radiotraced tetryl will permit mass balances to be performed. 6 2.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS 2.1 PURITY AND ANALYSIS OF TETRYL SOURCES 2.1.1 Tetryl Chemical...injecting a tetryl standard with the ^ oil extract. The co-injection is presented at the bottom of Figure 3.1. As is indicated in Figure 3.1, tetryl is...International, Menlo Park, California. Whitowski, L. J., C. N. Fisher, and H. D. Murdock. 1942. " Industrial Illness Due to Tetryl." JAMA 119:1406-1409
Fellows, R.J.; Harvey, S.D.; Cataldo, D.A.
The objective of the present studies was to elucidate the environmental behavior and fate of 2,4,6trintrophenylmethylnitramine (tetryl) in the soil/plant system in three different types of soils incubated for 60 days. No tetryl was detectable after 11 days; most of the radiolabel was associated with non-extractable soil components and four transformation products appeared rapidly, of which two were identified as N-methyl-2,4,6-trintroaniline and N-methyl-aminodinitroaniline isomer. Short-term hydroponic studies indicated no significant difference in uptake rates for the three plant species employed. Kinetic studies indicated that plants have a high affinity and capacity for absorbing tetryl. Partitioning patterns indicated that the root is the major accumulation site for tetryl. Chemical fractionation and analyses of tissues showed rapid metabolism of tetryl in tissues of all species, which proceeded toward more polar metabolic products. Plant maturity studies indicated significant differences in the total relative uptake of tetryl by all three plant species based on soil type.
Fuller, Mark E; Kruczek, Jessica; Schuster, Rachel L; Sheehan, Pamela L; Arienti, Per M
Past and current DoD activities have resulted in the contamination of soil, sediment and groundwater with various explosive compounds. This research was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of a soil bioslurry process for remediation of soil with very high concentrations of 2,4,6-trinitrophenylmethylnitramine (tetryl). A 99.9% reduction in tetryl concentrations (from 100,000 to below 100 mg/kg) was achieved in 180 to 200 days. A variety of process modifications (i.e. addition of fertilizer, microbial biomass, purging with nitrogen, etc.) that were performed during the course of the experiment did not increase the tetryl biodegradation rate beyond the rates of degradation without modifications. Subsequent batches of soil added as a 25% (v/v) replacement of the slurry were also degraded. These results indicate the potential for this process to remediate highly contaminated soils at many former and current ammunition manufacturing sites.
has been in use, largely for military purposes, since 1906. Wastewaters and soil at the original production sites and other plants devoted to munitions...readily absorbed through the skin (Von Burg, 1989). Tetryl was observed to be a powerful skin sensitizer in ammunition plant workers. Dermatitis, liver...MtSENTZAIC LYMPH WODI N N 9 N N x 0 N TtSItS N N W N N N N N UPIDIDYMIS N N x N N x N N S~grA6LVESICLES w N N N N N N p x x SKIN N N N N v 0 N N 9
Sandra Zago Falone
Full Text Available This paper presents the study of adsorption/desorption of the explosive tetryl (2,4,6-trinitrophenylmethyl-nitramine in different matrices, such as in natura soil, roasted soil, humic acid of soil, in natura peat, roasted peat and humic acid of peat. The aim of the study is to evaluate the interaction capacity of those matrices with the explosive. The analytic technique used was HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography, with UV-detection at 230 nm. The Freundlich isotherms were utilized for the mathematical treatment of the data. The results indicated that in natura soil and in natura peat (with organic substances are excellent matrices for the retention of tetryl, adsorbing it and keeping it immovable, preventing it from contaminating the groundwater. The largest adsorption of the explosive ocurred in in natura soil, while the smallest desorption was observed in in natura peat. After the calcination of the matrices, the smallest adsorption was observed, indicating that the retention occurs in the organic substance.
Fellows, R.J.; Harvey, S.D.; Cataldo, D.A.
