WorldWideScience

Sample records for text region extraction

  1. Figure text extraction in biomedical literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daehyun Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Figures are ubiquitous in biomedical full-text articles, and they represent important biomedical knowledge. However, the sheer volume of biomedical publications has made it necessary to develop computational approaches for accessing figures. Therefore, we are developing the Biomedical Figure Search engine (http://figuresearch.askHERMES.org to allow bioscientists to access figures efficiently. Since text frequently appears in figures, automatically extracting such text may assist the task of mining information from figures. Little research, however, has been conducted exploring text extraction from biomedical figures.We first evaluated an off-the-shelf Optical Character Recognition (OCR tool on its ability to extract text from figures appearing in biomedical full-text articles. We then developed a Figure Text Extraction Tool (FigTExT to improve the performance of the OCR tool for figure text extraction through the use of three innovative components: image preprocessing, character recognition, and text correction. We first developed image preprocessing to enhance image quality and to improve text localization. Then we adapted the off-the-shelf OCR tool on the improved text localization for character recognition. Finally, we developed and evaluated a novel text correction framework by taking advantage of figure-specific lexicons.The evaluation on 382 figures (9,643 figure texts in total randomly selected from PubMed Central full-text articles shows that FigTExT performed with 84% precision, 98% recall, and 90% F1-score for text localization and with 62.5% precision, 51.0% recall and 56.2% F1-score for figure text extraction. When limiting figure texts to those judged by domain experts to be important content, FigTExT performed with 87.3% precision, 68.8% recall, and 77% F1-score. FigTExT significantly improved the performance of the off-the-shelf OCR tool we used, which on its own performed with 36.6% precision, 19.3% recall, and 25.3% F1-score for

  2. Bengali text summarization by sentence extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Kamal

    2012-01-01

    Text summarization is a process to produce an abstract or a summary by selecting significant portion of the information from one or more texts. In an automatic text summarization process, a text is given to the computer and the computer returns a shorter less redundant extract or abstract of the original text(s). Many techniques have been developed for summarizing English text(s). But, a very few attempts have been made for Bengali text summarization. This paper presents a method for Bengali ...

  3. Ontology Assisted Formal Specification Extraction from Text

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    Andreea Mihis

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the field of knowledge processing, the ontologies are the most important mean. They make possible for the computer to understand better the natural language and to make judgments. In this paper, a method which use ontologies in the semi-automatic extraction of formal specifications from a natural language text is proposed.

  4. Unsupervised information extraction by text segmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Cortez, Eli

    2013-01-01

    A new unsupervised approach to the problem of Information Extraction by Text Segmentation (IETS) is proposed, implemented and evaluated herein. The authors' approach relies on information available on pre-existing data to learn how to associate segments in the input string with attributes of a given domain relying on a very effective set of content-based features. The effectiveness of the content-based features is also exploited to directly learn from test data structure-based features, with no previous human-driven training, a feature unique to the presented approach. Based on the approach, a

  5. Terminology extraction from medical texts in Polish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Małgorzata; Mykowiecka, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Hospital documents contain free text describing the most important facts relating to patients and their illnesses. These documents are written in specific language containing medical terminology related to hospital treatment. Their automatic processing can help in verifying the consistency of hospital documentation and obtaining statistical data. To perform this task we need information on the phrases we are looking for. At the moment, clinical Polish resources are sparse. The existing terminologies, such as Polish Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), do not provide sufficient coverage for clinical tasks. It would be helpful therefore if it were possible to automatically prepare, on the basis of a data sample, an initial set of terms which, after manual verification, could be used for the purpose of information extraction. Using a combination of linguistic and statistical methods for processing over 1200 children hospital discharge records, we obtained a list of single and multiword terms used in hospital discharge documents written in Polish. The phrases are ordered according to their presumed importance in domain texts measured by the frequency of use of a phrase and the variety of its contexts. The evaluation showed that the automatically identified phrases cover about 84% of terms in domain texts. At the top of the ranked list, only 4% out of 400 terms were incorrect while out of the final 200, 20% of expressions were either not domain related or syntactically incorrect. We also observed that 70% of the obtained terms are not included in the Polish MeSH. Automatic terminology extraction can give results which are of a quality high enough to be taken as a starting point for building domain related terminological dictionaries or ontologies. This approach can be useful for preparing terminological resources for very specific subdomains for which no relevant terminologies already exist. The evaluation performed showed that none of the tested ranking procedures were

  6. Extractive text summarization system to aid data extraction from full text in systematic review development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Duy Duc An; Del Fiol, Guilherme; Hurdle, John F; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha

    2016-12-01

    Extracting data from publication reports is a standard process in systematic review (SR) development. However, the data extraction process still relies too much on manual effort which is slow, costly, and subject to human error. In this study, we developed a text summarization system aimed at enhancing productivity and reducing errors in the traditional data extraction process. We developed a computer system that used machine learning and natural language processing approaches to automatically generate summaries of full-text scientific publications. The summaries at the sentence and fragment levels were evaluated in finding common clinical SR data elements such as sample size, group size, and PICO values. We compared the computer-generated summaries with human written summaries (title and abstract) in terms of the presence of necessary information for the data extraction as presented in the Cochrane review's study characteristics tables. At the sentence level, the computer-generated summaries covered more information than humans do for systematic reviews (recall 91.2% vs. 83.8%, p<0.001). They also had a better density of relevant sentences (precision 59% vs. 39%, p<0.001). At the fragment level, the ensemble approach combining rule-based, concept mapping, and dictionary-based methods performed better than individual methods alone, achieving an 84.7% F-measure. Computer-generated summaries are potential alternative information sources for data extraction in systematic review development. Machine learning and natural language processing are promising approaches to the development of such an extractive summarization system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Keyword Extraction from Arabic Legal Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammal, Mahmoud; Bahsoun, Zeinab; Al Achkar Jabbour, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to apply local grammar (LG) to develop an indexing system which automatically extracts keywords from titles of Lebanese official journals. Design/methodology/approach: To build LG for our system, the first word that plays the determinant role in understanding the meaning of a title is analyzed and grouped as…

  8. Text Character Extraction Implementation from Captured Handwritten Image to Text Conversionusing Template Matching Technique

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    Barate Seema

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Images contain various types of useful information that should be extracted whenever required. A various algorithms and methods are proposed to extract text from the given image, and by using that user will be able to access the text from any image. Variations in text may occur because of differences in size, style,orientation, alignment of text, and low image contrast, composite backgrounds make the problem during extraction of text. If we develop an application that extracts and recognizes those texts accurately in real time, then it can be applied to many important applications like document analysis, vehicle license plate extraction, text- based image indexing, etc and many applications have become realities in recent years. To overcome the above problems we develop such application that will convert the image into text by using algorithms, such as bounding box, HSV model, blob analysis,template matching, template generation.

  9. Mining knowledge from text repositories using information extraction ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Information extraction (IE); text mining; text repositories; knowledge discovery from .... general purpose English words. However ... of precision and recall, as extensive experimentation is required due to lack of public tagged corpora. 4. Mining ...

  10. Text feature extraction based on deep learning: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Hong; Sun, Xiao; Sun, Yunlei; Gao, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Selection of text feature item is a basic and important matter for text mining and information retrieval. Traditional methods of feature extraction require handcrafted features. To hand-design, an effective feature is a lengthy process, but aiming at new applications, deep learning enables to acquire new effective feature representation from training data. As a new feature extraction method, deep learning has made achievements in text mining. The major difference between deep learning and conventional methods is that deep learning automatically learns features from big data, instead of adopting handcrafted features, which mainly depends on priori knowledge of designers and is highly impossible to take the advantage of big data. Deep learning can automatically learn feature representation from big data, including millions of parameters. This thesis outlines the common methods used in text feature extraction first, and then expands frequently used deep learning methods in text feature extraction and its applications, and forecasts the application of deep learning in feature extraction.

  11. Layout-aware text extraction from full-text PDF of scientific articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Cartic; Patnia, Abhishek; Hovy, Eduard; Burns, Gully Apc

    2012-05-28

    The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the most commonly used file format for online scientific publications. The absence of effective means to extract text from these PDF files in a layout-aware manner presents a significant challenge for developers of biomedical text mining or biocuration informatics systems that use published literature as an information source. In this paper we introduce the 'Layout-Aware PDF Text Extraction' (LA-PDFText) system to facilitate accurate extraction of text from PDF files of research articles for use in text mining applications. Our paper describes the construction and performance of an open source system that extracts text blocks from PDF-formatted full-text research articles and classifies them into logical units based on rules that characterize specific sections. The LA-PDFText system focuses only on the textual content of the research articles and is meant as a baseline for further experiments into more advanced extraction methods that handle multi-modal content, such as images and graphs. The system works in a three-stage process: (1) Detecting contiguous text blocks using spatial layout processing to locate and identify blocks of contiguous text, (2) Classifying text blocks into rhetorical categories using a rule-based method and (3) Stitching classified text blocks together in the correct order resulting in the extraction of text from section-wise grouped blocks. We show that our system can identify text blocks and classify them into rhetorical categories with Precision1 = 0.96% Recall = 0.89% and F1 = 0.91%. We also present an evaluation of the accuracy of the block detection algorithm used in step 2. Additionally, we have compared the accuracy of the text extracted by LA-PDFText to the text from the Open Access subset of PubMed Central. We then compared this accuracy with that of the text extracted by the PDF2Text system, 2commonly used to extract text from PDF. Finally, we discuss preliminary error analysis for

  12. Layout-aware text extraction from full-text PDF of scientific articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishnan Cartic

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Portable Document Format (PDF is the most commonly used file format for online scientific publications. The absence of effective means to extract text from these PDF files in a layout-aware manner presents a significant challenge for developers of biomedical text mining or biocuration informatics systems that use published literature as an information source. In this paper we introduce the ‘Layout-Aware PDF Text Extraction’ (LA-PDFText system to facilitate accurate extraction of text from PDF files of research articles for use in text mining applications. Results Our paper describes the construction and performance of an open source system that extracts text blocks from PDF-formatted full-text research articles and classifies them into logical units based on rules that characterize specific sections. The LA-PDFText system focuses only on the textual content of the research articles and is meant as a baseline for further experiments into more advanced extraction methods that handle multi-modal content, such as images and graphs. The system works in a three-stage process: (1 Detecting contiguous text blocks using spatial layout processing to locate and identify blocks of contiguous text, (2 Classifying text blocks into rhetorical categories using a rule-based method and (3 Stitching classified text blocks together in the correct order resulting in the extraction of text from section-wise grouped blocks. We show that our system can identify text blocks and classify them into rhetorical categories with Precision1 = 0.96% Recall = 0.89% and F1 = 0.91%. We also present an evaluation of the accuracy of the block detection algorithm used in step 2. Additionally, we have compared the accuracy of the text extracted by LA-PDFText to the text from the Open Access subset of PubMed Central. We then compared this accuracy with that of the text extracted by the PDF2Text system, 2commonly used to extract text from PDF

  13. Automatic Definition Extraction and Crossword Generation From Spanish News Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Esteche

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and implementation of a system that takes Spanish texts and generates crosswords (board and definitions in a fully automatic way using definitions extracted from those texts. Our solution divides the problem in two parts: a definition extraction module that applies pattern matching implemented in Python, and a crossword generation module that uses a greedy strategy implemented in Prolog. The system achieves 73% precision and builds crosswords similar to those built by humans.

  14. Text extraction method for historical Tibetan document images based on block projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Li-juan; Zhang, Xi-qun; Ma, Long-long; Wu, Jian

    2017-11-01

    Text extraction is an important initial step in digitizing the historical documents. In this paper, we present a text extraction method for historical Tibetan document images based on block projections. The task of text extraction is considered as text area detection and location problem. The images are divided equally into blocks and the blocks are filtered by the information of the categories of connected components and corner point density. By analyzing the filtered blocks' projections, the approximate text areas can be located, and the text regions are extracted. Experiments on the dataset of historical Tibetan documents demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Rational kernels for Arabic Root Extraction and Text Classification

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    Attia Nehar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address the problems of Arabic Text Classification and root extraction using transducers and rational kernels. We introduce a new root extraction approach on the basis of the use of Arabic patterns (Pattern Based Stemmer. Transducers are used to model these patterns and root extraction is done without relying on any dictionary. Using transducers for extracting roots, documents are transformed into finite state transducers. This document representation allows us to use and explore rational kernels as a framework for Arabic Text Classification. Root extraction experiments are conducted on three word collections and yield 75.6% of accuracy. Classification experiments are done on the Saudi Press Agency dataset and N-gram kernels are tested with different values of N. Accuracy and F1 report 90.79% and 62.93% respectively. These results show that our approach, when compared with other approaches, is promising specially in terms of accuracy and F1.

  16. Enhancing biomedical text summarization using semantic relation extraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Shang

    Full Text Available Automatic text summarization for a biomedical concept can help researchers to get the key points of a certain topic from large amount of biomedical literature efficiently. In this paper, we present a method for generating text summary for a given biomedical concept, e.g., H1N1 disease, from multiple documents based on semantic relation extraction. Our approach includes three stages: 1 We extract semantic relations in each sentence using the semantic knowledge representation tool SemRep. 2 We develop a relation-level retrieval method to select the relations most relevant to each query concept and visualize them in a graphic representation. 3 For relations in the relevant set, we extract informative sentences that can interpret them from the document collection to generate text summary using an information retrieval based method. Our major focus in this work is to investigate the contribution of semantic relation extraction to the task of biomedical text summarization. The experimental results on summarization for a set of diseases show that the introduction of semantic knowledge improves the performance and our results are better than the MEAD system, a well-known tool for text summarization.

  17. A text-mining system for extracting metabolic reactions from full-text articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Jan; Nobeli, Irene; Smith, Adrian M; Shepherd, Adrian J

    2012-07-23

    Increasingly biological text mining research is focusing on the extraction of complex relationships relevant to the construction and curation of biological networks and pathways. However, one important category of pathway - metabolic pathways - has been largely neglected.Here we present a relatively simple method for extracting metabolic reaction information from free text that scores different permutations of assigned entities (enzymes and metabolites) within a given sentence based on the presence and location of stemmed keywords. This method extends an approach that has proved effective in the context of the extraction of protein-protein interactions. When evaluated on a set of manually-curated metabolic pathways using standard performance criteria, our method performs surprisingly well. Precision and recall rates are comparable to those previously achieved for the well-known protein-protein interaction extraction task. We conclude that automated metabolic pathway construction is more tractable than has often been assumed, and that (as in the case of protein-protein interaction extraction) relatively simple text-mining approaches can prove surprisingly effective. It is hoped that these results will provide an impetus to further research and act as a useful benchmark for judging the performance of more sophisticated methods that are yet to be developed.

  18. Enhancing biomedical text summarization using semantic relation extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yue; Li, Yanpeng; Lin, Hongfei; Yang, Zhihao

    2011-01-01

    Automatic text summarization for a biomedical concept can help researchers to get the key points of a certain topic from large amount of biomedical literature efficiently. In this paper, we present a method for generating text summary for a given biomedical concept, e.g., H1N1 disease, from multiple documents based on semantic relation extraction. Our approach includes three stages: 1) We extract semantic relations in each sentence using the semantic knowledge representation tool SemRep. 2) We develop a relation-level retrieval method to select the relations most relevant to each query concept and visualize them in a graphic representation. 3) For relations in the relevant set, we extract informative sentences that can interpret them from the document collection to generate text summary using an information retrieval based method. Our major focus in this work is to investigate the contribution of semantic relation extraction to the task of biomedical text summarization. The experimental results on summarization for a set of diseases show that the introduction of semantic knowledge improves the performance and our results are better than the MEAD system, a well-known tool for text summarization.

  19. Knowledge Dictionary for Information Extraction on the Arabic Text Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Jauharis Saputra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Information extraction is an early stage of a process of textual data analysis. Information extraction is required to get information from textual data that can be used for process analysis, such as classification and categorization. A textual data is strongly influenced by the language. Arabic is gaining a significant attention in many studies because Arabic language is very different from others, and in contrast to other languages, tools and research on the Arabic language is still lacking. The information extracted using the knowledge dictionary is a concept of expression. A knowledge dictionary is usually constructed manually by an expert and this would take a long time and is specific to a problem only. This paper proposed a method for automatically building a knowledge dictionary. Dictionary knowledge is formed by classifying sentences having the same concept, assuming that they will have a high similarity value. The concept that has been extracted can be used as features for subsequent computational process such as classification or categorization. Dataset used in this paper was the Arabic text dataset. Extraction result was tested by using a decision tree classification engine and the highest precision value obtained was 71.0% while the highest recall value was 75.0%. 

  20. METHOD OF RARE TERM CONTRASTIVE EXTRACTION FROM NATURAL LANGUAGE TEXTS

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    I. A. Bessmertny

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers a problem of automatic domain term extraction from documents corpus by means of a contrast collection. Existing contrastive methods successfully extract often used terms but mishandle rare terms. This could yield poorness of the resulting thesaurus. Assessment of point-wise mutual information is one of the known statistical methods of term extraction and it finds rare terms successfully. Although, it extracts many false terms at that. The proposed approach consists of point-wise mutual information application for rare terms extraction and filtering of candidates by criterion of joint occurrence with the other candidates. We build “documents-by-terms” matrix that is subjected to singular value decomposition to eliminate noise and reveal strong interconnections. Then we pass on to the resulting matrix “terms-by-terms” that reproduces strength of interconnections between words. This approach was approved on a documents collection from “Geology” domain with the use of contrast documents from such topics as “Politics”, “Culture”, “Economics” and “Accidents” on some Internet resources. The experimental results demonstrate operability of this method for rare terms extraction.

  1. NAMED ENTITY RECOGNITION FROM BIOMEDICAL TEXT -AN INFORMATION EXTRACTION TASK

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    N. Kanya

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomedical Text Mining targets the Extraction of significant information from biomedical archives. Bio TM encompasses Information Retrieval (IR and Information Extraction (IE. The Information Retrieval will retrieve the relevant Biomedical Literature documents from the various Repositories like PubMed, MedLine etc., based on a search query. The IR Process ends up with the generation of corpus with the relevant document retrieved from the Publication databases based on the query. The IE task includes the process of Preprocessing of the document, Named Entity Recognition (NER from the documents and Relationship Extraction. This process includes Natural Language Processing, Data Mining techniques and machine Language algorithm. The preprocessing task includes tokenization, stop word Removal, shallow parsing, and Parts-Of-Speech tagging. NER phase involves recognition of well-defined objects such as genes, proteins or cell-lines etc. This process leads to the next phase that is extraction of relationships (IE. The work was based on machine learning algorithm Conditional Random Field (CRF.

  2. Basic Test Framework for the Evaluation of Text Line Segmentation and Text Parameter Extraction

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    Darko Brodić

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Text line segmentation is an essential stage in off-line optical character recognition (OCR systems. It is a key because inaccurately segmented text lines will lead to OCR failure. Text line segmentation of handwritten documents is a complex and diverse problem, complicated by the nature of handwriting. Hence, text line segmentation is a leading challenge in handwritten document image processing. Due to inconsistencies in measurement and evaluation of text segmentation algorithm quality, some basic set of measurement methods is required. Currently, there is no commonly accepted one and all algorithm evaluation is custom oriented. In this paper, a basic test framework for the evaluation of text feature extraction algorithms is proposed. This test framework consists of a few experiments primarily linked to text line segmentation, skew rate and reference text line evaluation. Although they are mutually independent, the results obtained are strongly cross linked. In the end, its suitability for different types of letters and languages as well as its adaptability are its main advantages. Thus, the paper presents an efficient evaluation method for text analysis algorithms.

  3. Extracting BI-RADS Features from Portuguese Clinical Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassif, Houssam; Cunha, Filipe; Moreira, Inês C; Cruz-Correia, Ricardo; Sousa, Eliana; Page, David; Burnside, Elizabeth; Dutra, Inês

    2012-01-01

    In this work we build the first BI-RADS parser for Portuguese free texts, modeled after existing approaches to extract BI-RADS features from English medical records. Our concept finder uses a semantic grammar based on the BIRADS lexicon and on iterative transferred expert knowledge. We compare the performance of our algorithm to manual annotation by a specialist in mammography. Our results show that our parser's performance is comparable to the manual method.

  4. DEXTER: Disease-Expression Relation Extraction from Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Samir; Dingerdissen, Hayley; Ross, Karen E; Hu, Yu; Wu, Cathy H; Mazumder, Raja; Vijay-Shanker, K

    2018-01-01

    Gene expression levels affect biological processes and play a key role in many diseases. Characterizing expression profiles is useful for clinical research, and diagnostics and prognostics of diseases. There are currently several high-quality databases that capture gene expression information, obtained mostly from large-scale studies, such as microarray and next-generation sequencing technologies, in the context of disease. The scientific literature is another rich source of information on gene expression-disease relationships that not only have been captured from large-scale studies but have also been observed in thousands of small-scale studies. Expression information obtained from literature through manual curation can extend expression databases. While many of the existing databases include information from literature, they are limited by the time-consuming nature of manual curation and have difficulty keeping up with the explosion of publications in the biomedical field. In this work, we describe an automated text-mining tool, Disease-Expression Relation Extraction from Text (DEXTER) to extract information from literature on gene and microRNA expression in the context of disease. One of the motivations in developing DEXTER was to extend the BioXpress database, a cancer-focused gene expression database that includes data derived from large-scale experiments and manual curation of publications. The literature-based portion of BioXpress lags behind significantly compared to expression information obtained from large-scale studies and can benefit from our text-mined results. We have conducted two different evaluations to measure the accuracy of our text-mining tool and achieved average F-scores of 88.51 and 81.81% for the two evaluations, respectively. Also, to demonstrate the ability to extract rich expression information in different disease-related scenarios, we used DEXTER to extract information on differential expression information for 2024 genes in lung

  5. Automatic extraction of ontological relations from Arabic text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed G.H. Al Zamil

    2014-12-01

    The proposed methodology has been designed to analyze Arabic text using lexical semantic patterns of the Arabic language according to a set of features. Next, the features have been abstracted and enriched with formal descriptions for the purpose of generalizing the resulted rules. The rules, then, have formulated a classifier that accepts Arabic text, analyzes it, and then displays related concepts labeled with its designated relationship. Moreover, to resolve the ambiguity of homonyms, a set of machine translation, text mining, and part of speech tagging algorithms have been reused. We performed extensive experiments to measure the effectiveness of our proposed tools. The results indicate that our proposed methodology is promising for automating the process of extracting ontological relations.

  6. ONTOGRABBING: Extracting Information from Texts Using Generative Ontologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jørgen Fischer; Szymczak, Bartlomiej Antoni; Jensen, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe principles for extracting information from texts using a so-called generative ontology in combination with syntactic analysis. Generative ontologies are introduced as semantic domains for natural language phrases. Generative ontologies extend ordinary finite ontologies with rules...... for producing recursively shaped terms representing the ontological content (ontological semantics) of NL noun phrases and other phrases. We focus here on achieving a robust, often only partial, ontology-driven parsing of and ascription of semantics to a sentence in the text corpus. The aim of the ontological...... analysis is primarily to identify paraphrases, thereby achieving a search functionality beyond mere keyword search with synsets. We further envisage use of the generative ontology as a phrase-based rather than word-based browser into text corpora....

  7. Pharmspresso: a text mining tool for extraction of pharmacogenomic concepts and relationships from full text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garten, Yael; Altman, Russ B

    2009-02-05

    Pharmacogenomics studies the relationship between genetic variation and the variation in drug response phenotypes. The field is rapidly gaining importance: it promises drugs targeted to particular subpopulations based on genetic background. The pharmacogenomics literature has expanded rapidly, but is dispersed in many journals. It is challenging, therefore, to identify important associations between drugs and molecular entities--particularly genes and gene variants, and thus these critical connections are often lost. Text mining techniques can allow us to convert the free-style text to a computable, searchable format in which pharmacogenomic concepts (such as genes, drugs, polymorphisms, and diseases) are identified, and important links between these concepts are recorded. Availability of full text articles as input into text mining engines is key, as literature abstracts often do not contain sufficient information to identify these pharmacogenomic associations. Thus, building on a tool called Textpresso, we have created the Pharmspresso tool to assist in identifying important pharmacogenomic facts in full text articles. Pharmspresso parses text to find references to human genes, polymorphisms, drugs and diseases and their relationships. It presents these as a series of marked-up text fragments, in which key concepts are visually highlighted. To evaluate Pharmspresso, we used a gold standard of 45 human-curated articles. Pharmspresso identified 78%, 61%, and 74% of target gene, polymorphism, and drug concepts, respectively. Pharmspresso is a text analysis tool that extracts pharmacogenomic concepts from the literature automatically and thus captures our current understanding of gene-drug interactions in a computable form. We have made Pharmspresso available at http://pharmspresso.stanford.edu.

  8. Domain-independent information extraction in unstructured text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, N.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Software Surety Dept.

    1996-09-01

    Extracting information from unstructured text has become an important research area in recent years due to the large amount of text now electronically available. This status report describes the findings and work done during the second year of a two-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project. Building on the first-year`s work of identifying important entities, this report details techniques used to group words into semantic categories and to output templates containing selective document content. Using word profiles and category clustering derived during a training run, the time-consuming knowledge-building task can be avoided. Though the output still lacks in completeness when compared to systems with domain-specific knowledge bases, the results do look promising. The two approaches are compatible and could complement each other within the same system. Domain-independent approaches retain appeal as a system that adapts and learns will soon outpace a system with any amount of a priori knowledge.

  9. Automated Extraction of Substance Use Information from Clinical Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Chen, Elizabeth S; Pakhomov, Serguei; Arsoniadis, Elliot; Carter, Elizabeth W; Lindemann, Elizabeth; Sarkar, Indra Neil; Melton, Genevieve B

    2015-01-01

    Within clinical discourse, social history (SH) includes important information about substance use (alcohol, drug, and nicotine use) as key risk factors for disease, disability, and mortality. In this study, we developed and evaluated a natural language processing (NLP) system for automated detection of substance use statements and extraction of substance use attributes (e.g., temporal and status) based on Stanford Typed Dependencies. The developed NLP system leveraged linguistic resources and domain knowledge from a multi-site social history study, Propbank and the MiPACQ corpus. The system attained F-scores of 89.8, 84.6 and 89.4 respectively for alcohol, drug, and nicotine use statement detection, as well as average F-scores of 82.1, 90.3, 80.8, 88.7, 96.6, and 74.5 respectively for extraction of attributes. Our results suggest that NLP systems can achieve good performance when augmented with linguistic resources and domain knowledge when applied to a wide breadth of substance use free text clinical notes.

  10. Using Semantic Linking to Understand Persons’ Networks Extracted from Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Palmero Aprosio

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we describe a methodology to interpret large persons’ networks extracted from text by classifying cliques using the DBpedia ontology. The approach relies on a combination of NLP, Semantic web technologies, and network analysis. The classification methodology that first starts from single nodes and then generalizes to cliques is effective in terms of performance and is able to deal also with nodes that are not linked to Wikipedia. The gold standard manually developed for evaluation shows that groups of co-occurring entities share in most of the cases a category that can be automatically assigned. This holds for both languages considered in this study. The outcome of this work may be of interest to enhance the readability of large networks and to provide an additional semantic layer on top of cliques. This would greatly help humanities scholars when dealing with large amounts of textual data that need to be interpreted or categorized. Furthermore, it represents an unsupervised approach to automatically extend DBpedia starting from a corpus.

  11. Tagline: Information Extraction for Semi-Structured Text Elements in Medical Progress Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Dezon Kile

    2012-01-01

    Text analysis has become an important research activity in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Statistical text mining and natural language processing have been shown to be very effective for extracting useful information from medical documents. However, neither of these techniques is effective at extracting the information stored in…

  12. A Relation Extraction Framework for Biomedical Text Using Hybrid Feature Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Wahab Muzaffar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The information extraction from unstructured text segments is a complex task. Although manual information extraction often produces the best results, it is harder to manage biomedical data extraction manually because of the exponential increase in data size. Thus, there is a need for automatic tools and techniques for information extraction in biomedical text mining. Relation extraction is a significant area under biomedical information extraction that has gained much importance in the last two decades. A lot of work has been done on biomedical relation extraction focusing on rule-based and machine learning techniques. In the last decade, the focus has changed to hybrid approaches showing better results. This research presents a hybrid feature set for classification of relations between biomedical entities. The main contribution of this research is done in the semantic feature set where verb phrases are ranked using Unified Medical Language System (UMLS and a ranking algorithm. Support Vector Machine and Naïve Bayes, the two effective machine learning techniques, are used to classify these relations. Our approach has been validated on the standard biomedical text corpus obtained from MEDLINE 2001. Conclusively, it can be articulated that our framework outperforms all state-of-the-art approaches used for relation extraction on the same corpus.

  13. Lithium NLP: A System for Rich Information Extraction from Noisy User Generated Text on Social Media

    OpenAIRE

    Bhargava, Preeti; Spasojevic, Nemanja; Hu, Guoning

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the Lithium Natural Language Processing (NLP) system - a resource-constrained, high- throughput and language-agnostic system for information extraction from noisy user generated text on social media. Lithium NLP extracts a rich set of information including entities, topics, hashtags and sentiment from text. We discuss several real world applications of the system currently incorporated in Lithium products. We also compare our system with existing commercial and acad...

  14. Extracting of implicit information in English advertising texts with phonetic and lexical-morphological means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traikovskaya Natalya Petrovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with phonetic and lexical-morphological language means participating in the process of extracting implicit information in English-speaking advertising texts for men and women. The functioning of phonetic means of the English language is not the basis for implication of information in advertising texts. Lexical and morphological means play the role of markers of relevant information, playing the role of the activator ofimplicit information in the texts of advertising.

  15. Using Gazetteers to Extract Sets of Keywords from Free-Flowing Texts

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    Adam Crymble

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available If you have a copy of a text in electronic format stored on your computer, it is relatively easy to keyword search for a single term. Often you can do this by using the built-in search features in your favourite text editor. However, scholars are increasingly needing to find instances of many terms within a text or texts. For example, a scholar may want to use a gazetteer to extract all mentions of English placenames within a collection of texts so that those places can later be plotted on a map. Alternatively, they may want to extract all male given names, all pronouns, stop words, or any other set of words. Using those same built-in search features to achieve this more complex goal is time consuming and clunky. This lesson will teach you how to use Python to extract a set of keywords very quickly and systematically from a set of texts. It is expected that once you have completed this lesson, you will be able to generalise the skills to extract custom sets of keywords from any set of locally saved files.

  16. REGION-BASED BUILDING ROOFTOP EXTRACTION AND CHANGE DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic extraction of building changes is important for many applications like disaster monitoring and city planning. Although a lot of research work is available based on 2D as well as 3D data, an improvement in accuracy and efficiency is still needed. The introducing of digital surface models (DSMs to building change detection has strongly improved the resulting accuracy. In this paper, a post-classification approach is proposed for building change detection using satellite stereo imagery. Firstly, DSMs are generated from satellite stereo imagery and further refined by using a segmentation result obtained from the Sobel gradients of the panchromatic image. Besides the refined DSMs, the panchromatic image and the pansharpened multispectral image are used as input features for mean-shift segmentation. The DSM is used to calculate the nDSM, out of which the initial building candidate regions are extracted. The candidate mask is further refined by morphological filtering and by excluding shadow regions. Following this, all segments that overlap with a building candidate region are determined. A building oriented segments merging procedure is introduced to generate a final building rooftop mask. As the last step, object based change detection is performed by directly comparing the building rooftops extracted from the pre- and after-event imagery and by fusing the change indicators with the roof-top region map. A quantitative and qualitative assessment of the proposed approach is provided by using WorldView-2 satellite data from Istanbul, Turkey.

  17. An unsupervised text mining method for relation extraction from biomedical literature.

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    Changqin Quan

    Full Text Available The wealth of interaction information provided in biomedical articles motivated the implementation of text mining approaches to automatically extract biomedical relations. This paper presents an unsupervised method based on pattern clustering and sentence parsing to deal with biomedical relation extraction. Pattern clustering algorithm is based on Polynomial Kernel method, which identifies interaction words from unlabeled data; these interaction words are then used in relation extraction between entity pairs. Dependency parsing and phrase structure parsing are combined for relation extraction. Based on the semi-supervised KNN algorithm, we extend the proposed unsupervised approach to a semi-supervised approach by combining pattern clustering, dependency parsing and phrase structure parsing rules. We evaluated the approaches on two different tasks: (1 Protein-protein interactions extraction, and (2 Gene-suicide association extraction. The evaluation of task (1 on the benchmark dataset (AImed corpus showed that our proposed unsupervised approach outperformed three supervised methods. The three supervised methods are rule based, SVM based, and Kernel based separately. The proposed semi-supervised approach is superior to the existing semi-supervised methods. The evaluation on gene-suicide association extraction on a smaller dataset from Genetic Association Database and a larger dataset from publicly available PubMed showed that the proposed unsupervised and semi-supervised methods achieved much higher F-scores than co-occurrence based method.

  18. Text mining facilitates database curation - extraction of mutation-disease associations from Bio-medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Komandur Elayavilli; Wagholikar, Kavishwar B; Li, Dingcheng; Kocher, Jean-Pierre; Liu, Hongfang

    2015-06-06

    Advances in the next generation sequencing technology has accelerated the pace of individualized medicine (IM), which aims to incorporate genetic/genomic information into medicine. One immediate need in interpreting sequencing data is the assembly of information about genetic variants and their corresponding associations with other entities (e.g., diseases or medications). Even with dedicated effort to capture such information in biological databases, much of this information remains 'locked' in the unstructured text of biomedical publications. There is a substantial lag between the publication and the subsequent abstraction of such information into databases. Multiple text mining systems have been developed, but most of them focus on the sentence level association extraction with performance evaluation based on gold standard text annotations specifically prepared for text mining systems. We developed and evaluated a text mining system, MutD, which extracts protein mutation-disease associations from MEDLINE abstracts by incorporating discourse level analysis, using a benchmark data set extracted from curated database records. MutD achieves an F-measure of 64.3% for reconstructing protein mutation disease associations in curated database records. Discourse level analysis component of MutD contributed to a gain of more than 10% in F-measure when compared against the sentence level association extraction. Our error analysis indicates that 23 of the 64 precision errors are true associations that were not captured by database curators and 68 of the 113 recall errors are caused by the absence of associated disease entities in the abstract. After adjusting for the defects in the curated database, the revised F-measure of MutD in association detection reaches 81.5%. Our quantitative analysis reveals that MutD can effectively extract protein mutation disease associations when benchmarking based on curated database records. The analysis also demonstrates that incorporating

  19. MeInfoText 2.0: gene methylation and cancer relation extraction from biomedical literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Yu-Ching

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA methylation is regarded as a potential biomarker in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. The relations between aberrant gene methylation and cancer development have been identified by a number of recent scientific studies. In a previous work, we used co-occurrences to mine those associations and compiled the MeInfoText 1.0 database. To reduce the amount of manual curation and improve the accuracy of relation extraction, we have now developed MeInfoText 2.0, which uses a machine learning-based approach to extract gene methylation-cancer relations. Description Two maximum entropy models are trained to predict if aberrant gene methylation is related to any type of cancer mentioned in the literature. After evaluation based on 10-fold cross-validation, the average precision/recall rates of the two models are 94.7/90.1 and 91.8/90% respectively. MeInfoText 2.0 provides the gene methylation profiles of different types of human cancer. The extracted relations with maximum probability, evidence sentences, and specific gene information are also retrievable. The database is available at http://bws.iis.sinica.edu.tw:8081/MeInfoText2/. Conclusion The previous version, MeInfoText, was developed by using association rules, whereas MeInfoText 2.0 is based on a new framework that combines machine learning, dictionary lookup and pattern matching for epigenetics information extraction. The results of experiments show that MeInfoText 2.0 outperforms existing tools in many respects. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that uses a hybrid approach to extract gene methylation-cancer relations. It is also the first attempt to develop a gene methylation and cancer relation corpus.

  20. Review: Regional land subsidence accompanying groundwater extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Devin L.; Burbey, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    The extraction of groundwater can generate land subsidence by causing the compaction of susceptible aquifer systems, typically unconsolidated alluvial or basin-fill aquifer systems comprising aquifers and aquitards. Various ground-based and remotely sensed methods are used to measure and map subsidence. Many areas of subsidence caused by groundwater pumping have been identified and monitored, and corrective measures to slow or halt subsidence have been devised. Two principal means are used to mitigate subsidence caused by groundwater withdrawal—reduction of groundwater withdrawal, and artificial recharge. Analysis and simulation of aquifer-system compaction follow from the basic relations between head, stress, compressibility, and groundwater flow and are addressed primarily using two approaches—one based on conventional groundwater flow theory and one based on linear poroelasticity theory. Research and development to improve the assessment and analysis of aquifer-system compaction, the accompanying subsidence and potential ground ruptures are needed in the topic areas of the hydromechanical behavior of aquitards, the role of horizontal deformation, the application of differential synthetic aperture radar interferometry, and the regional-scale simulation of coupled groundwater flow and aquifer-system deformation to support resource management and hazard mitigation measures.

  1. Using text mining techniques to extract phenotypic information from the PhenoCHF corpus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnazzawi, Noha; Thompson, Paul; Batista-Navarro, Riza; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic information locked away in unstructured narrative text presents significant barriers to information accessibility, both for clinical practitioners and for computerised applications used for clinical research purposes. Text mining (TM) techniques have previously been applied successfully to extract different types of information from text in the biomedical domain. They have the potential to be extended to allow the extraction of information relating to phenotypes from free text. To stimulate the development of TM systems that are able to extract phenotypic information from text, we have created a new corpus (PhenoCHF) that is annotated by domain experts with several types of phenotypic information relating to congestive heart failure. To ensure that systems developed using the corpus are robust to multiple text types, it integrates text from heterogeneous sources, i.e., electronic health records (EHRs) and scientific articles from the literature. We have developed several different phenotype extraction methods to demonstrate the utility of the corpus, and tested these methods on a further corpus, i.e., ShARe/CLEF 2013. Evaluation of our automated methods showed that PhenoCHF can facilitate the training of reliable phenotype extraction systems, which are robust to variations in text type. These results have been reinforced by evaluating our trained systems on the ShARe/CLEF corpus, which contains clinical records of various types. Like other studies within the biomedical domain, we found that solutions based on conditional random fields produced the best results, when coupled with a rich feature set. PhenoCHF is the first annotated corpus aimed at encoding detailed phenotypic information. The unique heterogeneous composition of the corpus has been shown to be advantageous in the training of systems that can accurately extract phenotypic information from a range of different text types. Although the scope of our annotation is currently limited to a single

  2. Combining automatic table classification and relationship extraction in extracting anticancer drug-side effect pairs from full-text articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Wang, QuanQiu

    2015-02-01

    Anticancer drug-associated side effect knowledge often exists in multiple heterogeneous and complementary data sources. A comprehensive anticancer drug-side effect (drug-SE) relationship knowledge base is important for computation-based drug target discovery, drug toxicity predication and drug repositioning. In this study, we present a two-step approach by combining table classification and relationship extraction to extract drug-SE pairs from a large number of high-profile oncological full-text articles. The data consists of 31,255 tables downloaded from the Journal of Oncology (JCO). We first trained a statistical classifier to classify tables into SE-related and -unrelated categories. We then extracted drug-SE pairs from SE-related tables. We compared drug side effect knowledge extracted from JCO tables to that derived from FDA drug labels. Finally, we systematically analyzed relationships between anti-cancer drug-associated side effects and drug-associated gene targets, metabolism genes, and disease indications. The statistical table classifier is effective in classifying tables into SE-related and -unrelated (precision: 0.711; recall: 0.941; F1: 0.810). We extracted a total of 26,918 drug-SE pairs from SE-related tables with a precision of 0.605, a recall of 0.460, and a F1 of 0.520. Drug-SE pairs extracted from JCO tables is largely complementary to those derived from FDA drug labels; as many as 84.7% of the pairs extracted from JCO tables have not been included a side effect database constructed from FDA drug labels. Side effects associated with anticancer drugs positively correlate with drug target genes, drug metabolism genes, and disease indications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Extracting Characteristics of the Study Subjects from Full-Text Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demner-Fushman, Dina; Mork, James G

    Characteristics of the subjects of biomedical research are important in determining if a publication describing the research is relevant to a search. To facilitate finding relevant publications, MEDLINE citations provide Medical Subject Headings that describe the subjects' characteristics, such as their species, gender, and age. We seek to improve the recommendation of these headings by the Medical Text Indexer (MTI) that supports manual indexing of MEDLINE. To that end, we explore the potential of the full text of the publications. Using simple recall-oriented rule-based methods we determined that adding sentences extracted from the methods sections and captions to the abstracts prior to MTI processing significantly improved recall and F1 score with only a slight drop in precision. Improvements were also achieved in directly assigning several headings extracted from the full text. These results indicate the need for further development of automated methods capable of leveraging the full text for indexing.

  4. Network and Ensemble Enabled Entity Extraction in Informal Text (NEEEEIT) final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kegelmeyer, Philip W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Shead, Timothy M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dunlavy, Daniel M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This SAND report summarizes the activities and outcomes of the Network and Ensemble Enabled Entity Extraction in Information Text (NEEEEIT) LDRD project, which addressed improving the accuracy of conditional random fields for named entity recognition through the use of ensemble methods.

  5. Extracting Various Classes of Data From Biological Text Using the Concept of Existence Dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kamal

    2015-11-01

    One of the key goals of biological natural language processing (NLP) is the automatic information extraction from biomedical publications. Most current constituency and dependency parsers overlook the semantic relationships between the constituents comprising a sentence and may not be well suited for capturing complex long-distance dependences. We propose in this paper a hybrid constituency-dependency parser for biological NLP information extraction called EDCC. EDCC aims at enhancing the state of the art of biological text mining by applying novel linguistic computational techniques that overcome the limitations of current constituency and dependency parsers outlined earlier, as follows: 1) it determines the semantic relationship between each pair of constituents in a sentence using novel semantic rules; and 2) it applies a semantic relationship extraction model that extracts information from different structural forms of constituents in sentences. EDCC can be used to extract different types of data from biological texts for purposes such as protein function prediction, genetic network construction, and protein-protein interaction detection. We evaluated the quality of EDCC by comparing it experimentally with six systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  6. Vaccine adverse event text mining system for extracting features from vaccine safety reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsis, Taxiarchis; Buttolph, Thomas; Nguyen, Michael D; Winiecki, Scott; Woo, Emily Jane; Ball, Robert

    2012-01-01

    To develop and evaluate a text mining system for extracting key clinical features from vaccine adverse event reporting system (VAERS) narratives to aid in the automated review of adverse event reports. Based upon clinical significance to VAERS reviewing physicians, we defined the primary (diagnosis and cause of death) and secondary features (eg, symptoms) for extraction. We built a novel vaccine adverse event text mining (VaeTM) system based on a semantic text mining strategy. The performance of VaeTM was evaluated using a total of 300 VAERS reports in three sequential evaluations of 100 reports each. Moreover, we evaluated the VaeTM contribution to case classification; an information retrieval-based approach was used for the identification of anaphylaxis cases in a set of reports and was compared with two other methods: a dedicated text classifier and an online tool. The performance metrics of VaeTM were text mining metrics: recall, precision and F-measure. We also conducted a qualitative difference analysis and calculated sensitivity and specificity for classification of anaphylaxis cases based on the above three approaches. VaeTM performed best in extracting diagnosis, second level diagnosis, drug, vaccine, and lot number features (lenient F-measure in the third evaluation: 0.897, 0.817, 0.858, 0.874, and 0.914, respectively). In terms of case classification, high sensitivity was achieved (83.1%); this was equal and better compared to the text classifier (83.1%) and the online tool (40.7%), respectively. Our VaeTM implementation of a semantic text mining strategy shows promise in providing accurate and efficient extraction of key features from VAERS narratives.

  7. Large-scale extraction of gene interactions from full-text literature using DeepDive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallory, Emily K; Zhang, Ce; Ré, Christopher; Altman, Russ B

    2016-01-01

    A complete repository of gene-gene interactions is key for understanding cellular processes, human disease and drug response. These gene-gene interactions include both protein-protein interactions and transcription factor interactions. The majority of known interactions are found in the biomedical literature. Interaction databases, such as BioGRID and ChEA, annotate these gene-gene interactions; however, curation becomes difficult as the literature grows exponentially. DeepDive is a trained system for extracting information from a variety of sources, including text. In this work, we used DeepDive to extract both protein-protein and transcription factor interactions from over 100,000 full-text PLOS articles. We built an extractor for gene-gene interactions that identified candidate gene-gene relations within an input sentence. For each candidate relation, DeepDive computed a probability that the relation was a correct interaction. We evaluated this system against the Database of Interacting Proteins and against randomly curated extractions. Our system achieved 76% precision and 49% recall in extracting direct and indirect interactions involving gene symbols co-occurring in a sentence. For randomly curated extractions, the system achieved between 62% and 83% precision based on direct or indirect interactions, as well as sentence-level and document-level precision. Overall, our system extracted 3356 unique gene pairs using 724 features from over 100,000 full-text articles. Application source code is publicly available at https://github.com/edoughty/deepdive_genegene_app russ.altman@stanford.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Challenges for automatically extracting molecular interactions from full-text articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Tara; Curran, James R

    2009-09-24

    The increasing availability of full-text biomedical articles will allow more biomedical knowledge to be extracted automatically with greater reliability. However, most Information Retrieval (IR) and Extraction (IE) tools currently process only abstracts. The lack of corpora has limited the development of tools that are capable of exploiting the knowledge in full-text articles. As a result, there has been little investigation into the advantages of full-text document structure, and the challenges developers will face in processing full-text articles. We manually annotated passages from full-text articles that describe interactions summarised in a Molecular Interaction Map (MIM). Our corpus tracks the process of identifying facts to form the MIM summaries and captures any factual dependencies that must be resolved to extract the fact completely. For example, a fact in the results section may require a synonym defined in the introduction. The passages are also annotated with negated and coreference expressions that must be resolved.We describe the guidelines for identifying relevant passages and possible dependencies. The corpus includes 2162 sentences from 78 full-text articles. Our corpus analysis demonstrates the necessity of full-text processing; identifies the article sections where interactions are most commonly stated; and quantifies the proportion of interaction statements requiring coherent dependencies. Further, it allows us to report on the relative importance of identifying synonyms and resolving negated expressions. We also experiment with an oracle sentence retrieval system using the corpus as a gold-standard evaluation set. We introduce the MIM corpus, a unique resource that maps interaction facts in a MIM to annotated passages within full-text articles. It is an invaluable case study providing guidance to developers of biomedical IR and IE systems, and can be used as a gold-standard evaluation set for full-text IR tasks.

  9. The Fractal Patterns of Words in a Text: A Method for Automatic Keyword Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Elham; Darooneh, Amir H

    2015-01-01

    A text can be considered as a one dimensional array of words. The locations of each word type in this array form a fractal pattern with certain fractal dimension. We observe that important words responsible for conveying the meaning of a text have dimensions considerably different from one, while the fractal dimensions of unimportant words are close to one. We introduce an index quantifying the importance of the words in a given text using their fractal dimensions and then ranking them according to their importance. This index measures the difference between the fractal pattern of a word in the original text relative to a shuffled version. Because the shuffled text is meaningless (i.e., words have no importance), the difference between the original and shuffled text can be used to ascertain degree of fractality. The degree of fractality may be used for automatic keyword detection. Words with the degree of fractality higher than a threshold value are assumed to be the retrieved keywords of the text. We measure the efficiency of our method for keywords extraction, making a comparison between our proposed method and two other well-known methods of automatic keyword extraction.

  10. The Fractal Patterns of Words in a Text: A Method for Automatic Keyword Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafi, Elham; Darooneh, Amir H.

    2015-01-01

    A text can be considered as a one dimensional array of words. The locations of each word type in this array form a fractal pattern with certain fractal dimension. We observe that important words responsible for conveying the meaning of a text have dimensions considerably different from one, while the fractal dimensions of unimportant words are close to one. We introduce an index quantifying the importance of the words in a given text using their fractal dimensions and then ranking them according to their importance. This index measures the difference between the fractal pattern of a word in the original text relative to a shuffled version. Because the shuffled text is meaningless (i.e., words have no importance), the difference between the original and shuffled text can be used to ascertain degree of fractality. The degree of fractality may be used for automatic keyword detection. Words with the degree of fractality higher than a threshold value are assumed to be the retrieved keywords of the text. We measure the efficiency of our method for keywords extraction, making a comparison between our proposed method and two other well-known methods of automatic keyword extraction. PMID:26091207

  11. Valx: A System for Extracting and Structuring Numeric Lab Test Comparison Statements from Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Tianyong; Liu, Hongfang; Weng, Chunhua

    2016-05-17

    To develop an automated method for extracting and structuring numeric lab test comparison statements from text and evaluate the method using clinical trial eligibility criteria text. Leveraging semantic knowledge from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and domain knowledge acquired from the Internet, Valx takes seven steps to extract and normalize numeric lab test expressions: 1) text preprocessing, 2) numeric, unit, and comparison operator extraction, 3) variable identification using hybrid knowledge, 4) variable - numeric association, 5) context-based association filtering, 6) measurement unit normalization, and 7) heuristic rule-based comparison statements verification. Our reference standard was the consensus-based annotation among three raters for all comparison statements for two variables, i.e., HbA1c and glucose, identified from all of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes trials in ClinicalTrials.gov. The precision, recall, and F-measure for structuring HbA1c comparison statements were 99.6%, 98.1%, 98.8% for Type 1 diabetes trials, and 98.8%, 96.9%, 97.8% for Type 2 diabetes trials, respectively. The precision, recall, and F-measure for structuring glucose comparison statements were 97.3%, 94.8%, 96.1% for Type 1 diabetes trials, and 92.3%, 92.3%, 92.3% for Type 2 diabetes trials, respectively. Valx is effective at extracting and structuring free-text lab test comparison statements in clinical trial summaries. Future studies are warranted to test its generalizability beyond eligibility criteria text. The open-source Valx enables its further evaluation and continued improvement among the collaborative scientific community.

  12. Automatic extraction of property norm-like data from large text corpora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Colin; Devereux, Barry; Korhonen, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Traditional methods for deriving property-based representations of concepts from text have focused on either extracting only a subset of possible relation types, such as hyponymy/hypernymy (e.g., car is-a vehicle) or meronymy/metonymy (e.g., car has wheels), or unspecified relations (e.g., car--petrol). We propose a system for the challenging task of automatic, large-scale acquisition of unconstrained, human-like property norms from large text corpora, and discuss the theoretical implications of such a system. We employ syntactic, semantic, and encyclopedic information to guide our extraction, yielding concept-relation-feature triples (e.g., car be fast, car require petrol, car cause pollution), which approximate property-based conceptual representations. Our novel method extracts candidate triples from parsed corpora (Wikipedia and the British National Corpus) using syntactically and grammatically motivated rules, then reweights triples with a linear combination of their frequency and four statistical metrics. We assess our system output in three ways: lexical comparison with norms derived from human-generated property norm data, direct evaluation by four human judges, and a semantic distance comparison with both WordNet similarity data and human-judged concept similarity ratings. Our system offers a viable and performant method of plausible triple extraction: Our lexical comparison shows comparable performance to the current state-of-the-art, while subsequent evaluations exhibit the human-like character of our generated properties.

  13. Building a protein name dictionary from full text: a machine learning term extraction approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campagne Fabien

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of information in the biological literature resides in full text articles, instead of abstracts. Yet, abstracts remain the focus of many publicly available literature data mining tools. Most literature mining tools rely on pre-existing lexicons of biological names, often extracted from curated gene or protein databases. This is a limitation, because such databases have low coverage of the many name variants which are used to refer to biological entities in the literature. Results We present an approach to recognize named entities in full text. The approach collects high frequency terms in an article, and uses support vector machines (SVM to identify biological entity names. It is also computationally efficient and robust to noise commonly found in full text material. We use the method to create a protein name dictionary from a set of 80,528 full text articles. Only 8.3% of the names in this dictionary match SwissProt description lines. We assess the quality of the dictionary by studying its protein name recognition performance in full text. Conclusion This dictionary term lookup method compares favourably to other published methods, supporting the significance of our direct extraction approach. The method is strong in recognizing name variants not found in SwissProt.

  14. DiMeX: A Text Mining System for Mutation-Disease Association Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, A S M Ashique; Wu, Tsung-Jung; Mazumder, Raja; Vijay-Shanker, K

    2016-01-01

    The number of published articles describing associations between mutations and diseases is increasing at a fast pace. There is a pressing need to gather such mutation-disease associations into public knowledge bases, but manual curation slows down the growth of such databases. We have addressed this problem by developing a text-mining system (DiMeX) to extract mutation to disease associations from publication abstracts. DiMeX consists of a series of natural language processing modules that preprocess input text and apply syntactic and semantic patterns to extract mutation-disease associations. DiMeX achieves high precision and recall with F-scores of 0.88, 0.91 and 0.89 when evaluated on three different datasets for mutation-disease associations. DiMeX includes a separate component that extracts mutation mentions in text and associates them with genes. This component has been also evaluated on different datasets and shown to achieve state-of-the-art performance. The results indicate that our system outperforms the existing mutation-disease association tools, addressing the low precision problems suffered by most approaches. DiMeX was applied on a large set of abstracts from Medline to extract mutation-disease associations, as well as other relevant information including patient/cohort size and population data. The results are stored in a database that can be queried and downloaded at http://biotm.cis.udel.edu/dimex/. We conclude that this high-throughput text-mining approach has the potential to significantly assist researchers and curators to enrich mutation databases.

