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Sample records for tetramethylpyrazine attenuates spinal

  1. Spinal axis irradiation with electrons: Measurements of attenuation by the spinal processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller-Runkel, R.; Vijayakumar, S.

    1986-01-01

    Electrons may be used beneficially for spinal axis irradiation in medulloblastoma children to avoid some of the long-term sequelae induced by megavoltage photons. However, the attenuation by the intervening bone ought to be considered. Three-dimensional computer treatment planning with inhomogeneity correction for electron beams is not yet generally available, and alternate methods are needed to evaluate the attenuation by the complex bony structure of the spine. Here, we present our experimental data showing the alteration in the electron isodoses due to the intervening spinous processes. Film dosimetric measurements were made in the vertebral columns obtained from autopsies of a goat, a dog, and a child. Our results show that electron beam therapy for the spinal axis is a viable option

  2. Alpha-2 agonist attenuates ischemic injury in spinal cord neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Kirsten A; Puskas, Ferenc; Bell, Marshall T; Mares, Joshua M; Foley, Lisa S; Weyant, Michael J; Cleveland, Joseph C; Fullerton, David A; Meng, Xianzhong; Herson, Paco S; Reece, T Brett

    2015-05-01

    Paraplegia secondary to spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury remains a devastating complication of thoracoabdominal aortic intervention. The complex interactions between injured neurons and activated leukocytes have limited the understanding of neuron-specific injury. We hypothesize that spinal cord neuron cell cultures subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) would simulate ischemia-reperfusion injury, which could be attenuated by specific alpha-2a agonism in an Akt-dependent fashion. Spinal cords from perinatal mice were harvested, and neurons cultured in vitro for 7-10 d. Cells were pretreated with 1 μM dexmedetomidine (Dex) and subjected to OGD in an anoxic chamber. Viability was determined by MTT assay. Deoxyuridine-triphosphate nick-end labeling staining and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay were used for apoptosis and necrosis identification, respectively. Western blot was used for protein analysis. Vehicle control cells were only 59% viable after 1 h of OGD. Pretreatment with Dex significantly preserves neuronal viability with 88% viable (P control cells by 50% (P neuron cell culture, OGD mimics neuronal metabolic derangement responsible for paraplegia after aortic surgery. Dex preserves neuronal viability and decreases apoptosis in an Akt-dependent fashion. Dex demonstrates clinical promise for reducing the risk of paraplegia after high-risk aortic surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Necrosulfonamide Attenuates Spinal Cord Injury via Necroptosis Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongxiang; Wang, Jingcheng; Wang, Hua; Feng, Xinmin; Tao, Yuping; Yang, Jiandong; Cai, Jun

    2018-03-31

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a serious trauma without efficient treatment currently. Necroptosis can be blocked post injury by special inhibitors. This study is to investigate the effects, mechanism, and potential benefit of necrosulfonamide (NSA) for SCI therapy. Pathologic condition was detected using hematoxylin-eosin staining on injured spinal cord and other major organs. Necroptosis-related factors-RIP1, RIP3, and MLKL-were detected using Western blot. Detections on mitochondrial functions such as adenosine triphosphate generation and activities of superoxide dismutase and caspase-3 were also performed. Finally, ethologic performance was detected using a 21-point open-field locomotion test. Reduced lesions and protected neurons were found in the injured spinal cord after treatment with NSA using hematoxylin-eosin staining for pathologic detection. No obvious toxicity on rat liver, kidney, heart, and spleen was detected. Rather than RIP1 and RIP3, MLKL was significantly inhibited by the NSA using Western blot detection. Adenosine triphosphate generation was obviously decreased post injury but slightly increased after the NSA treatment, especially 24 hours post injury. No significant changes were found on activities of superoxide dismutase and caspase-3 after the treatment of NSA. Ethologic performance was significantly improved using a 21-point, open-field locomotion test. Our research indicates NSA attenuates the spinal cord injury via necroptosis inhibition. It might be a potential and safe chemical benefit for SCI therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first study on the effects of NSA as treatment of traumatic SCI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Spinal SIRT1 activation attenuates neuropathic pain in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijun Shao

    Full Text Available Abnormal histone acetylation occurs during neuropathic pain through an epigenetic mechanism. Silent information regulator 1 (sir2 or SIRT1, a NAD-dependent deacetylase, plays complex systemic roles in a variety of processes through deacetylating acetylated histone and other specific substrates. But the role of SIRT1 in neuropathic pain is not well established yet. The present study was intended to detect SIRT1 content and activity, nicotinamide (NAM and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD in the spinal cord using immunoblotting or mass spectroscopy over time in mice following chronic constriction injury (CCI or sham surgery. In addition, the effect of intrathecal injection of NAD or resveratrol on thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia was evaluated in CCI mice. Finally, we investigated whether SIRT1 inhibitor EX-527 could reverse the anti-nociceptive effect of NAD or resveratrol. It was found that spinal SIRT1 expression, deacetylase activity and NAD/NAM decreased significantly 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days after CCI surgery as compared with sham group. In addition, daily intrathecal injection of 5 µl 800 mM NAD 1 h before and 1 day after CCI surgery or single intrathecal injection of 5 µl 90 mM resveratrol 1 h before CCI surgery produced a transient inhibitory effect on thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in CCI mice. Finally, an intrathecal injection of 5 µl 1.2 mM EX-527 1 h before NAD or resveratrol administration reversed the anti-nociceptive effect of NAD or resveratrol. These data indicate that the reduction in SIRT1 deacetylase activity may be a factor contributing to the development of neuropathic pain in CCI mice. Our findings suggest that the enhancement of spinal NAD/NAM and/or SIRT1 activity may be a potentially promising strategy for the prevention or treatment of neuropathic pain.

  5. [Assay of Tetramethylpyrazine in Szechwan Lovage Rhizome and Cnidium Rhizome by HPLC-DAD-MS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yuan-lin; Jin, Yu-qing; Yao, Yi-xin; Lin, Mao-yi; Wei, Bo-ping; Jiang, Wei-dong; Lu, Guang-hua

    2015-01-01

    To quantity the amount of tetramethylpyrazine in Szechwan Lovage Rhizome (Chuanxiong, the rhizome of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., CX) and Cnidium Rhizome(Japanese Chuanxiong, the rhizome of Cnidium officinale Makino, JCX) for quality assessment. An HPLC-DAD-MS technique was employed to detect tetramethylpyrazine in 27 CX and 10 JCX samples. Tetramethylpyrazine was separated on a Waters Symmetry C,, column (250 mm x 4. 6 mm, 5 µm). The mobile phase was methanol-acetonitrile-water(27: 1: 72) at a flow rate of 1. 0 mL/min. The column temperature was 35 °C. DAD detection wavelength was 280 nm, while electrospray ionization detector was set at positive mode to collect MS spectrum. In the total of 37 herb samples, 11 samples were found to contain tetramethylpyrazine with the mean amount of 2. 19 µg/g(n = 11). 6 of 27 CX samples and 5 of 10 JCX sample were found the existence of tetramethylpyrazine with the amount of 0. 60 - 11. 75 µg and 0. 61 - 3. 05 µg/g,respectively. The correlation was not found between tetramethylpyrazine and the cultivation area, morphological character, processing or storage method for CX and JCX samples. It was possible that tetramethylpyrazine resulted from the microbes in soil. The developed method is accurate to quantify tetramethylpyrazine in CX and JCX herbs. Both the two herbs indeed contain tetramethylpyrazine, but it is not suitable to be a chemical marker to assess the quality of CX and JCX owing to low content.

  6. Stat3 inhibition attenuates mechanical allodynia through transcriptional regulation of chemokine expression in spinal astrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3 is known to induce cell proliferation and inflammation by regulating gene transcription. Recent studies showed that Stat3 modulates nociceptive transmission by reducing spinal astrocyte proliferation. However, it is unclear whether Stat3 also contributes to the modulation of nociceptive transmission by regulating inflammatory response in spinal astrocytes. This study aimed at investigating the role of Stat3 on neuroinflammation during development of pain in rats after intrathecal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. METHODS: Stat3 specific siRNA oligo and synthetic selective inhibitor (Stattic were applied to block the activity of Stat3 in primary astrocytes or rat spinal cord, respectively. LPS was used to induce the expression of proinflammatory genes in all studies. Immunofluorescence staining of cells and slices of spinal cord was performed to monitor Stat3 activation. The impact of Stat3 inhibition on proinflammatory genes expression was determined by cytokine antibody array, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Mechanical allodynia, as determined by the threshold pressure that could induce hind paw withdrawal after application of standardized von Frey filaments, was used to detect the effects of Stat3 inhibition after pain development with intrathecal LPS injection. RESULTS: Intrathecal injection of LPS activated Stat3 in reactive spinal astrocytes. Blockade of Stat3 activity attenuated mechanical allodynia significantly and was correlated with a lower number of reactive astrocytes in the spinal dorsal horn. In vitro study demonstrated that Stat3 modulated inflammatory response in primary astrocytes by transcriptional regulation of chemokine expression including Cx3cl1, Cxcl5, Cxcl10 and Ccl20. Similarly, inhibition of Stat3 reversed the expression of these chemokines in the spinal dorsal horn. CONCLUSIONS: Stat3 acted as a

  7. Tetramethylpyrazine attenuates oleic acid-induced acute lung injury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... exerts potent anti-inflammatory effects in this model. After 4, 8 and 12 ... measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. ... endothelial and infiltrating inflammatory cells results in the ... Electrophoresis apparatus and electric switch slot were ... after tying off the right lung at the main stem bronchus.

  8. Spinal cord stimulation attenuates temporal summation in patients with neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Elon; Burstein, Yulia; Suzan, Erica; Treister, Roi; Aviram, Joshua

    2015-03-01

    Evidence has shown that electrical stimulation at the dorsal columns attenuated the "wind-up" phenomenon in dorsal horn neurons in nerve-injured rats. This study was aimed to test the effect of spinal cord stimulation (SCS) on temporal summation (TS), the clinical correlate of the wind-up phenomenon in patients with radicular leg pain. Eighteen patients with SCS implants were tested both 30 minutes after SCS activation ("ON") and 2 hours after turning it off ("OFF"), in a random order. Temporal summation was evaluated in the most painful site in the affected leg and in the corresponding area in the contralateral leg by applying a tonic painful heat stimulus (46.5°C; 120 seconds) and simultaneous recording of the perceived heat pain intensity. Patients were also requested to report their clinical pain intensity (0-100 numerical pain scale) during SCS "ON" and "OFF". The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used in the comparisons between SCS "ON" and "OFF". Spinal cord stimulation activation significantly attenuated clinical pain intensity (from 66 ± 18 to 27 ± 31, P spinal cord neurons, is a possible mechanism underlying SCS analgesia in patients with neuropathic pain.

  9. PLGA-Curcumin Attenuates Opioid-Induced Hyperalgesia and Inhibits Spinal CaMKIIα

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Huang, Fang; Szymusiak, Magdalena; Tian, Xuebi; Liu, Ying; Wang, Zaijie Jim

    2016-01-01

    Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH) is one of the major problems associated with prolonged use of opioids for the treatment of chronic pain. Effective treatment for OIH is lacking. In this study, we examined the efficacy and preliminary mechanism of curcumin in attenuating OIH. We employed a newly developed PLGA-curcumin nanoformulation (PLGA-curcumin) in order to improve the solubility of curcumin, which has been a major obstacle in properly characterizing curcumin’s mechanism of action and efficacy. We found that curcumin administered intrathecally or orally significantly attenuated hyperalgesia in mice with morphine-induced OIH. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the effects of curcumin on OIH correlated with the suppression of chronic morphine-induced CaMKIIα activation in the superficial laminae of the spinal dorsal horn. These data suggest that PLGA-curcumin may reverse OIH possibly by inhibiting CaMKIIα and its downstream signaling. PMID:26744842

  10. PLGA-Curcumin Attenuates Opioid-Induced Hyperalgesia and Inhibits Spinal CaMKIIα.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Hu

    Full Text Available Opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH is one of the major problems associated with prolonged use of opioids for the treatment of chronic pain. Effective treatment for OIH is lacking. In this study, we examined the efficacy and preliminary mechanism of curcumin in attenuating OIH. We employed a newly developed PLGA-curcumin nanoformulation (PLGA-curcumin in order to improve the solubility of curcumin, which has been a major obstacle in properly characterizing curcumin's mechanism of action and efficacy. We found that curcumin administered intrathecally or orally significantly attenuated hyperalgesia in mice with morphine-induced OIH. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the effects of curcumin on OIH correlated with the suppression of chronic morphine-induced CaMKIIα activation in the superficial laminae of the spinal dorsal horn. These data suggest that PLGA-curcumin may reverse OIH possibly by inhibiting CaMKIIα and its downstream signaling.

  11. Minocycline attenuates the development of diabetic neuropathy by inhibiting spinal cord Notch signaling in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Gao, Jie; Wu, Banglin; Yan, Nuo; Li, Hui; Ren, Yiqing; Kan, Yufei; Liang, Jiamin; Jiao, Yang; Yu, Yonghao

    2017-10-01

    We studied the effects of minocycline (an inhibitor of microglial activation) on the expression and activity of Notch-1 receptor, and explored the therapeutic efficacy of minocycline combined with Notch inhibitor DAPT in the treatment of diabetic neuropathic pain (DNP). Diabetic rat model was established by intraperitoneal injection (ip) of Streptozotocin (STZ). Expression and activity of Notch-1 and expression of macrophage/microglia marker Iba-1 were detected by WB. Diabetes induction significantly attenuated sciatic nerve conduction velocity, and dramatically augmented the expression and the activity of Notch-1 in the lumbar enlargement of the spinal cord. Minocycline treatment, however, accelerated the decreased conduction velocity of sciatic nerve and suppressed Notch-1expression and activity in diabetic rats. Similar to DAPT treatment, minocycline administration also prolonged thermal withdrawal latency (TWL) and increase mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT) in diabetic rats in response to heat or mechanical stimulation via inhibition the expression and the activity of Notch-1 in spinal cord. Combination of DAPT and minocycline further inhibited Notch-1 receptor signaling and reduce neuropathic pain exhibited as improved TWL and MWT. Our study revealed a novel mechanism of Notch-1 receptor inhibition in spinal cord induced by minocycline administration, and suggested that the combination of minocycline and DAPT has the potential to treat DNP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Shenfu injection attenuates neurotoxicity of bupivacaine in cultured mouse spinal cord neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Li-ze; WANG Qiang; LIU Mu-yun; PENG Ye; LI Qing-bo; LU Zhi-hong; LEI Chong

    2007-01-01

    Background Our previous in vivo study in the rat demonstrates that Shenfu injection, a clinically used extract preparation from Chinese herbs, attenuates neural and cardiac toxicity induced by intravenous infusion of bupivacaine, a local anesthetic. This study was designed to investigate whether bupivacaine could induce a toxic effect in primary cultured mouse spinal cord neuron and if so, whether the Shenfu injection had a similar neuroprotective effect in the cell model. Methods The spinal cords from 11- to 14-day-old fetal mice were minced and incubated. Cytarabine was added into the medium to inhibit the proliferation of non-neuronal cells. The immunocytochemical staining of β-tubulin was used to determine the identity of cultured cells. The cultured neurons were randomly assigned into three sets treated with various doses of bupivacaine, Shenfu and bupivacaine+Shenfu, for 48 hours respectively. Cell viability in each group was analyzed by methyl thiazoleterazolium (MTT) assay. Results The viability of the cultured neurons treated with bupivacaine at concentrations of 0.01%, 0.02%, 0.04% and 0.08% was decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Although the Shenfu injection at concentrations ranging from 1/50 to 1/12.5 (V/V) had no significant influence on the viability of cultured neurons (P<0.05 vs control), the injection significantly increased the cellular viability of cultured neurons pretreated with 0.03% bupivacaine (P<0.05). Conclusion Although Shenfu injection itself has no effect on spinal neurons, it was able to reduce the bupivacaine induced neurotoxicity in vitro.

  13. Transplantation of Neural Precursor Cells Attenuates Chronic Immune Environment in Cervical Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Riemann

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI is non-resolving and thus still present in chronic injury stages. It plays a key role in the pathophysiology of SCI and has been associated with further neurodegeneration and development of neuropathic pain. Neural precursor cells (NPCs have been shown to reduce the acute and sub-acute inflammatory response after SCI. In the present study, we examined effects of NPC transplantation on the immune environment in chronic stages of SCI. SCI was induced in rats by clip-compression of the cervical spinal cord at the level C6-C7. NPCs were transplanted 10 days post-injury. The functional outcome was assessed weekly for 8 weeks using the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan scale, the CatWalk system, and the grid walk test. Afterwards, the rats were sacrificed, and spinal cord sections were examined for M1/M2 macrophages, T lymphocytes, astrogliosis, and apoptosis using immunofluorescence staining. Rats treated with NPCs had compared to the control group significantly fewer pro-inflammatory M1 macrophages and reduced immunodensity for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, their marker enzyme. Anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages were rarely present 8 weeks after the SCI. In this model, the sub-acute transplantation of NPCs did not support survival and proliferation of M2 macrophages. Post-traumatic apoptosis, however, was significantly reduced in the NPC group, which might be explained by the altered microenvironment following NPC transplantation. Corresponding to these findings, reactive astrogliosis was significantly reduced in NPC-transplanted animals. Furthermore, we could observe a trend toward smaller cavity sizes and functional improvement following NPC transplantation. Our data suggest that transplantation of NPCs following SCI might attenuate inflammation even in chronic injury stages. This might prevent further neurodegeneration and could also set a stage for improved neuroregeneration after SCI.

  14. Angelica Sinensis attenuates inflammatory reaction in experimental rat models having spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; E, Xiao-Qiang; Liu, Hui-Yong; Tian, Jun; Yan, Jing-Long

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Angelica Sinensis on experimental rat models in which spinal cord injury was induced by studying different factors. Different factors causing inflammation play a key role in pathophysiology of SCI. Here three groups of rats (n=15, each was used). These included a sham control group where only laminectomy was performed, SCI group where SCI was induced and AS/SCI group where although SCI was induced but Angelica Sinensis was also administered to study its effect and draw a comparison with control. The expression of I-kBα and NF-kB p65 was also studied using western blotting and after recording optical density (OD) values of western blots. MPO activity was used to measure the effect of 20 mg/kg Angelica Sinensis. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were also studied. As compared with SCI group and sham control it was observed that Angelica Sinensis significantly reduced the expression of I-kBα and NF-kB p65, (PSinensis in rat models can attenuate the secondary damage caused by SCI and thus help in controlling the pathology of SCI in rats.

  15. Tachykinin NK₁ receptor antagonist co-administration attenuates opioid withdrawal-mediated spinal microglia and astrocyte activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumati, Suneeta; Largent-Milnes, Tally M; Keresztes, Attila I; Yamamoto, Takashi; Vanderah, Todd W; Roeske, William R; Hruby, Victor J; Varga, Eva V

    2012-06-05

    Prolonged morphine treatment increases pain sensitivity in many patients. Enhanced spinal Substance P release is one of the adaptive changes associated with sustained opioid exposure. In addition to pain transmitting second order neurons, spinal microglia and astrocytes also express functionally active Tachykinin NK₁ (Substance P) receptors. In the present work we investigated the role of glial Tachykinin NK₁ receptors in morphine withdrawal-mediated spinal microglia and astrocyte activation. Our data indicate that intrathecal co-administration (6 days, twice daily) of a selective Tachykinin NK₁ receptor antagonist (N-acetyl-L-tryptophan 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzylester (L-732,138; 20 μg/injection)) attenuates spinal microglia and astrocyte marker and pro-inflammatory mediator immunoreactivity as well as hyperalgesia in withdrawn rats. Furthermore, covalent linkage of the opioid agonist with a Tachykinin NK₁ antagonist pharmacophore yielded a bivalent compound that did not augment spinal microglia or astrocyte marker or pro-inflammatory mediator immunoreactivity and did not cause paradoxical pain sensitization upon drug withdrawal. Thus, bivalent opioid/Tachykinin NK₁ receptor antagonists may provide a novel paradigm for long-term pain management.

  16. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF TETRAMETHYLPYRAZINE ON LEARNING AND MEMORY FUNCTION IN D-GALACTOSE-LESIONED MICE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Zhang; Shi-zhen Wang; Ping-ping Zuo; Xu Cui; Jiong Cai

    2004-01-01

    Objective To explore the protective effect of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) on the learning and memory function in D-galactose (D-gal)-lesioned mice.zine A were respectively given by intragastric administration in different groups from the third week. Learning and memory ability was tested with Morris water maze for 5 days at the sixth week. After completion of behavioral test, the mice were sacrificed by decapitation. The brain was rapidly removed, and the cortex and hippocampus were separated. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the cortex were determined. At the same time, the activity of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), the binding sites (Bmax) and the affinity (KD) of M-cholinergic receptor in the cortex, and Bmax and KD of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in the hippocampus were determined.Results In this model group, (1) The deficit of learning and memory ability, (2) elevated MDA content and lowered SOD activity, (3) decreased AChE activity and M-cholinergic receptor binding sites in the cortex, and (4) lowered NMDA receptor binding sites were observed in the hippocampus, as compared with the normal control. TMP could markedly (1)attenuate cognitive dysfunction, (2) lower MDA content and elevate SOD activity, (3) increase the activity of ChAT and AChE, and M-cholinergic receptor binding sites in the cortex in the mice treated with D-gal. NMDA receptor binding sites were also increased in the hippocampus in the treated mice.Conclusion TMP can significantly strengthen antioxidative function, improve central cholinergic system function, protect NMDA receptor activity, and thus enhance the learning and memory ability in D-gal-lesioned mice.

  17. Curcumin attenuates morphine antinociceptive tolerance through suppressing up-regulation of spinal Toll-like receptor 4 in rats

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    Fei GAO

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effects of curcumin (Cur on activation of spinal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 and on the chronic antinociceptive tolerance of morphine. Methods Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats with successful intrathecal catheterization were randomly divided into four groups (n=15: saline (NS group; morphine (MOR group; curcumin (Cur group and morphine plus curcumin (MOR+Cur group. A morphine tolerance model of rats was induced by intrathecal injection of morphine 15μg, once a day for 7 consecutive days in MOR and MOR+Cur group; 100μg curcumin was administered intrathecally once a day for 7 consecutive days in Cur and MOR+Cur group, 10μl saline was administered intrathecally once a day for 7 consecutive days in NS group. The effect of curcumin intrathecal catheterization on morphine antinociceptive tolerance was explored by the tail flick latency (TFL method and mechanical withdrawal threshold (MWT, and then the maximum possible potential effect (MPE was calculated. The immunofluorescence staining method was applied to detect the effect of curcumin on the activation of lumbar spinal microglia. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to evaluate the effect of curcumin on the expression of mRNA and protein of spinal TLR4. Results The %MPE TFL and %MPE MWT increased significantly in MOR+Cur group than in MOR group (P0.05. The lumbar spinal microglia increased markedly and the expressions of polyclonal antibody IBA-1 and TLR4 were significantly up-regulated in MOR group than in NS group (P0.05. Conclusion Curcumin may attenuate chronic morphine antinociceptive tolerance through inhibiting spinal TLR4 up-regulation. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.12.06

  18. Neuroprotective role of hydralazine in rat spinal cord injury-attenuation of acrolein-mediated damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jonghyuck; Zheng, Lingxing; Marquis, Andrew; Walls, Michael; Duerstock, Brad; Pond, Amber; Vega-Alvarez, Sasha; Wang, He; Ouyang, Zheng; Shi, Riyi

    2014-04-01

    Acrolein, an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde and a reactive product of lipid peroxidation, has been suggested as a key factor in neural post-traumatic secondary injury in spinal cord injury (SCI), mainly based on in vitro and ex vivo evidence. Here, we demonstrate an increase of acrolein up to 300%; the elevation lasted at least 2 weeks in a rat SCI model. More importantly, hydralazine, a known acrolein scavenger can provide neuroprotection when applied systemically. Besides effectively reducing acrolein, hydralazine treatment also resulted in significant amelioration of tissue damage, motor deficits, and neuropathic pain. This effect was further supported by demonstrating the ability of hydralazine to reach spinal cord tissue at a therapeutic level following intraperitoneal application. This suggests that hydralazine is an effective neuroprotective agent not only in vitro, but in a live animal model of SCI as well. Finally, the role of acrolein in SCI was further validated by the fact that acrolein injection into the spinal cord caused significant SCI-like tissue damage and motor deficits. Taken together, available evidence strongly suggests a critical causal role of acrolein in the pathogenesis of spinal cord trauma. Since acrolein has been linked to a variety of illness and conditions, we believe that acrolein-scavenging measures have the potential to be expanded significantly ensuring a broad impact on human health. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  19. Minocycline attenuates bone cancer pain in rats by inhibiting NF-κB in spinal astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhen-Peng; Xiong, Bing-Rui; Guan, Xue-Hai; Cao, Fei; Manyande, Anne; Zhou, Ya-Qun; Zheng, Hua; Tian, Yu-Ke

    2016-06-01

    To investigate the mechanisms underlying the anti-nociceptive effect of minocycline on bone cancer pain (BCP) in rats. A rat model of BCP was established by inoculating Walker 256 mammary carcinoma cells into tibial medullary canal. Two weeks later, the rats were injected with minocycline (50, 100 μg, intrathecally; or 40, 80 mg/kg, ip) twice daily for 3 consecutive days. Mechanical paw withdrawal threshold (PWT) was used to assess pain behavior. After the rats were euthanized, spinal cords were harvested for immunoblotting analyses. The effects of minocycline on NF-κB activation were also examined in primary rat astrocytes stimulated with IL-1β in vitro. BCP rats had marked bone destruction, and showed mechanical tactile allodynia on d 7 and d 14 after the operation. Intrathecal injection of minocycline (100 μg) or intraperitoneal injection of minocycline (80 mg/kg) reversed BCP-induced mechanical tactile allodynia. Furthermore, intraperitoneal injection of minocycline (80 mg/kg) reversed BCP-induced upregulation of GFAP (astrocyte marker) and PSD95 in spinal cord. Moreover, intraperitoneal injection of minocycline (80 mg/kg) reversed BCP-induced upregulation of NF-κB, p-IKKα and IκBα in spinal cord. In IL-1β-stimulated primary rat astrocytes, pretreatment with minocycline (75, 100 μmol/L) significantly inhibited the translocation of NF-κB to nucleus. Minocycline effectively alleviates BCP by inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway in spinal astrocytes.

  20. Intrathecal morphine attenuates acute opioid tolerance secondary to remifentanil infusions during spinal surgery in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tripi PA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Paul A Tripi,1 Matthew E Kuestner,1 Connie S Poe-Kochert,2 Kasia Rubin,1 Jochen P Son-Hing,2 George H Thompson,2 Joseph D Tobias3 1Division of Pediatric Anesthesiology, 2Division of Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery, Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, 3Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Nationwide Children's Hospital, Columbus, OH, USA Introduction: The unique pharmacokinetic properties of remifentanil with a context-sensitive half-life unaffected by length of infusion contribute to its frequent use during anesthetic management during posterior spinal fusion in children and adolescents. However, its intraoperative administration can lead to increased postoperative analgesic requirements, which is postulated to be the result of acute opioid tolerance with enhancement of spinal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function. Although strategies to prevent or reduce tolerance have included the coadministration of longer acting opioids or ketamine, the majority of these studies have demonstrated little to no benefit. The current study retrospectively evaluates the efficacy of intrathecal morphine (ITM in preventing hyperalgesia following a remifentanil infusion.Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 54 patients undergoing posterior spinal fusion with segmental spinal instrumentation, to evaluate the effects of ITM on hyperalgesia from remifentanil. Patients were divided into two groups based on whether they did or did not receive remifentanil during the surgery: no remifentanil (control group (n=27 and remifentanil (study group (n=27. Data included demographics, remifentanil dose and duration, Wong–Baker visual analog scale postoperative pain scores, and postoperative intravenous morphine consumption in the first 48 postoperative hours.Results: The demographics of the two study groups were similar. There were no differences in the Wong–Baker visual analog

  1. Neuroprotective role of hydralazine in rat spinal cord injury-attenuation of acrolein-mediated damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jonghyuck; Zheng, Lingxing; Marquis, Andrew; Walls, Michael; Duerstock, Brad; Pond, Amber; Alvarez, Sascha Vega; He, Wang; Ouyang, Zheng; Shi, Riyi

    2014-01-01

    Acrolein, an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde and a reactive product of lipid peroxidation, has been suggested as a key factor in neural post-traumatic secondary injury in SCI, mainly based on in vitro and ex vivo evidence. Here we demonstrate an increase of acrolein up to 300%; the elevation lasted at least two weeks in a rat SCI model. More importantly, hydralazine, a known acrolein scavenger can provide neuroprotection when applied systemically. Besides effectively reducing acrolein, hydralazine treatment also resulted in significant amelioration of tissue damage, motor deficits, and neuropathic pain. This effect was further supported by demonstrating the ability of hydralazine to reach spinal cord tissue at a therapeutic level following intraperitoneal application. This suggests that hydralazine is an effective neuroprotective agent not only in vitro, but in a live animal model of SCI as well. Finally, the role of acrolein in SCI was further validated by the fact that acrolein injection into the spinal cord caused significant SCI-like tissue damage and motor deficits. Taken together, available evidence strongly suggests a critical causal role of acrolein in the pathogenesis of spinal cord trauma. Since acrolein has been linked to a variety of illness and conditions, we believe that acrolein-scavenging measures have the potential to be expanded significantly ensuring a broad impact on human health. PMID:24286176

  2. Pretreatment with AQP4 and NKCC1 Inhibitors Concurrently Attenuated Spinal Cord Edema and Tissue Damage after Spinal Cord Injury in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaodong; Liu, Juanfang; Wang, Xiji; Li, Wenhao; Chen, Jingyuan; Sun, Honghui

    2018-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) affects more than 2.5 million people worldwide. Spinal cord edema plays critical roles in the pathological progression of SCI. This study aimed to delineate the roles of aquaporin 4 (AQP4) and Na + -K + -Cl - cotransporter 1 (NKCC1) in acute phase edema and tissue destruction after SCI and to explore whether inhibiting both AQP4 and NKCC1 could improve SCI-induced spinal edema and damage. Rat SCI model was established by modified Allen's method. Spinal cord water content, cerebrospinal fluid lactose dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, AQP4 and NKCC1 expression, and spinal cord pathology from 30 min to 7 days after SCI were monitored. Additionally, aforementioned parameters in rats treated with AQP4 and/or NKCC1 inhibitors were assessed 2 days after SCI. Spinal cord water content was significantly increased 1 h after SCI while AQP4 and NKCC1 expression and spinal fluid LDH activity elevated 6 h after SCI. Spinal cord edema and spinal cord destruction peaked around 24 h after SCI and maintained at high levels thereafter. Treating rats with AQP4 inhibitor TGN-020 and NKCC1 antagonist bumetanide significantly reduced spinal cord edema, tissue destruction, and AQP4 and NKCC1 expression after SCI in an additive manner. These results demonstrated the benefits of simultaneously inhibiting both AQP4 and NKCC1 after SCI.

  3. Spinal activation of alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor attenuates posttraumatic stress disorder-related chronic pain via suppression of glial activation.

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    Sun, Rao; Zhang, Wei; Bo, Jinhua; Zhang, Zuoxia; Lei, Yishan; Huo, Wenwen; Liu, Yue; Ma, Zhengliang; Gu, Xiaoping

    2017-03-06

    The high prevalence of chronic pain in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) individuals has been widely reported by clinical studies, which emphasized an urgent need to uncover the underlying mechanisms and identify potential therapeutic targets. Recent studies suggested that targeting activated glia and their pro-inflammatory products may provide a novel and effective therapy for the stress-related pain. In this study, we investigated whether activation of alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR), a novel anti-inflammatory target, could attenuate PTSD-related chronic pain. The experiments were conducted in a rat model of single prolonged stress (SPS), an established model of PTSD-pain comorbidity. We found that SPS exposure produced persistent mechanical allodynia. Immunohistochemical and enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay analysis showed that SPS also induced elevated activation of glia cells (including microglia and astrocytes) and accumulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in spinal cord. In another experiment, we found that intrathecal injection of PHA-543613, a selective α7 nAchR agonist, attenuated the SPS-evoked allodynia in a dose dependent manner. However, this anti-hyperalgesic effect was blocked by pretreatment with methyllycaconitine (MLA), a selective α7 nAchR antagonist. Further analyses showed that PHA-543613 suppressed SPS-induced spinal glial activation and SPS-elevated spinal pro-inflammatory cytokines, and these were abolished by MLA. Taken together, the present study showed that spinal activation of α7 nAChR by PHA-543613 attenuated mechanical allodynia induced by PTSD-like stress, and the suppression of spinal glial activation may underlie this anti-hyperalgesic effect. Our study demonstrated the therapeutic potential of targeting α7 nAChR in the treatment of PTSD-related chronic pain. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Treatment with glial derived neurotropic factor (GDNF attenuates oxidative damages of spinal

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    Tao Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury (SCI is a serious and debilitating issue being suffered by wide population worldwide. Extensive treatment approaches have been tested and being verified for their efficacy. Owing to the nature of central nervous system (CNS, the resident stem cells would be triggered in response to any sort of trauma with nerve factors as their communication signals. Apart from physical injuries, damages due to oxidative stress also need to be addressed while CNS repair mechanism takes place. This study looks at the potential of glial derived nerve factor (GDNF in addressing the SCI in regard to oxidative damages. A total of 60 Wistar rats were clustered into five groups and GDNF at various concentrations was tested in each group. Assessments in terms of oxidative stress parameters were noted and analyzed accordingly. It was noted that GDNF had reduced oxidative damages and increased the levels of anti-oxidants in dose-dependent manner (p < 0.05. Though treatment with 10 mg/mL and 20 mg/mL showed significant changes as compared to control group, these treatment modalities remained insignificant among each other. In conclusion, we demonstrated that GDNF exerted a neuro-protective effect on CNS by inducing anti-oxidants and reducing the levels of oxidative stress in SCI induced rat models.

  5. Perineural pretreatment of bee venom attenuated the development of allodynia in the spinal nerve ligation injured neuropathic pain model; an experimental study.

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    Koh, Won Uk; Choi, Seong Soo; Lee, Jong Hyuk; Lee, So Hee; Lee, Sun Kyung; Lee, Yoon Kyung; Leem, Jeong Gil; Song, Jun Gol; Shin, Jin Woo

    2014-11-04

    Diluted bee venom (BV) is known to have anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. We therefore assessed whether perineural bee venom pretreatment could attenuate the development of neuropathic pain in the spinal nerve ligation injured animal model. Neuropathic pain was surgically induced in 30 male Sprague Dawley rats by ligation of the L5 and L6 spinal nerves, with 10 rats each treated with saline and 0.05 and 0.1 mg BV. Behavioral testing for mechanical, cold, and thermal allodynia was conducted on postoperative days 3 to 29. Three rats in each group and 9 sham operated rats were sacrificed on day 9, and the expression of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), ankyrin type 1 (TRPA1), and melastatin type 8 (TRPM8) receptors in the ipsilateral L5 dorsal root ganglion was analyzed. The perineural administration of BV to the spinal nerves attenuated the development of mechanical, thermal, and cold allodynia, and the BV pretreatment reduced the expression of TRPV1, TRPA1, TRPM8 and c - Fos in the ipsilateral dorsal root ganglion. The current study demonstrates that the perineural pretreatment with diluted bee venom before the induction of spinal nerve ligation significantly suppresses the development of neuropathic pain. Furthermore, this bee venom induced suppression was strongly related with the involvement of transient receptor potential family members.

  6. Mechanisms and Clinical Application of Tetramethylpyrazine (an Interesting Natural Compound Isolated from Ligusticum Wallichii): Current Status and Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yingke; Liu, Yue; Chen, Keji

    Tetramethylpyrazine, a natural compound from Ligusticum wallichii ( Chuan Xiong ), has been extensively used in China for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases for about 40 years. Because of its effectiveness in multisystems, especially in cardiovascular, its pharmacological action, clinical application, and the structural modification have attracted broad attention. In this paper its mechanisms of action, the clinical status, and synthetic derivatives will be reviewed briefly.

  7. Correction of quantification errors in pelvic and spinal lesions caused by ignoring higher photon attenuation of bone in [{sup 18}F]NaF PET/MR

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    Schramm, Georg, E-mail: georg.schramm@kuleuven.be; Maus, Jens; Hofheinz, Frank; Petr, Jan; Lougovski, Alexandr [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiopharmaceutical Cancer Research, Dresden 01328 (Germany); Beuthien-Baumann, Bettina; Oehme, Liane [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden 01307 (Germany); Platzek, Ivan [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden 01307 (Germany); Hoff, Jörg van den [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute for Radiopharmaceutical Cancer Research, Dresden 01328 (Germany); Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden 01307 (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: MR-based attenuation correction (MRAC) in routine clinical whole-body positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) is based on tissue type segmentation. Due to lack of MR signal in cortical bone and the varying signal of spongeous bone, standard whole-body segmentation-based MRAC ignores the higher attenuation of bone compared to the one of soft tissue (MRAC{sub nobone}). The authors aim to quantify and reduce the bias introduced by MRAC{sub nobone} in the standard uptake value (SUV) of spinal and pelvic lesions in 20 PET/MRI examinations with [{sup 18}F]NaF. Methods: The authors reconstructed 20 PET/MR [{sup 18}F]NaF patient data sets acquired with a Philips Ingenuity TF PET/MRI. The PET raw data were reconstructed with two different attenuation images. First, the authors used the vendor-provided MRAC algorithm that ignores the higher attenuation of bone to reconstruct PET{sub nobone}. Second, the authors used a threshold-based algorithm developed in their group to automatically segment bone structures in the [{sup 18}F]NaF PET images. Subsequently, an attenuation coefficient of 0.11 cm{sup −1} was assigned to the segmented bone regions in the MRI-based attenuation image (MRAC{sub bone}) which was used to reconstruct PET{sub bone}. The automatic bone segmentation algorithm was validated in six PET/CT [{sup 18}F]NaF examinations. Relative SUV{sub mean} and SUV{sub max} differences between PET{sub bone} and PET{sub nobone} of 8 pelvic and 41 spinal lesions, and of other regions such as lung, liver, and bladder, were calculated. By varying the assigned bone attenuation coefficient from 0.11 to 0.13 cm{sup −1}, the authors investigated its influence on the reconstructed SUVs of the lesions. Results: The comparison of [{sup 18}F]NaF-based and CT-based bone segmentation in the six PET/CT patients showed a Dice similarity of 0.7 with a true positive rate of 0.72 and a false discovery rate of 0.33. The [{sup 18}F]NaF-based bone

  8. Evaluating the feasibility of fermentation starter inoculated with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens for improving acetoin and tetramethylpyrazine in Baoning bran vinegar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqiang; Huang, Jun; Zhou, Rongqing; Wu, Chongde

    2017-08-16

    Fermentation starters (Daqu) used in present study included traditional herb Daqu (C Daqu), modified Daqu without herbs (M Daqu) and S Daqu fermented by inoculating acetoin and tetramethylpyrazine high-producing bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens into M Daqu. To evaluate the feasibility of S Daqu combined with M Daqu applied for improving contents of acetoin and tetramethylpyrazine in Baoning bran vinegar without remarkably changing the original microbial community and the other volatiles contents compared with C Daqu, vinegar Pei C, M, M1, M2 and S were correspondingly prepared in lab scale using C Daqu, M Daqu, M1 Daqu (S Daqu: M Daqu=1:9, w/w), M2 Daqu (S Daqu: M Daqu=5:5) and S Daqu. PCR-DGGE suggested that Bacillus, Lactobacillus, Oceanobacillus, Acetobacter, Pichia, Geotrichum and Trichoderma were dominant microbes. Microbial community of M were similar with M1, while that of the others were similar. Differences in physicochemical properties among samples may be ascribed to different enzymes activities of Daqu and bioactivities of microbial metabolism during fermentation. Moreover, total contents of organic acids in M, M1, M2 and S increased by 33.10%, 25.77%, 4.32% and 7.74% relative to C, respectively. Volatiles and PLS-DA analysis suggested that volatile profiles of M were similar with M1, that of M2 were similar with C, while that of S were significantly different with the others. Both M2 Daqu and S Daqu facilitated the formation of acetoin and tetramethylpyrazine. However, M2 Daqu was more efficient for enhancing acetoin and tetramethylpyrazine contents by 191.84% and 123.17% respectively, without significantly changing the other volatiles contents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Intravenous granisetron attenuates hypotension during spinal anesthesia in cesarean delivery: A double-blind, prospective randomized controlled study

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    Ahmed A Eldaba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of intravenous (IV granisetron in the prevention of hypotension and bradycardia during spinal anesthesia in cesarean delivery. Material and Methods: A total of 200 parturients scheduled for elective cesarean section were included in this study. They were randomly divided into two groups. Group I was given 1 mg granisetron diluted in 10 ml normal saline slowly IV, 5 min before spinal anesthesia. Group II was given 10 ml of normal saline, 5 min before spinal anesthesia. Mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate (HR were recorded every 3 min until the end of surgery (for 45 min. The total consumption of vasopressors and atropine were recorded. Apgar scores at 1 and 5 min were also assessed. Results: Serial mean arterial blood pressure and HR values for 45 min after onset of spinal anesthesia were decreased significantly in group II, P < 0.0001. The incidence of hypotension after spinal anesthesia was 64% in group II and 3% in group I (P < 0.0001. The total doses of ephedrine (4.07 ± 3.87 mg vs 10.7 ± 8.9 mg, P < 0.0001, phenylephrine (0.0 microg vs 23.2 ± 55.1 microg, P < 0.0001, and atropine (0.0 mg vs 0.35 ± 0.49 mg P < 0.0001 consumed in both the groups respectively, were significantly less in group I versus group II. Conclusion: Premedication with 1 mg IV granisetron before spinal anesthesia in an elective cesarean section significantly reduces hypotension, bradycardia and vasopressors usage.

  10. Anti-inflammatory effect of combined tetramethylpyrazine, resveratrol and curcumin in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Liu, Tianjun; Wang, Qiangsong; Liu, Juan

    2017-04-27

    Resveratrol and curcumin, as natural flavones products, have good therapeutic effect in acute and chronic inflammation; on the other hand, tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) has angiogenesis and vessel protection effect as well as anti-inflammatory function. In this paper, the anti-inflammatory effect of the tetramethylpyrazine, resveratrol and curcumin (TRC) combination in acute and chronic inflammation was reported in vivo. The dose of the combined three natural products was optimized based on the acute paw swelling mouse model with a Uniform Design methodology. The therapeutic effect of TRC combination on chronic inflammation was investigated by using the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat model based upon the following indexes: the volume of paw swelling, arthritis score, serum mediators and histological examination as well as immunohistochemical staining. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) in serum were measured and the pathological sections of liver and kidney were analysed. LD 50 was measured based on the acute oral toxicity (AOT) standard method. The best formulation was the three components combined at the same mass proportion revealed by the Uniform Design methodology. This combination could significantly reduce the paw swelling in acute paw swelling mouse model, could reduce paw swelling and alleviate the damage in joint structural of ankle, cartilages and fibrous tissue in CIA rat model. The dose relationship was clear in both cases. Immunohistochemical staining of ankle tissue revealed that TRC combination was able to inhibit the expression of NF-κB p65 and TNF-α which were closely related to the inflammatory process. Analysis of serum mediators revealed TRC combination could inhibit the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in the serum. Toxic study revealed this formulation was low toxic, LD 50 was larger than 5 g/kg, both the level of ALT and AST and histopathology in the liver and kidney exhibited no

  11. Tetramethylpyrazine Protects Against Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation-Induced Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells Injury via Rho/Rho-kinase Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Qian, Chen; Wang, Ning; Lin, Chenyu; Wang, Yan; Wang, Guangyun; Piao, Xinxin

    2017-05-01

    Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP, also known as Ligustrazine), which is isolated from Chinese Herb Medicine Ligustium wollichii Franchat (Chuan Xiong), has been widely used in China for the treatment of ischemic stroke by Chinese herbalists. Brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) are the integral parts of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), protecting BMECs against oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) which is important for the treatment of ischemic stroke. Here, we investigated the protective mechanisms of TMP, focusing on OGD-injured BMECs and the Rho/Rho-kinase (Rho-associated kinases, ROCK) signaling pathway. The model of OGD-injured BMECs was established in this study. BMECs were identified by von Willebrand factor III staining and exposed to fasudil, or TMP at different concentrations (14.3, 28.6, 57.3 µM) for 2 h before 24 h of OGD injury. The effect of each treatment was examined by cell viability assays, measurement of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), and transendothelial electric resistance and western blot analysis (caspase-3, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), RhoA, Rac1). Our results show that TMP significantly attenuated apoptosis and the permeability of BMECs induced by OGD. In addition, TMP could notably down-regulate the characteristic proteins in Rho/ROCK signaling pathway such as RhoA and Rac1, which triggered abnormal changes of eNOS and ROS, respectively. Altogether, our results show that TMP has a strong protective effect against OGD-induced BMECs injury and suggest that the mechanism might be related to the inhibition of the Rho/ROCK signaling pathway.

  12. Tetramethylpyrazine reverses intracerebroventricular streptozotocin-induced memory deficits by inhibiting GSK-3β.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fen; Li, Xu; Li, Wei; Wei, Ke; Yao, Yong; Zhang, Qianlin; Liang, Xinliang; Zhang, Jiewen

    2017-08-01

    Brain dysfunction, especially cognitive impairment, is one of the main complications in Alzheimer's disease (AD), which threatens the health of 46.8 million people worldwide. At present, the pathogenesis of cognitive dysfunction is only partially understood, and effective therapies for memory loss in AD remain elusive. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) is one of the major bioactive compounds purified from Chuanxiong, a Chinese herb used for the treatment of neurovascular and cardiovascular diseases. The neuroprotective properties of TMP are evident in some neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease. However, whether TMP plays a neuroprotective role in AD is still unknown. Here, we report that 2-week treatment with TMP rescued both short-term and long-term fear memory impairment induced by intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin in a well-known AD rat model. Administration of TMP also restored spatial learning and memory retention abilities in streptozotocin-injected rats. Furthermore, TMP inhibited the activity of GSK-3β, an important kinase that mediates hippocampal synaptic and memory disorders in diabetes mellitus. Finally, we found that TMP treatment restored the function of cholinergic neurons. Our data suggest that dietary uptake of TMP can provide protection against memory loss in AD, and the inhibition of GSK-3β may play an important role in this protective effect. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Dexmedetomidine attenuates persistent postsurgical pain by upregulating K+–Cl− cotransporter-2 in the spinal dorsal horn in rats

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    Dai S

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Shuhong Dai,1 Yu Qi,1 Jie Fu,1 Na Li,1 Xu Zhang,1 Juan Zhang,2 Wei Zhang,2 Haijun Xu,1 Hai Zhou,1 Zhengliang Ma2 1Department of Anesthesiology, XuZhou Central Hospital, Xuzhou, China; 2The Affiliated Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Medical School, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China Background: Dexmedetomidine (DEX could have an analgesic effect on pain transmission through the modulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF. In addition, KCC2-induced shift in neuronal Cl- homeostasis is crucial for postsynaptic inhibition mediated by GABAA receptors. Accumulating evidence shows that nerve injury, peripheral inflammation and stress activate the spinal BDNF/TrkB signal, which results in the downregulation of KCC2 transport and expression, eventually leads to GAGAergic disinhibition and hyperalgesia. The aim of this experiment was to explore the interaction between DEX and KCC2 at a molecular level in rats in the persistent postsurgical pain (PPSP. Methods: PPSP in rats was evoked by the skin/muscle incision and retraction (SMIR. Mechanical hypersensitivity was assessed with the Dynamic Plantar Aesthesiometer. Western blot and immunofluorescence assay were used to assess the expressions of related proteins. Results: In the first part of our experiment, the results revealed that the BDNF/TrkB-KCC2 signal plays a critical role in the development of SMIR-evoked PPSP; the second part showed that intraperitoneal administrations of 40 µg/kg DEX at 15 min presurgery and 1 to 3 days post-surgery significantly attenuated SMIR-evoked PPSP. Simultaneously, SMIR-induced KCC2 downregulation was partly reversed, which coincided with the inhibition of the BDNF/TrkB signal in the spinal dorsal horn. Moreover, intrathecal administrations of KCC2 inhibitor VU0240551 significantly reduced the analgesic effect of DEX on SMIR-evoked PPSP. Conclusion: The results of our study indicated that DEX attenuated PPSP by restoring KCC2 function through reducing BDNF

  14. Sinularin from Indigenous Soft Coral Attenuates Nociceptive Responses and Spinal Neuroinflammation in Carrageenan-Induced Inflammatory Rat Model

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    Zhi-Hong Wen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Three decades ago, the marine-derived compound sinularin was shown to have anti-edematous effects on paw edema induced by carrageenan or adjuvant. To the best of our knowledge, no new studies were conducted to explore the bioactivity of sinularin until we reported the analgesic properties of sinularin based on in vivo experiments. In the present study, we found that sinularin significantly inhibits the upregulation of proinflammatory proteins, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and upregulates the production of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β in lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells according to western blot analysis. We found that subcutaneous (s.c. administration of sinularin (80 mg/kg 1 h before carrageenan injection significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced nociceptive behaviors, including thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical allodynia, cold allodynia, and hindpaw weight-bearing deficits. Further, s.c. sinularin (80 mg/kg significantly inhibited carrageenan-induced microglial and astrocyte activation as well as upregulation of iNOS in the dorsal horn of the lumbar spinal cord. Moreover, s.c. sinularin (80 mg/kg inhibited carrageenan-induced tissue inflammatory responses, redness and edema of the paw, and leukocyte infiltration. The results of immunohistochemical studies indicate that s.c. sinularin (80 mg/kg could upregulate production of TGF-β1 in carrageenan-induced inflamed paw tissue. The present results demonstrate that systemic sinularin exerts analgesic effects at the behavioral and spinal levels, which are associated with both inhibition of leukocyte infiltration and upregulation of TGF-β1.Three decades ago, the marine-derived compound sinularin was shown to have anti-edematous effects on paw edema induced by carrageenan or adjuvant. To the best of our knowledge, no new studies were conducted to explore the bioactivity of sinularin until we reported the

  15. The inhibition of nitric oxide-activated poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase attenuates transsynaptic alteration of spinal cord dorsal horn neurons and neuropathic pain in the rat.

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    Mao, J; Price, D D; Zhu, J; Lu, J; Mayer, D J

    1997-09-01

    Transsynaptic alteration of spinal cord dorsal horn neurons characterized by hyperchromatosis of cytoplasm and nucleoplasm (so-called 'dark' neurons) occurs in a rat model of neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the common sciatic nerve. The incidence of dark neurons in CCI rats has been proposed to be mediated by glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. In the present study, we examined whether the inhibition of the nitric oxide (NO)-activated poly(ADP-ribose) synthetase (PARS), a nuclear enzyme critical to glutamate-induced neurotoxicity, would both reduce the incidence of dark neurons and attenuate behavioral manifestations of neuropathic pain in CCI rats. Dark neurons were observed bilaterally (with ipsilateral predominance) within the spinal cord dorsal horn, particularly in laminae I-II, of rats 8 days after unilateral sciatic nerve ligation as compared to sham operated rats. The number of dark neurons in the dorsal horn was dose-dependently reduced in CCI rats receiving once daily intrathecal (i.t.) treatment with the PARS inhibitor benzamide (200 or 400 nmol, but not 100 nmol benzamide or saline) for 7 days. Consistent with the histological improvement, thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical hyperalgesia, and low threshold mechano-allodynia also were reliably reduced in CCI rats treated with either 200 or 400 nmol benzamide. Neither dark neurons nor neuropathic pain behaviors were reliably affected by i.t. administration of either 800 nmol novobiocin (a mono(ADP-ribose) synthetase) or 800 nmol benzoic acid (the backbone structure of benzamide), indicating a selective effect of benzamide. Intrathecal treatment with an NO synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (40 nmol, but not its inactive D-isomer) utilizing the same benzamide treatment regimen resulted in similar reductions of both dark neurons and neuropathic pain behaviors in CCI rats. These results provide, for the first time, in vivo evidence indicating that benzamide is

  16. Overexpression of HIPK2 attenuates spinal cord injury in rats by modulating apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Renbo; Shang, Jingbo; Zhou, Wei; Jiang, Li; Xie, Donghui; Tu, Guanjun

    2018-04-09

    HIPK2 is considered to be a tumor suppressor. It also has been implicated in several functions such as apoptosis and inflammation that are linked to spinal cord injury (SCI). However, whether HIPK2 ameliorates the neurological pain of SCI remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of HIPK2 on neurological function, oxidative stress, levels of inflammatory cytokines and expression of Bcl-2/Bax in an SCI model. Firstly, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of HIPK2 on neurological pain in the SCI rat using the Basso, Beattie and Bresnahan scores and H & E staining. Overexpression of HIPK2 significantly elevated the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and reduced the mRNA expression of Nogo-A and RhoA in SCI rats. Furthermore, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assays showed that overexpression of HIPK2 significantly reduced the number of apoptotic cells. Overexpression of HIPK2 also decreased expression of Bax and Caspase-3 and elevated expression of Bcl-2 in the SCI model, indicating that HIPK2 exhibited its protective activity by inhibiting SCI-induced apoptosis. Then, we measured the serum concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX). We also determined the mRNA and protein levels of nuclear factor-κB p65 unit, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL)-1β. HIPK2 overexpression reduced oxidative stress and the levels of inflammatory cytokines compared with SCI control animals. Additionally, acetylation of HIPK2 was reduced in SCI rats. Overexpression of HIPK2 could enhance autophagy by elevating the expression of Beclin-1 and LC3-II while autophagy is regarded as a beneficial regulator to improve spinal cord injury. Together, overexpression of HIPK2 improved contusive SCI induced pain by modulating oxidative stress, Bcl‑2 and Bax signaling, and

  17. Comparison between general anesthesia and spinal anesthesia in attenuation of stress response in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A randomized prospective trial

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    Writuparna Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laparoscopy though minimally invasive produces significant hemodynamic surge and neuroendocrine stress response. Though general anesthesia (GA is the conventional technique, now-a-days, regional anesthesia has been accepted for laparoscopic diagnostic procedures, and its use is also being extended to laparoscopic surgeries. Objective: The aim was to compare the hemodynamic surge and neuroendocrine stress response during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC under GA and spinal anesthesia (SA in American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA PS 1 patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty ASA physical status I patients, aged 18-65 years were randomly allocated into two equal groups of 15 each. Group A received GA with controlled ventilation. Patients were preoxygenated for 5 min with 100/5 oxygen, premedicated with midazolam 0.03 mg/kg intravenous (i.v, fentanyl 2 mcg/kg i.v; induction was done with thiopentone 3-5 mg/kg i.v; intubation was achieved after muscle relaxation with 0.5 mg/kg atracurium besylate i.v. Anesthesia was maintained with 1-2% sevoflurane and N2O:O2 (60:40 and intermittent i.v injection of atracurium besylate. Group B SA with 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine and 25 μg fentanyl along with local anesthetic instillation in the subdiaphragmatic space. Mean arterial pressure, heart rate (HR, oxygen saturation, end tidal carbon-dioxide were recorded. Venous blood was collected for cortisol assay before induction and 30 min after pneumoperitoneum. All data were collected in Microsoft excel sheet and statistically analyzed using SPSS software version 16 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA. All numerical data were analyzed using Student′s t-test and paired t-test. Any value <0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Mean arterial pressure and mean HR and postpneumoperitoneum cortisol level were lower in group B than group A though the difference was not statistically significant in hemodynamic parameters but significant in case of cortisol

  18. Viral vectors encoding endomorphins and serine histogranin attenuate neuropathic pain symptoms after spinal cord injury in rats.