A preliminary study was conducted to elucidate the nature of the polar metabolites reported for plant tissues and xylem exudates following root accumulation of trinitrotoluene. Studies focused on the nature of the proposed conjugates of TNT-residues in xylem exudates of bush beam plants. Use of enzymatic methods failed to demonstrate that the conjugates were carbohydrate based, but acid hydrolysis indicated that the conjugates may be protein based. Of the five polar conjugates isolated from exudates, the presence of aminodinitrotoluene isomers and one unknown TNT residue was demonstrated.
samples of TNT, TNB, tetryl, RDX, HMX , and PETN (ref 36). The differential thermal analysis thermograms of TNT showing varying rapidity of heat... polymorphic or polytypic behavior near the melting point of TNT (ref 38). The thermal properties of TNT have also been reported by Maycock (ref 39...A LC method suitable for the low level determination of tetryl in the presence of TNT, RDX, and HMX is described (ref 105). The adsorptive LC of
the same way.10 For example, mercury fulminate ignited by a hot wire may burn with an initial speed as low as 5 cm. sec. Lead styphnate and the organic...on the Velocity of Detonation of Tetryl; Density O.9g.c ......... 22 2 Detonation Velocities in Thin Films of Some Inorganic Azides and Fulminates ...mm of mercury ) and then the pressure of the surroundings of the strand was lowered to the desired level. Burn rates were measured using high speed
pressure chemical-ionization (APCI) was used for all of the explosives except for UN and PC, where the best sensitivity was achieved using electrospray...used to detect urea nitrate ( UN ), potassium chlorate (PC), 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4,6-trinitrophenylmethylnitramine (tetryl), tri- acetone...example of a homemade ex- plosive is urea nitrate ( UN ), and ion chromatography (IC) 2 has been reported for detection of UN as nitrate ion, but due to
has been gradually phased out in favor of plastic bonded RDX and HMX formulas (Talmage et al. 1999). Figure 4. Chemical structure of tetryl, ammonium...Building 3270 Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199 Eric J. Glisch U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, New Orleans District 7400 Leake Avenue New Orleans, LA 70118...226 Report Documentation Page ERDC/EL TR-17-17 viii Figures and Tables Figures Figure 1. Chemical structure of 2,4,6 trinitrotoluene
Bobrovnikov Sergei M.
Full Text Available The possibility of remote detection of traces of explosives using laser fragmentation/laser-induced fluorescence (LF/LIF is studied. Experimental data on the remote visualization of traces of trinitrotoluene (TNT, hexogen (RDX, trotyl-hexogen (Comp B, octogen (HMX, and tetryl with a scanning lidar detector of traces of nitrogen-containing explosives at a distance of 5 m are presented.
of Engineers Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory In-Situ Detection of Contaminant Plumes in Ground Water W. Rudott Setz August 1990 U S APMY...immunochemnical methodis for system (Inmanect al. 1989). Another attractiv : approach tetryl. benizene. dieldrin and paria-chloroptienylm.-th- is to us. a...not been any further work on cyanide. censt complexes. Of the important metal mo conuamni- The Office of Naval Research has recently made the nairts
element actiny as a backup, providing the capability of early aetection of either a smoldering low temperature type of ignition, or an ignition producing...station where operations are performed involving high hazard materials such as boostering explosives (e.g., PTN, tetryl and RDX ), bursting charge...explosives (e.g,, amato, Explosive 0, DOX, picratol, picric acid, RDX compositions, INT ana tritonal), solid propellants, black powder and 14C st oke mixture
KOYUNCU, Hülya; SEVEN, Ertan; ÇALIMLI, Ayla
The increase in terrorist activities committed using explosives in recent years has generated the need for improved analytical methods that can accurately and quickly identify explosives and their residues. In this study such an analytical method is evaluated. In the first phase of the study, standard solutions and a standard mixture solution of TNT (2,4,6-trinitrotoluene), RDX (1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazocyclohexane), PETN (pentaerythritoltetranitrate) and TETRYL (2,4,6-trinitrophen...