  15. Extracting and connecting chemical structures from text sources using chemicalize.org.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southan, Christopher; Stracz, Andras

    2013-04-23

    Exploring bioactive chemistry requires navigating between structures and data from a variety of text-based sources. While PubChem currently includes approximately 16 million document-extracted structures (15 million from patents) the extent of public inter-document and document-to-database links is still well below any estimated total, especially for journal articles. A major expansion in access to text-entombed chemistry is enabled by chemicalize.org. This on-line resource can process IUPAC names, SMILES, InChI strings, CAS numbers and drug names from pasted text, PDFs or URLs to generate structures, calculate properties and launch searches. Here, we explore its utility for answering questions related to chemical structures in documents and where these overlap with database records. These aspects are illustrated using a common theme of Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 (DPPIV) inhibitors. Full-text open URL sources facilitated the download of over 1400 structures from a DPPIV patent and the alignment of specific examples with IC50 data. Uploading the SMILES to PubChem revealed extensive linking to patents and papers, including prior submissions from chemicalize.org as submitting source. A DPPIV medicinal chemistry paper was completely extracted and structures were aligned to the activity results table, as well as linked to other documents via PubChem. In both cases, key structures with data were partitioned from common chemistry by dividing them into individual new PDFs for conversion. Over 500 structures were also extracted from a batch of PubMed abstracts related to DPPIV inhibition. The drug structures could be stepped through each text occurrence and included some converted MeSH-only IUPAC names not linked in PubChem. Performing set intersections proved effective for detecting compounds-in-common between documents and merged extractions. This work demonstrates the utility of chemicalize.org for the exploration of chemical structure connectivity between documents and

  16. Understanding disciplinary vocabularies using a full-text enabled domain-independent term extraction approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Erjia; Williams, Jake; Chen, Zheng

    2017-01-01

    Publication metadata help deliver rich analyses of scholarly communication. However, research concepts and ideas are more effectively expressed through unstructured fields such as full texts. Thus, the goals of this paper are to employ a full-text enabled method to extract terms relevant to disciplinary vocabularies, and through them, to understand the relationships between disciplines. This paper uses an efficient, domain-independent term extraction method to extract disciplinary vocabularies from a large multidisciplinary corpus of PLoS ONE publications. It finds a power-law pattern in the frequency distributions of terms present in each discipline, indicating a semantic richness potentially sufficient for further study and advanced analysis. The salient relationships amongst these vocabularies become apparent in application of a principal component analysis. For example, Mathematics and Computer and Information Sciences were found to have similar vocabulary use patterns along with Engineering and Physics; while Chemistry and the Social Sciences were found to exhibit contrasting vocabulary use patterns along with the Earth Sciences and Chemistry. These results have implications to studies of scholarly communication as scholars attempt to identify the epistemological cultures of disciplines, and as a full text-based methodology could lead to machine learning applications in the automated classification of scholarly work according to disciplinary vocabularies.

  17. Improving the extraction of complex regulatory events from scientific text by using ontology-based inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jung-jae

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The extraction of complex events from biomedical text is a challenging task and requires in-depth semantic analysis. Previous approaches associate lexical and syntactic resources with ontologies for the semantic analysis, but fall short in testing the benefits from the use of domain knowledge. Results We developed a system that deduces implicit events from explicitly expressed events by using inference rules that encode domain knowledge. We evaluated the system with the inference module on three tasks: First, when tested against a corpus with manually annotated events, the inference module of our system contributes 53.2% of correct extractions, but does not cause any incorrect results. Second, the system overall reproduces 33.1% of the transcription regulatory events contained in RegulonDB (up to 85.0% precision and the inference module is required for 93.8% of the reproduced events. Third, we applied the system with minimum adaptations to the identification of cell activity regulation events, confirming that the inference improves the performance of the system also on this task. Conclusions Our research shows that the inference based on domain knowledge plays a significant role in extracting complex events from text. This approach has great potential in recognizing the complex concepts of such biomedical ontologies as Gene Ontology in the literature.

  18. Improving the extraction of complex regulatory events from scientific text by using ontology-based inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Jae; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2011-10-06

    The extraction of complex events from biomedical text is a challenging task and requires in-depth semantic analysis. Previous approaches associate lexical and syntactic resources with ontologies for the semantic analysis, but fall short in testing the benefits from the use of domain knowledge. We developed a system that deduces implicit events from explicitly expressed events by using inference rules that encode domain knowledge. We evaluated the system with the inference module on three tasks: First, when tested against a corpus with manually annotated events, the inference module of our system contributes 53.2% of correct extractions, but does not cause any incorrect results. Second, the system overall reproduces 33.1% of the transcription regulatory events contained in RegulonDB (up to 85.0% precision) and the inference module is required for 93.8% of the reproduced events. Third, we applied the system with minimum adaptations to the identification of cell activity regulation events, confirming that the inference improves the performance of the system also on this task. Our research shows that the inference based on domain knowledge plays a significant role in extracting complex events from text. This approach has great potential in recognizing the complex concepts of such biomedical ontologies as Gene Ontology in the literature.

  19. Interdisciplinary Approach to the Mental Lexicon: Neural Network and Text Extraction From Long-term Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardan G. Arutyunyan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper touches upon the principles of mental lexicon organization in the light of recent research in psycho- and neurolinguistics. As a focal point of discussion two main approaches to mental lexicon functioning are considered: modular or dual-system approach, developed within generativism and opposite single-system approach, representatives of which are the connectionists and supporters of network models. The paper is an endeavor towards advocating the viewpoint that mental lexicon is complex psychological organization based upon specific composition of neural network. In this regard, the paper further elaborates on the matter of storing text in human mental space and introduces a model of text extraction from long-term memory. Based upon data available, the author develops a methodology of modeling structures of knowledge representation in the systems of artificial intelligence.

  20. Towards A Model Of Knowledge Extraction Of Text Mining For Palliative Care Patients In Panama.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Cedeno Moreno

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Solutions using information technology is an innovative way to manage the information hospice patients in hospitals in Panama. The application of techniques of text mining for the domain of medicine especially information from electronic health records of patients in palliative care is one of the most recent and promising research areas for the analysis of textual data. Text mining is based on new knowledge extraction from unstructured natural language data. We may also create ontologies to describe the terminology and knowledge in a given domain. In an ontology conceptualization of a domain that may be general or specific formalized. Knowledge can be used for decision making by health specialists or can help in research topics for improving the health system.

  1. A crowdsourcing workflow for extracting chemical-induced disease relations from free text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong Shu; Bravo, Àlex; Furlong, Laura I.; Good, Benjamin M.; Su, Andrew I.

    2016-01-01

    Relations between chemicals and diseases are one of the most queried biomedical interactions. Although expert manual curation is the standard method for extracting these relations from the literature, it is expensive and impractical to apply to large numbers of documents, and therefore alternative methods are required. We describe here a crowdsourcing workflow for extracting chemical-induced disease relations from free text as part of the BioCreative V Chemical Disease Relation challenge. Five non-expert workers on the CrowdFlower platform were shown each potential chemical-induced disease relation highlighted in the original source text and asked to make binary judgments about whether the text supported the relation. Worker responses were aggregated through voting, and relations receiving four or more votes were predicted as true. On the official evaluation dataset of 500 PubMed abstracts, the crowd attained a 0.505 F-score (0.475 precision, 0.540 recall), with a maximum theoretical recall of 0.751 due to errors with named entity recognition. The total crowdsourcing cost was $1290.67 ($2.58 per abstract) and took a total of 7 h. A qualitative error analysis revealed that 46.66% of sampled errors were due to task limitations and gold standard errors, indicating that performance can still be improved. All code and results are publicly available at https://github.com/SuLab/crowd_cid_relex Database URL: https://github.com/SuLab/crowd_cid_relex PMID:27087308

  2. EnvMine: A text-mining system for the automatic extraction of contextual information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Lorenzo Victor

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For ecological studies, it is crucial to count on adequate descriptions of the environments and samples being studied. Such a description must be done in terms of their physicochemical characteristics, allowing a direct comparison between different environments that would be difficult to do otherwise. Also the characterization must include the precise geographical location, to make possible the study of geographical distributions and biogeographical patterns. Currently, there is no schema for annotating these environmental features, and these data have to be extracted from textual sources (published articles. So far, this had to be performed by manual inspection of the corresponding documents. To facilitate this task, we have developed EnvMine, a set of text-mining tools devoted to retrieve contextual information (physicochemical variables and geographical locations from textual sources of any kind. Results EnvMine is capable of retrieving the physicochemical variables cited in the text, by means of the accurate identification of their associated units of measurement. In this task, the system achieves a recall (percentage of items retrieved of 92% with less than 1% error. Also a Bayesian classifier was tested for distinguishing parts of the text describing environmental characteristics from others dealing with, for instance, experimental settings. Regarding the identification of geographical locations, the system takes advantage of existing databases such as GeoNames to achieve 86% recall with 92% precision. The identification of a location includes also the determination of its exact coordinates (latitude and longitude, thus allowing the calculation of distance between the individual locations. Conclusion EnvMine is a very efficient method for extracting contextual information from different text sources, like published articles or web pages. This tool can help in determining the precise location and physicochemical

  3. A method for extracting design rationale knowledge based on Text Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jihong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Capture design rationale (DR knowledge and presenting it to designers by good form, which have great significance for design reuse and design innovation. Since the 1970s design rationality began to develop, many teams have developed their own design rational system. However, the DR acquisition system is not intelligent enough, and it still requires designers to do a lot of operations. In addition, the existing design documents contain a large number of DR knowledge, but it has not been well excavated. Therefore, a method and system are needed to better extract DR knowledge in design documents. We have proposed a DRKH (design rationale knowledge hierarchy model for DR representation. The DRKH model has three layers, respectively as design intent layer, design decision layer and design basis layer. In this paper, we use text mining method to extract DR from design documents and construct DR model. Finally, the welding robot design specification is taken as an example to demonstrate the system interface.

  4. Fuzzy-Based Segmentation for Variable Font-Sized Text Extraction from Images/Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samabia Tehsin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Textual information embedded in multimedia can provide a vital tool for indexing and retrieval. A lot of work is done in the field of text localization and detection because of its very fundamental importance. One of the biggest challenges of text detection is to deal with variation in font sizes and image resolution. This problem gets elevated due to the undersegmentation or oversegmentation of the regions in an image. The paper addresses this problem by proposing a solution using novel fuzzy-based method. This paper advocates postprocessing segmentation method that can solve the problem of variation in text sizes and image resolution. The methodology is tested on ICDAR 2011 Robust Reading Challenge dataset which amply proves the strength of the recommended method.

  5. AN ITERATIVE SEGMENTATION METHOD FOR REGION OF INTEREST EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan CETIN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method is presented for applications which include mammographic image segmentation and region of interest extraction. Segmentation is a very critical and difficult stage to accomplish in computer aided detection systems. Although the presented segmentation method is developed for mammographic images, it can be used for any medical image which resembles the same statistical characteristics with mammograms. Fundamentally, the method contains iterative automatic thresholding and masking operations which is applied to the original or enhanced mammograms. Also the effect of image enhancement to the segmentation process was observed. A version of histogram equalization was applied to the images for enhancement. Finally, the results show that enhanced version of the proposed segmentation method is preferable because of its better success rate.

  6. Page segmentation and text extraction from gray-scale images in microfilm format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qing; Tan, Chew Lim

    2000-12-01

    The paper deals with a suitably designed system that is being used to separate textual regions from graphics regions and locate textual data from textured background. We presented a method based on edge detection to automatically locate text in some noise infected grayscale newspaper images with microfilm format. The algorithm first finds the appropriate edges of textual region using Canny edge detector, and then by edge merging it makes use of edge features to do block segmentation and classification, afterwards feature aided connected component analysis was used to group homogeneous textual regions together within the scope of its bounding box. We can obtain an efficient block segmentation with reduced memory size by introducing the TLC. The proposed method has been used to locate text in a group of newspaper images with multiple page layout. Initial results are encouraging, we would expand the experiment data to over 300 microfilm images with different layout structures, promising result is anticipated with corresponding modification on the prototype of former algorithm to make it more robust and suitable to different cases.

  7. A crowdsourcing workflow for extracting chemical-induced disease relations from free text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong Shu; Bravo, Àlex; Furlong, Laura I; Good, Benjamin M; Su, Andrew I

    2016-01-01

    Relations between chemicals and diseases are one of the most queried biomedical interactions. Although expert manual curation is the standard method for extracting these relations from the literature, it is expensive and impractical to apply to large numbers of documents, and therefore alternative methods are required. We describe here a crowdsourcing workflow for extracting chemical-induced disease relations from free text as part of the BioCreative V Chemical Disease Relation challenge. Five non-expert workers on the CrowdFlower platform were shown each potential chemical-induced disease relation highlighted in the original source text and asked to make binary judgments about whether the text supported the relation. Worker responses were aggregated through voting, and relations receiving four or more votes were predicted as true. On the official evaluation dataset of 500 PubMed abstracts, the crowd attained a 0.505F-score (0.475 precision, 0.540 recall), with a maximum theoretical recall of 0.751 due to errors with named entity recognition. The total crowdsourcing cost was $1290.67 ($2.58 per abstract) and took a total of 7 h. A qualitative error analysis revealed that 46.66% of sampled errors were due to task limitations and gold standard errors, indicating that performance can still be improved. All code and results are publicly available athttps://github.com/SuLab/crowd_cid_relexDatabase URL:https://github.com/SuLab/crowd_cid_relex. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Clinical records anonymisation and text extraction (CRATE): an open-source software system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Rudolf N

    2017-04-26

    Electronic medical records contain information of value for research, but contain identifiable and often highly sensitive confidential information. Patient-identifiable information cannot in general be shared outside clinical care teams without explicit consent, but anonymisation/de-identification allows research uses of clinical data without explicit consent. This article presents CRATE (Clinical Records Anonymisation and Text Extraction), an open-source software system with separable functions: (1) it anonymises or de-identifies arbitrary relational databases, with sensitivity and precision similar to previous comparable systems; (2) it uses public secure cryptographic methods to map patient identifiers to research identifiers (pseudonyms); (3) it connects relational databases to external tools for natural language processing; (4) it provides a web front end for research and administrative functions; and (5) it supports a specific model through which patients may consent to be contacted about research. Creation and management of a research database from sensitive clinical records with secure pseudonym generation, full-text indexing, and a consent-to-contact process is possible and practical using entirely free and open-source software.

  9. A methodology for semiautomatic taxonomy of concepts extraction from nuclear scientific documents using text mining techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Fabiane dos Reis

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents a text mining method for semi-automatic extraction of taxonomy of concepts, from a textual corpus composed of scientific papers related to nuclear area. The text classification is a natural human practice and a crucial task for work with large repositories. The document clustering technique provides a logical and understandable framework that facilitates the organization, browsing and searching. Most clustering algorithms using the bag of words model to represent the content of a document. This model generates a high dimensionality of the data, ignores the fact that different words can have the same meaning and does not consider the relationship between them, assuming that words are independent of each other. The methodology presents a combination of a model for document representation by concepts with a hierarchical document clustering method using frequency of co-occurrence concepts and a technique for clusters labeling more representatives, with the objective of producing a taxonomy of concepts which may reflect a structure of the knowledge domain. It is hoped that this work will contribute to the conceptual mapping of scientific production of nuclear area and thus support the management of research activities in this area. (author)

  10. Extraction of events and rules of land use/cover change from the policy text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guangfa; Xia, Beicheng; Huang, Wangli; Jiang, Huixian; Chen, Youfei

    2007-06-01

    The database of recording the snapshots of land parcels history is the foundation for the most of the models on simulating land use/cover change (LUCC) process. But the sequences of temporal snapshots are not sufficient to deduce and describe the mechanism of LUCC process. The temporal relationship between scenarios of LUCC we recorded could not be transfer into causal relationship categorically, which was regarded as a key factor in spatial-temporal reasoning. The proprietor of land parcels adapted themselves to the policies from governments and the change of production market, and then made decisions in this or that way. The occurrence of each change of a land parcel in an urban area was often related with one or more decision texts when it was investigated on the local scale with high resolution of the background scene. These decision texts may come from different sections of a hierarchical government system on different levels, such as villages or communities, towns or counties, cities, provinces or even the paramount. All these texts were balance results between advantages and disadvantages of different interest groups. They are the essential forces of LUCC in human dimension. Up to now, a methodology is still wanted for on how to express these forces in a simulation system using GIS as a language. The presented paper was part of our initial research on this topic. The term "Event" is a very important concept in the frame of "Object-Oriented" theory in computer science. While in the domain of temporal GIS, the concept of event was developed in another category. The definitions of the event and their transformation relationship were discussed in this paper on three modeling levels as real world level, conceptual level and programming level. In this context, with a case study of LUCC in recent 30 years in Xiamen city of Fujian province, P. R. China, the paper focused on how to extract information of events and rules from the policy files collected and integrate

  11. Efficient extraction of protein-protein interactions from full-text articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakenberg, Jörg; Leaman, Robert; Vo, Nguyen Ha; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha; Sullivan, Ryan; Miller, Christopher; Tari, Luis; Baral, Chitta; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2010-01-01

    Proteins and their interactions govern virtually all cellular processes, such as regulation, signaling, metabolism, and structure. Most experimental findings pertaining to such interactions are discussed in research papers, which, in turn, get curated by protein interaction databases. Authors, editors, and publishers benefit from efforts to alleviate the tasks of searching for relevant papers, evidence for physical interactions, and proper identifiers for each protein involved. The BioCreative II.5 community challenge addressed these tasks in a competition-style assessment to evaluate and compare different methodologies, to make aware of the increasing accuracy of automated methods, and to guide future implementations. In this paper, we present our approaches for protein-named entity recognition, including normalization, and for extraction of protein-protein interactions from full text. Our overall goal is to identify efficient individual components, and we compare various compositions to handle a single full-text article in between 10 seconds and 2 minutes. We propose strategies to transfer document-level annotations to the sentence-level, which allows for the creation of a more fine-grained training corpus; we use this corpus to automatically derive around 5,000 patterns. We rank sentences by relevance to the task of finding novel interactions with physical evidence, using a sentence classifier built from this training corpus. Heuristics for paraphrasing sentences help to further remove unnecessary information that might interfere with patterns, such as additional adjectives, clauses, or bracketed expressions. In BioCreative II.5, we achieved an f-score of 22 percent for finding protein interactions, and 43 percent for mapping proteins to UniProt IDs; disregarding species, f-scores are 30 percent and 55 percent, respectively. On average, our best-performing setup required around 2 minutes per full text. All data and pattern sets as well as Java classes that

  12. Text data extraction for a prospective, research-focused data mart: implementation and validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinchcliff Monique

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Translational research typically requires data abstracted from medical records as well as data collected specifically for research. Unfortunately, many data within electronic health records are represented as text that is not amenable to aggregation for analyses. We present a scalable open source SQL Server Integration Services package, called Regextractor, for including regular expression parsers into a classic extract, transform, and load workflow. We have used Regextractor to abstract discrete data from textual reports from a number of ‘machine generated’ sources. To validate this package, we created a pulmonary function test data mart and analyzed the quality of the data mart versus manual chart review. Methods Eleven variables from pulmonary function tests performed closest to the initial clinical evaluation date were studied for 100 randomly selected subjects with scleroderma. One research assistant manually reviewed, abstracted, and entered relevant data into a database. Correlation with data obtained from the automated pulmonary function test data mart within the Northwestern Medical Enterprise Data Warehouse was determined. Results There was a near perfect (99.5% agreement between results generated from the Regextractor package and those obtained via manual chart abstraction. The pulmonary function test data mart has been used subsequently to monitor disease progression of patients in the Northwestern Scleroderma Registry. In addition to the pulmonary function test example presented in this manuscript, the Regextractor package has been used to create cardiac catheterization and echocardiography data marts. The Regextractor package was released as open source software in October 2009 and has been downloaded 552 times as of 6/1/2012. Conclusions Collaboration between clinical researchers and biomedical informatics experts enabled the development and validation of a tool (Regextractor to parse, abstract and assemble

  13. Text data extraction for a prospective, research-focused data mart: implementation and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchcliff, Monique; Just, Eric; Podlusky, Sofia; Varga, John; Chang, Rowland W; Kibbe, Warren A

    2012-09-13

    Translational research typically requires data abstracted from medical records as well as data collected specifically for research. Unfortunately, many data within electronic health records are represented as text that is not amenable to aggregation for analyses. We present a scalable open source SQL Server Integration Services package, called Regextractor, for including regular expression parsers into a classic extract, transform, and load workflow. We have used Regextractor to abstract discrete data from textual reports from a number of 'machine generated' sources. To validate this package, we created a pulmonary function test data mart and analyzed the quality of the data mart versus manual chart review. Eleven variables from pulmonary function tests performed closest to the initial clinical evaluation date were studied for 100 randomly selected subjects with scleroderma. One research assistant manually reviewed, abstracted, and entered relevant data into a database. Correlation with data obtained from the automated pulmonary function test data mart within the Northwestern Medical Enterprise Data Warehouse was determined. There was a near perfect (99.5%) agreement between results generated from the Regextractor package and those obtained via manual chart abstraction. The pulmonary function test data mart has been used subsequently to monitor disease progression of patients in the Northwestern Scleroderma Registry. In addition to the pulmonary function test example presented in this manuscript, the Regextractor package has been used to create cardiac catheterization and echocardiography data marts. The Regextractor package was released as open source software in October 2009 and has been downloaded 552 times as of 6/1/2012. Collaboration between clinical researchers and biomedical informatics experts enabled the development and validation of a tool (Regextractor) to parse, abstract and assemble structured data from text data contained in the electronic health

  14. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-02-07

    The texts of the Agency's agreements for co-operation with the regional inter-governmental organizations listed below, together with the respective protocols authenticating them, are reproduced in this document in the order in which the agreements entered into force, for the information of all Members of the Agency.

  15. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1961-01-01

    The texts of the Agency's agreements for co-operation with the regional inter-governmental organizations listed below, together with the respective protocols authenticating them, are reproduced in this document in the order in which the agreements entered into force, for the information of all Members of the Agency

  16. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1961-01-01

    The texts of the Agency's agreements for co-operation with the regional inter-governmental organizations listed below, together with the respective protocols authenticating them, are reproduced in this document in the order in which the agreements entered into force, for the information of all Members of the Agency [es

  17. Region-Based Building Rooftop Extraction and Change Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, J.; Metzlaff, L.; d'Angelo, P.; Reinartz, P.

    2017-09-01

    Automatic extraction of building changes is important for many applications like disaster monitoring and city planning. Although a lot of research work is available based on 2D as well as 3D data, an improvement in accuracy and efficiency is still needed. The introducing of digital surface models (DSMs) to building change detection has strongly improved the resulting accuracy. In this paper, a post-classification approach is proposed for building change detection using satellite stereo imagery. Firstly, DSMs are generated from satellite stereo imagery and further refined by using a segmentation result obtained from the Sobel gradients of the panchromatic image. Besides the refined DSMs, the panchromatic image and the pansharpened multispectral image are used as input features for mean-shift segmentation. The DSM is used to calculate the nDSM, out of which the initial building candidate regions are extracted. The candidate mask is further refined by morphological filtering and by excluding shadow regions. Following this, all segments that overlap with a building candidate region are determined. A building oriented segments merging procedure is introduced to generate a final building rooftop mask. As the last step, object based change detection is performed by directly comparing the building rooftops extracted from the pre- and after-event imagery and by fusing the change indicators with the roof-top region map. A quantitative and qualitative assessment of the proposed approach is provided by using WorldView-2 satellite data from Istanbul, Turkey.

  18. DISCOURSES OF ROUTINE AND AFFECTS IN THE TEXT OF REGIONAL SPACE (on the example of Volgograd region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Drozdova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses social space, which is the region of the text that is defined by a set of messages sent to settlements, streets, squares, monuments, buildings, and a system of signs that reflect possible interpretations of the actors, due to the peculiarities of the subjective state, language and experience. Using the methods of discursive and semiotic interpretation, we can distinguish two components of a heterogeneous, multi-code text — space of routine and space of affects. Space of routine presupposes a rational perception of space, rational response, it is a formation of traditions, attitudes, norms of conduct governing the behavior of social actors in a specific spatio-temporal locality. Changes in the perception of the usual attributes of the regional landscape can in a certain sense and individual context trigger affective reactions. The followihg factors form the space of the affects: sensual perception of space, emotional stimulation and intrapsychic representation, the sense of injury/cure, dangers/safety, negativity/ pleasure, shame/pride, or a combination of them. Dualism in the perception of space, its dialectical nature, congruence, flexibility, variability, the conflict of local and individual meanings, existing practices, patterns, mentalities and cultures, situations, the media are a condition of existence, and labeling of the regional text, updating its discursiveness and research. 

  19. Carniola oživljena: Changing Practice in Citing Slovenian Regions in English Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald F. Reindl

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The past century has witnessed a striking change in the representation of Slovenia’s traditional regions in English texts. After the Second World War, Slovenians progressively replaced the traditional English exonyms for these regions with endonyms in English texts. This trend was accompanied by published works and teaching practice that increasingly insisted on the exclusive use of endonyms in English texts. However, following the dissolution of Yugoslavia and Slovenian independence, there has been a return to the traditional English exonyms. This article maps this changing practice through selected English texts from the past three centuries. It also addresses a number of pitfalls connected with the use of endonyms as well as persistent questions regarding the use of endonyms. Because English is a global language, the choices made by those writing in English directly affect how Slovenia and Slovenian identity are represented at the global level. As such, the conclusions of this paper apply directly to Slovenian-English translation practice and indirectly to Slovenian literature and culture conveyed through English translation.

  20. Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticholinesterase Activities of Plant Seed Extracts from Brazilian Semiarid Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Felipe Farias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (− organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+ organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15 mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73 μg/mL (T. gardneriana to 487.51 μg/mL (Licania rigida. For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9 µg/mL. Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay.

  1. Conversation Thread Extraction and Topic Detection in Text-Based Chat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, Paige H

    2008-01-01

    Text-based chat systems are widely used within the Department of Defense, but the standard systems available do not provide robust capabilities for search, information retrieval, or information assurance...

  2. Text analysis of MEDLINE for discovering functional relationships among genes: evaluation of keyword extraction weighting schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Navathe, Shamkant B; Pivoshenko, Alex; Dasigi, Venu G; Dingledine, Ray; Ciliax, Brian J

    2006-01-01

    One of the key challenges of microarray studies is to derive biological insights from the gene-expression patterns. Clustering genes by functional keyword association can provide direct information about the functional links among genes. However, the quality of the keyword lists significantly affects the clustering results. We compared two keyword weighting schemes: normalised z-score and term frequency-inverse document frequency (TFIDF). Two gene sets were tested to evaluate the effectiveness of the weighting schemes for keyword extraction for gene clustering. Using established measures of cluster quality, the results produced from TFIDF-weighted keywords outperformed those produced from normalised z-score weighted keywords. The optimised algorithms should be useful for partitioning genes from microarray lists into functionally discrete clusters.

  3. Computerized extraction of information on the quality of diabetes care from free text in electronic patient records of general practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorham, Jaco; Denig, Petra

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated a computerized method for extracting numeric clinical measurements related to diabetes care from free text in electronic patient records (EPR) of general practitioners. Design and Measurements: Accuracy of this number-oriented approach was compared to manual chart

  4. Measurement of charged particle multiplicities and densities in [Formula: see text] collisions at [Formula: see text]TeV in the forward region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; Vanden Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Counts, I; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dalseno, J; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dorosz, P; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Esen, S; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gavardi, L; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianelle, A; Giani, S; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Hafkenscheid, T W; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lowdon, P; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manzali, M; Maratas, J; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, G; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rama, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Roberts, D A; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Simi, G; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; De Paula, B Souza; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spinella, F; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Stroili, R; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    Charged particle multiplicities are studied in proton-proton collisions in the forward region at a centre-of-mass energy of [Formula: see text]TeV with data collected by the LHCb detector. The forward spectrometer allows access to a kinematic range of [Formula: see text] in pseudorapidity, momenta greater than [Formula: see text] and transverse momenta greater than [Formula: see text]. The measurements are performed using events with at least one charged particle in the kinematic acceptance. The results are presented as functions of pseudorapidity and transverse momentum and are compared to predictions from several Monte Carlo event generators.

  5. Ordering Operations in Square Root Extractions, Analyzing Some Early Medieval Sanskrit Mathematical Texts with the Help of Speech Act Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Agathe

    Procedures for extracting square roots written in Sanskrit in two treatises and their commentaries from the fifth to the twelfth centuries are explored with the help of Textology and Speech Act Theory. An analysis of the number and order of the steps presented in these texts is used to show that their aims were not limited to only describing how to carry out the algorithm. The intentions of authors of these Sanskrit mathematical texts are questioned by taking into account the expressivity of relationships established between the world and the text.1

  6. A Text Mining Approach for Extracting Lessons Learned from Project Documentation: An Illustrative Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Matthies

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Lessons learned are important building blocks for continuous learning in project-based organisations. Nonetheless, the practical reality is that lessons learned are often not consistently reused for organisational learning. Two problems are commonly described in this context: the information overload and the lack of procedures and methods for the assessment and implementation of lessons learned. This paper addresses these problems, and appropriate solutions are combined in a systematic lesson learned process. Latent Dirichlet Allocation is presented to solve the first problem. Regarding the second problem, established risk management methods are adapted. The entire lessons learned process will be demonstrated in a practical case study

  7. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations; Texte des Accords de Cooperation Conclus entre L'Agence et des Organisations Intergouvernementales Regionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-02-07

    The texts of the Agency's agreements for co-operation with the regional inter-governmental organizations listed below, together with the respective protocols authenticating them, are reproduced in this document in the order in which the agreements entered into force, for the information of all Members of the Agency [French] Le present document reproduit le texte des accords de cooperation que l'Agence a conclus avec les organisations intergouvernementales regionales enumerees ci-apres, ainsi que celui des protocoles validant lesdits accords. Le texte de ces instruments, classes dans l'ordre chronologique de leur entree en vigueur, est communique, pour information, a tous les Membres de l'Agence.

  8. Large-scale automatic extraction of side effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs from full-text oncological articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Wang, QuanQiu

    2015-06-01

    Targeted anticancer drugs such as imatinib, trastuzumab and erlotinib dramatically improved treatment outcomes in cancer patients, however, these innovative agents are often associated with unexpected side effects. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these side effects are not well understood. The availability of a comprehensive knowledge base of side effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs has the potential to illuminate complex pathways underlying toxicities induced by these innovative drugs. While side effect association knowledge for targeted drugs exists in multiple heterogeneous data sources, published full-text oncological articles represent an important source of pivotal, investigational, and even failed trials in a variety of patient populations. In this study, we present an automatic process to extract targeted anticancer drug-associated side effects (drug-SE pairs) from a large number of high profile full-text oncological articles. We downloaded 13,855 full-text articles from the Journal of Oncology (JCO) published between 1983 and 2013. We developed text classification, relationship extraction, signaling filtering, and signal prioritization algorithms to extract drug-SE pairs from downloaded articles. We extracted a total of 26,264 drug-SE pairs with an average precision of 0.405, a recall of 0.899, and an F1 score of 0.465. We show that side effect knowledge from JCO articles is largely complementary to that from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug labels. Through integrative correlation analysis, we show that targeted drug-associated side effects positively correlate with their gene targets and disease indications. In conclusion, this unique database that we built from a large number of high-profile oncological articles could facilitate the development of computational models to understand toxic effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dynamic programming re-ranking for PPI interactor and pair extraction in full-text articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Experimentally verified protein-protein interactions (PPIs) cannot be easily retrieved by researchers unless they are stored in PPI databases. The curation of such databases can be facilitated by employing text-mining systems to identify genes which play the interactor role in PPIs and to map these genes to unique database identifiers (interactor normalization task or INT) and then to return a list of interaction pairs for each article (interaction pair task or IPT). These two tasks are evaluated in terms of the area under curve of the interpolated precision/recall (AUC iP/R) score because the order of identifiers in the output list is important for ease of curation. Results Our INT system developed for the BioCreAtIvE II.5 INT challenge achieved a promising AUC iP/R of 43.5% by using a support vector machine (SVM)-based ranking procedure. Using our new re-ranking algorithm, we have been able to improve system performance (AUC iP/R) by 1.84%. Our experimental results also show that with the re-ranked INT results, our unsupervised IPT system can achieve a competitive AUC iP/R of 23.86%, which outperforms the best BC II.5 INT system by 1.64%. Compared to using only SVM ranked INT results, using re-ranked INT results boosts AUC iP/R by 7.84%. Statistical significance t-test results show that our INT/IPT system with re-ranking outperforms that without re-ranking by a statistically significant difference. Conclusions In this paper, we present a new re-ranking algorithm that considers co-occurrence among identifiers in an article to improve INT and IPT ranking results. Combining the re-ranked INT results with an unsupervised approach to find associations among interactors, the proposed method can boost the IPT performance. We also implement score computation using dynamic programming, which is faster and more efficient than traditional approaches. PMID:21342534

  10. Text-in-context: a method for extracting findings in mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandelowski, Margarete; Leeman, Jennifer; Knafl, Kathleen; Crandell, Jamie L

    2013-06-01

    Our purpose in this paper is to propose a new method for extracting findings from research reports included in mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies. International initiatives in the domains of systematic review and evidence synthesis have been focused on broadening the conceptualization of evidence, increased methodological inclusiveness and the production of evidence syntheses that will be accessible to and usable by a wider range of consumers. Initiatives in the general mixed-methods research field have been focused on developing truly integrative approaches to data analysis and interpretation. The data extraction challenges described here were encountered, and the method proposed for addressing these challenges was developed, in the first year of the ongoing (2011-2016) study: Mixed-Methods Synthesis of Research on Childhood Chronic Conditions and Family. To preserve the text-in-context of findings in research reports, we describe a method whereby findings are transformed into portable statements that anchor results to relevant information about sample, source of information, time, comparative reference point, magnitude and significance and study-specific conceptions of phenomena. The data extraction method featured here was developed specifically to accommodate mixed-methods mixed research synthesis studies conducted in nursing and other health sciences, but reviewers might find it useful in other kinds of research synthesis studies. This data extraction method itself constitutes a type of integration to preserve the methodological context of findings when statements are read individually and in comparison to each other. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Extracting recurrent scenarios from narrative texts using a Bayesian network: application to serious occupational accidents with movement disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdat, F; Leclercq, S; Cuny, X; Tissot, C

    2014-09-01

    A probabilistic approach has been developed to extract recurrent serious Occupational Accident with Movement Disturbance (OAMD) scenarios from narrative texts within a prevention framework. Relevant data extracted from 143 accounts was initially coded as logical combinations of generic accident factors. A Bayesian Network (BN)-based model was then built for OAMDs using these data and expert knowledge. A data clustering process was subsequently performed to group the OAMDs into similar classes from generic factor occurrence and pattern standpoints. Finally, the Most Probable Explanation (MPE) was evaluated and identified as the associated recurrent scenario for each class. Using this approach, 8 scenarios were extracted to describe 143 OAMDs in the construction and metallurgy sectors. Their recurrent nature is discussed. Probable generic factor combinations provide a fair representation of particularly serious OAMDs, as described in narrative texts. This work represents a real contribution to raising company awareness of the variety of circumstances, in which these accidents occur, to progressing in the prevention of such accidents and to developing an analysis framework dedicated to this kind of accident. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Extraction of relations between genes and diseases from text and large-scale data analysis: implications for translational research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Àlex; Piñero, Janet; Queralt-Rosinach, Núria; Rautschka, Michael; Furlong, Laura I

    2015-02-21

    Current biomedical research needs to leverage and exploit the large amount of information reported in scientific publications. Automated text mining approaches, in particular those aimed at finding relationships between entities, are key for identification of actionable knowledge from free text repositories. We present the BeFree system aimed at identifying relationships between biomedical entities with a special focus on genes and their associated diseases. By exploiting morpho-syntactic information of the text, BeFree is able to identify gene-disease, drug-disease and drug-target associations with state-of-the-art performance. The application of BeFree to real-case scenarios shows its effectiveness in extracting information relevant for translational research. We show the value of the gene-disease associations extracted by BeFree through a number of analyses and integration with other data sources. BeFree succeeds in identifying genes associated to a major cause of morbidity worldwide, depression, which are not present in other public resources. Moreover, large-scale extraction and analysis of gene-disease associations, and integration with current biomedical knowledge, provided interesting insights on the kind of information that can be found in the literature, and raised challenges regarding data prioritization and curation. We found that only a small proportion of the gene-disease associations discovered by using BeFree is collected in expert-curated databases. Thus, there is a pressing need to find alternative strategies to manual curation, in order to review, prioritize and curate text-mining data and incorporate it into domain-specific databases. We present our strategy for data prioritization and discuss its implications for supporting biomedical research and applications. BeFree is a novel text mining system that performs competitively for the identification of gene-disease, drug-disease and drug-target associations. Our analyses show that mining only a

  13. Application of Text Analytics to Extract and Analyze Material–Application Pairs from a Large Scientific Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Kalathil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available When assessing the importance of materials (or other components to a given set of applications, machine analysis of a very large corpus of scientific abstracts can provide an analyst a base of insights to develop further. The use of text analytics reduces the time required to conduct an evaluation, while allowing analysts to experiment with a multitude of different hypotheses. Because the scope and quantity of metadata analyzed can, and should, be large, any divergence from what a human analyst determines and what the text analysis shows provides a prompt for the human analyst to reassess any preliminary findings. In this work, we have successfully extracted material–application pairs and ranked them on their importance. This method provides a novel way to map scientific advances in a particular material to the application for which it is used. Approximately 438,000 titles and abstracts of scientific papers published from 1992 to 2011 were used to examine 16 materials. This analysis used coclustering text analysis to associate individual materials with specific clean energy applications, evaluate the importance of materials to specific applications, and assess their importance to clean energy overall. Our analysis reproduced the judgments of experts in assigning material importance to applications. The validated methods were then used to map the replacement of one material with another material in a specific application (batteries.

  14. Applying a text mining framework to the extraction of numerical parameters from scientific literature in the biotechnology domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André SANTOS

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Scientific publications are the main vehicle to disseminate information in the field of biotechnology for wastewater treatment. Indeed, the new research paradigms and the application of high-throughput technologies have increased the rate of publication considerably. The problem is that manual curation becomes harder, prone-to-errors and time-consuming, leading to a probable loss of information and inefficient knowledge acquisition. As a result, research outputs are hardly reaching engineers, hampering the calibration of mathematical models used to optimize the stability and performance of biotechnological systems. In this context, we have developed a data curation workflow, based on text mining techniques, to extract numerical parameters from scientific literature, and applied it to the biotechnology domain. A workflow was built to process wastewater-related articles with the main goal of identifying physico-chemical parameters mentioned in the text. This work describes the implementation of the workflow, identifies achievements and current limitations in the overall process, and presents the results obtained for a corpus of 50 full-text documents.

  15. Applying a text mining framework to the extraction of numerical parameters from scientific literature in the biotechnology domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anália LOURENÇO

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Scientific publications are the main vehicle to disseminate information in the field of biotechnology for wastewater treatment. Indeed, the new research paradigms and the application of high-throughput technologies have increased the rate of publication considerably. The problem is that manual curation becomes harder, prone-to-errors and time-consuming, leading to a probable loss of information and inefficient knowledge acquisition. As a result, research outputs are hardly reaching engineers, hampering the calibration of mathematical models used to optimize the stability and performance of biotechnological systems. In this context, we have developed a data curation workflow, based on text mining techniques, to extract numerical parameters from scientific literature, and applied it to the biotechnology domain. A workflow was built to process wastewater-related articles with the main goal of identifying physico-chemical parameters mentioned in the text. This work describes the implementation of the workflow, identifies achievements and current limitations in the overall process, and presents the results obtained for a corpus of 50 full-text documents.

  16. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1969-01-01

    The text of the Agency's agreement for co-operation with the Organization of African Unity (OAU) is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The agreement entered into force on 26 March 1969

  17. Systematically extracting metal- and solvent-related occupational information from free-text responses to lifetime occupational history questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Melissa C; Locke, Sarah J; Tornow, Carina; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Koh, Dong-Hee; Stewart, Patricia A; Purdue, Mark; Colt, Joanne S

    2014-06-01

    Lifetime occupational history (OH) questionnaires often use open-ended questions to capture detailed information about study participants' jobs. Exposure assessors use this information, along with responses to job- and industry-specific questionnaires, to assign exposure estimates on a job-by-job basis. An alternative approach is to use information from the OH responses and the job- and industry-specific questionnaires to develop programmable decision rules for assigning exposures. As a first step in this process, we developed a systematic approach to extract the free-text OH responses and convert them into standardized variables that represented exposure scenarios. Our study population comprised 2408 subjects, reporting 11991 jobs, from a case-control study of renal cell carcinoma. Each subject completed a lifetime OH questionnaire that included verbatim responses, for each job, to open-ended questions including job title, main tasks and activities (task), tools and equipment used (tools), and chemicals and materials handled (chemicals). Based on a review of the literature, we identified exposure scenarios (occupations, industries, tasks/tools/chemicals) expected to involve possible exposure to chlorinated solvents, trichloroethylene (TCE) in particular, lead, and cadmium. We then used a SAS macro to review the information reported by study participants to identify jobs associated with each exposure scenario; this was done using previously coded standardized occupation and industry classification codes, and a priori lists of associated key words and phrases related to possibly exposed tasks, tools, and chemicals. Exposure variables representing the occupation, industry, and task/tool/chemicals exposure scenarios were added to the work history records of the study respondents. Our identification of possibly TCE-exposed scenarios in the OH responses was compared to an expert's independently assigned probability ratings to evaluate whether we missed identifying

  18. Hollow beam formation in the extraction region of ECRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batygin, Y.; Goto, A.; Yano, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Beam optics in the extraction system of an ECR ion source (ECRIS) are examined both analytically and numerically, by taking nonlinear effect due to aberrations of einzel lens into account. It is shown that this effect can cause hollow beam formation. Simple analytical criteria to keep the good beam quality in the focusing system are given. (author)

  19. Shadow Detection Based on Regions of Light Sources for Object Extraction in Nighttime Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil-beom Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent video surveillance systems detect pre-configured surveillance events through background modeling, foreground and object extraction, object tracking, and event detection. Shadow regions inside video frames sometimes appear as foreground objects, interfere with ensuing processes, and finally degrade the event detection performance of the systems. Conventional studies have mostly used intensity, color, texture, and geometric information to perform shadow detection in daytime video, but these methods lack the capability of removing shadows in nighttime video. In this paper, a novel shadow detection algorithm for nighttime video is proposed; this algorithm partitions each foreground object based on the object’s vertical histogram and screens out shadow objects by validating their orientations heading toward regions of light sources. From the experimental results, it can be seen that the proposed algorithm shows more than 93.8% shadow removal and 89.9% object extraction rates for nighttime video sequences, and the algorithm outperforms conventional shadow removal algorithms designed for daytime videos.

  20. EXTRACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have the...... and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15-25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.Database URL: https://extract.hcmr.gr/......., organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Comparison of fully manual...

  1. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations; Teksty Soglashenij o Sotrudnichestve Mezhdu Agentstvom i Regional 'Nymi Mezhpravitel' Stvennymi Organizacijami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-02-07

    The texts of the Agency's agreements for co-operation with the regional inter-governmental organizations listed below, together with the respective protocols authenticating them, are reproduced in this document in the order in which the agreements entered into force, for the information of all Members of the Agency [Russian] Teksty soglashenii Agentstva o sotrudnichestve s perechislennymi nizhe regional'nymi mezhpravitel'stvennymi organizacijami vmeste s sootvetstvujushhimi protokolami, udostoverjajushhimi ih autentichnost'; soglashenija perechisleny v porjadke vstuplenija ih v silu.

  2. Automatic Extraction and Size Distribution of Landslides in Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsalan A. Othman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to assess the localization and size distribution of landslides using automatic remote sensing techniques in (semi- arid, non-vegetated, mountainous environments. The study area is located in the Kurdistan region (NE Iraq, within the Zagros orogenic belt, which is characterized by the High Folded Zone (HFZ, the Imbricated Zone and the Zagros Suture Zone (ZSZ. The available reference inventory includes 3,190 landslides mapped from sixty QuickBird scenes using manual delineation. The landslide types involve rock falls, translational slides and slumps, which occurred in different lithological units. Two hundred and ninety of these landslides lie within the ZSZ, representing a cumulated surface of 32 km2. The HFZ implicates 2,900 landslides with an overall coverage of about 26 km2. We first analyzed cumulative landslide number-size distributions using the inventory map. We then proposed a very simple and robust algorithm for automatic landslide extraction using specific band ratios selected upon the spectral signatures of bare surfaces as well as posteriori slope and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI thresholds. The index is based on the contrast between landslides and their background, whereas the landslides have high reflections in the green and red bands. We applied the slope threshold map to remove low slope areas, which have high reflectance in red and green bands. The algorithm was able to detect ~96% of the recent landslides known from the reference inventory on a test site. The cumulative landslide number-size distribution of automatically extracted landslide is very similar to the one based on visual mapping. The automatic extraction is therefore adapted for the quantitative analysis of landslides and thus can contribute to the assessment of hazards in similar regions.

  3. Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticholinesterase Activities of Plant Seed Extracts from Brazilian Semiarid Region

    OpenAIRE

    Davi Felipe Farias; Terezinha Maria Souza; Martônio Ponte Viana; Bruno Marques Soares; Arcelina Pacheco Cunha; Ilka Maria Vasconcelos; Nágila Maria Pontes Silva Ricardo; Paulo Michel Pinheiro Ferreira; Vânia Maria Maciel Melo; Ana Fontenele Urano Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (−) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardner...

  4. Selection/extraction of spectral regions for autofluorescence spectra measured in the oral cavity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skurichina, M; Paclik, P; Duin, RPW; de Veld, D; Sterenborg, HJCM; Witjes, MJH; Roodenburg, JLN; Fred, A; Caelli, T; Duin, RPW; Campilho, A; DeRidder, D

    2004-01-01

    Recently a number of successful algorithms to select/extract discriminative spectral regions was introduced. These methods may be more beneficial than the standard feature selection/extraction methods for spectral classification. In this paper, on the example of autofluorescence spectra measured in

  5. Combining position weight matrices and document-term matrix for efficient extraction of associations of methylated genes and diseases from free text.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arwa Bin Raies

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a number of diseases, certain genes are reported to be strongly methylated and thus can serve as diagnostic markers in many cases. Scientific literature in digital form is an important source of information about methylated genes implicated in particular diseases. The large volume of the electronic text makes it difficult and impractical to search for this information manually. METHODOLOGY: We developed a novel text mining methodology based on a new concept of position weight matrices (PWMs for text representation and feature generation. We applied PWMs in conjunction with the document-term matrix to extract with high accuracy associations between methylated genes and diseases from free text. The performance results are based on large manually-classified data. Additionally, we developed a web-tool, DEMGD, which automates extraction of these associations from free text. DEMGD presents the extracted associations in summary tables and full reports in addition to evidence tagging of text with respect to genes, diseases and methylation words. The methodology we developed in this study can be applied to similar association extraction problems from free text. CONCLUSION: The new methodology developed in this study allows for efficient identification of associations between concepts. Our method applied to methylated genes in different diseases is implemented as a Web-tool, DEMGD, which is freely available at http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/demgd/. The data is available for online browsing and download.

  6. In situ genomic DNA extraction for PCR analysis of regions of interest in four plant species and one filamentous fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Rojas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The extraction methods of genomic DNA are usually laborious and hazardous to human health and the environment by the use of organic solvents (chloroform and phenol. In this work a protocol for in situ extraction of genomic DNA by alkaline lysis is validated. It was used in order to amplify regions of DNA in four species of plants and fungi by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. From plant material of Saccharum officinarum L., Carica papaya L. and Digitalis purpurea L. it was possible to extend different regions of the genome through PCR. Furthermore, it was possible to amplify a fragment of avr-4 gene DNA purified from lyophilized mycelium of Mycosphaerella fijiensis. Additionally, it was possible to amplify the region ap24 transgene inserted into the genome of banana cv. `Grande naine' (Musa AAA. Key words: alkaline lysis, Carica papaya L., Digitalis purpurea L., Musa, Saccharum officinarum L.

  7. Combining Position Weight Matrices and Document-Term Matrix for Efficient Extraction of Associations of Methylated Genes and Diseases from Free Text

    KAUST Repository

    Bin Raies, Arwa

    2013-10-16

    Background:In a number of diseases, certain genes are reported to be strongly methylated and thus can serve as diagnostic markers in many cases. Scientific literature in digital form is an important source of information about methylated genes implicated in particular diseases. The large volume of the electronic text makes it difficult and impractical to search for this information manually.Methodology:We developed a novel text mining methodology based on a new concept of position weight matrices (PWMs) for text representation and feature generation. We applied PWMs in conjunction with the document-term matrix to extract with high accuracy associations between methylated genes and diseases from free text. The performance results are based on large manually-classified data. Additionally, we developed a web-tool, DEMGD, which automates extraction of these associations from free text. DEMGD presents the extracted associations in summary tables and full reports in addition to evidence tagging of text with respect to genes, diseases and methylation words. The methodology we developed in this study can be applied to similar association extraction problems from free text.Conclusion:The new methodology developed in this study allows for efficient identification of associations between concepts. Our method applied to methylated genes in different diseases is implemented as a Web-tool, DEMGD, which is freely available at http://www.cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/demgd/. The data is available for online browsing and download. © 2013 Bin Raies et al.

  8. Automated Trait Extraction using ClearEarth, a Natural Language Processing System for Text Mining in Natural Sciences

    OpenAIRE

    Thessen,Anne; Preciado,Jenette; Jain,Payoj; Martin,James; Palmer,Martha; Bhat,Riyaz

    2018-01-01

    The cTAKES package (using the ClearTK Natural Language Processing toolkit Bethard et al. 2014, http://cleartk.github.io/cleartk/) has been successfully used to automatically read clinical notes in the medical field (Albright et al. 2013, Styler et al. 2014). It is used on a daily basis to automatically process clinical notes and extract relevant information by dozens of medical institutions. ClearEarth is a collaborative project that brings together computational linguistics and domain scient...

  9. Emotion Discrimination using spatially Compact Regions of Interest extracted from Imaging EEG Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ivan Padilla-Buritica

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lately, research on computational models of emotion had been getting much attention due to their potential for understanding the mechanisms of emotions and their promising broad range of applications that potentially bridge the gap between human and machine interactions. We propose a new method for emotion classification that relies on features extracted from those active brain areas that are most likely related to emotions. To this end, we carry out the selection of spatially compact regions of interest that are computed using the brain neural activity reconstructed from electroencephalography data. Throughout this study, we consider three representative feature extraction methods widely applied to emotion detection tasks, including Power spectral density, Wavelet, and Hjorth parameters. Further feature selection is carried out using principal component analysis. For validation purpose, these features are used to feed a support vector machine classifier that is trained under the leave-one-out cross-validation strategy. Obtained results on real affective data show that incorporation of the proposed training method in combination with the enhanced spatial resolution provided by the source estimation allows improving the performed accuracy of discrimination in most of the considered emotions, namely: dominance, valence, and linking.

  10. Automated extraction of metastatic liver cancer regions from abdominal contrast CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Junki; Matsubara, Hiroaki; Kimura, Shouta; Hasegawa, Junichi; Shinozaki, Kenji; Nawano, Shigeru

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, automated extraction of metastatic liver cancer regions from abdominal contrast X-ray CT images is investigated. Because even in Japan, cases of metastatic liver cancers are increased due to recent Europeanization and/or Americanization of Japanese eating habits, development of a system for computer aided diagnosis of them is strongly expected. Our automated extraction procedure consists of following four steps; liver region extraction, density transformation for enhancement of cancer regions, segmentation for obtaining candidate cancer regions, and reduction of false positives by shape feature. Parameter values used in each step of the procedure are decided based on density and shape features of typical metastatic liver cancers. In experiments using practical 20 cases of metastatic liver tumors, it is shown that 56% of true cancers can be detected successfully from CT images by the proposed procedure. (author)

  11. Larvicidal, antimicrobial and brine shrimp activities of extracts from Cissampelos mucronata and Tephrosia villosa from coast region, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasto Paul

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The leaves and roots of Cissampelos mucronata A. Rich (Menispermaceae are widely used in the tropics and subtropics to manage various ailments such as gastro-intestinal complaints, menstrual problems, venereal diseases and malaria. In the Coast region, Tanzania, roots are used to treat wounds due to extraction of jigger. Leaves of Tephrosia villosa (L Pers (Leguminosae are reported to be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in India. In this study, extracts from the roots and aerial parts of C. mucronata and extracts from leaves, fruits, twigs and roots of T. villosa were evaluated for larvicidal activity, brine shrimps toxicity and antimicrobial activity. Methods Powdered materials from C. mucronata were extracted sequentially by dichloromethane followed by ethanol while materials from T.villosa were extracted by ethanol only. The extracts obtained were evaluated for larvicidal activity using Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae, cytotoxicity using brine shrimp larvae and antimicrobial activity using bacteria and fungi. Results Extracts from aerial parts of C. Mucronata exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Bacillus anthracis, Streptococcus faecalis and antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. They exhibited very low toxicity to brine shrimps and had no larvicidal activity. The root extracts exhibited good larvicidal activity but weak antimicrobial activity. The root dichloromethane extracts from C. mucronata was found to be more toxic with an LC50 value of 59.608 μg/mL while ethanolic extracts from root were not toxic with LC50>100 μg/mL. Ethanol extracts from fruits and roots of T. villosa were found to be very toxic with LC50 values of 9.690 μg/mL and 4.511 μg/mL, respectively, while, ethanol extracts from leaves and twigs of T. villosa were found to be non toxic (LC50>100

  12. An Enhanced Text-Mining Framework for Extracting Disaster Relevant Data through Social Media and Remote Sensing Data Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheele, C. J.; Huang, Q.