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    Nasirinezhad, Farinaz; Gajavelli, Shyam; Priddy, Blake; Jergova, Stanislava; Zadina, James; Sagen, Jacqueline

    2015-01-07

    The treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI)-induced neuropathic pain presents a challenging healthcare problem. The lack of available robust pharmacological treatments underscores the need for novel therapeutic methods and approaches. Due to the complex character of neuropathic pain following SCI, therapies targeting multiple mechanisms may be a better choice for obtaining sufficient long-term pain relief. Previous studies in our lab showed analgesic effects using combinations of an NMDA antagonist peptide [Ser1]histogranin (SHG), and the mu-opioid peptides endomorphins (EMs), in several pain models. As an alternative to drug therapy, this study evaluated the analgesic potential of these peptides when delivered via gene therapy. Lentiviruses encoding SHG and EM-1 and EM-2 were intraspinally injected, either singly or in combination, into rats with clip compression SCI 2 weeks following injury. Treated animals showed significant reduction in mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity, compared to control groups injected with GFP vector only. The antinociceptive effects of individually injected components were modest, but the combination of EMs and SHG produced robust and sustained antinociception. The onset of the analgesic effects was observed between 1-5 weeks post-injection and sustained without decrement for at least 7 weeks. No adverse effects on locomotor function were observed. The involvement of SHG and EMs in the observed antinociception was confirmed by pharmacologic inhibition using intrathecal injection of either the opioid antagonist naloxone or an anti-SHG antibody. Immunohistochemical analysis showed the presence of SHG and EMs in the spinal cord of treated animals, and immunodot-blot analysis of CSF confirmed the presence of these peptides in injected animals. In a separate group of rats, delayed injection of viral vectors was performed in order to mimic a more likely clinical scenario. Comparable and sustained antinociceptive effects were observed in

  19. Bilateral passive leg raising attenuates and delays tourniquet deflation-induced hypotension and tachycardia under spinal anaesthesia: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Go-Shine; Wang, Chih-Chien; Hu, Mei-Hua; Cherng, Chen-Hwan; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Tsai, Chien-Sung; Chan, Wei-Hung; Hsieh, Xhang-Xian; Lin, Leou-Chyr

    2014-01-01

    The pneumatic tourniquet is frequently used in total knee arthroplasty. Tourniquet deflation may result in hypotension and tachycardia caused by the rapid shift of blood volume back to the ischaemic limb and a decrease in cardiac preload. Passive leg raising (PLR) represents a 'self-volume challenge' that can result in an increase in preload. Such a PLR-induced increase in preload was hypothesised to attenuate the decrease in preload resulting from tourniquet deflation. To evaluate the effect of PLR on hypotension and tachycardia following tourniquet deflation. A randomised controlled trial. Single medical centre. Seventy patients who underwent unilateral total knee arthroplasty were randomised into two groups: tourniquet deflation with PLR (n = 35) or without PLR (control group, n = 35). Patients in both groups were administered a single dose of plain bupivacaine for spinal anaesthesia. The pneumatic tourniquet was inflated on the thigh and the surgery was performed. The study composed of four steps: for the PLR group, step 1 - inflation of the tourniquet while the patient was supine; step 2 - the patient's legs were raised to a 45° angle; step 3 - the tourniquet was deflated while the patient's legs were still raised; and step 4 - the legs were returned to the supine position. In the control group, the same perioperative procedure was used, but PLR was not conducted. The patients' blood pressure and heart rate were measured before, during and after tourniquet deflation. After tourniquet deflation, the magnitude of the changes in blood pressure and heart rate was less in the PLR group than that in the control group. In addition, the blood pressure nadir also occurred later in the PLR group than in the controls. Bilateral PLR is a simple, reversible manoeuvre that mimics rapid fluid loading. Bilateral PLR attenuates the severity of, and delays the time to, hypotension and tachycardia following deflation of a lower limb tourniquet. ClinicalTrials.gov number

  20. Cross-talk between IGF-1 and estrogen receptors attenuates intracellular changes in ventral spinal cord 4.1 motoneuron cells due to interferon-gamma exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sookyoung; Nozaki, Kenkichi; Smith, Joshua A.; Krause, James S.; Banik, Naren L.

    2014-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a neuroprotective growth factor that promotes neuronal survival by inhibition of apoptosis. In order to examine whether IGF-1 exerts cytoprotective effects against extracellular inflammatory stimulation, ventral spinal cord 4.1 (VSC4.1) motoneuron cells were treated with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Our data demonstrated apoptotic changes, increased calpain:calpastatin and Bax:Bcl-2 ratios, and expression of apoptosis related proteases (caspase-3 and −12) in motoneurons rendered by IFN-γ in a dose-dependent manner. Post-treatment with IGF-1 attenuated these changes. In addition, IGF-1 treatment of motoneurons exposed to IFN-γ decreased expression of inflammatory markers (cyclooxygenase-2 and nuclear factor-kappa B:inhibitor of kappa B ratio). Furthermore, IGF-1 attenuated the loss of expression of IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1Rα and IGF-1Rβ) and estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) induced by IFN-γ. To determine whether the protective effects of IGF-1 are associated with ERs, ERs antagonist ICI and selective siRNA targeted against ERα and ERβ were used in VSC4.1 motoneurons. Distinctive morphological changes were observed following siRNA knockdown of ERα and ERβ. In particular, apoptotic cell death assessed by TUNEL assay was enhanced in both ERα and ERβ-silenced VSC4.1 motoneurons following IFN-γ and IGF-1 exposure. These results suggest that IGF-1 protects motoneurons from inflammatory insult by a mechanism involving pivotal interactions with ERα and ERβ. PMID:24188094

  1. Cross-talk between IGF-1 and estrogen receptors attenuates intracellular changes in ventral spinal cord 4.1 motoneuron cells because of interferon-gamma exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sookyoung; Nozaki, Kenkichi; Smith, Joshua A; Krause, James S; Banik, Naren L

    2014-03-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a neuroprotective growth factor that promotes neuronal survival by inhibition of apoptosis. To examine whether IGF-1 exerts cytoprotective effects against extracellular inflammatory stimulation, ventral spinal cord 4.1 (VSC4.1) motoneuron cells were treated with interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Our data demonstrated apoptotic changes, increased calpain:calpastatin and Bax:Bcl-2 ratios, and expression of apoptosis-related proteases (caspase-3 and -12) in motoneurons rendered by IFN-γ in a dose-dependent manner. Post-treatment with IGF-1 attenuated these changes. In addition, IGF-1 treatment of motoneurons exposed to IFN-γ decreased expression of inflammatory markers (cyclooxygenase-2 and nuclear factor-kappa B:inhibitor of kappa B ratio). Furthermore, IGF-1 attenuated the loss of expression of IGF-1 receptors (IGF-1Rα and IGF-1Rβ) and estrogen receptors (ERα and ERβ) induced by IFN-γ. To determine whether the protective effects of IGF-1 are associated with ERs, ERs antagonist ICI and selective siRNA targeted against ERα and ERβ were used in VSC4.1 motoneurons. Distinctive morphological changes were observed following siRNA knockdown of ERα and ERβ. In particular, apoptotic cell death assessed by TUNEL assay was enhanced in both ERα and ERβ-silenced VSC4.1 motoneurons following IFN-γ and IGF-1 exposure. These results suggest that IGF-1 protects motoneurons from inflammatory insult by a mechanism involving pivotal interactions with ERα and ERβ. © 2013 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  2. Using verbal instructions to influence lifting mechanics - Does the directive "lift with your legs, not your back" attenuate spinal flexion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Tyson A C; Stankovic, Tatjana; Carnegie, Danielle R; Micay, Rachel; Frost, David M

    2018-02-01

    "Use your legs" is commonly perceived as sound advice to prevent lifting-related low-back pain and injuries, but there is limited evidence that this directive attenuates the concomitant biomechanical risk factors. Body segment kinematic data were collected from 12 men and 12 women who performed a laboratory lifting/lowering task after being provided with different verbal instructions. The main finding was that instructing participants to lift "without rounding your lower back" had a greater effect on the amount of spine flexion they exhibited when lifting/lowering than instructing them to lift "with your legs instead of your back" and "bend your knees and hips". It was concluded that if using verbal instructions to discourage spine flexion when lifting, the instructions should be spine- rather than leg-focused. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tetramethylpyrazine suppresses transient oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced connexin32 expression and cell apoptosis via the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathway in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Gu; Yuan, Libang; Cai, Lin; Ran, Maorong; Zhang, Yulan; Gong, Huaqu; Dai, Xuemei; Wu, Wei; Dong, Hailong

    2014-01-01

    Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) has been widely used in China as a drug for the treatment of various diseases. Recent studies have suggested that TMP has a protective effect on ischemic neuronal damage. However, the exact mechanism is still unclear. This study aims to investigate the mechanism of TMP mediated ischemic hippocampal neurons injury induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). The effect of TMP on hippocampal neurons viability was detected by MTT assay, LDH release assay and apoptosis rate was measured by flow cytometry. TMP significantly suppressed neuron apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. TMP could significantly reduce the elevated levels of connexin32 (Cx32) induced by OGD. Knockdown of Cx32 by siRNA attenuated OGD injury. Moreover, our study showed that viability was increased in siRNA-Cx32-treated-neurons, and neuron apoptosis was suppressed by activating Bcl-2 expression and inhibiting Bax expression. Over expression of Cx32 could decrease neurons viability and increase LDH release. Furthermore, OGD increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38, whose inhibitors relieved the neuron injury and Cx32 up-regulation. Taken together, TMP can reverse the OGD-induced Cx32 expression and cell apoptosis via the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways.

  4. Tetramethylpyrazine suppresses transient oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced connexin32 expression and cell apoptosis via the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathway in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Gong

    Full Text Available Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP has been widely used in China as a drug for the treatment of various diseases. Recent studies have suggested that TMP has a protective effect on ischemic neuronal damage. However, the exact mechanism is still unclear. This study aims to investigate the mechanism of TMP mediated ischemic hippocampal neurons injury induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD. The effect of TMP on hippocampal neurons viability was detected by MTT assay, LDH release assay and apoptosis rate was measured by flow cytometry. TMP significantly suppressed neuron apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner. TMP could significantly reduce the elevated levels of connexin32 (Cx32 induced by OGD. Knockdown of Cx32 by siRNA attenuated OGD injury. Moreover, our study showed that viability was increased in siRNA-Cx32-treated-neurons, and neuron apoptosis was suppressed by activating Bcl-2 expression and inhibiting Bax expression. Over expression of Cx32 could decrease neurons viability and increase LDH release. Furthermore, OGD increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38, whose inhibitors relieved the neuron injury and Cx32 up-regulation. Taken together, TMP can reverse the OGD-induced Cx32 expression and cell apoptosis via the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways.

  5. Extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus attenuate bupivacaine-induced spinal neurotoxicity in pregnant rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Cui; Shiyuan Xu; Liang Wang; Hongyi Lei; Qingxiang Cai; Hongfei Zhang; Dongmei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus can relieve pain and promote repair of nerve injury. The present study intraperitoneally injected extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus for 3 and 4 days prior to and following intrathecal injection of bupivacaine into pregnant rats. The pain threshold test after bupivacaine injection showed that the maximum possible effect of tail-flick latency peaked 1 day after intrathecal injection of bupivacaine in the extract-pretreatment group, and gradually decreased, while the maximum possible effect in the bupivacaine group continued to increase after intrathecal injection of bupivacaine. Histological observation showed that after 4 days of intrathecal injection of bupivacaine, the number of shrunken, vacuolated, apoptotic and caspase-9-positive cells in the dorsal root ganglion in the extract-pretreatment group was significantly reduced compared with the bupivacaine group. These findings indicate that extracts from rabbit skin inflamed by the vaccinia virus can attenuate neurotoxicity induced by intrathecal injection of bupivacaine in pregnant rats, possibly by inhibiting caspase-9 protein expression and suppressing nerve cell apoptosis.

  6. Microneedle-Assisted Percutaneous Delivery of a Tetramethylpyrazine-Loaded Microemulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Zu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the efficacy of the percutaneous delivery of a tetramethylpyrazine-loaded microemulsion (TMP-ME on skin pretreated with microneedles (MN. The TMP-ME formulation was optimized in vitro with skin permeation experiments, using a uniform experimental design, guided by a pseudo-ternary phase diagram, in which the TMP skin permeation level and mean particle size were indices. The effects of MN pretreatment on skin permeation by TMP-ME were assessed using in vitro skin permeation, in vivo skin microdialysis, and pharmacokinetic studies in rats. The influence of MN pretreatment on the skin barrier function was evaluated by measuring the electrical resistance of rat skin before and after MN insertion. In the optimal formulation of TMP-ME, the weight percentages of Maisine® 35-1 (oil phase, Labrasol® (surfactant, and Transcutol® P (co-surfactant were 7%, 30% and 10%, respectively, with 1.5% TMP loading. In the in vitro skin permeation study, MN-assisted TMP-ME exhibited a two-fold increase in a 24-h cumulative TMP permeation compared with TMP-ME alone (p < 0.05. In the skin microdialysis study, TMP in MN-assisted TMP-ME exhibited a 1.25-fold increase in Cmax, a 0.93-fold decrease in Tmax, and a 0.88-fold increase in AUC0–t (p < 0.05. Similarly, in the pharmacokinetic study, TMP in MN-assisted TMP-ME exhibited a 2.11-fold increase in Cmax, a 0.67-fold decrease in Tmax, and a 1.07-fold increase in AUC0–t (p < 0.05. The percutaneous electrical resistance of rat skin before and after MN insertion was 850 ± 50 Ω/cm2 and 283 ± 104 Ω/cm2 respectively, indicating that MN dramatically compromises the skin barrier. These results suggest that MN assistance increases the skin permeation rate and the extent of percutaneous absorption of TMP-ME, and that the mechanism may involve the reversible barrier perturbation effect. The rate and extent of percutaneous absorption of TMP-ME can be significantly enhanced by MN assistance, possibly

  7. Protective action of tetramethylpyrazine on the medulla oblongata in rats with chronic hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yan; Hou, Xuefei; Chen, Li; Li, Hui; Tang, Yuhong; Zhou, Hua; Zhao, Shu; Zheng, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), one of the active ingredients of the Chinese herb Lingusticum Wallichii Frantchat (Chuan Xiong), plays an important role in neuroprotection. However, the protective effect of TMP on the medulla oblongata, the most important region of the brain for cardiovascular and respiratory control, during chronic hypoxia remains unclear. In this study, we examined the neuroprotective effect of TMP on the medulla oblongata after chronic hypoxic injury in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group, TMP group, chronic hypoxia group, and chronic hypoxia+TMP group. Rats were exposed to hypoxia (10% (v/v) O₂) or normoxia for 6 h daily for 14 days. TMP (80 mg/kg) or vehicle (saline) was injected intraperitoneally 30 min before experimentation. Loss of neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex, the nucleus ambiguus, the nucleus tractus solitarius, the hypoglossal nucleus and the facial nucleus were evaluated by Nissl staining. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were measured, and apoptosis was monitored using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. The level of Bcl-2 mRNA and Bax mRNA was quantitatively measured by RT-PCR analysis. TMP protected Nissl bodies of neurons from injury in all nuclei observed, and reduced the loss of neurons in the nucleus ambiguus, the nucleus tractus solitarius, and the hypoglossal nucleus in rats subjected to chronic hypoxia. TMP upregulated SOD activity and inhibited the increase in MDA content in the medulla oblongata of hypoxic rats. In addition, TMP decreased the rate of apoptosis index (the percentage of apoptotic cells against the total number of cells) in all medullary structures examined, excepting the nucleus ambiguus and inhibited the decrease in Bcl-2 mRNA levels in the medulla oblongata following hypoxia. Our findings indicate that TMP may protect the medullary structures that are involved in

  8. The Reversal Effect and Its Mechanisms of Tetramethylpyrazine on Multidrug Resistance in Human Bladder Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Wang

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy is an important strategy for the treatment of bladder cancer. However, the main problem limiting the success of chemotherapy is the development of multidrug resistance (MDR. To improve the management of bladder cancer, it is an urgent matter to search for strategies to reverse MDR. We chose three kinds of herbal medicines including ginsenoside Rh2, (--Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG and Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP to detect their effects on bladder cancer. Reversal effects of these three herbal medicines for drug resistance in adriamycin (ADM-resistant Pumc-91 cells (Pumc-91/ADM were assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8 cell proliferation assay system. The mechanisms of reversal effect for TMP were explored in Pumc-91/ADM and T24/DDP cells. After Pumc-91/ADM and T24/DDP cells were treated with TMP, cell cycle distribution analysis was performed by flow cytometry. The expression of MRP1, GST, BCL-2, LRP and TOPO-II was evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR, immunefluorescence assay and western blot. It was observed that TMP was capable of enhancing the cytotoxicity of anticancer agents on Pumc-91/ADM cells in response to ADM, however Rh2 and EGCG were unable to. The reversal effect of TMP was also demonstrated in T24/DDP cells. Moreover, the treatment with TMP in Pumc-91/ADM and T24/DDP cells led to an increased of G1 phase accompanied with a concomitant decrease of cell numbers in S phase. Compared to the control group, an obvious decrease of MRP1, GST, BCL-2 and an increase of TOPO-II were shown in TMP groups with a dose-dependency in mRNA and protein levels. However, there was no difference on LRP expression between TMP groups and the control group. TMP could effectively reverse MDR of Pumc-91/ADM and T24/DDP cells and its mechanisms might be correlated with the alteration of MRP1, GST, BCL-2 and TOPO-II. TMP might be a potential candidate for reversing drug resistance in bladder cancer

  9. Microneedle-Assisted Percutaneous Delivery of a Tetramethylpyrazine-Loaded Microemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Qiang; Yu, Yanyan; Bi, Xiaolin; Zhang, Ren; Di, Liuqing

    2017-11-21

    This study examined the efficacy of the percutaneous delivery of a tetramethylpyrazine-loaded microemulsion (TMP-ME) on skin pretreated with microneedles (MN). The TMP-ME formulation was optimized in vitro with skin permeation experiments, using a uniform experimental design, guided by a pseudo-ternary phase diagram, in which the TMP skin permeation level and mean particle size were indices. The effects of MN pretreatment on skin permeation by TMP-ME were assessed using in vitro skin permeation, in vivo skin microdialysis, and pharmacokinetic studies in rats. The influence of MN pretreatment on the skin barrier function was evaluated by measuring the electrical resistance of rat skin before and after MN insertion. In the optimal formulation of TMP-ME, the weight percentages of Maisine ® 35-1 (oil phase), Labrasol ® (surfactant), and Transcutol ® P (co-surfactant) were 7%, 30% and 10%, respectively, with 1.5% TMP loading. In the in vitro skin permeation study, MN-assisted TMP-ME exhibited a two-fold increase in a 24-h cumulative TMP permeation compared with TMP-ME alone ( p < 0.05). In the skin microdialysis study, TMP in MN-assisted TMP-ME exhibited a 1.25-fold increase in C max , a 0.93-fold decrease in T max , and a 0.88-fold increase in AUC 0-t ( p < 0.05). Similarly, in the pharmacokinetic study, TMP in MN-assisted TMP-ME exhibited a 2.11-fold increase in C max , a 0.67-fold decrease in T max , and a 1.07-fold increase in AUC 0-t ( p < 0.05). The percutaneous electrical resistance of rat skin before and after MN insertion was 850 ± 50 Ω/cm² and 283 ± 104 Ω/cm² respectively, indicating that MN dramatically compromises the skin barrier. These results suggest that MN assistance increases the skin permeation rate and the extent of percutaneous absorption of TMP-ME, and that the mechanism may involve the reversible barrier perturbation effect. The rate and extent of percutaneous absorption of TMP-ME can be significantly enhanced by MN assistance, possibly

  10. Effect of tetramethylpyrazine on the spatial learning and memory function of rats after focal cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun Zhao; Yong Liu; Xinlin Chen; Jianxin Liu; Yingfang Tian; Pengbo Zhang; Qianyan Kang; Fen Qiu

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) presents the effect of anti-platelet aggregation, reduces arterial resistance, increases cerebral blood flow, and improves microcirculation.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of TMP on the learning and memory abilities and the number of neurons in cortex and hippocampus after focal cerebral ischemia in rats DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial.SETTING: Department of Human Anatomy and Histological Embryology, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University.MATERIALS: Fifty adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 250-300 g were supplied by the Experimental Animal Center, School of Medicine, Xi'an Jiaotong University. TMP was purchased from Wuxi Seventh Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd (Lot Number: 2004051106, Specification: 2 mL/piece).METHODS: The experiments were carried out in School of Medicine of Xi'an Jiaotong University from June 2004 to May 2005. The 50 rats were randomly divided into five groups according to the random number table method: sham-operated group, cerebral ischemia control group, Iow-dose TMP group, middle-dose TMP group and high-dose TMP group, 10 rats in each group. Rats in the TMP groups were immediately treated with intraperitoneal injection of TMP of 40, 80 and 120 mg/kg respectively, and those in the sham-operated group and cerebral ischemia control group were injected intraperitoneally by isovolume saline, once a day for 14 days successively. On the 15th day, the spatial learning and memory abilities of the rats were assessed with the Morris water maze test, and then the changes of neuron numbers in cortex and hippocampus were observed by Nissl staining of brain sections.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The results of Morris water maze test and the changes of neuron numbers in cortex and hippocampus by Nissl staining of brain sections were observed,RESULTS : Finally 39 rats were involved in the analysis of results, and the other 11 died of excessive anesthesia or failure in model establishment. ① The rats in the

  11. Lentiviral-mediated targeted NF-kappaB blockade in dorsal spinal cord glia attenuates sciatic nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Alice; Latrémolière, Alban; Dominguez, Elisa; Mauborgne, Annie; Philippe, Stéphanie; Hamon, Michel; Mallet, Jacques; Benoliel, Jean-Jacques; Pohl, Michel

    2007-04-01

    Neuropathic pain developing after peripheral nerve injury is associated with altered neuronal and glial cell functions in the spinal cord. Activated glia produces algogenic mediators, exacerbating pain. Among the different intracellular pathways possibly involved in the modified glial function, the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) system is of particular interest, as numerous genes encoding inflammation- and pain-related molecules are controlled by this transcription factor. NF-kappaB is a pleiotropic factor also involved in central nervous system homeostasy. To study its role in chronic pain, it is thus essential to inhibit the NF-kappaB pathway selectively in activated spinal glial cells. Here, we show that when restricted to spinal cord and targeted to glial cells, lentiviral vector-mediated delivery of NF-kappaB super- repressor IkappaBalpha resulted in an inhibition of the NF-kappaB pathway activated in the rat spinal cord after sciatic nerve injury (chronic constriction injury, CCI). Concomitantly, IkappaBalpha overproduction prevented the enhanced expression of interleukin-6 and of inducible nitric oxide synthase associated with chronic constriction injury and resulted in prolonged antihyperalgesic and antiallodynic effects. These data show that targeted blockade of NF-kappaB activity in spinal glia efficiently alleviates pain behavior in CCI rats, demonstrating the active participation of the glial NF-kappaB pathway in the development of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury.

  12. Lentiviral-mediated Targeted NF-κB Blockade in Dorsal Spinal Cord Glia Attenuates Sciatic Nerve Injury-induced Neuropathic Pain in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Alice; Latrémolière, Alban; Dominguez, Elisa; Mauborgne, Annie; Philippe, Stéphanie; Hamon, Michel; Mallet, Jacques; Benoliel, Jean-Jacques; Pohl, Michel

    2007-04-01

    Neuropathic pain developing after peripheral nerve injury is associated with altered neuronal and glial cell functions in the spinal cord. Activated glia produces algogenic mediators, exacerbating pain. Among the different intracellular pathways possibly involved in the modified glial function, the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) system is of particular interest, as numerous genes encoding inflammation- and pain-related molecules are controlled by this transcription factor. NF-κB is a pleiotropic factor also involved in central nervous system homeostasy. To study its role in chronic pain, it is thus essential to inhibit the NF-κB pathway selectively in activated spinal glial cells. Here, we show that when restricted to spinal cord and targeted to glial cells, lentiviral vector-mediated delivery of NF-κB super- repressor IκBα resulted in an inhibition of the NF-κB pathway activated in the rat spinal cord after sciatic nerve injury (chronic constriction injury, CCI). Concomitantly, IκBα overproduction prevented the enhanced expression of interleukin-6 and of inducible nitric oxide synthase associated with chronic constriction injury and resulted in prolonged antihyperalgesic and antiallodynic effects. These data show that targeted blockade of NF-κB activity in spinal glia efficiently alleviates pain behavior in CCI rats, demonstrating the active participation of the glial NF-κB pathway in the development of neuropathic pain after peripheral nerve injury. Copyright © 2007 The American Society of Gene Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Heme oxygenase-1 dependant pathway contributes to protection by tetramethylpyrazine against chronic hypoxic injury on medulla oblongata in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yan; Hou, Xuefei; Chen, Li; Zhou, Hua; Gong, Yanju; Dai, Liqun; Zheng, Yu

    2016-02-15

    Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), one of the active ingredients of the Chinese herb Lingusticum Wallichii (Chuan Xiong) has been proved to protect the medulla oblongata from chronic hypoxia injury. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the protective effects of TMP are associated with the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) dependant pathway in adult rats. The morphological changes of neurons in the hypoglossal nucleus (12N), the nucleus ambiguus (Amb), the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), and the pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC) were investigated by Nissl staining; the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were measured to evaluate the anti-oxidant effect; some apoptosis parameters, Bax mRNA and Bcl-2 mRNA, were tested; and the double immunochemistry staining of active caspase-3/NeuN was performed. Meanwhile, the HO-1 protein expression and heme oxygenase (HO) activity were examined. Tin-protoporphyrin (SnPP), a potent inhibitor of HO, was used to further confirm the effect of HO-1. We found that TMP ameliorated the neuron loss in 12N, Amb and NTS, the decrease in SOD activity and the increase in MDA content, the decrease in Bcl-2 mRNA of medulla oblongata (Pmedulla oblongata in the rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Enhanced production of tetramethylpyrazine in Bacillus licheniformis BL1 by bdhA disruption and 2,3-butanediol supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Wu; Xiao, Dongguang; Wang, Ruiming

    2016-03-01

    The 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) dehydrogenase gene (bdhA) of Bacillus licheniformis BL1 was disrupted to construct the tetramethylpyrazine (TMP)-producing BLA strain. During microaerobic fermentation, the bdhA-disrupted BLA strain produced 46.98 g TMP/l, and this yield was 23.99% higher than that produced by the parent BL1 strain. In addition, the yield of acetoin, which is a TMP precursor, also increased by 28.98% in BLA. The TMP production by BL1 was enhanced by supplementing the fermentation medium with 2,3-BD. The yield of TMP improved from 37.89 to 44.77 g/l as the concentration of 2,3-BD increased from 0 to 2 g/l. The maximum TMP and acetoin yields increased by 18.16 and 17.87%, respectively with the increase in 2,3-BD concentration from 0 to 2 g/l. However, no increase was observed when the concentration of 2,3-BD in the matrix was ≥3 g/l. This study provides a valuable strategy to enhance TMP and acetoin productivity of mutagenic strains by gene manipulation and optimizing fermentation conditions.

  15. Repetitive Treatment with Diluted Bee Venom Attenuates the Induction of Below-Level Neuropathic Pain Behaviors in a Rat Spinal Cord Injury Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Suk-Yun; Roh, Dae-Hyun; Choi, Jung-Wan; Ryu, Yeonhee; Lee, Jang-Hern

    2015-07-10

    The administration of diluted bee venom (DBV) into an acupuncture point has been utilized traditionally in Eastern medicine to treat chronic pain. We demonstrated previously that DBV has a potent anti-nociceptive efficacy in several rodent pain models. The present study was designed to examine the potential anti-nociceptive effect of repetitive DBV treatment in the development of below-level neuropathic pain in spinal cord injury (SCI) rats. DBV was applied into the Joksamli acupoint during the induction and maintenance phase following thoracic 13 (T13) spinal hemisection. We examined the effect of repetitive DBV stimulation on SCI-induced bilateral pain behaviors, glia expression and motor function recovery. Repetitive DBV stimulation during the induction period, but not the maintenance, suppressed pain behavior in the ipsilateral hind paw. Moreover, SCI-induced increase in spinal glia expression was also suppressed by repetitive DBV treatment in the ipsilateral dorsal spinal cord. Finally, DBV injection facilitated motor function recovery as indicated by the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan rating score. These results indicate that the repetitive application of DBV during the induction phase not only decreased neuropathic pain behavior and glia expression, but also enhanced locomotor functional recovery after SCI. This study suggests that DBV acupuncture can be a potential clinical therapy for SCI management.

  16. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation attenuates CFA-induced hyperalgesia and inhibits spinal ERK1/2-COX-2 pathway activation in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Jun-Fan; Liang, Yi; Du, Jun-Ying; Fang, Jian-Qiao

    2013-01-01

    Background Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-pharmacologic treatment for pain relief. In previous animal studies, TENS effectively alleviated Complete Freund?s Adjuvant (CFA)- or carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain. Although TENS is known to produce analgesia via opioid activation in the brain and at the spinal level, few reports have investigated the signal transduction pathways mediated by TENS. Prior studies have verified the importance of the activation of extr...

  17. GLT1 overexpression reverses established neuropathic pain-related behavior and attenuates chronic dorsal horn neuron activation following cervical spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falnikar, Aditi; Hala, Tamara J; Poulsen, David J; Lepore, Angelo C

    2016-03-01

    Development of neuropathic pain occurs in a major portion of traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) patients, resulting in debilitating and often long-term physical and psychological burdens. Following SCI, chronic dysregulation of extracellular glutamate homeostasis has been shown to play a key role in persistent central hyperexcitability of superficial dorsal horn neurons that mediate pain neurotransmission, leading to various forms of neuropathic pain. Astrocytes express the major CNS glutamate transporter, GLT1, which is responsible for the vast majority of functional glutamate uptake, particularly in the spinal cord. In our unilateral cervical contusion model of mouse SCI that is associated with ipsilateral forepaw heat hypersensitivity (a form of chronic at-level neuropathic pain-related behavior), we previously reported significant and long-lasting reductions in GLT1 expression and functional GLT1-mediated glutamate uptake in cervical spinal cord dorsal horn. To therapeutically address GLT1 dysfunction following cervical contusion SCI, we injected an adeno-associated virus type 8 (AAV8)-Gfa2 vector into the superficial dorsal horn to increase GLT1 expression selectively in astrocytes. Compared to both contusion-only animals and injured mice that received AAV8-eGFP control injection, AAV8-GLT1 delivery increased GLT1 protein expression in astrocytes of the injured cervical spinal cord dorsal horn, resulting in a significant and persistent reversal of already-established heat hypersensitivity. Furthermore, AAV8-GLT1 injection significantly reduced expression of the transcription factor and marker of persistently increased neuronal activation, ΔFosB, in superficial dorsal horn neurons. These results demonstrate that focal restoration of GLT1 expression in the superficial dorsal horn is a promising target for treating chronic neuropathic pain following SCI. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation attenuates CFA-induced hyperalgesia and inhibits spinal ERK1/2-COX-2 pathway activation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jun-Fan; Liang, Yi; Du, Jun-Ying; Fang, Jian-Qiao

    2013-06-15

    Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is a non-pharmacologic treatment for pain relief. In previous animal studies, TENS effectively alleviated Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA)- or carrageenan-induced inflammatory pain. Although TENS is known to produce analgesia via opioid activation in the brain and at the spinal level, few reports have investigated the signal transduction pathways mediated by TENS. Prior studies have verified the importance of the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signal transduction pathway in the spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH) in acute and persistent inflammatory pains. Here, by using CFA rat model, we tested the efficacy of TENS on inhibiting the expressions of p-ERK1/2 and of its downstream cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and the level of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) at spinal level. Rats were randomly divided into control, model and TENS groups, and injected subcutaneously with 100 μl CFA or saline in the plantar surface of right hind paw. Rats in the TENS group were treated with TENS (constant aquare wave, 2 Hz and 100 Hz alternating frequencies, intensities ranging from 1 to 2 mA, lasting for 30 min each time) at 5 h and 24 h after injection. Paw withdrawal thresholds (PWTs) were measured with dynamic plantar aesthesiometer at 3d before modeling and 5 h, 6 h, and 25 h after CFA injection. The ipsilateral sides of the lumbar spinal cord dosral horns were harvested for detecting the expressions of p-ERK1/2 and COX-2 by western blot analysis and qPCR, and PGE2 by ELISA. CFA-induced periphery inflammation decreased PWTs and increased paw volume of rats. TENS treatment significantly alleviated mechanical hyperalgesia caused by CFA. However, no anti-inflammatory effect of TENS was observed. Expression of p-ERK1/2 protein and COX-2 mRNA was significantly up-regualted at 5 h and 6 h after CFA injection, while COX-2 and PGE2 protein level only increased at 6 h after modeling. Furthermore, the high expression of p-ERK1

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  1. The effects of an intraperitoneal single low dose of ketamine in attenuating the postoperative skin/muscle incision and retraction-induced pain related to the inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu; Xu, Li; Liu, Ming; Lei, Yishan; Gu, Xiaoping; Ma, Zhengliang

    2016-03-11

    Chronic postoperative pain (CPOP) is a common clinical problem which might be related to central sensitization. It has been widely accepted that NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors are among the triggers of central sensitization. Ketamine is a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist that is widely used in alleviating postoperative pain, but its effect on CPOP has been rarely reported. In the present study, the skin/muscle incision and retraction (SMIR) model was used to investigate the role of NMDARs in chronic postoperative pain and the effect of an intraperitoneal single low dose ketamine (10mg/kg) of attenuating SMIR-induced CPOP. We assessed pain behaviours after a SMIR operation by paw withdrawal threshold (PWMT) and paw withdrawal latency (PWMTL). Western blotting were performed to examine the role of NMDARs in SMIR-induced CPOP and the effect of ketamine on the expression and phosphorylation of NMDARs. The SMIR operation induced long-lasting mechanical hyperalgesia, and the up-regulation of phosphorylated NMDARs and total NMDARs at the spinal level. A single intraperitoneal administration of low dose ketamine (10mg/kg) during surgery alleviated pain behaviors and inhibited the up-regulation of phosphorylated NMDARs and total NMDARs. Our datas suggested that NMDARs play important roles in SMIR-induced CPOP. A single intraperitoneal low dose of ketamine could attenuate SMIR-induced CPOP, which might be associated with the inhibition of NMDARs. Our finding might provide a new, simple method of addressing CPOP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available menu Understanding Spinal Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal Cord Injury Chart Spinal Cord Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal ...

  3. Spinal stenosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the spine that was present from birth Narrow spinal canal that the person was born with Herniated or slipped disk, which ... when you sit down or lean forward. Most people with spinal stenosis cannot walk for a long ... During a physical exam, your health care provider will try to ...

  4. Spinal injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dallas, TX: American Red Cross; 2016. Kaji AH, Newton EJ, Hockberger RS. Spinal injuries. In: Marx JA, ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  5. Spinal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tali, E. Turgut; Gueltekin, Serap

    2005-01-01

    Spinal infections have an increasing prevalence among the general population. Definitive diagnosis based solely on clinical grounds is usually not possible and radiological imaging is used in almost all patients. The primary aim of the authors is to present an overview of spinal infections located in epidural, intradural and intramedullary compartments and to provide diagnostic clues regarding different imaging modalities, particularly MRI, to the practicing physicians and radiologists. (orig.)

  6. Spinal cysticercosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedert, A.V.; Silva, S.H.F.

    1990-01-01

    Spinal cysticercosis is an extremely uncommon condition. We have examined four patients with complaints that resembled nervous root compression by disk herniation. Myelography was shown to be an efficient method to evaluate spinal involvement, that was characterized by findings of multiple filling defect images (cysts) plus signs of adhesive arachnoiditis. One cyst was found to be mobile. Because of the recent development of medical treatment, a quick and precise diagnosis is of high importance to determine the prognosis of this condition. (author)

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ... Cord Injury What is a Spinal Cord Injury Levels of Injury and What They Mean Animated Spinal ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  9. Spinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethem, J.W.M. van; Hauwe, L. van den; Oezsarlak, Oe.; Schepper, A.M.A. de; Parizel, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    Spinal tumors are uncommon lesions but may cause significant morbidity in terms of limb dysfunction. In establishing the differential diagnosis for a spinal lesion, location is the most important feature, but the clinical presentation and the patient's age and gender are also important. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays a central role in the imaging of spinal tumors, easily allowing tumors to be classified as extradural, intradural-extramedullary or intramedullary, which is very useful in tumor characterization. In the evaluation of lesions of the osseous spine both computed tomography (CT) and MR are important. We describe the most common spinal tumors in detail. In general, extradural lesions are the most common with metastasis being the most frequent. Intradural tumors are rare, and the majority is extramedullary, with meningiomas and nerve sheath tumors being the most frequent. Intramedullary tumors are uncommon spinal tumors. Astrocytomas and ependymomas comprise the majority of the intramedullary tumors. The most important tumors are documented with appropriate high quality CT or MR images and the characteristics of these tumors are also summarized in a comprehensive table. Finally we illustrate the use of the new World Health Organization (WHO) classification of neoplasms affecting the central nervous system

  10. Spinal tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, R N; Ben Husien, M

    2018-04-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains endemic in many parts of the developing world and is increasingly seen in the developed world due to migration. A total of 1.3 million people die annually from the disease. Spinal TB is the most common musculoskeletal manifestation, affecting about 1 to 2% of all cases of TB. The coexistence of HIV, which is endemic in some regions, adds to the burden and the complexity of management. This review discusses the epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, impact of HIV and both the medical and surgical options in the management of spinal TB. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:425-31.

  11. Spinal computed tomography: New perspectives in the diagnostics of spine and spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartor, K.

    1979-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) of the spine and spinal cord is gaining more and more importance as a valuable neuroradiological method of investigation. Performed as a noninvasive procedure, without any or with intravenous contrast enhancement, it may be used in diagnosing paravertebral soft tissue lesions, constrictive lesions of the bony spinal canal, structural changes of the vertebral column or of individual vertebrae, vascular intraspinal lesions, and intraspinal tumors with abnormally high or abnormally low attenuation values. Performed as an invasive procedure, after intrathecal introduction of metrizamide, spinal CT may be used in conjunction with conventional metrizamide myelography (secondary CT-myelography) or primarily (primary CT-myelography) in selected cases, taking advantage of its unique properties, namely to axially visualize the spine and related soft tissue structures and to detect even small differences in attenuation. Further improvement of spinal CT, particularly with regard to routine non-invasive demonstration of the intraspinal soft tissues, can be awaited. (orig.) [de

  12. Novel Tandem Biotransformation Process for the Biosynthesis of a Novel Compound, 4-(2,3,5,6-Tetramethylpyrazine-1)-4′-Demethylepipodophyllotoxin▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ya-Jie; Zhao, Wei; Li, Hong-Mei

    2011-01-01

    According to the structure of podophyllotoxin and its structure-function relationship, a novel tandem biotransformation process was developed for the directional modification of the podophyllotoxin structure to directionally synthesize a novel compound, 4-(2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine-1)-4′-demethylepipodophyllotoxin (4-TMP-DMEP). In this novel tandem biotransformation process, the starting substrate of podophyllotoxin was biotransformed into 4′-demethylepipodophyllotoxin (product 1) with the demethylation of the methoxyl group at the 4′ position by Gibberella fujikuroi SH-f13, which was screened out from Shennongjia prime forest humus soil (Hubei, China). 4′-Demethylepipodophyllotoxin (product 1) was then biotransformed into 4′-demethylpodophyllotoxone (product 2) with the oxidation of the hydroxyl group at the 4 position by Alternaria alternata S-f6, which was screened out from the gathered Dysosma versipellis plants in the Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Finally, 4′-demethylpodophyllotoxone (product 2) and ligustrazine were linked with a transamination reaction to synthesize the target product 4-TMP-DMEP (product 3) by Alternaria alternata S-f6. Compared with podophyllotoxin (i.e., a 50% effective concentration [EC50] of 529 μM), the EC50 of 4-TMP-DMEP against the tumor cell line BGC-823 (i.e., 0.11 μM) was significantly reduced by 5,199 times. Simultaneously, the EC50 of 4-TMP-DMEP against the normal human proximal tubular epithelial cell line HK-2 (i.e., 0.40 μM) was 66 times higher than that of podophyllotoxin (i.e., 0.006 μM). Furthermore, compared with podophyllotoxin (i.e., log P = 0.34), the water solubility of 4-TMP-DMEP (i.e., log P = 0.66) was significantly enhanced by 94%. For the first time, the novel compound 4-TMP-DMEP with superior antitumor activity was directionally synthesized from podophyllotoxin by the novel tandem biotransformation process developed in this work. PMID:21398491

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... L Sarah Harrison, OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury ... a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, ... Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW ...

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos Topics menu Topics Spinal Cord Injury ... Jennifer Piatt, PhD David Chen, MD Read Bio Medical Director, Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Program, Rehabilitation Institute ...

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  20. Spinal Cord Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that runs down the middle of your back. It carries signals back ... of the spine, this can also injure the spinal cord. Other spinal cord problems include Tumors Infections such ...

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children with Spinal Cord Injury Patricia Mucia, RN Family Life After Pediatric Spinal Injury Dawn Sheaffer, MSW Rehabilitation ...

  2. Spinal cord contusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Gong; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yazhou; Zhao, Xianghui

    2014-04-15

    Spinal cord injury is a major cause of disability with devastating neurological outcomes and limited therapeutic opportunities, even though there are thousands of publications on spinal cord injury annually. There are two major types of spinal cord injury, transaction of the spinal cord and spinal cord contusion. Both can theoretically be treated, but there is no well documented treatment in human being. As for spinal cord contusion, we have developed an operation with fabulous result.

  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal ... What is a spinal cord injury? play_arrow How does the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a ...

  4. Spinal pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzo, R.; Popolizio, T.; D’Aprile, P.; Muto, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Purpose of this review is to address the current concepts on the pathophysiology of discogenic, radicular, facet and dysfunctional spinal pain, focusing on the role of the imaging in the diagnostic setting, to potentially address a correct approach also to minimally invasive interventional techniques. • Special attention will be given to the discogenic pain, actually considered as the most frequent cause of chronic low back pain. • The correct distinction between referred pain and radicular pain contributes to give a more correct approach to spinal pain. • The pathogenesis of chronic pain renders this pain a true pathology requiring a specific management. - Abstract: The spinal pain, and expecially the low back pain (LBP), represents the second cause for a medical consultation in primary care setting and a leading cause of disability worldwide [1]. LBP is more often idiopathic. It has as most frequent cause the internal disc disruption (IDD) and is referred to as discogenic pain. IDD refers to annular fissures, disc collapse and mechanical failure, with no significant modification of external disc shape, with or without endplates changes. IDD is described as a separate clinical entity in respect to disc herniation, segmental instability and degenerative disc desease (DDD). The radicular pain has as most frequent causes a disc herniation and a canal stenosis. Both discogenic and radicular pain also have either a mechanical and an inflammatory genesis. For to be richly innervated, facet joints can be a direct source of pain, while for their degenerative changes cause compression of nerve roots in lateral recesses and in the neural foramina. Degenerative instability is a common and often misdiagnosed cause of axial and radicular pain, being also a frequent indication for surgery. Acute pain tends to extinguish along with its cause, but the setting of complex processes of peripheral and central sensitization may influence its evolution in chronic

  5. Spinal pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izzo, R., E-mail: roberto1766@interfree.it [Neuroradiology Department, A. Cardarelli Hospital, Naples (Italy); Popolizio, T., E-mail: t.popolizio1@gmail.com [Radiology Department, Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza Hospital, San Giovanni Rotondo (Fg) (Italy); D’Aprile, P., E-mail: paoladaprile@yahoo.it [Neuroradiology Department, San Paolo Hospital, Bari (Italy); Muto, M., E-mail: mutomar@tiscali.it [Neuroradiology Department, A. Cardarelli Hospital, Napoli (Italy)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Purpose of this review is to address the current concepts on the pathophysiology of discogenic, radicular, facet and dysfunctional spinal pain, focusing on the role of the imaging in the diagnostic setting, to potentially address a correct approach also to minimally invasive interventional techniques. • Special attention will be given to the discogenic pain, actually considered as the most frequent cause of chronic low back pain. • The correct distinction between referred pain and radicular pain contributes to give a more correct approach to spinal pain. • The pathogenesis of chronic pain renders this pain a true pathology requiring a specific management. - Abstract: The spinal pain, and expecially the low back pain (LBP), represents the second cause for a medical consultation in primary care setting and a leading cause of disability worldwide [1]. LBP is more often idiopathic. It has as most frequent cause the internal disc disruption (IDD) and is referred to as discogenic pain. IDD refers to annular fissures, disc collapse and mechanical failure, with no significant modification of external disc shape, with or without endplates changes. IDD is described as a separate clinical entity in respect to disc herniation, segmental instability and degenerative disc desease (DDD). The radicular pain has as most frequent causes a disc herniation and a canal stenosis. Both discogenic and radicular pain also have either a mechanical and an inflammatory genesis. For to be richly innervated, facet joints can be a direct source of pain, while for their degenerative changes cause compression of nerve roots in lateral recesses and in the neural foramina. Degenerative instability is a common and often misdiagnosed cause of axial and radicular pain, being also a frequent indication for surgery. Acute pain tends to extinguish along with its cause, but the setting of complex processes of peripheral and central sensitization may influence its evolution in chronic

  6. Spinal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beale, S.; Pathria, M.N.; Ross, J.S.; Masaryk, T.J.; Modic, M.T.

    1988-01-01

    The authors studied 50 patients who had spinal stenosis by means of MR imaging. All patients had undergone myelography and CT. Thirty patients underwent surgery. MR imaging included T1-weighted spin echo sequences with repetition time = 600 msec, echo time = 20 (600/20) sagittal and axial sections 4 mm thick with 2 mm gap. T2-weighted 2,000/60 axial images were obtained on 14 patients. Examinations were retrospectively evaluated for central stenosis, lateral recess narrowing, and foraminal encroachment. Measurements of sagittal, interpedicular, interfacet, and recess dimensions were made at L3-5. On MR images, 20 patients had single-level and 30 had multiple-level stenosis. There was excellent agreement between modalities with central canal stenosis, but a discrepancy in six patients with bony foraminal stenosis. MR imaging was an accurate method for assessment of lumbar stenosis, but CT appears marginally better for detection of bony foraminal stenosis in certain cases

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical Expert Videos ... Home Kim Eberhardt Muir, MS Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After Spinal Cord Injury Diane M. ...

  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... of Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Kristine Cichowski, MS Occupational Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Katie Powell, OT ... does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information ...

  9. Spinal Cord Dysfunction (SCD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Spinal Cord Dysfunction (SCD) module supports the maintenance of local and national registries for the tracking of patients with spinal cord injury and disease...

  10. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, SW Marguerite ... play_arrow What are the latest developments in the use of electrical stimulation for spinal ...

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding Spinal ... with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury Medical ...

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Injury Facts and Figures Care and Treatment After SCI Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Pediatric Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences ...

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources ... Spinal Cord Injuries Video Library SCI Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources ...

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... play_arrow What are the chances of regaining feeling and mobility after a spinal cord injury? play_arrow How long does it usually take for feeling and movement to return after a spinal cord ...

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation ... Rogers, PT Recreational Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Jennifer Piatt, PhD David Chen, MD Read Bio Medical ...

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert Videos Contact Us Personal Experience Videos Blog Videos By Topic Media Resources Donate to support families facing spinal cord ...

  1. Spinal cord stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007560.htm Spinal cord stimulation To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Spinal cord stimulation is a treatment for pain that uses ...

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to ... a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? ...

  3. Spinal segmental dysgenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Mahomed

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal segmental dysgenesis is a rare congenital spinal abnormality , seen in neonates and infants in which a segment of the spine and spinal cord fails to develop normally . The condition is segmental with normal vertebrae above and below the malformation. This condition is commonly associated with various abnormalities that affect the heart, genitourinary, gastrointestinal tract and skeletal system. We report two cases of spinal segmental dysgenesis and the associated abnormalities.

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow What is meant ...

  5. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow What are the most promising new treatments for spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What are the latest developments in the use of electrical stimulation for spinal cord injuries? play_arrow ...

  6. Spinal Cord Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... forth between your body and your brain. A spinal cord injury disrupts the signals. Spinal cord injuries usually begin with a blow that fractures or ... down on the nerve parts that carry signals. Spinal cord injuries can be complete or incomplete. With a complete ...

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... injury? play_arrow How does the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a spinal cord injury important? play_arrow What role does “compression” play in a spinal cord injury? play_arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow What is meant ...

  8. Trauma: Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, Matthew J; Martin, Matthew J

    2017-10-01

    Injuries to the spinal column and spinal cord frequently occur after high-energy mechanisms of injury, or with lower-energy mechanisms, in select patient populations like the elderly. A focused yet complete neurologic examination during the initial evaluation will guide subsequent diagnostic procedures and early supportive measures to help prevent further injury. For patients with injury to bone and/or ligaments, the initial focus should be spinal immobilization and prevention of inducing injury to the spinal cord. Spinal cord injury is associated with numerous life-threatening complications during the acute and long-term phases of care that all acute care surgeons must recognize. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Human spinal motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2016-01-01

    Human studies in the past three decades have provided us with an emerging understanding of how cortical and spinal networks collaborate to ensure the vast repertoire of human behaviors. We differ from other animals in having direct cortical connections to spinal motoneurons, which bypass spinal...... the central motor command by opening or closing sensory feedback pathways. In the future, human studies of spinal motor control, in close collaboration with animal studies on the molecular biology of the spinal cord, will continue to document the neural basis for human behavior. Expected final online...

  10. International Spinal Cord Injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dvorak, M F; Itshayek, E; Fehlings, M G

    2015-01-01

    STUDY DESIGN: Survey of expert opinion, feedback and final consensus. OBJECTIVE: To describe the development and the variables included in the International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Spinal Interventions and Surgical Procedures Basic Data set. SETTING: International working group. METHODS......: A committee of experts was established to select and define data elements. The data set was then disseminated to the appropriate committees and organizations for comments. All suggested revisions were considered and both the International Spinal Cord Society and the American Spinal Injury Association endorsed...... spinal intervention and procedure is coded (variables 1 through 7) and the spinal segment level is described (variables 8 and 9). Sample clinical cases were developed to illustrate how to complete it. CONCLUSION: The International SCI Spinal Interventions and Surgical Procedures Basic Data Set...

  11. Transmitters and pathways mediating inhibition of spinal itch-signaling neurons by scratching and other counterstimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasuku Akiyama

    Full Text Available Scratching relieves itch, but the underlying neural mechanisms are poorly understood. We presently investigated a role for the inhibitory neurotransmitters GABA and glycine in scratch-evoked inhibition of spinal itch-signaling neurons in a mouse model of chronic dry skin itch. Superficial dorsal horn neurons ipsilateral to hindpaw dry skin treatment exhibited a high level of spontaneous firing that was significantly attenuated by cutaneous scratching, pinch and noxious heat. Scratch-evoked inhibition was nearly abolished by spinal delivery of the glycine antagonist, strychnine, and was markedly attenuated by respective GABA(A and GABA(B antagonists bicuculline and saclofen. Scratch-evoked inhibition was also significantly attenuated (but not abolished by interruption of the upper cervical spinal cord, indicating the involvement of both segmental and suprasegmental circuits that engage glycine- and GABA-mediated inhibition of spinal itch-signaling neurons by noxious counterstimuli.

  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About ... Your email address * This iframe contains the logic required to ...

  13. Spinal injury in sport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barile, Antonio [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)]. E-mail: antonio.barile@cc.univaq.it; Limbucci, Nicola [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Gallucci, Massimo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy); Masciocchi, Carlo [Department of Radiology, University of L' Aquila, S. Salvatore Hospital, Via Vetoio, Coppito, 67100 L' Aquila (Italy)

    2007-04-15

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding.

  14. Spinal CT scan, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    1982-01-01

    Methods of CT of the cervical and thoracic spines were explained, and normal CT pictures of them were described. Spinal CT was evaluated in comparison with other methods in various spinal diseases. Plain CT revealed stenosis due to spondylosis or ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament and hernia of intervertebral disc. CT took an important role in the diagnosis of spinal cord tumors with calcification and destruction of the bone. CT scan in combination with other methods was also useful for the diagnosis of spinal injuries, congenital anomalies and infections. (Ueda, J.)

  15. MULTIPLE SPINAL CANAL MENINGIOMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandigama Pratap Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Meningiomas of the spinal canal are common tumours with the incidence of 25 percent of all spinal cord tumours. But multiple spinal canal meningiomas are rare in compare to solitary lesions and account for 2 to 3.5% of all spinal meningiomas. Most of the reported cases are both intra cranial and spinal. Exclusive involvement of the spinal canal by multiple meningiomas are very rare. We could find only sixteen cases in the literature to the best of our knowledge. Exclusive multiple spinal canal meningiomas occurring in the first two decades of life are seldom reported in the literature. We are presenting a case of multiple spinal canal meningiomas in a young patient of 17 years, who was earlier operated for single lesion. We analysed the literature, with illustration of our case. MATERIALS AND METHODS In September 2016, we performed a literature search for multiple spinal canal meningiomas involving exclusively the spinal canal with no limitation for language and publication date. The search was conducted through http://pubmed.com, a wellknown worldwide internet medical address. To the best of our knowledge, we could find only sixteen cases of multiple meningiomas exclusively confined to the spinal canal. Exclusive multiple spinal canal meningiomas occurring in the first two decades of life are seldom reported in the literature. We are presenting a case of multiple spinal canal meningiomas in a young patient of 17 years, who was earlier operated for solitary intradural extra medullary spinal canal meningioma at D4-D6 level, again presented with spastic quadriparesis of two years duration and MRI whole spine demonstrated multiple intradural extra medullary lesions, which were excised completely and the histopathological diagnosis was transitional meningioma. RESULTS Patient recovered from his weakness and sensory symptoms gradually and bladder and bowel symptoms improved gradually over a period of two to three weeks. CONCLUSION Multiple

  16. Spinal injury in sport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barile, Antonio; Limbucci, Nicola; Splendiani, Alessandra; Gallucci, Massimo; Masciocchi, Carlo

    2007-01-01

    Spinal injuries are very common among professional or amateur athletes. Spinal sport lesions can be classified in overuse and acute injuries. Overuse injuries can be found after years of repetitive spinal load during sport activity; however specific overuse injuries can also be found in adolescents. Acute traumas are common in contact sports. Most of the acute injuries are minor and self-healing, but severe and catastrophic events are possible. The aim of this article is to review the wide spectrum of spinal injuries related to sport activity, with special regard to imaging finding

  17. Descending serotonergic facilitation mediated by spinal 5-HT3 receptors engages spinal rapamycin-sensitive pathways in the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Curtis O.; Dickenson, Anthony H.

    2010-01-01

    We have recently reported the importance of spinal rapamycin-sensitive pathways in maintaining persistent pain-like states. A descending facilitatory drive mediated through spinal 5-HT3 receptors (5-HT3Rs) originating from superficial dorsal horn NK1-expressing neurons and that relays through the parabrachial nucleus and the rostroventral medial medulla to act on deep dorsal horn neurons is known be important in maintaining these pain-like states. To determine if spinal rapamycin-sensitive pathways are activated by a descending serotonergic drive, we investigated the effects of spinally administered rapamycin on responses of deep dorsal horn neurons that had been pre-treated with the selective 5-HT3R antagonist ondansetron. We also investigated the effects of spinally administered cell cycle inhibitor (CCI)-779 (a rapamycin ester analogue) on deep dorsal horn neurons from rats with carrageenan-induced inflammation of the hind paw. Unlike some other models of persistent pain, this model does not involve an altered 5-HT3R-mediated descending serotonergic drive. We found that the inhibitory effects of rapamycin were significantly reduced for neuronal responses to mechanical and thermal stimuli when the spinal cord was pre-treated with ondansetron. Furthermore, CCI-779 was found to be ineffective in attenuating spinal neuronal responses to peripheral stimuli in carrageenan-treated rats. Therefore, we conclude that 5-HT3R-mediated descending facilitation is one requirement for activation of rapamycin-sensitive pathways that contribute to persistent pain-like states. PMID:20709148

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal ... injury? play_arrow How does the spinal cord work? play_arrow Why is the level of a ...

  19. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fakhrai, N.; Fazeny-Doerner, B.; Marosi, C.; Czech, T.; Diekmann, K.; Birner, P.; Hainfellner, J.A.; Prayer, D.

    2004-01-01

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... arrow What are the latest developments in the use of electrical stimulation for spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What is “Braingate” research? play_arrow How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord ...

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Spinal Cord Injury Guy W. Fried, MD Substance Abuse and Spinal Cord Injury Allen Heinemann, PhD How ... arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow What is meant ...

  2. Lumbar spinal stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønne, Greger; Fritzell, Peter; Hägg, Olle

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Decompression surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) is the most common spinal procedure in the elderly. To avoid persisting low back pain, adding arthrodesis has been recommended, especially if there is a coexisting degenerative spondylolisthesis. However, this strategy remains con...

  3. Glioblastoma with spinal seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrai, N.; Fazeny-Doerner, B.; Marosi, C. [Clinical Div. of Oncology, Dept. of Medicine I, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Czech, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Diekmann, K. [Dept. of Radiooncology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Birner, P.; Hainfellner, J.A. [Clinical Inst. for Neurology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria); Prayer, D. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Vienna (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Background: extracranial seeding of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is very rare and its development depends on several factors. This case report describes two patients suffering from GBM with spinal seeding. In both cases, the anatomic localization of the primary tumor close to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was the main factor for spinal seeding. Case reports: two patients with GBM and spinal seeding are presented. After diagnosis of spinal seeding, both patients were highly symptomatic from their spinal lesions. Case 1 experienced severe pain requiring opiates, and case 2 had paresis of lower limbs as well as urinary retention/incontinence. Both patients were treated with spinal radiation therapy. Nevertheless, they died 3 months after diagnosis of spinal seeding. Results: in both patients the diagnosis of spinal seeding was made at the time of cranial recurrence. Both tumors showed close contact to the CSF initially. Even though the patients underwent intensive treatment, it was not possible to keep them in a symptom-free state. Conclusion: because of short survival periods, patients deserve optimal pain management and dedicated palliative care. (orig.)

