- ergy trauma due to road traffic accident. He presented with painful right hip and inability to bear full weight on right lower limb with Harris hip score of 39. He received cementless total hip replacement. At latest follow-up of 2.3 years, functional outcome was excellent with Harris hip score of 95. Such isolated injuries have been described only once in the literature and have not been classified till now. The purpose of this report is to highlight the extreme rarity, possible mechanism involved and a novel classification system to classify such injuries. Key words: Femur head; Hip dislocation; Classification; Arthroplasty, replacement, hip
Анна Степановна Борисова
Full Text Available Due to its communicative specifics studying of modern printed discourse of advertising basing on the theory of emotivity is of special interest to the scientists. The manifestation and expression of emotions in the context of advertising communication is an intention of the author of the advertisement message to cause a specific emotional reaction from the recipient (target audience, to influence her/him in a sought way. The aim of this article is to elicit forms of verbal explications of emotional dominants, actualized in modern french advertising discourse and to determine their roles in the realization of its pragmatic orientation. Basing on methodology of linguistics of emotion, linguoecology, communicative linguistics and methods of pragmatic, discursive, comparative, cross-cultural analysis we have allocated emotional/ emotive representations pragmatic orientation of which correlates with the extent of emotional openness or restraint of the participants of the discourse of advertising, touches upon the field of social norms of emotional behavior and is determined by national cultural specifics. Particular attention is given to appellative models/strategies, relevant to this specific type of discourse. The peculiarities of emotional argumentation are analyzed in comparison with rational ones on the basis of modern printed advertising texts.
Kucharik, Marcel; Hofacker, Ivo; Stadler, Peter
of the folding free energy landscape, however, can provide the relevant information. Results We introduce the basin hopping graph (BHG) as a novel coarse-grained model of folding landscapes. Each vertex of the BHG is a local minimum, which represents the corresponding basin in the landscape. Its edges connect...
Zohreh Gooniband Shooshtari
Full Text Available This article intended to illustrate a profile of the role and impact of English in magazine print advertising in Iran, by examining the quantitative results obtained from discourse analysis. Three issues of Khanevadeh Sabz and two issues of Zendegi Ideal were collected and a total of 261 advertisements were analyzed. Results indicated that English has consistently been utilized in Persian magazine advertisements, representing attention-getting, persuasion, international brands, prestige, modernity, globalization, premium quality, fun, innovation and creativity. However, using English in Persian magazine advertisements is culturally and linguistically constrained. Culturally, in advertising traditional products English is only employed to introduce the name and e-mail address. Linguistically, although some English written slogans in Persian magazines had puns in them; the English used in Persian magazine advertisements mostly consists of easy-to-read vocabulary. Overall, in spite of the public’s generally low proficiency in English, it is predicted that English mixing will continue to thrive in magazine advertising discourse in Iran.
Full Text Available Advertisers often make use of endorsers or representatives as trustworthy sources of persuasion for consumers' attitudes. Promotion of products through celebrities is a trendy advertising practice around the world. The present study judged the impact of celebrity credibility on advertising effectiveness in terms of consumer’s attitude towards the advertisement, attitude towards the brand and their purchase intention. This study also explored the differences of respondent’s responses towards the advertisements of brand through famous celebrities as well as unknown celebrities. Different TV advertisements were used for the experiment. Several statistical tools were applied to test the hypotheses and identify significant differences & the proposed relationships among the variables. Overall findings suggests that the respondents considered the famous celebrities of the brand as the most credible celebrities, having positive impact on consumers attitude towards the advertisement, attitude to the brand and their favorable purchase intentions as compare to the unknown celebrity with less credibility.
Abel, G A; Neufeld, E J; Sorel, M; Weeks, J C
In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires that all direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) contain both an accurate statement of a medication's effects ('truth') and an even-handed discussion of its benefits and risks/adverse effects ('fair balance'). DTCA for medications to treat rare diseases such as bleeding disorders is unlikely to be given high priority for FDA review. We reviewed all DTCA for bleeding disorder products appearing in the patient-directed magazine HemeAware from January 2004 to June 2006. We categorized the information presented in each advertisement as benefit, risk/adverse effect, or neither, and assessed the amount of text and type size devoted to each. We also assessed the readability of each type of text using the Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES, where a score of >or=65 is considered of average readability), and assessed the accuracy of the advertising claims utilizing a panel of five bleeding disorder experts. A total of 39 unique advertisements for 12 products were found. On average, approximately twice the amount of text was devoted to benefits as compared with risks/adverse effects, and the latter was more difficult to read [FRES of 32.0 for benefits vs. 20.5 for risks/adverse effects, a difference of 11.5 (95% CI: 4.5-18.5)]. Only about two-thirds of the advertising claims were considered by a majority of the experts to be based on at least low-quality evidence. As measured by our methods, print DTCA for bleeding disorders may not reach the FDA's standards of truth and fair balance.
Wan Yu Chang
Full Text Available With a diversity of promotional channels and ever-increasing numbers of participants, the tourism industry in Taiwan faces keen competition. Along with the direct cross-strait flights policy, groups like Eastern Multimedia Group, Tsann Kuen Enterprise Company Limited and Want Want China Times Group have founded travel agencies for the purpose of increasing their market share in the tourism industry. Therefore, the formulation of marketing strategies has become a critical issue for all travel agencies that wish to ensure their prominence in the market. The frequent use of humorous materials and appeals has been the main tendency in advertising. However, no consistent conclusions regarding the actual effects of humorous advertising have been determined. The subjects of the current study were users of the Lion Travel website. Online questionnaires were sent to and collected from random respondents. One hundred questionnaires were delivered, and 512 valid questionnaires were collected. Each collected questionnaire represented a valid sample. The study generated the following five results: (1 humorous advertisements may partially influence brand awareness; (2 humorous elements may partially influence advertising effects; (3 brand awareness has significant positive effects on the advertising attitude of advertising effects; (4 brand awareness has significant positive effects on the brand attitude of advertising effects; (5 brand awareness has significant positive effects on the purchasing intention of advertising effects. Eventually, it is anticipated that the results of this study can serve as a reference and provide suggestions for humorous advertising strategies in the tourism industry.
Тетяна Олександрівна Левицька
Full Text Available This article is devoted to the substantiation of the use of contextual advertising in Internet marketing as one of the most universal and expedient tools of modern advertising, applied for the first time in 1994, describing the principles of its implementation and the prospects for using it. The shortcomings and advantages of Internet marketing and contextual advertising in particular, its types and technologies, on which it is implemented, the possibilities, as well as the purposes of application, are considered. The main characteristics of contextual advertising, namely its characteristic properties as compared to the other types of Internet marketing, were highlighted. The use of contextual advertising in the search, on partner sites of the advertising network and an example of the report that was received by means of the Yandex.Metrika service have been shown. On the basis of the analysis the use of contextual advertising has been proved and its basic types and methods of measuring the effectiveness of advertising campaigns using deep analytics services have been demonstrated. The factor of the complexity of the configuration process has been singled out, and in this connection, a variant of professional intervention in setting up contextual advertising by specialized agencies has been offered. In the long term, the tools of contextual advertising are to expand. Every year, more and more services are being created for a deeper analysis of statistics, end-to-end analytics, and the improvement of the campaign management interface
Full Text Available The current paper presents the analysis of linguistic characteristics of commercial and social advertising slogans. There is no uniform definition of the advertising slogan in the scientific literature, therefore, an attempt to provide the definition of a slogan in the context of marketing communication was made. One of the main functions of both social and commercial advertising is to provide information to the target audience and make it act in a way desired by the advertisers. As language, either spoken or written, has a powerful influence over people and their behaviour, the article analysis the language of advertising from the linguistic point of view and focuses on the phonological and semantic characteristics of slogans for commercial and social advertising campaigns. The analysis of 110 English slogans (55 commercial and 55 social advertising campaigns showed the frequent use of both sound techniques and figurative language in commercial advertising slogans, which make the slogans more memorable, attractive and highlighting the advertised brand in a positive way. In contrast, the sound techniques and figurative language are scarce in slogans for social advertising campaigns.