    2016-12-01

    In the past decade, the rise in social media has led to the development of a vast number of social media services and applications. Disaster management represents one of such applications leveraging massive data generated for event detection, response, and recovery. In order to find disaster relevant social media data, current approaches utilize natural language processing (NLP) methods based on keywords, or machine learning algorithms relying on text only. However, these approaches cannot be perfectly accurate due to the variability and uncertainty in language used on social media. To improve current methods, the enhanced text-mining framework is proposed to incorporate location information from social media and authoritative remote sensing datasets for detecting disaster relevant social media posts, which are determined by assessing the textual content using common text mining methods and how the post relates spatiotemporally to the disaster event. To assess the framework, geo-tagged Tweets were collected for three different spatial and temporal disaster events: hurricane, flood, and tornado. Remote sensing data and products for each event were then collected using RealEarthTM. Both Naive Bayes and Logistic Regression classifiers were used to compare the accuracy within the enhanced text-mining framework. Finally, the accuracies from the enhanced text-mining framework were compared to the current text-only methods for each of the case study disaster events. The results from this study address the need for more authoritative data when using social media in disaster management applications.

  13. Salient Region Detection by Fusing Foreground and Background Cues Extracted from Single Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiangqiang Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Saliency detection is an important preprocessing step in many application fields such as computer vision, robotics, and graphics to reduce computational cost by focusing on significant positions and neglecting the nonsignificant in the scene. Different from most previous methods which mainly utilize the contrast of low-level features, various feature maps are fused in a simple linear weighting form. In this paper, we propose a novel salient object detection algorithm which takes both background and foreground cues into consideration and integrate a bottom-up coarse salient regions extraction and a top-down background measure via boundary labels propagation into a unified optimization framework to acquire a refined saliency detection result. Wherein the coarse saliency map is also fused by three components, the first is local contrast map which is in more accordance with the psychological law, the second is global frequency prior map, and the third is global color distribution map. During the formation of background map, first we construct an affinity matrix and select some nodes which lie on border as labels to represent the background and then carry out a propagation to generate the regional background map. The evaluation of the proposed model has been implemented on four datasets. As demonstrated in the experiments, our proposed method outperforms most existing saliency detection models with a robust performance.

  14. Antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of plant seed extracts from Brazilian semiarid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Davi Felipe; Souza, Terezinha Maria; Viana, Martônio Ponte; Soares, Bruno Marques; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Melo, Vânia Maria Maciel; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (-) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15 mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73 μ g/mL (T. gardneriana) to 487.51 μ g/mL (Licania rigida). For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9 µg/mL). Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay.

  15. The 2 mrad crossing-angle ILC interaction region and extraction line

    CERN Document Server

    Appleby, Robert; Bambade, Philip; Dadoun, Olivier; Parker, Brett; Keller, Lewis; Moffeit, Kenneth C; Nosochkov, Yuri; Seryi, Andrei; Spencer, Cherrill M; Carter, John; Napoly, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    A complete optics design for the 2mrad crossing angle interaction region and extraction line was presented at Snowmass 2005. Since this time, the design task force has been working on developing and improving the performance of the extraction line. The work has focused on optimising the final doublet parameters and on reducing the power losses resulting from the disrupted beam transport. In this paper, the most recent status of the 2mrad layout and the corresponding performance are presented.

  16. Smoke regions extraction based on two steps segmentation and motion detection in early fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Wenlin; Wu, Kaizhi; Yu, Zirong; Chen, Lijuan

    2018-03-01

    Aiming at the early problems of video-based smoke detection in fire video, this paper proposes a method to extract smoke suspected regions by combining two steps segmentation and motion characteristics. Early smoldering smoke can be seen as gray or gray-white regions. In the first stage, regions of interests (ROIs) with smoke are obtained by using two step segmentation methods. Then, suspected smoke regions are detected by combining the two step segmentation and motion detection. Finally, morphological processing is used for smoke regions extracting. The Otsu algorithm is used as segmentation method and the ViBe algorithm is used to detect the motion of smoke. The proposed method was tested on 6 test videos with smoke. The experimental results show the effectiveness of our proposed method over visual observation.

  17. Extraction of Pluvial Flood Relevant Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI by Deep Learning from User Generated Texts and Photos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Feng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, pluvial floods caused by extreme rainfall events have occurred frequently. Especially in urban areas, they lead to serious damages and endanger the citizens’ safety. Therefore, real-time information about such events is desirable. With the increasing popularity of social media platforms, such as Twitter or Instagram, information provided by voluntary users becomes a valuable source for emergency response. Many applications have been built for disaster detection and flood mapping using crowdsourcing. Most of the applications so far have merely used keyword filtering or classical language processing methods to identify disaster relevant documents based on user generated texts. As the reliability of social media information is often under criticism, the precision of information retrieval plays a significant role for further analyses. Thus, in this paper, high quality eyewitnesses of rainfall and flooding events are retrieved from social media by applying deep learning approaches on user generated texts and photos. Subsequently, events are detected through spatiotemporal clustering and visualized together with these high quality eyewitnesses in a web map application. Analyses and case studies are conducted during flooding events in Paris, London and Berlin.

  18. Application of Text Mining to Extract Hotel Attributes and Construct Perceptual Map of Five Star Hotels from Online Review: Study of Jakarta and Singapore Five-Star Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arga Hananto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of post-purchase online consumer review in hotel attributes study was still scarce in the literature. Arguably, post purchase online review data would gain more accurate attributes thatconsumers actually consider in their purchase decision. This study aims to extract attributes from two samples of five-star hotel reviews (Jakarta and Singapore with text mining methodology. In addition,this study also aims to describe positioning of five-star hotels in Jakarta and Singapore based on the extracted attributes using Correspondence Analysis. This study finds that reviewers of five star hotels in both cities mentioned similar attributes such as service, staff, club, location, pool and food. Attributes derived from text mining seem to be viable input to build fairly accurate positioning map of hotels. This study has demonstrated the viability of online review as a source of data for hotel attribute and positioning studies.

  19. Numerical analysis of electronegative plasma in the extraction region of negative hydrogen ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppel, S.; Matsushita, D.; Hatayama, A.; Bacal, M.

    2011-01-01

    This numerical study focuses on the physical mechanisms involved in the extraction of volume-produced H- ions from a steady state laboratory negative hydrogen ion source with one opening in the plasma electrode (PE) on which a dc-bias voltage is applied. A weak magnetic field is applied in the source plasma transversely to the extracted beam. The goal is to highlight the combined effects of the weak magnetic field and the PE bias voltage (upon the extraction process of H- ions and electrons). To do so, we focus on the behavior of electrons and volume-produced negative ions within a two-dimensional model using the particle-in-cell method. No collision processes are taken into account, except for electron diffusion across the magnetic field using a simple random-walk model at each time step of the simulation. The results show first that applying the magnetic field (without PE bias) enhances H- ion extraction, while it drastically decreases the extracted electron current. Secondly, the extracted H- ion current has a maximum when the PE bias is equal to the plasma potential, while the extracted electron current is significantly reduced by applying the PE bias. The underlying mechanism leading to the above results is the gradual opening by the PE bias of the equipotential lines towards the parts of the extraction region facing the PE. The shape of these lines is due originally to the electron trapping by the magnetic field.

  20. Numerical analysis of electronegative plasma in the extraction region of negative hydrogen ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuppel, S.; Matsushita, D.; Hatayama, A.; Bacal, M.

    2011-01-01

    This numerical study focuses on the physical mechanisms involved in the extraction of volume-produced H - ions from a steady state laboratory negative hydrogen ion source with one opening in the plasma electrode (PE) on which a dc-bias voltage is applied. A weak magnetic field is applied in the source plasma transversely to the extracted beam. The goal is to highlight the combined effects of the weak magnetic field and the PE bias voltage (upon the extraction process of H - ions and electrons). To do so, we focus on the behavior of electrons and volume-produced negative ions within a two-dimensional model using the particle-in-cell method. No collision processes are taken into account, except for electron diffusion across the magnetic field using a simple random-walk model at each time step of the simulation. The results show first that applying the magnetic field (without PE bias) enhances H - ion extraction, while it drastically decreases the extracted electron current. Secondly, the extracted H - ion current has a maximum when the PE bias is equal to the plasma potential, while the extracted electron current is significantly reduced by applying the PE bias. The underlying mechanism leading to the above results is the gradual opening by the PE bias of the equipotential lines towards the parts of the extraction region facing the PE. The shape of these lines is due originally to the electron trapping by the magnetic field.

  1. ADEPt, a semantically-enriched pipeline for extracting adverse drug events from free-text electronic health records.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehtesham Iqbal

    Full Text Available Adverse drug events (ADEs are unintended responses to medical treatment. They can greatly affect a patient's quality of life and present a substantial burden on healthcare. Although Electronic health records (EHRs document a wealth of information relating to ADEs, they are frequently stored in the unstructured or semi-structured free-text narrative requiring Natural Language Processing (NLP techniques to mine the relevant information. Here we present a rule-based ADE detection and classification pipeline built and tested on a large Psychiatric corpus comprising 264k patients using the de-identified EHRs of four UK-based psychiatric hospitals. The pipeline uses characteristics specific to Psychiatric EHRs to guide the annotation process, and distinguishes: a the temporal value associated with the ADE mention (whether it is historical or present, b the categorical value of the ADE (whether it is assertive, hypothetical, retrospective or a general discussion and c the implicit contextual value where the status of the ADE is deduced from surrounding indicators, rather than explicitly stated. We manually created the rulebase in collaboration with clinicians and pharmacists by studying ADE mentions in various types of clinical notes. We evaluated the open-source Adverse Drug Event annotation Pipeline (ADEPt using 19 ADEs specific to antipsychotics and antidepressants medication. The ADEs chosen vary in severity, regularity and persistence. The average F-measure and accuracy achieved by our tool across all tested ADEs were 0.83 and 0.83 respectively. In addition to annotation power, the ADEPT pipeline presents an improvement to the state of the art context-discerning algorithm, ConText.

  2. The freetext matching algorithm: a computer program to extract diagnoses and causes of death from unstructured text in electronic health records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Anoop D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electronic health records are invaluable for medical research, but much information is stored as free text rather than in a coded form. For example, in the UK General Practice Research Database (GPRD, causes of death and test results are sometimes recorded only in free text. Free text can be difficult to use for research if it requires time-consuming manual review. Our aim was to develop an automated method for extracting coded information from free text in electronic patient records. Methods We reviewed the electronic patient records in GPRD of a random sample of 3310 patients who died in 2001, to identify the cause of death. We developed a computer program called the Freetext Matching Algorithm (FMA to map diagnoses in text to the Read Clinical Terminology. The program uses lookup tables of synonyms and phrase patterns to identify diagnoses, dates and selected test results. We tested it on two random samples of free text from GPRD (1000 texts associated with death in 2001, and 1000 general texts from cases and controls in a coronary artery disease study, comparing the output to the U.S. National Library of Medicine’s MetaMap program and the gold standard of manual review. Results Among 3310 patients registered in the GPRD who died in 2001, the cause of death was recorded in coded form in 38.1% of patients, and in the free text alone in 19.4%. On the 1000 texts associated with death, FMA coded 683 of the 735 positive diagnoses, with precision (positive predictive value 98.4% (95% confidence interval (CI 97.2, 99.2 and recall (sensitivity 92.9% (95% CI 90.8, 94.7. On the general sample, FMA detected 346 of the 447 positive diagnoses, with precision 91.5% (95% CI 88.3, 94.1 and recall 77.4% (95% CI 73.2, 81.2, which was similar to MetaMap. Conclusions We have developed an algorithm to extract coded information from free text in GP records with good precision. It may facilitate research using free text in electronic patient

  3. Towards a realistic 3D simulation of the extraction region in ITER NBI relevant ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochalskyy, S.; Wünderlich, D.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Minea, T.

    2015-03-01

    The development of negative ion (NI) sources for ITER is strongly accompanied by modelling activities. The ONIX code addresses the physics of formation and extraction of negative hydrogen ions at caesiated sources as well as the amount of co-extracted electrons. In order to be closer to the experimental conditions the code has been improved. It includes now the bias potential applied to first grid (plasma grid) of the extraction system, and the presence of Cs+ ions in the plasma. The simulation results show that such aspects play an important role for the formation of an ion-ion plasma in the boundary region by reducing the depth of the negative potential well in vicinity to the plasma grid that limits the extraction of the NIs produced at the Cs covered plasma grid surface. The influence of the initial temperature of the surface produced NI and its emission rate on the NI density in the bulk plasma that in turn affects the beam formation region was analysed. The formation of the plasma meniscus, the boundary between the plasma and the beam, was investigated for the extraction potentials of 5 and 10 kV. At the smaller extraction potential the meniscus moves closer to the plasma grid but as in the case of 10 kV the deepest meniscus bend point is still outside of the aperture. Finally, a plasma containing the same amount of NI and electrons (nH- =ne =1017 m-3) , representing good source conditioning, was simulated. It is shown that at such conditions the extracted NI current can reach values of ˜32 mA cm-2 using ITER-relevant extraction potential of 10 kV and ˜19 mA cm-2 at 5 kV. These results are in good agreement with experimental measurements performed at the small scale ITER prototype source at the test facility BATMAN.

  4. Towards a realistic 3D simulation of the extraction region in ITER NBI relevant ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochalskyy, S.; Wünderlich, D.; Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Minea, T.

    2015-01-01

    The development of negative ion (NI) sources for ITER is strongly accompanied by modelling activities. The ONIX code addresses the physics of formation and extraction of negative hydrogen ions at caesiated sources as well as the amount of co-extracted electrons. In order to be closer to the experimental conditions the code has been improved. It includes now the bias potential applied to first grid (plasma grid) of the extraction system, and the presence of Cs + ions in the plasma. The simulation results show that such aspects play an important role for the formation of an ion–ion plasma in the boundary region by reducing the depth of the negative potential well in vicinity to the plasma grid that limits the extraction of the NIs produced at the Cs covered plasma grid surface. The influence of the initial temperature of the surface produced NI and its emission rate on the NI density in the bulk plasma that in turn affects the beam formation region was analysed. The formation of the plasma meniscus, the boundary between the plasma and the beam, was investigated for the extraction potentials of 5 and 10 kV. At the smaller extraction potential the meniscus moves closer to the plasma grid but as in the case of 10 kV the deepest meniscus bend point is still outside of the aperture. Finally, a plasma containing the same amount of NI and electrons (n H − =n e =10 17 m −3 ), representing good source conditioning, was simulated. It is shown that at such conditions the extracted NI current can reach values of ∼32 mA cm −2 using ITER-relevant extraction potential of 10 kV and ∼19 mA cm −2 at 5 kV. These results are in good agreement with experimental measurements performed at the small scale ITER prototype source at the test facility BATMAN. (paper)

  5. Extracting Vegetation Coverage in Dry-hot Valley Regions Based on Alternating Angle Minimum Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y Yang, M.; Wang, J.; Zhang, Q.

    2017-07-01

    Vegetation coverage is one of the most important indicators for ecological environment change, and is also an effective index for the assessment of land degradation and desertification. The dry-hot valley regions have sparse surface vegetation, and the spectral information about the vegetation in such regions usually has a weak representation in remote sensing, so there are considerable limitations for applying the commonly-used vegetation index method to calculate the vegetation coverage in the dry-hot valley regions. Therefore, in this paper, Alternating Angle Minimum (AAM) algorithm of deterministic model is adopted for selective endmember for pixel unmixing of MODIS image in order to extract the vegetation coverage, and accuracy test is carried out by the use of the Landsat TM image over the same period. As shown by the results, in the dry-hot valley regions with sparse vegetation, AAM model has a high unmixing accuracy, and the extracted vegetation coverage is close to the actual situation, so it is promising to apply the AAM model to the extraction of vegetation coverage in the dry-hot valley regions.

  6. ZK DrugResist 2.0: A TextMiner to extract semantic relations of drug resistance from PubMed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Zoya; Sezerman, Osman Ugur

    2017-05-01

    Extracting useful knowledge from an unstructured textual data is a challenging task for biologists, since biomedical literature is growing exponentially on a daily basis. Building an automated method for such tasks is gaining much attention of researchers. ZK DrugResist is an online tool that automatically extracts mutations and expression changes associated with drug resistance from PubMed. In this study we have extended our tool to include semantic relations extracted from biomedical text covering drug resistance and established a server including both of these features. Our system was tested for three relations, Resistance (R), Intermediate (I) and Susceptible (S) by applying hybrid feature set. From the last few decades the focus has changed to hybrid approaches as it provides better results. In our case this approach combines rule-based methods with machine learning techniques. The results showed 97.67% accuracy with 96% precision, recall and F-measure. The results have outperformed the previously existing relation extraction systems thus can facilitate computational analysis of drug resistance against complex diseases and further can be implemented on other areas of biomedicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Method for Automatic Extracting Intracranial Region in MR Brain Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Keiji; Miura, Shin; Nishida, Makoto; Kageyama, Yoichi; Namura, Ikuro

    It is well known that temporal lobe in MR brain image is in use for estimating the grade of Alzheimer-type dementia. It is difficult to use only region of temporal lobe for estimating the grade of Alzheimer-type dementia. From the standpoint for supporting the medical specialists, this paper proposes a data processing approach on the automatic extraction of the intracranial region from the MR brain image. The method is able to eliminate the cranium region with the laplacian histogram method and the brainstem with the feature points which are related to the observations given by a medical specialist. In order to examine the usefulness of the proposed approach, the percentage of the temporal lobe in the intracranial region was calculated. As a result, the percentage of temporal lobe in the intracranial region on the process of the grade was in agreement with the visual sense standards of temporal lobe atrophy given by the medical specialist. It became clear that intracranial region extracted by the proposed method was good for estimating the grade of Alzheimer-type dementia.

  8. Adverse Event extraction from Structured Product Labels using the Event-based Text-mining of Health Electronic Records (ETHER)system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Abhishek; Kreimeyer, Kory; Foster, Matthew; Botsis, Taxiarchis; Dang, Oanh; Ly, Thomas; Wang, Wei; Forshee, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Structured Product Labels follow an XML-based document markup standard approved by the Health Level Seven organization and adopted by the US Food and Drug Administration as a mechanism for exchanging medical products information. Their current organization makes their secondary use rather challenging. We used the Side Effect Resource database and DailyMed to generate a comparison dataset of 1159 Structured Product Labels. We processed the Adverse Reaction section of these Structured Product Labels with the Event-based Text-mining of Health Electronic Records system and evaluated its ability to extract and encode Adverse Event terms to Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities Preferred Terms. A small sample of 100 labels was then selected for further analysis. Of the 100 labels, Event-based Text-mining of Health Electronic Records achieved a precision and recall of 81 percent and 92 percent, respectively. This study demonstrated Event-based Text-mining of Health Electronic Record's ability to extract and encode Adverse Event terms from Structured Product Labels which may potentially support multiple pharmacoepidemiological tasks.

  9. Sliding Window-Based Region of Interest Extraction for Finger Vein Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lu; Yang, Gongping; Yin, Yilong; Xiao, Rongyang

    2013-01-01

    Region of Interest (ROI) extraction is a crucial step in an automatic finger vein recognition system. The aim of ROI extraction is to decide which part of the image is suitable for finger vein feature extraction. This paper proposes a finger vein ROI extraction method which is robust to finger displacement and rotation. First, we determine the middle line of the finger, which will be used to correct the image skew. Then, a sliding window is used to detect the phalangeal joints and further to ascertain the height of ROI. Last, for the corrective image with certain height, we will obtain the ROI by using the internal tangents of finger edges as the left and right boundary. The experimental results show that the proposed method can extract ROI more accurately and effectively compared with other methods, and thus improve the performance of finger vein identification system. Besides, to acquire the high quality finger vein image during the capture process, we propose eight criteria for finger vein capture from different aspects and these criteria should be helpful to some extent for finger vein capture. PMID:23507824

  10. Quantitative methodology to extract regional magnetotelluric impedances and determine the dimension of the conductivity structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groom, R [PetRos EiKon Incorporated, Ontario (Canada); Kurtz, R; Jones, A; Boerner, D [Geological Survey of Canada, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes a systematic method for determining the appropriate dimensionality of magnetotelluric (MT) data from a site, and illustrates the application of this method to analyze both synthetic data and real data. Additionally, it describes the extraction of regional impedance responses from multiple sites. This method was examined extensively with synthetic data, and proven to be successful. It was demonstrated for two neighboring sites that the analysis methodology can be extremely useful in unraveling the bulk regional response when hidden by strong three-dimensional effects. Although there may still be some uncertainties remaining in the true levels for the regional responses for stations LIT000 and LITW02, the analysis has provided models which not only fit the data but are consistent for neighboring sites. It was suggested from these data that the stations are seeing significantly different structures. 12 refs.

  11. The text of an African regional co-operative agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The document reproduces the text of an African Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology among African Member States that was endorsed by the Board of Governors on 21 February 1990

  12. Antioxidant and antitopoisomerase activities in plant extracts of some Colombian flora from La Marcada Natural Regional Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Niño

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Many plants have been used to treat some diseases and infections since time immemorial, and this potential has been exploited by the pharmaceutical industry in the search of new analgesic, anticarcinogenic and antimicrobial agents, among other active agents. in order to contribute with bioprospection studies on the Colombian flora, 35 extracts from 13 plant species belonging to seven families (Apocynaceae, Cactaceae, Costaceae, Eremolepidaceae, Passifloraceae, Solanaceae and Urticaceae were collected from La Marcada Natural Regional Park (LMNRP, Colombia. Dichloromethane, n-hexane and aqueous-methanol crude extracts were prepared and evaluated for their activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae RS322N, R52Y and RS321 strains in the yeast mutant assay and their antioxidant capacity through the DPPH test. The dichloromethane extract from Myriocarpa stipitata (Urticaceae showed moderate inhibitory activity against the three S. cerevisiae strains tested. The capacity of the dichloromethane extract from M. stipitata to inhibit the enzyme topoisomerase I and to cause DNA damage was inferred from these results. In the DPPH assay, the n-hexane crude extract from Costus sp. (Costaceae showed good antioxidant activity (48%; in addition, the crude dichloromethane and aqueous-methanol extracts from Rhipsalis micrantha (Cactaceae showed moderate antioxidant activity with percentage of 29 and 21%, respectively. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1089-1097. Epub 2011 September 01.Desde tiempos inmemoriales, muchas plantas han sido usadas para el tratamiento de varias enfermedades e infecciones, este potencial ha sido explotado por la industria farmacéutica en la búsqueda de nuevos agentes analgésicos, anticancerígenos y antimicrobianos, entre otros. Consientes con esto, se evaluó la actividad de 35 extractos de 13 especies de plantas recolectadas en el Parque Regional Natural La Marcada (PRNLM, Colombia contra las cepas mutadas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae RS322N, R

  13. The Text of the Agreement of 8 July Extending the Asian Regional Co-Operative Project on Food Irradiation. Extension Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-12-01

    The text of the Agreement to Extend the Agreement of 23 May 1980 Establishing the Asian Regional Co-operative Project on Food Irradiation within the framework of the Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology of 1972, as extended in 1977 and in 1982, is reproduced herein for the information of all Members

  14. Algorithm based on regional separation for automatic grain boundary extraction using improved mean shift method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenying, Xu; Jiandong, Zhu; Qi, Zhang; Yamba, Philip

    2018-06-01

    Metallographic microscopy shows that the vast majority of metal materials are composed of many small grains; the grain size of a metal is important for determining the tensile strength, toughness, plasticity, and other mechanical properties. In order to quantitatively evaluate grain size in metals, grain boundaries must be identified in metallographic images. Based on the phenomenon of grain boundary blurring or disconnection in metallographic images, this study develops an algorithm based on regional separation for automatically extracting grain boundaries by an improved mean shift method. Experimental observation shows that the grain boundaries obtained by the proposed algorithm are highly complete and accurate. This research has practical value because the proposed algorithm is suitable for grain boundary extraction from most metallographic images.

  15. The regional economic impact of oil and gas extraction in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jim

    2015-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the regional economic impact of oil and gas extraction in Texas during the recent shale oil boom. Regressions with county-level data over the period 2009–2014 support smaller multiplier effects on local employment and income than corresponding estimates drawn from popular input–output-based studies. Economic impacts were larger for extraction from gas wells than oil wells, while the drilling phase generated comparable impacts. Estimates of economic impacts are greater in a dynamic spatial panel model that allows for spillover effects across local economies as well as over time. - Highlights: • Economic impacts and multiplier effects differ between oil and gas wells in Texas. • Interactions among local economies raise employment and income effects. • Impacts persist over time, raising the long-run multipliers. • Greater economic impacts from newly drilled wells than legacy wells.

  16. Text of an African regional co-operative agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    As of 1 September 1994, notifications of acceptance of the African Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (see INFCIRC/377), in accordance with Article XIII thereof, had been received by the Director General from the Governments of: Tunisia, Egypt, Algeria, Nigeria, Madagascar, Libya, Morocco, Kenya, Sudan, Ghana, Tanzania, Mauritius, Cameroon, South Africa, Zaire, Ethiopia, Zambia, Niger. The Agreement entered into force on 4 April 1990, the date of receipt of the third notification of acceptance

  17. Extracted atmospheric impairments on earth-sky signal quality in tropical regions at Ku-band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saegh, Ali Mohammed; Sali, Aduwati; Mandeep, J. S.; Ismail, Alyani

    2013-11-01

    Atmospheric condition variations were shown to have a major effect on the earth sky signal quality at Ku band. Moreover, such variations increased in the tropical regions as compared to temperate areas due to their different weather parameters. With the increase of recent satellite communication technology applications throughout the tropical countries and lack of information regarding the atmospheric impairments analysis, simulation and mitigation techniques, there is an ever increasing need for extracting a unique and accurate performance of the signal quality effects during highly natural tropical weather impairments. This paper presents a new method developed for proper analysis with distinctive and highly realistic performance evaluation for signal quality during the atmospheric conditions variations in 14 tropical areas from the four continents analyzed based on actual measured parameters. The method implementation includes signal attenuation, carrier to noise ratio, symbol energy to noise ratio, and symbol error rate at different areas and different modulation schemes. Furthermore, for improvement in analysis in terms of covering more remarkable regions in tropics, the paper provides new measurements data with analysis for certain region in tropics used as a test bed and to add measurement data of such area to the world's data base for future researchers. The results show a significant investigation and performance observation in terms of weather impairments in tropical regions in general and each region in that area in particular regarding the signal attenuation and error rates accompanied for several transmission schemes.

  18. Chemical composition of hydroethanolic extracts from Siparuna guianensis, medicinal plant used as anxiolytics in Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Negri

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Siparuna guianensis Aubl., Siparunaceae, is used as anxiolytic plants in folk medicine by South-American indians, "caboclos" and river-dwellers. This work focused the evaluation of phenolic composition of hydroethanolic extract of S. guianensis through HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS/MS. The constituents exhibited protonated, deprotonated and sodiated molecules and the MS/MS fragmentation of protonated, deprotonated and sodiated molecules provided product ions with rich structural information. Vicenin-2 (apigenin-6,8-di-C-glucoside was the main constituent found in S. guianensis together quercetin-3,7-di-O-rhamnoside and kaempferol-3,7di-O-rhamnoside. A commercial extract of Passiflora incarnata (Phytomedicine was used as surrogate standard and also was analyzed through HPLC-DAD-ESI/ MS/MS, showing flavones C-glycosides as constituents, among them, vicenin-2 and vitexin. The main constituent was vitexin. Flavonols triglycosides was also found in low content in S. guianensis and were tentatively characterized as quercetin-3O-rutinoside-7-O-rhamnoside, quercetin-3-O-pentosyl-pentoside-7-O-rhamnoside and kaempferol-3-O-pentosyl-pentoside-7-O-rhamnoside. Apigenin and kaempferol derivatives had been reported as anxiolytic agents. Flavonoids present in this extract were correlated with flavonoids reported as anxiolytics.

  19. Chemical composition of hydroethanolic extracts from Siparuna guianensis, medicinal plant used as anxiolytics in Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Negri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Siparuna guianensis Aubl., Siparunaceae, is used as anxiolytic plants in folk medicine by South-American indians, "caboclos" and river-dwellers. This work focused the evaluation of phenolic composition of hydroethanolic extract of S. guianensis through HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS/MS. The constituents exhibited protonated, deprotonated and sodiated molecules and the MS/MS fragmentation of protonated, deprotonated and sodiated molecules provided product ions with rich structural information. Vicenin-2 (apigenin-6,8-di-C-glucoside was the main constituent found in S. guianensis together quercetin-3,7-di-O-rhamnoside and kaempferol-3,7di-O-rhamnoside. A commercial extract of Passiflora incarnata (Phytomedicine was used as surrogate standard and also was analyzed through HPLC-DAD-ESI/ MS/MS, showing flavones C-glycosides as constituents, among them, vicenin-2 and vitexin. The main constituent was vitexin. Flavonols triglycosides was also found in low content in S. guianensis and were tentatively characterized as quercetin-3O-rutinoside-7-O-rhamnoside, quercetin-3-O-pentosyl-pentoside-7-O-rhamnoside and kaempferol-3-O-pentosyl-pentoside-7-O-rhamnoside. Apigenin and kaempferol derivatives had been reported as anxiolytic agents. Flavonoids present in this extract were correlated with flavonoids reported as anxiolytics.

  20. Income and employment effects of shale gas extraction windfalls: Evidence from the Marcellus region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes, Dusan; Komarek, Timothy; Loveridge, Scott

    2015-01-01

    New technologies combining hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling in oil and gas extraction are creating a sudden expansion of production. Residents of places where deep underground oil and gas deposits are found want to know about the broader economic, social, and environmental impacts of these activities that generate windfall income for some residents. We first review the literature on windfall spending patterns. Then, using the Marcellus region, the earliest area to be tapped using the new techniques, we estimate county-level employment and income effects. For robustness, we employ two methods. Using a propensity score matching approach we find no effect of fracking on income or employment. A panel-fixed effect regression approach suggests statistically significant employment effects in six out of seven alternative specifications, but significant income effects in only one out of seven specifications. In short, the income spillover effects in the Marcellus region appear to be minimal, meaning there's little incentive at the county level to incur current or potential future costs that may be associated with this activity. We conclude with some ideas on how localities might employ policies that would allow natural gas extraction to move forward, benefitting landowners, while establishing some financial safeguards for the broader community. - Highlights: • We examine the effect of fracking on local employment and income. • The differing policies in the Marcellus region provide a natural policy experiment. • Propensity score matching shows no income or employment growth from fracking. • Panel data estimates show weak impacts on employment and income. • We suggest ways to address possible future environmental consequences

  1. Pedestrian detection in thermal images: An automated scale based region extraction with curvelet space validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, A.; Faheema, A. G. J.; Deodhare, Dipti

    2016-05-01

    Pedestrian detection is a key problem in night vision processing with a dozen of applications that will positively impact the performance of autonomous systems. Despite significant progress, our study shows that performance of state-of-the-art thermal image pedestrian detectors still has much room for improvement. The purpose of this paper is to overcome the challenge faced by the thermal image pedestrian detectors, which employ intensity based Region Of Interest (ROI) extraction followed by feature based validation. The most striking disadvantage faced by the first module, ROI extraction, is the failed detection of cloth insulted parts. To overcome this setback, this paper employs an algorithm and a principle of region growing pursuit tuned to the scale of the pedestrian. The statistics subtended by the pedestrian drastically vary with the scale and deviation from normality approach facilitates scale detection. Further, the paper offers an adaptive mathematical threshold to resolve the problem of subtracting the background while extracting cloth insulated parts as well. The inherent false positives of the ROI extraction module are limited by the choice of good features in pedestrian validation step. One such feature is curvelet feature, which has found its use extensively in optical images, but has as yet no reported results in thermal images. This has been used to arrive at a pedestrian detector with a reduced false positive rate. This work is the first venture made to scrutinize the utility of curvelet for characterizing pedestrians in thermal images. Attempt has also been made to improve the speed of curvelet transform computation. The classification task is realized through the use of the well known methodology of Support Vector Machines (SVMs). The proposed method is substantiated with qualified evaluation methodologies that permits us to carry out probing and informative comparisons across state-of-the-art features, including deep learning methods, with six

  2. Multi-resolution analysis for region of interest extraction in thermographic nondestructive evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Jaramillo, B.; Fandiño Toro, H. A.; Benitez-Restrepo, H. D.; Orjuela-Vargas, S. A.; Castellanos-Domínguez, G.; Philips, W.

    2012-03-01

    Infrared Non-Destructive Testing (INDT) is known as an effective and rapid method for nondestructive inspection. It can detect a broad range of near-surface structuring flaws in metallic and composite components. Those flaws are modeled as a smooth contour centered at peaks of stored thermal energy, termed Regions of Interest (ROI). Dedicated methodologies must detect the presence of those ROIs. In this paper, we present a methodology for ROI extraction in INDT tasks. The methodology deals with the difficulties due to the non-uniform heating. The non-uniform heating affects low spatial/frequencies and hinders the detection of relevant points in the image. In this paper, a methodology for ROI extraction in INDT using multi-resolution analysis is proposed, which is robust to ROI low contrast and non-uniform heating. The former methodology includes local correlation, Gaussian scale analysis and local edge detection. In this methodology local correlation between image and Gaussian window provides interest points related to ROIs. We use a Gaussian window because thermal behavior is well modeled by Gaussian smooth contours. Also, the Gaussian scale is used to analyze details in the image using multi-resolution analysis avoiding low contrast, non-uniform heating and selection of the Gaussian window size. Finally, local edge detection is used to provide a good estimation of the boundaries in the ROI. Thus, we provide a methodology for ROI extraction based on multi-resolution analysis that is better or equal compared with the other dedicate algorithms proposed in the state of art.

  3. The continuous inhalation of oxygen-15 for assessing regional oxygen extraction in the brain of man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.; Chesler, D.A.; Ter-Pogossian, M.M.

    1976-01-01

    A non-invasive steady-state method for studying the regional accumulation of oxygen in the brain by continuously inhaling oxygen-15 has been investigated. Oxygen respiration by tissue results in the formation of water of metabolism which may be considered as the 'exhaust product' of respiration. In turn the steady-state distribution of this product may be related to that of oxygen utilization. It has been found in monkeys than an appreciable component of the signal, recorded over the head during the inhalation of 15 O 2 , was attributable to the local production of 15 O-labelled water of metabolism. In man the distribution of radioactivity recorded over the head during 15 O 2 inhalation clearly related to active cerebal tissue. Theoretically the respiration product is linearly dependent on the oxygen extraction ratio of the tissue, and at normal cerebal perfusion it is less sensitive to changes in blood flow. At low rates of perfusion a more linear dependence on flow is shown. The dual dependence on blood flow and oxygen extraction limited the interpretation of the cerebal distribution obtained with this technique. Means for obtaining more definitive measurements with this approach are discussed. (author)

  4. Estimation of regional air-quality damages from Marcellus Shale natural gas extraction in Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litovitz, Aviva; Abramzon, Shmuel; Curtright, Aimee; Samaras, Constantine; Burger, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    This letter provides a first-order estimate of conventional air pollutant emissions, and the monetary value of the associated environmental and health damages, from the extraction of unconventional shale gas in Pennsylvania. Region-wide estimated damages ranged from $7.2 to $32 million dollars for 2011. The emissions from Pennsylvania shale gas extraction represented only a few per cent of total statewide emissions, and the resulting statewide damages were less than those estimated for each of the state’s largest coal-based power plants. On the other hand, in counties where activities are concentrated, NO x emissions from all shale gas activities were 20–40 times higher than allowable for a single minor source, despite the fact that individual new gas industry facilities generally fall below the major source threshold for NO x . Most emissions are related to ongoing activities, i.e., gas production and compression, which can be expected to persist beyond initial development and which are largely unrelated to the unconventional nature of the resource. Regulatory agencies and the shale gas industry, in developing regulations and best practices, should consider air emissions from these long-term activities, especially if development occurs in more populated areas of the state where per-ton emissions damages are significantly higher. (letter)

  5. The text of the third agreement to extend the regional co-operative agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology of 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The full text of the third agreement to extend the regional co-operative agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology of 1972 (INFCIRC/167) (extended first in 1977 and then in 1982) for a further period of five years with effect from 12 June 1987, is reproduced

  6. The Text of the Third Agreement to Extend the Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology of 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-09-01

    The text of the Third Agreement to Extend the Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology of 1972 the RCA Agreement, extended first in 1977 and then in 1982, for a further period of five years with effect from 12 June 1987, is reproduced herein for the information of all Members [fr

  7. The Text of a Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology. Latest Status. Declarations/Reservations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    The text of a Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology between the Agency and Member States is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. Section 9 thereof specifies the Members that may become party to it [es

  8. The Text of a Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology. Latest Status. Declarations/Reservations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    The text of a Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology between the Agency and Member States is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. Section 9 thereof specifies the Members that may become party to it

  9. The text of the second agreement to extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Second Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology for a further period of five years with effect from 12 june 1997, i.e., through 11 June 2002

  10. The Text of a Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology. Latest Status. Declarations/Reservations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    The text of a Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology between the Agency and Member States is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. Section 9 thereof specifies the Members that may become party to it [fr

  11. The text of the Agreement establishing the Asian Regional Co-operative Project on Medical and Biological Applications of Nuclear Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-04-01

    The full text of the Agreement establishing the Asian Regional Co-operative Project on Medical and Biological Applications of Nuclear Techniques between the Agency and Member States is reproduced. The Agreement entered into force on 20 May 1986 after the Governments of Japan, Bangladesh and the Philippines had notified the Agency of their acceptance of the Agreement

  12. The Text of the Second Agreement to Extend the Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology of 1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    The text of the Second Agreement to Extend the Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology of 1972 the RCA Agreement, fist extended in 1977, for a further period of five years with effect from 12 June 1982, is reproduced herein for the information of all Members

  13. A Proposed Arabic Handwritten Text Normalization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Abu-Ain

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Text normalization is an important technique in document image analysis and recognition. It consists of many preprocessing stages, which include slope correction, text padding, skew correction, and straight the writing line. In this side, text normalization has an important role in many procedures such as text segmentation, feature extraction and characters recognition. In the present article, a new method for text baseline detection, straightening, and slant correction for Arabic handwritten texts is proposed. The method comprises a set of sequential steps: first components segmentation is done followed by components text thinning; then, the direction features of the skeletons are extracted, and the candidate baseline regions are determined. After that, selection of the correct baseline region is done, and finally, the baselines of all components are aligned with the writing line.  The experiments are conducted on IFN/ENIT benchmark Arabic dataset. The results show that the proposed method has a promising and encouraging performance.

  14. A novel airport extraction model based on saliency region detection for high spatial resolution remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wen; Zhang, Libao; Zhu, Yongchun

    2017-06-01

    The airport is one of the most crucial traffic facilities in military and civil fields. Automatic airport extraction in high spatial resolution remote sensing images has many applications such as regional planning and military reconnaissance. Traditional airport extraction strategies usually base on prior knowledge and locate the airport target by template matching and classification, which will cause high computation complexity and large costs of computing resources for high spatial resolution remote sensing images. In this paper, we propose a novel automatic airport extraction model based on saliency region detection, airport runway extraction and adaptive threshold segmentation. In saliency region detection, we choose frequency-tuned (FT) model for computing airport saliency using low level features of color and luminance that is easy and fast to implement and can provide full-resolution saliency maps. In airport runway extraction, Hough transform is adopted to count the number of parallel line segments. In adaptive threshold segmentation, the Otsu threshold segmentation algorithm is proposed to obtain more accurate airport regions. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed model outperforms existing saliency analysis models and shows good performance in the extraction of the airport.

  15. The Text of the Agreement for conducting under the Auspices of the Agency. A Regional Joint Training and Research Programme using a Neutron Crystal Spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    On 11 June 1964 the Board of Governors approved an Agreement for conducting, under the auspices of the Agency, a regional joint training and research programme using a neutron crystal spectrometer. The text of that Agreement is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The entry into force of the Agreement in accordance with Section 17 thereof, as well as later acceptances by additional Governments, will be notified to Members in addenda to this document

  16. The Text of the Agreement for conducting under the Auspices of the Agency. A Regional Joint Training and Research Programme using a Neutron Crystal Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1964-07-22

    On 11 June 1964 the Board of Governors approved an Agreement for conducting, under the auspices of the Agency, a regional joint training and research programme using a neutron crystal spectrometer. The text of that Agreement is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The entry into force of the Agreement in accordance with Section 17 thereof, as well as later acceptances by additional Governments, will be notified to Members in addenda to this document.

  17. The text of the agreement to extend the regional co-operative agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-09-01

    The document reproduces the text of the Agreement to Extend the Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 1987, for a further period of five years with effect from 12 June 1992. Australia, Bangladesh, the People's Republic of China, India, Indonesia, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Viet Nam are parties of this Agreement

  18. Text Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  19. Chemical content and antimicrobial properties of three different extracts of Mentha pulegium leaves from Mugla Region, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan-Güvensen, Nur; Keskin, Dilek

    2016-11-01

    The extract of ethanol, methanol and DMSO of pennyroyal leaves from Mugla Region (Turkey) were tested for antimicrobial activity against eleven bacterial and one yeast strain by disc diffusion method. Among the extracts assayed, the methanol extract of pennyroyal leaves exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus with 20 mm diameter inhibition zone. The DMSO extract of pennyroyal leaves displayed significant activity against S.aureus (19 mm) and Bacillus subtilis (21mm) showing inhibition zone of 19 mm and 21 mm diameter, while the ethanolic extract showed significant antimicrobial activity against S.aureus (17mm) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (20mm) inhibition zones.? On comparint the MIC value of ethanol, methanol and DMSO leaf extract, methanolic extract of pennyroyal presented best activity (MIC 8 mg ml-1) against S. typhimurium CCM 583 and S.aureus ATCC 6538/P. Analyses of GC/MS determined eleven compounds viz., neophytadiene (69.95%), Pulejon 7.85%, Pinane 4.81%, Bicyclo (3.1.1 Heptane 2.6.6.6 trimethyl) 4.68%. In conclusion, methanolic extracts of M. pulegium showed antimicrobial activity because of high neophytadiene content.

  20. Larvicidal, antimicrobial and brine shrimp activities of extracts from Cissampelos mucronata and Tephrosia villosa from coast region, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nondo, Ramadhani S O; Mbwambo, Zakaria H; Kidukuli, Abdul W; Innocent, Ester M; Mihale, Matobola J; Erasto, Paul; Moshi, Mainen J

    2011-04-23

    The leaves and roots of Cissampelos mucronata A. Rich (Menispermaceae) are widely used in the tropics and subtropics to manage various ailments such as gastro-intestinal complaints, menstrual problems, venereal diseases and malaria. In the Coast region, Tanzania, roots are used to treat wounds due to extraction of jigger. Leaves of Tephrosia villosa (L) Pers (Leguminosae) are reported to be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus in India. In this study, extracts from the roots and aerial parts of C. mucronata and extracts from leaves, fruits, twigs and roots of T. villosa were evaluated for larvicidal activity, brine shrimps toxicity and antimicrobial activity. Powdered materials from C. mucronata were extracted sequentially by dichloromethane followed by ethanol while materials from T.villosa were extracted by ethanol only. The extracts obtained were evaluated for larvicidal activity using Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae, cytotoxicity using brine shrimp larvae and antimicrobial activity using bacteria and fungi. Extracts from aerial parts of C. Mucronata exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholera, Bacillus anthracis, Streptococcus faecalis and antifungal activity against Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. They exhibited very low toxicity to brine shrimps and had no larvicidal activity. The root extracts exhibited good larvicidal activity but weak antimicrobial activity. The root dichloromethane extracts from C. mucronata was found to be more toxic with an LC50 value of 59.608 μg/mL while ethanolic extracts from root were not toxic with LC50>100 μg/mL). Ethanol extracts from fruits and roots of T. villosa were found to be very toxic with LC50 values of 9.690 μg/mL and 4.511 μg/mL, respectively, while, ethanol extracts from leaves and twigs of T. villosa were found to be non toxic (LC50>100 μg/mL). These results support the use of C. mucronata in

  1. Combining Position Weight Matrices and Document-Term Matrix for Efficient Extraction of Associations of Methylated Genes and Diseases from Free Text

    KAUST Repository

    Bin Raies, Arwa; Mansour, Hicham; Incitti, Roberto; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2013-01-01

    implicated in particular diseases. The large volume of the electronic text makes it difficult and impractical to search for this information manually.Methodology:We developed a novel text mining methodology based on a new concept of position weight matrices

  2. Review of particle-in-cell modeling for the extraction region of large negative hydrogen ion sources for fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünderlich, D.; Mochalskyy, S.; Montellano, I. M.; Revel, A.

    2018-05-01

    Particle-in-cell (PIC) codes are used since the early 1960s for calculating self-consistently the motion of charged particles in plasmas, taking into account external electric and magnetic fields as well as the fields created by the particles itself. Due to the used very small time steps (in the order of the inverse plasma frequency) and mesh size, the computational requirements can be very high and they drastically increase with increasing plasma density and size of the calculation domain. Thus, usually small computational domains and/or reduced dimensionality are used. In the last years, the available central processing unit (CPU) power strongly increased. Together with a massive parallelization of the codes, it is now possible to describe in 3D the extraction of charged particles from a plasma, using calculation domains with an edge length of several centimeters, consisting of one extraction aperture, the plasma in direct vicinity of the aperture, and a part of the extraction system. Large negative hydrogen or deuterium ion sources are essential parts of the neutral beam injection (NBI) system in future fusion devices like the international fusion experiment ITER and the demonstration reactor (DEMO). For ITER NBI RF driven sources with a source area of 0.9 × 1.9 m2 and 1280 extraction apertures will be used. The extraction of negative ions is accompanied by the co-extraction of electrons which are deflected onto an electron dump. Typically, the maximum negative extracted ion current is limited by the amount and the temporal instability of the co-extracted electrons, especially for operation in deuterium. Different PIC codes are available for the extraction region of large driven negative ion sources for fusion. Additionally, some effort is ongoing in developing codes that describe in a simplified manner (coarser mesh or reduced dimensionality) the plasma of the whole ion source. The presentation first gives a brief overview of the current status of the ion

  3. Evaluation of noise pollution in oil extracting region of Lavan and the effect of noise enclosure on noise abatement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Golbabaei

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Overexposure to industrial noise pollution induce hearing loss workers. Occupational hearing loss may cause interference whit oral communication, so it may  increase the risk of occupational accidents in workplace as well as affects whit social activities.  This study was conducted on Lavan Island, are of oil extracting regions in the south of Iran. The  object of this study was to evaluate noise pollution and determining the effect of noise enclosure  on noise abatement.   Methods   The noise sources were recognized and noise pressure level was measured by CEL- 440. Noise dose of the exposed workers in high level noise area were measured by CEL 272.   Results   Major noise sources were gas turbines, diesel generators, compressors, fans and gas containing pips, noise contour map revealers that noise level were higher than the recommended national exposure limit. The results of workers noise dose show that their noise exposure were  higher than the recommended value, (p<0.001. Finally, by using the results of noise frequency  analysis of different noise sources, the noise pressure level of each sources was determined in   terms of enclosing them.   Conclusion   By enclosing the noise sources, noise pressure levels can be lowered douse to  acceptable levels but limitation of applying enclosure should be regarded.  

  4. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations; Texto de los Acuerdos de Colaboracion del Organismo con las Organizaciones Intergubernamentales Regionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-02-07

    The texts of the Agency's agreements for co-operation with the regional inter-governmental organizations listed below, together with the respective protocols authenticating them, are reproduced in this document in the order in which the agreements entered into force, for the information of all Members of the Agency [Spanish] Para conocimiento de todos los Estados Miembros del Organismo, en este documento se transcriben en el orden en que entraron en vigor, los acuerdos de colaboracion que el Organismo ha concertado con las organizaciones intergubernamentales regionales que a continuacion se enumeran, junto con los respectivos protocolos de autenticacion.

  5. Regional urban area extraction using DMSP-OLS data and MODIS data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, X Y; Cai, C; Li, P J

    2014-01-01

    Stable night lights data from Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Line-scan System (OLS) provide a unique proxy for anthropogenic development. This paper proposed two new methods of extracting regional urban extents using DMSP-OLS data, MODIS NDVI data and Land Surface Temperature (LST) data. MODIS NDVI data were used to reduce the over-glow effect, since urban areas generally have lower vegetation index values than the surrounding areas (e.g. agricultural and forest areas). On the other hand, urban areas generally show higher surface temperatures than the surrounding areas. Since urban area is the only class of interest, a one-class classifier, the One-Class Support Vector Machine (OCSVM), was selected as the classifier. The first method is classification of different data combinations for mapping: (1) OLS data and NDVI data, (2) OLS data and LST data, and (3) OLS data, NDVI data and LST data combined. The second one is a morphological reconstruction based method which combines classification results from OLS plus NDVI data and from OLS plus LST data. In the morphological reconstruction based method, the classification result using OLS and NDVI data was used as a mask image, while the classification result using OLS and LST data was used as a marker image. The north China area covering 14 provinces was selected as study area. Classification results from Landsat TM/ETM+ data from selected areas with different development levels were used as reference data to validate the proposed methods. The results show that the proposed methods effectively reduced the over-glow effect caused by DSMP-OLS data and achieved better results compared to the results from the traditional thresholding technique. The combination of all three datasets produces more accurate results than those of using any two datasets. The proposed morphological reconstruction based method achieves the best result in urban extent mapping

  6. [Considerations on local-regional anesthesia for ambulatory tooth extractions in patients with heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debernardi, G; Borgogna, E

    1975-01-01

    Ambulatory dental extraction was performed on 150 patients with various forms of heart disease. No serious complications were noted with an anaesthetic without vasoconstriction (plain 3% carbocaine). The prior history was carefully studied and pressure values were determined. It is felt that heart disease does not form an absolute contraindication to ambulatory dental extraction.

  7. Methanol extract of Nigella sativa seed induces changes in the levels of neurotransmitter amino acids in male rat brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Tarek; Carretero, María Emilia; Arce, Carmen; Gómez-Serranillos, María Pilar

    2017-12-01

    Nigella sativa L. (Ranunculaceae) (NS) has been used for medicinal and culinary purposes. Different parts of the plant are used to treat many disorders. This study investigates the effects of NS methanol extract on brain neurotransmitter amino acid levels. We measured the changes in aspartate, glutamate, glycine and γ-aminobutyric acid in five brain regions of male Wistar rats after methanol extract treatment. Animals were injected intraperitoneally with saline solution (controls) or NS methanol extract (equivalent of 2.5 g/kg body weight) and sacrificed 1 h later or after administering 1 daily dose for 8 days. The neurotransmitters were measured in the hypothalamus, cortex, striatum, hippocampus and thalamus by HPLC. Results showed significant changes in amino acids compared to basal values. Glutamate increased significantly (16-36%) in the regions analyzed except the striatum. Aspartate in the hypothalamus (50 and 76%) and glycine in hippocampus (32 and 25%), thalamus (66 and 29%) and striatum (75 and 48%) also increased with the two treatment intervals. γ-Aminobutyric acid significantly increased in the hippocampus (38 and 32%) and thalamus (22 and 40%) but decreased in the cortex and hypothalamus although in striatum only after eight days of treatment (24%). Our results suggest that injected methanol extract modifies amino acid levels in the rat brain regions. These results could be of interest since some neurodegenerative diseases are related to amino acid level imbalances in the central nervous system, suggesting the prospect for therapeutic use of NS against these disorders.

  8. Simple and efficient method for region of interest value extraction from picture archiving and communication system viewer with optical character recognition software and macro program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young Han; Park, Eun Hae; Suh, Jin-Suck

    2015-01-01

    The objectives are: 1) to introduce a simple and efficient method for extracting region of interest (ROI) values from a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) viewer using optical character recognition (OCR) software and a macro program, and 2) to evaluate the accuracy of this method with a PACS workstation. This module was designed to extract the ROI values on the images of the PACS, and created as a development tool by using open-source OCR software and an open-source macro program. The principal processes are as follows: (1) capture a region of the ROI values as a graphic file for OCR, (2) recognize the text from the captured image by OCR software, (3) perform error-correction, (4) extract the values including area, average, standard deviation, max, and min values from the text, (5) reformat the values into temporary strings with tabs, and (6) paste the temporary strings into the spreadsheet. This principal process was repeated for the number of ROIs. The accuracy of this module was evaluated on 1040 recognitions from 280 randomly selected ROIs of the magnetic resonance images. The input times of ROIs were compared between conventional manual method and this extraction module-assisted input method. The module for extracting ROI values operated successfully using the OCR and macro programs. The values of the area, average, standard deviation, maximum, and minimum could be recognized and error-corrected with AutoHotkey-coded module. The average input times using the conventional method and the proposed module-assisted method were 34.97 seconds and 7.87 seconds, respectively. A simple and efficient method for ROI value extraction was developed with open-source OCR and a macro program. Accurate inputs of various numbers from ROIs can be extracted with this module. The proposed module could be applied to the next generation of PACS or existing PACS that have not yet been upgraded. Copyright © 2015 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Antimicrobial potential of ethanol extracts of plants against gramnegative bacilli isolated from cervicovaginal mucosa of sheep bred in the region of Petrolina-PE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenice Félix da Silva

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Reproductive tract infections are the main causes of losses from the low reproductive efficiency of sheep. Gram negative bacilli belonging to the normal flora of the genital region can trigger diseases. The pathogenicity of these agents is expressed when females are with weakened immune system, either by food or stress management. Flaws in and concern about antibiotic residues in animal production have prompted research regarding alternatives for the treatment of diseases. The herbal medicine hás been considered in this context is the subject of numerous studies. This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of ethanol extracts of plants belonging to the flora of the Northeast against gram negative bacilli isolated from cervical-vaginal mucosa of sheep. Six plants were selected from Caatinga biome: Encholirium spectabile, Bromelia laciniosa, Neoglaziovia variegata, Amburana cearensis Hymenaea martiana and Selaginella convoluta. The plant material was processed to obtain the crude extract. This was tested by microdilution plate and determining the minimum bactericidal concentration, the second document of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI and the extracts diluted in water and alcohol. We used 43 gram negative isolates, as follows: 14 E. coli, 10 Enterobacter spp., 10 Acinetobacter spp. 9 and Klebsiella spp. In the aqueous dilution Klebsiella spp. showed response only to species B. laciniosa, S. convoluta and H. martiana. All tested extracts showed antibacterial activity against Acinetobacter spp and no activity against E. coli and Enterobacter spp. Among the extracts diluted in water H. martiana showed the highest antibacterial activity. In all dilution alcoholic extracts showed inhibitory activity against all bacterial genera, but no statistical difference between them.