  4. Chronic spinal subdural hematoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, T.; Lensch, T.

    2008-01-01

    Compared with spinal epidural hematomas, spinal subdural hematomas are rare; chronic forms are even more uncommon. These hematomas are associated not only with lumbar puncture and spinal trauma, but also with coagulopathies, vascular malformations and tumors. Compression of the spinal cord and the cauda equina means that the patients develop increasing back or radicular pain, followed by paraparesis and bladder and bowel paralysis, so that in most cases surgical decompression is carried out. On magnetic resonance imaging these hematomas present as thoracic or lumbar subdural masses, their signal intensity varying with the age of the hematoma. We report the clinical course and the findings revealed by imaging that led to the diagnosis in three cases of chronic spinal subdural hematoma. (orig.) [de

  5. Effect of lycopene on the blood-spinal cord barrier after spinal cord injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Jianbo; Gu, Zhengsong; Zhang, Qing; Zheng, Hong

    2016-09-05

    The current study aimed to investigate the effect of lycopene on the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) after spinal cord injury (SCI) in a mouse model. Lycopene inhibited lipid peroxidation and oxidative DNA damage as a highly efficient antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Lycopene (4 mg/kg/d) was administrated immediately following SCI. The permeability of the BSCB and water content in the spinal cord tissue were evaluated. Additionally, levels of expression of tight junction proteins and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were determined with Western blotting. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis of spinal cord tissue homogenates was performed 48 h after SCI to evaluate the expression of inflammation-related cytokines. In addition, recovery of motor function was assessed 1 d, 2 d, 5 d, 10 d, and 15 d after SCI using the Basso Mouse Scale to score locomotion. Compared to the group with an untreated SCI, mice with an SCI treated with lycopene had significantly reduced spinal cord tissue water content and BSCB permeability. Furthermore, motor function of mice with an SCI was also greatly improved by lycopene administration. The expression of the proinflammatory factors TNF-α and NF-kB increased markedly 48 h after SCI, and their upregulation was significantly attenuated by lycopene treatment. The expression of molecules that protect tight junctions, zonula occluden-1 and claudin-5, was upregulated by lycopene treatment after SCI. Taken together, these results clearly indicate that lycopene attenuated SCI by promoting repair of the damaged BSCB, so lycopene is a novel and promising treatment for SCI in humans.

  6. Nuclear magnetic imaging for MTRA. Spinal canal and spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritzsch, Dominik; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus

    2011-01-01

    The booklet covers the following topics: (1) Clinical indications for NMR imaging of spinal cord and spinal canal; (2) Methodic requirements: magnets and coils, image processing, contrast media: (3) Examination technology: examination conditions, sequences, examination protocols; (4) Disease pattern and indications: diseases of the myelin, the spinal nerves and the spinal canal (infections, tumors, injuries, ischemia and bleedings, malformations); diseases of the spinal cord and the intervertebral disks (degenerative changes, infections, injuries, tumors, malformations).

  7. Spinal NF-κB and chemokine ligand 5 expression during spinal glial cell activation in a neuropathic pain model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Yin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The NF-κB pathway and chemokine (C-C motif ligand 5 (CCL5 are involved in pain modulation; however, the precise mechanisms of their interactions in chronic neuropathic pain have yet to be established. METHODS: The present study examined the roles of spinal NF-κB and CCL5 in a neuropathic pain model after chronic constriction injury (CCI surgery. CCI-induced pain facilitation was evaluated using the Plantar and von Frey tests. The changes in NF-κB and CCL5 expression were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses. RESULTS: Spinal NF-κB and CCL5 expression increased after CCI surgery. Repeated intrathecal infusions of pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC, a NF-κB inhibitor decreased CCL5 expression, inhibited the activation of microglia and astrocytes, and attenuated CCI-induced allodynia and hyperalgesia. Intrathecal injection of a CCL5-neutralizing antibody attenuated CCI-induced pain facilitation and also suppressed spinal glial cell activation after CCI surgery. However, the CCL5-neutralizing antibody did not affect NF-κB expression. Furthermore, selective glial inhibitors, minocycline and fluorocitrate, attenuated the hyperalgesia induced by intrathecal CCL5. CONCLUSIONS: The inhibition of spinal CCL5 expression may provide a new method to prevent and treat nerve injury-induced neuropathic pain.

  8. Disorders of spinal blood circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hevyak, O.M.; Kuzminskyy, A.P.

    2017-01-01

    Spinal strokes are rare. The most common causes of the haemorrhage are spinal cord trauma, vasculitis with signs of haemorrhagic diathesis, spinal vascular congenital anomalies (malformations) and haemangioma. By localization, haemorrhagic strokes are divided into three groups: haematomyelia, spinal subarachnoid haemorrhage, epidural hematoma. Most cavernous malformations are localized at the cervical level, fewer — at thoracic and lumbar levels of the spinal cord. The clinical case of diagno...

  9. Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 is involved in spinal nociceptive plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DʼMello, Richard; Sand, Claire A; Pezet, Sophie; Leiper, James M; Gaurilcikaite, Egle; McMahon, Stephen B; Dickenson, Anthony H; Nandi, Manasi

    2015-10-01

    Activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase, and consequent production of nitric oxide (NO), contributes to spinal hyperexcitability and enhanced pain sensation. All NOS isoforms are inhibited endogenously by asymmetric dimethylarginine, which itself is metabolised by dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH). Inhibition of DDAH can indirectly attenuate NO production by elevating asymmetric dimethylarginine concentrations. Here, we show that the DDAH-1 isoform is constitutively active in the nervous system, specifically in the spinal dorsal horn. DDAH-1 was found to be expressed in sensory neurons within both the dorsal root ganglia and spinal dorsal horn; L-291 (NG-[2-Methoxyethyl]-L-arginine methyl ester), a DDAH-1 inhibitor, reduced NO synthesis in cultured dorsal root ganglia neurons. Spinal application of L-291 decreased N-methyl-D-aspartate-dependent postdischarge and windup of dorsal horn sensory neurons--2 measures of spinal hyperexcitability. Finally, spinal application of L-291 reduced both neuronal and behavioral measures of formalin-induced central sensitization. Thus, DDAH-1 may be a potential therapeutic target in neuronal disorders, such as chronic pain, where elevated NO is a contributing factor.

  10. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert ... Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC close close

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, Physical Therapy-Lokomat T. George Hornby, PhD, PT Empowering ... Rogers, SW Marguerite David, MSW Kathy Hulse, MSW Physical Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury Laura Wehrli, PT ...

  12. Spinal cord trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 32. Kaji AH, Newton EJ, Hockberger RS. Spinal injuries. In: Marx JA, ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  13. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... How Peer Counseling Works Julie Gassaway, MS, RN Pediatric Injuries Pediatric Spinal Cord Injury 101 Lawrence Vogel, MD The Basics of Pediatric SCI Rehabilitation Sara Klaas, MSW Transitions for Children ...

  14. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... com is an informational and support website for families facing spinal cord injuries. The website does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or ...

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, PsyD Understanding SCI Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, ...

  16. Spinal pain in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartun, Ellen; Hartvigsen, Jan; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The severity and course of spinal pain is poorly understood in adolescents. The study aimed to determine the prevalence and two-year incidence, as well as the course, frequency, and intensity of pain in the neck, mid back, and low back (spinal pain). METHODS: This study was a school......-based prospective cohort study. All 5th and 6th grade students (11-13 years) at 14 schools in the Region of Southern Denmark were invited to participate (N = 1,348). Data were collected in 2010 and again two years later, using an e-survey completed during school time. RESULTS: The lifetime prevalence of spinal pain...... reported their pain as relatively infrequent and of low intensity, whereas the participants with frequent pain also experienced pain of higher intensity. The two-year incidence of spinal pain varied between 40% and 60% across the physical locations. Progression of pain from one to more locations and from...

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us ...

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, SW Marguerite ... arrow Why are high-dose steroids often used right after an injury? play_arrow What is meant ...

  19. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close search Understanding ... Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal Cord Injury ...

  20. Spinal Injury: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... EmergencyManual/WhatToDoInMedicalEmergency/Default.aspx?id=258&terms=spinal+injuries. Accessed Jan. 8, 2015. Marx JA, et al. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia, Pa.: Mosby ...

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Injury Diane M. Rowles, MS, NP How Family Life Changes After Spinal Cord Injury Nancy Rosenberg, PsyD ... Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, Physical ...

  2. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  3. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, SW Marguerite ... or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill ...

  4. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC close close

  5. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC Understanding Spinal Cord Injury About Us Expert ... With Disabilities Photography by Rona Talcott Website by Mobile Marketing LLC close close

  6. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Medical Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer ... Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to ...

  7. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  8. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... SCI Rehabilitation Donald Peck Leslie, MD Adjusting to Social Life in a Wheelchair Lisa Rosen, MS Spasticity, ... OT Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, SW ...

  9. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer ... Adult Injuries Spinal Cord Injury 101 David Chen, MD Preventing Pressure Sores Mary Zeigler, MS Transition from Hospital to ...

  10. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... arrow What is the “Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems” program? play_arrow ... recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information found on external websites. The Hill Foundation is ...

  11. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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  12. Spinal Cord Injury 101

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    Full Text Available ... Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate close ... Experts People Living with SCI Personal Experiences by Topic Resources Peer Counseling Blog About Media Donate Spinal ...

  13. Spinal extradural arachnoid cysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Rahimizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Extradural arachnoid cysts (EACs are rare causes of spinal cord compression and cauda equina. These benign lesions appear in the literature mainly as single case reports. In this article, we present the largest series found in literature, with four new cases of spinal extradural arachnoid cysts. The characteristic imaging features, details of surgical steps and strategies to prevent postoperative kyphosis in this cystic pathology will be discussed.

  14. Pediatric spinal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The infections of the spinal axis in children are rare when compared with adults. They encompass a large spectrum of diseases ranging from relatively benign diskitis to spinal osteomyleitis and to the rapidly progressive, rare, and potentially devastating spinal epidural, subdural, and intramedullary spinal cord infections. We present a comprehensive review of the literature pertaining to these uncommon entities, in light of our experience from northern India. The most prevalent pediatric spinal infection in Indian scenario is tuberculosis, where an extradural involvement is more common than intradural. The craniovertebral junction is not an uncommon site of involvement in children of our milieu. The majority of pyogenic infections of pediatric spine are associated with congenital neuro-ectodermal defects such as congenital dermal sinus. The clinico-radiological findings of various spinal infections commonly overlap. Hence the endemicity of certain pathogens should be given due consideration, while considering the differential diagnosis. However, early suspicion, rapid diagnosis, and prompt treatment are the key factors in avoiding neurological morbidity and deformity in a growing child.

  15. Congenital spinal malformations; Kongenitale spinale Malformationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ertl-Wagner, B.B.; Reiser, M.F. [Klinikum Grosshadern, Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie

    2001-12-01

    Congenital spinal malformations form a complex and heterogeneous group of disorders whose pathogenesis is best explained embryologically. Radiologically, it is important to formulate a diagnosis when the disorder first becomes symptomatic. However, it is also crucial to detect complications of the disorder or of the respective therapeutic interventions in the further course of the disease such as hydromyelia or re-tethering after repair of a meningomyelocele. Moreover, once a congenital spinal malformation is diagnosed, associated malformations should be sought after. A possible syndromal classification such as in OEIS- or VACTERL-syndromes should also be considered. (orig.) [German] Kongenitale spinale Malformationen stellen eine komplexe Gruppe an Stoerungen dar, deren Genese sich am einfachsten aus der Embryologie heraus erklaeren laesst. Bei der klinisch-radiologischen Begutachtung ist zunaechst ihre korrekte Klassifikation im Rahmen der Erstdiagnose wichtig. Im weiteren Verlauf ist es jedoch zudem entscheidend, moegliche Komplikationen wie beispielsweise eine Hydromyelie oder ein Wiederanheften des Myelons nach Operation einer Spina bifida aperta zu erkennen. Zudem sollte bei der Diagnosestellung einer kongenitalen spinalen Malformation immer auch auf assoziierte Fehlbildungen, wie z.B. die Diastematomyelie oder das intraspinale Lipom bei der Spina bifida aperta, sowie auf eine moegliche syndromale Einordnung wie beispielsweise beim OEIS-oder VACTERL-Syndrom geachtet werden. (orig.)

  16. Tracer attenuation in groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetkovic, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    The self-purifying capacity of aquifers strongly depends on the attenuation of waterborne contaminants, i.e., irreversible loss of contaminant mass on a given scale as a result of coupled transport and transformation processes. A general formulation of tracer attenuation in groundwater is presented. Basic sensitivities of attenuation to macrodispersion and retention are illustrated for a few typical retention mechanisms. Tracer recovery is suggested as an experimental proxy for attenuation. Unique experimental data of tracer recovery in crystalline rock compare favorably with the theoretical model that is based on diffusion-controlled retention. Non-Fickian hydrodynamic transport has potentially a large impact on field-scale attenuation of dissolved contaminants.

  17. Management of Penetrating Spinal Cord Injuries in a Non Spinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Management of Penetrating Spinal Cord Injuries in a Non Spinal Centre: Experience at Enugu, Nigeria. ... The thoracic spine{9(41%)}was most often involved. ... Five (23%) patients with injury at cervical level died from respiratory failure.

  18. Continuous spinal anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James M

    2009-01-01

    Continuous spinal anesthesia (CSA) is an underutilized technique in modern anesthesia practice. Compared with other techniques of neuraxial anesthesia, CSA allows incremental dosing of an intrathecal local anesthetic for an indefinite duration, whereas traditional single-shot spinal anesthesia usually involves larger doses, a finite, unpredictable duration, and greater potential for detrimental hemodynamic effects including hypotension, and epidural anesthesia via a catheter may produce lesser motor block and suboptimal anesthesia in sacral nerve root distributions. This review compares CSA with other anesthetic techniques and also describes the history of CSA, its clinical applications, concerns regarding neurotoxicity, and other pharmacologic implications of its use. CSA has seen a waxing and waning of its popularity in clinical practice since its initial description in 1907. After case reports of cauda equina syndrome were reported with the use of spinal microcatheters for CSA, these microcatheters were withdrawn from clinical practice in the United States but continued to be used in Europe with no further neurologic sequelae. Because only large-bore catheters may be used in the United States, CSA is usually reserved for elderly patients out of concern for the risk of postdural puncture headache in younger patients. However, even in younger patients, sometimes the unique clinical benefits and hemodynamic stability involved in CSA outweigh concerns regarding postdural puncture headache. Clinical scenarios in which CSA may be of particular benefit include patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing lower extremity surgery and obstetric patients with complex heart disease. CSA is an underutilized technique in modern anesthesia practice. Perhaps more accurately termed fractional spinal anesthesia, CSA involves intermittent dosing of local anesthetic solution via an intrathecal catheter. Where traditional spinal anesthesia involves a single injection with a

  19. Imaging in spinal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethem, J.W.M. van; Maes, Menno; Oezsarlak, Oezkan; Hauwe, Luc van den; Parizel, Paul M.

    2005-01-01

    Because it may cause paralysis, injury to the spine is one of the most feared traumas, and spinal cord injury is a major cause of disability. In the USA approximately 10,000 traumatic cervical spine fractures and 4000 traumatic thoracolumbar fractures are diagnosed each year. Although the number of individuals sustaining paralysis is far less than those with moderate or severe brain injury, the socioeconomic costs are significant. Since most of the spinal trauma patients survive their injuries, almost one out of 1000 inhabitants in the USA are currently being cared for partial or complete paralysis. Little controversy exists regarding the need for accurate and emergent imaging assessment of the traumatized spine in order to evaluate spinal stability and integrity of neural elements. Because clinicians fear missing occult spine injuries, they obtain radiographs for nearly all patients who present with blunt trauma. We are influenced on one side by fear of litigation and the possible devastating medical, psychologic and financial consequences of cervical spine injury, and on the other side by pressure to reduce health care costs. A set of clinical and/or anamnestic criteria, however, can be very useful in identifying patients who have an extremely low probability of injury and who consequently have no need for imaging studies. Multidetector (or multislice) computed tomography (MDCT) is the preferred primary imaging modality in blunt spinal trauma patients who do need imaging. Not only is CT more accurate in diagnosing spinal injury, it also reduces imaging time and patient manipulation. Evidence-based research has established that MDCT improves patient outcome and saves money in comparison to plain film. This review discusses the use, advantages and disadvantages of the different imaging techniques used in spinal trauma patients and the criteria used in selecting patients who do not need imaging. Finally an overview of different types of spinal injuries is given

  20. Imaging in spinal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goethem, J.W.M. van [Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen, University of Antwerp, Belgium, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); Algemeen Ziekenhuis Maria Middelares, Department of Radiology, Sint-Niklaas (Belgium); Maes, Menno; Oezsarlak, Oezkan; Hauwe, Luc van den; Parizel, Paul M. [Universitair Ziekenhuis Antwerpen, University of Antwerp, Belgium, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium)

    2005-03-01

    Because it may cause paralysis, injury to the spine is one of the most feared traumas, and spinal cord injury is a major cause of disability. In the USA approximately 10,000 traumatic cervical spine fractures and 4000 traumatic thoracolumbar fractures are diagnosed each year. Although the number of individuals sustaining paralysis is far less than those with moderate or severe brain injury, the socioeconomic costs are significant. Since most of the spinal trauma patients survive their injuries, almost one out of 1000 inhabitants in the USA are currently being cared for partial or complete paralysis. Little controversy exists regarding the need for accurate and emergent imaging assessment of the traumatized spine in order to evaluate spinal stability and integrity of neural elements. Because clinicians fear missing occult spine injuries, they obtain radiographs for nearly all patients who present with blunt trauma. We are influenced on one side by fear of litigation and the possible devastating medical, psychologic and financial consequences of cervical spine injury, and on the other side by pressure to reduce health care costs. A set of clinical and/or anamnestic criteria, however, can be very useful in identifying patients who have an extremely low probability of injury and who consequently have no need for imaging studies. Multidetector (or multislice) computed tomography (MDCT) is the preferred primary imaging modality in blunt spinal trauma patients who do need imaging. Not only is CT more accurate in diagnosing spinal injury, it also reduces imaging time and patient manipulation. Evidence-based research has established that MDCT improves patient outcome and saves money in comparison to plain film. This review discusses the use, advantages and disadvantages of the different imaging techniques used in spinal trauma patients and the criteria used in selecting patients who do not need imaging. Finally an overview of different types of spinal injuries is given

  1. Spinal canal stenosis; Spinalkanalstenose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papanagiotou, P.; Boutchakova, M. [Klinikum Bremen-Mitte/Bremen-Ost, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Bremen (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    Spinal stenosis is a narrowing of the spinal canal by a combination of bone and soft tissues, which can lead to mechanical compression of spinal nerve roots or the dural sac. The lumbal spinal compression of these nerve roots can be symptomatic, resulting in weakness, reflex alterations, gait disturbances, bowel or bladder dysfunction, motor and sensory changes, radicular pain or atypical leg pain and neurogenic claudication. The anatomical presence of spinal canal stenosis is confirmed radiologically with computerized tomography, myelography or magnetic resonance imaging and play a decisive role in optimal patient-oriented therapy decision-making. (orig.) [German] Die Spinalkanalstenose ist eine umschriebene, knoechern-ligamentaer bedingte Einengung des Spinalkanals, die zur Kompression der Nervenwurzeln oder des Duralsacks fuehren kann. Die lumbale Spinalkanalstenose manifestiert sich klinisch als Komplex aus Rueckenschmerzen sowie sensiblen und motorischen neurologischen Ausfaellen, die in der Regel belastungsabhaengig sind (Claudicatio spinalis). Die bildgebende Diagnostik mittels Magnetresonanztomographie, Computertomographie und Myelographie spielt eine entscheidende Rolle bei der optimalen patientenbezogenen Therapieentscheidung. (orig.)

  2. Activation of AMPK by OSU53 protects spinal cord neurons from oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Wu, Liang; Zhang, Yiming; Gu, Huijie; Huang, Zhongyue; Zhou, Kaifeng; Yin, Xiaofan

    2017-12-22

    The present study tested the potential effect of OSU53, a novel AMPK activator, against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced spinal cord neuron damages. Treatment with OSU53 attenuated H2O2-induced death and apoptosis of primary murine spinal cord neurons. OSU53 activated AMPK signaling, which is required for its actions in spinal cord neurons. The AMPK inhibitor Compound C or AMPKα1 siRNA almost abolished OSU53-mediated neuroprotection against H2O2. On the other hand, sustained-activation of AMPK by introducing the constitutive-active AMPKα1 mimicked OSU53's actions, and protected spinal cord neurons from oxidative stress. OSU53 significantly attenuated H2O2-induced reactive oxygen species production, lipid peroxidation and DNA damages in spinal cord neurons. Additionally, OSU53 increased NADPH content and heme oxygenase-1 mRNA expression in H2O2-treated spinal cord neurons. Together, we indicate that targeted-activation of AMPK by OSU53 protects spinal cord neurons from oxidative stress.

  3. Potentialities of spinal liquor scanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlakhov, N.; Vylkanov, P.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that spinal liquor scanography is a harmless and informative method for the examination of patients, permitting to detect injury foci for spinal cord tumours in 90% cases, for acute injuries of the vertebral column and spinal cord in 89.5% cases, for herniation of nucleus pulposus in 81% cases. The method of spinal liquor scanography can be used in neurology and neurosurgery to select the method of treatment and to evaluate its efficiency

  4. Neuroradiology of the spinal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmann, R.; Molsen, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    Radiodiagnostics of the vertebral column and of the spinal cord under normal conditions and under different pathological alterations are elaborated. Especially cervical and thoracal myelography, lumbosacral myeloradiculography, spinal arteriography and phlebography as well as spinal computerized tomography are discussed in detail

  5. Spinal cord swelling and candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, K.; Gronseth, G.; Aldrich, M.; Williams, A.

    1982-01-01

    Fusiform swelling of the spinal cord was noted myelographically in a patient with Hodgkin's disease. Autopsy revealed that the swelling was cauused by Candida infection of the spinal cord. It is suggested that fungal infection be included in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord swelling in the immunsupporessed cancer patient. (orig.)

  6. Spinal cord swelling and candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, K.; Gronseth, G.; Aldrich, M.; Williams, A.

    1982-11-01

    Fusiform swelling of the spinal cord was noted myelographically in a patient with Hodgkin's disease. Autopsy revealed that the swelling was caused by Candida infection of the spinal cord. It is suggested that fungal infection be included in the differential diagnosis of spinal cord swelling in the immunosuppressed cancer patient.

  7. Spinal CT scan, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    1982-01-01

    Plain CT described fairly accurately the anatomy and lesions of the lumbar and sacral spines on their transverse sections. Since hernia of the intervertebral disc could be directly diagnosed by CT, indications of myelography could be restricted. Spinal-canal stenosis of the lumbar spine occurs because of various factors, and CT not only demonstrated the accurate size and morphology of bony canals, but also elucidated thickening of the joints and yellow ligament. CT was also useful for the diagnosis of tumors in the lumbar and sacral spines, visualizing the images of bone changes and soft tissues on the trasverse sections. But the diagnosis of intradural tumors required myelography and metrizamide CT. CT has become important for the diagnosis of spinal and spinal-cord diseases and for selection of the route of surgical arrival. (Chiba, N.)

  8. Intramedullary spinal melanocytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meic H. Schmidt

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Meningeal melanocytoma is a benign lesion arising from leptomeningeal melanocytes that at times can mimic its malignant counterpart, melanoma. Lesions of the spine usually occur in extramedullary locations and present with spinal cord compression symptoms. Because most reported spinal cases occur in the thoracic region, these symptoms usually include lower extremity weakness or numbness. The authors present a case of primary intrame­dullary spinal meningeal melanocytoma presenting with bilateral lower extremity symptoms in which the patient had no known supratentorial primary lesions. Gross total surgical resection allowed for full recovery, but early recurrence of tumor was detected on close follow-up monitoring, allowing for elective local radiation without loss of neurological function. Case reports of such tumors discuss different treatment strategies, but just as important is the close follow-up monitoring in these patients even after gross total surgical resection, since these tumors can recur.

  9. Spinal Cord Stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a surgical treatment for chronic neuropathic pain that is refractory to other treatment. Originally described by Shealy et al. in 1967(1), it is used to treat a range of conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS I)(2), angina pectoris(3), radicular...... pain after failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS)(4), pain due to peripheral nerve injury, stump pain(5), peripheral vascular disease(6) and diabetic neuropathy(7,8); whereas phantom pain(9), postherpetic neuralgia(10), chronic visceral pain(11), and pain after partial spinal cord injury(12) remain more...

  10. Congenital spinal malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertl-Wagner, B.B.; Reiser, M.F.

    2001-01-01

    Congenital spinal malformations form a complex and heterogeneous group of disorders whose pathogenesis is best explained embryologically. Radiologically, it is important to formulate a diagnosis when the disorder first becomes symptomatic. However, it is also crucial to detect complications of the disorder or of the respective therapeutic interventions in the further course of the disease such as hydromyelia or re-tethering after repair of a meningomyelocele. Moreover, once a congenital spinal malformation is diagnosed, associated malformations should be sought after. A possible syndromal classification such as in OEIS- or VACTERL-syndromes should also be considered. (orig.) [de

  11. Spinal Neurocysticercosis: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaya P, Melina; Roa, Jose L

    2011-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most frequent parasitic illness of the central nervous system caused by the larval form of Taenia solium and its considered to be endemic in Latin America. Its diagnosis is based on imaging findings and epidemiological data; although its diagnosis can be made through the detection of specific IgG antibodies, these tests have limited availability in our environment. Central nervous system involvement is generally observed in the brain parenchyma, and less commonly in the ventricular system and subarachnoid space; only infrequently is reported to involve the structures within the spinal canal, in this article we review a case of a patient with spinal cysticercal involvement.

  12. Maladaptive spinal plasticity opposes spinal learning and recovery in spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R Ferguson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Synaptic plasticity within the spinal cord has great potential to facilitate recovery of function after spinal cord injury (SCI. Spinal plasticity can be induced in an activity-dependent manner even without input from the brain after complete SCI. The mechanistic basis for these effects is provided by research demonstrating that spinal synapses have many of the same plasticity mechanisms that are known to underlie learning and memory in the brain. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord can sustain several forms of learning and memory, including limb-position training. However, not all spinal plasticity promotes recovery of function. Central sensitization of nociceptive (pain pathways in the spinal cord may emerge with certain patterns of activity, demonstrating that plasticity within the spinal cord may contribute to maladaptive pain states. In this review we discuss interactions between adaptive and maladaptive forms of activity-dependent plasticity in the spinal cord. The literature demonstrates that activity-dependent plasticity within the spinal cord must be carefully tuned to promote adaptive spinal training. Stimulation that is delivered in a limb position-dependent manner or on a fixed interval can induce adaptive plasticity that promotes future spinal cord learning and reduces nociceptive hyper-reactivity. On the other hand, stimulation that is delivered in an unsynchronized fashion, such as randomized electrical stimulation or peripheral skin injuries, can generate maladaptive spinal plasticity that undermines future spinal cord learning, reduces recovery of locomotor function, and promotes nociceptive hyper-reactivity after spinal cord injury. We review these basic phenomena, discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms, and discuss implications of these findings for improved rehabilitative therapies after spinal cord injury.

  13. Anterior spinal cord syndrome of unknown etiology

    OpenAIRE

    Klakeel, Merrine; Thompson, Justin; Srinivasan, Rajashree; McDonald, Frank

    2015-01-01

    A spinal cord injury encompasses a physical insult to the spinal cord. In the case of anterior spinal cord syndrome, the insult is a vascular lesion at the anterior spinal artery. We present the cases of two 13-year-old boys with anterior spinal cord syndrome, along with a review of the anatomy and vasculature of the spinal cord and an explanation of how a lesion in the cord corresponds to anterior spinal cord syndrome.

  14. Lumbar spinal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Spinal stenosis, which has attracted increasing attention in recent years, represents an important group of clinical and radiologic entities. Recognition and ultimate surgical management of the many abnormalities found in this group require precise preoperative delineation of the morbid anatomy. Conventional axial tomography provided the first accurate picture of the sagittal dimension, but it was limited by poor contrast resolution. Computerized tomography and ultrasound have finally provided the means for accurate measurement of midsagittal diameter and surface area. It is now possible to provide a preoperative assessment of bony and soft-tissue canal compression and to guide surgical decompression by objective anatomic measurements. True spinal stenosis of the lumbar vertebral canal is a form of compression produced by the walls of the vertebral canal. It involves the whole of the vertebral canal by exerting compression at two of its opposite surfaces. There are two types of stenosis: (1) transport stenosis, wherein the clinical manifestations are due to impeded flow of fluid, which is dependent on the available cross-sectional area of the canal surface of the stenotic structure, and (2) compressive stenosis, which includes abnormal compression of opposing surfaces only. According to these definitions, indentation on the spinal canal by disc protrusion or localized tumor is not considered true spinal stenoses. In this chapter the authors discuss only those conditions that produce true canal stenosis

  15. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What is “Braingate” research? play_arrow How would stem-cell therapies work ... cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When can ...

  16. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Kim Eberhardt Muir, MS Coping with a New Injury Robin Dorman, PsyD Sex and Fertility After ... program? play_arrow What are the most promising new treatments for spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What ...

  17. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What is “Braingate” research? play_arrow How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When ...

  18. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is “Braingate” research? play_arrow How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When ...

  19. Occult spinal dysraphism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    paediatricians, paediatric neurosurgeons, urologists, orthopaedic surgeons, occupational ... Occult spinal dysraphism refers to a diverse group of congenital abnormalities resulting from varying degrees of disordered neuro- embryogenesis. Several terms have .... can image the whole spine. T1-weighted sagittal and axial ...

  20. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Braingate” research? play_arrow How would stem-cell therapies work in the treatment of spinal cord injuries? play_arrow What does stem-cell research on animals tell us? play_arrow When can we expect ...

  1. Spinal Cord Injury 101

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anne Bryden, OT The Role of the Social Worker after Spinal Cord Injury Patti Rogers, SW Marguerite David, ... injuries. The website does not provide medical advice, recommend or endorse health care products or services, or control the information ...

  2. Maladaptive spinal plasticity opposes spinal learning and recovery in spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Adam R.; Huie, J. Russell; Crown, Eric D.; Baumbauer, Kyle M.; Hook, Michelle A.; Garraway, Sandra M.; Lee, Kuan H.; Hoy, Kevin C.; Grau, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity within the spinal cord has great potential to facilitate recovery of function after spinal cord injury (SCI). Spinal plasticity can be induced in an activity-dependent manner even without input from the brain after complete SCI. A mechanistic basis for these effects is provided by research demonstrating that spinal synapses have many of the same plasticity mechanisms that are known to underlie learning and memory in the brain. In addition, the lumbar spinal cord can sustain several forms of learning and memory, including limb-position training. However, not all spinal plasticity promotes recovery of function. Central sensitization of nociceptive (pain) pathways in the spinal cord may emerge in response to various noxious inputs, demonstrating that plasticity within the spinal cord may contribute to maladaptive pain states. In this review we discuss interactions between adaptive and maladaptive forms of activity-dependent plasticity in the spinal cord below the level of SCI. The literature demonstrates that activity-dependent plasticity within the spinal cord must be carefully tuned to promote adaptive spinal training. Prior work from our group has shown that stimulation that is delivered in a limb position-dependent manner or on a fixed interval can induce adaptive plasticity that promotes future spinal cord learning and reduces nociceptive hyper-reactivity. On the other hand, stimulation that is delivered in an unsynchronized fashion, such as randomized electrical stimulation or peripheral skin injuries, can generate maladaptive spinal plasticity that undermines future spinal cord learning, reduces recovery of locomotor function, and promotes nociceptive hyper-reactivity after SCI. We review these basic phenomena, how these findings relate to the broader spinal plasticity literature, discuss the cellular and molecular mechanisms, and finally discuss implications of these and other findings for improved rehabilitative therapies after SCI. PMID

  3. Contribution of 5-HT2A receptors on diaphragmatic recovery after chronic cervical spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kun-Ze; Gonzalez-Rothi, Elisa J

    2017-10-01

    Unilateral C2 spinal cord hemisection (C2Hx) interrupts bulbospinal respiratory pathways innervating ipsilateral phrenic motoneurons, resulting in cessation of ipsilateral diaphragm motor output. Plasticity within the spinal neural circuitry controlling the diaphragm can induce partial recovery of phrenic bursting which correlates with the time-dependent return of spinal serotonin (5-HT) immunoreactivity in the vicinity of phrenic motoneurons. The 5-HT 2A receptor subtype is present on phrenic motoneurons and its expression is up-regulated after cervical spinal cord injury; however the functional role of these receptors following injury has not been clearly defined. The present study evaluated the functional role of 5-HT 2A receptors by testing the hypothesis that pharmacologic blockade would attenuate diaphragm activity in rats with chronic cervical spinal cord injury. Bilateral diaphragm electromyography (EMG) was performed in vagal-intact and spontaneously breathing rats before and after intravenous administration of the 5-HT 2A receptor antagonist Ketanserin (1mg/kg). Intravenous ketanserin significantly attenuated ipsilateral diaphragm EMG activity in C2Hx animals but had no impact on diaphragm output in uninjured animals. We conclude that 5-HT 2A receptor activation contributes to the recovery of ipsilateral phrenic motor output after chronic cervical spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Attenuation correction for SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoba, Minoru

    1986-01-01

    Attenuation correction is required for the reconstruction of a quantitative SPECT image. A new method for detecting body contours, which are important for the correction of tissue attenuation, is presented. The effect of body contours, detected by the newly developed method, on the reconstructed images was evaluated using various techniques for attenuation correction. The count rates in the specified region of interest in the phantom image by the Radial Post Correction (RPC) method, the Weighted Back Projection (WBP) method, Chang's method were strongly affected by the accuracy of the contours, as compared to those by Sorenson's method. To evaluate the effect of non-uniform attenuators on the cardiac SPECT, computer simulation experiments were performed using two types of models, the uniform attenuator model (UAM) and the non-uniform attenuator model (NUAM). The RPC method showed the lowest relative percent error (%ERROR) in UAM (11 %). However, 20 to 30 percent increase in %ERROR was observed for NUAM reconstructed with the RPC, WBP, and Chang's methods. Introducing an average attenuation coefficient (0.12/cm for Tc-99m and 0.14/cm for Tl-201) in the RPC method decreased %ERROR to the levels for UAM. Finally, a comparison between images, which were obtained by 180 deg and 360 deg scans and reconstructed from the RPC method, showed that the degree of the distortion of the contour of the simulated ventricles in the 180 deg scan was 15 % higher than that in the 360 deg scan. (Namekawa, K.)

  5. Differential diagnoses of spinal tumors; Differenzialdiagnose spinaler Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilmaz, U. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    A wide variety of degenerative, inflammatory and vascular diseases can resemble the clinical presentation and imaging findings of spinal tumors. This article provides an overview of the most frequent diseases which are important to recognize for diagnostic imaging of the spine. (orig.) [German] Eine Vielzahl degenerativer, entzuendlicher und vaskulaerer Erkrankungen kann das klinische Bild und radiologische Befunde spinaler Tumoren imitieren. Dieser Artikel dient der Uebersicht ueber die haeufigsten dieser Erkrankungen, deren Kenntnis wichtig fuer die spinale Bildgebung ist. (orig.)

  6. Multiple actions of iontophoretically applied serotonin on motorneurones in the turtle spinal cord in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skydsgaard, Morten Arnika; Hounsgaard, J

    1996-01-01

    The effects of focal activation of serotonergic receptors in motorneurones were investigated in a slice preparation of the turtle spinal cord. The test response to glutamate evoked from a dendrite by iontophoresis was attenuated by serotonin or 8-hydroxy-dipropyl-aminotetralin (8-OH-DPAT) applied...

  7. Landing gear noise attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Jeffrey W. (Inventor); Whitmire, Julia (Inventor); Kwan, Hwa-Wan (Inventor); Abeysinghe, Amal (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A landing gear noise attenuator mitigates noise generated by airframe deployable landing gear. The noise attenuator can have a first position when the landing gear is in its deployed or down position, and a second position when the landing gear is in its up or stowed position. The noise attenuator may be an inflatable fairing that does not compromise limited space constraints associated with landing gear retraction and stowage. A truck fairing mounted under a truck beam can have a compliant edge to allow for non-destructive impingement of a deflected fire during certain conditions.

  8. Rikkunshito prevents paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy through the suppression of the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB phosphorylation in spinal cord of mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junzo Kamei

    Full Text Available Peripheral neuropathy is the major side effect caused by paclitaxel, a microtubule-binding antineoplastic drug. Paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy causes a long-term negative impact on the patient's quality of life. However, the mechanism underlying paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy is still unknown, and there is no established treatment. Ghrelin is known to attenuate thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia in chronic constriction injury of the sciatic nerve, and inhibit the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB in the spinal dorsal horn. Rikkunshito (RKT, a kampo medicine, increases the secretion of ghrelin in rodents and humans. Thus, RKT may attenuate paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy by inhibiting phosphorylated NFκB (pNFκB in the spinal cord. We found that paclitaxel dose-dependently induced mechanical hyperalgesia in mice. Paclitaxel increased the protein levels of spinal pNFκB, but not those of spinal NFκB. NFκB inhibitor attenuated paclitaxel-induced mechanical hyperalgesia suggesting that the activation of NFκB mediates paclitaxel-induced hyperalgesia. RKT dose-dependently attenuated paclitaxel-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Ghrelin receptor antagonist reversed the RKT-induced attenuation of paclitaxel-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. RKT inhibited the paclitaxel-induced increase in the protein levels of spinal pNFκB. Taken together, the present study indicates that RKT exerts an antihyperalgesic effect in paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain by suppressing the activation of spinal NFκB.

  9. Changes in spinal alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veintemillas Aráiz, M T; Beltrán Salazar, V P; Rivera Valladares, L; Marín Aznar, A; Melloni Ribas, P; Valls Pascual, R

    2016-04-01

    Spinal misalignments are a common reason for consultation at primary care centers and specialized departments. Misalignment has diverse causes and is influenced by multiple factors: in adolescence, the most frequent misalignment is scoliosis, which is idiopathic in 80% of cases and normally asymptomatic. In adults, the most common cause is degenerative. It is important to know the natural history and to detect factors that might predict progression. The correct diagnosis of spinal deformities requires specific imaging studies. The degree of deformity determines the type of treatment. The aim is to prevent progression of the deformity and to recover the flexibility and balance of the body. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Acute spinal cord injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, M.; Izunaga, H.; Sato, R.; Shinzato, I.; Korogi, Y.; Yamashita, Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on sequential MR images and neurologic findings that were correlated in 40 acute spinal cord injuries. Within 1 week after injury, frequent initial MR changes appeared isointense on both T1- and T2-weighted images and isointense on T1- and hyperintense on T2-weighted images. After 2 months, hypointensity appeared on T1-weighted images and hyperintensity persisted or appeared on T2-weighted images. Clinical improvements were observed in patients with isointensity on both T1- and T2-weighted images at the initial examination. A larger area of hyperintensity on subsequent T2-weighted images was correlated with no neurologic improvement. MR findings were good indicators of the spinal cord injury

  11. Spinal trauma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, C.; Carty, H.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of the child with suspected spinal injury can be a difficult task for the radiologist. Added to the problems posed by lack of familiarity with the normal appearances of the paediatric spine is anxiety about missing a potentially significant injury resulting in neurological damage. Due to differences in anatomy and function, the pattern of injury in the paediatric spine is different from that in the adolescent or adult. Lack of appreciation of these differences may lead to over investigation and inappropriate treatment. This review attempts to clarify some of the problems frequently encountered. It is based on a review of the literature as well as personal experience. The normal appearances and variants of the spine in children, the mechanisms and patterns of injury are reviewed highlighting the differences between children and adults. Specific fractures, a practical scheme for the assessment of spinal radiographs in children, and the role of cross sectional imaging are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Imaging of Spinal Metastatic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubdha M. Shah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastases to the spine can involve the bone, epidural space, leptomeninges, and spinal cord. The spine is the third most common site for metastatic disease, following the lung and the liver. Approximately 60–70% of patients with systemic cancer will have spinal metastasis. Materials/Methods. This is a review of the imaging techniques and typical imaging appearances of spinal metastatic disease. Conclusions. Awareness of the different manifestations of spinal metastatic disease is essential as the spine is the most common site of osseous metastatic disease. Imaging modalities have complimentary roles in the evaluation of spinal metastatic disease. CT best delineates osseous integrity, while MRI is better at assessing soft tissue involvement. Physiologic properties, particularly in treated disease, can be evaluated with other imaging modalities such as FDG PET and advanced MRI sequences. Imaging plays a fundamental role in not only diagnosis but also treatment planning of spinal metastatic disease.

  13. Spinal brucellosis: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chelli Bouaziz, Mouna; Ladeb, Mohamed Fethi; Chakroun, Mohamed; Chaabane, Skander [Institut M T Kassab d' orthopedie, Department of Radiology, Ksar Said (Tunisia)

    2008-09-15

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, relatively frequent in Mediterranean countries and in the Middle East. It is a systemic infection, caused by facultative intra-cellular bacteria of the genus Brucella, that can involve many organs and tissues. The spine is the most common site of musculoskeletal involvement, followed by the sacroiliac joints. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical, biological and imaging features of spinal brucellosis. (orig.)

  14. Spinal brucellosis: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelli Bouaziz, Mouna; Ladeb, Mohamed Fethi; Chakroun, Mohamed; Chaabane, Skander

    2008-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonosis of worldwide distribution, relatively frequent in Mediterranean countries and in the Middle East. It is a systemic infection, caused by facultative intra-cellular bacteria of the genus Brucella, that can involve many organs and tissues. The spine is the most common site of musculoskeletal involvement, followed by the sacroiliac joints. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical, biological and imaging features of spinal brucellosis. (orig.)

  15. Spontaneous spinal epidural abscess.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ellanti, P

    2011-10-01

    Spinal epidural abscess is an uncommon entity, the frequency of which is increasing. They occur spontaneously or as a complication of intervention. The classical triad of fever, back pain and neurological symptoms are not always present. High index of suspicion is key to diagnosis. Any delay in diagnosis and treatment can have significant neurological consequences. We present the case of a previously well man with a one month history of back pain resulting from an epidural abscess.

  16. [Lumbar spinal angiolipoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isla, Alberto; Ortega Martinez, Rodrigo; Pérez López, Carlos; Gómez de la Riva, Alvaro; Mansilla, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Spinal angiolipomas are fairly infrequent benign tumours that are usually located in the epidural space of the thoracic column and represent 0.14% to 1.3% of all spinal tumours. Lumbar angiolipomas are extremely rare, representing only 9.6% of all spinal extradural angiolipomas. We report the case of a woman who complained of a lumbar pain of several months duration with no neurological focality and that had intensified in the last three days without her having had any injury or made a physical effort. The MR revealed an extradural mass L1-L2, on the posterior face of the medulla, decreasing the anteroposterior diameter of the canal. The patient symptoms improved after surgery. Total extirpation of the lesion is possible in most cases, and the prognosis is excellent even if the lesion is infiltrative. For this reason, excessively aggressive surgery is not necessary to obtain complete resection. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Spinal dermoid cyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Yoshihisa; Makita, Yasumasa; Nabeshima, Sachio; Tei, Taikyoku; Keyaki, Atsushi; Takahashi, Jun; Kawamura, Junichiro

    1987-01-01

    A 25-year-old male complained of intermittent, sharp pains about the left eye and in the left side of the chest. Neurological examination revealed paresthesia and impaired perception of touch and pin-pricks in the dermatomes of Th8 and Th9 on the left side. In all four extremities, the muscle stretch reflexes were equal and slightly hyperactive, without weakness or sensory deficits. Metrizamide myelography showed defective filling at the level between the upper 8th and 9th thoracic vertebrae. The lesion was also demonstrated by computed tomography (CT) scan performed 1 hour later, appearing as an oval, radiolucent mass in the left dorsal spinal canal, which compressed the spinal cord forward and toward the right. Serial sections of the spinal canal revealed the lesion to be partly filled with contrast medium. Repeat CT scan 24 hours after metrizamide myelography showed more contrast medium in the periphery of the lesion, giving it a doughnut-shaped appearance. At surgery a smooth-surfaced cyst containing sebum and white hair was totally removed from the intradural extramedullary space. The histological diagnosis was dermoid cyst. There have been a few reported cases of intracranial epidermoid cyst in which filling of the cyst was suggested on metrizamide CT myelography. These findings may complicate the differential diagnosis of arachnoid cyst and dermoid or epidermoid cyst when only CT is used. (author)

  18. Embolization of spinal arteriovenous malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Mi Young; Kim, Sun Yong; Park, Bok Hwan

    1990-01-01

    Recently, therapeutic embolization has been advocated as the treatment of choice for spinal AVM(arteriovenous malformations). The authors review our experience with two cases of spinal AVM treated by embolization using coaxial Tracker-18 microcatheter with Latvian. The patients included a 10 year old male with glomus type and a 14 year old female with juvenile type spinal AVM revealed recanalization 5 month later. Embolization provides curative or temporary treatment for spinal AVM. After embolic occlusion, delayed reassessment with arteriography is indicated, particularly if symptoms persist or recur

  19. Differential gene expression in the EphA4 knockout spinal cord and analysis of the inflammatory response following spinal cord injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn M Munro

    Full Text Available Mice lacking the axon guidance molecule EphA4 have been shown to exhibit extensive axonal regeneration and functional recovery following spinal cord injury. To assess mechanisms by which EphA4 may modify the response to neural injury a microarray was performed on spinal cord tissue from mice with spinal cord injury and sham injured controls. RNA was purified from spinal cords of adult EphA4 knockout and wild-type mice four days following lumbar spinal cord hemisection or laminectomy only and was hybridised to Affymetrix All-Exon Array 1.0 GeneChips™. While subsequent analyses indicated that several pathways were altered in EphA4 knockout mice, of particular interest was the attenuated expression of a number of inflammatory genes, including Arginase 1, expression of which was lower in injured EphA4 knockout compared to wild-type mice. Immunohistological analyses of different cellular components of the immune response were then performed in injured EphA4 knockout and wildtype spinal cords. While numbers of infiltrating CD3+ T cells were low in the hemisection model, a robust CD11b+ macrophage/microglial response was observed post-injury. There was no difference in the overall number or spread of macrophages/activated microglia in injured EphA4 knockout compared to wild-type spinal cords at 2, 4 or 14 days post-injury, however a lower proportion of Arginase-1 immunoreactive macrophages/activated microglia was observed in EphA4 knockout spinal cords at 4 days post-injury. Subtle alterations in the neuroinflammatory response in injured EphA4 knockout spinal cords may contribute to the regeneration and recovery observed in these mice following injury.

  20. Imaging procedures in spinal infectious diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodiek, S.O.

    2001-01-01

    A targeted successful treatment of spinal infectious diseases requires clinical and laboratory data that are completed by the contribution of imaging procedures. Neuroimaging only provides essential informations on the correct topography, localisation, acuity and differential diagnosis of spinal infectious lesions. MRI with its sensitivity concerning soft tissue lesions is a useful tool in detecting infectious alterations of spinal bone marrow, intervertebral disks, leptomeninges and the spinal cord itself. Crucial imaging patterns of typical spinal infections are displayed and illustrated by clinical case studies. We present pyogenic, granulomatous and postoperative variants of spondylodicitis, spinal epidural abscess, spinal meningitis and spinal cord infections. The importance of intravenous contrastmedia application is pointed out. (orig.) [de

  1. Computed tomography of the spinal canal for the cervical spine and spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Isao; Niimiya, Hikosuke; Nasu, Kichiro; Shioya, Akihide; Ohhama, Mitsuru

    1983-01-01

    The cervical spinal canal and cervical spinal cord were measured in normal cases and 34 cases of spinal or spinal cord injury. The anteroposterior diameter and area of the normal cervical spinal canal showed a high correlation. The area ratio of the normal cervical spinal canal to the cervical spinal cord showed that the proportion of the cervical spinal cord in the spinal canal was 1/3 - 1/5, Csub(4,5) showing a particularly large proportion. In acute and subacute spinal or spinal cord injury, CT visualized in more details of the spinal canal in cases that x-ray showed definite bone injuries. Computer assisted myelography visualized more clearly the condition of the spinal cord in cases without definite findings bone injuries on x-ray. Demonstrating the morphology of spinal injury in more details, CT is useful for selection of therapy for injured spines. (Chiba, N.)

  2. Spinal astrocytic activation contributes to mechanical allodynia in a rat chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Tuan Ji

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy-induced neuropathic pain (CNP is the major dose-limiting factor in cancer chemotherapy. However, the neural mechanisms underlying CNP remain enigmatic. Accumulating evidence implicates the involvement of spinal glia in some neuropathic pain models. In this study, using a vincristine-evoked CNP rat model with obvious mechanical allodynia, we found that spinal astrocyte rather than microglia was dramatically activated. The mechanical allodynia was dose-dependently attenuated by intrathecal administratration of L-α-aminoadipate (astrocytic specific inhibitor; whereas minocycline (microglial specific inhibitor had no such effect, indicating that spinal astrocytic activation contributes to allodynia in CNP rat. Furthermore, oxidative stress mediated the development of spinal astrocytic activation, and activated astrocytes dramatically increased interleukin-1β expression which induced N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor (NMDAR phosphorylation in spinal neurons to strengthen pain transmission. Taken together, our findings suggest that spinal activated astrocytes may be a crucial component of the pathophysiology of CNP and "Astrocyte-Cytokine-NMDAR-neuron" pathway may be one detailed neural mechanisms underlying CNP. Thus, inhibiting spinal astrocytic activation may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for treating CNP.

  3. R-flurbiprofen attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Katja; de Bruin, Natasja; Bishay, Philipp; Männich, Julia; Häussler, Annett; Altmann, Christine; Ferreirós, Nerea; Lötsch, Jörn; Ultsch, Alfred; Parnham, Michael J; Geisslinger, Gerd; Tegeder, Irmgard

    2014-11-01

    R-flurbiprofen is the non-cyclooxygenase inhibiting R-enantiomer of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug flurbiprofen, which was assessed as a remedy for Alzheimer's disease. Because of its anti-inflammatory, endocannabinoid-modulating and antioxidative properties, combined with low toxicity, the present study assessed R-flurbiprofen in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models of multiple sclerosis in mice. Oral R-flurbiprofen prevented and attenuated primary progressive EAE in C57BL6/J mice and relapsing-remitting EAE in SJL mice, even if the treatment was initiated on or after the first flare of the disease. R-flurbiprofen reduced immune cell infiltration and microglia activation and inflammation in the spinal cord, brain and optic nerve and attenuated myelin destruction and EAE-evoked hyperalgesia. R-flurbiprofen treatment increased CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells, CTLA4(+) inhibitory T cells and interleukin-10, whereas the EAE-evoked upregulation of pro-inflammatory genes in the spinal cord was strongly reduced. The effects were associated with an increase of plasma and cortical endocannabinoids but decreased spinal prostaglandins, the latter likely due to R to S inversion. The promising results suggest potential efficacy of R-flurbiprofen in human MS, and its low toxicity may justify a clinical trial. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  4. Post spinal meningitis and asepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videira, Rogerio L R; Ruiz-Neto, P P; Brandao Neto, M

    2002-07-01

    Post spinal meningitis (PSM) is a complication still currently being reported. After two PSM cases in our hospital an epidemiological study was initiated, which included a survey of techniques for asepsis that are applied in our department. Cases defined as PSM comprised meningitis within a week after spinal anesthesia. Anesthesia records, anesthesia complication files and the records of the Hospital Commission for Infection Control from 1997 to 2000 were reviewed. Asepsis techniques applied were surveyed by a questionnaire answered by all our department's anesthesiologists. The equipment and procedures for spinal anesthesia were listed. Current anesthesia textbooks were reviewed for recommendations regarding asepsis techniques in conjunction with spinal anesthesia. Three cases of PSM were identified following 38,128 spinal anesthesias whereas none was observed in 12,822 patients subjected to other types of regional or general anesthesia (P>0.05). Culture of cerebrospinal fluid yielded Streptococcus in two patients and was negative in the other patient. The asepsis technique applied by the anesthesiologists varied considerably. The literature review showed that aspects on asepsis for spinal anesthesia are poorly covered. The incidence of meningitis was similar in patients subjected to spinal anesthesia and in those subjected to other anesthetic techniques. Asepsis techniques were found to differ considerably among our staff members, reflecting the lack of well-defined published standards for this procedure. We recommend that asepsis for spinal anesthesia should not be less rigorous than for surgical asepsis.

  5. Spinal Extradural Arachnoid Cyst

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Seung Won; Seong, Han Yu; Roh, Sung Woo

    2013-01-01

    Spinal extradural arachnoid cyst (SEAC) is a rare disease and uncommon cause of compressive myelopathy. The etiology remains still unclear. We experienced 2 cases of SEACs and reviewed the cases and previous literatures. A 59-year-old man complained of both leg radiating pain and paresthesia for 4 years. His MRI showed an extradural cyst from T12 to L3 and we performed cyst fenestration and repaired the dural defect with tailored laminectomy. Another 51-year-old female patient visited our cli...

  6. Erythropoietin's Beta Common Receptor Mediates Neuroprotection in Spinal Cord Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Lisa S; Fullerton, David A; Mares, Joshua; Sungelo, Mitchell; Weyant, Michael J; Cleveland, Joseph C; Reece, T Brett

    2017-12-01

    Paraplegia from spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion (SCIR) remains an elusive and devastating complication of complex aortic operations. Erythropoietin (EPO) attenuates this injury in models of SCIR. Upregulation of the EPO beta common receptor (βcR) is associated with reduced damage in models of neural injury. The purpose of this study was to examine whether EPO-mediated neuroprotection was dependent on βcR expression. We hypothesized that spinal cord neurons subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation would mimic SCIR injury in aortic surgery and EPO treatment attenuates this injury in a βcR-dependent fashion. Lentiviral vectors with βcR knockdown sequences were tested on neuron cell cultures. The virus with greatest βcR knockdown was selected. Spinal cord neurons from perinatal wild-type mice were harvested and cultured to maturity. They were treated with knockdown or nonsense virus and transduced cells were selected. Three groups (βcR knockdown virus, nonsense control virus, no virus control; n = 8 each) were subjected to 1 hour of oxygen-glucose deprivation. Viability was assessed. βcR expression was quantified by immunoblot. EPO preserved neuronal viability after oxygen-glucose deprivation (0.82 ± 0.04 versus 0.61 ± 0.01; p neuron preservation was similar in the nonsense virus and control mice (0.82 ± 0.04 versus 0.80 ± 0.05; p = 0.77). EPO neuron preservation was lost in βcR knockdown mice compared with nonsense control mice (0.46 ± 0.03 versus 0.80 ± 0.05; p neuronal loss after oxygen-glucose deprivation in a βcR-dependent fashion. This receptor holds immense clinical promise as a target for pharmacotherapies treating spinal cord ischemic injury. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiofrequency attenuator and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Benjamin P [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM; Burrell, Anthony K [Los Alamos, NM; Agrawal, Anoop [Tucson, AZ; Hall, Simon B [Palmerston North, NZ

    2009-01-20

    Radiofrequency attenuator and method. The attenuator includes a pair of transparent windows. A chamber between the windows is filled with molten salt. Preferred molten salts include quarternary ammonium cations and fluorine-containing anions such as tetrafluoroborate (BF.sub.4.sup.-), hexafluorophosphate (PF.sub.6.sup.-), hexafluoroarsenate (AsF.sub.6.sup.-), trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Radicals or radical cations may be added to or electrochemically generated in the molten salt to enhance the RF attenuation.

  8. Attenuation coefficients of soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, E.; Naziry, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    As a prerequisite to the interpretation of gamma-spectrometric in situ measurements of activity concentrations of soil radionuclides the attenuation of 60 to 1332 keV gamma radiation by soil samples varying in water content and density has been investigated. A useful empirical equation could be set up to describe the dependence of the mass attenuation coefficient upon photon energy for soil with a mean water content of 10%, with the results comparing well with data in the literature. The mean density of soil in the GDR was estimated at 1.6 g/cm 3 . This value was used to derive the linear attenuation coefficients, their range of variation being 10%. 7 figs., 5 tabs. (author)

  9. Computer-controlled attenuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitov, D; Grozev, Z

    1991-01-01

    Various possibilities for applying electronic computer-controlled attenuators for the automation of physiological experiments are considered. A detailed description is given of the design of a 4-channel computer-controlled attenuator, in two of the channels of which the output signal can change by a linear step, in the other two channels--by a logarithmic step. This, together with the existence of additional programmable timers, allows to automate a wide range of studies in different spheres of physiology and psychophysics, including vision and hearing.

  10. MR imaging of spinal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchberger, W.; Springer, P.; Birbamer, G.; Judmaier, W.; Kathrein, A.; Daniaux, H.