explosives, such as lead azide and mercury fulminate , and high explosives, such as TNT, dynamite (with or without a liquid explosive), tetryl, and black...Lead 50 Lindane 4 Mercury 2 Methoxychlor 100 Methyiene chloride 2 Nickel 13.4 Nitrate (as N) 10,000 "CBs 0.5 Selenium 10 Silver...Cont’d) Parameter Criteria Specific toxic substances (ug 1) (Cont’d) L ndane 0.080 Total mercury 2 PC8s 0.014 Total selenium 10 Total s<iver
Frost, David; Jette, Francois; Goroshin, Samuel; Higgins, Andrew; Lee, Julian
The effect of titanium particle morphology on the shock sensitivity of titanium-silicon powder mixtures has been investigated experimentally. The powder mixtures were tested in a planar recovery capsule, with the shock loading produced by a high explosive Tetryl booster charge placed on top of the capsule and a PMMA attenuator. Reactions were not observed for stoichiometric mixtures of large (75 -- 106 μm), spherical Ti particles with fine (effects which lowered the temperature for the onset of exothermic reaction of the shocked sample by about 80^oC.
1,5 2.0 0 0.5 1.0 15t (sc) 2.0 t (HscO) t(s F’igure 7, Time Variation of Detonation Products Temperature of TNT *IT TETRYL 4000 4500 JCZ -3 JCZ -3 LJO... Detonation , NSWC, White Oak, MD,S~ 1981, pp. 759-787. 4000 -LJD 3. Kato, Y.; Bouriannes, R.; and Brochet, C., "Measure de Temp6rature de Luminance JCZ -3...SHOCK STUDIES; ROMAIN, J, P.; JACQUESSON, J,; FRANCE 6 16? THE JCZ EQUATIONS OF STATE FOR DETONATION PRODUCTS AND THEIR INCORPORATION IN THE TIGER
Nipper, M; Carr, R S; Biedenbach, J M; Hooten, R L; Miller, K; Saepoff, S
A toxicity database for ordnance compounds was generated using eight compounds of concern and marine toxicity tests with five species from different phyla. Toxicity tests and endpoints included fertilization success and embryological development with the sea urchin Arbacia punctulata; zoospore germination, germling length, and cell number with the green macroalga Ulva fasciata; survival and reproductive success of the polychaete Dinophilus gyrociliatus; larvae hatching and survival with the redfish Sciaenops ocellatus; and survival of juveniles of the opossum shrimp Americamysis bahia (formerly Mysidopsis bahia). The studied ordnance compounds were 2,4- and 2,6-dinitrotoluene, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, 1,3-dinitrobenzene, 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 2,4,6-trinitrophenylmethylnitramine (tetryl), 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (picric acid), and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX). The most sensitive toxicity test endpoints overall were the macroalga zoospore germination and the polychaete reproduction tests. The most toxic ordnance compounds overall were tetryl and 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene. These were also the most degradable compounds, often being reduced to very low or below-detection levels at the end of the test exposure. Among the dinitro- and trinitrotoluenes and benzenes, toxicity tended to increase with the level of nitrogenation. Picric acid and RDX were the least toxic chemicals tested overall.
Todd, M. W.; Provencal, R. A.; Owano, T. G.; Paldus, B. A.; Kachanov, A.; Vodopyanov, K. L.; Hunter, M.; Coy, S. L.; Steinfeld, J. I.; Arnold, J. T.
A novel instrument, based on cavity-ringdown spectroscopy (CRDS), has been developed for trace gas detection. The new instrument utilizes a widely tunable optical parametric oscillator (OPO), which incorporates a zinc-germanium-phosphide (ZGP) crystal that is pumped at 2.8 μm by a 25-Hz Er,Cr:YSGG laser. The resultant mid-IR beam profile is nearly Gaussian, with energies exceeding 200 μJ/pulse between 6 and 8 μm, corresponding to a quantum conversion efficiency of approximately 35%. Vapor-phase mid-infrared spectra of common explosives (TNT, TATP, RDX, PETN and Tetryl) were acquired using the CRDS technique. Parts-per-billion concentration levels were readily detected with no sample preconcentration. A collection/flash-heating sequence was implemented in order to enhance detection limits for ambient air sampling. Detection limits as low as 75 ppt for TNT are expected, with similar concentration levels for the other explosives.