  10. Extracting Neural Oscillation Signatures of Laser-Induced Nociception in Pain-Related Regions in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuezhu Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that multiple brain regions are involved in pain perception and pain-related neural processes by forming a functionally connected pain network. It is still unclear how these pain-related brain areas actively work together to generate the experience of pain. To get a better insight into the pain network, we implanted electrodes in four pain-related areas of rats including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, primary somatosensory cortex (S1 and periaqueductal gray (PAG. We analyzed the pattern of local field potential (LFP oscillations under noxious laser stimulations and innoxious laser stimulations. A high-dimensional feature matrix was built based on the LFP characters for both experimental conditions. Generalized linear models (GLMs were trained to classify recorded LFPs under noxious vs. innoxious condition. We found a general power decrease in α and β bands and power increase in γ band in the recorded areas under noxious condition. After noxious laser stimulation, there was a consistent change in LFP power and correlation in all four brain areas among all 13 rats. With GLM classifiers, noxious laser trials were distinguished from innoxious laser trials with high accuracy (86% using high-dimensional LFP features. This work provides a basis for further research to examine which aspects (e.g., sensory, motor or affective processes of noxious stimulation should drive distinct neural activity across the pain network.

  11. Simulation studies of the extraction region from glow discharge ion sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelrahman, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the influence of various parameters and conditions on the performance of an ion-beam extraction system, the trajectories of the particles in the beam being simulated by a commercial software (SIMION 3D). Space-charge effects are accounted for and criteria allowing optimization of the system are proposed. Ion beam trajectories with and without space charge have been determined and, from the results, optimum extraction conditions have been deduced. Simulation of singly charged ion trajectories for a concave meniscus with 3.5 mm curvature radius was studied with and without space charge has been done using a singly charge argon ion trajectories. Firstly, for a concave meniscus with 3.5 mm curvature radius, the influence of the current density on the ion beam shape was investigated. Furthermore, influence of the extraction voltage applied to the extraction electrode on the ion beam envelope was studied. Finally, the influence of the extraction gap width on the ion beam envelope was also studied

  12. Studies on the Extraction Region of the Type VI RF Driven H- Ion Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeely, P.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Franzen, P.; Heinemann, B.; Hu, C.; Kraus, W.; Riedl, R.; Speth, E.; Wilhelm, R.

    2002-11-01

    IPP Garching has spent several years developing a RF driven H- ion source intended to be an alternative to the current ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) reference design ion source. A RF driven source offers a number of advantages to ITER in terms of reduced costs and maintenance requirements. Although the RF driven ion source has shown itself to be competitive with a standard arc filament ion source for positive ions many questions still remain on the physics behind the production of the H- ion beam extracted from the source. With the improvements that have been implemented to the BATMAN (Bavarian Test Machine for Negative Ions) facility over the last two years it is now possible to study both the extracted ion beam and the plasma in the vicinity of the extraction grid in greater detail. This paper will show the effect of changing the extraction and acceleration voltage on both the current and shape of the beam as measured on the calorimeter some 1.5 m downstream from the source. The extraction voltage required to operate in the plasma limit is 3 kV. The perveance optimum for the extraction system was determined to be 2.2 x 10-6 A/V3/2 and occurs at 2.7 kV extraction voltage. The horizontal and vertical beam half widths vary as a function of the extracted ion current and the horizontal half width is generally smaller than the vertical. The effect of reducing the co-extracted electron current via plasma grid biasing on the H- current extractable and the beam profile from the source is shown. It is possible in the case of a silver contaminated plasma to reduce the co-extracted electron current to 20% of the initial value by applying a bias of 12 V. In the case where argon is present in the plasma, biasing is observed to have minimal effect on the beam half width but in a pure hydrogen plasma the beam half width increases as the bias voltage increases. New Langmuir probe studies that have been carried out parallel to the plasma grid (in the

  13. Regional Studies Program. Extraction of North Dakota lignite: environmental and reclamation issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaFevers, J.R.; Johnson, D.O.; Dvorak, A.J.

    1976-12-01

    This study, sponsored by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration, addresses the environmental implications of extraction of coal in North Dakota. These implications are supported by details of the geologic and historical background of the area of focus, the lignite resources in the Fort Union coalfield portion. The particular concentration is on the four-county area of Mercer, Dunn, McLean, and Oliver where substantial coal reserves exist and a potential gasification plant site has been identified. The purposes of this extensive study are to identify the land use and environmental problems and issues associated with extraction; to provide a base of information for assessing the impacts of various levels of extraction; to examine the economics and feasibility of reclamation; and to identify research that needs to be undertaken to evaluate and to improve reclamation practices. The study also includes a description of the physical and chemical soil characteristics and hydrological and climatic factors entailed in extraction, revegetation, and reclamation procedures.

  14. GUMAP: A GUPIXWIN-compatible code for extracting regional spectra from nuclear microbeam list mode files

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, John L.; Campbell, John L.; Boyd, Nicholas I.; Dias, Johnny F.

    2018-02-01

    The newly developed GUMAP software creates element maps from OMDAQ list mode files, displays these maps individually or collectively, and facilitates on-screen definitions of specified regions from which a PIXE spectrum can be built. These include a free-hand region defined by moving the cursor. The regional charge is entered automatically into the spectrum file in a new GUPIXWIN-compatible format, enabling a GUPIXWIN analysis of the spectrum. The code defaults to the OMDAQ dead time treatment but also facilitates two other methods for dead time correction in sample regions with count rates different from the average.

  15. Regional myocardial extraction of a radioiodinated branched chain fatty acid during right ventricular pressure overload due to acute pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurford, W.; Lowenstein, E.; Zapol, W.; Barlai-Kovach, M.; Livni, E.; Elmaleh, D.R.; Strauss, H.W.

    1985-01-01

    To determine whether branched chain fatty acid extraction is reduced during right ventricular (RV) dysfunction due to acute pulmonary artery hypertension, studies were done in 6 anesthetized dogs. Regional branched chain fatty acid extraction was measured by comparing the myocardial uptake of I-125 labeled 15-[p-(iodophenyl)]-3-methylpentadecanoic acid (I-PDA) to myocardial blood flow. Acute pulmonary hypertension was induced by incremental intravenous injection of 100 micron diameter glass beads into six pentobarbital anesthetized, mechanically ventilated dogs. Myocardial blood flow was measured by radiolabeled microspheres both under baseline conditions and during pulmonary hypertension. Mean RV pressure rose from 12 +- 2 (mean +- SEM) to 30 +-3mmHg resulting in a 225 +- 16% increase in RV stroke work. RV ejection fraction, as assessed by gated blood pool scans fell from 39 +- 2 to 18 +- 2%. Left ventricular (LV) pressures, stroke work and ejection fraction were unchanged. Myocardial blood flow increased 132 + 59% in the RV free wall and 67 +- 22% in the RV septum. LV blood flow was unchanged. Despite increased RV work and myocardial blood flow, no differences were noted in the branched chain fatty acid extraction ratios among LV or RV free walls or septum. The authors conclude that early RV dysfunction associated with pulmonary artery hypertension is not due to inadequate myocardial blood flow or branched chain fatty acid extraction

  16. Thue-Morse nanostructures for tunable light extraction in the visible region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippa, M.; Castagna, R.; Marino, A.; Tkachenko, V.; Palermo, G.; Pane, A.; Umeton, C.; Tabiryan, N.; Petti, L.

    2018-05-01

    Controlling light propagation at the nanoscale is a fascinating opportunity offered by modern photonics, more than a challenge to face off. This study is aimed at investigating a particular kind of nanocomposite and reconfigurable optical metamaterials that can be exploited for the realization of a new class of switchable photonic devices, representing a breakthrough with respect to the state of the art. Existing photonic devices exhibit, in general, a drawback in the absence of tunability; this work aims to the design and characterization of metamaterials exploiting reconfigurable media, like LCs, which enable realization of a tunable, high quality, photonic quasi-crystal based switchable mode selector. It turned out that, starting from an unpolarized white light source, through a light extraction mechanism based on the diffraction of light, the high quality structure, combined with a uniformly aligned Photo-responsive Liquid Crystal (PLC), is able to give rise to an extremely narrow (FWHM ≈5 nm) and linearly polarized single mode peak of the extracted light intensity. Moreover, we have shown that the spectral properties (switching) of the samples can be finely controlled by using both an external applied voltage and a suitable pump light source with a maximum increase of 45% of the extracted light. Finally, both Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Far Field Diffraction (FFD) analysis have shown the high quality morphology of the realized structure.

  17. Measurements of long-range near-side angular correlations in $\\sqrt{s_{\\text{NN}}}=5$TeV proton-lead collisions in the forward region

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adeva, Bernardo; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Aguiar Francisco, Oscar; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Demmer, Moritz; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fohl, Klaus; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khairullin, Egor; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Kirn, Thomas; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kozeiha, Mohamad; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Krzemien, Wojciech; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kuonen, Axel Kevin; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Lemos Cid, Edgar; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Liu, Xuesong; Loh, David; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Lucio Martinez, Miriam; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Dominik; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nandi, Anita; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Pappenheimer, Cheryl; Parker, William; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefkova, Slavomira; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang; Zhukov, Valery; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2016-11-10

    Two-particle angular correlations are studied in proton-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s_{\\text{NN}}}=5$TeV, collected with the LHCb detector at the LHC. The analysis is based on data recorded in two beam configurations, in which either the direction of the proton or that of the lead ion is analysed. The correlations are measured as a function of relative pseudorapidity, $\\Delta\\eta$, and relative azimuthal angle, $\\Delta\\phi$, for events in different classes of event activity and for different bins of particle transverse momentum. In high-activity events a long-range correlation on the near side, $\\Delta\\phi \\approx 0$, is observed in the pseudorapidity range $2.0<\\eta<4.9$. This measurement of long-range correlations on the near side in proton-lead collisions extends previous observations into the forward region up to $\\eta=4.9$. The correlation increases with growing event activity and is found to be more pronounced in the direction of the lead beam. However, the...

  18. Computer aided detection of suspicious regions on digital mammograms : rapid segmentation and feature extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggiero, C; Giacomini, M; Sacile, R [DIST - Department of Communication Computer and System Sciences, University of Genova, Via Opera Pia 13, 16145 Genova (Italy); Rosselli Del Turco, M [Centro per lo studio e la prevenzione oncologica, Firenze (Italy)

    1999-12-31

    A method is presented for rapid detection of suspicious regions which consists of two steps. The first step is segmentation based on texture analysis consisting of : histogram equalization, Laws filtering for texture analysis, Gaussian blur and median filtering to enhance differences between tissues in different respects, histogram thresholding to obtain a binary image, logical masking in order to detect regions to be discarded from the analysis, edge detection. This method has been tested on 60 images, obtaining 93% successful detection of suspicious regions. (authors) 4 refs, 9 figs, 1 tabs.

  19. Lung region extraction based on the model information and the inversed MIP method by using chest CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Toshihiro; Miguchi, Ryosuke; Okumura, Toshiaki; Yamamoto, Shinji; Matsumoto, Mitsuomi; Tateno, Yukio; Iinuma, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Toru.

    1997-01-01

    We developed a lung region extraction method based on the model information and the inversed MIP method in the Lung Cancer Screening CT (LSCT). Original model is composed of typical 3-D lung contour lines, a body axis, an apical point, and a convex hull. First, the body axis. the apical point, and the convex hull are automatically extracted from the input image Next, the model is properly transformed to fit to those of input image by the affine transformation. Using the same affine transformation coefficients, typical lung contour lines are also transferred, which correspond to rough contour lines of input image. Experimental results applied for 68 samples showed this method quite promising. (author)

  20. Antioxidant activities and total phenol content of Inula viscosa extracts selected from three regions of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naima Chahmi

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Our results of antioxidant assays were justified and partially supported the popular usage of the tested plants. The high antioxidant activity found in the plant from Sefrou and its great biomass in this region suggested that Inula viscosa is a good source of natural antioxidants compounds which might have benefits for health.

  1. Discriminative region extraction and feature selection based on the combination of SURF and saliency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li; Wang, Chunhong; Rao, Changhui

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a possible optimization on salient region algorithm, which is extensively used in recognizing and learning object categories. Salient region algorithm owns the superiority of intra-class tolerance, global score of features and automatically prominent scale selection under certain range. However, the major limitation behaves on performance, and that is what we attempt to improve. By reducing the number of pixels involved in saliency calculation, it can be accelerated. We use interest points detected by fast-Hessian, the detector of SURF, as the candidate feature for saliency operation, rather than the whole set in image. This implementation is thereby called Saliency based Optimization over SURF (SOSU for short). Experiment shows that bringing in of such a fast detector significantly speeds up the algorithm. Meanwhile, Robustness of intra-class diversity ensures object recognition accuracy.

  2. Extracting Conceptual Feature Structures from Text

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Troels; Bulskov, Henrik; Lassen, Tine

    2011-01-01

    and mapped into concepts in a generative ontology. Synonymous but linguistically quite distinct expressions are mapped to the same concept in the ontology. This allows us to perform a content-based search which will retrieve relevant documents independently of the linguistic form of the query as well...

  3. Collection of regulatory texts relative to radiation protection. Part 1: laws and decrees (Extracts of the Public Health Code and of the Labour Code dealing with the protection of population, patients and workers against the hazards of ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivas, Robert; Feries, Jean; Marzorati, Frank; Chevalier, Celine; Lachaume, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    This first part contains legal and regulatory texts extracted from the Public Health Code and related to health general protection and to health products (medical devices), from the Social Security Code, and from the Labour Code related to individual work relationships, to health and safety at work, to work places, to work equipment and means of protection, to the prevention of some exposure risks and of risks related to some activities. This document is an update of the previous version from January 25, 2011

  4. Unsafe Practice of Extracting Potable Water From Aquifers in the Southwestern Coastal Region of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, S. H.; Ahmed, A. U.; Iqbal, M. Z.

    2009-05-01

    The groundwater resource is of paramount importance to the lives and livelihoods of the millions of people in Bangladesh. Unfortunately, high levels of arsenic have been found in groundwater in many parts of Bangladesh. Besides, the salinity in water systems in the coastal areas has increased as a consequence of the flow diversion from the upper reaches of Ganges River by the neighboring country India. Since hand- pumped groundwater (tube) wells are the only viable sources of drinking water, maintaining drinking water security for over 6 million people in the south-west (SW) region has been a major challenge for the Bangladesh Government. Due to rapid exploitation of groundwater resources in excess of recharge capacity, non-saline water sources in the SW region have already been depleted and the hand tube wells have mostly been abandoned. Meanwhile, shrimp farming has resulted in saline water infiltration into the perched aquifer system in many areas. A recent survey covering123 wells out of 184, extending to a depth of 330 m, showed high salinity in water. Combined factors of rapid exploitation of shallow groundwater, depletion of the deep aquifers and the subsequent saline water intrusion into these aquifers have put long-term sustainability of the remaining fresh groundwater resource into jeopardy. Very high concentrations of nitrite are found in this study in many tube wells in the area where samples have been drawn from aquifer systems up to 244 m deep. Nitrite concentrations in 35 wells randomly sampled in this study range from 16.98 to 43.11 mg/L, averaging 27.55 mg/L. This is much higher than the Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 1 mg/L set by the U.S. EPA for human consumption. Simultaneously, dissolved oxygen (DO) is found to be very low (0.1 to 2 mg/L). There are numerous reports and anecdotal evidences of "Blue Baby Syndrome" (methemoglobinemia) in the region, which is generally due to gradual suffocation caused by poor transport of oxygen from the

  5. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations. The Agreement with the League of Arab States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    The text of the Agency's agreement for co-operation with the League of Arab States is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The agreement entered into force on 15 December 1971 pursuant to Article IX

  6. The Text of a Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology. Acceptance of the Agreement by Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    On 23 October 1974 the Government of Bangladesh notified the Agency of its acceptance of the Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology between the Agency and Member States, in accordance with Section 9 thereof. Pursuant to Section 10, the Agreement consequently entered into force with respect to the Government of Bangladesh on that date

  7. The Text of the Third Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA). Latest Status. Extension of Agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The text of the Third Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, t he 1987 RCA , is reproduced herein for the information of all Members [es

  8. The Text of the Fifth Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA). Extension of Agreement. Latest Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The Text of the Fifth Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Cooperative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA). Extension of Agreement. Latest Status [es

  9. The Text of the Fourth Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA). Extension of Agreement. Latest Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Fourth Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 'the 1987 RCA', is reproduced herein for the information of all Members [es

  10. The Text of the Fourth Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA). Extension of Agreement. Latest Status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The text of the Fourth Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 'the 1987 RCA', is reproduced herein for the information of all Members

  11. The text of an African regional co-operative agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    The document informs that as of 31 January 1993, the following states sent to the Director General notifications of acceptance of the African Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology: Tunisia, Egypt, Algeria, Nigeria, Madagascar, Libyan Arab Jamahiriya, Morocco, Kenya, Sudan, Ghana, Tanzania, Mauritius, Cameroon, South Africa and Zaire. The Agreement entered into force on 4 April 1990

  12. The Texts of the Agency's Co-operation Agreements with Regional Intergovernmental Organizations. The Agreement with the Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1972-01-01

    The text of the Agency's agreement for co-operation with the Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The agreement entered into force on 3 October 1972 pursuant to Article VIII

  13. POTASH EXTRACTION AND HISTORICAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONFLICT IN THE BAGES REGION (SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Gorostiza Langa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La extracción de potasa en la región del Bages (España ha sido la causa de importantes impactos ambientales a lo largo de la historia reciente, como muestra la progresiva salinización de los ríos Cardener y Llobregat. Recientemente, varios proyectos que aumentarán la producción de salmueras y las escombreras de residuos salinos han sido anunciados. Siguiendo a Martínez-Alier, en el presente artículo caracterizo los conflictos alrededor de la extracción de potasa y sus impactos socio-ambientales como conflictos de distribución ecológica, y propongo un acercamiento histórico que tenga en cuenta los flujos de agua, potasio y cloro. Pese a la importancia del potasio como un nutriente imprescindible para el crecimiento de los vegetales, junto al fósforo y el nitrógeno, los conflictos relacionados con la extracción de sales potásicas han recibido relativamente poca atención. Para el presente caso de estudio, se utilizan datos estadísticos y fuentes de archivo para mostrar la extracción de potasa en relación con el aumento de la salinidad del agua en Barcelona a lo largo del siglo XX. Se dedica especial atención a las infraestructuras tecnológicas desarrolladas para dar una solución técnica al problema de la salinización de las aguas, como el colector de salmueras o los filtros de ósmosis inversa, a la vez que se destacan las relaciones de poder detrás de la elección de estas tecnologías. El acercamiento histórico a este caso de estudio muestra que la definición de las externalidades como éxitos en la transferencia de costes, defendida por Martínez-Alier, resulta adecuada para los costes económicos relacionados con la remediación ambiental de las minas del Bages, básicamente cubiertos por fondos públicos.

  14. Percutaneous self-injury to the femoral region caused by bur breakage during surgical extraction of a patient's impacted third molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tae Hoon; Lee, Jun; Kim, Bong Chul

    2015-10-01

    Extraction of an impacted third molar is one of the most frequently performed techniques in oral and maxillofacial surgery. Surgeons can suffer numerous external injuries while extracting a tooth, with percutaneous injuries to the hand being the most commonly reported. In this article, we present a case involving a percutaneous injury of the surgeon's femoral region caused by breakage of the fissure bur connected to the handpiece during extraction of the third molar. We also propose precautions to prevent such injuries and steps to be undertaken when they occur.

  15. Avoiding acidic region streaking in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis: case study with two bacterial whole cell protein extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arnab; Varshney, Umesh; Pal, Debnath

    2014-09-01

    Acidic region streaking (ARS) is one of the lacunae in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) of bacterial proteome. This streaking is primarily caused by nucleic acid (NuA) contamination and poses major problem in the downstream processes like image analysis and protein identification. Although cleanup and nuclease digestion are practiced as remedial options, these strategies may incur loss in protein recovery and perform incomplete removal of NuA. As a result, ARS has remained a common observation across publications, including the recent ones. In this work, we demonstrate how ultrasound wave can be used to shear NuA in plain ice-cooled water, facilitating the elimination of ARS in the 2DE gels without the need for any additional sample cleanup tasks. In combination with a suitable buffer recipe, IEF program and frequent paper-wick changing approach, we are able to reproducibly demonstrate the production of clean 2DE gels with improved protein recovery and negligible or no ARS. We illustrate our procedure using whole cell protein extracts from two diverse organisms, Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Our designed protocols are straightforward and expected to provide good 2DE gels without ARS, with comparable times and significantly lower cost.

  16. Seasonal Evaporation and Surface Energy Budget Estimation Across an Arid Agricultural Region in Saudi Arabia: Quantifying Groundwater Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, B.; Huang, D.; Houborg, R.; Dasari, H. P.; Hoteit, I.; McCabe, M.

    2017-12-01

    In arid-land agricultural environments, knowledge of the water and energy budget is critical in order to sustainably manage the allocation and use of water resources. Using long-term weather reanalysis data from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and a time-series record of Landsat 8 imagery, we apply the Priestly-Taylor Jet Propulsion Lab (PT-JPL) model to estimate the energy budget over the Al Jawf agricultural region in the north of Saudi Arabia. This zone generates a significant proportion of the agricultural production in Saudi Arabia and consumes an important fraction of the non-renewable water resources. This research contributes towards efforts seeking to quantify the precise amount of water that is used in agriculture - a difficult variable given that the overwhelming majority of supply comes from groundwater extraction. Results of this research can be used to improve crop management and to mitigate aquifer over-exploitation by monitoring the indiscriminate use of water and establishing bounds around the rates of groundwater withdrawal.

  17. A methodology for semiautomatic taxonomy of concepts extraction from nuclear scientific documents using text mining techniques; Metodologia para extracao semiautomatica de uma taxonomia de conceitos a partir da producao cientifica da area nuclear utilizando tecnicas de mineracao de textos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Fabiane dos Reis

    2013-07-01

    This thesis presents a text mining method for semi-automatic extraction of taxonomy of concepts, from a textual corpus composed of scientific papers related to nuclear area. The text classification is a natural human practice and a crucial task for work with large repositories. The document clustering technique provides a logical and understandable framework that facilitates the organization, browsing and searching. Most clustering algorithms using the bag of words model to represent the content of a document. This model generates a high dimensionality of the data, ignores the fact that different words can have the same meaning and does not consider the relationship between them, assuming that words are independent of each other. The methodology presents a combination of a model for document representation by concepts with a hierarchical document clustering method using frequency of co-occurrence concepts and a technique for clusters labeling more representatives, with the objective of producing a taxonomy of concepts which may reflect a structure of the knowledge domain. It is hoped that this work will contribute to the conceptual mapping of scientific production of nuclear area and thus support the management of research activities in this area. (author)

  18. Essential Oils Extracted Using Microwave-Assisted Hydrodistillation from Aerial Parts of Eleven Artemisia Species: Chemical Compositions and Diversities in Different Geographical Regions of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Mohammadhosseini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the chemical compositions of essential oils (EOs extracted through microwave-assisted hydrodistillation from aerial parts of 11 Artemisia species growing wild in different regions in Northern, Eastern, Western, and Central parts of Iran. The EOs were subsequently analyzed via GC and GC-MS. The percentage yields of the EOs varied over the range of 0.21-0.50 (w/w%. On the basis of these characterizations and spectral assignments, natural compounds including camphor, 1,8-cineole, camphene, α-pinene, β-pinene, β-thujone, and sabinene were the most abundant and frequent constituents among all studied chemical profiles. Accordingly, oxygenated monoterpenes, monoterpene hydrocarbons, and non-terpene hydrocarbons were the dominant groups of natural compounds in the chemical profiles of 13, 4, and 2 samples, respectively. Moreover, five chemotypes were identified using statistical analyses: camphene, α-pinene and β-pinene; 1,8-cineole; camphore and 1,8-cineole; camphore and camphore and β-thujone.

  19. Directed Activities Related to Text: Text Analysis and Text Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Florence; Greene, Terry

    This paper describes Directed Activities Related to Text (DART), procedures that were developed and are used in the Reading for Learning Project at the University of Nottingham (England) to enhance learning from texts and that fall into two broad categories: (1) text analysis procedures, which require students to engage in some form of analysis of…

  20. An analytical framework for extracting hydrological information from time series of small reservoirs in a semi-arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annor, Frank; van de Giesen, Nick; Bogaard, Thom; Eilander, Dirk

    2013-04-01

    small reservoirs in the Upper East Region of Ghana. Reservoirs without obvious large seepage losses (field survey) were selected. To verify this, stable water isotopic samples are collected from groundwater upstream and downstream from the reservoir. By looking at possible enrichment of downstream groundwater, a good estimate of seepage can be made in addition to estimates on evaporation. We estimated the evaporative losses and compared those with field measurements using eddy correlation measurements. Lastly, we determined the cumulative surface runoff curves for the small reservoirs .We will present this analytical framework for extracting hydrological information from time series of small reservoirs and show the first results for our study region of northern Ghana.

  1. Studies on in-vitro antioxidant activity of marine edible seaweeds from the east coastal region of Peninsular Malaysia using different extraction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tam Siow Foon

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the antioxidant activity of two edible marine seaweeds Eucheuma cottonii and Padina sp.. Methods: The two extraction methods such as conventional and soxhlet extraction were used to isolate the secondary metabolites using methanol as a solvent medium. Total phenolic content of crude seaweeds extract were analysed by standard FC method. The different antioxidant assays DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power and β-carotene bleaching assays confirmed the antioxidant activities. Results: DPPH and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays showed the positive correlation with expressed higher total phenolic content in the seaweeds extract. Also β-carotene bleaching assay lower activity compare with BHT as reference control. Additionally IR spectra showed the phenolic related functional groups are present in the solvent extract. The phenolic related compounds are mainly responsible for higher rate of antioxidant activity. Conclusions: The methanolic extracts of Padina sp. showed better radical scavenging and higher phenolic contents than the Eucheuma cottonii. And also the soxhlet extraction showed higher yield and better radical scavenging activity compared to conventional method. Moreover the studies confirmed both seaweeds are an effective candidate for the control the free radical scavenging activity.

  2. A Customizable Text Classifier for Text Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-liang Zhang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Text mining deals with complex and unstructured texts. Usually a particular collection of texts that is specified to one or more domains is necessary. We have developed a customizable text classifier for users to mine the collection automatically. It derives from the sentence category of the HNC theory and corresponding techniques. It can start with a few texts, and it can adjust automatically or be adjusted by user. The user can also control the number of domains chosen and decide the standard with which to choose the texts based on demand and abundance of materials. The performance of the classifier varies with the user's choice.

  3. Raft cultivation area extraction from high resolution remote sensing imagery by fusing multi-scale region-line primitive association features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Cui, Qi; Wang, Jie; Ming, Dongping; Lv, Guonian

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we first propose several novel concepts for object-based image analysis, which include line-based shape regularity, line density, and scale-based best feature value (SBV), based on the region-line primitive association framework (RLPAF). We then propose a raft cultivation area (RCA) extraction method for high spatial resolution (HSR) remote sensing imagery based on multi-scale feature fusion and spatial rule induction. The proposed method includes the following steps: (1) Multi-scale region primitives (segments) are obtained by image segmentation method HBC-SEG, and line primitives (straight lines) are obtained by phase-based line detection method. (2) Association relationships between regions and lines are built based on RLPAF, and then multi-scale RLPAF features are extracted and SBVs are selected. (3) Several spatial rules are designed to extract RCAs within sea waters after land and water separation. Experiments show that the proposed method can successfully extract different-shaped RCAs from HR images with good performance.

  4. In situ genomic DNA extraction for PCR analysis of regions of interest in four plant species and one filamentous fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Luis E. Rojas; Maritza Reyes; Naivy Pérez-Alonso; María I. Olóriz; Laisyn Posada-Pérez; Bárbara Ocaña; Orelvis Portal; Borys Chong-Pérez; Jorge L. Pérez Pérez

    2014-01-01

    The extraction methods of genomic DNA are usually laborious and hazardous to human health and the environment by the use of organic solvents (chloroform and phenol). In this work a protocol for in situ extraction of genomic DNA by alkaline lysis is validated. It was used in order to amplify regions of DNA in four species of plants and fungi by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). From plant material of Saccharum officinarum L., Carica papaya L. and Digitalis purpurea L. it was possible to extend ...

  5. Uniform distributions of glucose oxidation and oxygen extraction in gray matter of normal human brain: No evidence of regional differences of aerobic glycolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Fahmeed; Herman, Peter; Bailey, Christopher J; Møller, Arne; Globinsky, Ronen; Fulbright, Robert K; Rothman, Douglas L; Gjedde, Albert

    2016-05-01

    Regionally variable rates of aerobic glycolysis in brain networks identified by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) imply regionally variable adenosine triphosphate (ATP) regeneration. When regional glucose utilization is not matched to oxygen delivery, affected regions have correspondingly variable rates of ATP and lactate production. We tested the extent to which aerobic glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation power R-fMRI networks by measuring quantitative differences between the oxygen to glucose index (OGI) and the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) as measured by positron emission tomography (PET) in normal human brain (resting awake, eyes closed). Regionally uniform and correlated OEF and OGI estimates prevailed, with network values that matched the gray matter means, regardless of size, location, and origin. The spatial agreement between oxygen delivery (OEF≈0.4) and glucose oxidation (OGI ≈ 5.3) suggests that no specific regions have preferentially high aerobic glycolysis and low oxidative phosphorylation rates, with globally optimal maximum ATP turnover rates (VATP ≈ 9.4 µmol/g/min), in good agreement with (31)P and (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements. These results imply that the intrinsic network activity in healthy human brain powers the entire gray matter with ubiquitously high rates of glucose oxidation. Reports of departures from normal brain-wide homogeny of oxygen extraction fraction and oxygen to glucose index may be due to normalization artefacts from relative PET measurements. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Numerical modeling of the Linac4 negative ion source extraction region by 3D PIC-MCC code ONIX

    CERN Document Server

    Mochalskyy, S; Minea, T; Lifschitz, AF; Schmitzer, C; Midttun, O; Steyaert, D

    2013-01-01

    At CERN, a high performance negative ion (NI) source is required for the 160 MeV H- linear accelerator Linac4. The source is planned to produce 80 mA of H- with an emittance of 0.25 mm mradN-RMS which is technically and scientifically very challenging. The optimization of the NI source requires a deep understanding of the underling physics concerning the production and extraction of the negative ions. The extraction mechanism from the negative ion source is complex involving a magnetic filter in order to cool down electrons’ temperature. The ONIX (Orsay Negative Ion eXtraction) code is used to address this problem. The ONIX is a selfconsistent 3D electrostatic code using Particles-in-Cell Monte Carlo Collisions (PIC-MCC) approach. It was written to handle the complex boundary conditions between plasma, source walls, and beam formation at the extraction hole. Both, the positive extraction potential (25kV) and the magnetic field map are taken from the experimental set-up, in construction at CERN. This contrib...

  7. Extraction of prospecting information of uranium deposit based on high spatial resolution satellite data. Taking bashibulake region as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xu; Liu Dechang; Zhang Jielin

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the signification and content of prospecting information of uranium deposit are expounded. Quickbird high spatial resolution satellite data are used to extract the prospecting information of uranium deposit in Bashibulake area in the north of Tarim Basin. By using the pertinent methods of image processing, the information of ore-bearing bed, ore-control structure and mineralized alteration have been extracted. The results show a high consistency with the field survey. The aim of this study is to explore practicability of high spatial resolution satellite data for prospecting minerals, and to broaden the thinking of prospectation at similar area. (authors)

  8. Text Maps: Helping Students Navigate Informational Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Brenda H.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that a text map is an instructional approach designed to help students gain fluency in reading content area materials. Discusses how the goal is to teach students about the important features of the material and how the maps can be used to build new understandings. Presents the procedures for preparing and using a text map. (SG)

  9. Text mining by Tsallis entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamaati, Maryam; Mehri, Ali

    2018-01-01

    Long-range correlations between the elements of natural languages enable them to convey very complex information. Complex structure of human language, as a manifestation of natural languages, motivates us to apply nonextensive statistical mechanics in text mining. Tsallis entropy appropriately ranks the terms' relevance to document subject, taking advantage of their spatial correlation length. We apply this statistical concept as a new powerful word ranking metric in order to extract keywords of a single document. We carry out an experimental evaluation, which shows capability of the presented method in keyword extraction. We find that, Tsallis entropy has reliable word ranking performance, at the same level of the best previous ranking methods.

  10. Visual Saliency Models for Text Detection in Real World.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renwu Gao

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the degree of saliency of texts in natural scenes using visual saliency models. A large scale scene image database with pixel level ground truth is created for this purpose. Using this scene image database and five state-of-the-art models, visual saliency maps that represent the degree of saliency of the objects are calculated. The receiver operating characteristic curve is employed in order to evaluate the saliency of scene texts, which is calculated by visual saliency models. A visualization of the distribution of scene texts and non-texts in the space constructed by three kinds of saliency maps, which are calculated using Itti's visual saliency model with intensity, color and orientation features, is given. This visualization of distribution indicates that text characters are more salient than their non-text neighbors, and can be captured from the background. Therefore, scene texts can be extracted from the scene images. With this in mind, a new visual saliency architecture, named hierarchical visual saliency model, is proposed. Hierarchical visual saliency model is based on Itti's model and consists of two stages. In the first stage, Itti's model is used to calculate the saliency map, and Otsu's global thresholding algorithm is applied to extract the salient region that we are interested in. In the second stage, Itti's model is applied to the salient region to calculate the final saliency map. An experimental evaluation demonstrates that the proposed model outperforms Itti's model in terms of captured scene texts.

  11. The text of the third agreement to extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology (RCA). Extension of agreement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The text of the Third Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 'the 1987 RCA', is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. Pursuant to Article 1 of the Third Agreement to Extend the 1987 Regional Co-operative Agreement, the 1987 RCA shall continue in force for a further period of five years with effect from 12 June 2002, i.e., through 11 June 2007. As of 15 May 2002, notifications of acceptance had been received by the Director General from the Governments of Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Viet Nam. The latest status list is attached

  12. Regionalism, Regionalization and Regional Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu C. Andrei

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sustained development is a concept associating other concepts, in its turn, in the EU practice, e.g. regionalism, regionalizing and afferent policies, here including structural policies. This below text, dedicated to integration concepts, will limit on the other hand to regionalizing, otherwise an aspect typical to Europe and to the EU. On the other hand, two aspects come up to strengthen this field of ideas, i.e. the region (al-regionalism-(regional development triplet has either its own history or precise individual outline of terms.

  13. Detecting text in natural scenes with multi-level MSER and SWT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tongwei; Liu, Renjun

    2018-04-01

    The detection of the characters in the natural scene is susceptible to factors such as complex background, variable viewing angle and diverse forms of language, which leads to poor detection results. Aiming at these problems, a new text detection method was proposed, which consisted of two main stages, candidate region extraction and text region detection. At first stage, the method used multiple scale transformations of original image and multiple thresholds of maximally stable extremal regions (MSER) to detect the text regions which could detect character regions comprehensively. At second stage, obtained SWT maps by using the stroke width transform (SWT) algorithm to compute the candidate regions, then using cascaded classifiers to propose non-text regions. The proposed method was evaluated on the standard benchmark datasets of ICDAR2011 and the datasets that we made our own data sets. The experiment results showed that the proposed method have greatly improved that compared to other text detection methods.

  14. Monitoring interaction and collective text production through text mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macedo, Alexandra Lorandi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the Concepts Network tool, developed using text mining technology. The main objective of this tool is to extract and relate terms of greatest incidence from a text and exhibit the results in the form of a graph. The Network was implemented in the Collective Text Editor (CTE which is an online tool that allows the production of texts in synchronized or non-synchronized forms. This article describes the application of the Network both in texts produced collectively and texts produced in a forum. The purpose of the tool is to offer support to the teacher in managing the high volume of data generated in the process of interaction amongst students and in the construction of the text. Specifically, the aim is to facilitate the teacher’s job by allowing him/her to process data in a shorter time than is currently demanded. The results suggest that the Concepts Network can aid the teacher, as it provides indicators of the quality of the text produced. Moreover, messages posted in forums can be analyzed without their content necessarily having to be pre-read.

  15. Endothelin-like action of Pausinystalia yohimbe aqueous extract on vascular and renal regional hemodynamics in Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, A A; Newaz, M; Hercule, H; Saleh, M; Bode, C O; Oyekan, A O

    2003-12-01

    The bark of the African tree Pausinystalia yohimbe has been used as a food additive with aphrodisiac and penile erection enhancing properties. The effect of an aqueous extract of P. yohimbe (CCD-X) on renal circulation was assessed in order to test the hypothesis that it possesses additional effects on nitric oxide production and/or endothelin-1 (ET-1)-like actions. In vivo studies with CCD-X in Sprague Dawley rats demonstrated a dose-dependent (1-1000 ng/kg) increase in mean blood pressure (p < 0.001) and an increase in medullary blood flow (MBF) (p < 0.001). Both the pressor action and renal medullary vasodilation were blocked by endothelinA (ETA) receptor antagonist BMS182874 and endothelinB (ETB) receptor antagonist BQ788 in combination. L-Nomega-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 10 mg/kg) also inhibited the increase in MBF induced by CCD-X. In vitro studies in isolated perfused kidney and in pressurized renal microvessels confirmed the dose-dependent vasoconstrictor action of this extract. ETA receptor antagonist BQ610 and ETB receptor antagonist BQ788 separately and significantly attenuated the renal vasoconstrictor actions of the extract (p < 0.001 ANOVA). These preliminary observations indicate that, in addition to the alpha-adrenergic antagonist actions that characterize yohimbine, CCD-X possesses endothelin-like actions and affects nitric oxide (NO) production in renal circulation. These findings suggest a strong possibility of post-receptor cross-talk between alpha2-adrenoceptors and endothelin, as well as a direct effect of alpha2-adrenoceptors on renal NO production. (c) 2003 Prous Science

  16. Impact of organic fertilizer, humic acid and sea weed extract on wheat production in pothowar region of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad, S.; Anjum, A.S.; Kasana, M.I.

    2013-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L) crop production was evaluated under organic conditions during the year 2008-09 and 2009-2010 at National Agricultural Research Center (NARC), Pakistan Agricultural Research council (PARC) Islamabad. The study includes four treatments with four replications. The treatments includes; (1) Organic fertilizer 625 Kg ha/sup -1/, (2) Organic fertilizer 625 and Humic Acid 10 Kg ha/sup -1/ (3) Humic Acid and Sea weed extract 625 ml ha/sup -1/ and (4) Control. Organic amendments were incorporated during land preparation and seaweed extract as foliar spray. The basal dose of organic fertilizer and humic acid (granule) were added at the time of sowing of wheat during 2008-2009 and 2009-2010.Humic acid solution 1% and sea weed extract were applied as foliar spray at 6 inches of wheat crop. The second foliar spray was done at tillering while third and forth sprays at heading and milking stage respectively. The crop conditions, color, shoot length and spike and yield parameters were recorded at different stages of the organic fertilizer application. The soils and crops managed organically are sustainable. Similarly, biological and chemical properties of soil also improved significantly. The compost enriched with different organic waste increased all physico-chemical and biological properties of the soil as well as yield of the crop. The wheat crop morphological and agronomical parameters also increase significantly. Moreover, nutrients supply and other soil properties like pH, CEC, ECe and plant nutrients including microbial community structure influence positively. (author)

  17. Salient region detection by fusing bottom-up and top-down features extracted from a single image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Huawei; Fang, Yuming; Zhao, Yao; Lin, Weisi; Ni, Rongrong; Zhu, Zhenfeng

    2014-10-01

    Recently, some global contrast-based salient region detection models have been proposed based on only the low-level feature of color. It is necessary to consider both color and orientation features to overcome their limitations, and thus improve the performance of salient region detection for images with low-contrast in color and high-contrast in orientation. In addition, the existing fusion methods for different feature maps, like the simple averaging method and the selective method, are not effective sufficiently. To overcome these limitations of existing salient region detection models, we propose a novel salient region model based on the bottom-up and top-down mechanisms: the color contrast and orientation contrast are adopted to calculate the bottom-up feature maps, while the top-down cue of depth-from-focus from the same single image is used to guide the generation of final salient regions, since depth-from-focus reflects the photographer's preference and knowledge of the task. A more general and effective fusion method is designed to combine the bottom-up feature maps. According to the degree-of-scattering and eccentricities of feature maps, the proposed fusion method can assign adaptive weights to different feature maps to reflect the confidence level of each feature map. The depth-from-focus of the image as a significant top-down feature for visual attention in the image is used to guide the salient regions during the fusion process; with its aid, the proposed fusion method can filter out the background and highlight salient regions for the image. Experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms the state-of-the-art models on three public available data sets.

  18. Extraction of uranium from anomaly ores no 1,6,8 in salt domes of Bandar Abbas region using column leaching by seawater in sulfuric acid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatemi, K.

    2003-01-01

    Column leaching is one of the experimental methods which is used for identifying the specifications of uranium ores. From the efficiency point of view, the process has some complications and usually it is applied in parallel with the conventional leaching process in order to facilitate of finding an appropriate design and operational method, to be applicable in an large practical scale. In this research work, at the first stage, the existed free chlorine in the samples was washed out using seawater. Then, in a process of acid leaching with seawater and sulfuric acid by the use of the column leaching was applied. The results show that the maximum of 85% of uranium from the ore of Anomali ≠1 is extracted. The extra residual of the used acid dose not react with the uranium and therefore it will increase the free acidity of the leach liquor. In Anomali ≠6, the extraction efficiency of uranium is 75%, while in Anomali ≠8, using 30 periods of leaching, the efficiency is 81%. However, the maximum efficiency achievement has to be avoided by the non-economical circumstances. Based on some comparisons, it is shown that the presence of chlorine in ore will affect the efficiency. The capability of s eawater i n uranium extraction from salted, compared with the n ormal or sweat water h as some advantages. These include: reduction of the operational period, less acid consumption, and reduction in the ore leaching costs. Thus, the heap leaching industry is believed to be a valuable and economical method for uranium extraction, where the needs of utilizing the complicated technical facilities can be reduced. The present work is the first research project on the uranium extraction and concentration in solution containing chlorine. Our experimental results can provide a valuable pattern for the heap leaching of uranium ores design from arches shaped in the region Bandar Abbas

  19. Detection of damaged areas caused by the oil extraction in a steppe region using winter landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjachina, Ksenya; Hu, Zhiyong; Chibilyev, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Oil production in a steppe region disturbs the landscape and damages the steppe ecosystem. The objective of this research was to detect areas damaged by oil production in an oil field within the Russian Volga-Ural steppe region using winter Landsat imagery. We developed a practicable and effective approach using winter snow season multispectral Landsat satellite imagery. To this end, we applied seven algorithms of spectral or texture-based transformation: K-means, maximum likelihood estimation, topsoil grain size index, soil brightness, normalized differential snow index, tasselled cap, and co-occurrence measures. The co-occurrence texture measure variance shows the optimal result of identifying damaged areas. The unique feature of our method is that it can differentiate damaged areas from the bare soil of cropland within a cold steppe region where the area damaged by oil production is mixed with bare (fallow) croplands that have a polygonal shape similar to well pads. Such similarities can lead to confusion in object-based classification. Using the co-occurrence measures, we found that from 1988 to 2015, damaged area is nearly three times as big in the peak period of the oil field development (2001 and 2009) as in 1988. Landscape fragmentation also peaked in 2001 and 2009. Our approach for this project is useful and cost effective regular monitoring of damages from oil production for both the Volga-Ural steppe region and other cold steppe regions.

  20. Finding text in color images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiangying; Lopresti, Daniel P.; Tasdizen, Tolga

    1998-04-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of locating and extracting text from WWW images. A previous algorithm based on color clustering and connected components analysis works well as long as the color of each character is relatively uniform and the typography is fairly simple. It breaks down quickly, however, when these assumptions are violated. In this paper, we describe more robust techniques for dealing with this challenging problem. We present an improved color clustering algorithm that measures similarity based on both RGB and spatial proximity. Layout analysis is also incorporated to handle more complex typography. THese changes significantly enhance the performance of our text detection procedure.

  1. SparkText: Biomedical Text Mining on Big Data Framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Ye

    Full Text Available Many new biomedical research articles are published every day, accumulating rich information, such as genetic variants, genes, diseases, and treatments. Rapid yet accurate text mining on large-scale scientific literature can discover novel knowledge to better understand human diseases and to improve the quality of disease diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.In this study, we designed and developed an efficient text mining framework called SparkText on a Big Data infrastructure, which is composed of Apache Spark data streaming and machine learning methods, combined with a Cassandra NoSQL database. To demonstrate its performance for classifying cancer types, we extracted information (e.g., breast, prostate, and lung cancers from tens of thousands of articles downloaded from PubMed, and then employed Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine (SVM, and Logistic Regression to build prediction models to mine the articles. The accuracy of predicting a cancer type by SVM using the 29,437 full-text articles was 93.81%. While competing text-mining tools took more than 11 hours, SparkText mined the dataset in approximately 6 minutes.This study demonstrates the potential for mining large-scale scientific articles on a Big Data infrastructure, with real-time update from new articles published daily. SparkText can be extended to other areas of biomedical research.

  2. Text-Fabric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Text-Fabric is a Python3 package for Text plus Annotations. It provides a data model, a text file format, and a binary format for (ancient) text plus (linguistic) annotations. The emphasis of this all is on: data processing; sharing data; and contributing modules. A defining characteristic is that

  3. Contextual Text Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Qiaozhu

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

  4. XML and Free Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Ken Roger

    2002-01-01

    Discusses problems with marking free text, text that is either natural language or semigrammatical but unstructured, that prevent well-formed XML from marking text for readily available meaning. Proposes a solution to mark meaning in free text that is consistent with the intended simplicity of XML versus SGML. (Author/LRW)

  5. Bone Ceramic® at Implants Installed Immediately into Extraction Sockets in the Molar Region: An Experimental Study in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Flávia Priscila; Hochuli-Vieira, Eduardo; Maté Sánchez de Val, José E; De Santis, Enzo; Salata, Luiz Antonio; Botticelli, Daniele

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the healing of 1-1.4 mm wide buccal defects at implants placed immediately into extraction sockets (IPIES) filled with a mixture of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HA) 60% and beta-tricalciumphosphate (TCP) 40% or left with the clot alone and both covered with collagen membranes. Eight Labrador dogs were used and implants were placed immediately into the extraction sockets of the first molar bilaterally. A mixture of synthetic HA 60% and beta-TCP 40% at the test or the clot alone at the control sites were used to fill the defects. All surgical sites were subsequently covered by a resorbable collagen membrane and a non-submerged healing was allowed. After 4 months, the animals were euthanized, biopsies harvested and processed for histomorphometric analysis. At the time of installation, residual buccal defects occurred that were 1.1 mm and 1.4 mm wide and 3 mm and 4 mm deep at the control and test sites, respectively. After 4 months of healing, the top of the bony crest and the coronal level of osseointegration were located respectively at 0.1 ± 1.8 mm and 1.5 ± 1.8 mm at the test, and 0.6 ± 1.6 mm and 1.2 ± 0.7 mm at the control sites apically to the implant shoulder. Bone-to-implant contact at the buccal aspect was 34.9 ± 25.9% and 36.4 ± 17.3% at the test and control sites, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between test and control sites for any of the variables analyzed at the buccal aspects. The use of a mixture of synthetic HA 60% and beta-TCP 40% to fill residual buccal defects 1-1.4 mm wide at IPIES did not improve significantly the results of healing. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. MCM interference during licensing of DNA replication in Xenopus egg extracts-Possible Role of a C-terminal region of MCM3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimura, Satoru; Kubota, Yumiko; Takisawa, Haruhiko

    2018-01-01

    The minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex, consisting of six subunits, Mcm2-7, is loaded onto replication origins through loading factors (origin recognition complex [ORC], Cdc6, and Cdt1) and forms an MCM double hexamer that licenses the initiation of DNA replication. Previous studies with Xenopus egg extracts showed that loading factors, especially Cdc6, dissociate from chromatin on MCM loading, but the molecular mechanism and physiological significance remain largely unknown. Using a cell-free system for MCM loading onto plasmid DNA in Xenopus egg extracts, we found that MCM loaded onto DNA prevents DNA binding of the loading factors ORC, Cdc6, and Cdt1. We further report that a peptide of the C-terminal region of MCM3 (MCM3-C), previously implicated in the initial association with ORC/Cdc6 in budding yeast, prevents ORC/Cdc6/Cdt1 binding to DNA in the absence of MCM loading. ATP-γ-S suppresses inhibitory activities of both the MCM loaded onto DNA and the MCM3-C peptide. Other soluble factors in the extract, but neither MCM nor Cdt1, are required for the activity. Conservation of the amino acid sequences of MCM3-C and its activity in vertebrates implies a novel negative autoregulatory mechanism that interferes with MCM loading in the vicinity of licensed origins to ensure proper origin licensing.

  7. Scene text recognition in mobile applications by character descriptor and structure configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chucai; Tian, Yingli

    2014-07-01

    Text characters and strings in natural scene can provide valuable information for many applications. Extracting text directly from natural scene images or videos is a challenging task because of diverse text patterns and variant background interferences. This paper proposes a method of scene text recognition from detected text regions. In text detection, our previously proposed algorithms are applied to obtain text regions from scene image. First, we design a discriminative character descriptor by combining several state-of-the-art feature detectors and descriptors. Second, we model character structure at each character class by designing stroke configuration maps. Our algorithm design is compatible with the application of scene text extraction in smart mobile devices. An Android-based demo system is developed to show the effectiveness of our proposed method on scene text information extraction from nearby objects. The demo system also provides us some insight into algorithm design and performance improvement of scene text extraction. The evaluation results on benchmark data sets demonstrate that our proposed scheme of text recognition is comparable with the best existing methods.

  8. SparkText: Biomedical Text Mining on Big Data Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Karen Y.; Wang, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Background Many new biomedical research articles are published every day, accumulating rich information, such as genetic variants, genes, diseases, and treatments. Rapid yet accurate text mining on large-scale scientific literature can discover novel knowledge to better understand human diseases and to improve the quality of disease diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. Results In this study, we designed and developed an efficient text mining framework called SparkText on a Big Data infrastructure, which is composed of Apache Spark data streaming and machine learning methods, combined with a Cassandra NoSQL database. To demonstrate its performance for classifying cancer types, we extracted information (e.g., breast, prostate, and lung cancers) from tens of thousands of articles downloaded from PubMed, and then employed Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Logistic Regression to build prediction models to mine the articles. The accuracy of predicting a cancer type by SVM using the 29,437 full-text articles was 93.81%. While competing text-mining tools took more than 11 hours, SparkText mined the dataset in approximately 6 minutes. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential for mining large-scale scientific articles on a Big Data infrastructure, with real-time update from new articles published daily. SparkText can be extended to other areas of biomedical research. PMID:27685652

  9. SparkText: Biomedical Text Mining on Big Data Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhan; Tafti, Ahmad P; He, Karen Y; Wang, Kai; He, Max M

    Many new biomedical research articles are published every day, accumulating rich information, such as genetic variants, genes, diseases, and treatments. Rapid yet accurate text mining on large-scale scientific literature can discover novel knowledge to better understand human diseases and to improve the quality of disease diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. In this study, we designed and developed an efficient text mining framework called SparkText on a Big Data infrastructure, which is composed of Apache Spark data streaming and machine learning methods, combined with a Cassandra NoSQL database. To demonstrate its performance for classifying cancer types, we extracted information (e.g., breast, prostate, and lung cancers) from tens of thousands of articles downloaded from PubMed, and then employed Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine (SVM), and Logistic Regression to build prediction models to mine the articles. The accuracy of predicting a cancer type by SVM using the 29,437 full-text articles was 93.81%. While competing text-mining tools took more than 11 hours, SparkText mined the dataset in approximately 6 minutes. This study demonstrates the potential for mining large-scale scientific articles on a Big Data infrastructure, with real-time update from new articles published daily. SparkText can be extended to other areas of biomedical research.