Full Text Available We compared kinetic characteristic of unipolar, bipolar and total hip endoprostheses, implanted after dislocated femoral neck fracture. Ninety patients were divided into three groups (30 patients in each group; a group with unipolar partial hip endoprosthesis (UPEP, a group with bipolar partial hip endoprosthesis (BPEP and a group with total hip endoprosthesis (TEP. The patients from different groups were paired by parameters which could influence the long term functional result: follow up period, comorbidities, functional capabilities before injury, etc. After the average follow up 3.8 +/- 1.9 years, a measuring of range of hip motions (ROM was conducted. The largest mean amplitudes in flexion (104 degrees, extension (13 degrees, abduction (35 degrees and external rotation (38 degrees was achieved BPEP, the largest adduction (14 degrees was achieved UPEP, and internal rotation (34 degrees TEP. Differences in ROMs are partially related to the clinical parameters such as: level of the hip pain, gait pattern, age and rehabilitation period (P < 0.05. Measuring of ROMs is the most reliable part of the clinical exam and it does not depend on subjectivity of patient, as opposed to other clinical parameters (level of pain, walking distance, aids usage, etc. The results obtained are favorable for the bipolar hip endoprosthesis, and they can be related to the biomechanical differences between the three types of hip endoprostheses. Kinetic advantages of the BPEP as compared to the UPEP, can be explained by the BPEP's structure: two-level mobility and a thinner neck which delays impingement in the late motion phase. In comparison to the TEP, clinical advantages of the BPEP can be attributed to less extensive surgery and scarring.
Potolokova Mariia Olegovna
Full Text Available One of the fundamental functions of advertising is economic. From the moment when the company plans and implements launches its advertising campaign, a chain reaction of economic events. In this article we present a scheduling algorithm campaigns entrepreneurial structures.
S. B. Kalmykov
Full Text Available Purpose: the The purpose of the publication is development of existing criterial assessment in social advertising sphere. The next objectives are provided for its achievement: to establish research methodology, to develop the author’s version of necessary notional apparatus and conceptual generalization, to determine the elements of social advertising quality, to establish the factors of its quality, to conduct the systematization of existing criteria and measuring instruments of quality assessment, to form new criteria of social advertising quality, to apply received results for development of criterial assessment to determine the further research perspectives. Methods: the methodology of research of management of social advertising interaction with target audience, which has dynamic procedural character with use of sociological knowledge multivariate paradigmatic status, has been proposed. Results: the primary received results: the multivariate paradigmatic research basis with use of works of famous domestic and foreign scientists in sociology, qualimetry and management spheres; the deﬁnitions of social advertising, its quality, sociological quality provision system, target audience behavior model during social advertising interaction are oﬀered; the quality factors with three groups by level of eﬀect on consumer are established; the systematization of existing quality and its measure instruments assessment criteria by detected social advertising quality elements are conducted; the two new criteria and its management quality assessment measuring instruments in social advertising sphere are developed; the one of the common groups of production quality criteria – adaptability with considering of new management quality criteria and conducted systematization of existing social advertising creative quality assessment criteria development; the perspective of further perfection of quality criterial assessment based on social advertising
Full Text Available The roots of advertisement are connected with reclamations, claims and arguments. No surprise that many people treat it with distrust, suspicion and irritation.Nobody loves advertisement (except its authors and those who order it, nobody watches it, everybody despises it and get annoyed because of it. But newspapers, magazines, television and city economy in general cannot do without it. One keeps on arguing whether to prohibit advertisement, to restrict its expansion, to bring in stricter regulations on advertisement…If something attracts attention, intrigues, promises to make dreams true and arouses desire to join - it should be considered as advertisement. This definition allows saying with no doubts: yes, advertisement did existed in the most ancient strongest cultures. Advertisement is as old as the humane civilization. There have always been the objects to be advertised, and different methods appeared to reach those goals.Advertisement techniques and topics appear, get forgotten and appear again in other places and other times. Sometimes the author of advertisement image has no idea about his forerunners and believes he is the discoverer. A skillful designer with high level of professionalism deliberately uses images from past centuries. The professional is easily guided by historical prototypes.But there is another type of advertisement, its prototypes cannot be found in museums. It does not suppose any respect, because it is built on scornful attitude towards the spectator.However, basically the advertisement is made by professional designers, and in this case ignorance is inadmissible. Even if we many times appeal to Irkutsk designers to work on raising their cultural level of advertisements, anyhow, orders will be always made by those who pay. Unless Its Majesty Ruble stands for Culture, those appeals are of no use.
Shabalina Olga Ivanovna
Full Text Available The article is devoted to modes of designing advertisements in China. The author proposes two hypotheses. According to the first one, instrumental values influence modes of advertisement design in a particular country. According to the second one, developing relationships (guanxi is a key instrumental value that determines rhetoric of advertising in China and spreads its impact on all its constituents: choice of referent, goals, modes of depicting target audience, patterns of reasoning, and typical set of expressive means. To test hypotheses we used content-analysis of outdoor advertisements in China, Russia, and Kazakhstan. The results of the content-analysis proved that developing relationships with consumers is a key goal of advertising in China. This goal determines the choice of the company as a referent. Social roles of advertising characters are a major descriptor of the target audience. The company’s status, its experience, and financial position are key motives that influence patterns of reasoning. Chinese advertising is also characterized by use of positive-colored vocabulary, traditional symbols and attributes of happiness, “holiday” syntax, appeals to harmony with nature and fellow men. The results of research are complex, have scientific novelty and can be used by foreign companies while developing advertisements, targeted at the Chinese consumer.
Full Text Available Since the year 2000, during the period of economic growth, the real estate market has been rapidly expanding. During this period advertising of real estate objects was implemented using one set of similar channels (press advertising, Internet advertising, leaflets with contact information of real estate agents and others, however the start of the economic recession has intensified the competition in the market and forced companies to search for new advertising means or to diversify the advertising package. The article presents real estate property, as a product, one of the marketing components – including advertising, conclusions and suggestions based on conducted surveys and a model for advertising the residential real estate objects.Article in Lithuanian
R. M. Tikhilov
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to analyze the medium- and long-term results of hip arthroplasty using Paavilainen technique in patients with the congenitally dislocated hip. Methods: From 2001 to 2012 180 operations were carried out were using the Paavilainen technique in 140 patients with high dislocation of the hip (Crowe IV. All patients were clinically evaluated using the Harris Hip Score (HHS, VAS and radiography. Statistical analysis was performed using the Pearson correlation coefficients, multiple regression analysis and classification trees analysis. Results: The average Harris score improved from preoperative 41.6 (40,3-43,5 to 79.3 (77,9-82,7 at final follow-up, and the difference was significant. Early complications were 9% (the most frequent were fractures of the proximal femur, later - 16.7% (pseudoarthrosis of the greater trochanter, 13.9%; disclocations-1,1%, aseptic loosening of the components - 1.7%, reoperation performed in 8.3% of cases. Such factors as age and limb length has statistically significant effect on functional outcomes. Established predictive model allows to get the best possible functional outcome in such patients with severe dysplasia. Conclusions: Total Hip arthroplasty using the Paavilainen technique is an effective method of surgical treatment in patients with the congenitally dislocated hip, but it is technically difficult operation with a high incidence of complications in comparison with standard primary total hip replacement.