    1995-01-01

    To assess the value of MR imaging in the acute and chronic stages of spinal trauma. 126 MR examinations of 120 patients were evaluated retrospectively. In 15 cases of acute spinal cord injury, correlation of MR findings with the degree of neurological deficit and eventual recovery was undertaken. Cord anomalies in the acute stage were seen in 16 patients. Intramedullary haemorrhage (n=6) and cord transection (n=2) were associated with complete injuries and poor prognosis, whereas patients with cord oedema (n=7) had incomplete injuries and recovered significant neurological function. In the chronic stage, MR findings included persistent cord compression in 8 patients, syringomyelia or post-traumatic cyst in 12, myelomalacia in 6, cord atrophy in 9, and cord transection in 7 patients. In acute spinal trauma, MR proved useful in assessing spinal cord compression and instability. In addition, direct visualisation and characterisation of posttraumatic changes within the spinal cord may offer new possibilities in establishing the prognosis for neurological recovery. In the later stages, potentially remediable causes of persistent or progressive symptoms, such as chronic spinal cord compression or syringomyelia can be distinguished from other sequelae of spinal trauma, such as myelomalacia, cord transection or atrophy. (orig.) [de

  11. Natural attenuation of herbicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuxen, Nina; Højberg, Anker Lajer; Broholm, Mette Martina

    2002-01-01

    A field injection experiment in a sandy, aerobic aquifer showed that two phenoxy acids MCPP (mecoprop) and dichlorprop were degraded within I in downgradient of the injection wells after an apparent lag period. The plume development and microbial measurements indicated that microbial growth gover....... The observations may be important for application of natural attenuation as a remedy in field scale systems....

  12. Measured attenuation correction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostertag, H.; Kuebler, W.K.; Doll, J.; Lorenz, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Accurate attenuation correction is a prerequisite for the determination of exact local radioactivity concentrations in positron emission tomography. Attenuation correction factors range from 4-5 in brain studies to 50-100 in whole body measurements. This report gives an overview of the different methods of determining the attenuation correction factors by transmission measurements using an external positron emitting source. The long-lived generator nuclide 68 Ge/ 68 Ga is commonly used for this purpose. The additional patient dose from the transmission source is usually a small fraction of the dose due to the subsequent emission measurement. Ring-shaped transmission sources as well as rotating point or line sources are employed in modern positron tomographs. By masking a rotating line or point source, random and scattered events in the transmission scans can be effectively suppressed. The problems of measured attenuation correction are discussed: Transmission/emission mismatch, random and scattered event contamination, counting statistics, transmission/emission scatter compensation, transmission scan after administration of activity to the patient. By using a double masking technique simultaneous emission and transmission scans become feasible. (orig.)

  13. Diagnosis of spinal cord diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halimi, P.; Sigal, R.; Doyon, D.; David, P.

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) nowadays plays a predominant role in the diagnosis and evaluation of spinal canal pathologies and has reduced the other exploratory methods, including computerized tomography (CT) and myelography, to an ancillary role. These pathologies are divided into three groups: those where MRI is the only imaging method (syringomyela, tumours in the spinal canal, phakomatoses, external pachimeningitis, spinal cord injuries, myelitis); those where MRI is the initial method and is completed by other examinations (vascular malformations, dysraphism, myelopathies due to cervical osteoarthritis) and those where MRI still play a lesser role than CT (degenerative lesions of the lumbar column) [fr

  14. Spinal dysraphism illustrated; Embroyology revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ullas V Acharya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord development occurs through three consecutive periods of gastrulation, primary nerulation and secondary neurulation. Aberration in these stages causes abnormalities of the spine and spinal cord, collectively referred as spinal dysraphism. They can be broadly classified as anomalies of gastrulation (disorders of notochord formation and of integration; anomalies of primary neurulation (premature dysjunction and nondysjunction; combined anomalies of gastrulation and primary neurulation and anomalies of secondary neurulation. Correlation with clinical and embryological data and common imaging findings provides an organized approach in their diagnosis.

  15. Modern spinal instrumentation. Part 1: Normal spinal implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.; Allouni, A.K.; Mankad, K.; Prezzi, D.; Elias, T.; Rankine, J.; Davagnanam, I.

    2013-01-01

    The general radiologist frequently encounters studies demonstrating spinal instrumentation, either as part of the patient's postoperative evaluation or as incidental to a study performed for another purpose. There are various surgical approaches and devices used in spinal surgery with an increased understanding of spinal and spinal implant biomechanics drives development of modern fixation devices. It is, therefore, important that the radiologist can recognize commonly used devices and identify their potential complications demonstrated on imaging. The aim of part 1 of this review is to familiarize the reader with terms used to describe surgical approaches to the spine, review the function and normal appearances of commonly used instrumentations, and understand the importance of the different fixation techniques. The second part of this review will concentrate on the roles that the different imaging techniques play in assessing the instrumented spine and the recognition of complications that can potentially occur.

  16. JNK-induced MCP-1 production in spinal cord astrocytes contributes to central sensitization and neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yong-Jing; Zhang, Ling; Samad, Omar Abdel; Suter, Marc R; Yasuhiko, Kawasaki; Xu, Zhen-Zhong; Park, Jong-Yeon; Lind, Anne-Li; Ma, Qiufu; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2009-04-01

    Our previous study showed that activation of c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) in spinal astrocytes plays an important role in neuropathic pain sensitization. We further investigated how JNK regulates neuropathic pain. In cultured astrocytes, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) transiently activated JNK via TNF receptor-1. Cytokine array indicated that the chemokine CCL2/MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1) was strongly induced by the TNF-alpha/JNK pathway. MCP-1 upregulation by TNF-alpha was dose dependently inhibited by the JNK inhibitors SP600125 (anthra[1,9-cd]pyrazol-6(2H)-one) and D-JNKI-1. Spinal injection of TNF-alpha produced JNK-dependent pain hypersensitivity and MCP-1 upregulation in the spinal cord. Furthermore, spinal nerve ligation (SNL) induced persistent neuropathic pain and MCP-1 upregulation in the spinal cord, and both were suppressed by D-JNKI-1. Remarkably, MCP-1 was primarily induced in spinal cord astrocytes after SNL. Spinal administration of MCP-1 neutralizing antibody attenuated neuropathic pain. Conversely, spinal application of MCP-1 induced heat hyperalgesia and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in superficial spinal cord dorsal horn neurons, indicative of central sensitization (hyperactivity of dorsal horn neurons). Patch-clamp recordings in lamina II neurons of isolated spinal cord slices showed that MCP-1 not only enhanced spontaneous EPSCs but also potentiated NMDA- and AMPA-induced currents. Finally, the MCP-1 receptor CCR2 was expressed in neurons and some non-neuronal cells in the spinal cord. Together, we have revealed a previously unknown mechanism of MCP-1 induction and action. MCP-1 induction in astrocytes after JNK activation contributes to central sensitization and neuropathic pain facilitation by enhancing excitatory synaptic transmission. Inhibition of the JNK/MCP-1 pathway may provide a new therapy for neuropathic pain management.

  17. Chronic spinal subdural hematoma; Spinales chronisches subdurales Haematom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, T.; Lensch, T. [Radiologengemeinschaft, Augsburg (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    Compared with spinal epidural hematomas, spinal subdural hematomas are rare; chronic forms are even more uncommon. These hematomas are associated not only with lumbar puncture and spinal trauma, but also with coagulopathies, vascular malformations and tumors. Compression of the spinal cord and the cauda equina means that the patients develop increasing back or radicular pain, followed by paraparesis and bladder and bowel paralysis, so that in most cases surgical decompression is carried out. On magnetic resonance imaging these hematomas present as thoracic or lumbar subdural masses, their signal intensity varying with the age of the hematoma. We report the clinical course and the findings revealed by imaging that led to the diagnosis in three cases of chronic spinal subdural hematoma. (orig.) [German] Spinale subdurale Haematome sind im Vergleich zu epiduralen Haematomen selten, chronische Verlaufsformen noch seltener. Ursaechlich sind neben Lumbalpunktionen und traumatischen Verletzungen auch Blutgerinnungsstoerungen, Gefaessmalformationen und Tumoren. Aufgrund der Kompression von Myelon und Cauda equina kommt es zu zunehmenden Ruecken- oder radikulaeren Schmerzen mit anschliessender Paraparese sowie einer Darm- und Blasenstoerung, weshalb in den meisten Faellen eine operative Entlastung durchgefuehrt wird. Magnetresonanztomographisch stellen sich die Haematome meist als thorakale bzw. lumbale subdurale Raumforderungen dar, die Signalintensitaet variiert mit dem Blutungsalter. Wir berichten ueber den klinischen Verlauf und die bildgebende Diagnostik von 3 Patienten mit spinalen chronischen subduralen Haematomen. (orig.)

  18. Photon attenuation by intensifying screens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holje, G.

    1983-01-01

    The photon attenuation by intensifying screens of different chemical composition has been determined. The attenuation of photons between 20 keV and 120 keV was measured by use of a multi-channel analyzer and a broad bremsstrahlung distribution. The attenuation by the intensifying screens was hereby determined simultaneously at many different monoenergetic photon energies. Experimentally determined attenuations were found to agree well with attenuation calculated from mass attenuation coefficients. The attenuation by the screens was also determined at various bremsstrahlung distributions, simulating those occurring behind the patient in various diagnostic X-ray examinations. The high attenuation in some of the intensifying screens form the basis for an analysis of the construction of asymmetric screen pairs. Single screen systems are suggested as a favourable alternative to thick screen pair systems. (Author)

  19. Spinal metastases of malignant gliomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materlik, B.; Steidle-Katic, U.; Feyerabend, T.; Richter, E.; Wauschkuhn, B.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: Extracranial metastases of malignant gliomas are rare. We report 2 cases with spinal metastases in patients suffering from glioma. Patients and Method: Two patients (33 and 57 years old) developed spinal canal metastases of a glioblastoma multiforme and anaplastic astrocytoma Grade III respectively 25 and 9 months after surgical resection and radiotherapy. Both metastases were confirmed pathohistologically. Results: Intraspinal metastases were irradiated with a total dose of 12.6 Gy and 50 Gy. Treatment withdrawal was necessary in one patient due to reduced clinical condition. Regression of neurological symptoms was observed in the second patient. Conclusions: Spinal spread of malignant glioma should be considered during care and follow-up in glioma patients with spinal symptoms. (orig.) [de

  20. Imaging of extradural spinal lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlhelm, F.; Schulte-Altedorneburg, G.; Naumann, N.; Reith, W.; Nabhan, A.

    2006-01-01

    There is a wide variety of spinal extradural tumors. In addition to real neoplasms, degenerative diseases, congenital abnormalities and inflammatory disorders can be causes of extradural masses. Due to the bony boundary of the spinal canal, both benign as well as malignant masses can cause progressive neurological deficits including paraplegia. Most of the spinal tumors are benign (hemangioma of the vertebral body, degenerative diseases). In younger patients congenital abnormalities and primary tumors of the spine have to be considered, whereas in adults the list of differential diagnoses should include secondary malignancies such as metastases and lymphomas as well as metabolic disorders such as osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture and Paget's disease. Cross-sectional imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) of the spine often help to make a specific diagnosis of extradural spinal lesions and represent important tools for tumor staging and preoperative evaluation. (orig.) [de

  1. Spinal cord: motor neuron diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezania, Kourosh; Roos, Raymond P

    2013-02-01

    Spinal cord motor neuron diseases affect lower motor neurons in the ventral horn. This article focuses on the most common spinal cord motor neuron disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, which also affects upper motor neurons. Also discussed are other motor neuron diseases that only affect the lower motor neurons. Despite the identification of several genes associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the pathogenesis of this complex disease remains elusive. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Radiotherapy of presenile spinal osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keim, H.M.; Schiebusch, M.

    1982-01-01

    Painfull conditions of presenile spinal osteoporosis may no longer respond to medication or physical therapy. Analgesic radiotherapy coupled with mild physical therapy and if necessary supported by orthopedic measures frequently results in pain relief and physical stability. Fifty-two cases of osteoporosis and osteoporotic spinal fractures illustrate how better longterm results are achieved by increasing the customary dosage and speeding up radiotherapy. (orig.) [de

  3. Assessing attitudes toward spinal immobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouland, Andrew J; Jenkins, J Lee; Levy, Matthew J

    2013-10-01

    Prospective studies have improved knowledge of prehospital spinal immobilization. The opinion of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers regarding spinal immobilization is unknown, as is their knowledge of recent research advances. To examine the attitudes, knowledge, and comfort of prehospital and Emergency Department (ED) EMS providers regarding spinal immobilization performed under a non-selective protocol. An online survey was conducted from May to July of 2011. Participants were drawn from the Howard County Department of Fire and Rescue Services and the Howard County General Hospital ED. The survey included multiple choice questions and responses on a modified Likert scale. Correlation analysis and descriptive data were used to analyze results. Comfort using the Kendrick Extrication Device was low among ED providers. Experienced providers were more likely to indicate comfort using this device. Respondents often believed that spinal immobilization is appropriate in the management of penetrating trauma to the chest and abdomen. Reported use of padding decreased along with the frequency with which providers practice and encounter immobilized patients. Respondents often indicated that they perform spinal immobilization due solely to mechanism of injury. Providers who feel as if spinal immobilization is often performed unnecessarily were more likely to agree that immobilization causes an unnecessary delay in patient care. The results demonstrate the need for improved EMS education in the use of the Kendrick Extrication Device, backboard padding, and spinal immobilization in the management of penetrating trauma. The attitudes highlighted in this study are relevant to the implementation of a selective spinal immobilization protocol. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Biomechanical implications of lumbar spinal ligament transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Forell, Gregory A; Bowden, Anton E

    2014-11-01

    Many lumbar spine surgeries either intentionally or inadvertently damage or transect spinal ligaments. The purpose of this work was to quantify the previously unknown biomechanical consequences of isolated spinal ligament transection on the remaining spinal ligaments (stress transfer), vertebrae (bone remodelling stimulus) and intervertebral discs (disc pressure) of the lumbar spine. A finite element model of the full lumbar spine was developed and validated against experimental data and tested in the primary modes of spinal motion in the intact condition. Once a ligament was removed, stress increased in the remaining spinal ligaments and changes occurred in vertebral strain energy, but disc pressure remained similar. All major biomechanical changes occurred at the same spinal level as the transected ligament, with minor changes at adjacent levels. This work demonstrates that iatrogenic damage to spinal ligaments disturbs the load sharing within the spinal ligament network and may induce significant clinically relevant changes in the spinal motion segment.

  5. Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    attenuation capacity of the aquifer downgradient from the source (e.g., permeable reactive barriers or phytoremediation ) Selection of EA remedies should be...prevalence and/or mobility of nitrate and sulfate compounds and/or metals such as iron, manganese, chromium, copper, and arsenic . Furthermore, in...ranging from very aggressive source destruction and removal methods to less energy-intensive methods, such as phytoremediation . In many cases, it

  6. Anatomy of the Spinal Meninges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka, Laurent; Gabrillargues, Jean; Coll, Guillaume

    2016-06-01

    The spinal meninges have received less attention than the cranial meninges in the literature, although several points remain debatable and poorly understood, like their phylogenesis, their development, and their interactions with the spinal cord. Their constancy among the chordates shows their crucial importance in central nervous system homeostasis and suggests a role far beyond mechanical protection of the neuraxis. This work provides an extensive study of the spinal meninges, from an overview of their phylogenesis and embryology to a descriptive and topographic anatomy with clinical implications. It examines their involvement in spinal cord development, functioning, and repair. This work is a review of the literature using PubMed as a search engine on Medline. The stages followed by the meninges along the phylogenesis could not be easily compared with their development in vertebrates for methodological aspects and convergence processes throughout evolution. The distinction between arachnoid and pia mater appeared controversial. Several points of descriptive anatomy remain debatable: the functional organization of the arterial network, and the venous and lymphatic drainages, considered differently by classical anatomic and neuroradiological approaches. Spinal meninges are involved in neurodevelopment and neurorepair producing neural stem cells and morphogens, in cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and neuraxis functioning by the synthesis of active molecules, and the elimination of waste products of central nervous system metabolism. The spinal meninges should be considered as dynamic functional formations evolving over a lifetime, with ultrastructural features and functional interactions with the neuraxis remaining not fully understood.

  7. Control algorithms for dynamic attenuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Scott S., E-mail: sshsieh@stanford.edu [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Pelc, Norbert J. [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford California 94305 and Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The authors describe algorithms to control dynamic attenuators in CT and compare their performance using simulated scans. Dynamic attenuators are prepatient beam shaping filters that modulate the distribution of x-ray fluence incident on the patient on a view-by-view basis. These attenuators can reduce dose while improving key image quality metrics such as peak or mean variance. In each view, the attenuator presents several degrees of freedom which may be individually adjusted. The total number of degrees of freedom across all views is very large, making many optimization techniques impractical. The authors develop a theory for optimally controlling these attenuators. Special attention is paid to a theoretically perfect attenuator which controls the fluence for each ray individually, but the authors also investigate and compare three other, practical attenuator designs which have been previously proposed: the piecewise-linear attenuator, the translating attenuator, and the double wedge attenuator. Methods: The authors pose and solve the optimization problems of minimizing the mean and peak variance subject to a fixed dose limit. For a perfect attenuator and mean variance minimization, this problem can be solved in simple, closed form. For other attenuator designs, the problem can be decomposed into separate problems for each view to greatly reduce the computational complexity. Peak variance minimization can be approximately solved using iterated, weighted mean variance (WMV) minimization. Also, the authors develop heuristics for the perfect and piecewise-linear attenuators which do not requirea priori knowledge of the patient anatomy. The authors compare these control algorithms on different types of dynamic attenuators using simulated raw data from forward projected DICOM files of a thorax and an abdomen. Results: The translating and double wedge attenuators reduce dose by an average of 30% relative to current techniques (bowtie filter with tube current

  8. Control algorithms for dynamic attenuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Scott S.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors describe algorithms to control dynamic attenuators in CT and compare their performance using simulated scans. Dynamic attenuators are prepatient beam shaping filters that modulate the distribution of x-ray fluence incident on the patient on a view-by-view basis. These attenuators can reduce dose while improving key image quality metrics such as peak or mean variance. In each view, the attenuator presents several degrees of freedom which may be individually adjusted. The total number of degrees of freedom across all views is very large, making many optimization techniques impractical. The authors develop a theory for optimally controlling these attenuators. Special attention is paid to a theoretically perfect attenuator which controls the fluence for each ray individually, but the authors also investigate and compare three other, practical attenuator designs which have been previously proposed: the piecewise-linear attenuator, the translating attenuator, and the double wedge attenuator. Methods: The authors pose and solve the optimization problems of minimizing the mean and peak variance subject to a fixed dose limit. For a perfect attenuator and mean variance minimization, this problem can be solved in simple, closed form. For other attenuator designs, the problem can be decomposed into separate problems for each view to greatly reduce the computational complexity. Peak variance minimization can be approximately solved using iterated, weighted mean variance (WMV) minimization. Also, the authors develop heuristics for the perfect and piecewise-linear attenuators which do not requirea priori knowledge of the patient anatomy. The authors compare these control algorithms on different types of dynamic attenuators using simulated raw data from forward projected DICOM files of a thorax and an abdomen. Results: The translating and double wedge attenuators reduce dose by an average of 30% relative to current techniques (bowtie filter with tube current

  9. Control algorithms for dynamic attenuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Scott S; Pelc, Norbert J

    2014-06-01

    The authors describe algorithms to control dynamic attenuators in CT and compare their performance using simulated scans. Dynamic attenuators are prepatient beam shaping filters that modulate the distribution of x-ray fluence incident on the patient on a view-by-view basis. These attenuators can reduce dose while improving key image quality metrics such as peak or mean variance. In each view, the attenuator presents several degrees of freedom which may be individually adjusted. The total number of degrees of freedom across all views is very large, making many optimization techniques impractical. The authors develop a theory for optimally controlling these attenuators. Special attention is paid to a theoretically perfect attenuator which controls the fluence for each ray individually, but the authors also investigate and compare three other, practical attenuator designs which have been previously proposed: the piecewise-linear attenuator, the translating attenuator, and the double wedge attenuator. The authors pose and solve the optimization problems of minimizing the mean and peak variance subject to a fixed dose limit. For a perfect attenuator and mean variance minimization, this problem can be solved in simple, closed form. For other attenuator designs, the problem can be decomposed into separate problems for each view to greatly reduce the computational complexity. Peak variance minimization can be approximately solved using iterated, weighted mean variance (WMV) minimization. Also, the authors develop heuristics for the perfect and piecewise-linear attenuators which do not require a priori knowledge of the patient anatomy. The authors compare these control algorithms on different types of dynamic attenuators using simulated raw data from forward projected DICOM files of a thorax and an abdomen. The translating and double wedge attenuators reduce dose by an average of 30% relative to current techniques (bowtie filter with tube current modulation) without

  10. MR imaging and spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azar-Kia, B.; Fine, M.; Naheedy, M.; Elias, D.

    1987-01-01

    MR imaging has significantly improved diagnostic capability of spinal cord injuries. Other available diagnostic modalities such as plain films, myelography, CT, and post-CT myelography have failed to consistently show the secific evidence of spinal cord injuries and their true extent. The authors are presenting our experiences with MR imaging in spinal column injury. They have found MR imaging to be the procedure of choice for prognostic evaluation of spinal cord trauma. They are showing examples of recent and old spinal cord injury such as hematomyelia, myelomalacia, transection, spinal cord edema, and cavitation

  11. Protein translation, proteolysis and autophagy in human skeletal muscle atrophy after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundell, L S; Savikj, M; Kostovski, E; Iversen, P O; Zierath, J R; Krook, A; Chibalin, A V; Widegren, U

    2018-02-08

    Spinal cord injury-induced loss of skeletal muscle mass does not progress linearly. In humans, peak muscle loss occurs during the first 6 weeks postinjury, and gradually continues thereafter. The aim of this study was to delineate the regulatory events underlying skeletal muscle atrophy during the first year following spinal cord injury. Key translational, autophagic and proteolytic proteins were analysed by immunoblotting of human vastus lateralis muscle obtained 1, 3 and 12 months following spinal cord injury. Age-matched able-bodied control subjects were also studied. Several downstream targets of Akt signalling decreased after spinal cord injury in skeletal muscle, without changes in resting Akt Ser 473 and Akt Thr 308 phosphorylation or total Akt protein. Abundance of mTOR protein and mTOR Ser 2448 phosphorylation, as well as FOXO1 Ser 256 phosphorylation and FOXO3 protein, decreased in response to spinal cord injury, coincident with attenuated protein abundance of E3 ubiquitin ligases, MuRF1 and MAFbx. S6 protein and Ser 235/236 phosphorylation, as well as 4E-BP1 Thr 37/46 phosphorylation, increased transiently after spinal cord injury, indicating higher levels of protein translation early after injury. Protein abundance of LC3-I and LC3-II decreased 3 months postinjury as compared with 1 month postinjury, but not compared to able-bodied control subjects, indicating lower levels of autophagy. Proteins regulating proteasomal degradation were stably increased in response to spinal cord injury. Together, these data provide indirect evidence suggesting that protein translation and autophagy transiently increase, while whole proteolysis remains stably higher in skeletal muscle within the first year after spinal cord injury. © 2018 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Radionuclide imaging of spinal infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemmel, Filip; Dumarey, Nicolas; Palestro, Christopher J.

    2006-01-01

    The diagnosis of spinal infection, with or without implants, has been a challenge for physicians for many years. Spinal infections are now being recognised more frequently, owing to aging of the population and the increasing use of spinal-fusion surgery. The diagnosis in many cases is delayed, and this may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Laboratory evidence of infection is variable. Conventional radiography and radionuclide bone imaging lack both sensitivity and specificity. Neither in vitro labelled leucocyte scintigraphy nor 99m Tc-anti-granulocyte antibody scintigraphy is especially useful, because of the frequency with which spinal infection presents as a non-specific photopenic area on these tests. Sequential bone/gallium imaging and 67 Ga-SPECT are currently the radionuclide procedures of choice for spinal osteomyelitis, but these tests lack specificity, suffer from poor spatial resolution and require several days to complete. [ 18 F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET is a promising technique for diagnosing spinal infection, and has several potential advantages over conventional radionuclide tests. The study is sensitive and is completed in a single session, and image quality is superior to that obtained with single-photon emitting tracers. The specificity of FDG-PET may also be superior to that of conventional tracers because degenerative bone disease and fractures usually do not produce intense FDG uptake; moreover, spinal implants do not affect FDG imaging. However, FDG-PET images have to be read with caution in patients with instrumented spinal-fusion surgery since non-specific accumulation of FDG around the fusion material is not uncommon. In the future, PET-CT will likely provide more precise localisation of abnormalities. FDG-PET may prove to be useful for monitoring response to treatment in patients with spinal osteomyelitis. Other tracers for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis are also under investigation, including radiolabelled

  13. Radionuclide imaging of spinal infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmel, Filip [Ghent Maria-Middelares, General Hospital, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Medical Center Leeuwarden (MCL), Division of Nuclear Medicine, Henri Dunantweg 2, Postbus 888, Leeuwarden (Netherlands); Dumarey, Nicolas [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Hopital Erasme, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Brussels (Belgium); Palestro, Christopher J. [Long Island Jewish Medical Center, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Long Island, NY (United States)

    2006-10-15

    The diagnosis of spinal infection, with or without implants, has been a challenge for physicians for many years. Spinal infections are now being recognised more frequently, owing to aging of the population and the increasing use of spinal-fusion surgery. The diagnosis in many cases is delayed, and this may result in permanent neurological damage or even death. Laboratory evidence of infection is variable. Conventional radiography and radionuclide bone imaging lack both sensitivity and specificity. Neither in vitro labelled leucocyte scintigraphy nor {sup 99m}Tc-anti-granulocyte antibody scintigraphy is especially useful, because of the frequency with which spinal infection presents as a non-specific photopenic area on these tests. Sequential bone/gallium imaging and {sup 67}Ga-SPECT are currently the radionuclide procedures of choice for spinal osteomyelitis, but these tests lack specificity, suffer from poor spatial resolution and require several days to complete. [{sup 18}F]Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) PET is a promising technique for diagnosing spinal infection, and has several potential advantages over conventional radionuclide tests. The study is sensitive and is completed in a single session, and image quality is superior to that obtained with single-photon emitting tracers. The specificity of FDG-PET may also be superior to that of conventional tracers because degenerative bone disease and fractures usually do not produce intense FDG uptake; moreover, spinal implants do not affect FDG imaging. However, FDG-PET images have to be read with caution in patients with instrumented spinal-fusion surgery since non-specific accumulation of FDG around the fusion material is not uncommon. In the future, PET-CT will likely provide more precise localisation of abnormalities. FDG-PET may prove to be useful for monitoring response to treatment in patients with spinal osteomyelitis. Other tracers for diagnosing spinal osteomyelitis are also under investigation, including

  14. Increased probability of repetitive spinal motoneuron activation by transcranial magnetic stimulation after muscle fatigue in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Birgit; Felding, Ulrik Ascanius; Krarup, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Triple stimulation technique (TST) has previously shown that transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) fails to activate a proportion of spinal motoneurons (MNs) during motor fatigue. The TST response depression without attenuation of the conventional motor evoked potential suggested increased...... probability of repetitive spinal MN activation during exercise even if some MNs failed to discharge by the brain stimulus. Here we used a modified TST (Quadruple stimulation; QuadS and Quintuple stimulation; QuintS) to examine the influence of fatiguing exercise on second and third MN discharges after......, reflecting that a greater proportion of spinal MNs were activated 2 or 3 times by the transcranial stimulus. The size of QuadS responses did not return to pre-contraction levels during 10 min observation time indicating long-lasting increase in excitatory input to spinal MNs. In addition, the post...

  15. Gemistocytic astrocytoma in the spinal cord in a dog: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.O. Chaves

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper reports a case of a rare variant of the cervical spinal cord astrocytoma diagnosed in a dog with progressive neurological signs, initially asymmetrical, not ambulatory tetraparesis, segmental reflexes and normal muscle tone in all four limbs and absence of pain upon palpation of the cervical spine. Myelography revealed attenuation of the ventral and dorsal contrast line in the third region of the fifth cervical vertebra. At necropsy intramedullary cylindrical mass that stretched from the third to the sixth cervical vertebra, which replaced all the gray matter of the spinal cord was observed. In the histological study, there was the replacement of the substance by neoplastic cells mantle arranged loosely. The cells were large and slightly rounded. The eosinophilic cytoplasm was well defined, sometimes forming processes interconnecting cells. The nucleus was eccentric, round, oval or kidney-shaped, and the nucleolus was evident. Thus, the microscopic changes observed in the cervical spinal cord were consistent with gemistocytic astrocytoma.

  16. Role of prostaglandins in spinal transmission of the exercise pressor reflex in decerebrated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, A J; Copp, S W; Kaufman, M P

    2014-09-26

    Previous studies found that prostaglandins in skeletal muscle play a role in evoking the exercise pressor reflex; however the role played by prostaglandins in the spinal transmission of the reflex is not known. We determined, therefore, whether or not spinal blockade of cyclooxygenase (COX) activity and/or spinal blockade of endoperoxide (EP) 2 or 4 receptors attenuated the exercise pressor reflex in decerebrated rats. We first established that intrathecal doses of a non-specific COX inhibitor Ketorolac (100 μg in 10 μl), a COX-2-specific inhibitor Celecoxib (100 μg in 10 μl), an EP2 antagonist PF-04418948 (10 μg in 10 μl), and an EP4 antagonist L-161,982 (4 μg in 10 μl) effectively attenuated the pressor responses to intrathecal injections of arachidonic acid (100 μg in 10 μl), EP2 agonist Butaprost (4 ng in 10 μl), and EP4 agonist TCS 2510 (6.25 μg in 2.5 μl), respectively. Once effective doses were established, we statically contracted the hind limb before and after intrathecal injections of Ketorolac, Celecoxib, the EP2 antagonist and the EP4 antagonist. We found that Ketorolac significantly attenuated the pressor response to static contraction (before Ketorolac: 23 ± 5 mmHg, after Ketorolac 14 ± 5 mmHg; preflex, and that the spinal prostaglandins produced by this enzyme are most likely activating spinal EP4 receptors, but not EP2 receptors. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of prostaglandins in spinal transmission of the exercise pressor reflex in decerebrate rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Audrey J.; Copp, Steven W.; Kaufman, Marc P.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies found that prostaglandins in skeletal muscle play a role in evoking the exercise pressor reflex; however the role played by prostaglandins in the spinal transmission of the reflex is not known. We determined, therefore, whether or not spinal blockade of cyclooxygenase (COX) activity and/or spinal blockade of endoperoxide receptor (EP) 2 or EP4 receptors attenuated the exercise pressor reflex in decerebrate rats. We first established that intrathecal doses of a non-specific COX inhibitor Ketorolac (100ug in 10ul), a COX-2 specific inhibitor Celecoxib (100μg in 10μl), an EP2 antagonist PF-04418948 (10μg in 10μl), and an EP4 antagonist L-161,982 (4μg in 10μl) effectively attenuated the pressor responses to intrathecal injections of Arachidonic Acid (100μg in 10μl), EP2 agonist Butaprost (4ng in 10 μl), and EP4 agonist TCS 2510 (6.25μg in 2.5 μl), respectively. Once effective doses were established, we statically contracted the hindlimb before and after intrathecal injections of Ketorolac, Celecoxib, the EP2 antagonist and the EP4 antagonist. We found that Ketorolac significantly attenuated the pressor response to static contraction (before Ketorolac: 23±5 mmHg, after Ketorolac 14±5 mmHg; preflex, and that the spinal prostaglandins produced by this enzyme are most likely activating spinal EP4 receptors, but not EP2 receptors. PMID:25003710

  18. Subdural Thoracolumbar Spine Hematoma after Spinal Anesthesia: A Rare Occurrence and Literature Review of Spinal Hematomas after Spinal Anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddali, Prasanthi; Walker, Blake; Fisahn, Christian; Page, Jeni; Diaz, Vicki; Zwillman, Michael E; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane; Moisi, Marc

    2017-02-16

    Spinal hematomas are a rare but serious complication of spinal epidural anesthesia and are typically seen in the epidural space; however, they have been documented in the subdural space. Spinal subdural hematomas likely exist within a traumatically induced space within the dural border cell layer, rather than an anatomical subdural space. Spinal subdural hematomas present a dangerous clinical situation as they have the potential to cause significant compression of neural elements and can be easily mistaken for spinal epidural hematomas. Ultrasound can be an effective modality to diagnose subdural hematoma when no epidural blood is visualized. We have reviewed the literature and present a full literature review and a case presentation of an 82-year-old male who developed a thoracolumbar spinal subdural hematoma after spinal epidural anesthesia. Anticoagulant therapy is an important predisposing risk factor for spinal epidural hematomas and likely also predispose to spinal subdural hematomas. It is important to consider spinal subdural hematomas in addition to spinal epidural hematomas in patients who develop weakness after spinal epidural anesthesia, especially in patients who have received anticoagulation.

  19. Suicide in a spinal cord injured population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartkopp, A; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Seidenschnur, A M

    1998-01-01

    To determine the relation between functional status and risk of suicide among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI).......To determine the relation between functional status and risk of suicide among individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI)....

  20. Genetics Home Reference: spinal muscular atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... difficulty breathing. Children with this type often have joint deformities (contractures) that impair movement. In severe cases, ... Proximal spinal muscular atrophy Washington University, St. Louis: Neuromuscular Disease Center: Spinal Muscular Atrophy Patient Support and ...

  1. Pericytes Make Spinal Cord Breathless after Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Viviani M; Paiva, Ana E; Sena, Isadora F G; Mintz, Akiva; Magno, Luiz Alexandre V; Birbrair, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury is a devastating condition that leads to significant neurological deficits and reduced quality of life. Therapeutic interventions after spinal cord lesions are designed to address multiple aspects of the secondary damage. However, the lack of detailed knowledge about the cellular and molecular changes that occur after spinal cord injury restricts the design of effective treatments. Li and colleagues using a rat model of spinal cord injury and in vivo microscopy reveal that pericytes play a key role in the regulation of capillary tone and blood flow in the spinal cord below the site of the lesion. Strikingly, inhibition of specific proteins expressed by pericytes after spinal cord injury diminished hypoxia and improved motor function and locomotion of the injured rats. This work highlights a novel central cellular population that might be pharmacologically targeted in patients with spinal cord trauma. The emerging knowledge from this research may provide new approaches for the treatment of spinal cord injury.

  2. Drug therapy in spinal tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, S; Khandelwal, Gaurav

    2013-06-01

    Although the discovery of effective anti-tuberculosis drugs has made uncomplicated spinal tuberculosis a medical disease, the advent of multi-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the co-infection of HIV with tuberculosis have led to a resurgence of the disease recently. The principles of drug treatment of spinal tuberculosis are derived from our experience in treating pulmonary tuberculosis. Spinal tuberculosis is classified to be a severe form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis and hence is included in Category I of the WHO classification. The tuberculosis bacilli isolated from patients are of four different types with different growth kinetics and metabolic characteristics. Hence multiple drugs, which act on the different groups of the mycobacteria, are included in each anti-tuberculosis drug regimen. Prolonged and uninterrupted chemotherapy (which may be 'short course' and 'intermittent' but preferably 'directly observed') is effective in controlling the infection. Spinal Multi-drug-resistant TB and spinal TB in HIV-positive patients present unique problems in management and have much poorer prognosis. Failure of chemotherapy and emergence of drug resistance are frequent due to the failure of compliance hence all efforts must be made to improve patient compliance to the prescribed drug regimen.

  3. Non-canonical Opioid Signaling Inhibits Itch Transmission in the Spinal Cord of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Admire Munanairi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Chronic itch or pruritus is a debilitating disorder that is refractory to conventional anti-histamine treatment. Kappa opioid receptor (KOR agonists have been used to treat chronic itch, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we find that KOR and gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR overlap in the spinal cord, and KOR activation attenuated GRPR-mediated histamine-independent acute and chronic itch in mice. Notably, canonical KOR-mediated Gαi signaling is not required for desensitizing GRPR function. In vivo and in vitro studies suggest that KOR activation results in the translocation of Ca2+-independent protein kinase C (PKCδ from the cytosol to the plasma membrane, which in turn phosphorylates and inhibits GRPR activity. A blockade of phospholipase C (PLC in HEK293 cells prevented KOR-agonist-induced PKCδ translocation and GRPR phosphorylation, suggesting a role of PLC signaling in KOR-mediated GRPR desensitization. These data suggest that a KOR-PLC-PKCδ-GRPR signaling pathway in the spinal cord may underlie KOR-agonists-induced anti-pruritus therapies. : Munanairi et al. show that the kappa opioid receptor (KOR agonists inhibit nonhistaminergic itch transmission by attenuating the function of the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR, an itch receptor in the spinal cord. KOR activation causes the translocation of PKCδ from plasma to membrane, which phosphorylates GRPR to dampen itch transmission. Keywords: KOR, GRPR, itch, PKC, phosphorylation, GPCR cross-signaling, spinal cord, mouse

  4. Spinal infection: Evaluation with MR imaging and intraoperative spinal US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan Post, M.J.; Montalvo, B.M.; Quencer, R.M.; Katz, B.H.; Green, B.A.; Elsmont, F.

    1987-01-01

    MR spine images and/or intraoperative US scans in 15 patients were reviewed retrospectively and correlated with clinical and pathologic data to determine the diagnostic value of these modalities in spinal infection. In osteomyelitis and retrospinal abscess MR imaging was definitive; in myelitis it was positive but nonspecific. In epidural abscess concomitant with meningitis, myelography with CT and intraoperative US were superior to MR imaging. Intraoperative US could be used to distinguish these processes and to monitor surgical decompression. The authors recommend that MR imaging be performed at the screening examination in cases of spinal infection, accompanied by intraoperative US in all surgical cases

  5. Unusual causes of spinal foraminal widening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zibis, A.H.; Markonis, A.; Karantanas, A.H. [Dept. of CT and MRI, Larissa General Hospital (Greece)

    2000-01-01

    Spinal neural foraminal widening is usually caused by benign lesions, most commonly neurofibromas. Rare lesions can also cause spinal neural foraminal widening. Computed tomography and/or MRI are the modalities of choice for studying the spinal foraminal widening. The present pictorial review describes six rare lesions, namely a lateral thoracic meningocele, a malignant fibrous histiocytoma, a tuberculous abscess, an osteoblastoma, a chondrosarcoma and a malignant tumour of the lung which caused spinal neural foraminal widening. (orig.)

  6. Radiation treatment of spinal cord neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    Results of radiation treatment of spinal cord neoplasms are presented. The results of combined (surgical and radiation) treatment of tumors are studied. On the whole it is noted that radiation treatment of initial spinal cord tumours is not practised on a large scale because of low radiostability of spinal cord

  7. Spinal cord involvement in tuberculous meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, R K; Malhotra, H S; Gupta, R

    2015-09-01

    To summarize the incidence and spectrum of spinal cord-related complications in patients of tuberculous meningitis. Reports from multiple countries were included. An extensive review of the literature, published in English, was carried out using Scopus, PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Tuberculous meningitis frequently affects the spinal cord and nerve roots. Initial evidence of spinal cord involvement came from post-mortem examination. Subsequent advancement in neuroimaging like conventional lumbar myelography, computed tomographic myelography and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance-myelography have contributed immensely. Spinal involvement manifests in several forms, like tuberculous radiculomyelitis, spinal tuberculoma, myelitis, syringomyelia, vertebral tuberculosis and very rarely spinal tuberculous abscess. Frequently, tuberculous spinal arachnoiditis develops paradoxically. Infrequently, spinal cord involvement may even be asymptomatic. Spinal cord and spinal nerve involvement is demonstrated by diffuse enhancement of cord parenchyma, nerve roots and meninges on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. High cerebrospinal fluid protein content is often a risk factor for arachnoiditis. The most important differential diagnosis of tuberculous arachnoiditis is meningeal carcinomatosis. Anti-tuberculosis therapy is the main stay of treatment for tuberculous meningitis. Higher doses of corticosteroids have been found effective. Surgery should be considered only when pathological confirmation is needed or there is significant spinal cord compression. The outcome in these patients has been unpredictable. Some reports observed excellent recovery and some reported unfavorable outcomes after surgical decompression and debridement. Tuberculous meningitis is frequently associated with disabling spinal cord and radicular complications. Available treatment options are far from satisfactory.

  8. Functional outcome after a spinal fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Richard Bernardus

    2008-01-01

    This thesis takes a closer look at the functional outcome after a spinal fracture. An introduction to different aspects regarding spinal fractures is presented in Chapter 1. The incidence of traumatic thoracolumbar spinal fractures without neurological deficit in the Netherlands is approximately 1.2

  9. ATYPICAL GOUT: SPINAL TOPHACEOUS INJURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksim Sergeevich Eliseev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spinal injury in gout occurs rarely at a young age. In the past 5 years, the Pubmed has published only 44 papers on this site of tophi mainly in gouty patients over 40 years of age. We report two such cases in patients with chronic tophaceous gout in a 28-year-old man with a 3-year history of gout and in a 30-year-old man with its 7-year history. In both cases, spinal injury with tophus masses gave rise to neurological symptomatology. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were of informative value in identifying the causes of pain. In one case, the patient underwent laminectomy; histological evidence confirmed the gouty genesis of spinal injury.

  10. Recurrent Primary Spinal Hydatid Cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Turk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Primary hydatid disease of spine is rare and spinal hydatitosis constitute only 1% of all hydatitosis. We report a case of recurrent primary intraspinal extradural hydatid cyst of the thoracic region causing progressive paraparesis. The patient was operated 16 years ago for primary spinal hydatid disease involvement and was instrumented dorsally for stabilization. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of thoracic spine showed a cystic lesion at T11-12 level and compressed spinal cord posterolaterally. Intraspinal cyst was excised through T11-12 laminectomy which made formerly. The early postoperative period showed a progressive improvement of his neurological deficit and he was discharged with antihelmintic treatment consisting of albendazole and amoxicillin-sulbactam combination. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(Suppl 1: 84-89

  11. Fluoxetine and vitamin C synergistically inhibits blood-spinal cord barrier disruption and improves functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jee Y; Choi, Hae Y; Yune, Tae Y

    2016-10-01

    Recently we reported that fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) improves functional recovery by attenuating blood spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption after spinal cord injury (SCI). Here we investigated whether a low-dose of fluoxetine (1 mg/kg) and vitamin C (100 mg/kg), separately not possessing any protective effect, prevents BSCB disruption and improves functional recovery when combined. After a moderate contusion injury at T9 in rat, a low-dose of fluoxetine and vitamin C, or the combination of both was administered intraperitoneally immediately after SCI and further treated once a day for 14 d. Co-treatment with fluoxetine and vitamin C significantly attenuated BSCB permeability at 1 d after SCI. When only fluoxetine or vitamin C was treated after injury, however, there was no effect on BSCB disruption. Co-treatment with fluoxetine and vitamin C also significantly inhibited the expression and activation of MMP-9 at 8 h and 1 d after injury, respectively, and the infiltration of neutrophils (at 1 d) and macrophages (at 5 d) and the expression of inflammatory mediators (at 2 h, 6 h, 8 h or 24 h after injury) were significantly inhibited by co-treatment with fluoxetine and vitamin C. Furthermore, the combination of fluoxetine and vitamin C attenuated apoptotic cell death at 1 d and 5 d and improved locomotor function at 5 weeks after SCI. These results demonstrate the synergistic effect combination of low-dose fluoxetine and vitamin C on BSCB disruption after SCI and furthermore support the effectiveness of the combination treatment regimen for the management of acute SCI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydralazine inhibits compression and acrolein-mediated injuries in ex vivo spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Kristin; Nehrt, Genevieve; Ouyang, Hui; Duerstock, Brad; Shi, Riyi

    2008-02-01

    We have previously shown that acrolein, a lipid peroxidation byproduct, is significantly increased following spinal cord injury in vivo, and that exposure to neuronal cells results in oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, increased membrane permeability, impaired axonal conductivity, and eventually cell death. Acrolein thus may be a key player in the pathogenesis of spinal cord injury, where lipid peroxidation is known to be involved. The current study demonstrates that the acrolein scavenger hydralazine protects against not only acrolein-mediated injury, but also compression in guinea pig spinal cord ex vivo. Specifically, hydralazine (500 mumol/L to 1 mmol/L) can significantly alleviate acrolein (100-500 mumol/L)-induced superoxide production, glutathione depletion, mitochondrial dysfunction, loss of membrane integrity, and reduced compound action potential conduction. Additionally, 500 mumol/L hydralazine significantly attenuated compression-mediated membrane disruptions at 2 and 3 h following injury. This was consistent with our findings that acrolein-lys adducts were increased following compression injury ex vivo, an effect that was prevented by hydralazine treatment. These findings provide further evidence for the role of acrolein in spinal cord injury, and suggest that acrolein-scavenging drugs such as hydralazine may represent a novel therapy to effectively reduce oxidative stress in disorders such as spinal cord injury and neurodegenerative diseases, where oxidative stress is known to play a role.

  13. Spinal Microgliosis Due to Resident Microglial Proliferation Is Required for Pain Hypersensitivity after Peripheral Nerve Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Gu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral nerve injury causes neuropathic pain accompanied by remarkable microgliosis in the spinal cord dorsal horn. However, it is still debated whether infiltrated monocytes contribute to injury-induced expansion of the microglial population. Here, we found that spinal microgliosis predominantly results from local proliferation of resident microglia but not from infiltrating monocytes after spinal nerve transection (SNT by using two genetic mouse models (CCR2RFP/+:CX3CR1GFP/+ and CX3CR1creER/+:R26tdTomato/+ mice as well as specific staining of microglia and macrophages. Pharmacological inhibition of SNT-induced microglial proliferation correlated with attenuated neuropathic pain hypersensitivities. Microglial proliferation is partially controlled by purinergic and fractalkine signaling, as CX3CR1−/− and P2Y12−/− mice show reduced spinal microglial proliferation and neuropathic pain. These results suggest that local microglial proliferation is the sole source of spinal microgliosis, which represents a potential therapeutic target for neuropathic pain management.

  14. Neuroprotective effect of curcumin on spinal cord in rabbit model with ischemia/reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Xing, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Wei

    2013-03-01

    Ischemic/reperfusion (I/R) injury of the spinal cord is a serious complication that can result from thoracoabdominal aortic surgery. To investigate the neuroprotective effect of curcumin against I/R injury in a rabbit model. A total of 36 rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: sham, I/R, and curcumin-treated group. Rabbits were subject to 30-min aortic occlusion to induce transient spinal cord ischemia. Neurological function was observed after reperfusion and spinal cord segment (L3-L5) was collected for histopathological evaluation. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were also assayed. Rabbits in I/R group were induced to paraplegia. While after 48-hour treatment, compared with I/R group, curcumin significantly improved neurological function, reduced cell apoptosis and MDA levels as well as increased SOD activity (P curcumin, at least in an animal model, can attenuate transient spinal cord ischemic injury potentially via reducing oxidative damage, which may provide a novel approach in the treatment of spinal cord ischemic injury.

  15. CT diagnosis of acute spinal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohhama, Mitsuru; Niimiya, Hikosuke; Kimura, Ko; Yamazaki, Gyoji; Nasu, Yoshiro; Shioya, Akihide

    1982-01-01

    CT pictures of 22 acute spinal injuries with damage of the spinal cord were evaluated. In the cases of spinal cord damage with bone injury, changes in the vertebral canal were fully observed by CT. In some of spinal cord damages without bone injury, narrowing of the vertebral canal was demonstrated by CT combined with CT myelography and reconstruction. Evaluation of CT number showed a high density area in damaged spinal cord in some cases. CT was thus considered to be useful as an adjunct diagnostic aid. (Ueda, J.)

  16. Imaging in spine and spinal cord malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Andrea; Biancheri, Roberta; Cama, Armando; Piatelli, Gianluca; Ravegnani, Marcello; Tortori-Donati, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    Spinal and spinal cord malformations are collectively named spinal dysraphisms. They arise from defects occurring in the early embryological stages of gastrulation (weeks 2-3), primary neurulation (weeks 3-4), and secondary neurulation (weeks 5-6). Spinal dysraphisms are categorized into open spinal dysraphisms (OSDs), in which there is exposure of abnormal nervous tissues through a skin defect, and closed spinal dysraphisms (CSD), in which there is a continuous skin coverage to the underlying malformation. Open spinal dysraphisms basically include myelomeningocele and other rare abnormalities such as myelocele and hemimyelo(meningo)cele. Closed spinal dysraphisms are further categorized based on the association with low-back subcutaneous masses. Closed spinal dysraphisms with mass are represented by lipomyelocele, lipomyelomeningocele, meningocele, and myelocystocele. Closed spinal dysraphisms without mass comprise simple dysraphic states (tight filum terminale, filar and intradural lipomas, persistent terminal ventricle, and dermal sinuses) and complex dysraphic states. The latter category further comprises defects of midline notochordal integration (basically represented by diastematomyelia) and defects of segmental notochordal formation (represented by caudal agenesis and spinal segmental dysgenesis). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the preferred modality for imaging these complex abnormalities. The use of the aforementioned classification scheme is greatly helpful to make the diagnosis

  17. Spinal cord injury arising in anaesthesia practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewson, D W; Bedforth, N M; Hardman, J G

    2018-01-01

    Spinal cord injury arising during anaesthetic practice is a rare event, but one that carries a significant burden in terms of morbidity and mortality. In this article, we will review the pathophysiology of spinal cord injury. We will then discuss injuries relating to patient position, spinal cord hypoperfusion and neuraxial techniques. The most serious causes of spinal cord injury - vertebral canal haematoma, spinal epidural abscess, meningitis and adhesive arachnoiditis - will be discussed in turn. For each condition, we draw attention to practical, evidence-based measures clinicians can undertake to reduce their incidence, or mitigate their severity. Finally, we will discuss transient neurological symptoms. Some cases of spinal cord injury during anaesthesia can be ascribed to anaesthesia itself, arising as a direct consequence of its conduct. The injury to a spinal nerve root by inaccurate and/or incautious needling during spinal anaesthesia is an obvious example. But in many cases, spinal cord injury during anaesthesia is not caused by, related to, or even associated with, the conduct of the anaesthetic. Surgical factors, whether direct (e.g. spinal nerve root damage due to incorrect pedicle screw placement) or indirect (e.g. cord ischaemia following aortic surgery) are responsible for a significant proportion of spinal cord injuries that occur concurrently with the delivery of regional or general anaesthesia. © 2018 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  18. Spinal trauma. An imaging approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassar-Pullicino, V.N.; Imhof, H.

    2006-01-01

    The diagnosis of trauma to the spine - where the slightest oversight may have catastrophic results - requires a thorough grasp of the spectrum of resultant pathology as well as the imaging modalities used in making an accurate diagnosis. In Spinal Trauma, the internationally renowned team of experts provides a comprehensive, cutting-edge exposition of the current vital role of imaging in the diagnosis and treatment of injuries to the axial skeleton. Beginning with a valuable clinical perspective of spinal trauma, the book offers the reader a unique overview of the biomechanics underlying the pathology of cervical trauma. Acute trauma topics include: - Optimization of imaging modalities - Malalignment - signs and significance - Vertebral fractures - detection and implications - Classification of thoraco-lumbar fractures - rationale and relevance - Neurovascular injury. Distilling decades of clinical and teaching expertise, the contributors further discuss the current role of imaging in special focus topics, which include: - The pediatric spine - Sports injuries - The rigid spine - Trauma in the elderly - Vertebral collapse, benign and malignant - Spinal trauma therapy - Vertebral fractures and osteoporosis - Neuropathic spine. All throughout the book, the focus is on understanding the injury, and its implications and complications, through 'an imaging approach'. Lavishly illustrated with hundreds of superb MR images and CT scans, and clear full-color drawings, the authors conclude with a look into the future, defining clinical trends and research directions. Spinal Trauma - with its broad scope, practical imaging approach, and current focus - is designed to enhance confidence and accuracy, making it essential reading for clinicians and radiologists at all levels. (orig.)

  19. Spinal cord toxoplasmosis in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carteret, M.; Petit, E.; Granat, O.; Marichez, M.; Gilquin, J.

    1995-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is the most common brain parasitic infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Spinal cord localizations are still rare (2 cases with cerebral involvement, 2 cases without). A case of both spinal cord and cerebral involvement is reported. Magnetic resonance imaging (MR imaging) was performed because of sensory level (L 1). A focal conus medullaris enlargement was seen, iso intense on T 1 weighted images. This lesion was hyperintense on T 2 weighted sequence, and was homogeneously enhanced after Gadolinium on T 1 weighted images. A medullary oedema was noted. A toxoplasmosis treatment was initiated, without cortico therapy. MR imaging performed one month later (D 30), while important clinical improvements were seen, pointed out normal thickness of conus medullaris, without enhancement after Gadolinium. Disease lesions in AIDS with focal spinal cord processes are reviewed, and diagnostic work-up is discussed. Spinal cord single lesion, associated or not with brain involvements should be treated as a toxoplasmic infection, with MR imaging follow up. This work up should avoid medullary biopsy, still required in case of treatment failure. Cerebral involvements, with multiples lesions can mask medullary localization. (authors). 8 refs., 2 figs

  20. Spinal cord injury at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger-Gron, Jesper; Kock, Kirsten; Nielsen, Rasmus G

    2008-01-01

    UNLABELLED: A case of perinatally acquired spinal cord injury (SCI) is presented. The foetus was vigorous until birth, the breech presented and delivery was performed by a non-traumatic Caesarean section. The infant displayed symptoms of severe SCI but diagnosis was delayed due to severe co...

  1. Ultrasonic attenuation in superconducting zinc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auluck, S.

    1978-01-01

    The differences in the Zn ultrasonic attenuation data of different workers are analyzed. The superconducting energy gaps deduced from our analysis of the ultrasonic-attenuation data of Cleavelin and Marshall are consistent with the gaps deduced from the knowledge of the Fermi surface and the electron-phonon mass enhancement factor

  2. SPINAL CORD- A CADAVERIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayamma K. N

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Spinal cord is situated within the vertebral canal extending from the lower end of the medulla oblongata at the upper border of first cervical vertebra. In early foetal life, it extends throughout the length of the vertebral canal, and at the time of birth, it reaches the level of third lumbar vertebra. In adult, it ends at the lower border of first lumbar vertebra and thereafter continued as filum terminale, which gets attached to tip of coccyx. Spinal cord is covered by three protective membranes called spinal meninges, diameter, arachnoid and pia mater. The diameter and arachnoid mater extent up to second sacral vertebra and the pia mater forms filum terminale and extend at the tip of coccyx. MATERIALS AND METHODS Forty spinal cord cadaveric specimen were studied by dissection method after exposing the vertebral canal. The roots of spinal nerve were sectioned on both sides and the cord is released along with its coverings. The dura and arachnoid mater were incised longitudinally and the subarachnoid space, blood vessels, nerve roots, ligament denticulata, cervical and lumbar enlargements were observed. The blood vessels including radicular arteries were also studied photographed. RESULTS The spinal cord is a highly vascular structure situated within the vertebral canal, covered by diameter, arachnoid mater and pia mater. Spinal dura is thicker anteriorly than posteriorly. The pia mater forms linea splendens, which extend along the whole length of the cord in front of the anterior median fissure. The average length of the cord is 38 cm. The length and breadth of cervical enlargement was more compared to lumbar enlargement. The number of rootlets in both dorsal and ventral roots accounts more in cervical compared to other regions of the cord. The ligament denticulata is a thin transparent bands of pia mater attached on either sides of the cord between the dorsal and ventral roots of spinal nerves. The tooth like extensions are well

  3. Neuroimaging for spine and spinal cord surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koyanagi, Izumi [Hokkaido Neurosurgical Memorial Hospital (Japan); Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Hida, Kazutoshi

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroimaging of the spine and spinal cord are described based upon our clinical experiences with spinal disorders. Preoperative neuroradiological examinations, including magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and computerized tomography (CT) with three-dimensional reconstruction (3D-CT), were retrospectively analyzed in patients with cervical spondylosis or ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (130 cases), spinal trauma (43 cases) and intramedullary spinal cord tumors (92 cases). CT scan and 3D-CT were useful in elucidating the spine pathology associated with degenerative and traumatic spine diseases. Visualization of the deformity of the spine or fracture-dislocation of the spinal column with 3D-CT helped to determine the correct surgical treatment. MR imaging was most important in the diagnosis of both spine and spinal cord abnormalities. The axial MR images of the spinal cord were essential in understanding the laterality of the spinal cord compression in spinal column disorders and in determining surgical approaches to the intramedullary lesions. Although non-invasive diagnostic modalities such as MR imaging and CT scans are adequate for deciding which surgical treatment to use in the majority of spine and spinal cord disorders, conventional myelography is still needed in the diagnosis of nerve root compression in some cases of cervical spondylosis. (author)

  4. Comparisons of MR findings of the spinal metastasis and the spinal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Myung Sun; Lee, Kil Woo; Kang, Ik Won; Yun, Ku Sub; Choi, Chul Sun; Bae, Sang Hoon

    1994-01-01

    MR findings of the spinal metastasis and the tuberculosis are well known, but sometimes it might be difficult to differentiate these lesions. Therefore we reviewed and analyzed the MR findings which would be useful for the differentiation. T1- and T2- weighted spin echo images and gadolinium-enhanced T1- weighted images were obtained with 1.5 T and 1.0 T superconductive MR imager. We reviewed MR findings in 16 cases of spinal metastases and 24 cases of spinal tuberculosis in terms of signal intensity, contrast enhancement pattern, disc space involvement, spinal canal compressing feature and paraspinal soft tissue mass. The signal intensities of both lesions were hypointense on T1WI and hyperintense on T2WI except those of the metastatic lesions from the prostatic carcinoma. Heterogeneous enhancement was noted in 63% of metastasis, whereas peripheral rim enhancement was noted 83% of spinal tuberculosis(p < .001). Spinal canal compression by collapsed vertebra was only noted in spinal metastasis, and that by paraspinal soft tissue was noted in both spinal metastasis and tuberculosis(p<.001). Disc space invasion was noted in 19% of spinal metastasis and 88% of spinal tuberculosis. Spinal tuberculosis was common at lower thoracic spine(T10) and typically involved two or more adjacent vertebral bodies(96%). The important differential point between spinal metastasis and tuberculosis was the enhancement pattern, involvement of two or more contiguous vertebral bodies and the feature of spinal canal compressing. The secondary importance was the disc space involvement pattern

  5. Glial TNFα in the spinal cord regulates neuropathic pain induced by HIV gp120 application in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouyang Handong

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN is one of the most common forms of peripheral neuropathy, affecting about 30% of people with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS. The symptoms of HIV-SN are dominated by neuropathic pain. Glia activation in the spinal cord has become an attractive target for attenuating chronic pain. This study will investigate the role of spinal TNFα released from glia in HIV-related neuropathic pain. Results Peripheral gp120 application into the rat sciatic nerve induced mechanical allodynia for more than 7 weeks, and upregulated the expression of spinal TNFα in the mRNA and the protein levels at 2 weeks after gp120 application. Spinal TNFα was colocalized with GFAP (a marker of astrocytes and Iba1 (a marker of microglia in immunostaining, suggesting that glia produce TNFα in the spinal cord in this model. Peripheral gp120 application also increased TNFα in the L4/5 DRG. Furthermore, intrathecal administration of TNFα siRNA or soluble TNF receptor reduced gp120 application-induced mechanical allodynia. Conclusions Our results indicate that TNFα in the spinal cord and the DRG are involved in neuropathic pain, following the peripheral HIV gp120 application, and that blockade of the glial product TNFα reverses neuropathic pain induced by HIV gp120 application.