  10. Assessing Mobile Phone Access and Perceptions for Texting-Based mHealth Interventions Among Expectant Mothers and Child Caregivers in Remote Regions of Northern Kenya: A Survey-Based Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Abdul Momin; Carmichael, Jason-Louis; Hapanna, Galgallo Waqo; Wangoo, Patrick Gikaria; Karanja, Sarah; Wanyama, Denis; Muhula, Samuel Opondo; Kyomuhangi, Lennie Bazira; Loolpapit, Mores; Wangalwa, Gilbert Bwire; Kinagwi, Koki; Lester, Richard Todd

    2017-01-30

    With a dramatic increase in mobile phone use in low- and middle-income countries, mobile health (mHealth) has great potential to connect health care services directly to participants enrolled and improve engagement of care. Rural and remote global settings may pose both significant challenges and opportunities. The objective of our study was to understand the demographics, phone usage and ownership characteristics, and feasibility among patients in rural and remote areas of Kenya of having text messaging (short messaging service, SMS)-based mHealth intervention for improvements in antenatal care attendance and routine immunization among children in Northern Kenya. A survey-based descriptive study was conducted between October 2014 and February 2015 at 8 health facilities in Northern Kenya as part of a program to scale up an mHealth service in rural and remote regions. The study was conducted at 6 government health facilities in Isiolo, Marsabit, and Samburu counties in remote and northern arid lands (NAL). Two less remote health facilities in Laikipia and Meru counties in more populated central highlands were included as comparison sites. A total of 284 participants were surveyed; 63.4% (180/284) were from NAL clinics, whereas 36.6% (104/284) were from adjacent central highland clinics. In the NAL, almost half (48.8%, 88/180) reported no formal education and 24.4% (44/180) self-identified as nomads. The majority of participants from both regions had access to mobile phone: 99.0% (103/104) of participants from central highlands and 82.1% (147/180) of participants from NAL. Among those who had access to a phone, there were significant differences in network challenges and technology literacy between the 2 regions. However, there was no significant difference in the proportion of participants from NAL and central highlands who indicated that they would like to receive a weekly SMS text message from their health care provider (90.0% vs 95.0%; P=.52). Overall, 92

  11. Is the extraction by Whatman FTA filter matrix technology and sequencing of large ribosomal subunit D1-D2 region sufficient for identification of clinical fungi?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiraz, Nuri; Oz, Yasemin; Aslan, Huseyin; Erturan, Zayre; Ener, Beyza; Akdagli, Sevtap Arikan; Muslumanoglu, Hamza; Cetinkaya, Zafer

    2015-10-01

    Although conventional identification of pathogenic fungi is based on the combination of tests evaluating their morphological and biochemical characteristics, they can fail to identify the less common species or the differentiation of closely related species. In addition these tests are time consuming, labour-intensive and require experienced personnel. We evaluated the feasibility and sufficiency of DNA extraction by Whatman FTA filter matrix technology and DNA sequencing of D1-D2 region of the large ribosomal subunit gene for identification of clinical isolates of 21 yeast and 160 moulds in our clinical mycology laboratory. While the yeast isolates were identified at species level with 100% homology, 102 (63.75%) clinically important mould isolates were identified at species level, 56 (35%) isolates at genus level against fungal sequences existing in DNA databases and two (1.25%) isolates could not be identified. Consequently, Whatman FTA filter matrix technology was a useful method for extraction of fungal DNA; extremely rapid, practical and successful. Sequence analysis strategy of D1-D2 region of the large ribosomal subunit gene was found considerably sufficient in identification to genus level for the most clinical fungi. However, the identification to species level and especially discrimination of closely related species may require additional analysis. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. E-text

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    2018-01-01

    text can be defined by taking as point of departure the digital format in which everything is represented in the binary alphabet. While the notion of text, in most cases, lends itself to be independent of medium and embodiment, it is also often tacitly assumed that it is, in fact, modeled around...... the print medium, rather than written text or speech. In late 20th century, the notion of text was subject to increasing criticism as in the question raised within literary text theory: is there a text in this class? At the same time, the notion was expanded by including extra linguistic sign modalities...

  13. Novel determination of the total phenolic content in crude plant extracts by the use of 1H NMR of the -OH spectral region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerantzaki, A.A.; Tsiafoulis, C.G.; Charisiadis, P.; Kontogianni, V.G.; Gerothanassis, I.P.

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for the determination of the total phenolic content using 1 H NMR spectroscopy in the -OH spectral region is presented. The use of DMSO-d 6 , which is an aprotic and strongly hydrogen bonding solvent, allows the 'appearance' of the relative sharp resonances of phenolic hydroxyl protons in the region of 8-14 ppm. The determination of the total phenolic -OH content requires three steps: (i) a 1D 1 H NMR spectrum is obtained in DMSO-d 6 ; (ii) a subsequent 1D 1 H NMR spectrum is recorded with irradiation of the residual water signal which results in the elimination or reduction of the phenolic -OH groups, due to proton exchange; and (iii) 1D 1 H NMR spectra are recorded with the addition of a progressively increased amount of salt, NaHCO 3 , which results in extensive linebroadening of the COOH resonances thus allowing the discrimination of the phenolic from the carboxylic acid signals. Integration, with respect to the internal standard TSP-d 4 , of the signal resonances between 14 and 8 ppm in spectrum (i) which are either eliminated or reduced in intensity in steps (ii) and (iii) allows the quantitation of the total phenolic content. The method was applied to model compounds, a mixture of them and several extracts of natural products. The results of the proposed 1 H NMR method were compared to the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) reagent method. Additionally, since 1 H NMR refers to the total phenolic hydroxyl protons, a reaction factor, A e , is proposed that corresponds to the hydroxyl reactivity. The 1 H NMR method is rapid and accurate bearing the inherent advantages of the NMR spectroscopy and can be applied directly in complex extracts. Furthermore, it can be applied in a wide range of matrixes from crude plant extracts and food products to biological samples.

  14. Texting on the Move

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... text. What's the Big Deal? The problem is multitasking. No matter how young and agile we are, ... on something other than the road. In fact, driving while texting (DWT) can be more dangerous than ...

  15. Text Coherence in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanping

    2009-01-01

    In the thesis a coherent text is defined as a continuity of senses of the outcome of combining concepts and relations into a network composed of knowledge space centered around main topics. And the author maintains that in order to obtain the coherence of a target language text from a source text during the process of translation, a translator can…

  16. Text Line Detection from Rectangle Traffic Panels of Natural Scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shiyuan; Huang, Linlin; Hu, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Traffic sign detection and recognition is very important for Intelligent Transportation. Among traffic signs, traffic panel contains rich information. However, due to low resolution and blur in the rectangular traffic panel, it is difficult to extract the character and symbols. In this paper, we propose a coarse-to-fine method to detect the Chinese character on traffic panels from natural scenes. Given a traffic panel Color Quantization is applied to extract candidate regions of Chinese characters. Second, a multi-stage filter based on learning is applied to discard the non-character regions. Third, we aggregate the characters for text lines by Distance Metric Learning method. Experimental results on real traffic images from Baidu Street View demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Using object-based image analysis to conduct high-resolution conifer extraction at regional spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Gustafson, K. Benjamin; Roth, Cali L.; Chenaille, Michael P.; Ricca, Mark A.; Mauch, Kimberly; Sanchez-Chopitea, Erika; Kroger, Travis J.; Perry, William M.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2017-08-10

    The distribution and abundance of pinyon (Pinus monophylla) and juniper (Juniperus osteosperma, J. occidentalis) trees (hereinafter, "pinyon-juniper") in sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystems of the Great Basin in the Western United States has increased substantially since the late 1800s. Distributional expansion and infill of pinyon-juniper into sagebrush ecosystems threatens the ecological function and economic viability of these ecosystems within the Great Basin, and is now a major contemporary challenge facing land and wildlife managers. Particularly, pinyon-juniper encroachment into intact sagebrush ecosystems has been identified as a primary threat facing populations of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereinafter, "sage-grouse"), which is a sagebrush obligate species. Even seemingly innocuous scatterings of isolated pinyon-juniper in an otherwise intact sagebrush landscape can negatively affect survival and reproduction of sage-grouse. Therefore, accurate and high-resolution maps of pinyon-juniper distribution and abundance (indexed by canopy cover) across broad geographic extents would help guide land management decisions that better target areas for pinyon-juniper removal projects (for example, fuel reduction, habitat improvement for sage-grouse, and other sagebrush species) and facilitate science that further quantifies ecological effects of pinyon-juniper encroachment on sage-grouse populations and sagebrush ecosystem processes. Hence, we mapped pinyon-juniper (referred to as conifers for actual mapping) at a 1 × 1-meter (m) high resolution across the entire range of previously mapped sage-grouse habitat in Nevada and northeastern California.We used digital orthophoto quad tiles from National Agriculture Imagery Program (2010, 2013) as base imagery, and then classified conifers using automated feature extraction methodology with the program Feature Analyst™. This method relies on machine learning algorithms that extract features from

  18. Vocabulary Constraint on Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Sutarsyah

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This case study was carried out in the English Education Department of State University of Malang. The aim of the study was to identify and describe the vocabulary in the reading text and to seek if the text is useful for reading skill development. A descriptive qualitative design was applied to obtain the data. For this purpose, some available computer programs were used to find the description of vocabulary in the texts. It was found that the 20 texts containing 7,945 words are dominated by low frequency words which account for 16.97% of the words in the texts. The high frequency words occurring in the texts were dominated by function words. In the case of word levels, it was found that the texts have very limited number of words from GSL (General Service List of English Words (West, 1953. The proportion of the first 1,000 words of GSL only accounts for 44.6%. The data also show that the texts contain too large proportion of words which are not in the three levels (the first 2,000 and UWL. These words account for 26.44% of the running words in the texts.  It is believed that the constraints are due to the selection of the texts which are made of a series of short-unrelated texts. This kind of text is subject to the accumulation of low frequency words especially those of content words and limited of words from GSL. It could also defeat the development of students' reading skills and vocabulary enrichment.

  19. Automated grain extraction and classification by combining improved region growing segmentation and shape descriptors in electromagnetic mill classification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzan, Sebastian

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the automatic method of grain detection and classification has been presented. As input, it uses a single digital image obtained from milling process of the copper ore with an high-quality digital camera. The grinding process is an extremely energy and cost consuming process, thus granularity evaluation process should be performed with high efficiency and time consumption. The method proposed in this paper is based on the three-stage image processing. First, using Seeded Region Growing (SRG) segmentation with proposed adaptive thresholding based on the calculation of Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) all grains are detected. In the next step results of the detection are improved using information about the shape of the detected grains using distance map. Finally, each grain in the sample is classified into one of the predefined granularity class. The quality of the proposed method has been obtained by using nominal granularity samples, also with a comparison to the other methods.

  20. Strategies to Increase Accuracy in Text Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Blommesteijn (Dennis)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractText classification via supervised learning involves various steps from processing raw data, features extraction to training and validating classifiers. Within these steps implementation decisions are critical to the resulting classifier accuracy. This paper contains a report of the

  1. Text Mining for Protein Docking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha D Badal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing amount of publicly available information from biomedical research is readily accessible on the Internet, providing a powerful resource for predictive biomolecular modeling. The accumulated data on experimentally determined structures transformed structure prediction of proteins and protein complexes. Instead of exploring the enormous search space, predictive tools can simply proceed to the solution based on similarity to the existing, previously determined structures. A similar major paradigm shift is emerging due to the rapidly expanding amount of information, other than experimentally determined structures, which still can be used as constraints in biomolecular structure prediction. Automated text mining has been widely used in recreating protein interaction networks, as well as in detecting small ligand binding sites on protein structures. Combining and expanding these two well-developed areas of research, we applied the text mining to structural modeling of protein-protein complexes (protein docking. Protein docking can be significantly improved when constraints on the docking mode are available. We developed a procedure that retrieves published abstracts on a specific protein-protein interaction and extracts information relevant to docking. The procedure was assessed on protein complexes from Dockground (http://dockground.compbio.ku.edu. The results show that correct information on binding residues can be extracted for about half of the complexes. The amount of irrelevant information was reduced by conceptual analysis of a subset of the retrieved abstracts, based on the bag-of-words (features approach. Support Vector Machine models were trained and validated on the subset. The remaining abstracts were filtered by the best-performing models, which decreased the irrelevant information for ~ 25% complexes in the dataset. The extracted constraints were incorporated in the docking protocol and tested on the Dockground unbound

  2. Dictionaries for text production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro; Bergenholtz, Henning

    2018-01-01

    Dictionaries for Text Production are information tools that are designed and constructed for helping users to produce (i.e. encode) texts, both oral and written texts. These can be broadly divided into two groups: (a) specialized text production dictionaries, i.e., dictionaries that only offer...... a small amount of lexicographic data, most or all of which are typically used in a production situation, e.g. synonym dictionaries, grammar and spelling dictionaries, collocation dictionaries, concept dictionaries such as the Longman Language Activator, which is advertised as the World’s First Production...... Dictionary; (b) general text production dictionaries, i.e., dictionaries that offer all or most of the lexicographic data that are typically used in a production situation. A review of existing production dictionaries reveals that there are many specialized text production dictionaries but only a few general...

  3. Instant Sublime Text starter

    CERN Document Server

    Haughee, Eric

    2013-01-01

    A starter which teaches the basic tasks to be performed with Sublime Text with the necessary practical examples and screenshots. This book requires only basic knowledge of the Internet and basic familiarity with any one of the three major operating systems, Windows, Linux, or Mac OS X. However, as Sublime Text 2 is primarily a text editor for writing software, many of the topics discussed will be specifically relevant to software development. That being said, the Sublime Text 2 Starter is also suitable for someone without a programming background who may be looking to learn one of the tools of

  4. The Text of a Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology. Latest Status. Declarations/Reservations; Texto de un Acuerdo de Cooperacion Regional Para la Investigacion, el Desarrollo y la Capacitacion en Materia de Ciencias y Tecnologia Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1972-08-18

    The text of a Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology between the Agency and Member States is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. Section 9 thereof specifies the Members that may become party to it [Spanish] Para conocimiento de todos los Estados Miembros en el presente documento se transcribe el texto de un Acuerdo de Cooperacion Regional para la investigacion, el desarrollo y la capacitacion en materia de ciencias y tecnologia nucleares entre el Organismo y los Estados Miembros. En la Seccion 9 se especifican los Estados Miembros que pueden ser partes en el Acuerdo.

  5. Linguistics in Text Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Ole

    2011-01-01

    A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'.......A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'....

  6. LocText

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cejuela, Juan Miguel; Vinchurkar, Shrikant; Goldberg, Tatyana

    2018-01-01

    trees and was trained and evaluated on a newly improved LocTextCorpus. Combined with an automatic named-entity recognizer, LocText achieved high precision (P = 86%±4). After completing development, we mined the latest research publications for three organisms: human (Homo sapiens), budding yeast...

  7. Systematic text condensation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malterud, Kirsti

    2012-01-01

    To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies.......To present background, principles, and procedures for a strategy for qualitative analysis called systematic text condensation and discuss this approach compared with related strategies....

  8. The Perfect Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ruth

    1998-01-01

    A chemistry teacher describes the elements of the ideal chemistry textbook. The perfect text is focused and helps students draw a coherent whole out of the myriad fragments of information and interpretation. The text would show chemistry as the central science necessary for understanding other sciences and would also root chemistry firmly in the…

  9. Text 2 Mind Map

    OpenAIRE

    Iona, John

    2017-01-01

    This is a review of the web resource 'Text 2 Mind Map' www.Text2MindMap.com. It covers what the resource is, and how it might be used in Library and education context, in particular for School Librarians.

  10. Text File Comparator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    File Comparator program IFCOMP, is text file comparator for IBM OS/VScompatable systems. IFCOMP accepts as input two text files and produces listing of differences in pseudo-update form. IFCOMP is very useful in monitoring changes made to software at the source code level.

  11. Recognition of pornographic web pages by classifying texts and images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Wu, Ou; Chen, Zhouyao; Fu, Zhouyu; Maybank, Steve

    2007-06-01

    With the rapid development of the World Wide Web, people benefit more and more from the sharing of information. However, Web pages with obscene, harmful, or illegal content can be easily accessed. It is important to recognize such unsuitable, offensive, or pornographic Web pages. In this paper, a novel framework for recognizing pornographic Web pages is described. A C4.5 decision tree is used to divide Web pages, according to content representations, into continuous text pages, discrete text pages, and image pages. These three categories of Web pages are handled, respectively, by a continuous text classifier, a discrete text classifier, and an algorithm that fuses the results from the image classifier and the discrete text classifier. In the continuous text classifier, statistical and semantic features are used to recognize pornographic texts. In the discrete text classifier, the naive Bayes rule is used to calculate the probability that a discrete text is pornographic. In the image classifier, the object's contour-based features are extracted to recognize pornographic images. In the text and image fusion algorithm, the Bayes theory is used to combine the recognition results from images and texts. Experimental results demonstrate that the continuous text classifier outperforms the traditional keyword-statistics-based classifier, the contour-based image classifier outperforms the traditional skin-region-based image classifier, the results obtained by our fusion algorithm outperform those by either of the individual classifiers, and our framework can be adapted to different categories of Web pages.

  12. Evaluation of antileishmanial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of essential oils extracted from plants issued from the leishmaniasis-endemic region of Sned (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S Ben Hadj; Sghaier, R M; Guesmi, F; Kaabi, B; Mejri, M; Attia, H; Laouini, D; Smaali, I

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we tested 10 essential oils (EOs) extracted from 10 plants issued from Sned region (Tunisia) to evaluate both their leishmanicidal effects against Leishmania major and L. infantum, and their cytotoxicity against murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 (ATCC, TIB-71). The antioxidant activity was also monitored by the DDPH method, while the chemical composition of active EO was assessed by GC-MS analysis. The results showed that the EOs obtained from Thymus hirtus sp. algeriensis (rich on monoterpenoids, especially linalool at 17.62% and camphor at 13.82%) is significantly active against both L. major and L. infantum, whereas Ruta chalepensis EO (rich on 2-undecanone at 84.28%) is only active against L. infantum. Both oil extracts showed low cytotoxicity towards murine macrophages. The characteristic ratios (IC₈₀ Raw264.7 cells/IC₅₀ L. infantum and IC₈₀ Raw264.7 cells/IC₅₀ L. major) were, respectively, 2.7 and 1.57 for T. hirtus sp. algeriensis, and 1.34 and 0.19 for R. chalepensis. However, when measuring the antioxidant effects (DDPH method), the two latter EOs presented a moderate 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate scavenging effects compared to EOs from Eucaliptus globulus, Pinus halepensis, Pituranthos tortuosus, Rosmarinus officinalis, Tetraclinis articulata or to BHT.

  13. Zum Bildungspotenzial biblischer Texte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theis, Joachim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Biblical education as a holistic process goes far beyond biblical learning. It must be understood as a lifelong process, in which both biblical texts and their understanders operate appropriating their counterpart in a dialogical way. – Neither does the recipient’s horizon of understanding appear as an empty room, which had to be filled with the text only, nor is the latter a dead material one could only examine cognitively. The recipient discovers the meaning of the biblical text recomposing it by existential appropriation. So the text is brought to live in each individual reality. Both scientific insights and subjective structures as well as the understanders’ community must be included to avoid potential one-sidednesses. Unfortunately, a special negative association obscures the approach of the bible very often: Still biblical work as part of religious education appears in a cognitively oriented habit, which is neither regarding the vitality and sovereignty of the biblical texts nor the students’ desire for meaning. Moreover, the bible is getting misused for teaching moral terms or pontifications. Such downfalls can be disrupted by biblical didactics which are empowerment didactics. Regarding the sovereignty of biblical texts, these didactics assist the understander with his/her individuation by opening the texts with focus on the understander’s otherness. Thus each the text and the recipient become subjects in a dialogue. The approach of the Biblical-Enabling-Didactics leads the Bible to become always new a book of life. Understanding them from within their hermeneutics, empowerment didactics could be raised to the principle of biblical didactics in general and grow into an essential element of holistic education.

  14. EST: Evading Scientific Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jeremy

    2001-01-01

    Examines chemical engineering students' attitudes to text and other parts of English language textbooks. A questionnaire was administered to a group of undergraduates. Results reveal one way students get around the problem of textbook reading. (Author/VWL)

  15. nal Sesotho texts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with literary texts written in indigenous South African languages. The project ... Homi Bhabha uses the words of Salman Rushdie to underline the fact that new .... I could not conceptualise an African-language-to-African-language dictionary. An.

  16. Plagiarism in Academic Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Eugenia Rojas-Porras

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The ethical and social responsibility of citing the sources in a scientific or artistic work is undeniable. This paper explores, in a preliminary way, academic plagiarism in its various forms. It includes findings based on a forensic analysis. The purpose of this paper is to raise awareness on the importance of considering these details when writing and publishing a text. Hopefully, this analysis may put the issue under discussion.

  17. Machine Translation from Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habash, Nizar; Olive, Joseph; Christianson, Caitlin; McCary, John

    Machine translation (MT) from text, the topic of this chapter, is perhaps the heart of the GALE project. Beyond being a well defined application that stands on its own, MT from text is the link between the automatic speech recognition component and the distillation component. The focus of MT in GALE is on translating from Arabic or Chinese to English. The three languages represent a wide range of linguistic diversity and make the GALE MT task rather challenging and exciting.

  18. IN VITRO EFFECT OF SORGHUM (SORGHUM BICOLOR SEED EXTRACTS AS A BIOLOGICAL ACARICIDAL AGAINST SOME HARD TICK (IXODIDAE IN SULAIMANI GOVERNORATE - KURDISTAN REGION/IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahzad H.S. Mustafa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in Sulaimani governorate in order to identify the biological control of some Ixodidae genera among different flocks of cattle, sheep and goats. Four genera of Ixodidae; Boophilus spp., Hyalomma spp., Rhipicephalus spp. and Haemaphysalis spp., were identified in these infested animals. According to chi–square test, the highest distribution of Boophulis spp., was recorded in cattle (56.51%, and the highest distribution of Hyalomma spp., (49.82% and Rhipicephalus spp., (28.16% which were in sheep. The highest number of Haemophasylas spp., was obtained from goats (6.67%, whereas the lowest number of this genus (2.88% and 2.89% was collected from cattle and sheep respectively. The toxicity of Sorghum bicolor seed extract was tested against the more distributed Ixodidae genera (Boophilus spp. and Hyalomma spp. by immersion method on mature ticks, four concentrations (23.2, 17.4, 11.6 and 5.8 mg/dl, in addition to the control treatment (0 mg/dl of the seed were used to evaluate the engorged females in vitro. The results showed that 100% of absolute cumulative mortality of Boophilus spp., was gain after 72 hr by 23.2 mg/dl extract concentration, followed by 17.4 mg/dl which gave 90% mortality, whereas 100% absolute cumulative mortality for Hyalomma spp., was obtained by 23.2 mg/dl extract concentration after 48 hr, followed by 17.4, 11.6 and 5.8 mg/dl concentration that gave 90%, 80% and 40% mortality after 72 hr.

  19. Stemming Malay Text and Its Application in Automatic Text Categorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasukawa, Michiko; Lim, Hui Tian; Yokoo, Hidetoshi

    In Malay language, there are no conjugations and declensions and affixes have important grammatical functions. In Malay, the same word may function as a noun, an adjective, an adverb, or, a verb, depending on its position in the sentence. Although extensively simple root words are used in informal conversations, it is essential to use the precise words in formal speech or written texts. In Malay, to make sentences clear, derivative words are used. Derivation is achieved mainly by the use of affixes. There are approximately a hundred possible derivative forms of a root word in written language of the educated Malay. Therefore, the composition of Malay words may be complicated. Although there are several types of stemming algorithms available for text processing in English and some other languages, they cannot be used to overcome the difficulties in Malay word stemming. Stemming is the process of reducing various words to their root forms in order to improve the effectiveness of text processing in information systems. It is essential to avoid both over-stemming and under-stemming errors. We have developed a new Malay stemmer (stemming algorithm) for removing inflectional and derivational affixes. Our stemmer uses a set of affix rules and two types of dictionaries: a root-word dictionary and a derivative-word dictionary. The use of set of rules is aimed at reducing the occurrence of under-stemming errors, while that of the dictionaries is believed to reduce the occurrence of over-stemming errors. We performed an experiment to evaluate the application of our stemmer in text mining software. For the experiment, text data used were actual web pages collected from the World Wide Web to demonstrate the effectiveness of our Malay stemming algorithm. The experimental results showed that our stemmer can effectively increase the precision of the extracted Boolean expressions for text categorization.

  20. The Water Level Fall of Lake Megali Prespa (N Greece): an Indicator of Regional Water Stress Driven by Climate Change and Amplified by Water Extraction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schriek, Tim; Giannakopoulos, Christos

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean stands out globally due to its sensitivity to (future) climate change, with future projections predicting an increase in excessive drought events and declining rainfall. Regional freshwater ecosystems are particularly threatened: precipitation decreases, while extreme droughts increase and human impacts intensify (e.g. water extraction, drainage, pollution and dam-building). Many Mediterranean lake-wetland systems have shrunk or disappeared over the past two decades. Protecting the remaining systems is extremely important for supporting global biodiversity and for ensuring sustainable water availability. This protection should be based on a clear understanding of lake-wetland hydrological responses to natural and human-induced changes, which is currently lacking in many parts of the Mediterranean. The interconnected Prespa-Ohrid Lake system is a global hotspot of biodiversity and endemism. The unprecedented fall in water level (~8m) of Lake Megali Prespa threatens this system, but causes remain debated. Modelling suggests that the S Balkan will experience rainfall and runoff decreases of ~30% by 2050. However, projections revealing the potential impact of these changes on future lake level are unavailable as lake regime is not understood. A further drop in lake level may have serious consequences. The Prespa Lakes contribute ~25% of the total inflow into Lake Ohrid through underground karst channels; falling lake levels decrease this discharge. Lake Ohrid, in turn, feeds the Drim River. This entire catchment may therefore be affected by falling lake levels; its water resources are of great importance for Greece, Albania, FYROM and Montenegro (e.g. tourism, agriculture, hydro-energy, urban & industrial use). This new work proves that annual water level fluctuations of Lake Megali Prespa are predominantly related to precipitation during the first 7 months (Oct-Apr) of the hydrological year (Oct-Sep). Lake level is very sensitive to regional and

  1. TEXT Energy Storage System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weldon, W.F.; Rylander, H.G.; Woodson, H.H.

    1977-01-01

    The Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT) Enery Storage System, designed by the Center for Electromechanics (CEM), consists of four 50 MJ, 125 V homopolar generators and their auxiliaries and is designed to power the toroidal and poloidal field coils of TEXT on a two-minute duty cycle. The four 50 MJ generators connected in series were chosen because they represent the minimum cost configuration and also represent a minimal scale up from the successful 5.0 MJ homopolar generator designed, built, and operated by the CEM

  2. New mathematical cuneiform texts

    CERN Document Server

    Friberg, Jöran

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents in great detail a large number of both unpublished and previously published Babylonian mathematical texts in the cuneiform script. It is a continuation of the work A Remarkable Collection of Babylonian Mathematical Texts (Springer 2007) written by Jöran Friberg, the leading expert on Babylonian mathematics. Focussing on the big picture, Friberg explores in this book several Late Babylonian arithmetical and metro-mathematical table texts from the sites of Babylon, Uruk and Sippar, collections of mathematical exercises from four Old Babylonian sites, as well as a new text from Early Dynastic/Early Sargonic Umma, which is the oldest known collection of mathematical exercises. A table of reciprocals from the end of the third millennium BC, differing radically from well-documented but younger tables of reciprocals from the Neo-Sumerian and Old-Babylonian periods, as well as a fragment of a Neo-Sumerian clay tablet showing a new type of a labyrinth are also discussed. The material is presen...

  3. The Emar Lexical Texts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gantzert, Merijn

    2011-01-01

    This four-part work provides a philological analysis and a theoretical interpretation of the cuneiform lexical texts found in the Late Bronze Age city of Emar, in present-day Syria. These word and sign lists, commonly dated to around 1100 BC, were almost all found in the archive of a single school.

  4. Text Induced Spelling Correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynaert, M.W.C.

    2004-01-01

    We present TISC, a language-independent and context-sensitive spelling checking and correction system designed to facilitate the automatic removal of non-word spelling errors in large corpora. Its lexicon is derived from a very large corpus of raw text, without supervision, and contains word

  5. Texts and Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iser, Wolfgang

    1980-01-01

    Notes that, since fictional discourse need not reflect prevailing systems of meaning and norms or values, readers gain detachment from their own presuppositions; by constituting and formulating text-sense, readers are constituting and formulating their own cognition and becoming aware of the operations for doing so. (FL)

  6. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Belgium 29 June 2014 - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy; 2 - Belgium, 7 December 2016. - Act amending the Act of 22 July 1985 on Third-Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy

  7. Semantic Document Image Classification Based on Valuable Text Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Pourghassem

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge extraction from detected document image is a complex problem in the field of information technology. This problem becomes more intricate when we know, a negligible percentage of the detected document images are valuable. In this paper, a segmentation-based classification algorithm is used to analysis the document image. In this algorithm, using a two-stage segmentation approach, regions of the image are detected, and then classified to document and non-document (pure region regions in the hierarchical classification. In this paper, a novel valuable definition is proposed to classify document image in to valuable or invaluable categories. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on a database consisting of the document and non-document image that provide from Internet. Experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm in the semantic document image classification. The proposed algorithm provides accuracy rate of 98.8% for valuable and invaluable document image classification problem.

  8. Strategy as Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obed Madsen, Søren

    of the strategy into four categories. Second, the managers produce new texts based on the original strategy document by using four different ways of translation models. The study’s findings contribute to three areas. Firstly, it shows that translation is more than a sociological process. It is also...... a craftsmanship that requires knowledge and skills, which unfortunately seems to be overlooked in both the literature and in practice. Secondly, it shows that even though a strategy text is in singular, the translation makes strategy plural. Thirdly, the article proposes a way to open up the black box of what......This article shows empirically how managers translate a strategy plan at an individual level. By analysing how managers in three organizations translate strategies, it identifies that the translation happens in two steps: First, the managers decipher the strategy by coding the different parts...

  9. Reading Authentic Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balling, Laura Winther

    2013-01-01

    Most research on cognates has focused on words presented in isolation that are easily defined as cognate between L1 and L2. In contrast, this study investigates what counts as cognate in authentic texts and how such cognates are read. Participants with L1 Danish read news articles in their highly...... proficient L2, English, while their eye-movements were monitored. The experiment shows a cognate advantage for morphologically simple words, but only when cognateness is defined relative to translation equivalents that are appropriate in the context. For morphologically complex words, a cognate disadvantage...... word predictability indexed by the conditional probability of each word....

  10. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    This section treats of the following documents and legal texts: 1 - Brazil: Law No. 13,260 of 16 March 2016 (To regulate the provisions of item XLIII of Article 5 of the Federal Constitution on terrorism, dealing with investigative and procedural provisions and redefining the concept of a terrorist organisation; and amends Laws No. 7,960 of 21 December 1989 and No. 12,850 of 2 August 2013); 2 - India: The Atomic Energy (Amendment) Act, 2015; Department Of Atomic Energy Notification (Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage); 3 - Japan: Act on Subsidisation, etc. for Nuclear Damage Compensation Funds following the implementation of the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  11. Journalistic Text Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Rikke Hartmann

    , a multiple case study investigated three professional text producers’ practices as they unfolded in their natural setting at the Spanish newspaper, El Mundo. • Results indicate that journalists’ revisions are related to form markedly more often than to content. • Results suggest two writing phases serving...... at the Spanish newspaper, El Mundo, in Madrid. The study applied a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods, i.e. keystroke logging, participant observation and retrospective interview. Results indicate that journalists’ revisions are related to form markedly more often than to content (approx. three...

  12. The text of the Agreement to Extend the Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 1987. Status of acceptances as of 28 February 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The document gives the status of acceptances as of 28 February 1993 of the agreement to extend regional co-operative agreement for research, development and training related to nuclear science and technology from 1987

  13. Weitere Texte physiognomischen Inhalts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Böck, Barbara

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article offers the edition of three cuneiform texts belonging to the Akkadian handbook of omens drawn from the physical appearance as well as the morals and behaviour of man. The book comprising up to 27 chapters with more than 100 omens each was entitled in antiquity Alamdimmû. The edition of the three cuneiform tablets completes, thus, the author's monographic study on the ancient Mesopotamian divinatory discipline of physiognomy (Die babylonisch-assyrische Morphoskopie (Wien 2000 [=AfO Beih. 27].

    En este artículo se presenta la editio princeps de tres textos cuneiformes conservados en el British Museum (Londres y el Vorderasiatisches Museum (Berlín, que pertenecen al libro asirio-babilonio de presagios fisiognómicos. Este libro, titulado originalmente Alamdimmû ('forma, figura', consta de 27 capítulos, cada uno con más de cien presagios escritos en lengua acadia. Los tres textos completan así el estudio monográfico de la autora sobre la disciplina adivinatoria de la fisiognomía en el antiguo Oriente (Die babylonisch-assyrische Morphoskopie (Wien 2000 [=AfO Beih. 27].

  14. Utah Text Retrieval Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollaar, L A

    1983-10-01

    The Utah Text Retrieval project seeks well-engineered solutions to the implementation of large, inexpensive, rapid text information retrieval systems. The project has three major components. Perhaps the best known is the work on the specialized processors, particularly search engines, necessary to achieve the desired performance and cost. The other two concern the user interface to the system and the system's internal structure. The work on user interface development is not only concentrating on the syntax and semantics of the query language, but also on the overall environment the system presents to the user. Environmental enhancements include convenient ways to browse through retrieved documents, access to other information retrieval systems through gateways supporting a common command interface, and interfaces to word processing systems. The system's internal structure is based on a high-level data communications protocol linking the user interface, index processor, search processor, and other system modules. This allows them to be easily distributed in a multi- or specialized-processor configuration. It also allows new modules, such as a knowledge-based query reformulator, to be added. 15 references.

  15. Text Mining of Supreme Administrative Court Jurisdictions

    OpenAIRE

    Feinerer, Ingo; Hornik, Kurt

    2007-01-01

    Within the last decade text mining, i.e., extracting sensitive information from text corpora, has become a major factor in business intelligence. The automated textual analysis of law corpora is highly valuable because of its impact on a company's legal options and the raw amount of available jurisdiction. The study of supreme court jurisdiction and international law corpora is equally important due to its effects on business sectors. In this paper we use text mining methods to investigate Au...

  16. Effect of Fenugreek Seed Extract (Trigonella Foenum-graecum on Brachial Region of the Spinal Cord of an 18-Day Old Rat Offspring with Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Khaksar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background & aim: Diabetes can affect the spinal cord, an important part of the central nervous system. Fenugreek seed has been suggested to have potential antidiabetic effects. This study was conducted to assess the effects of Fenugreek seed extract (trigonella foenum-graecum on fetal spinal cord structure, specifically in the brachial enlargement cord in an 18-day old fetus of diabetic mothers treated with extracts in comparison with the control groups' mothers. Methods: In the present cross-sectional study, sixteen healthy female rats were randomly divided into four equal groups: Healthy control, Diabetes control, Fenugreek control, Fenugreek treatment. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of Streptozotcin (50 mg/kg. All four groups became pregnant by natural mating. After formation of the nervous system, two fetuses from each group were expelled by cesarean after performing anesthesia on the animals on 18th day of pregnancy furthermore their brachial enlargement spinal cord samples were taken. Finally, the tissue sections were prepared by routine procedures and diverse histological parameters were examined. The collected data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: results showed that fetal body weight on the diabetic control group was significantly higher compared to the other groups (P≤ 0/05. Moreover, significant reductions in the transvers and vertical diameters in central channel of the spinal cord and as well in the number of neurons of the spinal cord gray matter in the diabetic control groups in comparison with the other groups were observed (P≤0/05. Conclusion: The hyperglycemic effect of maternal diabetes during fetal period causes abnormalities, especially in the brachial enlargement of spinal cord, including changes in the spinal cord and neurons number in the gray matter. Disorders occurring in the prenatal remains and may perhaps cause lack of ability to perform certain physical activities. Key words

  17. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This section reprints a selection of recently published legislative texts and documents: - Russian Federation: Federal Law No.170 of 21 November 1995 on the use of atomic energy, Adopted by the State Duma on 20 October 1995; - Uruguay: Law No.19.056 On the Radiological Protection and Safety of Persons, Property and the Environment (4 January 2013); - Japan: Third Supplement to Interim Guidelines on Determination of the Scope of Nuclear Damage resulting from the Accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plants (concerning Damages related to Rumour-Related Damage in the Agriculture, Forestry, Fishery and Food Industries), 30 January 2013; - France and the United States: Joint Statement on Liability for Nuclear Damage (Aug 2013); - Franco-Russian Nuclear Power Declaration (1 November 2013)

  18. Text mining for metabolic reaction extraction from scientific literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risse, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    Science relies on data in all its different forms. In molecular biology and bioinformatics in particular large scale data generation has taken centre stage in the form of high-throughput experiments. In line with this exponential increase of experimental data has been the near exponential growth

  19. Addressing Information Proliferation: Applications of Information Extraction and Text Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing

    2013-01-01

    The advent of the Internet and the ever-increasing capacity of storage media have made it easy to store, deliver, and share enormous volumes of data, leading to a proliferation of information on the Web, in online libraries, on news wires, and almost everywhere in our daily lives. Since our ability to process and absorb this information remains…

  20. Interconnectedness und digitale Texte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detlev Doherr

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Zusammenfassung Die multimedialen Informationsdienste im Internet werden immer umfangreicher und umfassender, wobei auch die nur in gedruckter Form vorliegenden Dokumente von den Bibliotheken digitalisiert und ins Netz gestellt werden. Über Online-Dokumentenverwaltungen oder Suchmaschinen können diese Dokumente gefunden und dann in gängigen Formaten wie z.B. PDF bereitgestellt werden. Dieser Artikel beleuchtet die Funktionsweise der Humboldt Digital Library, die seit mehr als zehn Jahren Dokumente von Alexander von Humboldt in englischer Übersetzung im Web als HDL (Humboldt Digital Library kostenfrei zur Verfügung stellt. Anders als eine digitale Bibliothek werden dabei allerdings nicht nur digitalisierte Dokumente als Scan oder PDF bereitgestellt, sondern der Text als solcher und in vernetzter Form verfügbar gemacht. Das System gleicht damit eher einem Informationssystem als einer digitalen Bibliothek, was sich auch in den verfügbaren Funktionen zur Auffindung von Texten in unterschiedlichen Versionen und Übersetzungen, Vergleichen von Absätzen verschiedener Dokumente oder der Darstellung von Bilden in ihrem Kontext widerspiegelt. Die Entwicklung von dynamischen Hyperlinks auf der Basis der einzelnen Textabsätze der Humboldt‘schen Werke in Form von Media Assets ermöglicht eine Nutzung der Programmierschnittstelle von Google Maps zur geographischen wie auch textinhaltlichen Navigation. Über den Service einer digitalen Bibliothek hinausgehend, bietet die HDL den Prototypen eines mehrdimensionalen Informationssystems, das mit dynamischen Strukturen arbeitet und umfangreiche thematische Auswertungen und Vergleiche ermöglicht. Summary The multimedia information services on Internet are becoming more and more comprehensive, even the printed documents are digitized and republished as digital Web documents by the libraries. Those digital files can be found by search engines or management tools and provided as files in usual formats as

  1. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This section treats of the following Documents and legal texts: 1 - Canada: Nuclear Liability and Compensation Act (An Act respecting civil liability and compensation for damage in case of a nuclear incident, repealing the Nuclear Liability Act and making consequential amendments to other acts); 2 - Japan: Act on Compensation for Nuclear Damage (The purpose of this act is to protect persons suffering from nuclear damage and to contribute to the sound development of the nuclear industry by establishing a basic system regarding compensation in case of nuclear damage caused by reactor operation etc.); Act on Indemnity Agreements for Compensation of Nuclear Damage; 3 - Slovak Republic: Act on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage and on its Financial Coverage and on Changes and Amendments to Certain Laws (This Act regulates: a) The civil liability for nuclear damage incurred in the causation of a nuclear incident, b) The scope of powers of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (hereinafter only as the 'Authority') in relation to the application of this Act, c) The competence of the National Bank of Slovakia in relation to the supervised financial market entities in the financial coverage of liability for nuclear damage; and d) The penalties for violation of this Act)

  2. Documents and legal texts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This section of the Bulletin presents the recently published documents and legal texts sorted by country: - Brazil: Resolution No. 169 of 30 April 2014. - Japan: Act Concerning Exceptions to Interruption of Prescription Pertaining to Use of Settlement Mediation Procedures by the Dispute Reconciliation Committee for Nuclear Damage Compensation in relation to Nuclear Damage Compensation Disputes Pertaining to the Great East Japan Earthquake (Act No. 32 of 5 June 2013); Act Concerning Measures to Achieve Prompt and Assured Compensation for Nuclear Damage Arising from the Nuclear Plant Accident following the Great East Japan Earthquake and Exceptions to the Extinctive Prescription, etc. of the Right to Claim Compensation for Nuclear Damage (Act No. 97 of 11 December 2013); Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines on Determination of the Scope of Nuclear Damage Resulting from the Accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plants (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.); Outline of 'Fourth Supplement to Interim Guidelines (Concerning Damages Associated with the Prolongation of Evacuation Orders, etc.)'. - OECD Nuclear Energy Agency: Decision and Recommendation of the Steering Committee Concerning the Application of the Paris Convention to Nuclear Installations in the Process of Being Decommissioned; Joint Declaration on the Security of Supply of Medical Radioisotopes. - United Arab Emirates: Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage; Ratification of the Federal Supreme Council of Federal Decree No. (51) of 2014 Ratifying the Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage

  3. Measurement of the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] production cross sections in multilepton final states using 3.2 fb[Formula: see text] of [Formula: see text] collisions at [Formula: see text] = 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaboud, M; Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdinov, O; Abeloos, B; Aben, R; AbouZeid, O S; Abraham, N L; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abreu, R; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Affolder, A A; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Agricola, J; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Ahlen, S P; Ahmadov, F; Aielli, G; Akerstedt, H; Åkesson, T P A; Akimov, A V; Alberghi, G L; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Alconada Verzini, M J; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Ali, B; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Alkire, S P; Allbrooke, B M M; Allen, B W; Allport, P P; Aloisio, A; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Alpigiani, C; Alstaty, M; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Álvarez Piqueras, D; Alviggi, M G; Amadio, B T; Amako, K; Amaral Coutinho, Y; Amelung, C; Amidei, D; Amor Dos Santos, S P; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amundsen, G; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anders, J K; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Angelidakis, S; Angelozzi, I; Anger, P; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A V; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antel, C; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Aperio Bella, L; Arabidze, G; Arai, Y; Araque, J P; Arce, A T H; Arduh, F A; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Armitage, L J; Arnaez, O; Arnold, H; Arratia, M; Arslan, O; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Artz, S; Asai, S; Asbah, N; Ashkenazi, A; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Atkinson, M; Atlay, N B; Augsten, K; Avolio, G; Axen, B; Ayoub, M K; Azuelos, G; Baak, M A; Baas, A E; Baca, M J; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Bagiacchi, P; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baldin, E M; Balek, P; Balestri, T; Balli, F; Balunas, W K; Banas, E; Banerjee, Sw; Bannoura, A A E; Barak, L; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Barillari, T; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnes, S L; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Barnovska-Blenessy, Z; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Barranco Navarro, L; Barreiro, F; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; 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Zhou, M; Zhou, N; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhukov, K; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimine, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Zinser, M; Ziolkowski, M; Živković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Zur Nedden, M; Zwalinski, L

    2017-01-01

    A measurement of the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] production cross sections in final states with either two same-charge muons, or three or four leptons (electrons or muons) is presented. The analysis uses a data sample of proton-proton collisions at [Formula: see text] TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider in 2015, corresponding to a total integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb[Formula: see text]. The inclusive cross sections are extracted using likelihood fits to signal and control regions, resulting in [Formula: see text] pb and [Formula: see text] pb, in agreement with the Standard Model predictions.

  4. Texts of presentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnin, G.; Vidolov, K.; Dufour-Fallot, B.; Dewarrat, Th.; Rose, T.; Favatier, A.; Gazeley, D.; Pujol, T.; Worner, D.; Van de Wel, E.; Revaz, J.M.; Clerfayt, G.; Creedy, A.; Moisan, F.; Geissler, M.; Isbell, P.; Macaluso, M.; Litzka, V.; Gillis, W.; Jarvis, I.; Gorg, M.; Bebie, B.

    2004-07-01

    Implementing a sustainable local energy policy involves a long term reflection on the general interest, energy efficiency, distributed generation and environmental protection. Providing services on a market involves looking for activities that are profitable, if possible in the 'short-term'. The aim of this conference is to analyse the possibility of reconciling these apparently contradictory requirements and how this can be achieved. This conference brings together the best specialists from European municipalities as well as important partners for local authorities (energy agencies, service companies, institutions, etc.) in order to discuss the public-private partnerships concerning the various functions that municipalities may perform in the energy field as consumers and customers, planners and organizers of urban space and rousers as regards inhabitants and economic players of their areas. This document contains the summaries of the following presentations: 1 - Performance contracting: Bulgarian municipalities use private capital for energy efficiency improvement (K. VIDOLOV, Varna (BG)), Contracting experiences in Swiss municipalities: consistent energy policy thanks to the Energy-city label (B. DUFOUR-FALLOT and T. DEWARRAT (CH)), Experience of contracting in the domestic sector (T. ROSE (GB)); 2 - Public procurement: Multicolor electricity (A. FAVATIER (CH)), Tendering for new green electricity capacity (D. GAZELEY (GB)), The Barcelona solar thermal ordinance (T. PUJOL (ES)); 3 - Urban planning and schemes: Influencing energy issues through urban planning (D. WOERNER (DE)), Tendering for the supply of energy infrastructure (E. VAN DE WEL (NL)), Concessions and public utility warranty (J.M. REVAZ (CH)); 4 - Certificate schemes: the market of green certificates in Wallonia region in a liberalized power market (G. CLERFAYT (BE)), The Carbon Neutral{sup R} project: a voluntary certification scheme with opportunity for implementation in other European

  5. Extracting Features of Acacia Plantation and Natural Forest in the Mountainous Region of Sarawak, Malaysia by ALOS/AVNIR2 Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, H.; Ishii, R.; Suzuki, R.; Kendawang, J.

    2013-12-01

    The remote sensing technique has provided useful information to detect spatio-temporal changes in the land cover of tropical forests. Land cover characteristics derived from satellite image can be applied to the estimation of ecosystem services and biodiversity over an extensive area, and such land cover information would provide valuable information to global and local people to understand the significance of the tropical ecosystem. This study was conducted in the Acacia plantations and natural forest situated in the mountainous region which has different ecological characteristic from that in flat and low land area in Sarawak, Malaysia. The main objective of this study is to compare extract the characteristic of them by analyzing the ALOS/AVNIR2 images and ground truthing obtained by the forest survey. We implemented a ground-based forest survey at Aacia plantations and natural forest in the mountainous region in Sarawak, Malaysia in June, 2013 and acquired the forest structure data (tree height, diameter at breast height (DBH), crown diameter, tree spacing) and spectral reflectance data at the three sample plots of Acacia plantation that has 10 x 10m area. As for the spectral reflectance data, we measured the spectral reflectance of the end members of forest such as leaves, stems, road surface, and forest floor by the spectro-radiometer. Such forest structure and spectral data were incorporated into the image analysis by support vector machine (SVM) and object-base/texture analysis. Consequently, land covers on the AVNIR2 image were classified into three forest types (natural forest, oil palm plantation and acacia mangium plantation), then the characteristic of each category was examined. We additionally used the tree age data of acacia plantation for the classification. A unique feature was found in vegetation spectral reflectance of Acacia plantations. The curve of the spectral reflectance shows two peaks around 0.3μm and 0.6 - 0.8μm that can be assumed to

  6. Information extraction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

    2014-05-13

    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  7. The Text of the Agreement to Extend the Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 1987. Status of Acceptances as of 28 February 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    As of 28 February 1993, notifications of acceptance of the Agreement to Extend the Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 1987 (See INFCIRC/ 167/Add.15), in accordance with Article 2 thereof, had been received by the Director General from the Governments [ru

  8. The Text of the Agreement to Extend the Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 1987. Status of Acceptances as of 28 February 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    As of 28 February 1993, notifications of acceptance of the Agreement to Extend the Regional Co-operative Agreement for Research, Development and Training Related to Nuclear Science and Technology, 1987 (See INFCIRC/ 167/Add.15), in accordance with Article 2 thereof, had been received by the Director General from the Governments [es

  9. Phytochemical and antioxidant potential of crude methanolic extract and fractions of Celtis eriocarpa Decne. leaves from lesser Himalaya Region of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, E.; Arshad, M.; Bibi, Y.; Ahmed, M.S.

    2018-01-01

    Celtis eriocarpa Decne. belongs to family cannabaceae. It is commonly found in Indo-Pak subcontinent and is used in healthcare practices. Decoction of leaves is used against amenorrhoea, fruits are used against colic. Powdered bark is used to treat pimples, sprain, contusions and joint pain. Leaves of Celtis eriocarpa were collected from lesser Himalayan region of Pakistan (Murree and Galliyat) in April 2014, and subjected to proximate analysis, qualitative and quantitative phytochemicals and DPPH antioxidant determination after fractionation. Quantitative determination of total phenolic (TPC), total flavonoid (TFC) and DPPH antioxidant activity was carried out through spectrophotometric methods. Proximate analysis revealed low moisture content, higher protein, carbohydrate and nutritive values. Qualitative phytochemical analysis revealed presence of phenolics, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids and saponins while absence of alkaloids. Higher TPC was found in Crude methanolic extract (79.96+-0.32 mg GAE /g) followed by ethyl acetate fraction (59.62+-1.00 mg GAE /g) and lowest TPC was found in n-Hexane fraction (24.97+-0.67 mg GAE/g) at p<0.05. Higher TFC was found in Crude methanolic extract (63.88+-0.40 mg QE/g) followed by ethyl acetate fraction (55.49+-1.22 mg QE /g) and lowest TFC was found in n-Hexane fraction (6.01+-0.66mg QE /g) at p<0.05. Ethyl acetate fraction showed higher DPPH EC50 value (324.81 mu g/ml) while n-hexane fraction showed lowest EC50 value (2981 mug/ml) at p<0.05. The mean EC50 value of ascorbic acid at p<0.05 was 10.86mu g/ml. As DPPH EC50 value, total phenolic content and total flavonoid content in the leaves of C. eriocarpa is considerably high therefore this plant could be a source of bioactive compounds. This study will be a benchmark for detailed evaluation of therapeutic potential of Celtis eriocarpa. (author)

  10. Measurement of [Formula: see text] polarisation in [Formula: see text] collisions at [Formula: see text] = 7 TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

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Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, G; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rama, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Simi, G; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spinella, F; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Stroili, R; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    The polarisation of prompt [Formula: see text] mesons is measured by performing an angular analysis of [Formula: see text] decays using proton-proton collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0[Formula: see text], collected by the LHCb detector at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The polarisation is measured in bins of transverse momentum [Formula: see text] and rapidity [Formula: see text] in the kinematic region [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], and is compared to theoretical models. No significant polarisation is observed.

  11. Neogeography: The Treasure of User Volunteered Text

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, Mena Badieh

    Neogeography is the combination of user generated data and experiences with mapping technologies. This poster presents a research project to extract valuable structured information with a geographic component from unstructured user generated text in wikis, forums, or SMSs. The project intends to

  12. CONAN : Text Mining in the Biomedical Domain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malik, R.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis is about Text Mining. Extracting important information from literature. In the last years, the number of biomedical articles and journals is growing exponentially. Scientists might not find the information they want because of the large number of publications. Therefore a system was

  13. Productive Regions: Criteria and Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasyuk L. I.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An official statistical dataset for 80 territorial subjects of the Russian Federation for 2000, 2007 and 2009 has proved the hypothesis that, under the neoclassical concept, the resources move to regions with the highest marginal productivity of the factors of production, which leads to the accumulation of investment resources, while providing financial and social efficiency. Based on cluster analysis by three performance criteria, productive regions are identified, which are dominated by regions productive in the extraction of minerals. It is shown that the stability of the factors’ distribution in space determines the current and future specialization of regional economies

  14. Comparison of mentha extracts obtained by different extraction methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Slavica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The different methods of mentha extraction, such as steam distillation, extraction by methylene chloride (Soxhlet extraction and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE by carbon dioxide (CO J were investigated. SFE by CO, was performed at pressure of 100 bar and temperature of40°C. The extraction yield, as well as qualitative and quantitative composition of obtained extracts, determined by GC-MS method, were compared.

  15. Text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this act is to safeguard against the dangers and harmful effects of radioactive waste and to contribute to public safety and environmental protection by laying down requirements for the safe and efficient management of radioactive waste. We will find definitions, interrelation with other legislation, responsibilities of the state and local governments, responsibilities of radioactive waste management companies and generators, formulation of the basic plan for the control of radioactive waste, radioactive waste management ( with public information, financing and part of spent fuel management), Korea radioactive waste management corporation ( business activities, budget), establishment of a radioactive waste fund in order to secure the financial resources required for radioactive waste management, and penalties in case of improper operation of radioactive waste management. (N.C.)

  16. Text Detection in Natural Scene Images by Stroke Gabor Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chucai; Tian, Yingli

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel algorithm, based on stroke components and descriptive Gabor filters, to detect text regions in natural scene images. Text characters and strings are constructed by stroke components as basic units. Gabor filters are used to describe and analyze the stroke components in text characters or strings. We define a suitability measurement to analyze the confidence of Gabor filters in describing stroke component and the suitability of Gabor filters on an image window. From the training set, we compute a set of Gabor filters that can describe principle stroke components of text by their parameters. Then a K -means algorithm is applied to cluster the descriptive Gabor filters. The clustering centers are defined as Stroke Gabor Words (SGWs) to provide a universal description of stroke components. By suitability evaluation on positive and negative training samples respectively, each SGW generates a pair of characteristic distributions of suitability measurements. On a testing natural scene image, heuristic layout analysis is applied first to extract candidate image windows. Then we compute the principle SGWs for each image window to describe its principle stroke components. Characteristic distributions generated by principle SGWs are used to classify text or nontext windows. Experimental results on benchmark datasets demonstrate that our algorithm can handle complex backgrounds and variant text patterns (font, color, scale, etc.).