Measurement properties of performance-based outcome measures to assess physical function in young and middle-aged people known to be at high risk of hip and/or knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review.
Kroman, S L; Roos, E M; Bennell, K L; Hinman, R S; Dobson, F
To systematically appraise the evidence on measurement properties of performance-based outcome measures to assess physical function in young and middle-aged people known to be at high risk of hip and/or knee osteoarthritis (OA). Electronic searches were performed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus and SPORTDiscus in May 2013. Two reviewers independently rated the measurement properties using the 4-point COSMIN checklist. Best evidence synthesis was made using COSMIN quality, consistency and direction of findings and sample size. Twenty of 2736 papers were eligible for inclusion and 24 different performance-based outcome measures knee or obese populations were evaluated. No tests related to hip populations were included. Twenty-five measurement properties including reliability (nine studies), construct validity (hypothesis testing) (nine studies), measurement error (three studies), structural validity (two studies), interpretability (one study) and responsiveness (one study) were evaluated. A positive rating was given to 12.5% (30/240) of all possible measurement ratings. Tests were grouped into two categories based on the population characteristics. The one-legged hop for distance, followed by the 6-m timed hop and cross over hop for distance were the best-rated tests for the knee-injured population. Whereas the 6-min walk test was the only included test for the obese population. This review highlights the many gaps in knowledge about the measurement properties of performance-based outcome measures for young and middle-aged people known to be at high risk of hip and/or knee OA. There is a need for consensus on which outcome measures should be used and/or combined when assessing physical function in this population. Further good quality research is required. Copyright © 2013 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This dissertation covers two areas of research that expand our knowledge on children’s advertising literacy (i.e., advertising-related knowledge). The first part addresses the development of children’s advertising literacy into adult-like levels. The second part focuses on the role of advertising
Kalveram, Karl Theodor; Haeufle, Daniel F B; Seyfarth, André; Grimmer, Sten
While hopping, 12 subjects experienced a sudden step down of 5 or 10 cm. Results revealed that the hopping style was "terrain following". It means that the subjects pursued to keep the distance between maximum hopping height (apex) and ground profile constant. The spring-loaded inverse pendulum (SLIP) model, however, which is currently considered as template for stable legged locomotion would predict apex-preserving hopping, by which the absolute maximal hopping height is kept constant regardless of changes of the ground level. To get more insight into the physics of hopping, we outlined two concepts of energy management: "constant energy supply", by which in each bounce--regardless of perturbations--the same amount of mechanical energy is injected, and "lost energy supply", by which the mechanical energy that is going to be dissipated in the current cycle is assessed and replenished. When tested by simulations and on a robot testbed capable of hopping, constant energy supply generated stable and robust terrain following hopping, whereas lost energy supply led to something like apex-preserving hopping, which, however, lacks stability as well as robustness. Comparing simulated and machine hopping with human hopping suggests that constant energy supply has a good chance to be used by humans to generate hopping.
Elena A. Egorova
Full Text Available The article offers methodological approach to the analysis of advertising activity of banks who allows to reveal the most effective advertising strategy to provide their high efficiency, to establish correlation connection of the size of advertising budgets with the main social and economic characteristics of bank’s activity.
Culture, Product Advertising, and Advertising Agency Operations. ... As a means of telling the market about a new product, advertising persuades and reminds the audience of their continuous support of the ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Wei, Hung-Yu; Dixit, Sudhir
Wifi, WiMAX, and Cellular Multihop Networks presents an overview of WiFi-based and WiMAX-based multihop relay networks. As the first text to cover IEEE 802.16j multihop hop relay technology, this revolutionary resource explores the latest advances in multi-hop and ad-hoc networking. Not only does this reference provide the technological aspects, but also the applications for the emerging technology and architectural issues. Ranging from introductory material to advanced topics, this guidebook, plus PowerPoint slides, is essential for engineers, researchers, and students interested in
Alvim, Felipe Costa; Lucareli, Paulo Roberto Garcia; Menegaldo, Luciano Luporini
Functional biomechanical tests allow the assessment of musculoskeletal system impairments in a simple way. Muscle force synergies associated with movement can provide additional information for diagnosis. However, such forces cannot be directly measured noninvasively. This study aims to estimate muscle activations and forces exerted during the preparation phase of the single leg triple hop test. Two different approaches were tested: static optimization (SO) and computed muscle control (CMC). As an indirect validation, model-estimated muscle activations were compared with surface electromyography (EMG) of selected hip and thigh muscles. Ten physically healthy active women performed a series of jumps, and ground reaction forces, kinematics and EMG data were recorded. An existing OpenSim model with 92 musculotendon actuators was used to estimate muscle forces. Reflective markers data were processed using the OpenSim Inverse Kinematics tool. Residual Reduction Algorithm (RRA) was applied recursively before running the SO and CMC. For both, the same adjusted kinematics were used as inputs. Both approaches presented similar residuals amplitudes. SO showed a closer agreement between the estimated activations and the EMGs of some muscles. Due to inherent EMG methodological limitations, the superiority of SO in relation to CMC can be only hypothesized. It should be confirmed by conducting further studies comparing joint contact forces. The workflow presented in this study can be used to estimate muscle forces during the preparation phase of the single leg triple hop test and allows investigating muscle activation and coordination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available As consumers become decreasingly responsive towards traditional forms of advertising, advertisers are turning towards more innovative methods. Virtual worlds provide an extraordinary potential for new and enhanced modes of advertising. This study examines the opportunities of the virtual world, Second Life, as a new platform for businesses’ advertisement and promotional activities. First, we briefly introduce the concept of virtual worlds and virtual advertising. Then, we go on to explain the development of advertising, with special emphasis on its evolution alongside technological developments. Furthermore, we discuss how virtual worlds developed and how the features of these worlds lent themselves to advertising. Second Life, the most popular virtual world application, is given a special emphasis, and we shall explore opportunities and practices for virtual advertising in this virtual world application.
Mahesh M Choudhary
Full Text Available We report a case of transient osteoporosis of the hip (TOH in a 50-year-old man including the clinical presentation, diagnostic studies, management, and clinical progress. TOH is a rare self-limiting condition that typically affects middle-aged men or, less frequently, women in the third trimester of pregnancy. Affected individuals present clinically with acute hip pain, limping gait, and limited ranges of hip motion. TOH may begin spontaneously or after a minor trauma. Radiographs are typically unremarkable but magnetic resonance (MR imaging studies yield findings consistent with bone marrow edema. TOH is referred to as regional migratory osteoporosis (RMO if it travels to other joints or the contralateral hip. TOH often resembles osteonecrosis but the two conditions must be differentiated due to different prognoses and management approaches. The term TOH is often used interchangeably and synonymously with transient bone marrow edema (TBME.
... Is hip resurfacing a good alternative to hip replacement? Answers from Mark Spangehl, M.D. Hip resurfacing has lost favor with many surgeons ... women with poor bone quality. Unlike traditional hip replacement, hip resurfacing doesn't completely replace the "ball" ...
Abednego Feehi Okoe
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the drivers of consumers’ attitudes towards mobile advertisement. It also sought the relationship between consumers’ attitudes towards mobile advertisement and their willingness to accept mobile advertising. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to assess the measurement model while structural equation was conducted to assess the goodness-fit of the overall model. The findings indicate that entertainment, credibility and personalization had positive effects on consumers’ attitudes toward mobile advertising. Furthermore, the results show that, consumers’ attitude determines their willingness to accept mobile advertising.
