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Sample records for texas a and m variable energy cyclotron

  1. Optimisation of magnetic field and R.F. in a azimuthally varying field variable energy cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, M.; Divatia, A.S.

    1975-01-01

    A computer program is developed for determining magnetic field and reference frequency. Setting necessary to produce a specific ion beam with a given energy in variable energy cyclotrons. The program carries out field trimming calculations using an iterated least square process. For each of the prescribed set of energy values, the E.O. code computes the relevant properties of the equilibrium orbit and the linear oscillation about this orbit to assess the merits and defects of a given medium field. The program consists of parts for: (1) Fourier analysis of the magnetic field (2) calculation of cyclotron trim-coil currents for field optimization (3) generating data for equilibrium orbit (4) determination of the phase energy characteristic of the ion beam and (5) iteration process. (M.G.B.)

  2. Progress in research, April 1, 1992--March 31, 1993, Texas A and M University Cyclotron Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-07-01

    This Institute annual report for the period 1 April 1992--31 March 1993 covers a period which has seen the initial runs of three new spectrometers which constitute a major portion of the new detection capabilities developed for this facility. These devices are the Proton Spectrometer (PSP), the Mass Achromat Recoil Mass Spectrometer (MARS), and the Multipole dipole Multipole (MDM) Particle Spectrometer. These devices are now available to pursue the studies of Gamow Teller states, reactions of astrophysical interest, and giant resonance studies for which they were constructed, as well as for other experiments. A beam analysis system which will deliver high resolution beams to the MDM spectrometer is currently under construction. With the completion of these spectrometer projects, the facility emphasis is now focused on the development of the full capabilities of the K500 cyclotron and on the research program. During the report period, the ECR-K500 cyclotron combination operated 5,849 hours. Theoretical work reported in this document ranges from nuclear structure calculations using the IBM-2 model to calculations of kaon production and the in-medium properties of the rho and phi mesons, the latter as a probe of the QCD phase transition. Nuclear dynamics and exotic shapes and fragmentation modes of hot nuclei are also addressed. In atomic physics, new measurements of x-ray emission from highly ionized ions, of molecular dissociation and of surface interactions are reported.

  3. Progress in research, April 1, 1992 - March 31, 1993, Texas A and M University Cyclotron Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This Institute annual report for the period 1 April 1992--31 March 1993 covers a period which has seen the initial runs of three new spectrometers which constitute a major portion of the new detection capabilities developed for this facility. These devices are the Proton Spectrometer (PSP), the Mass Achromat Recoil Mass Spectrometer (MARS), and the Multipole dipole Multipole (MDM) Particle Spectrometer. These devices are now available to pursue the studies of Gamow Teller states, reactions of astrophysical interest, and giant resonance studies for which they were constructed, as well as for other experiments. A beam analysis system which will deliver high resolution beams to the MDM spectrometer is currently under construction. With the completion of these spectrometer projects, the facility emphasis is now focused on the development of the full capabilities of the K500 cyclotron and on the research program. During the report period, the ECR-K500 cyclotron combination operated 5,849 hours. Theoretical work reported in this document ranges from nuclear structure calculations using the IBM-2 model to calculations of kaon production and the in-medium properties of the rho and phi mesons, the latter as a probe of the QCD phase transition. Nuclear dynamics and exotic shapes and fragmentation modes of hot nuclei are also addressed. In atomic physics, new measurements of x-ray emission from highly ionized ions, of molecular dissociation and of surface interactions are reported

  4. High energy physics program at Texas A and M University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    The Texas A M experimental high energy physics program continued to reach significant milestones in each of its research initiatives during the course of the past year. We are participating in two major operating experiments, CDF and MACRO. In CDF, the Texas A M group has spearheaded the test beam program to recalibrate the Forward Hadron Calorimeter for the upcoming CDF data run, as well as contributing to the ongoing analysis work on jets and b-quarks. In MACRO, we have assisted in the development of the final version of the wave form digitizing system being implemented for the entire scintillator system. The construction of the first six supermodules of the detector has been completed and all six are currently taking data with streamer chambers while four have the completed scintillator counter system up and running. We have built and tested prototypes of a liquid-scintillator fiber calorimeter system, in which internally reflecting channels are imbedded in a lead matrix and filled with liquid scintillator. This approach combines the performance features of fiber calorimetry and the radiation hardness of liquid scintillator, and is being developed for forward calorimetry at the SSC. The microstrip chamber is a new technology for precision track chambers that offers the performance required for future hadron colliders. The theoretical high energy physics program has continued to develop during the past funding cycle. We have continued the study of their very successful string-derived model that unifies all known interactions; flipped SU(5), which is the leading candidate for a TOE. Work has continued on some generalizations of the symmetries of string theory, known as W algebras. These are expected to have applications in two-dimensional conformal field theory, two-dimensional extensions of gravity and topological gravity and W-string theory.

  5. High energy physics program at Texas A and M University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The Texas A ampersand M experimental high energy physics program continued to reach significant milestones in each of its research initiatives during the course of the past year. We are participating in two major operating experiments, CDF and MACRO. In CDF, the Texas A ampersand M group has spearheaded the test beam program to recalibrate the Forward Hadron Calorimeter for the upcoming CDF data run, as well as contributing to the ongoing analysis work on jets and b-quarks. In MACRO, we have assisted in the development of the final version of the wave form digitizing system being implemented for the entire scintillator system. The construction of the first six supermodules of the detector has been completed and all six are currently taking data with streamer chambers while four have the completed scintillator counter system up and running. We have built and tested prototypes of a liquid-scintillator fiber calorimeter system, in which internally reflecting channels are imbedded in a lead matrix and filled with liquid scintillator. This approach combines the performance features of fiber calorimetry and the radiation hardness of liquid scintillator, and is being developed for forward calorimetry at the SSC. The microstrip chamber is a new technology for precision track chambers that offers the performance required for future hadron colliders. The theoretical high energy physics program has continued to develop during the past funding cycle. We have continued the study of their very successful string-derived model that unifies all known interactions; flipped SU(5), which is the leading candidate for a TOE. Work has continued on some generalizations of the symmetries of string theory, known as W algebras. These are expected to have applications in two-dimensional conformal field theory, two-dimensional extensions of gravity and topological gravity and W-string theory

  6. Progress in research April 1, 1993 - March 31, 1994, Texas A and M University Cyclotron Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The period 1 April 1993--31 March 1994 has seen a number of significant developments of the research program as will be noted by the large increase in individual projects reviewed in this annual report. Among the highlights of the K500 experimental program in Sections 1, 2, and 4 are the investigations of excitation energy deposition and of fission dynamics employing both GDR and particle emission probes, measurements of isospin equilibration, studies of (d, 2 He) reactions with the proton spectrometer and of the β decay of 57 Cu with MARS, and the precise studies of ionic charge state distributions using x-ray measurements. Progress in theoretical studies of the nuclear spectral function and the decay of many body systems, on the properties of mesons in hot hadronic matter and on the determination of astrophysical S-factors from experimental studies of very peripheral reactions are presented in Section 3. The status of the LAMPF based MEGA experiment and of the CERN based NA66 experiment, both of which involve institute scientists, is also briefly presented in this report. The shift to a seven day a week operation coupled with installation of cryopanels and more careful temperature control of the cooling water system have resulted in significant improvements in the operational efficiency and beam capabilities. Operating statistics are presented in Section 5

  7. Progress in research April 1, 1993--March 31, 1994, Texas A and M University Cyclotron Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-01

    The period 1 April 1993--31 March 1994 has seen a number of significant developments of the research program as will be noted by the large increase in individual projects reviewed in this annual report. Among the highlights of the K500 experimental program in Sections 1, 2, and 4 are the investigations of excitation energy deposition and of fission dynamics employing both GDR and particle emission probes, measurements of isospin equilibration, studies of (d, {sup 2}He) reactions with the proton spectrometer and of the {beta} decay of {sup 57}Cu with MARS, and the precise studies of ionic charge state distributions using x-ray measurements. Progress in theoretical studies of the nuclear spectral function and the decay of many body systems, on the properties of mesons in hot hadronic matter and on the determination of astrophysical S-factors from experimental studies of very peripheral reactions are presented in Section 3. The status of the LAMPF based MEGA experiment and of the CERN based NA66 experiment, both of which involve institute scientists, is also briefly presented in this report. The shift to a seven day a week operation coupled with installation of cryopanels and more careful temperature control of the cooling water system have resulted in significant improvements in the operational efficiency and beam capabilities. Operating statistics are presented in Section 5.

  8. High Energy Physics Program at Texas A and M University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    The high energy physics program has continued its experimental activities over. In CDF, the Texas A ampersand M group has led an effort to design an upgrade for the silicon vertex detector, and is currently working with the rest of the collaboration on the next major data taking run. In MACRO, work was done on the development of the final version of the wave form digitizing system being implemented for the entire scintillator system. This work is nearing completion, and the system is expected to be up and running on the detector by summer 1993. Work was done within the SDC group to develop gas microstrip chambers for use in precision tracking at the SSC, and in the GEM group, toward the development of a suitable forward calorimeter design. The theoretical high energy physics program has continued the study of a very successful string-derived model that unifies all known interactions: flipped SU(5), which is the leading candidate for a TOE. Work has also continued on some generalizations of the symmetries of string theory, known as W algebras. These are expected to have applications in two-dimensional conformal field theory, two-dimensional extensions of gravity and topological gravity and W-string theory

  9. Status of Chandigarh variable energy cyclotron and present experimental programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govil, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the status report of the Chandigarh variable energy cyclotron and some of the recent modifications which has improved the stability and performance of the machine considerably. The machine is now used for Proton Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) for trace element analysis along with nuclear irradiation for material science research and Nuclear Spectroscopy using (p, n γ) reaction. (author)

  10. Cyclotrons with fast variable and/or multiple energy extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Baumgarten

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the possibility in principle of stripping extraction in combination with reverse bends in isochronous separate-sector cyclotrons (and/or fixed field alternating gradient accelerators. If one uses reverse bends between the sectors (instead of or in combination with drifts and places stripper foils at the sector exit edges, the stripped beam has a reduced bending radius and it should be able to leave the cyclotron within the range of the valley—even if the beam is stripped at less than full energy. We are especially interested in stripping of H_{2}^{+}, as it doubles the charge to mass ratio of the ions. However the method could be applied to other ions or ionized molecules as well. For the production of proton beams by stripping extraction of an H_{2}^{+} beam, we discuss possible designs for three types of machines: First, a low-energy cyclotron for the simultaneous production of several beams at multiple energies—for instance 15, 30, and 70 MeV—thus allowing beam delivery on several isotope production targets. In this case it can be an advantage to have a strong energy dependence of the direction of the extracted beam. Second, we consider a fast variable-energy proton machine for cancer therapy that should allow extraction (of the complete beam at all energies in the range of about 70 MeV to about 250 MeV into the same beam line. Third, we consider a high-intensity high-energy machine, where the main design goals are extraction with low losses, low activation of components, and high reliability. Especially if such a machine is considered for an accelerator driven system (ADS, this extraction mechanism has advantages: Beam trips by the failure of electrostatic elements could be avoided and the turn separation would be less critical, which allows operation at lower main cavity voltages. This would in turn reduce the number of rf trips. The price that has to be paid for these advantages is an increase in size and/or field

  11. Research and development studies into isotope production using the Harwell Variable Energy Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, A.L.; Bett, R.; Cuninghame, J.G.; Goodall, J.A.B.; Hill, J.I.S.; Sims, H.E.; Willis, H.H.

    1979-11-01

    Many useful radioisotopes can be produced by means of the Harwell Chemistry Division's Variable Energy Cyclotron. This report describes the preliminary preparation of a number of these neutron deficient isotopes (i.e. F18, S38, Fe52, Sr82-Rb82, Nb92m, Rh99, I123, Xe125, Tl201, Pu236, Pu237). Recently a targetry development programme has been initiated to optimise isotope yields. Gas, liquid and solid targets have been designed that can be quickly and safely removed from the cyclotron beam-line so that the target activity can be rapidly processed after the irradiation, if necessary. (author)

  12. Progress report: Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This volume of the progress report brings out the scientific and technical activities of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta during the year 1999. This includes brief review of the various R and D activities of the Centre and outside users of the cyclotron from the universities and other research institutes. The operational activities of the cyclotron with ECR ion sources, accelerator oriented research activities, activities on detector, target and electronics are reported. The activities of the Computer and Informatics group are described. The status report of the ongoing projects is also provided. The main activities of the superconducting cyclotron project, radioactive ion beam project, heavy ion experimental facility, advanced computational facility, recovery and analysis of helium from hot springs and material science research are described

  13. High energy physics program at Texas A&M University

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    The Texas A&M high energy physics program has achieved significant mile-stones in each of its research initiatives. We are participating in two major operating experiments, CDF and MACRO; the development of two new detector technologies, liquid scintillating fiber calorimetry and knife-edge chambers; and two SSC detector proposals, SDC and TEXAS/EMPACT. We have developed prototypes of a liquid-scintillator fiber calorimeter system, in which internally reflecting channels are imbedded in a lead matrix and filled with liquid scintillator. This approach combines the performance features of fiber calorimetry and the radiation hardness of liquid scintillator, and is being developed for forward calorimetry in TEXAS/EMPACT. A new element in this program is the inclusion of a theoretical high energy physics research program being carried out by D. Nanopoulos and C. Pope. D. Nanopoulos has succeeded in building a string-derived model that unifies all known interactions: flipped SU(5), which is the leading candidate for a TOE. The impact of this work on string phenomenology certainly has far reaching consequences. C. Pope is currently working on some generalizations of the symmetries of string theory, known as W algebras. These are expected to have applications in two- dimensional conformal field theory, two-dimensional extensions of gravity and topological gravity, and W-string theory. The following report presents details of the accomplishments of the Texas A&M program over the past year and the proposed plan of research for the coming year.

  14. High energy physics program at Texas A ampersand M University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-10-01

    The Texas A ampersand M high energy physics program has achieved significant mile-stones in each of its research initiatives. We are participating in two major operating experiments, CDF and MACRO; the development of two new detector technologies, liquid scintillating fiber calorimetry and knife-edge chambers; and two SSC detector proposals, SDC and TEXAS/EMPACT. We have developed prototypes of a liquid-scintillator fiber calorimeter system, in which internally reflecting channels are imbedded in a lead matrix and filled with liquid scintillator. This approach combines the performance features of fiber calorimetry and the radiation hardness of liquid scintillator, and is being developed for forward calorimetry in TEXAS/EMPACT. A new element in this program is the inclusion of a theoretical high energy physics research program being carried out by D. Nanopoulos and C. Pope. D. Nanopoulos has succeeded in building a string-derived model that unifies all known interactions: flipped SU(5), which is the leading candidate for a TOE. The impact of this work on string phenomenology certainly has far reaching consequences. C. Pope is currently working on some generalizations of the symmetries of string theory, known as W algebras. These are expected to have applications in two- dimensional conformal field theory, two-dimensional extensions of gravity and topological gravity, and W-string theory. The following report presents details of the accomplishments of the Texas A ampersand M program over the past year and the proposed plan of research for the coming year

  15. High energy physics program at Texas A ampersand M University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The Texas A ampersand M experimental high energy physics program has been supported since its inception by DOE Contract DE-AS05-81ER40039. During that period we established a viable experimental program at a university which before this time had no program in high energy physics. In 1990, the experimental program was augmented with a program in particle theory. In the accompanying final report, we outline the research work accomplished during the final year of this contract and the program being proposed for consideration by the Department of Energy for future grant support. Some of the particular areas covered are: Collider detector at Fermilab program; the TAMU MACRO program; SSC R ampersand D program; SSC experimental program; and theoretical physics program

  16. ECR ion source for variable energy cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, D K; Taki, G S; Nabhiraj, P Y; Pal, G; Dasgupta, B; Mallik, C; Das, S K; Bandopadhaya, D K; Bhandari, R K [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta (India)

    1995-09-01

    Some performance characteristics of 6.4 GHz two stage ECR ion source which was under development at this centre is presented. The present ion source will facilitate acceleration of light heavy ions with the existing k=130 variable energy cyclotron. Multiply charged heavy ion (MCHI) beam from the source will also be utilized for atomic physics studies. Oxygen beam has already been used for ion implantation studies. The external injection system under development is nearing completion. Heavy ion beam from cyclotron is expected by end of 1995. (author).

  17. Mr Bikash Sinha, Director of SAHA & VECC and Prof. Rolf Heuer, Director general of CERN, sign a collaboration agreements between SAHA (Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics), VECC (Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre), India and CERN ISOLDE.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2009-01-01

    Mr Bikash Sinha, Director of SAHA & VECC and Prof. Rolf Heuer, Director general of CERN, sign a collaboration agreements between SAHA (Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics), VECC (Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre), India and CERN ISOLDE.

  18. Isochronous variable energy cyclotron of IPEN-CNEN/SP (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucki, G.; Zanchetta, A.A.; Gouveia, S.; Klein, H.

    1984-01-01

    The cyclotron CV-28 installed at the Radiation Damage Division of IPEN-CNEN/SP is a multi-particle radiation source where protons, deuterons, 3 He ions and alpha particles can be accelerated with variable energy up to 24, 14, 36 and 28 MeV, respectively. The cyclotron is a versatile machine that can be applied in research and development of : radioisotope production - materials science - nuclear physics - activation analysis and others. First internal beam with 24 MeV protons has been obtained in April 23, 1981. First irradiation of Cu sample, at the external beam (beam current 1.5 μA), with 28 MeV alpha particles was performed in December 29, 1983. Main characteristics of the cyclotron are given together with a description of peripheral systems and experimental capability. Presently the accelerator is being optimized for cpontinuous running. (Author) [pt

  19. Texas Affordable Baccalaureate Program: A Collaboration between the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board, South Texas College, and Texas A&M University-Commerce. CBE Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Collins, Rebecca; Glancey, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    This case study is part of a series on newer competency-based degree programs that have been emerging in recent years. In January 2014, the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB), South Texas College (STC), and Texas A&M University-Commerce (A&M Commerce) launched the Texas Affordable Baccalaureate Program, the state's first…

  20. The Texas A&M Radioisotope Production and Radiochemistry Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akabani, Gamal

    2016-01-01

    The main motivation of the project at Texas A&M University was to carry out the production of critically needed radioisotopes used in medicine for diagnostics and therapy, and to establish an academic program in radionuclide production and separation methods. After a lengthy battle with the Texas A&M University Radiation Safety Office, the Texas Department of State Health Services granted us a license for the production of radionuclides in July 2015, allowing us to work in earnest in our project objectives. Experiments began immediately after licensing, and we started the assembly and testing of our target systems. There were four analytical/theoretical projects and two experimental target systems. These were for At-211 production and for Zn-62/Cu-62 production. The theoretical projects were related to the production of Mo-99/Tc-99m using a) a subcritical aqueous target system and b) production of Tc-99m from accelerator-generated Mo-99 utilizing a photon-neutron interaction with enriched Mo-100 targets. The two experimental projects were the development of targetry systems and production of At-211 and Zn-62/Cu-62 generator. The targetry system for At-211 has been tested and production of At-211 is chronic depending of availability of beam time at the cyclotron. The installation and testing of the targetry system for the production of Zn-62/Cu-62 has not been finalized. A description of the systems is described. The academic program in radionuclide production and separation methods was initiated in the fall of 2011 and, due to the lack of a radiochemistry laboratory, it was suspended. We expect to re-start the academic program at the Texas A&M Institute for Preclinical Studies under the Molecular Imaging Program.

  1. The Texas A&M Radioisotope Production and Radiochemistry Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akabani, Gamal [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering. Dept. of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences

    2016-10-28

    The main motivation of the project at Texas A&M University was to carry out the production of critically needed radioisotopes used in medicine for diagnostics and therapy, and to establish an academic program in radionuclide production and separation methods. After a lengthy battle with the Texas A&M University Radiation Safety Office, the Texas Department of State Health Services granted us a license for the production of radionuclides in July 2015, allowing us to work in earnest in our project objectives. Experiments began immediately after licensing, and we started the assembly and testing of our target systems. There were four analytical/theoretical projects and two experimental target systems. These were for At-211 production and for Zn-62/Cu-62 production. The theoretical projects were related to the production of Mo-99/Tc-99m using a) a subcritical aqueous target system and b) production of Tc-99m from accelerator-generated Mo-99 utilizing a photon-neutron interaction with enriched Mo-100 targets. The two experimental projects were the development of targetry systems and production of At-211 and Zn-62/Cu-62 generator. The targetry system for At-211 has been tested and production of At-211 is chronic depending of availability of beam time at the cyclotron. The installation and testing of the targetry system for the production of Zn-62/Cu-62 has not been finalized. A description of the systems is described. The academic program in radionuclide production and separation methods was initiated in the fall of 2011 and, due to the lack of a radiochemistry laboratory, it was suspended. We expect to re-start the academic program at the Texas A&M Institute for Preclinical Studies under the Molecular Imaging Program.

  2. The Texas A&M Radioisotope Production and Radiochemistry Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akabani, Gamal [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-08-31

    The main motivation of the project at Texas A&M University was to carry out the production of critically needed radioisotopes used in medicine for diagnostic and therapy, and to establish an academic program in radionuclide production and separation methods. After a lengthy battle with the Texas A&M University Radiation Safety Office, the Texas Department of State Health Services granted us a license for the production of radionuclides in July 2015, allowing us to work in earnest in our project objectives. Experiments began immediately after licensing, and we started the assembly and testing of our target systems. There were four analytical/theoretical projects and two experimental target systems. These were for At-211 production and for Zn- 62/Cu-62 production. The theoretical projects were related to the production of Mo-99/Tc-99m using (a) a subcritical aqueous target system and (b) production of Tc-99m from accelerator-generated Mo-99 utilizing a photon-neutron interaction with enriched Mo-100 targets. The two experimental projects were the development of targetry systems and production of At-211 and Zn-62/Cu-62 generator. The targetry system for At-211 has been tested and production of At-211 is chronic depending of availability of beam time at the cyclotron. The installation and testing of the targetry system for the production of Zn-62/Cu-62 has not been finalized. A description of the systems is described. The academic program in radionuclide production and separation methods was initiated in the fall of 2011; due to the lack of a radiochemistry laboratory, it was suspended. We expect to re-start the academic program at the Texas A&M Institute for Preclinical Studies under the Molecular Imaging Program.

  3. The Texas A&M Radioisotope Production and Radiochemistry Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akabani, Gamal

    2016-01-01

    The main motivation of the project at Texas A&M University was to carry out the production of critically needed radioisotopes used in medicine for diagnostic and therapy, and to establish an academic program in radionuclide production and separation methods. After a lengthy battle with the Texas A&M University Radiation Safety Office, the Texas Department of State Health Services granted us a license for the production of radionuclides in July 2015, allowing us to work in earnest in our project objectives. Experiments began immediately after licensing, and we started the assembly and testing of our target systems. There were four analytical/theoretical projects and two experimental target systems. These were for At-211 production and for Zn- 62/Cu-62 production. The theoretical projects were related to the production of Mo-99/Tc-99m using (a) a subcritical aqueous target system and (b) production of Tc-99m from accelerator-generated Mo-99 utilizing a photon-neutron interaction with enriched Mo-100 targets. The two experimental projects were the development of targetry systems and production of At-211 and Zn-62/Cu-62 generator. The targetry system for At-211 has been tested and production of At-211 is chronic depending of availability of beam time at the cyclotron. The installation and testing of the targetry system for the production of Zn-62/Cu-62 has not been finalized. A description of the systems is described. The academic program in radionuclide production and separation methods was initiated in the fall of 2011; due to the lack of a radiochemistry laboratory, it was suspended. We expect to re-start the academic program at the Texas A&M Institute for Preclinical Studies under the Molecular Imaging Program.

  4. Fast neutron activation analysis at Texas A and M University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    Fast neutron generators are used at Texas A and M University to provide a supply of high energy neutrons for nuclear analytical measurements. A series of neutron activation analysis procedures have been developed for determining various major, minor and trace constituents in a variety of materials. These procedures are primarily developed to compliment our reactor based NAA program, thereby expanding the list of determinable elements to include those difficult or impossible to measure using thermal neutrons. A few typical methods are discussed. The unique implementation of the methodologies at Texas A and M are explained. (author)

  5. Annual report for the High Energy Physics Program at Texas A and M University, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The experimental and theoretical high energy physics programs at Texas A and M University have continued their ambitious research activities over the past year. On the experimental side, the authors have continued their participation in two major operating experiments, CDF and MACRO, and each of these programs have attained significant milestones during this period. Especially note worthy is the CDF Collaborations paper on the ''evidence'' for the top quark and MACRO's completion of the construction of the ''Attico''. In CDF, the Texas A and M group continues to play a leading role in the plans for upgrading the silicon vertex detector, as well as supporting the on going running of this experiment during its current data taking run. In addition, the group has focused its analysis efforts on studies of trilepton events and as well searching for supersymmetric particles. In MACRO, the authors have continued their work on the development of the final version of the wave form digitizing system. Within the past month the final production circuits have been assembled and they are currently testing these units at Texas A and M. The authors plan to complete this testing and commission the wave form digitizing system on the MACRO detector by the end of 1994. The theoretical high energy physics program has also continued to develop during the past funding cycle. D. Nanopoulos and colleagues have continued the study of their very successful string-derived model that unifies all known interactions; flipped SU(5), which is the leading candidate for a theory of everything. C. Pope has continued his work on generalizations of the symmetries of string theory, known as W algebras

  6. Variable-Energy Cyclotron for Proton Therapy Application

    CERN Document Server

    Alenitsky, Yu G; Vorozhtsov, A S; Glazov, A A; Mytsyn, G V; Molokanov, A G; Onishchenko, L M

    2004-01-01

    The requirements to characteristics of the beams used for proton therapy are considered. The operation and proposed cyclotrons for proton therapy are briefly described. The technical decisions of creation of the cyclotron with energy variation in the range 70-230 MeV and with current up to 100 nA are estimated. Taking into account the fact, that the size and cost of the cyclotron are approximately determined by the maximum proton energy, it is realistically offered to limit the maximum proton energy to 190 MeV and to elaborate a cyclotron project with a warm winding of the magnet for acceleration of H^{-} ions. The energy of the extracted protons for each run is determined by a stripped target radius in the vacuum chamber of the accelerator, and the radiation dose field for the patient is created by the external devices using the developed techniques.

  7. Environmental radiation monitoring results for the period 1984-95 in and around Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, A.S.; Khasnabis, B.K.; Bar, M.

    1997-04-01

    Variable Energy Cyclotron (VEC) located at Bidhan Nagar, Calcutta is being used for accelerating charged particles and does not contribute to any radioactive releases to the environment. However, it being a nuclear facility, the area surrounding the facility is being routinely monitored for background radiation exposure using thermoluminescent dosimeters. This report gives the summary of the results of the survey carried out over a period of 12 years, 1984-1995. It is observed that the general radiation background in areas far removed from the facility (up to 25 km) is higher than that existing within the boundaries of VEC centre (160±21 mR/year as against 121±20 mR/year)

  8. High energy physics program at Texas A and M University. Annual report, April 1, 1991--March 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    The Texas A&M experimental high energy physics program continued to reach significant milestones in each of its research initiatives during the course of the past year. We are participating in two major operating experiments, CDF and MACRO. In CDF, the Texas A&M group has spearheaded the test beam program to recalibrate the Forward Hadron Calorimeter for the upcoming CDF data run, as well as contributing to the ongoing analysis work on jets and b-quarks. In MACRO, we have assisted in the development of the final version of the wave form digitizing system being implemented for the entire scintillator system. The construction of the first six supermodules of the detector has been completed and all six are currently taking data with streamer chambers while four have the completed scintillator counter system up and running. We have built and tested prototypes of a liquid-scintillator fiber calorimeter system, in which internally reflecting channels are imbedded in a lead matrix and filled with liquid scintillator. This approach combines the performance features of fiber calorimetry and the radiation hardness of liquid scintillator, and is being developed for forward calorimetry at the SSC. The microstrip chamber is a new technology for precision track chambers that offers the performance required for future hadron colliders. The theoretical high energy physics program has continued to develop during the past funding cycle. We have continued the study of their very successful string-derived model that unifies all known interactions; flipped SU(5), which is the leading candidate for a TOE. Work has continued on some generalizations of the symmetries of string theory, known as W algebras. These are expected to have applications in two-dimensional conformal field theory, two-dimensional extensions of gravity and topological gravity and W-string theory.

  9. Experimental high energy physics program at Texas A and M University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, R.C.

    1989-12-01

    During the past twelve months our group has continued to reach new milestones in our various research initiatives. One of our major accomplishments was our group's participation in the successful high luminosity data taking run with the CDF detector. Over the course of this 12 month run the collaboration recorded a record 4.7pb -1 onto data tape. It is evident from the papers which are starting to appear in the literature based on this data, that these results will have a strong impact on our understanding of the physics at cm energies of 2 TeV. In addition to these CDF activities, our group also participated in the commissioning and operation of the first supermodule of the MACRO detector at the Gran Sasso Laboratory in L'Aquila, Italy. This detector was operated for approximately 3 months during the spring of 1989, and has recently been brought back on line after a summer shutdown. The results from the data taken with this first module indicate that the MACRO experiment is also destined to make a significant contribution to our understanding of the origin and nature of several interesting high energy cosmic ray phenomenon. Lastly, our group has begun to devote some of its attention toward the subject of carrying our experiments at the SSC. During the past year, we began a study of the suitability of liquid scintillator for calorimetry at the SSC and an investigation into the development of new detector technology for use as a tracking chamber of SSC experiments. In the accompanying report we will present the details of these and other accomplishments which have been achieved this year and outline our group's plan for its continued participation in these research programs

  10. Experience in the fabrication of 224 cm diameter electromagnet and coil for the Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre (Paper No. 005)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, J.; Das, S.K.; Bhattacharjee, B.B.

    1987-02-01

    The largest and vital component of a cyclotron is the D.C. magnet. The magnet core of cyclotron of the Variable Energy Cyclotron, Calcutta, is of H-shaped and made from low carbon steel casting and weighs nearly 262 tonnes. In length, width and height, the magnet is 6096mm x 2235mm x 2896mm respectively. The pole piece diameter is 2235mm with pole gap of 190.5±0.127. For convenient of handling and transportation, the upper and lower yoke of the magnet is in five pieces each. Apart from this, magnet has two numbers of legs and two numbers of pole pieces. The pole pieces are again splitted in two pieces for the convenience of fabrication assembly. The dimensions of the castings in the finished machined condition are 6096±1.5 x 889 x 447±0.026 for yoke slabs and 1117.6±0.8 (H) x 1092±1.5 (L) x 2235±1.5 (Max.) x 1422 (Min.) mm for the magnet legs. The weight of each casting of yoke slab is 19000 kg and that of leg casting is 17420 Kg each. The castings are required to have required magnetic saturation value and soundness of casting to the rolled steel standard. (author). 7 figs

  11. High energy physics program at Texas A and M University. Final report, April 1, 1995 - March 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The experimental and theoretical high energy physics programs at Texas A ampersand M University have continued their vigorous research activities over the past year. This is the final report on activities which have been supported through DOE grant DE-FG05-91ER40633. This report covers the period January 1, 1995 to December 31, 1995. The project includes a component which has used the Fermilab Tevatron, as part of the Collider Detector (CDF) collaboration. They have been involved in operations and theory work on supersymmetry (SUSY). Another component works with the MACRO experiment at the Gran Sasso Laboratory in l'Aquila, Italy, to study magnetic monopoles, astrophysical neutrinos, and cosmic ray phenomena. A third effort has been involved in developing an Expression of Interest and a Fermilab proposal for a large fine-grained magnetic sampling detector to be used for studying events inducted by accelerator or atmospheric neutrinos as a way to search for neutrino oscillations (MINOS). Finally the theoretical effort has addressed string theory, model building, SUSY phenomenology, astroparticle physics, and brain function and quantum mechanics

  12. Recycling and recommissioning a used biomedical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, L.R.; Ramsey, F.; Armbruster, J.; Montenero, M.

    2001-01-01

    Biomedical Cyclotrons have a very long life, but there eventually comes a time when any piece of equipment has to be retired from service. From time to time, we have the opportunity to help find new homes for used cyclotrons which, with relatively modest overhaul and refurbishment, can have many additional years of productive service, and thus represent a very valuable asset. The reasons for retiring a cyclotron vary, of course, but in our experience it is often due to an institution's changing priorities or changing needs, rather than the due to any fundamental age-related deficiency in the cyclotron itself. In this paper we will report on the relocation and successful restoration of a used TCC CP-42 cyclotron, which was moved from M.D. Anderson Hospital in Houston to Denton, Texas in early 1998, where it is presently being used for R and D and commercial production of biomedical isotopes. Ownership of the machine has been transferred to the University of North Texas; facility, manpower, and operational resources are provided by International Isotopes, Inc

  13. High vacuum test of the dynamic components of the cyclotron dee chamber at the 224 cm variable energy cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintalapudi, S.N.; Bandopadhyay, D.K.; Ghosh, D.K.; Gowariker, S.R.

    1979-01-01

    The 224 cm Variable Energy Cyclotron constructed and commissioned at Calcutta comprises a number of dynamic components in the high vacuum Dee Chamber. The static and dynamic conditions of these components have to be tested for high vacuum worthiness prior to their installation in the Dee Tank. A special set up was fabricated and used for simulating the Dee Chamber conditions and testing the components. A high vacuum of the order of 1 x 10 -5 torr was achieved under both dynamic and static conditions with and without coolant hydraulic pressures. The details of the set up, methods employed for the various tests carried out and the results obtained are described. (auth.)

  14. Public Outreach of the South Texas Health Physic Society and Texas A and M University Nuclear Engineering Department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, R. O.

    2003-01-01

    In a cooperative effort of the members of the South Texas Chapter of the Heath Physics Society (STC-HPS) and the Texas A and M University Nuclear Engineering Department, great efforts have been made to reach out and provide educational opportunities to members of the general public, school age children, and specifically teachers. These efforts have taken the form of Science Teacher Workshops (STW), visits to schools all over the state of Texas, public forums, and many other educational arenas. A major motivational factor for these most recent efforts can be directly tied to the attempt of the State of Texas to site a low-level radioactive waste facility near Sierra Blanca in West Texas. When the State of Texas first proposed to site a low level radioactive waste site after the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 was passed, many years of political struggle ensued. Finally, a site at Sierra Blanca in far West Texas was selected for study and characterization for a disposal site for waste generated in the Texas Compact states of Maine, Vermont and Texas. During this process, the outreach to and education of the local public became a paramount issue

  15. Annual progress report for the high-energy-physics program at Texas A and M University, December 1, 1981-December 1, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, P.M.; Webb, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    The High-Energy Group at Texas A and M has continued to strengthen and grow during this the first full year of funding from the Department of Energy. The past year was marked by several successes: (a) the funding of our group's GUT monopole search, (b) the construction and testing of a prototype hadron calorimeter for the Fermilab Collider Detector, (c) a preliminary agreement on our group's responsibilities for the Fermilab Collider Detector, and (d) the beginning of the assembly of the monopole detector at Avery Island, Louisiana. The accompanying progress report will detail the progress being made by our group in these areas over the past year. In addition, future plans and funding requests for continued DOE support for the period April 1, 1983 to March 31, 1984, are presented

  16. Center for Space Power, Texas A and M University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ken

    Johnson Controls is a 106 year old company employing 42,000 people worldwide with $4.7 billion annual sales. Though we are new to the aerospace industry we are a world leader in automobile battery manufacturing, automotive seating, plastic bottling, and facilities environment controls. The battery division produces over 24,000,000 batteries annually under private label for the new car manufacturers and the replacement market. We are entering the aerospace market with the nickel hydrogen battery with the help of NASA's Center for Space Power at Texas A&M. Unlike traditional nickel hydrogen battery manufacturers, we are reaching beyond the space applications to the higher volume markets of aircraft starting and utility load leveling. Though space applications alone will not provide sufficient volume to support the economies of scale and opportunities for statistical process control, these additional terrestrial applications will. For example, nickel hydrogen batteries do not have the environmental problems of nickel cadmium or lead acid and may someday start your car or power your electric vehicle. However you envision the future, keep in mind that no manufacturer moves into a large volume market without fine tuning their process. The Center for Space Power at Texas A&M is providing indepth technical analysis of all of the materials and fabricated parts of our battery as well as thermal and mechanical design computer modeling. Several examples of what we are doing with nickel hydrogen chemistry to lead to these production efficiencies are presented.

  17. Annual progress report and renewal request for high energy physics at Texas A and M University, January 1-December 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The experimental high energy physics program at Texas A and M University has continued to make progress in carrying out its research programs begun over the past several years. The GUT magnetic monopole research program started in 1982 has reached the data taking stage within the last six months. The status of that experiment is presented, and preliminary results of this search are discussed. Secondly, our participation in the construction of the forward/backward hadron calorimeter systems for the Fermilab CDF project has begun to make significant progress, following the signing of our experimental agreement in April of this year. The status of our chamber construction and our plans for the coming year are reported. Lastly, efforts to participate in an international collaboration to search for GUT magnetic monopoles at the new Gran Sasso Laboratory under construction in Italy are reported

  18. Electrostatic ion cyclotron waves and ion energy diffusion in a mirror machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, W.C.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements of ion cyclotron fluctuations and ion energy diffusion in the neutral beam injected 2XIIB mirror machine are presented. A narrow band single mode spectrum is always observed. When the plasma is de-stabilized by turning off axially injected streaming plasma, the wave amplitude increases and a simultaneous increase in ion-energy diffusion is observed. The spectral properties of the wave do not change. The data are in accord with a wave particle saturation of the drift cyclotron loss cone (DCLC) mode

  19. Potential of cyclotron based accelerators for energy production and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stammbach, T.; Adam, S.; Fitze, H.R. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    PSI operates a 590 MeV-cyclotron facility for high intensity proton beams for the production of intense beams of pions and muons. The facility, commissioned in 1974, has been partially upgraded and is now operated routinely at a beam current of 1 mA, which corresponds to a beam power of 0.6 MW. At this current, the beam losses in the cyclotron are about 0.02%. By the end of 1995 the authors expect to have 1.5 mA of protons. Extensive theoretical investigations on beam current limitations in isochronous cyclotrons were undertaken. They show that the longitudinal space charge effects dominate. Based on their experience the authors present a preliminary design of a cyclotron scheme that could produce a 10 MW beam as a driver for an {open_quotes}energy amplifier{close_quotes} as proposed by C. Rubbia and his collaborators. The expected efficiency for the conversion of AC into beam power would be about 50% (for the RF-systems only). The beam losses in the cyclotron are expected to be a few {mu}A, leading to a tolerable activation level.

  20. Initiatives in national and international collaborations at Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viyogi, Yogendra Pathak; Chakrabarti, Alok

    2008-01-01

    Over the last two decades VECC scientists, under the leadership of their director Bikash Sinha, have pursued experimental physics studies under international collaboration programmes, which would not have been possible with the existing facilities at home. The collaboration extended from RIKEN (Japan) in the east to CERN (Switzerland) in the west. It spanned the energy scales from a few tens of MeV per nucleon to several hundred GeV per nucleon and the physics topics on one extreme being the structure of exotic nuclei and their decay modes and on other extreme being the phase transition of hadronic matter and the formation of quark gluon plasma. The dynamic leadership of Dr. Sinha not only helped to shed the initial inhibitions towards such activities, going beyond the national frontiers, but also gave a new dimension to the experimental physics research in the country. It helped to organize an Indian team of scientists from various national institutes and universities. It paved way for full scale funding of the projects and set the trend that enabled many other Indian groups to join several international collaborations in various fields. Here we reflect on the evolution of these national and international collaboration programmes and the physics, technological and sociological benefits resulting from these activities. (author)

  1. High energy physics program at Texas A&M University. Final report, April 1, 1990--March 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The Texas A&M experimental high energy physics program has been supported since its inception by DOE Contract DE-AS05-81ER40039. During that period we established a viable experimental program at a university which before this time had no program in high energy physics. In 1990, the experimental program was augmented with a program in particle theory. In the accompanying final report, we outline the research work accomplished during the final year of this contract and the program being proposed for consideration by the Department of Energy for future grant support. Some of the particular areas covered are: Collider detector at Fermilab program; the TAMU MACRO program; SSC R&D program; SSC experimental program; and theoretical physics program.

  2. High-energy-physics program at Texas A and M University. Annual progress report, July 15-December 1, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, P.M.; Webb, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Progress on development of the forward spectrometer for the Collider Detector Facility at Fermilab's anti p p collider is described. Design and construction of the hadron calorimeter system, development of the microchannel plate intensifier for the Chernkov counter, and developments in software support are briefly discussed

  3. A new approach for manufacturing and processing targets to produce 99mTc with cyclotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, L.; McRae, G.; Galea, R.; Niculae, D.; Craciun, L.; Leonte, R.; Surette, G.; Langille, S.; Louis, C. St.; Gelbart, W.; Abeysekera, B.; Johnson, R. R.

    2017-06-01

    The most important radioisotope for nuclear medicine is 99mTc. After the supply crisis of 99Mo starting in 2008, the availability of 99mTc became a worldwide concern. Alternative methods for producing the medical imaging isotope 99mTc are actively being developed around the world. The reaction 100Mo(p, 2n)99mTc provides a direct route that can be incorporated into routine production in nuclear medicine centers that possess medical cyclotrons for production of other isotopes, such as those used for Positron Emission Tomography. This paper describes a new approach for manufacturing targets for the (p, 2n) nuclear reaction on 100Mo and the foundation for the subsequent commercial separation and purification of the 99mTc produced. Two designs of targets are presented. The targets used to produce 99mTc are subject to a number of operational constraints.They must withstand the temperatures generated by the irradiation, accommodate temperature gradients from cooling system of the target, must be resilient and must be easily post-processed to separate the 99mTc. After irradiation, the separation of Tc from Mo was carried out using an innovative two-step approach. The process described in this paper can be automated with modules that easily fit in standard production hot cells found in nuclear medicine facilities.

  4. Observation of inward and outward particle convection in the core of electron cyclotron heated and current driven plasmas in the Tokamak a Configuration Variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furno, I.; Weisen, H.

    2003-01-01

    In the Tokamak a Configuration Variable [F. Hofmann, J.B. Lister, M. Anton et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 36, B277 (1994)], inward or outward convection in the core of electron cyclotron heated and current driven plasmas is observed, depending on discharge conditions. In sawtoothing discharges with central electron cyclotron heating, outward convection is observed when a quasicontinuous m=1 kink mode is present, resulting in inverted sawteeth on the central electron density, while in the absence thereof, inward convection between successive sawtooth crashes leads to 'normal' sawteeth. The occurrence of a kink mode depends sensitively on plasma triangularity. When sawteeth are stabilized with central co- or counterelectron cyclotron current drive, stationary hollow electron density profiles are observed in the presence of m=1 modes, while peaked or flat profiles are observed in magnetohydrodynamic quiescent discharges. The observation of peaked density profiles in fully electron cyclotron driven plasmas demonstrates that pinch processes other than the Ware pinch must be responsible for these phenomena

  5. ARRONAX, a high-energy and high-intensity cyclotron for nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddad, Ferid; Guertin, Arnaud; Michel, Nathalie; Ferrer, Ludovic; Carlier, Thomas; Barbet, Jacques; Chatal, Jean-Francois

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed at establishing a list of radionuclides of interest for nuclear medicine that can be produced in a high-intensity and high-energy cyclotron. We have considered both therapeutic and positron emission tomography radionuclides that can be produced using a high-energy and a high-intensity cyclotron such as ARRONAX, which will be operating in Nantes (France) by the end of 2008. Novel radionuclides or radionuclides of current limited availability have been selected according to the following criteria: emission of positrons, low-energy beta or alpha particles, stable or short half-life daughters, half-life between 3 h and 10 days or generator-produced, favourable dosimetry, production from stable isotopes with reasonable cross sections. Three radionuclides appear well suited to targeted radionuclide therapy using beta ( 67 Cu, 47 Sc) or alpha ( 211 At) particles. Positron emitters allowing dosimetry studies prior to radionuclide therapy ( 64 Cu, 124 I, 44 Sc), or that can be generator-produced ( 82 Rb, 68 Ga) or providing the opportunity of a new imaging modality ( 44 Sc) are considered to have a great interest at short term whereas 86 Y, 52 Fe, 55 Co, 76 Br or 89 Zr are considered to have a potential interest at middle term. Several radionuclides not currently used in routine nuclear medicine or not available in sufficient amount for clinical research have been selected for future production. High-energy, high-intensity cyclotrons are necessary to produce some of the selected radionuclides and make possible future clinical developments in nuclear medicine. Associated with appropriate carriers, these radionuclides will respond to a maximum of unmet clinical needs. (orig.) 5

  6. The production of iodine-123 on the Harwell variable energy cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuninghame, J.G.; Hill, J.I.S.; Nichols, A.L.; Taylor, N.K.

    1978-01-01

    123 I has often been called the isotope of choice for dynamic body function studies in nuclear medicine. There has therefore, been a keen interest in the possibility of regular supply of high purity 123 I produced by the Harwell Variable Energy Cyclotron (VEC) and Synchrocyclotron (SC). This report describes a three year research and development programme on the VEC which has resulted in a method for the safe and reliable large scale production of 123 I by irradiation of di-iodomethane with 58 MeV protons. The quality of the product, and the medical trials which have been carried out with it, are also discussed. The processing and handling of the hundreds of millicuries produced during a run presents serious handling problems. These have been solved and the methods and equipment developed are described. (author)

  7. Implementation of EPICS based vacuum control system for variable energy cyclotron centre, Kolkata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anindya; Bhole, R. B.; Nandy, Partha P.; Yadav, R. C.; Pal, Sarbajit; Roy, Amitava

    2015-03-01

    The vacuum system of the Room Temperature (K = 130) Cyclotron of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre is comprised of vacuum systems of main machine and Beam Transport System. The vacuum control system is upgraded to a PLC based Automated system from the initial relay based Manual system. The supervisory control of the vacuum system is implemented in Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). An EPICS embedded ARM based vacuum gauge controller is developed to mitigate the requirement of vendor specific gauge controller for gauges and also for seamless integration of the gauge controllers with the control system. A set of MS-Windows ActiveX components with embedded EPICS Channel Access interface are developed to build operator interfaces with less complex programming and to incorporate typical Windows feature, e.g., user authentication, file handling, better fonts, colors, mouse actions etc. into the operator interfaces. The control parameters, monitoring parameters, and system interlocks of the system are archived in MySQL based EPICS MySQL Archiver developed indigenously. In this paper, we describe the architecture, the implementation details, and the performance of the system.

  8. Implementation of EPICS based vacuum control system for variable energy cyclotron centre, Kolkata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Anindya, E-mail: r-ani@vecc.gov.in; Bhole, R. B.; Nandy, Partha P.; Yadav, R. C.; Pal, Sarbajit; Roy, Amitava [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India)

    2015-03-15

    The vacuum system of the Room Temperature (K = 130) Cyclotron of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre is comprised of vacuum systems of main machine and Beam Transport System. The vacuum control system is upgraded to a PLC based Automated system from the initial relay based Manual system. The supervisory control of the vacuum system is implemented in Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). An EPICS embedded ARM based vacuum gauge controller is developed to mitigate the requirement of vendor specific gauge controller for gauges and also for seamless integration of the gauge controllers with the control system. A set of MS-Windows ActiveX components with embedded EPICS Channel Access interface are developed to build operator interfaces with less complex programming and to incorporate typical Windows feature, e.g., user authentication, file handling, better fonts, colors, mouse actions etc. into the operator interfaces. The control parameters, monitoring parameters, and system interlocks of the system are archived in MySQL based EPICS MySQL Archiver developed indigenously. In this paper, we describe the architecture, the implementation details, and the performance of the system.

  9. Implementation of EPICS based vacuum control system for variable energy cyclotron centre, Kolkata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Anindya; Bhole, R. B.; Nandy, Partha P.; Yadav, R. C.; Pal, Sarbajit; Roy, Amitava

    2015-01-01

    The vacuum system of the Room Temperature (K = 130) Cyclotron of Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre is comprised of vacuum systems of main machine and Beam Transport System. The vacuum control system is upgraded to a PLC based Automated system from the initial relay based Manual system. The supervisory control of the vacuum system is implemented in Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). An EPICS embedded ARM based vacuum gauge controller is developed to mitigate the requirement of vendor specific gauge controller for gauges and also for seamless integration of the gauge controllers with the control system. A set of MS-Windows ActiveX components with embedded EPICS Channel Access interface are developed to build operator interfaces with less complex programming and to incorporate typical Windows feature, e.g., user authentication, file handling, better fonts, colors, mouse actions etc. into the operator interfaces. The control parameters, monitoring parameters, and system interlocks of the system are archived in MySQL based EPICS MySQL Archiver developed indigenously. In this paper, we describe the architecture, the implementation details, and the performance of the system

  10. A beam energy measurement system at NIRS-930 cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojo, S.; Honma, T.; Sakamoto, Y.; Miyahara, N.; Okada, T.; Komatsu, K.; Tsuji, N.; Yamada, S.

    2005-01-01

    A beam energy measurement system employing a set of capacitive probes has been developed at NIRS-930 cyclotron. Principle of the measurement is applying a modified-TOF method, so that the two proves are installed at one of the straight section in the beam transport line. Usually they are separated about 5.8 m, which is equivalent to the almost final path length of the beam extracted in the cyclotron. In the measurement, two beam signals are superimposed by adjusting a position of the downstream-probe along the beam direction with watching an oscilloscope screen roughly. In order to determine the beam energy accurately the signals are processed by MCA with suitable electric module. (author)

  11. Status of the Texas A and M GUT monopole search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of a large area (approx. 53 m 2 ) scintillation counter telescope to detect the passage of a slow moving, superheavy, magnetic monopole. The detector is described and the expected signature for a passing magnetic monopole is presented. The detector utilizes acrylic based scintillation material as the detector medium. The electronics for the monopole search were selected and designed to be sensitive to the properties of the Grand Unified Theory (GUT) monopoles. The described experiment is located underground at a depth of 1500' in a nearby salt mine

  12. In-house cyclotron production of high-purity Tc-99m and Tc-99m radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Petra; Boschi, Alessandra; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Zagni, Federico; Corazza, Andrea; Uccelli, Licia; Pasquali, Micòl; Pupillo, Gaia; Marengo, Mario; Loriggiola, Massimo; Skliarova, Hanna; Mou, Liliana; Cisternino, Sara; Carturan, Sara; Melendez-Alafort, Laura; Uzunov, Nikolay M; Bello, Michele; Alvarez, Carlos Rossi; Esposito, Juan; Duatti, Adriano

    2018-05-30

    In the last years, the technology for producing the important medical radionuclide technetium-99m by cyclotrons has become sufficiently mature to justify its introduction as an alternative source of the starting precursor [ 99m Tc][TcO 4 ] - ubiquitously employed for the production of 99m Tc-radiopharmaceuticals in hospitals. These technologies make use almost exclusively of the nuclear reaction 100 Mo(p,2n) 99m Tc that allows direct production of Tc-99m. In this study, it is conjectured that this alternative production route will not replace the current supply chain based on the distribution of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators, but could become a convenient emergency source of Tc-99m only for in-house hospitals equipped with a conventional, low-energy, medical cyclotron. On this ground, an outline of the essential steps that should be implemented for setting up a hospital radiopharmacy aimed at the occasional production of Tc-99m by a small cyclotron is discussed. These include (1) target production, (2) irradiation conditions, (3) separation/purification procedures, (4) terminal sterilization, (5) quality control, and (6) Mo-100 recovery. To address these issues, a comprehensive technology for cyclotron-production of Tc-99m, developed at the Legnaro National Laboratories of the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (LNL-INFN), will be used as a reference example. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nuclear Safeguards and Non-Proliferation Education at Texas A&M University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gariazzo, C.; Charlton, W.

    2015-01-01

    The MS degree in Nuclear Engineering - Non-proliferation at Texas A&M University is administered by the Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute (NSSPI). The oldest and largest of its kind in the US, 45 M.S. and 15 Ph.D. students conducted technical research in relevant areas: safeguards, nuclear security, non-proliferation, and arms control. In addition to focusing on graduate education with a wide combination of internationally-recognized talent, NSSPI faculty lead research and service activities in safeguarding of nuclear materials and reducing nuclear threats. Texas A&M Nuclear Engineering students take relevant nonproliferation and safeguards courses (within the College of Engineering and the Texas A&M Bush School of Government) as well as conduct their research under competent experts. The complete educational experience here is unique because of the strong research and educational support NSSPI provides. This paper will detail these endeavors and convey contributions from NSSPI for developing next-generation safeguards experts via practical experiences and strong affiliations with real-world practitioners. The safeguards and non-proliferation education programme blends historical, legal, technical and policy aspects that is unique for a technical university such as Texas A&M. Beyond classroom lectures, NSSPI provides opportunities for students ranging from asynchronous learning modules to practical experiences. Publicly-available self-paced, online course modules in basic and advanced safeguards education have been developed by NSSPI as supplemental nuclear education for students and professionals. By leveraging NSSPI's contacts, students participate in exchange programmes with international institutions as well as partake in experiences like engaging safeguards practitioners at nuclear fuel cycle facilities around the world, conducting experiments at internationally-renowned laboratories, and representing their communities at workshops worldwide

  14. Magnet field design considerations for a high energy superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botman, J.I.M.; Craddock, M.K.; Kost, C.J.; Richardson, J.R.

    1983-08-01

    This paper reports the pole shape designs for a two stage superconducting isochronous cyclotron combination (CANUCK) to accelerate 100 μA proton beams to 15 GeV. The pole shape of the 15 sectors of the first stage 3.5 GeV proton cyclotron provides isochronism over the full energy range and a constant axial tune over all but the lowest energies. Progress on the pole design of the 42 sector 15 GeV second stage is also reported. The magnetic fields are computed from the current distribution of the superconducting coils and the infinitely thin current sheets simulating the fully saturated poles. A least squares method is used to minimize deviations from isochronism by adjusting the size of various elemental shim coils placed around the main coil. The method to obtain the desired axial tune is described

  15. The Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute at Texas A&M University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio A. Gariazzo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Nuclear Security Science and Policy Institute (NSSPI is a multidisciplinary organization at Texas A&M University and was the first U.S. academic institution focused on technical graduate education, research, and service related to the safeguarding of nuclear materials and the reduction of nuclear threats. NSSPI employs science, engineering, and policy expertise to: (1 conduct research and development to help detect, prevent, and reverse nuclear and radiological proliferation and guard against nuclear terrorism; (2 educate the next generation of nuclear security and nuclear nonproliferation leaders; (3 analyze the interrelationships between policy and technology in the field of nuclear security; and (4 serve as a public resource for knowledge and skills to reduce nuclear threats. Since 2006, over 31 Doctoral and 73 Master degrees were awarded through NSSPI-sponsored research. Forty-one of those degrees are Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering with a specialization in Nuclear Nonproliferation and 16 were Doctorate of Philosophy degrees with a specific focus on nuclear nonproliferation. Over 200 students from both technical and policy backgrounds have taken classes provided by NSSPI at Texas A&M. The model for creating safeguards and security experts, which has in large part been replicated worldwide, was established at Texas A&M by NSSPI faculty and staff. In addition to conventional classroom lectures, NSSPI faculty have provided practical experiences; advised students on valuable research projects that have contributed substantially to the overall nuclear nonproliferation, safeguards and security arenas; and engaged several similar academic and research institutes around the world in activities and research for the benefit of Texas A&M students. NSSPI has had an enormous impact on the nuclear nonproliferation workforce (across the international community in the past 8 years, and this paper is an attempt to summarize the activities

  16. Installation and testing of a hospital-based cyclotron for radiation therapy and isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almond, P.R.; Marbach, J.R.; Otte, V.A.