  6. Spinal tuberculoma in a patient with spinal myxopapillary ependymoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arora Brijesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramedullary spinal tuberculosis is a clinical curiosity. A 19-year-old female was diagnosed and treated for lumbosacral myxopapllary ependy moma (MPE. Three years later, she presented with back pain and hypoesthesia of the left upper limb. Besides revealing local recurrence, the MRI demonstrated a fresh lesion in the cervicomedullary area. The latter was operated and the histopathology revealed a tuberculoma.

  7. Non-contiguous spinal injury in cervical spinal trauma: evaluation with cervical spine MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Soo Jung; Shin, Myung Jin; Kim, Sung Moon; Bae, Sang Jin

    2004-01-01

    We wished to evaluate the incidence of non-contiguous spinal injury in the cervicothoracic junction (CTJ) or the upper thoracic spines on cervical spinal MR images in the patients with cervical spinal injuries. Seventy-five cervical spine MR imagings for acute cervical spinal injury were retrospectively reviewed (58 men and 17 women, mean age: 35.3, range: 18-81 years). They were divided into three groups based on the mechanism of injury; axial compression, hyperflexion or hyperextension injury, according to the findings on the MR and CT images. On cervical spine MR images, we evaluated the presence of non-contiguous spinal injury in the CTJ or upper thoracic spine with regard to the presence of marrow contusion or fracture, ligament injury, traumatic disc herniation and spinal cord injury. Twenty-one cases (28%) showed CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injuries (C7-T5) on cervical spinal MR images that were separated from the cervical spinal injuries. Seven of 21 cases revealed overt fractures in the CTJs or upper thoracic spines. Ligament injury in these regions was found in three cases. Traumatic disc herniation and spinal cord injury in these regions were shown in one and two cases, respectively. The incidence of the non-contiguous spinal injuries in CTJ or upper thoracic spines was higher in the axial compression injury group (35.5%) than in the hyperflexion injury group (26.9%) or the hyperextension (25%) injury group. However, there was no statistical significance (ρ > 0.05). Cervical spinal MR revealed non-contiguous CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injuries in 28% of the patients with cervical spinal injury. The mechanism of cervical spinal injury did not significantly affect the incidence of the non-contiguous CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injury

  8. Non-contiguous spinal injury in cervical spinal trauma: evaluation with cervical spine MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Soo Jung; Shin, Myung Jin; Kim, Sung Moon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sang Jin [Sanggyepaik Hospital, Inje University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-15

    We wished to evaluate the incidence of non-contiguous spinal injury in the cervicothoracic junction (CTJ) or the upper thoracic spines on cervical spinal MR images in the patients with cervical spinal injuries. Seventy-five cervical spine MR imagings for acute cervical spinal injury were retrospectively reviewed (58 men and 17 women, mean age: 35.3, range: 18-81 years). They were divided into three groups based on the mechanism of injury; axial compression, hyperflexion or hyperextension injury, according to the findings on the MR and CT images. On cervical spine MR images, we evaluated the presence of non-contiguous spinal injury in the CTJ or upper thoracic spine with regard to the presence of marrow contusion or fracture, ligament injury, traumatic disc herniation and spinal cord injury. Twenty-one cases (28%) showed CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injuries (C7-T5) on cervical spinal MR images that were separated from the cervical spinal injuries. Seven of 21 cases revealed overt fractures in the CTJs or upper thoracic spines. Ligament injury in these regions was found in three cases. Traumatic disc herniation and spinal cord injury in these regions were shown in one and two cases, respectively. The incidence of the non-contiguous spinal injuries in CTJ or upper thoracic spines was higher in the axial compression injury group (35.5%) than in the hyperflexion injury group (26.9%) or the hyperextension (25%) injury group. However, there was no statistical significance ({rho} > 0.05). Cervical spinal MR revealed non-contiguous CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injuries in 28% of the patients with cervical spinal injury. The mechanism of cervical spinal injury did not significantly affect the incidence of the non-contiguous CTJ or upper thoracic spinal injury.

  9. Spinal anesthesia: the Holy Grail?

    OpenAIRE

    Voet, Marieke; Slagt, Cornelis

    2017-01-01

    Marieke Voet, Cornelis SlagtDepartment of Anesthesiology, Pain and Palliative Care, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The NetherlandsAfter reading the paper recently published in Local and Regional Anesthesia by Whitaker et al:1 “Spinal anesthesia after intraoperative cardiac arrest during general anesthesia in an infant,” we would like to share our thoughts. In a recently published paper by Habre et al,2 the incidence of severe critical events in pediatric anes...

  10. Spinal trauma. An imaging approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassar-Pullicino, V.N. [The Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry, Shropshire (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology; Imhof, H. [University and General Hospital Vienna (Austria). Dept. of Radiodiagnostics

    2006-07-01

    The diagnosis of trauma to the spine - where the slightest oversight may have catastrophic results - requires a thorough grasp of the spectrum of resultant pathology as well as the imaging modalities used in making an accurate diagnosis. In Spinal Trauma, the internationally renowned team of experts provides a comprehensive, cutting-edge exposition of the current vital role of imaging in the diagnosis and treatment of injuries to the axial skeleton. Beginning with a valuable clinical perspective of spinal trauma, the book offers the reader a unique overview of the biomechanics underlying the pathology of cervical trauma. Acute trauma topics include: - Optimization of imaging modalities - Malalignment - signs and significance - Vertebral fractures - detection and implications - Classification of thoraco-lumbar fractures - rationale and relevance - Neurovascular injury. Distilling decades of clinical and teaching expertise, the contributors further discuss the current role of imaging in special focus topics, which include: - The pediatric spine - Sports injuries - The rigid spine - Trauma in the elderly - Vertebral collapse, benign and malignant - Spinal trauma therapy - Vertebral fractures and osteoporosis - Neuropathic spine. All throughout the book, the focus is on understanding the injury, and its implications and complications, through 'an imaging approach'. Lavishly illustrated with hundreds of superb MR images and CT scans, and clear full-color drawings, the authors conclude with a look into the future, defining clinical trends and research directions. Spinal Trauma - with its broad scope, practical imaging approach, and current focus - is designed to enhance confidence and accuracy, making it essential reading for clinicians and radiologists at all levels. (orig.)

  11. Ghrelin administered spinally increases the blood glucose level in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Su; Kim, Chea-Ha; Kim, Su-Jin; Lim, Su-Min; Jung, Jun-Sub; Suh, Hong-Won

    2014-04-01

    Ghrelin is known as a regulator of the blood glucose homeostasis and food intake. In the present study, the possible roles of ghrelin located in the spinal cord in the regulation of the blood glucose level were investigated in ICR mice. We found that intrathecal (i.t.) injection with ghrelin (from 1 to 10 μg) caused an elevation of the blood glucose level. In addition, i.t. pretreatment with YIL781 (ghrelin receptor antagonist; from 0.1 to 5 μg) markedly attenuated ghrelin-induced hyperglycemic effect. The plasma insulin level was increased by ghrelin. The enhanced plasma insulin level by ghrelin was reduced by i.t. pretreatment with YIL781. However, i.t. pretreatment with glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1; 5 μg) did not affect the ghrelin-induced hyperglycemia. Furthermore, i.t. administration with ghrelin also elevated the blood glucose level, but in an additive manner, in d-glucose-fed model. Our results suggest that the activation of ghrelin receptors located in the spinal cord plays important roles for the elevation of the blood glucose level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Nabina Shah; Binav Shrestha; Kamana Subba

    2013-01-01

    Spinal cord injury is a major trauma, with its short and long term effects and consequences to the patient, his friends and family. Spinal cord injury is addressed in the developed countries with standard trauma care system commencing immediately after injury and continuing to the specialized rehabilitation units. Rehabilitation is important to those with spinal injury for both functional and psychosocial reintegration. It has been an emerging concept in Nepal, which has been evident with the...

  13. Mobile myelographic filling defects: Spinal cysticercosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savoiardo, M.; Cimino, C.; Passerini, A.; La Mantia, L.

    1986-03-01

    Cysticercosis usually affects the brain and is easily demonstrated by CT. Spinal cysticercosis is much rarer and is usually diagnosed only at surgery. Myelographic demonstration of multiple rounded filling defects, some of which were mobile, allowed diagnosis of spinal extramedullary cysticercosis in an unsuspected case. The literature on spinal cysticercosis is briefly reviewed. Diagnosis is important in view of the recent development of medical treatment.

  14. MRI in diagnosis of spinal cord diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Naotoshi; Ono, Yuko; Kakinoki, Yoshio; Kimura, Humiko; Ebihara, Reiko; Nagayama, Takashi; Okada, Takaharu; Watanabe, Hiromi

    1985-01-01

    64 MRI studies of 57 cases of spinal cord diseases were reviewed, and following results were obtained. (1) MRI is usefull for screening method of spinal cord diseases, as CT in cerebral diseases. (2) MRI might replaces myelography in most of spinal cord disease, and more reliable informations might be obtained by MRI than in myelography in some cases, but (3) in detection of small organic changes, some technological problems are layed regarding to the image resolution of MRI. (author)

  15. Spinal cord injury drives chronic brain changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Jure

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Only a few studies have considered changes in brain structures other than sensory and motor cortex after spinal cord injury, although cognitive impairments have been reported in these patients. Spinal cord injury results in chronic brain neuroinflammation with consequent neurodegeneration and cognitive decline in rodents. Regarding the hippocampus, neurogenesis is reduced and reactive gliosis increased. These long-term abnormalities could explain behavioral impairments exhibited in humans patients suffering from spinal cord trauma.

  16. Spinal Gap Junction Channels in Neuropathic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Jeon, Young Hoon; Youn, Dong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Damage to peripheral nerves or the spinal cord is often accompanied by neuropathic pain, which is a complex, chronic pain state. Increasing evidence indicates that alterations in the expression and activity of gap junction channels in the spinal cord are involved in the development of neuropathic pain. Thus, this review briefly summarizes evidence that regulation of the expression, coupling, and activity of spinal gap junction channels modulates pain signals in neuropathic pain states induced...

  17. Contrast enhanced CT of spinal cord angioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takahiko; Ebitani, Tsutomu; Honma, Takao; Sofue, Muroto; Nakamura, Shigeru

    1982-01-01

    Contrast enhanced CT on 6 patients with spinal cord angioma showed enhancement in 2 of them. The conditions to produce contrast enhancement were the window width of 100 - 200, and the window level of 0 - 50. In spinal cord angioma, contrast enhanced CT is presently only an adjunct to angiography and myelography. Nevertheless, contrast enhanced CT is useful in the screening test for spinal cord angioma, in the patients who are nonindicated to angiography, and in the postoperative follow-up. (Ueda, J.)

  18. Drug-resistant spinal tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K Jain

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-resistant spinal tuberculosis (TB is an emerging health problem in both developing and developed countries. In this review article, we aim to define management protocols for suspicion, diagnosis, and treatment of such patients. Spinal TB is a deep-seated paucibacillary lesion, and the demonstration of acid-fast bacilli on Ziehl-Neelsen staining is possible only in 10%–30% of cases. Drug resistance is suspected in patients showing the failure of clinicoradiological improvement or appearance of a fresh lesion of osteoarticular TB while on anti tubercular therapy (ATT for a minimum period of 5 months. The conventional culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains the gold standard for both bacteriological diagnosis and drug sensitivity testing (DST; however, the high turn around time of 2–6 weeks for detection with added 3 weeks for DST is a major limitation. To overcome this problem, rapid culture methods and molecular methods have been introduced. From a public health perspective, reducing the period between diagnosis and treatment initiation has direct benefits for both the patient and the community. For all patients of drug-resistant spinal TB, a complete Drug-O-Gram should be prepared which includes details of all drugs, their doses, and duration. Patients with confirmed multidrug-resistant TB strains should receive a regimen with at least five effective drugs, including pyrazinamide and one injectable. Patients with resistance to additional antitubercular drugs should receive individualized ATT as per their DST results.

  19. Involvement of spinal glutamate transporter-1 in the development of mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia associated with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi J

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Jinshan Shi,1,* Ke Jiang,2,* Zhaoduan Li,3 1Department of Anesthesiology, Guizhou Provincial People’s Hospital, 2Department of Anesthesiology, The Affiliated Hospital of Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, 3Department of Anesthesiology, Tianjin Nankai Hospital, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Little is known about the effects of the development of type 2 diabetes on glutamate homeostasis in the spinal cord. Therefore, we quantified the extracellular levels of glutamate in the spinal cord of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats using in vivo microdialysis. In addition, protein levels of glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1 in the spinal cord of ZDF rats were measured using Western blot. Finally, the effects of repeated intrathecal injections of ceftriaxone, which was previously shown to enhance GLT-1 expression, on the development of mechanical allodynia and hyperalgesia as well as on basal extracellular level of glutamate and the expression of GLT-1 in the spinal cord of ZDF rats were evaluated. It was found that ZDF rats developed mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia, which were associated with increased basal extracellular levels of glutamate and attenuated levels of GLT-1 expression in the spinal cord, particularly in the dorsal horn. Furthermore, repeated intrathecal administrations of ceftriaxone dose-dependently prevented the development of mechanical hyperalgesia and allodynia in ZDF rats, which were correlated with enhanced GLT-1 expression without altering the basal glutamate levels in the spinal cord of ZDF rats. Overall, the results suggested that impaired glutamate reuptake in the spinal cord may contribute to the development of neuropathic pains in type 2 diabetes. Keywords: diabetes, peripheral neuropathy, spinal cord, Zucker diabetic fatty rats, glutamate, glutamate transporter-1

  20. Trans-spinal direct current stimulation for the modulation of the lumbar spinal motor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuck, Alexander

    2018-01-01

    Trans-spinal Direct Current Stimulation (tsDCS) is a noninvasive neuromodulatory tool for the modulation of the spinal neurocircuitry. Initial studies have shown that tsDCS is able to induce a significant and lasting change in spinal-reflex- and corticospinal information processing. It is therefore

  1. Spinal epidural hematomas examined on MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rejnowski, G.; Poniatowska, R.; Kozlowski, P.

    1995-01-01

    Spinal epidural hematomas are rare pathology, caused by trauma or spontaneous. In clinical examination acute spinal cord compression is observed. MRI designations appear entirely particular. In sagittal projection, biconvex mass in the dorsal, or sometimes ventral part of the spinal canal is clearly visible. This is well delineated by the thecal sac from the cord and cauda equina. MRI investigations in 3 patients revealed corresponding with spinal bone injuries and cord edema epidural hematomas. Differential diagnosis must contain subdural hematoma and epidural neoplasms or abscess. (author)

  2. Distribution of elements in human spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yukawa, Masae; Kobayashi, T.; Qiu, Y.; Kameda, N.; Ito, Y.; Otomo, E.

    1992-01-01

    The distribution of elements in human spinal cord was investigated on unfixed frozen cord material using PIXE technique. Distribution of Cu, Zn and Fe were not uniform in the cross section of the spinal cord and concentrations of these elements were higher in the anterior gray horn than in the other areas, while K and Cl distributed uniformly. The content of K changed along the spinal cord from the cervical to the lumbar level. These findings are discussed in relation to current understanding of the physiology of the spinal cord. (author)

  3. Axon-somatic back-propagation in detailed models of spinal alpha motoneurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro eBalbi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Antidromic action potentials following distal stimulation of motor axons occasionally fail to invade the soma of alpha motoneurons in spinal cord, due to their passing through regions of high non-uniformity.Morphologically detailed conductance-based models of cat spinal alpha motoneurons have been developed, with the aim to reproduce and clarify some aspects of the electrophysiological behavior of the antidromic axon-somatic spike propagation. Fourteen 3D morphologically detailed somata and dendrites of cat spinal alpha motoneurons have been imported from an open-access web-based database of neuronal morphologies, NeuroMorpho.org, and instantiated in neurocomputational models. An axon hillock, an axonal initial segment and a myelinated axon are added to each model.By sweeping the diameter of the axonal initial segment (AIS and the axon hillock, as well as the maximal conductances of sodium channels at the AIS and at the soma, the developed models are able to show the relationships between different geometric and electrophysiological configurations and the voltage attenuation of the antidromically travelling wave.In particular, a greater than usually admitted sodium conductance at AIS is necessary and sufficient to overcome the dramatic voltage attenuation occurring during antidromic spike propagation both at the myelinated axon-AIS and at the AIS-soma transitions.

  4. Cervical spinal cord injury without radiological abnormality in adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatoe H

    2000-01-01

    Spinal cord injury occurring without concomitant radiologically demonstrable trauma to the skeletal elements of the spinal canal rim, or compromise of the spinal canal rim without fracture, is a rare event. Though documented in children, the injury is not very well reported in adults. We present seventeen adult patients with spinal cord injury without accompanying fracture of the spinal canal rim, or vertebral dislocation, seen over seven years. None had preexisting spinal canal stenosis or c...

  5. Drug distribution in spinal cord during administration with spinal loop dialysis probes in anaesthetized rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uustalu, Maria; Abelson, Klas S P

    2007-01-01

    The present investigation aimed to study two methodological concerns of an experimental model, where a spinal loop dialysis probe is used for administration of substances to the spinal cord and sampling of neurotransmitters by microdialysis from the same area of anaesthetized rats. [(3)H]Epibatid......The present investigation aimed to study two methodological concerns of an experimental model, where a spinal loop dialysis probe is used for administration of substances to the spinal cord and sampling of neurotransmitters by microdialysis from the same area of anaesthetized rats. [(3)H...... intraspinal administration of substances through the spinal loop dialysis probe....

  6. Hyperacute spinal subdural haematoma as a complication of lumbar spinal anaesthesia: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedraza Gutierrez, S.; Suescun, M.; Rovira Canellas, A.; Coll Masfarre, S.; Castano Duque, C.H.

    1999-01-01

    We report two cases of hyperacute spinal subdural haematoma secondary to lumbar spinal anaesthesia, identified with MRI. Prompt diagnosis of this infrequent, potentially serious complication of spinal anaesthesia is essential, as early surgical evacuation may be needed. Suggestive MRI findings in this early phase include diffuse occupation filling of the spinal canal with poor delineation of the spinal cord on T1-weighted images, and a poorly-defined high-signal lesion with a low-signal rim on T2-weighted images. (orig.)

  7. The Neuroprotective Effect of Puerarin in Acute Spinal Cord Injury Rats

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    Dapeng Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute spinal cord injury (SCI leads to permanent disabilities. This study evaluated the neuroprotective effect of puerarin, a natural extract, in a rat model of SCI. Methods: Acute SCI models were established in rats using a modified Allen's method. Locomotor function was evaluated using the BBB test. The histological changes in the spinal cord were observed by H&E staining. Neuron survival and glial cells activation were evaluated by immunostaining. ELISA and realtime PCR were used to measure secretion and gene expression of cytokines. TUNEL staining was used to examine cell apoptosis and western blot analysis was used to detect protein expression. Results: Puerarin significantly increased BBB score in SCI rats, attenuated histological injury of spinal cord, decreased neuron loss, inhibited glial cells activation, alleviated inflammation, and inhibited cell apoptosis in the injured spinal cords. In addition, the downregulated PI3K and phospho-Akt protein expression were restored by puerarin. Conclusion: Puerarin accelerated locomotor function recovery and tissue repair of SCI rats, which is associated with its neuroprotection, glial cell activation suppression, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis effects. These effects may be associated with the activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  8. Hydroxysafflor Yellow A protects spinal cords from ischemia/reperfusion injury in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Le-qun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydroxysafflor Yellow A (HSYA, which is one of the most important active ingredients of the Chinese herb Carthamus tinctorius L, is widely used in the treatment of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases. However, the potential protective effect of HSYA in spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury is still unknown. Methods Thirty-nine rabbits were randomly divided into three groups: sham group, I/R group and HSYA group. All animals were sacrificed after neurological evaluation with modified Tarlov criteria at the 48th hour after reperfusion, and the spinal cord segments (L4-6 were harvested for histopathological examination, biochemical analysis and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL staining. Results Neurological outcomes in HSYA group were slightly improved compared with those in I/R group. Histopathological analysis revealed that HSYA treatment attenuated I/R induced necrosis in spinal cords. Similarly, alleviated oxidative stress was indicated by decreased malondialdehyde (MDA level and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD activity after HSYA treatment. Moreover, as seen from TUNEL results, HSYA also protected neurons from I/R-induced apoptosis in rabbits. Conclusions These findings suggest that HSYA may protect spinal cords from I/R injury by alleviating oxidative stress and reducing neuronal apoptosis in rabbits.

  9. Attenuation in Superconducting Circular Waveguides

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    K. H. Yeap

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis on wave propagation in superconducting circular waveguides. In order to account for the presence of quasiparticles in the intragap states of a superconductor, we employ the characteristic equation derived from the extended Mattis-Bardeen theory to compute the values of the complex conductivity. To calculate the attenuation in a circular waveguide, the tangential fields at the boundary of the wall are first matched with the electrical properties (which includes the complex conductivity of the wall material. The matching of fields with the electrical properties results in a set of transcendental equations which is able to accurately describe the propagation constant of the fields. Our results show that although the attenuation in the superconducting waveguide above cutoff (but below the gap frequency is finite, it is considerably lower than that in a normal waveguide. Above the gap frequency, however, the attenuation in the superconducting waveguide increases sharply. The attenuation eventually surpasses that in a normal waveguide. As frequency increases above the gap frequency, Cooper pairs break into quasiparticles. Hence, we attribute the sharp rise in attenuation to the increase in random collision of the quasiparticles with the lattice structure.

  10. Metastatic spinal epidural leiomyoma: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Yoo Na; Kim, Yong Woo; Park, Yeong Mi; Cha, Seong Sook; Bae, Jae Ik; Eun, Choong Ki; Lee, Seon Joo; Lee, Gyung Kyu

    2006-01-01

    We report here on a case of a spinal extradural leiomyoma in a 67-year-old woman, and this tumor was in a very unusual location for a leiomyoma. Because the patient underwent hysterectomy for a uterine leiomyoma 20 years ago, we can speculate that the spinal lesion was a metastatic leiomyoma

  11. Metastatic spinal epidural leiomyoma: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Yoo Na; Kim, Yong Woo; Park, Yeong Mi; Cha, Seong Sook; Bae, Jae Ik; Eun, Choong Ki [College of Medicine, Inje University, Sangye Paik Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seon Joo [College of Medicine, Inje University, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gyung Kyu [College of Medicine, Hallym University, Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-11-15

    We report here on a case of a spinal extradural leiomyoma in a 67-year-old woman, and this tumor was in a very unusual location for a leiomyoma. Because the patient underwent hysterectomy for a uterine leiomyoma 20 years ago, we can speculate that the spinal lesion was a metastatic leiomyoma.

  12. Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabina Shah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury is a major trauma, with its short and long term effects and consequences to the patient, his friends and family. Spinal cord injury is addressed in the developed countries with standard trauma care system commencing immediately after injury and continuing to the specialized rehabilitation units. Rehabilitation is important to those with spinal injury for both functional and psychosocial reintegration. It has been an emerging concept in Nepal, which has been evident with the establishment of the various hospitals with rehabilitation units, rehabilitation centres and physical therapy units in different institutions. However, the spinal cord injury rehabilitation setting and scenario is different in Nepal from those in the developed countries since spinal cord injury rehabilitation care has not been adequately incorporated into the health care delivery system nor its importance has been realized within the medical community of Nepal. To name few, lack of human resource for the rehabilitation care, awareness among the medical personnel and general population, adequate scientific research evidence regarding situation of spinal injury and exorbitant health care policy are the important hurdles that has led to the current situation. Hence, it is our responsibility to address these apparent barriers to successful implementation and functioning of rehabilitation so that those with spinal injury would benefit from enhanced quality of life. Keywords: rehabilitation; spinal injury.

  13. Remote cerebellar hemorrhage after lumbar spinal surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cevik, Belma; Kirbas, Ismail; Cakir, Banu; Akin, Kayihan; Teksam, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Background: Postoperative remote cerebellar hemorrhage (RCH) as a complication of lumbar spinal surgery is an increasingly recognized clinical entity. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of RCH after lumbar spinal surgery and to describe diagnostic imaging findings of RCH. Methods: Between October 1996 and March 2007, 2444 patients who had undergone lumbar spinal surgery were included in the study. Thirty-seven of 2444 patients were scanned by CT or MRI due to neurologic symptoms within the first 7 days of postoperative period. The data of all the patients were studied with regard to the following variables: incidence of RCH after lumbar spinal surgery, gender and age, coagulation parameters, history of previous arterial hypertension, and position of lumbar spinal surgery. Results: The retrospective study led to the identification of two patients who had RCH after lumbar spinal surgery. Of 37 patients who had neurologic symptoms, 29 patients were women and 8 patients were men. CT and MRI showed subarachnoid hemorrhage in the folia of bilateral cerebellar hemispheres in both patients with RCH. The incidence of RCH was 0.08% among patients who underwent lumbar spinal surgery. Conclusion: RCH is a rare complication of lumbar spinal surgery, self-limiting phenomenon that should not be mistaken for more ominous pathologic findings such as hemorrhagic infarction. This type of bleeding is thought to occur secondary to venous infarction, but the exact pathogenetic mechanism is unknown. CT or MRI allowed immediate diagnosis of this complication and guided conservative management.

  14. A clinical perspective of spinal cord injury.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nandoe Tewarie, R.D.S.; Hurtado, A.; Bartels, R.H.M.A.; Grotenhuis, J.A.; Oudega, M.

    2010-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in loss of nervous tissue in the spinal cord and consequently loss of motor and sensory function. The impairments are permanent because endogenous repair events fail to restore the damaged axonal circuits that are involved in function. There is no treatment available

  15. Serotonergic modulation of spinal motor control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrier, Jean-Francois Marie; Cotel, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is a monoamine that powerfully modulates spinal motor control by acting on intrasynaptic and extrasynaptic receptors. Here we review the diversity of 5-HT actions on locomotor and motoneuronal activities. Two approaches have been used on in vitro spinal cord preparations: either...

  16. Twiddler's syndrome in spinal cord stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mahfoudh, Rafid; Chan, Yuen; Chong, Hsu Pheen; Farah, Jibril Osman

    2016-01-01

    The aims are to present a case series of Twiddler's syndrome in spinal cord stimulators with analysis of the possible mechanism of this syndrome and discuss how this phenomenon can be prevented. Data were collected retrospectively between 2007 and 2013 for all patients presenting with failure of spinal cord stimulators. The diagnostic criterion for Twiddler's syndrome is radiological evidence of twisting of wires in the presence of failure of spinal cord stimulation. Our unit implants on average 110 spinal cord stimulators a year. Over the 5-year study period, all consecutive cases of spinal cord stimulation failure were studied. Three patients with Twiddler's syndrome were identified. Presentation ranged from 4 to 228 weeks after implantation. Imaging revealed repeated rotations and twisting of the wires of the spinal cord stimulators leading to hardware failure. To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported series of Twiddler's syndrome with implantable pulse generators (IPGs) for spinal cord stimulation. Hardware failure is not uncommon in spinal cord stimulation. Awareness and identification of Twiddler's syndrome may help prevent its occurrence and further revisions. This may be achieved by implanting the IPG in the lumbar region subcutaneously above the belt line. Psychological intervention may have a preventative role for those who are deemed at high risk of Twiddler's syndrome from initial psychological screening.

  17. Therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fogaça Cristante

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the literature concerning possible therapeutic approaches for spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury is a disabling and irreversible condition that has high economic and social costs. There are both primary and secondary mechanisms of damage to the spinal cord. The primary lesion is the mechanical injury itself. The secondary lesion results from one or more biochemical and cellular processes that are triggered by the primary lesion. The frustration of health professionals in treating a severe spinal cord injury was described in 1700 BC in an Egyptian surgical papyrus that was translated by Edwin Smith; the papyrus reported spinal fractures as a ''disease that should not be treated.'' Over the last biological or pharmacological treatment method. Science is unraveling the mechanisms of cell protection and neuroregeneration, but clinically, we only provide supportive care for patients with spinal cord injuries. By combining these treatments, researchers attempt to enhance the functional recovery of patients with spinal cord injuries. Advances in the last decade have allowed us to encourage the development of experimental studies in the field of spinal cord regeneration. The combination of several therapeutic strategies should, at minimum, allow for partial functional recoveries for these patients, which could improve their quality of life.

  18. Complement elevation in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebhun, J; Botvin, J

    1980-05-01

    Laboratory studies revealed an elevated complement in 66% of patients with spinal cord injury. It is postulated that the activated complement may be a component of self-feeding immunological mechanism responsible for the failure of regeneration of a mature mammalian spinal cord. There was no evidence that such an injury had any effect on pre-existing atopy.

  19. FUNCTIONAL PATHOLOGY OF LUMBAR SPINAL STENOSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PENNING, L

    This paper deals with the effect of motion upon the stenotic lumbar spinal canal and its contents. A review is presented of personal investigations and relevant data from the literature. The normal spinal canal and its lateral recesses are naturally narrowed by retroflexion and/or axial loading, as

  20. Risk factors in iatrogenic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalva-Iborra, A; Alcanyis-Alberola, M; Grao-Castellote, C; Torralba-Collados, F; Giner-Pascual, M

    2017-09-01

    In the last years, there has been a change in the aetiology of spinal cord injury. There has been an increase in the number of elderly patients with spinal cord injuries caused by diseases or medical procedures. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency of the occurrence of iatrogenic spinal cord injury in our unit. The secondary aim is to study what variables can be associated with a higher risk of iatrogenesis. A retrospective, descriptive, observational study of patients with acute spinal cord injury admitted from June 2009 to May 2014 was conducted. The information collected included the patient age, aetiology, neurological level and grade of injury when admitted and when discharged, cardiovascular risk factors, a previous history of depression and any prior treatment with anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs. We applied a logistic regression. The grade of statistical significance was established as Pinjury was the thoracic level (48%). The main aetiology of spinal cord injury caused by iatrogenesis was surgery for degenerative spine disease, in patients under the age of 30 were treated with intrathecal chemotherapy. Iatrogenic spinal cord injury is a frequent complication. A statistically significant association between a patient history of depression and iatrogenic spinal cord injury was found as well as with anticoagulant and antiplatelet drug use prior to iatrogenic spinal cord injury.

  1. Polymeric implant of methylprednisolone for spinal injury ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polymeric implant of methylprednisolone for spinal injury: preparation and characterization. Bo Yin, Jian-Jun Ji, Ming Yang. Abstract. Purpose: To improve the effectiveness and reduce the systemic side effects of methylprednisolone in traumatic spinal injuries, its polymeric implants were prepared using chitosan and sodium ...

  2. Chronic subdural haematoma complicating spinal anaesthesia: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subdural haematoma is a rare but serious complication of dural puncture. We report a case of chronic subdural haematoma, which occurred following spinal anaesthesia for elective caesarean section. A 34-year-old multiparous woman presented with a post-dural puncture headache (PDPH) following spinal anaesthesia.

  3. Acute hyperventilation leading to hypocalcaemia during spinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most common cause of hypocalcaemia under general anaesthesia is acute mechanical hyperventilation, but hypocalcaemia during spinal anaesthesia has not been reported. This case report describes the development of hypocalcaemia due to hyperventilation in a patient undergoing appendicectomy under spinal ...

  4. Curcumin attenuates the expression of NMDAR-NR1 in Chronic Constructive Injury model of neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangdi Yu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Neuropathic pain is a prevalent desease that greatly impairs the patients’ quality of life. A lack of the understanding of its aetiology, inadequate relief, and development of tolerance and potential toxicity of classical antinociceptives warrant the investigation of the newer agents to relieve this pain. The aim of the present study was to explore the antinociceptic effect of curcumin and its effect on expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor in spinal dorsal horn and dorsal root ganglion in chronic constriction injury (CCI mode of neuropathic pain of rats. Methods: Paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT and paw withdrawal thermal latency (PWTL of rats were measured on 2th pre-operative and 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14 post-operative days, and the expression of NMDAR NR-1 in spinal dorsal horn and DRG was measured by Immunohistochemical staining and western-blot. Results: CCI rats exhibited significant hyperalgesia after operation as compared with control rats. Chronic treatment with curcumin 100mg/kg/day for 14days starting from the 1 th day after CCI operation significantly attenuated PWMT and PWTL. Curcumin also inhibited the expression of NMDAR NR-1 in spinal dorsal horn and DRG. Conclusion: These results indicate an antinociceptive activity of curcumin possibly through its inhibitory action on expression of NMDAR NR-1 in spinal dorsal horn and DRG and point towards its potential to attenuate neuropathic pain.

  5. Fixed cord in spinal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, L.M.; Wang, H.; Francomano, C.; Hurko, O.; Carson, B.; Heffez, D.S.; DiChiro, G.; Bryan, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates patients with cervical spinal canal compromise due to congenital anomalies (achondroplasia, Chiari malformation) and degenerative diseases using MR cord motion and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow studies. Pulsatile longitudinal motion of the cervical cord was determined by means of cardiac-gated velocity phase contrast methods, including cine. Pathology included dwarfism (n = 15), Chiari malformation (n = 10), spondylosis (n = 10), and acute cord compression (n = 9). Symptomatic cases of congenital cervical stenosis had decreased cord motion, although CSF flow was not always significantly compromised. Postoperative cases demonstrated good cord and CSF motion, unless compression or obstruction was present

  6. Spinal hyperostosis in comparative pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagier, R.

    1989-01-01

    Spinal hyperostosis, an anatomical and radiological concept primarily described in man, is characterized by enthesopathic bony overgrowth on vertebral bodies in the form of spurs or intervertebral bridges. It can also be part of a more diffuse enthesopathic condition, including the appendicular skeleton. These changes are distinct from those of osteoarthrosis. Similar changes can be observed in all kinds of mammals, independent of their type of locomotion (bipodic, quadrumanous, quadrupedic, or aquatic). An anatomical and radiological study is presented of six cases (with histological examination of two dogs and one horse, and observation of macerated specimens of one horse, one equida, and one whale). (orig./GDG)

  7. Oriental Medical Treatment of Lumbar Spinal Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Yeon Lee

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Lumbar spinal stenosis results from the progressive combined narrowing of the central spinal canal, the neurorecesses, and the neuroforaminal canals. In the absence of prior surgery, tumor, or infection, the spinal canal may become narrowed by bulging or protrusion of the intervertebral disc annulus, herniation of the nucleus pulposis posteriorly, thickening of the posterior longitudinal ligament, hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum, epidural fat deposition, spondylosis of the intervertebral disc margins, or a combination of two or more of the above factors. Patients with spinal stenosis become symptomatic when pain, motor weakness, paresthesia, or other neurologic compromise causes distress. In one case, we administrated oriental medical treatment with acupuncture treatment and herb-medicine. Oriental medical treatment showed desirable effect on lumbar spinal stenosis.

  8. Contiguous spinal metastasis mimicking infectious spondylodiscitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chul Min; Lee, Seung Hun; Bae, Ji Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Differential diagnosis between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis is one of the occasional challenges in daily clinical practice. We encountered an unusual case of spinal metastasis in a 75-year-old female breast cancer patient that mimicked infectious spondylodiscitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse bone marrow infiltrations with paraspinal soft tissue infiltrative changes in 5 contiguous cervical vertebrae without significant compression fracture or cortical destruction. These MRI findings made it difficult to differentiate between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis. Infectious spondylodiscitis such as tuberculous spondylodiscitis was regarded as the more appropriate diagnosis due to the continuous involvement of > 5 cervical vertebrae. The patient's clinical presentation also supported the presumptive diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis rather than spinal metastasis. Intravenous antibiotics were administered, but clinical symptoms worsened despite treatment. After pathologic confirmation by computed tomography-guided biopsy, we were able to confirm a final diagnosis of spinal metastasis

  9. Contiguous spinal metastasis mimicking infectious spondylodiscitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chul Min; Lee, Seung Hun [Dept. of Radiology, Hanyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Ji Yoon [Dept. of Pathology, National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Differential diagnosis between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis is one of the occasional challenges in daily clinical practice. We encountered an unusual case of spinal metastasis in a 75-year-old female breast cancer patient that mimicked infectious spondylodiscitis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse bone marrow infiltrations with paraspinal soft tissue infiltrative changes in 5 contiguous cervical vertebrae without significant compression fracture or cortical destruction. These MRI findings made it difficult to differentiate between spinal metastasis and infectious spondylodiscitis. Infectious spondylodiscitis such as tuberculous spondylodiscitis was regarded as the more appropriate diagnosis due to the continuous involvement of > 5 cervical vertebrae. The patient's clinical presentation also supported the presumptive diagnosis of infectious spondylodiscitis rather than spinal metastasis. Intravenous antibiotics were administered, but clinical symptoms worsened despite treatment. After pathologic confirmation by computed tomography-guided biopsy, we were able to confirm a final diagnosis of spinal metastasis.

  10. M.R. imaging of spinal disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akino, Minoru; Isu, Toyohiko; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Abe, Hiroshi; Abe, Satoru; Miyasaka, Kazuo; Nomura, Mikio; Saito, Hisatoshi.

    1987-01-01

    In many papers about the M.R. imaging of spinal disorders, almost all the diagnoses have been carried out using only the sagittal image. However, we ourselves have thus for diagnosed about 500 cases of spinal disorders using the resistive type of MRI (0.15 T). On the basis of our experience, we have established two main principles as regards the MRI diagnosis of spinal disorders: 1) a surface coil must be used in the diagnosis of spinal disorders, and 2) diagnosis must be carried out by the use of both sagittal and axial images. We present some typical cases of spinal disorders in this paper. From these cases, we see that MRI has advantages and disadvantages as regards the diagnosis of spinal disorders compared with X-ray diagnostic apparatus. The first advantageous point is that we can directly obtain an image of the spinal cord without the intrathecal injection of a contrast material. The second point is that MRI can avoid the bone artifacts which often occur when using the X-ray CT; moreover, there is none of the hazard connected with the use of X-rays. The biggest disadvantage is that the spatial resolution of the resistive type of MRI is slightly inferior to that of the high-resolutional X-ray CT. The second disadvantage is that the ability to detect an ossificative process, such as disc disease or OPLL, is very restricted because of the low signal intensity from the cortical bone. We propose two points for the improvement of the MR imaging of spinal disorders. One is the production of a high-sensitivity surface coil. The other is the application of Gd-DTPA, which is thought to have a high potential to detect spinal disorders. If we can realize these points, the images of spinal disorders produced by the resistive type of MRI will be clearer and more informative. (J.P.N.)

  11. Topologically preserving straightening of spinal cord MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leener, Benjamin; Mangeat, Gabriel; Dupont, Sara; Martin, Allan R; Callot, Virginie; Stikov, Nikola; Fehlings, Michael G; Cohen-Adad, Julien

    2017-10-01

    To propose a robust and accurate method for straightening magnetic resonance (MR) images of the spinal cord, based on spinal cord segmentation, that preserves spinal cord topology and that works for any MRI contrast, in a context of spinal cord template-based analysis. The spinal cord curvature was computed using an iterative Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline (NURBS) approximation. Forward and inverse deformation fields for straightening were computed by solving analytically the straightening equations for each image voxel. Computational speed-up was accomplished by solving all voxel equation systems as one single system. Straightening accuracy (mean and maximum distance from straight line), computational time, and robustness to spinal cord length was evaluated using the proposed and the standard straightening method (label-based spline deformation) on 3T T 2 - and T 1 -weighted images from 57 healthy subjects and 33 patients with spinal cord compression due to degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM). The proposed algorithm was more accurate, more robust, and faster than the standard method (mean distance = 0.80 vs. 0.83 mm, maximum distance = 1.49 vs. 1.78 mm, time = 71 vs. 174 sec for the healthy population and mean distance = 0.65 vs. 0.68 mm, maximum distance = 1.28 vs. 1.55 mm, time = 32 vs. 60 sec for the DCM population). A novel image straightening method that enables template-based analysis of quantitative spinal cord MRI data is introduced. This algorithm works for any MRI contrast and was validated on healthy and patient populations. The presented method is implemented in the Spinal Cord Toolbox, an open-source software for processing spinal cord MRI data. 1 Technical Efficacy: Stage 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;46:1209-1219. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  12. Complete spinal cord injury (SCI) transforms how brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) affects nociceptive sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yung-Jen; Lee, Kuan H; Grau, James W

    2017-02-01

    Noxious stimulation can induce a lasting increase in neural excitability within the spinal cord (central sensitization) that can promote pain and disrupt adaptive function (maladaptive plasticity). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is known to regulate the development of plasticity and has been shown to impact the development of spinally-mediated central sensitization. The latter effect has been linked to an alteration in GABA-dependent inhibition. Prior studies have shown that, in spinally transected rats, exposure to regular (fixed spaced) stimulation can counter the development of maladaptive plasticity and have linked this effect to an up-regulation of BDNF. Here it is shown that application of the irritant capsaicin to one hind paw induces enhanced mechanical reactivity (EMR) after spinal cord injury (SCI) and that the induction of this effect is blocked by pretreatment with fixed spaced shock. This protective effect was eliminated if rats were pretreated with the BDNF sequestering antibody TrkB-IgG. Intrathecal (i.t.) application of BDNF prevented, but did not reverse, capsaicin-induced EMR. BDNF also attenuated cellular indices (ERK and pERK expression) of central sensitization after SCI. In uninjured rats, i.t. BDNF enhanced, rather than attenuated, capsaicin-induced EMR and ERK/pERK expression. These opposing effects were related to a transformation in GABA function. In uninjured rats, BDNF reduced membrane-bound KCC2 and the inhibitory effect of the GABA A agonist muscimol. After SCI, BDNF increased KCC2 expression, which would help restore GABAergic inhibition. The results suggest that SCI transforms how BDNF affects GABA function and imply that the clinical usefulness of BDNF will depend upon the extent of fiber sparing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pregabalin Suppresses Spinal Neuronal Hyperexcitability and Visceral Hypersensitivity in the Absence of Peripheral Pathophysiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannister, Kirsty; Sikandar, Shafaq; Bauer, Claudia S.; Dolphin, Annette C.; Porreca, Frank; Dickenson, Anthony H.

    2011-01-01

    Background Opioid induced hyperalgesia is recognised in the laboratory and the clinic, generating central hyperexcitability in the absence of peripheral pathology. We investigated pregabalin, indicated for neuropathic pain, and ondansetron, a drug that disrupts descending serotonergic processing in the central nervous system, on spinal neuronal hyperexcitability and visceral hypersensitivity in a rat model of opioid induced hyperalgesia. Methods Sprague-Dawley rats (180-200 g) were implanted with morphine (90μg · μl−1 · hr−1) or saline (0.9% w/v) filled osmotic mini-pumps. On days 7-10 in isoflurane anaesthetized animals we evaluated the effects of (a) systemic pregabalin on spinal neuronal and visceromotor responses and (b) spinal ondansetron on dorsal horn neuronal responses. The messenger RNA levels of α2δ-1, 5HT3A and mu-opioid receptor in the dorsal root ganglia of all animals were analysed. Results In morphine-treated animals the evoked spinal neuronal responses were enhanced to a sub-set of thermal and mechanical stimuli. This activity was attenuated by pregabalin (by at least 71%) and ondansetron (37%), and the visceromotor response to a sub-set of colorectal distension pressures was attenuated by pregabalin (52.8%) (n = 8 for all measures, P < 0.05). Messenger RNA levels were unchanged. Conclusions The inhibitory action of pregabalin in opioid induced hyperalgesia animals is not neuropathy-dependent nor reliant on up-regulation of the α2δ-1 subunit of voltage gated calcium channels, mechanisms proposed essential for pregabalin’s efficacy in neuropathy. In opioid induced hyperalgesia, which extends to colonic distension, a serotonergic facilitatory system may be upregulated creating an environment that’s permissive for pregabalin-mediated analgesia without peripheral pathology. PMID:21602662

  14. The LCLS Gas Attenuator Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryutov, D

    2005-01-01

    In the report ''X-ray attenuation cell'' [1] a preliminary analysis of the gas attenuator for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) was presented. This analysis was carried out for extremely stringent set of specifications. In particular, a very large diameter for the unobstructed beam was set (1 cm) to accommodate the spontaneous radiation; the attenuator was supposed to cover the whole range of energies of the coherent radiation, from 800 eV to 8000 eV; the maximum attenuation was set at the level of 10 4 ; the use of solid attenuators was not allowed, as well as the use of rotating shutters. The need to reach a sufficient absorption at the high-energy end of the spectrum predetermined the choice of Xe as the working gas (in order to have a reasonable absorption at a not-too-high pressure). A sophisticated differential pumping system that included a Penning-type ion pump was suggested in order to minimize the gas leak into the undulator/accelerator part of the facility. A high cost of xenon meant also that an efficient (and expensive) gas-recovery system would have to be installed. The main parameter that determined the high cost and the complexity of the system was a large radius of the orifice. The present viewpoint allows for much smaller size of the orifice, r 0 = 1.5 mm. (1) The use of solid attenuators is also allowed (R.M. Bionta, private communication). It is, therefore, worthwhile to reconsider various parameters of the gas attenuator for these much less stringent conditions. This brief study should be considered as a physics input for the engineering design. As a working gas we consider now the argon, which, on the one hand, provides a reasonable absorption lengths and, on the other hand, is inexpensive enough to be exhausted into the atmosphere (no recovery). The absorption properties of argon are illustrated by Fig.1 where the attenuation factor A is shown for various beam energies, based on Ref. [2]. The other relevant parameters for argon are

  15. Josephson tunnel junction microwave attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V. P.; Shitov, S. V.; Shchukin, A. V.

    1993-01-01

    A new element for superconducting electronic circuitry-a variable attenuator-has been proposed, designed, and successfully tested. The principle of operation is based on the change in the microwave impedance of a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson tunnel junction when dc biased...... at different points in the current-voltage characteristic. Both numerical calculations based on the Tien-Gordon theory and 70-GHz microwave experiments have confirmed the wide dynamic range (more than 15-dB attenuation for one stage) and the low insertion loss in the ''open'' state. The performance of a fully...

  16. Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Andrew P

    2018-01-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an adult-onset degenerative disorder of the neuromuscular system resulting in slowly progressive weakness and atrophy of the proximal limb and bulbar muscles. The disease is caused by the expansion of a CAG/glutamine tract in the amino-terminus of the androgen receptor. That SBMA exclusively affects males reflects the fact that critical pathogenic events are hormone-dependent. These include translocation of the polyglutamine androgen receptor from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and unfolding of the mutant protein. Studies of the pathology of SBMA subjects have revealed nuclear aggregates of the mutant androgen receptor, loss of lower motor neurons in the brainstem and spinal cord, and both neurogenic and myopathic changes in skeletal muscle. Mechanisms underlying disease pathogenesis include toxicity in both lower motor neurons and skeletal muscle, where effects on transcription, intracellular transport, and mitochondrial function have been documented. Therapies to treat SBMA patients remain largely supportive, although experimental approaches targeting androgen action or promoting degradation of the mutant androgen receptor protein or the encoding RNA are under active study. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Sex Steroids on the Spinal Gastrin-Releasing Peptide System Controlling Male Sexual Function in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oti, Takumi; Takanami, Keiko; Ito, Saya; Ueda, Takashi; Matsuda, Ken Ichi; Kawata, Mitsuhiro; Soh, Jintetsu; Ukimura, Osamu; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Sakamoto, Hirotaka

    2018-04-01

    The gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) system in the lumbosacral spinal cord controls male sexual function in rats. In contrast, in female rats, GRP neurons could scarcely be detected around puberty when circulating ovarian steroid hormones such as estradiol and progesterone levels are increasing. However, little information is available on feminizing or demasculinizing effects of ovarian steroids on the central nervous system in female puberty and adulthood. In this study, to visualize the spinal GRP neurons in vivo, we generated a GRP-promoter-Venus transgenic (Tg) rat line and studied the effects of the sex steroid hormones on GRP expression in the rat lumbar cord by examining the Venus fluorescence. In these Tg rats, the sexually dimorphic spinal GRP neurons controlling male sexual function were clearly labeled with Venus fluorescence. As expected, Venus fluorescence in the male lumbar cord was markedly decreased after castration and restored by chronic androgen replacement. Furthermore, androgen-induced Venus expression in the spinal cord of adult Tg males was significantly attenuated by chronic treatment with progesterone but not with estradiol. A luciferase assay using a human GRP-promoter construct showed that androgens enhance the spinal GRP system, and more strikingly, that progesterone acts to inhibit the GRP system via an androgen receptor-mediated mechanism. These results demonstrate that circulating androgens may play an important role in the spinal GRP system controlling male sexual function not only in rats but also in humans and that progesterone could be an important feminizing factor in the spinal GRP system in females during pubertal development.

  18. Gain attenuation of gated framing camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Shali; Liu Shenye; Cao Zhurong; Li Hang; Zhang Haiying; Yuan Zheng; Wang Liwei

    2009-01-01

    The theoretic model of framing camera's gain attenuation is analyzed. The exponential attenuation curve of the gain along the pulse propagation time is simulated. An experiment to measure the coefficient of gain attenuation based on the gain attenuation theory is designed. Experiment result shows that the gain follows an exponential attenuation rule with a quotient of 0.0249 nm -1 , the attenuation coefficient of the pulse is 0.00356 mm -1 . The loss of the pulse propagation along the MCP stripline is the leading reason of gain attenuation. But in the figure of a single stripline, the gain dose not follow the rule of exponential attenuation completely, instead, there is a gain increase at the stripline bottom. That is caused by the reflection of the pulse. The reflectance is about 24.2%. Combining the experiment and theory, which design of the stripline MCP can improved the gain attenuation. (authors)

  19. Formalin-induced behavioural hypersensitivity and neuronal hyperexcitability are mediated by rapid protein synthesis at the spinal level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Curtis O; Wallace, Victoria C; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2009-01-01

    Background The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key regulator of mRNA translation whose action can be inhibited by the drug rapamycin. Forms of long-term plasticity require protein synthesis and evidence indicates that mRNA in dendrites, axon terminals and cell bodies is essential for long-term synaptic plasticity. Specific to pain, shifts in pain thresholds and responsiveness are an expression of neuronal plasticity and this likely contributes to persistent pain. We investigated this by inhibiting the activity of mTOR with rapamycin at the spinal level, of rats that were subjected to the formalin test, using both behavioural and electrophysiological techniques. Results For in vivo electrophysiology, Sprague Dawley rats were fully anaesthetised and single-unit extracellular recordings were obtained from lamina V wide dynamic range (WDR) dorsal horn spinal neurones at the region where input is received from the hind paw. Neuronal responses from naive rats showed that rapamycin-sensitive pathways were important in nociceptive-specific C-fibre mediated transmission onto WDR neurones as well mechanically-evoked responses since rapamycin was effective in attenuating these measures. Formalin solution was injected into the hind paw prior to which, rapamycin or vehicle was applied directly onto the exposed spinal cord. When rapamycin was applied to the spinal cord prior to hind paw formalin injection, there was a significant attenuation of the prolonged second phase of the formalin test, which comprises continuing afferent input to the spinal cord, neuronal hyperexcitability and an activated descending facilitatory drive from the brainstem acting on spinal neurones. In accordance with electrophysiological data, behavioural studies showed that rapamycin attenuated behavioural hypersensitivity elicited by formalin injection into the hind paw. Conclusion We conclude that mTOR has a role in maintaining persistent pain states via mRNA translation and thus protein

  20. Formalin-induced behavioural hypersensitivity and neuronal hyperexcitability are mediated by rapid protein synthesis at the spinal level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallace Victoria C

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR is a key regulator of mRNA translation whose action can be inhibited by the drug rapamycin. Forms of long-term plasticity require protein synthesis and evidence indicates that mRNA in dendrites, axon terminals and cell bodies is essential for long-term synaptic plasticity. Specific to pain, shifts in pain thresholds and responsiveness are an expression of neuronal plasticity and this likely contributes to persistent pain. We investigated this by inhibiting the activity of mTOR with rapamycin at the spinal level, of rats that were subjected to the formalin test, using both behavioural and electrophysiological techniques. Results For in vivo electrophysiology, Sprague Dawley rats were fully anaesthetised and single-unit extracellular recordings were obtained from lamina V wide dynamic range (WDR dorsal horn spinal neurones at the region where input is received from the hind paw. Neuronal responses from naive rats showed that rapamycin-sensitive pathways were important in nociceptive-specific C-fibre mediated transmission onto WDR neurones as well mechanically-evoked responses since rapamycin was effective in attenuating these measures. Formalin solution was injected into the hind paw prior to which, rapamycin or vehicle was applied directly onto the exposed spinal cord. When rapamycin was applied to the spinal cord prior to hind paw formalin injection, there was a significant attenuation of the prolonged second phase of the formalin test, which comprises continuing afferent input to the spinal cord, neuronal hyperexcitability and an activated descending facilitatory drive from the brainstem acting on spinal neurones. In accordance with electrophysiological data, behavioural studies showed that rapamycin attenuated behavioural hypersensitivity elicited by formalin injection into the hind paw. Conclusion We conclude that mTOR has a role in maintaining persistent pain states via m

  1. Inhibition of spinal astrocytic c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK activation correlates with the analgesic effects of ketamine in neuropathic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously reported that inhibition of astrocytic activation contributes to the analgesic effects of intrathecal ketamine on spinal nerve ligation (SNL-induced neuropathic pain. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, a member of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK family, has been reported to be critical for spinal astrocytic activation and neuropathic pain development after SNL. Ketamine can decrease lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced phosphorylated JNK (pJNK expression and could thus exert its anti-inflammatory effect. We hypothesized that inhibition of astrocytic JNK activation might be involved in the suppressive effect of ketamine on SNL-induced spinal astrocytic activation. Methods Immunofluorescence histochemical staining was used to detect SNL-induced spinal pJNK expression and localization. The effects of ketamine on SNL-induced mechanical allodynia were confirmed by behavioral testing. Immunofluorescence histochemistry and Western blot were used to quantify the SNL-induced spinal pJNK expression after ketamine administration. Results The present study showed that SNL induced ipsilateral pJNK up-regulation in astrocytes but not microglia or neurons within the spinal dorsal horn. Intrathecal ketamine relieved SNL-induced mechanical allodynia without interfering with motor performance. Additionally, intrathecal administration of ketamine attenuated SNL-induced spinal astrocytic JNK activation in a dose-dependent manner, but not JNK protein expression. Conclusions The present results suggest that inhibition of JNK activation may be involved in the suppressive effects of ketamine on SNL-induced spinal astrocyte activation. Therefore, inhibition of spinal JNK activation may be involved in the analgesic effects of ketamine on SNL-induced neuropathic pain.