Ana Sebastián Morillas
Full Text Available The article aims the advertising efficiency video games have in Spain, which is of theutmost importance considering results from latest studies on effectiveness. Video gameshave become one of the most valuable platforms used by advertisers when looking fornew ways to reinforce brand awareness. This study seeks to explain the reasons whybrands are using the advergaming and ingame advertising in order to have their advertisingmessages being effectively reached by the target audience. The topic proposedin this paper deploys a qualitative research methodology focused on a bibliographicreview, in-depth interviews and the analysis of several case studies. Results obtained bythis research may help companies to develop effective marketing and communicationstrategies.
Doaa Farouk Badawy Eldesouky
Full Text Available Visual hierarchy is a significant concept in the field of advertising, a field that is dominated by effective communication, visual recognition and motion. Designers of advertisements have always been trying to organize the visual hierarchy throughout their advertising designs to aid the eye to recognize information in the desired order, to achieve the ultimate goals of clear perception and effectively delivering the advertising messages. However many assumptions and questions usually rise on how to create effective hierarchy throughout advertising designs and lead the eye and mind of the viewer in the most favorable way. This paper attempts to study visual hierarchy and mind motion in advertising designs and why it is important to develop visual paths when designing an advertisement. It explores the theory behind it, and how the very principles can be used to put these concepts into practice. The paper demonstrates some advertising samples applying visual hierarchy and mind motion in a representation of applying the basics and discussing the results.
Doaa Farouk Badawy Eldesouky
Full Text Available Visual hierarchy is a significant concept in the field of advertising, a field that is dominated by effective communication, visual recognition and motion. Designers of advertisements have always been trying to organize the visual hierarchy throughout their advertising designs to aid the eye to recognize information in the desired order, to achieve the ultimate goals of clear perception and effectively delivering the advertising messages. However many assumptions and questions usually rise on how to create effective hierarchy throughout advertising designs and lead the eye and mind of the viewer in the most favorable way. This paper attempts to study visual hierarchy and mind motion in advertising designs and why it is important to develop visual paths when designing an advertisement. It explores the theory behind it, and how the very principles can be used to put these concepts into practice. The paper demonstrates some advertising samples applying visual hierarchy and mind motion in a representation of applying the basics and discussing the results.
Full Text Available The language of advertisements aims at precise, clear, pointed, and arresting communication. Like all communicative endeavours, in advertising, getting the message across is of prime importance. However, the use of language in advertising is of a particular character because the advertiser cannot afford to be delinquent or uncritical. The aim of this paper is to investigate the extent to which rules or conventions of the English language are broken in print advertising. It also shows the practical usage of linguistic features especially figures of speech in newspaper advertisements. This paper is based on many concrete examples that strengthen the theoretical part of the paper.
Shi, Y. Z.; Xiong, S.; Zhang, Y.; Chin, L. K.; Wu, J. H.; Chen, T. N.; Liu, A. Q.
Particle jumping between optical potentials has attracted much attention owing to its extensive involvement in many physical and biological experiments. In some circumstances, particle jumping indicates escaping from the optical trap, which is an issue people are trying to avoid. Nevertheless, particle jumping can facilitate the individual trap in each laser spot in the optical lattice and enable sorting and delivery of nanoparticles. Particle hopping has not been seen in fluid because Fluidic drag force dramatically reduce the dwell time of particle or break the potential well. Here, we observe particle hopping in the microchannel by three reasons, e.g., particle collision or aggregation, light disturbing by pretrapped particle and fake trapping position. We show that commonly ignored particle influence to the light could create a new isolated trapping position, where particle hops to the adjacent potential well. The hopping happens in an optofluidic fishnet which is comprised of discrete hotspots enabling 2D patterning of particles in the flow stream for the first time. We also achieve a 2D patterning of cryptosporidium in the microchannel. Our observed particle hopping in the flow stream completes the family of particle kinetics in potential wells and inspires new interests in the particle disturbed optical trapping. The 2D patterning of particles benefits the parallel study of biological samples in the flow stream and have potential on cell sorting and drug delivery.
In this paper, I investigate the co-evolution of fast and slow strategy spread and game strategies in populations of spatially distributed agents engaged in a one off evolutionary dilemma game. Agents are characterized by a pair of traits, a game strategy (cooperate or defect) and a binary 'advertising' strategy (advertise or don't advertise). Advertising, which comes at a cost [Formula: see text], allows investment into faster propagation of the agents' traits to adjacent individuals. Importantly, game strategy and advertising strategy are subject to the same evolutionary mechanism. Via analytical reasoning and numerical simulations I demonstrate that a range of advertising costs exists, such that the prevalence of cooperation is significantly enhanced through co-evolution. Linking costly replication to the success of cooperators exposes a novel co-evolutionary mechanism that might contribute towards a better understanding of the origins of cooperation-supporting heterogeneity in agent populations.
Gerritsen, M.; Nickerson, C.; Hooft, A.P.J.V. van; Meurs, W.F.J. van; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.; Nederstigt, U.; Starren, M.B.P.; Crijns, R.M.J.
Although English has been shown to be the most frequently used foreign language in product advertisements in countries where it is not the native language, little is known about its effects. This article examines the response to advertisements in English compared to the response to the same ad in
Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Bonauto, David K
There is little published evidence for occupational respiratory disease caused by hop dust inhalation. In the United States, hops are commercially produced in the Pacific Northwest region. To describe occupational respiratory disease in hop workers. Washington State workers' compensation claims filed by hop workers for respiratory disease were systematically identified and reviewed. Incidence rates of respiratory disease in hop workers were compared with rates in field vegetable crop farm workers. Fifty-seven cases of respiratory disease associated with hop dust inhalation were reported from 1995 to 2011. Most cases (61%) were diagnosed by the attending health care practitioner as having work-related asthma. Seven percent of cases were diagnosed as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and the remaining cases were diagnosed as allergic respiratory disorders (eg, allergic rhinitis) or asthma-associated symptoms (eg, dyspnea). Cases were associated with hop harvesting, secondary hop processing, and indirect exposure. The incidence rate of respiratory disease in hop workers was 15 cases per 10,000 full-time workers, which was 30 times greater than the incidence rate for field vegetable crop workers. A strong temporal association between hop dust exposure and respiratory symptoms and a clear association between an increase in hop dust concentrations and the clinical onset of symptoms were apparent in 3 cases. Occupational exposure to hop dust is associated with respiratory disease. Respiratory disease rates were higher in hop workers than in a comparison group of agricultural workers. Additional research is needed before hop dust can be confirmed as a causative agent for occupational asthma. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nilssen, Tore; Sørgard, Lars
We consider a model of strategic informative advertising where the advertising is done on TV and where the TV channels' advertising prices are endogenously determined. We discuss how these prices, and the advertising firms' advertising efforts, vary with the two key parameters of the model: the degree of product differentiation in the product market and a measure of the relative sizes of the TV channels' viewer bases. We find, in particular, that the larger the size difference among the TV ch...
Full Text Available Many times, we have had a chance to hear that marketing communications are something that can move ahead of time. However, there are many areas in which they are moving slowly than time, without consideration of provided conditions. One of these areas is gender portraying, that is, accepted roles of women and men in the society. We cannot deny that gentle movements have been made towards their more realistic presentation, but a persistent claim that results from recent researches is that marketing communications and particularly advertising, as instrument that most directly reflects this theme, has remained rather resistant to changes in the society. Consequently values that have been built in brands with help of advertising are rather obsolete. Differently speaking, advertising has a showdown with stereotyping - as an assignment of a (usually negative label to certain groups of people based on a certain belief about how these people tend to behave in the society.
Abel, G. A.; Neufeld, E. J.; Sorel, M; Weeks, J. C.