    1983-01-01

    A hospital based cyclotron is under installation at The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Hospital in Houston. This machine will be used for the production of radioactive isotopes and for the generation of neutrons for the radiotherapy treatment of cancer. It is a Cyclotron Corporation CP-42 negative proton accelerator. For neutron production the protons are transported through an isocentrically mounted beam transport system that can be rotated around the patient. The shielding requirements of this facility will be described as will the initial measurements on the characteristics of the neutron beam

  17. Safety-evaluation report related to renewal of the operating license for the Texas A and M University Research Reactor. Docket No. 50-128, License R-83

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-03-01

    This Safety Evaluation Report for the application filed by the Texas A and M University (Texas A and M) for a renewal of operating license number R-83 to continue to operate a research reactor has been prepared by the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The facility is owned and operated by the Texas Engineering and Experiment Station of the Texas A and M University and is located on the campus in College Station, Brazos County, Texas. The staff concludes that the TRIGA reactor facility can continue to be operated by Texas A and M University without endangering the health and safety of the public

  18. A history of effluent releases from the Texas A and M University reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, E F; Neff, R D; Sandel, P S; Schoenbucher, B [Texas A and M University (United States)

    1974-07-01

    Since 1966 records of radioactive effluents releases from the Texas A and M University Research Reactor have been compiled. These data include particulate activity, noble gases, and liquid effluent releases. Particulate activity releases with half-lives greater than eight days were negligible and are not included in this presentation. Conversion from an MTR plate reactor to a TRIGA fueled reactor was completed in August 1968. Records of effluent releases of Argon-4l and liquids for the past, five years are summarized, in this presentation. These release data are compared to the current limits specified: in 10 CPR 20 and the limits appearing in proposed Appendix.

  19. Texas A&M Physics Festival: bringing together the community, faculty, and students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erukhimova, Tatiana

    Texas A&M Physics Festival started in 2003 with a dozen of hands-on exhibits and an inaugural lecture by Stephen Hawking. Over the years it evolved into one of the largest STEM outreach events in the area. The Festival attracts over 4000 visitors annually from all over Texas and other states. It features over 100 interactive exhibits displayed by faculty and students, public lectures by world-renowned scientists and astronauts, professional bubble shows, and many other activities. I will report on the structure of the Festival as well as strategies for involving undergraduate and graduate students and faculty in public outreach. I will further discuss the results of an independent evaluation of the 2015 Festival by the NSF-funded EvalFest program.

  20. Status of Simulations for the Cyclotron Laboratory at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asova, G.; Goutev, N.; Tonev, D.; Artinyan, A.

    2018-05-01

    The Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy is preparing to operate a high-power cyclotron for production of radioisotopes for nuclear medicine, research in radiochemistry, radiobiology, nuclear physics, solid state physics. The cyclotron is a TR24 produced by ASCI, Canada, capable to deliver proton beams in the energy range of 15 to 24 MeV with current as high as 400 µA. Multiple extraction lines can be fed. The primary goal of the project is the production of PET and SPECT isotopes as 18F, 67,68Ga, 99mTc, etc. This contribution reports the status of the project. Design considerations for the cyclotron vault will be discussed for some of the target radioisotopes.

  1. Engineering and management experience at Texas A&M Transportation Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Arif Tahjibul

    This manuscript presents the author's engineering and management experience during his internship in the Materials and Pavements (M&P) Division at the Texas A&M Transportation Institute (TTI), and is a record of study for the Doctor of Engineering at Texas A&M University. Through this internship, he met his established internship objectives of gaining technical knowledge as well as knowledge and skills in project management, organizational communication, and quality management of pavement condition data, and of attaining professional development. In meeting these objectives, the author describes the history, mission, and organizational structure of his workplace. He also presents his experience of developing and delivering a two-week training course on pavement design and construction in Kosovo. Participating in a number of professional development training courses and other activities prepared him for working as an engineering manager. These activities include Delta-T leadership training, an instructor development course, a time management and organizational skills course, and the M&P Division lecture series. Leadership and skills learned through the Delta-T program were beneficial for the employee as well as the employer. For the class project, the author and his teammates performed a study dealing with improving TTI's deliverables. The Delta-T team composed a report summarizing their efforts of examining the current state of TTI's project deliverables, the deliverables' shortcomings, and potential enhancements to expand the deliverables' appeal to additional types of potential users outside the traditional research community. The team also developed a prototype web-based model of deliverables and presented some implementation recommendations. Participating in the Texas Department of Transportation's (TxDOT's) pavement surface distress data collection program enabled the author to become familiar with pavement distress data quality management and thus attain the

  2. Direct production of 99mTc using a small medical cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapi, Suzanne [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2017-10-03

    This project describes an investigation towards the production of 99mTc with a small medical cyclotron. This endeavor addresses the current urgent problem of availability of 99mTc due to the ongoing production reactor failures and the upcoming Canadian reactor shut down. Currently, 99mTc is produced via nuclear fission using highly enriched uranium which is a concern due to nuclear proliferation risks. In addition to this, the United States is dependent solely on currently unreliable foreign sources of this important medical isotope. Clearly, a need exists to probe alternative production routes of 99mTc. In the first year, this project measured cross-sections and production yields of potential pathways to 99mTc and associated radionuclidic impurities produced via these pathways using a small 15 MeV medical cyclotron. During the second and third years target systems for the production of 99mTc via the most promising reaction routes were developed and separation techniques for the isolation of 99mTc from the irradiated target material will be investigated. Systems for the recycling of the enriched target isotopes as well as automated target processing systems were examined in years four and five. This project has the potential to alleviate some of the current crisis in the medical community by developing a technique to produce 99mTc on location at a university hospital. This technology will be applicable at many other sites in the United States as many other similar, low energy (<20 MeV) cyclotrons (currently used for a few hours per day for the production of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose) are available for production of 99mTc though this method, thus leading to job creation and preservation.

  3. A 30 MeV H- cyclotron for isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.F.; Dawson, R.; Erdman, K.L.

    1989-05-01

    Because of an expanding market for radioisotopes there is a need for a new generation of cyclotrons designed specifically for this purpose. TRIUMF is cooperating with a local industrial company in designing and constructing such a cyclotron. It will be a four sector H - cyclotron, exploiting the newly developed high brightness multicusp ion source. This source with H - current capability in excess of 5 mA makes feasible accelerated H - beam intensities of up to 500 μA. Beam extraction is by stripping to H + in a thin graphite foil. Extraction of two high-intensity beams, with energy variable from 15 to 30 MeV is planned. The use of an external ion source, provision of a good vacuum in the acceleration region, and the careful choice of materials for components in the median plane leads to a cyclotron that will have low activation and can be easily serviced in spite of the very high operating beam intensities. A design extension to 70 MeV using many of the design features of the 30 MeV cyclotron can be easily made. Such a machine with a good quality variable energy beam is a highly desirable source of protons for isotope production, injection into higher energy high intensity acceleration, injection into higher energy high intensity accelerators, and as an irradiation facility for ocular melanomas. Design of the 30 MeV cyclotron is well advanced and construction is in progress

  4. A small low energy cyclotron for radioisotope measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsche, K.J.

    1989-11-01

    Direct detection of 14 C by accelerator mass spectrometry has proved to be a much more sensitive method for radiocarbon dating than the decay counting method invented earlier by Libby. A small cyclotron (the ''cyclotrino'') was proposed for direct detection of radiocarbon in 1980. This combined the suppression of background through the use of negative ions, which had been used effectively in tandem accelerators, with the high intrinsic mass resolution of a cyclotron. Development of a small electrostatically-focused cyclotron for use as a mass spectrometer was previously reported but the sensitivity needed for detection of 14 C at natural abundance was not achieved. The major contributions of this work are the integration of a high current external ion source with a small flat-field, electrostatically-focused cyclotron to comprise a system capable of measuring 14 C at natural levels, and the analysis of ion motion in such a cyclotron, including a detailed analysis of phase bunching and its effect on mass resolution. A high current cesium sputter negative ion source generates a beam of carbon ions which is pre-separated with a Wien filter and is transported to the cyclotron via a series of electrostatic lenses. Beam is injected radially into the cyclotron using electrostatic deflectors and an electrostatic mirror. Axial focusing is entirely electrostatic. A microchannel plate detector is used with a phase-grated output. In its present form the system is capable of improving the sensitivity of detecting 14 C in some biomedical experiments by a factor of 10 4 . Modifications are discussed which could bring about an additional factor of 100 in sensitivity, which is important for archaeological and geological applications. Possibilities for measurements of other isotopes, such as 3 H, and 10 Be, and 26 Al, are discussed. 70 refs

  5. Considerations, measurements and logistics associated with low-energy cyclotron decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunderland, J. J.; Erdahl, C. E.; Bender, B. R.; Sensoy, L.; Watkins, G. L.

    2012-01-01

    The University of Iowa’s 20-year-old 17 MeV Scanditronix cyclotron underwent decommissioning in the summer of 2011. To satisfy local, state and federal regulations defining removal, transportation and long-term safe and environmentally secure disposal of the 22 ton activated cyclotron, a series of nuclear spectroscopic measurements were performed to characterize the nature and extent of proton and neutron activation of the 22-ton cyclotron, its associated targets, and the concrete wall that was demolished to remove the old cyclotron. Neutron activation of the concrete wall was minimal and below exempt concentrations resulting in standard landfill disposal. The cyclotron assessment revealed the expected array of short and medium-lived radionuclides. Subsequent calculations suggest that meaningful levels residual activity will have decayed virtually to background after 15 years, with the total residual activity of the entire cyclotron dropping below 37 MBq (1 mCi).

  6. A solvent-extraction module for cyclotron production of high-purity technetium-99m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Petra; Boschi, Alessandra; Cicoria, Gianfranco; Uccelli, Licia; Pasquali, Micòl; Duatti, Adriano; Pupillo, Gaia; Marengo, Mario; Loriggiola, Massimo; Esposito, Juan

    2016-12-01

    The design and fabrication of a fully-automated, remotely controlled module for the extraction and purification of technetium-99m (Tc-99m), produced by proton bombardment of enriched Mo-100 molybdenum metallic targets in a low-energy medical cyclotron, is here described. After dissolution of the irradiated solid target in hydrogen peroxide, Tc-99m was obtained under the chemical form of 99m TcO 4 - , in high radionuclidic and radiochemical purity, by solvent extraction with methyl ethyl ketone (MEK). The extraction process was accomplished inside a glass column-shaped vial especially designed to allow for an easy automation of the whole procedure. Recovery yields were always >90% of the loaded activity. The final pertechnetate saline solution Na 99m TcO 4 , purified using the automated module here described, is within the Pharmacopoeia quality control parameters and is therefore a valid alternative to generator-produced 99m Tc. The resulting automated module is cost-effective and easily replicable for in-house production of high-purity Tc-99m by cyclotrons. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of high energy electrons on H⁻ production and destruction in a high current DC negative ion source for cyclotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onai, M; Etoh, H; Aoki, Y; Shibata, T; Mattei, S; Fujita, S; Hatayama, A; Lettry, J

    2016-02-01

    Recently, a filament driven multi-cusp negative ion source has been developed for proton cyclotrons in medical applications. In this study, numerical modeling of the filament arc-discharge source plasma has been done with kinetic modeling of electrons in the ion source plasmas by the multi-cusp arc-discharge code and zero dimensional rate equations for hydrogen molecules and negative ions. In this paper, main focus is placed on the effects of the arc-discharge power on the electron energy distribution function and the resultant H(-) production. The modelling results reasonably explains the dependence of the H(-) extraction current on the arc-discharge power in the experiments.

  8. Steven Hawking to visit Texas A&M in spring

    CERN Multimedia

    Xavier, D

    2002-01-01

    Stephen Hawking will visit Texas A&M University from Feb. 24 to March 21 2003 to participate in the inaugural meeting of the George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics. This institute will bring several of the world's top physicists to A&M for a month-long exploration of the latest ideas on topics ranging from superstrings to M-theory and supergravity (1/2 page).

  9. The Texas A and M student branch's annual high school teachers' conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.; Clements, M.

    1991-01-01

    To quote the American Nuclear Society (ANS) Student Constitution, the objective of a student branch is the advancement of science and engineering relating to the atomic nucleus, and of allied science and arts. The Texas A and M University (TAMU) student chapter has extended this objective to that of promoting a better understanding of the nuclear sciences by the general public. The student branch has attempted to reach these objectives by sponsoring a variety of activities designed to motivate and interest individuals to become more aware of nuclear technology and its benefits. These activities are directed toward fellow college students, high school teachers and students, and the surrounding community. One of the largest and most important activities organized by the TAMU student branch is the annual student conference

  10. National cyclotron centre at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonev, D.; Goutev, N.; Asova, G.; Artinyan, A.; Demerdjiev, A.; Georgiev, L. S.; Yavahchova, M.; Bashev, V.; Genchev, S. G.; Geleva, E.; Mincheva, M.; Nikolov, A.; Dimitrov, D. T.

    2018-05-01

    An accelerator laboratory is presently under construction in Sofia at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy. The laboratory will use a TR24 type of cyclotron, which provides a possibility to accelerate a proton beam with an energy of 15 to 24 MeV and current of up to 0.4 mA. An accelerator with such parameters allows to produce a large variety of radioisotopes for development of radiopharmaceuticals. The most common radioisotopes that can be produced with such a cyclotron are PET isotopes like: 11C, 13N, 15O, 18F, 124I, 64Cu, 68Ge/68Ga, and SPECT isotopes like: 123I, 111In, 67Ga, 57Co, 99mTc. Our aim is to use the cyclotron facility for research in the fields of radiopharmacy, radiochemistry, radiobiology, nuclear physics, materials sciences, applied research, new materials and for education in all these fields including nuclear energy. Presently we perform investigations in the fields of target design for production of radioisotopes, shielding and radioprotection, new ion sources etc.

  11. Source, variability, and transformation of nitrate in a regional karst aquifer: Edwards aquifer, central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Opsahl, Stephen P.; Mahler, Barbara J.; Herrington, Chris; Sample, Thomas; Banta, John

    2016-01-01

    Many karst regions are undergoing rapid population growth and expansion of urban land accompanied by increases in wastewater generation and changing patterns of nitrate (NO3−) loading to surface and groundwater. We investigate variability and sources of NO3− in a regional karst aquifer system, the Edwards aquifer of central Texas. Samples from streams recharging the aquifer, groundwater wells, and springs were collected during 2008–12 from the Barton Springs and San Antonio segments of the Edwards aquifer and analyzed for nitrogen (N) species concentrations and NO3− stable isotopes (δ15N and δ18O). These data were augmented by historical data collected from 1937 to 2007. NO3− concentrations and discharge data indicate that short-term variability (days to months) in groundwater NO3− concentrations in the Barton Springs segment is controlled by occurrence of individual storms and multi-annual wet-dry cycles, whereas the lack of short-term variability in groundwater in the San Antonio segment indicates the dominance of transport along regional flow paths. In both segments, longer-term increases (years to decades) in NO3− concentrations cannot be attributed to hydrologic conditions; rather, isotopic ratios and land-use change indicate that septic systems and land application of treated wastewater might be the source of increased loading of NO3−. These results highlight the vulnerability of karst aquifers to NO3− contamination from urban wastewater. An analysis of N-species loading in recharge and discharge for the Barton Springs segment during 2008–10 indicates an overall mass balance in total N, but recharge contains higher concentrations of organic N and lower concentrations of NO3−than does discharge, consistent with nitrification of organic N within the aquifer and consumption of dissolved oxygen. This study demonstrates that subaqueous nitrification of organic N in the aquifer, as opposed to in soils, might be a previously

  12. Source, variability, and transformation of nitrate in a regional karst aquifer: Edwards aquifer, central Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musgrove, M., E-mail: mmusgrov@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, 1505 Ferguson Lane, Austin, TX 78754 (United States); Opsahl, S.P. [U.S. Geological Survey, 5563 DeZavala, Ste. 290, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Mahler, B.J. [U.S. Geological Survey, 1505 Ferguson Lane, Austin, TX 78754 (United States); Herrington, C. [City of Austin Watershed Protection Department, Austin, TX 78704 (United States); Sample, T.L. [U.S. Geological Survey, 19241 David Memorial Dr., Ste. 180, Conroe, TX 77385 (United States); Banta, J.R. [U.S. Geological Survey, 5563 DeZavala, Ste. 290, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Many karst regions are undergoing rapid population growth and expansion of urban land accompanied by increases in wastewater generation and changing patterns of nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup −}) loading to surface and groundwater. We investigate variability and sources of NO{sub 3}{sup −} in a regional karst aquifer system, the Edwards aquifer of central Texas. Samples from streams recharging the aquifer, groundwater wells, and springs were collected during 2008–12 from the Barton Springs and San Antonio segments of the Edwards aquifer and analyzed for nitrogen (N) species concentrations and NO{sub 3}{sup −} stable isotopes (δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 18}O). These data were augmented by historical data collected from 1937 to 2007. NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations and discharge data indicate that short-term variability (days to months) in groundwater NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations in the Barton Springs segment is controlled by occurrence of individual storms and multi-annual wet-dry cycles, whereas the lack of short-term variability in groundwater in the San Antonio segment indicates the dominance of transport along regional flow paths. In both segments, longer-term increases (years to decades) in NO{sub 3}{sup −} concentrations cannot be attributed to hydrologic conditions; rather, isotopic ratios and land-use change indicate that septic systems and land application of treated wastewater might be the source of increased loading of NO{sub 3}{sup −}. These results highlight the vulnerability of karst aquifers to NO{sub 3}{sup −} contamination from urban wastewater. An analysis of N-species loading in recharge and discharge for the Barton Springs segment during 2008–10 indicates an overall mass balance in total N, but recharge contains higher concentrations of organic N and lower concentrations of NO{sub 3}{sup −} than does discharge, consistent with nitrification of organic N within the aquifer and consumption of dissolved oxygen. This study demonstrates

  13. Source, variability, and transformation of nitrate in a regional karst aquifer: Edwards aquifer, central Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musgrove, M.; Opsahl, S.P.; Mahler, B.J.; Herrington, C.; Sample, T.L.; Banta, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Many karst regions are undergoing rapid population growth and expansion of urban land accompanied by increases in wastewater generation and changing patterns of nitrate (NO 3 − ) loading to surface and groundwater. We investigate variability and sources of NO 3 − in a regional karst aquifer system, the Edwards aquifer of central Texas. Samples from streams recharging the aquifer, groundwater wells, and springs were collected during 2008–12 from the Barton Springs and San Antonio segments of the Edwards aquifer and analyzed for nitrogen (N) species concentrations and NO 3 − stable isotopes (δ 15 N and δ 18 O). These data were augmented by historical data collected from 1937 to 2007. NO 3 − concentrations and discharge data indicate that short-term variability (days to months) in groundwater NO 3 − concentrations in the Barton Springs segment is controlled by occurrence of individual storms and multi-annual wet-dry cycles, whereas the lack of short-term variability in groundwater in the San Antonio segment indicates the dominance of transport along regional flow paths. In both segments, longer-term increases (years to decades) in NO 3 − concentrations cannot be attributed to hydrologic conditions; rather, isotopic ratios and land-use change indicate that septic systems and land application of treated wastewater might be the source of increased loading of NO 3 − . These results highlight the vulnerability of karst aquifers to NO 3 − contamination from urban wastewater. An analysis of N-species loading in recharge and discharge for the Barton Springs segment during 2008–10 indicates an overall mass balance in total N, but recharge contains higher concentrations of organic N and lower concentrations of NO 3 − than does discharge, consistent with nitrification of organic N within the aquifer and consumption of dissolved oxygen. This study demonstrates that subaqueous nitrification of organic N in the aquifer, as opposed to in soils, might be a

  14. Nuclear energy in Texas: major issues and policy recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    On December 15, 1978 the Texas Energy Advisory Council (TEAC) adopted the Texas Energy Policy, 1978 Update. The Council recognized the great complexity of technical, economic, social, and political issues which have an impact on nuclear power, and therefore decided that a special committee was needed to examine in greater detail the nuclear energy issues facing Texas. This report summarizes the work of the Advisory Committee on Nuclear energy. Topics discussed include: biological affects of low levels of radiation; transportation of radioactive material in Texas; uranium mining and milling; severance tax on uranium mining; alternate reactor designs and fuel cycles; financing nuclear plant construction; cost of disposing of nuclear wastes and decommissioning nuclear plants; low-level wastes; disposal of high-level wastes; commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing; and transmutation of radioactive wastes

  15. Cyclotron Production of Technetium-99m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Katherine M.

    Technetium-99m (99mTc) has emerged as the most widely used radionuclide in medicine and is currently obtained from a 99Mo/ 99mTc generator system. At present, there are only a handful of ageing reactors worldwide capable of producing large quantities of the parent isotope, 99Mo, and owing to the ever growing shutdown periods for maintenance and repair of these ageing reactors, the reliable supply 99mTc has been compromised in recent years. With an interest in alternative strategies for producing this key medical isotope, this thesis focuses on several technical challenges related to the direct cyclotron production of 99mTc via the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc reaction. In addition to evaluating the 100Mo(p,2n)99mTc and 100Mo(p,x)99Mo reactions, this work presented the first experimental evaluation of the 100Mo(p,2n) 99gTc excitation function in the range of 8-18 MeV. Thick target calculations suggested that large quantities of cyclotron-produced 99mTc may be possible. For example, a 6 hr irradiation at 500 μA with an energy window of 18→10 MeV is expected to yield 1.15 TBq of 99mTc. The level of coproduced 99gTc contaminant was found to be on par with the current 99Mo/99mTc generator standard eluted with a 24 hr frequency. Highly enriched 100Mo was required as the target material for 99mTc production and a process for recycling of this expensive material is presented. An 87% recovery yield is reported, including metallic target preparation, irradiation, 99mTc extraction, molybdate isolation, and finally hydrogen reduction to the metal. Further improvements are expected with additional optimization experiments. A method for forming structurally stable metallic molybdenum targets has also been developed. These targets are capable of withstanding more than a kilowatt of beam power and the reliable production and extraction of Curie quantities of 99mTc has been demonstrated. With the end-goal of using the cyclotron-produced 99mTc clinically, the quality of the cyclotron

  16. The real-time neutron radiography system at Texas A and M University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuscher, Jon A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and fabrication of a real-time system at Texas A and M University using commercially available and relatively inexpensive components. The real-time neutron radiography system consists of two major components: a camera and image processing equipment. The neutron beam provides a thermal neutron flux of 10 neutrons/cm -sec (cadmium ratio of 4.0) with the TRIGA reactor operating at a power of 1 MW. A remotely operated turntable is used to position the sample in the neutron beam for optimum viewing and ease of changing position. The front surface mirror at 45 deg. to the neutron beam reflects the scintillation image to the lens. The IRO and CCD camera are placed behind shielding out of the neutron. Results using the imaging system for a cadmium plate (0.032 inch thick) with several holes of different diameters are presented. Applications of this neutron radiography system include sensitivity indicators for the spatial resolution of bubbles in water-filled tubes, moisture content of zeolite samples, operating heat pipes and the freezing and thawing of metallic samples

  17. Central region study for a moderate energy cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botman, J.I.M.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis a study of the ion beam behaviour in the central region is described for the AVF cyclotron of the Eindhoven University of Technology. A short survey of experimental results and methods is given. Measurements with the beam diagnostic equipment are described together with extensions of this equipment: with the HF phase measuring system the HF phase of the beam can be measured with an accuracy of 0.5 0 at a current of 50 nA, with the external HF phase probes the beam position can be determined with an accuracy of 0.5 mm for a current of 10 nA, and the energy can be determined with a time of flight measurement with a relative accuracy of 10 -4 . With the time structure system the time resolution can be measured with an accuracy better than 1 0 . With the beam scanners a beam position measurement with an accuracy of 0.1 mm for a minimal current of 1 nA is achieved. (Auth.)

  18. Potential impacts of agricultural drought on crop yield variability under a changing climate in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K.; Leng, G.; Huang, M.; Sheffield, J.; Zhao, G.; Gao, H.

    2017-12-01

    Texas has the largest farm area in the U.S, and its revenue from crop production ranks third overall. With the changing climate, hydrological extremes such as droughts are becoming more frequent and intensified, causing significant yield reduction in rainfed agricultural systems. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential impacts of agricultural drought on crop yields (corn, sorghum, and wheat) under a changing climate in Texas. The Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, which is calibrated and validated over 10 major Texas river basins during the historical period, is employed in this study.The model is forced by a set of statistically downscaled climate projections from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) model ensembles at a spatial resolution of 1/8°. The CMIP5 projections contain four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) that represent different greenhouse gas concentration (4.5 and 8.5 w/m2 are selected in this study). To carry out the analysis, VIC simulations from 1950 to 2099 are first analyzed to investigate how the frequency and severity of agricultural droughts will be altered in Texas (under a changing climate). Second, future crop yields are projected using a statistical crop model. Third, the effects of agricultural drought on crop yields are quantitatively analyzed. The results are expected to contribute to future water resources planning, with a goal of mitigating the negative impacts of future droughts on agricultural production in Texas.

  19. Development of a 20 mA negative hydrogen ion source for cyclotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etoh, H.; Onai, M.; Arakawa, Y.; Aoki, Y.; Mitsubori, H.; Sakuraba, J.; Kato, T.; Mitsumoto, T.; Yajima, S.; Hatayama, A.; Okumura, Y.

    2017-08-01

    A cesiated DC negative ion source has been developed for proton cyclotrons in medical applications. A continuous H- beam of 23 mA was stably extracted at an arc power of 3 kW. The beam current gradually decreases with a constant arc power and without additional Cs injection and the decay rate was about 0.03 mA (0.14%) per hour. A feed-back control system that automatically adjusts the arc power to stabilize the beam current is able to keep the beam current constant at ±0.04 mA (±0.2%).

  20. Energy Policy Case Study - Texas: Wind, Markets, and Grid Modernization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrell, Alice C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Homer, Juliet S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bender, Sadie R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Weimar, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-19

    This document presents a case study of energy policies in Texas related to power system transformation, renewable energy and distributed energy resources (DERs). Texas has experienced a dramatic increase in installed wind capacity, from 116 MW in 2000 to over 15,000 MW in 2015. This achievement was enabled by the designation of Competitive Renewable Energy Zones (CREZs) and new transmission lines that transmit wind to load centers. This report highlights nascent efforts to include DERs in the ERCOT market. As costs decline and adoption rates increase, ERCOT expects distributed generation to have an increasing effect on grid operations, while bringing potentially valuable new resources to the wholesale markets.

  1. High energy fast neutrons from the Harwell variable energy cyclotron. II. Biologic studies in mammalian systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, R.J.; Bance, D.A.; Barnes, D.W.H.; Cox, R.; Goodhead, D.T.; Sansom, J.M.; Thacker, J.

    1977-01-01

    A high energy fast neutron beam potentially suitable for radiotherapy has been described in a companion paper. Its biologic effects have been studied in the following experimental systems: clonal survival and mutation induction after irradiation in vitro in Chinese hamster cells and human diploid fibroblasts; survival of reproductive capacity in vivo of murine hemopoietic colony-forming cells and murine intestinal crypts after irradiation in vivo; survival of reproductive capacity in vivo after irradiation in vitro or in vivo of murine lymphocytic leukemia cells; acute intestinal death following total body irradiation of mice and guinea pigs; and hemopoietic death following total body irradiation of mice and guinea pigs. The relative biologic effectiveness of these high energy neutrons varied among the different biologic systems, and in several cases varied with the size of the radiation dose. The oxygen enhancement ratio was studied in murine lymphocytic leukemia cells irradiated under aerobic or hypoxic conditions in vitro and assayed for survival of reproductive capacity in vivo. Compared with x-rays, the potential therapeutic gain factor for these neutrons was about 1.5. This work represents a ''radiobiologic calibration'' program which it is suggested should be undertaken before new and unknown fast neutron spectra are used for experimental radiotherapy. The results are compared with biologic studies carried out at high energy fast neutron generators in the United States

  2. Public perceptions and information gaps in solar energy in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Varun; Beck, Ariane L.

    2015-07-01

    Studying the behavioral aspects of the individual decision-making process is important in identifying and addressing barriers in the adoption of residential solar photovoltaic (PV). However, there is little systematic research focusing on these aspects of residential PV in Texas, an important, large, populous state, with a range of challenges in the electricity sector including increasing demand, shrinking reserve margins, constrained water supply, and challenging emissions reduction targets under proposed federal regulations. This paper aims to address this gap through an empirical investigation of a new survey-based dataset collected in Texas on solar energy perceptions and behavior. The results of this analysis offer insights into the perceptions and motivations influencing intentions and behavior toward solar energy in a relatively untapped market and help identify information gaps that could be targeted to alleviate key barriers to adopting solar, thereby enabling significant emissions reductions in the residential sector in Texas.

  3. History of the discovery of transmutation at Texas A and M University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockris, J.O.M.

    2006-01-01

    Until 1989, to author was a publisher of high temperature physical chemistry, electrochemical and environmental research papers. He was a physical chemist and his contact with nuclear chemistry was only in using it in some tracer techniques. The Fleischmann and Pons announcement of March 1989 was of interest partly because of its radical nature) but also because the author has known Martin Fleischmann since his days as a student at the Imperial College of Science and Technology in London. He had easy access to Fleischmann and he therefore could instruct his co-workers (about 20 at the time) about the technique used in the Fleischmann and Pons work. It was around 3 weeks before they were able to detect strong concentrations of tritium in the solution after prolonged electrolysis and thus prove, for the first time, that the speculation which Fleischmann and Pons had made about their excess heat was indeed; correct and that a nuclear reaction was occurring at or in an electrode in the cold. They continued to work on the new nuclear phenomena, in 1991 discovering excess 4 He in their palladium cathodes. Later in 1991, the author received a phone call from a Joseph Champion. He told him that the long initiation times which he had recorded in its papers could be avoided and that he could 'turn on' what he described as a 'radioactive gas' in less than 1 h. Champion invited him to visit his laboratory (which was in a trailer on the grounds of the University of Tennessee). He could operate his apparatus and see for himself. He asked Dr. Ramesh Kainthla and Mr. Omo Velev, senior researchers in my laboratory, to visit Champion and see if his statements could be confirmed. Upon return to Texas A and M, they told the author that Champion had left them alone in the so-called laboratory, pointed to the apparatus, gave them a few instructions about turning it on, and left them alone. They measured 40% of the excess heat, that he had said was obtainable. Earlier (1990) the author

  4. History of the discovery of transmutation at Texas A and M University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockris, J.O.M. [Molecular Green Technology, College Station, TX 77845 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Until 1989, to author was a publisher of high temperature physical chemistry, electrochemical and environmental research papers. He was a physical chemist and his contact with nuclear chemistry was only in using it in some tracer techniques. The Fleischmann and Pons announcement of March 1989 was of interest partly because of its radical nature) but also because the author has known Martin Fleischmann since his days as a student at the Imperial College of Science and Technology in London. He had easy access to Fleischmann and he therefore could instruct his co-workers (about 20 at the time) about the technique used in the Fleischmann and Pons work. It was around 3 weeks before they were able to detect strong concentrations of tritium in the solution after prolonged electrolysis and thus prove, for the first time, that the speculation which Fleischmann and Pons had made about their excess heat was indeed; correct and that a nuclear reaction was occurring at or in an electrode in the cold. They continued to work on the new nuclear phenomena, in 1991 discovering excess {sup 4}He in their palladium cathodes. Later in 1991, the author received a phone call from a Joseph Champion. He told him that the long initiation times which he had recorded in its papers could be avoided and that he could 'turn on' what he described as a 'radioactive gas' in less than 1 h. Champion invited him to visit his laboratory (which was in a trailer on the grounds of the University of Tennessee). He could operate his apparatus and see for himself. He asked Dr. Ramesh Kainthla and Mr. Omo Velev, senior researchers in my laboratory, to visit Champion and see if his statements could be confirmed. Upon return to Texas A and M, they told the author that Champion had left them alone in the so-called laboratory, pointed to the apparatus, gave them a few instructions about turning it on, and left them alone. They measured 40% of the excess heat, that he had said was obtainable

  5. Commercial cyclotrons. Part I: Commercial cyclotrons in the energy range 10 30 MeV for isotope production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papash, A. I.; Alenitsky, Yu. G.

    2008-07-01

    A survey of commercial cyclotrons for production of medical and industrial isotopes is presented. Compact isochronous cyclotrons which accelerate negative hydrogen ions in the energy range 10 30 MeV have been widely used over the last 25 years for production of medical isotopes and other applications. Different cyclotron models for the energy range 10 12 MeV with moderate beam intensity are used for production of 11C, 13N, 15O, and 18F isotopes widely applied in positron emission tomography. Commercial cyclotrons with high beam intensity are available on the market for production of most medical and industrial isotopes. In this work, the physical and technical parameters of different models are compared. Possibilities of improving performance and increasing intensity of H- beams up to 2 3 mA are discussed.

  6. Final report for Texas A&M University Group Contribution to DE-FG02-09ER25949/DE-SC0002505: Topology for Statistical Modeling of Petascale Data (and ASCR-funded collaboration between Sandia National Labs, Texas A&M University and University of Utah)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas, Joseph Maurice [Texas A& M University

    2013-02-27

    We summarize the contributions of the Texas A\\&M University Group to the project (DE-FG02-09ER25949/DE-SC0002505: Topology for Statistical Modeling of Petascale Data - an ASCR-funded collaboration between Sandia National Labs, Texas A\\&M U, and U Utah) during 6/9/2011 -- 2/27/2013.

  7. A cyclotron isotope production facility designed to maximize production and minimize radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickie, W.J.; Stevenson, N.R.; Szlavik, F.F.

    1993-01-01

    Continuing increases in requirements from the nuclear medicine industry for cyclotron isotopes is increasing the demands being put on an aging stock of machines. In addition, with the 1990 recommendations of the ICRP publication in place, strict dose limits will be required and this will have an effect on the way these machines are being operated. Recent advances in cyclotron design combined with lessons learned from two decades of commercial production mean that new facilities can result in a substantial charge on target, low personnel dose, and minimal residual activation. An optimal facility would utilize a well engineered variable energy/high current H - cyclotron design, multiple beam extraction, and individual target caves. Materials would be selected to minimize activation and absorb neutrons. Equipment would be designed to minimize maintenance activities performed in high radiation fields. (orig.)

  8. Low energy cyclotron for radiocarbon dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, J.J.

    1984-12-01

    The measurement of naturally occurring radioisotopes whose half lives are less than a few hundred million years but more than a few years provides information about the temporal behavior of geologic and climatic processes, the temporal history of meteoritic bodies as well as the production mechanisms of these radioisotopes. A new extremely sensitive technique for measuring these radioisotopes at tandem Van de Graaff and cyclotron facilities has been very successful though the high cost and limited availability have been discouraging. We have built and tested a low energy cyclotron for radiocarbon dating similar in size to a conventional mass spectrometer. These tests clearly show that with the addition of a conventional ion source, the low energy cyclotron can perform the extremely high sensitivity 14 C measurements that are now done at accelerator facilities. We found that no significant background is present when the cyclotron is tuned to accelerate 14 C negative ions and the transmission efficiency is adequate to perform radiocarbon dating on milligram samples of carbon. The internal ion source used did not produce sufficient current to detect 14 C directly at modern concentrations. We show how a conventional carbon negative ion source, located outside the cyclotron magnet, would produce sufficient beam and provide for quick sampling to make radiocarbon dating milligram samples with a modest laboratory instrument feasible

  9. Building on TR-24 success. Advanced Cyclotron Systems Inc. launches a new cyclotron model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell Watt; William Gyles; Alexander Zyuzin

    2015-01-01

    ACSI is designing a new 30 MeV cyclotron based on the TR-24. While minimizing changes from the proven TR-24, including maintaining the same outer dimensions, the energy of the cyclotron will be increased to 30 MeV, which will make it the most compact, non-superconducting, 30 MeV cyclotron design to date. Maximum beam current will match the TR-24 at 1 mA. With the size and footprint of a typical low energy PET cyclotron, this system will offer users a cost effective solution for a diversified facility capable of producing a wide spectrum of PET and SPECT radioisotopes for research and commercial distribution. (author)

  10. Health physics and quality control management of a cyclotron-based PET facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerabek, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the operation and management of a Positron Emission Tomography (PET) facility at the University of Texas. The facility components are discussed from an operations perspective with an emphasis on devices, and on practices and procedures which are implemented to ensure that personnel exposures are as low as reasonably achievable. The cyclotron-based PET facility uses in-house production of PET radioisotopes for preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. A combination of specially designed cyclotron equipped devices, radiopharmaceutical preparation devices, and shielded devices along with health physics practices have helped to make PET operations become routine

  11. A new, simple and precise method for measuring cyclotron proton beam energies using the activity vs. depth profile of zinc-65 in a thick target of stacked copper foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, A.H.; Chan, S.; Cryer, D.; Burrage, J.W.; Siddiqui, S.A.; Price, R.I.

    2015-01-01

    The proton beam energy of an isochronous 18 MeV cyclotron was determined using a novel version of the stacked copper-foils technique. This simple method used stacked foils of natural copper forming ‘thick’ targets to produce Zn radioisotopes by the well-documented (p,x) monitor-reactions. Primary beam energy was calculated using the "6"5Zn activity vs. depth profile in the target, with the results obtained using "6"2Zn and "6"3Zn (as comparators) in close agreement. Results from separate measurements using foil thicknesses of 100, 75, 50 or 25 µm to form the stacks also concurred closely. Energy was determined by iterative least-squares comparison of the normalized measured activity profile in a target-stack with the equivalent calculated normalized profile, using ‘energy’ as the regression variable. The technique exploits the uniqueness of the shape of the activity vs. depth profile of the monitor isotope in the target stack for a specified incident energy. The energy using "6"5Zn activity profiles and 50-μm foils alone was 18.03±0.02 [SD] MeV (95%CI=17.98–18.08), and 18.06±0.12 MeV (95%CI=18.02–18.10; NS) when combining results from all isotopes and foil thicknesses. When the beam energy was re-measured using "6"5Zn and 50-μm foils only, following a major upgrade of the ion sources and nonmagnetic beam controls the results were 18.11±0.05 MeV (95%CI=18.00–18.23; NS compared with ‘before’). Since measurement of only one Zn monitor isotope is required to determine the normalized activity profile this indirect yet precise technique does not require a direct beam-current measurement or a gamma-spectroscopy efficiency calibrated with standard sources, though a characteristic photopeak must be identified. It has some advantages over published methods using the ratio of cross sections of monitor reactions, including the ability to determine energies across a broader range and without need for customized beam degraders. - Highlights: • Simple

  12. Texas A and M University Nuclear Science Center. Twenty-first progress report, January 1-December 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krohn, J.; Petesch, J.E.; Rogers, R.D.; Sandel, P.; Stasny, G.S.

    1985-03-01

    The Nuclear Science Center is operated by the Texas Engineering Experiment Station as a service to the Texas A and M University System and the State of Texas. The facility is available to the University, other educational institutions, governmental agencies, and private organizations and individuals. Reactor utilization decreased from 1983 as indicated by a slightly smaller number of samples irradiated and of total irradiations. Core VIII, established in December 1982, was used throughout 1984. Several major facility projects modifications, and improvements were completed during the past year. Experimentally the Beam Port No. 4 reflector and shutter was improved, the pulsing instrumentation is being expanded, and the pneumatic system controller developed for Lab No. 4 is now in use in the Center for Trace Characterization (CTC) and Shell Development labs. Several operational problems occurred in 1984 but did not result in a significant loss of reactor operating time. During this reporting period there were no changes made to the site area; however, there has been made a proposal to extend the runway at nearby Easterwood Airport such tha larger aircraft can be accommodated. This extension should occur in 1985 and should have no affect on the air traffic patterns relative to the NSC. Administratively during 1984 efforts have been made to stabilize the reactor operations staff following the mid year resignations of both a Reactor Supervisor and Manager of Reactor Operations. A long term replacement has been hired to fill the vacated Reactor Supervisor position; however, the manager position has not yet been filled and those duties have been assumed by the Assistant Director

  13. Texas flexible pavements and overlays : calibration plans for M-E models and related software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This five-year project was initiated to collect materials and pavement performance data on a minimum of 100 highway test sections around the State of Texas, incorporating flexible pavements and overlays. Besides being used to calibrate and validate m...

  14. Energy developments and the transportation infrastructure in Texas : impacts and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    In recent years, Texas has experienced a boom in energy-related activities, particularly in wind power : generation and extraction of oil and natural gas. While energy developments contribute to enhance the : states ability to produce energy relia...

  15. Oak Ridge isochronous cyclotron as an energy booster for a 25 MV tandem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lord, R.S.; Hudson, E.D.; McNeilly, G.S.

    1975-01-01

    The maximum heavy-ion energy available at Oak Ridge will be substantially increased by using ORIC as an energy booster for the 25 MV ''folded'' tandem now being acquired. Beams of ions with mass up to A = 160, with energy sufficient to overcome the Coulomb barrier on lead, will be produced. The beams will enter the cyclotron through the dee stem and will be directed by a magnet through the fringe and main fields to a stripping foil which lies on the appropriate orbit for acceleration. General orbit and beam transport codes were used to aid in the design of the injection system. (U.S.)

  16. A new generation of medical cyclotrons for the 90's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.F.

    1995-08-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for use in radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicates a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper the authors will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Existing and potential markets for these cyclotrons will be presented. They will also discuss the possibility of systems capable of extracted energies up to 150 MeV and extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA

  17. A new generation of medical cyclotrons for the 90's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.F.

    1995-08-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for use in radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicates a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper we will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Existing and potential markets for these cyclotrons will be presented. We will also discuss the possibility of systems capable of extracted energies up to 150 MeV and extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA. (author)

  18. Fuel surveillance and accountability at the Texas A and M NSCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feltz, D.E.; Schumache, R.F.; Bates, E.F.

    1978-01-01

    The record keeping requirements established by CFR 70.51 (SNM balance, inventory, and records requirements), CFR 70.53 (SNM status report) and fuel surveillance as per technical specifications have been simplified for the NSCR by use of a small computer (DEC PDP 11/05). Prior to its utilization, fuel records and calculation of fuel depletion were performed by hand and required several man-hours. A fuel inventory program for the determination of fuel depletion, beginning and ending inventory, and records of fuel location, steady state energy and pulse energy on an element by element basis is presented. The requirement of plutonium production calculations and reporting for the NSCR is also discussed. (author)

  19. NuSTAR discovery of a luminosity dependent cyclotron line energy in Vela X-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fürst, Felix; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Harrison, Fiona; Madsen, Kristin K.; Walton, Dominic J. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Pottschmidt, Katja [Center for Space Science and Technology, University of Maryland Baltimore County, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Wilms, Jörn [Dr. Karl-Remeis-Sternwarte and ECAP, Sternwartstr. 7, D-96049 Bamberg (Germany); Tomsick, John A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bachetti, Matteo [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France); Christensen, Finn E. [DTU Space, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Elektrovej 327, DK-2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Hailey, Charles J. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Miller, Jon M. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Zhang, William [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-01-10

    We present NuSTAR observations of Vela X-1, a persistent, yet highly variable, neutron star high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB). Two observations were taken at similar orbital phases but separated by nearly a year. They show very different 3-79 keV flux levels as well as strong variability during each observation, covering almost one order of magnitude in flux. These observations allow, for the first time ever, investigations on kilo-second time-scales of how the centroid energies of cyclotron resonant scattering features (CRSFs) depend on flux for a persistent HMXB. We find that the line energy of the harmonic CRSF is correlated with flux, as expected in the sub-critical accretion regime. We argue that Vela X-1 has a very narrow accretion column with a radius of around 0.4 km that sustains a Coulomb interaction dominated shock at the observed luminosities of L {sub x} ∼ 3 × 10{sup 36} erg s{sup –1}. Besides the prominent harmonic line at 55 keV the fundamental line around 25 keV is clearly detected. We find that the strengths of the two CRSFs are anti-correlated, which we explain by photon spawning. This anti-correlation is a possible explanation for the debate about the existence of the fundamental line. The ratio of the line energies is variable with time and deviates significantly from 2.0, also a possible consequence of photon spawning, which changes the shape of the line. During the second observation, Vela X-1 showed a short off-state in which the power-law softened and a cut-off was no longer measurable. It is likely that the source switched to a different accretion regime at these low mass accretion rates, explaining the drastic change in spectral shape.

  20. A study of three-half-turn and frame antennae for ion cyclotron range of frequency plasma heating in the URAGAN-3M torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lysoivan, A.I.; Moiseenko, V.E.; Plyusnin, V.V.; Kasilov, S.V.; Bondarenko, V.N.; Chechkin, V.V.; Fomin, I.P.; Grigor'eva, L.I.; Konovalov, V.G.; Koval'ov, S.V.; Litvinov, A.P.; Mironov, Yu.K.; Nazarov, N.I.; Pavlichenko, O.S.; Pavlichenko, R.O.; Shapoval, A.N.; Skibenko, A.I.; Volkov, E.D.

    1995-01-01

    Numerical and experimental results of Alfven wave heating of plasmas in the frequency range below the ion cyclotron frequency (ω ci ) are presented. Two different types of antenna were used for plasma production and heating: a frame type antenna (FTA) conventionally used in the URAGAN-3M device and a three-half-turn antenna (THTA) proposed recently to avoid the deleterious effects of conversion of fast wave to slow wave in the plasma periphery and to perform plasma core heating more effectively. Numerical modeling of electromagnetic field excitation in the URAGAN-3M plasma by the FTA and THTA was performed using a one-dimensional code. The results of calculations showed better performance of the compact THTA compared with the FTA for the case of a high density plasma (approximately 10 13 cm -3 ). When using the THTA, the experiments performed showed the possibility of dense plasma production (more than 2x10 13 cm -3 ) and heating, which had not been obtained earlier in the URAGAN-3M. Shifting the power deposition profile deeper inside the plasma body with the THTA resulted in modification of the plasma density profile and an improvement in plasma confinement. ((orig.))

  1. The permittivity of a plasma at cyclotron resonance in large amplitude e.m. fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, D.C.

    1970-01-01

    The permittivity of a collisionless plasma as a function of field parameters is measured in standing and in travelling waves. In both experiments the permittivity remains finite at cyclotron resonance; the resonance is broadened and shifted towards higher values of the magnetic field strength. The

  2. U-2g0 cyclotron operational experience and improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gigal, B.N.; Gul'bekyan, G.G.; Kozlov, S.I.; Oganesyan, R.Ts.

    1983-01-01

    Brief description of main syste's of the U-200 isochronous 2-m cyclotron put into opera ion in 1968 is given and its operational characteristics a e presented. The cyclotron is used for conducting inve tigations in the field of nuclear physics. Ions from d uterium to argon have been accelerated in the cyclotro'. Annual time of target irradiation constitutes 2000-4000. The specific features of the cyclotron are: high l vel of a magnetic field (of about 20 kOe), possibili y of acceleration of ions with different mass-to-charge ratio a low correcting winding power, simple and high-e fective beam extraction by the method of charge exchange on a thin target allowing to vary smoothly energy of extracted ons. An experience in the U-200 cyclotron development and o eration is used as the basis for designing and choosing basic parameters of the U-200P, U-250, U-400 heavy ion cyclotrons

  3. Energy transfer between energetic ring current H(+) and O(+) by electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Richard M.; Horne, Richard B.

    1994-01-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the frequency range below the helium gyrofrequency can be excited in the equatorial region of the outer magnetosphere by cyclotron resonant instability with anisotropic ring current H(+) ions. As the unducted waves propagate to higher latitudes, the wave normal should become highly inclined to the ambient magnetic field. Under such conditions, wave energy can be absorbed by cyclotron resonant interactions with ambient O(+), leading to ion heating perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. Resonant wave absorption peaks in the vicinity of the bi-ion frequency and the second harmonic of the O(+) gyrofrequrency. This absorption should mainly occur at latitudes between 10 deg and 30 deg along auroral field lines (L is greater than or equal to 7) in the postnoon sector. The concomitant ion heating perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field can contribute to the isotropization and geomagnetic trapping of collapsed O(+) ion conics (or beams) that originate from a low-altitude ionospheric source region. During geomagnetic storms when the O(+) content of the magnetosphere is significantly enhanced, the absorption of EMIC waves should become more efficient, and it may contribute to the observed acceleration of O(+) ions of ionospheric origin up to ring current energies.

  4. Injection and extraction for cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, P.

    1994-01-01

    External ion sources for cyclotrons are needed for polarised and heavy ions. This calls for injection systems, either radial or axial. Radial injection is also needed when a cyclotron works as a booster after another cyclotron or a linear accelerator (usually tandem). Requirements for injection differ from separated sector cyclotrons where there is plenty of room to house inflectors and/or strippers, to superconducting cyclotrons where the space is limited by a small magnet gap, and high magnetic field puts other limitations to the inflectors. Several extraction schemes are used in cyclotrons. Stripping injection is used for H - and also for heavy ions where the q/m ratio is usually doubled. For other cases, electric and magnetic deflection has to be used. To increase the turn separation before the first deflector, both resonant and non-resonant schemes are used. In this lecture, external injection systems are surveyed and some rules to thumb for injection parameters are given. Extraction schemes are also reviewed. (orig.)

  5. Production of radioisotopes by 1.5 m cyclotron and their utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Fang

    1987-01-01

    Radioisotopes characterized by nuclear property and uses can be produced on the accelerator, especially those playing an important role in scientific researches and biomedical uses. The status of Radioisotopes produced by 1.5 m cyclotron and their applications in our institute are summarized in this paper. The details of preparation and the results of use for radioactive sources, radiochemicals, radiopharmaceuticals of 57 Co, 109 Cd, 68 Ge- 68 Ga, and 167 Tm are given respectively. (author)

  6. Remote machining and robotic welding in a proton cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, W; Mark, C

    1984-09-01

    Increasing residual radiation in the TRIUMF meson research facility cyclotron at the University of British Columbia has required development of a remotely operable industrial robot cutting and vacuum tight welding capabili

  7. New design for a medical cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M

    1985-12-01

    The Oxford Instruments Group PLC, have designed a 30 MeV energy proton cyclotron incorporating a super-conducting magnet and a novel RF accelerating cavity. The energy range is suitable for the production of isotopes such as /sup 67/Ga, /sup 111/In, /sup 123/I and /sup 201/Tl, and the short lived isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and fluorine for use in Positron Emmission Tomography (PET). A new magnet and RF cavity design permit a considerable power and weight reduction and a compact size (1.5m dia x 1.9m high), allowing the cyclotron to be transported to a shielded site as an assembly after factory testing. A method of beam extraction has been adopted which minimises activation of the accelerator components and so allows hands on maintenance to be carried out when required.

  8. Continuation application for the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium, a higher education consortium consisting of Texas A and M University, Texas Tech University, and the University of Texas at Austin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the 5 tasks to be covered under this project and compiles budget information. Task 1 is to establish a Plutonium Information Resource, which has been established in Amarillo, Texas. Task 2, Advisory Functions, coordinates studies and activities relating to the disposition of excess weapons-grade plutonium. Task 3, Environmental, Public Health, and Safety, supports soil remediation activities. Task 4, Education and Outreach, is supporting four programs: K--12 education improvement in science and math courses; Academic intervention to identify and encourage high ability high school and middle school students with potential to become scientists and engineers; Graduate education evaluation; and Public outreach programs. Task 5, Plutonium and other Materials Studies, is currently funding two projects for the disposition of high explosives: a feasibility study of burning a mixture of high explosives and other materials in a commercial coal-fired power plant and synthesis of diamond by shock compression of bucky ball with explosives

  9. Continuation application for the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium, a higher education consortium consisting of Texas A and M University, Texas Tech University, and the University of Texas at Austin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-29

    This report describes the 5 tasks to be covered under this project and compiles budget information. Task 1 is to establish a Plutonium Information Resource, which has been established in Amarillo, Texas. Task 2, Advisory Functions, coordinates studies and activities relating to the disposition of excess weapons-grade plutonium. Task 3, Environmental, Public Health, and Safety, supports soil remediation activities. Task 4, Education and Outreach, is supporting four programs: K--12 education improvement in science and math courses; Academic intervention to identify and encourage high ability high school and middle school students with potential to become scientists and engineers; Graduate education evaluation; and Public outreach programs. Task 5, Plutonium and other Materials Studies, is currently funding two projects for the disposition of high explosives: a feasibility study of burning a mixture of high explosives and other materials in a commercial coal-fired power plant and synthesis of diamond by shock compression of bucky ball with explosives.

  10. A mobile superconducting cyclotron for PET and neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffiths, R.

    1988-01-01

    The report addresses the development of a mobile superconducting cyclotron for PET (positron emission tomography) and neutron radiography. Proposals for an ultralight cyclotron were made by Finlan et al., who suggested a novel technique of utilising a superconducting magnet with RF acceleration and iron sectors contained within the room temperature bore of the magnet. Detailed design of a cyclotron based on this concept has progressed well at Oxford Instruments. The main design priorities were to minimise the weight and power consumption of the cyclotron. The cyclotron required a large amount of shielding to reduce either radiation background levels or stray magnetic field. Thus low background levels of radiation and magnetic field are key design criteria. The superconducting magnet has a mean field of 2.35 Tesla and a room temperature bore diameter of 500 mm. Three pairs of profiled iron sectors placed in the center of the warm bore of the magnet provide an azimuthally varying magnetic field. This permits the use of high beam currents with low background. A novel technique is incorporated to reduce the stray magnetic field and radiation from the cyclotron. The RF system consists of three pairs of resonators mounted within the warm bore of the magnet between the iron sectors. (Nogami, K.)

  11. Technical Note: Building a combined cyclotron and MRI facility: Implications for interference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofman, Mark B. M.; Kuijer, Joost P. A.; Ridder, Jan Willem de; Perk, Lars R.; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M. [Physics and Medical Technology, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam 1007 MB (Netherlands) and BV Cyclotron VU, Amsterdam 1081HV (Netherlands)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: With the introduction of hybrid PET/MRI systems, it has become more likely that the cyclotron and MRI systems will be located close to each other. This study considered the interference between a cyclotron and a superconducting MRI system. Methods: Interactions between cyclotrons and MRIs are theoretically considered. The main interference is expected to be the perturbation of the magnetic field in the MRI due to switching on or off the magnetic field of the cyclotron. MR imaging is distorted by a dynamic spatial gradient of an external inplane magnetic field larger than 0.5-0.04 {mu}T/m, depending on the specific MR application. From the design of a cyclotron, it is expected that the magnetic fringe field at large distances behaves as a magnetic dipolar field. This allows estimation of the full dipolar field and its spatial gradients from a single measurement. Around an 18 MeV cyclotron (Cyclone, IBA), magnetic field measurements were performed on 5 locations and compared with calculations based upon a dipolar field model. Results: At the measurement locations the estimated and measured values of the magnetic field component and its spatial gradients of the inplane component were compared, and found to agree within a factor 1.1 for the magnetic field and within a factor of 1.5 for the spatial gradients of the field. In the specific case of the 18 MeV cyclotron with a vertical magnetic field and a 3T superconducting whole body MR system, a minimum distance of 20 m has to be considered to prevent interference. Conclusions: This study showed that a dipole model is sufficiently accurate to predict the interference of a cyclotron on a MRI scanner, for site planning purposes. The cyclotron and a whole body MRI system considered in this study need to be placed more than 20 m apart, or magnetic shielding should be utilized.