  2. Inhibition of spinal astrocytic c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation correlates with the analgesic effects of ketamine in neuropathic pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background We have previously reported that inhibition of astrocytic activation contributes to the analgesic effects of intrathecal ketamine on spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced neuropathic pain. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), a member of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family, has been reported to be critical for spinal astrocytic activation and neuropathic pain development after SNL. Ketamine can decrease lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced phosphorylated JNK (pJNK) expression and could thus exert its anti-inflammatory effect. We hypothesized that inhibition of astrocytic JNK activation might be involved in the suppressive effect of ketamine on SNL-induced spinal astrocytic activation. Methods Immunofluorescence histochemical staining was used to detect SNL-induced spinal pJNK expression and localization. The effects of ketamine on SNL-induced mechanical allodynia were confirmed by behavioral testing. Immunofluorescence histochemistry and Western blot were used to quantify the SNL-induced spinal pJNK expression after ketamine administration. Results The present study showed that SNL induced ipsilateral pJNK up-regulation in astrocytes but not microglia or neurons within the spinal dorsal horn. Intrathecal ketamine relieved SNL-induced mechanical allodynia without interfering with motor performance. Additionally, intrathecal administration of ketamine attenuated SNL-induced spinal astrocytic JNK activation in a dose-dependent manner, but not JNK protein expression. Conclusions The present results suggest that inhibition of JNK activation may be involved in the suppressive effects of ketamine on SNL-induced spinal astrocyte activation. Therefore, inhibition of spinal JNK activation may be involved in the analgesic effects of ketamine on SNL-induced neuropathic pain. PMID:21255465

  3. Neuroprotection and secondary damage following spinal cord injury: concepts and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Brett J; Moulson, Aaron J; Tetzlaff, Wolfram

    2017-06-23

    Neuroprotection refers to the attenuation of pathophysiological processes triggered by acute injury to minimize secondary damage. The development of neuroprotective treatments represents a major goal in the field of spinal cord injury (SCI) research. In this review, we discuss the strengths and limitations of the methodologies employed to assess secondary damage and neuroprotection in preclinical models of traumatic SCI. We also discuss modelling issues and how new tools might be exploited to study secondary damage and neuroprotection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transient attenuation in optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopkins, A.A.; Kelly, R.E.; Looney, L.D.; Lyons, P.B.

    1984-01-01

    Low and high energy pulsed electron beams were used to generate radiation-induced transient attenuation in high-OH, Suprasil core, PCS fibers, demonstrating the energy dependence of the radiation damage and recovery mechanisms. A radiation resistant low-OH fiber was studied and its performance contrasted to that of high-OH materials. Several fibers with differing core compositions were also studied

  5. A Generalized Correction for Attenuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Anne C.; Bock, R. Darrell

    Use of the usual bivariate correction for attenuation with more than two variables presents two statistical problems. This pairwise method may produce a covariance matrix which is not at least positive semi-definite, and the bivariate procedure does not consider the possible influences of correlated errors among the variables. The method described…

  6. Compact plasmonic variable optical attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leosson, Kristjan; Rosenzveig, Tiberiu; Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate plasmonic nanowire-based thermo-optic variable optical attenuators operating in the 1525-1625 nm wavelength range. The devices have a footprint as low as 1 mm, extinction ratio exceeding 40 dB, driving voltage below 3 V, and full modulation bandwidth of 1 kHz. The polarization...

  7. Attenuation of Vrancea events revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radulian, M.; Popa, M.; Grecu, B.; Panza, G.F.

    2003-11-01

    New aspects of the frequency-dependent attenuation of the seismic waves traveling from Vrancea subcrustal sources toward NW (Transylvanian Basin) and SE (Romanian Plain) are evidenced by the recent experimental data made available by the CALIXTO'99 tomography experiment. The observations validate the previous theoretical computations performed for the assessment, by means of a deterministic approach, of the seismic hazard in Romania. They reveal an essential aspect of the seismic ground motion attenuation, that has important implications on the probabilistic assessment of seismic hazard from Vrancea intermediate-depth earthquakes. The attenuation toward NW is shown to be a much stronger frequency-dependent effect than the attenuation toward SE and the seismic hazard computed by the deterministic approach fits satisfactorily well the observed ground motion distribution in the low-frequency band (< 1 Hz). The apparent contradiction with the historically-based intensity maps arises mainly from a systematic difference in the vulnerability (buildings eigenperiod) of the buildings in the intra- and extra-Carpathians regions. (author)

  8. Arteriovenous malformations of the cervical spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, Shiro; Yoshida, Shinzo; Ishikawa, Masatsune; Yonekawa, Yasuhiro; Handa, Hajime

    1984-01-01

    Arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the cervical spinal cord has been known to constitute 5-13% of all spinal AVMs. In contrast to the AVMs located in thoracic or thoraco-lumbar regions, cervical AVM has several characteristic features such as preponderance in younger generation, high incidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage, intramedullary location of the nidus usually fed by the anterior spinal arterial system. We reported three cases of cervical AVMs, which located intramedullary at the levels of C 4 -C 6 , C 1 -C 4 and C 1 -C 2 , respectively. Although selective angiography (vertebral artery, thyrocervical artery, costocervical artery) was essential for the diagnosis of these lesions, computerized tomographic (CT) study with both intrathecal injection of metrizamide and intravenous infusion of contrast material (dynamic and static study) was found to be extremely advantageous in detecting the topography of AVMs in the concerned horizontal planes of the spinal cord. Removal of AVM was given up in one case because of its possible involvement of the anterior spinal artery and central artery shown by CT scan. Removal of AVMs were performed in other two cases. A lateral approach was tried in one case with the AVM located in C 1 -C 2 level, in which CT scan revealed not only an intramedullary but the associated extramedullary AVM in ventrolateral surface of the spinal cord. This operative approach was found to involve less bone removal and markedly reduce spinal cord manipulation necessary to deal with ventrally situated high cervical lesions, compared with a posterior approach with laminectomy. (author)

  9. Spinal cord evolution in early Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marc R; Haeusler, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The discovery at Nariokotome of the Homo erectus skeleton KNM-WT 15000, with a narrow spinal canal, seemed to show that this relatively large-brained hominin retained the primitive spinal cord size of African apes and that brain size expansion preceded postcranial neurological evolution. Here we compare the size and shape of the KNM-WT 15000 spinal canal with modern and fossil taxa including H. erectus from Dmanisi, Homo antecessor, the European middle Pleistocene hominins from Sima de los Huesos, and Pan troglodytes. In terms of shape and absolute and relative size of the spinal canal, we find all of the Dmanisi and most of the vertebrae of KNM-WT 15000 are within the human range of variation except for the C7, T2, and T3 of KNM-WT 15000, which are constricted, suggesting spinal stenosis. While additional fossils might definitively indicate whether H. erectus had evolved a human-like enlarged spinal canal, the evidence from the Dmanisi spinal canal and the unaffected levels of KNM-WT 15000 show that unlike Australopithecus, H. erectus had a spinal canal size and shape equivalent to that of modern humans. Subadult status is unlikely to affect our results, as spinal canal growth is complete in both individuals. We contest the notion that vertebrae yield information about respiratory control or language evolution, but suggest that, like H. antecessor and European middle Pleistocene hominins from Sima de los Huesos, early Homo possessed a postcranial neurological endowment roughly commensurate to modern humans, with implications for neurological, structural, and vascular improvements over Pan and Australopithecus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. MR imaging findings of spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hyoung; Park, Eui Dong; Kim, Hyung Jin; Ha, Choong Kun [College of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Chinju(Korea, Republic of)

    1994-03-15

    We report magnetic resonance imaging findings of massive spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) caused by repeated lumbar punctures during spinal anesthesia in a 36-year-old man. The signal intensities of spinal SAH were similar to those of the conus medullaris on both T1-and T2-weighted spin-echo images. Although spinal SAH is hardly recognized on MR, spinal SAH of sufficient amount may cause alteration of the cerebrospinal fluid signal.

  11. Post-traumatic recto-spinal fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantsberg, L.; Greenberg, G.; Laufer, L.; Hertzanu, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Acquired recto-spinal fistula has been described elsewhere as a rare complication of colorectal malignancy and Crohn's enterocolitis. We treated a young man who developed a recto-spinal fistula as a result of a high fall injury. The patient presented with meningeal signs, sepsis and perianal laceration. Computerized axial tomography revealed air in the supersellar cistern. Gastrografin enema showed that contrast material was leaking from the rectum into the spinal canal. Surgical management included a diverting sigmoid colostomy, sacral bone curettage and wide presacral drainage. To the best of our knowledge, rectospinal fistula of traumatic origin has not been previously reported in the English literature. (orig.)

  12. Neuronal Population Activity in Spinal Motor Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rune W.

    2017-01-01

    The core elements of stereotypical movements such as locomotion, scratching and breathing are generated by networks in the lower brainstem and the spinal cord. Ensemble activities in spinal motor networks had until recently been merely a black box, but with the emergence of ultra-thin Silicon multi......-electrode technology it was possible to reveal the spiking activity of larger parts of the network. A series of experiments revealed unexpected features of spinal networks, such as multiple spiking regimes and lognormal firing rate distributions. The lognormality renders the widespread idea of a typical firing rate...

  13. Spinal epidural hemangioma related to pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, G.S.; Millett, P.J. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States); DiCarlo, E.F. [Dept. of Pathology, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Mintz, D.N. [Dept. of Radiology, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Dept. of Radiology, New York Presbyterian Hospital, NY (United States); Gamache, F.W. [Department of Surgery, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Dept. of Surgery, New York Presbyterian Hospital, NY (United States); Rawlins, B.A. [Dept. of Orthopaedics, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Weill Medical College of Cornell Univ., New York (United States)

    2001-05-01

    We report the case of a 39-year-old woman with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis presenting with myelopathy secondary to a spinal epidural hemangioma. MRI showed an epidural soft tissue mass within the spinal canal between T5 and T9 with severe spinal cord compression. Symptoms had a temporal relationship to her pregnancy. Surgical removal of the epidural hemangioma rapidly relieved her symptoms and neurologic deficits. Follow-up examination 2 years later demonstrated normal motor and sensory function, without any neurologic sequelae or progression of deformity. (orig.)

  14. Nanomedicine for treating spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Jacqueline Y.; Xu, Xiao-Ming; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2013-09-01

    Spinal cord injury results in significant mortality and morbidity, lifestyle changes, and difficult rehabilitation. Treatment of spinal cord injury is challenging because the spinal cord is both complex to treat acutely and difficult to regenerate. Nanomaterials can be used to provide effective treatments; their unique properties can facilitate drug delivery to the injury site, enact as neuroprotective agents, or provide platforms to stimulate regrowth of damaged tissues. We review recent uses of nanomaterials including nanowires, micelles, nanoparticles, liposomes, and carbon-based nanomaterials for neuroprotection in the acute phase. We also review the design and neural regenerative application of electrospun scaffolds, conduits, and self-assembling peptide scaffolds.

  15. Post-traumatic recto-spinal fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantsberg, L.; Greenberg, G. [Department of Surgery A, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Laufer, L.; Hertzanu, Y. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2000-01-01

    Acquired recto-spinal fistula has been described elsewhere as a rare complication of colorectal malignancy and Crohn's enterocolitis. We treated a young man who developed a recto-spinal fistula as a result of a high fall injury. The patient presented with meningeal signs, sepsis and perianal laceration. Computerized axial tomography revealed air in the supersellar cistern. Gastrografin enema showed that contrast material was leaking from the rectum into the spinal canal. Surgical management included a diverting sigmoid colostomy, sacral bone curettage and wide presacral drainage. To the best of our knowledge, rectospinal fistula of traumatic origin has not been previously reported in the English literature. (orig.)

  16. Idiopathic thoracic transdural intravertebral spinal cord herniation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazda K Turel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic spinal cord herniation is a rare and often missed cause of thoracic myelopathy. The clinical presentation and radiological appearance is inconsistent and commonly confused with a dorsal arachnoid cyst and often is a misdiagnosed entity. While ventral spinal cord herniation through a dural defect has been previously described, intravertebral herniation is a distinct entity and extremely rare. We present the case of a 70-year old man with idiopathic thoracic transdural intravertebral spinal cord herniation and discuss the clinico-radiological presentation, pathophysiology and operative management along with a review the literature of this unusual entity.

  17. Computer tomographic investigations of cervical spinal stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodiek, S.O.

    1983-10-01

    Computed tomography was applied in 29 patients with cervical spinal stenosis. In 8 cases there was a congenital narrowed spinal canal. In 18 cases we found dorsal spondylotic ridges of the vertebral bodies and in three cases an atlanto-dental dislocation. The complaints showed either radicular character or in case of myelopathy came out as para- and quadriplegia. In 25 cases the spinal sagittal diamter was a lot below a critical borderline of about 13 mm. The kind and localisation of the underlying process can be demonstrated very excellent by computed tomography.

  18. Computer tomographic investigations of cervical spinal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodiek, S.O.

    1983-01-01

    Computed tomography was applied in 29 patients with cervical spinal stenosis. In 8 cases there was a congenital narrowed spinal canal. In 18 cases we found dorsal spondylotic ridges of the vertebral bodies and in three cases an atlanto-dental dislocation. The complaints showed either radicular character or in case of myelopathy came out as para- and quadriplegia. In 25 cases the spinal sagittal diamter was a lot below a critical borderline of about 13 mm. The kind and localisation of the underlying process can be demonstrated very excellent by computed tomography. (orig.) [de

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatani, Mariko; Sekiya, Toru; Harada, Junta; Kawakami, Kenji; Tada, Shimpei

    1985-01-01

    Twenty-two patients were examined to determine the clinical value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the spinal disease. Using different pulse sequences T 1 value was obtained from 38 spines; the result showed that increased T 1 value indicated spinal marrow abnormalities. A comparative study of MRI and bone scintigraphy was performed in 18 patients. Although it was not feasible to evaluate effect of therapy in metastatic disease by MRI, diffuse bone marrow disease, such as diffuse bone marrow metastases and blood dyscrasia could be detected by MRI. This limited study will suggest applicability of MRI in the spinal disease. (author)

  20. Computed tomography of the spinal disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkubo, K; Ueki, K; Shinohara, S; Sakoh, T [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1981-03-01

    A comprehensive study of all spinal CT scans was performed to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of this technique. CT scan was performed on 108 cases, including cases of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, spondylosis deformans, disc herniation, caries, spondylolisthesis, spinal fracture, and others. CT scan is apparently useful in demonstrating spinal canal stenosis, bony lesion, and surrounding soft tissue abnormality. In this study, we also identify the herniated intervertebral disc, so CT scan will become the primary modes of evaluation in patients with low back pain.

  1. Targeting Lumbar Spinal Neural Circuitry by Epidural Stimulation to Restore Motor Function After Spinal Cord Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Minassian, Karen; McKay, W. Barry; Binder, Heinrich; Hofstoetter, Ursula S.

    2016-01-01

    Epidural spinal cord stimulation has a long history of application for improving motor control in spinal cord injury. This review focuses on its resurgence following the progress made in understanding the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms and on recent reports of its augmentative effects upon otherwise subfunctional volitional motor control. Early work revealed that the spinal circuitry involved in lower-limb motor control can be accessed by stimulating through electrodes placed epidur...

  2. Changes in lumbosacral spinal nerve roots on diffusion tensor imaging in spinal stenosis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong-jun Hou; Yong Huang; Zi-wen Fan; Xin-chun Li; Bing-yi Cao

    2015-01-01

    Lumbosacral degenerative disc disease is a common cause of lower back and leg pain. Conventional T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) and T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) scans are commonly used to image spinal cord degeneration. However, these modalities are unable to image the entire lumbosacral spinal nerve roots. Thus, in the present study, we assessed the potential of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for quantitative assessment of compressed lumbosacral spinal nerve roots. Subjects were 20 young healthy v...

  3. Spinal Cord Independence Measure, version III: applicability to the UK spinal cord injured population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Clive A; Tesio, Luigi; Itzkovich, Malka; Soni, Bakul M; Silva, Pedro; Mecci, Munawar; Chadwick, Raymond; el Masry, Waghi; Osman, Aheed; Savic, Gordana; Gardner, Brian; Bergström, Ebba; Catz, Amiram

    2009-09-01

    To examine the validity, reliability and usefulness of the Spinal Cord Independence Measure for the UK spinal cord injury population. Multi-centre cohort study. Four UK regional spinal cord injury centres. Eighty-six people with spinal cord injury. Spinal Cord Independence Measure and Functional Independence Measure on admission analysed using inferential statistics, and Rasch analysis of Spinal Cord Independence Measure. Internal consistency, inter-rater reliability, discriminant validity; Spinal Cord Independence Measure subscale match between distribution of item difficulty and patient ability measurements; reliability of patient ability measures; fit of data to Rasch model; unidimensionality of subscales; hierarchical ordering of categories within items; differential item functioning across patient groups. Scale reliability (kappa coefficients range 0.491-0.835; (p Spinal Cord Independence Measure subscales compatible with stringent Rasch requirements; mean infit indices high; distinct strata of abilities identified; most thresholds ordered; item hierarchy stable across clinical groups and centres. Misfit and differences in item hierarchy identified. Difficulties assessing central cord injuries highlighted. Conventional statistical and Rasch analyses justify the use of the Spinal Cord Independence Measure in clinical practice and research in the UK. Cross-cultural validity may be further improved.

  4. Non osseous intra-spinal tumors in children and adolescents: spinal column deformity (in french)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, I.; Zeller, R.; Dubousset, J.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose of the study. The delay in diagnosis of spinal tumors is not rare. The chief complaint may include pain, walking disability and spinal or limb deformities. The purpose of our study is to analyze the spinal deformities associated with non osseous intra-spinal tumors, to assess the complications of treatment, and to set out a preventive protocol. Methods. The incidence and pattern of spinal deformity was assessed before tumor treatment and ultimately after laminectomy or osteoplastic laminotomy (or lamino-plasty). Results. Among the 9 cases with preexisting spinal deformity, the curve magnitude increased after laminectomy in 4. A kyphotic, kyphoscoliotic or scoliotic deformity developed in 18 cases after surgery for tumor resection. Among these 18 patients, only one had bad an adequate osteoplastic laminotomy. The treatment of spinal deformities was surgical in 12 cases, and done by either posterior or anterior and posterior combined arthrodesis. Discussion. Spinal deformity may be the main complaint of a patient who has intraspinal tumor. Prevention of post-laminectomy spinal deformity is mandatory, and could be done by osteoplastic laminotomy and the use of a brace during a minimum period of 4 to 6 months after surgery. Conclusion. Diagnosis of intraspinal tumors in children and adolescents should be done early, and lamino-arthrectomy should be replaced by osteoplastic laminotomy. (authors)

  5. Influence of attenuation correction and reconstruction techniques on the detection of hypoperfused lesions in brain SPECT studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoorun, S.; Groenewald, W.A.; Baete, K.; Nuyts, J.; Dupont, P.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Aim: To study the influence of attenuation correction and the reconstruction technique on the detection of hypoperfused lesions in brain SPECT imaging, Material and Methods: A simulation experiment was used in which the effects of attenuation and reconstruction were decoupled, A high resolution SPECT phantom was constructed using the BrainWeb database, In this phantom, activity values were assigned to grey and white matter (ratio 4:1) and scaled to obtain counts of the same magnitude as in clinical practice, The true attenuation map was generated by assigning attenuation coefficients to each tissue class (grey and white matter, cerebral spinal fluid, skull, soft and fatty tissue and air) to create a non-uniform attenuation map, The uniform attenuation map was calculated using an attenuation coefficient of 0.15 cm-1, Hypoperfused lesions of varying intensities and sizes were added. The phantom was then projected as typical SPECT projection data, taking into account attenuation and collimator blurring with the addition of Poisson noise, The projection data was reconstructed using four different methods of reconstruction: (1) filtered backprojection (FBP) with the uniform attenuation map; (2) FBP using the true attenuation map; (3) ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) (equivalent to 423 iterations) with a uniform attenuation map; and (4) OSEM with a true attenuation map. Different Gaussian postsmooth kernels were applied to the reconstructed images. Results: The analysis of the reconstructed data was performed using figures of merit such as signal to noise ratio (SNR), bias and variance. The results illustrated that uniform attenuation correction offered slight deterioration (less than 2%) with regard to SNR when compared to the ideal attenuation map. which in reality is not known. The iterative techniques produced superior signal to noise ratios (increase of 5 - 20 % depending on the lesion and the postsmooth) in comparison to the FBP methods

  6. Spinal antinflammatory action of Diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Alberto

    2016-06-01

    Diclofenac is a non-steroidal antinflammatory drug (NSAID) that finds indication in the treatment of debilitating pathologies characterized by chronic pain sustained by inflammation, such as in rheumatic disease (rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis) or periarthritis, bursitis, tendonitis, myositis and sciatica. Its properties differentiate it from other NSAIDs. In fact, diclofenac's increased effect on spinal nociception and chronic neuro-inflammatory pain may be referred to: 1) its synergistic effects on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR- γ) activation and prostaglandin synthesis inhibition (COX-2 inhibition); 2) its capacity of suppressing neuronal hyperexcitability through the blockage of neuronal K+ channels in a concentration-dependant manner; and 3) its facility to cross the blood-brain barrier.

  7. Muscle after spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Bo; Kristensen, Ida Bruun; Kjaer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    years after the injury. There is a progressive drop in the proportion of slow myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform fibers and a rise in the proportion of fibers that coexpress both the fast and slow MHC isoforms. The oxidative enzymatic activity starts to decline after the first few months post-SCI. Muscles......The morphological and contractile changes of muscles below the level of the lesion after spinal cord injury (SCI) are dramatic. In humans with SCI, a fiber-type transformation away from type I begins 4-7 months post-SCI and reaches a new steady state with predominantly fast glycolytic IIX fibers...... from individuals with chronic SCI show less resistance to fatigue, and the speed-related contractile properties change, becoming faster. These findings are also present in animals. Future studies should longitudinally examine changes in muscles from early SCI until steady state is reached in order...

  8. Spinal imaging and image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    This book is instrumental to building a bridge between scientists and clinicians in the field of spine imaging by introducing state-of-the-art computational methods in the context of clinical applications.  Spine imaging via computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and other radiologic imaging modalities, is essential for noninvasively visualizing and assessing spinal pathology. Computational methods support and enhance the physician’s ability to utilize these imaging techniques for diagnosis, non-invasive treatment, and intervention in clinical practice. Chapters cover a broad range of topics encompassing radiological imaging modalities, clinical imaging applications for common spine diseases, image processing, computer-aided diagnosis, quantitative analysis, data reconstruction and visualization, statistical modeling, image-guided spine intervention, and robotic surgery. This volume serves a broad audience as  contributions were written by both clinicians and researchers, which reflects the inte...

  9. Spinal and Paraspinal Ewing Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indelicato, Daniel J.; Keole, Sameer R.; Shahlaee, Amir H.; Morris, Christopher G.; Gibbs, C. Parker; Scarborough, Mark T.; Pincus, David W.; Marcus, Robert B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To perform a review of the 40-year University of Florida experience treating spinal and paraspinal Ewing tumors. Patients and Methods: A total of 27 patients were treated between 1965 and 2007. For local management, 21 patients were treated with radiotherapy (RT) alone and 6 with surgery plus RT. All patients with metastatic disease were treated with RT alone. The risk profiles of each group were otherwise similar. The median age was 17 years, and the most frequent subsite was the sacral spine (n = 9). The median potential follow-up was 16 years. Results: The 5-year actuarial overall survival, cause-specific survival, and local control rate was 62%, 62%, and 90%, respectively. For the nonmetastatic subset (n = 22), the 5-year overall survival, cause-specific survival, and local control rate was 71%, 71%, and 89%, respectively. The local control rate was 84% for patients treated with RT alone vs. 100% for those treated with surgery plus RT. Patients who were >14 years old and those who were treated with intensive therapy demonstrated superior local control. Of 9 patients in our series with Frankel C or greater neurologic deficits at presentation, 7 experienced a full recovery with treatment. Of the 27 patients, 37% experienced Common Toxicity Criteria Grade 3 or greater toxicity, including 2 deaths from sepsis. Conclusion: Aggressive management of spinal and paraspinal Ewing tumors with RT with or without surgery results in high toxicity but excellent local control and neurologic outcomes. Efforts should be focused on identifying disease amenable to combined modality local therapy and improving RT techniques.

  10. Spinal Cord Injury Model System Information Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the UAB-SCIMS More The UAB-SCIMS Information Network The University of Alabama at Birmingham Spinal Cord Injury Model System (UAB-SCIMS) maintains this Information Network as a resource to promote knowledge in the ...

  11. Spinal Manipulation for Low-Back Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... V W X Y Z Spinal Manipulation for Low-Back Pain Share: On This Page Introduction Key Points About ... will help ensure coordinated and safe care. About Low-Back Pain Back pain is one of the most common ...

  12. An ergonomic task analysis of spinal anaesthesia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ajmal, Muhammad

    2009-12-01

    Ergonomics is the study of physical interaction between humans and their working environment. The objective of this study was to characterize the performance of spinal anaesthesia in an acute hospital setting, applying ergonomic task analysis.

  13. Factors associated with myelopathy in spinal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitada, Yuki; Izawa, Kazutaka; Imoto, Kazuhiko; Yonenobu, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    To identity factors associated with Pott's disease, 49 spinal tuberculosis patients were classified into a group of 22 patients with a neurological deficit and a group of 27 patients with no neurological deficits, and their clinical findings (gender, age, pulmonary tuberculosis, antituberculous chemotherapy, C reactive protein (CRP), nutritional status, and duration of disease) and radiographic findings (degree of canal encroachment, pathology and level of dural compression, number of affected vertebral bodies, range of paravertebral abscesses, signals in the spinal cord on MRI, kyphotic angle, and spinal instability) were compared. The results showed that malnutrition, severe canal encroachment, and abnormal signal within the spinal cord on MRI were associated with neurological complications. Factors associated with the degree of neurological deficit were unclear because the study population was too small. (author)

  14. Spinal Cord Injury: Hope through Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... research? Where can I get more information? Glossary Introduction Until World War II, a serious spinal cord ... muscle, the bony structure appears white on the film. Vertebral misalignment or fracture can be seen within ...

  15. The CT findings of spinal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yizhao; Liu Jianming; Ke Yong; XiaoYong; Liu Rihua

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the CT diagnosis and differential diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis. Methods: CT manifestations were retrospectively analyzed in 43 cases of spinal tuberculosis. This series included 24 males and 19 females, aged 10-57 years. 15 cases were confirmed by operation and pathology; 18 cases were confirmed by biopsy and 10 cases were cured by antituberculosis therapy. Results: The CT manifestations of spinal tuberculosis were: 1) mottling, patchy, caved or faveolate bone destructions (43/43 cases); 2) elevated density of the involved vertebrae (13/43 cases); 3) destruction of intervertebral discs (32/43 cases); 4) formation of sequester (30/43 cases); 5) para-vertebral abscess, often with calcification (38/43 cases); 6) osseous vertebral canal narrowing (8/43 cases); 7) vertebrae compression (28/43 cases). Conclusion: CT scan is a valuable modality for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of spinal tuberculosis

  16. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2002-01-01

    In Section 1 of this first report we will describe the work we are doing to collect and analyze rock physics data for the purpose of modeling seismic attenuation from other measurable quantities such as porosity, water saturation, clay content and net stress. This work and other empirical methods to be presented later, will form the basis for ''Q pseudo-well modeling'' that is a key part of this project. In Section 2 of this report, we will show the fundamentals of a new method to extract Q, dispersion, and attenuation from field seismic data. The method is called Gabor-Morlet time-frequency decomposition. This technique has a number of advantages including greater stability and better time resolution than spectral ratio methods.

  17. Macroseismic intensity attenuation in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmaei-Sabegh, Saman

    2018-01-01

    Macroseismic intensity data plays an important role in the process of seismic hazard analysis as well in developing of reliable earthquake loss models. This paper presents a physical-based model to predict macroseismic intensity attenuation based on 560 intensity data obtained in Iran in the time period 1975-2013. The geometric spreading and energy absorption of seismic waves have been considered in the proposed model. The proposed easy to implement relation describes the intensity simply as a function of moment magnitude, source to site distance and focal depth. The prediction capability of the proposed model is assessed by means of residuals analysis. Prediction results have been compared with those of other intensity prediction models for Italy, Turkey, Iran and central Asia. The results indicate the higher attenuation rate for the study area in distances less than 70km.

  18. ENHANCEMENTS TO NATURAL ATTENUATION: SELECTED CASE STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, K; W. H. Albright, W; E. S. Becvar, E; C. H. Benson, C; T. O. Early, T; E. Hood, E; P. M. Jardine, P; M. Lorah, M; E. Majche, E; D. Major, D; W. J. Waugh, W; G. Wein, G; O. R. West, O

    2007-05-15

    In 2003 the US Department of Energy (DOE) embarked on a project to explore an innovative approach to remediation of subsurface contaminant plumes that focused on introducing mechanisms for augmenting natural attenuation to achieve site closure. Termed enhanced attenuation (EA), this approach has drawn its inspiration from the concept of monitored natural attenuation (MNA).

  19. Diffusion tensor imaging in spinal cord compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei; Qin, Wen; Hao, Nanxin; Wang, Yibin; Zong, Genlin

    2012-01-01

    Background Although diffusion tensor imaging has been successfully applied in brain research for decades, several main difficulties have hindered its extended utilization in spinal cord imaging. Purpose To assess the feasibility and clinical value of diffusion tensor imaging and tractography for evaluating chronic spinal cord compression. Material and Methods Single-shot spin-echo echo-planar DT sequences were scanned in 42 spinal cord compression patients and 49 healthy volunteers. The mean values of the apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy were measured in region of interest at the cervical and lower thoracic spinal cord. The patients were divided into two groups according to the high signal on T2WI (the SCC-HI group and the SCC-nHI group for with or without high signal). A one-way ANOVA was used. Diffusion tensor tractography was used to visualize the morphological features of normal and impaired white matter. Results There were no statistically significant differences in the apparent diffusion coefficient and fractional anisotropy values between the different spinal cord segments of the normal subjects. All of the patients in the SCC-HI group had increased apparent diffusion coefficient values and decreased fractional anisotropy values at the lesion level compared to the normal controls. However, there were no statistically significant diffusion index differences between the SCC-nHI group and the normal controls. In the diffusion tensor imaging maps, the normal spinal cord sections were depicted as fiber tracts that were color-encoded to a cephalocaudal orientation. The diffusion tensor images were compressed to different degrees in all of the patients. Conclusion Diffusion tensor imaging and tractography are promising methods for visualizing spinal cord tracts and can provide additional information in clinical studies in spinal cord compression

  20. Does the application site of spinal manipulative therapy alter spinal tissues loading?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funabashi, Martha; Nougarou, François; Descarreaux, Martin; Prasad, Narasimha; Kawchuk, Gregory N

    2018-01-31

    Previous studies found that the intervertebral disc (IVD) experiences the greatest loads during spinal manipulation therapy (SMT). Based on that, this study aimed to determine if loads experienced by spinal tissues are significantly altered when the application site of SMT is changed. A biomechanical robotic serial dissection study. Thirteen porcine cadaveric motion segments. Forces experienced by lumbar spinal tissues. A servo-controlled linear actuator provided standardized 300 N SMT simulations to six different cutaneous locations of the porcine lumbar spine: L2-L3 and L3-L4 facet joints (FJ), L3 and L4 transverse processes (TVP), and the space between the FJs and the TVPs (BTW). Vertebral kinematics were tracked optically using indwelling bone pins; the motion segment was removed and mounted in a parallel robot equipped with a six-axis load cell. Movements of each SMT application at each site were replayed by the robot with the intact specimen and following the sequential removal of spinal ligaments, FJs and IVD. Forces induced by SMT were recorded, and specific axes were analyzed using linear mixed models. Analyses yielded a significant difference (p<.05) in spinal structures loads as a function of the application site. Spinal manipulative therapy application at the L3 vertebra caused vertebral movements and forces between L3 and L4 spinal segment in the opposite direction to when SMT was applied at L4 vertebra. Additionally, SMT applications over the soft tissue between adjacent vertebrae significantly decreased spinal structure loads. Applying SMT with a constant force at different spinal levels creates different relative kinetics of the spinal segments and load spinal tissues in significantly different magnitudes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterizing the location of spinal and vertebral levels in the human cervical spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadotte, D W; Cadotte, A; Cohen-Adad, J; Fleet, D; Livne, M; Wilson, J R; Mikulis, D; Nugaeva, N; Fehlings, M G

    2015-04-01

    Advanced MR imaging techniques are critical to understanding the pathophysiology of conditions involving the spinal cord. We provide a novel, quantitative solution to map vertebral and spinal cord levels accounting for anatomic variability within the human spinal cord. For the first time, we report a population distribution of the segmental anatomy of the cervical spinal cord that has direct implications for the interpretation of advanced imaging studies most often conducted across groups of subjects. Twenty healthy volunteers underwent a T2-weighted, 3T MRI of the cervical spinal cord. Two experts marked the C3-C8 cervical nerve rootlets, C3-C7 vertebral bodies, and pontomedullary junction. A semiautomated algorithm was used to locate the centerline of the spinal cord and measure rostral-caudal distances from a fixed point in the brain stem, the pontomedullary junction, to each of the spinal rootlets and vertebral bodies. Distances to each location were compared across subjects. Six volunteers had 2 additional scans in neck flexion and extension to measure the effects of patient positioning in the scanner. We demonstrated that substantial variation exists in the rostral-caudal position of spinal cord segments among individuals and that prior methods of predicting spinal segments are imprecise. We also show that neck flexion or extension has little effect on the relative location of vertebral-versus-spinal levels. Accounting for spinal level variation is lacking in existing imaging studies. Future studies should account for this variation for accurate interpretation of the neuroanatomic origin of acquired MR signals. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  2. MRI findings of traumatic spinal subdural hematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hyeon Jo; Baek, Jung Hwan; Kim, Yun Suk; Jeong, Sun Ok; Park, Hyun Joo; Jo, Jin Man [Dae rim St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Tae [Inha General Hospital, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-04-01

    To describe the MR imaging findings of traumatic spinal subdural hematoma. We retrospectively reviewed the MR images of six patients, with symptoms of acute spinal cord or cauda equena compression after trauma, together with spinal subdural hematoma. We analyzed the extent, location, configuration and signal intensity of the lesions. In five of sex cases, hematomas were distributed extensively throughout the thoracolumbosacral or lumbosacral spinal levels. In five cases they were located in the dorsal portion of the thecal sac, and in one case, in the ventral portion. On axial images, hematomas showed a concave or convex contour, depending on the amount of loculated hematoma. A lobulated appearance was due to limitation of free extension of the hematoma within the subdural space at the lateral sites (nerve root exist zone) at whole spine levels, and at the posteromedian site under lumbar 4-5 levels. In cases of spinal subdural hematoma, the lobulated appearance of hematoma loculation in the subdural space that bounds the lateral sites at al spinal levels and at the posteromedian site under L4-5 levels is a characteristic finding. (author)

  3. Diffusion tensor imaging in spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamble, Ravindra B; Venkataramana, Neelam K; Naik, Arun L; Rao, Shailesh V

    2011-01-01

    To assess the feasibility of spinal tractography in patients of spinal cord injury vs a control group and to compare fractional anisotropy (FA) values between the groups. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed in the spinal cord of 29 patients (18 patients and 11 controls). DTI was done in the cervical region if the cord injury was at the dorsal or lumbar region and in the conus region if cord injury was in the cervical or dorsal region. FA was calculated for the patients and the controls and the values were compared. The mean FA value was 0.550±0.09 in the control group and 0.367±0.14 in the patients; this difference was statistically significant (P=0.001). Spinal tractography is a feasible technique to assess the extent of spinal cord injury by FA, which is reduced in patients of spinal cord injury, suggesting possible Wallerian degeneration. In future, this technique may become a useful tool for assessing cord injury patients after stem cell therapy, with improvement in FA values indicating axonal regeneration

  4. Effects of attenuation map accuracy on attenuation-corrected micro-SPECT images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, C.; Gratama van Andel, H.A.; Laverman, P.; Boerman, O.C.; Beekman, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background In single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), attenuation of photon flux in tissue affects quantitative accuracy of reconstructed images. Attenuation maps derived from X-ray computed tomography (CT) can be employed for attenuation correction. The attenuation coefficients as well

  5. Organization of hyperactive microglial cells in trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis and upper cervical spinal cord associated with orofacial neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuta, Kazuo; Suzuki, Ikuko; Shinoda, Masamichi; Tsuboi, Yoshiyuki; Honda, Kuniya; Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Sessle, Barry J; Iwata, Koichi

    2012-04-27

    The aim of this study was to evaluate spatial organization of hyperactive microglial cells in trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) and upper cervical spinal cord (C1), and to clarify the involvement in mechanisms underlying orofacial secondary hyperalgesia following infraorbital nerve injury. We found that the head-withdrawal threshold to non-noxious mechanical stimulation of the maxillary whisker pad skin was significantly reduced in chronic constriction injury of the infraorbital nerve (ION-CCI) rats from day 1 to day 14 after ION-CCI. On day 3 after ION-CCI, mechanical allodynia was obvious in the orofacial skin areas innervated by the 1st and 3rd branches of the trigeminal nerve as well as the 2nd branch area. Hyperactive microglial cells in Vc and C1 were observed on days 3 and 7 after ION-CCI. On day 3 after ION-CCI, a large number of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK)-immunoreactive (IR) cells were observed in Vc and C1. Many hyperactive microglial cells were also distributed over a wide area of Vc and C1 innervated by the trigeminal nerve. The intraperitoneal administration of minocycline significantly reduced the activation of microglial cells and the number of pERK-IR cells in Vc and C1, and also significantly attenuated the development of mechanical allodynia. Furthermore, enhanced background activity and mechanical evoked responses of Vc wide dynamic range neurons in ION-CCI rats were significantly reversed following minocycline administration. These findings suggest that activation of microglial cells over a wide area of Vc and C1 is involved in the enhancement of Vc and C1 neuronal excitability in the early period after ION-CCI, resulting in the neuropathic pain in orofacial areas innervated by the injured as well as uninjured nerves. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Spinal cysts. Diagnostic workup and therapy; Spinale Zysten. Diagnostik und Therapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simgen, A. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2018-02-15

    Spinal cysts can be classified as meningeal, not meningeal, and tumor-associated cysts. Due to the widespread availability of high-resolution computed tomography and magnet resonance imaging, spinal cysts can be detected with high sensitivity these days. Concerning the variety of potential cystic differential diagnoses, a precise classification is difficult and can often only be realized after surgical inspection or histological examination. Spinal cysts are generally incidental findings during a routine diagnostic workup and need no further therapy. Surgical treatment can be necessary if the spinal cyst reaches a certain size and causes neurological symptoms due to the compression of the spinal cord or the nerve root. (orig.) [German] Spinale Zysten koennen in meningeale, nichtmeningeale und tumorassoziierte Zysten eingeteilt werden. Durch die weite Verbreitung von hochaufloesenden Computer- und Magnetresonanztomographen koennen spinale Zysten heutzutage mit einer hohen Sensitivitaet erkannt werden. Eine genaue Klassifikation kann sich unter der Vielzahl der moeglichen zystischen Differenzialdiagnosen schwierig gestalten und ist haeufig nur durch eine chirurgische Inspektion oder die histologische Untersuchung moeglich. Meistens werden spinale Zysten bei der Routinediagnostik als Zufallsbefunde entdeckt und benoetigen keine weitere Therapie. Erreichen sie allerdings eine gewisse Groesse, koennen sie raumfordernd auf das Myelon oder einzelne Nervenwurzeln wirken und somit ausgepraegte neurologische Symptome verursachen. In solchen Faellen ist ein chirurgisches Vorgehen zur Resektion einer spinalen Zyste notwendig. (orig.)

  7. Targeting Lumbar Spinal Neural Circuitry by Epidural Stimulation to Restore Motor Function After Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minassian, Karen; McKay, W Barry; Binder, Heinrich; Hofstoetter, Ursula S

    2016-04-01

    Epidural spinal cord stimulation has a long history of application for improving motor control in spinal cord injury. This review focuses on its resurgence following the progress made in understanding the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms and on recent reports of its augmentative effects upon otherwise subfunctional volitional motor control. Early work revealed that the spinal circuitry involved in lower-limb motor control can be accessed by stimulating through electrodes placed epidurally over the posterior aspect of the lumbar spinal cord below a paralyzing injury. Current understanding is that such stimulation activates large-to-medium-diameter sensory fibers within the posterior roots. Those fibers then trans-synaptically activate various spinal reflex circuits and plurisegmentally organized interneuronal networks that control more complex contraction and relaxation patterns involving multiple muscles. The induced change in responsiveness of this spinal motor circuitry to any residual supraspinal input via clinically silent translesional neural connections that have survived the injury may be a likely explanation for rudimentary volitional control enabled by epidural stimulation in otherwise paralyzed muscles. Technological developments that allow dynamic control of stimulation parameters and the potential for activity-dependent beneficial plasticity may further unveil the remarkable capacity of spinal motor processing that remains even after severe spinal cord injuries.

  8. The effect of spinal manipulative therapy on spinal range of motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Millan, Mario; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Budgell, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) has been shown to have an effect on spine-related pain, both clinically and in experimentally induced pain. However, it is unclear if it has an immediate noticeable biomechanical effect on spinal motion that can be measured in terms of an increased range of motion...

  9. Optogenetics of the Spinal Cord: Use of Channelrhodopsin Proteins for Interrogation of Spinal Cord Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Habibur; Nam, Youngpyo; Kim, Jae-Hong; Lee, Won-Ha; Suk, Kyoungho

    2017-12-29

    Spinal cord circuits play a key role in receiving and transmitting somatosensory information from the body and the brain. They also contribute to the timing and coordination of complex patterns of movement. Under disease conditions, such as spinal cord injury and neuropathic pain, spinal cord circuits receive pain signals from peripheral nerves, and are involved in pain development via neurotransmitters and inflammatory mediators released from neurons and glial cells. Despite the importance of spinal cord circuits in sensory and motor functions, many questions remain regarding the relationship between activation of specific cells and behavioral responses. Optogenetics offers the possibility of understanding the complex cellular activity and mechanisms of spinal cord circuits, as well as having therapeutic potential for addressing spinal cord-related disorders. In this review, we discuss recent findings in optogenetic research employing the channelrhodopsin protein to assess the function of specific neurons and glia in spinal cord circuits ex vivo and in vivo. We also explore the possibilities and challenges of employing optogenetics technology in future therapeutic strategies for the treatment of spinal disorders. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  10. MR imaging of spinal factors and compression of the spinal cord in cervical myelopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokubun, Shoichi; Ozawa, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Minoru; Ishii, Sukenobu; Tani, Shotaro; Sato, Tetsuaki.

    1992-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images of surgical 109 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy were retrospectively reviewed to examine whether MR imaging would replace conventional radiological procedures in determining spinal factors and spinal cord compression in this disease. MR imaging was useful in determining spondylotic herniation, continuous type of ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament, and calcification of yellow ligament, probably replacing CT myelography, discography, and CT discography. When total defect of the subarachnoid space on T2-weighted images and block on myelograms were compared in determining spinal cord compression, the spinal cord was affected more extensively by 1.3 intervertebral distance (IVD) on T2-weighted images. When indentation of one third or more in anterior and posterior diameter of the spinal cord was used as spinal cord compression, the difference in the affected extension between myelography and MR imaging was 0.2 IVD on T1-weighted images and 0.6 IVD on T2-weighted images. However, when block was seen in 3 or more IVD on myelograms, the range of spinal cord compression tended to be larger on T1-weighted images. For a small range of spinal cord compression, T1-weighted imaging seems to be helpful in determining the range of decompression. When using T2-weighted imaging, the range of decompression becomes large, frequently including posterior decompression. (N.K.)

  11. Arterial Blood Supply to the Spinal Cord in Animal Models of Spinal Cord Injury. A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazensky, David; Flesarova, Slavka; Sulla, Igor

    2017-12-01

    Animal models are used to examine the results of experimental spinal cord injury. Alterations in spinal cord blood supply caused by complex spinal cord injuries contribute significantly to the diversity and severity of the spinal cord damage, particularly ischemic changes. However, the literature has not completely clarified our knowledge of anatomy of the complex three-dimensional arterial system of the spinal cord in experimental animals, which can impede the translation of experimental results to human clinical applications. As the literary sources dealing with the spinal cord arterial blood supply in experimental animals are limited and scattered, the authors performed a review of the anatomy of the arterial blood supply to the spinal cord in several experimental animals, including pigs, dogs, cats, rabbits, guinea pigs, rats, and mice and created a coherent format discussing the interspecies differences. This provides researchers with a valuable tool for the selection of the most suitable animal model for their experiments in the study of spinal cord ischemia and provides clinicians with a basis for the appropriate translation of research work to their clinical applications. Anat Rec, 300:2091-2106, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Changes in lumbosacral spinal nerve roots on diffusion tensor imaging in spinal stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-jun Hou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lumbosacral degenerative disc disease is a common cause of lower back and leg pain. Conventional T1-weighted imaging (T1WI and T2-weighted imaging (T2WI scans are commonly used to image spinal cord degeneration. However, these modalities are unable to image the entire lumbosacral spinal nerve roots. Thus, in the present study, we assessed the potential of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI for quantitative assessment of compressed lumbosacral spinal nerve roots. Subjects were 20 young healthy volunteers and 31 patients with lumbosacral stenosis. T2WI showed that the residual dural sac area was less than two-thirds that of the corresponding normal area in patients from L 3 to S 1 stenosis. On T1WI and T2WI, 74 lumbosacral spinal nerve roots from 31 patients showed compression changes. DTI showed thinning and distortion in 36 lumbosacral spinal nerve roots (49% and abruption in 17 lumbosacral spinal nerve roots (23%. Moreover, fractional anisotropy values were reduced in the lumbosacral spinal nerve roots of patients with lumbosacral stenosis. These findings suggest that DTI can objectively and quantitatively evaluate the severity of lumbosacral spinal nerve root compression.

  13. Changes in lumbosacral spinal nerve roots on diffusion tensor imaging in spinal stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Zhong-Jun; Huang, Yong; Fan, Zi-Wen; Li, Xin-Chun; Cao, Bing-Yi

    2015-11-01

    Lumbosacral degenerative disc disease is a common cause of lower back and leg pain. Conventional T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) and T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) scans are commonly used to image spinal cord degeneration. However, these modalities are unable to image the entire lumbosacral spinal nerve roots. Thus, in the present study, we assessed the potential of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) for quantitative assessment of compressed lumbosacral spinal nerve roots. Subjects were 20 young healthy volunteers and 31 patients with lumbosacral stenosis. T2WI showed that the residual dural sac area was less than two-thirds that of the corresponding normal area in patients from L3 to S1 stenosis. On T1WI and T2WI, 74 lumbosacral spinal nerve roots from 31 patients showed compression changes. DTI showed thinning and distortion in 36 lumbosacral spinal nerve roots (49%) and abruption in 17 lumbosacral spinal nerve roots (23%). Moreover, fractional anisotropy values were reduced in the lumbosacral spinal nerve roots of patients with lumbosacral stenosis. These findings suggest that DTI can objectively and quantitatively evaluate the severity of lumbosacral spinal nerve root compression.

  14. Acute injuries of the spinal cord and spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinemann, U.; Freund, M.

    2004-01-01

    Spinal injuries may result in severe neurological deficits, especially if the spinal cord or spinal nerve roots are involved. Patients may even die of a spinal shock. Besides presenting the important embryologic and anatomical basis underlying the typical radiological findings of spinal trauma, the trauma mechanisms and the resulting injuries are correlated. Special situations, such as the involvement of the alar ligaments and typical injuries in children, will be discussed as well as specific traumatic patters relevant for imaging. Based on the actual literature and recommendations of professional organizations, an approach is provided to the radiologic evaluation of spinal injuries. Advantages and disadvantages of the individual imaging modalities are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  15. Serotonin(2) receptors mediate respiratory recovery after cervical spinal cord hemisection in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S Y; Basura, G J; Goshgarian, H G

    2001-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to specifically investigate the involvement of serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT(2))] receptors in 5-HT-mediated respiratory recovery after cervical hemisection. Experiments were conducted on C(2) spinal cord-hemisected, anesthetized (chloral hydrate, 400 mg/kg ip), vagotomized, pancuronium- paralyzed, and artificially ventilated female Sprague-Dawley rats in which CO(2) levels were monitored and maintained. Twenty-four hours after spinal hemisection, the ipsilateral phrenic nerve displayed no respiratory-related activity indicative of a functionally complete hemisection. Intravenous administration of the 5-HT(2A/2C)-receptor agonist (+/-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine hydrochloride (DOI) induced respiratory-related activity in the phrenic nerve ipsilateral to hemisection under conditions in which CO(2) was maintained at constant levels and augmented the activity induced under conditions of hypercapnia. The effects of DOI were found to be dose dependent, and the recovery of activity could be maintained for up to 2 h after a single injection. DOI-induced recovery was attenuated by the 5-HT(2)-receptor antagonist ketanserin but not with the 5-HT(2C)-receptor antagonist RS-102221, suggesting that 5-HT(2A) and not necessarily 5-HT(2C) receptors may be involved in the induction of respiratory recovery after cervical spinal cord injury.

  16. Intraoperative monitoring for spinal radiculomedullary artery aneurysm occlusion treatment: What, when, and how long?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landriel, Federico; Baccanelli, Matteo; Hem, Santiago; Vecchi, Eduardo; Bendersky, Mariana; Yampolsky, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    Spinal radiculomedullary artery aneurysms are extremely rare. Treatment should be tailored to clinical presentation, distal aneurysm flow, and lesion anatomical features. When a surgical occlusion is planned, it is necessary to evaluate whether intraoperative monitoring (IOM) should be considered as an indispensable tool to prevent potential spinal cord ischemia. We present a patient with symptoms and signs of spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage resulting from the rupture of a T4 anterior radiculomedullary aneurysm who underwent open surgical treatment under motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring. Due to the aneurysmal fusiform shape and preserved distal flow, the afferent left anterior radiculomedullary artery was temporarily clipped; 2 minutes after the clamping, the threshold stimulation level rose higher than 100 V, and at minute 3, MEPs amplitude became attenuated over 50%. This was considered as a warning criteria to leave the vessel occlusion. The radiculomedullary aneurysm walls were reinforced and wrapped with muscle and fibrin glue to prevent re-bleeding. The patient awoke from general anesthesia without focal neurologic deficit and made an uneventful recovery with complete resolution of her symptoms and signs. This paper attempts to build awareness of the possibility to cause or worsen a neurological deficit if a radiculomedullary aneurysm with preserved distal flow is clipped or embolized without an optimal IOM control. We report in detail MEP monitoring during the occlusion of a unilateral T4 segmental artery that supplies an anterior radiculomedullary artery aneurysm.

  17. Fisetin exerts antihyperalgesic effect in a mouse model of neuropathic pain: engagement of spinal serotonergic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Wang, Chuang; Cui, Wu-Geng; Ma, Qing; Zhou, Wen-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Fisetin, a natural flavonoid, has been shown in our previous studies to exert antidepressant-like effect. As antidepressant drugs are clinically used to treat chronic neuropathic pain, this work aimed to investigate the potential antinociceptive efficacies of fisetin against neuropathic pain and explore mechanism(s). We subjected mice to chronic constriction injury (CCI) by loosely ligating the sciatic nerves, and Hargreaves test or von Frey test was used to assess thermal hyperalgesia or mechanical allodynia, respectively. Chronic fisetin treatment (5, 15 or 45 mg/kg, p.o.) ameliorated thermal hyperalgesia (but not mechanical allodynia) in CCI mice, concomitant with escalated levels of spinal monoamines and suppressed monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A activity. The antihyperalgesic action of fisetin was abolished by chemical depletion of spinal serotonin (5-HT) but potentiated by co-treatment with 5-HTP, a precursor of 5-HT. Moreover, intraperitoneal (i.p.) or intrathecal (i.t.) co-treatment with 5-HT7 receptor antagonist SB-258719 completely abrogated fisetin's antihyperalgesia. These findings confirm that chronic fisetin treatment exerts antinociceptive effect on thermal hyperalgesia in neuropathic mice, with spinal serotonergic system (coupled with 5-HT7) being critically involved. Of special benefit, fisetin attenuated co-morbidly behavioral symptoms of depression and anxiety (evaluated in forced swim test, novelty suppressed feeding test and light-dark test) evoked by neuropathic pain. PMID:25761874

  18. Role of allografts in spinal surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz Nather

    1999-01-01

    With development of more tissue banks in the region and internationally, allografts are increasingly being used in orthopaedic surgery including spinal surgery. Two groups of patients will particularly benefit from the use of allografts. The first group is young children in whom iliac crest is cartilaginous and cannot provide sufficient quantity of autografts. The second is the elderly where bones from iliac crest are porotic and fatty. Allografts are used to fulfill two distinct functions in Spinal Surgery. One is to act as a buttress for anterior spinal surgery using cortical allografts. The other is to enhance fusion for posterior spinal surgery. Up to December 1997, 71 transplantations have been performed using allografts from NUH Tissue Bank. Anterior Spinal Surgery has been performed in 15 cases. The indications are mainly Trauma-Burst Fractures and Spinal Secondaries to the Spine. All cases are in thoracic and thoracolumbar region. Allografts used are deep frozen and freeze-dried cortical allografts. Femur is used for thoraco-lumbar region and humerus for upper thoracic region. Instrumentation used ranged from anterior devices (Canada, DCP, Synergy etc) to posterior devices (ISOLA). Deep frozen allografts and more recently freeze-dried allografts are preferred especially for osteoporotic spines. Cortical allografts are packed with autografts from ribs in the medullary canal. Allograft-autograft composites are always used to ensure better incorporation. Postero-lateral fusion has been performed for 56 cases. The indications include congenital and idiopathic scoliosis, degenerative stenosis, degenerative spondylolisthesis, spondylolytic spondylolisthesis, fracture-dislocation, osteoporotic burst fracture, spinal secondaries with cord compression and traumatic spondylolisthesis. Deep frozen bone allografts are used in combination with patient's own autografts from spinous processes to provide a 50% mix. Instrumentation used include Hartshill, Steffee, Isola

  19. Transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation of the lumbar and sacral spinal cord: a modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Sofia R.; Salvador, Ricardo; Wenger, Cornelia; de Carvalho, Mamede; Miranda, Pedro C.

    2018-06-01

    Objective. Our aim was to perform a computational study of the electric field (E-field) generated by transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS) applied over the thoracic, lumbar and sacral spinal cord, in order to assess possible neuromodulatory effects on spinal cord circuitry related with lower limb functions. Approach. A realistic volume conductor model of the human body consisting of 14 tissues was obtained from available databases. Rubber pad electrodes with a metallic connector and a conductive gel layer were modelled. The finite element (FE) method was used to calculate the E-field when a current of 2.5 mA was passed between two electrodes. The main characteristics of the E-field distributions in the spinal grey matter (spinal-GM) and spinal white matter (spinal-WM) were compared for seven montages, with the anode placed either over T10, T8 or L2 spinous processes (s.p.), and the cathode placed over right deltoid (rD), umbilicus (U) and right iliac crest (rIC) areas or T8 s.p. Anisotropic conductivity of spinal-WM and of a group of dorsal muscles near the vertebral column was considered. Main results. The average E-field magnitude was predicted to be above 0.15 V m-1 in spinal cord regions located between the electrodes. L2-T8 and T8-rIC montages resulted in the highest E-field magnitudes in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (>0.30 V m-1). E-field longitudinal component is 3 to 6 times higher than the ventral-dorsal and right-left components in both the spinal-GM and WM. Anatomical features such as CSF narrowing due to vertebrae bony edges or disks intrusions in the spinal canal correlate with local maxima positions. Significance. Computational modelling studies can provide detailed information regarding the electric field in the spinal cord during tsDCS. They are important to guide the design of clinical tsDCS protocols that optimize stimulation of application-specific spinal targets.

  20. Postoperative spinal column; Postoperative Wirbelsaeule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaefer, W. [Westpfalzklinikum GmbH, Standort II, Abteilung fuer Wirbelsaeulenchirurgie, Kusel (Germany); Heumueller, I. [Westpfalzklinikum GmbH, Standort II, Institut fuer Radiologie II, Kusel (Germany); Harsch, N.; Kraus, C.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2016-08-15

    As a rule, postoperative imaging is carried out after spinal interventions to document the exact position of the implant material. Imaging is absolutely necessary when new clinical symptoms occur postoperatively. In this case a rebleeding or an incorrect implant position abutting a root or the spinal cord must be proven. In addition to these immediately occurring postoperative clinical symptoms, there are a number of complications that can occur several days, weeks or even months later. These include the failed back surgery syndrome, implant loosening or breakage of the material and relapse of a disc herniation and spondylodiscitis. In addition to knowledge of the original clinical symptoms, it is also important to know the operation details, such as the access route and the material used. In almost all postoperative cases, imaging with contrast medium administration and corresponding correction of artefacts by the implant material, such as the dual energy technique, correction algorithms and the use of special magnetic resonance (MR) sequences are necessary. In order to correctly assess the postoperative imaging, knowledge of the surgical procedure and the previous clinical symptoms are mandatory besides special computed tomography (CT) techniques and MR sequences. (orig.) [German] In der Regel erfolgt bei spinalen Eingriffen eine postoperative Bildgebung, um die exakte Lage des Implantatmaterials zu dokumentieren. Unbedingt notwendig ist die Bildgebung, wenn postoperativ neue klinische Symptome aufgetreten sind. Hier muessen eine Nachblutung bzw. inkorrekte, eine Wurzel oder das Myelon tangierende Implantatlage nachgewiesen werden. Neben diesen direkt postoperativ auftretenden klinischen Symptomen gibt es eine Reihe von Komplikationen, die erst nach mehreren Tagen, Wochen oder sogar nach Monaten auftreten koennen. Hierzu zaehlen das Failed-back-surgery-Syndrom, die Implantatlockerung oder -bruch, aber auch ein Rezidivvorfall und die Spondylodiszitis. Neben der

  1. Mesenchymal stem cells promote augmented response of endogenous neural stem cells in spinal cord injury of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rocha Araujo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic spinal cord injury results in severe neurological deficits, mostly irreversible. The cell therapy represents a strategy for treatment particularly with the use of stem cells with satisfactory results in several experimental models. The aim of the study was to compare the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI with and without mesenchymal stem cells (MSC, to investigate whether MSCs migrate and/or remain at the site of injury, and to analyze the effects of MSCs on inflammation, astrocytic reactivity and activation of endogenous stem cells. Three hours after SCI, animals received bone marrow-derived MSCs (1×107 in 1mL PBS, IV. Animals were euthanized 24 hours, 7 and 21 days post-injury. The MSC were not present in the site of the lesion and the immunofluorescent evaluation showed significant attenuation of inflammatory response with reduction in macrophages labeled with anti-CD68 antibody (ED1, decreased immunoreactivity of astrocytes (GFAP+ and greater activation of endogenous stem cells (nestin+ in the treated groups. Therefore, cell transplantation have a positive effect on recovery from traumatic spinal cord injury possibly due to the potential of MSCs to attenuate the immune response.