OBJECTIVE In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) requires that all direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) contain both an accurate statement of a medication’s effects (“truth”) and an even-handed discussion of its benefits and risks/adverse effects (“fair balance”). DTCA for medications to treat rare diseases such as bleeding disorders is unlikely to be given high priority for FDA review. METHODS We reviewed all DTCA for bleeding disorder products appearing in the patient-directed magazine HemeAware from January, 2004 to June, 2006. We categorized the information presented in each advertisement as benefit, risk/adverse effect, or neither, and assessed the amount of text and type size devoted to each. We also assessed the readability of each type of text using the Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES, where a score of ≥ 65 is considered of average readability), and assessed the accuracy of the advertising claims utilizing a panel of five bleeding disorder experts. RESULTS A total of 39 unique advertisements for 12 products were found. On average, approximately twice the amount of text was devoted to benefits as compared to risks/adverse effects, and the later was more difficult to read (FRES of 20.45 for risks/adverse effects versus 32.08 for benefits; difference of 11.56 [95% CI: 4.52, 18.60]). Only about two-thirds of the advertising claims were considered by a majority of the experts to be based on at least low-quality evidence. CONCLUSION As measured by our methods, print DTCA for bleeding disorders may not reach the FDA’s standards of truth and fair balance. PMID:18647231
Kuznetsov, V.P.; Messerer, M.A.; Omel'yanovskij, Eh.M.
Hopping (epsilon 3 ) and Mott conductivities via deep impurity compounds with localization radius below 10 A have been studied using as an example Mn in InP. It is shown, that the existing theory of hopping conductivity in low-alloyed semiconductors with Na 3 << 1 can be Used for the case of deep centres as successfully as for the case of insignificant hydrogen-like impurities. Fundamental parameters of the theory: localization radius of wave function of deep impurities, state density near the Fermi level, mean hop length, are determined
Ольга Ивановна Шабалина
Full Text Available The article is devoted to modes of designing advertisements in China. The author proposes two hypotheses. According to the first one, instrumental values influence modes of advertisement design in a particular country. According to the second one, developing relationships (guanxi is a key instrumental value that determines rhetoric of advertising in China and spreads its impact on all its constituents: choice of referent, goals, modes of depicting target audience, patterns of reasoning, and typical set of expressive means.To test hypotheses we used content-analysis of outdoor advertisements in China, Russia, and Kazakhstan.The results of the content-analysis proved that developing relationships with consumers is a key goal of advertising in China. This goal determines the choice of the company as a referent. Social roles of advertising characters are a major descriptor of the target audience. The company’s status, its experience, and financial position are key motives that influence patterns of reasoning. Chinese advertising is also characterized by use of positive-colored vocabulary, traditional symbols and attributes of happiness, “holiday” syntax, appeals to harmony with nature and fellow men.The results of research are complex, have scientific novelty and can be used by foreign companies while developing advertisements, targeted at the Chinese consumer.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-33
Seyed Gholamreza Jalali Naini
Full Text Available This paper aims to study the effects of different factors on advertising by examining the simultaneous effects of exposure to the advertisement, type of the media, creativity in advertisements and being informative. Using data collected from one of the chain supermarkets of Tehran called “Shahrvand”; the analysis focuses on the effectiveness of four independent variables and impact of customers’ needs on encouraging consumers to purchase. The results elucidate a relationship among these four variables with encouraging people to purchase. Using creativity in advertisements, however dominate the effects on this issue. The marketing and advertisement environment are dynamic and the paper concentrates only on some of the more effective factors. Producers might be more successful in choosing the best way to promote their goods and services by following the proposed model. This paper puts four effective factors together and investigates their impact on advertisement, which was not done by any other previous papers. Unlike other studies, this paper examines the role of customer needs together with four other elements on advertisement effectiveness.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Increase in hip intra-capsular pressure has been implicated in various hip pathologies, such as avascular necrosis complicating undisplaced femoral neck fracture. Our study aimed at documenting the relationship between intra-capsular volume and pressure in various hip positions. Methods Fifty-two cadaveric hips were studied. An electronic pressure-monitoring catheter recorded the intra-capsular hip pressure after each instillation of 2 ml of normal saline and in six hip positions. Results In neutral hip position, the control position for investigation, intra-capsular pressure remained unchanged when its content was below 10 ml. Thereafter, it increased exponentially. When the intra-capsular volume was 12 ml, full abduction produced a 2.1-fold increase (p = 0.028 of the intra-capsular hip joint pressure; full external rotation and full internal rotation increased the pressure by at least 4-fold (p Conclusion Intra-capsular pressure increases with its volume, but with a wide variation with different positions. It would be appropriate to recommend that hips with haemarthrosis or effusion should be positioned in 45-degree flexion.
Full Text Available This paper studies the form and typology of banking advertising universe. The aim is to highlight the specificity of advertisements of the banking system according to the elements and the geometric shapes that are used.
The advertising business is often said to favour a modern, innovative language use. This is a statement not easily verified. Newspaper ads are in fact the genre of written language that linguists have paid the least attention to. People writing texts for newspaper ads are individuals representing contemporary language use. Advertisements representing different periods therefore diverge not only regarding the change of style and form advertising undergoes over time, but changes in the language...
Emery, Joanne L; Coleman, Tim; Sutton, Stephen; Cooper, Sue; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Jones, Matthew; Naughton, Felix
Smoking in pregnancy is a major public health concern. Pregnant smokers are particularly difficult to reach, with low uptake of support options and few effective interventions. Text message-based self-help is a promising, low-cost intervention for this population, but its real-world uptake is largely unknown. The objective of this study was to explore the uptake and cost-effectiveness of a tailored, theory-guided, text message intervention for pregnant smokers ("MiQuit") when advertised on the internet. Links to a website providing MiQuit initiation information (texting a short code) were advertised on a cost-per-click basis on 2 websites (Google Search and Facebook; £1000 budget each) and free of charge within smoking-in-pregnancy webpages on 2 noncommercial websites (National Childbirth Trust and NHS Choices). Daily budgets were capped to allow the Google and Facebook adverts to run for 1 and 3 months, respectively. We recorded the number of times adverts were shown and clicked on, the number of MiQuit initiations, the characteristics of those initiating MiQuit, and whether support was discontinued prematurely. For the commercial adverts, we calculated the cost per initiation and, using quit rates obtained from an earlier clinical trial, estimated the cost per additional quitter. With equal capped budgets, there were 812 and 1889 advert clicks to the MiQuit website from Google (search-based) and Facebook (banner) adverts, respectively. MiQuit was initiated by 5.2% (42/812) of those clicking via Google (95% CI 3.9%-6.9%) and 2.22% (42/1889) of those clicking via Facebook (95% CI 1.65%-2.99%). Adverts on noncommercial webpages generated 53 clicks over 6 months, with 9 initiations (9/53, 17%; 95% CI 9%-30%). For the commercial websites combined, mean cost per initiation was £24.73; estimated cost per additional quitter, including text delivery costs, was £735.86 (95% CI £227.66-£5223.93). Those initiating MiQuit via Google were typically very early in pregnancy
Goldfarb, Avi; Tucker, Catherine Elizabeth
This chapter explores what makes online advertising different from traditional advertising channels. We argue that online advertising differs from traditional advertising channels in two important ways: measurability and targetability. Measurability is higher because the digital nature of online advertising means that responses to ads can be tracked relatively easily. Targetability is higher because data can be automatically tracked at an individual level, and it is relatively easy to show di...
Urb, Tom Olaf, 1985-
Muusik, produtsent, kirjanik ja näitleja Tom-Olaf Urb, lavanimega Reket, arutleb disaini teemal ja nimetab kümme disainieset, mis teda elus köitnud on. Eesti Hip-Hop auhindade jagamisel valiti Reketi "Tuule tee" 2015.a. parimaks kodumaiseks hip-hop albumiks
The aim of the paper is to identify the graphic advertising components: symbol, text, colour, to illustrate how they cooperate in order to create the advertising message, and to analyze the corelation product – advertising – consumer.