  12. Texas A and M University student/professional nuclear science and engineering conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Abstracts of papers presented at the meeting are included. Topics discussed include: reactor engineering; space nuclear power systems; health physics and dosimetry; fusion engineering and physics; and reactor physics and theory

  13. Texas A and M University student/professional nuclear science and engineering conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-12

    Abstracts of papers presented at the meeting are included. Topics discussed include: reactor engineering; space nuclear power systems; health physics and dosimetry; fusion engineering and physics; and reactor physics and theory.

  14. Startup work on Inshas cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorogushin, M.F.; Strokach, A.P.; Shikhov, V.Ya.; Galchuk, A.V.; Soliman, A.N.; El-Abyad, M.; Comsan, M.N.H.; Saleh, Z.A.; Azzam, A.N.

    2001-01-01

    Startup works on the MGC-20 variable energy cyclotron in the Inshas Nuclear Research Center (Egypt) are described. The cyclotron is intended for acceleration of hydrogen and helium ions in a wide energy range (for protons - from 5 to 20 MeV). Main units of the cyclotron and results of computer experimental acceleration of protons to 18 MeV are described. The prospects of furthers investigations are presented [ru

  15. Effect of high energy electrons on H{sup −} production and destruction in a high current DC negative ion source for cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onai, M., E-mail: onai@ppl.appi.keio.ac.jp; Fujita, S.; Hatayama, A. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Etoh, H.; Aoki, Y. [Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo 141-6025 (Japan); Shibata, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki (Japan); Mattei, S.; Lettry, J. [CERN Rte de Meyrin, 1200 Geneva (Switzerland)

    2016-02-15

    Recently, a filament driven multi-cusp negative ion source has been developed for proton cyclotrons in medical applications. In this study, numerical modeling of the filament arc-discharge source plasma has been done with kinetic modeling of electrons in the ion source plasmas by the multi-cusp arc-discharge code and zero dimensional rate equations for hydrogen molecules and negative ions. In this paper, main focus is placed on the effects of the arc-discharge power on the electron energy distribution function and the resultant H{sup −} production. The modelling results reasonably explains the dependence of the H{sup −} extraction current on the arc-discharge power in the experiments.

  16. Testimony of the Council on Superconductivity for American Competitiveness before Texas A and M University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Council on Superconductivity for American Competitiveness (CSAC) is a private, non-profit association of small and large American corporations, as well as universities, research institutes, national laboratories and individuals concerned with the emerging technological and commercial potential of superconductivity. CSAC's purpose is to both educate and inform its members of developments in the laboratory, the entrepreneurial sector, the U.S. Congress and the Federal agencies that may have a bearing on the ultimate competitive posture of this nation as we proceed to the realm of device commercialization utilizing superconductivity as a technology base. This paper present CSAC's report on superconductivity

  17. A Variable Energy CW Compact Accelerator for Ion Cancer Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnstone, Carol J. [Fermilab; Taylor, J. [Huddersfield U.; Edgecock, R. [Huddersfield U.; Schulte, R. [Loma Linda U.

    2016-03-10

    Cancer is the second-largest cause of death in the U.S. and approximately two-thirds of all cancer patients will receive radiation therapy with the majority of the radiation treatments performed using x-rays produced by electron linacs. Charged particle beam radiation therapy, both protons and light ions, however, offers advantageous physical-dose distributions over conventional photon radiotherapy, and, for particles heavier than protons, a significant biological advantage. Despite recognition of potential advantages, there is almost no research activity in this field in the U.S. due to the lack of clinical accelerator facilities offering light ion therapy in the States. In January, 2013, a joint DOE/NCI workshop was convened to address the challenges of light ion therapy [1], inviting more than 60 experts from diverse fields related to radiation therapy. This paper reports on the conclusions of the workshop, then translates the clinical requirements into accelerat or and beam-delivery technical specifications. A comparison of available or feasible accelerator technologies is compared, including a new concept for a compact, CW, and variable energy light ion accelerator currently under development. This new light ion accelerator is based on advances in nonscaling Fixed-Field Alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator design. The new design concepts combine isochronous orbits with long (up to 4m) straight sections in a compact racetrack format allowing inner circulating orbits to be energy selected for low-loss, CW extraction, effectively eliminating the high-loss energy degrader in conventional CW cyclotron designs.

  18. Radiation shielding and health physics instrumentation for PET medical cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Modern Medical Cyclotrons produce a variety of short-lived positron emitting PET radioisotopes, and as a result are the source of intense neutron and gamma radiations. Since such cyclotrons are housed within hospitals or medical clinics, there is significant potential for un-intentional exposure to staff or patients in proximity to cyclotron facilities. Consequently, the radiological hazards associated with Cyclotrons provide the impetus for an effective radiological shielding and continuous monitoring of various radiation levels in the cyclotron environment. Management of radiological hazards is of paramount importance for the safe operation of a Medical Cyclotron facility. This work summarised the methods of shielding calculations for a compact hospital based Medical Cyclotron currently operating in Canada, USA and Australia. The design principle and operational history of a real-time health physics monitoring system (Watchdog) operating at a large multi-energy Medical Cyclotron is also highlighted

  19. Texas A and M University Nuclear Science Center. Twentieth progress report, January 1-December 31, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deigl, H.J.; Head, J.G.; Petesch, J.E.; Rogers, R.D.; Willits, B.W.

    1984-03-01

    Reactor utilization improved slightly from 1982 with increases seen in total number of irradiations, number of samples irradiated, and total experiment hours. Reactor operation of 94.6 MW-days for 1983 represents approximately a 1.4% increase over the previous year. Effective 1 September 1983 the operating schedule for the NSCR has been reduced to include only two fourteen hour shifts and three eight hour shifts per week unless special requests are made. An NSC Users Group has been created and meets periodically to discuss experimenter needs. Core VIII, established in December 1982, was used throughout 1983. Pulse operations were reinitiated in February 1983 for the first time since 1976, and a total of 75 pulses ($116.38 total pulse reactivity) were executed. A pulse test program to monitor peak core temperatures and to periodically inspect certain fuel elements was completed satisfactorily. Several major facility projects, modifications, and improvements were completed during the past year

  20. Critical energy in the cyclotron heating of ions in a mirror machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez T, C.; Hernandez A, O.

    2002-01-01

    The problem of heating in the plasma sources where the geometry of the magnetic field forms a magnetic mirror as it is the case of the Ecr sources type, for maintaining the reload, it continues being an actual important problem. There are two methods for the analysis of this problem. The first of these methods is the stochastic mechanism of a particle where it is considered the existence of three characteristic frequencies as the cyclotron frequency, the electromagnetic field frequency and the transit frequency. The second method is that related with the non linear interaction of waves where the collective effects of the particles are the most important. In this work, in the Hamiltonian formalism, the stochastic mechanism in the cyclotron heating is analysed. It is considered the particular case of a plasma source with an external magnetic field, type mirror where a TE 11 electromagnetic wave is injected. The critical energy in the resonance mixing is calculated by the Poincare mapping method. The heterogeneity of the magnetic field is analysed. (Author)

  1. Reduction of the beam pulse repetition rate of the Hamburg Isochronous Cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, H; Langkau, R; Schirm, N [Hamburg Univ. (F.R. Germany). 1. Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik

    1976-04-01

    A system for the reduction of the beam pulse repetition rate of the energy-variable Hamburg Isochronous Cyclotron comprising beam pulse supression in the cyclotron center and in the external beam is described.

  2. Calculations for the design and modification of the 2 cyclotrons of S.A.R.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrand, P.S.; Belmont, J.L.; Ripouteau, F.

    1983-09-01

    S.A.R.A. is a heavy ion accelerator constituted by 2 cyclotrons. The second cyclotron (post-accelerator) was entirely calculated at the I.S.N. The pole tips of the first cyclotron which is much older, have recently been modified. An almost identical procedure was used for the calculation of each element of the post-accelerator of S.A.R.A. and also for the modifications to the first cyclotron

  3. 29 August 2013 - Director Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, India D. Srivastava signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer. Coordinator of India-ALICE Collaboration T. Nayak present throughout.

    CERN Multimedia

    Jean-Claude Gadmer

    2013-01-01

    29 August 2013 - Director Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, India D. Srivastava signing the guest book with CERN Director-General R. Heuer. Coordinator of India-ALICE Collaboration T. Nayak present throughout.

  4. Recent development and progress of IBA cyclotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleeven, W., E-mail: Willem.Kleeven@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Abs, M., E-mail: Michel.Abs@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Delvaux, J.L., E-mail: Jean-Luc.Delvaux@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Forton, E., E-mail: Eric.Forton@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Jongen, Y., E-mail: Yves.Jongen@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Medeiros Romao, L., E-mail: Luis.MedeirosRomao@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Nactergal, B., E-mail: Benoit.Nactergal@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Nuttens, V., E-mail: Vincent.Nuttens@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Servais, T., E-mail: Thomas.Servais@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Vanderlinden, T., E-mail: Thierry.Vanderlinden@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Zaremba, S., E-mail: Simon.Zaremba@iba-group.com [Ion Beam Applications s.a. Chemin du Cyclotron 3, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

    2011-12-15

    Several cyclotron development projects were recently realized by Ion Beam Applications S.A. (IBA). This contribution presents three of them: (i) the intensity enhancement of the Cyclone 30 cyclotron, a machine mainly used for the production of SPECT isotopes. This project is related with the increased demand for {sup 201}Tl because of the shortage of Mo/Tc generators from nuclear reactors, (ii) development of a new versatile multiple-particle K = 30 isotope-production cyclotron (the Cyclone 30XP) being able to accelerate H{sup -}, D{sup -} and also {alpha}-particles. The {alpha}-beam of this cyclotron will allow the production of new therapeutic isotopes (e.g. {sup 211}At) and (iii) commissioning of the Cyclone 70 cyclotron installed for Arronax in France. This machine is similar to the C30XP but provides higher energy (K = 70) and allows research on new types of medical isotopes.

  5. Ion source and injection line for high intensity medical cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, XianLu; Guan, Fengping; Yao, Hongjuan; Zhang, TianJue; Yang, Jianjun; Song, Guofang; Ge, Tao; Qin, Jiuchang

    2014-02-01

    A 14 MeV high intensity compact cyclotron, CYCIAE-14, was built at China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). An injection system based on the external H- ion source was used on CYCIAE-14 so as to provide high intensity beam, while most positron emission tomography cyclotrons adopt internal ion source. A beam intensity of 100 μA/14 MeV was extracted from the cyclotron with a small multi-cusp H- ion source (CIAE-CH-I type) and a short injection line, which the H- ion source of 3 mA/25 keV H- beam with emittance of 0.3π mm mrad and the injection line of with only 1.2 m from the extraction of ion source to the medial plane of the cyclotron. To increase the extracted beam intensity of the cyclotron, a new ion source (CIAE-CH-II type) of 9.1 mA was used, with maximum of 500 μA was achieved from the cyclotron. The design and test results of the ion source and injection line optimized for high intensity acceleration will be given in this paper.

  6. Medical cyclotron basic concepts and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Sonkawade, R.G.

    2012-01-01

    More than 3000 nuclides are known, of which approximately 2700 are radioactive, and rest are stable. The majority of radionuclides are artificially produced in the reactor and cyclotron. In a cyclotron, Charge particle such as proton, Deuteron, á (Alpha) particle, 3 He particles and so forth are accelerated in circular paths within the Dees under vacuum by means of an electromagnetic field. These accelerated particles can possess few KeV to several BeV of kinetic energy depending on the design of the cyclotron. At our setup we have an 11 MeV dual beam multi target cyclotron which is capable producing 11 C, 13 N, 15 O, 18 F and 2 F radioisotopes and all have been successfully produced and tested in our lab. Earlier cyclotrons were the best source of high-energy beams for nuclear physics experiments; several cyclotrons are still in use for this type of research. Cyclotrons can be used to treat cancer. Ion beams from cyclotrons can be used, as in proton therapy. The positron emitting isotopes are suitable for PET imaging. As discussed we are producing mainly Carbon-11, Nitrogen-13, Oxygen-15, and Fluorine-18: These are positron emitters used in PET for studying brain physiology and pathology, in particular for localizing epileptic focus, and in dementia, psychiatry and neuropharmacology studies. So these are having significant role in diagnosis of Oncological, Neurological and Cardiological disorder. More than ninety percent we are producing 18 F in FDG. 18 F in FDG (Flouro-Deoxy-glucose) has become very important in detection of cancers and the monitoring of progress in their treatment, using PET. Medical cyclotron is complex equipment requiring delicate handling by highly trained personnel. The aim of this article is to highlight few finer aspects of Medical cyclotron operation, including precautions for safety and smooth functioning of this sophisticated equipment. (author)

  7. The Juelich compact cyclotron - a multi-purpose irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemmerich, J.; Hoelzle, R.; Kogler, W.

    1977-01-01

    A commercially available variable-energy compact cyclotron has been installed at the Kernforschungsanlage Juelich. It is equipped to accelerate protons, deuterons, 3 He- and α-particles. A +- 60 0 switching magnet allows to switch the beam to any of seven external target stations. Three separately shielded target rooms allow a flexible use of the cyclotron for a wide range of applications such as production of short-lived nuclides, activation analysis, radiation damage studies in metals and studies of biological effects of fast neutron irradiation. (orig.) [de

  8. Feasibility Study for a Two-Energy Compact Medical Cyclotron Controlled by Two Pairs of Main Coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, D.; Breckow, J.; Zink, K.

    2013-01-01

    At Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen, Switzerland, protons are accelerated for the proton therapy by a 250 MeV isochronous cyclotron. As for radiotherapy less energy is required (about 70 MeV) a carbon degrader reduces the extracted beam energy. This involves the increase of emittance, decrease of transmission, more activated components and a higher dose for the staff. By extracting a lower energy beam from the cyclotron, less degrade would be necessary and the above mentioned side-effects could be minimized. A possible solution could be to extract two energies from the cyclotron, 250 MeV for very deep located tumours and 230-235 MeV for others. A technically easy and affordable solution for this problem might be a two-energy cyclotron controlled by just two pairs of main coils. The feasibility of this solution has been analysed in this study. The compounded magnetic flux density B is the sum of the coil's and the iron's flux density. The amount caused by a coil is mainly responsible for the shape of the compounded flux density. Therefore a split of the coil pair was simulated to obtain more possibilities in the adjustment of a lower-energy beam to its ideal isochronous shape. The result is a simulated isochronous 240 MeV beam which was found with an tangential split of the coil pair, their repositioning and the increasing of current in the first coil pair and decreasing in the other one. The tangential split seemed to reduce the problem of the irons linear share of B. This feasibility study is seen as a first step before using 3D-capable software which considers a higher spatial resolution and the influence of temperature.(author)

  9. Shimming of 1-st and 2-d harmonics of the U-120 M cyclotron magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzhivanek, M.; Trejbal, Z.

    1985-01-01

    As a result of the development of external ion injection system for the U-120 M isochronous cyclotron the necessity of precise superposition of vertical geometrical axes of accelerating chamber and a hole in the magnet pole piece has arisen. A decrease in the amplitude of the first and second harmonics of the magnetic field is the main problem to be solved for the accelerating chamber centering. The upper and lower gaps between accelerating chamber and magnet pole pieces were used for the shimming of the harmonics. The gaps are filled with profiled duraluminium discs. Wide grooves are cut in the discs so that iron plates of different lengths, which are 3.5 mm thick, can be installed there. Harmonic analysis of field difference in one pair of plates, performed at different levels of induction, made it possible to determine quite accurately the location of the plates in the gaps taking into account their effect on the first and second harmonics of the field

  10. Clean Energy Technology Incubator Initiative Launched in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    - including the State Energy Conservation Office, the General Land Office, the Texas Natural Resources Conservation Commission, the Texas Energy Coordination Council and the Texas Department of Economic Development from market entry. The alliance is interested in a broad range of company types, from technology-based

  11. Remote machining and robotic welding in a proton cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, W.; Mark, C.

    1984-01-01

    Increasing residual radiation in the TRIUMF meson research facility cyclotron at the University of British Columbia has required development of a remotely operable industrial robot cutting and vacuum tight welding capability for modification and updating of vacuum tank access ports, and for possible repairs of leaks or holes in the vacuum tank periphery

  12. Stochasticity of the energy absorption in the electron cyclotron resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez T, C.; Hernandez A, O.

    1998-01-01

    The energy absorption mechanism in cyclotron resonance of the electrons is a present problem, since it could be considered from the stochastic point of view or this related with a non-homogeneous but periodical of plasma spatial structure. In this work using the Bogoliubov average method for a multi periodical system in presence of resonances, the drift equations were obtained in presence of a RF field for the case of electron cyclotron resonance until first order terms with respect to inverse of its cyclotron frequency. The absorbed energy equation is obtained on part of electrons in a simple model and by drift method. It is showed the stochastic character of the energy absorption. (Author)

  13. Texas A&M University in the JET Collaboration - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fries, Rainer; Ko, Che-Ming

    2016-01-01

    This final report summarizes the work done by PIs at Texas A&M University within the JET Topical Collaboration. The main focus of the group at Texas A&M has been the development and implementation of a hadronization model suitable to calculate hadronization of jet showers in heavy ion collisions event by event. The group successfully developed a hybrid model of parton recombination and remnant string fragmentation including recombination with thermal partons. A code realizing this model was developed and shared with other JET members. In addition, the group at Texas A&M worked on both open and hidden heavy flavor probes. In particular, they developed a description of heavy flavor hadronization based on recombination, and consistent with in-medium scattering rates of heavy quarks, and suggested the D s meson as a precise probe of the hadronization mechanism. Another noteworthy focus of their work was electromagnetic probes, in particular, dileptons and photons from interactions of jets with the medium. In the soft sector the group has made several contributions to modern topics, e.g. the splitting of elliptic flow between isospin partners and the role of the initial strong gluon fields.

  14. Texas A&M University in the JET Collaboration - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, Rainer [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Ko, Che-Ming [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-05-02

    This final report summarizes the work done by PIs at Texas A&M University within the JET Topical Collaboration. The main focus of the group at Texas A&M has been the development and implementation of a hadronization model suitable to calculate hadronization of jet showers in heavy ion collisions event by event. The group successfully developed a hybrid model of parton recombination and remnant string fragmentation including recombination with thermal partons. A code realizing this model was developed and shared with other JET members. In addition, the group at Texas A&M worked on both open and hidden heavy flavor probes. In particular, they developed a description of heavy flavor hadronization based on recombination, and consistent with in-medium scattering rates of heavy quarks, and suggested the Ds meson as a precise probe of the hadronization mechanism. Another noteworthy focus of their work was electromagnetic probes, in particular, dileptons and photons from interactions of jets with the medium. In the soft sector the group has made several contributions to modern topics, e.g. the splitting of elliptic flow between isospin partners and the role of the initial strong gluon fields.

  15. Coordinated observations of electron energy spectra and electrostatic cyclotron waves during diffuse auroras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontaine, D.; Perraut, S.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.; Aparicio, B.; Bosqued, J.M.; Rodgers, D.

    1986-01-01

    An auroral precipitation event lasting several hours in the dusk sector on June 2, 1982 is studied in conjunction with three instruments: the EISCAT European Incoherent Scatter radar based in Scandinavia, the GEOS-2 European geostationary spacecraft, and the ARCAD-3 French-Soviet polar spacecraft. Electron energy spectra between about 1 and 10 keV, computed from EISCAT measurements, were in agreement, during a diffuse aurora period, with direct observations onboard ARCAD-3, and also with the plasma sheet component (3-10 keV) measured onboard GEOS-2 and available at large pitch-angles. This last comparison suggested the quasi-isotropy of equatorial electron fluxes. The electrostatic electron cyclotron harmonic waves, also observed onboard GEOS-2, were not found to be intense enough to cause by themselves the strong pitch-angle diffusion of electrons of a few keV

  16. Accelerator physics and nuclear energy education in INRNE-BAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonev, D.; Goutev, N.; Georgiev, L. S.

    2015-01-01

    Presently Bulgaria has no research nuclear facility, neither a research reactor, nor an accelerator. With the new cyclotron laboratory in Sofia the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences will restart the experimental research program not only in the fi eld of nuclear physics, but also in many interdisciplinary fields related to nuclear physics. The cornerstone of the cyclotron laboratory is a cyclotron TR24, which provides a proton beam with a variable energy between 15 and 24 MeV and current of up to 0.4 mA. The TR24 accelerator allows for the production of a large variety of radioisotopes for medical applications and development of radiopharmaceuticals. The new cyclotron facility will be used for research in radiopharmacy, radiochemistry, radiobiology, nuclear physics, solid state physics, applied research, new materials and for education in all these fields including especially nuclear energy. Keywords: Cyclotron, PET/CT, radiopharmacy

  17. Health physics aspects of the 1.5M cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, W.J.; Du, H.L.; Wei, Z.Q.; Xia, X.S.; Zheng, H.Z.; Jiang, G.F.; Liu, Y.Y.

    1987-01-01

    The 1.5m cyclotron in Institute of Modern Physics, Academia Sinica had operated for about 20 years until 1984 then converted to 1.7m sector focusing cyclotron. In this period it mainly used for fast neutron physics, light ion induced nucleus reactions, radioisotope production and heavy ion reactions. The health physics performed on this cyclotron including personnel dose monitoring, area monitoring (radiation field, radioactive aerosol, surface contamination and activated components etc.), maintenance inspection, environment survey and waste disposal is presented in this paper

  18. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-02

    Energy used by Texas single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  19. An alternative beam line at the U-400 M cyclotron for RIB separation and transport to the FOBOS spectrometer (The technical proposal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majdikov, V.Z.; Bashevoj, V.V.

    1998-01-01

    The first order ion-optic calculations performed together with the graphical modeling permits us to propose a new variant of the beam-transport line from the backside of the U-400M cyclotron to the FOBOS spectrometer. This beam line could be built in a rather short time without large financial expenditures from available magnetic and vacuum elements. The new beam line could even be considered as an economic alternative to the existing beam line and as a RIB separator. This work is the result of the pre-design R and D aimed to develop the U-400M cyclotron facilities for the RIB experiments performance with the FOBOS spectrometer

  20. A Case Analysis of Energy Savings Performance Contract Projects and Photovoltaic Energy at Fort Bliss, El Paso, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY AND FORT BLISS CASE BACKGROUND A. PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY The use of photovoltaic power systems is nothing new in the Department...against the Outback MPPT charge controller . This test will be done over a one month timeframe. The Arizona Power ISG test plan is contained in...cost-benefit analysis of conventional power versus emerging photovoltaic energy for the Army’s Fort Bliss in El Paso, TX. The project will also analyze

  1. Solid targets and irradiation facilities for production of diagnostic and therapeutic radionuclides at the Debrecen cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarkanyi, F.; Ando, L.; Szucs, Z.; Mahunka, I.; Kovacs, Z.

    2000-01-01

    The MGC-20E (NIIEFA, Leningrad, USSR) variable energy compact cyclotron (k=20) was installed in ATOMKI (Debrecen, Hungary) in 1985. Protons, deuterons, 3 He- and α-particles can be accelerated with currents up to 300 μA for internal irradiation and up to 50 μA for external beams. The establishment of the Cyclotron Laboratory was partly supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The application of the cyclotron is multipurpose: basic nuclear research, application of activation technique for analytical and wear studies, application of intense fast neutron source for agro-biological, bio-medical application and for radiation damage test of electronic components, and finally radioisotope production for medical diagnostics and for other scientific and applied fields. The cyclotron laboratory has six target rooms, a radiochemistry laboratory and a medical unit equipped with PET

  2. Successful renewable energy development in a competitive electricity market: A Texas case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarnikau, Jay

    2011-01-01

    The development of renewable energy in markets with competition at wholesale and retail levels poses challenges not present in areas served by vertically-integrated utilities. The intermittent nature of some renewable energy resources impact reliability, operations, and market prices, in turn affecting all market participants. Meeting renewable energy goals may require coordination among many market players. These challenges may be successfully overcome by imposing goals, establishing trading mechanisms, and implementing operational changes in competitive markets. This strategy has contributed to Texas' leadership among all US states in non-hydro renewable energy production. While Texas has been largely successful in accommodating over 9000 MW of wind power capacity, this extensive reliance upon wind power has also created numerous problems. Higher levels of operating reserves must now be procured. Market prices often go negative in the proximity of wind farms. Inaccurate wind forecasts have led to reliability problems. Five billion dollars in transmission investment will be necessary to facilitate further wind farm projects. Despite these costs, wind power is generally viewed as a net benefit. - Research Highlights: → Texas rapidly emerged as a leader in renewable energy development. → This state's experiences demonstrate that the right combination of policies to lead to rapid renewable energy development in a region with a very competitive electricity market. → Wind power development has lead to various operational challenges.

  3. Excitation of contained modes by high energy nuclei and correlated cyclotron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppi, B.; Penn, G.; Riconda, C.

    1997-01-01

    In experiments with fusing plasmas, enhanced radiation emission at the harmonics of the cyclotron frequency of fusion reaction products has been observed. A theory is presented that explains key features of these observations and indicates the possibility of extracting significant information about the fusion product population distribution, both in velocity space and over the plasma cross section. The considered model is consistent in particular with the fact that, in DT plasmas, the radiation peaks occur at frequencies corresponding to harmonics of the α particles cyclotron frequency Ω a evaluated at the outer edge of the plasma column, and that a transition to a open-quotes continuumclose quotes spectrum at high frequencies (ω approx-gt 7Ω α ) can be identified. In this model, the radiation is the result of the excitation of radially open-quotes containedclose quotes modes which are driven unstable by the fusion products. The modes considered to be responsible for the discrete part of the spectrum are spatially localized near the plasma edge. The radial containment, which is associated mainly with the inhomogeneity of the plasma density, is in fact a fundamental characteristic since only contained modes can grow out of a relatively weak mode-particle interaction and justify the detected emission power levels. The contained mode is a solution to a set of macroscopic equations, in which the electron motion is tied to that of the magnetic field (Hall effect). The growth rate has been evaluated considering the particle orbits in a toroidal confinement configuration and modelling the distribution function of the interacting particles with the energy at birth before slowing down occurs. The growth rate depends linearly on the α-particle density and can be larger than, or of the order of, the bounce frequency of the magnetically trapped α-particles, which can have a resonant interaction with the mode. According to the theoretical model presented, the discrete

  4. Concepts and strategies to establish a cyclotron/PET center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernan Vera Ruiz; D, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    Cyclotron accelerators are prolific sources of charged particle for the production of radionuclides and have become an essential tool in the practice of modern nuclear medicine by providing reliably radiotracers for SPECT and PET studies. In a recent survey conducted by the IAEA in 2001 (1) , the growth in the number of cyclotron facilities installed in laboratories and hospitals in developed as well as developing nations was put into evidence This trend, which started in the late 70's, continues up to the present time, and all indications are that it will continue in the next future. The reasons for this growth are several, amongst them it can be mentioned the fact that the technology involved has became more user or 'hospital friendly', third party reimbursement for several of clinical studies based on F-18 PET radiopharmaceuticals at least in some of the advanced countries starting with F-18FDG in 1998, and above all, the clear, irrefutable and demonstrable Conclusion of the positive cost/benefit outcomes of PET studies in the field of oncology and to a lesser degree, thus far, for cardiology and neurology. It is however recognized that the overall financial cost of the technology, which comprises the premises to house the facility, the cyclotron accelerator, the corresponding radiochemistry and quality control equipment and the PET camera can nevertheless be an expensive proposition that requires careful advance planning. This fact is even more relevant when the facility is planed for installation in a developing country which frequently, in addition to having a lack of sufficient financial resources, do have shortages of qualify human resources for advance planning and later, to run efficiently the facility. Several are the steps that needs consideration when planning a cyclotron facility, the most critical ones are a careful definition of the mission and scope of the facility including the utilization programme of the facility as a whole, followed by a

  5. The variable cyclotron line of GX 301-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreykenbohm, I.; Wilms, J.; Coburn, W.; Kuster, M.; Rothschild, R.E.; Heindl, W.A.; Kretschmar, P.; Staubert, R

    2004-06-01

    We present a 200 ksec observation of the High Mass X-ray Binary GX 301-2 taken in 2000 November with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer during the pre-periastron flare and the actual periastron passage of the neutron star. To model the spectrum we use a power law with the Fermi Dirac cutoff and a cyclotron line at higher energies plus either a reflection component or a heavily absorbed partial covering component. Although completely different, both models describe the data equally well. Phase resolved spectra show that the energy and the depth of the cyclotron resonant scattering feature vary strongly with pulse phase: It is deepest in the fall of the main pulse, the rise of the secondary pulse, and the pulse minimum in-between with {tau}{sub C}{approx}0.3. In the other phase bins the line is much less deep with {tau}{sub C}{approx}0.1. The energy of the line correlates strongly with its depth and varies by 25 % from 30.1 keV in the fall of the secondary pulse to 37.9 keV in the fall of the main pulse.

  6. High resolution beam line of the U400M cyclotron and RIB accumulation and cooling in the K4 storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodin, A.M.; Sidorchuk, S.I.; Stepantsov, S.V.

    1996-01-01

    The high resolution beam line ACCULINNA put into operation on a primary beam line of the JINR U400M cyclotron is discussed in the framework of the TREBLE project. The capability of the beam line for producing radioactive ion beams is demonstrated by means of nuclear fragmentation of the primary 14 N beam, with the energy of 51 MeV · A, on the 170 mg/cm 2 carbon target. Characteristics of the obtained 6 He, 8 He and 8 B radioactive beams are presented. A scheme of accumulation and cooling on the orbit of the storage ring K4 is proposed for a low intensity radioactive beam obtained from this beam line. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  7. User Perceptions of the Library's Web Pages: A Focus Group Study at Texas A&M University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Gwyneth H.; Leffel, Rob; Ramirez, Diana; Hart, Judith L.; Armstrong, Tommy S., II

    2002-01-01

    This focus group study explored library patrons' opinions about Texas A&M library's Web pages. Discusses information seeking behavior which indicated that patrons are confused when trying to navigate the Public Access Menu and suggests the need for a more intuitive interface. (Author/LRW)

  8. Analysis of the Impact of Introductory Physics on Engineering Students at Texas A&M University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jonathan; Bassichis, William

    Introductory physics forms a major part of the foundational knowledge of engineering majors, independent of discipline and institution. While the content of introductory physics courses is consistent from institution to institution, the manner in which it is taught can vary greatly due to professor, textbook, instructional method, and overall course design. This work attempts to examine variations in student success, as measured by overall academic performance in an engineering major, and matriculation rates, based on the type of introductory physics a student took while enrolled in an engineering degree at Texas A&M University. Specific options for introductory physics at Texas A&M University include two calculus based physics courses, one traditional (UP), and one more mathematically rigorous (DP), transfer credit, and high school (AP or dual) credit. In order to examine the impact of introductory physics on a student's degree progression, data mining analyses are performed on a data set of relatively comprehensive academic records for all students enrolled as an engineering major for a minimum of one academic term. Student data has been collected for years of entering freshman beginning in 1990 and ending in 2010. Correlations will be examined between freshman level courses, including introductory physics, and follow on engineering courses, matriculation rates, and time to graduation.

  9. Present and future superconducting cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolen, J.A. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    This paper begins with a brief review of the status of present superconducting (SC) cyclotron projects, including the two which are currently operating and the six which are under construction. The next section summarizes the main features shared by five of these machines, while the third section presents recent developments and new concepts introduced in the other three ''second generation'' SC cyclotrons. Projects in early stages of development are discussed in the fourth section

  10. Cyclotron based nuclear science: Progress report, April 1, 1987-March 31, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-08-01

    This report discusses experiment run on the K500 cyclotron and 88 in cyclotron at Texas AandM University. The main topics of these experiments are: Heavy ion reactions; Nuclear structure and fundamental interactions; Atomic and material science; Nuclear theory; and Superconducting cyclotron and instrumentation

  11. A simple and powerful XY-Type current monitor for 30 MeV IPEN/CNEN-SP cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barcellos, Henrique; Matsuda, Hylton; Sumyia, Luiz Carlos do A.; Junqueira, Fernando de C.; Costa, Osvaldo L. da, E-mail: hbolivei@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    A water-cooled XY-type current monitor was designed and built in the Cyclotrons Laboratory of the Nuclear and Energy Research Institute (IPEN). It is a very simple design and easily adaptable to the cyclotron beam lines. Tests were done demonstrating to be an instrument of great assistance in proton beam position along beam transport line and target port. Nowadays the XY-type current monitor has been widely used in {sup 18}F-FDG routine productions, employing irradiation system which were originally designed for productions on 18 MeV cyclotron accelerator only, however, applying the XY-type current monitor the target port may be exchanged between the 30 MeV and 18 MeV cyclotrons and the observed results are in perfect agreement with expected. (author)

  12. A PHOTOMETRIC VARIABILITY SURVEY OF FIELD K AND M DWARF STARS WITH HATNet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, J. D.; Bakos, G. A.; Noyes, R. W.; Sipocz, B.; Pal, A.; Kovacs, G.; Mazeh, T.; Shporer, A.

    2011-01-01

    Using light curves from the HATNet survey for transiting extrasolar planets we investigate the optical broadband photometric variability of a sample of 27, 560 field K and M dwarfs selected by color and proper motion (V - K ∼> 3.0, μ > 30 mas yr -1 , plus additional cuts in J - H versus H - K S and on the reduced proper motion). We search the light curves for periodic variations and for large-amplitude, long-duration flare events. A total of 2120 stars exhibit potential variability, including 95 stars with eclipses and 60 stars with flares. Based on a visual inspection of these light curves and an automated blending classification, we select 1568 stars, including 78 eclipsing binaries (EBs), as secure variable star detections that are not obvious blends. We estimate that a further ∼26% of these stars may be blends with fainter variables, though most of these blends are likely to be among the hotter stars in our sample. We find that only 38 of the 1568 stars, including five of the EBs, have previously been identified as variables or are blended with previously identified variables. One of the newly identified EBs is 1RXS J154727.5+450803, a known P = 3.55 day, late M-dwarf SB2 system, for which we derive preliminary estimates for the component masses and radii of M 1 = M 2 = 0.258 ± 0.008 M sun and R 1 = R 2 = 0.289 ± 0.007 R sun . The radii of the component stars are larger than theoretical expectations if the system is older than ∼200 Myr. The majority of the variables are heavily spotted BY Dra-type stars for which we determine rotation periods. Using this sample, we investigate the relations between period, color, age, and activity measures, including optical flaring, for K and M dwarfs, finding that many of the well-established relations for F, G, and K dwarfs continue into the M dwarf regime. We find that the fraction of stars that is variable with peak-to-peak amplitudes greater than 0.01 mag increases exponentially with the V - K S color such that

  13. 77 FR 39996 - Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, Notice of Decision on Application for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, Notice of Decision on Application for Duty-Free Entry of Scientific Instruments...: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-3123. Instrument: Arc...

  14. SPES: A new cyclotron-based facility for research and applications with high-intensity beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiore, M.; Campo, D.; Antonini, P.; Lombardi, A.; Manzolaro, M.; Andrighetto, A.; Monetti, A.; Scarpa, D.; Esposito, J.; Silvestrin, L.

    2017-06-01

    In 2016, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (Italy) started the commissioning of a new accelerator facility based on a high-power cyclotron able to deliver proton beams up to 70 MeV of energy and 700 μA current. Such a machine is the core of the Selective Production of Exotic Species (SPES) project whose main goal is to provide exotics beam for nuclear and astrophysics research and to deliver high-intensity proton beams for medical applications and neutrons generator.

  15. An investigation into the technical feasibility of cyclotron production of technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, G.F.; Lagunas-Solar, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    The role of technetium-99m in nuclear medicine is well established with 80 per cent to 90 per cent of all nuclear medicine studies utilising this isotope. Technetium-99m is currently produced from nuclear reactors via production of the parent radionuclide molybdenum-99. The reactor production of 99m Tc has both significant financial and environmental costs, with unresolved problems in the areas of radioactive waste disposal and reactor decommissioning. Recent scientific publications have indicated that medical quality 99m Tc may be produced using cyclotrons without having the associated problems of waste disposal and decommissioning. Further scientific research is now required to demonstrate the feasibility of this cyclotron production technique. A collaboration between the Cyclotron and PET Centre, Austin Hospital, the National Medical Cyclotron, ANSTO, Sydney, and the Crocker Nuclear Laboratory, University of California, Davis, USA has been proposed. The general objective of the proposed collaboration is to acquire additional scientific data to evaluate the 99m Tc cyclotron production method and to determine the feasibility of cyclotron technology for Australian nuclear medicine. 16 refs., 2 tabs

  16. Superconducting cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blosser, H.G.; Johnson, D.A.; Burleigh, R.J.

    1976-01-01

    Superconducting cyclotrons are particularly appropriate for acceleration of heavy ions. A review is given of design features of a superconducting cyclotron with energy 440 (Q 2 /A) MeV. A strong magnetic field (4.6 tesla average) leads to small physical size (extraction radius 65 cm) and low construction costs. Operating costs are also low. The design is based on established technology (from present cyclotrons and from large bubble chambers). Two laboratories (in Chalk River, Canada and in East Lansing, Michigan) are proceeding with construction of full-scale prototype components for such cyclotrons

  17. High resolution line for secondary radioactive beams at the U400M cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodin, A.M.; Sidorchuk, S.I.; Stepantsov, S.V.

    1996-01-01

    For implementation of an experimental program for studying nuclear reactions with radioactive ion beams in the energy domain of 20 through 80 MeV · A the high resolution beam line ACCULINNA was put into commissioning on a primary beam line of the JINR U-400M cyclotron. By means of nuclear fragmentation of the 14 N beam with the energy of 51 MeV · A on the 170 mg/cm 2 carbon target radioactive beams of 6 He, 8 He and 8 B were obtained. Possibilities of further development of the set-up are discussed. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Medical Cyclotrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesel, D. L.; Antaya, T. A.

    Particle accelerators were initially developed to address specific scientific research goals, yet they were used for practical applications, particularly medical applications, within a few years of their invention. The cyclotron's potential for producing beams for cancer therapy and medical radioisotope production was realized with the early Lawrence cyclotrons and has continued with their more technically advanced successors — synchrocyclotrons, sector-focused cyclotrons and superconducting cyclotrons. While a variety of other accelerator technologies were developed to achieve today's high energy particles, this article will chronicle the development of one type of accelerator — the cyclotron, and its medical applications. These medical and industrial applications eventually led to the commercial manufacture of both small and large cyclotrons and facilities specifically designed for applications other than scientific research.

  19. Cyclotron produced Tc-99m: testing compatibility with established kits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lebeda, Ondřej; Ráliš, Jan; Hradilek, Pavel; Hanč, Petr; van Lier, E. J.; Zyuzin, A.; Moša, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 40, 2 Supplement (2013), S424-S425 ISSN 1619-7070. [Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM). 19.10.2013-23.10.2013, Lyon] Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : cyclotron U-120M * Tc-99m * 100Mo Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics , Colliders

  20. Hazardous materials emergency response training program at Texas A ampersand M University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stirling, A.G.

    1989-01-01

    The Texas Engineering Extension Service (TEEX) as the engineering vocational training arm of the Texas A ampersand M University system has conducted oil-spill, hazardous-material, and related safety training for industry since 1976 and fire suppression training since 1931. In 1987 TEEX conducted training for some 66,000 persons, of which some 6000 were in hazardous-materials safety training and 22,000 in fire suppression or related fields. Various laws and regulations exist relative to employee training at an industrial facility, such as the Hazard Communication Act, the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA or more commonly Superfund), the Community Right to Know Law, and the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), Titles I and III. The TEEX programs developed on the foundation emphasize the hands-on approach (60% field exercises) to provide a comprehensive training curriculum resulting in regulatory compliance, an effective emergency response capability, a prepared community, and a safe work environment

  1. Energy confinement and MHD activity in shaped TCV plasmas with localised electron cyclotron heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochelon, A.; Alberti, S.; Angioni, C.

    2001-01-01

    Confinement in TCV (Tokamak a Configuration Variable) EC heated discharges is studied as a function of plasma shape, i.e. as a function of elongation 1.1<κ<2.15 and triangularity -0.65≤δ≤0.5. The electron energy confinement time is found to increase with elongation, in part due to the increase of plasma current with elongation. The beneficial effect of negative triangularities is most effective at low power and tends to reduce at the higher powers used. The large variety of sawtooth types observed in TCV for different power deposition locations from on axis to the q=1 region can be simulated with a model including a local power deposition, a growing m/n=1 island (convection and reconnection), plasma rotation and finite heat diffusivity across flux surfaces. (author)

  2. Mechanical design control and implementation of a new movable diagnostic probe for the TRIUMF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ries, T.C.

    1993-11-01

    A new movable probe has been installed into the TRIUMF H - cyclotron. It is intended to measure the distribution of betatron amplitudes, in the vertical plane, of the circulating beam and to scrape halo. The probe, however, may also be scanned in the radial direction. The head may be positioned vertically and horizontally to an accuracy of .002 in. The device is mechanically modular to facilitate fast and easy handling for maintenance in a radioactive area. The beam sensor on the probe head is a 1.25 in. x 3 in. x 0.003 in. tantalum foil and its overall coverage is 3.00 in. X 7.25 in. in a vertical plane orthogonal to, and crossing through the beam orbit plane. Presently its radial centre line location corresponds to a proton beam energy of about 430 MeV at radius 296 in., however, the probe device may be easily relocated to operate from any 4 in. port, and, with an adaptor port flange, may be installed into any port in the cyclotron vacuum tank. A stationary catcher below the probe path collects those electrons stripped from the H - beam and scattered out from the probe head. The probe axis is vertical and the tank aperture is narrow so a worm gear arrangement combined with a modified 'Evans' - parallel linkage mechanism is used to transform vertical rotary motion into horizontal linear motion. The actuators are dc servo motors with tachometers driven by pulse width modulated servo amplifiers. Position sensing is done by variable reluctance type absolute rotary encoders and the higher level positioning is performed by TRIMAC based control software. The precision of movement and jitter was measured in the laboratory. Examples will be given of the probe use with beam. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs

  3. Vancouver Cyclotron Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, David J.

    1993-01-01

    Although no longer on the high energy frontier, the cyclotron field is still a major scientific growth area. Its progress is highlighted at the international conference on cyclotron design, development and utilization held at intervals of about three years, under the auspices of the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP). Vancouver, surrounded by mountains, water and some cyclotrons, provided a pleasant setting for the 13th Conference, held last summer. With over 200 cyclotrons in operation around the world, the attendance, 241 delegates and 26 industrial exhibitors, was a near record, reflecting the flourishing state of the field. The early sessions covered the initial operation of new or upgraded cyclotron facilities. Major facilities completed since the previous Conference in Berlin in May 1989 included the 400 MeV ring cyclotron at Osaka, the U400M cyclotron at Dubna which will be coupled to the U400 to give 20 MeV nucléon uranium beams, the 130 MeV cyclotron at Jyvaskyla (in Finland, the furthest north!), the 110 MeV JAERI machine in Japan, and the 65 MeV proton therapy cyclotron in Nice. Among the facility upgrades were the KFA cyclotron at Julich which will inject the 2.5 GeV storage ring COSY, and the addition of an FM mode to the K=200 CW mode at Uppsala to give protons up to 180 MeV. The impressive current of 1.5 mA at 72 MeV obtained from the PSI Injector II will soon be injected into the 590 MeV ring

  4. AUTOMATED FLOWCHART SYSTEM FROM TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodford, W.

    1994-01-01

    An accurate flowchart is an important part of the documentation for any computer program. The flowchart offers the user an easy to follow overview of program operation and the maintenance programmer an effective debugging tool. The TAMU FLOWCHART System was developed to flowchart any program written in the FORTRAN language. It generates a line printer flowchart which is representative of the program logic. This flowchart provides the user with a detailed representation of the program action taken as each program statement is executed. The TAMU FLOWCHART System should prove to be a valuable aid to groups working with complex FORTRAN programs. Each statement in the program is displayed within a symbol which represents the program action during processing of the enclosed statement. Symbols available include: subroutine, function, and entry statements; arithmetic statements; input and output statements; arithmetical and logical IF statements; subroutine calls with or without argument list returns; computed and assigned GO TO statements; DO statements; STOP and RETURN statements; and CONTINUE and ASSIGN statements. Comment cards within the source program may be suppressed or displayed and associated with a succeeding source statement. Each symbol is annotated with a label (if present in the source code), a block number, and the statement sequence number. Program flow and options within the program are represented by line segments and direction indicators connecting symbols. The TAMU FLOWCHART System should be able to accurately flowchart any working FORTRAN program. This program is written in COBOL for batch execution and has been implemented on an IBM 370 series computer with an OS operating system and with a central memory requirement of approximately 380K of 8 bit bytes. The TAMU FLOWCHART System was developed in 1977.

  5. A new cyclotron for biomedical research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolber, G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents the rationale for replacing the old AEG Compact Cyclotron (built in 1969/71) of the Institute for Radiology and Pathophysiology at the German Cancer Research Center by a 30 MeV H - /15 MeV D - cyclotron. A status report is followed by the scientific and technical reasoning as well as budgetary and organizational considerations. In the appendix we tried to explain the function of a cyclotron in a simple and comprehensive manner. (orig.) [de

  6. Diverse Lessons (Undergraduate Program at Texas A&M)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschbaum, Stephanie L.; Killingsworth, M. Jimmie

    2007-01-01

    The number of first-year writing and writing­-across-the-curriculum programs has been increasing at institutions across the United States, but a similar rise has not been seen in the growth of concentrations in rhetoric and writing as an undergraduate major or minor. In this program profile, the authors describe how the Discourse Studies faculty…

  7. Control system specification for a cyclotron and neutron therapy facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacky, J.; Risler, R.; Kalet, I.; Wootton, P.; Barke, A.; Brossard, S.; Jackson, R.

    1991-01-01

    It is usually considered an essential element of good practice in engineering to produce a specification for a system before building it. However, it has been found to be quite difficult to produce useful specifications of large software systems. The authors have nearly completed a comprehensive specification for the computer control system of a cyclotron and treatment facility that provides particle beams for cancer treatments with fast neutrons, production of medical isotopes, and physics experiments. They describe the control system as thoroughly as is practical using standard technical English, supplemented by tables, diagrams, and some algebraic equations. This specification comprises over 300 single-spaced pages. A more precise and compact specification might be achieved by making greater use of formal mathematical notations instead of English. They have begun work on a formal specification of the system, using the Z and Petri net notations

  8. Cyclotron radiation by a multi-group method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.C.

    1980-01-01

    A multi-energy group technique is developed to study conditions under which cyclotron radiation emission can shift a Maxwellian electron distribution into a non-Maxwellian; and if the electron distribution is non-Maxwellian, to study the rate of cyclotron radiation emission as compared to that emitted by a Maxwellian having the same mean electron density and energy. The assumptions in this study are: the electrons should be in an isotropic medium and the magnetic field should be uniform. The multi-group technique is coupled into a multi-group Fokker-Planck computer code to study electron behavior under the influence of cyclotron radiation emission in a self-consistent fashion. Several non-Maxwellian distributions were simulated to compare their cyclotron emissions with the corresponding energy and number density equivalent Maxwellian distribtions

  9. Commercial and PET radioisotope manufacturing with a medical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boothe, T.E.; McLeod, T.F.; Plitnikas, M.; Kinney, D.; Tavano, E.; Feijoo, Y.; Smith, P.; Szelecsenyi, F.

    1993-01-01

    Mount Sinai has extensive experience in producing radionuclides for commercial sales and for incorporation into radiopharmaceuticals, including PET. Currently, an attempt is being made to supply radiochemicals to radiopharmaceutical manufacturers outside the hospital, to prepare radiopharmaceuticals for in-house use, and to prepare PET radiopharmaceuticals, such as 2-[F-18] FDG, for outside sales. This use for both commercial and PET manufacturing is atypical for a hospital-based cyclotron. To accomplish PET radiopharmaceutical sales, the hospital operates a nuclear pharmacy. A review of operational details for the past several years shows a continuing dependence on commercial sales which is reflected in research and developmental aspects and in staffing. Developmental efforts have centered primarily on radionuclide production, target development, and radiochemical processing optimization. (orig.)

  10. Commercial and PET radioisotope manufacturing with a medical cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, T. E.; McLeod, T. F.; Plitnikas, M.; Kinney, D.; Tavano, E.; Feijoo, Y.; Smith, P.; Szelecsényi, F.

    1993-06-01

    Mount Sinai has extensive experience in producing radionuclides for commercial sales and for incorporation into radiopharmaceuticals, including PET. Currently, an attempt is being made to supply radiochemicals to radiopharmaceutical manufacturers outside the hospital, to prepare radiopharmaceuticals for in-house use, and to prepare PET radiopharmaceuticals, such as 2-[F-18] FDG, for outside sales. This use for both commercial and PET manufacturing is atypical for a hospital-based cyclotron. To accomplish PET radiopharmaceutical sales, the hospital operates a nuclear pharmacy. A review of operational details for the past several years shows a continuing dependence on commercial sales which is reflected in research and developmental aspects and in staffing. Developmental efforts have centered primarily on radionuclide production, target development, and radiochemical processing optimization.

  11. Texas A&M Texarkana Illustrates Best Practices in PLA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delleville, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Some institutions' prior learning assessment (PLA) programs are far more successful than others. As with any strategic initiative, the best-intentioned policy is only as good as the implementation, operations, and people behind it. Beyond progressing through the change management process, ensuring sustainability is critical to long-term PLA…

  12. Medical applications of cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jean, R.; Fauchet, M.

    1978-01-01

    Isochronous cyclotrons used to accelerate different charged particles (protons, deuterons, alphas...) at variable energies, have important medical applications, for neutron teletherapy, in vivo or in vitro activation analysis or production of short-lived radioisotopes for nuclear medicine. The characteristics of the cyclotron presently available are described for these three applications (low energy 'compact' cyclotrons, cyclotrons of intermediate and high energies), and their advantages are discussed from the points of view of the medical requirements, the financial investments and the results obtained. (orig.) [de

  13. Nuclear safety analyses and core design calculations to convert the Texas A & M University Nuclear Science Center reactor to low enrichment uranium fuel. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parish, T.A.

    1995-03-02

    This project involved performing the nuclear design and safety analyses needed to modify the license issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to allow operation of the Texas A& M University Nuclear Science Center Reactor (NSCR) with a core containing low enrichment uranium (LEU) fuel. The specific type of LEU fuel to be considered was the TRIGA 20-20 fuel produced by General Atomic. Computer codes for the neutronic analyses were provided by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the assistance of William Woodruff of ANL in helping the NSCR staff to learn the proper use of the codes is gratefully acknowledged. The codes applied in the LEU analyses were WIMSd4/m, DIF3D, NCTRIGA and PARET. These codes allowed full three dimensional, temperature and burnup dependent calculations modelling the NSCR core to be performed for the first time. In addition, temperature coefficients of reactivity and pulsing calculations were carried out in-house, whereas in the past this modelling had been performed at General Atomic. In order to benchmark the newly acquired codes, modelling of the current NSCR core with highly enriched uranium fuel was also carried out. Calculated results were compared to both earlier licensing calculations and experimental data and the new methods were found to achieve excellent agreement with both. Therefore, even if an LEU core is never loaded at the NSCR, this project has resulted in a significant improvement in the nuclear safety analysis capabilities established and maintained at the NSCR.

  14. A new internal target system for production of 211At on the cyclotron U-120M

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lebeda, Ondřej; Jiran, Rudolf; Ráliš, Jan; Štursa, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 63, - (2005), s. 49-53 ISSN 0969-8043 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB4048302 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : radionuclides production * 211At * cyclotron Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry Impact factor: 0.757, year: 2005

  15. Assessment of radionuclidic impurities in cyclotron produced Tc-99m

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lebeda, Ondřej; van Lier, E. J.; Štursa, Jan; Ráliš, Jan; Zyuzin, A.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 12 (2012), s. 1286-1291 ISSN 0969-8051 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : Technetium-99m * cyclotron * proton irradiation * radionuclidic impurities Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 2.517, year: 2012

  16. Comprehensive UAV agricultural remote-sensing research at Texas A M University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasson, J. Alex; Shi, Yeyin; Olsenholler, Jeffrey; Valasek, John; Murray, Seth C.; Bishop, Michael P.

    2016-05-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have advantages over manned vehicles for agricultural remote sensing. Flying UAVs is less expensive, is more flexible in scheduling, enables lower altitudes, uses lower speeds, and provides better spatial resolution for imaging. The main disadvantage is that, at lower altitudes and speeds, only small areas can be imaged. However, on large farms with contiguous fields, high-quality images can be collected regularly by using UAVs with appropriate sensing technologies that enable high-quality image mosaics to be created with sufficient metadata and ground-control points. In the United States, rules governing the use of aircraft are promulgated and enforced by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), and rules governing UAVs are currently in flux. Operators must apply for appropriate permissions to fly UAVs. In the summer of 2015 Texas A&M University's agricultural research agency, Texas A&M AgriLife Research, embarked on a comprehensive program of remote sensing with UAVs at its 568-ha Brazos Bottom Research Farm. This farm is made up of numerous fields where various crops are grown in plots or complete fields. The crops include cotton, corn, sorghum, and wheat. After gaining FAA permission to fly at the farm, the research team used multiple fixed-wing and rotary-wing UAVs along with various sensors to collect images over all parts of the farm at least once per week. This article reports on details of flight operations and sensing and analysis protocols, and it includes some lessons learned in the process of developing a UAV remote-sensing effort of this sort.

  17. Oceanography and Geoscience Scholars at Texas A&M University Funded through the NSF S-STEM (Scholarships in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M. J.; Gardner, W. D.

    2016-02-01

    Over the last seven years we have led the creation and implementation of the Oceanography and Geoscience Scholars programs at Texas A&M University. Through these programs we have been able to provide scholarship support for 92 undergraduates in Geosciences and 29 graduate students in Oceanography. Fifty-seven undergraduate scholars have graduated in Geosciences: 30 undergraduate students in Meteorology, 7 in Geology, and 20 in Environmental Geosciences. Two students have graduated in other STEM disciplines. Twenty-four students are in the process of completing their undergraduate degrees in STEM disciplines. Twenty-three students have graduated with MS or PhD degrees in Oceanography and five PhD students are completing their dissertations. As specified in the program solicitation all of the scholars are academically talented students with demonstrated financial need as defined by the FAFSA (Free Application for Federal Student Aid). We have endeavored to recruit students from underrepresented groups. One-third of the undergraduate scholars were from underrepresented groups; 28% of the graduate students. We will present the challenges and successes of these programs.

  18. Method and apparatus for ion cyclotron spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, David A [Idaho Falls, ID; Scott, Jill R [Idaho Falls, ID; McJunkin, Timothy R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-08-17

    An ion cyclotron spectrometer may include a vacuum chamber that extends at least along a z-axis and means for producing a magnetic field within the vacuum chamber so that a magnetic field vector is generally parallel to the z-axis. The ion cyclotron spectrometer may also include means for producing a trapping electric field within the vacuum chamber that includes at least a first section that induces a first magnetron effect that increases a cyclotron frequency of an ion and at least a second section that induces a second magnetron effect that decreases the cyclotron frequency of an ion. The cyclotron frequency changes induced by the first and second magnetron effects substantially cancel one another so that an ion traversing the at least first and second sections will experience no net change in cyclotron frequency.