Talmage, S S; Opresko, D M; Maxwell, C J; Welsh, C J; Cretella, F M; Reno, P H; Daniel, F B
Available data on the occurrence, transport, transformation, and toxicity of eight nitroaromatic munition compounds and their degradation products, TNT, TNB, DNB, DNA, 2-ADNT, RDX, HMX, and tetryl were used to identify potential fate in the environment and to calculate screening benchmarks or safe environmental levels for aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Results of monitoring studies revealed that some of these compounds persist at sites where they were produced or processed. Most of the compounds are present in soil, sediment, and surface water or groundwater at military sites. Soil adsorption coefficients indicate that these chemicals are only moderately adsorbed to soil and may leach to groundwater. Most of these compounds are transformed by abiotic or biotic mechanisms in environmental media. Primary transformation mechanisms involve photolysis (TNT, RDX, HMX, tetryl), hydrolysis (tetryl), and microbial degradation (TNT, TNB, DNB, DNA, 2-ADNT, and HMX). Microbial degradation for both nitro and nitramine aromatic compounds involves rapid reduction of nitro groups to amino groups, but further metabolism is slow. With the exception of DNB, complete mineralization did not usually occur under the conditions of the studies. RDX was resistant to microbial degradation. Available ecotoxicological data on acute and chronic studies with freshwater fish and invertebrates were summarized, and water quality criteria or ecotoxicological screening benchmarks were developed. Depending on the available data, criteria/benchmarks were calculated according to USEPA Tier I or Tier II guidelines. The munitions chemicals are moderately to highly toxic to freshwater organisms, with chronic screening values humans are based on studies with laboratory animals, reference doses or screening benchmarks for wildlife may also be calculated by extrapolation among mammalian species. Chronic NOAELs for the compounds of interest were determined from available laboratory studies. Endpoints
Erçağ, Erol; Uzer, Ayşem; Apak, Reşat
Because of the extremely heterogeneous distribution of explosives in contaminated soils, on-site colorimetric methods are efficient tools to assess the nature and extent of contamination. To meet the need for rapid and low-cost chemical sensing of explosive traces or residues in soil and post-blast debris, a colorimetric absorption-based sensor for trinitrotoluene (TNT) determination has been developed. The charge-transfer (CT) reagent (dicyclohexylamine, DCHA) is entrapped in a polyvinylchloride (PVC) polymer matrix plasticised with dioctylphtalate (DOP), and moulded into a transparent sensor membrane sliced into test strips capable of sensing TNT showing an absorption maximum at 530 nm when placed in a 1-mm spectrophotometer cell. The sensor gave a linear absorption response to 5-50 mg L(-1) TNT solutions in 30% aqueous acetone with limit of detection (LOD): 3 mg L(-1). The sensor is only affected by tetryl, but not by RDX, pentaerythritoltetranitrate (PETN), dinitrotoluene (DNT), and picric acid. The proposed method was statistically validated for TNT assay against high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a standard sample of Comp B. The developed sensor was relatively resistant to air and water, was of low-cost and high specificity, gave a rapid and reproducible response, and was suitable for field use of TNT determination in both dry and humid soil and groundwater with a portable colorimeter.
Giubileo, G.; Colao, F.; Puiu, A.
Infrared spectroscopy based methods are promising in the design of an integrated optical system for the real time detection and identification of explosive species to support homeland security. Infrared laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) analysis of explosive compounds (DNT; TNT; RDX; HMX; TATP; PETN; TETRYL) and TOLUENE was reported. Standard commercial samples of the explosive species were analyzed in solid phase by a home made PAS apparatus equipped with a stabilized 10 W continuous wave CO2 laser source. A very small amount (less than 100 μg) of the sample was sufficient to produce a clear signal in a 3 cc volume PA cell. The spectral data were treated by a principal component analysis (PCA) based algorithm. In a three principal components representation of the results, every explosive species resulted to be very well distinguishable from each other, as well as from toluene and other solvents. The reported experimental activity was performed in the Molecular Spectroscopy Laboratory of ENEA Research Centre in Frascati in the frame of ISOTREX European Project.