Michael D. Flythe
Full Text Available Antibiotics can improve ruminant growth and efficiency by altering rumen fermentation via selective inhibition of microorganisms. However, antibiotic use is increasingly restricted due to concerns about the spread of antibiotic-resistance. Plant-based antimicrobials are alternatives to antibiotics in animal production. The hops plant (Humulus lupulus L. produces a range of bioactive secondary metabolites, including antimicrobial prenylated phloroglucinols, which are commonly called alpha- and beta-acids. These latter compounds can be considered phyto-ionophores, phytochemicals with a similar antimicrobial mechanism of action to ionophore antibiotics (e.g., monensin, lasalocid. Like ionophores, the hop beta-acids inhibit rumen bacteria possessing a classical Gram-positive cell envelope. This selective inhibition causes several effects on rumen fermentation that are beneficial to finishing cattle, such as decreased proteolysis, ammonia production, acetate: propionate ratio, and methane production. This article reviews the effects of hops and hop secondary metabolites on rumen fermentation, including the physiological mechanisms on specific rumen microorganisms, and consequences for the ruminant host and ruminant production. Further, we propose that hop beta-acids are useful model natural products for ruminants because of (1 the ionophore-like mechanism of action and spectrum of activity and (2 the literature available on the plant due to its use in brewing.
Gileadi, E.; Kirowa-Eisner, E.
The hopping mechanism of electrolytic conductivity is analyzed, employing mixtures of two solvents: one that sustains the hopping mechanism and the other that does not inhibit it directly, but interferes with it by diluting the solvent that sustains hopping. Measurement of the equivalent conductivity shows that the excess proton conductivities of H 3 O + and OH - increases with increasing temperature, although the number of hydrogen bonds is known to decrease. In mixtures of acetonitrile with water, proton hopping does not start until a threshold concentration of about 20 vol.% water has been reached, while no such threshold concentration is observed upon addition of methanol to acetonitrile. It is concluded that in the former the proton is transferred to a cluster of water molecules, which can be formed only if there is enough water in the solvent mixture. This observation leads to the concept of mono-water, which is the state of water molecules when they constitute a small minority in the solvent mixtures, as opposed to bulk water, which consists of clusters of variable sizes. Systems in which a hopping mechanism of heavy ions has been observed include Br - /Br 2 and I - /I 2 . In these cases the triple ions Br 3 - and I 3 - , respectively are formed, and serve as the mediators for the transfer of the simple halogen ion. A very large increase of conductivity was observed upon solidification of the Br - /Br 3 - system, probably caused by favorable linear alignment of ions in the solid. The conductivity of acidified methanol decreases upon addition of water, because the affinity of the proton to water is higher than to methanol, thus water can act as a scavenger for protons. This behavior exemplifies a general observation, namely that conductivity by hopping can only occur when the Gibbs energy of the system does not change significantly following ion transfer; otherwise the ions would be trapped in the more stable state, hindering further propagation by hopping
Warren, J. J.; Ener, M. E.; Vlček, Antonín; Winkler, J. R.; Gray, H. B.
Roč. 256, 21-22 (2012), s. 2478-2487 ISSN 0010-8545 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10124 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : electron transfer * multistep tunneling * hopping maps Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 11.016, year: 2012
Many years ago, Ludwig did detect the behaviour now called the Soret effect. Sodium sulphate in eighteen-fifty-six did not obediently follow Fick's first law. But if he cooled down one side the salt went left, the water to the right. He was surprised in every way. Hip, hip, Soret!
Laura Cruz García
Full Text Available This paper explores the use of evidential devices in press adverts in English in a compilation of original advertisements. Due to the appellative nature of advertising discourse, I think that these texts are likely to convey source of knowledge through evidentials as an advertising strategy in order to pragmatically manifest a higher level of credibility and reliability of the information presented concerning the products and the brands. The selected corpus of adverts will allow us to focus special attention on this particular genre and on how evidentials are used, in the fashion of other works carried out in other textual genres (cf. Fox, 2001; Kaplan, 2007; Marín-Arrese, 2004, 2007; Ortega-Barrera and Torres-Ramírez, 2010. Evidentials are studied as part of a set of persuasion strategies used by different linguistic communities in the discourse of advertising (Block de Behar, 1992; Cook, 1992; Cortés de los Ríos, 2001; Pavitt, 2000; Rein, 1982. Conclusions will report on how evidentials are used in print adverts, and whether a type of evidential device prevails over the rest.
Misleading advertising The topic of this rigorous thesis is "Misleading advertising". The theme of the thesis is current and attractive, because everybody comes across the advertising all the time and thus the advertisement influents each of our lives. One of the motives for writing this rigorous thesis was to mediate understanding of problems concerning with the misleading advertising and the unfair competition. The rigorous thesis is divided into six chapters. The first chapter deals with t...
Full Text Available Na produção bibliográfica existente, constata-se uma lacuna no que diz respeito à participação feminina nas (subculturas juvenis. Será que jovens-adolescentes do sexo feminino constituem uma minoria no movimento hip hop ou em outras manifestações culturais como as galeras ou gangues? O presente artigo questiona a ausência de estudos sobre jovens-adolescentes do sexo feminino, tanto nos trabalhos sobre juventude como nos estudos feministas, destacando a necessidade de pesquisas voltadas para a compreensão das ações juvenis em seus contextos específicos. Com base em dados empíricos sobre jovens-adolescentes negras e jovens de origem turca pertencentes ao movimento hip hop nas cidades de São Paulo e Berlim, discute ainda a luta pela conquista de espaço e de reconhecimento nesse movimento cultural de predominância masculina.The omission of girls in the literature of youth (subcultures is evident. Are feminine groups, in fact, in a minority position in the hip hop movement or in other cultural expressions like the "galeras" or "gangs"? The present article interrogates the absence of research about girl-cultures in the area of youth studies and also in the gender studies. Based on empirical research among black girls and girls of Turkish origin who belong to the hip hop movement in the cities of São Paulo and Berlin, respectively, the paper shows the effort of these girls in the achievement of power and recognition in this male dominated culture.
Full Text Available Motivated by the industry cases, we model the advertising competition between the dominant service provider and small service providers in one service market, where the dominant service provider has a major market share and the other small service providers share the remainder of market equally. Based on this setting, we discuss three advertising game models, that is, cooperative game, Boxed Pig game, and Prisoner’s game, derive the conditions for different advertising games, and characterize their equilibria. To be specific, it is found that the advertising spillover and the number of the small service providers directly determines the advertising game equilibria, while other market parameters, to some extent, can affect the results of the advertising game equilibria. According to our theoretical findings, some management insights and suggestions are given from both the academic and practical perspectives.
Full Text Available Advertising as one of the phenomena of modern times is often an inseparable, though undesirable part of our everyday lives. Current trends indicate that there are still more and more anglicisms, internationalisms, and particles of different cultures penetrating billboard advertisements in many towns and cities around the world, and Slovakia is no exception. The crucial question of this article is: How is it possible to use advertisements in English language teaching and learning? To answer this question, the examination is focused on: (1 defining the role and characteristic traits of advertisements; (2 searching for the linkage between the psychological principles of advertising and psychology of learning foreign languages; (3 the frequency of anglicisms and internationalisms in billboard advertisements in particular areas of selected Slovak cities; (4 concrete suggestions for teaching practice based on the previous findings.