  17. Benchmarking infrastructure for mutation text mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Artjom; Riazanov, Alexandre; Hindle, Matthew M; Baker, Christopher Jo

    2014-02-25

    Experimental research on the automatic extraction of information about mutations from texts is greatly hindered by the lack of consensus evaluation infrastructure for the testing and benchmarking of mutation text mining systems. We propose a community-oriented annotation and benchmarking infrastructure to support development, testing, benchmarking, and comparison of mutation text mining systems. The design is based on semantic standards, where RDF is used to represent annotations, an OWL ontology provides an extensible schema for the data and SPARQL is used to compute various performance metrics, so that in many cases no programming is needed to analyze results from a text mining system. While large benchmark corpora for biological entity and relation extraction are focused mostly on genes, proteins, diseases, and species, our benchmarking infrastructure fills the gap for mutation information. The core infrastructure comprises (1) an ontology for modelling annotations, (2) SPARQL queries for computing performance metrics, and (3) a sizeable collection of manually curated documents, that can support mutation grounding and mutation impact extraction experiments. We have developed the principal infrastructure for the benchmarking of mutation text mining tasks. The use of RDF and OWL as the representation for corpora ensures extensibility. The infrastructure is suitable for out-of-the-box use in several important scenarios and is ready, in its current state, for initial community adoption.

  18. Benchmarking infrastructure for mutation text mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Experimental research on the automatic extraction of information about mutations from texts is greatly hindered by the lack of consensus evaluation infrastructure for the testing and benchmarking of mutation text mining systems. Results We propose a community-oriented annotation and benchmarking infrastructure to support development, testing, benchmarking, and comparison of mutation text mining systems. The design is based on semantic standards, where RDF is used to represent annotations, an OWL ontology provides an extensible schema for the data and SPARQL is used to compute various performance metrics, so that in many cases no programming is needed to analyze results from a text mining system. While large benchmark corpora for biological entity and relation extraction are focused mostly on genes, proteins, diseases, and species, our benchmarking infrastructure fills the gap for mutation information. The core infrastructure comprises (1) an ontology for modelling annotations, (2) SPARQL queries for computing performance metrics, and (3) a sizeable collection of manually curated documents, that can support mutation grounding and mutation impact extraction experiments. Conclusion We have developed the principal infrastructure for the benchmarking of mutation text mining tasks. The use of RDF and OWL as the representation for corpora ensures extensibility. The infrastructure is suitable for out-of-the-box use in several important scenarios and is ready, in its current state, for initial community adoption. PMID:24568600

  19. Text mining patents for biomedical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Esteban, Raul; Bundschus, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Biomedical text mining of scientific knowledge bases, such as Medline, has received much attention in recent years. Given that text mining is able to automatically extract biomedical facts that revolve around entities such as genes, proteins, and drugs, from unstructured text sources, it is seen as a major enabler to foster biomedical research and drug discovery. In contrast to the biomedical literature, research into the mining of biomedical patents has not reached the same level of maturity. Here, we review existing work and highlight the associated technical challenges that emerge from automatically extracting facts from patents. We conclude by outlining potential future directions in this domain that could help drive biomedical research and drug discovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Teaching Text Structure: Examining the Affordances of Children's Informational Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cindy D.; Clark, Sarah K.; Reutzel, D. Ray

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the affordances of informational texts to serve as model texts for teaching text structure to elementary school children. Content analysis of a random sampling of children's informational texts from top publishers was conducted on text structure organization and on the inclusion of text features as signals of text…

  1. AUTOMATIC LUNG NODULE SEGMENTATION USING AUTOSEED REGION GROWING WITH MORPHOLOGICAL MASKING (ARGMM AND FEATURE EX-TRACTION THROUGH COMPLETE LOCAL BINARY PATTERN AND MICROSCOPIC INFORMATION PATTERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil Kumar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An efficient Autoseed Region Growing with Morphological Masking(ARGMM is imple-mented in this paper on the Lung CT Slice to segment the 'Lung Nodules',which may be the potential indicator for the Lung Cancer. The segmentation of lung nodules car-ried out in this paper through Multi-Thresholding, ARGMM and Level Set Evolution. ARGMM takes twice the time compared to Level Set, but still the number of suspected segmented nodules are doubled, which make sure that no potential cancerous nodules go unnoticed at the earlier stages of diagnosis. It is very important not to panic the patient by finding the presence of nodules from Lung CT scan. Only 40 percent of nod-ules can be cancerous. Hence, in this paper an efficient Shape and Texture analysis is computed to quantitatively describe the segmented lung nodules. The Frequency spectrum of the lung nodules is developed and its frequency domain features are com-puted. The Complete Local binary pattern of lung nodules is computed in this paper by constructing the combine histogram of Sign and Magnitude Local Binary Patterns. Lo-cal Configuration Pattern is also determined in this work for lung nodules to numeri-cally model the microscopic information of nodules pattern.

  2. Extraction of the predisposition parameters for mapping the susceptibility of slides lands, in the region of EL Quola, province of Larache (Nothern Rif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El hamdouni Ikram

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Slide lands (Lands mass movements are among the natural risks that Morocco faces in the Rifaines regions in particular. They generally constitute small-scale, punctual phenomena. But their diversity and frequency are nevertheless responsible for significant and costly damages and injuries. To deal with this problem, the study of field instabilities must take into account that: ithe ground movements must be taken in a context of the overall dynamics of the watershed, ii-the choice of more objective methods, which is not based on the very subjective opinion of the expert; iii-the choice of an adapted approach to the scale of work. In this article, we used the evidence theory "WofE" to evaluate the sensibility of landslide in the El Quola area. This method is based on the analysis of the relationships between landslides that occurred in the past (the so-called modelable variable Vm and the spatial distribution of some predictive parameters of instability (Vp. The result obtained is a landslide susceptibility map that is the result of multi-disciplinary and multi-temporal data. This method has been described as one of the most performing by several authors; however, it requires a conditional independence between the different predictive factors. The quality of the performances was evaluated with success curves.

  3. Important Text Characteristics for Early-Grades Text Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Koons, Heather; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core set a standard for all children to read increasingly complex texts throughout schooling. The purpose of the present study was to explore text characteristics specifically in relation to early-grades text complexity. Three hundred fifty primary-grades texts were selected and digitized. Twenty-two text characteristics were identified…

  4. N-isopropyl-4-[123I]iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP) products. A difference in radiochemical purity, unmetabolized fraction, and octanol extraction fraction in arterial blood and regional brain uptake in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Yasukazu; Hasegawa, Shinji; Kimura, Yasuyuki; Oku, Naohiko; Hatazawa, Jun; Ito, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    N-isopropyl-4-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) is a lipophilic compound utilized for cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurement with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Two different 123 I-IMP products (IMP A and IMP B ) are commercially available. We examined the radiochemical purity, unmetabolized fraction, and octanol extraction fraction in arterial blood, and the regional brain uptake of IMP A and IMP B in a rat model. IMP B (96.4%±0.08%, P A (95.5%±0.20%). The mean unmetabolized fraction in arterial blood taken at 10 min after intravenous administration of IMP B (69.5%±4.4%, P A (59.6%±2.6%). The mean octanol extraction fraction of IMP B (75.0%±1.3%, P A (67.2%±0.8%). The mean levels of radioactivity in arterial blood sampled at 10 min after injection and mean regional brain radioactivity (cerebral cortices, basal ganglia, brain stem, and cerebellum) at 10-12 min after injection were not significantly different between IMP A and IMP B . The present study indicates differences in the radiochemical purity and the unmetabolized and octanol extraction fraction in arterial blood between the two commercially available 123 I-IMP products. The appropriate octanol extraction fractions for IMP A and IMP B should be determined in humans and employed for quantitative CBF measurement in clinical SPECT. (author)

  5. FY 2000 report on the survey of extraction of areas promising in strategic geothermal development. Hachimantai south region; 2000 nendo senryakuteki chinetsu kaihatsu yubo chiiki chushutsu chosa hokokusho. Hachimantai nanbu chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted for the Hachimantai south region with the aim of contributing to plans to be worked out for introduction of medium-term/long-term and important geothermal development promotion surveys, estimation of the developmental resource amount, etc. In the survey, the data were widely collected/arranged on the geothermal development surveys so far made in the Hachimantai south region, and wide-area geothermal system conceptual models in this region were constructed. Based on the wide-area geothermal system conceptual models and the manual for strategic survey, the following were extracted as areas for which the existence of geothermal reservoir structures is expected: Toshichi spa and the southeast area, Kakkonda-Matsukawa-Iwateyama area, Nyuto spa and the southwest area. Further, from the criteria for extraction such as the resource amount density, the natural park law and data likelihood, extracted were the Moroedake area (9km{sup 2}), Matsukawa east area (10km{sup 2}), Omatsukurayama south area (9km{sup 2}) and Kakkonda east area (14km{sup 2}). In the Monte Carlo analysis by the stored heat method, the resource amount was estimated as 5MWe, 14MWe, 4MWe and 48MWe, respectively. (NEDO)

  6. FY 2000 report on the survey for extraction of areas promising in strategic exploration geothermal development. Kirishima region; 2000 nendo senryakuteki chosa chinetsu kaihatsu yubo chiiki chushutsu chosa hokokusho. Kirishima chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted for the Kirishima region with the aim of contributing to working out future medium- and long-term plans of geothermal development promotion survey, estimation of the developmental resource amount, extraction of technology development subjects effectively connecting to the increase in kW, etc. In the study, literature is collected such as reports of the surveys already made in the Kirishima region and the periphery, the data were re-analyzed and divided into geological structure elements and geological structure elements, and a conceptual model of the geothermal system in the whole Kirishima region was made. As a result, two areas were extracted for which the existence of high temperature geothermal reservoirs is expected. The total resource amount was estimated at 2,785MWe at promising area 1 and at 3,237MWe at promising area 2. With the resource amount density, data likelihood and distribution status of national/quasi-national parks as extraction criteria, 6 out of these promising areas were focused on important areas for survey. Geothermal structure models were made for each of the 6 areas, and the evaluation of the resource amount using evaluation assist tools was carried out. (NEDO)

  7. Resource Lean and Portable Automatic Text Summarization

    OpenAIRE

    Hassel, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Today, with digitally stored information available in abundance, even for many minor languages, this information must by some means be filtered and extracted in order to avoid drowning in it. Automatic summarization is one such technique, where a computer summarizes a longer text to a shorter non-rendundant form. Apart from the major languages of the world there are a lot of languages for which large bodies of data aimed at language technology research to a high degree are lacking. There migh...

  8. Knowledge Based Understanding of Radiology Text

    OpenAIRE

    Ranum, David L.

    1988-01-01

    A data acquisition tool which will extract pertinent diagnostic information from radiology reports has been designed and implemented. Pertinent diagnostic information is defined as that clinical data which is used by the HELP medical expert system. The program uses a memory based semantic parsing technique to “understand” the text. Moreover, the memory structures and lexicon necessary to perform this action are automatically generated from the diagnostic knowledge base by using a special purp...

  9. VisualUrText: A Text Analytics Tool for Unstructured Textual Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainol, Zuraini; Jaymes, Mohd T. H.; Nohuddin, Puteri N. E.

    2018-05-01

    The growing amount of unstructured text over Internet is tremendous. Text repositories come from Web 2.0, business intelligence and social networking applications. It is also believed that 80-90% of future growth data is available in the form of unstructured text databases that may potentially contain interesting patterns and trends. Text Mining is well known technique for discovering interesting patterns and trends which are non-trivial knowledge from massive unstructured text data. Text Mining covers multidisciplinary fields involving information retrieval (IR), text analysis, natural language processing (NLP), data mining, machine learning statistics and computational linguistics. This paper discusses the development of text analytics tool that is proficient in extracting, processing, analyzing the unstructured text data and visualizing cleaned text data into multiple forms such as Document Term Matrix (DTM), Frequency Graph, Network Analysis Graph, Word Cloud and Dendogram. This tool, VisualUrText, is developed to assist students and researchers for extracting interesting patterns and trends in document analyses.

  10. Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Paul D; Willse, Alan R; Lopresti, Charles A; White, Amanda M

    2014-10-28

    Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis method includes accessing information indicative of data content of a collection of text comprising a plurality of different topics, using a computing device, analyzing the information indicative of the data content, and using results of the analysis, identifying a presence of a new topic in the collection of text.

  11. Classroom Texting in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettijohn, Terry F.; Frazier, Erik; Rieser, Elizabeth; Vaughn, Nicholas; Hupp-Wilds, Bobbi

    2015-01-01

    A 21-item survey on texting in the classroom was given to 235 college students. Overall, 99.6% of students owned a cellphone and 98% texted daily. Of the 138 students who texted in the classroom, most texted friends or significant others, and indicate the reason for classroom texting is boredom or work. Students who texted sent a mean of 12.21…

  12. 11. Russian Conference on Extraction. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotov, Yu.A.

    1998-01-01

    Results of fundamental and applied investigations in the region of chemistry of extraction, technology and analytical chemistry are presented. Modern state of theoretical and experimental investigations in the region of thermodynamics and kinetics of extraction by organic phosphorus compounds, organic nitrogen compounds and their mixtures are described. Date on mass exchange, extraction process simulation, extraction apparatuses are given

  13. Observation of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] decays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Arnau Romeu, J; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Babuschkin, I; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baker, S; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Baszczyk, M; Batozskaya, V; Batsukh, B; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Bel, L J; Bellee, V; Belloli, N; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bertolin, A; Betancourt, C; Betti, F; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bezshyiko, Ia; Bifani, S; Billoir, P; Bird, T; Birnkraut, A; Bitadze, A; Bizzeti, A; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Boettcher, T; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Bordyuzhin, I; Borgheresi, A; Borghi, S; Borisyak, M; Borsato, M; Bossu, F; Boubdir, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Braun, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Buchanan, E; Burr, C; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D H; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chatzikonstantinidis, G; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chobanova, V; Chrzaszcz, M; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collazuol, G; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombs, G; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Costa Sobral, C M; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Da Cunha Marinho, F; Dall'Occo, E; Dalseno, J; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Aguiar Francisco, O; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Serio, M; De Simone, P; Dean, C-T; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Demmer, M; Dendek, A; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dufour, L; Dujany, G; Dungs, K; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Déléage, N; Easo, S; Ebert, M; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, R; Fazzini, D; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Prieto, A; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fini, R A; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fleuret, F; Fohl, K; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forshaw, D C; Forty, R; Franco Lima, V; Frank, M; Frei, C; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Färber, C; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garcia Martin, L M; García Pardiñas, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Garsed, P J; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Girard, O G; Giubega, L; Gizdov, K; Gligorov, V V; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorelov, I V; Gotti, C; Govorkova, E; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Gruberg Cazon, B R; Grünberg, O; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Göbel, C; Hadavizadeh, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hatch, M; He, J; Head, T; Heister, A; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hombach, C; Hopchev, H; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hushchyn, M; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; Jiang, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Kariuki, J M; Karodia, S; Kecke, M; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khairullin, E; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Kirn, T; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Koliiev, S; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Kosmyntseva, A; Kozachuk, A; Kozeiha, M; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Krzemien, W; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kuonen, A K; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Lefèvre, R; Lemaitre, F; Lemos Cid, E; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Liu, X; Loh, D; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Lucio Martinez, M; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Lusiani, A; Lyu, X; Machefert, F; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Maguire, K; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Maltsev, T; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manning, P; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marino, P; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martin, M; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massacrier, L M; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathad, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mauri, A; Maurin, B; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Melnychuk, D; Merk, M; Merli, A; Michielin, E; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Mitzel, D S; Mogini, A; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monroy, I A; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Morris, A B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Mulder, M; Mussini, M; Müller, D; Müller, J; Müller, K; Müller, V; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nandi, A; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nieswand, S; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Ogilvy, S; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, C J G; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Otto, A; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pais, P R; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parker, W; Parkes, C; Passaleva, G; Pastore, A; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perret, P; Pescatore, L; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Petrov, A; Petruzzo, M; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pikies, M; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Piucci, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Poikela, T; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Pomery, G J; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Poslavskii, S; Potterat, C; Price, E; Price, J D; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Quagliani, R; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rama, M; Ramos Pernas, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Ratnikov, F; Raven, G; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Dos Reis, A C; Remon Alepuz, C; Renaudin, V; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Lopez, J A; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogozhnikov, A; Roiser, S; Rollings, A; Romanovskiy, V; Romero Vidal, A; Ronayne, J W; Rotondo, M; Rudolph, M S; Ruf, T; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sadykhov, E; Sagidova, N; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santimaria, M; Santovetti, E; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrina, D; Schael, S; Schellenberg, M; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmelzer, T; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schubert, K; Schubiger, M; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Semennikov, A; Sergi, A; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Siddi, B G; Silva Coutinho, R; Silva de Oliveira, L; Simi, G; Simone, S; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, E; Smith, I T; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Stefko, P; Stefkova, S; Steinkamp, O; Stemmle, S; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Tayduganov, A; Tekampe, T; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tilley, M J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Toriello, F; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Trabelsi, K; Traill, M; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Trisovic, A; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tully, A; Tuning, N; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagnoni, V; Valassi, A; Valat, S; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; van Veghel, M; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Venkateswaran, A; Vernet, M; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Viemann, H; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vitti, M; Volkov, V; Vollhardt, A; Voneki, B; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; de Vries, J A; Vázquez Sierra, C; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Wark, H M; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Weiden, A; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wilkinson, G; Wilkinson, M; Williams, M; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Williams, T; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wraight, K; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yin, H; Yu, J; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zarebski, K A; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zheng, Y; Zhokhov, A; Zhu, X; Zhukov, V; Zucchelli, S

    2017-01-01

    The decays [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are observed for the first time using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.0 fb[Formula: see text], collected by the LHCb experiment in proton-proton collisions at the centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8[Formula: see text]. The branching fractions relative to that of [Formula: see text] are measured to be [Formula: see text]where the first uncertainties are statistical and the second are systematic.

  14. Mining the Text: 34 Text Features that Can Ease or Obstruct Text Comprehension and Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sheida

    2012-01-01

    This article presents 34 characteristics of texts and tasks ("text features") that can make continuous (prose), noncontinuous (document), and quantitative texts easier or more difficult for adolescents and adults to comprehend and use. The text features were identified by examining the assessment tasks and associated texts in the national…

  15. From Text to Political Positions: Text analysis across disciplines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaal, A.R.; Maks, I.; van Elfrinkhof, A.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT From Text to Political Positions addresses cross-disciplinary innovation in political text analysis for party positioning. Drawing on political science, computational methods and discourse analysis, it presents a diverse collection of analytical models including pure quantitative and

  16. Text mining from ontology learning to automated text processing applications

    CERN Document Server

    Biemann, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This book comprises a set of articles that specify the methodology of text mining, describe the creation of lexical resources in the framework of text mining and use text mining for various tasks in natural language processing (NLP). The analysis of large amounts of textual data is a prerequisite to build lexical resources such as dictionaries and ontologies and also has direct applications in automated text processing in fields such as history, healthcare and mobile applications, just to name a few. This volume gives an update in terms of the recent gains in text mining methods and reflects

  17. Working with text tools, techniques and approaches for text mining

    CERN Document Server

    Tourte, Gregory J L

    2016-01-01

    Text mining tools and technologies have long been a part of the repository world, where they have been applied to a variety of purposes, from pragmatic aims to support tools. Research areas as diverse as biology, chemistry, sociology and criminology have seen effective use made of text mining technologies. Working With Text collects a subset of the best contributions from the 'Working with text: Tools, techniques and approaches for text mining' workshop, alongside contributions from experts in the area. Text mining tools and technologies in support of academic research include supporting research on the basis of a large body of documents, facilitating access to and reuse of extant work, and bridging between the formal academic world and areas such as traditional and social media. Jisc have funded a number of projects, including NaCTem (the National Centre for Text Mining) and the ResDis programme. Contents are developed from workshop submissions and invited contributions, including: Legal considerations in te...

  18. Informational Text and the CCSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspen Institute, 2012

    2012-01-01

    What constitutes an informational text covers a broad swath of different types of texts. Biographies & memoirs, speeches, opinion pieces & argumentative essays, and historical, scientific or technical accounts of a non-narrative nature are all included in what the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) envisions as informational text. Also included…

  19. The Only Safe SMS Texting Is No SMS Texting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Cheryl; Sacopulos, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Many physicians and practice staff use short messaging service (SMS) text messaging to communicate with patients. But SMS text messaging is unencrypted, insecure, and does not meet HIPAA requirements. In addition, the short and abbreviated nature of text messages creates opportunities for misinterpretation, and can negatively impact patient safety and care. Until recently, asking patients to sign a statement that they understand and accept these risks--as well as having policies, device encryption, and cyber insurance in place--would have been enough to mitigate the risk of using SMS text in a medical practice. But new trends and policies have made SMS text messaging unsafe under any circumstance. This article explains these trends and policies, as well as why only secure texting or secure messaging should be used for physician-patient communication.

  20. Predicting Prosody from Text for Text-to-Speech Synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, K Sreenivasa

    2012-01-01

    Predicting Prosody from Text for Text-to-Speech Synthesis covers the specific aspects of prosody, mainly focusing on how to predict the prosodic information from linguistic text, and then how to exploit the predicted prosodic knowledge for various speech applications. Author K. Sreenivasa Rao discusses proposed methods along with state-of-the-art techniques for the acquisition and incorporation of prosodic knowledge for developing speech systems. Positional, contextual and phonological features are proposed for representing the linguistic and production constraints of the sound units present in the text. This book is intended for graduate students and researchers working in the area of speech processing.

  1. Text recycling: acceptable or misconduct?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriman, Stephanie; Patel, Jigisha

    2014-08-16

    Text recycling, also referred to as self-plagiarism, is the reproduction of an author's own text from a previous publication in a new publication. Opinions on the acceptability of this practice vary, with some viewing it as acceptable and efficient, and others as misleading and unacceptable. In light of the lack of consensus, journal editors often have difficulty deciding how to act upon the discovery of text recycling. In response to these difficulties, we have created a set of guidelines for journal editors on how to deal with text recycling. In this editorial, we discuss some of the challenges of developing these guidelines, and how authors can avoid undisclosed text recycling.

  2. Text mining of web-based medical content

    CERN Document Server

    Neustein, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Text Mining of Web-Based Medical Content examines web mining for extracting useful information that can be used for treating and monitoring the healthcare of patients. This work provides methodological approaches to designing mapping tools that exploit data found in social media postings. Specific linguistic features of medical postings are analyzed vis-a-vis available data extraction tools for culling useful information.

  3. TEXT DEIXIS IN NARRATIVE SEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Rivera

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study looks at demonstrative descriptions, regarding them as text-deictic procedures which contribute to weave discourse reference. Text deixis is thought of as a metaphorical referential device which maps the ground of utterance onto the text itself. Demonstrative expressions with textual antecedent-triggers, considered as the most important text-deictic units, are identified in a narrative corpus consisting of J. M. Barrie’s Peter Pan and its translation into Catalan. Some linguistic and discourse variables related to DemNPs are analysed to characterise adequately text deixis. It is shown that this referential device is usually combined with abstract nouns, thus categorising and encapsulating (non-nominal complex discourse entities as nouns, while performing a referential cohesive function by means of the text deixis + general noun type of lexical cohesion.

  4. Nonlocal Intracranial Cavity Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José V. Manjón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Automatic and accurate methods to estimate normalized regional brain volumes from MRI data are valuable tools which may help to obtain an objective diagnosis and followup of many neurological diseases. To estimate such regional brain volumes, the intracranial cavity volume (ICV is often used for normalization. However, the high variability of brain shape and size due to normal intersubject variability, normal changes occurring over the lifespan, and abnormal changes due to disease makes the ICV estimation problem challenging. In this paper, we present a new approach to perform ICV extraction based on the use of a library of prelabeled brain images to capture the large variability of brain shapes. To this end, an improved nonlocal label fusion scheme based on BEaST technique is proposed to increase the accuracy of the ICV estimation. The proposed method is compared with recent state-of-the-art methods and the results demonstrate an improved performance both in terms of accuracy and reproducibility while maintaining a reduced computational burden.

  5. Validation Study of Waray Text Readability Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyzon, Voltaire Q.; Corrales, Juven B.; Estardo, Wilfredo M., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 the Leyte Normal University developed a computer software--modelled after the Spache Readability Formula (1953) made for English--made to help rank texts that can is used by teachers or research groups on selecting appropriate reading materials to support the DepEd's MTB-MLE program in Region VIII, in the Philippines. However,…

  6. Text against Text: Counterbalancing the Hegemony of Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Cornelius

    A study examined whether composition specialists can counterbalance the potential privileging of the assessment perspective, or of self-appointed interpreters of that perspective, through the study of assessment discourse as text. Fourteen assessment texts were examined, most of them journal articles and most of them featuring the common…

  7. Investigation into the behavior of metal-argon polyatomic ions (MAr+) in the extraction region of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, Chris H.; Witte, Travis M.; Houk, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    The abundances of metal-argon polyatomic ions (MAr + ) are determined in inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The ratios of MAr + abundance to that for M + ions are measured experimentally. These ratios are compared to expected values, calculated for typical plasma conditions using spectroscopic data. For all metals studied (Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn), the measured ratios are significantly lower than the calculated ratios. Increasing the plasma potential (and thereby increasing the ion kinetic energy) by means of a homemade guard electrode with a wide gap further reduces the MAr + /M + ratio. Implementing a skimmer cone designed for high transmission of light ions increases the MAr + abundance. Considering this evidence, the scarcity of MAr + ions is attributed to collision induced dissociation (CID), likely due to a shock wave at the tip of or in the throat of the skimmer cone. - Highlights: ► MAr + ions are less abundant in the mass spectrum than expected from the ICP. ► Increasing the plasma potential reduces their abundance further. ► The extraction lens voltage does not greatly affect the MAr + abundances. ► The weakly-bound MAr + ions are probably dissociated by collisions during extraction.

  8. A STUDY OF TEXT MINING METHODS, APPLICATIONS,AND TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    R. Rajamani*1 & S. Saranya2

    2017-01-01

    Data mining is used to extract useful information from the large amount of data. It is used to implement and solve different types of research problems. The research related areas in data mining are text mining, web mining, image mining, sequential pattern mining, spatial mining, medical mining, multimedia mining, structure mining and graph mining. Text mining also referred to text of data mining, it is also called knowledge discovery in text (KDT) or knowledge of intelligent text analysis. T...

  9. Knowledge Representation in Travelling Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mousten, Birthe; Locmele, Gunta

    2014-01-01

    Today, information travels fast. Texts travel, too. In a corporate context, the question is how to manage which knowledge elements should travel to a new language area or market and in which form? The decision to let knowledge elements travel or not travel highly depends on the limitation...... and the purpose of the text in a new context as well as on predefined parameters for text travel. For texts used in marketing and in technology, the question is whether culture-bound knowledge representation should be domesticated or kept as foreign elements, or should be mirrored or moulded—or should not travel...... at all! When should semantic and pragmatic elements in a text be replaced and by which other elements? The empirical basis of our work is marketing and technical texts in English, which travel into the Latvian and Danish markets, respectively....

  10. Texting while driving: is speech-based text entry less risky than handheld text entry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, J; Chaparro, A; Nguyen, B; Burge, R J; Crandall, J; Chaparro, B; Ni, R; Cao, S

    2014-11-01

    Research indicates that using a cell phone to talk or text while maneuvering a vehicle impairs driving performance. However, few published studies directly compare the distracting effects of texting using a hands-free (i.e., speech-based interface) versus handheld cell phone, which is an important issue for legislation, automotive interface design and driving safety training. This study compared the effect of speech-based versus handheld text entries on simulated driving performance by asking participants to perform a car following task while controlling the duration of a secondary text-entry task. Results showed that both speech-based and handheld text entries impaired driving performance relative to the drive-only condition by causing more variation in speed and lane position. Handheld text entry also increased the brake response time and increased variation in headway distance. Text entry using a speech-based cell phone was less detrimental to driving performance than handheld text entry. Nevertheless, the speech-based text entry task still significantly impaired driving compared to the drive-only condition. These results suggest that speech-based text entry disrupts driving, but reduces the level of performance interference compared to text entry with a handheld device. In addition, the difference in the distraction effect caused by speech-based and handheld text entry is not simply due to the difference in task duration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Active Learning for Text Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Rong

    2011-01-01

    Text classification approaches are used extensively to solve real-world challenges. The success or failure of text classification systems hangs on the datasets used to train them, without a good dataset it is impossible to build a quality system. This thesis examines the applicability of active learning in text classification for the rapid and economical creation of labelled training data. Four main contributions are made in this thesis. First, we present two novel selection strategies to cho...

  12. Text Mining Applications and Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Berry, Michael W

    2010-01-01

    Text Mining: Applications and Theory presents the state-of-the-art algorithms for text mining from both the academic and industrial perspectives.  The contributors span several countries and scientific domains: universities, industrial corporations, and government laboratories, and demonstrate the use of techniques from machine learning, knowledge discovery, natural language processing and information retrieval to design computational models for automated text analysis and mining. This volume demonstrates how advancements in the fields of applied mathematics, computer science, machine learning

  13. Extraction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendall, J.S.; Cahalan, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    A process is described for extracting at least two desired constituents from a mineral, using a liquid reagent which produces the constituents, or compounds thereof, in separable form and independently extracting those constituents, or compounds. The process is especially valuable for the extraction of phosphoric acid and metal values from acidulated phosphate rock, the slurry being contacted with selective extractants for phosphoric acid and metal (e.g. uranium) values. In an example, uranium values are oxidized to uranyl form and extracted using an ion exchange resin. (U.K.)

  14. Marker Registration Technique for Handwritten Text Marker in Augmented Reality Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanaborvornwiwat, N.; Patanukhom, K.

    2018-04-01

    Marker registration is a fundamental process to estimate camera poses in marker-based Augmented Reality (AR) systems. We developed AR system that creates correspondence virtual objects on handwritten text markers. This paper presents a new method for registration that is robust for low-content text markers, variation of camera poses, and variation of handwritten styles. The proposed method uses Maximally Stable Extremal Regions (MSER) and polygon simplification for a feature point extraction. The experiment shows that we need to extract only five feature points per image which can provide the best registration results. An exhaustive search is used to find the best matching pattern of the feature points in two images. We also compared performance of the proposed method to some existing registration methods and found that the proposed method can provide better accuracy and time efficiency.

  15. Solvent extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coombs, D.M.; Latimer, E.G.

    1988-01-05

    It is an object of this invention to provide for the demetallization and general upgrading of heavy oil via a solvent extracton process, and to improve the efficiency of solvent extraction operations. The yield and demetallization of product oil form heavy high-metal content oil is maximized by solvent extractions which employ either or all of the following techniques: premixing of a minor amount of the solvent with feed and using countercurrent flow for the remaining solvent; use of certain solvent/free ratios; use of segmental baffle tray extraction column internals and the proper extraction column residence time. The solvent premix/countercurrent flow feature of the invention substantially improves extractions where temperatures and pressures above the critical point of the solvent are used. By using this technique, a greater yield of extract oil can be obtained at the same metals content or a lower metals-containing extract oil product can be obtained at the same yield. Furthermore, the premixing of part of the solvent with the feed before countercurrent extraction gives high extract oil yields and high quality demetallization. The solvent/feed ratio features of the invention substanially lower the captial and operating costs for such processes while not suffering a loss in selectivity for metals rejection. The column internals and rsidence time features of the invention further improve the extractor metals rejection at a constant yield or allow for an increase in extract oil yield at a constant extract oil metals content. 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Text and ideology: text-oriented discourse analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduarda Gonçalves Peixoto

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to contribute to the understanding of the connection between text and ideology articulated by the text-oriented analysis of discourse (ADTO. Based on the reflections of Fairclough (1989, 2001, 2003 and Fairclough and Chouliaraki (1999, the debate presents the social ontology that ADTO uses to base its conception of social life as an open system and textually mediated; the article then explains the chronological-narrative development of the main critical theories of ideology, by virtue of which ADTO organizes the assumptions that underpin the particular use it makes of the term. Finally, the discussion presents the main aspects of the connection between text and ideology, offering a conceptual framework that can contribute to the domain of the theme according to a critical discourse analysis approach.

  17. English Metafunction Analysis in Chemistry Text: Characterization of Scientific Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Amin Dalimunte, M.Hum

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research are to identify what Metafunctions are applied in chemistry text and how they characterize a scientific text. It was conducted by applying content analysis. The data for this research was a twelve-paragraph chemistry text. The data were collected by applying a documentary technique. The document was read and analyzed to find out the Metafunction. The data were analyzed by some procedures: identifying the types of process, counting up the number of the processes, categorizing and counting up the cohesion devices, classifying the types of modulation and determining modality value, finally counting up the number of sentences and clauses, then scoring the grammatical intricacy index. The findings of the research show that Material process (71of 100 is mostly used, circumstance of spatial location (26 of 56 is more dominant than the others. Modality (5 is less used in order to avoid from subjectivity. Impersonality is implied through less use of reference either pronouns (7 or demonstrative (7, conjunctions (60 are applied to develop ideas, and the total number of the clauses are found much more dominant (109 than the total number of the sentences (40 which results high grammatical intricacy index. The Metafunction found indicate that the chemistry text has fulfilled the characteristics of scientific or academic text which truly reflects it as a natural science.

  18. AGRICULTURAL USES OF SEAWEEDS EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Popescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Marine bioactive substances extracted from seaweed are currently used in food, animal feed, as a raw material in the industry and have therapeutic applications. Most of the products based on marine algae are extracted from Brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum. The use of extracts of seaweed in agriculture is beneficial because the amount of chemical fertilizers and obtaining organic yield.

  19. Text Genres in Information Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahotko, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Text genres used by so-called information organizers in the processes of information organization in information systems were explored in this research. Method: The research employed text genre socio-functional analysis. Five genre groups in information organization were distinguished. Every genre group used in information…

  20. Strategies for Translating Vocative Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga COJOCARU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the linguistic and cultural elements of vocative texts and the techniques used in translating them by giving some examples of texts that are typically vocative (i.e. advertisements and instructions for use. Semantic and communicative strategies are popular in translation studies and each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages in translating vocative texts. The advantage of semantic translation is that it takes more account of the aesthetic value of the SL text, while communicative translation attempts to render the exact contextual meaning of the original text in such a way that both content and language are readily acceptable and comprehensible to the readership. Focus is laid on the strategies used in translating vocative texts, strategies that highlight and introduce a cultural context to the target audience, in order to achieve their overall purpose, that is to sell or persuade the reader to behave in a certain way. Thus, in order to do that, a number of advertisements from the field of cosmetics industry and electronic gadgets were selected for analysis. The aim is to gather insights into vocative text translation and to create new perspectives on this field of research, now considered a process of innovation and diversion, especially in areas as important as economy and marketing.

  1. Systematic characterizations of text similarity in full text biomedical publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhaohui; Errami, Mounir; Long, Tara; Renard, Chris; Choradia, Nishant; Garner, Harold

    2010-09-15

    Computational methods have been used to find duplicate biomedical publications in MEDLINE. Full text articles are becoming increasingly available, yet the similarities among them have not been systematically studied. Here, we quantitatively investigated the full text similarity of biomedical publications in PubMed Central. 72,011 full text articles from PubMed Central (PMC) were parsed to generate three different datasets: full texts, sections, and paragraphs. Text similarity comparisons were performed on these datasets using the text similarity algorithm eTBLAST. We measured the frequency of similar text pairs and compared it among different datasets. We found that high abstract similarity can be used to predict high full text similarity with a specificity of 20.1% (95% CI [17.3%, 23.1%]) and sensitivity of 99.999%. Abstract similarity and full text similarity have a moderate correlation (Pearson correlation coefficient: -0.423) when the similarity ratio is above 0.4. Among pairs of articles in PMC, method sections are found to be the most repetitive (frequency of similar pairs, methods: 0.029, introduction: 0.0076, results: 0.0043). In contrast, among a set of manually verified duplicate articles, results are the most repetitive sections (frequency of similar pairs, results: 0.94, methods: 0.89, introduction: 0.82). Repetition of introduction and methods sections is more likely to be committed by the same authors (odds of a highly similar pair having at least one shared author, introduction: 2.31, methods: 1.83, results: 1.03). There is also significantly more similarity in pairs of review articles than in pairs containing one review and one nonreview paper (frequency of similar pairs: 0.0167 and 0.0023, respectively). While quantifying abstract similarity is an effective approach for finding duplicate citations, a comprehensive full text analysis is necessary to uncover all potential duplicate citations in the scientific literature and is helpful when

  2. EXTRACTION OF MONOAZO DYES BY HYDROPHILIC EXTRACTANTS FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Korenman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of mono azo dyes E102, E122, E110, E124, E129 from aqueous solutions with hydrophilic solvents (alcohols, esters, ketones and polymers (poly-N-vinylamides, polyethylene glycol was studied. The main regularities of extraction are established. The distribution coefficients and degree of extraction of dyes was estimate. The influence of the nature of solvents and polymers on the extraction of dyes from aqueous solutions are established.

  3. Enriching text with images and colored light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulovski, Dragan; Geleijnse, Gijs; Kater, Bram; Korst, Jan; Pauws, Steffen; Clout, Ramon

    2008-01-01

    We present an unsupervised method to enrich textual applications with relevant images and colors. The images are collected by querying large image repositories and subsequently the colors are computed using image processing. A prototype system based on this method is presented where the method is applied to song lyrics. In combination with a lyrics synchronization algorithm the system produces a rich multimedia experience. In order to identify terms within the text that may be associated with images and colors, we select noun phrases using a part of speech tagger. Large image repositories are queried with these terms. Per term representative colors are extracted using the collected images. Hereto, we either use a histogram-based or a mean shift-based algorithm. The representative color extraction uses the non-uniform distribution of the colors found in the large repositories. The images that are ranked best by the search engine are displayed on a screen, while the extracted representative colors are rendered on controllable lighting devices in the living room. We evaluate our method by comparing the computed colors to standard color representations of a set of English color terms. A second evaluation focuses on the distance in color between a queried term in English and its translation in a foreign language. Based on results from three sets of terms, a measure of suitability of a term for color extraction based on KL Divergence is proposed. Finally, we compare the performance of the algorithm using either the automatically indexed repository of Google Images and the manually annotated Flickr.com. Based on the results of these experiments, we conclude that using the presented method we can compute the relevant color for a term using a large image repository and image processing.

  4. Automatic Road Centerline Extraction from Imagery Using Road GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuqing Cao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Road centerline extraction from imagery constitutes a key element in numerous geospatial applications, which has been addressed through a variety of approaches. However, most of the existing methods are not capable of dealing with challenges such as different road shapes, complex scenes, and variable resolutions. This paper presents a novel method for road centerline extraction from imagery in a fully automatic approach that addresses the aforementioned challenges by exploiting road GPS data. The proposed method combines road color feature with road GPS data to detect road centerline seed points. After global alignment of road GPS data, a novel road centerline extraction algorithm is developed to extract each individual road centerline in local regions. Through road connection, road centerline network is generated as the final output. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our proposed method can rapidly and accurately extract road centerline from remotely sensed imagery.

  5. FY 2000 report on the survey of extraction of areas promising in strategic geothermal development. Kurikoma peripheral region; 2000 nendo senryakuteki chinetsu kaihatsu yubo chiiki chushutsu chosa hokokusho. Kurikoma shuhen chiiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted for the Kurikoma peripheral region with the aim of contributing to the selection of important areas for survey, plans to be worked out for introduction of medium-term/long-term and effective geothermal development promotion survey, estimation of the developmental resource amount in the areas, etc. In the study, based on the geological survey, geochemical survey, physical survey and well survey which were conducted directly for the Kurikoma peripheral region, the data needed to elucidate geothermal structure elements were extracted and re-analyzed to make geothermal models. Based on the geothermal system conceptual model made, the data on the areas already developed, etc. were arranged to make criteria for extraction of promising areas. By the criteria, the following three areas were selected, and geothermal structure models were made for the areas: promising area 1 in geothermal development (Sanzugawa-Oyu spa, 66km{sup 2}), promising area 2 (Wasabizawa-Akinomiya area, 37km{sup 2}), promising area 3 (Onikobe-Kamitaki spa, 21km{sup 2}). These promising areas were evaluated by the resource amount density, data likelihood, regulation by the natural park law, etc. Important areas for survey were selected and the resource amount was calculated. (NEDO)

  6. Linguistic Dating of Biblical Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    2003-01-01

    For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed the chronol......For two centuries, scholars have pointed to consistent differences in the Hebrew of certain biblical texts and interpreted these differences as reflecting the date of composition of the texts. Until the 1980s, this was quite uncontroversial as the linguistic findings largely confirmed...... the chronology of the texts established by other means: the Hebrew of Genesis-2 Kings was judged to be early and that of Esther, Daniel, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Chronicles to be late. In the current debate where revisionists have questioned the traditional dating, linguistic arguments in the dating of texts have...... come more into focus. The study critically examines some linguistic arguments adduced to support the traditional position, and reviewing the arguments it points to weaknesses in the linguistic dating of EBH texts to pre-exilic times. When viewing the linguistic evidence in isolation it will be clear...

  7. Biomarker Identification Using Text Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Identifying molecular biomarkers has become one of the important tasks for scientists to assess the different phenotypic states of cells or organisms correlated to the genotypes of diseases from large-scale biological data. In this paper, we proposed a text-mining-based method to discover biomarkers from PubMed. First, we construct a database based on a dictionary, and then we used a finite state machine to identify the biomarkers. Our method of text mining provides a highly reliable approach to discover the biomarkers in the PubMed database.

  8. Transductive Pattern Learning for Information Extraction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McLernon, Brian; Kushmerick, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    .... We present TPLEX, a semi-supervised learning algorithm for information extraction that can acquire extraction patterns from a small amount of labelled text in conjunction with a large amount of unlabelled text...

  9. Anomaly Detection with Text Mining

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Many existing complex space systems have a significant amount of historical maintenance and problem data bases that are stored in unstructured text forms. The...

  10. Social Studies: Texts and Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This review of selected social studies texts, series, and supplements, mainly for the secondary level, includes a special section examining eight titles on warfare and terrorism for grades 4-12. (SJL)

  11. Text Mining in Organizational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Vladimer B; Mol, Stefan T; Berkers, Hannah A; Kismihók, Gábor; Den Hartog, Deanne N

    2018-07-01

    Despite the ubiquity of textual data, so far few researchers have applied text mining to answer organizational research questions. Text mining, which essentially entails a quantitative approach to the analysis of (usually) voluminous textual data, helps accelerate knowledge discovery by radically increasing the amount data that can be analyzed. This article aims to acquaint organizational researchers with the fundamental logic underpinning text mining, the analytical stages involved, and contemporary techniques that may be used to achieve different types of objectives. The specific analytical techniques reviewed are (a) dimensionality reduction, (b) distance and similarity computing, (c) clustering, (d) topic modeling, and (e) classification. We describe how text mining may extend contemporary organizational research by allowing the testing of existing or new research questions with data that are likely to be rich, contextualized, and ecologically valid. After an exploration of how evidence for the validity of text mining output may be generated, we conclude the article by illustrating the text mining process in a job analysis setting using a dataset composed of job vacancies.

  12. Text Mining in Biomedical Domain with Emphasis on Document Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renganathan, Vinaitheerthan

    2017-07-01

    With the exponential increase in the number of articles published every year in the biomedical domain, there is a need to build automated systems to extract unknown information from the articles published. Text mining techniques enable the extraction of unknown knowledge from unstructured documents. This paper reviews text mining processes in detail and the software tools available to carry out text mining. It also reviews the roles and applications of text mining in the biomedical domain. Text mining processes, such as search and retrieval of documents, pre-processing of documents, natural language processing, methods for text clustering, and methods for text classification are described in detail. Text mining techniques can facilitate the mining of vast amounts of knowledge on a given topic from published biomedical research articles and draw meaningful conclusions that are not possible otherwise.

  13. Extraction method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stary, J.; Kyrs, M.; Navratil, J.; Havelka, S.; Hala, J.

    1975-01-01

    Definitions of the basic terms and of relations are given and the knowledge is described of the possibilities of the extraction of elements, oxides, covalent-bound halogenides and heteropolyacids. Greatest attention is devoted to the detailed analysis of the extraction of chelates and ion associates using diverse agents. For both types of compounds detailed conditions are given of the separation and the effects of the individual factors are listed. Attention is also devoted to extractions using mixtures of organic agents, the synergic effects thereof, and to extractions in non-aqueous solvents. The effects of radiation on extraction and the main types of apparatus used for extractions carried out in the laboratory are described. (L.K.)

  14. Recognizing Cursive Typewritten Text Using Segmentation-Free System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad S. Khorsheed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction plays an important role in text recognition as it aims to capture essential characteristics of the text image. Feature extraction algorithms widely range between robust and hard to extract features and noise sensitive and easy to extract features. Among those feature types are statistical features which are derived from the statistical distribution of the image pixels. This paper presents a novel method for feature extraction where simple statistical features are extracted from a one-pixel wide window that slides across the text line. The feature set is clustered in the feature space using vector quantization. The feature vector sequence is then injected to a classification engine for training and recognition purposes. The recognition system is applied to a data corpus which includes cursive Arabic text of more than 600 A4-size sheets typewritten in multiple computer-generated fonts. The system performance is compared to a previously published system from the literature with a similar engine but a different feature set.

  15. Text mining in livestock animal science: introducing the potential of text mining to animal sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahadevan, S; Hofmann-Apitius, M; Schellander, K; Tesfaye, D; Fluck, J; Friedrich, C M

    2012-10-01

    In biological research, establishing the prior art by searching and collecting information already present in the domain has equal importance as the experiments done. To obtain a complete overview about the relevant knowledge, researchers mainly rely on 2 major information sources: i) various biological databases and ii) scientific publications in the field. The major difference between the 2 information sources is that information from databases is available, typically well structured and condensed. The information content in scientific literature is vastly unstructured; that is, dispersed among the many different sections of scientific text. The traditional method of information extraction from scientific literature occurs by generating a list of relevant publications in the field of interest and manually scanning these texts for relevant information, which is very time consuming. It is more than likely that in using this "classical" approach the researcher misses some relevant information mentioned in the literature or has to go through biological databases to extract further information. Text mining and named entity recognition methods have already been used in human genomics and related fields as a solution to this problem. These methods can process and extract information from large volumes of scientific text. Text mining is defined as the automatic extraction of previously unknown and potentially useful information from text. Named entity recognition (NER) is defined as the method of identifying named entities (names of real world objects; for example, gene/protein names, drugs, enzymes) in text. In animal sciences, text mining and related methods have been briefly used in murine genomics and associated fields, leaving behind other fields of animal sciences, such as livestock genomics. The aim of this work was to develop an information retrieval platform in the livestock domain focusing on livestock publications and the recognition of relevant data from

  16. Scenario Customization for Information Extraction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yangarber, Roman

    2001-01-01

    Information Extraction (IE) is an emerging NLP technology, whose function is to process unstructured, natural language text, to locate specific pieces of information, or facts, in the text, and to use these facts to fill a database...

  17. GPU-Accelerated Text Mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, X.; Mueller, F.; Zhang, Y.; Potok, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    Accelerating hardware devices represent a novel promise for improving the performance for many problem domains but it is not clear for which domains what accelerators are suitable. While there is no room in general-purpose processor design to significantly increase the processor frequency, developers are instead resorting to multi-core chips duplicating conventional computing capabilities on a single die. Yet, accelerators offer more radical designs with a much higher level of parallelism and novel programming environments. This present work assesses the viability of text mining on CUDA. Text mining is one of the key concepts that has become prominent as an effective means to index the Internet, but its applications range beyond this scope and extend to providing document similarity metrics, the subject of this work. We have developed and optimized text search algorithms for GPUs to exploit their potential for massive data processing. We discuss the algorithmic challenges of parallelization for text search problems on GPUs and demonstrate the potential of these devices in experiments by reporting significant speedups. Our study may be one of the first to assess more complex text search problems for suitability for GPU devices, and it may also be one of the first to exploit and report on atomic instruction usage that have recently become available in NVIDIA devices

  18. Comprehending text in literature class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purić Daliborka S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the problem of understanding a text and the contribution of methodological apparatus in the reader book to comprehension of a text being read in junior classes of elementary school. By using the technique of content analysis from methodological apparatuses in eight reader books for the fourth grade of elementary school, approved for usage in 2014/2015 academic year, and surveying 350 teachers in 33 elementary schools and 11 administrative districts in the Republic of Serbia we examined: (a to what extent the Serbian language text book contents enable junior students to understand a literary text; (b to what extent teachers accept the suggestions offered in the textbook for preparing literature teaching. The results show that a large number of suggestions relate to reading comprehension, but some of categories of understanding are unevenly distributed in the methodological apparatus. On the other hand, the majority of teachers use the methodological apparatus given in a textbook for preparing classes, not only the textbook he or she selected for teaching but also other textbooks for the same grade.

  19. Social Media Text Classification by Enhancing Well-Formed Text Trained Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phat Jotikabukkana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Social media are a powerful communication tool in our era of digital information. The large amount of user-generated data is a useful novel source of data, even though it is not easy to extract the treasures from this vast and noisy trove. Since classification is an important part of text mining, many techniques have been proposed to classify this kind of information. We developed an effective technique of social media text classification by semi-supervised learning utilizing an online news source consisting of well-formed text. The computer first automatically extracts news categories, well-categorized by publishers, as classes for topic classification. A bag of words taken from news articles provides the initial keywords related to their category in the form of word vectors. The principal task is to retrieve a set of new productive keywords. Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency weighting (TF-IDF and Word Article Matrix (WAM are used as main methods. A modification of WAM is recomputed until it becomes the most effective model for social media text classification. The key success factor was enhancing our model with effective keywords from social media. A promising result of 99.50% accuracy was achieved, with more than 98.5% of Precision, Recall, and F-measure after updating the model three times.

  20. Multimedia Information Extraction

    CERN Document Server

    Maybury, Mark T

    2012-01-01

    The advent of increasingly large consumer collections of audio (e.g., iTunes), imagery (e.g., Flickr), and video (e.g., YouTube) is driving a need not only for multimedia retrieval but also information extraction from and across media. Furthermore, industrial and government collections fuel requirements for stock media access, media preservation, broadcast news retrieval, identity management, and video surveillance.  While significant advances have been made in language processing for information extraction from unstructured multilingual text and extraction of objects from imagery and vid

  1. A Guide Text or Many Texts? "That is the Question”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delgado de Valencia Sonia

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of supplementary materials in the classroom has always been an essential part of the teaching and learning process. To restrict our teaching to the scope of one single textbook means to stand behind the advances of knowledge, in any area and context. Young learners appreciate any new and varied support that expands their knowledge of the world: diaries, letters, panels, free texts, magazines, short stories, poems or literary excerpts, and articles taken from Internet are materials that will allow learnersto share more and work more collaboratively. In this article we are going to deal with some of these materials, with the criteria to select, adapt, and create them that may be of interest to the learner and that may promote reading and writing processes. Since no text can entirely satisfy the needs of students and teachers, the creativity of both parties will be necessary to improve the quality of teaching through the adequate use and adaptation of supplementary materials.

  2. Individual Profiling Using Text Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-15

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2016-0011 Individual Profiling using Text Analysis 140333 Mark Stevenson UNIVERSITY OF SHEFFIELD, DEPARTMENT OF PSYCHOLOGY Final...REPORT TYPE      Final 3.  DATES COVERED (From - To)      15 Sep 2014 to 14 Sep 2015 4.  TITLE AND SUBTITLE Individual Profiling using Text Analysis ...consisted of collections of tweets for a number of Twitter users whose gender, age and personality scores are known. The task was to construct some system

  3. Identifying issue frames in text.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Sagi

    Full Text Available Framing, the effect of context on cognitive processes, is a prominent topic of research in psychology and public opinion research. Research on framing has traditionally relied on controlled experiments and manually annotated document collections. In this paper we present a method that allows for quantifying the relative strengths of competing linguistic frames based on corpus analysis. This method requires little human intervention and can therefore be efficiently applied to large bodies of text. We demonstrate its effectiveness by tracking changes in the framing of terror over time and comparing the framing of abortion by Democrats and Republicans in the U.S.

  4. Multilingual text induced spelling correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynaert, M.W.C.

    2004-01-01

    We present TISC, a multilingual, language-independent and context-sensitive spelling checking and correction system designed to facilitate the automatic removal of non-word spelling errors in large corpora. Its lexicon is derived from raw text corpora, without supervision, and contains word unigrams

  5. Automated analysis of instructional text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, L.M.

    1983-05-01

    The development of a capability for automated processing of natural language text is a long-range goal of artificial intelligence. This paper discusses an investigation into the issues involved in the comprehension of descriptive, as opposed to illustrative, textual material. The comprehension process is viewed as the conversion of knowledge from one representation into another. The proposed target representation consists of statements of the prolog language, which can be interpreted both declaratively and procedurally, much like production rules. A computer program has been written to model in detail some ideas about this process. The program successfully analyzes several heavily edited paragraphs adapted from an elementary textbook on programming, automatically synthesizing as a result of the analysis a working Prolog program which, when executed, can parse and interpret let commands in the basic language. The paper discusses the motivations and philosophy of the project, the many kinds of prerequisite knowledge which are necessary, and the structure of the text analysis program. A sentence-by-sentence account of the analysis of the sample text is presented, describing the syntactic and semantic processing which is involved. The paper closes with a discussion of lessons learned from the project, possible alternative approaches, and possible extensions for future work. The entire project is presented as illustrative of the nature and complexity of the text analysis process, rather than as providing definitive or optimal solutions to any aspects of the task. 12 references.