  19. Collaboration in nuclear engineering education between France and the United States: Participation of French students at Texas A ampersand M University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peddicord, K.L.; Durand, J.L.; Gousty, Y.; Jeneveau, A.; Erdman, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    Universities in the United States have had a long tradition of accepting students from other countries to pursue graduate degrees. This has particularly been the case in the fields of engineering and science. This trend has grown to the point that in several graduate engineering fields, the percentage of foreign nationals outnumbers US enrollees. Historically, most foreign students studying in the US universities have been from developing countries. Usually these students apply and are accepted on a case-by-case basis. For a number of reasons, less emphasis has been placed on programs with western Europe. In this paper, a program of collaboration is described in which the Department of Nuclear Engineering at Texas A ampersand M University has entered into memoranda of agreement with two institutions in France. The two universities are the Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble (INPG) in Grenoble and the Ecole Polytechnique Feminine (EPF) in Sceaux. The purpose of the program is to enable students in nuclear engineering to simultaneously complete requirements for the diploma and the MS degree

  20. Five Years of Women in Nuclear at Texas A&M University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dromgoole, L.

    2015-01-01

    Texas A&M University Women in Nuclear (WiN–TAMU) seeks to provide professional development opportunities for its members while also reaching out to the public both on the university campus and the surrounding local community. The purpose of this poster is to share best practices and learning experiences promoting the career development and education of women in nuclear-related fields acquired over five years of existence as a chapter. Since its reestablishment in 2010, WiN–TAMU has hosted events for women in disciplines related to nuclear technology, including presentations from experts in the nuclear field, Q&A sessions with nuclear engineering faculty, workshops on communicating technical issues about nuclear to the public, public screenings of nuclear films, technical tours of nuclear power plants, medical facilities and regulatory bodies, and socials to build camaraderie among members. WiN–TAMU collaborates with the Nuclear Power Institute (NPI) by interacting with high school students in NPI’s POWER SET programmes. POWER SET (Powerful Opportunities forWomen Eager and Ready for Science, Engineering, and Technology) provides young women with the educational tools and support to pursue education and careers in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM). The POWER SET students also interact with members of WiN at Texas’s two nuclear power plants, Comanche Peak and South Texas Project. This tiered approach provides the students with the perspectives of WiN members at various stages in their education and careers. As of the end of the 2014 school year, 81% of the students self-identified that they will pursue STEM course of study (as opposed to the U.S. average of 15–17%). The POWER SET model has recently been implemented internationally in the Philippines with a new programme of 50 young women and is being considered for implementation at the Vienna International School as well. (author)

  1. Preparation of 199Tl radionuclide on U-120 (R-7M) cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glukhov, G.G.; Komov, A.I.; Maslennikov, Yu.S.; Malinin, A.B.; Skuridin, V.S.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility of preparation of 199 Tl radionuclide, which can be successfully used instead of thallium-201 in radiopharmaceutical compound for medicine diagnosis due to nuclear-physical characteristics, is studied. It is established that thallium-199 free from thallium-298, but with thallium-200 impurity, is formed under irradiation of gold-197 target by 27.2-28 MeV energy α-particles. The construction of a thin-layer gold target allowing to decrease thallium-200 impurity up to >0.5 % is developed and tested. Perspectivity of thallium-199 production at domestic cyclotrons P-7M and u-120 is shown. 4 refs.; 2 figs.; 3 tabs

  2. Electron cyclotron current drive experiments in LHCD plasmas using a remote steering antenna on the TRIAM-1M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idei, H.; Hanada, K.; Zushi, H.; Ohkubo, K.; Hasegawa, M.; Kubo, S.; Nishi, S.; Fukuyama, A.; Sato, K.N.; Nakamura, K.; Sakamoto, M.; Iyomasa, A.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.; Notake, T.; Shimozuma, T.; Ito, S.; Hoshika, H.; Maezono, N.; Nakashima, K.; Ogawa, M.

    2006-01-01

    A remote steering antenna was recently developed for electron cyclotron heating and current drive (ECH/ECCD) experiments on the TRIAM-1M tokamak. This is the first application of the remote steering antenna concept for ECH/ECCD experiments, which have conditions relevant to the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Fundamental ECH and ECCD experiments were conducted in the ITER frequency from the low field using this antenna system. In addition to the angles near 0 0 , the launcher was a symmetric direction antenna with an extended steering-angle capability of ±(8 0 -19 0 ). The output beam from the antenna was a well-defined Gaussian with a proper steering angle. The Gaussian content and the steering-angle accuracy were 0.85 and -0.5 0 , respectively. The high power tests measured the antenna transmission efficiency at 0.90-0.94. The efficiencies obtained in the low and high power tests were consistent with the calculations using higher-order modes. In order to excite the pure O/X-modes in the oblique injection, two polarizers were used to control the elliptical polarization of the incident beam for the ECCD experiments. The fundamental O/X-mode ECH/ECCD was applied to lower hyrid current drive plasmas at the optimized incident polarization. In the X-mode experiment, at medium density (∼1 x 10 19 m -3 ), clear differences in the plasma current and the hard x-ray intensity were observed between the co- and counter-steering injections due to the ECCD effect on the coupling of forward fast electrons

  3. Commercial compact cyclotrons in the 90's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.F.

    1995-09-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in the accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicate a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper we will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology, as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Design criteria for the different types of commercial cyclotrons will be presented, with reference to those demands that differ from those in a research oriented cyclotron project. We will also discuss the possibility of systems designed for higher energies and capable of extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA. (author)

  4. Commercial compact cyclotrons in the 90's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.F.

    1995-09-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in the accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicate a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper the authors will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology, as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Design criteria for the different types of commercial cyclotrons will be presented, with reference to those demands that differ from those in a research oriented cyclotron project. The authors also discuss the possibility of systems designed for higher energies and capable of extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA

  5. Temperature anisotropy in a cyclotron resonance heated tokamak plasma and the generation of poloidal electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, W.; Ono, M.; Chang, C.S.

    1994-11-01

    The temperature anisotropy generated by cyclotron resonance heating of tokamak plasmas is calculated and the poloidal equilibrium electric field due to the anisotropy is studied. For the calculation of anisotropic temperatures, bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck equation with a bi-Maxwellian distribution function of heated particles is solved, assuming a moderate wave power and a constant quasilinear cyclotron resonance diffusion coefficient. The poloidal electrostatic potential variation is found to be proportional to the particle density and the degree of temperature anisotropy of warm species created by cyclotron resonance heating

  6. Cyclotrons for isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milton, B.F.; Stevenson, N.R.

    1995-06-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for radioisotope production. In recent years, developments in the accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicates a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper we will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology, and isotope production, as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. We will also discuss the possibility of systems capable of extracted energies up to 100 MeV and extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  7. The Texas-Edinburgh-Catania Silicon Array (TECSA): A detector for nuclear astrophysics and nuclear structure studies with rare isotope beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, B.T., E-mail: broeder@comp.tamu.ed [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States); McCleskey, M.; Trache, L.; Alharbi, A.A.; Banu, A. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States); Cherubini, S. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, I95123 Catania (Italy); Davinson, T. [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Goldberg, V.Z. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States); Gulino, M. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, I95123 Catania (Italy); Pizzone, R.G. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I95123 Catania (Italy); Simmons, E. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States); Sparta, R. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I95123 Catania (Italy); Spiridon, A. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States); Spitaleri, C. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, I95123 Catania (Italy); Wallace, J.P. [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Tribble, R.E. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States); Woods, P.J. [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-01

    We present the details of the construction and commissioning of the Texas-Edinburgh-Catania Silicon Array (TECSA). TECSA is composed of up to 16 Micron Semiconductor Ltd. type-YY1 silicon strip detectors and associated electronics, which is designed for use in studies of nuclear astrophysics and nuclear structure with rare isotope beams. TECSA was assembled at the Texas A and M University Cyclotron Institute and will be housed there for the next few years. The array was commissioned in a recent experiment where the d({sup 14}C,p){sup 15}C reaction at 11.7 MeV/u was measured in inverse kinematics. The results of the measurement and a discussion of the future use of this array are presented.

  8. The Texas-Edinburgh-Catania Silicon Array (TECSA): A detector for nuclear astrophysics and nuclear structure studies with rare isotope beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roeder, B.T.; McCleskey, M.; Trache, L.; Alharbi, A.A.; Banu, A.; Cherubini, S.; Davinson, T.; Goldberg, V.Z.; Gulino, M.; Pizzone, R.G.; Simmons, E.; Sparta, R.; Spiridon, A.; Spitaleri, C.; Wallace, J.P.; Tribble, R.E.; Woods, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    We present the details of the construction and commissioning of the Texas-Edinburgh-Catania Silicon Array (TECSA). TECSA is composed of up to 16 Micron Semiconductor Ltd. type-YY1 silicon strip detectors and associated electronics, which is designed for use in studies of nuclear astrophysics and nuclear structure with rare isotope beams. TECSA was assembled at the Texas A and M University Cyclotron Institute and will be housed there for the next few years. The array was commissioned in a recent experiment where the d( 14 C,p) 15 C reaction at 11.7 MeV/u was measured in inverse kinematics. The results of the measurement and a discussion of the future use of this array are presented.

  9. Computer design of a compact cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bing Wang; Huanfeng Hao; Qinggao Yao; Jinquan Zhang; Mingtao Song; Vorozhtsov, S.B.; Smirnov, V.L.; Hongwei Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Here we present results of the computer design of the structural elements of a compact cyclotron by the example of HITFiL cyclotron selected as the driving accelerator that is under construction at the Institute of Modern Physics (Lanzhou, China). In the article a complex approach to modeling of the compact cyclotron, including calculation of electromagnetic fields of the structural elements and beam dynamics calculations, is described. The existing design data on the axial injection, magnetic, acceleration and extraction systems of the cyclotron are used as a starting point in the simulation. Some of the upgrades of the cyclotron structural elements were proposed, which led to substantial improvement of the beam quality and transmission

  10. Texas A and M University, Nuclear Science Center: Twenty-fourth progress report, January 1, 1987-December 31, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, K.C.; Davis, J.W.; Krohn, J.L.; Meyer, C.M.; Petesch, J.E.; Stasny, G.S.

    1988-03-01

    Utilization of the reactor (NSCR Reactor) during 1987 increased slightly over that in 1986. The main activity is shifting from isotope tracer production to testing and exposure irradiations. Core VIII-A, operational since March 1986, was used throughout 1987

  11. Development of microprocessor based ionization gauge controller for variable energy cyclotron project [Paper No.:P5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srilakshmi, B.R.; Rao, M.K.V.

    1993-01-01

    The ion gauge uses energetic electrons to ionize gas molecules, the magnitude of ion current thus produced is a measure of the molecular density or the pressure which is the most commonly measured parameter in vacuum technology. The relationship between ion current (I p ) and pressure (P) is given by the equation P=I p /(I E .S.G) where S = sensitivity of a particular gauge head, G = gas constant depending on the nature of the gas appearing in the system. I E = emission current. Hence P becomes directly proportional to I p if I E is maintained constant. The present scheme incorporates a microprocessor based circuit for automatic display of pressure in the mantissa and exponent form. While the exponent is displayed through a look up table stored in the EPROM, the mantissa is computed by the processor after multiple sampling, conversion through ADC and averaging technique. (author). 2 refs., 1 fig

  12. Texas transportation planning for future renewable energy projects : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    There will be a significant increase in the number of renewable energy production facilities in Texas. The : construction of wind farms requires the transport of wind turbine components that create increased loads on : rural roads and bridges. These ...

  13. Variability in childhood allergy and asthma across ethnicity, language, and residency duration in El Paso, Texas: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Erik R; Gonzales, Melissa; Ross, Mary; Neas, Lucas M

    2009-12-08

    We evaluated the impact of migration to the USA-Mexico border city of El Paso, Texas (USA), parental language preference, and Hispanic ethnicity on childhood asthma to differentiate between its social and environmental determinants. Allergy and asthma prevalence was surveyed among 9797 fourth and fifth grade children enrolled in the El Paso Independent School District. Parents completed a respiratory health questionnaire, in either English or Spanish, and a sub-sample of children received spirometry testing at their school. Here we report asthma and allergy outcomes across ethnicity and El Paso residency duration. Asthma and allergy prevalence increased with longer duration of El Paso residency independent of ethnicity and preferred language. Compared with immigrants who arrived in El Paso after entering first grade (18%), lifelong El Paso residents (68%) had more prevalent allergy (OR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.32 - 2.24), prevalent asthma (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.24 - 2.46), and current asthma (OR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.37 - 2.95). Spirometric measurements (FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75) also declined with increasing duration of El Paso residency (0.16% and 0.35% annual reduction, respectively). These findings suggest that a community-wide environmental exposure in El Paso, delayed pulmonary development, or increased health of immigrants may be associated with allergy and asthma development in children raised there.

  14. Influence of energy and axial momentum spreads on the cyclotron maser instability in intense hollow electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, H.S.; Davidson, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    The influence of energy and axial momentum spreads on the cyclotron maser instability in an intense hollow electron beam propagating parallel to a uniform axial magnetic field B 0 e/sub z/ is investigated. The stability analysis is carried out within the framework of the linearized Vlasov--Maxwell equations. It is assumed that ν/gamma-circumflexvery-much-less-than1, where ν is Budker's parameter and gamma-circumflexmc 2 is the characteristic electron energy. Stability properties are investigated for the choice of electron distribution function in which all electrons have a step-function distribution in energy (H=γmc 2 ) and a step-function distribution in axial momentum (p/sub z/). The instability growth rate is calculated including the important stabilizing influence of energy spread (epsilon=Δγ) and axial momentum spread (Δ=Δp/sub z/). It is shown that a modest energy spread (epsilonapprox. = a few percent) is sufficient to stabilize perturbations with high magnetic harmonic number (s> or =2). Moreover, a relatively small axial momentum spread (Δ/mcapprox. =0.1) can easily stabilize perturbations with axial wavenumber satisfying vertical-barkc/ω/sub c/vertical-bar> or approx. =0.2, for typical beam parameters of experimental interest

  15. Cyclotron Development and Technical Aspects on Accelerator Based Laboratory Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunarhadijoso

    2000-01-01

    BATAN is planning to establish an accelerator-based laboratory at P3TM Yogyakarta as an effort in the development and use of accelerator technology for improving industrial performance and public welfare. This paper reviews several aspects of cyclotron technology and describes the combination of a linear accelerator - cyclotron system as an alternative to be considered in the planing of the laboratory. The progress of cyclotron technology is discussed covering three generations, i.e. conventional cyclotron, synchrocyclotron and AVF cyclotron generations. The planning should not consider the accelerator application for radioisotope production because it is established in Serpong with the existing negative ion cyclotron. The proposed facility at P3TM may comprise two linear accelerators coupled with a positive ion cyclotron of synchrocyclotron generation. In fact, the attachment of the synchrocyclotron unit is flexible and it can be installed subsequently if the higher energy particle beam, which can not be produced by the linear accelerators, is extremely needed. Some technical aspects related to ion beam application, building construction and infrastructure, human resources, and specification of function test are discussed for additional information in the implementation of the planning. (author)

  16. A CMOS variable gain amplifier for PHENIX electromagnetic calorimeter and RICH energy measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintenberg, A.L.; Simpson, M.L.; Young, G.R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Palmer, R.L.; Moscone, C.G.; Jackson, R.G. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A variable gain amplifier (VGA) has been developed equalizing the gains of integrating amplifier channels used with multiple photomultiplier tubes operating from common high-voltage supplies. The PHENIX lead-scintillator electromagnetic calorimeter will operate in that manner, and gain equalization is needed to preserve the dynamic range of the analog memory and ADC following the integrating amplifier. The VGA is also needed for matching energy channel gains prior to forming analog sums for trigger purposes. The gain of the VGA is variable over a 3:1 range using a 5-bit digital control, and the risetime is held between 15 and 23 ns using switched compensation in the VGA. An additional feature is gated baseline restoration. Details of the design and results from several prototype devices fabricated in 1.2-{mu}m Orbit CMOS are presented.

  17. NuSTAR discovery of a luminosity dependent cyclotron line energy in Vela X-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuerst, Felix; Pottschmidt, Katja; Wilms, Joern

    2014-01-01

    of the harmonic CRSF is correlated with flux, as expected in the sub-critical accretion regime. We argue that Vela X-1 has a very narrow accretion column with a radius of around 0.4 km that sustains a Coulomb interaction dominated shock at the observed luminosities of Lx ~ 3x10^36 erg/s. Besides the prominent...... of the line energies is variable with time and deviates significantly from 2.0, also a possible consequence of photon spawning, which changes the shape of the line. During the second observation, Vela X-1 showed a short off-state in which the power-law softened and a cut-off was no longer measurable...

  18. Cyclotron tubes - a theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourier, G

    1980-12-01

    The introduction presents a general discussion of electron cyclotron masers (ECM): resonance, relativistic effects, elementary quantum aspects, the classical relativistic bunching and the optimum value of the electric field. The practical structure - in particular that of the gyrotron - is specified only insofar as it is useful for understanding the following chapters. The main parameters are discussed. Section 2 develops a nonlinear adiabatic or orbital theory of electron motion which alleviates calculations considerably while keeping numerical errors low enough for many practical cases. Its results are compared to a rigorous integration in one case. Other cases show the importance of the electric field profile inside the resonant cavity. Section 3 is devoted to space charge phenomena, and, for the most part, to a linear theory with space charge. In its limited range of validity (low-energy electrons), the theory indicates a strong impact of space charge for low a.c. fields and exhibits a pure beam instability. Section 4 is devoted to circuit equations with emphasis on the special features of cavities consisting of a long waveguide near cutoff. The conclusion indicates some trends of gyrotron development and corresponding theoretical problems.

  19. State and local economic impacts from wind energy projects: Texas case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slattery, Michael C.; Lantz, Eric; Johnson, Becky L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses the Jobs and Economic Development Impacts (JEDI) model to estimate economic impacts from 1398 MW of wind power development in four counties in west Texas. Project-specific impacts are estimated at the local level (i.e., within a 100-mile radius around the wind farms) and at the state level. The primary economic policy question addressed is how investment in wind energy affects the state and local communities where the wind farms are built. During the four-year construction phase approximately 4100 FTE (full time equivalents) jobs were supported with turbine and supply chain impacts accounting for 58% of all jobs generated. Total lifetime economic activity to the state from the projects equated to more than $1.8 billion, or $1.3 million per MW of installed capacity. The total economic activity to the local communities was also substantial, equating to nearly $730 million over the assumed 20-year life cycle of the farms, or $0.52 million per MW of installed capacity. Given the current level of impacts observed, and the potential for increased impacts via greater utilization of instate manufacturing capacity and the development of trained wind industry specific laborers, Texas appears to be well positioned to see increasing impacts from continued wind development. - Highlights: ► We use the JEDI model to assess economic impacts from wind development in west Texas. ► Total lifetime economic impact from 1398 MW wind equated to more than $1.8 billion. ► Texas is well positioned to see increasing impacts from continued wind development.

  20. Cyclotrons and positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, A.P.; Fowler, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    The state of the art of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) technology as related to cyclotron use and radiopharmaceutical production is reviewed. The paper discusses available small cyclotrons, the positron emitters which can be produced and the yields possible, target design, and radiopharmaceutical development and application. 97 refs., 12 tabs. (ACR)

  1. Cyclotrons and positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.P.; Fowler, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    The state of the art of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) technology as related to cyclotron use and radiopharmaceutical production is reviewed. The paper discusses available small cyclotrons, the positron emitters which can be produced and the yields possible, target design, and radiopharmaceutical development and application. 97 refs., 12 tabs

  2. A 30 MeV H- cyclotron for isotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baartman, R.; Kleevan, W.J.; Laxdal, R.E.; Milton, B.F.; Otter, A.J.; Pearson, J.B.; Poirier, R.L.; Schmor, P.W.; Schneider, H.R.; Erdman, K.L.; Walker, Q.

    1989-01-01

    Because of an expanding market for radioisotopes there is a need for a new generation of cyclotrons designed specifically for this purpose. We describe such a cyclotron currently under construction. It is a 30 MeV H - design that exploits a newly developed high brightness multicusp ion source which is capable of H - currents of up to 5 mA. This together with careful beam matching then makes feasible accelerated H - beam intensities of 500 μA. The cyclotron being built is a four sector radial ridge design with two 45 degree dees in opposite valleys. Beam extraction is by stripping to H + in a thin graphite foil. Two extraction probes will allow simultaneous extraction of two beams, each with an intensity of up to 200 μA. Energy variation from 15 MeV to 30 MeV is achieved by varying the radial position of the extraction foil. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  3. A low background-rate detector for ions in the 5 to 50 keV energy range to be used for radioisotope dating with a small cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry in tandem Van de Graaff accelerators has proven successful for radioisotope dating small samples. We are developing a 20 cm diameter 30 to 40 keV cyclotron dedicated to high-sensitivity radioisotope dating, initially for 14 C. At this energy, range and dE/dx methods of particle identification are impossible. Thus arises the difficult problem of reliably detecting 30 to 40 keV 14 C at 10 -2 counts/sec in the high background environment of the cyclotron, where lower energy ions, electrons, and photons bombard the detector at much higher rates. We have developed and tested an inexpensive, generally useful ion detector that allows dark-count rates below 10 -4 counts/sec and excellent background suppression. With the cyclotron tuned near the 13 CH background peak, to the frequency for 14 C, the detector suppresses the background to 6 x 10 -4 counts/sec. For each 14 C ion the detectors grazing-incidence Al 2 O 3 conversion dynode emits about 20 secondary electrons, which are independently multiplied in separate pores of a microchannel plate. The output signal is proportional to the number of secondary electrons, allowing pulse-height discrimination of background. We have successfully tested the detector with positive 12 C, 23 Na, 39 K, 41 K, 85 Rb, 87 Rb, and 133 Cs at 5 to 40 keV, and with 36 keV negative 12 C and 13 CH. It should detect ions and neutrals of all species, at energies above 5 keV, with good efficiency and excellent background discrimination. Counting efficiency and background discrimination improve with higher ion energy. The detector can be operated at least up to 2 x 10 -7 Torr and be repeatedly exposed to air. The maximum rate is 10/sup 6.4/ ions/sec in pulse counting mode and 10/sup 9.7/ ions/sec in current integrating mode

  4. Preliminary magnet design for a superconducting separated sector cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, P.; Chabert, A.; Duval, M.; Ripouteau, F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that in order to increase the energies available at GANIL, studies on a superconducting separated six straight sector cyclotron for heavy ions with energy up to 500 MeV/A (ions with Q/A = 0.5) have been performed. With a mean injection radius of 2.5 m and an extraction radius of 5 m, the maximum magnetic field on a sector has to be 5T. Each of the six sectors consists of two superconducting main coils (wound around the poles), room temperature iron pole pieces and a large yoke. Due to the broad ranges of energy and ion species, the required field laws are very different and for the most difficult operating point, the induction difference between the injection and ejection radii is about one Tesla. As a consequence, correcting coils have to provide a high field and one unusual point is that the machine will be operated with superconducting trim coils

  5. How cyclotrons work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, D.

    1992-01-01

    The operating principles of a cyclic accelerator are presented based on the IBA Cyclone 30 negative ion cyclotron, selected for the Australia's first medical cyclotron. Its main features are: acceleration with variable energy of between 15-30 million electron volts, the capability of extracting two beams simultaneously, low power consumption, easy maintenance. Other aspects not directly related to the principle of operation discussed include the vacuum and the radio-frequency systems as well as the complex computerized control system used to automatically control start-up and shut-down operations. ills

  6. Addressing medical school diversity through an undergraduate partnership at Texas A&M Health Science Center: a blueprint for success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Alan R; Daniels, Dennis E; Hester, R Kelly; Colenda, Christopher C

    2008-05-01

    Imperative to increasing diversity in the physician workforce is increasing the pool of qualified underrepresented minority applicants to medical schools. With this goal in mind, the Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine (A&M College of Medicine) has partnered with Prairie View A&M University (PVAMU), a historically black college and university that is a component of the Texas A&M university system, to develop the undergraduate medical academy (UMA). The UMA was established by legislative mandate in 2003 and is a state-funded program. The authors describe the development of partnership between the A&M College of Medicine and PVAMU, focusing on the key attributes that have been identified for success. The administrative structure of the UMA ensures that the presidents of the two institutions collaborate to address issues of program oversight and facilitates a direct relationship between the dean and associate dean for academic affairs of A&M College of Medicine and the director of the UMA to define the program objectives and structure. The authors delineate the admission process to the UMA, as well as the academic requirements of the program. Students attend lecture series during the academic year and participate in summer programs on the A&M College of Medicine campus in addition to receiving intensive academic counseling and opportunities for tutoring in several subjects. The authors also describe the initial success in medical school admissions for UMA students. This partnership provides a model blueprint that can be adopted and adapted by other medical schools focused on increasing diversity in medicine.

  7. All-magnetic extraction for cyclotron beam reacceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, E.D.; Mallory, M.L.

    1975-07-22

    An isochronous cyclotron can be modified to provide an initial electron stripping stage, a complete acceleration of the stripped ions through the cyclotron to a first energy state, means for returning the ions to an intermediate cyclotron orbit through a second stripping stage, further acceleration of the now higher energy stripped ions through the cyclotron to their final energy, and final extraction of the ions from the cyclotron. (auth)

  8. Development of a Medical Cyclotron Production Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Danny R.

    2003-08-01

    Development of a Cyclotron manufacturing facility begins with a business plan. Geographics, the size and activity of the medical community, the growth potential of the modality being served, and other business connections are all considered. This business used the customer base established by NuTech, Inc., an independent centralized nuclear pharmacy founded by Danny Allen. With two pharmacies in operation in Tyler and College Station and a customer base of 47 hospitals and clinics the existing delivery system and pharmacist staff is used for the cyclotron facility. We then added cyclotron products to contracts with these customers to guarantee a supply. We partnered with a company in the process of developing PET imaging centers. We then built an independent imaging center attached to the cyclotron facility to allow for the use of short-lived isotopes.

  9. Development of a Medical Cyclotron Production Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Danny R.

    2003-01-01

    Development of a Cyclotron manufacturing facility begins with a business plan. Geographics, the size and activity of the medical community, the growth potential of the modality being served, and other business connections are all considered. This business used the customer base established by NuTech, Inc., an independent centralized nuclear pharmacy founded by Danny Allen. With two pharmacies in operation in Tyler and College Station and a customer base of 47 hospitals and clinics the existing delivery system and pharmacist staff is used for the cyclotron facility. We then added cyclotron products to contracts with these customers to guarantee a supply. We partnered with a company in the process of developing PET imaging centers. We then built an independent imaging center attached to the cyclotron facility to allow for the use of short-lived isotopes

  10. Manufacturing and characterization of molybdenum pellets used as targets for 99mTc production in cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieszykowska, Izabela; Janiak, Tomasz; Barcikowski, Tadeusz; Mielcarski, Mieczysław; Mikołajczak, Renata; Choiński, Jarosław; Barlak, Marek; Kurpaska, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    The method of 100 Mo metallic target preparation for production of 99m Tc by proton irradiation in 100 Mo(p,2 n) 99m Tc reaction was demonstrated. For this purpose, pressing of molybdenum powder into pellets and their subsequent sintering in reductive atmosphere were applied. The influence of parameters such as molybdenum mass and time of both pressing and sintering on the 100 Mo target durability was investigated. Under the optimized conditions, 100 Mo metallic pellet targets with density of 9.95±0.06 g/cm 3 were obtained. Morphology and structure of pressed pellets before and after sintering were studied by using standard optical microscope and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Nanoindentation technique was used to investigate the mechanical properties such as nanohardness and Young modulus. Prepared 100 Mo pellets were successfully irradiated with protons and 99m Tc was efficiently isolated. - Highlights: • Pressing and sintering of 100 Mo powder into pellets. • Optimization of 100 Mo target manufacture process. • Determination of nanohardness of prepared 100 Mo targets. • Irradiation of self-supporting 100 Mo target in cyclotron.

  11. Precipitation and Evaporation Trends in Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, R. W.

    2009-05-01

    Texas is a large land area with at least three different climate types. As such it is expected that the results of climate change will not be homogenous. This paper presents results of a study of long trends in Texas precipitation and evaporation using data from the US Historical Climatology Network and the Texas Water Development Board. It shows that the long term trends of these variables is not homogenous and exhibits great variability in both spatial extent and magnitude. This variability must be considered in planning for future water supply or other mitigation projects.

  12. NORTICA - a new code for cyclotron analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelov, D.; Johnson, D.; Marti, F.

    2001-01-01

    The new package NORTICA (Numerical ORbit Tracking In Cyclotrons with Analysis) of computer codes for beam dynamics simulations is under development at NSCL. The package was started as a replacement for the code MONSTER developed in the laboratory in the past. The new codes are capable of beam dynamics simulations in both CCF (Coupled Cyclotron Facility) accelerators, the K500 and K1200 superconducting cyclotrons. The general purpose of this package is assisting in setting and tuning the cyclotrons taking into account the main field and extraction channel imperfections. The computer platform for the package is Alpha Station with UNIX operating system and X-Windows graphic interface. A multiple programming language approach was used in order to combine the reliability of the numerical algorithms developed over the long period of time in the laboratory and the friendliness of modern style user interface. This paper describes the capability and features of the codes in the present state

  13. Cyclotron resonance in a cathode ray tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gherbanovschi, N.; Tanasa, M.; Stoican, O.

    2002-01-01

    Absorption of the RF energy by the electron beam in a cathode ray tube due to the cyclotron resonance is described. The cathode ray tube is placed within a Helmholtz coils system supplied by a sawtooth current generator. In order to generate RF field and to detect RF absorption a gate dip-meter equipped with a FET transistor is used. The bias voltage variations of the FET transistors as a function of the magnetic field are recorded. The operating point of the cathode ray tube has been chosen so that the relaxation oscillations of the detection system can be observed. (authors)

  14. Evaluation of residual radioactivity and dose rate of a target assembly in an IBA cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Seon Yong; Kim, Young Ju; Lee, Seung Wook [School of Mechanical Engineering, Pusan National University (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    When a cyclotron produces 18F-, accelerated protons interact with metal parts of the cyclotron machine and induces radioactivity. Especially, the target window and chamber of the target assembly are the main parts where long-lived radionuclides are generated as they are incident by direct beams. It is of great importance to identify radionuclides induced in the target assembly for the safe operation and maintenance of a cyclotron facility. In this study, we analyzed major radionuclides generated in the target assembly by an operation of the Cyclotron 18/9 machine and measured dose rates after the operation to establish the radiation safety guideline for operators and maintenance personnel of the machine. Gamma spectroscopy with HPGe was performed on samples from the target chamber and Havar foil target window to identify the radionuclides generated during the operation for production of 18F-- isotope and their specific activity. Also, the dose rates from the target were measured as a function of time after an operation. These data will help improve radiological safety of operating the cyclotron facilities.

  15. Cyclotron produced {sup 67}Ga, a potential radionuclide for diagnostic and therapeutic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin, E-mail: mu-khandaker@um.edu.my; Kassim, Hasan Abu [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Haba, Hiromitsu [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2015-04-29

    Production cross-sections of the {sup nat}Zn(d,x){sup 67}Ga reactions have been measured from a 24-MeV deuteron energy down to the threshold by using a stacked-foil activation technique combined with HPGe γ-ray spectrometry. An overall good agreement is found with some of the earlier measurements, whereas a partial agreement is obtained with the theoretical data extracted from the TENDL-2013 library. Physical thick target yield for the {sup 67}Ga radionuclide was deduced using the measured cross-sections, and found in agreement with the directly measured yield available in the literature. This study reveals that a low deuteron energy (<11 MeV) cyclotron and an enriched {sup 66}Zn target could be used to obtain {sup 67}Ga in no carrier added form.

  16. Texas M-E flexible pavement design system: literature review and proposed framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Recent developments over last several decades have offered an opportunity for more rational and rigorous pavement design procedures. Substantial work has already been completed in Texas, nationally, and internationally, in all aspects of modeling, ma...

  17. Comparison of Recent Oil and Gas, Wind Energy, and Other Anthropogenic Landscape Alteration Factors in Texas Through 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Jon Paul; Wolaver, Brad D; Labay, Benjamin J; LaDuc, Travis J; Duran, Charles M; Ryberg, Wade A; Hibbitts, Toby J; Andrews, John R

    2018-05-01

    Recent research assessed how hydrocarbon and wind energy expansion has altered the North American landscape. Less understood, however, is how this energy development compares to other anthropogenic land use changes. Texas leads U.S. hydrocarbon production and wind power generation and has a rapidly expanding population. Thus, for ~47% of Texas (~324,000 km 2 ), we mapped the 2014 footprint of energy activities (~665,000 oil and gas wells, ~5700 wind turbines, ~237,000 km oil and gas pipelines, and ~2000 km electrical transmission lines). We compared the footprint of energy development to non-energy-related activities (agriculture, roads, urbanization) and found direct landscape alteration from all factors affects ~23% of the study area (~76,000 km 2 ), led by agriculture (~16%; ~52,882 km 2 ). Oil and gas activities altered turbine pads and ~10 km 2 from power transmission lines. We found that edge effects of widely-distributed energy infrastructure caused more indirect landscape alteration than larger, more concentrated urbanization and agriculture. This study presents a novel technique to quantify and compare anthropogenic activities causing both direct and indirect landscape alteration. We illustrate this landscape-mapping framework in Texas for the Spot-tailed Earless Lizard (Holbrookia lacerata); however, the approach can be applied to a range of species in developing regions globally.

  18. A national medical cyclotron facility: report to the Minister of Health by the Medical Cyclotron Committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Research and training in nuclear medicine in Australia are both limited by the lack of a medical cyclotron facility. The Committee recommends the establishment of a national medical cyclotron to provide a supply of short-lived radioisotopes for research in relevant fields of medicine, and for diagnostic use in nuclear medicine

  19. Development of Cyclotron Beam Technology for Applications in Materials Science and Biotechnology at JAERI-TIARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Y.; Arakawa, K.; Fukuda, M.; Kamiya, T.; Kurashima, S.; Nakamura, Y.; Okumura, S.; Saidoh, M.; Tajima, S.

    2003-01-01

    Recent progress of cyclotron ion beam development for applications in materials science and biotechnology at the ion-irradiation research facility TIARA of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute(JAERI) is overviewed. The AVF cyclotron in TIARA can accelerate protons and heavy ions up to 90 MeV and 27.5 MeV/n, respectively. In order to conform to the requirement of a reliable tuning of microbeam formation, the cyclotron beam current has been stabilized by controlling the temperature of the magnet yoke and pole within +/-0.5 deg. and hence by decreasing the variation of the magnetic field ΔB/B below 10-5. A heavy ion microbeam with energy of hundreds MeV is a significantly useful probe for researches on biofunctional elucidation in biotechnology. Production of the microbeam with spot size as small as 1μm by quadrupole lenses requires the energy spread of the beam ΔE/E < 2 x 10-4. In order to minimize the energy spread of the cyclotron beam, the fifth-harmonic voltage waveform has been successfully superposed on the fundamental one to make energy gain uniform

  20. Study of the Polarization Strategy for Electron Cyclotron Heating Systems on HL-2M

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F.; Huang, M.; Xia, D. H.; Song, S. D.; Wang, J. Q.; Huang, B.; Wang, H.

    2016-06-01

    As important components integrated in transmission lines of electron cyclotron heating systems, polarizers are mainly used to obtain the desired polarization for highly efficient coupling between electron cyclotron waves and plasma. The polarization strategy for 105-GHz electron cyclotron heating systems of HL-2M tokamak is studied in this paper. Considering the polarizers need high efficiency, stability, and low loss to realize any polarization states, two sinusoidal-grooved polarizers, which include a linear polarizer and an elliptical polarizer, are designed with the coordinate transformation method. The parameters, the period p and the depth d, of two sinusoidal-grooved polarizers are optimized by a phase difference analysis method to achieve an almost arbitrary polarization. Finally, the optimized polarizers are manufactured and their polarization characteristics are tested with a low-power test platform. The experimental results agree well with the numerical calculations, indicating that the designed polarizers can meet the polarization requirements of the electron cyclotron heating systems of HL-2M tokamak.

  1. AGOR: A superconducting cyclotron for light and heavy ions plans for experimental facilities and physics program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gales, S.

    1991-01-01

    The construction of the K600 superconducting cyclotron AGOR, a joint undertaking of the KVI Groningen and the Institut de Physique Nucleaire at Orsay, has reached the stage where the assembly of major subsystems is underway. Field measurements are scheduled to start in the fall of this year, beam tests should start at Orsay by the end of 1992 before AGOR final installation at Groningen. The beam guiding system, the location and equipments of the main experimental areas are currently being designed. Taking advantage of the broad range of ions and energies that AGOR will made available (from 200 MeV protons to 100 MeV/A α down to 6 MeV/A Pb ions), the first ideas about the physics research to be done will be presented. (author) 28 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Operational experience and recent developments at the National Medical Cyclotron, Sydney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conard, E.M.; Arnott, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    The National Medical Cyclotron, Sydney, Australia commenced operation in mid 1991, with a mission to provide PET and SPECT radionuclides throughout Australia. The realization of the present production capacity has been synonymous with the development of the facility's industrial cyclotron (IBA Cyclone 30). The choice of cyclotron was based on the Cyclone 30's virtues as a compact, user-friendly, energy efficient cyclotron, offering the beam quality characteristic of negative ion technology. Development of the cyclotron has improved reliability and increased beam capacity, while improvements to targetry have increased production reliability. More recently, the installation and commissioning of a new solid target irradiation facility has provided much needed redundancy. This paper describes the major cyclotron and targetry developments carried out to date. (orig.)

  3. Modelling ion cyclotron emission from KSTAR tokamak and LHD helical device plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendy, Richard; Chapman, Ben; Reman, Bernard; Chapman, Sandra; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Yun, Gunsu

    2017-10-01

    New high quality measurements of ion cyclotron emission (ICE) from KSTAR and LHD greatly extend the scope and diversity of plasma conditions under which ICE is observed. Variables include the origin (fusion reactions or neutral beam injection) and energy (sub- or super-Alfvénic) of the minority energetic ions that drive ICE; the composition of the bulk plasma (hydrogen or deuterium) which supports the modes excited; plasma density in the emitting region, and the timescale on which it changes; and toroidal magnetic field geometry (tokamak or helical device). Future exploitation of ICE as a diagnostic for energetic ion populations in JET D-T plasmas and in ITER rests on quantitative understanding of the physics of the emission. This is tested and extended by current KSTAR and LHD measurements of ICE. We report progress on direct numerical simulation using full orbit ion kinetic codes that solve the Maxwell-Lorentz equations for hundreds of millions of particles. In the saturated regime, these simulations yield excited field spectra that correspond directly to the measured ICE spectra under diverse KSTAR and LHD regimes. At early times, comparison of simulation outputs with linear analytical theory confirms the magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability as the basic driver of ICE. Supported by RCUK Energy Programme Grant EP/P012450/1, NRF Korea Grant 2014M1A7A1A03029881, NIFS budget ULHH029 and Euratom.

  4. Report of the Advisory Committee on Agriculturally Derived Fuels to the Texas Energy and Natural Resources Advisory Council

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Reagan V.; Clayton, Bill; Armstrong, Bob; Walton, Bill; Baen, Jr., Spencer; Carmichael, Jack; Cowley, Raymond; Quick, Joe; King, Carl; Harp, Elbert; Nelson, Bill; Wagoner, Ed; McDonald, Dr., Richard; Swanson, Stan

    1979-09-03

    For the purpose of the Committee, biomass was defined as the volume of living material or residues of living material (organic material) available in Texas for conversion into energy. Statistical reports from the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station and other sources indicate that in addition to surplus and distressed grains and certain other crops, there are roughly 27 million tons of agricultural residues currently being left in the fields or at the processing plants after harvest. The average annual residue from five crops - sorghum, corn, wheat, rice and cotton - is more than 20 million tons with a theoretical heat value of 270 trillion Btus. This represents 64 percent of the total energy input for Texas agriculture in 1973. Additionally, 4.1 million tons of dry manure is economically recoverable from Texas feedlots which could be converted into 14 trillion Btus of energy each year in the form of methane gas. Municipal solid waste, much of which is comprised of residues of living materials, currently amounts to about 13 million tons annually. The principal processes for converting the referenced resources into energy include: (1) direct combustion; (2) fermentation; (3) gasification/pyrolysis; (4) anaerobic digestion; and (5) petroculture - the production of certain non-traditional plants. Texas produces huge quantities of biomass, and has the potential of producing even more, which can be converted through various processes into significant quantities of usable energy to help meet the needs of the agricultural industry and the general public. Some of the technology required for the conversion processes is already sufficiently advanced to support immediate production and use while others will require additional research and development. The report discusses the current level of development of the relevant technologies.

  5. Environmental Assessment: Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram. Gulf Coast Well Testing Activity, Frio Formation, Texas and Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-02-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) has been prepared to provide the environmental input into the Division of Geothermal Energy's decisions to expand the geothermal well testing activities to include sites in the Frio Formation of Texas and Louisiana. It is proposed that drilling rigs be leased before they are removed from sites in the formation where drilling for gas or oil exploration has been unsuccessful and that the rigs be used to complete the drilling into the geopressured zone for resource exploration. This EA addresses, on a regional basis, the expected activities, affected environment, and the possible impacts in a broad sense as they apply to the Gulf Coast well testing activity of the Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram of the Department of Energy. Along the Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast (Plate 1 and Overlay, Atlas) water at high temperatures and high pressures is trapped within Gulf basin sediments. The water is confined within or below essentially impermeable shale sequences and carries most or all of the overburden pressure. Such zones are referred to as geopressured strata. These fluids and sediments are heated to abnormally high temperatures (up to 260 C) and may provide potential reservoirs for economical production of geothermal energy. The obvious need in resource development is to assess the resource. Ongoing studies to define large-sand-volume reservoirs will ultimately define optimum sites for drilling special large diameter wells to perform large volume flow production tests. in the interim, existing well tests need to be made to help define and assess the resource.

  6. A BaF2 crystal array for high energy-ray measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We shall discuss about the scientific motivation and construction of a 7 × 7 BaF2 crystal array at Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Calcutta. This detector would be used to measure high energy -ray photons from GDR decay and proton–neutron bremsstrahlung reactions at the present 88'' cyclotron and upcoming ...

  7. The 88-Inch Cyclotron: A One-Stop Facility for Electronics Radiation and Detector Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kireeff Covo, M.; Albright, R. A.; Ninemire, B. F.; Johnson, M. B.; Hodgkinson, A.; Loew, T.; Benitez, J. Y.; Todd, D. S.; Xie, D. Z.; Perry, T.; Phair, L.; Bernsteiny, L. A.; Bevins, J.; Brown, J. A.; Goldblum, B. L.; Harasty, M.; Harrig, K. P.; Laplace, T. A.; Matthews, E. F.; Bushmaker, A.; Walker, D.; Oklejas, V.; Hopkins, A. R.; Bleuel, D. L.; Chen, J.; Cronin, S. B.

    2017-10-01

    In outer space down to the altitudes routinely flown by larger aircrafts, radiation can pose serious issues for microelectronics circuits. The 88-Inch Cyclotron at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is a sector-focused cyclotron and home of the Berkeley Accelerator Space Effects Facility, where the effects of energetic particles on sensitive microelectronics are studied with the goal of designing electronic systems for the space community. This paper describes the flexibility of the facility and its capabilities for testing the bombardment of electronics by heavy ions, light ions, and neutrons. Experimental capabilities for the generation of neutron beams from deuteron breakups and radiation testing of carbon nanotube field effect transistor will be discussed.

  8. Physical trajectory profile data from glider Stommel deployed by Texas A&M University; Texas A&M University - College Station; Geochemical and Environmental Research Group in the Gulf of Mexico from 2017-06-27 to 2017-07-05 (NCEI Accession 0164085)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monitoring the baseline water quality across the Texas shelf. The National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) received the data in this archival package...

  9. Physical trajectory profile data from glider Stommel deployed by Texas A&M University; Texas A&M University - College Station; Geochemical and Environmental Research Group in the Gulf of Mexico from 2017-01-20 to 2017-05-07 (NCEI Accession 0162538)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monitoring the baseline water quality across the Texas shelf. The National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) received the data in this archival package...

  10. Method and apparatuses for ion cyclotron spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, David A [Idaho Falls, ID; Scott, Jill R [Idaho Falls, ID; McJunkin, Timothy R [Idaho Falls, ID

    2012-03-06

    An ion cyclotron spectrometer may include a vacuum chamber that extends at least along a z-axis and means for producing a magnetic field within the vacuum chamber so that a magnetic field vector is generally parallel to the z-axis. The ion cyclotron spectrometer may also include means for producing a trapping electric field within the vacuum chamber. The trapping electric field may comprise a field potential that, when taken in cross-section along the z-axis, includes at least one section that is concave down and at least one section that is concave up so that ions traversing the field potential experience a net magnetron effect on a cyclotron frequency of the ions that is substantially equal to zero. Other apparatuses and a method for performing ion cyclotron spectrometry are also disclosed herein.

  11. Radiation monitoring in a self-shielded cyclotron installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capaccioli, L.; Gori, C.; Mazzocchi, S.; Spano, G.

    2002-01-01

    As nuclear medicine is approaching a new era with the spectacular growth of PET diagnosis, the number of medical cyclotrons installed within the major hospitals is increasing accordingly. Therefore modern medical cyclotron are highly engineered and highly reliable apparatus, characterised with reduced accelerating energies (as the major goal is the production of fluorine 18) and often self-shielded. However specific dedicated monitors are still necessary in order to assure the proper radioprotection. At the Careggi University Hospital in Florence a Mini trace 10 MeV self-shielded cyclotron produced by General Electric has been installed in 2000. In a contiguous radiochemistry laboratory, the preparation and quality control of 1 8F DG and other radiopharmaceuticals takes place. Aim of this work is the characterisation and the proper calibration of the above mentioned monitors and control devices

  12. Recommendation for a injector-cyclotron and ion sources for the acceleration of heavy ions and polarized protons and deuterons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botha, A.H.; Cronje, P.M.; Du Toit, Z.B.; Nel, W.A.G.; Celliers, P.J.

    1984-01-01

    It was decided to accelerate both heavy and light ions with the open-sector cyclotron. The injector SPS1, was used for light ions and SPS2 for heavy ions. Provision was also made for the acceleration of polarized neutrons. To enable this, the injector must have an axial injection system. The working of a source of polarized ions and inflectors for an axial injection system is discussed. The limitations of the open-sector cyclotron on the acceleration of heavy ions are also dealt with. The following acceleration/ion source combinations are discussed: i) The open-sector cyclotron and a k=40 injector cyclotron with a Penning ion source, and a stripper between the injector and the open-sector cyclotron and also a source of polarized protons and deuterons; ii) The acceleration/ion source combination with the addition of electron beam ion sources; iii) The open-sector cyclotron and a k=11 injector cyclotron with a electron beam ion source and a source of polarized protons and deuterons

  13. Neutron skyshine measurement at a K1200 superconducting heavy ion cyclotron using bubble dosimeters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, B. [Safety Div., Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai (Australia); Ronningen, R.M. [Michigan State Univ., National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab., East Lansing, MI (United States); Rossi, P. [Michigan State Univ., Office of Radiation, Chemical and Biological Safety, East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1999-07-01

    Understanding the characteristics of the neutron skyshine radiation is necessary for an accurate assessment of the environmental dose in the vicinity of the containment of a high-energy particle accelerator. At the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), neutron skyshine was measured, using beams of 140 MeV/nucleon {sup 4}He and 80 MeV/nucleon {sup 22}Ne ions from the K1200 superconducting cyclotron. After passing through a radioactive-beam production target, the ion beam stopped in a solid aluminium stopping bar inside of a dipole magnet, resulting in the production of high energy fragmentation as well as evaporation neutrons in the NSCL Analysis Hall. The neutron dose equivalent and energy spectrum at the 1.37 m thick concrete roof of the Analysis Hall, directly above the aluminium target bar (reference point), were estimated, using a spherical 'rem-counter' and a set of seven Bonner-spheres, respectively. The skyshine dose, from neutrons transmitted through 21.5-cm local iron 'shielding' of the dipole magnet and the concrete roof, were evaluated using superheated bubble dosimeters at 50 m, 75 m, 100 m and 115 m from the reference point. The neutron doses beyond the extremity of the NSCL facility were extrapolated from the results of this investigation and were used to predict the exposure to members of the public by considering the operation schedule of the K1200 cyclotron. (authors)

  14. A formulation of spiral inflector design and its application to SF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, M.; Shida, Y.; Ohshiro, Y.; Fujita, M.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, N.; Nishiguchi, M.

    1992-07-01

    Ion trajectories through a spiral inflector are analyzed. In the case of a uniform magnetic field, it is shown that the central trajectory can be expressed as a simple analytical form, which includes all the inflector types already known. By using a curvilinear coordinate along the central trajectory, the equations of motion of non-central ions are modified to describe the ion motion in the transverse and longitudinal planes. A method is presented to expand the electric potential around the central trajectory to calculate the electric field to be used in the equations of motion. In the method, an electric potential thus obtained is used instead of the electric field, which guarantees the energy conservation of the ions through the inflector. Numerical studies have been carried out for design of an inflector for the SF cyclotron at the Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo. (author)

  15. Cyclotron method for heavy ion acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gikal, B.N.; Gul'bekyan, G.G.; Kutner, V.B.; Oganesyan, R.Ts.

    1984-01-01

    Studies on heavy ion beams in a wide range of masses (up to uranium) and energies disclose essential potential opportunities for solution of both fundamental scientific and significant economical problems. A cyclotron method for heavy ion acceleration is considered. Development of low and medium energy heavy ion accelerators is revealed. The design of a complex comprising two isochronous cyclotrons which is planned to be constrdcted 1n the JINR is described. The cyclotron complex includes the U-400 and the U-400 M cyclotrons and it is intended for acceleration of both 35-20 MeV/nucleon superheavy ions such as Xe-U and 120 MeV/nucleon light ions. Certain systems of the accelerators are described. Prospects of the U-400 and the U-400 M development are displayed

  16. Cyclotron Phase-Coherent Ion Spatial Dispersion in a Non-Quadratic Trapping Potential is Responsible for FT-ICR MS at the Cyclotron Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagornov, Konstantin O.; Kozhinov, Anton N.; Tsybin, Yury O.

    2018-01-01

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) at the cyclotron frequency instead of the reduced cyclotron frequency has been experimentally demonstrated using narrow aperture detection electrode (NADEL) ICR cells. Here, based on the results of SIMION simulations, we provide the initial mechanistic insights into the cyclotron frequency regime generation in FT-ICR MS. The reason for cyclotron frequency regime is found to be a new type of a collective motion of ions with a certain dispersion in the initial characteristics, such as pre-excitation ion velocities, in a highly non-quadratic trapping potential as realized in NADEL ICR cells. During ion detection, ions of the same m/z move in phase for cyclotron ion motion but out of phase for magnetron (drift) ion motion destroying signals at the fundamental and high order harmonics that comprise reduced cyclotron frequency components. After an initial magnetron motion period, ion clouds distribute into a novel type of structures - ion slabs, elliptical cylinders, or star-like structures. These structures rotate at the Larmor (half-cyclotron) frequency on a plane orthogonal to the magnetic field, inducing signals at the true cyclotron frequency on each of the narrow aperture detection electrodes. To eliminate the reduced cyclotron frequency peak upon dipolar ion detection, a number of slabs or elliptical cylinders organizing a star-like configuration are formed. In a NADEL ICR cell with quadrupolar ion detection, a single slab or an elliptical cylinder is sufficient to minimize the intensity of the reduced cyclotron frequency components, particularly the second harmonic. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  17. The Study of 99mTc Production Using Medical Cyclotrons in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borys M. Bondar

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions. The obtained results showed satisfied 99mTс tracer yields and feasibility of further development of this method, which will significantly improve the efficiency of cyclotron installations.

  18. CACTUS - a multidetector set-up at the Oslo Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttormsen, M.; Bjerke, B.; Messelt, S.; Olsen, E.A.; Ramsoey, T.; Rekstad, J.; Tveter, T.S.; Wikne, J.C.; Kownacki, J.

    1989-06-01

    The design and construction of the multidetector system CACTUS is discussed, and its operation in the context of the Oslo Cyclotron is described. The multidetector system has been initiated to meet the requirements at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory in the experimental work on nuclear structure at high intrinsic excitation energy. The laboratory has developed a promising technique based on measuring γ-decay after single nucleon transfer reactions with the use of pγ coincidences. However, a proper interpretation of the experimental results has often been difficult due to low counting rates. One of the most important aims for the new experimental set-up has been to obtain pγ as well as pγγ coincidence spectra with high statistics. The CACTUS detector system which is mounted on the 90 o beam line of the cyclotron, consists of 28 NaI and 2 Ge detectors in combination with 8 Si particle telescopes

  19. Ernest Orlando Lawrence (1901-1958), Cyclotron and Medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, William T.

    2005-09-01

    On August 8, 2001, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory celebrated the centennial of the birth of its founder (and namesake), Ernest Orlando Lawrence. For the occasion, many speeches were given and old speeches were remembered. We recall the words of the late Luis Alvarez, a Nobel Laureate and one of the Lawrence's closest colleagues: ''Lawrence will always be remembered as the inventor of the cyclotron, but more importantly, he should be remembered as the inventor of the modern way of doing science''. J. L. Heilbron and R. W. Seidel, in the introduction of their book, ''Lawrence and His Laboratory'' stated, ''The motives and mechanisms that shaped the growth of the Laboratory helped to force deep changes in the scientific estate and in the wider society. In the entrepreneurship of its founder, Ernest Orlando Lawrence, these motives, mechanisms, and changes came together in a tight focus. He mobilized great and small philanthropists, state and local governments, corporations, and plutocrats, volunteers and virtuosos. The work they supported, from astrophysics and atomic bombs, from radiochemistry to nuclear medicine, shaped the way we observe, control, and manipulate our environment.'' Indeed, all over the civilized world, the ways we do science changed forever after Lawrence built his famed Radiation Laboratory. In this editorial, we epitomize his legacy of changing the way we do medicine, thereby affecting the health and well being of all humanity. This year marks the 75th anniversary of the invention of the cyclotron by Ernest Orlando Lawrence at the University of California at Berkeley. Lawrence conceived the idea of the cyclotron early in 1929 after reading an article by Rolf Wideroe on high-energy accelerators. In the spring of 1930 one of his students, Nels Edlefsen, constructed two crude models of a cyclotron. Later in the fall of the same year, another student, M. Stanley Livingston

  20. Chronic back pain and associated work and non-work variables among farmworkers from Starr County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipp, Eva M; Cooper, Sharon P; del Junco, Deborah J; Delclos, George L; Burau, Keith D; Tortolero, Susan; Whitworth, Ryan E

    2009-01-01

    This study estimated the prevalence of chronic back pain among migrant farmworker family members and identified associated work and non-work variables. Migrant farmworkers (n = 390 from 267 families) from Starr County, Texas were interviewed in their home once a year for 2 years. The original survey included items measuring demographics, smoking, sleep, farm work, and chronic back pain. For this cross-sectional analysis, multi-level logistic regression was used to identify associated work and other variables associated with chronic back pain while accounting for intraclass correlations due to repeated measures and multiple family members. The prevalence of chronic back pain during the last migration season ranged from 9.5% among the youngest children to 33.3% among mothers. Variables significantly associated with chronic back pain were age (odds ratio [OR], 1.03, per year increase), depressive symptoms while migrating (OR, 8.72), fewer than 8 hours of sleep at home in Starr County (OR, 2.26), fairly bad/very bad quality of sleep while migrating (OR, 3.25), sorting crops at work (OR, 0.18), and working tree crops (OR, 11.72). The role of work exposures, depressive symptoms, and sleep in chronic back pain among farmworkers warrants further examination. Refinements in outcome and exposure assessments are also needed given the lack of a standardized case definition and the variety of tasks and crops involved in farm work in the United States.