Anonymous vs. acknowledged intertexts: A relevance theoretic approach to intertextuality in print advertising. ... make intertextual references to texts from mass media genres other than advertising as part of an ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Full Text Available Advertising constitutes a phenomenon that is spreading more and more in our society.. Most of the times, the ad is the one that sells the product and has an impact on consumers’ behaviour. Under these circumstances, one cannot ignore the impact that advertising has on competition and competitive nature. The evolution of the communication means has an important impact on advertising, especially through the development of internet, social networks, forums and blogs. The development of new advertising practices generates a series of issues that needs to be settled so that a high level of protection for users can be guaranteed.
Full Text Available Congenital hip luxation is a disorder which evolves in time. Teratological hip dislocation is a distinct form of hip luxation, which usually appears with other disorders. These hips are dislocated before birth. In this thesis we will try to elaborate a recovery program, through physical exercises, which will help us realize our treatment objectives: diminishing articular stiffness, increasing articular mobility, increasing muscle strength, recalibration of agonist and antagonist balances and reeducating gait. The specific objectives of the study consist of the particularization of the recovery programs based on age, illness stage (dysplasia or luxation and either surgical or non-surgical intervention. To show the importance of physiotherapy in gait rehabilitation of a child with hip dislocation we started from the hypothesis: using an adequate rehabilitation program after an individualized methodology, optimizes the functional recovery and ensures the gains of hip stability and the formation of an engram of gait as close as it could be to the normal one. We present a case of neurological congenital hip dislocation where the treatment initiated early is showing good results. Results obtained are significantly different and we came to the conclusion that starting an untimely analytical kinetic treatment and globally personalizing it to every patient has better biomechanical results for the hip.
Zamanzadeh, Ben; Ashish, Naveen; Ramakrishnan, Cartic; Zimmerman, John
We present the concept of Semantic Advertising which we see as the future of online advertising. Semantic Advertising is online advertising powered by semantic technology which essentially enables us to represent and reason with concepts and the meaning of things. This paper aims to 1) Define semantic advertising, 2) Place it in the context of broader and more widely used concepts such as the Semantic Web and Semantic Search, 3) Provide a survey of work in related areas such as context matchi...
Arruda-Carvalho, Maithe; Njaine, Brian; Silveira, Mariana S.; Linden, Rafael; Chiarini, Luciana B.
Hop/STI1 is a co-chaperone adaptor protein for Hsp70/Hsp90 complexes. Hop/STI1 is found extracellularly and modulates cell death and differentiation through interaction with the prion protein (PrP C ). Here, we investigated the expression of hop/STI1 and its role upon cell proliferation and cell death in the developing retina. Hop/STI1 is more expressed in developing rat retina than in the mature tissue. Hop/STI1 blocks retinal cell death in the neuroblastic layer (NBL) in a PrP C dependent manner, but failed to protect ganglion cells against axotomy-induced cell death. An antibody raised against hop/STI1 (α-STI1) blocked both ganglion cell and NBL cell death independent of PrP C . cAMP/PKA, ERK, PI3K and PKC signaling pathways were not involved in these effects. Hop/STI1 treatment reduced proliferation, while α-STI1 increased proliferation in the developing retina, both independent of PrP C . We conclude that hop/STI1 can modulate both proliferation and cell death in the developing retina independent of PrP C
Full Text Available Companies use various appeals in their advertising practice to impact consumers’ attitudes and purchase intention by an advertisement. Advertising appeals can be divided into rational or emotional, depending on whether companies want to influence the rational or the emotional motives of the consumer to purchase of the advertised product. Since there is no general pattern for the use of appeals and the success of an advertising message, this study aims to explore the impact of the emotional and rational advertising appeals on the purchase intention. The results of the empirical research, conducted using the focus groups method, are shown in this paper and the focus group participants were members of the student population.The research results indicate that different advertising appeals may have a different impact on the consumer’s purchase intention; in case of women, the emotional appeal has a stronger impact while for men it is the rational appeal, while “fear appeal” proved to be effective to a certain point, after which it causes selective perception and rejection. This implies that depending on the product, its purpose and target group, advertisers can choose the type of appeal, combination of the appeals and their creative presentation, based on the empirical confirmation of the efficiency the approach.
Hobbs, Renee; Broder, Sharon; Pope, Holly; Rowe, Jonelle
While they demonstrate some ability to critically analyze the more obvious forms of deceptive weight-loss advertising, many girls do not recognize how advertising evokes emotional responses or how visual and narrative techniques are used to increase identification in weight-loss advertising. This study examined how girls aged 9-17 years interpreted magazine advertising, television (TV) advertising and infomercials for weight-loss products in order to determine whether deceptive advertising techniques were recognized and to assess pre-existing media-literacy skills. A total of 42 participants were interviewed in seven geographic regions of the United States. In groups of three, participants were shown seven print and TV advertisements (ads) for weight-loss products and asked to share their interpretations of each ad. Common factors in girls' interpretation of weight-loss advertising included responding to texts emotionally by identifying with characters; comparing and contrasting persuasive messages with real-life experiences with family members; using prior knowledge about nutrition management and recognizing obvious deceptive claims like 'rapid' or 'permanent' weight loss. Girls were less able to demonstrate skills including recognizing persuasive construction strategies including message purpose, target audience and subtext and awareness of economic factors including financial motives, credibility enhancement and branding.
Kramer, B; Thielmann, J; Hickisch, A; Muranyi, P; Wunderlich, J; Hauser, C
The objective of this study was the fundamental investigation of the antimicrobial efficiency of various hop extracts against selected foodborne pathogens in vitro, as well as their activity against Listeria monocytogenes in a model meat marinade and on marinated pork tenderloins. In a first step, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of three hop extracts containing either α- or β-acids or xanthohumol were determined against test bacteria including L. monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli by a colorimetric method based on the measurement of bacterial metabolic activity. Moreover, the influence of either lactic or citric acid on the antimicrobial activity of the hop extracts was evaluated. The efficiency of hop extracts as a natural food preservative was then tested in a model meat marinade at 2 and 8°C, respectively, and finally on marinated pork. The experiments showed that Gram-positive bacteria were strongly inhibited by hop extracts containing β-acids and xanthohumol (MIC values of 6.3 and 12.5 ppm, respectively), whereas the antimicrobial activity of the investigated α-acid extract was significantly lower (MIC values of 200 ppm). Gram-negative bacteria were highly resistant against all tested hop extracts. Acidification of the test media led to a decrease of the MIC values. The inhibitory activity of the hop extracts against L. monocytogenes was strongly reduced in a fat-containing model meat marinade, but the efficiency of β-acids in this matrix could be increased by lowering pH and storage temperatures. By applying 0.5 % β-acids at pH = 5 in a model marinade, the total aerobic count of pork tenderloins was reduced up to 0.9 log10 compared with marinated pork without hop extract after 2 weeks of storage at 5°C. β-acid containing hop extracts have proven to possess a high antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria in vitro and in a practice-related application for food preservation
Dyre, Jeppe; Schrøder, Thomas
Some general relations for hopping models are established. We proceed to discuss the universality of the ac conductivity which arises in the extreme disorder limit of the random barrier model. It is shown that the relevant dimension entering into the diffusion cluster approximation (DCA) is the h......Some general relations for hopping models are established. We proceed to discuss the universality of the ac conductivity which arises in the extreme disorder limit of the random barrier model. It is shown that the relevant dimension entering into the diffusion cluster approximation (DCA......) is the harmonic (fracton) dimension of the diffusion cluster. The temperature scaling of the dimensionless frequency entering into the DCA is discussed. Finally, some open problems regarding ac universality are listed....