  6. Solar Concepts: A Background Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorham, Jonathan W.

    This text is designed to provide teachers, students, and the general public with an overview of key solar energy concepts. Various energy terms are defined and explained. Basic thermodynamic laws are discussed. Alternative energy production is described in the context of the present energy situation. Described are the principal contemporary solar…

  7. FTP: Full-Text Publishing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jul, Erik

    1992-01-01

    Describes the use of file transfer protocol (FTP) on the INTERNET computer network and considers its use as an electronic publishing system. The differing electronic formats of text files are discussed; the preparation and access of documents are described; and problems are addressed, including a lack of consistency. (LRW)

  8. Quality Inspection of Printed Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jesper Ballisager; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2016-01-01

    -folded: for costumers of the printing and verification system, the overall grade used to verify if the text is of sufficient quality, while for printer's manufacturer, the detailed character/symbols grades and quality measurements are used for the improvement and optimization of the printing task. The proposed system...

  9. Vacuum extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Oestergaard, Jeanett; Johansen, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To develop and validate an Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scale for vacuum extraction. Design. Two-part study design: Primarily, development of a procedure-specific checklist for vacuum extraction. Hereafter, validation of the developed OSATS scale for vac...

  10. Electromembrane extraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Chuixiu; Chen, Zhiliang; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Electromembrane extraction (EME) was inspired by solid-phase microextraction and developed from hollow fiber liquid-phase microextraction in 2006 by applying an electric field over the supported liquid membrane (SLM). EME provides rapid extraction, efficient sample clean-up and selectivity based...

  11. Cluster Based Text Classification Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nizamani, Sarwat; Memon, Nasrullah; Wiil, Uffe Kock

    2011-01-01

    We propose a cluster based classification model for suspicious email detection and other text classification tasks. The text classification tasks comprise many training examples that require a complex classification model. Using clusters for classification makes the model simpler and increases...... the accuracy at the same time. The test example is classified using simpler and smaller model. The training examples in a particular cluster share the common vocabulary. At the time of clustering, we do not take into account the labels of the training examples. After the clusters have been created......, the classifier is trained on each cluster having reduced dimensionality and less number of examples. The experimental results show that the proposed model outperforms the existing classification models for the task of suspicious email detection and topic categorization on the Reuters-21578 and 20 Newsgroups...

  12. Linguistic dating of biblical texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Young, Ian; Rezetko, Robert; Ehrensvärd, Martin Gustaf

    Since the beginning of critical scholarship biblical texts have been dated using linguistic evidence. In recent years this has become a controversial topic, especially with the publication of Ian Young (ed.), Biblical Hebrew: Studies in Chronology and Typology (2003). However, until now there has...... been no introduction and comprehensive study of the field. Volume 1 introduces the field of linguistic dating of biblical texts, particularly to intermediate and advanced students of biblical Hebrew who have a reasonable background in the language, having completed at least an introductory course...... in this volume are: What is it that makes Archaic Biblical Hebrew archaic , Early Biblical Hebrew early , and Late Biblical Hebrew late ? Does linguistic typology, i.e. different linguistic characteristics, convert easily and neatly into linguistic chronology, i.e. different historical origins? A large amount...

  13. Text as an Autopoietic System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Maria Skou

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research article is to discuss the possibilities and limitations in addressing text as an autopoietic system. The theory of autopoiesis originated in the field of biology in order to explain the dynamic processes entailed in sustaining living organisms at cellular level. Th....... By comparing the biological with the textual account of autopoietic agency, the end conclusion is that a newly derived concept of sociopoiesis might be better suited for discussing the architecture of textual systems....

  14. The TEXT upgrade vertical interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallock, G.A.; Gartman, M.L.; Li, W.; Chiang, K.; Shin, S.; Castles, R.L.; Chatterjee, R.; Rahman, A.S.

    1992-01-01

    A far-infrared interferometer has been installed on TEXT upgrade to obtain electron density profiles. The primary system views the plasma vertically through a set of large (60-cm radialx7.62-cm toroidal) diagnostic ports. A 1-cm channel spacing (59 channels total) and fast electronic time response is used, to provide high resolution for radial profiles and perturbation experiments. Initial operation of the vertical system was obtained late in 1991, with six operating channels

  15. Reasoning with Annotations of Texts

    OpenAIRE

    Ma , Yue; Lévy , François; Ghimire , Sudeep

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Linguistic and semantic annotations are important features for text-based applications. However, achieving and maintaining a good quality of a set of annotations is known to be a complex task. Many ad hoc approaches have been developed to produce various types of annotations, while comparing those annotations to improve their quality is still rare. In this paper, we propose a framework in which both linguistic and domain information can cooperate to reason with annotat...

  16. Improving AfriPop dataset with settlement extents extracted from RapidEye for the border region comprising South-Africa, Swaziland and Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Deleu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available For modelling the spatial distribution of malaria incidence, accurate and detailed information on population size and distribution are of significant importance. Different, global, spatial, standard datasets of population distribution have been developed and are widely used. However, most of them are not up-to-date and the low spatial resolution of the input census data has limitations for contemporary, national- scale analyses. The AfriPop project, launched in July 2009, was initiated with the aim of producing detailed, contemporary and easily updatable population distribution datasets for the whole of Africa. High-resolution satellite sensors can help to further improve this dataset through the generation of high-resolution settlement layers at greater spatial details. In the present study, the settlement extents included in the MALAREO land use classification were used to generate an enhanced and updated version of the AfriPop dataset for the study area covering southern Mozambique, eastern Swaziland and the malarious part of KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. Results show that it is possible to easily produce a detailed and updated population distribution dataset applying the AfriPop modelling approach with the use of high-resolution settlement layers and population growth rates. The 2007 and 2011 population datasets are freely available as a product of the MALAREO project and can be downloaded from the project website.

  17. WATERSHED ALGORITHM BASED SEGMENTATION FOR HANDWRITTEN TEXT IDENTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mathivanan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we develop a system for writer identification which involves four processing steps like preprocessing, segmentation, feature extraction and writer identification using neural network. In the preprocessing phase the handwritten text is subjected to slant removal process for segmentation and feature extraction. After this step the text image enters into the process of noise removal and gray level conversion. The preprocessed image is further segmented by using morphological watershed algorithm, where the text lines are segmented into single words and then into single letters. The segmented image is feature extracted by Daubechies’5/3 integer wavelet transform to reduce training complexity [1, 6]. This process is lossless and reversible [10], [14]. These extracted features are given as input to our neural network for writer identification process and a target image is selected for each training process in the 2-layer neural network. With the several trained output data obtained from different target help in text identification. It is a multilingual text analysis which provides simple and efficient text segmentation.

  18. The Balinese Unicode Text Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Habibi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In principal, the computer only recognizes numbers as the representation of a character. Therefore, there are many encoding systems to allocate these numbers although not all characters are covered. In Europe, every single language even needs more than one encoding system. Hence, a new encoding system known as Unicode has been established to overcome this problem. Unicode provides unique id for each different characters which does not depend on platform, program, and language. Unicode standard has been applied in a number of industries, such as Apple, HP, IBM, JustSystem, Microsoft, Oracle, SAP, Sun, Sybase, and Unisys. In addition, language standards and modern information exchanges such as XML, Java, ECMA Script (JavaScript, LDAP, CORBA 3.0, and WML make use of Unicode as an official tool for implementing ISO/IEC 10646. There are four things to do according to Balinese script: the algorithm of transliteration, searching, sorting, and word boundary analysis (spell checking. To verify the truth of algorithm, some applications are made. These applications can run on Linux/Windows OS platform using J2SDK 1.5 and J2ME WTK2 library. The input and output of the algorithm/application are character sequence that is obtained from keyboard punch and external file. This research produces a module or a library which is able to process the Balinese text based on Unicode standard. The output of this research is the ability, skill, and mastering of 1. Unicode standard (21-bit as a substitution to ASCII (7-bit and ISO8859-1 (8-bit as the former default character set in many applications. 2. The Balinese Unicode text processing algorithm. 3. An experience of working with and learning from an international team that consists of the foremost experts in the area: Michael Everson (Ireland, Peter Constable (Microsoft US, I Made Suatjana, and Ida Bagus Adi Sudewa.

  19. Characterization and Antioxidant Properties of Six Algerian Propolis Extracts: Ethyl Acetate Extracts Inhibit Myeloperoxidase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmina Mokhtaria Boufadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Because propolis contains many types of antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols and flavonoids, it can be useful in preventing oxidative damages. Ethyl acetate extracts of propolis from several Algerian regions show high activity by scavenging free radicals, preventing lipid peroxidation and inhibiting myeloperoxidase (MPO. By fractioning and assaying ethyl acetate extracts, it was observed that both polyphenols and flavonoids contribute to these activities. A correlation was observed between the polyphenol content and the MPO inhibition. However, it seems that kaempferol, a flavonoid, contributes mainly to the MPO inhibition. This molecule is in a high amount in the ethyl acetate extract and demonstrates the best efficiency towards the enzyme with an inhibiting concentration at 50% of 4 ± 2 µM.

  20. Biased limiter experiments on text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, P.E.; Wootton, A.J.; Rowan, W.L.; Ritz, C.P.; Rhodes, T.L.; Bengtson, R.D.; Hodge, W.L.; Durst, R.D.; McCool, S.C.; Richards, B.; Gentle, K.W.; Schoch, P.; Forster, J.C.; Hickok, R.L.; Evans, T.E.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments using an electrically biased limiter have been performed on the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT). A small movable limiter is inserted past the main poloidal ring limiter (which is electrically connected to the vacuum vessel) and biased at V Lim with respect to it. The floating potential, plasma potential and shear layer position can be controlled. With vertical strokeV Lim vertical stroke ≥ 50 V the plasma density increases. For V Lim Lim > 0 the results obtained are inconclusive. Variation of V Lim changes the electrostatic turbulence which may explain the observed total flux changes. (orig.)

  1. New Historicism: Text and Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta M. Vesić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During most of the twentieth century history was seen as a phenomenon outside of literature that guaranteed the veracity of literary interpretation. History was unique and it functioned as a basis for reading literary works. During the seventies of the twentieth century there occurred a change of attitude towards history in American literary theory, and there appeared a new theoretical approach which soon became known as New Historicism. Since its inception, New Historicism has been identified with the study of Renaissance and Romanticism, but nowadays it has been increasingly involved in other literary trends. Although there are great differences in the arguments and practices at various representatives of this school, New Historicism has clearly recognizable features and many new historicists will agree with the statement of Walter Cohen that New Historicism, when it appeared in the eighties, represented something quite new in reference to the studies of theory, criticism and history (Cohen 1987, 33. Theoretical connection with Bakhtin, Foucault and Marx is clear, as well as a kind of uneasy tie with deconstruction and the work of Paul de Man. At the center of this approach is a renewed interest in the study of literary works in the light of historical and political circumstances in which they were created. Foucault encouraged readers to begin to move literary texts and to link them with discourses and representations that are not literary, as well as to examine the sociological aspects of the texts in order to take part in the social struggles of today. The study of literary works using New Historicism is the study of politics, history, culture and circumstances in which these works were created. With regard to one of the main fact which is located in the center of the criticism, that history cannot be viewed objectively and that reality can only be understood through a cultural context that reveals the work, re-reading and interpretation of

  2. Newspaper archives + text mining = rich sources of historical geo-spatial data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yzaguirre, A.; Smit, M.; Warren, R.

    2016-04-01

    Newspaper archives are rich sources of cultural, social, and historical information. These archives, even when digitized, are typically unstructured and organized by date rather than by subject or location, and require substantial manual effort to analyze. The effort of journalists to be accurate and precise means that there is often rich geo-spatial data embedded in the text, alongside text describing events that editors considered to be of sufficient importance to the region or the world to merit column inches. A regional newspaper can add over 100,000 articles to its database each year, and extracting information from this data for even a single country would pose a substantial Big Data challenge. In this paper, we describe a pilot study on the construction of a database of historical flood events (location(s), date, cause, magnitude) to be used in flood assessment projects, for example to calibrate models, estimate frequency, establish high water marks, or plan for future events in contexts ranging from urban planning to climate change adaptation. We then present a vision for extracting and using the rich geospatial data available in unstructured text archives, and suggest future avenues of research.

  3. Linking Video and Text via Representations of Narrative

    OpenAIRE

    Salway, Andrew; Graham, Mike; Tomadaki, Eleftheria; Xu, Yan

    2003-01-01

    The ongoing TIWO project is investigating the synthesis of language technologies, like information extraction and corpus-based text analysis, video data modeling and knowledge representation. The aim is to develop a computational account of how video and text can be integrated by representations of narrative in multimedia systems. The multimedia domain is that of film and audio description – an emerging text type that is produced specifically to be informative about the events and objects dep...

  4. Bevalac extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalnins, J.G.; Krebs, G.; Tekawa, M.; Cowles, D.; Byrne, T.

    1992-02-01

    This report will describe some of the general features of the Bevatron extraction system, primarily the dependence of the beam parameters and extraction magnet currents on the Bevalac field. The extraction magnets considered are: PFW, XPl, XP2, XS1, XS2, XM1, XM2, XM3, XQ3A and X03B. This study is based on 84 past tunes (from 1987 to the present) of various ions (p,He,O,Ne,Si,S,Ar,Ca,Ti,Fe,Nb,La,Au and U), for Bevalac fields from 1.749 to 12.575 kG, where all tunes included a complete set of beam line wire chamber pictures. The circulating beam intensity inside the Bevalac is measured with Beam Induction Electrodes (BIE) in the South Tangent Tank. The extracted beam intensity is usually measured with the Secondary Emission Monitor (SEM) in the F1-Box. For most of the tunes the extraction efficiency, as given by the SEM/BIE ratio, was not recorded in the MCR Log Book, but plotting the available Log Book data as a function of the Bevalac field, see Fig.9, we find that the extraction efficiency is typically between 30->60% with feedback spill

  5. Transfer Learning beyond Text Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiang

    Transfer learning is a new machine learning and data mining framework that allows the training and test data to come from different distributions or feature spaces. We can find many novel applications of machine learning and data mining where transfer learning is necessary. While much has been done in transfer learning in text classification and reinforcement learning, there has been a lack of documented success stories of novel applications of transfer learning in other areas. In this invited article, I will argue that transfer learning is in fact quite ubiquitous in many real world applications. In this article, I will illustrate this point through an overview of a broad spectrum of applications of transfer learning that range from collaborative filtering to sensor based location estimation and logical action model learning for AI planning. I will also discuss some potential future directions of transfer learning.

  6. Evaluation of emergency medical text processor, a system for cleaning chief complaint text data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Debbie A; Haas, Stephanie W

    2004-11-01

    Emergency Medical Text Processor (EMT-P) version 1, a natural language processing system that cleans emergency department text (e.g., chst pn, chest pai), was developed to maximize extraction of standard terms (e.g., chest pain). The authors compared the number of standard terms extracted from raw chief complaint (CC) data with that for CC data cleaned with EMT-P and evaluated the accuracy of EMT-P. This cross-sectional observation study included CC text entries for all emergency department visits to three tertiary care centers in 2001. Terms were extracted from CC entries before and after cleaning with EMT-P. Descriptive statistics included number and percentage of all entries (tokens) and all unique entries (types) that matched a standard term from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). An expert panel rated the accuracy of the CC-UMLS term matches; inter-rater reliability was measured with kappa. The authors collected 203,509 CC entry tokens, of which 63,946 were unique entry types. For the raw data, 89,337 tokens (44%) and 5,081 types (8%) matched a standard term. After EMT-P cleaning, 168,050 tokens (83%) and 44,430 types (69%) matched a standard term. The expert panel reached consensus on 201 of the 222 CC-UMLS term matches reviewed (kappa=0.69-0.72). Ninety-six percent of the 201 matches were rated equivalent or related. Thirty-eight percent of the nonmatches were found to match UMLS concepts. EMT-P version 1 is relatively accurate, and cleaning with EMT-P improved the CC-UMLS term match rate over raw data. The authors identified areas for improvement in future EMT-P versions and issues to be resolved in developing a standard CC terminology.

  7. Correlation of the cognitive function and the duration of the illness with the regional cerebral blood flow in the patients with Parkinson's disease. Objective evaluation using stereotactic extraction estimation analysis in 123I-IMP SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Toshiyuki; Kuzuhara, Shigeki

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation of the cognitive function and the duration of the illness with the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), by means of an objective diagnostic index of brain imaging, stereotactic extraction estimation (SEE) of 123 I-IMP SPECT. We examined 123 I-IMP SPECT in 24 patients with PD (age=71.79±5.18 years; the Mini-Mental State Examination: MMSE score=21.46±7.62 points; the duration of the illness=6.63±3.91 years; Yahr scale=3.29±0.74). A contrast database was created by averaging extracted database sets of the contrast group (numbers=14 cases; age=74.64±5.99 years, the MMSE score≥29 points). We applied SEE for Z-score images of three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection analysis (3D-SSP) for 123 I-IMP SPECT, and calculated Z * extent ratio by taking advantage of severity of Z-score (the mean value) with extent ratio (%) in the frontal, occipital, temporal, parietal and posterior cingulate cortices, and precuneus, respectively. We investigated the correlation coefficient between the MMSE score and Z * extent ratio, and between the duration of the illness and Z * extent ratio in the six regions. In addition, we compared Z * extent ratio in the six regions between the non-demented group (numbers=12 patients; MMSE≥24 points) and the demented group (numbers=12 patients; E score≤23 points). There were negative correlations between the MMSE score and Z * extent ratio in the temporal (p * extent ratio in the frontal (p * extent ratio was significantly high only in the posterior cingulate cortex (p<0.05) in the demented group. SEE for Z-score images of 3D-SSP revealed a close relationship between the decline of the MMSE score and the duration of the illness, and the perfusion reduction of the posterior cingulate cortex in patients with PD. These findings suggest that the perfusion reduction of the posterior cingulate cortex reflects the decline of cognitive

  8. A programmed text in statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Hine, J

    1975-01-01

    Exercises for Section 2 42 Physical sciences and engineering 42 43 Biological sciences 45 Social sciences Solutions to Exercises, Section 1 47 Physical sciences and engineering 47 49 Biological sciences 49 Social sciences Solutions to Exercises, Section 2 51 51 PhYSical sciences and engineering 55 Biological sciences 58 Social sciences 62 Tables 2 62 x - tests involving variances 2 63,64 x - one tailed tests 2 65 x - two tailed tests F-distribution 66-69 Preface This project started some years ago when the Nuffield Foundation kindly gave a grant for writing a pro­ grammed text to use with service courses in statistics. The work carried out by Mrs. Joan Hine and Professor G. B. Wetherill at Bath University, together with some other help from time to time by colleagues at Bath University and elsewhere. Testing was done at various colleges and universities, and some helpful comments were received, but we particularly mention King Edwards School, Bath, who provided some sixth formers as 'guinea pigs' for the fir...

  9. Bollywood Movie Corpus for Text, Images and Videos

    OpenAIRE

    Madaan, Nishtha; Mehta, Sameep; Saxena, Mayank; Aggarwal, Aditi; Agrawaal, Taneea S; Malhotra, Vrinda

    2017-01-01

    In past few years, several data-sets have been released for text and images. We present an approach to create the data-set for use in detecting and removing gender bias from text. We also include a set of challenges we have faced while creating this corpora. In this work, we have worked with movie data from Wikipedia plots and movie trailers from YouTube. Our Bollywood Movie corpus contains 4000 movies extracted from Wikipedia and 880 trailers extracted from YouTube which were released from 1...

  10. Discovering gene annotations in biomedical text databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozsoyoglu Gultekin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genes and gene products are frequently annotated with Gene Ontology concepts based on the evidence provided in genomics articles. Manually locating and curating information about a genomic entity from the biomedical literature requires vast amounts of human effort. Hence, there is clearly a need forautomated computational tools to annotate the genes and gene products with Gene Ontology concepts by computationally capturing the related knowledge embedded in textual data. Results In this article, we present an automated genomic entity annotation system, GEANN, which extracts information about the characteristics of genes and gene products in article abstracts from PubMed, and translates the discoveredknowledge into Gene Ontology (GO concepts, a widely-used standardized vocabulary of genomic traits. GEANN utilizes textual "extraction patterns", and a semantic matching framework to locate phrases matching to a pattern and produce Gene Ontology annotations for genes and gene products. In our experiments, GEANN has reached to the precision level of 78% at therecall level of 61%. On a select set of Gene Ontology concepts, GEANN either outperforms or is comparable to two other automated annotation studies. Use of WordNet for semantic pattern matching improves the precision and recall by 24% and 15%, respectively, and the improvement due to semantic pattern matching becomes more apparent as the Gene Ontology terms become more general. Conclusion GEANN is useful for two distinct purposes: (i automating the annotation of genomic entities with Gene Ontology concepts, and (ii providing existing annotations with additional "evidence articles" from the literature. The use of textual extraction patterns that are constructed based on the existing annotations achieve high precision. The semantic pattern matching framework provides a more flexible pattern matching scheme with respect to "exactmatching" with the advantage of locating approximate

  11. Text summarization as a decision support aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Workman T

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PubMed data potentially can provide decision support information, but PubMed was not exclusively designed to be a point-of-care tool. Natural language processing applications that summarize PubMed citations hold promise for extracting decision support information. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a text summarization application called Semantic MEDLINE, enhanced with a novel dynamic summarization method, in identifying decision support data. Methods We downloaded PubMed citations addressing the prevention and drug treatment of four disease topics. We then processed the citations with Semantic MEDLINE, enhanced with the dynamic summarization method. We also processed the citations with a conventional summarization method, as well as with a baseline procedure. We evaluated the results using clinician-vetted reference standards built from recommendations in a commercial decision support product, DynaMed. Results For the drug treatment data, Semantic MEDLINE enhanced with dynamic summarization achieved average recall and precision scores of 0.848 and 0.377, while conventional summarization produced 0.583 average recall and 0.712 average precision, and the baseline method yielded average recall and precision values of 0.252 and 0.277. For the prevention data, Semantic MEDLINE enhanced with dynamic summarization achieved average recall and precision scores of 0.655 and 0.329. The baseline technique resulted in recall and precision scores of 0.269 and 0.247. No conventional Semantic MEDLINE method accommodating summarization for prevention exists. Conclusion Semantic MEDLINE with dynamic summarization outperformed conventional summarization in terms of recall, and outperformed the baseline method in both recall and precision. This new approach to text summarization demonstrates potential in identifying decision support data for multiple needs.

  12. Utilization of Lavandula angustifolia Miller extracts as naturalrepellents, pharmaceutical and industrial auxiliaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYOE YUSUFOGLU

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils, absolutes and concretes were prepared from the flowers and leaves of the plant Lavandula angustifolia Miller cultivated in the Bosphorus region of Istanbul, Turkey. The difference in the chemical composition of the mentioned extracts was investigated and compared by using a combination of capillary GC-MS with the aim of offering them as repellent, pharmaceutical and industrial auxiliaries. The IR-spectra, the yields and the physico-chemical data of the extracts were also analysed.

  13. Supercritical extraction of pupunha (Guilielma speciosa oil in a fixed bed using carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo M.E.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The pupunha (Guilielma speciosa is the fruit of a palm tree typical of the Brazilian Northern region, whose stem is used as a source of heart of palm. The fruit, which is about 65% pulp, is a source of oil and carotenes. In the present work, an analysis of the kinetics of supercritical extraction of oil from the pupunha pulp is presented. Carbon dioxide was used as solvent. The extractions were carried out at 25 MPa and 323 K and 30 MPa and 318 K. The chemical composition of the extracts in terms of fatty acids was determined by gas chromatography. The amount of oleic acid, a saturated fatty acid, in the CO2 extracts was larger than that in the extract obtained with hexane. The overall extraction curves were modeled using the single-parameter model proposed in the literature to describe the desorption of toluene from activated coal.

  14. Automated recognition of brain region mentions in neuroscience literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon French

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability to computationally extract mentions of neuroanatomical regions from the literature would assist linking to other entities within and outside of an article. Examples include extracting reports of connectivity or region-specific gene expression. To facilitate text mining of neuroscience literature we have created a corpus of manually annotated brain region mentions. The corpus contains 1,377 abstracts with 18,242 brain region annotations. Interannotator agreement was evaluated for a subset of the documents, and was 90.7% and 96.7% for strict and lenient matching respectively. We observed a large vocabulary of over 6,000 unique brain region terms and 17,000 words. For automatic extraction of brain region mentions we evaluated simple dictionary methods and complex natural language processing techniques. The dictionary methods based on neuroanatomical lexicons recalled 36% of the mentions with 57% precision. The best performance was achieved using a conditional random field (CRF with a rich feature set. Features were based on morphological, lexical, syntactic and contextual information. The CRF recalled 76% of mentions at 81% precision, by counting partial matches recall and precision increase to 86% and 92% respectively. We suspect a large amount of error is due to coordinating conjunctions, previously unseen words and brain regions of less commonly studied organisms. We found context windows, lemmatization and abbreviation expansion to be the most informative techniques. The corpus is freely available at http://www.chibi.ubc.ca/WhiteText/.

  15. EXPANDING EXTRACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzenbacher, Erik; Lahr, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize hypothetical extraction techniques. We suggest that the effect of certain economic phenomena can be measured by removing them from an input-output (I-O) table and by rebalancing the set of I-O accounts. The difference between the two sets of accounts yields the

  16. Genotoxicity of plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera M. F. Vargas

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous extracts of seven species used in Brazilian popular medicine (Achyrocline satureoides, Iodina rhombifolia, Desmodium incanum, Baccharis anomala, Tibouchina asperior, Luehea divaricata, Maytenus ilicifolia were screened to the presence of mutagenic activity in the Ames test (Salmonella/microsome. Positive results were obtained for A. satureoides, B anomala and L. divaricata with microsomal activation. As shown elsewhere (Vargas et al., 1990 the metabolites of A. satureoides extract also show the capacity to induce prophage and/or SOS response in microscreen phage induction assay and SOS spot chromotest.

  17. Mining biological networks from full-text articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Jan; Shepherd, Adrian J

    2014-01-01

    The study of biological networks is playing an increasingly important role in the life sciences. Many different kinds of biological system can be modelled as networks; perhaps the most important examples are protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks, metabolic pathways, gene regulatory networks, and signalling networks. Although much useful information is easily accessible in publicly databases, a lot of extra relevant data lies scattered in numerous published papers. Hence there is a pressing need for automated text-mining methods capable of extracting such information from full-text articles. Here we present practical guidelines for constructing a text-mining pipeline from existing code and software components capable of extracting PPI networks from full-text articles. This approach can be adapted to tackle other types of biological network.

  18. Supercritical fluid extraction of hops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN ZEKOVIC

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Five cultivars of hop were extracted by the method of supercritical fluid extraction using carbon dioxide (SFE–CO2 as extractant. The extraction (50 g of hop sample using a CO2 flow rate of 97.725 L/h was done in the two steps: 1. extraction at 150 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (sample of series A was obtained and, after that, the same sample of hop was extracted in the second step: 2. extraction at 300 bar and 40 °C for 2.5 h (sample of series B was obtained. The Magnum cultivar was chosen for the investigation of the extraction kinetics. For the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the obtained hop extracts, the GC-MS method was used. Two of four themost common compounds of hop aroma (a-humulene and b-caryophyllene were detected in samples of series A. In addition, isomerized a-acids and a high content of b-acids were detected. The a-acids content in the samples of series B was the highest in the extract of the Magnum cultivar (it is a bitter variety of hop. The low contents of a-acids in all the other hop samples resulted in extracts with low a-acids content, i.e., that contents were under the prescribed a-acids content.

  19. Cognition-Based Approaches for High-Precision Text Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, George John

    2017-01-01

    This research improves the precision of information extraction from free-form text via the use of cognitive-based approaches to natural language processing (NLP). Cognitive-based approaches are an important, and relatively new, area of research in NLP and search, as well as linguistics. Cognitive approaches enable significant improvements in both…

  20. Temporal analysis of text data using latent variable models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti; Larsen, Jan; Goutte, Cyril

    2009-01-01

    Detecting and tracking of temporal data is an important task in multiple applications. In this paper we study temporal text mining methods for Music Information Retrieval. We compare two ways of detecting the temporal latent semantics of a corpus extracted from Wikipedia, using a stepwise...

  1. New extraction technique for alkaloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djilani Abdelouaheb

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of extraction of natural products has been developed. Compared with existing methods, the new technique is rapid, more efficient and consumes less solvent. Extraction of alkaloids from natural products such as Hyoscyamus muticus, Datura stramonium and Ruta graveolens consists of the use of a sonicated solution containing a surfactant as extracting agent. The alkaloids are precipitated by Mayer reagent, dissolved in an alkaline solution, and then extracted with chloroform. This article compares the results obtained with other methods showing clearly the advantages of the new method.

  2. Isoflavones hydrolisis and extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozilene Fernandes Farias dos Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Isoflavones are found in leguminous species and are used as phytoestrogens widely used by industry for its beneficial effects as estrogens mimicked, antioxidant action and anti-cancer activity. The identification and quantification of isoflavones in plants is a need due to the high demand of industry. Several methods are used for its extraction, using organic solvents (methanol, ethanol and acetonitrile. Samples from five legumes species from Instituto de Zootecnia (IZ, Forage Gene Bank were tested. All seeds received a hydrothermic treatment immersed in pure water at 50°C for 12 hours. Seeds were then oven-dryed. In this work we tested the extraction using only the hydrothermic treatment and hyfrothermic treatment allied to methanol extaction protocol. Seeds were grinded and half of the samples were ressuspended in PBS (phosphate Buffer and the other half were submited to 4 mL of methanol and 1% of acetic acid, soaked for 5 hours, shaked every 15 minutes, at room temperature. The five legume species that we quantify isoflavones by enzyme immunoassay (EIA were: Calopogonium mucunoides, Bauhinia sp., Cajanus cajan, Galactia martii, Leucaena leucocephala. The extraction procedure is a recomendation of AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists for isoflavone quantification. Ours results show an increase of extraction using methanol 80% plus acetic acid 1% and was obtained using solvent extraction in comparison to hydrothermic procedure alone (figure 1.

  3. Relating interesting quantitative time series patterns with text events and text features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Franz; Schreck, Tobias; Jentner, Wolfgang; Sharalieva, Lyubka; Keim, Daniel A.

    2013-12-01

    In many application areas, the key to successful data analysis is the integrated analysis of heterogeneous data. One example is the financial domain, where time-dependent and highly frequent quantitative data (e.g., trading volume and price information) and textual data (e.g., economic and political news reports) need to be considered jointly. Data analysis tools need to support an integrated analysis, which allows studying the relationships between textual news documents and quantitative properties of the stock market price series. In this paper, we describe a workflow and tool that allows a flexible formation of hypotheses about text features and their combinations, which reflect quantitative phenomena observed in stock data. To support such an analysis, we combine the analysis steps of frequent quantitative and text-oriented data using an existing a-priori method. First, based on heuristics we extract interesting intervals and patterns in large time series data. The visual analysis supports the analyst in exploring parameter combinations and their results. The identified time series patterns are then input for the second analysis step, in which all identified intervals of interest are analyzed for frequent patterns co-occurring with financial news. An a-priori method supports the discovery of such sequential temporal patterns. Then, various text features like the degree of sentence nesting, noun phrase complexity, the vocabulary richness, etc. are extracted from the news to obtain meta patterns. Meta patterns are defined by a specific combination of text features which significantly differ from the text features of the remaining news data. Our approach combines a portfolio of visualization and analysis techniques, including time-, cluster- and sequence visualization and analysis functionality. We provide two case studies, showing the effectiveness of our combined quantitative and textual analysis work flow. The workflow can also be generalized to other

  4. Supercritical carbon dioxide hop extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfaf-Šovljanski Ivana I.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The hop of Magnum cultivar was extracted using supercritical carbon dioxide (SFE-as extractant. Extraction was carried out in the two steps: the first one being carried out at 150 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (Extract A, and the second was the extraction of the same hop sample at 300 bar and 40°C for 2.5 h (Extract B. Extraction kinetics of the system hop-SFE-CO2 was investigated. Two of four most common compounds of hop aroma (α-humulene and β-caryophyllene were detected in Extract A. Isomerised α-acids and β-acids were detected too. a-Acid content in Extract B was high (that means it is a bitter variety of hop. Mathematical modeling using empirical model characteristic time model and simple single sphere model has been performed on Magnum cultivar extraction experimental results. Characteristic time model equations, best fitted experimental results. Empirical model equation, fitted results well, while simple single sphere model equation poorly approximated the results.

  5. Imitating manual curation of text-mined facts in biomedicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Rodriguez-Esteban

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Text-mining algorithms make mistakes in extracting facts from natural-language texts. In biomedical applications, which rely on use of text-mined data, it is critical to assess the quality (the probability that the message is correctly extracted of individual facts--to resolve data conflicts and inconsistencies. Using a large set of almost 100,000 manually produced evaluations (most facts were independently reviewed more than once, producing independent evaluations, we implemented and tested a collection of algorithms that mimic human evaluation of facts provided by an automated information-extraction system. The performance of our best automated classifiers closely approached that of our human evaluators (ROC score close to 0.95. Our hypothesis is that, were we to use a larger number of human experts to evaluate any given sentence, we could implement an artificial-intelligence curator that would perform the classification job at least as accurately as an average individual human evaluator. We illustrated our analysis by visualizing the predicted accuracy of the text-mined relations involving the term cocaine.

  6. Arabic text preprocessing for the natural language processing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awajan, A.

    2007-01-01

    A new approach for processing vowelized and unvowelized Arabic texts in order to prepare them for Natural Language Processing (NLP) purposes is described. The developed approach is rule-based and made up of four phases: text tokenization, word light stemming, word's morphological analysis and text annotation. The first phase preprocesses the input text in order to isolate the words and represent them in a formal way. The second phase applies a light stemmer in order to extract the stem of each word by eliminating the prefixes and suffixes. The third phase is a rule-based morphological analyzer that determines the root and the morphological pattern for each extracted stem. The last phase produces an annotated text where each word is tagged with its morphological attributes. The preprocessor presented in this paper is capable of dealing with vowelized and unvowelized words, and provides the input words along with relevant linguistics information needed by different applications. It is designed to be used with different NLP applications such as machine translation text summarization, text correction, information retrieval and automatic vowelization of Arabic Text. (author)

  7. Populating the Semantic Web by Macro-reading Internet Text

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Tom M.; Betteridge, Justin; Carlson, Andrew; Hruschka, Estevam; Wang, Richard

    A key question regarding the future of the semantic web is "how will we acquire structured information to populate the semantic web on a vast scale?" One approach is to enter this information manually. A second approach is to take advantage of pre-existing databases, and to develop common ontologies, publishing standards, and reward systems to make this data widely accessible. We consider here a third approach: developing software that automatically extracts structured information from unstructured text present on the web. We also describe preliminary results demonstrating that machine learning algorithms can learn to extract tens of thousands of facts to populate a diverse ontology, with imperfect but reasonably good accuracy.

  8. Regional odontodysplasia: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Magalhães

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Regional odontodysplasia (RO is a rare developmental anomaly involving both mesodermal and ectodermal dental components in a group of contiguous teeth. It affects the primary and permanent dentitions in the maxilla and mandible or both jaws. Generally it is localized in only one arch. The etiology of this dental anomaly is uncertain. Clinically, affected teeth have an abnormal morphology, are soft on probing and typically discolored, yellow or yellowish-brown. Radiographically, the affected teeth show a "ghostlike" appearance. This paper reports the case of a 5-year-old girl presenting this rare anomaly on the left side of the maxillary arch, which crossed the midline. The primary maxillary left teeth (except for the canine and the primary maxillary right central incisor were missing due to previous extractions. The permanent teeth had a "ghostlike" appearance radiographically. The treatment performed was rehabilitation with temporary partial acrylic denture and periodic controls. In the future, the extraction of affected permanent teeth and rehabilitation with dental implants will be evaluated. The presentation of this case adds valuable information to pediatric dentists to review special clinical and radiographic features of RO, which will facilitate the diagnosis and treatment of patients with this condition.

  9. Economic Growth, Convergence and Innovation in the EU Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiiu Paas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on quantitative assessment of the innovation’s role in explaining regional disparities and convergence in Europe. The empirical part of the study bases on the regional GDP pc and innovation indicators on the EU-27 NUTS2 level regions. Based on the selected set of initial regional innovation indicators and using the principal components factor analysis method, three composite indicators of regional innovation capacity are extracted. Estimating convergence equations, we noticed that regional innovations tend to increase inter-regional differences, at least during the short-run period. Thus, if regional income convergence is a policy target, additional policy measures beside innovation activities should be effectively implemented.

  10. Text messaging in health care: a systematic review of impact studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Valerie A; Menachemi, Nir

    2011-01-01

    Studies suggest text messaging is beneficial to health care; however, no one has synthesized the overall evidence on texting interventions. In response to this need, we conducted a systematic review of the impacts of text messaging in health care. PubMed database searches and subsequent reference list reviews sought English-language, peer-reviewed studies involving text messaging in health care. Commentaries, conference proceedings, and feasibilities studies were excluded. Data was extracted using an article coding sheet and input into a database for analysis. Of the 61 papers reviewed, 50 articles (82%) found text messaging had a positive effect on the primary outcome. Average sample sizes in articles reporting positive findings (n=813) were significantly larger than those that did not find a positive impact (n=178) on outcomes (p = 0.032). Articles were categorized into focal groups as follows: 27 articles (44.3%) investigated the impact of texting on disease management, 24 articles (39.3%) focused texting's impact to public health related outcomes, and 10 articles (16.4%) examined texting and its influence on administrative processes. Articles in focal groups differed by the purpose of the study, direction of the communication, and where they were published, but not in likelihood of reporting a positive impact from texting. Current evidence indicates that text messaging health care interventions are largely beneficial clinically, in public health related uses, and in terms of administrative processes. However, despite the promise of these findings, literature gaps exist, especially in primary care settings, across geographic regions and with vulnerable populations.

  11. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Lau

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in the extraction of PAHs from soil such as temperature, type of solvent, soil moisture, and other soil characteristics are also discussed. The paper concludes with a review of the models used to describe the kinetics of PAH desorption from soils during solvent extraction.

  12. An Approach to Retrieval of OCR Degraded Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen-Hsien Tseng

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The major problem with retrieval of OCR text is the unpredictable distortion of characters due to recognition errors. Because users have no ideas of such distortion, the terms they query can hardly match the terms stored in the OCR text exactly. Thus retrieval effectiveness is significantly reduced , especially for low-quality input. To reduce the losses from retrieving such noisy OCR text, a fault-tolerant retrieval strategy based on automatic keyword extraction and fuzzy matching is proposed. In this strategy, terms, correct or not, and their term frequencies are extracted from the noisy text and presented for browsing and selection in response to users' initial queries , With theunderstanding of the real terms stored in the noisy text and of their estimated frequency distributions, users may then choose appropriate terms for a more effective searching, A text retrieval system based on this strategy has been built. Examples to show the effectiveness are demonstrated. Finally, some OCR issues for further enhancingretrieval effectiveness are discussed.

  13. Doing Mathematics with Purpose: Mathematical Text Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dostal, Hannah M.; Robinson, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Mathematical literacy includes learning to read and write different types of mathematical texts as part of purposeful mathematical meaning making. Thus in this article, we describe how learning to read and write mathematical texts (proof text, algorithmic text, algebraic/symbolic text, and visual text) supports the development of students'…

  14. The socio-demographics of texting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ling, Richard; Bertel, Troels Fibæk; Sundsøy, Pål

    2012-01-01

    Who texts, and with whom do they text? This article examines the use of texting using metered traffic data from a large dataset (nearly 400 million anonymous text messages). We ask 1) How much do different age groups use mobile phone based texting (SMS)? 2) How wide is the circle of texting...

  15. A comprehensive and quantitative comparison of text-mining in 15 million full-text articles versus their corresponding abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westergaard, David; Stærfeldt, Hans-Henrik; Tønsberg, Christian; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Brunak, Søren

    2018-02-01

    Across academia and industry, text mining has become a popular strategy for keeping up with the rapid growth of the scientific literature. Text mining of the scientific literature has mostly been carried out on collections of abstracts, due to their availability. Here we present an analysis of 15 million English scientific full-text articles published during the period 1823-2016. We describe the development in article length and publication sub-topics during these nearly 250 years. We showcase the potential of text mining by extracting published protein-protein, disease-gene, and protein subcellular associations using a named entity recognition system, and quantitatively report on their accuracy using gold standard benchmark data sets. We subsequently compare the findings to corresponding results obtained on 16.5 million abstracts included in MEDLINE and show that text mining of full-text articles consistently outperforms using abstracts only.

  16. A comprehensive and quantitative comparison of text-mining in 15 million full-text articles versus their corresponding abstracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westergaard, David; Stærfeldt, Hans-Henrik

    2018-01-01

    Across academia and industry, text mining has become a popular strategy for keeping up with the rapid growth of the scientific literature. Text mining of the scientific literature has mostly been carried out on collections of abstracts, due to their availability. Here we present an analysis of 15 million English scientific full-text articles published during the period 1823–2016. We describe the development in article length and publication sub-topics during these nearly 250 years. We showcase the potential of text mining by extracting published protein–protein, disease–gene, and protein subcellular associations using a named entity recognition system, and quantitatively report on their accuracy using gold standard benchmark data sets. We subsequently compare the findings to corresponding results obtained on 16.5 million abstracts included in MEDLINE and show that text mining of full-text articles consistently outperforms using abstracts only. PMID:29447159

  17. Region segmentation along image sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monchal, L.; Aubry, P.

    1995-01-01

    A method to extract regions in sequence of images is proposed. Regions are not matched from one image to the following one. The result of a region segmentation is used as an initialization to segment the following and image to track the region along the sequence. The image sequence is exploited as a spatio-temporal event. (authors). 12 refs., 8 figs

  18. Extraction and Quantitative HPLC Analysis of Coumarin in Hydroalcoholic Extracts of Mikania glomerata Spreng: ("guaco" Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celeghini Renata M. S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods for preparation of hydroalcoholic extracts of "guaco" (Mikania glomerata Spreng. leaves were compared: maceration, maceration under sonication, infusion and supercritical fluid extraction. Evaluation of these methods showed that maceration under sonication had the best results, when considering the ratio extraction yield/extraction time. A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC procedure for the determination of coumarin in these hydroalcoholic extracts of "guaco" leaves is described. The HPLC method is shown to be sensitive and reproducible.

  19. AUTOMATIC RAILWAY POWER LINE EXTRACTION USING MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on power line extraction technology using mobile laser point clouds has important practical significance on railway power lines patrol work. In this paper, we presents a new method for automatic extracting railway power line from MLS (Mobile Laser Scanning data. Firstly, according to the spatial structure characteristics of power-line and trajectory, the significant data is segmented piecewise. Then, use the self-adaptive space region growing method to extract power lines parallel with rails. Finally use PCA (Principal Components Analysis combine with information entropy theory method to judge a section of the power line whether is junction or not and which type of junction it belongs to. The least squares fitting algorithm is introduced to model the power line. An evaluation of the proposed method over a complicated railway point clouds acquired by a RIEGL VMX450 MLS system shows that the proposed method is promising.

  20. Event-based text mining for biology and functional genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Paul; Nawaz, Raheel; McNaught, John; Kell, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of genome function requires a mapping between genome-derived entities and biochemical reactions, and the biomedical literature represents a rich source of information about reactions between biological components. However, the increasingly rapid growth in the volume of literature provides both a challenge and an opportunity for researchers to isolate information about reactions of interest in a timely and efficient manner. In response, recent text mining research in the biology domain has been largely focused on the identification and extraction of ‘events’, i.e. categorised, structured representations of relationships between biochemical entities, from the literature. Functional genomics analyses necessarily encompass events as so defined. Automatic event extraction systems facilitate the development of sophisticated semantic search applications, allowing researchers to formulate structured queries over extracted events, so as to specify the exact types of reactions to be retrieved. This article provides an overview of recent research into event extraction. We cover annotated corpora on which systems are trained, systems that achieve state-of-the-art performance and details of the community shared tasks that have been instrumental in increasing the quality, coverage and scalability of recent systems. Finally, several concrete applications of event extraction are covered, together with emerging directions of research. PMID:24907365

  1. Text Analytics: the convergence of Big Data and Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Moreno

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the text content in emails, blogs, tweets, forums and other forms of textual communication constitutes what we call text analytics. Text analytics is applicable to most industries: it can help analyze millions of emails; you can analyze customers’ comments and questions in forums; you can perform sentiment analysis using text analytics by measuring positive or negative perceptions of a company, brand, or product. Text Analytics has also been called text mining, and is a subcategory of the Natural Language Processing (NLP field, which is one of the founding branches of Artificial Intelligence, back in the 1950s, when an interest in understanding text originally developed. Currently Text Analytics is often considered as the next step in Big Data analysis. Text Analytics has a number of subdivisions: Information Extraction, Named Entity Recognition, Semantic Web annotated domain’s representation, and many more. Several techniques are currently used and some of them have gained a lot of attention, such as Machine Learning, to show a semisupervised enhancement of systems, but they also present a number of limitations which make them not always the only or the best choice. We conclude with current and near future applications of Text Analytics.

  2. ANTHOCYANINS ALIPHATIC ALCOHOLS EXTRACTION FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Savvin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins red pigments that give color a wide range of fruits, berries and flowers. In the food industry it is widely known as a dye a food additive E163. To extract from natural vegetable raw materials traditionally used ethanol or acidified water, but in same technologies it’s unacceptable. In order to expand the use of anthocyanins as colorants and antioxidants were explored extracting pigments alcohols with different structures of the carbon skeleton, and the position and number of hydroxyl groups. For the isolation anthocyanins raw materials were extracted sequentially twice with t = 60 C for 1.5 hours. The evaluation was performed using extracts of classical spectrophotometric methods and modern express chromaticity. Color black currant extracts depends on the length of the carbon skeleton and position of the hydroxyl group, with the alcohols of normal structure have higher alcohols compared to the isomeric structure of the optical density and index of the red color component. This is due to the different ability to form hydrogen bonds when allocating anthocyanins and other intermolecular interactions. During storage blackcurrant extracts are significant structural changes recoverable pigments, which leads to a significant change in color. In this variation, the stronger the higher the length of the carbon skeleton and branched molecules extractant. Extraction polyols (ethyleneglycol, glycerol are less effective than the corresponding monohydric alcohols. However these extracts saved significantly higher because of their reducing ability at interacting with polyphenolic compounds.

  3. Effect of two different germplasm of Mucuna pruriens seed extracts against some fish pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marimuthu M

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the two different germplasm of Mucuna seeds were collected from agro geographical regions was evaluated for its antibacterial activities. Antibacterial activity of the seed extracts was studied against the fish pathogens of Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Vibrio cholera and Klebsiella pneumonia using agar well diffusion method. Results showed that methanol and ethanol extracts showed more potent antibacterial activity than other solvent extracts. The results were expressed as mean ± SD. The results obtained in the study shows that velvet bean black seed extract has more antibacterial activity against fish pathogens. The antibacterial activity of all the Mucuna seed extracts are comparable ad their potential as alternative in the treatment of infectious by these microorganisms was present in the fish. Susceptibility testing is conducted on isolates using drug selected on the basis of their importance to human medicine and use I fish production.

  4. [Systematic Readability Analysis of Medical Texts on Websites of German University Clinics for General and Abdominal Surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, B Janghorban; Faron, A; Roth, K S; Grimminger, P P; Luers, J C

    2016-12-01

    Background: Besides the function as one of the main contact points, websites of hospitals serve as medical information portals. As medical information texts should be understood by any patients independent of the literacy skills and educational level, online texts should have an appropriate structure to ease understandability. Materials and Methods: Patient information texts on websites of clinics for general surgery at German university hospitals (n = 36) were systematically analysed. For 9 different surgical topics representative medical information texts were extracted from each website. Using common readability tools and 5 different readability indices the texts were analysed concerning their readability and structure. The analysis was furthermore stratified in relation to geographical regions in Germany. Results: For the definite analysis the texts of 196 internet websites could be used. On average the texts consisted of 25 sentences and 368 words. The reading analysis tools congruously showed that all texts showed a rather low readability demanding a high literacy level from the readers. Conclusion: Patient information texts on German university hospital websites are difficult to understand for most patients. To fulfill the ambition of informing the general population in an adequate way about medical issues, a revision of most medical texts on websites of German surgical hospitals is recommended. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Extracting oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patart, G

    1926-03-15

    In the hydrogenation or extraction of by-products from organic substances at high temperatures and pressures, the gases or liquids, or both, used are those which are already heated and compressed during industrial operations such as exothermic synthesizing reactions such as the production of methanol from hydrogen and carbon monoxide in a catalytic process. Gases from this reaction may be passed upwardly through a digester packed with pine wood while liquid from the same catalytic process is passed downwardly through the material. The issuing liquid contains methanol, pine oil, acetone, isopropyl alcohol, and acetic acid. The gases contain additional hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, ethylene, and its homologs which are condensed upon the catalyser to liquid hydrocarbons. Petroleum oils and coal may be treated similarly.

  6. IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT ON THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF ARCHANGELSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Shelomentsev

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article includes the analysis of a role of process of extraction and processing of the natural resources, mastered in territory of region on socio-economic development of the Arkhangelsk region. Features of dynamics of density of kinds of natural resources on indicators and spheres of influence are revealed. Also in this paper prospect of development and an opportunity of increase of a role of environmental management in socio-economic development of the Arkhangelsk region are considered.

  7. Data mining of text as a tool in authorship attribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visa, Ari J. E.; Toivonen, Jarmo; Autio, Sami; Maekinen, Jarno; Back, Barbro; Vanharanta, Hannu

    2001-03-01

    It is common that text documents are characterized and classified by keywords that the authors use to give them. Visa et al. have developed a new methodology based on prototype matching. The prototype is an interesting document or a part of an extracted, interesting text. This prototype is matched with the document database of the monitored document flow. The new methodology is capable of extracting the meaning of the document in a certain degree. Our claim is that the new methodology is also capable of authenticating the authorship. To verify this claim two tests were designed. The test hypothesis was that the words and the word order in the sentences could authenticate the author. In the first test three authors were selected. The selected authors were William Shakespeare, Edgar Allan Poe, and George Bernard Shaw. Three texts from each author were examined. Every text was one by one used as a prototype. The two nearest matches with the prototype were noted. The second test uses the Reuters-21578 financial news database. A group of 25 short financial news reports from five different authors are examined. Our new methodology and the interesting results from the two tests are reported in this paper. In the first test, for Shakespeare and for Poe all cases were successful. For Shaw one text was confused with Poe. In the second test the Reuters-21578 financial news were identified by the author relatively well. The resolution is that our text mining methodology seems to be capable of authorship attribution.

  8. Inferring Group Processes from Computer-Mediated Affective Text Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schryver, Jack C [ORNL; Begoli, Edmon [ORNL; Jose, Ajith [Missouri University of Science and Technology; Griffin, Christopher [Pennsylvania State University

    2011-02-01

    Political communications in the form of unstructured text convey rich connotative meaning that can reveal underlying group social processes. Previous research has focused on sentiment analysis at the document level, but we extend this analysis to sub-document levels through a detailed analysis of affective relationships between entities extracted from a document. Instead of pure sentiment analysis, which is just positive or negative, we explore nuances of affective meaning in 22 affect categories. Our affect propagation algorithm automatically calculates and displays extracted affective relationships among entities in graphical form in our prototype (TEAMSTER), starting with seed lists of affect terms. Several useful metrics are defined to infer underlying group processes by aggregating affective relationships discovered in a text. Our approach has been validated with annotated documents from the MPQA corpus, achieving a performance gain of 74% over comparable random guessers.

  9. Text Detection and Pose Estimation for a Reading Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Bulacu, Marius; Ezaki, Nobuo; Schomaker, Lambert

    2008-01-01

    One very important advantage of using CoCos for text detection is that they naturally allow the analysis to take place across scales. In this approach, scale does not represent such a problematic issue because the CoCo extraction process is scale independent. CoCos give a prompt, but rather imperfect, hold to the structures present in the image and CoCo selection

  10. Macroalgae Extracts From Antarctica Have Antimicrobial and Anticancer Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiane M. Martins

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Macroalgae are sources of bioactive compounds due to the large number of secondary metabolites they synthesize. The Antarctica region is characterized by extreme weather conditions and abundant aggregations of macroalgae. However, current knowledge on their biodiversity and their potential for bio-prospecting is still fledging. This study evaluates the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of different extracts of four macroalgae (Cystosphaera jacquinotii, Iridaea cordata, Himantothallus grandifolius, and Pyropia endiviifolia from the Antarctic region against cancer and non-cancer cell lines.Methods: The antimicrobial activity of macroalgae was evaluated by the broth microdilution method. Extracts were assessed against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 19095, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 4083, Escherichia coli ATCC29214, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Candida albicans ATCC 62342, and the clinical isolates from the human oral cavity, namely, C. albicans (3, C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, C. lipolytica, and C. famata. Cytotoxicity against human epidermoid carcinoma (A-431 and mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3 cell lines was evaluated with MTT colorimetric assay.Results: An ethyl acetate extract of H. grandifolius showed noticeable antifungal activity against all fungal strains tested, including fluconazole-resistant samples. Cytotoxicity investigation with a cancer cell line revealed that the ethyl acetate extract of I. cordata was highly cytotoxic against A-431 cancer cell line, increasing the inhibitory ratio to 91.1 and 95.6% after 24 and 48 h exposure, respectively, for a concentration of 500 μg mL−1. Most of the algal extracts tested showed little or no cytotoxicity against fibroblasts.Conclusion: Data suggest that macroalgae extracts from Antarctica may represent a source of therapeutic agents.HIGHLIGHTSDifferent macroalgae samples from Antarctica were collected and the lyophilized biomass of each macroalgae was extracted

  11. A comprehensive and quantitative comparison of text-mining in 15 million full-text articles versus their corresponding abstracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westergaard, David; Stærfeldt, Hans Henrik; Tønsberg, Christian

    2018-01-01

    Across academia and industry, text mining has become a popular strategy for keeping up with the rapid growth of the scientific literature. Text mining of the scientific literature has mostly been carried out on collections of abstracts, due to their availability. Here we present an analysis of 15...... subcellular associations using a named entity recognition system, and quantitatively report on their accuracy using gold standard benchmark data sets. We subsequently compare the findings to corresponding results obtained on 16.5 million abstracts included in MEDLINE and show that text mining of full...... million English scientific full-text articles published during the period 1823-2016. We describe the development in article length and publication sub-topics during these nearly 250 years. We showcase the potential of text mining by extracting published protein-protein, disease-gene, and protein...