  1. A 600 MeV cyclotron for radioactive beam production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The magnetic field design for a 600 MeV proton cyclotron is described. The cyclotron has a single stage, a normal conducting magnet coil and a 9.8 m outside yoke diameter. It has 8 sectors, with a transition to 4 sectors in the center region. The magnetic field design was done using 1958 Harwell rectangular ridge system measurements and was compared with recent 3-dimensional field calculations with the program TOSCA at NSCL. The center region 4--8 sector transition focussing was also checked with TOSCA

  2. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty-five. Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Texas governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  3. Kepler Data on KIC 7341653: A Nearby M Dwarf with Monster Flares and a Phase-coherent Variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Valeri V. [US Naval Observatory, 3450 Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington DC 20392-5420 (United States); Goldin, Alexey, E-mail: valeri.makarov@navy.mil, E-mail: alexey.goldin@gmail.com [Teza Technology, 150 N Michigan Ave., Chicago IL 60601 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    KIC 7341653 is one of several late-type M dwarfs observed by the main mission of Kepler with peculiar infrared colors placing them in the domain of suspected young stellar objects (YSO). It is likely associated with a powerful X-ray emitter with X-ray flares. Kepler light curves reveal two distinct types of activity: frequent flares lasting from less than 30 minutes to a few hours, and a periodic variability with a period of 0.5463441(7) days. The largest detected flare increased the flux in the Kepler passband by a factor of 2.8 and released an estimated 4 × 10{sup 34} erg of energy in the Kepler band. Segmented periodogram analysis reveals that the amplitude of the periodic variation was subject to secular changes, dropping from peak values around 20 ppt to below 5 ppt toward the end of the mission, while the phase varied periodically with an amplitude of 0.15 rad and period 362(3) days. Two possible interpretations of the phase periodicity are discussed: a migrating long-lived photospheric spot, and a Doppler frequency shift generated by a solar-mass faint companion, such as a white dwarf.

  4. Initial experiments with the Nevis Cyclotron, the Brookhaven Cosmotron, the Brookhaven AGS and their effects on high energy physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindenbaum, S.J.

    1988-01-01

    The first experiment at the Nevis Cyclotron by Bernardini, Booth and Lindenbaum demonstrated that nuclear stars are produced by a nucleon-nucleon cascade within the nucleon. This solved a long standing problem in Cosmic rays and made it clear that where they overlap cosmic ray investigation would not be competitive with accelerator investigations. The initial experiments at the Brookhaven Cosmotron by Lindenbaum and Yuan demonstrated that low energy pion nucleon scattering and pion production were unexpectedly mostly due to excitation of the isotopic spin = angular momentum = 3/2 isobaric state of the nucleon. This contradicted the Fermi statistical theory and led to the Isobar model proposed by the author and a collaborator. The initial experiments at the AGS by the author and collaborators demonstrated that the Pomeronchuck Theorem would not come true till at least several hundred GeV. These scattering experiments led to the development of the ''On-line Computer Technique'' by the author and collaborators which is now the almost universal technique in high energy physics. The first accomplishment which flowed from this technique led to contradiction of the Regge pole theory as a dynamical asymptotic theory, by the author and collaborators. The first critical experimental proof of the forward dispersion relation in strong interactions was accomplished by the author and collaborators. They were then used as a crystal ball to predict that ''Asymptopia''---the theoretically promised land where all asymptotic theorems come true---would not be reached till at least 25,000 BeV and probably not before 1,000,000 BeV. 26 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs

  5. Renewable Energy Opportunities at Fort Hood, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solana, Amy E.; Warwick, William M.; Orrell, Alice C.; Russo, Bryan J.; Parker, Kyle R.; Weimar, Mark R.; Horner, Jacob A.; Manning, Anathea

    2011-11-14

    This report presents the results of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's (PNNL) follow-on renewable energy (RE) assessment of Fort Hood. Fort Hood receives many solicitations from renewable energy vendors who are interested in doing projects on site. Based on specific requests from Fort Hood staff so they can better understand these proposals, and the results of PNNL's 2008 RE assessment of Fort Hood, the following resources were examined in this assessment: (1) Municipal solid waste (MSW) for waste-to-energy (WTE); (2) Wind; (3) Landfill gas; (4) Solar photovoltaics (PV); and (5) Shale gas. This report also examines the regulatory issues, development options, and environmental impacts for the promising RE resources, and includes a review of the RE market in Texas.

  6. Cyclotron absorption and emission in mode conversion layers emdash a new paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, D.G.

    1995-01-01

    When the analysis of absorption with mode conversion effects included began to mature in recent years, the study of the corresponding effects on emission began and has led to some surprising results. The classical expressions for cyclotron or synchrotron emission from a harmonic resonance were originally derived from models that did not include mode conversion or its attendant reflection, and classical expressions for the optical depth and opacity were obtained. When mode conversion was included, the principal surprise was that the transmission coefficient, which was understood as being due to absorption, is totally independent of absorption and due exclusively to tunneling. The other surprise from the mode conversion analysis is that the observed emission arises from two distinct sources, one direct and one from an indirect Bernstein wave source which is partially converted in the cyclotron layer to outgoing electromagnetic waves, with the net result that mode conversion cancels out for the electron case, but not for ions. The only corrections to electron cyclotron emission are then due to reflection effects, and these have been shown to be small for many laboratory plasmas, leading to the validation of the classical formula for these cases, but via an entirely new paradigm in its interpretation. This review includes a summary of the absorption process for both electron and ion cyclotron harmonics, and reviews carefully the emission physics, including both potential error estimates and a discussion of the emission source distribution in space

  7. Review of Cyclotrons for the Production of Radioactive Isotopes for Medical and Industrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmor, Paul

    2011-02-01

    Radioactive isotopes are used in a wide range of medical, biological, environmental and industrial applications. Cyclotrons are the primary tool for producing the shorter-lived, proton-rich radioisotopes currently used in a variety of medical applications. Although the primary use of the cyclotron-produced short-lived radioisotopes is in PET/CT (positron emission tomography/computed tomography) and SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) diagnostic medical procedures, cyclotrons are also producing longer-lived isotopes for therapeutic procedures as well as for other industrial and applied science applications. Commercial suppliers of cyclotrons are responding by providing a range of cyclotrons in the energy range of 3-70MeV for the differing needs of the various applications. These cyclotrons generally have multiple beams servicing multiple targets. This review article presents some of the applications of the radioisotopes and provides a comparison of some of the capabilities of the various current cyclotrons. The use of nuclear medicine and the number of cyclotrons supplying the needed isotopes are increasing. It is expected that there will soon be a new generation of small "tabletop" cyclotrons providing patient doses on demand.

  8. Method and apparatus for obtaining very high energy laser pulses: photon cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vali, V.; Krogstad, R.S.; Goldstein, R.

    1975-01-01

    Apparatus is arranged in selected embodiments of several combinations, each sometimes being referred to as a system, and each embodiment establishing a large enclosable chamber containing a laser energy reacting medium through which a laser beam is created. When laser energy pulses of such a beam are created, they are guided in a continuous path using reflectors in this chamber, and they receive supplemental energy units from multiple spaced laser pumps. Each laser pump is effective in respect to its own inverted population laser energy source, and each laser pump is triggered by an overall excitation control system. The laser beam is thereby supplemented to a higher level at each laser pump. Yet at all times the laser energy reacting medium remains at a level below super radiance. A working unit or working pulse of a laser beam is allowed to escape from each large enclosable chamber through an escape exit only when a preselected very high energy level is reached. The escape exit of this chamber may be designed to be destroyed by the exiting high level pulse energy of the laser beam. Also an escape exit may be opened upon the operation of a piezoelectric decoupler. (U.S.)

  9. A comparison of crashes and fatalities in Texas by age group : selected cities in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    In recent decades, great strides have been made to lower the number of accidents that occur on Texas roadways through graduated drivers licensing programs, messages against texting and driving, and discouraging drunk driving. Statistics show that you...

  10. Medical cyclotron facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-09-01

    This report examines the separate proposals from the Austin Hospital and the Australian Atomic Energy Commission for a medical cyclotron facility. The proponents have argued that a cyclotron facility would benefit Australia in areas of patient care, availability and export of radioisotopes, and medical research. Positron emission tomography (PET) and neutron beam therapy are also examined

  11. Acceleration of tritons with a compact cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegmann, H.; Huenges, E.; Muthig, H.; Moringa, H.

    1981-01-01

    With the compact cyclotron at the Faculty of Physics of the Technical University of Munich, tritons have been accelerated to an energy of 7 MeV. A safe and reliable operation of the gas supply for the ion source was obtained by a new tritium storage system. A quantity of 1500 Ci tritium is stored by two special Zr-Al getter pumps in a non-gaseous phase. The tritium can be released in well-defined amounts by heating the getter material. During triton acceleration the pressure in the cyclotron vacuum chamber is maintained only by a large titanium sputter-ion pump, thus forming a closed vacuum system without any exhaust of tritium contaminated gas. Any tritium contaminations in the air can be detected by an extremely sensitive tritium monitoring system. The triton beam with a maximum intensity of 30 μA has been used so far to produce neutron-rich radioisotopes such as 28 Mg, 43 K, or 72 Zn, which are successfully applied in tracer techniques in the studies of biological systems. (orig.)

  12. Production of 57Co, 109Cd, 111In and 117mSn using CV-28 cyclotron at IPEN-CNEN/SP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osso, J.A. Jr.; Landini, L.; Lion, L.F.; Moraes, V.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Several radioisotopes produced in Cyclotrons have physical properties of decay suitable to be used as: radiopharmaceuticals, for in vivo Diagnosis images (with the techniques of SPET and PET, Single Photon Emission Tomography and Positron Emission Tomography, respectively) and for Therapy, in Nuclear Medicine; calibration sources of several instruments applied in the nuclear area and in Metrology; and as radioactive tracers of elements investigated in many fields, such as Chemistry, Physics and Biology. This work describes the production of four of these radioisotopes that are very important in these areas: 57 Co, 109 Cd, 111 ln and 117m Sn. They can be obtained using the CV-28 Cyclotron at IPEN, because it can accelerate proton beams with energies up to 24MeV and currents up to 20μA (external). 57 Co (t 1/2 =271.3 d) decays by electron capture to 57 Fe with the emission of γ-rays and one characteristic X-ray. It is widely used as calibration source of detectors such as: Ge(Li), Ge(HP), Nal(TI) and dose calibrators (well type detectors). Besides these applications, 57 Co Flood Sources are used to test the response uniformity of gamma cameras, in Nuclear Medicine. 109 Cd has a half-life of 462.6 d and decays by electron capture to 109 Ag with the emission of one γ-ray and one characteristic X-ray. This radioisotope can be employed as calibration source of X-ray and γ-rays detectors; as a radioactive tracer of Cd, an environment pollutant and used in the EDXRF (Energy Dispersion X-Ray Fluorescence) technique. 57 Co was produced through the irradiation of nat Ni. Thick target yields for 55 Co, 56 Co, 57 Co, 58 CO, 56 Ni and 57 Ni were measured and the mean values were 346.69kBq/μA.h (9.37μCi/μA.h), for the direct production of 57 Co and 150.59kBq/μA.h (4.07μCi/μA.h), through the decay of 57 Ni (11.31 days after EOB - End of Bombardment). A solution of 57 CoCl 2 was prepared, to fill a flood source for calibration of gamma camera, with activity of

  13. East Texas, 2012—Forest Inventory and Analysis Factsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Brandeis; Jason A. Cooper; James W. Bentley

    2014-01-01

    This science update summarizes the findings of the statewide annual inventory of the forest resource attributes in Texas conducted by the Southern Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program in cooperation with the Texas A&M Forest Service. The 254 counties of Texas are consolidated into seven FIA survey units—southeast (unit 1), northeast (unit 2), north central (...

  14. Experimental observation of acoustic emissions generated by a pulsed proton beam from a hospital-based clinical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Kevin C.; Solberg, Timothy D.; Avery, Stephen; Vander Stappen, François; Janssens, Guillaume; Prieels, Damien; Bawiec, Christopher R.; Lewin, Peter A.; Sehgal, Chandra M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To measure the acoustic signal generated by a pulsed proton spill from a hospital-based clinical cyclotron. Methods: An electronic function generator modulated the IBA C230 isochronous cyclotron to create a pulsed proton beam. The acoustic emissions generated by the proton beam were measured in water using a hydrophone. The acoustic measurements were repeated with increasing proton current and increasing distance between detector and beam. Results: The cyclotron generated proton spills with rise times of 18 μs and a maximum measured instantaneous proton current of 790 nA. Acoustic emissions generated by the proton energy deposition were measured to be on the order of mPa. The origin of the acoustic wave was identified as the proton beam based on the correlation between acoustic emission arrival time and distance between the hydrophone and proton beam. The acoustic frequency spectrum peaked at 10 kHz, and the acoustic pressure amplitude increased monotonically with increasing proton current. Conclusions: The authors report the first observation of acoustic emissions generated by a proton beam from a hospital-based clinical cyclotron. When modulated by an electronic function generator, the cyclotron is capable of creating proton spills with fast rise times (18 μs) and high instantaneous currents (790 nA). Measurements of the proton-generated acoustic emissions in a clinical setting may provide a method for in vivo proton range verification and patient monitoring

  15. Nuclear elemental analyses with a cyclotron on biomedical samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaedackers, J.A.; Voigt, M.J.A. de; Mutsaers, P.H.A.; Goeij, J.J.M. de; Vusse, G.J. van der

    1999-01-01

    The Eindhoven scanning proton microprobe enables the determination of the ion content of heart tissue on a sub-cellular scale. It is shown that intra-cellular elemental concentrations can be determined. Measurements are carried out for physiological and patho-physiological rat heart muscle tissue. Important alterations in Na and K concentrations are reported as measured with PIXE, RBS and NFS techniques employing a variable energy cyclotron (3-30 MeV). However, quantitative intra-cellular determinations are hampered by the presence of extra-cellular space (ECS). For this purpose, cobaltic ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic-acid (Co(III)EDTA) was used as an exogenic ECS marker. The intra-cellular ion concentrations of normoxic tissue after correction for the ECS agree well with the literature values

  16. Decommissioning analyzis of a university cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggermont, G.X.; Buls, N.; Hermanne, A.

    1996-01-01

    In the widespread use of some medical nuclear facilities, such as cyclotrons for isotope production, Life cycle analyzis, including decommissioning, was not taken into account. The structural materials of an accelerator and the concrete shielding of the bunker are activated by neutrons. This could yield a considerable volume of nuclear waste and needs radiation protection concern for occupational workers and the environment during some decennia. At the university of Brussels (WB) a prospective radiation protection and waste analyzis is being made for the later decommissioning of their cyclotron. Only few similar studies have been published. In Belgium future nuclear dismantling operations will be submitted to a radiation protection authorization procedure. Meanwhile the nuclear waste authorities insist on dismantling planning, including financial provisioning. An optimization exercise was made at the VUB-cyclotron, taking into account international trends to clearance levels for low level nuclear waste. Conceptual prevention opportunities e.g. selective material choice could be identified for future accelerator constructions. (author)

  17. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves observed near the oxygen cyclotron frequency by ISEE 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, B. J.; Samson, J. C.; Hu, Y. D.; Mcpherron, R. L.; Russell, C. T.

    1992-01-01

    The first results of observations of ion cyclotron waves by the elliptically orbiting ISEE 1 and 2 pair of spacecraft are reported. The most intense waves (8 nT) were observed in the outer plasmasphere where convection drift velocities were largest and the Alfven velocity was a minimum. Wave polarization is predominantly left-handed with propagation almost parallel to the ambient magnetic field, and the spectral slot and polarization reversal predicted by cold plasma propagation theory are identified in the wave data. Computations of the experimental wave spectra during the passage through the plasmapause show that the spectral slots relate to the local plasma parameters, possibly suggesting an ion cyclotron wave growth source near the spacecraft. A regular wave packet structure seen over the first 30 min of the event is attributed to the modulation of this energy source by the Pc 5 waves seen at the same time.

  18. Radio frequency cavity analysis, measurement, and calibration of absolute Dee voltage for K-500 superconducting cyclotron at VECC, Kolkata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Som, Sumit; Seth, Sudeshna; Mandal, Aditya; Paul, Saikat; Duttagupta, Anjan [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (India)

    2013-02-15

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre has commissioned a K-500 superconducting cyclotron for various types of nuclear physics experiments. The 3-phase radio-frequency system of superconducting cyclotron has been developed in the frequency range 9-27 MHz with amplitude and phase stability of 100 ppm and {+-}0.2{sup 0}, respectively. The analysis of the RF cavity has been carried out using 3D Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio code and various RF parameters and accelerating voltages ('Dee' voltage) are calculated from simulation. During the RF system commissioning, measurement of different RF parameters has been done and absolute Dee voltage has been calibrated using a CdTe X-ray detector along with its accessories and known X-ray source. The present paper discusses about the measured data and the simulation result.

  19. Radio frequency cavity analysis, measurement, and calibration of absolute Dee voltage for K-500 superconducting cyclotron at VECC, Kolkata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Som, Sumit; Seth, Sudeshna; Mandal, Aditya; Paul, Saikat; Duttagupta, Anjan

    2013-01-01

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre has commissioned a K-500 superconducting cyclotron for various types of nuclear physics experiments. The 3-phase radio-frequency system of superconducting cyclotron has been developed in the frequency range 9–27 MHz with amplitude and phase stability of 100 ppm and ±0.2 0 , respectively. The analysis of the RF cavity has been carried out using 3D Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio code and various RF parameters and accelerating voltages (“Dee” voltage) are calculated from simulation. During the RF system commissioning, measurement of different RF parameters has been done and absolute Dee voltage has been calibrated using a CdTe X-ray detector along with its accessories and known X-ray source. The present paper discusses about the measured data and the simulation result.

  20. Radio frequency cavity analysis, measurement, and calibration of absolute Dee voltage for K-500 superconducting cyclotron at VECC, Kolkata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Sumit; Seth, Sudeshna; Mandal, Aditya; Paul, Saikat; Duttagupta, Anjan

    2013-02-01

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre has commissioned a K-500 superconducting cyclotron for various types of nuclear physics experiments. The 3-phase radio-frequency system of superconducting cyclotron has been developed in the frequency range 9-27 MHz with amplitude and phase stability of 100 ppm and ±0.20, respectively. The analysis of the RF cavity has been carried out using 3D Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio code and various RF parameters and accelerating voltages ("Dee" voltage) are calculated from simulation. During the RF system commissioning, measurement of different RF parameters has been done and absolute Dee voltage has been calibrated using a CdTe X-ray detector along with its accessories and known X-ray source. The present paper discusses about the measured data and the simulation result.

  1. Radio frequency cavity analysis, measurement, and calibration of absolute Dee voltage for K-500 superconducting cyclotron at VECC, Kolkata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, Sumit; Seth, Sudeshna; Mandal, Aditya; Paul, Saikat; Duttagupta, Anjan

    2013-02-01

    Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre has commissioned a K-500 superconducting cyclotron for various types of nuclear physics experiments. The 3-phase radio-frequency system of superconducting cyclotron has been developed in the frequency range 9-27 MHz with amplitude and phase stability of 100 ppm and ±0.2(0), respectively. The analysis of the RF cavity has been carried out using 3D Computer Simulation Technology (CST) Microwave Studio code and various RF parameters and accelerating voltages ("Dee" voltage) are calculated from simulation. During the RF system commissioning, measurement of different RF parameters has been done and absolute Dee voltage has been calibrated using a CdTe X-ray detector along with its accessories and known X-ray source. The present paper discusses about the measured data and the simulation result.

  2. Backscattering of gyrotron radiation and short-wavelength turbulence during electron cyclotron resonance plasma heating in the L-2M stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batanov, G. M.; Borzosekov, V. D., E-mail: tinborz@gmail.com; Kovrizhnykh, L. M.; Kolik, L. V.; Konchekov, E. M.; Malakhov, D. V.; Petrov, A. E.; Sarksyan, K. A.; Skvortsova, N. N.; Stepakhin, V. D.; Kharchev, N. K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-06-15

    Backscattering of gyrotron radiation ({theta} = {pi}) by short-wavelength density fluctuations (k{sub Up-Tack} = 30 cm{sup -1}) in the plasma of the L-2M stellarator was studied under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma heating at the second harmonic of the electron gyrofrequency (75 GHz). The scattering of the O-wave emerging due to the splitting of the linearly polarized gyrotron radiation into the X- and O-waves was analyzed. The signal obtained after homodyne detection of scattered radiation is a result of interference of the reference signal, the quasi-steady component, and the fast oscillating component. The coefficients of reflection of the quasi-steady component, R{sub =}{sup 2}(Y), and fast oscillating component, R{sub {approx}}{sup 2}(Y), of scattered radiation are estimated. The growth of the R{sub {approx}}{sup 2}(Y) coefficient from 3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} to 5.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} with increasing ECR heating power from 190 to 430 kW is found to correlate with the decrease in the energy lifetime from 1.9 to 1.46 ms. The relative density of short-wavelength fluctuations is estimated to be Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket n{sub {approx}}{sup 2} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket / Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket n{sub e}{sup 2} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket = 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}. It is shown that the frequencies of short-wavelength fluctuations are in the range 10-150 kHz. The recorded short-wavelength fluctuations can be interpreted as structural turbulence, the energy of which comprises {approx}10% of the total fluctuations energy. Simulations of transport processes show that neoclassical heat fluxes are much smaller than anomalous ones. It is suggested that short-wavelength turbulence plays a decisive role in the anomalous heat transport.

  3. A study of a superconducting heavy ion cyclotron as a post accelerator for the CRNL MP Tandem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, J.S.; Tunnicliffe, P.R.

    1975-08-01

    A novel design for a heavy ion cyclotron is described utilizing superconducting coils. Acting as a post accelerator for the CRNL MP Tandem accelerator, the proposed cyclotron is capable of producing an output energy of 10 MeV/u and intensities up to approximately 10 10 particles/s for uranium. (E.C.B.)

  4. Southwest Regional Clean Energy Incubation Initiative (SRCEII)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Michael [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2017-10-31

    The Austin Technology Incubator’s (ATI’s) Clean Energy Incubator at the University of Texas at Austin (ATI-CEI) utilized the National Incubator Initiative for Clean Energy (NIICE) funding to establish the Southwest Regional Clean Energy Incubation Initiative, composed of clean energy incubators from The University of Texas at Austin (UT-Austin), The University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP), The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), and Texas A&M University (TAMU).

  5. Conceptual design of pulsed high voltage and high precision power supply for a cyclotron auto-resonance maser (CARM) for plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zito, Pietro; Maffia, Giuseppe; Lampasi, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ENEA started a project to develop a cyclotron auto-resonance maser (CARM). • This facility requires an advanced pulsed high voltage power supply (HVPS). • The conceptual design answers to the performances requested for CARM HVPS. • The pulse transformer parameters were estimated according to IEEE standards. • PWM PID-based controller has been optimized to follow very fast rectangular pulses. - Abstract: Due to the high electron temperature during the plasma burning, both a higher power (>1 MW) and a higher frequency (up to 300 GHz) are required for plasma heating in future fusion experiments like DEMO. For this task, ENEA started a project to develop a cyclotron auto-resonance maser (CARM) able to produce an electron radiation in synchronism with the electromagnetic field and to transfer the electron beam kinetic energy to the plasma. This facility requires an advanced pulsed high voltage power supply (HVPS) with the following technical characteristics: variable output voltage up to 700 kV; variable pulse length in the range 5–50 μs; overshoot < 2%; rise time < 1 μs; voltage accuracy (including drop, ripple and stability) <0.1%. This paper describes the conceptual design and the technical solutions adopted to achieve the performance requested for the CARM HVPS.

  6. Conceptual design of pulsed high voltage and high precision power supply for a cyclotron auto-resonance maser (CARM) for plasma heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zito, Pietro, E-mail: pietro.zito@enea.it; Maffia, Giuseppe; Lampasi, Alessandro

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • ENEA started a project to develop a cyclotron auto-resonance maser (CARM). • This facility requires an advanced pulsed high voltage power supply (HVPS). • The conceptual design answers to the performances requested for CARM HVPS. • The pulse transformer parameters were estimated according to IEEE standards. • PWM PID-based controller has been optimized to follow very fast rectangular pulses. - Abstract: Due to the high electron temperature during the plasma burning, both a higher power (>1 MW) and a higher frequency (up to 300 GHz) are required for plasma heating in future fusion experiments like DEMO. For this task, ENEA started a project to develop a cyclotron auto-resonance maser (CARM) able to produce an electron radiation in synchronism with the electromagnetic field and to transfer the electron beam kinetic energy to the plasma. This facility requires an advanced pulsed high voltage power supply (HVPS) with the following technical characteristics: variable output voltage up to 700 kV; variable pulse length in the range 5–50 μs; overshoot < 2%; rise time < 1 μs; voltage accuracy (including drop, ripple and stability) <0.1%. This paper describes the conceptual design and the technical solutions adopted to achieve the performance requested for the CARM HVPS.

  7. A simple irradiation facility for radiobiological experiments with low energy protons from a cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental facility for irradiation of small biological targets with low-energy protons has been developed. The depth-dose distribution in soft-tissue is calculated from the proton energy spectrum. (orig.)

  8. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves observed near the oxygen cyclotron frequency by ISEE 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, B.J.; Samson, J.C.; Hu, Y.D.; McPherron, R.L.; Russell, C.T.

    1992-01-01

    Pc 2 electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves at 0.1 waves at 0.1 Hz, near the oxygen cyclotron frequency, have been observed by ISEE 1 and 2 between L = 7.6 and 5.8 on an inbound near-equatorial pass in the dusk sector. The waves occurred in a thick plasmapause of width ∼ 1.5 R E and penetrated ∼1 R E into the plasmasphere. Wave onset was accompanied by significant increases in the thermal (0-100 eV) He + and the warm (0.1-16 keV/e) O + and He + heavy ion populations. The most intense waves (8 nT) were observed in the outer plasmasphere where convection drift velocities (E x B)/B 2 were largest and the Alfven velocity was a minimum. Wave polarization is predominantly left-handed with propagation almost parallel to the ambient magnetic field, and the spectral slot and polarization reversal predicted by cold plasma propagation theory are identified in the wave data. Poynting fluxes calculated during the first 15 min of the event show wave energy propagation directions both parallel and antiparallel to the field. Computations of the experimental wave spectra during the passage through the plasmapause show that the spectral slots relate to local plasma parameters, possibly suggesting an ion cyclotron wave growth source near the spacecraft. A regular wave packet structure seen over the first 30 min of the event may be attributed to the modulation of this energy source by the Pc 5 waves seen at the same time. Overall, the results are considered an example of an electromagnetic ion cyclotron wave-particle interaction occurring during the outer plasmasphere refilling process at the time of the substorm recovery phase

  9. Recent achievements in Tc-99m radiopharmaceutical direct production by medical cyclotrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschi, Alessandra; Martini, Petra; Pasquali, Micol; Uccelli, Licia

    2017-09-01

    99m Tc is the most commonly used radionuclide in the field of diagnostic imaging, a noninvasive method intended to diagnose a disease, assess the disease state and monitor the effects of treatments. Annually, the use of 99m Tc, covers about 85% of nuclear medicine applications. This isotope releases gamma rays at about the same wavelength as conventional X-ray diagnostic equipment, and owing to its short half-life (t ½  = 6 h) is ideal for diagnostic nuclear imaging. A patient can be injected with a small amount of 99m Tc and within 24 h almost 94% of the injected radionuclide would have decayed and left the body, limiting the patient's radiation exposure. 99m Tc is usually supplied to hospitals through a 99 Mo/ 99m Tc radionuclide generator system where it is produced from the β decay of the parent nuclide 99 Mo (t ½  = 66 h), which is produced in nuclear reactors via neutron fission. Recently, the interruption of the global supply chain of reactor-produced 99 Mo, has forced the scientific community to investigate alternative production routes for 99m Tc. One solution was to consider cyclotron-based methods as potential replacement of reactor-based technology and the nuclear reaction 100 Mo(p,2n) 99m Tc emerged as the most worthwhile approach. This review reports some achievements about 99m Tc produced by medical cyclotrons. In particular, the available technologies for target design, the most efficient extraction and separation procedure developed for the purification of 99m Tc from the irradiated targets, the preparation of high purity 99m Tc radiopharmaceuticals and the first clinical studies carried out with cyclotron produced 99m Tc are described.

  10. Robust high-yield ~1 TBq production of cyclotron based sodium [99mTc]pertechnetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, J D; Thomas, B; Selivanova, S V; Berthelette, E; Wilson, J S; McEwan, A J B; Gagnon, K

    2018-03-02

    This paper presents the irradiation and processing of high-current 100 Mo targets at the University of Alberta (UofA) in a GMP compliant setting. For purpose of comparison with a second production facility, additional studies at Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Sherbrooke (CHUS) are also described. More than 70% of today's diagnostic radiopharmaceuticals are based on 99m Tc, however the conventional supply chain for obtaining 99m Tc is fragile. The aim of this work was to demonstrate reliable high yield production and processing of 99m Tc with medium-energy, high-current, cyclotrons. We used two cyclotrons (TR-24, Advanced Cyclotron Systems, Inc) for irradiations with 22 MeV or 24 MeV incident energy and 400 μA current up to a maximum of 6 h. The irradiated 100 Mo was dissolved using peroxide, basified using ammonium carbonate, and purified using a PEG-based solid phase extraction technique. High-yield productions with 22 MeV (400 μA, 6 h) yielded an average isolated [ 99m Tc]TcO 4 - yield of 878 GBq ± 99 GBq (23.7 Ci ± 2.7 Ci) decay corrected to EOB, n = 8 (isolated saturation yield: 4.36 ± 0.49 GBq/μA). Irradiations with 24 MeV (400 μA, 6 h) resulted in an average isolated [ 99m Tc]TcO 4 - yield of 993 GBq ± 100 GBq (26.8 Ci ± 2.7 Ci) decay corrected to EOB, n = 7 (isolated saturation yield: 4.97 ± 0.50 GBq/μA). These yields corresponds to 600-700 GBq (16-19 Ci) of [ 99m Tc]TcO 4 - at release (i.e. 3 hour post-EOB). For all tested batches, the QC results were within the recently published specifications in the European Pharmacopoeia. Reliable near-TBq production yields for 99m Tc can be obtained using medium-energy cyclotrons. This work presents evidence that medium-energy high-current cyclotrons can provide high yields of [ 99m Tc]TcO 4 - with radionuclidic impurities levels within the specifications of the existing European Pharmacopoeia monograph, indicating that this

  11. Proceedings of second geopressured geothermal energy conference, Austin, Texas, February 23--25, 1976. Volume V. Legal, institutional, and environmental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanston, J.H.; Elmer, D.B.; Gustavson, T.C.; Kreitler, C.W.; Letlow, K.; Lopreato, S.C.; Meriwether, M.; Ramsey, P.; Rogers, K.E.; Williamson, J.K.

    1976-01-01

    Three separate abstracts were prepared for Volume V of the Proceedings of the Conference. Sections are entitled: Legal Issues in the Development of Geopressured--Geothermal Resources of Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast; The Development of Geothermal Energy in the Gulf Coast; Socio-economic, Demographic, and Political Considerations; and Geothermal Resources of the Texas Gulf Coast--Environmental Concerns arising from the Production and Disposal of Geothermal waters. (MCW)

  12. Investigation on the possibility of extracting wave energy from the Texas coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haces-Fernandez, Francisco

    Due to the great and growing demand of energy consumption in the Texas Coast area, the generation of electricity from ocean waves is considered very important. The combination of the wave energy with offshore wind power is explored as a way to increase power output, obtain synergies, maximize the utilization of assigned marine zones and reduce variability. Previously literature has assessed the wave energy generation, combined with wind in different geographic locations such as California, Ireland and the Azores Island. In this research project, the electric power generation from ocean waves on the Texas Coast was investigated, assessing its potential from the meteorological data provided by five buoys from National Data Buoy Center of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, considering the Pelamis 750 kW Wave Energy Converter (WEC) and the Vesta V90 3 MW Wind Turbine. The power output from wave energy was calculated for the year 2006 using Matlab, and the results in several locations were considered acceptable in terms of total power output, but with a high temporal variability. To reduce its variability, wave energy was combined with wind energy, obtaining a significant reduction on the coefficient of variation on the power output. A Matlab based interface was created to calculate power output and its variability considering data from longer periods of time.

  13. Cultural resources survey and assessment of the proposed Department of Energy Freeport to Texas City pipeline, Brazoria and Galveston Counties, Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castille, G.J.; Whelan, J.P. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    An intensive survey and testing program of selected segments of a proposed Department of Energy pipeline were conducted by Coastal Environments, Inc., Baton Rouge, Louisiana, during December 1985 and January 1986. The proposed pipeline runs from Texas City, Galveston County to Bryan Mound, Brazoria County. The pedestrian survey was preceded by historical records survey to locate possible historic sites within the DOE righ-of-way. Four prehistoric sites within the ROW (41BO159, 160, 161, 162) and one outside the ROW (41BO163) were located. All are Rangia cuneata middens. The survey results are discussed with particular reference to the environmental settings of the sites and the effectiveness of the survey procedure. Two of the sites located within the ROW were subjected to additional testing. The results of the backhoe testing program are included in the site descriptions, and the scientific value of the sites are presented. 52 refs., 20 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Critical energy in the cyclotron heating of ions in a mirror machine; Energia critica en el calentamiento ciclotronico de los iones en una maquina espejo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez T, C.; Hernandez A, O. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    The problem of heating in the plasma sources where the geometry of the magnetic field forms a magnetic mirror as it is the case of the Ecr sources type, for maintaining the reload, it continues being an actual important problem. There are two methods for the analysis of this problem. The first of these methods is the stochastic mechanism of a particle where it is considered the existence of three characteristic frequencies as the cyclotron frequency, the electromagnetic field frequency and the transit frequency. The second method is that related with the non linear interaction of waves where the collective effects of the particles are the most important. In this work, in the Hamiltonian formalism, the stochastic mechanism in the cyclotron heating is analysed. It is considered the particular case of a plasma source with an external magnetic field, type mirror where a TE{sub 11} electromagnetic wave is injected. The critical energy in the resonance mixing is calculated by the Poincare mapping method. The heterogeneity of the magnetic field is analysed. (Author)

  15. Beam energy variability and other system considerations for a deuteron linac materials research neutron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jameson, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    There are many overall system aspects and tradeoffs that must be considered in the design of a deuteron linac based neutron source for materials research, in order to obtain a facility with the best possible response to the user's needs, efficient and reliable operation and maintenance, at the optimum construction and operating cost. These considerations should be included in the facility design from the earliest conceptual stages, and rechecked at each stage to insure consistency and balance. Some of system requirements, particularly that of beam energy variability and its implications, are outlined in this talk. (author)

  16. Study and experimental verification of control tuning strategies in a variable speed wind energy conversion system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaragoza, Jordi; Pou, Josep; Arias, Antoni [Electronic Engineering Dept., Technical University of Catalonia, Campus Terrassa, C. Colom 1, 08222 Terrassa (Spain); Spiteri, Cyril [Department of Industrial Electrical Power Conversion, University of Malta, Faculty of Engineering, Msida (Malta); Robles, Eider; Ceballos, Salvador [Energy Unit, Robotiker-Tecnalia Technology Corporation, Zamudio, Basque Country (Spain)

    2011-05-15

    This paper analyzes and compares different control tuning strategies for a variable speed wind energy conversion system (WECS) based on a permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). The aerodynamics of the wind turbine (WT) and a PMSG have been modeled. The control strategy used in this research is composed of three regulators, which may be based on either linear or nonlinear controllers. In this analysis, proportional-integral (PI) linear controllers have been used. Two different tuning strategies are analyzed and compared. The main goal is to enhance the overall performance by achieving a low sensitivity to disturbances and minimal overshoot under variable operating conditions. Finally, the results have been verified by an experimental WECS laboratory prototype. (author)

  17. Green Power 2011. The KPMG Renewable Energy M and A report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-05-01

    This report is KPMG's annual review of M and A (Mergers and Acquisition) activity within the renewable energy sector. It takes a look at the changes and trends in the sector to provide insight on where the market is heading. Throughout 2010, global renewable energy M and A deals surged to an increase of over 70 percent on the 260 deals completed in 2009. This trend has continued in 2011, with a record 141 renewable M and A deals totalling USD 11.2bn being announced in the first quarter of 2011.

  18. Building a new control system for the cyclotron power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kormany, Z.; Lakatos, T.; Kovacs, P.; Szuecs, I.; Ander, I.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The MGC cyclotron of the ATOMKI is a multi-particle and variable-energy machine with a rather complicated beam transport system. As a consequence, the current or voltage value of numerous power supplies should be set and adjusted by the operators during a typical run. The original control system of the cyclotron provides a traditional control desk for this purpose where the requested values can be set by using selector switches and up/down tumblers. The adjustment process with this system is completely manual and rather slow - every power supply unit gets its starting value one after the other and it typically takes 10 to 20 minutes to change the whole setting. Another disadvantage of the present system is the poor reproducibility / the analogue panel meters of the control desk cannot provide the required precision to exactly repeat a former setting. To overcome the above difficulties and speed up the adjustment process of the cyclotron and the beam transport lines, a new control system for the power supplies has been designed and is under implementation within the framework of our modernization project. Supported by the International Atomic Energy Agency, Technical Assistance Program - Project Code Number: HUN/4/013. The control of the power supplies will be changed to digital - the analogue control signals of the power stages will be produced by the D/A, the current and voltage values will be read by the A/D conversion modules of a programmable logic controller (PLC). The transition to digital control requires the development of special interface units. To separate completely the control and measuring channels from each other, they are isolated from the PLC-ground by applying opto-isolators. A two-channel (control and measurement) linear interface circuit built around the TIL 300 optical isolators has been designed, assembled and tested. It has been verified that the linearity and the precision of this circuit fulfills the

  19. Nonlinear analysis of a relativistic beam-plasma cyclotron instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprangle, P.; Vlahos, L.

    1986-01-01

    A self-consistent set of nonlinear and relativistic wave-particle equations are derived for a magnetized beam-plasma system interacting with electromagnetic cyclotron waves. In particular, the high-frequency cyclotron mode interacting with a streaming and gyrating electron beam within a background plasma is considered in some detail. This interaction mode may possibly find application as a high-power source of coherent short-wavelength radiation for laboratory devices. The background plasma, although passive, plays a central role in this mechanism by modifying the dielectric properties in which the magnetized electron beam propagates. For a particular choice of the transverse beam velocity (i.e., the speed of light divided by the relativistic mass factor), the interaction frequency equals the nonrelativistic electron cyclotron frequency times the relativistic mass factor. For this choice of transverse beam velocity the detrimental effects of a longitudinal beam velocity spread is virtually removed. Power conversion efficiencies in excess of 18 percent are both analytically calculated and obtained through numerical simulations of the wave-particle equations. The quality of the electron beam, degree of energy and pitch angle spread, and its effect on the beam-plasma cyclotron instability is studied.

  20. Heating tokamaks via the ion-cyclotron and ion-ion hybrid resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, F.W.

    1977-04-01

    For the ion-ion hybrid resonance it is shown that: (1) the energy absorption occurs via a sequence of mode conversions; (2) a poloidal field component normal to the ion-ion hybrid mode conversion surface strongly influences the mode conversion process so that roughly equal electron and ion heating occurs in the present proton-deuterium experiments, while solely electron heating is predicted to prevail in deuterium-tritium reactors; (3) the ion-ion hybrid resonance suppresses toroidal eigenmodes; and (4) wave absorption in minority fundamental ion-cyclotron heating experiments will be dominated by ion-ion hybrid mode conversion absorption for minority concentrations exceeding roughly 1 percent. For the ion-cyclotron resonance, it is shown that: (1) ion-cyclotron mode conversion leads to surface electron heating; and (2) ion-cyclotron mode conversion absorption dominates fundamental ion-cyclotron absorption thereby preventing efficient ion heating

  1. Elastic and inelastic {alpha}-scattering cross-sections obtained with the 44 MeV fixed energy Saclay cyclotron on separated targets of {sup 24}Mg, {sup 25}Mg, {sup 26}Mg, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 46}Ti, {sup 48}Ti, {sup 50}Ti, {sup 52}Cr, {sup 54}Fe, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 58}Fe, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 60}Ni, {sup 62}Ni, {sup 64}Ni, {sup 63}Cu, {sup 65}Cu, {sup 64}Zn, {sup 112}Sn, {sup 114}Sn, {sup 116}Sn, {sup 118}Sn, {sup 120}Sn, {sup 122}Sn, {sup 124}Sn and {sup 208}Pb using the Saclay fixed-energy cyclotron; Sections efficaces differentielles elastiques et inelastiques obtenues par diffusion de particules {alpha} de 44 MeV sur des cibles de {sup 24}Mg, {sup 25}Mg, {sup 26}Mg, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 46}Ti, {sup 48}Ti, {sup 50}Ti, {sup 52}Cr, {sup 54}Fe, {sup 56}Fe, {sup 58}Fe, {sup 58}Ni, {sup 60}Ni, {sup 62}Ni, {sup 64}Ni, {sup 63}Cu, {sup 65}Cu, {sup 64}Zn, {sup 112}Sn, {sup 114}Sn, {sup 116}Sn, {sup 118}Sn, {sup 120}Sn, {sup 122}Sn, {sup 124}Sn et {sup 208}Pb au cyclotron a energie fixe de saclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruge, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires. Departement de physique nucleaire, service de physique nucleaire a moyenne energie

    1967-01-01

    This report contains elastic and inelastic {alpha}-scattering cross-sections obtained with the 44 MeV fixed energy Saclay cyclotron on Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Co, Zn, Sn and Pb enriched targets. (author) [French] Ce rapport contient les tableaux des sections efficaces differentielles obtenues par diffusion elastique et inelastique des particules {alpha} de 44 MeV, fournies par le cyclotron a energie fixe de Saclay, sur des cibles d'isotopes separes de Mg, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Co, Zn, Sn et Pb. (auteur)

  2. Electron cyclotron resonance discharge as a source for hydrogen and deuterium ions production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacon Velasco, A.J. [Universidad de Pamplona, Pamplona (Colombia); Dougar-Jabon, V.D. [Universidad Industrial de Santander, Bucaramanga (Colombia)

    2004-07-01

    In this report, we describe characteristics of a ring-structure hydrogen plasma heated in electron cyclotron resonance conditions and confined in a mirror magnetic trap and discuss the relative efficiency of secondary electrons and thermo-electrons in negative hydrogen and deuterium ion production. The obtained data and calculations of the balance equations for possible reactions demonstrate that the negative ion production is realized in two stages. First, the hydrogen and deuterium molecules are excited in collisions with the plasma electrons to high-laying Rydberg or vibrational levels in the plasma volume. The second stage leads to the negative ion production through the process of dissociative attachment of low energy electrons. The low energy electrons are originated due to a bombardment of the plasma electrode by ions of one of the driven rings and thermo-emission from heated tungsten filaments. Experiments seem to indicate that the negative ion generation occurs predominantly in the limited volume filled with thermo-electrons. Estimation of the negative ion generation rate shows that the main channel of H{sup -} and D{sup -} ion production involves the process of high Rydberg state excitation. (authors)

  3. Electron cyclotron resonance discharge as a source for hydrogen and deuterium ions production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon Velasco, A.J.; Dougar-Jabon, V.D.

    2004-01-01

    In this report, we describe characteristics of a ring-structure hydrogen plasma heated in electron cyclotron resonance conditions and confined in a mirror magnetic trap and discuss the relative efficiency of secondary electrons and thermo-electrons in negative hydrogen and deuterium ion production. The obtained data and calculations of the balance equations for possible reactions demonstrate that the negative ion production is realized in two stages. First, the hydrogen and deuterium molecules are excited in collisions with the plasma electrons to high-laying Rydberg or vibrational levels in the plasma volume. The second stage leads to the negative ion production through the process of dissociative attachment of low energy electrons. The low energy electrons are originated due to a bombardment of the plasma electrode by ions of one of the driven rings and thermo-emission from heated tungsten filaments. Experiments seem to indicate that the negative ion generation occurs predominantly in the limited volume filled with thermo-electrons. Estimation of the negative ion generation rate shows that the main channel of H - and D - ion production involves the process of high Rydberg state excitation. (authors)

  4. Direct utilization of geothermal energy for space and water heating at Marlin, Texas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conover, M.F.; Green, T.F.; Keeney, R.C.; Ellis, P.F. II; Davis, R.J.; Wallace, R.C.; Blood, F.B.

    1983-05-01

    The Torbett-Hutchings-Smith Memorial Hospital geothermal heating project, which is one of nineteen direct-use geothermal projects funded principally by DOE, is documented. The five-year project encompassed a broad range of technical, institutional, and economic activities including: resource and environmental assessments; well drilling and completion; system design, construction, and monitoring; economic analyses; public awareness programs; materials testing; and environmental monitoring. Some of the project conclusions are that: (1) the 155/sup 0/F Central Texas geothermal resource can support additional geothermal development; (2) private-sector economic incentives currently exist, especially for profit-making organizations, to develop and use this geothermal resource; (3) potential uses for this geothermal resource include water and space heating, poultry dressing, natural cheese making, fruit and vegetable dehydrating, soft-drink bottling, synthetic-rubber manufacturing, and furniture manufacturing; (4) high maintenance costs arising from the geofluid's scaling and corrosion tendencies can be avoided through proper analysis and design; (5) a production system which uses a variable-frequency drive system to control production rate is an attractive means of conserving parasitic pumping power, controlling production rate to match heating demand, conserving the geothermal resource, and minimizing environmental impacts.

  5. Emergency situation in a medical cyclotron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Bhat, M.K.; Singh, D.K.; Pthania, B.S.; Pandit, A.G.; Jacob, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Medical cyclotron is a particle accelerator used in producing short lived radioisotopes such as 18 F, 11 C, 15 O, 13 N, 18 F-2 gas etc. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a nuclear imaging modality that has rapidly gained favour. 18 F-FDG is the most widely used radiopharmaceutical with a half-life of 109.8 min. Having more than five years experience in this field we face lots of emergency conditions in the medical cyclotron facility. On the basis of harm we have divided in to three categories i.e. Harm of (a) working personnel, (b) Equipment and (c) environment. Radioactive gas leak and Target foil rupture is considered as the major emergency situations during medical cyclotron operations because there is a potential of over exposure to the working personnel. Radiation protection survey of a self-shielded medical cyclotron installation was carried out during normal and emergency conditions. It is found that the induced activity in the target foil increases with its successive usages. Recommendations have also been made to reduce personal exposure while handling the radioactive gas leak and target foil rupture conditions

  6. Texas pavement preservation center four-year summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-04

    The Texas Pavement Preservation Center (TPPC), in joint collaboration with the Center for Transportation Research (CTR) of the University of Texas at Austin and the Texas Transportation Institute (TTI) of Texas A&M University, promotes the use of pav...

  7. Financial assurance for decontamination and decommissioning: a Texas perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, C.D.; Etter, S.D.; Dziuk, T.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Texas Department of Health (TDH) has the regulatory responsibility to ensure that funds are available for decontamination, decommissioning, and reclamation of uranium recovery facilities in Texas. Uranium recovery licensees are required to post financial security with the Agency for that purpose. Texas uranium facilities include (1) conventional surface mining and milling plants, including tailings ponds, and (2) in situ solution mining plants, each with somewhat different cost elements for decontamination, decommissioning, reclamation, and closure. Cost estimates for decontamination, decommissioning, and reclamation, along with a facility closure plan, are initially submitted to the Agency by the licensees. These are verified and compared with detailed independent cost estimates prepared by Agency staff. Significant differences between the two estimates are examined and resolved by negotiation and/or recalculation to the satisfaction of the state. The Texas philosophy for maintaining financial security permits flexibility in the closure plan without jeopardizing or compromising the ultimate long-term objectives of closure. Review of closure plans incorporates new technological developments In contrast, financial security is established expeditiously by applying the best available cost data to necessarily conservative estimates of the work involved. Financial security cost estimates are subject to annual review and adjustment

  8. Radioisotope production with a medical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvester, D.J.

    1974-01-01

    The cyclotron of Hammersmith hospital in England was completed and started the operation in 1955. The feature is in its design operable at high beam current, reaching 500μA in internal beam and 300μA in external beam. In 1960's, twelve nuclides of radioactive pharmaceuticals were produced with the cyclotron. C-11, N-13 and O-15 have been used in the form of radioactive gases such as CO or H 2 O to test lung functions. F-18 has been used for bone scanning. K-43 is employed in the research of electrolyte balancing together with Na-24 and Br-77. Fe-52 is utilized in iron ion researches as a tracer. Cs-129 is highly evaluated as an isotope for imaging cardiac clogging part. Radioisotopes must be much more used in the examination of in vivo metabolic function. For this purpose, peculiarly labelled compounds should be further developed. It is welcome that the persons paying attention to the medical prospect of cyclotrons are increasing. The author hopes to continue his endeavour to find new products made with the cyclotron for human welfare. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  9. A visual assistance environment for cyclotron operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, Tetsuya; Murakami, Tohru; Agematsu, Takashi; Okumura, Susumu; Arakawa, Kazuo.

    1993-01-01

    A computer-based operation system for a cyclotron which assists inexperienced operators has been developed. Cyclotron start-up operations require dozens of adjustable parameters to be finely tuned to maximize extracted beam current. The human interfaces of the system provide a visual environment designed to enhance beam parameter adjustments. First, the mental model of operators is analyzed. It is supposed to be composed of five partial mental models: beam behavior model, feasible setting regions model, parameter sensitivity model, parameter mutual relation model, and status map model. Next, based on these models, three visual interfaces are developed, i.e., (1) Beam trajectory is rapidly calculated and graphically displayed whenever the operators change the cyclotron parameters. (2) Feasible setting regions (FSR) of the parameters that satisfy the cyclotron's beam acceptance criteria are indicated. (3) Search traces, being a historical visual map of beam current values, are superimposed on the FSRs. Finally, to evaluate system effectiveness, the search time required to reach maximum beam current conditions was measured. In addition, system operability was evaluated using written questionnaires. Results of the experiment showed that the search time to reach specific beam conditions was reduced by approximately 65% using these interfaces. The written questionnaires survey showed the operators highly evaluate system operability. (author)

  10. Radiochemical studies using a 42 MeV cyclotron. Final report, September 1, 1983-February 28, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilbury, R.S.; Kolar, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    The cyclotron is working well for neutron production and has been used in the past year for radiation therapy of patients and radiobiology experiments. Good progress has been made with three projects described here. 13 irradiations on the University of Texas Health Science Center cyclotron have been used for the production of bromine radioisotopes and Ba-131, which have been used in these studies

  11. Design of a compact permanent magnet Cyclotron Mass Spectrometer for the detection and measurement of trace isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, A.T.; Bertsche, K.J.; Clark, D.J.; Halbach, K.; Kunkel, W.B.; Leung, K.N.; Li, C.Y.

    1992-07-01

    A technique for the detection of trace amounts of rare isotopes, Cyclotron mass Spectrometry (CMS), is described. This technique uses the relationships between particle mass, charge, magnetic field strength and cyclotron orbital frequency to provide high mass resolution. The instrument also has high sensitivity and is capable of measuring isotopes with abundances of - 12 . Improvements now being implemented will lead to further increases in the sensitivity and enhance operating parameters such as cost, portability, and sample throughput

  12. Relativistic nonlinear waves of cyclotron in electron and electron-ion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, R.

    1981-12-01

    Dispersion relations for electron-cyclotron and ion-cyclotron waves are examined in two models of plasmas, the first propagating in fluent electronic plasmas (''streaming'') as well as in fluent electron-ionic plasmas, and the last in fluent electron-ionic plasmas. The identification of the propagation modes is realized with the aid of a special technique of polinomial expantion of the dispersion relation in the limit of large frequencies and short wavelenghts. The analisys so developed on these dispersion relations for fluent plasmas show that: (i) the wave amplitudes are frequency dependent; (ii) the ''resonances'' frequencies of the respective estationary plasmas must be re-examined with the relations between wave amplitudes and the propagation frequencies near these frequencies; (iii) the electric field amplitudes for the non-linear waves of electron-cyclotron and ion-cyclotron go to zero in the limits of the respective cyclotron frequencies in both fluent plasma models. (M.W.O.) [pt

  13. Scientific instruments, scientific progress and the cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baird, David; Faust, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Philosophers speak of science in terms of theory and experiment, yet when they speak of the progress of scientific knowledge they speak in terms of theory alone. In this article it is claimed that scientific knowledge consists of, among other things, scientific instruments and instrumental techniques and not simply of some kind of justified beliefs. It is argued that one aspect of scientific progress can be characterized relatively straightforwardly - the accumulation of new scientific instruments. The development of the cyclotron is taken to illustrate this point. Eight different activities which promoted the successful completion of the cyclotron are recognised. The importance is in the machine rather than the experiments which could be run on it and the focus is on how the cyclotron came into being, not how it was subsequently used. The completed instrument is seen as a useful unit of scientific progress in its own right. (UK)

  14. Formosa Plastics Corporation: Plant-Wide Assessment of Texas Plant Identifies Opportunities for Improving Process Efficiency and Reducing Energy Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-01-01

    At Formosa Plastics Corporation's plant in Point Comfort, Texas, a plant-wide assessment team analyzed process energy requirements, reviewed new technologies for applicability, and found ways to improve the plant's energy efficiency. The assessment team identified the energy requirements of each process and compared actual energy consumption with theoretical process requirements. The team estimated that total annual energy savings would be about 115,000 MBtu for natural gas and nearly 14 million kWh for electricity if the plant makes several improvements, which include upgrading the gas compressor impeller, improving the vent blower system, and recovering steam condensate for reuse. Total annual cost savings could be $1.5 million. The U.S. Department of Energy's Industrial Technologies Program cosponsored this assessment.

  15. Simulation study of generalized electron cyclotron harmonic waves and nonlinear scattering in a magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    Part One examines the properties of electron cyclotron harmonic waves by means of computer simulation. The electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic modes not previously observed in simulation are emphasized and compared with the better known electrostatic (Bernstein) modes for perpendicular propagation. The investigation is performed by a spectrum analysis (both wavelength and frequency) of the thermal equilibrium electromagnetic fluctuation fields present in the simulation. A numerical solution of the fully electromagnetic dispersion relation shows that extreme frequency resolution is necessary to discern shifts of the electromagnetic mode frequencies from the cyclotron harmonics except at high plasma density or temperature. The simulation results show that at high plasma pressure the amplitude of the electromagnetic modes can become greater than that of the electrostatic modes. Part Two examines the interaction of an external electromagnetic wave with the electrostatic cylotron harmonic modes. The stimulated Raman scattering with an extraordinary wave as the pump is observed to occur in a wavelength regime where it would be prevented by Landau damping in an unmagnetized plasma

  16. arXiv Cyclotrons: Magnetic Design and Beam Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zaremba, Simon

    Classical, isochronous, and synchro-cyclotrons are introduced. Transverse and longitudinal beam dynamics in these accelerators are covered. The problem of vertical focusing and iscochronism in compact isochronous cyclotrons is treated in some detail. Different methods for isochronization of the cyclotron magnetic field are discussed. The limits of the classical cyclotron are explained. Typical features of the synchro-cyclotron, such as the beam capture problem, stable phase motion, and the extraction problem are discussed. The main design goals for beam injection are explained and special problems related to a central region with an internal ion source are considered. The principle of a Penning ion gauge source is addressed. The issue of vertical focusing in the cyclotron centre is briefly discussed. Several examples of numerical simulations are given. Different methods of (axial) injection are briefly outlined. Different solutions for beam extraction are described. These include the internal target, extracti...