Full Text Available This article examines the work of British rapper Akala from the viewpoint of literary theory and literature as a social practice, discussing to what extent Shakespeare's work can inspire unprivileged audiences in meaningful new ways. Born Kingslee James Daley, Akala's work is rooted in his Afro-Caribbean background, drama, and the black hip-hop culture of the 1990s. Having founded his independent music label in 2003, in his breakthrough single "Shakespeare" (2006 Akala invited his audience to challenge stereotypical assumptions on hip-hop and rap, provocatively defining himself "like Shakespeare with a nigger twist". Inspired by a freestyle challenge, the pastiche "Comedy Tragedy History" (2007 further appropriates the Shakespearean legacy, dispelling canonical distinctions between high and low culture. After mapping Akala's ideas on music and poetry, this article explores his reworking of Shakespearean texts in the context of Todorov's argument on the plasticity of literary genres, with a specific focus on Akala's appropriation of Shakespeare's language. It then argues that Akala's appropriation strategies also surface in the activity of The Hip-Hop Shakespeare Company, discussing Akala's workshop at Milan's Juvenile Detention Centre Cesare Beccaria as a case study. As a last point, the article purports to re-contextualise the role of classic literature in contemporary society in the wake of such thinkers as Bourdieu and Nussbaum.
Full Text Available This article contains a study of 1,436 pieces of printed advertising which were illustrated by Federico Ribas Montenegro for the Gal Fragrance House between 1916 and 1936.Through the use of a double-level analysis –technical and figurative– some interesting findings concerning the narrative and iconography of the catalogued ads were obtained. By studying the discourse of the advertisements for a company who changed the history of advertising in Spain, one can see evidence of sociocultural changes as well as how advertising evolved from being an artisanal craft into a more technical and systematic industry as a result of the application of scientific principles.
Pasveer, W.F.; Michels, M.A.J.
We have used the master equation to simulate variable-range hopping (VRH) of charges in a strongly disordered d-dimensional energy landscape (d=1,2,3). The current distribution over hopping distances and hopping energies gives a clear insight into the difference between hops that occur most
Maria Alina JURCA
Full Text Available The large number of advertisements that the consumers are bombarded with every day has made them virtually immune to commercial messages. This is why advertisers are trying to find new, alternative ways to reach the customers, which are comprised by economic literature in the concept of unconventional advertising. Based on a thorough documentary research, this study identifies the existing forms of unconventional advertising by presenting them in the order of their frequency of use and it tries to group the ones with similar characteristics into somewhat larger categories. A better understanding and knowledge of these new forms of advertising can provide marketing and advertising specialists with new strategies to convey the brand message that can grab the attention of any prospect customer.
As climate and weather become more variable, hop growers face increased uncertainty in making decisions about their crop. Given the unprecedented nature of these changes, growers may no longer have enough information and intuitive understanding to adequately assess the situation and evaluate their m...
M. A. Zubarieva
Full Text Available The article discusses the use of topical issues of important tools of social communication of applied tactical direction (advertising and strategic (PR. The main types of advertising in tourism and types of PR activities are characterized.The main difference between advertising and PR in the tourism sector is defined, the main attention is given to correct choice of optimal (most efficient advertising channel (means. Specific nature, advertising issues as the main tool for the promotion of tourist product on the network market are defined. The advantages and importance of the innovation of the media as the Internet are detailed. the most popular types of Internet advertising in the tourism sector, in particular placing information in catalogs of Internet resources; registration site in search engines work; banners; mailings via email are considered. The rating position of tourist sites on the Internet (top 15 is shown. A number of approaches to the study and systematization of information of Internet advertising in tourism, the specificity and modern advanced technologies of Internet advertising in the tourism sector are identified. The conclusion about the fact that considered issues about advertising and PR in tourism only form an idea of the complexity and diversity of tourism as advertising via newspapers, radio, television and especially of Internet means. The possibilities of tourism advertising and PR on the Internet have no limits.
Артур Нарманович Мамедов
Full Text Available The article presents basic lexical and grammatical transformations, which contribute to preserving the semantic and syntactic structure of a German advertising text and reproducing the image of the advertised product. This shows that the translation has the same communicative effect as that achieved by the source text.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effects of investment in advertising in the three-stage entry game model with one incumbent and one potential entrant firm. It is shown that if a game theory is applied, under particular conditions, advertising can be used as a strategic weapon in the market entry game. Depending on the level of the advertising interaction factor, conditions for over-investment in advertising for strategic purposes are given. Furthermore, three specific cases are analyzed: strictly predatory advertising, informative advertising and the case when one firm’s advertising cannot directly influence the other firm's profit. For each of them, depending on the costs of advertising and marginal costs, equilibrium is determined, and conditions under which it is possible to deter the entry are given. It is shown that if the value of the advertising interaction factor increases, power of using advertising as a weapon to deter entry into the market decreases. Thus, in the case of informative advertising, advertising cannot be used as a tool for deterring entry into the market, while in the case of predatory advertising, it can. Also, we have proved that in the case of strictly informative advertising an over-investment never occurs, while in the two other cases, there is always over-investment either to deter or to accommodate the entry.
Full Text Available Increasing demand for marketing accountability requires an efficient allocation of marketing expenditures. Managers who know the elasticity of their marketing instruments can allocate their budgets optimally. Meta-analyses offer a basis for deriving benchmark elasticities for advertising. Although they provide a variety of valuable insights, a major shortcoming of prior meta-analyses is that they report only generalized results as the disaggregated raw data are not made available. This problem is highly relevant because coding of empirical studies, at least to a certain extent, involves subjective judgment. For this reason, meta-studies would be more valuable if researchers and practitioners had access to disaggregated data allowing them to conduct further analyses of individual, e.g., product-level-specific, interests. We are the first to address this gap by providing (1 an advertising elasticity database (AED and (2 empirical generalizations about advertising elasticities and their determinants. Our findings indicate that the average current-period advertising elasticity is 0.09, which is substantially smaller than the value 0f 0.12 that was recently reported by Sethuraman, Tellis, and Briesch (2011. Furthermore, our meta-analysis reveals a wide range of significant determinants of advertising elasticity. For example, we find that advertising elasticities are higher (i for hedonic and experience goods than for other goods; (ii for new than for established goods; (iii when advertising is measured in gross rating points (GRP instead of absolute terms; and (iv when the lagged dependent or lagged advertising variable is omitted.
Patrice de Rendinger
Full Text Available The fundamental concept is that public space is not a private property. So, a facade (the outer skin, the last millimeter belongs to the town, not to the owner of the building. Changing the rendering, a window, adding or removing anything from a facade requires a permission delivered by the town's authority.In places like Paris, Bordeaux, Marseilles, Lyon, Strasbourg… everywhere one can find a registrated building such as a cathedral, a castle, or a group of ancient buildings, a national administration is controlling this permission. This administration is called «historical monuments administration» and is locally lead by a specialized architect.In the late seventies, French government decided to reduce advertising on the roads and on the city walls. Advertising on the road was leading to a confusion reducing the efficacy of the roadsigns and direction signs, which is dangerous. The reduction was under control of a national administration: the ministry of equipment in charge of the roads design. Advertising on the walls with publicity boards was under control of the cities. Every city has a townplanning regulation. Many cities included forbidding advertisement boards on the walls in this regulation.A couple of firms, but mainly once (Decaux found clever to give a hand to the cities to control advertising. Decaux developed a line of bus stop shelters including advertisements and advertising panels and paid the cities the right to put rather smaller publicities on the public domain.Now Decaux is no more alone on this market and the cities are comparing offers.Marseille turned to a foreign advertising firm who pays three times the price Decaux paid… for half of the advertising surface. Freiburg erased totally the public domain advertisements, selling the tramways and bus coachwork as advertising spaces. Paris is reopening the advertising market before the end of Deacaux's contract and will pay Deacaux a huge amount