  12. Text Analysis: Critical Component of Planning for Text-Based Discussion Focused on Comprehension of Informational Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucan, Linda; Palincsar, Annemarie Sullivan

    2018-01-01

    This investigation focuses on a tool used in a reading methods course to introduce reading specialist candidates to text analysis as a critical component of planning for text-based discussions. Unlike planning that focuses mainly on important text content or information, a text analysis approach focuses both on content and how that content is…

  13. SIAM 2007 Text Mining Competition dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Subject Area: Text Mining Description: This is the dataset used for the SIAM 2007 Text Mining competition. This competition focused on developing text mining...

  14. Extractable Work from Correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martí Perarnau-Llobet

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Work and quantum correlations are two fundamental resources in thermodynamics and quantum information theory. In this work, we study how to use correlations among quantum systems to optimally store work. We analyze this question for isolated quantum ensembles, where the work can be naturally divided into two contributions: a local contribution from each system and a global contribution originating from correlations among systems. We focus on the latter and consider quantum systems that are locally thermal, thus from which any extractable work can only come from correlations. We compute the maximum extractable work for general entangled states, separable states, and states with fixed entropy. Our results show that while entanglement gives an advantage for small quantum ensembles, this gain vanishes for a large number of systems.

  15. Assessing semantic similarity of texts - Methods and algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozeva, Anna; Zerkova, Silvia

    2017-12-01

    Assessing the semantic similarity of texts is an important part of different text-related applications like educational systems, information retrieval, text summarization, etc. This task is performed by sophisticated analysis, which implements text-mining techniques. Text mining involves several pre-processing steps, which provide for obtaining structured representative model of the documents in a corpus by means of extracting and selecting the features, characterizing their content. Generally the model is vector-based and enables further analysis with knowledge discovery approaches. Algorithms and measures are used for assessing texts at syntactical and semantic level. An important text-mining method and similarity measure is latent semantic analysis (LSA). It provides for reducing the dimensionality of the document vector space and better capturing the text semantics. The mathematical background of LSA for deriving the meaning of the words in a given text by exploring their co-occurrence is examined. The algorithm for obtaining the vector representation of words and their corresponding latent concepts in a reduced multidimensional space as well as similarity calculation are presented.

  16. A new multidimensional model with text dimensions: definition and implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MariaJ. Martin-Bautista

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a new multidimensional model with textual dimensions based on a knowledge structure extracted from the texts, where any textual attribute in a database can be processed, and not only XML texts. This dimension allows to treat the textual data in the same way as the non-textual one in an automatic way, without user's intervention, so all the classical operations in the multidimensional model can been defined for this textual dimension. While most of the models dealing with texts that can be found in the literature are not implemented, in this proposal, the multidimensional model and the OLAP system have been implemented in a software tool, so it can be tested on real data. A case study with medical data is included in this work.

  17. Arabic Text Categorization Using Improved k-Nearest neighbour Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wail Hamood KHALED

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The quantity of text information published in Arabic language on the net requires the implementation of effective techniques for the extraction and classifying of relevant information contained in large corpus of texts. In this paper we presented an implementation of an enhanced k-NN Arabic text classifier. We apply the traditional k-NN and Naive Bayes from Weka Toolkit for comparison purpose. Our proposed modified k-NN algorithm features an improved decision rule to skip the classes that are less similar and identify the right class from k nearest neighbours which increases the accuracy. The study evaluates the improved decision rule technique using the standard of recall, precision and f-measure as the basis of comparison. We concluded that the effectiveness of the proposed classifier is promising and outperforms the classical k-NN classifier.

  18. Mining consumer health vocabulary from community-generated text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vydiswaran, V G Vinod; Mei, Qiaozhu; Hanauer, David A; Zheng, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Community-generated text corpora can be a valuable resource to extract consumer health vocabulary (CHV) and link them to professional terminologies and alternative variants. In this research, we propose a pattern-based text-mining approach to identify pairs of CHV and professional terms from Wikipedia, a large text corpus created and maintained by the community. A novel measure, leveraging the ratio of frequency of occurrence, was used to differentiate consumer terms from professional terms. We empirically evaluated the applicability of this approach using a large data sample consisting of MedLine abstracts and all posts from an online health forum, MedHelp. The results show that the proposed approach is able to identify synonymous pairs and label the terms as either consumer or professional term with high accuracy. We conclude that the proposed approach provides great potential to produce a high quality CHV to improve the performance of computational applications in processing consumer-generated health text.

  19. Examining Text Complexity in the Early Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Koons, Heather H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2016-01-01

    The Common Core raises the stature of texts to new heights, creating a hubbub. The fuss is especially messy at the early grades, where children are expected to read more complex texts than in the past. But early-grades teachers have been given little actionable guidance about text complexity. The authors recently examined early-grades texts to…

  20. SAW Classification Algorithm for Chinese Text Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoli Guo; Huiyu Sun; Tiehua Zhou; Ling Wang; Zhaoyang Qu; Jiannan Zang

    2015-01-01

    Considering the explosive growth of data, the increased amount of text data’s effect on the performance of text categorization forward the need for higher requirements, such that the existing classification method cannot be satisfied. Based on the study of existing text classification technology and semantics, this paper puts forward a kind of Chinese text classification oriented SAW (Structural Auxiliary Word) algorithm. The algorithm uses the special space effect of Chinese text where words...

  1. Slow extraction from the IHEP accelerator by internal target scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimov, A.V.

    1994-01-01

    The existing slow extraction system is not able to satisfy the required quality of the beam time structure in the intensity region 10 10 - 10 11 ppp. Calculations on simulation of slow extraction by internal target scattering are presented. Two regime of slow extraction are analysed: nonresonant and resonant extraction by target scattering. Resonant extraction by target scattering is able to ensure intensity of extracted beam up to 10 11 . The agreement between calculations and experimental data is good enough. The calculation of extraction possibility by thin W-target scattering are also presented. In this case the extraction efficiency is about 85%. 15 refs., 6 figs

  2. Caracterização da saúde de trabalhadores florestais envolvidos na extração de madeira em regiões montanhosas Characterization of the health of workers involved in the extraction of wood in mountainous regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Pio da Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo caracterizar a saúde dos trabalhadores florestais envolvidos na atividade de extração de madeira em regiões montanhosas. A pesquisa foi realizada em uma empresa florestal localizada no Distrito Florestal do Vale do Rio Doce, sendo estudados 100% dos trabalhadores. Para caracterização da saúde destes, foi utilizado um questionário estruturado em forma de entrevista, baseado na Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (PNAD. Os resultados evidenciaram que as atividades de extração florestal têm causado impactos negativos sobre a saúde dos trabalhadores, visto que 66% deles disseram sentir dor em alguma parte do corpo, 79% afirmaram ter algum problema dentário, 86% relataram ficar expostos a fatores que prejudicavam sua saúde, 20% apresentaram algum distúrbio do sono, 9% não tinham acesso a saneamento básico e 29% já havia sofrido acidentes de trabalho. Ao término deste estudo, conclui-se que os trabalhadores florestais da extração de madeira estão expostos a situações de vida e trabalho que não contribuem para a promoção e manutenção da saúde desse pessoal.This study aimed to characterize the health of workers involved in the forest for the extraction of wood in the mountainous regions. The study was conducted in a forestry company, located in the Forestry District of Vale do Rio Doce, where 100% of the workers participated in the analysis. To characterize the health of the workers, a structured questionnaire in the form of interview was used, based on the PNAD (National Survey by Household Sample. The results showed that the activities of forest extraction have caused negative impacts on the health of workers, since 66% of workers declared to feel pain in some part of the body, 79% reported to have some dental problem, 86% said that they are exposed to factors that damage their health, 20% reported to present some disturbances of sleep, 9% did not have access to sanitation and 29

  3. Biomedical text mining and its applications in cancer research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fei; Patumcharoenpol, Preecha; Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Yang; Chan, Jonathan; Meechai, Asawin; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Shen, Bairong

    2013-04-01

    Cancer is a malignant disease that has caused millions of human deaths. Its study has a long history of well over 100years. There have been an enormous number of publications on cancer research. This integrated but unstructured biomedical text is of great value for cancer diagnostics, treatment, and prevention. The immense body and rapid growth of biomedical text on cancer has led to the appearance of a large number of text mining techniques aimed at extracting novel knowledge from scientific text. Biomedical text mining on cancer research is computationally automatic and high-throughput in nature. However, it is error-prone due to the complexity of natural language processing. In this review, we introduce the basic concepts underlying text mining and examine some frequently used algorithms, tools, and data sets, as well as assessing how much these algorithms have been utilized. We then discuss the current state-of-the-art text mining applications in cancer research and we also provide some resources for cancer text mining. With the development of systems biology, researchers tend to understand complex biomedical systems from a systems biology viewpoint. Thus, the full utilization of text mining to facilitate cancer systems biology research is fast becoming a major concern. To address this issue, we describe the general workflow of text mining in cancer systems biology and each phase of the workflow. We hope that this review can (i) provide a useful overview of the current work of this field; (ii) help researchers to choose text mining tools and datasets; and (iii) highlight how to apply text mining to assist cancer systems biology research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Building a glaucoma interaction network using a text mining approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Maha; Nasraoui, Olfa; Cooper, Nigel G F

    2016-01-01

    The volume of biomedical literature and its underlying knowledge base is rapidly expanding, making it beyond the ability of a single human being to read through all the literature. Several automated methods have been developed to help make sense of this dilemma. The present study reports on the results of a text mining approach to extract gene interactions from the data warehouse of published experimental results which are then used to benchmark an interaction network associated with glaucoma. To the best of our knowledge, there is, as yet, no glaucoma interaction network derived solely from text mining approaches. The presence of such a network could provide a useful summative knowledge base to complement other forms of clinical information related to this disease. A glaucoma corpus was constructed from PubMed Central and a text mining approach was applied to extract genes and their relations from this corpus. The extracted relations between genes were checked using reference interaction databases and classified generally as known or new relations. The extracted genes and relations were then used to construct a glaucoma interaction network. Analysis of the resulting network indicated that it bears the characteristics of a small world interaction network. Our analysis showed the presence of seven glaucoma linked genes that defined the network modularity. A web-based system for browsing and visualizing the extracted glaucoma related interaction networks is made available at http://neurogene.spd.louisville.edu/GlaucomaINViewer/Form1.aspx. This study has reported the first version of a glaucoma interaction network using a text mining approach. The power of such an approach is in its ability to cover a wide range of glaucoma related studies published over many years. Hence, a bigger picture of the disease can be established. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first glaucoma interaction network to summarize the known literature. The major findings were a set of

  5. CANINE ECTOPIC TREATMENT WITH FIRST MOLAR EXTRACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Margo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision to extract or not and the type of tooth must be analyzed carefully in orthodontic treatment. Preferable tooth to be extracted was the tooth with large caries or restoration. Usually the type of tooth to be extracted was second molar (if the third molar appears, incisor, first molar, and combination of several teeth. Orthodontic treatment with molar extraction is more difficult to treat and the result is usually compromise. There are several considerations in extracting first molar such as tooth with large caries or restoration, hypoplasia, periapical disease, large discrepancy, high maxilla-mandibular plane angle, and cases with anterior open bite. Nowadays, orthodontic cases with molar extraction do not prolong the treatment time compared to premolar extraction case, but the anchorage system must be considered carefully. The present case was treated with extraction of first molar to solve anterior crowding with maximum anchorage at the upper jaw and using Nance Holding Appliance.

  6. Partition of Ni between olivine and sulfide: the effect of temperature, f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } and f_{{text{S}}_{text{2}} }

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleet, M. E.; Macrae, N. D.

    1987-03-01

    The experimental distribution coefficient for Ni/ Fe exchange between olivine and monosulfide (KD3) is 35.6±1.1 at 1385° C, f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } = 10^{ - 8.87} ,f_{{text{S}}_{text{2}} } = 10^{ - 1.02} , and olivine of composition Fo96 to Fo92. These are the physicochemical conditions appropriate to hypothesized sulfur-saturated komatiite magma. The present experiments equilibrated natural olivine grains with sulfide-oxide liquid in the presence of a (Mg, Fe)-alumino-silicate melt. By a variety of different experimental procedures, K D3 is shown to be essentially constant at about 30 to 35 in the temperature range 900 to 1400° C, for olivine of composition Fo97 to FoO, monosulfide composition with up to 70 mol. % NiS, and a wide range of f_{{text{O}}_{text{2}} } and f_{{text{S}}_{text{2}} }.

  7. Arabic text classification using Polynomial Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayy M. Al-Tahrawi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an Arabic statistical learning-based text classification system has been developed using Polynomial Neural Networks. Polynomial Networks have been recently applied to English text classification, but they were never used for Arabic text classification. In this research, we investigate the performance of Polynomial Networks in classifying Arabic texts. Experiments are conducted on a widely used Arabic dataset in text classification: Al-Jazeera News dataset. We chose this dataset to enable direct comparisons of the performance of Polynomial Networks classifier versus other well-known classifiers on this dataset in the literature of Arabic text classification. Results of experiments show that Polynomial Networks classifier is a competitive algorithm to the state-of-the-art ones in the field of Arabic text classification.

  8. STUDY OF MACROMOLECULAR CONSTITUENTS, VOLATILE EXTRACTIVES AND PHENOLICS FROM CANDEIA WOOD - Moquinia polymorpha (LESS. DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Regina de Lima

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the main chemical components of Moquinia polymorpha (LESS. DC. (candeia or cambará wood were investigated. This wood is native in the Southern region of Minas Gerais - Brazil.  The chemical composition was:  47.5% of α-cellulose, 25.4% of A and B hemicelluloses, 24.0% of lignin, 73.2% of holocellulose, 3.82% of ethanol:cyclohexane  (1:1, v v-1 extractives, 3.21% of ethanol extractives and 4.04%  of hot water extractives.  The volatile composition was mainly: α-curcumene, α-dihydroturmerone, β-dihydroturmerone, cedranol, 1-cyclopentyl-3-[2,4-dimethylphenyl]propane. The total phenols analysis was carried out on methanol:water (MW and acetone:water (AW extracts. The last one presented better yield. The total phenols were determined by Folin-Ciocalteau and the modified Prussian blue assays.  Folin-Ciocalteau yielded 0.93 mg g-1 of wood for MW extract and 1.56 for AW extract; modified Prussian blue yielded 2.74 mg g-1 of wood for MW extract and 4.42 for AW extract. Proanthocyanidins were determined by n-buthanol-acid and vanillin assays. The n-buthanol acid yielded 0.012 mg g-1 of wood for MW extract and 0.017 for AW extract; vanillin: 0.29 mg g-1 of wood for MW extract and 0.58 for AW extract. 3-deoxy-proanthocyanidins were not detected.

  9. Multimodal Diversity of Postmodernist Fiction Text

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. I. Tykha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of structural and functional manifestations of multimodal diversity in postmodernist fiction texts. Multimodality is defined as the coexistence of more than one semiotic mode within a certain context. Multimodal texts feature a diversity of semiotic modes in the communication and development of their narrative. Such experimental texts subvert conventional patterns by introducing various semiotic resources – verbal or non-verbal.

  10. A Probabilistic Approach for Breast Boundary Extraction in Mammograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Habibi Aghdam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of the breast boundary is crucial to perform further analysis of mammogram. Methods to extract the breast boundary can be classified into two categories: methods based on image processing techniques and those based on models. The former use image transformation techniques such as thresholding, morphological operations, and region growing. In the second category, the boundary is extracted using more advanced techniques, such as the active contour model. The problem with thresholding methods is that it is a hard to automatically find the optimal threshold value by using histogram information. On the other hand, active contour models require defining a starting point close to the actual boundary to be able to successfully extract the boundary. In this paper, we propose a probabilistic approach to address the aforementioned problems. In our approach we use local binary patterns to describe the texture around each pixel. In addition, the smoothness of the boundary is handled by using a new probability model. Experimental results show that the proposed method reaches 38% and 50% improvement with respect to the results obtained by the active contour model and threshold-based methods respectively, and it increases the stability of the boundary extraction process up to 86%.

  11. Automatic theory generation from analyst text files using coherence networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Steven C.

    2014-05-01

    This paper describes a three-phase process of extracting knowledge from analyst textual reports. Phase 1 involves performing natural language processing on the source text to extract subject-predicate-object triples. In phase 2, these triples are then fed into a coherence network analysis process, using a genetic algorithm optimization. Finally, the highest-value sub networks are processed into a semantic network graph for display. Initial work on a well- known data set (a Wikipedia article on Abraham Lincoln) has shown excellent results without any specific tuning. Next, we ran the process on the SYNthetic Counter-INsurgency (SYNCOIN) data set, developed at Penn State, yielding interesting and potentially useful results.

  12. Youth Texting: Help or Hindrance to Literacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebroff, Dmitri

    2018-01-01

    An extensive amount of research has been performed in recent years into the widespread practice of text messaging in youth. As part of this broad area of research, the associations between youth texting and literacy have been investigated in a variety of contexts. A comprehensive, semi-systematic review of the literature into texting and literacy…

  13. Choices of texts for literary education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skyggebjerg, Anna Karlskov

    This paper charts the general implications of the choice of texts for literature teaching in the Danish school system, especially in Grades 8 and 9. It will analyze and discuss the premises of the choice of texts, and the possibilities of a certain choice of text in a concrete classroom situation...

  14. Effects of Text Messaging on Academic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Barks Amanda; Searight H. Russell; Ratwik Susan

    2011-01-01

    University students frequently send and receive cellular phone text messages during classroominstruction. Cognitive psychology research indicates that multi-tasking is frequently associatedwith performance cost. However, university students often have considerable experience withelectronic multi-tasking and may believe that they can devote necessary attention to a classroomlecture while sending and receiving text messages. In the current study, university students whoused text messaging were ...

  15. Text-Picture Relations in Cooking Instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Leito, Shadira; Redeker, Gisela; Bunt, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Like many other instructions, recipes on packages with ready-to-use ingredients for a dish combine a series of pictures with short text paragraphs. The information presentation in such multimodal instructions can be compact (either text or picture) and/or cohesive (text and picture). In an

  16. Academic Journal Embargoes and Full Text Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Sam

    2003-01-01

    Documents the reasons for embargoes of academic journals in full text databases (i.e., publisher-imposed delays on the availability of full text content) and provides insight regarding common misconceptions. Tables present data on selected journals covering a cross-section of subjects and publishers and comparing two full text business databases.…

  17. A quick survey of text categorization algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan MUNTEANU

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains an overview of basic formulations and approaches to text classification. This paper surveys the algorithms used in text categorization: handcrafted rules, decision trees, decision rules, on-line learning, linear classifier, Rocchio’s algorithm, k Nearest Neighbor (kNN, Support Vector Machines (SVM.

  18. Inclusion in the Workplace - Text Version | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Careers » Inclusion in the Workplace - Text Version Inclusion in the Workplace - Text Version This is the text version for the Inclusion: Leading by Example video. I'm Martin Keller. I'm the NREL of the laboratory. Another very important element in inclusion is diversity. Because if we have a

  19. Effects of Text Messaging on Academic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barks Amanda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available University students frequently send and receive cellular phone text messages during classroominstruction. Cognitive psychology research indicates that multi-tasking is frequently associatedwith performance cost. However, university students often have considerable experience withelectronic multi-tasking and may believe that they can devote necessary attention to a classroomlecture while sending and receiving text messages. In the current study, university students whoused text messaging were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: 1. a group that sent andreceived text messages during a lecture or, 2. a group that did not engage in text messagingduring the lecture. Participants who engaged in text messaging demonstrated significantlypoorer performance on a test covering lecture content compared with the group that did notsend and receive text messages. Participants exhibiting higher levels of text messaging skill hadsignificantly lower test scores than participants who were less proficient at text messaging. It ishypothesized that in terms of retention of lecture material, more frequent task shifting by thosewith greater text messaging proficiency contributed to poorer performance. Overall, the findingsdo not support the view, held by many university students, that this form of multitasking has littleeffect on the acquisition of lecture content. Results provide empirical support for teachers andprofessors who ban text messaging in the classroom.

  20. The artists' text as work of art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, I.A.M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Artists’ texts are texts written and produced by visual artists. Their number increasing since the 2000s, it becomes important to clarify their obscure relationship to art institutions. Analysing and comparing four different artists’ texts on a textual level, this research proposes an alternative to

  1. Regional Business Cycles in East Asia: Synchronization and its Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joon Park

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the dynamics and nature of regional business cycle synchronization for East Asian countries in the period of 2000:Q1-2011:Q4. Estimating a dynamic two-factor model extracts the common factor and the nation- specific factor from both the macroeconomic aggregates and plausible driving forces of regional business cycles. Evidence for regional business cycle synchronization is particularly strong for Korea, Malaysia and the Philippines, while Japan shows weak evidence of regional synchronization. On the other hand, Indonesia, Thailand, Singapore and China are decoupling from regional business cycles. The driver of monetary aggregate is the most significant determinant of regional fluctuations of macroeconomic aggregates, whereas oil price and productivity are on average important driving forces of nation-specific fluctuations of real economic activities.

  2. Data-driven haemodynamic response function extraction using Fourier-wavelet regularised deconvolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roerdink Jos BTM

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present a simple, data-driven method to extract haemodynamic response functions (HRF from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI time series, based on the Fourier-wavelet regularised deconvolution (ForWaRD technique. HRF data are required for many fMRI applications, such as defining region-specific HRFs, effciently representing a general HRF, or comparing subject-specific HRFs. Results ForWaRD is applied to fMRI time signals, after removing low-frequency trends by a wavelet-based method, and the output of ForWaRD is a time series of volumes, containing the HRF in each voxel. Compared to more complex methods, this extraction algorithm requires few assumptions (separability of signal and noise in the frequency and wavelet domains and the general linear model and it is fast (HRF extraction from a single fMRI data set takes about the same time as spatial resampling. The extraction method is tested on simulated event-related activation signals, contaminated with noise from a time series of real MRI images. An application for HRF data is demonstrated in a simple event-related experiment: data are extracted from a region with significant effects of interest in a first time series. A continuous-time HRF is obtained by fitting a nonlinear function to the discrete HRF coeffcients, and is then used to analyse a later time series. Conclusion With the parameters used in this paper, the extraction method presented here is very robust to changes in signal properties. Comparison of analyses with fitted HRFs and with a canonical HRF shows that a subject-specific, regional HRF significantly improves detection power. Sensitivity and specificity increase not only in the region from which the HRFs are extracted, but also in other regions of interest.

  3. Internal Mammary Arterial Injury from Lead Extraction: A Clinically Subtle yet Important Complication of Implantable Device Removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous implantable device extraction has increased in recent years and is associated with small but significant risk. Arteriovenous fistula formation is an uncommon complication of this procedure. We report two cases where lead extraction was complicated by an arteriovenous fistula between the left internal mammary artery and the left brachiocephalic vein. In both cases, the patients were asymptomatic and the presence of a continuous murmur in the left subclavicular region led to the appropriate diagnosis. These were successfully treated with coil embolization. Auscultation around prior extraction sites should be routinely done to aid in the diagnosis of this potentially harmful complication.

  4. Text mining improves prediction of protein functional sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin M Verspoor

    Full Text Available We present an approach that integrates protein structure analysis and text mining for protein functional site prediction, called LEAP-FS (Literature Enhanced Automated Prediction of Functional Sites. The structure analysis was carried out using Dynamics Perturbation Analysis (DPA, which predicts functional sites at control points where interactions greatly perturb protein vibrations. The text mining extracts mentions of residues in the literature, and predicts that residues mentioned are functionally important. We assessed the significance of each of these methods by analyzing their performance in finding known functional sites (specifically, small-molecule binding sites and catalytic sites in about 100,000 publicly available protein structures. The DPA predictions recapitulated many of the functional site annotations and preferentially recovered binding sites annotated as biologically relevant vs. those annotated as potentially spurious. The text-based predictions were also substantially supported by the functional site annotations: compared to other residues, residues mentioned in text were roughly six times more likely to be found in a functional site. The overlap of predictions with annotations improved when the text-based and structure-based methods agreed. Our analysis also yielded new high-quality predictions of many functional site residues that were not catalogued in the curated data sources we inspected. We conclude that both DPA and text mining independently provide valuable high-throughput protein functional site predictions, and that integrating the two methods using LEAP-FS further improves the quality of these predictions.

  5. Information Gain Based Dimensionality Selection for Classifying Text Documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dumidu Wijayasekara; Milos Manic; Miles McQueen

    2013-06-01

    Selecting the optimal dimensions for various knowledge extraction applications is an essential component of data mining. Dimensionality selection techniques are utilized in classification applications to increase the classification accuracy and reduce the computational complexity. In text classification, where the dimensionality of the dataset is extremely high, dimensionality selection is even more important. This paper presents a novel, genetic algorithm based methodology, for dimensionality selection in text mining applications that utilizes information gain. The presented methodology uses information gain of each dimension to change the mutation probability of chromosomes dynamically. Since the information gain is calculated a priori, the computational complexity is not affected. The presented method was tested on a specific text classification problem and compared with conventional genetic algorithm based dimensionality selection. The results show an improvement of 3% in the true positives and 1.6% in the true negatives over conventional dimensionality selection methods.

  6. Extraction and characterization of galactomannan extracted from Prosopis juliflora seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Delane da C.; Cunha, Arcelina P.; Oliveira, Williara Q. de; Gallao, Maria Izabel; Azeredo, Henriette M. C de

    2015-01-01

    Different seeds are rich in polysaccharides, which are widely used in research and in industry. The objective was to extract galactomannan from mesquite seeds (Prosopis juliflora) and evaluate their chemical properties for future application in edible films. To test the feasibility of using the polysaccharide, the yield was obtained and the material analyzed by Thermal Analysis (TGA-Thermogravimetric Analysis and Calorimetry Differential Scanning-DSC), Spectroscopy Infrared Region Fourier Transform (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). According to the results, the galactomannan was equivalent with the polysaccharides extracted from other sources except for the low yield (6.6%). (author)

  7. An Embedded Application for Degraded Text Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thillou Céline

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a mobile device which tries to give the blind or visually impaired access to text information. Three key technologies are required for this system: text detection, optical character recognition, and speech synthesis. Blind users and the mobile environment imply two strong constraints. First, pictures will be taken without control on camera settings and a priori information on text (font or size and background. The second issue is to link several techniques together with an optimal compromise between computational constraints and recognition efficiency. We will present the overall description of the system from text detection to OCR error correction.

  8. The Instructional Text like a Textual Genre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiane Fogali Marinello

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the instructional text as a textual genre and is part of the research called Reading and text production from the textual genre perspective, done at Universidade de Caxias do Sul, Campus Universitário da Região dos Vinhedos. Firstly, some theoretical assumptions about textual genre are presented, then, the instructional text is characterized. After that an instructional text is analyzed and, finally, some activities related to reading and writing of the mentioned genre directed to High School and University students are suggested.

  9. Combining Natural Language Processing and Statistical Text Mining: A Study of Specialized versus Common Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarman, Jay

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on developing and evaluating hybrid approaches for analyzing free-form text in the medical domain. This research draws on natural language processing (NLP) techniques that are used to parse and extract concepts based on a controlled vocabulary. Once important concepts are extracted, additional machine learning algorithms,…

  10. Text segmentation in degraded historical document images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Kavitha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Text segmentation from degraded Historical Indus script images helps Optical Character Recognizer (OCR to achieve good recognition rates for Hindus scripts; however, it is challenging due to complex background in such images. In this paper, we present a new method for segmenting text and non-text in Indus documents based on the fact that text components are less cursive compared to non-text ones. To achieve this, we propose a new combination of Sobel and Laplacian for enhancing degraded low contrast pixels. Then the proposed method generates skeletons for text components in enhanced images to reduce computational burdens, which in turn helps in studying component structures efficiently. We propose to study the cursiveness of components based on branch information to remove false text components. The proposed method introduces the nearest neighbor criterion for grouping components in the same line, which results in clusters. Furthermore, the proposed method classifies these clusters into text and non-text cluster based on characteristics of text components. We evaluate the proposed method on a large dataset containing varieties of images. The results are compared with the existing methods to show that the proposed method is effective in terms of recall and precision.

  11. Text mining with R a tidy approach

    CERN Document Server

    Silge, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Much of the data available today is unstructured and text-heavy, making it challenging for analysts to apply their usual data wrangling and visualization tools. With this practical book, you'll explore text-mining techniques with tidytext, a package that authors Julia Silge and David Robinson developed using the tidy principles behind R packages like ggraph and dplyr. You'll learn how tidytext and other tidy tools in R can make text analysis easier and more effective. The authors demonstrate how treating text as data frames enables you to manipulate, summarize, and visualize characteristics of text. You'll also learn how to integrate natural language processing (NLP) into effective workflows. Practical code examples and data explorations will help you generate real insights from literature, news, and social media. Learn how to apply the tidy text format to NLP Use sentiment analysis to mine the emotional content of text Identify a document's most important terms with frequency measurements E...

  12. The nuclear modification of charged particles in Pb-Pb at $\\sqrt{\\text{s}_\\text{NN}} = \\text{5.02}\\,\\text{TeV}$ measured with ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Gronefeld, Julius

    2016-09-21

    The study of inclusive charged-particle production in heavy-ion collisions provides insights into the density of the medium and the energy-loss mechanisms. The observed suppression of high-$\\textit{p}_\\text{T}$ yield is generally attributed to energy loss of partons as they propagate through a deconfined state of quarks and gluons - Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) - predicted by QCD. Such measurements allow the characterization of the QGP by comparison with models. In these proceedings, results on high-$\\textit{p}_\\text{T}$ particle production measured by ALICE in Pb-Pb collisions at $ \\sqrt{\\text{s}_\\text{NN}}\\, = 5.02\\ \\rm{TeV}$ as well as well in pp at $\\sqrt{\\text{s}}\\,=5.02\\ \\rm{TeV}$ are presented for the first time. The nuclear modification factors ($\\text{R}_\\text{AA}$) in Pb-Pb collisions are presented and compared with model calculations.

  13. Text Mining of Journal Articles for Sleep Disorder Terminologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin Lam

    Full Text Available Research on publication trends in journal articles on sleep disorders (SDs and the associated methodologies by using text mining has been limited. The present study involved text mining for terms to determine the publication trends in sleep-related journal articles published during 2000-2013 and to identify associations between SD and methodology terms as well as conducting statistical analyses of the text mining findings.SD and methodology terms were extracted from 3,720 sleep-related journal articles in the PubMed database by using MetaMap. The extracted data set was analyzed using hierarchical cluster analyses and adjusted logistic regression models to investigate publication trends and associations between SD and methodology terms.MetaMap had a text mining precision, recall, and false positive rate of 0.70, 0.77, and 11.51%, respectively. The most common SD term was breathing-related sleep disorder, whereas narcolepsy was the least common. Cluster analyses showed similar methodology clusters for each SD term, except narcolepsy. The logistic regression models showed an increasing prevalence of insomnia, parasomnia, and other sleep disorders but a decreasing prevalence of breathing-related sleep disorder during 2000-2013. Different SD terms were positively associated with different methodology terms regarding research design terms, measure terms, and analysis terms.Insomnia-, parasomnia-, and other sleep disorder-related articles showed an increasing publication trend, whereas those related to breathing-related sleep disorder showed a decreasing trend. Furthermore, experimental studies more commonly focused on hypersomnia and other SDs and less commonly on insomnia, breathing-related sleep disorder, narcolepsy, and parasomnia. Thus, text mining may facilitate the exploration of the publication trends in SDs and the associated methodologies.

  14. Ion Channel ElectroPhysiology Ontology (ICEPO) - a case study of text mining assisted ontology development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elayavilli, Ravikumar Komandur; Liu, Hongfang

    2016-01-01

    Computational modeling of biological cascades is of great interest to quantitative biologists. Biomedical text has been a rich source for quantitative information. Gathering quantitative parameters and values from biomedical text is one significant challenge in the early steps of computational modeling as it involves huge manual effort. While automatically extracting such quantitative information from bio-medical text may offer some relief, lack of ontological representation for a subdomain serves as impedance in normalizing textual extractions to a standard representation. This may render textual extractions less meaningful to the domain experts. In this work, we propose a rule-based approach to automatically extract relations involving quantitative data from biomedical text describing ion channel electrophysiology. We further translated the quantitative assertions extracted through text mining to a formal representation that may help in constructing ontology for ion channel events using a rule based approach. We have developed Ion Channel ElectroPhysiology Ontology (ICEPO) by integrating the information represented in closely related ontologies such as, Cell Physiology Ontology (CPO), and Cardiac Electro Physiology Ontology (CPEO) and the knowledge provided by domain experts. The rule-based system achieved an overall F-measure of 68.93% in extracting the quantitative data assertions system on an independently annotated blind data set. We further made an initial attempt in formalizing the quantitative data assertions extracted from the biomedical text into a formal representation that offers potential to facilitate the integration of text mining into ontological workflow, a novel aspect of this study. This work is a case study where we created a platform that provides formal interaction between ontology development and text mining. We have achieved partial success in extracting quantitative assertions from the biomedical text and formalizing them in ontological

  15. Collection of regulatory texts related to radiation protection (collection of legal and regulatory measures related to radiation protection). Part 1: laws and decrees (Extracts of the Public Health Code and of the Labour Code dealing with the protection of population, patients and workers against the hazards of ionizing radiations); Part 2: orders, decisions, non codified decrees (Orders and decisions taken in application of the Public Health Code and of the Labour Code dealing with the protection of population, patients and workers against the hazards of ionizing radiations)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivas, R.; Saad, N.; Niel, X.; Cottin, V.; Lachaume, J.L.; Feries, J.

    2011-01-01

    The first part contains legal and regulatory texts extracted from the Public Health Code and related to health general protection and to health products (medical devices), from the Social Security Code, and from the Labour Code related to individual work relationships, to health and safety at work, to work places, to work equipment and means of protection, to the prevention of some exposure risks and of risks related to some activities. The second part gathers texts extracted from the Public Health Code and related to ionizing radiations (general measures for the protection of the population, exposure to natural radiations, general regime of authorizations and declarations, purchase, retailing, importation, exportation, transfer and elimination of radioactive sources, protection of persons exposed to ionizing radiations for medical or forensics purposes, situations of radiological emergency and of sustained exposure to ionizing radiations, control), to the safety of waters and food products, and to the control of medical devices, to the protection of patients. It also contains extracts for the Labour Code related to workers protection

  16. Anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of Rosa damascena hydro-alcoholic extract on rat hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Homayoun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Previously, analgesic, hypnotic, and anticonvulsant effects have been suggested for Rosa damascena (R. damascena. In the present study, possible anti-seizure and neuro-protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena has been investigated after inducing seizures in rats by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided to five groups: (1 Control: received saline, (2 PTZ: 100 mg/kg, i.p., (3 PTZ-Extract 50 mg/kg(PTZ-Ext 50, (4 PTZ- Extract 100 mg/kg(PTZ-Ext 100, and (5 PTZ- Extract 200 mg/kg(PTZ-Ext 200 groups which were treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg respectively of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena for one week before PTZ injection. The animals were examined for electrocorticography (ECoG recording and finally, the brains were removed for histological study. Results: The hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena significantly prolonged the latency of seizure attacks and reduced the frequency and amplitude of epileptiform burst discharges induced by PTZ injection. Moreover, all three doses of the extract significantly inhibited production of dark neurons in different regions of the hippocampus in the mentioned animal model. Conclusion: The present study showed that the hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena has anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects. More investigations are needed to be done in order to better understand the responsible compound(s as well as the possible mechanism(s.

  17. A Method of Road Extraction from High-resolution Remote Sensing Images Based on Shape Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEI Xiaoqi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Road extraction from high-resolution remote sensing image is an important and difficult task.Since remote sensing images include complicated information,the methods that extract roads by spectral,texture and linear features have certain limitations.Also,many methods need human-intervention to get the road seeds(semi-automatic extraction,which have the great human-dependence and low efficiency.The road-extraction method,which uses the image segmentation based on principle of local gray consistency and integration shape features,is proposed in this paper.Firstly,the image is segmented,and then the linear and curve roads are obtained by using several object shape features,so the method that just only extract linear roads are rectified.Secondly,the step of road extraction is carried out based on the region growth,the road seeds are automatic selected and the road network is extracted.Finally,the extracted roads are regulated by combining the edge information.In experiments,the images that including the better gray uniform of road and the worse illuminated of road surface were chosen,and the results prove that the method of this study is promising.

  18. Phytochemical investigation and antimicrobial activity of leaves extract of Vernonia auriculifera Hiern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bekele Albejo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: The genus Vernonia is one of the largest groups in the family Compositae constituting more than 500 species distributed widely in tropical and sub-tropical regions of Africa, Asia, and America. Traditionally the genus is used for the treatment of schistosomiasis, amoebic dysentery, gastrointestinal problems, malaria, venereal diseases, wounds, hepatitis, and diabetes. Vernonia auriculifera Hiern is used for healing wounds as ointment around the injured areas. Aims: To investigate the phytochemical constituents and evaluate antimicrobial activity of leaves extract of Vernonia auriculifera Hiern. Methods: Phytochemical screening tests were conducted to identify the class of compounds present in the leaves extracts of V. auriculifera. Silica gel column chromatographic technique was applied to separate the constituents of the extracts. Various spectroscopic techniques (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT-135, COSY, gHSQC, and gHMBC were applied to determine the structures of isolated compounds. Results: Phytochemical screening of the methanol leaf extract revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins and absence of anthraquinones, steroids, and alkaloids. Silica gel column chromatography of the methanol leaves extract yielded one compound. The hexane, chloroform, methanol and water extracts were tested against Staphylococcus aureus. The methanol and water extracts showed promising growth suppression at minimum inhibitory concentration of 200 mg/mL. Conclusions: The polar extracts of the leaves of Vernonia auriculifera Hiern possess antimicrobial activity.

  19. Effect of soybean extract after tooth extraction on osteoblast numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Sharon Suhono

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many researches were done to find natural materials that may increase and promote bone healing processes after trauma and surgery. One of natural material that had been studied was soybean extract which contains phytoestrogen, a non-steroidal compounds found in plants that may binds to estrogen receptors and have estrogen-like activity. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of soybean extract feeding on the number of osteoblast cells in alveolar bone socket after mandibular tooth extraction. Methods: This study was studied on male Rattus norvegicus strain Wistar. Seventeen rats divided into three groups were used in this study. Group 1 fed with carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC solution 0,2% for seven days, and the left mandibular central incisivus was extracted; group 2 fed with soybean extract for seven days and the left mandibular central incisives was extracted; group 3 received the left mandibular central incisives extraction followed by soybean extract feeding for seven days after the extraction. All groups were sacrificed on the seventh day post-extraction, and the alveolar bone sockets were taken for histopathological observation. The tissues were processed and stained using hematoxylin and eosin to identify the amount of osteoblast cells. The number of osteoblast cells was counted using an Image Tool program. The data was analyzed statistically using the One-Way ANOVA test. Results: Significant differences were found on the number of osteoblast cells in alveolar bone after tooth extraction between groups. Group 2 (fed with soybean extract is higher than group 1 (fed with CMC and group 3 (fed with soybean extract after extraction. Conclusion: Soybean extract feeding that given for seven days pre-tooth extraction can increase the number of osteoblast cells compared with the group that were not given soybean extract feeding and also with the group that were given soybean extract feeding for seven days post

  20. Classifying unstructed textual data using the Product Score Model: an alternative text mining algorithm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Qiwei; Veldkamp, Bernard P.; Eggen, T.J.H.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.

    2012-01-01

    Unstructured textual data such as students’ essays and life narratives can provide helpful information in educational and psychological measurement, but often contain irregularities and ambiguities, which creates difficulties in analysis. Text mining techniques that seek to extract useful

  1. Adaptive Text Entry for Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proschowsky, Morten Smidt

    The reduced size of many mobile devices makes it difficult to enter text with them. The text entry methods are often slow or complicated to use. This affects the performance and user experience of all applications and services on the device. This work introduces new easy-to-use text entry methods...... for mobile devices and a framework for adaptive context-aware language models. Based on analysis of current text entry methods, the requirements to the new text entry methods are established. Transparent User guided Prediction (TUP) is a text entry method for devices with one dimensional touch input. It can...... be touch sensitive wheels, sliders or similar input devices. The interaction design of TUP is done with a combination of high level task models and low level models of human motor behaviour. Three prototypes of TUP are designed and evaluated by more than 30 users. Observations from the evaluations are used...

  2. Investigation of the Effects of Rosemary Extract on Barrier and Colorimetric Properties of Mungbean Starch Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Safari Maznabi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Barrier properties are one of the most important factors in the edible film. In this study, edible mungbean films were prepared containing (0%, 15%, 30%, 45% concentrations of rosemary aqueous extract. Then the effect of rosemary was investigated on colorimetric and barrier properties (water vapor permeability, oxygen permeability. Rosemary extract increased the absorption of color in the visible region, which in turn led to increase of the parameters a (index color tends toward green and b (index color tends towards yellow. The results showed that increasing concentrations of rosemary extract have a significant effect( p <0.05 to reduce the amount of oxygen and water vapor permeability.  Also turbidity of mungbean starch was increased with increasing concentrations of rosemary in the film. Improving barrier properties and the colorimetric properties were showed by rosemary extract compounds that these materials can use as the safety of food and pharmaceutical packaging industry.

  3. Planning Multisentential English Text Using Communicative Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Composition, Vol. XI in series Advances in Discourse Processing, Alex Publishing Corporation. de Joia , A. and Stenton, A. 1980. Terms in Linguistics: A Guide to...investigate how attentional constraints relate to text planning and linguistic realization. 14 SUBJECT TE1MS I I N& De OF PAGES Natural Language Generation...surface form? Page I 4. What is the relation of communicative intentions to text structure and surface form? 5. What effects can texts be designed to have

  4. Text Mining Improves Prediction of Protein Functional Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Judith D.; Ravikumar, Komandur E.

    2012-01-01

    We present an approach that integrates protein structure analysis and text mining for protein functional site prediction, called LEAP-FS (Literature Enhanced Automated Prediction of Functional Sites). The structure analysis was carried out using Dynamics Perturbation Analysis (DPA), which predicts functional sites at control points where interactions greatly perturb protein vibrations. The text mining extracts mentions of residues in the literature, and predicts that residues mentioned are functionally important. We assessed the significance of each of these methods by analyzing their performance in finding known functional sites (specifically, small-molecule binding sites and catalytic sites) in about 100,000 publicly available protein structures. The DPA predictions recapitulated many of the functional site annotations and preferentially recovered binding sites annotated as biologically relevant vs. those annotated as potentially spurious. The text-based predictions were also substantially supported by the functional site annotations: compared to other residues, residues mentioned in text were roughly six times more likely to be found in a functional site. The overlap of predictions with annotations improved when the text-based and structure-based methods agreed. Our analysis also yielded new high-quality predictions of many functional site residues that were not catalogued in the curated data sources we inspected. We conclude that both DPA and text mining independently provide valuable high-throughput protein functional site predictions, and that integrating the two methods using LEAP-FS further improves the quality of these predictions. PMID:22393388

  5. Science and Technology Text Mining Basic Concepts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Losiewicz, Paul

    2003-01-01

    ...). It then presents some of the most widely used data and text mining techniques, including clustering and classification methods, such as nearest neighbor, relational learning models, and genetic...

  6. Using Unlabeled Data to Improve Text Classification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nigam, Kamal P

    2001-01-01

    .... This dissertation demonstrates that supervised learning algorithms that use a small number of labeled examples and many inexpensive unlabeled examples can create high-accuracy text classifiers...

  7. Application of text mining for customer evaluations in commercial banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jing; Du, Xiaojiang; Hao, Pengpeng; Wang, Yanbo J.

    2015-07-01

    Nowadays customer attrition is increasingly serious in commercial banks. To combat this problem roundly, mining customer evaluation texts is as important as mining customer structured data. In order to extract hidden information from customer evaluations, Textual Feature Selection, Classification and Association Rule Mining are necessary techniques. This paper presents all three techniques by using Chinese Word Segmentation, C5.0 and Apriori, and a set of experiments were run based on a collection of real textual data that includes 823 customer evaluations taken from a Chinese commercial bank. Results, consequent solutions, some advice for the commercial bank are given in this paper.

  8. How Well can We Learn Interpretable Entity Types from Text?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovy, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    We investigate a largely unsupervised approach to learning interpretable, domain-specific entity types from unlabeled text. It assumes that any common noun in a domain can function as potential entity type, and uses those nouns as hidden variables in a HMM. To constrain training, it extracts co......-occurrence dictionaries of entities and common nouns from the data. We evaluate the learned types by measuring their prediction accuracy for verb arguments in several domains. The results suggest that it is possible to learn domain-specific entity types from unlabeled data. We show significant improvements over...

  9. Evaluation of three different DNA extraction methods from blood samples collected in dried filter paper in Plasmodium subpatent infections from the Amazon region in Brazil Avaliação de três métodos de extração de DNA obtidos de amostras de sangue coletadas em papel de filtro em infecções subpatentes de Plasmodium da região Amazônica no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bortolasse Miguel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic Plasmodium infection is a new challenge for public health in the American region. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR is the best method for diagnosing subpatent parasitemias. In endemic areas, blood collection is hampered by geographical distances and deficient transport and storage conditions of the samples. Because DNA extraction from blood collected on filter paper is an efficient method for molecular studies in high parasitemic individuals, we investigated whether the technique could be an alternative for Plasmodium diagnosis among asymptomatic and pauciparasitemic subjects. In this report we compared three different methods (Chelex®-saponin, methanol and TRIS-EDTA of DNA extraction from blood collected on filter paper from asymptomatic Plasmodium-infected individuals. Polymerase chain reaction assays for detection of Plasmodium species showed the best results when the Chelex®-saponin method was used. Even though the sensitivity of detection was approximately 66% and 31% for P. falciparum and P. vivax, respectively, this method did not show the effectiveness in DNA extraction required for molecular diagnosis of Plasmodium. The development of better methods for extracting DNA from blood collected on filter paper is important for the diagnosis of subpatent malarial infections in remote areas and would contribute to establishing the epidemiology of this form of infection.Infecção assintomática por Plasmodium é um novo desafio para a saúde pública no Brasil. A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR é o melhor método para detectar baixas parasitemias presentes em pacientes com infecção assintomática. Nas áreas endêmicas, a coleta de sangue total é dificultada pela distancia geográfica, transporte e adequada armazenagem das amostras. A coleta de sangue em papel de filtro pode ser uma alternativa nessas áreas de difícil acesso. Neste estudo foram comparados três diferentes métodos de extração de ADN a partir de

  10. Text Mining of Journal Articles for Sleep Disorder Terminologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Calvin; Lai, Fu-Chih; Wang, Chia-Hui; Lai, Mei-Hsin; Hsu, Nanly; Chung, Min-Huey

    2016-01-01

    Research on publication trends in journal articles on sleep disorders (SDs) and the associated methodologies by using text mining has been limited. The present study involved text mining for terms to determine the publication trends in sleep-related journal articles published during 2000-2013 and to identify associations between SD and methodology terms as well as conducting statistical analyses of the text mining findings. SD and methodology terms were extracted from 3,720 sleep-related journal articles in the PubMed database by using MetaMap. The extracted data set was analyzed using hierarchical cluster analyses and adjusted logistic regression models to investigate publication trends and associations between SD and methodology terms. MetaMap had a text mining precision, recall, and false positive rate of 0.70, 0.77, and 11.51%, respectively. The most common SD term was breathing-related sleep disorder, whereas narcolepsy was the least common. Cluster analyses showed similar methodology clusters for each SD term, except narcolepsy. The logistic regression models showed an increasing prevalence of insomnia, parasomnia, and other sleep disorders but a decreasing prevalence of breathing-related sleep disorder during 2000-2013. Different SD terms were positively associated with different methodology terms regarding research design terms, measure terms, and analysis terms. Insomnia-, parasomnia-, and other sleep disorder-related articles showed an increasing publication trend, whereas those related to breathing-related sleep disorder showed a decreasing trend. Furthermore, experimental studies more commonly focused on hypersomnia and other SDs and less commonly on insomnia, breathing-related sleep disorder, narcolepsy, and parasomnia. Thus, text mining may facilitate the exploration of the publication trends in SDs and the associated methodologies.

  11. Fusion of Pixel-based and Object-based Features for Road Centerline Extraction from High-resolution Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAO Yungang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach for road centerline extraction from high spatial resolution satellite imagery is proposed by fusing both pixel-based and object-based features. Firstly, texture and shape features are extracted at the pixel level, and spectral features are extracted at the object level based on multi-scale image segmentation maps. Then, extracted multiple features are utilized in the fusion framework of Dempster-Shafer evidence theory to roughly identify the road network regions. Finally, an automatic noise removing algorithm combined with the tensor voting strategy is presented to accurately extract the road centerline. Experimental results using high-resolution satellite imageries with different scenes and spatial resolutions showed that the proposed approach compared favorably with the traditional methods, particularly in the aspect of eliminating the salt noise and conglutination phenomenon.

  12. Chemical and Antimicrobial Profiling of Propolis from Different Regions within Libya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weam Siheri

    Full Text Available Extracts from twelve samples of propolis collected from different regions of Libya were tested for their activity against Trypanosoma brucei, Leishmania donovani, Plasmodium falciparum, Crithidia fasciculata and Mycobacterium marinum and the cytotoxicity of the extracts was tested against mammalian cells. All the extracts were active to some degree against all of the protozoa and the mycobacterium, exhibiting a range of EC50 values between 1.65 and 53.6 μg/ml. The toxicity against mammalian cell lines was only moderate; the most active extract against the protozoan species, P2, displayed an IC50 value of 53.2 μg/ml. The extracts were profiled by using liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. The data sets were extracted using m/z Mine and the accurate masses of the features extracted were searched against the Dictionary of Natural Products (DNP. A principal component analysis (PCA model was constructed which, in combination with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA, divided the samples into five groups. The outlying groups had different sets of dominant compounds in the extracts, which could be characterised by their elemental composition. Orthogonal partial least squares (OPLS analysis was used to link the activity of each extract against the different micro-organisms to particular components in the extracts.

  13. Text Mining in Python through the HTRC Feature Reader

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Organisciak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a toolkit for working with the 13.6 million volume Extracted Features Dataset from the HathiTrust Research Center. You will learn how to peer at the words and trends of any book in the collection, while developing broadly useful Python data analysis skills. The HathiTrust holds nearly 15 million digitized volumes from libraries around the world. In addition to their individual value, these works in aggregate are extremely valuable for historians. Spanning many centuries and genres, they offer a way to learn about large-scale trends in history and culture, as well as evidence for changes in language or even the structure of the book. To simplify access to this collection the HathiTrust Research Center (HTRC has released the Extracted Features dataset (Capitanu et al. 2015: a dataset that provides quantitative information describing every page of every volume in the collection. In this lesson, we introduce the HTRC Feature Reader, a library for working with the HTRC Extracted Features dataset using the Python programming language. The HTRC Feature Reader is structured to support work using popular data science libraries, particularly Pandas. Pandas provides simple structures for holding data and powerful ways to interact with it. The HTRC Feature Reader uses these data structures, so learning how to use it will also cover general data analysis skills in Python.

  14. Classifying Written Texts Through Rhythmic Features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balint, Mihaela; Dascalu, Mihai; Trausan-Matu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Rhythm analysis of written texts focuses on literary analysis and it mainly considers poetry. In this paper we investigate the relevance of rhythmic features for categorizing texts in prosaic form pertaining to different genres. Our contribution is threefold. First, we define a set of rhythmic

  15. Text comprehension strategy instruction with poor readers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Bos, K.P.; Aarnoudse, C.C.; Brand-Gruwel, S.

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of teaching text comprehension strategies to children with decoding and reading comprehension problems and with a poor or normal listening ability. Two experiments are reported. Four text comprehension strategies, viz., question generation,

  16. Text Manipulation Techniques and Foreign Language Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ronald W.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses an approach to teaching second language composition which emphasizes (1) careful analysis of model texts from a limited, but well-defined perspective and (2) the application of text manipulation techniques developed by the word processing industry to student compositions. (EKN)

  17. Teachers' Texts in Culturally Responsive Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Ted

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author shares three teaching stories that demonstrate the social, cultural, political, and historical factors of all texts in specific interpretive communities. The author shows how the texts that comprised his curriculum constructed particular subject positions that inevitably included some students but marginalized and…

  18. Readability Revisited? The Implications of Text Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, David; Janan, Dahlia

    2013-01-01

    The concept of readability has had a variable history, moving from a position where it was considered as a very important topic for those responsible for producing texts and matching those texts to the abilities and needs of learners, to its current declining visibility in the education literature. Some important work has been coming from the USA…

  19. Tipster Text Phase 2 Architecture Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-06-19

    TIPSTER Text Phase II Architecture Design Version 2.1p 19 June 1996 Ralph Grishman New York University grishman @cs.nyu.edu and the TIPSTER...1996 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1996 to 00-00-1996 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TIPSTER Text Phase II Architecture Design 5a. CONTRACT

  20. Using Digital Texts to Promote Fluent Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoermer, Andrea; Williams, Lunetta

    2012-01-01

    Fluency is a critical skill of adept readers. As listening to read alouds and performing Readers Theatre scripts are two prevalent strategies that can increase students' fluency skills, this article provides suggestions in using these strategies with digital texts through free, online resources. Digital texts can be accessed using a desktop,…