  17. Hollow density profile on electron cyclotron resonance heating JFT-2M plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Toshihiko; Hoshino, Katsumichi; Kawashima, Hisato; Ogawa, Toshihide; Kawakami, Tomohide; Shiina, Tomio; Ishige, Youichi

    1998-01-01

    The first hollow electron density profile in the central region on the JAERI Fusion Torus-2M (JFT-2M) is measured during electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) with a TV Thomson scattering system (TVTS). The peripheral region is not hollow but is accumulated due to pump-out from the central region. The hollowness increases with time but is saturated at ∼40 ms and maintains a constant hollow ratio. The hollowness is strongly related to the steep temperature gradient of the heated zone. (author)

  18. A radioisotope production cyclotron designed to minimize dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szlavik, F.F.; Moritz, L.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a radioisotope production cyclotron which has been designed to minimize the dose to personnel during operation and maintenance. The design incorporates lessons learned from the operation of a CP42 cyclotron and has resulted in a reduction of the dose by a factor of more than 10. (author)

  19. 75 FR 36710 - The Texas Engineering Experiment Station/Texas A&M University System; Notice of Acceptance for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... identity of any expert, consultant, or assistant who will aid the requestor in evaluating the SGI. In... counsel may be shown by reliance on a qualified expert, consultant, or assistant who satisfies these... timely fashion in order to minimize any unnecessary delays in identifying those petitioners who have...

  20. Gas breakdown at cyclotron resonance with a submillimeter laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, M.P.; Temkin, R.J.; Lax, B.

    1976-01-01

    A pulsed 496-μm CH 3 F laser is used to produce gas breakdown in He at pressures between 1 and 300 Torr in an intense longitudinal magnetic field. Breakdown is detected by the observation of visible light when the electron cyclotron frequency (eB/m) equals the laser frequency, which occurs at B=216 kG for lambda=496 μm. At the lowest helium pressures and near cyclotron resonance, the focused laser intensity of 40 kW/cm 2 gives rise to very large electron heating rates, well beyond the limit of validity of conventional equilibrium breakdown theory. The observed result is an intensity-dependent resonant linewidth, much larger than predicted by equilibrium theories

  1. GaAs (111) and (1'-.2m''.3m bar ' '.2m''-.3m' 1'-.2m''.3m bar ' '.2m''-.3m' 1'-.2m''.3m bar ' '.2m''-.3m' ) surfaces and the GaAs/AlAs (111) heterojunction studied using a local energy density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetty, N.; Martin, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    We use a local energy density scrE(r) within density-functional theory to study GaAs (111) and (bar 1 bar 1 bar 1) surfaces, and the GaAs/AlAs (111) heterojunction. We use scrE(r) to calculate the formation enthalpy of a single isolated GaAs (111) and (bar 1 bar 1 bar 1) surface, which is not possible with the use of conventional total-energy methods. We are able to address questions related to the stability of these surfaces. Our methods also apply to heterojunctions where we consider GaAs/AlAs (111) as a prototype. We use scrE(r) to calculate the formation enthalpy of the Ga-rich and Al-rich interfaces, which are distinct and which are both inherent in the supercell geometry

  2. E1 and M1 strength functions at low energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwengner, Ronald; Massarczyk, Ralph; Bemmerer, Daniel; Beyer, Roland; Junghans, Arnd R.; Kögler, Toni; Rusev, Gencho; Tonchev, Anton P.; Tornow, Werner; Wagner, Andreas

    2017-09-01

    We report photon-scattering experiments using bremsstrahlung at the γELBE facility of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and using quasi-monoenergetic, polarized γ beams at the HIγS facility of the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory in Durham. To deduce the photoabsorption cross sections at high excitation energy and high level density, unresolved strength in the quasicontinuum of nuclear states has been taken into account. In the analysis of the spectra measured by using bremsstrahlung at γELBE, we perform simulations of statistical γ-ray cascades using the code γDEX to estimate intensities of inelastic transitions to low-lying excited states. Simulated average branching ratios are compared with model-independent branching ratios obtained from spectra measured by using monoenergetic γ beams at HIγS. E1 strength in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance is discussed in nuclei around mass 90 and in xenon isotopes. M1 strength in the region of the spin-flip resonance is also considered for xenon isotopes. The dipole strength function of 74Ge deduced from γELBE experiments is compared with the one obtained from experiments at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-energy upbend seen in the Oslo data is interpreted as M1 strength on the basis of shell-model calculations.

  3. E1 and M1 strength functions at low energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwengner Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report photon-scattering experiments using bremsstrahlung at the γELBE facility of Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and using quasi-monoenergetic, polarized γ beams at the HIγS facility of the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory in Durham. To deduce the photoabsorption cross sections at high excitation energy and high level density, unresolved strength in the quasicontinuum of nuclear states has been taken into account. In the analysis of the spectra measured by using bremsstrahlung at γELBE, we perform simulations of statistical γ-ray cascades using the code γDEX to estimate intensities of inelastic transitions to low-lying excited states. Simulated average branching ratios are compared with model-independent branching ratios obtained from spectra measured by using monoenergetic γ beams at HIγS. E1 strength in the energy region of the pygmy dipole resonance is discussed in nuclei around mass 90 and in xenon isotopes. M1 strength in the region of the spin-flip resonance is also considered for xenon isotopes. The dipole strength function of 74Ge deduced from γELBE experiments is compared with the one obtained from experiments at the Oslo Cyclotron Laboratory. The low-energy upbend seen in the Oslo data is interpreted as M1 strength on the basis of shell-model calculations.

  4. Measurement of peripheral electron temperature by electron cyclotron emission during the H-mode transition in JFT-2M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Katsumichi; Yamamoto, Takumi; Kawashima, Hisato

    1987-01-01

    Time evolution and profile of peripheral electron temperature during the H-mode like transition in a tokamak plasma is measured using the second and third harmonic of electron cyclotron emission (ECE). The so called ''H-mode'' state which has good particle/energy confinement is characterized by sudden decrease in the spectral line intensity of deuterium molecule. Such a sudden decrease in the line intensity of D α with good energy confinement is found not only in divertor discharges, but also in limiter dischargs in JFT-2M tokamak. It is found by the measurement of ECE that the peripheral electron temperature suddenly increases in both of such phases. The relation between H-transition and the peripheral electron temperature or its profile is investigated. (author)

  5. OPTICAL POLARIZATION AND SPECTRAL VARIABILITY IN THE M87 JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perlman, Eric S.; Cara, Mihai; Bourque, Matthew; Simons, Raymond C. [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, 150 W. University Blvd., Florida Institute of Technology, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Adams, Steven C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Harris, D. E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Madrid, Juan P. [Center for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Clausen-Brown, Eric [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Cheung, C. C. [National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC 20001 (United States); Stawarz, Lukasz [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, JAXA, 3-1-1 Yoshinodai, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5210 (Japan); Georganopoulos, Markos [Department of Physics, University of Maryland-Baltimore County, 1000 Hilltop Circle, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Sparks, William B.; Biretta, John A., E-mail: eperlman@fit.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2011-12-20

    During the last decade, M87's jet has been the site of an extraordinary variability event, with one knot (HST-1) increasing by over a factor 100 in brightness. Variability has also been seen on timescales of months in the nuclear flux. Here we discuss the optical-UV polarization and spectral variability of these components, which show vastly different behavior. HST-1 shows a highly significant correlation between flux and polarization, with P increasing from {approx}20% at minimum to >40% at maximum, while the orientation of its electric vector stayed constant. HST-1's optical-UV spectrum is very hard ({alpha}{sub UV-O} {approx} 0.5, F{sub {nu}}{proportional_to}{nu}{sup -{alpha}}), and displays 'hard lags' during epochs 2004.9-2005.5, including the peak of the flare, with soft lags at later epochs. We interpret the behavior of HST-1 as enhanced particle acceleration in a shock, with cooling from both particle aging and the relaxation of the compression. We set 2{sigma} upper limits of 0.5{delta} pc and 1.02c on the size and advance speed of the flaring region. The slight deviation of the electric vector orientation from the jet position angle (P.A.) makes it likely that on smaller scales the flaring region has either a double or twisted structure. By contrast, the nucleus displays much more rapid variability, with a highly variable electric vector orientation and 'looping' in the (I, P) plane. The nucleus has a much steeper spectrum ({alpha}{sub UV-O} {approx} 1.5) but does not show UV-optical spectral variability. Its behavior can be interpreted as either a helical distortion to a steady jet or a shock propagating through a helical jet.

  6. OPTICAL POLARIZATION AND SPECTRAL VARIABILITY IN THE M87 JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perlman, Eric S.; Cara, Mihai; Bourque, Matthew; Simons, Raymond C.; Adams, Steven C.; Harris, D. E.; Madrid, Juan P.; Clausen-Brown, Eric; Cheung, C. C.; Stawarz, Lukasz; Georganopoulos, Markos; Sparks, William B.; Biretta, John A.

    2011-01-01

    During the last decade, M87's jet has been the site of an extraordinary variability event, with one knot (HST-1) increasing by over a factor 100 in brightness. Variability has also been seen on timescales of months in the nuclear flux. Here we discuss the optical-UV polarization and spectral variability of these components, which show vastly different behavior. HST-1 shows a highly significant correlation between flux and polarization, with P increasing from ∼20% at minimum to >40% at maximum, while the orientation of its electric vector stayed constant. HST-1's optical-UV spectrum is very hard (α UV-O ∼ 0.5, F ν ∝ν –α ), and displays 'hard lags' during epochs 2004.9-2005.5, including the peak of the flare, with soft lags at later epochs. We interpret the behavior of HST-1 as enhanced particle acceleration in a shock, with cooling from both particle aging and the relaxation of the compression. We set 2σ upper limits of 0.5δ pc and 1.02c on the size and advance speed of the flaring region. The slight deviation of the electric vector orientation from the jet position angle (P.A.) makes it likely that on smaller scales the flaring region has either a double or twisted structure. By contrast, the nucleus displays much more rapid variability, with a highly variable electric vector orientation and 'looping' in the (I, P) plane. The nucleus has a much steeper spectrum (α UV-O ∼ 1.5) but does not show UV-optical spectral variability. Its behavior can be interpreted as either a helical distortion to a steady jet or a shock propagating through a helical jet.

  7. A gain and bandwidth enhanced transimpedance preamplifier for Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Tzu-Yung; Green, Roger J.; O'Connor, Peter B.

    2011-01-01

    The nature of the ion signal from a 12-T Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer and the electronic noise were studied to further understand the electronic detection limit. At minimal cost, a new transimpedance preamplifier was designed, computer simulated, built, and tested. The preamplifier design pushes the electronic signal-to-noise performance at room temperature to the limit, because of its enhanced tolerance of the capacitance of the detection device, lower intrinsic noise, and larger flat mid-band gain (input current noise spectral density of around 1 pA/√(Hz) when the transimpedance is about 85 dBΩ). The designed preamplifier has a bandwidth of ∼3 kHz to 10 MHz, which corresponds to the mass-to-charge ratio, m/z, of approximately 18 to 61 k at 12 T. The transimpedance and the bandwidth can be easily adjusted by changing the value of passive components. The feedback limitation of the circuit is discussed. With the maximum possible transimpedance of 5.3 MΩ when using an 0402 surface mount resistor, the preamplifier was estimated to be able to detect ∼110 charges in a single scan.

  8. Proceedings of the 12. Joint Workshop on Electron Cyclotron Emission and Electron Cyclotron Heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giruzzi, Gerardo

    2003-01-01

    The 12. Joint Workshop on Electron Cyclotron Emission and Electron Cyclotron Heating was held in Aix-en-Provence (France) from 13 to 16 May 2002. The meeting was hosted by the Association Euratom-CEA sur la Fusion (CEA/Cadarache, France), with additional financial support from: - Region Provence-Alpes Cote d'Azur - The City of Aix-en-Provence - Communaute de l'Agglomeration du Pays d'Aix - Thales Electron Devices (France) - Alstom Magnets and Superconductors (France) - Spinner GmbH (Germany). The members of the local organizing committee were: G. Giruzzi, M. Lennholm, R. Magne and V. Poli, from CEA/Cadarache. The composition of the International Programme Committee was the following: M. Bornatici (Italy), A. Costley (ITER), E. de la Luna (Spain), G. Giruzzi (France), W. Kasparek (Germany), B. Lloyd (UK), J. Lohr (USA), K. Sakamoto (Japan). The subjects of the meeting were classified in four main topics: Electron Cyclotron Theory; Electron Cyclotron Emission; Electron Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive Experiments; Electron Cyclotron Technology. The results presented in these topics have been summarised in the closing session by E. Westerhof, A. Kraemer-Flecken, T. Goodman and G. Bosia, respectively. The workshop was attended by 85 participants from 18 countries, providing 10 invited talks, 30 oral presentations and 50 posters. The success of the workshop is mainly due to the amount and quality of their work and of their presentations. The generosity of the sponsors, the selection and advice work of the International Programme Committee, as well as the contribution of the chairmen and of the summary speakers should also be warmly acknowledged. The papers in this collection have been reproduced directly from the authors' manuscripts, provided either as camera-ready texts or as pdf files. The constraints on the papers lengths and formats have been kept to a minimum, on purpose. This series of workshops has now reached a good level of maturity, with well established

  9. A novel design for a variable energy positron lifetime spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, D.; Zhang, J.D.; Cheng, C.C.; Beling, C.D.; Fung, S.

    2008-01-01

    We present computer simulations of a new design of a variable energy positron lifetime beam that uses for a start signal the secondary electron emission from a 25-nm thick carbon foil (C-foil) located in front of the sample. A needle of ∼30 μm diameter is positioned on-axis right behind the foil, creating a radial electric field that deflects the secondary electrons radially outward so as to miss the sample and to hit the micro-channel plate (MCP) detector placed down beam. The MCP signal provides the start signal for the positron lifetime spectrometer. A grid can be further introduced between the sample holder and the MCP to yield a cleaner signal by preventing the positrons with large transmitted scattering angle from hitting the MCP. The cylindrical symmetry of this design reduces the experimental complexity and offers good timing resolution. We show that the design is robust against the transmitted energy and angle of the secondary electrons and positrons

  10. The DarkSide-50 Experiment: Electron Recoil Calibrations and A Global Energy Variable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, Brianne Rae [Hawaii U.

    2017-01-01

    Over the course of decades, there has been mounting astronomical evidence for non-baryonic dark matter, yet its precise nature remains elusive. A favored candidate for dark matter is the Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP) which arises naturally out of extensions to the Standard Model. WIMPs are expected to occasionally interact with particles of normal matter through nuclear recoils. DarkSide-50 aims to detect this type of particle through the use of a two-phase liquid argon time projection chamber. To make a claim of discovery, an accurate understanding of the background and WIMP search region is imperative. Knowledge of the backgrounds is done through extensive studies of DarkSide-50's response to electron and nuclear recoils. The CALibration Insertion System (CALIS) was designed and built for the purpose of introduc- ing radioactive sources into or near the detector in a joint eort between Fermi National Laboratory (FNAL) and the University of Hawai'i at Manoa. This work describes the testing, installation, and commissioning of CALIS at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso. CALIS has been used in mul- tiple calibration campaigns with both neutron and sources. In this work, DarkSide-50's response to electron recoils, which are important for background estimations, was studied through the use of calibration sources by constructing a global energy variable which takes into account the anti- correlation between scintillation and ionization signals produced by interactions in the liquid argon. Accurately reconstructing the event energy correlates directly with quantitatively understanding the WIMP sensitivity in DarkSide-50. This work also validates the theoretically predicted decay spectrum of 39Ar against 39Ar decay data collected in the early days of DarkSide-50 while it was lled with atmospheric argon; a validation of this type is not readily found in the literature. Finally, we show how well the constructed energy variable can predict

  11. 83-inch cyclotron research program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, W.C.

    1983-07-01

    In June of 1960 the US Atomic Energy Commission authorized the construction of a modern variable energy cyclotron facility at The University of Michigan to be used for research in nuclear spectroscopy. The Legislature of the State of Michigan made available funds for construction of a building to house the 83-inch cyclotron and auxiliary equipment as well as the University's remodeled 42-inch cyclotron. The research program centered around the 83-inch cyclotron was funded by the AEC and its successors, the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and the Department of Energy (DOE), from September 1964 through March 1977. The program represented a continuation of the research effort using the 42-inch cyclotron facility which had been supported continuously by the AEC since February 1950. This final report to DOE briefly describes the research facility, the research program, and highlights the principal accomplishments of the effort. It begins with a historical note to place this effort within the context of nuclear physics research in the Department of Physics of the University of Michigan

  12. Channel of Axial Injection of DC-60 Cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Gikal, B N; Bogomolov, S L; Borisenko, A N; Borisov, O N; Gulbekyan, G G; Ivanenko, I A; Kalagin, I V; Kazacha, V I; Kazarinov, N Yu; Khabarov, M V; Lysukhin, S N; Melnikov, V N; Paschenko, S V; Tikhomirov, A V

    2006-01-01

    The design study and realization of the axial injection beam line of DC-60 cyclotron constructed at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research are given. The channel allows one to transport and to inject into the cyclotron ions with mass-to-charge ratio $A/Z$ being within interval A/Z=6-12 and kinetic energy up to 17 $Z/A$ keV/m.u.

  13. Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) and Race: A Report of ECT Use and Sociodemographic Trends in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Julie; Chiu, Lawrence; Livingston, Robin

    2017-06-01

    Minimal research on race and other sociodemographic disparities in patients receiving electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) exists. One previously noted national trend reveals whites receiving ECT disproportionately more than other races. The aim of this study is to determine whether a county ECT program demonstrates similar disparities observed at the state and national levels. This study examined 21 years of ECT data, between 1993 and 2014, provided by the Texas Department of State Health Services, focusing on race, sex, age, and payer source and 2.5 years of the same variables from a Harris County hospital ECT program. In addition, population demographic data for Harris County and the state of Texas during the same period were obtained from the Department of State Health Services Web site. Despite an overall decrease in the population of whites countywide and statewide, whites continue to use more ECT than African Americans, Latinos, and Asians in both Harris County and Texas. However, the rates of ECT use in minorities increased overall. Both countywide and statewide, ECT was used more than twice as often in women than men. Statewide, elderly patients (>65 years old) saw decreases in ECT use, and there was an increase in private third-party payer source. Electroconvulsive therapy remains underused among African Americans, Latinos, and Asians. Hypotheses and areas for future study include cultural beliefs, stigma, patient and provider knowledge of ECT, and access to care. Despite this, the general use of ECT in Texas has increased overall, and minority use is slowly on the rise.

  14. Radiation protection in cyclotron and radioisotope production laboratories of IEN - (Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear - CNEN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, P.W.; Silva, J.J.G.

    1988-01-01

    The Cyclotron at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear is used for the radioisotope production, neutron production and irradiation damages analysis, etc. The risks associated with the operation and maintenance of cyclotron and the neutron radiation of wide energy spectrum, external and internal contamination. A summary of the radioprotection program for these areas are show and the results obtained from the air and surface analysis, liquid efluents and equivalentes doses of workers of the several activities are given. (Author) [pt

  15. Radiation safety and quality control in the cyclotron laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, S.; Krause, G.; Ebadi, M.

    2006-01-01

    Radiation safety was determined to maintain quality control in the cyclotron laboratory. Based on the results of 438 runs in the Faraday cup (20 μA for 10 min), 20 runs on 18 O-water target (40 μA for 2 h) and 10 runs on 18 O-gas targets (30 μA for 45 min), we have established that occupationally exposed workers remain 10 ± 5 times below federal regulatory limits (FRLs) in the cyclotron vault, 30 ± 8 times below FRL in the radiochemistry laboratory and 200 ± 10 times below the FRL outside the cyclotron laboratory during beam operation. (The FRL for unrestricted area are <20 μSv in 1 h.) The non-occupationally exposed workers serving in offices in the vicinity of the cyclotron vault within 100 m distance remained 200 times below the FRL irrespective of beam being on or off, suggesting that routine beam operation of 40 μA for 2 h once a day during office hours is safe provided quality control and system performance measures as discussed in this report are strictly maintained. (authors)

  16. A light, superconducting H- cyclotron for medical diagnostics and neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finlan, M.F.; Kruip, M.; Wilson, M.N.

    1987-01-01

    Oxford Instruments, working in close collaboration with Amersham International are developing a compact, lightweight, low radiation field superconducting cyclotron. The combination of superconductivity, H - acceleration and no internal yoke as such makes this possible. It is intended for use as a generator of short half lived isotopes for use in hospitals for PET and other imaging procedures, for use in industrial PET imaging, and as a neutron generator for neutron radiography. With a weight of 2000 kg, it is transportable and comparitively easy to handle and is capable in the 17 MeV version of generating 1.8 10 13 neutrons/second for neutron radiography. (author)

  17. Cyclotron heating rate in a parabolic mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.K.

    1984-01-01

    Cyclotron resonance heating rates are found for a parabolic magnetic mirror. The equation of motion for perpendicular velocity is solved, including the radial magnetic field terms neglected in earlier papers. The expression for heating rate involves an infinite series of Anger's and Weber's functions, compared with a single term of the unrevised expression. The new results show an increase of heating rate compared with previous results. A simple expression is given for the ratio of the heating rates. (author)

  18. RAYIC - a numerical code for the study of ion cyclotron heating of large Tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, M.

    1984-02-01

    The code RAYIC models coupling, propagation and absorption of e.m. waves in large axisymmetric plasmas in the ion cyclotron frequency domain. It can be used both to investigate the waves behaviour, and as a source of the power deposition profiles for use in transport codes. The present user manual, after a brief summary of the physical model, presents the structure of RAYIC, the complete list of input-output variables (calling sequence), and some examples of the output which can be obtained from the code. (orig.)

  19. Electromagnetic cyclotron harmonic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, T.; Watanabe, T.; Hamamatsu, K.

    1981-09-01

    Electromagnetic electron cyclotron harmonic waves just below the electron cyclotron harmonics are investigated numerically and experimentally. Backward waves which are observed to propagate nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field just below the electron cyclotron frequency in a high density magnetoplasma are confirmed to be in accord with the theoretical electromagnetic cyclotron waves. (author)

  20. Development of a collision induced dissociation ion cyclotron resonance spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Y.N.

    1982-01-01

    A transient analysis ion cyclotron resonance spectrometer is developed to investigate the phenomena of collision induced dissociation. The Fourier transform method and the modified maximum entropy spectral analysis or covariance least square method are implemented in measuring the mass spectrum of the ion ensemble. The Fourier transform method can be used in quantitative analysis while the maximum entropy method as developed here is useful for qualitative analysis only. The cyclotron resonance frequency, relaxation time constant, and the relative ion population are observable from the Fourier transform spectrum. These parameters are very important in investigating collision induced dissociation process and other topics in gas phase chemistry. The ion cyclotron resonance spectrometer is not only developed to study fragments and their abundance from a parent ion, but also to determine the threshold energy and reaction cross section in the collision induced dissociation process. When hard sphere model is used in the ion-molecule collision, the radius of acetone ion measured from the reactive cross section is 2.2 angstrom which is very close to the physical dimension of acetone. The threshold energy for acetone ion in collision induced dissociation process is 1.8 eV which is similar to the result obtained by the angle-resolved mass spectrometer

  1. Filling and Recycling Apparatus of a Cyclotron Target with Enriched Krypton for Production of Radiopharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vognar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available An apparatus for multiple filling of a cyclotron target with enriched Kr gas is described. The system is based on recycling pressurized gas by cryogenic pumping between the target tube and storage containers. The design and construction makes use of previous experience in the construction and operation of two analogue apparatuses for Xe124 high pressure gas targets, but major modifications have been incorporated, evoked by the different physical properties of Kr, by the character of the nuclear reaction, and by the demand for automation from the side of the end user.

  2. The design, construction, and commissioning of a multi-use cyclotron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, S.; Hutcheson, M.; Schick-Martin, D.; Dalzell, M.; Alexander, N.

    2015-01-01

    The Sylvia Fedoruk Canadian Centre for Nuclear Innovation in Saskatchewan is in the process of commissioning the Saskatchewan Centre for Cyclotron Sciences that is to be used for both academic research and commercial radiopharmaceutical production. The hybrid nature of this facility comes with unique challenges in satisfying both the rigid demands of pharmaceutical production while providing the necessary flexibility for academic research. In order to meet these competing demands, the Fedoruk Centre has assembled a distinct combination of skill sets and areas of expertise to operate a facility with an interdisciplinary focus. (author)

  3. School Social Workers in Texas: A Comparative Demographic Analysis of the Texas-Mexico Border and Non-Border Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Cecilia; Landeck, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the role of school social workers as potential agents of change in the educational system, with a special focus on their major demographic characteristics in Texas and along the Mexico border region. The border region of the state has chronic poverty and limited educational attainment levels and demonstrates a need for…

  4. Operation of a quasioptical electron cyclotron maser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, E.C.; Pyle, R.V.

    1984-12-01

    The electron cyclotron maser or gyrotron concept has been developed to produce sources producing 200 kW at 28 GHz continuously, and higher power outputs and frequencies in pulsed mode. These sources have been useful in electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in magnetically confined fusion devices. However, higher frequencies and higher power levels will be required in reactor-grade fusion plasmas, with likely requirements of 1.0 MW or more per source at 140 GHz. Conventional gyrotrons follow a trend of decreasing power for increasing frequency. In order to circumvent this problem, the quasioptical electron cyclotron maser was proposed. In this device, the closed resonator of the conventional gyrotron is replaced with an open, Fabry-Perot type resonator. The cavity modes are then the TEM-type modes of an optical laser. The advantage of this configuration is that the cavity size is not a function of frequency, since the length can be any half-integer number of wavelengths. Furthermore, the beam traverses across the cavity transverse to the direction of radiation output, and thus the rf window design is less complicated than in conventional tubes. The rf output, if obtained by diffraction coupling around one of the mirrors, could be in a TEM mode, which would allow for quasioptical transmission of the microwaves into the plasma in fusion devices. 4 references, 1 figure

  5. The Texas Energy-Only Resource Adequacy Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, Eric S.; Hurlbut, David; Adib, Parviz; Oren, Shmuel

    2006-12-15

    On Sept. 13, 2006, the Public Utility Commission of Texas put into effect a new Resource Adequacy and Market Power Rule which establishes an Energy-Only resource adequacy mechanism in the ERCOT electricity market, relaxes the $1,000 per MWh offer cap, and replaced existing market mitigation procedures with more market transparency and prompt information disclosure. The authors describe the motivation and rationale underlying the new rule, its development process, and its implementation details. (author)

  6. The Texas Energy-Only Resource Adequacy Mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, Eric S.; Hurlbut, David; Adib, Parviz; Oren, Shmuel

    2006-01-01

    On Sept. 13, 2006, the Public Utility Commission of Texas put into effect a new Resource Adequacy and Market Power Rule which establishes an Energy-Only resource adequacy mechanism in the ERCOT electricity market, relaxes the $1,000 per MWh offer cap, and replaced existing market mitigation procedures with more market transparency and prompt information disclosure. The authors describe the motivation and rationale underlying the new rule, its development process, and its implementation details. (author)

  7. A cyclotron resonance laser accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprangle, P.; Tang, C.M.; Vlahos, L.

    1983-01-01

    A laser acceleration mechanism which utilizes a strong static, almost uniform, magnetic field together with an intense laser pulse is analyzed. The interaction and acceleration mechanism relies on a self resonance effect. Since the laser field is assumed to be diffraction limited, the magnetic field must be spatially varied to maintain resonance. The effective accelerating gradient is shown to scale like 1/√E /SUB b/ , where E /SUB b/ is the electron energy. For a numerical illustration the authors consider a 1 x 10 13 W/cm 2 , CO 2 laser and show that electrons can be accelerated to more than 500 MeV in a distance of 15 m (approximately two Rayleigh lengths)

  8. COMPLETE SUPPRESSION OF THE m=2/n-1 NEOCLASSICAL TEARING MODE USING ELECTRON CYCLOTRON CURRENT DRIVE ON DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PETTY, CC; LAHAYE, LA; LUCE, TC; HUMPHREYS, DA; HYATT, AW; PRATER, R; STRAIT, EJ; WADE, MR

    2003-01-01

    A271 COMPLETE SUPPRESSION OF THE M=2/N-1 NEOCLASSICAL TEARING MODE USING ELECTRON CYCLOTRON CURRENT DRIVE ON DIII-D. The first suppression of the important and deleterious m=2/n=1 neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) is reported using electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) to replace the ''missing'' bootstrap current in the island O-point. Experiments on the DIII-D tokamak verify the maximum shrinkage of the m=2/n=1 island occurs when the ECCD location coincides with the q = 2 surface. The DIII-D plasma control system is put into search and suppress mode to make small changes in the toroidal field to find and lock onto the optimum position, based on real time measurements of dB θ /dt, for complete m=2/n=1 NTM suppression by ECCD. The requirements on the ECCD for complete island suppression are well modeled by the modified Rutherford equation for the DIII-D plasma conditions

  9. ULTRA-LOW INTENSITY PROTON BEAMS FOR RADIATION RESPONSE RELATED EXPERIMENTS AT THE U-120M CYCLOTRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Matlocha

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The U-120M cyclotron at the Nuclear Physics Institute (NPI of the Czech Academy of Sciences in Rez is used for radiation hardness tests of electronics for high-energy physics experiments. These tests are usually carried out with proton fluxes of the order of 105–109 proton·cm−2·s−1. Some tests done for the upgrade of the Inner Tracking System of the ALICE experiment at CERN, however, required proton beam intensities several orders of magnitude lower. This paper presents a method which has been developed to achieve the proton beam flux of the order of 1 proton · cm−2·s−1. The method is mainly based on reduction of the discharge current in the cyclotron internal Penning type ion source. Influence of this new operation mode on the lifetime of ion source cathodes is discussed.

  10. Design concepts and performance tests of the 60 GHz electron cyclotron heating (ECH) system for the JFT-2M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Katsumichi; Yamamoto, Takumi; Kawashima, Hisato; Shibata, Takatoshi; Shibuya, Toshihiro

    1985-11-01

    60 GHz overmoded microwave launch system for the JFT-2M tokamak is described. The basic design concepts, specifications of each microwave component and the results of the performance tests are reported. The transmission of the microwave power is done in the circular TE 01 mode which has a low loss along the overmoded circular transmission components of 33 m in length. The microwave power of 80 - 90 kW, pulse width 100 ms in the circular TE 11 mode is finally launched into the JFT-2M tokamak plasma. (author)

  11. A simple thick target for production of 89Zr using an 11MeV cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, Jeanne M.; Krohn, Kenneth A.; O' Hara, Matthew J.

    2017-04-01

    The growing interest but limited availability of 89Zr for PET led us to test targets for the 89(p,n) reaction. The goal was an easily constructed target for an 11 MeV Siements cyclotron. Yttrium foils were tested at different thicknesses, angles and currents. A 90 degree foil tolerated 41 microAmp without damage and produced ~800 MBq/hr, >20 mCi, an amount adequate for radiochemistry research and human doses in a widely available accelerator. This method should translate to higher energy cyclotrons.

  12. TORCAPP: time-dependent cyclotron orbit calculation and plotting package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maddox, L.B.; McNeilly, G.S.

    1979-11-01

    TORCAPP calculates the motion of charged particles in electromagnetic fields with time as the independent variable, and produces a variety of printed and plotted output of results. Finite-size beam behavior is studied conveniently by following groups of particles which define an appropriate phase space area. Since time is the independent variable, general motion in the near-median-plane region may be followed. This includes, for example, loops not enclosing the origin and strongly radial motions. Thus, TORCAPP is particularly useful for injection studies for isochronous cyclotrons, or other devices with near-median-plane charged particle motion

  13. Inside launch electron cyclotron heating and current drive on DITE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.; Deliyanakis, N.

    1989-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance heating at 60 GHz has been carried out on DITE (R = 1.2 m, a = 0.24 m) to investigate heating and current drive using the extraordinary mode launched with finite k parallel from the high field side. The first clear evidence of Doppler shifted resonance absorption in a near-thermal plasma is obtained. The heating efficiency is observed to fall sharply at densities above cut-off for the wave. At lower densities the increment in power to the limiter is measured during ECRH and is compared with that expected from the global power balance. The degradation in particle confinement often associated with ECRH is observed as an increased particle flux at the boundary driven by local electrostatic fluctuations. Initial experiments on the electron cyclotron wave driven current at the second harmonic show effects that are consistent with the low efficiency expected from theory including trapped particle effects. (author). 9 refs, 4 figs

  14. Compact superconducting cyclotron C400 for hadron therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jongen, Y.; Abs, M.; Blondin, A.; Kleeven, W.; Zaremba, S.; Vandeplassche, D. [IBA, Chemin du Cyclotron 3, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Aleksandrov, V.; Gursky, S.; Karamyshev, O. [JINR, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Karamysheva, G., E-mail: gkaram@nu.jinr.r [JINR, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Kazarinov, N.; Kostromin, S.; Morozov, N.; Samsonov, E.; Shirkov, G.; Shevtsov, V.; Syresin, E.; Tuzikov, A. [JINR, Joliot-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2010-12-01

    The compact superconducting isochronous cyclotron C400 has been designed by the IBA-JINR collaboration. It will be the first cyclotron in the world capable of delivering protons, carbon and helium ions for cancer treatment. The cyclotron construction is started this year within the framework of the Archade project (Caen, France). {sup 12}C{sup 6+} and {sup 4}He{sup 2+} ions will be accelerated to 400 MeV/uu energy and extracted by the electrostatic deflector, H{sub 2}{sup +} ions will be accelerated to the energy of 265 MeV/uu and extracted by stripping. The magnet yoke has a diameter of 6.6 m, the total weight of the magnet is about 700 t. The designed magnetic field corresponds to 4.5 T in the hills and 2.45 T in the valleys. Superconducting coils will be enclosed in a cryostat; all other parts of the cyclotron will be warm. Three external ion sources will be mounted on the switching magnet on the injection line located below the cyclotron. The main parameters of the cyclotron, its design, the current status of the development work on the cyclotron systems are presented.

  15. Top Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Efficiency Opportunities at DoD/Army Sites - A Guide for O&M/Energy Managers and Practitioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Gregory P.; Dean, Jesse D.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2007-05-25

    This report, sponsored the Army's Energy Engineering Analysis Program, provides the Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Energy manager and practitioner with useful information about the top O&M opportunities consistently found across the DoD/Army sector. The target is to help the DoD/Army sector develop a well-structured and organized O&M program.

  16. Development and studies on a compact electron cyclotron resonance plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, A.; Tarey, R. D.; Arora, N.; Narayanan, R.

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) produced plasmas are efficient, high-density plasma sources and have many industrial applications. The concept of a portable compact ECR plasma source (CEPS) would thus become important from an application point of view. This paper gives details of such a CEPS that is both portable and easily mountable on a chamber of any size. It uses a fully integrated microwave line operating at 2.45 GHz, up to 800 W, cw. The required magnetic field is produced by a set of suitably designed NdFeB ring magnets; the device has an overall length of  ≈60 cm and weighs  ≈14 kg including the permanent magnets. The CEPS was attached to a small experimental chamber to judge its efficacy for plasma production. In the pressure range of 0.5-10 mTorr and microwave power of  ≈400-500 W the experiments indicate that the CEPS is capable of producing high-density plasma (≈9  ×  1011-1012 cm-3) with bulk electron temperature in the range  ≈2-3 eV. In addition, a warm electron population with density and temperature in the range ≈7  ×  108-109 cm-3 and  ≈45-80 eV, respectively has been detected. This warm population plays an important role at high pressures in maintaining the high-density plasma, when plasma flow from the CEPS into the test chamber is strongly affected.

  17. Energy, variability and weather finance engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussis, Dimitrios; Parara, Iliana; Gournari, Panagiota; Moustakis, Yiannis; Dimitriadis, Panayiotis; Iliopoulou, Theano; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2017-04-01

    Most types of renewable energies are characterized by intense intermittency, causing significant instabilities to the grid; further requiring additional infrastructure (e.g. pumped-storage) for buffering hydrometeorological uncertainties, as well as complex operational rules for load balancing. In addition, most intermittent renewable units are subsidized, creating significant market inefficiencies. Weather derivatives comprise mature financial tools for integrating successfully the intermittent-load and base-load components into a unified hybrid energy system and establish their operation within a generalized uncertainty management market. With a growing global market share and 46% utilization of this financial tool by the energy industry and 12% by agriculture (that partially concerns biofuel resources), weather derivatives are projected to constitute a critical subsystem of many grids for buffering frequent hydrometeorological risks of low and medium impacts -which are not covered by standard insurance contracts that aim exclusively at extreme events and high financial damages. In this context, we study the attributes of hydrometeorological time series in a remote and small island in Greece, powered by an autonomous hybrid energy system. Upon the results we choose the optimal underlying index and we further compose and engineer a weather derivative with features of a typical option contract -which we consider most flexible and appropriate for the case- to test our assumptions on its beneficiary effects for both the budget of private energy producers and the island's public administration. Acknowledgement: This research is conducted within the frame of the undergraduate course "Stochastic Methods in Water Resources" of the National Technical University of Athens (NTUA). The School of Civil Engineering of NTUA provided moral support for the participation of the students in the Assembly.

  18. Comparative study of ion cyclotron waves at Mars, Venus and Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, H. Y.; Russell, C. T.; Zhang, T. L.; Blanco-Cano, X.

    2011-08-01

    Ion cyclotron waves are generated in the solar wind when it picks up freshly ionized planetary exospheric ions. These waves grow from the free energy of the highly anisotropic distribution of fresh pickup ions, and are observed in the spacecraft frame with left-handed polarization and a wave frequency near the ion's gyrofrequency. At Mars and Venus and in the Earth's polar cusp, the solar wind directly interacts with the planetary exospheres. Ion cyclotron waves with many similar properties are observed in these diverse plasma environments. The ion cyclotron waves at Mars indicate its hydrogen exosphere to be extensive and asymmetric in the direction of the interplanetary electric field. The production of fast neutrals plays an important role in forming an extended exosphere in the shape and size observed. At Venus, the region of exospheric proton cyclotron wave production may be restricted to the magnetosheath. The waves observed in the solar wind at Venus appear to be largely produced by the solar-wind-Venus interaction, with some waves at higher frequencies formed near the Sun and carried outward by the solar wind to Venus. These waves have some similarity to the expected properties of exospherically produced proton pickup waves but are characterized by magnetic connection to the bow shock or by a lack of correlation with local solar wind properties respectively. Any confusion of solar derived waves with exospherically derived ion pickup waves is not an issue at Mars because the solar-produced waves are generally at much higher frequencies than the local pickup waves and the solar waves should be mostly absorbed when convected to Mars distance as the proton cyclotron frequency in the plasma frame approaches the frequency of the solar-produced waves. In the Earth's polar cusp, the wave properties of ion cyclotron waves are quite variable. Spatial gradients in the magnetic field may cause this variation as the background field changes between the regions in which

  19. Gaseous radioactive effluent restrictions, measurement, and minimization at a PET/cyclotron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plascjak, P.S.; Kim, K.K.; Googins, S.W.; Meyer, W.C. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    In the US, restrictions on the release of radioactive effluents from PET (positron emission tomography)/cyclotron facilities are typically imposed by State regulatory agencies and may be based on various methodologies and limits published by numerous agencies. This work presents suitable effluent concentration limits for various chemical forms of radioisotopes routinely produced in PET/cyclotron facilities. They were determined by application of metabolic models defined by ICRP 53 and ICRP 26/30 which will result in compliance with effective dose equivalent limits of 100 mrem per year at the release point. The NIH Cyclotron Facility effluent air monitoring system, environmental dosimetry program, and simple, effective systems for radioactive effluent minimization are also described. (orig.)

  20. Science to support the understanding of south Texas surface-water and groundwater resources in a changing landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockerman, Darwin J.; Garcia, Travis J.; Opsahl, Stephen P.

    2012-01-01

    Against a backdrop of constant cycles of extreme hydrologic conditions ranging from oppressive droughts to life-threatening floods, the water-resource landscape of south Texas is undergoing constant change. Demands on water resources are increasing because of changes related to population growth, energy demands, agricultural practices, and other human-related activities. In south Texas, the Nueces, San Antonio, and Guadalupe River Basins cover approximately 50,000 square miles and include all or part of 45 counties. These stream systems transect the faulted and fractured carbonate rocks of the Edwards aquifer recharge zone and provide the largest sources of recharge to the aquifer. As the streams make their way to the Gulf of Mexico, they provide water for communities and ecosystems in south Texas and deliver water, sediment, and nutrients to the south Texas bays and estuaries.

  1. Research and education by SF cyclotron facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This report represents the current activities in research and education using the cyclotron facility and related apparatus which are supported by Nuclear Physics Division and this is a continuation of INS-T-466 (1986, December). In this version an iron-free β-ray spectrometer and a cooler-synchrotron (TARN II) are briefly described also in the first chapter. The second chapter explains experimental programs performed in the last 5 years. The third chapter gives the number of publications on researches performed in 1975-1991, and also gives twelve topics obtained from the cyclotron and the β-ray spectrometer in recent 5 years. The last chapter provides the whole list of the works for Doctor and Master theses performed at the facility in the last 10 years. (J.P.N.)

  2. Cyclotrons as mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.J.

    1984-04-01

    The principles and design choices for cyclotrons as mass spectrometers are described. They are illustrated by examples of cyclotrons developed by various groups for this purpose. The use of present high energy cyclotrons for mass spectrometry is also described. 28 references, 12 figures

  3. Solid targets for 99mTc production on medical cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanemaayer, V.; Buckley, K.R.; Klug, J.; Ruth, T.J.; Schaffer, P.; Zeisler, S.K.; Benard, F.; Kovacs, M.; Leon, C.

    2014-01-01

    Recent disruptions in the molybdenum-technetium generator supply chain prompted a review of non-reactor based production methods for both 99 Mo and 99m Tc. Small medical cyclotrons (E p ∼ 16-24 MeV) are capable of producing Curie quantities of 99m Tc from isotopically enriched 100 Mo using the 100 Mo(p,2n) 99m Tc reaction. Unlike most other metallic target materials for routine production of medical radioisotopes, molybdenum cannot be deposited by reductive electroplating from aqueous salt solutions. To overcome this issue, we developed a new process for solid molybdenum targets based on the electrophoretic deposition of fine 100 Mo powder onto a tantalum plate, followed by high temperature sintering. The targets obtained were mechanically robust and thermally stable when irradiated with protons at high power density. (author)

  4. Charting a Course through CORAL: Texas A&M University Libraries' Experience Implementing an Open-Source Electronic Resources Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Eric; Beh, Eugenia; Resnick, Taryn; Ugaz, Ana; Tabacaru, Simona

    2013-01-01

    In 2010, after two previous unsuccessful attempts at electronic resources management system (ERMS) implementation, Texas A&M University (TAMU) Libraries set out once again to find an ERMS that would fit its needs. After surveying the field, TAMU Libraries selected the University of Notre Dame Hesburgh Libraries-developed, open-source ERMS,…

  5. A superconducting isochronous cyclotron stack as a driver for a thorium-cycle power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, G.; May, D.; McIntyre, P.; Sattarov, A.

    2001-01-01

    Designs for thorium-cycle power reactors require a proton driver capable of 1 GeV energy and 10 MW total power. For this purpose we have prepared a preliminary design for the magnetic structure for a stack of 5 super-conducting isochronous cyclotrons, each delivering 2 MW beam power. By achieving the required power with multiple independent apertures rather than pushing beyond currently achieved limits, we hope to arrive at a design that is cost-minimum and reliable. Each sector magnet consists of a flux-coupled stack of cold-iron inserts supported within a single warm-iron, in a fashion inspired by the new Riken heavy-ion cyclotron. We have developed a preliminary field design in which in-plane fields are cancelled in all 5 apertures and the field-map is appropriate for the focusing optics of the sector cyclotron

  6. A novel energy-efficient rotational variable stiffness actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rao, S.; Carloni, Raffaella; Stramigioli, Stefano

    This paper presents the working principle, the design and realization of a novel rotational variable stiffness actuator, whose stiffness can be varied independently of its output angular position. This actuator is energy-efficient, meaning that the stiffness of the actuator can be varied by keeping

  7. Medical cyclotron: why, where, how

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheer, Kurt; Comar, Dominique; Kellershohn, Claude

    1976-01-01

    Cyclotrons for medical purposes are particularly useful for the production of radioactive isotopes of elements normally constituting organic matter ( 15 O, 13 N, 11 C). The short half-life and positron emission of those elements are of great interest in medical diagnosis. Many others carrier-free radioisotopes can be produced by cyclotrons. Three categories of cyclotrons are mentioned. Desk top cyclotron only adapted to the production of short-lived radioisotopes in a hospital; low energy and average energy cyclotrons which require well-entrained personnel for their operation and are best adapted to the production of radioelements on a regional or even national scale. Examples relative to the interest of short-lived radioisotopes in lung and brain investigations and tumor detection are given

  8. Research and development of ion surfing RF carpets for the cyclotron gas stopper at the NSCL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehring, A.E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); Brodeur, M. [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN (United States); Bollen, G.; Morrissey, D.J.; Schwarz, S. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, 640 S. Shaw Lane, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2016-06-01

    A model device to transport thermal ions in the cyclotron gas stopper, a next-generation beam thermalization device under construction at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, is presented. Radioactive ions produced by projectile fragmentation will come to rest at distances as large as 45 cm from the extraction orifice of the cyclotron gas stopper. The thermalized ions will be transported to the exit by RF carpets employing the recently developed “ion surfing” method. A quarter-circle prototype RF carpet was tested with potassium ions, and ion transport velocities as high as 60 m/s were observed over distances greater than 10 cm at a helium buffer gas pressure of 80 mbar. The transport of rubidium ions from an RF carpet to an electrode below was also demonstrated. The results of this study formed the basis of the design of the RF carpets for use in the cyclotron gas stopper.

  9. Study of the activation of the parts components of the CV-28 cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fajardo, P.W.

    1986-08-01

    The CV-17 cyclotron, isochronous, compact, of variable energy is an accelerator of charged particles and is applied in several situations such as: radioisotopes production, neutron production, irradiation damage analysis, activation analysis. During the production of the particle beams, the parts components of the interior of the cyclotron are irradiated and become radioactive. Due the fact of the cyclotron require maintenance, the knowledgement of the radionuclides present is of primordial importance of the view point of the radioprotection. Taking the excitation function of a nuclear reaction is observed that determined reaction may happen and produce a radionuclide. The radionuclides formed in the parts components by charged particles are presented. (V.R.B.)

  10. Proceedings of eighth joint workshop on electron cyclotron emission and electron cyclotron resonance heating. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The theory of electron cyclotron resonance phenomena is highly developed. The main theoretical tools are well established, generally accepted and able to give a satisfactory description of the main results obtained in electron cyclotron emission, absorption and current drive experiments. In this workshop some advanced theoretical and numerical tools have been presented (e.g., 3-D Fokker-Planck codes, treatment of the r.f. beam as a whole, description of non-linear and finite-beam effects) together with the proposal for new scenarios for ECE and ECA measurements (e.g., for diagnosing suprathermal populations and their radial transport). (orig.)

  11. Proceedings of eighth joint workshop on electron cyclotron emission and electron cyclotron resonance heating. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    The theory of electron cyclotron resonance phenomena is highly developed. The main theoretical tools are well established, generally accepted and able to give a satisfactory description of the main results obtained in electron cyclotron emission, absorption and current drive experiments. In this workshop some advanced theoretical and numerical tools have been presented (e.g., 3-D Fokker-Planck codes, treatment of the r.f. beam as a whole, description of non-linear and finite-beam effects) together with the proposal for new scenarios for ECE and ECA measurements (e.g., for diagnosing suprathermal populations and their radial transport). (orig.)

  12. Sensitivity of Coastal Environments and Wildlife to Spilled Oil: Upper Coast of Texas: M_MAMMAL (Marine Mammal Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for dolphins and manatees for the Upper Coast of Texas. Vector polygons in this data set represent marine...

  13. Application of a linear free energy relationship to crystalline solids of MO2 and M(OH)4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Huifang; Barton, L.L.

    1999-01-01

    In this letter, a linear free energy relationship developed by Sverjensky and Molling is used to predict the Gibbs free energies of formation of crystalline phases of M 4+ O 2 and M 4+ (OH) 4 from the known thermodynamic properties of aqueous tetravalent cations (M 4+ ). The modified Sverjensky and Molling equation for tetravalent cations is expressed as ΔG 0 f,M v X = a M v X ΔG 0 n,M 4+ + b M v X + β M v X r M 4+ , where the coefficients a M v X , b M v X and β M v X characterize a particular structural family of M v X, r M 4+ is the ionic radius of M 4+ cation, ΔG 0 f,M v X is the standard Gibbs free energy of formation of M v X, and ΔG 0 n,M 4+ is the standard non-solvation energy of cation M 4+ . By fitting the equation to the existing thermodynamic data, the coefficients in the equation for the MO 2 family minerals are estimated to be: a M v X = 0.670, β M v X = 32 (kcal/mol A), and b = -430.02 (kcal/mol). The constrained relationship can be used to predict the standard Gibbs free energies of formation of crystalline phases and fictive phases (i.e., phases which are thermodynamically unstable and do not occur at standard conditions) within the isostructural families of M 4+ O 2 and M 4+ (OH) 4 if the standard Gibbs free energies of formation of the tetravalent cations are known. (orig.)

  14. Electron cyclotron resonance plasmas and electron cyclotron resonance ion sources: Physics and technology (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, A.; Hitz, D.; Melin, G.; Serebrennikov, K.

    2004-01-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources are scientific instruments particularly useful for physics: they are extensively used in atomic, nuclear, and high energy physics, for the production of multicharged beams. Moreover, these sources are also of fundamental interest for plasma physics, because of the very particular properties of the ECR plasma. This article describes the state of the art on the physics of the ECR plasma related to multiply charged ion sources. In Sec. I, we describe the general aspects of ECR ion sources. Physics related to the electrons is presented in Sec. II: we discuss there the problems of heating and confinement. In Sec. III, the problem of ion production and confinement is presented. A numerical code is presented, and some particular and important effects, specific to ECR ion sources, are shown in Sec. IV. Eventually, in Sec. V, technological aspects of ECR are presented and different types of sources are shown

  15. Nonlinear cyclotron absorption and stimulated scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, T.H.

    1986-01-01

    In electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH), wave sources heating a plasma linearly with respect to intensity; but as the intensity of ECRH gets larger, there might appear nonlinear effects that would result in cutoff of net absorption. This thesis uses quantum mechanical theory to derive a threshold microwave intensity for nonlinear absorption. The quantum mechanical theory estimates that the threshold microwave intensity for nonlinear absorption is about 10 5 watts/cm 2 for a microwave heating experiment (T/sub e/ = 100 ev, λ = 3,783 cm, B = 2.5 kG). This value seems large considering the present power capabilities of microwave sources (10 2 ∼ 10 3 watts/cm 2 ), but for a low temperature plasma, this threshold will go down. There is another nonlinear phenomenon called stimulated cyclotron scattering that enhances photon scattering by electrons gyrating in a magnetic field. This is expected to prevent incoming photons from arriving at the central region of the fusion plasma, where absorption mainly takes place. Theory based on a photon transport model predicts that the threshold intensity for the stimulated cyclotron scattering is about 10 4 watts/cm 2 for the plasma parameters mentioned above. This value seems large also, but a longer wavelength of microwaves and a larger magnitude magnetic field, which will be the case in reactor type facilities, will lower the threshold intensity to levels comparable with the currently developed microwave sources

  16. Design of DC-60 cyclotron with the fair ion energy variation for the Inter-disciplinary laboratory complex by L.N. Gumilev Eurasian State University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gukal, B.N.; Itkis, M.G.; Dmitriev, S.N.; Gul'bekyan, G.G.; Franko, J.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K.; Arzumanov, A.A.; Borisenko, A.N.; Lysukhin, S.N.

    2003-01-01

    The DC-60 heavy ions cyclotron pre-design project is implemented. The cyclotron is the key facility of the Inter-disciplinary laboratory complex by L.N. Gumilev Eurasian State University. In comparison with previous project in a new one the possibility for fair variation of the ions energies on 30 % at the expense of magnetic field level change is planed. The magnet structure of the cyclotron allowing to vary the magnet field from 1.25 to 1.65 T with use the low-power magnet coils system is found. The accelerator provides the opportunity for the ions acceleration from Li to Xe with energies from 0.4 to 1.6 MeV/nucleon. The exterior ion source of the ECR type will be planing to use on the cyclotrons and axial beam injection system development will be created. The extending voltage on the ion source is 10-25 kV. For experiments conducting on the cyclotron complex is expecting to create on channel for low energy beams - 10-25 kV per charge (ECR source beams) and three withdrawn channels for accelerated ion beams, one of those will be packaged with necessary equipment for the nuclear filters manufacture. The cyclotron complex will be used for both the fulfillment of a wide range of scientific and applied problems and a students training

  17. Cyclotrons: 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    A compilation is presented of the experimental facilities of the world's cyclotrons including history and status, staff and operation, research staff, target facilities, magnet, acceleration system, vacuum system, characteristic beams, beam properties, and a plan view of the facility for each cyclotron

  18. NORTICA—a new code for cyclotron analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelov, D.; Johnson, D.; Marti, F.

    2001-12-01

    The new package NORTICA (Numerical ORbit Tracking In Cyclotrons with Analysis) of computer codes for beam dynamics simulations is under development at NSCL. The package was started as a replacement for the code MONSTER [1] developed in the laboratory in the past. The new codes are capable of beam dynamics simulations in both CCF (Coupled Cyclotron Facility) accelerators, the K500 and K1200 superconducting cyclotrons. The general purpose of this package is assisting in setting and tuning the cyclotrons taking into account the main field and extraction channel imperfections. The computer platform for the package is Alpha Station with UNIX operating system and X-Windows graphic interface. A multiple programming language approach was used in order to combine the reliability of the numerical algorithms developed over the long period of time in the laboratory and the friendliness of modern style user interface. This paper describes the capability and features of the codes in the present state.

  19. A new species of Elasmia Möschler from New Mexico and Texas, and a new subspecies of Elasmia mandela (Druce) from Texas and Oklahoma (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae, Nystaleinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Eric H; Knudson, Edward C

    2011-01-01

    Hippia packardii (Morrison) and Hippia insularis (Grote) are moved to the genus Elasmia Möschler as comb. n.Elasmia cave Metzler,sp. n. is described from New Mexico and Texas, and Elasmia mandela santaana Metzler & Knudson,ssp. n. is described from Texas and Oklahoma. A key to the species of Elasmia of southwestern U.S. is provided. Adult male and female moths of Elasmia from southwestern U.S. and their genitalia are illustrated.

  20. A new species of Elasmia Möschler from New Mexico and Texas, and a new subspecies of Elasmia mandela (Druce from Texas and Oklahoma (Lepidoptera, Notodontidae, Nystaleinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Metzler

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Hippia packardii (Morrison and Hippia insularis (Grote are moved to the genus Elasmia Möschler as comb. n. Elasmia cave Metzler, sp. n. is described from New Mexico and Texas, and Elasmia mandela santaana Metzler & Knudson, ssp. n. is described from Texas and Oklahoma. A key to the species of Elasmia of southwestern U.S. is provided. Adult male and female moths of Elasmia from southwestern U.S. and their genitalia are illustrated.