  2. The Lesioned Spinal Cord Is a “New” Spinal Cord: Evidence from Functional Changes after Spinal Injury in Lamprey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David

    2017-01-01

    Finding a treatment for spinal cord injury (SCI) focuses on reconnecting the spinal cord by promoting regeneration across the lesion site. However, while regeneration is necessary for recovery, on its own it may not be sufficient. This presumably reflects the requirement for regenerated inputs to interact appropriately with the spinal cord, making sub-lesion network properties an additional influence on recovery. This review summarizes work we have done in the lamprey, a model system for SCI research. We have compared locomotor behavior (swimming) and the properties of descending inputs, locomotor networks, and sensory inputs in unlesioned animals and animals that have received complete spinal cord lesions. In the majority (∼90%) of animals swimming parameters after lesioning recovered to match those in unlesioned animals. Synaptic inputs from individual regenerated axons also matched the properties in unlesioned animals, although this was associated with changes in release parameters. This suggests against any compensation at these synapses for the reduced descending drive that will occur given that regeneration is always incomplete. Compensation instead seems to occur through diverse changes in cellular and synaptic properties in locomotor networks and proprioceptive systems below, but also above, the lesion site. Recovery of locomotor performance is thus not simply the reconnection of the two sides of the spinal cord, but reflects a distributed and varied range of spinal cord changes. While locomotor network changes are insufficient on their own for recovery, they may facilitate locomotor outputs by compensating for the reduction in descending drive. Potentiated sensory feedback may in turn be a necessary adaptation that monitors and adjusts the output from the “new” locomotor network. Rather than a single aspect, changes in different components of the motor system and their interactions may be needed after SCI. If these are general features, and where

  3. A Brain–Spinal Interface Alleviating Gait Deficits after Spinal Cord Injury in Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capogrosso, Marco; Milekovic, Tomislav; Borton, David; Wagner, Fabien; Moraud, Eduardo Martin; Mignardot, Jean-Baptiste; Buse, Nicolas; Gandar, Jerome; Barraud, Quentin; Xing, David; Rey, Elodie; Duis, Simone; Jianzhong, Yang; Ko, Wai Kin D.; Li, Qin; Detemple, Peter; Denison, Tim; Micera, Silvestro; Bezard, Erwan; Bloch, Jocelyne; Courtine, Grégoire

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury disrupts the communication between the brain and the spinal circuits that orchestrate movement. To bypass the lesion, brain–computer interfaces1–3 have directly linked cortical activity to electrical stimulation of muscles, which have restored grasping abilities after hand paralysis1,4. Theoretically, this strategy could also restore control over leg muscle activity for walking5. However, replicating the complex sequence of individual muscle activation patterns underlying natural and adaptive locomotor movements poses formidable conceptual and technological challenges6,7. Recently, we showed in rats that epidural electrical stimulation of the lumbar spinal cord can reproduce the natural activation of synergistic muscle groups producing locomotion8–10. Here, we interfaced leg motor cortex activity with epidural electrical stimulation protocols to establish a brain–spinal interface that alleviated gait deficits after a spinal cord injury in nonhuman primates. Rhesus monkeys were implanted with an intracortical microelectrode array into the leg area of motor cortex; and a spinal cord stimulation system composed of a spatially selective epidural implant and a pulse generator with real-time triggering capabilities. We designed and implemented wireless control systems that linked online neural decoding of extension and flexion motor states with stimulation protocols promoting these movements. These systems allowed the monkeys to behave freely without any restrictions or constraining tethered electronics. After validation of the brain–spinal interface in intact monkeys, we performed a unilateral corticospinal tract lesion at the thoracic level. As early as six days post-injury and without prior training of the monkeys, the brain–spinal interface restored weight-bearing locomotion of the paralyzed leg on a treadmill and overground. The implantable components integrated in the brain–spinal interface have all been approved for investigational

  4. Sonographic findings of normal newborn spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan Sup; Kim, Dong Gyu

    1988-01-01

    The authors performed spinal cord ultrasonography of 21 healthy newborn infants in Gyeongsang National University Hospital. Normal spinal cord revealed low echogenecity at that of cerebrospinal fluid and was demarcated by intense reflections from its dorsal and ventral surfaces. The central canal was routinely seen as a thin linear reflection in the center of the cord. The nerve roots making up the cauda equina formed a poorly defined collection of intense linear echoes extending from the conus. On real time image, the normal spinal cord exhibited rather slow and rhythmical anteroposterior movement within the subarachnoid fluid. A distinct and rapid vascular pulsation of the spinal cord was usually recognizable. The approximate level of vertebral bodies was determined as follows; most ventrally located vertebral body was thought to be L5 and S1 was seen slightly posterior to the L5 directed inferoposteriorly. According to the above criteria terminal portions of spinal cord were seen around the L2 body in 5 MHz and pointed termination of conus medullaris was clearly seen at L2-3 junction and in upper body of L3 by 7.5 MHz. So it would be better to examine by 5 MHz for spatial orientation and then by 7.5 MHz for more accurate examination. High-resolution, real-time ultrasonography was a safe, rapid screening technique for evaluation of the spinal cord in infants. Additional applications of spinal sonography may be possible in the evaluation of neonatal syringohydromyelia and meningocele as well as intraspinal cyst localization for possible percutaneous puncture by ultrasound guidance

  5. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles for treating spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Schenk, Désirée.; Shi, Riyi; Leary, James F.

    2013-02-01

    An estimated 12,000 new cases of spinal cord injury (SCI) occur every year in the United States. A small oxidative molecule responsible for secondary injury, acrolein, is an important target in SCI. Acrolein attacks essential proteins and lipids, creating a feed-forward loop of oxidative stress in both the primary injury area and the surrounding areas. A small molecule used and FDA-approved for hypertension, hydralazine, has been found to "scavenge" acrolein after injury, but its delivery and short half-life, as well as its hypertension effects, hinder its application for SCI. Nanomedical systems broaden the range of therapeutic availability and efficacy over conventional medicine. They allow for targeted delivery of therapeutic molecules to tissues of interest, reducing side effects of untargeted therapies in unwanted areas. Nanoparticles made from silica form porous networks that can carry therapeutic molecules throughout the body. To attenuate the acrolein cascade and improve therapeutic availability, we have used a one-step, modified Stober method to synthesize two types of silica nanoparticles. Both particles are "stealth-coated" with poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) (to minimize interactions with the immune system and to increase circulation time), which is also a therapeutic agent for SCI by facilitating membrane repair. One nanoparticle type contains an amine-terminal PEG (SiNP-mPEG-Am) and the other possesses a terminal hydrazide group (SiNP-mPEG-Hz). The former allows for exploration of hydralazine delivery, loading, and controlled release. The latter group has the ability to react with acrolein, allowing the nanoparticle to scavenge directly. The nanoparticles have been characterized and are being explored using neuronal PC-12 cells in vitro, demonstrating the potential of novel silica nanoparticles for use in attenuating secondary injury after SCI.

  6. NMR imaging of the vertebral column and the spinal canal. 2. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsting, Michael; Uhlenbrock, Detlev; Wanke, Isabel; Universitaetsklinikum Essen

    2009-01-01

    The book on the MRT (magnetic resonance tomography) of the vertebral cord and spinal canal covers the following topics: physics fundamentals and application; malformation of the spinal canal; degenerative vertebral column diseases; vertebral column and spinal canal carcinomas; inflammatory diseases of the vertebral column and the spinal canal; applicability of MRT in case of acute spinal cord traumata; vascular diseases of the spinal canal

  7. Brain and spinal cord neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.E.; Bragg, D.G.; Youker, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Traditional means of detecting CNS neoplasms include plain film studies, isotope brain scans, angiography, pneumoencephalography, and myelography. Computed tomography (CT) scanning has replaced nearly all of these studies in both the initial detection and follow-up of brain tumors. Air studies (pneumoencephalography and ventriculography) have been virtually eliminated, except in certain unusual circumstances when two positions need to be checked, or hydrocephalus followed. The nuclear brain scan has a very limited role at present, being useful primarily for detecting skull or meningeal metastases. Myelography, however, remains a valuable imaging tool for the assessment of tumors of the spinal canal. CT scanning has not only improved our ability to detect smaller brain tumors, but also CT guided stereotactic biopsy techniques provide a safer means of obtaining tissue from these smaller lesions, regardless of location. Surgical techniques, guided by CT sterotactic techniques, show promise as well, but the impact of these therapeutic techniques on survival statistics remains to be defined. CT has revolutionized the approach to the detection and diagnosis of space-occupying lesions in the brain. Tumors can be detected at a smaller site

  8. Spinal anesthesia; the Holy Grail?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voet M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Marieke Voet, Cornelis SlagtDepartment of Anesthesiology, Pain and Palliative Care, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The NetherlandsAfter reading the paper recently published in Local and Regional Anesthesia by Whitaker et al:1 “Spinal anesthesia after intraoperative cardiac arrest during general anesthesia in an infant,” we would like to share our thoughts. In a recently published paper by Habre et al,2 the incidence of severe critical events in pediatric anesthesia was investigated. In 261 hospitals across Europe (33 countries, severe critical events were registered. In total, 31,127 anesthetic procedures in 30,874 children were included. Age, medical history, and physical condition were the major risk factors for a serious critical event. In total, 1,478 patients had a critical event, most of them during or immediately after anesthesia. Children younger than 3 years of age are at risk for critical events.View the original paper by Whitaker and colleagues.

  9. Beam Attenuators and the Risk of Unrecognized Large-Fraction Irradiation of Critical Tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luka, S.; Marks, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiation beam attenuators led to radiation injury of the spinal cord in one patient and of the peripheral nerve in another due to unsuspected large-fraction irradiation. The anatomic distribution of radiation dose was reconstructed in the sagittal plane for the patient who developed radiation myelopathy and in the axial plane for the patient who developed peripheral neuropathy. The actual dose delivered to the injured structure in each patient was taken from the dose distribution and recorded along with the time, number of fractions, and dose per fraction. The patient who developed radiation myelopathy received a total of 46.5 Gy in twenty-three 2.1 Gy fractions in 31 days to the upper cervical spinal cord where the thickness of the neck was less than the central axis thickness due to cervical lordosis and absence of a posterior compensating filter. The patient who developed peripheral neuropathy received 55 Gy in twenty-five 2.2 Gy fractions in 50 days to the femoral nerve using bolus over the groins and an anterior one-half value layer Cerrobend pelvic block to bias the dose anteriorly. Compensating filters and other beam attenuators should be used with caution because they may result in unsuspected large-fraction irradiation and total doses of radiation that exceed the tolerance of critical structures.

  10. Beam Attenuators and the Risk of Unrecognized Large-Fraction Irradiation of Critical Tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luka, S.; Marks, J.E.

    2015-01-15

    The use of radiation beam attenuators led to radiation injury of the spinal cord in one patient and of the peripheral nerve in another due to unsuspected large-fraction irradiation. The anatomic distribution of radiation dose was reconstructed in the sagittal plane for the patient who developed radiation myelopathy and in the axial plane for the patient who developed peripheral neuropathy. The actual dose delivered to the injured structure in each patient was taken from the dose distribution and recorded along with the time, number of fractions, and dose per fraction. The patient who developed radiation myelopathy received a total of 46.5 Gy in twenty-three 2.1 Gy fractions in 31 days to the upper cervical spinal cord where the thickness of the neck was less than the central axis thickness due to cervical lordosis and absence of a posterior compensating filter. The patient who developed peripheral neuropathy received 55 Gy in twenty-five 2.2 Gy fractions in 50 days to the femoral nerve using bolus over the groins and an anterior one-half value layer Cerrobend pelvic block to bias the dose anteriorly. Compensating filters and other beam attenuators should be used with caution because they may result in unsuspected large-fraction irradiation and total doses of radiation that exceed the tolerance of critical structures.

  11. [Urinary incontinence in degenerative spinal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Riggo, J; Benčo, M; Kolarovszki, B; Lupták, J; Svihra, J

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of urinary incontinence in patients with chronic degenerative spinal disease and to identify factors affecting the occurrence and changes in urinary incontinence after surgery. The group evaluated comprised 214 patients undergoing surgery for degenerative spinal disease at our department between January 1 and December 31, 2008. The patients were categorised according to the type of their degenerative disease (cervical disc herniation, lumbar disc herniation, spinal stenosis, spinal instability or olisthesis) and the spine level involved (cervical or lumbar spine). The symptoms of urinary incontinence included leakage of urine and non-obstructive chronic urinary retention developing in association with the manifestation of vertebrogenic disorder. Patients with diseases known to increase the risk of incontinence were not included in the study. Based on a retrospective analysis of the patients' clinical notes, the occurrence of urinary incontinence in each type of degenerative spinal disease was assessed. The effect of gender, age, body mass index (BMI), neurological status and spinal disease type on the development of incontinence was statistically evaluated. The efficacy of surgical treatment was assessed on the basis of the patients' subjective complaints at the first follow-up one month after surgery. The data were evaluated by the statistical programme InSTAT (analysis of variance ANOVA, t-test). All tests were two-sided; a 0.05 level of statistical significance was used. Of the 214 patients with degenerative spinal disease, 27 (12.6%) had urinary incontinence. A higher risk of developing incontinence was found in women (p = 0.008) and in patients with radicular weakness (p = 0.023). The patients with urinary incontinence had their BMI significantly lower than patients without this disorder (p = 0.019). Age had no effect. The differences in the occurrence of urinary incontinence amongst the different types of

  12. Central nociceptive sensitization vs. spinal cord training: Opposing forms of plasticity that dictate function after complete spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R Ferguson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The spinal cord demonstrates several forms of plasticity that resemble brain-dependent learning and memory. Among the most studied form of spinal plasticity is spinal memory for noxious (nociceptive stimulation. Numerous papers have described central pain as a spinally-stored memory that enhances future responses to cutaneous stimulation. This phenomenon, known as central sensitization, has broad relevance to a range of pathological conditions. Work from the spinal cord injury (SCI field indicates that the lumbar spinal cord demonstrates several other forms of plasticity, including formal learning and memory. After complete thoracic SCI, the lumbar spinal cord can be trained by delivering stimulation to the hindleg when the leg is extended. In the presence of this response-contingent stimulation the spinal cord rapidly learns to hold the leg in a flexed position, a centrally mediated effect that meets the formal criteria for instrumental (response-outcome learning. Instrumental flexion training produces a central change in spinal plasticity that enables future spinal learning on both the ipsilateral and contralateral leg. However, if stimulation is given in a response-independent manner, the spinal cord develops central maladaptive plasticity that undermines future spinal learning on both legs. The present paper tests for interactions between spinal cord training and central nociceptive sensitization after complete spinal cord transection. We found that spinal training alters future central sensitization by intradermal formalin (24 h post-training. Conversely intradermal formalin impaired future spinal learning (24 h post-injection. Because the NMDA receptor has been implicated in formalin-induced central sensitization, we tested whether pretreatment with NMDA affects spinal learning. We found intrathecal NMDA impaired learning in a dose-dependent fashion, and that this effect endures for at least 24h. These data provide strong evidence for an

  13. Genetics Home Reference: spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... myoclonic epilepsy Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... boxes. Description Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy (SMA-PME) is a neurological condition that causes ...

  14. General Information about Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The tentorium separates the supratentorium from the infratentorium (right panel). The skull and meninges protect the brain and spinal cord (left panel). The spinal cord connects the brain with ...

  15. Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The tentorium separates the supratentorium from the infratentorium (right panel). The skull and meninges protect the brain and spinal cord (left panel). The spinal cord connects the brain with ...

  16. Seminal plasma PSA in spinal cord injured men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brasso, K; Sønksen, J; Sommer, P

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of spinal cord injury on seminal plasma PSA concentration.......The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of spinal cord injury on seminal plasma PSA concentration....

  17. Surgical Decompression for Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-24

    Jan 24, 2018 ... spinal cord decompression with or without spinal stabilization in our region. Methodology: We ... decompression and fixation in this series were surgical site infections (11.4%) and ..... group and died of respiratory failure.

  18. An interesting case of primary spinal arachnoiditis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Vaughan, Denis

    2012-02-27

    Spinal arachnoiditis describes inflammation of the meninges, subarachnoid space and, in most cases, also involve the pial layer. The vast majority of cases described are secondary and are preceded by a known event, for example,. trauma, infections or irritative substances. Here, we present the case of primary spinal arachnoiditis. A 35-year-old lady was referred to the neurosurgical services in Dublin, Ireland with a 15-month history of progressive, right lower limb weakness. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed cystic distortion of the lumbar spinal canal extending up to the conus. Initially, an L2-L4 laminectomy was performed revealing thickened and adherent arachnoid with a large cyst in the spinal canal. Four months after initial operation, the patient represented with bilateral lower limb weakness and loss of detrusor function. Repeat magnetic resonance imaging was performed, which showed the development of a syrinx in the patient\\'s thoracic spine. We then performed a T9-T10 laminectomy, midline myelotomy and insertion of a syringe-arachnoid shunt. Post-operative imaging showed resolution of the syrinx and a vast improvement in lower limb power. The patient also regained bladder control. In conclusion, spinal arachnoiditis is a clearly defined pathological and radiological entity with a highly variable clinical presentation. It is exceedingly difficult to treat as there is no recognised treatment currently, with most interventions aimed at symptomatic relief.

  19. Spinal injuries in skiers and snowboarders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazi, F; Dvorak, M F; Wing, P C

    1999-01-01

    Spinal injuries are among the most devastating injuries associated with recreational sports. Snowboarding spinal injury patterns have not been described. During two seasons (1994 to 1995 and 1995 to 1996), 34 skiers and 22 snowboarders suffered serious spinal injuries (fracture or neurologic deficit or both) at two ski areas in British Columbia, Canada. Ski patrol records, the Provincial Trauma Database, and hospital records were reviewed. Injury rates were based on computerized lift-ticket data and a population estimate of 15% snowboarders (ski patrol observation). The incidence of spinal injury among skiers was 0.01 per 1000 skier-days, and among snowboarders was 0.04 per 1000 snowboarder-days. Mean age was 34.5 years for skiers and 22.4 years for snowboarders. Seventy percent of the skiers were men, whereas all of the snowboarders were men. Jumping (intentional jump > 2 meters) was the cause of injury in 20% of skiers and 77% of snowboarders. Neither age nor sex accounted for any significant portion of this difference. The rate of spinal injuries among snowboarders is fourfold that among skiers. Although jumping is the primary cause of injury, it is an intrinsic element of snowboarding. Until research defines effective injury-prevention strategies, knowledge of the risk of snowboarding should be disseminated and techniques for safe jumping should be taught.

  20. Spinal cord injuries among paragliders in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekand, T; Schaanning, E E; Varga, V; Schattel, U; Gronning, M

    2008-06-01

    A national retrospective descriptive study. To study the clinical effects of spinal cord injuries (SCIs) caused by paragliding accidents in Norway. Spinal cord units at Haukeland University Hospital, Sunnaas Rehabilitation Hospital and St Olav Hospital in Norway. We studied the medical files for nine patients with SCI caused by paragliding accidents to evaluate the circumstances of the accidents, and clinical effects of injury. We obtained the data from hospital patient files at all three spinal units in Norway and crosschecked them through the Norwegian Paragliding Association's voluntary registry for injuries. All patients were hospitalized from 1997 to 2006, eight men and one woman, with mean age 30.7 years. The causes of the accidents were landing problems combined with unexpected wind whirls, technical problems and limited experience with unexpected events. All patients contracted fractures in the thoracolumbal junction of the spine, most commonly at the L1 level. At clinical follow-up, all patients presented clinically incomplete SCI (American Spinal Injury Association impairment scores B-D). Their main health problems differed widely, ranging from urinary and sexual disturbances to neuropathic pain and loss of motor functioning. Only three patients returned to full-time employment after rehabilitation. Paragliding accidents cause spinal fractures predominantly in the thoracolumbal junction with subsequent SCIs and increased morbidity. All patients experienced permanent health problems that influenced daily activities and required long-time clinical follow-up and medical intervention. Better education in landing techniques and understanding of aerodynamics may reduce the risk of paragliding accidents.

  1. Radiation tolerance of the cervical spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCunniff, A.J.; Liang, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    The incidence of permanent injury to the spinal cord as a complication of radiation therapy generally correlates positively with total radiation dosage. However, several reports in the literature have indicated that fraction size is also an important factor in the development or nondevelopment of late injuries in normal tissue. To determine the effect of fraction size on the incidence of radiation-induced spinal cord injuries, we reviewed 144 cases of head and neck cancer treated at our institution between 1971 and 1980 with radiation greater than 5600 cGy to a portion of the cervical spinal cord. Most of these patients received greater than or equal to 6000 cGy, with fraction sizes ranging from 133 cGy to 200 cGy. Fifty-three of the 144 patients have been followed up for 2 years or more. Nearly half of these (26 patients) received greater than 6000 cGy with fraction sizes of 133 cGy to 180 cGy. Only 1 of the 53 (1.9%) has sustained permanent spinal cord injury; 20 months after completion of radiation treatments he developed Brown-Sequard syndrome. Our experience suggests that radiation injuries to the spinal cord correlate not only with total radiation dosage, but also with fraction size; low fraction sizes appear to decrease the incidence of such injuries

  2. Radiation effects in brain and spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franke, H.D.; Lierse, W.

    1978-01-01

    Radiation sensitivity of both the brain and spinal cord in prenatal and postnatal stages, in infancy and adult age is represented also in consideration of a combined treatment with methotrexate. In adults, application of important doses of high-energy radiation increases the risk of injurious effects to the central nervous system. If the spinal cord is involved, more than 60% of the radiolesions have a progredient course ending with death. The pathogenesis and disposing factors are referred to, and the incidence of radiation necrosis with regard to age and sex, the degrees of injury and their frequence within different ranges of dosage are analyzed on the basis of data from universal literature. An examination of 'tolerance doses' for the spinal cord is made by means of Strandquist-diagrams and of the Ellis-formula. The slopes of regression lines are reported for various 'degrees of response' in skin, brain and spinal cord following radiation therapy. In the Strandquist-diagram, slopes of regression lines are dependent on the 'degree of response', flattening if skin and spinal cord are affected by radiation in the same degree, necroses having the same slope for both the organs. (orig./MG) [de

  3. Radiologic analysis of the spinal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyoung Sang; Suh, Jin Suck; Park, Chang Yun

    1986-01-01

    Tuberculosis remains high incidental disease in Korea with an estimated incidence of 2.5% in general population. Among the tuberculosis of bone, spinal tuberculous is high incidence and curable disease, but early treatment demands early diagnosis. Authors reviewed clinical aspects of 376 cases, and reviewed conventional films of 74 cases and computed tomography of 8 cases, confirmed histopathologically as spinal tuberculosis from Jan. 1976 to May 1985 at Yonsei medical center, Yonsei University. The results were as follows: 1. The frequent site of involvement were lower thoracic and lumbar vertebra, 4th lumbar vertebra was the most common lesion site among them. 2. The separated lesions were 10.2% among spinal lesion. 3. The most common type and pattern of bone density was intervertebral type and mixed pattern each other. 4. Paravertebral abscess, kyphosis and narrowing of intervertebral disc space were discovered more than 80% in reviewed conventional films. 5. In children, there is no predilection site. 6. Spinal computed tomography was more accurate diagnostic method than conventional study in the evaluation of following aspects; 1) extent of lesion 2) degree of spinal canal involvement 3) change of surrounding organ

  4. Rupture Following Biceps-to-Triceps Tendon Transfer in Adolescents and Young Adults With Spinal Cord Injury:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merenda, Lisa A.; Rutter, Laure; Curran, Kimberly; Kozin, Scott H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Tendon transfer surgery can restore elbow extension in approximately 70% of persons with tetraplegia and often results in antigravity elbow extension strength. However, we have noted an almost 15% rupture/attenuation rate. Objective: This investigation was conducted to analyze potential causes in adolescents/young adults with spinal cord injury (SCI) who experienced tendon rupture or attenuation after biceps-to-triceps transfer. Methods: Medical charts of young adults with SCI who underwent biceps-to-triceps transfer and experienced tendon rupture or attenuation were reviewed. Data collected by retrospective chart review included general demographics, surgical procedure(s), use and duration of antibiotic treatment, time from tendon transfer surgery to rupture/attenuation, and method of diagnosis. Results: Twelve subjects with tetraplegia (mean age, 19 years) who underwent biceps-to-triceps reconstruction with subsequent tendon rupture or attenuation were evaluated. Mean age at time of tendon transfer was 18 years (range, 14-21 years). A fluoroquinolone was prescribed for 42% (n=5) of subjects. Tendon rupture was noted in 67% (n=8), and attenuation was noted in 33% (n=4). Average length of time from surgery to tendon rupture/attenuation was 5.7 months (range, 3-10 months). Conclusion: Potential contributing causes of tendon rupture/attenuation after transfer include surgical technique, rehabilitation, co-contraction of the transfer, poor patient compliance, and medications. In this cohort, 5 subjects were prescribed fluoroquinolones that have a US Food and Drug Administration black box concerning tendon ruptures. Currently, all candidates for upper extremity tendon transfer reconstruction are counseled on the effects of fluoroquinolones and the potential risk for tendon rupture. PMID:23459326

  5. Effect of GABA receptor agonists or antagonists injected spinally on the blood glucose level in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yun-Beom; Park, Soo-Hyun; Kang, Yu-Jung; Kim, Sung-Su; Kim, Chea-Ha; Kim, Su-Jin; Jung, Jun-Sub; Ryu, Ohk-Hyun; Choi, Moon-Gi; Suh, Hong-Won

    2013-05-01

    The possible roles of gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptors located in the spinal cord for the regulation of the blood glucose level were studied in ICR mice. We found in the present study that intrathecal (i.t.) injection with baclofen (a GABAB receptor agonist; 1-10 μg/5 μl) or bicuculline (a GABAA receptor antagonist; 1-10 μg/5 μl) caused an elevation of the blood glucose level in a dose-dependent manner. The hyperglycemic effect induced by baclofen was more pronounced than that induced by bicuculline. However, muscimol (a GABAA receptor agonist; 1-5 μg/5 μl) or phaclofen (a GABAB receptor antagonist; 5-10 μg/5 μl) administered i.t. did not affect the blood glucose level. Baclofen-induced elevation of the blood glucose was dose-dependently attenuated by phaclofen. Furthermore, i.t. pretreatment with pertussis toxin (PTX; 0.05 or 0.1 μg/5 μl) for 6 days dose-dependently reduced the hyperglycemic effect induced by baclofen. Our results suggest that GABAB receptors located in the spinal cord play important roles for the elevation of the blood glucose level. Spinally located PTX-sensitive G-proteins appear to be involved in hyperglycemic effect induced by baclofen. Furthermore, inactivation of GABAA receptors located in the spinal cord appears to be responsible for tonic up-regulation of the blood glucose level.

  6. Blocking mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) improves neuropathic pain evoked by spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoping; Li, Xiaojia; Huang, Bin; Ma, Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is an extremely serious type of physical trauma observed in clinics. Neuropathic pain resulting from SCI has a lasting and significant impact on most aspects of daily life. Thus, a better understanding of the molecular pathways responsible for the cause of neuropathic pain observed in SCI is important to develop effective therapeutic agents and treatment strategies. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is well known for its critical roles in regulating protein synthesis and growth. Furthermore, compelling evidence supports the notion that widespread dysregulation of mTOR and its downstream pathways are involved in neuropathic pain. Thus, in this study we specifically examined the underlying mechanisms by which mTOR and its signaling pathways are involved in SCI-evoked neuropathic pain in a rat model. Overall, we demonstrated that SCI increased the protein expression of p-mTOR, and mTORmediated- phosphorylation of 4E-binding protein 4 (4E-BP1) and p70 ribosomal S6 protein kinase 1 (S6K1) in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Also, we showed that blocking spinal mTOR by intrathecal injection of rapamycin significantly inhibited pain responses induced by mechanical and thermal stimulation. In addition, blocking spinal phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (p-PI3K) pathway significantly attenuated activities of p-mTOR pathways as well as mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in SCI rats. Moreover, blocking mTOR and PI3K decreased the enhanced levels of substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the dorsal horn of SCI rats. We revealed specific signaling pathways leading to SCI-evoked neuropathic pain, including the activation of PI3K, mTOR and its downstream signaling pathways. Targeting one or more of these signaling molecules may present new opportunities for treatment and management of neuropathic pain often observed in patients with SCI.

  7. Chlorine signal attenuation in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, A A; Maslehuddin, M; Ur-Rehman, Khateeb; Al-Amoudi, O S B

    2015-11-01

    The intensity of prompt gamma-ray was measured at various depths from chlorine-contaminated silica fume (SF) concrete slab concrete specimens using portable neutron generator-based prompt gamma-ray setup. The intensity of 6.11MeV chloride gamma-rays was measured from the chloride contaminated slab at distance of 15.25, 20.25, 25.25, 30.25 and 35.25cm from neutron target in a SF cement concrete slab specimens. Due to attenuation of thermal neutron flux and emitted gamma-ray intensity in SF cement concrete at various depths, the measured intensity of chlorine gamma-rays decreases non-linearly with increasing depth in concrete. A good agreement was noted between the experimental results and the results of Monte Carlo simulation. This study has provided useful experimental data for evaluating the chloride contamination in the SF concrete utilizing gamma-ray attenuation method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-12-01

    We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.

  9. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor attenuates inflammation in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giniatullina Raisa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF is protective in animal models of various neurodegenerative diseases. We investigated whether pegfilgrastim, GCSF with sustained action, is protective in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disease with manifestations of upper and lower motoneuron death and muscle atrophy accompanied by inflammation in the CNS and periphery. Methods Human mutant G93A superoxide dismutase (SOD1 ALS mice were treated with pegfilgrastim starting at the presymptomatic stage and continued until the end stage. After long-term pegfilgrastim treatment, the inflammation status was defined in the spinal cord and peripheral tissues including hematopoietic organs and muscle. The effect of GCSF on spinal cord neuron survival and microglia, bone marrow and spleen monocyte activation was assessed in vitro. Results Long-term pegfilgrastim treatment prolonged mutant SOD1 mice survival and attenuated both astro- and microgliosis in the spinal cord. Pegfilgrastim in SOD1 mice modulated the inflammatory cell populations in the bone marrow and spleen and reduced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokine in monocytes and microglia. The mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells into the circulation was restored back to basal level after long-term pegfilgrastim treatment in SOD1 mice while the storage of Ly6C expressing monocytes in the bone marrow and spleen remained elevated. After pegfilgrastim treatment, an increased proportion of these cells in the degenerative muscle was detected at the end stage of ALS. Conclusions GCSF attenuated inflammation in the CNS and the periphery in a mouse model of ALS and thereby delayed the progression of the disease. This mechanism of action targeting inflammation provides a new perspective of the usage of GCSF in the treatment of ALS.

  10. Effect of cerebral spinal fluid suppression for diffusional kurtosis imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Alicia W; Jensen, Jens H; Hu, Caixia C; Tabesh, Ali; Falangola, Maria F; Helpern, Joseph A

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) partial volume effect on diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) metrics in white matter and cortical gray matter. Four healthy volunteers participated in this study. Standard DKI and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) DKI experiments were performed using a twice-refocused-spin-echo diffusion sequence. The conventional diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean, axial, and radial diffusivity (MD, D[symbol in text], D[symbol in text] together with DKI metrics of mean, axial, and radial kurtosis (MK, K[symbol in text], K[symbol in text], were measured and compared. Single image slices located above the lateral ventricles, with similar anatomical features for each subject, were selected to minimize the effect of CSF from the ventricles. In white matter, differences of less than 10% were observed between diffusion metrics measured with standard DKI and FLAIR-DKI sequences, suggesting minimal CSF contamination. For gray matter, conventional DTI metrics differed by 19% to 52%, reflecting significant CSF partial volume effects. Kurtosis metrics, however, changed by 11% or less, indicating greater robustness with respect to CSF contamination. Kurtosis metrics are less sensitive to CSF partial voluming in cortical gray matter than conventional diffusion metrics. The kurtosis metrics may then be more specific indicators of changes in tissue microstructure, provided the effect sizes for the changes are comparable. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Prognosis by tumor location for pediatric spinal cord Ependymomas

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, MC; Sayegh, ET; Safaee, M; Sun, MHZ; Kaur, G; Kim, JM; Aranda, D; Molinaro, AM; Gupta, N; Parsa, AT

    2013-01-01

    Object. Ependymoma is a common CNS tumor in children, with spinal cord ependymomas making up 13.1% of all ependymomas in this age group. The clinical features that affect prognosis in pediatric spinal cord ependymomas are not well understood. A comprehensive literature review was performed to determine whether a tumor location along the spinal cord is prognostically significant in children undergoing surgery for spinal cord ependymomas. Methods. A PubMed search was performed to identify all p...

  12. MRI Evaluation of Spinal Length and Vertebral Body Angle During Loading with a Spinal Compression Harness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James A.; Hargens, Alan R.; Murthy, G.; Ballard, R. E.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, Alan, R.; Sanchez, E.; Yang, C.; Mitsui, I.; Schwandt, D.; hide

    1998-01-01

    Weight bearing by the spinal column during upright posture often plays a role in the common problem of low back pain. Therefore, we developed a non-ferromagnetic spinal compression harness to enable MRI investigations of the spinal column during axial loading. Human subjects were fitted with a Nest and a footplate which were connected by adjustable straps to an analog load cell. MRI scans of human subjects (5 males and 1 female with age range of 27-53 yrs) during loaded and unloaded conditions were accomplished with a 1.5 Tesla GE Signa scanner. Studies of two subjects undergoing sequentially increasing spinal loads revealed significant decreases (r(sup 2) = 0.852) in spinal length between T4 and L5 culminating in a 1.5 to 2% length decrease during loading with 75% body weight. Sagittal vertebral body angles of four subjects placed under a constant 50% body weight load for one hour demonstrated increased lordotic and kyphotic curvatures. In the lumbar spine, the L2 vertebral body experienced the greatest angular change (-3 deg. to -5 deg.) in most subjects while in the thoracic spine, T4 angles increased from the unloaded state by +2 deg. to +9 deg. Overall, our studies demonstrate: 1) a progressive, although surprisingly small, decrease in spinal length with increasing load and 2) relatively large changes in spinal column angulation with 50% body weight.

  13. Experimental spinal cord trauma: a review of mechanically induced spinal cord injury in rat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, Dauda; Annuar, Azlina Ahmad; Mohamad, Masro; Aziz, Izzuddin; Sanusi, Junedah

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that animal spinal cord compression (using methods such as clips, balloons, spinal cord strapping, or calibrated forceps) mimics the persistent spinal canal occlusion that is common in human spinal cord injury (SCI). These methods can be used to investigate the effects of compression or to know the optimal timing of decompression (as duration of compression can affect the outcome of pathology) in acute SCI. Compression models involve prolonged cord compression and are distinct from contusion models, which apply only transient force to inflict an acute injury to the spinal cord. While the use of forceps to compress the spinal cord is a common choice due to it being inexpensive, it has not been critically assessed against the other methods to determine whether it is the best method to use. To date, there is no available review specifically focused on the current compression methods of inducing SCI in rats; thus, we performed a systematic and comprehensive publication search to identify studies on experimental spinalization in rat models, and this review discusses the advantages and limitations of each method.

  14. Spinal Cord Tolerance in the Age of Spinal Radiosurgery: Lessons From Preclinical Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medin, Paul M.; Boike, Thomas P.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical implementation of spinal radiosurgery has increased rapidly in recent years, but little is known regarding human spinal cord tolerance to single-fraction irradiation. In contrast, preclinical studies in single-fraction spinal cord tolerance have been ongoing since the 1970s. The influences of field length, dose rate, inhomogeneous dose distributions, and reirradiation have all been investigated. This review summarizes literature regarding single-fraction spinal cord tolerance in preclinical models with an emphasis on practical clinical significance. The outcomes of studies that incorporate uniform irradiation are surprisingly consistent among multiple small- and large-animal models. Extensive investigation of inhomogeneous dose distributions in the rat has demonstrated a significant dose-volume effect while preliminary results from one pig study are contradictory. Preclinical spinal cord dose-volume studies indicate that dose distribution is more critical than the volume irradiated suggesting that neither dose-volume histogram analysis nor absolute volume constraints are effective in predicting complications. Reirradiation data are sparse, but results from guinea pig, rat, and pig studies are consistent with the hypothesis that the spinal cord possesses a large capacity for repair. The mechanisms behind the phenomena observed in spinal cord studies are not readily explained and the ability of dose response models to predict outcomes is variable underscoring the need for further investigation. Animal studies provide insight into the phenomena and mechanisms of radiosensitivity but the true significance of animal studies can only be discovered through clinical trials.

  15. Simultaneous Intracranial and Spinal Subdural Hematoma: Two Case Reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Chung Dae; Song, Chang Joon; Lee, Jeong Eun; Choi, Seung Won [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    Spinal subdural hematoma is a rare disease. Simultaneous intracranial and spinal subdural hematoma is extremely rare and only 14 such cases have been reported. We report here on two cases of simultaneous intracranial and spinal subdural hematoma that occurred following a fall-down head injury and intracranial surgery, and we discuss the pathogenesis of the disease.

  16. Levetiracetam in spinal cord injury pain: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnerup, N B; Grydehøj, J; Bing, J

    2009-01-01

    . OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was primarily to evaluate the efficacy of the anticonvulsant levetiracetam in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) at- and below-level pain and secondarily to evaluate the effect on spasm severity. SETTING: Outpatients at two spinal cord units and a pain center...... severity following spinal cord injury....

  17. Incidence of spinal fractures in the Netherlands 1997-2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brinke, J. G.; Saltzherr, T. P.; Panneman, M. J. M.; Hogervorst, M.; Goslings, J. C.

    2017-01-01

    : To determine time trends of emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalization rates, spinal cord lesions and characteristics of patients with spinal fractures in the Netherlands. In an observational database study we used the Dutch Injury Surveillance System to analyse spinal fracture-related ED

  18. Spinal segmental dysgenesis | Mahomed | SA Journal of Radiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Spinal segmental dysgenesis is a rare congenital spinal abnormality seen in neonates and infants, in which a segment of the spine and spinal cord fails to develop normally. The condition is segmental in nature, with vertebrae above and below the malformation. It is commonly associated with various abnormalities that ...

  19. Spontaneous herniation of the thoracic spinal cord : a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Sung Chan; Lee, Seong Ro; Park, Dong Woo; Joo, Kyung Bin

    2001-01-01

    Spontaneous herniation of the spinal cord is a rare disease entity in which spinal cord substance is herniated through a previously uninjured and/or untouched dural. It is a cause of myelopathy that is treatable but difficult to diagnose. We report the CT and MR findings of a case of spontaneous thoracic spinal cord through a dural defect

  20. Neuroprotective effect corilagin in spinal cord injury rat model by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Neurological functions get altered in a patient suffering from spinal cord injury (SCI). Present study evaluates the neuroprotective effect of corilagin in spinal cord injury rats by inhibiting nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), inflammatory mediators and apoptosis. Materials and method: Spinal cord injury was ...

  1. Epidural venous stasis in spinal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, M.C.; Capesius, P.; Poos, D.; Gratia, G.; Roilgen, A.; Sandt, G.

    1984-01-01

    Computed tomography permits reliable demonstration of the spinal canal and its contents. Measurements of the sagittal diameter of the bony canal do not take into consideration size, shape and state of intraspinal soft tissue structures, i.e. the thecal sac and its own contents, epidural fat and blood circulation pattern. Three particularly illustrative cases were selected in which obvious epidural venous engorgement was visualized in association with spinal stenosis. The authors think that epidural venous stasis occuring in segmental spinal stenosis is a CT sign of clinically significant narrowing of the neural canal. Accurate recognition of the type of lumbar stenosis together with epidural blood flow alterations permits a better understanding of the existing lesions. Thus, a more precise and specific surgical approach is possible. (orig.)

  2. Vascular anatomy of the spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thron, A.K.

    1988-01-01

    The book summarizes the anatomic guidelines of external blood supply to the spinal cord. The basic principles of arterial supply and venous drainage are illustrated by explicit schemes for quick orientation. In the first part of the book, systematic radiologic-anatomic investigations of the superficial and deep vessels of all segments of the spinal cord are introduced. The microvascular morphology is portrayed by numerous microradiographic sections in all three dimensions without overshadowing. The three-dimensional representation of the vascular architecture illustrates elementary outlines and details of arterial territories, anastomotic cross-linking as well as the capillary system, particularly the hitherto unknown structure of the medullary venous system with its functionally important anastomoses and varying regional structures. These often now radiologic-anatomic findings are discussed as to their functional and pathophysiologic impact and constitute the basic on which to improve one's understanding of vascular syndromes of the spinal cord

  3. Spinal epidural empyema in two dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewey, C.W.; Kortz, G.D.; Bailey, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    Extensive, diffuse, epidural spinal cord compression was visualized myelographically in two dogs presented for rapid development of nonambulatory tetraparesis and paraplegia, respectively. Purulent fluid containing bacterial organisms was aspirated percutaneously under fluoroscopic guidance from the epidural space of each dog. One dog responded poorly to aggressive medical therapy, which included installation of an epidural lavage and drainage system. Both dogs were euthanized due to the severe nature of their disorder and the poor prognosis. Spinal epidural empyema (i.e., abscess) is a rare condition in humans and has not been reported previously in the veterinary literature. Spinal epidural empyema should be considered as a differential diagnosis in dogs presenting with painful myelopathies, especially when accompanied by fever

  4. How to make spinal motor neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Dusenbery, Brandi N; Williams, Luis A; Klim, Joseph R; Eggan, Kevin

    2014-02-01

    All muscle movements, including breathing, walking, and fine motor skills rely on the function of the spinal motor neuron to transmit signals from the brain to individual muscle groups. Loss of spinal motor neuron function underlies several neurological disorders for which treatment has been hampered by the inability to obtain sufficient quantities of primary motor neurons to perform mechanistic studies or drug screens. Progress towards overcoming this challenge has been achieved through the synthesis of developmental biology paradigms and advances in stem cell and reprogramming technology, which allow the production of motor neurons in vitro. In this Primer, we discuss how the logic of spinal motor neuron development has been applied to allow generation of motor neurons either from pluripotent stem cells by directed differentiation and transcriptional programming, or from somatic cells by direct lineage conversion. Finally, we discuss methods to evaluate the molecular and functional properties of motor neurons generated through each of these techniques.

  5. Primary multifocal gliosarcoma of the spinal cord

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh M. Kumar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gliosarcoma (GS is a rare and exceedingly malignant neoplasm of the central nervous system. It displays clinical features similar to glioblastoma, yet is histologically unique as it harbors both gliomatous and sarcomatous cellular components. Involvement of the neuroaxis is predominantly limited to the cerebral parenchyma and meninges. Primary GS of the spinal cord is rarely encountered. We report a case of a 54 year old male who presented with 2 months of progressive, bilateral lower extremity sensory deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging of the neuro-axis revealed multiple intradural lesions involving the cervical and thoracic spinal cord without evidence of intracranial involvement. Surgical resection of a dural based, extramedullary cervical lesion and two exophytic, intramedullary thoracic lesions revealed gliosarcoma, WHO grade IV. The patient died approximately 11 months after presentation. This report confirms that GS is not limited to supratentorial involvement and can primarily affect the spinal cord.

  6. Multifocal Spinal Cord Nephroblastoma in a Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henker, L C; Bianchi, R M; Vargas, T P; de Oliveira, E C; Driemeier, D; Pavarini, S P

    2018-01-01

    A 1-year-old male American pit bull terrier was presented with a history of proprioceptive deficits and mild lameness of the right hindlimb, which progressed after 5 months to paraparesis, culminating in tetraparesis after 2 weeks. Necropsy findings were limited to the spinal cord and consisted of multiple, intradural, extramedullary, slightly red masses which produced segmental areas of medullary swelling located in the cervical intumescence, thoracolumbar column, sacral segment and cauda equina. Histological evaluation revealed a tumour, composed of epithelial, stromal and blastemal cells, with structures resembling tubules, acini and embryonic glomeruli. Immunohistochemical labelling for vimentin, cytokeratin and S100 was positive for the stromal, epithelial and blastemal cells, respectively. A final diagnosis of multifocal spinal cord nephroblastoma was established. This is the first report of such a tumour showing concomitant involvement of the cervicothoracic, thoracolumbar, sacral and cauda equina areas of the spinal cord. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Calculation Of Pneumatic Attenuation In Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Stephen A.

    1991-01-01

    Errors caused by attenuation of air-pressure waves in narrow tubes calculated by method based on fundamental equations of flow. Changes in ambient pressure transmitted along narrow tube to sensor. Attenuation of high-frequency components of pressure wave calculated from wave equation derived from Navier-Stokes equations of viscous flow in tube. Developed to understand and compensate for frictional attenuation in narrow tubes used to connect aircraft pressure sensors with pressure taps on affected surfaces.

  8. Estimating Rain Attenuation In Satellite Communication Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, R. M.

    1991-01-01

    Attenuation computed with help of statistical model and meteorological data. NASA Lewis Research Center Satellite Link Attenuation Model (SLAM) program QuickBASIC computer program evaluating static and dynamic statistical assessment of impact of rain attenuation on communication link established between Earth terminal and geosynchronous satellite. Application in specification, design, and assessment of satellite communication links for any terminal location in continental United States. Written in Microsoft QuickBASIC.

  9. The transformation of spinal curvature into spinal deformity: pathological processes and implications for treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hawes Martha C

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This review summarizes what is known about the pathological processes (e.g. structural and functional changes, by which spinal curvatures develop and evolve into spinal deformities. Methods Comprehensive review of articles (English language only published on 'scoliosis,' whose content yielded data on the pathological changes associated with spinal curvatures. Medline, Science Citation Index and other searches yielded > 10,000 titles each of which was surveyed for content related to 'pathology' and related terms such as 'etiology,' 'inheritance,' 'pathomechanism,' 'signs and symptoms.' Additional resources included all books published on 'scoliosis' and available through the Arizona Health Sciences Library, Interlibrary Loan, or through direct contact with the authors or publishers. Results A lateral curvature of the spine–'scoliosis'–can develop in association with postural imbalance due to genetic defects and injury as well as pain and scarring from trauma or surgery. Irrespective of the factor that triggers its appearance, a sustained postural imbalance can result, over time, in establishment of a state of continuous asymmetric loading relative to the spinal axis. Recent studies support the longstanding hypothesis that spinal deformity results directly from such postural imbalance, irrespective of the primary trigger, because the dynamics of growth within vertebrae are altered by continuous asymmetric mechanical loading. These data suggest that, as long as growth potential remains, evolution of a spinal curvature into a spinal deformity can be prevented by reversing the state of continuous asymmetric loading. Conclusion Spinal curvatures can routinely be diagnosed in early stages, before pathological deformity of the vertebral elements is induced in response to asymmetric loading. Current clinical approaches involve 'watching and waiting' while mild reversible spinal curvatures develop into spinal deformities with

  10. Comparison of cutting and pencil-point spinal needle in spinal anesthesia regarding postdural puncture headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong; Liu, Yang; Song, WenYe; Kan, ShunLi; Liu, FeiFei; Zhang, Di; Ning, GuangZhi; Feng, ShiQing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Postdural puncture headache (PDPH), mainly resulting from the loss of cerebral spinal fluid (CSF), is a well-known iatrogenic complication of spinal anesthesia and diagnostic lumbar puncture. Spinal needles have been modified to minimize complications. Modifiable risk factors of PDPH mainly included needle size and needle shape. However, whether the incidence of PDPH is significantly different between cutting-point and pencil-point needles was controversial. Then we did a meta-analysis to assess the incidence of PDPH of cutting spinal needle and pencil-point spinal needle. Methods: We included all randomly designed trials, assessing the clinical outcomes in patients given elective spinal anesthesia or diagnostic lumbar puncture with either cutting or pencil-point spinal needle as eligible studies. All selected studies and the risk of bias of them were assessed by 2 investigators. Clinical outcomes including success rates, frequency of PDPH, reported severe PDPH, and the use of epidural blood patch (EBP) were recorded as primary results. Results were evaluated using risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for dichotomous variables. Rev Man software (version 5.3) was used to analyze all appropriate data. Results: Twenty-five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in our study. The analysis result revealed that pencil-point spinal needle would result in lower rate of PDPH (RR 2.50; 95% CI [1.96, 3.19]; P < 0.00001) and severe PDPH (RR 3.27; 95% CI [2.15, 4.96]; P < 0.00001). Furthermore, EBP was less used in pencil-point spine needle group (RR 3.69; 95% CI [1.96, 6.95]; P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Current evidences suggest that pencil-point spinal needle was significantly superior compared with cutting spinal needle regarding the frequency of PDPH, PDPH severity, and the use of EBP. In view of this, we recommend the use of pencil-point spinal needle in spinal anesthesia and lumbar puncture. PMID:28383416

  11. SPINAL DEFORMITIES AFTER SELECTIVE DORSAL RHIZOTOMY

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    PATRICIO PABLO MANZONE

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR used for spasticity treatment could worsen or develop spinal deformities. Our goal is to describe spinal deformities seen in patients with cerebral palsy (CP after being treated by SDR. Methods: Retrospective study of patients operated on (SDR between January/1999 and June/2012. Inclusion criteria: spinal Rx before SDR surgery, spinography, and assessment at follow-up. We evaluated several factors emphasizing level and type of SDR approach, spinal deformity and its treatment, final Risser, and follow-up duration. Results: We found 7 patients (6 males: mean age at SDR 7.56 years (4.08-11.16. Mean follow-up: 6.64 years (2.16-13, final age: 14.32 years (7.5-19. No patient had previous deformity. GMFCS: 2 patients level IV, 2 level III, 3 level II. Initial walking status: 2 community walkers, 2 household walkers, 2 functional walkers, 1 not ambulant, at the follow-up, 3 patients improved, and 4 kept their status. We found 4 TL/L laminotomies, 2 L/LS laminectomies, and 1 thoracic laminectomy. Six spinal deformities were observed: 2 sagittal, 3 mixed, and 1 scoliosis. There was no association among the type of deformity, final gait status, topographic type, GMFCS, age, or SDR approach. Three patients had surgery indication for spinal deformity at skeletal maturity, while those patients with smaller deformities were still immature (Risser 0 to 2/3 although with progressive curves. Conclusions: After SDR, patients should be periodically evaluated until they reach Risser 5. The development of a deformity does not compromise functional results but adds morbidity because it may require surgical treatment.

  12. Cervical spinal canal narrowing in idiopathic syringomyelia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struck, Aaron F.; Carr, Carrie M.; Shah, Vinil; Hesselink, John R.; Haughton, Victor M.

    2016-01-01

    The cervical spine in Chiari I patient with syringomyelia has significantly different anteroposterior diameters than it does in Chiari I patients without syringomyelia. We tested the hypothesis that patients with idiopathic syringomyelia (IS) also have abnormal cervical spinal canal diameters. The finding in both groups may relate to the pathogenesis of syringomyelia. Local institutional review boards approved this retrospective study. Patients with IS were compared to age-matched controls with normal sagittal spine MR. All subjects had T1-weighted spin-echo (500/20) and T2-weighted fast spin-echo (2000/90) sagittal cervical spine images at 1.5 T. Readers blinded to demographic data and study hypothesis measured anteroposterior diameters at each cervical level. The spinal canal diameters were compared with a Mann-Whitney U test. The overall difference was assessed with a Friedman test. Seventeen subjects were read by two reviewers to assess inter-rater reliability. Fifty IS patients with 50 age-matched controls were studied. IS subjects had one or more syrinxes varying from 1 to 19 spinal segments. Spinal canal diameters narrowed from C1 to C3 and then enlarged from C5 to C7 in both groups. Diameters from C2 to C4 were narrower in the IS group (p < 0.005) than in controls. The ratio of the C3 to the C7 diameters was also smaller (p = 0.004) in IS than controls. Collectively, the spinal canal diameters in the IS were significantly different from controls (Friedman test p < 0.0001). Patients with IS have abnormally narrow upper and mid cervical spinal canal diameters and greater positive tapering between C3 and C7. (orig.)

  13. IgG4-related spinal pachymeningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhang; Tongxi, Liu; Jie, Luo; Yujuan, Jiao; Wei, Jiang; Xia, Liu; Yumin, Zheng; Xin, Lu

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to study the clinical, laboratory, imaging pathology, and prognosis features of IgG4-related spinal pachymeningitis. We worked with a 55-year-old man suffering from IgG4-related spinal pachymeningitis who had the most widespread lesion in his dura mater. We also review previous related studies and discuss the clinical characteristics of this rare disease. In total, eight IgG4-related spinal pachymeningitis patients have been reported in the literature since 2009. They were mostly male patients, 51.7 ± 11.9 years old on average. Cervical and thoracic vertebrae were the most common sites for lesions. The most prominent symptom was varying numbness and weakness of the limbs and/or body associated with spinal cord compression. There was one patient (1/5) with elevated serum IgG4 levels and three patients (3/3) with increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) IgG4 index. Positive histopathologic findings are the strongest basis for a diagnosis. All the patients with IgG4-related spinal pachymeningitis responded well to glucocorticoid therapy. IgG4-related spinal pachymeningitis is an orphan disease that mainly occurs in cervical and thoracic vertebrae. Older males are the most susceptible group. Serum IgG4 levels were consistently normal in these cases, so analysis of CSF for IgG4 production (IgG4 index) could become a useful tool. Pathological findings remain the gold standard for diagnosis. Most patients responded favorably to glucocorticoid treatment.

  14. Cervical spinal canal narrowing in idiopathic syringomyelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struck, Aaron F. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Neurology, Boston, MA (United States); Carr, Carrie M. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Shah, Vinil [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hesselink, John R. [University of California San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Haughton, Victor M. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The cervical spine in Chiari I patient with syringomyelia has significantly different anteroposterior diameters than it does in Chiari I patients without syringomyelia. We tested the hypothesis that patients with idiopathic syringomyelia (IS) also have abnormal cervical spinal canal diameters. The finding in both groups may relate to the pathogenesis of syringomyelia. Local institutional review boards approved this retrospective study. Patients with IS were compared to age-matched controls with normal sagittal spine MR. All subjects had T1-weighted spin-echo (500/20) and T2-weighted fast spin-echo (2000/90) sagittal cervical spine images at 1.5 T. Readers blinded to demographic data and study hypothesis measured anteroposterior diameters at each cervical level. The spinal canal diameters were compared with a Mann-Whitney U test. The overall difference was assessed with a Friedman test. Seventeen subjects were read by two reviewers to assess inter-rater reliability. Fifty IS patients with 50 age-matched controls were studied. IS subjects had one or more syrinxes varying from 1 to 19 spinal segments. Spinal canal diameters narrowed from C1 to C3 and then enlarged from C5 to C7 in both groups. Diameters from C2 to C4 were narrower in the IS group (p < 0.005) than in controls. The ratio of the C3 to the C7 diameters was also smaller (p = 0.004) in IS than controls. Collectively, the spinal canal diameters in the IS were significantly different from controls (Friedman test p < 0.0001). Patients with IS have abnormally narrow upper and mid cervical spinal canal diameters and greater positive tapering between C3 and C7. (orig.)

  15. Diagnosis and therapy of spinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algra, P.R.; Valk, J.; Heimans, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Many different opinions exist as to the appropriate diagnostic workup and therapy for spinal tumors. With the advent of new imaging techniques and therapeutic regimens, an up-to-date reference work has become an urgent requirement. This book is designed to meet this need, and is the first of its kind to offer an overview of the opinions of internationally renowned specialists in the field. By addressing in detail all of the relevant topics and areas of contention, it should prove of great value in establishing rational imaging and therapeutic protocols for spinal tumors. (orig.)

  16. Multiple, primary spinal-paraspinal hydatid cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sener, R.N.; Calli, C.; Kitis, O.; Yalman, O.

    2001-01-01

    A patient is presented with widespread primary hydatid cysts in spinal-paraspinal locations, secondary to Echinococcus granulosus. An alternative mechanism to explain how the embryos gained access to the body is proposed: The embryos penetrated the intestinal muscle and may have directly entered into the inferior vena cava system through small venous connections between this system and portal circulation. Various conditions in daily life associated with Valsalva maneuver might have caused such an atypical passage of the embryos to the inferior caval system toward the retroperitoneum and spinal-paraspinal structures via lumber epidural venous plexuses. (orig.)

  17. Multiple, primary spinal-paraspinal hydatid cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sener, R.N.; Calli, C.; Kitis, O.; Yalman, O. [Dept. of Radiology, Ege University Hospital, Izmir (Turkey)

    2001-11-01

    A patient is presented with widespread primary hydatid cysts in spinal-paraspinal locations, secondary to Echinococcus granulosus. An alternative mechanism to explain how the embryos gained access to the body is proposed: The embryos penetrated the intestinal muscle and may have directly entered into the inferior vena cava system through small venous connections between this system and portal circulation. Various conditions in daily life associated with Valsalva maneuver might have caused such an atypical passage of the embryos to the inferior caval system toward the retroperitoneum and spinal-paraspinal structures via lumber epidural venous plexuses. (orig.)

  18. Guillain-Barre syndrome following spinal anaesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayin, R.; Kati, I.; Gunes, M.

    2013-01-01

    Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) is the most common disease resulting in acute diffuse flaccid paralysis. It is an autoimmune disease that can occur at any age. The clinical course is characterized by weakness in the arms and legs, areflexia and the progression of muscle weakness from the lower limbs to the upper limbs. The most common causes of GBS include infections, vaccinations, surgery and some medicines. We present the case of a 48 years old male patient, who developed GBS after undergoing surgery for renal calculus, under spinal anaesthesia. In this case report, we presented a rather rare case of GBS occurring following spinal anaesthesia. (author)

  19. Spinal Cord Ischemia after Thoracoabdominal Aortic Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupesh George

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Overall prevalence of Thoraco abdominal aneurysm has increased due to widespread use of imaging techniques and aging population. Surgical aneurysm repair and endovascular stent graft repair have refined as successful treatment modalities in preventing aneurysm progression and rupture. Since spinal cord depends on branches of thoracoabdominal aorta for blood supply ,spinal cord ischaemia is a dreadful complication of these procedures. However recent animal experiments and surgical series thrown light in tackling this anatomical obstructions by physiologic means. The adoption of techniques for avoiding hypovolumea, hypotension, CSF pressure has reduced this complication rate from 23% to 2-6%.

  20. Remyelination of the injured spinal cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Masanori; Li, Bingcang; Lankford, Karen L.; Radtke, Christine; Kocsis, Jeffery D.

    2008-01-01

    Contusive spinal cord injury (SCI) can result in necrosis of the spinal cord, but often long white matter tracts outside of the central necrotic core are demyelinated. One experimental strategy to improve functional outcome following SCI is to transplant myelin-forming cells to remyelinate these axons and improve conduction. This review focuses on transplantation studies using olfactory ensheathing cell (OEC) to improve functional outcome in experimental models of SCI and demyelination. The biology of the OEC, and recent experimental research and clinical studies using OECs as a potential cell therapy candidate are discussed. PMID:17618995

  1. Myelopathy secondary to cerebral and spinal neurocysticercosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Huaraca-Hilario

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is the most common CNS parasitic disease but spinal presentation of this condition is rare, with a higher incidence in developing countries like ours. We report the case of a male patient 61 of age diagnosed with generalized neurocysticercosis in addition to the secondary presentation of hypertensive hydrocephalus and compression of the spinal cord, the latter is characterized by the appearance of paraparesis, changes in sensitivity and urinary retention. The final diagnosis was made by an MRI, so we have to emphasize the importance of neuroimaging in the definitive diagnosis of this disease.

  2. Spinal cord testing: auditing for quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, J A; Reid, B

    1991-04-01

    A quality assurance audit of spinal cord testing as documented by staff nurses was carried out. Twenty-five patient records were examined for accuracy of documented testing and compared to assessments performed by three investigators. A pilot study established interrater reliability of a tool that was designed especially for this study. Results indicated staff nurses failed to meet pre-established 100% standard in all categories of testing when compared with investigator's findings. Possible reasons for this disparity are discussed as well as indications for modifications in the spinal testing record, teaching program and preset standards.

  3. The dynamic evaluation of the cervical spinal canal and spinal cord by magnetic resonance imaging during movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koschorek, F.; Jensen, H.P.; Terwey, B.

    1987-01-01

    The authors present results of in vivo measurements of the cervical canal and spinal cord. They indicate that tension in the spinal cord increases during flexion. They conclude that, as the dorsal approach avoids this increased tension of the spinal cord, the surgical treatment in chronic cervical myelopathy using this route seems to be preferable

  4. Suppressive Effects of Bee Venom Acupuncture on Paclitaxel-Induced Neuropathic Pain in Rats: Mediation by Spinal α₂-Adrenergic Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jiho; Jeon, Changhoon; Lee, Ji Hwan; Jang, Jo Ung; Quan, Fu Shi; Lee, Kyungjin; Kim, Woojin; Kim, Sun Kwang

    2017-10-31

    Paclitaxel, a chemotherapy drug for solid tumors, induces peripheral painful neuropathy. Bee venom acupuncture (BVA) has been reported to have potent analgesic effects, which are known to be mediated by activation of spinal α-adrenergic receptor. Here, we investigated the effect of BVA on mechanical hyperalgesia and spinal neuronal hyperexcitation induced by paclitaxel. The role of spinal α-adrenergic receptor subtypes in the analgesic effect of BVA was also observed. Administration of paclitaxel (total 8 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) on four alternate days (days 0, 2, 4, and 6) induced significant mechanical hyperalgesic signs, measured using a von Frey filament. BVA (1 mg/kg, ST36) relieved this mechanical hyperalgesia for at least two hours, and suppressed the hyperexcitation in spinal wide dynamic range neurons evoked by press or pinch stimulation. Both melittin (0.5 mg/kg, ST36) and phospholipase A2 (0.12 mg/kg, ST36) were shown to play an important part in this analgesic effect of the BVA, as they significantly attenuated the pain. Intrathecal pretreatment with the α₂-adrenergic receptor antagonist (idazoxan, 50 µg), but not α₁-adrenergic receptor antagonist (prazosin, 30 µg), blocked the analgesic effect of BVA. These results suggest that BVA has potent suppressive effects against paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain, which were mediated by spinal α₂-adrenergic receptor.

  5. Melatonin Inhibits Neural Cell Apoptosis and Promotes Locomotor Recovery via Activation of the Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway After Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhaoliang; Zhou, Zipeng; Gao, Shuang; Guo, Yue; Gao, Kai; Wang, Haoyu; Dang, Xiaoqian

    2017-08-01

    The spinal cord is highly sensitive to spinal cord injury (SCI) by external mechanical damage, resulting in irreversible neurological damage. Activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway can effectively reduce apoptosis and protect against SCI. Melatonin, an indoleamine originally isolated from bovine pineal tissue, exerts neuroprotective effects after SCI through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. In this study, we demonstrated that melatonin exhibited neuroprotective effects on neuronal apoptosis and supported functional recovery in a rat SCI model by activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We found that melatonin administration after SCI significantly upregulated the expression of low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein 6 phosphorylation (p-LRP-6), lymphoid enhancer factor-1 (LEF-1) and β-catenin protein in the spinal cord. Melatonin enhanced motor neuronal survival in the spinal cord ventral horn and improved the locomotor functions of rats after SCI. Melatonin administration after SCI also reduced the expression levels of Bax and cleaved caspase-3 in the spinal cord and the proportion of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL) positive cells, but increased the expression level of Bcl-2. These results suggest that melatonin attenuated SCI by activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

  6. Suppressive Effects of Bee Venom Acupuncture on Paclitaxel-Induced Neuropathic Pain in Rats: Mediation by Spinal α2-Adrenergic Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiho Choi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Paclitaxel, a chemotherapy drug for solid tumors, induces peripheral painful neuropathy. Bee venom acupuncture (BVA has been reported to have potent analgesic effects, which are known to be mediated by activation of spinal α-adrenergic receptor. Here, we investigated the effect of BVA on mechanical hyperalgesia and spinal neuronal hyperexcitation induced by paclitaxel. The role of spinal α-adrenergic receptor subtypes in the analgesic effect of BVA was also observed. Administration of paclitaxel (total 8 mg/kg, intraperitoneal on four alternate days (days 0, 2, 4, and 6 induced significant mechanical hyperalgesic signs, measured using a von Frey filament. BVA (1 mg/kg, ST36 relieved this mechanical hyperalgesia for at least two hours, and suppressed the hyperexcitation in spinal wide dynamic range neurons evoked by press or pinch stimulation. Both melittin (0.5 mg/kg, ST36 and phospholipase A2 (0.12 mg/kg, ST36 were shown to play an important part in this analgesic effect of the BVA, as they significantly attenuated the pain. Intrathecal pretreatment with the α2-adrenergic receptor antagonist (idazoxan, 50 µg, but not α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist (prazosin, 30 µg, blocked the analgesic effect of BVA. These results suggest that BVA has potent suppressive effects against paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain, which were mediated by spinal α2-adrenergic receptor.

  7. Spinal myoclonus following a peripheral nerve injury: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkol Gokhan

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Spinal myoclonus is a rare disorder characterized by myoclonic movements in muscles that originate from several segments of the spinal cord and usually associated with laminectomy, spinal cord injury, post-operative, lumbosacral radiculopathy, spinal extradural block, myelopathy due to demyelination, cervical spondylosis and many other diseases. On rare occasions, it can originate from the peripheral nerve lesions and be mistaken for peripheral myoclonus. Careful history taking and electrophysiological evaluation is important in differential diagnosis. The aim of this report is to evaluate the clinical and electrophysiological characteristics and treatment results of a case with spinal myoclonus following a peripheral nerve injury without any structural lesion.

  8. Transcutaneous spinal stimulation as a therapeutic strategy for spinal cord injury: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grecco LH

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Leandro H Grecco,1,3,4,* Shasha Li,1,5,* Sarah Michel,1,6,* Laura Castillo-Saavedra,1 Andoni Mourdoukoutas,7 Marom Bikson,7 Felipe Fregni1,21Spaulding Neuromodulation Center, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 2Spaulding-Harvard Spinal Cord Injury Model System, Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Charlestown, MA, USA; 3Special Laboratory of Pain and Signaling, Butantan Institute, 4Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Biomedical Science, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 5Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, People's Republic of China; 6Department of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Namur, Belgium; 7Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York, New York, NY, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Treatments for spinal cord injury (SCI still have limited effects. Electrical stimulation might facilitate plastic changes in affected spinal circuitries that may be beneficial in improving motor function and spasticity or SCI-related neuropathic pain. Based on available animal and clinical evidence, we critically reviewed the physiological basis and therapeutic action of transcutaneous spinal cord stimulation in SCI. We analyzed the literature published on PubMed to date, looking for the role of three main noninvasive stimulation techniques in the recovery process of SCI and focusing mainly on transcutaneous spinal stimulation. This review discusses the main clinical applications, latest advances, and limitations of noninvasive electrical stimulation of the spinal cord. Although most recent research in this topic has focused on transcutaneous spinal direct current stimulation (tsDCS, we also reviewed the technique of transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES as potential methods to modulate spinal cord

  9. MRI of anterior spinal artery syndrome of the cervical spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, S. (Dept. of Radiology, Tohoku Univ. School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)); Yamada, T. (Dept. of Radiology, Tohoku Univ. School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)); Ishii, K. (Dept. of Radiology, Tohoku Univ. School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)); Saito, H. (Dept. of Neurology, Tohoku Univ. School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)); Tanji, H. (Dept. of Neurology, Tohoku Univ. School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)); Kobayashi, T. (Inst. of Rehabilitation Medicine, Tohoku Univ. School of Medicine, Miyagi (Japan)); Soma, Y. (Div. of Neurology, Takeda Hospital, Aizuwakamatsu (Japan)); Sakamoto, K. (Dept. of Radiology, Tohoku Univ. School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    Cervical spinal cord lesions in the anterior spinal artery syndrome were delineated on magnetic resonance images (MRI) in four patients. The lesion was always seen anteriorly in the cervical cord. On T2-weighted images, the lesions appeared hyperintense relative to the normal spinal cord, while on T1-weighted images, two chronic lesions appeared hypointense, with local atrophy of the cord. In one case, repeated T1-weighted images showed no signal abnormality 4 days after the ictus, but the lesion became hypointense 18 days later, when contrast enhancement was also recognized after injection of Gd-DTPA; this sequence of intensity changes was similar to that of cerebral infarction. The extent of the lesion seen MRI correlated closely with neurological findings in all cases. Although the findings may not be specific, MRI is now the modality of choice for confirming the diagnosis in patients suspected of having an anterior spinal artery syndrome. (orig.)

  10. Primary vertebral and spinal epidural non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with spinal cord compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukobza, M.; Mazel, C.; Touboul, E.

    1996-01-01

    We examined eight patients with primary spinal epidural non-Hodgkin's lymphoma presenting with spinal cord compression and proven histologically after laminectomy (7 cases) or biopsy (1 case) by MRI. The most common findings were an isointense or low signal relative to the spinal cord on T1-weighted images (T1WI) and high signal on T2-weighted images (T2WI). Spinal cord compression, vertebral bone marrow and paravertebral extension were assessed. Contrast enhancement was intense in seven of the eight cases and homogeneous in all of them. T2WI (performed in 2 cases) may be useful to distinguish metastatic carcinomas and sarcomas. T1WI demonstrated the full extent of the epidural lesion, which was well-delineated in all cases. When the paravertebral extension is not well-defined, a study with contrast medium should be performed. (orig.). With 3 figs., 1 tab

  11. Spinal Meninges and Their Role in Spinal Cord Injury: A Neuroanatomical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassner, Lukas; Grillhösl, Andreas; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Thomé, Claudius; Bühren, Volker; Strowitzki, Martin; Winkler, Peter A

    2018-02-01

    Current recommendations support early surgical decompression and blood pressure augmentation after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Elevated intraspinal pressure (ISP), however, has probably been underestimated in the pathophysiology of SCI. Recent studies provide some evidence that ISP measurements and durotomy may be beneficial for individuals suffering from SCI. Compression of the spinal cord against the meninges in SCI patients causes a "compartment-like" syndrome. In such cases, intentional durotomy with augmentative duroplasty to reduce ISP and improve spinal cord perfusion pressure (SCPP) may be indicated. Prior to performing these procedures routinely, profound knowledge of the spinal meninges is essential. Here, we provide an in-depth review of relevant literature along with neuroanatomical illustrations and imaging correlates.

  12. Chronic mild hypoxia promotes profound vascular remodeling in spinal cord blood vessels, preferentially in white matter, via an α5β1 integrin-mediated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Sebok K; Kant, Ravi; Milner, Richard

    2018-05-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to rapid destruction of neuronal tissue, resulting in devastating motor and sensory deficits. This is exacerbated by damage to spinal cord blood vessels and loss of vascular integrity. Thus, approaches that protect existing blood vessels or stimulate the growth of new blood vessels might present a novel approach to minimize loss or promote regeneration of spinal cord tissue following SCI. In light of the remarkable power of chronic mild hypoxia (CMH) to stimulate vascular remodeling in the brain, the goal of this study was to examine how CMH (8% O 2 for up to 7 days) affects blood vessel remodeling in the spinal cord. We found that CMH promoted the following: (1) endothelial proliferation and increased vascularity as a result of angiogenesis and arteriogenesis, (2) increased vascular expression of the angiogenic extracellular matrix protein fibronectin as well as concomitant increases in endothelial expression of the fibronectin receptor α5β1 integrin, (3) strongly upregulated endothelial expression of the tight junction proteins claudin-5, ZO-1 and occludin and (4) astrocyte activation. Of note, the vascular remodeling changes induced by CMH were more extensive in white matter. Interestingly, hypoxic-induced vascular remodeling in spinal cord blood vessels was markedly attenuated in mice lacking endothelial α5 integrin expression (α5-EC-KO mice). Taken together, these studies demonstrate the considerable remodeling potential of spinal cord blood vessels and highlight an important angiogenic role for the α5β1 integrin in promoting endothelial proliferation. They also imply that stimulation of the α5β1 integrin or controlled use of mild hypoxia might provide new approaches for promoting angiogenesis and improving vascular integrity in spinal cord blood vessels.

  13. Lithium chloride contributes to blood-spinal cord barrier integrity and functional recovery from spinal cord injury by stimulating autophagic flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Minji; He, Zili; Lin, Xiaoxiao; Zhou, Yulong; Wang, Qingqing; Zheng, Zengming; Chen, Jian; Xu, Huazi; Tian, Naifeng

    2018-01-22

    Blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption following spinal cord injury (SCI) significantly compromises functional neuronal recovery. Autophagy is a potential therapeutic target when seeking to protect the BSCB. We explored the effects of lithium chloride (LiCl) on BSCB permeability and autophagy-induced SCI both in a rat model of SCI and in endothelial cells subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation. We evaluated BSCB status using the Evans Blue dye extravasation test and measurement of tight junction (TJ) protein levels; we also assessed functional locomotor recovery. We detected autophagy-associated proteins in vivo and in vitro using both Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining. We found that, in a rat model of SCI, LiCl attenuated the elevation in BSCB permeability, improved locomotor recovery, and inhibited the degradation of TJ proteins including occludin and claudin-5. LiCl significantly induced the extent of autophagic flux after SCI by increasing LC3-II and ATG-5 levels, and abolishing p62 accumulation. In addition, a combination of LiCl and the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine not only partially eliminated the BSCB-protective effect of LiCl, but also exacerbated TJ protein degradation both in vivo and in vitro. Together, these findings suggest that LiCl treatment alleviates BSCB disruption and promotes locomotor recovery after SCI, partly by stimulating autophagic flux. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Noninvasive Optical Monitoring of Spinal Cord Hemodynamics and Oxygenation after Acute Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    model in anesthetized (immobile) animals. Task 1: Evaluating the NIRS system function in a pig model of SCI in conjunction with IP measurements...started. We are collecting spinal cord NIRS data, using the V1 and OXT5 NIRS systems, in conjunction with IP measurements of spinal cord tissue...model of SCI in conjunction with IP measurements of oxygen, perfusion, pressure, and metabolism. SC150178 Kwon - Anual Report – Sep 01 2016 – Aug 31

  15. Spinal meningeal cyst: analysis with low-field MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hongzhou; Chen Yejia; Chen Ronghua; Chen Yanping

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the characteristics of spinal meningeal cyst in low-field MRI and to discuss its classification, subtype, clinical presentation, and differential diagnosis. Methods: Forty-two patients (20 male, 22 female) were examined with sagittal T 1 -and T 2 -, axial T 2 -weighted MR imaging. Twelve patients were also examined with contrast-enhanced MRI. Results: The cysts were classified using Nakors' classification as type Ia extradural meningeal cysts (4 patients), type Ib sacral meningeal cysts (32), type II extradural meningeal cysts with spinal nerve root fibers (4), and type III spinal intradural meningeal cysts (2). All 42 spinal meningeal cysts had well-defined boundaries with low T 1 and high T 2 signal intensities similar to cerebral spinal fluid. In type Ia, the lesions were often on the dorsum of mid-lower thoracic spinal cord compressing the spinal cord and displacing the extradural fat. In type Ib, the lesions were in the sacral canal with fat plane between the cyst and dural sac. In type II, the lesions contained nerve roots and were lateral to the dural sac. In type III, the lesions were often on the dorsum of spinal cord compressing and displacing the spinal cord anteriorly. Conclusion: Low-field MRI can clearly display the spinal meningeal cyst. Types Ia and Ib spinal meningeal cysts had typical features and can be easily diagnosed. Types II and III should be differentiated from cystic schwannomas and enterogenous cysts, respectively. (authors)

  16. A study of spinal cord tumors by magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gushiken, Isao; Nishihira, Takeshi; Nakasone, Tomohiro [Ryukyu Univ., Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan). School of Medicine; Takara, Hiroaki; Oshiro, Yutaka; Oshiro, Takashi; Isa, Makoto; Kinjo, Yukio; Ibaraki, Kunio

    1989-10-01

    We studied 17 cases of spinal cord tumors using magnetic resonance imaging. According to the intensity of image and histological feature of spinal cord tumors, we identified two groups in T2 weighted imaging. One was a hypointensity group showing cystic or vascular tumors, and the other was hyperintensity group of solid tumors. Preoperative images of swelling, narrowing, deviation of the spinal cord were remained after the operations. Grafted free fatty tissue for the prevention of adhesion was recognized well also after the operation. Postoperative imagings sometime showed pseudo-deviation of the spinal cord which was easy to be mistaken as the remains of tumors and narrowing of the spinal cord. In conclusion, the magnetic resonance imaging makes very early detection of spinal cord tumors possible, and it is valuable for a diagnosis of the spinal cord tumor associated with brain tumor. (author).

  17. Spinal cord injury reveals multilineage differentiation of ependymal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Meletis

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Spinal cord injury often results in permanent functional impairment. Neural stem cells present in the adult spinal cord can be expanded in vitro and improve recovery when transplanted to the injured spinal cord, demonstrating the presence of cells that can promote regeneration but that normally fail to do so efficiently. Using genetic fate mapping, we show that close to all in vitro neural stem cell potential in the adult spinal cord resides within the population of ependymal cells lining the central canal. These cells are recruited by spinal cord injury and produce not only scar-forming glial cells, but also, to a lesser degree, oligodendrocytes. Modulating the fate of ependymal progeny after spinal cord injury may offer an alternative to cell transplantation for cell replacement therapies in spinal cord injury.

  18. A study of spinal cord tumors by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gushiken, Isao; Nishihira, Takeshi; Nakasone, Tomohiro; Takara, Hiroaki; Oshiro, Yutaka; Oshiro, Takashi; Isa, Makoto; Kinjo, Yukio; Ibaraki, Kunio.

    1989-01-01

    We studied 17 cases of spinal cord tumors using magnetic resonance imaging. According to the intensity of image and histological feature of spinal cord tumors, we identified two groups in T2 weighted imaging. One was a hypointensity group showing cystic or vascular tumors, and the other was hyperintensity group of solid tumors. Preoperative images of swelling, narrowing, deviation of the spinal cord were remained after the operations. Grafted free fatty tissue for the prevention of adhesion was recognized well also after the operation. Postoperative imagings sometime showed pseudo-deviation of the spinal cord which was easy to be mistaken as the remains of tumors and narrowing of the spinal cord. In conclusion, the magnetic resonance imaging makes very early detection of spinal cord tumors possible, and it is valuable for a diagnosis of the spinal cord tumor associated with brain tumor. (author)

  19. Simplified spinal cord phantom for evaluation of SQUID magnetospinography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Y; Oyama, D; Uehara, G; Somchai, N; Kawabata, S

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord functional imaging by magnetospinography (MSG) is a noninvasive diagnostic method for spinal cord diseases. However, the accuracy and spatial resolution of lesion localization by MSG have barely been evaluated in detail so far. We developed a simplified spinal cord phantom for MSG evaluation. The spinal cord phantom is composed of a cylindrical vessel filled with saline water, which acts as a model of a neck. A set of modeled vertebrae is arranged in the cylindrical vessel, which has a neural current model made from catheter electrodes. The neural current model emulates the current distribution around the activated site along the axon of the spinal cord nerve. Our MSG system was used to observe the magnetic field from the phantom; a quadrupole-like pattern of the magnetic field distribution, which is a typical distribution pattern for spinal cord magnetic fields, was successfully reproduced by the phantom. Hence, the developed spinal cord phantom can be used to evaluate MSG source analysis methods.

  20. Attenuation in Melting Layer of Precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, W.

    1988-01-01

    A model of the melting layer is employed on radar measurements to simulate the attenuation of radio waves at 12, 20 and 30GHz. The attenuation in the melting layer is simulated to be slightly larger than that of rain with the same path length and precipitation intensity. The result appears to depend

  1. Precision Model for Microwave Rotary Vane Attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldbrandsen, Tom

    1979-01-01

    A model for a rotary vane attenuator is developed to describe the attenuator reflection and transmission coefficients in detail. All the parameters of the model can be measured in situ, i.e., without diassembling any part. The tranmission errors caused by internal reflections are calculated from ...

  2. Photostimulated attenuation of hypersound in superlattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensah, S.Y.; Allotey, F.K.; Adjepong, S.K.

    1992-10-01

    Photostimulated attenuation of hypersound in semiconductor superlattice has been investigated. It is shown that the attenuation coefficient depends on the phonon wave vector q in an oscillatory manner and that from this oscillation the band width Δ of superlattice can be found. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig

  3. Synaptic defects in the spinal and neuromuscular circuitry in a mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen K Y Ling

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA is a major genetic cause of death in childhood characterized by marked muscle weakness. To investigate mechanisms underlying motor impairment in SMA, we examined the spinal and neuromuscular circuitry governing hindlimb ambulatory behavior in SMA model mice (SMNΔ7. In the neuromuscular circuitry, we found that nearly all neuromuscular junctions (NMJs in hindlimb muscles of SMNΔ7 mice remained fully innervated at the disease end stage and were capable of eliciting muscle contraction, despite a modest reduction in quantal content. In the spinal circuitry, we observed a ∼28% loss of synapses onto spinal motoneurons in the lateral column of lumbar segments 3-5, and a significant reduction in proprioceptive sensory neurons, which may contribute to the 50% reduction in vesicular glutamate transporter 1(VGLUT1-positive synapses onto SMNΔ7 motoneurons. In addition, there was an increase in the association of activated microglia with SMNΔ7 motoneurons. Together, our results present a novel concept that synaptic defects occur at multiple levels of the spinal and neuromuscular circuitry in SMNΔ7 mice, and that proprioceptive spinal synapses could be a potential target for SMA therapy.

  4. Radiation therapy for metastatic spinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kida, Akio; Fukuda, Haruyuki; Taniguchi, Shuji; Sakai, Kazuaki

    2000-01-01

    The results of radiation therapy for metastatic spinal tumors were evaluated in terms of pain relief, improvement of neurological impairment, and survival. Between 1986 and 1995, 52 symptomatic patients with metastatic spinal tumors treated with radiation therapy were evaluated. The patients all received irradiation of megavoltage energy. Therapeutic efficacy was evaluated in terms of pain relief and improvement of neurological impairment. Pain relief was observed in 29 (61.7%) of 47 patients with pain. Therapy was effective for 17 (70.8%) of 24 patients without neurological impairment, and efficacy was detected in 12 (52.2%) of 23 patients with neurological impairment. Improvement of neurological symptoms was obtained in seven (25.0%) of 28 patients with neurological impairment. Radiation therapy was effective for pain relief in patients with metastatic spinal tumors. In patients with neurological impairment, less pain relief was observed than in those without impairment. Improvement of neurological impairment was restricted, but radiation therapy was thought to be effective in some cases in the early stage of neurological deterioration. Radiation therapy for metastatic spinal tumors contraindicated for surgery was considered effective for improvement of patients' activities of daily living. (author)

  5. New trends in spinal cord tissue engineering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubinová, Šárka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2015), s. 129-145 ISSN 1479-6708 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1309 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : biomaterial * cell therapy * regenerative medicine * spinal cord injury * stem cells scaffold * tissue engineering Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  6. Computed tomographic metrizamide myelography in spinal disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isu, T.; Ito, T.; Iwasaki, Y.; Tsuru, M. (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). School of Medicine); Kitaoka, K.

    1981-03-01

    Methods: Either EMT Head Scanner, CT 1010 (slice thickness 10 mm) or EMI Body Scanner, CT 5005 (slice thickness 13 mm) was used. The concentration of metrizamide was 170 - 250 mgI/ml and the amount was 7 - 10 ml. Either lumbar puncture or lateral C sub(1 - 2) puncture was made. Materials: 26 cases were included in this study. 1) disc disease: 11 cases, 2) spinal cord tumor: 6 cases, 3) Arnold-Chiari malformation: 3 cases, 4) atlantoaxial dislocation: 3 cases, 5) ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (associated with ossification of the ligamentum flavum): 2 cases (1 case), 6) spinal foreign body (acupuncture needle): 1 case. Results: 1) CT metrizamide myelography visualizes the subarachnoid space and makes it possible to know the lesion in the spinal canal in relation to the spinal cord in transverse plane. 2) It is difficult to determine the exact level of the lesion in axial plane. 3) The present technique does not allow to visualize the root sleeves. 4) It is difficult to delineate a compression of the subarachnoid space by small localized lesions (esp., disc diseases) due to overlapping the patent adjacent subarachnoid space within a slice 10 mm to 13 mm thick.

  7. Computed tomographic metrizamide myelography in spinal disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isu, Toyohiko; Ito, Terufumi; Iwasaki, Yoshinobu; Tsuru, Mitsuo; Kitaoka, Kenichi.

    1981-01-01

    Methods: Either EMT Head Scanner, CT 1010 (slice thickness 10 mm) or EMI Body Scanner, CT 5005 (slice thickness 13 mm) was used. The concentration of metrizamide was 170 - 250 mgI/ml and the amount was 7 - 10 ml. Either lumbar puncture or lateral C sub(1 - 2) puncture was made. Materials: 26 cases were included in this study. 1) disc disease: 11 cases, 2) spinal cord tumor: 6 cases, 3) Arnold-Chiari malformation: 3 cases, 4) atlantoaxial dislocation: 3 cases, 5) ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (associated with ossification of the ligamentum flavum): 2 cases (1 case), 6) spinal foreign body (acupuncture needle): 1 case. Results: 1) CT metrizamide myelography visualizes the subarachnoid space and makes it possible to know the lesion in the spinal canal in relation to the spinal cord in transverse plane. 2) It is difficult to determine the exact level of the lesion in axial plane. 3) The present technique does not allow to visualize the root sleeves. 4) It is difficult to delineate a compression of the subarachnoid space by small localized lesions (esp., disc diseases) due to overlapping the patent adjacent subarachnoid space within a slice 10 mm to 13 mm thick. (author)

  8. Congenital spine anomalies: the closed spinal dysraphisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, Erin Simon [University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Rossi, Andrea [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    The term congenital spinal anomalies encompasses a wide variety of dysmorphology that occurs during early development. Familiarity with current terminology and a practical, clinico-radiologic classification system allows the radiologist to have a more complete understanding of malformations of the spine and improves accuracy of diagnosis when these entities are encountered in practice. (orig.)

  9. Spinal decompensation in degenerative lumbar scoliosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, A.A.; Mullender, M.G.; Pluymakers, W.J.; Castelein, R.M.; van Royen, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Due to the aging population, degenerative scoliosis is a growing clinical problem. It is associated with back pain and radicular symptoms. The pathogenesis of degenerative scoliosis lies in degenerative changes of the spinal structures, such as the intervertebral disc, the facet joints and the

  10. The risk associated with spinal manipulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sabrina Mai; Tarp, Simon; Christensen, Robin

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) is a widely used manual treatment, but many reviews exist with conflicting conclusions about the safety of SMT. We performed an overview of reviews to elucidate and quantify the risk of serious adverse events (SAEs) associated with SMT. METHODS: We...

  11. Cardiac arrhythmias associated with spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hector, Sven Magnus; Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Krassioukov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT/OBJECTIVES: To review the current literature to reveal the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias and its relation to spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Data source: MEDLINE database, 304 hits, and 32 articles were found to be relevant. The relevant articles all met the inclusion criteria: (1...

  12. Various MRI findings of spinal ependymoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Yoon Joo; Lee, Eugene; Lee, Joon Woo; Kang, Yu Suhn; Hyun, Seung Jae; Kim, Ki Jeong; Jahng, Tae Ahn; Kim, Hyun Jib; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    To present the typical and atypical magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings of intramedullary spinal ependymomas, and compare these findings with pathological subtypes. Between January 2003 to November 2014, 47 patients who had spinal ependymoma with pathologic confirmation, were retrospectively reviewed with all electronic medical records and MR images. MR imaging was done in all cases, and the images of spinal ependymomas and associated enhancement patterns were correlated with pathologic findings. The enhancement patterns were categorized into four categories: homogeneous, heterogeneous, rim-enhancement, and non-enhancement. Heterogeneous enhancement was observed in 50% of the cases. Among the 47 cases, 35 cases were well-marginated, with 21 being cervically located. All lesions were centrally located in the axial axis. Most of the cases showed T1-iso signal intensity (81%) and T2-high signal intensity (72%). The hemosiderin cap sign, syringomyelia, tumoral and non-tumoral cysts were well demonstrated. The most common pathologic type was cellular ependymoma. However, due to the small sample size, we believe it inappropriate to statistically discuss the MRI findings according to the pathologic subtype. Most spinal ependymoma showed T1-iso signal intensity and T2-high signal intensity, with enhancement patterns other than homogeneous enhancement.

  13. Traumatic spinal cord injury in MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronarski, J.; Wozniak, E.

    1993-01-01

    Spinal cord injuries in tetraplegics were briefly discussed on the basis of MR imaging. It was found that severe cervical spine trauma usually results in concussion - the complete transection of the cord is rare. A case of 19 years old male with total cord transection confirmed by MR imaging is described. (author)

  14. Treatment of spinal fractures with paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riska, E B; Myllynen, P

    1981-01-01

    Of 206 patients with vertebral fractures in the thoraco-lumbar spine with spinal cord injuries, an antero-lateral decompression with stabilization of the injured segment of the vertebral column was undertaken in 56 cases. In all these cases there was a compression of the spinal cord from the front. 8 patients made a complete recovery, 31 a good recovery, and 6 were improved. In 8 patients no improvement was noted. 2 patients developed pressure sores later and 1 patient died one year after the operation of uraemia. 22 patients out of 55 got a normal function of the bladder and 25 patients out of 54 a normal function of the anal sphincter. 16 patients out of 17 made a complete or good recovery after removal of a displaced rotated vertebral bony fragment from the spinal canal, and 7 patients out of 9 with wedge shaped fractures. In our clinic today, in cases of vertebral fractures with neural involvement, reduction and internal fixation with Harrington rods and fusion of the injured segment is undertaken as soon as possible, also during the night. If narrowing of the neural canal and compression of the spinal cord are verified, a decompression operation with interbody fusion is undertaken during the next days.

  15. Cardiac Arrest Following Spinal Anaesthesia With Plain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    year old woman who was admitted for an elective caesarean section. After preoperative evaluation and premedication she received a spinal anaesthesia in the L3-4 interspace with plain bupivacaine 0.5%. After being replaced in the supine ...

  16. CT imaging of cervical spinal vascular malformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Takashi; Iwamoto, Munehisa; Miyamoto, Etsuo; Kuriyama, Tsuyoshi; Hayama, Tsuneto

    1982-01-01

    The patient had a history of the onset of motor paralysis of the right upper and lower extremities. Eight years later, numbness of the right upper extremity and a severe neck pain developed, and transverse paralysis of the lower extremities appeared in about 10 hours. CT demonstrated the presence of spinal vascular abnormality. Angiography suggested arteriovenous malformation of glomus type. (Chiba, N.)

  17. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dreesen, JCFM; Bras, M; de Die-Smulders, C; Dumoulin, JCM; Cobben, JM; Evers, JLH; Smeets, HJM; Geraedts, JPM

    After Duchenne muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the most common severe neuromuscular disease in childhood. Since 1995, homozygous deletions in exon 7 of the survival motor neuron (SMN) gene have been described in >90-95% of SMA patients. However, the presence of a highly

  18. Spinal cord compression due to metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, C.M. de; Matushita, J.P.K.; Silva, M.A.F. da; Koch, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    A study of 20 patients with medullary compression syndrome due to lesions not related to the central nervous system is presented. Plain films of the spine and myelography are made to determine the level of osseous involvement, the level of the spinal block and to planning radiotherapy. (Author) [pt

  19. Testing haptic sensations for spinal anesthesia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-01-01

    Having identified key determinants of teaching and learning spinal anesthesia, it was necessary to characterize and render the haptic sensations (feeling of touch) associated with needle insertion in the lower back. The approach used is to match recreated sensations (eg, "pop" through skin or dura mater) with experts\\' perceptions of the equivalent clinical events.

  20. Predicting spinal hypotension during Caesarean section

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is a significant body of recent work which has looked at the haemodynamic changes which occur under spinal anaesthesia and the effects of various treatment regimens on these changes. It has long been held that the dominant mechanism of hypotension in the patient for Caesarean section is caval compression.9.

  1. Locomotor circuits in the mammalian spinal cord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiehn, Ole

    2006-01-01

    Intrinsic spinal networks, known as central pattern generators (CPGs), control the timing and pattern of the muscle activity underlying locomotion in mammals. This review discusses new advances in understanding the mammalian CPGs with a focus on experiments that address the overall network struct...

  2. Spinal cord involvement in Balo's concentric sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreft, Karim L.; Mellema, S. Jouke; Hintzen, Rogier Q.

    2009-01-01

    We present a patient with a history of myelitis, who had a steroid refractory attack of CNS inflammatory demyelinating disease that developed into cerebral concentric sclerosis of Balo after plasma exchange. The acute inflammatory disease involved the spinal cord, a phenomenon rarely demonstrated.

  3. Posterior spinal decompression, stabilization and arthrodesis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was a case each of superficial surgical site infection and transient cerebrospinal fluid leak but no case of implant failure was encountered. The outcome was significantly associated with the etiology (0.030) of the indication for surgery and preoperative power grade (0.000). Conclusion: Spinal trauma and degenerative ...

  4. Teaching and learning spinal anaesthesia: anaesthetists' attitudes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Breen, Dorothy

    2010-12-01

    To identify the determinants of learning for one medical procedural skill, spinal anaesthesia, by eliciting the opinions of anaesthetists in Ireland and Hungary. This objective is one component of a research project, Medical Competence Assessment Procedure (MedCAP) funded by the EU Leonardo da Vinci Lifelong Learning Programme.

  5. Acute hyperventilation leading to hypocalcaemia during spinal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    Acute hyperventilation leading to hypocalcaemia during spinal anaesthesia his chest was clear. Trousseau's sign2 was noticed on the left hand, where the sphygmomanometer cuff was placed and inflated for mea- surement. A blood sample for the measurement of ionized calcium and blood gases was drawn. An infusion of ...

  6. Spinal cord stimulation: Background and clinical application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    a number of contacts capable of delivering a weak electrical current to the spinal cord, evoking a feeling of peripheral paresthesia. With correct indication and if implanted by an experienced implanter, success rates generally are in the range of about 50–75%. Common indications include complex regional...

  7. Spinal Metaplasticity in Respiratory Motor Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon S Mitchell

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark feature of the neural system controlling breathing is its ability to exhibit plasticity. Less appreciated is the ability to exhibit metaplasticity, a change in the capacity to express plasticity (ie. plastic plasticity. Recent advances in our understanding of cellular mechanisms giving rise to respiratory motor plasticity lay the groundwork for (ongoing investigations of metaplasticity. This detailed understanding of respiratory metaplasticity will be essential as we harness metaplasticity to restore breathing capacity in clinical disorders that compromise breathing, such as cervical spinal injury, motor neuron disease and other neuromuscular diseases. In this brief review, we discuss key examples of metaplasticity in respiratory motor control, and our current understanding of mechanisms giving rise to spinal plasticity and metaplasticity in phrenic motor output; particularly after pre-conditioning with intermittent hypoxia. Progress in this area has led to the realization that similar mechanisms are operative in other spinal motor networks, including those governing limb movement. Further, these mechanisms can be harnessed to restore respiratory and non-respiratory motor function after spinal injury.

  8. Alleviating Autonomic Dysreflexia after Spinal Cord Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    tracts originating from cortex, we may eventually be able to use cell transplantation as a bridge to promote targeted, functional axon regeneration ...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS autonomic dysreflexia, spinal cord injury, transplantation, axon regeneration 16. SECURITY...different root causes – i.e. using neural precursor cells to restore more normal innervation of sympathetic preganglionic neurons and

  9. CT imaging of cervical spinal vascular malformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Takashi; Iwamoto, Munehisa; Miyamoto, Etsuo; Kuriyama, Tsuyoshi; Hayama, Tsuneto [Wakayama Red Cross Hospital, Wakayama (Japan)

    1982-05-01

    The patient had a history of the onset of motor paralysis of the right upper and lower extremities. Eight years later, numbness of the right upper extremity and a severe neck pain developed, and transverse paralysis of the lower extremities appeared in about 10 hours. CT demonstrated the presence of spinal vascular abnormality. Angiography suggested arteriovenous malformation of glomus type.

  10. The Smn-independent beneficial effects of trichostatin A on an intermediate mouse model of spinal muscular atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Liu

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy is an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease characterized by the progressive loss of alpha motor neurons in the spinal cord. Trichostatin A (TSA is a histone deacetylase inhibitor with beneficial effects in spinal muscular atrophy mouse models that carry the human SMN2 transgene. It is currently unclear whether TSA specifically targets the SMN2 gene or whether other genes respond to TSA and in turn provide neuroprotection in SMA mice. We have taken advantage of the Smn2B/- mouse model that does not harbor the human SMN2 transgene, to test the hypothesis that TSA has its beneficial effects through a non-SMN mediated pathway. TSA increased the median lifespan of Smn2B/- mice from twenty days to eight weeks. As well, there was a significant attenuation of weight loss and improved motor behavior. Pen test and righting reflex both showed significant improvement, and motor neurons in the spinal cord of Smn2B/- mice were protected from degeneration. Both the size and maturity of neuromuscular junctions were significantly improved in TSA treated Smn2B/- mice. Of interest, TSA treatment did not increase the levels of Smn protein in mouse embryonic fibroblasts or myoblasts obtained from the Smn2B/- mice. In addition, no change in the level of Smn transcripts or protein in the brain or spinal cord of TSA-treated SMA model mice was observed. Furthermore, TSA did not increase Smn protein levels in the hind limb muscle, heart, or liver of Smn2B/- mice. We therefore conclude that TSA likely exerts its effects independent of the endogenous mouse Smn gene. As such, identification of the pathways regulated by TSA in the Smn2B/- mice could lead to the development of novel therapeutics for treating SMA.

  11. Blockade of NMDA receptors decreased spinal microglia activation in bee venom induced acute inflammatory pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Wu, Yongfang; Bai, Zhifeng; Hu, Yuyan; Li, Wenbin

    2017-03-01

    Microglial cells in spinal dorsal horn can be activated by nociceptive stimuli and the activated microglial cells release various cytokines enhancing the nociceptive transmission. However, the mechanisms underlying the activation of spinal microglia during nociceptive stimuli have not been well understood. In order to define the role of NMDA receptors in the activation of spinal microglia during nociceptive stimuli, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of blockade of NMDA receptors on the spinal microglial activation induced by acute peripheral inflammatory pain in rats. The acute inflammatory pain was induced by subcutaneous bee venom injection to the plantar surface of hind paw of rats. Spontaneous pain behavior, thermal withdrawal latency and mechanical withdrawal threshold were rated. The expression of specific microglia marker CD11b/c was assayed by immunohistochemistry and western blot. After bee venom treatment, it was found that rats produced a monophasic nociception characterized by constantly lifting and licking the injected hind paws, decreased thermal withdrawal latency and mechanical withdrawal threshold; immunohistochemistry displayed microglia with enlarged cell bodies, thickened, extended cellular processes with few ramifications, small spines, and intensive immunostaining; western blot showed upregulated expression level of CD11b/c within the period of hyperalgesia. Prior intrathecal injection of MK-801, a selective antagonist of NMDA receptors, attenuated the pain behaviors and suppressed up-regulation of CD11b/c induced by bee venom. It can be concluded that NMDA receptors take part in the mediation of spinal microglia activation in bee venom induced peripheral inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia in rats.

  12. MRI features of lymphoma in spinal area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Liangping; Peng Weijun; Yang Wentao; Tang Feng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To analyze MR imaging manifestations of spinal area lymphoma in order to improve the recognition and understanding of the disease. Methods: A group of 45 patients with pathologically or clinically proven spinal area lymphoma were reviewed. Five cases were primary NHL, 40 cases were secondary with 9 HL and 31 NHL (27 B-cell type NHL and 4 T-cell type NHL). MR Imaging findings were analyzed and correlated with clinical and pathologic findings. Results: (1) Location of lesions: 13 cases were focal type and 32 cases were multifocal type. All of the 5 patients with primary lymphoma were focal type, while 32 of 40 eases of secondary lymphoma were multifocal type. (2)Type of lesions: (1) Vertebral destruction: 27 cases manifested as bone destruction with 23 of them had soft tissue mass and the extent of soft tissue masses were larger than that of bone destruction in 18 eases. (2) Soft tissue masses: 6 cases manifested as soft masses without obvious bone destruction, of which 5 cases had soft tissue masses imbedded vertebrae and communicated paravertebral and epidural spaces through intervertebral foramen. (3) Bone marrow infiltration: 9 cases of secondary spinal lymphoma had signal intensity changes of bone marrow without obvious cortical bone destruction and soft tissue mass. (4) Spinal cord infiltration: 3 cases of secondary spinal lymphoma had spinal cord swelling and signal intensity changes. (3) MRI findings: all lesions of bone destruction and marrow infiltration manifested as hypointense on T 1 -weighted images, hypointense, isointense or hyperintense on T 2 -weighted images and hyperintense on T 2 -weighted images with fat-suppression technique. All soft tissue masses were homogeneous hypointense on T 1 -weighted images and hyperintense on T 2 -weighted images. After intravenous injection of contrast media, the lesions of the bone and the soft tissue showed mild or moderate enhancement without remarkable cystic degeneration and necrosis. Conclusions

  13. Ultrasound fields in an attenuating medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gandhi,, D; O'Brien,, W.D., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    of the rectangles and sums all contributions to arrive at the spatial impulse response for the aperture and field point. This approach makes it possible to model all transducer apertures, and the program can readily calculate the emitted, pulse-echo and continuous wave field. Attenuation is included by splitting...... it into a frequency dependent part and frequency independent part. The latter results in an attenuation factor that is multiplied onto the responses from the individual elements, and the frequency dependent part is handled by attenuating the basic one-dimensional pulse. The influence on ultrasound fields from......Ultrasound fields propagating in tissue will undergo changes in shape not only due to diffraction, but also due to the frequency dependent attenuation. Linear fields can be fairly well predicted for a non-attenuating medium like water by using the Tupholme-Stepanishen method for calculating...

  14. Tolerance of the human spinal cord to single dose radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, S.; Zhu, G.; Yin, F.-F.; Ajlouni, M.; Kim, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Tolerance of the spinal cord to the single dose of radiation is not well defined. Although there are cases of human spinal cord tolerance from re-irradiation to the same cord level, the information about the tolerance of human spinal cord to single large dose of radiosurgery is not available. We carried out spinal radiosurgery to treat spinal metastasis and studied the single dose tolerance of the human spinal cord in an ongoing dose escalation paradigm. A total of 39 patients with 48 lesions of spinal metastasis were treated with single dose radiosurgery at Henry Ford Hospital. The radiosurgery dose was escalated from 8 Gy to 16 Gy at 2 Gy increment. The radiation dose was prescribed to periphery of the spinal tumor. The radiation dose to the spinal cord was estimated by computerized dosimetry. The median follow-up time was 10 months (range 6-18 months) from the radiosurgery. The endpoint of the study was to demonstrate the efficacy of the spinal radiosurgery and to determine the tolerance of human spinal cord to single dose radiosurgery. The dose to the spinal cord was generally less than 50 % of the prescribed radiation dose. The volume of the spinal cord that received higher than this dose was less than 20 % of the anterior portion of the spinal cord. Maximum single dose of 8 Gy was delivered to the anterior 20 % of the spinal cord in this dose escalation study. The dose volume histogram will be presented. There was no acute or subacute radiation toxicity detected clinically and radiologically during the maximum follow-up of 20 months. Further dose escalation is in progress. The single tolerance dose of the human spinal cord appears to be at least 8 Gy when it was given to the 20 % of the cord volume, although the duration of follow up is not long enough to detect severe late cord toxicity. This study offers a valuable radiobiological basis of the normal spinal cord tolerance, and opens spinal radiosurgery as a safe treatment for spinal metastasis

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord syndromes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einsiedel, H. von; Stepan, R.

    1985-01-01

    Thirty-four patients with intramedullary space-occupying lesions or cord compression syndromes were examined with a resistive and two different superconductive magnetic resonance (MR) imaging units. Studies were done primarily by the spin-echo (SE) technique and in the majority of patients different pulse sequences were used. Images with short echo-time (TE) and short recovery-time (TR) were best for demonstration of spinal cord anatomy, for depicting cystic portions in intramedullary tumours and for showing syringomyelia. Solid intramedullary tumours showed normal cord signal intensity. Images with prolonged TE and TR predominantly enhanced CSF signal intensity and, to a more considerable extent, solid intramedullary tumours. Thus, the diameter of the subarachnoid space and the presence of a solid intramedullary tumour, not concomittant with a significant enlargement of the spinal cord, could only be recognized on these prolonged SE images. Major advantages of MR in comparison to CT are that the spinal cord can be imaged in the sagittal plane and that beam hardening artifacts do not occur; in comparison to myelography the cord can be imaged directly by MR. Partial volume is a major limitation of MR, not only in the preferably applied sagittal plane. The choice of slice thickness adequate to the diameter of the lesion and straight positioning of the patient for sagittal single slice midline images are fundamental for reliable MR investigations. Another limitation to MR is that cortical bone gives no signal. The actual diameter of the spinal canal therefore cannot be correctly appreciated and consequently it was difficult or impossible to assess spinal stenosis. (orig.)

  16. MR determination of neonatal spinal canal depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthurs, Owen; Thayyil, Sudhin; Wade, Angie; Chong, W K Kling; Sebire, Neil J; Taylor, Andrew M

    2012-08-01

    Lumbar punctures (LPs) are frequently performed in neonates and often result in traumatic haemorrhagic taps. Knowledge of the distance from the skin to the middle of the spinal canal (mid-spinal canal depth - MSCD) may reduce the incidence of traumatic taps, but there is little data in extremely premature or low birth weight neonates. Here, we determined the spinal canal depth at post-mortem in perinatal deaths using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Spinal canal depth was measured in 78 post-mortem foetuses and perinatal cases (mean gestation 26 weeks; mean weight 1.04kg) at the L3/L4 inter-vertebral space at post-mortem MRI. Both anterior (ASCD) and posterior (PSCD) spinal canal depth were measured; MSCD was calculated and modelled against weight and gestational age. ASCD and PSCD (mm) correlated significantly with weight and gestational age (all r>0.8). A simple linear model MSCD (mm)=3×Weight (kg)+5 was the best fit, identifying an SCD value within the correct range for 87.2% (68/78) (95% CI (78.0, 92.9%)) cases. Gestational age did not add significantly to the predictive value of the model. There is a significant correlation between MSCD and body weight at post-mortem MRI in foetuses and perinatal deaths. If this association holds in preterm neonates, use of the formula MSCD (mm)=3×Weight (kg)+5 could result in fewer traumatic LPs in this population. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. MR determination of neonatal spinal canal depth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthurs, Owen, E-mail: owenarthurs@uk2.net [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London WC1N 3JH (United Kingdom); Thayyil, Sudhin, E-mail: s.thayyil@ucl.ac.uk [Academic Neonatology, Institute for Women' s Health, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom); Wade, Angie, E-mail: a.wade@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Paediatric Epidemiology and Biostatistics, UCL Institute of Child Health, London (United Kingdom); Chong, W.K., E-mail: Kling.Chong@gosh.nhs.uk [Paediatric Neuroradiology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Sebire, Neil J., E-mail: Neil.Sebire@gosh.nhs.uk [Histopathology, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom); Taylor, Andrew M., E-mail: a.taylor76@ucl.ac.uk [Centre for Cardiovascular MR, Cardiorespiratory Unit, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children and UCL Institute of Cardiovascular Science, London WC1E 6AU (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Objectives: Lumbar punctures (LPs) are frequently performed in neonates and often result in traumatic haemorrhagic taps. Knowledge of the distance from the skin to the middle of the spinal canal (mid-spinal canal depth - MSCD) may reduce the incidence of traumatic taps, but there is little data in extremely premature or low birth weight neonates. Here, we determined the spinal canal depth at post-mortem in perinatal deaths using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients and methods: Spinal canal depth was measured in 78 post-mortem foetuses and perinatal cases (mean gestation 26 weeks; mean weight 1.04 kg) at the L3/L4 inter-vertebral space at post-mortem MRI. Both anterior (ASCD) and posterior (PSCD) spinal canal depth were measured; MSCD was calculated and modelled against weight and gestational age. Results: ASCD and PSCD (mm) correlated significantly with weight and gestational age (all r > 0.8). A simple linear model MSCD (mm) = 3 Multiplication-Sign Weight (kg) + 5 was the best fit, identifying an SCD value within the correct range for 87.2% (68/78) (95% CI (78.0, 92.9%)) cases. Gestational age did not add significantly to the predictive value of the model. Conclusion: There is a significant correlation between MSCD and body weight at post-mortem MRI in foetuses and perinatal deaths. If this association holds in preterm neonates, use of the formula MSCD (mm) = 3 Multiplication-Sign Weight (kg) + 5 could result in fewer traumatic LPs in this population.

  18. Radiological evaluation of the cervical spinal trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, W. K.; Koh, B. H.; Hahm, C. K.; Kim, J. J. [School of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-03-15

    Acute injuries of the cervical spine are the most common causes of severe disability following trauma, yet the diagnosis of these injuries are often delayed and the treatment, inadequate. Traumatic injuries of the cervical spine are diagnosed by radiological examinations. And complete evaluations of bony structures and soft tissue changes on conventional radiograms are very important for determining the therapeutic plans and prognoses of the injuries patients. During the period of 5 years from June 1976 to May 1981, the radiological and clinical evaluation had been made on 38 patients suffered from acute cervical spinal injuries which were confirmed by the radiological examinations. The results were as follows. 1. Age distribution of total 38 patients was broad ranging from 19 years to 72 years. 2. The most common cause of injury was traffic accident, next fall down, other accident respectively. 3. Levels of the cervical spinal injuries were as follows: Upper cervical spine in 15.8%, lower cervical spine in 84.2%, and the most common injuries level was C 5. Most of the lower cervical spinal injuries were located in the vertebral body and spinous process. 4. Anatomical sites of the cervical spinal injuries were as follows; vertebral body in 55.5%, spinous process in 23.7%, neural arch in 15.8%, and locked facet in 18.4%, etc. 5. Most of the patients with severe mental changes were injuries in upper cervical spine rather than lower. And most of the patients with quadriplegia or paraplegia were shown marked disruption of spinal canal.

  19. Radiological evaluation of the cervical spinal trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, W. K.; Koh, B. H.; Hahm, C. K.; Kim, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    Acute injuries of the cervical spine are the most common causes of severe disability following trauma, yet the diagnosis of these injuries are often delayed and the treatment, inadequate. Traumatic injuries of the cervical spine are diagnosed by radiological examinations. And complete evaluations of bony structures and soft tissue changes on conventional radiograms are very important for determining the therapeutic plans and prognoses of the injuries patients. During the period of 5 years from June 1976 to May 1981, the radiological and clinical evaluation had been made on 38 patients suffered from acute cervical spinal injuries which were confirmed by the radiological examinations. The results were as follows. 1. Age distribution of total 38 patients was broad ranging from 19 years to 72 years. 2. The most common cause of injury was traffic accident, next fall down, other accident respectively. 3. Levels of the cervical spinal injuries were as follows: Upper cervical spine in 15.8%, lower cervical spine in 84.2%, and the most common injuries level was C 5. Most of the lower cervical spinal injuries were located in the vertebral body and spinous process. 4. Anatomical sites of the cervical spinal injuries were as follows; vertebral body in 55.5%, spinous process in 23.7%, neural arch in 15.8%, and locked facet in 18.4%, etc. 5. Most of the patients with severe mental changes were injuries in upper cervical spine rather than lower. And most of the patients with quadriplegia or paraplegia were shown marked disruption of spinal canal

  20. Morphological analysis of the cervical spinal canal, dural tube and spinal cord in normal individuals using CT myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, H.; Ohmori, K.; Takatsu, T.; Teramoto, T.; Ishida, Y.; Suzuki, K.

    1996-01-01

    To verify the conventional concept of ''developmental stenosis of the cervical spinal canal'', we performed a morphological analysis of the relations of the cervical spinal canal, dural tube and spinal cord in normal individuals. The sagittal diameter, area and circularity of the three structures, and the dispersion of each parameter, were examined on axial sections of CT myelograms of 36 normal subjects. The spinal canal was narrowest at C4, followed by C5, while the spinal cord was largest at C4/5. The area and circularity of the cervical spinal cord were not significantly correlated with any parameter of the spinal canal nor with the sagittal diameter and area of the dural tube at any level examined, and the spinal cord showed less individual variation than the bony canal. Compression of the spinal cord might be expected whenever the sagittal diameter of the spinal canal is below the lower limit of normal, that is about 12 mm on plain radiographs. Thus, we concluded that the concept of ''developmental stenosis of the cervical spinal canal'' was reasonable and acceptable. (orig.). With 2 figs., 3 tabs