  1. Theoretical and experimental study of cyclotronic waves in a fusion plasma; Etude theorique et experimentale des ondes cyclotroniques electroniques dans un plasma de fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vezard, D

    1994-12-20

    This thesis presents a study concerning cyclotronic waves in a plasma. It starts with an illustration of the elementary interaction between electromagnetic waves and matter.It shows that electrons from tokamak absorbs waves at cyclotronic frequency. Cyclotronic waves are studied by solving the dispersion relation in plasma; it concerns polarisation, absorption, dispersion, extinction. Then, classical theories are reminded in order to speak about decoupled electrons and their interactions. Absorption and emission properties of cyclotronic waves by electrons from a queue are described. After that, cyclotronic waves propagation is studied taking into account resonance. The last part of this thesis is dedicated to the electronic distribution function that is made by a wave spectra at a inferior hybrid frequency. (TEC). 129 refs., 75 figs.

  2. Process of a cyclotron modeling with SNOP program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.L.

    2015-01-01

    The description of the SNOP program developed in JINR and intended for numerical modeling of a beam dynamics in accelerating setups of cyclotron type is presented. The main methods of work with program components, and also stages of numerical modeling of a cyclotron, the analysis of the main characteristics of the accelerated bunch by means of the SNOP are given. The explanation of some algorithms and procedures used in the program is given. [ru

  3. Neutron field inside a PET Cyclotron vault room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H.R.; Mendez, R.; Iniguez, M.P.; Climent, J.M.; Penuelas, I.; Barquero, R.

    2006-01-01

    The neutron field around a Positron Emission Tomography cyclotron was investigated during 18 F radioisotope production with an 18 MeV proton beam. In this study the Ion Beam Application cyclotron, model Cyclone 18/9, was utilized. Measurements were carried out with a Bonner sphere neutron spectrometer with pairs of thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLD600 and TLD700) as thermal neutron detector. The TLDs readouts were utilized to unfold the neutron spectra at three different positions inside the cyclotron's vault room. With the spectra the Ambient dose equivalent was calculated. Neutron spectra unfolding were performed with the BUNKIUT code and the UTA4 response matrix. Neutron spectra were also determined by Monte Carlo calculations using a detailed model of cyclotron and vault room. (Author)

  4. Minus 3: a general purpose data acquisition system at LBL's 88''-cyclotron and superhilac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maples, C.; Sivak, J.

    1979-05-01

    MINUS 3 is a general, multi-tasked data acquisition package operating on the ModComp IV/25 computers at both the 88''-Cyclotron and SuperHILAC. It currently can acquire data via three different channels: interrupt; serial DMA link; and remote slave units for histogram type data. Two additional acquisition paths, CAMAC (with programmable differential branch drivers) and MODACS (for multiple CPU linkages and control) are scheduled to be added in the near future. The package operates in a prioritized, time-available mode which permits it to dynamically adapt to microscopic data rate structures due to beam characteristics at different accelerators. Special hardware has been added to the graphics system to provide enhanced high-speed interactive capability. The program framework is also designed as a parasitic environment in which users may, in parallel, attach their own specialized and independent code

  5. The moment magnitude M w and the energy magnitude M e: common roots and differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, Peter; di Giacomo, Domenico

    2011-04-01

    Starting from the classical empirical magnitude-energy relationships, in this article, the derivation of the modern scales for moment magnitude M w and energy magnitude M e is outlined and critically discussed. The formulas for M w and M e calculation are presented in a way that reveals, besides the contributions of the physically defined measurement parameters seismic moment M 0 and radiated seismic energy E S, the role of the constants in the classical Gutenberg-Richter magnitude-energy relationship. Further, it is shown that M w and M e are linked via the parameter Θ = log( E S/ M 0), and the formula for M e can be written as M e = M w + (Θ + 4.7)/1.5. This relationship directly links M e with M w via their common scaling to classical magnitudes and, at the same time, highlights the reason why M w and M e can significantly differ. In fact, Θ is assumed to be constant when calculating M w. However, variations over three to four orders of magnitude in stress drop Δ σ (as well as related variations in rupture velocity V R and seismic wave radiation efficiency η R) are responsible for the large variability of actual Θ values of earthquakes. As a result, for the same earthquake, M e may sometimes differ by more than one magnitude unit from M w. Such a difference is highly relevant when assessing the actual damage potential associated with a given earthquake, because it expresses rather different static and dynamic source properties. While M w is most appropriate for estimating the earthquake size (i.e., the product of rupture area times average displacement) and thus the potential tsunami hazard posed by strong and great earthquakes in marine environs, M e is more suitable than M w for assessing the potential hazard of damage due to strong ground shaking, i.e., the earthquake strength. Therefore, whenever possible, these two magnitudes should be both independently determined and jointly considered. Usually, only M w is taken as a unified magnitude in many

  6. The cyclotron laboratory and the RFQ accelerator in Bern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braccini, S.; Ereditato, A.; Kreslo, I.; Nirkko, M.; Weber, M.; Scampoli, P.; Bremen, K. von

    2013-01-01

    Two proton accelerators have been recently put in operation in Bern: an 18 MeV cyclotron and a 2 MeV RFQ linac. The commercial IBA 18/18 cyclotron, equipped with a specifically conceived 6 m long external beam line ending in a separate bunker, will provide beams for routine 18-F and other PET radioisotope production as well as for novel detector, radiation biophysics, radioprotection, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy developments. The accelerator is embedded into a complex building hosting two physics laboratories and four Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) laboratories. This project is the result of a successful collaboration between the Inselspital, the University of Bern and private investors, aiming at the constitution of a combined medical and research centre able to provide the most cutting-edge technologies in medical imaging and cancer radiation therapy. The cyclotron is complemented by the RFQ with the primary goals of elemental analysis via Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE), and the detection of potentially dangerous materials with high nitrogen content using the Gamma-Resonant Nuclear Absorption (GRNA) technique. In this context, beam instrumentation devices have been developed, in particular an innovative beam profile monitor based on doped silica fibres and a setup for emittance measurements using the pepper-pot technique. On this basis, the establishment of a proton therapy centre on the campus of the Inselspital is in the phase of advanced study

  7. The cyclotron laboratory and the RFQ accelerator in Bern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braccini, S.; Ereditato, A.; Kreslo, I.; Nirkko, M.; Weber, M. [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Scampoli, P. [Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern, Switzerland and Department of Physical Sciences, University Federico II, Via Cintia, I-60126 Napoli (Italy); Bremen, K. von [SWAN Isotopen AG, Inselspital, CH-3010 Bern (Switzerland)

    2013-07-18

    Two proton accelerators have been recently put in operation in Bern: an 18 MeV cyclotron and a 2 MeV RFQ linac. The commercial IBA 18/18 cyclotron, equipped with a specifically conceived 6 m long external beam line ending in a separate bunker, will provide beams for routine 18-F and other PET radioisotope production as well as for novel detector, radiation biophysics, radioprotection, radiochemistry and radiopharmacy developments. The accelerator is embedded into a complex building hosting two physics laboratories and four Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) laboratories. This project is the result of a successful collaboration between the Inselspital, the University of Bern and private investors, aiming at the constitution of a combined medical and research centre able to provide the most cutting-edge technologies in medical imaging and cancer radiation therapy. The cyclotron is complemented by the RFQ with the primary goals of elemental analysis via Particle Induced Gamma Emission (PIGE), and the detection of potentially dangerous materials with high nitrogen content using the Gamma-Resonant Nuclear Absorption (GRNA) technique. In this context, beam instrumentation devices have been developed, in particular an innovative beam profile monitor based on doped silica fibres and a setup for emittance measurements using the pepper-pot technique. On this basis, the establishment of a proton therapy centre on the campus of the Inselspital is in the phase of advanced study.

  8. Design features and operating characteristics of the MC-50 cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, Hae Ill; Bak, Joo Shik

    1989-01-01

    The MC-50 cyclotron at Korean Cancer Center Hospital is now operational for neutron therapy and medical radioisotope production. Design features, mechanical structures and operating characteristics of the MC-50 are described in this paper. Optimum operating condition for this cyclotron has been determined by the repetitive running, and the performances of the internal beam have been investigated through the measurements of intensity and spatial distribution of the internal beam as a function of the radius of the cyclotron. Routinely, the 40 μA of 50 MeV protons have been obtained at first Faraday cup with a extraction efficiency of 61%. (Author)

  9. Radiation safety and operational health physics of hospital based medical cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Compact, low energy, high current Medical Cyclotrons are now primarily used to produce large activities of short lived, neutron deficient, positron- emitting radioisotopes. These isotopes constitute the key ingredients of important PET (Positron Emission Tomography) radiopharmaceuticals used in diagnostic nuclear medicine. The PET-radioisotope producing Medical Cyclotrons are now increasingly installed in modern urban hospitals in many countries of the world. Modern Medical Cyclotrons run at a very high beam current (∼100-200 micro Amp) level and thereby produce intense fields of parasitic gamma rays and neutrons, causing the activation of cyclotron components, ambient air and radiation exposure to patients and members of the public. This report highlights the important operational aspects and the characteristics of the radiation fields produced by Medical Cyclotrons. The pathways of personnel radiation exposure are also analyzed. The above information constitutes the scientific basis of a sound operational health physics service, which is manifested in an effective dose reduction and an enhanced radiological safety of the Medical Cyclotron facility within the framework of ALARA

  10. Research and investigation on medical usage of cyclotrons as a special research project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    In the National Institute of Radiological Sciences, the special research project ''Research and investigation on the medical usage of cyclotrons'' had been carried out in the three years program from fiscal 1976 to 1978. Its purpose was to establish the methods of therapy using particle beam such as fast neutrons and the methods of diagnosis using short-lived radioisotopes and positron-emitting radioisotopes. The works were conducted comprehensively in cooperation of the personnel both in and outside the NIRS. Consequently, the purpose was able to be fulfilled satisfactorily. Following on this project, a new special research project ''Research and investigation on the medical usage of particle accelerators'' was started in fiscal 1979. These results are described on the effects of the therapy, diagnostic utilizations, and the medical usage of heavy ion accelerators. (J.P.N.)

  11. Safety and protection problems in the management of a plant with cyclotron, radiopharmacy laboratory and PET/CT equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, A.; Speranza, A.; Panico, M.; Delia, R.; Casale, M.; Salvatore, M.

    2006-01-01

    The importance of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is spreading and increasing in many clinical diagnostic fields, as well as the oncology, the cardiology, the neurology and so on. A strong input to the diffusion of this imaging technique from the research field to clinical one has been given either by the development of knowledge about PET or the modern technologies, which allow to set up at very suitable prices and in very little volumes, like in an hospital site, complete systems, which consist of: Cyclotron; Radiopharmacy Laboratory; one or more either PET or PET/CT. Such set-up arrangement allows to carry out highly innovative diagnostic examinations with a remarkable achievement of diagnostic quality and large number of daily examinations. In this paper the authors show the achieved know-how with respect to radioprotection for the set-up and running management of two systems such as PET/CT tomography unit, cyclotron and radiopharmacy laboratory, installed one in the Imaging Diagnostic Department of the Hospital of Naples University and used only for medical and research purposes, and the other one in A.C.O.M. (Advanced Center of Oncology in Macerata), used for commercial and research purposes. The following safety problems have been considered: the facility lay-out; the optimisation of the paths either for the operator, or the patients and the radiotracers; the guide lines for the protection and the safety of the patients, operators and general population, in relation to the utilization and the management of either the more common radiotracers (18 F and 11 C) or those in research progress, for example 64 Cu and 124 I; the protocol set up for the image quality control in relation to the patient protection and safety. The above problems have also been considered, taking into account the Italian regulation and the International Recommendations. (authors)

  12. Safety and protection problems in the management of a plant with cyclotron, radiopharmacy laboratory and PET/CT equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, A.; Speranza, A.; Panico, M. [University Federico-2, National Research Council - Institute of Biostructures and Bioimaging and Dept. of Bio-morphological and Functional Sciences, Napoli (Italy); Delia, R. [University La Sapienza - sez. Rieti, Faculty of Medicine, Rome (Italy); Casale, M. [University Federico-2, Dept. of Physics - Health Physics School, Napoli (Italy); Salvatore, M. [University Federico-2 and National Research Council - Institute of Biostructures and Bioimaging, Dept. of Bio-morphological and Functional Sciences, Napoli (Italy)

    2006-07-01

    The importance of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is spreading and increasing in many clinical diagnostic fields, as well as the oncology, the cardiology, the neurology and so on. A strong input to the diffusion of this imaging technique from the research field to clinical one has been given either by the development of knowledge about PET or the modern technologies, which allow to set up at very suitable prices and in very little volumes, like in an hospital site, complete systems, which consist of: Cyclotron; Radiopharmacy Laboratory; one or more either PET or PET/CT. Such set-up arrangement allows to carry out highly innovative diagnostic examinations with a remarkable achievement of diagnostic quality and large number of daily examinations. In this paper the authors show the achieved know-how with respect to radioprotection for the set-up and running management of two systems such as PET/CT tomography unit, cyclotron and radiopharmacy laboratory, installed one in the Imaging Diagnostic Department of the Hospital of Naples University and used only for medical and research purposes, and the other one in A.C.O.M. (Advanced Center of Oncology in Macerata), used for commercial and research purposes. The following safety problems have been considered: the facility lay-out; the optimisation of the paths either for the operator, or the patients and the radiotracers; the guide lines for the protection and the safety of the patients, operators and general population, in relation to the utilization and the management of either the more common radiotracers (18 F and 11 C) or those in research progress, for example 64 Cu and 124 I; the protocol set up for the image quality control in relation to the patient protection and safety. The above problems have also been considered, taking into account the Italian regulation and the International Recommendations. (authors)

  13. Intense highly charged ion beam production and operation with a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. W. Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL is a superconducting-magnet-based electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS for the production of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. It is one of the best performing ECRISs worldwide and the first superconducting ECRIS built with an innovative magnet to generate a high strength minimum-B field for operation with heating microwaves up to 24–28 GHz. Since its commissioning in 2005, SECRAL has so far produced a good number of continuous wave intensity records of highly charged ion beams, in which recently the beam intensities of ^{40}Ar^{12+} and ^{129}Xe^{26+} have, for the first time, exceeded 1 emA produced by an ion source. Routine operations commenced in 2007 with the Heavy Ion accelerator Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL, China. Up to June 2017, SECRAL has been providing more than 28,000 hours of highly charged heavy ion beams to the accelerator demonstrating its great capability and reliability. The great achievement of SECRAL is accumulation of numerous technical advancements, such as an innovative magnetic system and an efficient double-frequency (24+18  GHz heating with improved plasma stability. This article reviews the development of SECRAL and production of intense highly charged ion beams by SECRAL focusing on its unique magnet design, source commissioning, performance studies and enhancements, beam quality and long-term operation. SECRAL development and its performance studies representatively reflect the achievements and status of the present ECR ion source, as well as the ECRIS impacts on HIRFL.

  14. Intense highly charged ion beam production and operation with a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Guo, J. W.; Lu, W.; Xie, D. Z.; Hitz, D.; Zhang, X. Z.; Yang, Y.

    2017-09-01

    The superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is a superconducting-magnet-based electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. It is one of the best performing ECRISs worldwide and the first superconducting ECRIS built with an innovative magnet to generate a high strength minimum-B field for operation with heating microwaves up to 24-28 GHz. Since its commissioning in 2005, SECRAL has so far produced a good number of continuous wave intensity records of highly charged ion beams, in which recently the beam intensities of 40Ar+ and 129Xe26+ have, for the first time, exceeded 1 emA produced by an ion source. Routine operations commenced in 2007 with the Heavy Ion accelerator Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), China. Up to June 2017, SECRAL has been providing more than 28,000 hours of highly charged heavy ion beams to the accelerator demonstrating its great capability and reliability. The great achievement of SECRAL is accumulation of numerous technical advancements, such as an innovative magnetic system and an efficient double-frequency (24 +18 GHz ) heating with improved plasma stability. This article reviews the development of SECRAL and production of intense highly charged ion beams by SECRAL focusing on its unique magnet design, source commissioning, performance studies and enhancements, beam quality and long-term operation. SECRAL development and its performance studies representatively reflect the achievements and status of the present ECR ion source, as well as the ECRIS impacts on HIRFL.

  15. COMPLETE SUPPRESSION OF THE M/N = 2/1 NEOCLASSICAL TEARING MODE USING RADIALLY LOCALIZED ELECTRON CYCLOTRON CURRENT DRIVE ON DIII-D AND THE REQUIREMENTS FOR ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LAHAYE, RJ; LUCE, TC; PETTY, CC; HUMPHREYS, DA; HYATT, AW; PERKINS, FW; PRATER, R; STRAIT, EJ; WADE, MR

    2003-01-01

    A271 COMPLETE SUPPRESSION OF THE M/N = 2/1 NEOCLASSICAL TEARING MODE USING RADIALLY LOCALIZED ELECTRON CYCLOTRON CURRENT DRIVE ON DIII-D AND THE REQUIREMENTS FOR ITER. DIII-D experiments demonstrate the first real-time feedback control of the relative location of a narrow beam of microwaves to completely suppress and eliminate a growing tearing mode at the q = 2 surface. long wavelength tearing modes such as the m/n = 2/1 instability are particularly deleterious to tokamak operation. Confinement is seriously degraded by the island, plasma rotation can cease (mode-lock) and disruption can occur. The neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) becomes unstable due to the presence of a helically-perturbed bootstrap current and can be stabilized by replacing the missing bootstrap current in the island O-point by precisely located co-electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD). The optimum position is found when the DIII-D plasma control system (PCS) is put into a search and suppress mode that makes small radial shifts (in about 1 cm steps) in the ECCD location based on minimizing the Mirnov amplitude. Requirements for ITER are addressed

  16. The production of *sp81m*Kr generators at the Oslo cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjroenstad, T.; Holtebekk, T.; Ruud, A.

    1984-01-01

    The techniques developed for the production of *sp81m*Kr(13s) ventilation generators at the Oslo cyclotron are described. The procedure is based on the reaction *sp82*Kr(p,2n)*sp81*Rb using krypton gas of natural composition as target. The target chamber is designed for a gas pressure of 10 bar. The production unit is dimensioned for a parallel production of five generators, but this number may easily be increased. Attention is drawn to the fact that *sp81m*Rb(31 min) is produced in about the same amount as the *sp81*Rb (4.57 h) ground state. The consequences for the calibration procedure is discussed. Routine production has been exerted without major difficulties for nearly 1.5 years. The procedure has proven to be inexpensive and reliable. (Auth.)

  17. Magnetic field optimisation and orbit calculation for VEC superconducting cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debnath, J.; Dey, M.K.; Mallik, C.; Bhandari, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    At VECC, Kolkata preparations are underway to measure the magnetic field of the cyclotron. Also once the superconducting cyclotron is assembled prediction of beam related parameters will be a very important exercise to carry out. Considering this the beam behaviour in the cyclotron will be crucial to achieve these goals. The present paper deals with the efforts in this direction and using a test beam of He 1+ 20 MeV/n the trim coil currents, the tune variation and the (r,Pr) behaviour of the central trajectory

  18. The radioprotection management of a PET department with a cyclotron and radiopharmacy laboratory, in accordance with Italian legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, A. A.; Ferrari, P.; Casale, M.; Delia, R.

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of setting up a positron emission tomography (PET) facility with a cyclotron and radiopharmaceutical laboratory in situ, at a feasible price and in a very restricted space, has led to a steady increase both in the use of the PET technique in diagnostic clinical routine imaging and in the number of cyclotrons for drug production. Owing to the progress made in the PET procedures, it is now possible to have not only a highly innovative system of diagnostic examination, with a remarkable improvement in the diagnostic quality and patient care, but also a considerable increase in the number of daily examinations. In this paper, the authors show how the acquired know-how, with respect to radioprotection, has applied to the planning, running and management of the PET/CT unit, installed in the Imaging Diagnostic Dept. of the Policlinico Tor Vergata (PTV), at Tor Vergata Univ., Rome. (authors)

  19. Cyclotrons for clinical and biomedical research with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this commentary is to present some background material on cyclotrons and other particle accelerators particularly with a view toward the considerations behind acquiring and installing such a machine for purely clinical and/or biomedical research use

  20. Benchmarking of codes for electron cyclotron heating and electron cyclotron current drive under ITER conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prater, R.; Farina, D.; Gribov, Y.; Harvey, R. W.; Ram, A. K.; Lin-Liu, Y. R.; Poli, E.; Smirnov, A. P.; Volpe, F.; Westerhof, E.; Zvonkovo, A.

    2008-01-01

    Optimal design and use of electron cyclotron heating requires that accurate and relatively quick computer codes be available for prediction of wave coupling, propagation, damping and current drive at realistic levels of EC power. To this end, a number of codes have been developed in laboratories

  1. Important radiation protection aspects of the operation of a commercial medical cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.

    1997-01-01

    Since July 1991 the Radiopharmaceutical Division of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO) operates a 30 MeV H'- ion Medical Cyclotron (Model; CYCLONE 30, Manufacturer: Ion Beam Applications, Louvain La Neuve, Belgium). During routine isotope production operations at the cyclotron a thick copper substrate plate electroplated with thin layer of selected enriched target material are bombarded with 30 MeV proton beam current up to 450 μA. The nuclear reaction of protons with the copper atoms result in the reduction of prompt evaporation neutrons with a peak energy of ∼ 1.8 MeV. These evaporation neutrons slow down via multiple collisions with the concrete shielding walls of the target cave, bounce back to the,interior space of the cave activating the cyclotron parts, beam tube components and other utilities installed in the irradiation cave. After the completion of 60 hour isotope production run, gamma dose equivalent rates of ∼10 5 μSvh -1 were measured at contact with the target irradiation stations and beam collimators. Evidently, these gamma rays emitted from the activated cyclotron components impose crucial radiation exposure hazard problems for the cyclotron maintenance technicians. Experiments had been carried out in order to identify the specific pathways of cyclotron component activation and to assess the probable personnel radiation exposure during handling of the activated cyclotron parts. The cool-down (radioactive decay) of the activated cyclotron components was estimated experimentally at different target bombardment conditions using the wall mounted gamma area monitors interfaced to the Health Physics Data Acquisition System. The gamma dose equivalent rates at contact with various locations of interest at the target irradiation station and at the typical work areas of the maintenance personnel were carefully recorded with a radiation (gamma) survey instrument during the three years operation period of the cyclotron. A

  2. Dietary patterns and depressive mood in a multiethnic representative sample of Texas eighth graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relation between dietary patterns and depressive mood among 8th grade students in Texas. Data were from the 2004–2005 School Physical Activity and Nutrition study, a multistage probability-based sample of Texas 8th graders. Participants (n=8827; 14.7% Afri...

  3. Environmental Assessment: Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram. Gulf Coast Well Drilling and Testing Activity (Frio, Wilcox, and Tuscaloosa Formations, Texas and Louisiana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a program to evaluate the feasibility of developing the geothermal-geopressured energy resources of the Louisiana-Texas Gulf Coast. As part of this effort, DOE is contracting for the drilling of design wells to define the nature and extent of the geopressure resource. At each of several sites, one deep well (4000-6400 m) will be drilled and flow tested. One or more shallow wells will also be drilled to dispose of geopressured brines. Each site will require about 2 ha (5 acres) of land. Construction and initial flow testing will take approximately one year. If initial flow testing is successful, a continuous one-year duration flow test will take place at a rate of up to 6400 m{sup 3} (40,000 bbl) per day. Extensive tests will be conducted on the physical and chemical composition of the fluids, on their temperature and flow rate, on fluid disposal techniques, and on the reliability and performance of equipment. Each project will require a maximum of three years to complete drilling, testing, and site restoration.

  4. Terahertz cyclotron resonance spectroscopy of an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure using a high-field pulsed magnet and an asynchronous optical sampling technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B. F.; Smith, W. F.; Hibberd, M. T.; Dawson, P.; Graham, D. M.; Beck, M.; Bartels, A.; Guiney, I.; Humphreys, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    The effective mass, sheet carrier concentration, and mobility of electrons within a two-dimensional electron gas in an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure were determined using a laboratory-based terahertz cyclotron resonance spectrometer. The ability to perform terahertz cyclotron resonance spectroscopy with magnetic fields of up to 31 T was enabled by combining a high-field pulsed magnet with a modified asynchronous optical sampling terahertz detection scheme. This scheme allowed around 100 transmitted terahertz waveforms to be recorded over the 14 ms magnetic field pulse duration. The sheet density and mobility were measured to be 8.0 × 10 12  cm −2 and 9000 cm 2 V −1  s −1 at 77 K. The in-plane electron effective mass at the band edge was determined to be 0.228 ± 0.002m 0 .

  5. A new Variable Resolution Associative Memory for High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Annovi, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Beretta, M; Bossini, E; Crescioli, F; Dell'Orso, M; Giannetti, P; Hoff, J; Liberali, V; Liu, T; Magalotti, D; Piendibene, M; Sacco, A; Schoening, A; Soltveit, H K; Stabile, A; Tripiccione, R; Vitillo, R; Volpi, G

    2011-01-01

    We describe an important advancement for the Associative Memory device (AM). The AM is a VLSI processor for pattern recognition based on Content Addressable Memory (CAM) architecture. The AM is optimized for on-line track finding in high-energy physics experiments. Pattern matching is carried out finding track candidates in coarse resolution “roads”. A large AM bank stores all trajectories of interest, called “patterns”, for a given detector resolution. The AM extracts roads compatible with a given event during detector read-out. Two important variables characterize the quality of the AM bank: its “coverage” and the level of “found fakes”. The coverage, which describes the geometric efficiency of a bank, is defined as the fraction of tracks that match at least a pattern in the bank. Given a certain road size, the coverage of the bank can be increased just adding patterns to the bank, while the number of found fakes unfortunately is roughly proportional to this number of patterns in the bank. M...

  6. Solar energy facility at North Hampton Recreation Center, Dallas, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The solar energy facility located at the North Hampton Park Recreation and Health Center, Dallas, Texas is presented. The solar energy system is installed in a single story (two heights), 16,000 sq ft building enclosing a gymnasium, locker area, and health care clinic surrounded by a recreational area and athletic field. The solar energy system is designed to provide 80 percent of the annual space heating, 48 percent of the annual space cooling, and 90 percent of the domestic hot water requirements. The system's operation modes and performance data acquisition system are described. The system's performance during the months of June, July, August, September, and October of 1979 are presented and show a negative savings of energy. Experience to date indicates however that the system concept has promise of acceptable performance. It is concluded that if proper control and sequencing components was maintained, then the system performance would improve to an acceptable level.

  7. Linear and nonlinear physics of the magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability of fusion-born ions in relation to ion cyclotron emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajal, L., E-mail: L.Carbajal-Gomez@warwick.ac.uk; Cook, J. W. S. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, The University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Dendy, R. O. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, The University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Chapman, S. C. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, The University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Tromsø, N-9037, Tromsø (Norway); Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, D-01187, Dresden (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    The magnetoacoustic cyclotron instability (MCI) probably underlies observations of ion cyclotron emission (ICE) from energetic ion populations in tokamak plasmas, including fusion-born alpha-particles in JET and TFTR [Dendy et al., Nucl. Fusion 35, 1733 (1995)]. ICE is a potential diagnostic for lost alpha-particles in ITER; furthermore, the MCI is representative of a class of collective instabilities, which may result in the partial channelling of the free energy of energetic ions into radiation, and away from collisional heating of the plasma. Deep understanding of the MCI is thus of substantial practical interest for fusion, and the hybrid approximation for the plasma, where ions are treated as particles and electrons as a neutralising massless fluid, offers an attractive way forward. The hybrid simulations presented here access MCI physics that arises on timescales longer than can be addressed by fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulations and by analytical linear theory, which the present simulations largely corroborate. Our results go further than previous studies by entering into the nonlinear stage of the MCI, which shows novel features. These include stronger drive at low cyclotron harmonics, the re-energisation of the alpha-particle population, self-modulation of the phase shift between the electrostatic and electromagnetic components, and coupling between low and high frequency modes of the excited electromagnetic field.

  8. A Potential Cyclotron Resonant Scattering Feature in the Ultraluminous X-Ray Source Pulsar NGC 300 ULX1 Seen by NuSTAR and XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, D. J.; Bachetti, M.; Fürst, F.; Barret, D.; Brightman, M.; Fabian, A. C.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Harrison, F. A.; Heida, M.; Kennea, J.; Kosec, P.; Lau, R. M.; Madsen, K. K.; Middleton, M. J.; Pinto, C.; Steiner, J. F.; Webb, N.

    2018-04-01

    Based on phase-resolved broadband spectroscopy using XMM-Newton and NuSTAR, we report on a potential cyclotron resonant scattering feature (CRSF) at E ∼ 13 keV in the pulsed spectrum of the recently discovered ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) pulsar NGC 300 ULX1. If this interpretation is correct, the implied magnetic field of the central neutron star is B ∼ 1012 G (assuming scattering by electrons), similar to that estimated from the observed spin-up of the star, and also similar to known Galactic X-ray pulsars. We discuss the implications of this result for the connection between NGC 300 ULX1 and the other known ULX pulsars, particularly in light of the recent discovery of a likely proton cyclotron line in another ULX, M51 ULX-8.

  9. Neutron radiography with the cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazawa, Shuichi; Asada, Yorihisa; Yano, Munehiko; Nakanii, Takehiko.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron radiography is well recognized as a powerful tool in nondestructive testing, but not widely used yet owing to lack of high intense thermal neutron source convenient for practical use. This article presents a new neutron radiograph facility, utilizing a sub-compact cyclotron as neutron source and is equipped with vertical and horizontal irradiation ports. The article describes a series of experiments, we conducted using beams of a variable energy cyclotron at Tohoku University to investigate the characteristics of thermal neutron obtained from 9 Be(p, n) reaction and thermalized by elastic scattering process. The article also describes a computer simulation of neutron moderator to analyze conditions getting maximal thermal neutron flux. Further, some of practical neutron radiograph examinations of aero-space components and museum art objects of classic bronze mirror and an attempt realizing real time imaging technique, are introduced in the article. (author)

  10. Impurities in Tc-99m radiopharmaceutical solution obtained from Mo-100 in cyclotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymiński, Zbigniew; Saganowski, Paweł; Kołakowska, Ewa; Listkowska, Anna; Ziemek, Tomasz; Cacko, Daniel; Dziel, Tomasz

    2018-04-01

    The gamma emitting impurities in 99m Tc solution obtained from enriched molybdenum 100 Mo metallic target after its irradiation in a cyclotron were measured using a high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector. The radioactivity range of tested samples of 99m Tc was rather low, in the range from 0.34 to 2.39 MBq, thus creating a challenge to investigate the standard measurement HPGe system for impurity detection and quantification. In the process of 99m Tc separation from irradiated target the AnaLig® Tc-02 resin, Dionex H + and Alumina A columns were used. Fractions of eluates from various steps of separation process were taken and measured for radionuclidic purity. The overall measurement sensitivity of gamma emitters in terms of minimum detectable activity (MDA) was found at the level of 14-70Bq with emission lines in range of 36 - 1836keV resulting in impurity content range of 6.7 × 10 -4 to 3.4 × 10 -3 % for 93 Tc, 93m Tc, 94 Tc, 94m Tc, 95 Tc, 95m Tc, 96 Tc 96 Nb, 97 Nb, 99 Mo contaminants and 9.4 × 10 -3 % for 97m Tc. The usefulness of the chosen measurement conditions and the method applied to testing the potential contaminators was proved by reaching satisfactory results of MDAs less than the criteria of impurity concentration of all nuclides specified in the European Pharmacopoeia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. More about a universal compact isochronous superconducting cyclotron archetype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laisne, A.

    1999-01-01

    Except the fact that they can accelerate protons at comparable energies, AGOR and CYCLONE 235 stand at two extremities as far as the complexity of the conceptual design is concerned. The widest range of ions species associated with a very large energy and RF frequency ranges for AGOR, a fixed energy and a constant RF frequency for only protons in CYCLONE 235. In fact, the two designs have in common the same theoretical 'model' that I described in a referred paper. Now, I suggest we look again at this model and try to show how it could be regarded as the 'Universal Compact Isochronous Superconducting Cyclotron Archetype'. Based on the behavior of CYCLONE 235, and on some more recent calculations, I will explain why the name of 'Archetype' can be used, and show how attractive is the simplicity of the ejection scheme ensued in terms of reliability and cost. (author)

  12. A fully discrete energy stable scheme for a phase filed moving contact line model with variable densities and viscosities

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Guangpu

    2018-01-26

    In this paper, a fully discrete scheme which considers temporal and spatial discretizations is presented for the coupled Cahn-Hilliard equation in conserved form with the dynamic contact line condition and the Navier-Stokes equation with the generalized Navier boundary condition. Variable densities and viscosities are incorporated in this model. A rigorous proof of energy stability is provided for the fully discrete scheme based on a semi-implicit temporal discretization and a finite difference method on the staggered grids for the spatial discretization. A splitting method based on the pressure stabilization is implemented to solve the Navier-Stokes equation, while the stabilization approach is also used for the Cahn-Hilliard equation. Numerical results in both 2-D and 3-D demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency and decaying property of discrete energy of the proposed scheme.

  13. The capacitor banks for the text diagnostic neutral beam and electron cyclotron heating experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelin, K.; Jagger, J.; Baker, M.; Ourou, A.; De Turk, P.

    1986-01-01

    The Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT) has been operational since November of 1980. Since that time, many experimental systems have been added to the machine. Currently, two major experiments are being added to compliment the diagnostics already online. These systems, the Diagnostic Neutral Beam (DNB) and the Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) experiments are described in separate papers. A set of five modular, bipolar capacitor banks are used to power both the DNB and the ECH. The total capacitance of the banks is 92μF. The stored energy is about 500kJ at+or-100kV. The banks are built as five identical, interchangeable modules. One module is adequate to run the DNB. Up to four banks are used to power the ECH. The banks are portable so that they can be moved to the open end of the laboratory for maintenance. This gives much better access for repair work and allows the experiments to continue to run with the remaining banks. Due to budgetary constraints, these banks were constructed in the most economical manner possible consistent with worker safety and long term reliability. The capacitors themselves are on loan from Los Alamos National Labs. They are rated at 1.85μF at 60kV. Our application requires that they be used in a series/parallel configuration with a peak voltage of 50kV each. This paper describes the electrical, mechanical and control design considerations required to achieve a working set of banks

  14. Wave trajectory and electron cyclotron heating in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, T.; Tanaka, S.; Terumichi, Y.; Hamada, Y.

    1977-12-01

    Wave trajectories propagating obliquely to magnetic field in toroidal plasmas are studied theoretically. Results show that the ordinary wave at appropriate incident angle is mode-converted to the extraordinary wave at first turning point and is further converted to the electron Bernstein wave during passing a loop or a hooked nail curve near second turning point and is cyclotron-damped away, resulting in local electron heating, before arriving at cyclotron resonance layer. (auth.)

  15. Electron cyclotron emission measurements during 28 GHz electron cyclotron resonance heating in Wendelstein WVII-A stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartfuss, H.J.; Gasparino, U.; Tutter, M.; Brakel, R.; Cattanei, G.; Dorst, D.; Elsner, A.; Engelhardt, K.; Erckmann, V.; Grieger, G.; Grigull, P.; Hacker, H.; Jaeckel, H.; Jaenicke, R.; Junker, J.; Kick, M.; Kroiss, H.; Kuehner, G.; Maassberg, H.; Mahn, C.; Mueller, G.; Ohlendorf, W.; Rau, F.; Renner, H.; Ringler, H.; Sardei, F.; Weller, A.; Wobig, H.; Wuersching, E.; Zippe, M.; Kasparek, W.; Mueller, G.A.; Raeuchle, E.; Schueller, P.G.; Schwoerer, K.; Thumm, M.

    1987-11-01

    Electron cyclotron emission measurements have been carried out on electron cyclotron resonance heated plasmas in the WENDELSTEIN VII-A Stellarator. Blackbody radiation from the thermalized plasma main body as well as radiation from a small amount of weakly relativistic suprathermal electrons has been detected. In addition sideband emission has been observed near the second harmonic of the heating line source. Harmonic generation and parametric wave decay at the upper hybrid layer may be a reasonable explanation. (orig.)

  16. Magnet design and test of positron emission tomography cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Tao; Yang Guojun; He Xiaozhong; Pang Jian; Zhao Liangchao; Zhang Kaizhi

    2012-01-01

    An 11 MeV H - compact cyclotron used for medical radioactive isotope production is under construction in Institute of Fluid Physics, CAEP. The cyclotron magnet adopts the design of small valley gaps and coulee structure which can provide high average magnetic field and strong focus ability. To achieve 5 × 10 -4 measuring accuracy, a magnetic field mapping system has been developed. After iterative correction using field measurement data, the total phase excursion of the cyclotron is within ± 9° and the first harmonic is less than 10 -3 T, which are all acceptable. Furthermore, the beam testing declares the successful construction of the cyclotron magnet. Besides, some magnetic field influence factors were discussed, including the magnetic field distortion and measurement error. (authors)

  17. Ion-cyclotron-resonance- and Fourier-transform-ion-cyclotron-resonance spectroscopy: technology and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luederwald, I.

    1977-01-01

    Instrumentation and technology of Ion-Cyclotron-Resonance and Fourier-Transform-Ion-Cyclotron-Resonance Spectroscopy are described. The method can be applied to studies of ion/molecule reactions in gas phase, to obtain thermodynamic data as gas phase acidity or basicity, proton and electron affinity, and to establish reaction mechanisms and ion structures. (orig.) [de

  18. Stability and nonlinear dynamics of gyrotrons at cyclotron harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraph, G.P.; Nusinovich, G.S.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Levush, B.

    1992-01-01

    Gyrotrons operating at higher harmonics of the cyclotron frequency can overcome the frequency limitations caused by achievable strength of the magnetic field. However, the excitation of modes at the fundamental frequency exhibit a major problem for stable operation of harmonic gyrotron at high power with high efficiency. Therefore the issues of stability of gyrotron operation at the cyclotron harmonics and nonlinear dynamics of mode interaction are of great importance. The results of the authors stability analysis and multimode simulation are presented here. A detailed nonlinear theory of steady state single mode operation at cyclotron harmonics has been presented previously, taking into account beam-wave coupling and nonlinear gain function at cyclotron harmonics. A set of equations describing low gain regime interaction of modes resonant at different cyclotron harmonics was studied before. The multifrequency time-dependent nonlinear analysis presented here is based on previous gyrotron studies and beam-wave interaction at cyclotron harmonics. The authors have determined the parameter space for stable single mode operation at the second harmonic. The nonlinear dynamics of mode evolution and mode interaction for a harmonic gyrotron is presented. A new nonlinear effect in which the parasite at the fundamental harmonic helps excite the operating mode at the second harmonic has been demonstrated

  19. Luminous and Variable Stars in M31 and M33. V. The Upper HR Diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, Roberta M.; Davidson, Kris; Hahn, David [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, 116 Church St SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Martin, John C. [Barber Observatory, University of Illinois, Springfield, IL 62703 (United States); Weis, Kerstin, E-mail: roberta@umn.edu [Astronomical Institute, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany)

    2017-07-20

    We present HR diagrams for the massive star populations in M31 and M33, including several different types of emission-line stars: the confirmed luminous blue variables (LBVs), candidate LBVs, B[e] supergiants, and the warm hypergiants. We estimate their apparent temperatures and luminosities for comparison with their respective massive star populations and evaluate the possible relationships of these different classes of evolved, massive stars, and their evolutionary state. Several of the LBV candidates lie near the LBV/S Dor instability strip that supports their classification. Most of the B[e] supergiants, however, are less luminous than the LBVs. Many are very dusty with the infrared flux contributing one-third or more to their total flux. They are also relatively isolated from other luminous OB stars. Overall, their spatial distribution suggests a more evolved state. Some may be post-RSGs (red supergiants) like the warm hypergiants, and there may be more than one path to becoming a B[e] star. There are sufficient differences in the spectra, luminosities, spatial distribution, and the presence or lack of dust between the LBVs and B[e] supergiants to conclude that one group does not evolve into the other.

  20. Stochasticity of the energy absorption in the electron cyclotron resonance; Estocasticidad de la absorcion de energia en la resonancia electron-ciclotronica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez T, C. [Departamento de Fisica, ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Hernandez A, O

    1998-07-01

    The energy absorption mechanism in cyclotron resonance of the electrons is a present problem, since it could be considered from the stochastic point of view or this related with a non-homogeneous but periodical of plasma spatial structure. In this work using the Bogoliubov average method for a multi periodical system in presence of resonances, the drift equations were obtained in presence of a RF field for the case of electron cyclotron resonance until first order terms with respect to inverse of its cyclotron frequency. The absorbed energy equation is obtained on part of electrons in a simple model and by drift method. It is showed the stochastic character of the energy absorption. (Author)

  1. Neutron radiography using a transportable superconducting cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, D.A. (School of Physics and Space Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)); Hawkesworth, M.R. (School of Physics and Space Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)); Beynon, T.D. (School of Physics and Space Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)); Green, S. (School of Physics and Space Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)); Rogers, J.D. (Rolls-Royce, Derby (United Kingdom)); Allen, M.J. (Rolls-Royce, Derby (United Kingdom)); Plummer, H.C. (Rolls-Royce, MatEval, Derby (United Kingdom)); Boulding, N.J. (Oxford Instruments (United Kingdom)); Cox, M. (Oxford Instruments (United Kingdom)); McDougall, I. (Oxford Instruments (United Kingdom))

    1994-12-30

    A thermal neutron radiography system based on a compact 12 MeV superconducting proton cyclotron is described. Neutrons are generated using a thick beryllium target and moderated in high density polyethylene. Monte Carlo computer simulations have been used to model the neutron and photon transport in order to optimise the performance of the system. With proton beam currents in excess of 100 [mu]A, it can provide high thermal neutron fluxes with L/D ratios of between 50 and 300 for various applications. Both film and electronic imaging are used to produce radiographs. The electronic imaging system consists of a [sup 6]Li-loaded ZnS intensifier screen, and a low light CCD or SIT camera. High resolution images can be recorded and computer-controlled data processing, analysis and display are possible. ((orig.))

  2. Meet the aggies; internship experience at the Texas A&M University

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shukla, A.

    2013-01-01

    “Welcome to the United States of America” the lines I had heard quite a few times in movies and sitcoms. Yet here I was listening to it, jet lagged and sleep deprived after roughly 24 hrs of flying, having just completed the immigration clearance at George Bush International Airport, Houston.

  3. A compact cost-effective beamline for a PET Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehnel, M.P.; Jackle, P.; Roeder, M.; Stewart, T.; Theroux, J.; Brasile, J.P.; Sirot, P.; Buckley, K.R.; Bedue, M.

    2007-01-01

    Most commercial PET Cyclotrons have targets mounted on or near the main cyclotron vacuum chamber. There is often little or no system capability for centering or focusing the extracted beam on target to achieve maximum production. This paper describes the ion-optics, design and development of a compact cost-effective beamline comprised of low activation and radiation resistant materials. The beamline, complete with suitable diagnostic devices, permits the extracted proton beam to be centered (X-Y steering magnet), and focused (quadrupole doublet) on target eliminating unnecessary beamspill and ensuring high production

  4. Concept of the detuned primary coupling and model measurements for the radiofrequency system of the VINCY cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojovic, B.; Susini, A.

    1999-01-01

    A new concept of the impedance matching of a radiofrequency (RF) amplifier (primary) coupled to a cyclotron RF cavity (secondary) is discussed. In this arrangement the necessity of moving the coupling loop in vacuum is avoided, and the impedance matching for different operating frequencies is performed only by a variable capacitor. A design procedure based on the transformer equations is proposed, and the design of the RF system of the VINCY Cyclotron, the main part of the TESLA Accelerator Installation, based on the concept of the detuned primary coupling is presented. The measurements on a 1:1 scale model of the RF system of the VINCY Cyclotron were carried out for the whole range of the operating frequencies. The results obtained confirmed the viability of the coupling concept for the cyclotron RF systems. (authors)

  5. Hard x ray observations of Vela X-1 and A0535+26 with HEXE: Discovery of cyclotron lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendziorra, E.; Mony, B.; Kretschmar, P.; Maisack, M.; Staubert, R.; Doebereiner, S.; Englhauser, J.; Pietsch, W.; Reppin, C.; Truemper, J.

    1992-01-01

    The X ray pulsars Vela X-1 (4U 0900-40) and A0535+26) were observed with the High Energy X ray Experiment (HEXE) onboard the Mir space station at energies above 20 keV. The pulse profiles of Vela X-1 (P = 283.22 s for JD 244 7486) and A0535+26 (P = 103.27 s for JD 244 7626) were measured up to at least 100 keV. The time averaged pulse profiles of the two sources both show a clear double peak structure with an asymmetric main pulse and a more symmetric secondary pulse. The spectrum of the main pulse is significantly harder than that of the secondary. Pulse phase resolved spectra show absorption features at 54 keV and possibly 27 keV for Vela X-1 and around 100 keV for A0535+26. If these features are interpreted as second and first harmonic (fundamental) cyclotron absorption lines, lower limits are derived of 2.6 x 10(exp 12) and 4.3 x 10(exp 12) Gauss for the magnetic fields of the neutron stars in Vela X-1 and A0535+26, respectively.

  6. Interacting ghost dark energy models with variable G and Λ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, J.; Khurshudyan, M.; Movsisyan, A.; Farahani, H.

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we consider several phenomenological models of variable Λ. Model of a flat Universe with variable Λ and G is accepted. It is well known, that varying G and Λ gives rise to modified field equations and modified conservation laws, which gives rise to many different manipulations and assumptions in literature. We will consider two component fluid, which parameters will enter to Λ. Interaction between fluids with energy densities ρ1 and ρ2 assumed as Q = 3Hb(ρ1+ρ2). We have numerical analyze of important cosmological parameters like EoS parameter of the composed fluid and deceleration parameter q of the model.

  7. Phase and gain measurements in a distributed-loss cyclotron-resonance maser amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesar, Amit; Jerby, Eli

    2002-01-01

    The control of gain and phase delay in a cyclotron-resonance maser (CRM) amplifier is essential for a variety of applications. In this experiment, the gain and phase-delay variations are measured with respect to controlling parameters; the electron-beam current and the axial magnetic field. Following Chu et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1103 (1995)], the CRM amplifier comprises of a distributed-loss waveguide to enable high gain without oscillations. Our experiment yields an amplification up to 26 dB, and a phase-delay control range of 360 deg. In order to keep a fixed gain with the varying phase delay, the two controlling parameters (i.e., the solenoid field and the beam current) are operated together in a compensating mode. The experiment is conducted in a frequency of 7.3 GHz, with an electron beam of 18-kV voltage and 0.25-0.4-A current. The experimental results are compared with a theoretical model. Practical implementations of gain and phase control in CRM devices are discussed

  8. Spatiotemporal Variability of Turbulence Kinetic Energy Budgets in the Convective Boundary Layer over Both Simple and Complex Terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Raj K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Berg, Larry K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Pekour, Mikhail [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Shaw, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington; Kosovic, Branko [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado; Mirocha, Jeffrey D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California; Ennis, Brandon L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    2017-12-01

    The assumption of sub-grid scale (SGS) horizontal homogeneity within a model grid cell, which forms the basis of SGS turbulence closures used by mesoscale models, becomes increasingly tenuous as grid spacing is reduced to a few kilometers or less, such as in many emerging high-resolution applications. Herein, we use the turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) budget equation to study the spatio-temporal variability in two types of terrain—complex (Columbia Basin Wind Energy Study [CBWES] site, north-eastern Oregon) and flat (ScaledWind Farm Technologies [SWiFT] site, west Texas) using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. In each case six-nested domains (three domains each for mesoscale and large-eddy simulation [LES]) are used to downscale the horizontal grid spacing from 10 km to 10 m using the WRF model framework. The model output was used to calculate the values of the TKE budget terms in vertical and horizontal planes as well as the averages of grid cells contained in the four quadrants (a quarter area) of the LES domain. The budget terms calculated along the planes and the mean profile of budget terms show larger spatial variability at CBWES site than at the SWiFT site. The contribution of the horizontal derivative of the shear production term to the total production shear was found to be 45% and 15% of the total shear, at the CBWES and SWiFT sites, respectively, indicating that the horizontal derivatives applied in the budget equation should not be ignored in mesoscale model parameterizations, especially for cases with complex terrain with <10 km scale.

  9. ECR heavy-ion source for the LBL 88-inch cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.J.; Kalnins, J.G.; Lyneis, C.M.

    1983-03-01

    An Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) heavy-ion source is under construction at the LBL 88-Inch Cyclotron. This source will produce very-high-charge-state heavy ions, such as 0 8 + and Ar 12 + , which will increase cyclotron energies by a factor of 2-4, up to A = 80. It is a two-stage source using room-temperature coils, a permanent-magnet sextupole, and a 6-9 GHz microwave system. Design features include adjustable first-to-second-stage plasma coupling, a variable second-stage mirror ratio, high-conductance radial pumping of the second stage, and a beam-diagnostic system. A remotely movable extraction electrode will optimize extraction efficiency. The project includes construction of a transport line and improvements to the cyclotron axial-injection system. The construction period is expected to be two years

  10. 76 FR 50476 - Application To Export Electric Energy; Glacial Energy of Texas, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [OE Docket No. EA-382] Application To Export Electric Energy; Glacial Energy... Application. SUMMARY: Glacial Energy of Texas, Inc. (Glacial) has applied for authority to transmit electric... for authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico for five years as a power...

  11. ICRF [Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies] heating and antenna coupling in a high beta tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elet, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    Maxwell's Equations are solved in two-dimensions for the electromagnetic fields in a toroidal cavity using the cold plasma fluid dielectric tensor in the Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequencies (ICRF). The Vector Wave Equation is transformed to a set of two, coupled second-order partial differential equations with inhomogeneous forcing functions which model a wave launcher. The resulting equations are finite differenced and solved numerically with a complex banded matrix algorithm on a Cray-2 computer using a code described in this report. This code is used to study power coupling characteristics of a wave launcher for low and high beta tokamaks. The low and high beta equilibrium tokamak magnetic fields applied in this model are determined from analytic solutions to the Grad-Shafranov equation. The code shows good correspondence with the results of low field side ICRF heating experiments performed on the Tokamak of Fontenay-Aux-Roses (TFR). Low field side and high field side antenna coupling properties for ICRF heating in the Columbia High Beta Tokamak (HBT) experiment are calculated with this code. Variations of antenna position in the tokamak, ionic concentration and plasma density, and volume-averaged beta have been analyzed for HBT. It is found that the location of the antenna with respect to the plasma has the dominant role in the design of an ICRF heating experiment in HBT. 10 refs., 52 figs., 13 tabs

  12. Atmospheric tracer tests and assessment of a potential accident at the National Medical Cyclotron, Camperdown, NSW, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G H; Bartsch, F J.K.; Stone, D J.M.

    1994-08-01

    In order to assess the impact of a potential atmospheric release of radionuclides from the National Medical Cyclotron facility, in Camperdown, an atmospheric tracer release, sampling and analysis system using SF{sub 6} was developed. During eight experiments conducted in a variety of meteorological conditions, ten samplers were located in the vicinity of the Cyclotron building and other nearby buildings on the rapid downward movement of the tracer gas plume. The atmospheric dilution factors which lead to the highest observed air concentrations were then applied to the releases of I{sup 123} and Xe{sup 123} from a potential accident scenario in order to assess the impact on nearby receptors. Even given the conservative assumptions about the release of I{sup 123}, the estimated radiation doses were at least an order of magnitude below the international standards for doses to member of the public. 27 refs., 8 tabs., 5 figs.

  13. Atmospheric tracer tests and assessment of a potential accident at the National Medical Cyclotron, Camperdown, NSW, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.H.; Bartsch, F.J.K.; Stone, D.J.M.

    1994-08-01

    In order to assess the impact of a potential atmospheric release of radionuclides from the National Medical Cyclotron facility, in Camperdown, an atmospheric tracer release, sampling and analysis system using SF 6 was developed. During eight experiments conducted in a variety of meteorological conditions, ten samplers were located in the vicinity of the Cyclotron building and other nearby buildings on the rapid downward movement of the tracer gas plume. The atmospheric dilution factors which lead to the highest observed air concentrations were then applied to the releases of I 123 and Xe 123 from a potential accident scenario in order to assess the impact on nearby receptors. Even given the conservative assumptions about the release of I 123 , the estimated radiation doses were at least an order of magnitude below the international standards for doses to member of the public. 27 refs., 8 tabs., 5 figs

  14. The beam commissioning of BRIF and future cyclotron development at CIAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tianjue, E-mail: tjzhang@ciae.ac.cn; Yang, Jianjun, E-mail: yangjianjun2000@tsinghua.org.cn

    2016-06-01

    As an upgrade project of the existing HI-13 tandem accelerator facility, the Beijing Radioactive Ion-beam Facility (BRIF) is being constructed in China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). This project consists of an 100 MeV proton compact cyclotron, a two-stage ISOL system, a superconducting linac booster and various experimental terminals. The beam commissioning of the cyclotron was launched by the end of 2013 and on July 4, 2014 the first 100 MeV proton beam was received on a temporary target which was positioned at the outlet of the cyclotron. The beam current was stably maintained at above 25 μA for about 9 h on July 25, 2014 and the cyclotron is now ready for providing CW proton beam on target-source for RIB production. The beam current is expected to be increased to 200–500 μA in the coming years. The installation of the ISOL system is finished and the stable ion beam test shows it can reach a mass resolution better than 10,000. It is expected to generate dozens of RIB by 100 MeV proton beam. In addition, this paper also introduces the recent progress of the pre-study of an 800 MeV, 3–4 MW separate-sector proton cyclotron, which is aimed to provide high power proton beam for various applications, such as neutron and neutrino physics, proton radiography and nuclear data measurement and ADS system.

  15. Proposal for a high frequency of cyclotron DC-72 CCSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudak, M.

    2009-01-01

    Two half-wave RF systems with vertical resonators tanks located in a yoke of a magnet will be used for acceleration of charged particles in range from H- to Xe +1 8 with energy 72 - 2 MeV/u. The range of frequency from 18.25 MHz up to 32 MHz is provided by changing of the length of resonators. The calculated quality-factor of RF system is equal from 5000 to 6000. At a voltage rating of 60 kV on two dees it is necessary to use the HF generator with an output power about 25 kW. The basic parameters of a HF system of a cyclotron DC - 72 are shown in the given article. The results are obtained on the basis of numerical calculations conducted with the software package POISSON SUPERFISH and MicroCap and they were checked by the series of measurements using the cyclotron built in Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. Measurements of the resonance system confirm the correctness of the new calculation methods and procedures for designing and optimizing various parts of HF circuits used in accelerators technology. By using of these methods it is possible to create a complete model of the entire accelerator HF system. The HF system consists of power generator, transmission lines, resonant system and monitoring and controlling system. (Author)

  16. Catahoula formation as a source of sedimentary uranium deposits in east Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledger, E.B.; Tieh, T.T.

    1983-01-01

    Volcanic glass-rich mudstone and siltstone samples from the Oligocene/Miocene Catahoula formation of Jasper County, Texas, and coeval volcaniclastic rock samples from Trans-Pecos, Texas, have been compared as to U, Th, Zr, Ti, K, Rb, and Sr contents. Uranium is slightly greater in the distal ash (5.85 ppM U) compared to the Trans-Pecos samples (average 5.41 ppM U). Diagenetic and pedogenetic alteration of Catahoula volcanic glass releases uranium to solution and, under favorable conditions, this uranium may accumulate to form ore bodies. Uranium has been produced from such ore bodies in south Texas, but economic deposits are not known in east Texas. Significant differences between south and east Texas include: (1) a greater amount of volcanic debris delivered to south Texas, both as air-fall ash and stream-transported material, (2) delivery of only air-fill ash to east Texas, (3) the possibility of more petroleum-related reductants such as H 2 S in south Texas, and (4) pervasive glass alteration with subsequent uranium release in south Texas due to late calichification. These differences argue against economic deposits of the south Texas type being found in east Texas. If economic deposits occur they are likely to be far downdip making exploration difficult and expensive

  17. A simple and efficient method of nickel electrodeposition for the cyclotron production of 64Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique-Arias, Juan C.; Avila-Rodriguez, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Nickel targets for the cyclotron production of 64 Cu were prepared by electrodeposition on a gold backing from nickel chloride solutions using boric acid as buffer. Parameters studied were nickel chloride and boric acid concentration, temperature and current density. All plating conditions studied were successful obtaining efficiencies of approximately 90% in 2–3 h, reaching almost quantitative plating (>97%) in 10–20 h depending on the current density. All plated targets withstood proton irradiations up to 40 µA for 2 h. Recovered nickel was successfully recycled and reused with an overall efficiency >95%. - Highlights: • Simple and efficient method of Ni electrodeposition from NiCl 2 solutions. • Represents an improvement over current methods for the preparation of Ni targets. • All plated targets underwent irradiation and withstood currents up to 40 µA for 2 h. • Nickel target material was recycled and reused with an overall efficiency >95%. • Specific activity of 64 Cu was similar than that obtained with older methods of Ni plating

  18. Soybean Yield along the Texas Gulf Coast during Periods of Variable Rainfall as Influenced by Soybean Cultivar and Planting Date

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Grichar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybeans (Glycine max can be planted along the upper Texas Gulf Coast from mid-March through May to take advantage of early season rains and to complete harvest before hurricane season and fall rains become a problem. When average to above average rainfall was received in May through July, yields were greater with the early April to mid-April planting; however, under high rainfall conditions throughout the season, the mid-April to early May planting produced the highest yields, with yields of over 4000 kg/ha. When rainfall was below normal, late March to early April plantings produced the greatest yields. When rainfall was above average, soybeans took longer to reach harvestability regardless of cultivar or plant dates, while under drought conditions the interval between planting and harvest was reduced. However, when planting was delayed, there was a greater risk of detrimental late-season effects from southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula or the brown stink bug (Euschistus heros.

  19. Variability search in M 31 using principal component analysis and the Hubble Source Catalogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, M. I.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Karampelas, A.; Sokolovsky, K. V.; Bonanos, A. Z.; Gavras, P.; Yang, M.

    2018-06-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is being extensively used in Astronomy but not yet exhaustively exploited for variability search. The aim of this work is to investigate the effectiveness of using the PCA as a method to search for variable stars in large photometric data sets. We apply PCA to variability indices computed for light curves of 18 152 stars in three fields in M 31 extracted from the Hubble Source Catalogue. The projection of the data into the principal components is used as a stellar variability detection and classification tool, capable of distinguishing between RR Lyrae stars, long-period variables (LPVs) and non-variables. This projection recovered more than 90 per cent of the known variables and revealed 38 previously unknown variable stars (about 30 per cent more), all LPVs except for one object of uncertain variability type. We conclude that this methodology can indeed successfully identify candidate variable stars.

  20. Economic Development Impact of 1,000 MW of Wind Energy in Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reategui, S.; Hendrickson, S.

    2011-08-01

    Texas has approximately 9,727 MW of wind energy capacity installed, making it a global leader in installed wind energy. As a result of the significant investment the wind industry has brought to Texas, it is important to better understand the economic development impacts of wind energy in Texas. This report analyzes the jobs and economic impacts of 1,000 MW of wind power generation in the state. The impacts highlighted in this report can be used in policy and planning decisions and can be scaled to get a sense of the economic development opportunities associated with other wind scenarios. This report can also inform stakeholders in other states about the potential economic impacts associated with the development of 1,000 MW of new wind power generation and the relationships of different elements in the state economy.

  1. No Anticorrelation between Cyclotron Line Energy and X-ray Flux in 4U 0115+634

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA 10 Instituto Universitario de Física Aplicada a las Ciencias y las Tecnologías, University of...Space Agency CNES through CNRS. S.M.N. and J.M.T. acknowledge support from the Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia , Tecnología e Innovación (MCINN) through

  2. Promoting Energy-Balance Behaviors among Ethnically Diverse Adolescents: Overview and Baseline Findings of the Central Texas CATCH Middle School Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Andrew E.; Kelder, Steven H.; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E.; Pasch, Keryn E.; Ranjit, Nalini; Delk, Joanne E.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.

    2013-01-01

    The Central Texas Coordinated Approach To Child Health (CATCH) Middle School Project is a 3.5-year school-based project aimed at promoting physical activity (PA), healthy eating, and obesity prevention among public middle school students in Texas. This article describes the CATCH intervention model and presents baseline findings from spring 2009.…

  3. Peroxidation of the dried thin film of lipid by high-energy alpha particles from a cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, S.; Chatterjee, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    High-energy α particles produced a dose-dependent linear increase in different lipid peroxidation products (e.g., malondialdehyde (MDA), conjugated dienes, and hydroperoxides) in the dried thin film state. An inverse dose-rate effect was observed when the dose rate was varied by changing either the α-particle fluence rate or the α-particle energy. The antioxidants α-tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) suppressed the α-particle-induced lipid peroxidation in the dried thin film state, and in this respect α-tocopherol was found superior to BHT. It was found that α-tocopherol was equally efficient in inhibiting lipid peroxidations by α particles and ultraviolet light

  4. Slow wave cyclotron maser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kho, T.H.; Lin, A.T.

    1988-01-01

    Cyclotron masers such as Gyrotrons and the Autoresonance Masers, are fast wave devices: the electromagnetic wave's phase velocity v rho , is greater than the electron beam velocity, v b . To be able to convert the beam kinetic energy into radiation in these devices the beam must have an initial transverse momentum, usually obtained by propagating the beam through a transverse wiggler magnet, or along a nonuniform guide magnetic field before entry into the interaction region. Either process introduces a significant amount of thermal spread in the beam which degrades the performance of the maser. However, if the wave phase velocity v rho v b , the beam kinetic energy can be converted directly into radiation without the requirement of an initial transverse beam momentum, making a slow wave cyclotron maser a potentially simpler and more compact device. The authors present the linear and nonlinear physics of the slow wave cyclotron maser and examine its potential for practical application

  5. Practicality of the cyclotron production of radiolanthanide 142Pr. A potential for therapeutic applications and biodistribution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdi Sadeghi; Bakht, M.K.; Leila Mokhtari

    2011-01-01

    Radiolanthanide praseodymium-142 (T 1/2 = 19.12 h, E β - = 2.162 MeV (96.3%), E γ = 1575 keV (3.7%)) due to its high β-emission and low specific γ-emission could not only be a therapeutic radionuclide, but also a suitable radionuclide in order for biodistribution studies. Conventionally, 142 Pr produces via 141 Pr(n,γ) 142 Pr reaction by irradiation in a low-fluence reactor and this study evaluates cyclotron reaction production of it. 142 Pr excitation function via nat La(α,n) 142 Pr, 142 Ce(p,n) 142 Pr, and nat Pr(d,p) 142 Pr reactions were calculated by TALYS-1.2 and EMPIRE-2.19beta codes, and with the data taken from the TENDL-2010 database. In addition, we compared them with the reported measurement by experimental data. Requisite thickness of targets was obtained by SRIM-2010 code for each reaction. The 142 Pr production yield was evaluated with attention to excitation function and stopping power. Similar to reactor produced 142 Pr; 141 Pr impurity exists in cyclotron produced 142 Pr while it could not be separated by chemical methods. Therefore, cyclotron and reactor produced 142 Pr will be in carrier added form. (author)

  6. Radiation exposure to workers at cyclotron facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, M.S.; Sanches, M.P.; Sanchez, A.S.; Rodrigues, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals quickly furnish the information doctors need to establish a precise diagnosis of the patient's condition, and therefore to prescribe the most effective therapy. In cancerology, F18-FDG, the most widely used PET imaging tracer, excels in the early detection of cancer tumors, even very tiny ones, which it locates and clearly distinguishes from healthy surrounding tissues. IPEN-CNEN/SP has two cyclotron accelerators used mainly for radioisotope production to be utilized in nuclear medicine for diagnosis and therapy. The first is a CV-28 cyclotron, variable energy that came into operation in 1982, which was used to produce F18-FDG and Iodine 123 up to 1998. The second, a Cyclone 30 cyclotron, 30 MeV, commenced operation in 1998 for certification purpose, and due to increase demand for radiopharmaceuticals in Brazil, started F18-FDG production in 1999. Cyclotron Laboratory will be a reference Research and Developing Center in our country and will help the Brazilian and Latin-American community. It is necessary to have an adequate database to allow regular follow up and analysis of the individual dose distributions for each group involved in the cyclotron activities. These databases are also important means to assess the effectiveness of efforts in order to maintain doses ALARA and reduce inequalities. The official individual occupational dosimetry is provided by certified Laboratory of Thermoluminescent Dosimetry at IPEN-CNEN/SP. This paper describes the occupational doses distribution in Laboratory of Cyclotrons at IPEN-CNEN/SP from January, 1998 to July, 2000 and propose improvements for the future. (author)

  7. 75 FR 68398 - Texas, Oklahoma & Eastern Railroad, LLC-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Texas, Oklahoma...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... & Eastern Railroad, LLC--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Texas, Oklahoma & Eastern Railroad Company Texas, Oklahoma & Eastern Railroad, LLC (TOE), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Texas, Oklahoma & Eastern Railroad Company and to operate...

  8. Solid targets for production of radioisotopes with cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes G, L.; Balcazar G, M.

    1999-01-01

    The design of targets for production of radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals of cyclotron to medical applications requires a detailed analysis of several variables such as: cyclotron operation conditions, choice of used materials as target and their physicochemical characteristics, activity calculation, the yielding of each radioisotope by irradiation, the competition of nuclear reactions in function of the projectiles energy and the collision processes amongst others. The objective of this work is to determine the equations for the calculation for yielding of solid targets at the end of the proton irradiation. (Author)

  9. Drought and the water–energy nexus in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlon, Bridget R; Duncan, Ian; Reedy, Robert C

    2013-01-01

    Texas experienced the most extreme drought on record in 2011 with up to 100 days of triple digit temperatures resulting in record electricity demand and historically low reservoir levels. We quantified water and electricity demand and supply for each power plant during the drought relative to 2010 (baseline). Drought raised electricity demands/generation by 6%, increasing water demands/consumption for electricity by 9%. Reductions in monitored reservoir storage <50% of capacity in 2011 would suggest drought vulnerability, but data show that the power plants were flexible enough at the plant level to adapt by switching to less water-intensive technologies. Natural gas, now ∼50% of power generation in Texas, enhances drought resilience by increasing the flexibility of power plant generators, including gas combustion turbines to complement increasing wind generation and combined cycle generators with ∼30% of cooling water requirements of traditional steam turbine plants. These reductions in water use are projected to continue to 2030 with increased use of natural gas and renewables. Although water use for gas production is controversial, these data show that water saved by using natural gas combined cycle plants relative to coal steam turbine plants is 25–50 times greater than the amount of water used in hydraulic fracturing to extract the gas. (letter)

  10. Aerosol deposition and suspension during a Texas dust storm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porch, W.M.; Lovill, J.E.

    1976-03-01

    It is important to understand deposition and suspension of aerosol by wind as separate phenomena. This is especially true for the case of a contaminated area of land, contributing toxic aerosol. Once the toxic particulates have left the contaminated area, they can only deposit, even though new non-toxic particulates are being suspended all around them. A fortunate meteorological situation and a site with fast response aerosol and wind instrumentation, allowed us to analyze deposition and suspension, as separate phenomena on the same data record during a Texas dust storm. The major results of this analysis can be summarized as follows: The size distribution of the soil particulates and the geometrical orientation of plowed furrows to the wind are important to the threshold velocity, beyond which particles will be suspended from bare soil. Thresholds this year for clay soil were almost double that for the previous year for sand soil; the relationship between aerosol flux and wind speed above threshold was less well defined than the sandy soil data. The relationship does seem to involve a lower exponent than the sandy soil data, which showed a flux that varied as about the sixth power of the wind speed

  11. Magneto-optical and cyclotron resonance studies of semiconductors and their nanostructures in pulsed high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, N.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: We present a review on the recent advances in physics of magneto-optical spectroscopy in the visible range and of infrared cyclotron resonance in pulsed high magnetic fields, which are produced by electromagnetic flux compression up to 500T, by the single-turn coil technique up to 200T or by conventional non-destructive long pulse magnets up to 50T. We discuss the recent results on the spectroscopy of low dimensional excitons in quantum wells and short period superlattices. In very high fields up to 500T, we observed anomalous field dependence of the exciton absorption lines and the 2D - 3D cross-over effects in GaAs/AlAs quantum wells. In GaP/AlP short period superlattices, it was found that the exciton photoluminescence intensity shows a dramatic decrease and the diamagnetic shift was negative when high magnetic fields were applied parallel to the growth direction. We observed also remarkable effects of uniaxial stress, which are ascribed to the cross-over effect between the two inequivalent valleys at the X points. Cyclotron resonance was measured by using various molecular gas lasers as radiation sources in the range 5 - 119 m . We present the results of cyclotron resonance in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells with tilted magnetic fields from the growth direction. It was found that the resonant field and the peak intensity show many different features depending on the extent of the Landau level-subband coupling and on the relation between the photon energy and the barrier height. A large hysteresis was observed between the rising and the falling sweeps of the magnetic field, when the cyclotron resonance energy became comparable with the subband spacing. In a diluted magnetic semiconductor CdFeS, we observed anomalous temperature dependence of the effective mass, suggestive of the magnetic polaron effect

  12. Electron-cyclotron maser utilizing free-electron two-quantum magnetic-wiggler radiation, and explanation of effective laser injection in an electron cyclotron maser as lift-up of saturated power level arisen from uncertainty in electron energy due to electron's transverse wiggling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    We reason that in the free-electron radiation if the transition rate τ is less than the radiation frequency ν, the radiation is of broad-band spectrum whereas if τ ≫ ν, the radiation is of monochromatic. We find that when a weaker magnetic wiggler (MW) is superpositioned on a predominantly strong uniform magnetic field, free-electron two-quantum magnetic-wiggler (FETQMW) radiation takes place. In FETQMW radiation, the MW and the electron's intrinsic motivity to change its internal configuration through radiation play as two first-order perturbers while the uniform magnetic field acts as the sole zeroth-order perturber. When Δ E≪ hν, where Δ E is the uncertainty in the electron energy produced by transverse wiggling due to the MW in conjuction with a Heisenberg's uncertainty principle Δ EΔ x h and E = ( m 2 c 4 + c 2 p 2)1/2, the power of FETQMW radiation cannot exceed hν 2. However, we find that this power cap is lifted by the amount of νΔ E when Δ E ≫ hν holds [1,2]. This lift-up of the saturated radiation power is the responsible mechanism for the effective external injection of a 20 kW maser in an electron-cyclotron maser (ECM). We find that an MW-added ECM with radius 5 cm and length 1 m and operating parameters of the present beam technology can yield laser power of 50 MW at the radiation wavelength of 0.001 cm.

  13. Technical Note: Defining cyclotron-based clinical scanning proton machines in a FLUKA Monte Carlo system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorini, Francesca; Schreuder, Niek; Van den Heuvel, Frank

    2018-02-01

    Cyclotron-based pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton machines represent nowadays the majority and most affordable choice for proton therapy facilities, however, their representation in Monte Carlo (MC) codes is more complex than passively scattered proton system- or synchrotron-based PBS machines. This is because degraders are used to decrease the energy from the cyclotron maximum energy to the desired energy, resulting in a unique spot size, divergence, and energy spread depending on the amount of degradation. This manuscript outlines a generalized methodology to characterize a cyclotron-based PBS machine in a general-purpose MC code. The code can then be used to generate clinically relevant plans starting from commercial TPS plans. The described beam is produced at the Provision Proton Therapy Center (Knoxville, TN, USA) using a cyclotron-based IBA Proteus Plus equipment. We characterized the Provision beam in the MC FLUKA using the experimental commissioning data. The code was then validated using experimental data in water phantoms for single pencil beams and larger irregular fields. Comparisons with RayStation TPS plans are also presented. Comparisons of experimental, simulated, and planned dose depositions in water plans show that same doses are calculated by both programs inside the target areas, while penumbrae differences are found at the field edges. These differences are lower for the MC, with a γ(3%-3 mm) index never below 95%. Extensive explanations on how MC codes can be adapted to simulate cyclotron-based scanning proton machines are given with the aim of using the MC as a TPS verification tool to check and improve clinical plans. For all the tested cases, we showed that dose differences with experimental data are lower for the MC than TPS, implying that the created FLUKA beam model is better able to describe the experimental beam. © 2017 The Authors. Medical Physics published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Physicists

  14. Computer simulations of upper-hybrid and electron cyclotron resonance heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, A.T.; Lin, C.C.

    1983-01-01

    A 2 1/2 -dimensional relativistic electromagnetic particle code is used to investigate the dynamic behavior of electron heating around the electron cyclotron and upper-hybrid layers when an extraordinary wave is obliquely launched from the high-field side into a magnetized plasma. With a large angle of incidence most of the radiation wave energy converts into electrostatic electron Bernstein waves at the upper-hybrid layer. These mode-converted waves propagate back to the cyclotron layer and deposit their energy in the electrons through resonant interactions dominated first by the Doppler broadening and later by the relativistic mass correction. The line shape for both mechanisms has been observed in the simulations. At a later stage, the relativistic resonance effects shift the peak of the temperature profile to the high-field side. The heating ultimately causes the extraordinary wave to be substantially absorbed by the high-energy electrons. The steep temperature gradient created by the electron cyclotron heating eventually reflects a substantial part of the incident wave energy. The diamagnetic effects due to the gradient of the mode-converted Bernstein wave pressure enhance the spreading of the electron heating from the original electron cyclotron layer

  15. Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves Detected by Kaguya and Geotail in the Earth's Magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Tomoko; Nishino, Masaki N.; Tsunakawa, Hideo; Takahashi, Futoshi; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Shimizu, Hisayoshi; Matsushima, Masaki; Saito, Yoshifumi

    2018-02-01

    Narrowband electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves first discovered by the Apollo 15 and 16 Lunar Surface Magnetometers were surveyed in the magnetic field data obtained by the Kaguya satellite at an altitude of ˜100 km above the Moon in the tail lobe and plasma sheet boundary layer of the Earth's magnetosphere. The frequencies of the waves were typically 0.7 times the local proton cyclotron frequency, and 75% of the waves were left hand polarized with respect to the background magnetic field. They had a significant compressional component and comprised several discrete packets. They were detected on the dayside, nightside, and above the terminator of the Moon, irrespective of the lunar magnetic anomaly, or the magnetic connection to the lunar surface. The waves with the same characteristics were detected by Geotail in the absence of the Moon in the magnetotail. The most likely energy source of the electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves is the ring beam ions in the plasma sheet boundary layer.

  16. Advances in superconducting cyclotrons at MSU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blosser, H.; Antaya, T.; Au, R.

    1987-01-01

    Intensive work on superconducting cyclotrons began at MSU in late 1973 (a brief earlier study had occurred in the early 1960's) and continues vigorously at present. One large cyclotron, the ''K500'', has been operating for a number of years, a second, the ''K800'', is nearing completion, the first operating tests of its magnet having occurred at the time of the previous conference, and a third, the ''medical cyclotron'', is now also nearing completion with first operation of its magnet expected just after the present conference. These cyclotrons like other superconducting cyclotrons are all dramatically smaller than comparable room temperature machines; overall weight is typically about 1/20th of that of room temperature cyclotrons of the same energy. This large reduction in the quantities of materials is partially offset by added complexity, but finally, a net overall cost savings of 50 to 70 % typically results; as a consequence the superconducting cyclotron is widely viewed as the cyclotron of the future. The thirteen years of experience at MSU involving three of these cyclotrons, together with much important work at other laboratories, gives a rather clear view of the advantages and disadvantages of various design approaches including by now a rather significant period of long term evaluation. This paper reviews highlights of this program. (author)

  17. Operational health and physics service during the maintenance of the Australian National Medical Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.

    1994-01-01

    Modern Medical Cyclotrons use intense beams of high energy protons or deuterons to produce large activities of short and medium lived radionuclides. After continuous operation for prolonged periods the Cyclotron components become activated through various nuclear interactions therefore, the risk of personal radiation hazard while handling such activated cyclotron components is high. This paper describes all operational aspects of the Health Physics service evolved during the first preventative maintenance program of the Australian National Medical Cyclotron, which took place in June 1993. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  18. Nonlinear cyclotron-resonance accelerations by a generalized EM wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, K.; Hojo, H.

    2004-01-01

    Particle accelerations by a one-dimensional, electromagnetic, dispersive pulse in an external magnetic field are investigated. It is found that the well-known cyclotron resonance may be classified into three regimes as the length and/or the amplitude of the pulse are varied. Namely, as the pulse amplitude increases, the transit-time cyclotron-resonance acceleration (CRA) evolves to phase trapping, and reflect particles. The amplitude and wave dispersion as well as the pulse length strongly affect those accelerations. The interesting phenomena of quantization of resonance velocities in between the two regimes are also investigated. This new mechanism may lead to wave amplification at some discrete frequencies other than the cyclotron frequency. (authors)

  19. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating of a High-Density Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, F. Ramskov

    1986-01-01

    Various schemes for electron cyclotron resonance heating of tokamak plasmas with the ratio of electron plasma frequency to electron cyclotron frequency, "»pe/^ce* larger than 1 on axis, are investigated. In particular, a mode conversion scheme is investigated using ordinary waves at the fundamental...... of the electron cyclotron frequency. These are injected obliquely from the outside of the tokamak near an optimal angle to the magnetic field lines. This method involves two mode conversions. The ordinary waves are converted into extraordinary waves near the plasma cut-off layer. The extraordinary waves...... are subsequently converted into electrostatic electron Bernstein waves at the upper hybrid resonance layer, and the Bernstein waves are completely absorbed close to the plasma centre. Results are presented from ray-tracinq calculations in full three-dimensional geometry using the dispersion function for a hot non...

  20. Design of a simple magnetic spectrograph for the Karlsruhe isochronous cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gils, H.J.

    1980-12-01

    The ion-optical design of a simple magnetic spectrograph for studies of nuclear reactions on the Karlsruhe cyclotron is described. The spectrograph allows to determine the nuclear charge, the mass number, the reaction angle and the impulse (energy) of charged particles, which are emitted from the target. The spectrographs possibilities cover an appropriate range of likely nuclear reactions which are induced by light and heavy particles up to mass number A=20 and energies of 26 MeV per nucleon [de

  1. A new slow positron beam facility using a compact cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Masafumi

    1998-01-01

    In 1993, Sumitomo Heavy Industries became the first in the world to successfully produce a slow positron beam using a compact cyclotron. Slow positron beam production using an accelerator had mainly consisted of using an electron linear accelerator (LINAC). However, the newly developed system that uses a compact cyclotron enabled cost reduction, downsizing of equipment, production of a DC slow positron beam, a polarized slow positron beam, and other benefits. After that, a genuine slow positron beam facility was developed with the construction of compact cyclotron No.2, and beam production in the new facility has already been started. The features of this new slow positron beam facility are explained below. 1) It is the world's first compact slow positron beam facility using a compact cyclotron. 2) It is the only genuine slow positron beam facility in the world which incorporates the production and use of a slow positron beam in the design stage of the cyclotron. To use a slow positron beam for non-destructive detection of lattice defects in semiconductor material, it is necessary to convert the beam into ultra-short pulses of several hundreds of pico-seconds. Sumitomo Heavy Industries has devised a new short-pulsing method (i.e. an induction bunching method) that enables the conversion of a slow positron beam into short pulses with an optimum pulsing electric field change, and succeeded in converting a slow positron beam into short pulses using this method for the first time in the world. Non-destructive detection of lattice defects in semiconductor material using this equipment has already been started, and some information about the depth distribution, size, density, etc. of lattice defects has already been obtained. (J.P.N.)

  2. A permanent magnet system for a cyclotron used as a mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C.Y.; Cooper, M.; Halbach, K.; Kunkel, W.B.; Leung, K.N.; Wells, R.P.; Young, A.T.

    1992-07-01

    The design of a compact, low energy cyclotron used as a mass spectrometer is presented. The instrument is designed for high resolution, high sensitivity detection of trace. It features the use of permanent magnets to excite the soft iron pole pieces which provide the magnetic field of the cyclotron. Tuning magnets are used to enable the field to be varied. This significantly improves the operational requirements of the instrument when compared to one which uses electromagnets. The cyclotron will use a spiral reflector for axial injection

  3. Cyclotron waves in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lominadse, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    The book deals with fundamental physical concepts of the theory of cyclotron waves and cyclotron instabilities conditioned by the presence in plasma of direct or alternating electric currents passing in it perpendicularily to a magnetic field. A great variety of problems is considered connected with the linear theory of cyclotron oscillations in equilibrium and electron plasma of metals and semiconductors. Parametric excitations of electron cyclotron oscillations of plasma in an alternating electric field are studied. Particular attention is paid to the investigation of plasma turbulence arising as a result of development of cyclotron instabilities. Experimental data are discussed and compared with theoretical results

  4. Viscous dark energy models with variable G and Λ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbab, Arbab I.

    2008-01-01

    We consider a cosmological model with bulk viscosity η and variable cosmological A ∝ ρ -α , alpha = const and gravitational G constants. The model exhibits many interesting cosmological features. Inflation proceeds due to the presence of bulk viscosity and dark energy without requiring the equation of state p=-ρ. During the inflationary era the energy density ρ does not remain constant, as in the de-Sitter type. Moreover, the cosmological and gravitational constants increase exponentially with time, whereas the energy density and viscosity decrease exponentially with time. The rate of mass creation during inflation is found to be very huge suggesting that all matter in the universe is created during inflation. (author)

  5. Preliminary results from the ESA STSE project on SST diurnal variability, its regional extent and implications in atmospheric modelling (SSTDV:R.EX.–IM.A.M.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karagali, Ioanna; Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Høyer, Jacob L.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents some preliminary results of the ESA Support To Science Element (STSE) funded project on the Diurnal Variability of the Sea Surface Temperature, regarding its Regional Extend and Implications in Atmospheric Modelling (SSTDV:R.EX.–IM.A.M.). Comparisons of SEVIRI SST with AATSR...

  6. Cyclotron waves in plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Lominadze, D G

    2013-01-01

    Cyclotron Waves in Plasma is a four-chapter text that covers the basic physical concepts of the theory of cyclotron waves and cyclotron instabilities, brought about by the existence of steady or alternating plasma currents flowing perpendicular to the magnetic field.This book considers first a wide range of questions associated with the linear theory of cyclotron oscillations in equilibrium plasmas and in electron plasmas in metals and semiconductors. The next chapter deals with the parametric excitation of electron cyclotron oscillations in plasma in an alternating electric field. A chapter f

  7. Health physics considerations at a neutron therapy facility cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleck, J.H.; Krueger, D.J.; Mc Laughlin, J.E.; Smathers, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    The U.C.L.A. Neutron Therapy Facility (NTF) is one of four such facilities in the United States currently involved in NCI sponsored trials of neutron therapy and reflects the present interest in the use of high energy neutron beams for treating certain types of human cancers. The NTF houses a CP-45 negative ion cyclotron which accelerates a 46 MeV proton beam for production of neutrons from a beryllium target. In addition to patient treatment, the NTF is involved in the production of positron emitting radioisotopes for diagnostic use in Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The activation of therapy treatment collimators, positron and neutron target systems, and a high and rapidly varying external radiation environment in a clinical setting have contributed to the need for a comprehensive radiation control program in which patient care is balanced with the maintenance of occupational exposures to ALARA levels

  8. A line-of-sight electron cyclotron emission receiver for electron cyclotron resonance heating feedback control of tearing modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oosterbeek, J.W.; Bürger, A.; Westerhof, E.

    2008-01-01

    An electron cyclotron emission (ECE) receiver inside the electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) transmission line has been brought into operation. The ECE is extracted by placing a quartz plate acting as a Fabry-Perot interferometer under an angle inside the electron cyclotron wave (ECW) bea...

  9. 33 CFR 165.804 - Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels-safety zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Island, Texas City, Texas... Guard District § 165.804 Snake Island, Texas City, Texas; mooring and fleeting of vessels—safety zone. (a) The following is a safety zone: (1) The west and northwest shores of Snake Island; (2) The...

  10. Pulmonary Edema and Plasma Volume Changes in Dysbarism. M.S. Thesis - Texas Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joki, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Two groups of anesthetized, fasted pigs were utilized. One group of 13 animals (8.5 to 16.6 kilograms) was exposed to a high-pressure environment, and the other group of eight animals (6.9 to 20.0 kilograms) constituted the control group. The experimental group was subjected to an atmosphere of 90 percent nitrogen and 10 percent oxygen at a pressure of 50 psig for 30 minutes and then decompressed at a rate 10 psi/min. Plasma volumes, using both iodine-125-tagged-albumin and chromium-51-tagged-cell dilution techniques, were measured before, immediately after, and at 30 and 60 minutes after decompression. Aortic and right-ventricular systolic pressures were also recorded. At 60 minutes after decompression, blood samples were taken, the animals were sacrificed, and the water content of the lungs, kidneys, livers, and spleens was estimated by measuring tissue wet weight and dry weight. Protein extravasation and tissue blood volumes were determined by measuring the iodine-125-tagged-albumin and chromium-51-tagged-cell spaces in homo-genates of the organs under investigation.

  11. Export of radiopharmaceuticals and establishment of export base of cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kyungil; Kim, Youngsik

    2006-01-01

    Sam young Unit ech has seized an opportunity to advance into the radiopharmaceuticals market through successful transfer of radiopharmaceuticals manufacturing technology and medical cyclotron, an original technology in nuclear medicine that is the core of less developed areas in nuclear-related fields. The company has continued to push for research development and establishment of market base through industry-academia-research center cooperation with an aim to complement relatively less developed domestic technology and market than in advanced countries, and is making efforts to establish export base in the overseas market based on stabilized supply in the domestic market. As for radiopharmaceuticals, the company is exporting Tc-99m generator to Vietnam, Thailand and the Philippines and preparing itself to export manufacture facilities for Tc-99m generator to Syria and Kazakhstan. In addition, it plans to export 13Mev Cyclotron that has been commercialized after being developed in the domestic market to the U. S. The company plans to grow up to play a pivotal role in the domestic RT area by conducting proactive business activities with an aim to revitalize the domestic market and further domestic original technologies and products in the global market

  12. Assessment of the direct cyclotron production of (99m)Tc: An approach to crisis management of (99m)Tc shortage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovais, Mohammad Reza Aboudzadeh; Aardaneh, Khosro; Aslani, Gholamreza; Rahiminejad, Ali; Yousefi, Kamran; Boulouri, Fatemeh

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, the cyclotron production of technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) has been increased, due to the worldwide (99m)Tc generator shortage. In the present work, an improved strategy for the production of (99m)Tc, using the proton irradiation of the enriched (100)Mo was developed. The performance of this method in terms of the production yield, chemical purity, radiochemical purity, as well as radionuclide purity was evaluated. The average production yield was measured to be 356MBqμA(-1)h(-1). A good agreement was found between the calculated production yield and the experimental one. The radiochemical separation and total recovery yields of (99m)Tc were 92% and 69%, respectively. The radiochemical and the radionuclide purities of the (99m)Tc were 99% and >99.99% at the end of purification, respectively. The results of quality control tests (QC) support the concept that cyclotron-produced (99m)Tc is suitable for preparation of USP-compliant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ROKCY-12 (KCCH PET-dedicated cyclotron): main features and improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai, J. S.; Kim, Y. S.; Yang, Y. T.; Jung, I. S.; Hong, S. S.; Lee, M. Y.; Jang, H. S.; Kim, J. H.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the development of 13 MeV cyclotron (ROKCY-12) that can be used for a Position Emission Tomography(PET) purpose. This cyclotron with a maximum beam energy of 13 MeV can produce radio isotopes especially 18 F which has a relatively short half lifetime of 110 minutes. First, we show the beam characteristics can be used to carry out the operation of ROCKY-12. Based on this, a computer program has been developed to determine main cyclotron parameters such as cyclotron magnet, RF system, ion source, vacuum system and other cyclotron operation parameters. And then we show the result of design and manufacturing feature of ROKCY-12. By using this design program, one can determines magnet yoke geometry and the average magnetic fields etc. And then the three-dimensional computer program OPERA-3D has been invoked to determine magnet pole tips. Validity of the design can be seen by investigating magnetic fields, radial and vertical focusing frequencies as a function of the beam energy. In this paper, we show the results of cyclotron beam by ROCKY-12. We designed 77.3 MHz RF system and ion source system. We tested RF resonance each coupling methods. We show the result of RF design and prototype operation. Developed ion source is PIG type. We described our design methods and implementation. We report the result of getting negative hydrogen ion. Cyclotron controller asks inputs of every sensor and output of every instrument for notifying current condition to operator. It has independent controllers, for example DC power supply, vacuum system, beam profile system, beam extraction system, RF system, ion source, cooling unit and so on. Basically, each control system uses RS-485 for communication to main control computer. Consumers reward products and services that feature quality, originality, a distinct personality and charm. The International Standardization Organization (ISO) requires, as its mission, that we achieve competitive superiority by

  14. Graphical user interface for yield and dose estimations for cyclotron-produced technetium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, X; Vuckovic, M; Buckley, K; Bénard, F; Schaffer, P; Ruth, T; Celler, A

    2014-07-07

    The cyclotron-based (100)Mo(p,2n)(99m)Tc reaction has been proposed as an alternative method for solving the shortage of (99m)Tc. With this production method, however, even if highly enriched molybdenum is used, various radioactive and stable isotopes will be produced simultaneously with (99m)Tc. In order to optimize reaction parameters and estimate potential patient doses from radiotracers labeled with cyclotron produced (99m)Tc, the yields for all reaction products must be estimated. Such calculations, however, are extremely complex and time consuming. Therefore, the objective of this study was to design a graphical user interface (GUI) that would automate these calculations, facilitate analysis of the experimental data, and predict dosimetry. The resulting GUI, named Cyclotron production Yields and Dosimetry (CYD), is based on Matlab®. It has three parts providing (a) reaction yield calculations, (b) predictions of gamma emissions and (c) dosimetry estimations. The paper presents the outline of the GUI, lists the parameters that must be provided by the user, discusses the details of calculations and provides examples of the results. Our initial experience shows that the proposed GUI allows the user to very efficiently calculate the yields of reaction products and analyze gamma spectroscopy data. However, it is expected that the main advantage of this GUI will be at the later clinical stage when entering reaction parameters will allow the user to predict production yields and estimate radiation doses to patients for each particular cyclotron run.

  15. Electron cyclotron heating and associated parallel cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapozo, C. da C.; Assis, A.S. de; Busnardo Neto, J.

    1990-01-01

    It has been experimentally observed that during the electron-cyclotron heating the electron longitudinal temperature drops as the perpendicular temperature increases. The experiment was carried in a linear mirror machine with a low density (10 10 cm -3 ) weakly ionized (< 1.0 %) plasma. (Author)

  16. Variability in Surface BRDF at Different Spatial Scales (30m-500m) Over a Mixed Agricultural Landscape as Retrieved from Airborne and Satellite Spectral Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Miguel O.; Gatebe, Charles K.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Poudyal, Rajesh; Wang, Zhuosen; King, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, the role of multiangle 1 remote sensing has been central to the development of algorithms for the retrieval of global land surface properties including models of the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF), albedo, land cover/dynamics, burned area extent, as well as other key surface biophysical quantities represented by the anisotropic reflectance characteristics of vegetation. In this study, a new retrieval strategy for fine-to-moderate resolution multiangle observations was developed, based on the operational sequence used to retrieve the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Collection 5 reflectance and BRDF/albedo products. The algorithm makes use of a semiempirical kernel-driven bidirectional reflectance model to provide estimates of intrinsic albedo (i.e., directional-hemispherical reflectance and bihemispherical reflectance), model parameters describing the BRDF, and extensive quality assurance information. The new retrieval strategy was applied to NASA's Cloud Absorption Radiometer (CAR) data acquired during the 2007 Cloud and Land Surface Interaction Campaign (CLASIC) over the well-instrumented Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site in Oklahoma, USA. For the case analyzed, we obtained approx.1.6 million individual surface bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) retrievals, from nadir to 75deg off-nadir, and at spatial resolutions ranging from 3 m - 500 m. This unique dataset was used to examine the interaction of the spatial and angular 18 characteristics of a mixed agricultural landscape; and provided the basis for detailed assessments of: (1) the use of a priori knowledge in kernel-driven BRDF model inversions; (2) the interaction between surface reflectance anisotropy and instrument spatial resolution; and (3) the uncertainties that arise when sub-pixel differences in the BRDF are aggregated to a moderate resolution satellite

  17. Groundwater Challenges of the Lower Rio Grande: A Case Study of Legal Issues in Texas and New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wheat

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1938, Texas, New Mexico, and Colorado signed the Rio Grande Compact, establishing terms of apportionment for some of the water from the Rio Grande for the three states. Following congressional approval in 1939, this compact governs water allocation in a region with a variable climate and frequent drought conditions and established the Rio Grande Compact Commission, comprised of a commissioner from each state and one from the federal government, to enforce the compact. With an increasing population and declining surface water supply, the Compact has been tested among the parties and within the states themselves. In a case currently before the U.S. Supreme Court, Texas v. New Mexico and Colorado (2013, Texas claims New Mexico is violating the Compact and Rio Grande Project Act by using water in excess of its apportionment through its allowance of diversions of surface and groundwater. The issue is further compounded by disputes within Texas over separate legal regimes for groundwater and surface water. Combined with growing scarcity issues, the allocation of water in the Lower Rio Grande presents a timely natural resource challenge. This review explores legal issues involved in the case as well as growing challenges of population growth, agricultural development needs, and water shortages.

  18. A border versus non-border comparison of food environment, poverty, and ethnic composition in Texas urban settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jennifer J; Sexton, Ken

    2015-01-01

    The goal was to examine the relationship between the food environment and selected socioeconomic variables and ethnic/racial makeup in the eight largest urban settings in Texas so as to gain a better understanding of the relationships among Hispanic composition, poverty, and urban foodscapes, comparing border to non-border urban environments. Census-tract level data on (a) socioeconomic factors, like percentage below the poverty line and number of households on foodstamps, and (b) ethnic variables, like percent of Mexican origin and percent foreign born, were obtained from the U.S. Census. Data at the census-tract level on the total number of healthy (e.g., supermarkets) and less-healthy (e.g., fast food outlets) food retailers were acquired from the CDC's modified retail food environment index (mRFEI). Variation among urban settings in terms of the relationship between mRFEI scores and socioeconomic and ethnic context was tested using a mixed-effect model, and linear regression was used to identify significant factors for each urban location. A jackknife variance estimate was used to account for clustering and autocorrelation of adjacent census tracts. Average census-tract mRFEI scores exhibited comparatively small variation across Texas urban settings, while socioeconomic and ethnic factors varied significantly. The only covariates significantly associated with mRFEI score were percent foreign born and percent Mexican origin. Compared to the highest-population county (Harris, which incorporates most of Houston), the only counties that had significantly different mRFEI scores were Bexar, which is analogous to San Antonio (2.12 lower), El Paso (2.79 higher), and Neuces, which encompasses Corpus Christi (2.90 less). Significant interaction effects between mRFEI and percent foreign born (El Paso, Tarrant - Fort Worth, Travis - Austin), percent Mexican origin (Hidalgo - McAllen, El Paso, Tarrant, Travis), and percent living below the poverty line (El Paso) were

  19. In-house cyclotron and nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateno, Yukio; Shishido, Fumio; Yamazaki, Toshiro

    1982-01-01

    In-house cyclotron produced radioisotopes and positron computed tomography provide a unique technique which gives cross-sectional bodyimages of various kinds of physiological activities of living human body. Applications of the technique to clinical study might throw a new light on the etiologically unknown disorders of human central nervous system and etc. However, some difficulties should be settled before the establishment of this technique as an useful research and diagnostic tool. One of them was spatial resolution of positron computed tomography, and another was selection and development of really effective labeled compounds for the disease in question. A rotary positron emission computed tomography device was developed by our physicist team, and our chemist team developed various kinds of radiopharmaceuticals. Clinical applications of the technique started in our institute in November 1979, using the positron computed tomography machine named Positrologica I and the pharmaceuticals, 13sup( n h3, )11sup( C o and )18 F-2-fluoro-deoxy-glucose. (author)

  20. Cyclotron to Oslo University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstad, J.

    1978-01-01

    The new cyclotron was delivered to Oslo University on September 21st 1978, and was mannfactured by A/B Scandtronix of Uppsala, Sweden. The contract price was 6,8 million Norwegian kroner and installation will cost a further 4 million. The main specifications are given. The energy will be 36 MeV for protons and alpha particles, 18 MeV deuterons and 48 MeV for helium 3. The principle of a cyclotron is briefly described. While the primary purpose of the machine is nuclear research it is also planned to produce short-lived radioisotopes, primarily iodine 123. (JIW)

  1. Differences in Persistence and Graduation Rates of Hispanic Students in Texas Community Colleges: A Texas Statewide Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Danielle R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this journal-ready dissertation was to examine the 1-year persistence rates of Hispanic community college students in Texas for the 2007-2008 through the 2013-2014 academic years. Specifically, the relationship of the 1-year persistence rates for Hispanic students as a function of their institutional status (i.e., stayed or…

  2. Electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fidone, I.; Castejon, F.

    1992-07-01

    A brief summary of the theory and experiments on electron- cyclotron heating and current drive is presented. The general relativistic formulation of wave propagation and linear absorption is considered in some detail. The O-mode and the X-mode for normal and oblique propagation are investigated and illustrated by several examples. The experimental verification of the theory in T-10 and D- III-D is briefly discussed. Quasilinear evolution of the momentum distribution and related applications as, for instance, non linear wave, damping and current drive, are also considered for special cases of wave frequencies, polarization and propagation. In the concluding section we present the general formulation of the wave damping and current drive in the absence of electron trapping for arbitrary values of the wave frequency. (Author) 13 refs.

  3. Electron - cyclotron resonance heating and current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidone, I.; Castejon, F.

    1992-01-01

    A brief summary of the theory and experiments on electron- cyclotron heating and current drive is presented. The general relativistic formulation of wave propagation and linear absorption is considered in some detail. The O-mode and the X-mode for normal and oblique propagation are investigated and illustrated by several examples. The experimental verification of the theory in T-10 and D- III-D is briefly discussed. Quasilinear evolution of the momentum distribution and related applications as, for instance, non linear wave, damping and current drive, are also considered for special cases of wave frequencies, polarization and propagation. In the concluding section we present the general formulation of the wave damping and current drive in the absence of electron trapping for arbitrary values of the wave frequency. (Author) 13 refs

  4. Potential impact of neonicotinoid use on Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) in Texas: A historical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Hannah M H; Mora, Miguel A; Brightsmith, Donald J; Navarro-Alberto, Jorge A

    2018-01-01

    The widespread use of neonicotinoid insecticides in recent years has led to increasing environmental concern, including impacts to avian populations. In Texas and across their range, Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) habitat frequently overlaps cultivated cropland protected by neonicotinoids. To address the effects of neonicotinoid use on bobwhites in Texas, we conducted a historical analysis from 1978-2012 in Texas' ecological regions using quail count data collected from North American Breeding Bird Survey and Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, and neonicotinoid use data from the U.S. Geological Survey. We considered bobwhite abundance, neonicotinoid use, climate, and land-use variables in our analysis. Neonicotinoid use was significantly (pTexas Plains ecological regions in the time periods following neonicotinoid introduction (1994-2003) or after their widespread use (2004-2012). Our analyses suggest that the use of neonicotinoid insecticides may negatively affect bobwhite populations in crop-producing regions of Texas.

  5. An analysis of monthly household energy consumption among single-family residences in Texas, 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenzuela, Carlos; Valencia, Alelhie; White, Steve; Jordan, Jeffrey A.; Cano, Stephanie; Keating, Jerome; Nagorski, John; Potter, Lloyd B.

    2014-01-01

    Demographic, socioeconomic, and housing characteristics influence variation in household energy consumption. By combining household-level utility, public, and proprietary data, we examine predictors of household energy consumption in a Texas urban area. Using quantile regression, this analysis assesses the relationship between energy consumption and predictors at the middle and both ends of the distribution (10th and 90th percentiles). Results indicate potential opportunities to lower consumption among the highest energy-consuming households including those with pools, with non-central cooling, with people working from home, those built on pier/post foundation, and those that are renter-occupied. These findings suggest significant opportunities to reduce consumption and demand as in the study area, almost 10% of housing units are renter-occupied, 18% percent are without central cooling, and 7% have pools. Capturing a significant portion of these homes for retrofit conservation efforts through marketing has potential to produce substantial results. Producing a better understanding of determinants of household energy consumption using the methods presented has potential to assist development and implementation of strategies to reduce consumption and increase efficiency. - Highlights: • Data on energy use is combined with housing and demographic characteristics. • Quantile regression is used to examine relationships among key variables. • Less efficient homes have pools, no central HVAC, and pier/post foundations. • Houses with persons working at home and renter occupied homes were less efficient. • Energy conservation strategies are discussed and suggested for each element

  6. Burden of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and advancedfibrosis in a Texas Hispanic community cohort

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate the potential burden of nonalcoholicsteatohepatitis (NASH) and advanced fibrosis in ahispanic community.METHODS: Four hundred and forty two participantswith available ultrasonography data from the CameronCounty Hispanic Cohort were included in this study. Eachparticipant completed a comprehensive questionnaireregarding basic demographic information, medicalhistory, medication use, and social and family historyincluding alcohol use. Values of the nonalcoholic fattyliver disease fibrosis score (NFS), FIB4 index, BARDscore, and Aspartate aminotransferase to Platelet RatioIndex (APRI) were computed using the blood samplescollected within 6 mo of liver ultrasonography fromeach participant. Hepatic steatosis was determinedby ultrasonography. As part of univariable analysis,for continuous variables, comparisons among groupswere performed with student-t test, one way analysisof variance, and Mann-Whitney test. Pearson χ 2 andthe Fisher exact test are used to assess differencesin categorical variables. For multivariable analyses,logistic regression analyses were performed to identifycharacteristics associated with hepatic steatosis. Allreported P values are based two-sided tests, and aP value of less than 0.05 was considered to indicatestatistical significance.RESULTS: The mean age and body mass index (BMI)of the study participants were 49.1 years and 31.3 kg/m2, respectively. Among them, 65.6% were females,52% had hepatic steatosis, 49.5% had metabolicsyndrome, and 29% had elevated aminotransferases.Based on established cut-offs for diagnostic panels,between 17%-63% of the entire cohort was predictedto have NASH with indeterminate or advanced fibrosis.Participants with hepatic steatosis had significantlyhigher BMI (32.9 ± 5.6 kg/m2 vs 29.6 ± 6.1 kg/m2,P 〈 0.001) and higher prevalence rates of elevationof ALT (42.2% vs 14.6%, P 〈 0.001), elevation ofaspartate aminotransferase (38.7% vs 18.9%, P 〈0.001), and

  7. Magnetic field of the U-120M isochronous cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alenitskij, Yu.G.; Vasilevskaya, D.P.; Zaplatin, N.L.; Ivashkevich, S.A.; Li Zun; Morozov, N.A.; Shishlyannikov, P.T.

    1976-01-01

    The main results of formation and analysis of accelerator magnetic field are presented for three levels of excitation of the main electromagnet winding, Isub(0)=610,350,175A, corresponding to obtaining the maximum proton energy, Esub(k)=39.9; 30.0; 13.0 MeV on the terminal radius, r=51 cm. Distributions of currents in concentric windings are calculated, which provide acceleration of d, He 3 2 and α particles up to energies of 8,15,20 MeV; 17,40,54 MeV; 17,30,41 MeV, correspondingly. Physical starting and studies of two operation regimes (Esub(p)=40 MeV and Esub(p)=30 MeV) have shown that the magnetic field formed satisfies all the requirements for the given accelerator

  8. The neutronic design and performance of the Indiana University Cyclotron Facility (IUCF) Low Energy Neutron Source (LENS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Christopher M.

    Neutron scattering research is performed primarily at large-scale facilities. However, history has shown that smaller scale neutron scattering facilities can play a useful role in education and innovation while performing valuable materials research. This dissertation details the design and experimental validation of the LENS TMR as an example for a small scale accelerator driven neutron source. LENS achieves competitive long wavelength neutron intensities by employing a novel long pulse mode of operation, where the neutron production target is irradiated on a time scale comparable to the emission time of neutrons from the system. Monte Carlo methods have been employed to develop a design for optimal production of long wavelength neutrons from the 9Be(p,n) reaction at proton energies ranging from 7 to 13 MeV proton energy. The neutron spectrum was experimentally measured using time of flight, where it is found that the impact of the long pulse mode on energy resolution can be eliminated at sub-eV neutron energies if the emission time distribution of neutron from the system is known. The emission time distribution from the TMR system is measured using a time focussed crystal analyzer. Emission time of the fundamental cold neutron mode is found to be consistent with Monte Carlo results. The measured thermal neutron spectrum from the water reflector is found to be in agreement with Monte Carlo predictions if the scattering kernels employed are well established. It was found that the scattering kernels currently employed for cryogenic methane are inadequate for accurate prediction of the cold neutron intensity from the system. The TMR and neutronic modeling have been well characterized and the source design is flexible, such that it is possible for LENS to serve as an effective test bed for future work in neutronic development. Suggestions for improvements to the design that would allow increased neutron flux into the instruments are provided.

  9. CAS CERN Accelerator School: Cyclotrons, linacs and their applications. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, S.

    1996-01-01

    These proceedings present the lectures given at the eighth specialized course organized by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the topic this time being 'Cyclotrons, Linacs and Their Applications'. Following an introductory lecture on linacs, the fundamental features of electron, ion and induction linacs are described together with their RF systems and particle sources. Cyclotrons are then introduced followed by details of their different types, their magnet and RF design, and their injection and extraction systems, with a glance towards exotic and possible future machines. Chapters are then presented on the use of linacs and cyclotrons for medical, fission, fusion and material applications, as well as for isotope production. Finally, descriptions of the design of a radioisotope facility, the matching of accelerators to their task and the computational tools used in their design are included. (orig.)

  10. CAS CERN Accelerator School: Cyclotrons, linacs and their applications. Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, S [ed.

    1996-03-04

    These proceedings present the lectures given at the eighth specialized course organized by the CERN Accelerator School (CAS), the topic this time being `Cyclotrons, Linacs and Their Applications`. Following an introductory lecture on linacs, the fundamental features of electron, ion and induction linacs are described together with their RF systems and particle sources. Cyclotrons are then introduced followed by details of their different types, their magnet and RF design, and their injection and extraction systems, with a glance towards exotic and possible future machines. Chapters are then presented on the use of linacs and cyclotrons for medical, fission, fusion and material applications, as well as for isotope production. Finally, descriptions of the design of a radioisotope facility, the matching of accelerators to their task and the computational tools used in their design are included. (orig.).

  11. Thin-target excitation functions: a powerful tool for optimizing yield, radionuclidic purity and specific activity of cyclotron produced radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonardi, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    loci of the maxima of Y(E,ΔE) curves are present in most cases. As a relevant conclusion, use of target thickness larger than the 'effective' value, is unsuitable from technological point of view, due to larger power density deposited by the beam in target material itself, instead of target cooling system. Finally, this set of Thick-Target Yields and maxima permits calculating the optimum irradiation conditions to produce radionuclides with higher as possible yield, radionuclidic purity and specific activity. In order to join the advantages of the accurate knowledge of thin-target excitation functions and cross-sections of radionuclide of interest and its radioisotopic impurities, very selective radiochemical separations were optimized to separate the radionuclide itself from the irradiated target without any addition of isotopic carrier. A large number of very high specific activity radionuclides for environmental, toxicological and biomedical research applications have been produced in No Carrier Added form, by medium energy proton, deuteron and alpha accelerating cyclotrons. Some practical examples of radionuclides produced recently are presented. (author)

  12. Physical trajectory profile data from glider Stommel deployed by Texas A&M University; Texas A&M University - College Station; Geochemical and Environmental Research Group in the Gulf of Mexico from 2016-08-05 to 2016-09-05 (NCEI Accession 0156568)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This deployment is to investigate conditions in the region of the Flower Garden Banks after a die-off was reported. The National Centers for Environmental...

  13. Electron cyclotron waves, transport and instabilities in hot plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerhof, E.

    1987-01-01

    A number of topics relevant to the magnetic confinement approach to the thermonuclear fusion is addressed. The absorption and emission of electron cyclotron waves in a thermal plasma with a small population of supra-thermal, streaming electrons is examined and the properties of electron cyclotron waves in a plasma with a pure loss-cone distribution are studied. A report is given on the 1-D transport code simulations that were performed to assist the interpretation of the electron cyclotron heating experiments on the TFR tokamak. Transport code simulations of sawteeth discharges in the T-10 tokamak are discussed in order to compare the predictions of different models for the sawtooth oscillations with the experimental findings. 149 refs.; 69 figs.; 7 tabs

  14. A prototype of a novel energy efficient variable stiffness actuator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, L.C.; Carloni, Raffaella; Klijnstra, F.; Stramigioli, Stefano

    In this work, we present a proof of concept of a novel variable stiffness actuator. The actuator design is based on the conceptual design proposed in earlier work, and is such that the apparent output stiffness of the actuator can be changed independently of the output position and without any

  15. Theory of accelerated orbits and space charge effects in an AVF cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleeven, W.J.G.M.

    1988-01-01

    In the first part of this thesis the influence of the accelerating electric field upon the motion of particles in a cyclotron is studied. A general relativistic Hamiltonian theory is derived which allows for a simultaneous study of the transverse and longitudinal motion as well as the coupling between both motions. It includes azimuthally varying magnetic fields and therefore describes phenomena which are due to the interfering influences of a given geometrical dee system with the azimuthally varying part of the magnetic field. As an example the electric gap crossing resonance is treated. The second part deals with space charge effects in a AVF cyclotron. The properties of the bunch, like the sizes, emittances and momentum spread, are represented in terms of second order moments of the phase space distribution function, and two sets of differential equations are derived which describe the time evolution of these moments under space charge conditions. The model takes into account the coupling between the longitudinal and radial motion, and the fact that the revolution frequency of the particles is independent of their energy. The analytical models developed can be applied to a given cyclotron by adopting the relevant parameters. Some calculations are presented for the small 3 MeV Iscochroneous Low Energy Cyclotron ILEC which is presently under construction at the Eindhoven University. Also some attention to the construction of this machine is given. (H.W.). 49 refs.; 37 figs

  16. Electron–Cyclotron Laser Using Free-Electron Two-Quantum Stark Radiation in a Strong Uniform Axial Magnetic Field and an Alternating Axial Electric Field in a Voltage-Supplied Pill-Box Cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the radiation from the beam electrons traveling in a strong uniform axial magnetic field and an axial alternating electric field of wavelength λ_w generated by a voltage-supplied pill-box cavity. The beam electrons emit genuine laser radiation that propagates only in the axial direction through free-electron two-quantum Stark radiation. We find that laser radiation takes place only at the expense of the axial kinetic energy when λ_w ≪ c/(ω_c/γ), where ω_c/γ is the relativistic electron–cyclotron frequency. We formulate the laser power based on quantum-wiggler electrodynamics, and envision a laser of length 10 m with estimated power 0.1 GW/(kA) in the 10"−"4 cm wavelength range. (paper)