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Sample records for tetrakisdimethylaminoethylene tdae efficient

  1. Original TDAE Strategy Using Propargylic Chloride: Rapid Access to 1,4-Diarylbut-3-ynol Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Vanelle

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report herein the first synthesis of propargylic alcohols using an organic reducing agent. Diarylbutynol derivatives are formed in moderate to good yields under mild conditions from the reaction of 1-(3-chloroprop-1-ynyl-4-nitrobenzene with various aromatic aldehydes using tetrakis(dimethylaminoethylene (TDAE as reductant.

  2. Functionalization of 6-Nitrobenzo[1,3]dioxole with Carbonyl Compounds via TDAE methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice Vanelle

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We report herein the synthesis of substituted 2-(6-nitrobenzo[1,3]dioxol-5-yl-1- aryl ethanols and 2-(6-nitrobenzo[1,3]dioxol-5-yl-propionic acid ethyl esters from the reaction of 5-chloromethyl-6-nitrobenzo[1,3]dioxole with various aromatic carbonyl and α- carbonyl ester derivatives using the tetrakis(dimethylaminoethylene (TDAE methodology.

  3. Synthesis of New Quinoxalines Containing an Oxirane Ring by the TDAE Strategy and in Vitro Evaluation in Neuroblastoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Montana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma is an aggressive pediatric malignancy with significant chemotherapeutic resistance. In order to obtain new compounds active on neuroblastoma cell lines, we investigated the reactivity of carbanion formed via TDAE in quinoxaline series. The new synthesized compounds were tested for their anti-proliferative activity on two neuroblastoma cell lines, and seven oxirane derivatives obtained interesting activities.

  4. Research of operational properties of compound based on high viscosity styrene-butadiene rubber SSBR-2560 TDAE HV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Falyakhov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article consider the influence of replacement of SSBR-2560 TDAE batch production on high viscosity SSBR-2560-TDAE HV in the tread recipe on the tire performance properties. Obtained samples were highly viscosity styrene butadiene rubber did not differ in the microstructure of the SSBR-2560 TDAE batch production. Increasing the molecular weight possible to increase the Mooney viscosity of the rubber, however, is known to one of adverse factors is the deterioration of processability of rubber compounds based on polymers. In this connection, investigated the behavior in the step mixing compound based on high viscosity SSBR rubber. We chose recipes tread of the tire with a high content of organic silicon filler. It is established that the equivalent replacement of the polymer in the tread recipe does not lead to significant changes in the basic parameters of rubber mixing. We observed a slight increase in the energy consumption for the preparation of the rubber compounds, as well as the discharge temperature at each stage. It was shown to improve the distribution of the filler in the polymer matrix for the compound based on SSBR-2560 TDAE HV. The results showed that compound based on high viscosity SSBR improves rolling resistance and traction characteristics, while maintaining abrasion in comparison with the SSBR-2560-M27 batch production. Recommended use this brand in the production of rubber car tires.

  5. Electron transport characteristics of organic molecule encapsulated carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Uck; Belosludov, Rodion V; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2011-04-01

    One-dimensional carbon nanotube (CNT) junctions with interesting device characteristics have been designed by encapsulating p- and n-type organic molecules into CNTs with electrophilic tetracyano-p-quinodimethane (TCNQ) and nucleophilic tetrakis(dimethylamino)ethylene (TDAE) molecules in order to explore the effect of encapsulation of organic molecules and rectifying behaviors of the designed one-dimensional CNT p-n junctions. Our results show that p- and n-type doping of CNTs and their associated charge transfer play an important role in determining the electron transport characteristics and lead to materials with unique properties, p-n junction diode, i.e. Zener-like diode. Furthermore, we show that the operational device characteristics of non-covalently doped CNT junctions originate from the distinct response of intrinsic transmission peaks of pure CNTs according to the type of dopant and the applied bias. We believe that the results give an insight into the design and implementation of various electronic logic functions based on CNTs for applications in the field of nanoelectronics.

  6. Juggling Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Sand; Vedsted, Peter

    2015-01-01

    on institutional logics, we illustrate how a logic of efficiency organise and give shape to healthcare seeking practices as they manifest in local clinical settings. Overall, patient concerns are reconfigured to fit the local clinical setting and healthcare professionals and patients are required to juggle...... efficiency in order to deal with uncertainties and meet more complex or unpredictable needs. Lastly, building on the empirical case of cancer diagnostics, we discuss the implications of the pervasiveness of the logic of efficiency in the clinical setting and argue that provision of medical care in today......'s primary care settings requires careful balancing of increasing demands of efficiency, greater complexity of biomedical knowledge and consideration for individual patient needs....

  7. Batch efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Schwickerath, U; Uria, C; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2010-01-01

    A frequent source of concern for resource providers is the efficient use of computing resources in their centers. This has a direct impact on requests for new resources. There are two different but strongly correlated aspects to be considered: while users are mostly interested in a good turn-around time for their jobs, resource providers are mostly interested in a high and efficient usage of their available resources. Both things, the box usage and the efficiency of individual user jobs, need to be closely monitored so that the sources of the inefficiencies can be identified. At CERN, the Lemon monitoring system is used for both purposes. Examples of such sources are poorly written user code, inefficient access to mass storage systems, and dedication of resources to specific user groups. As a first step for improvements CERN has launched a project to develop a scheduler add-on that allows careful overloading of worker nodes that run idle jobs.

  8. Efficient ICT for efficient smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    In this extended abstract the need for efficient and reliable ICT is discussed. Efficiency of ICT not only deals with energy-efficient ICT hardware, but also deals with efficient algorithms, efficient design methods, efficient networking infrastructures, etc. Efficient and reliable ICT is a

  9. Efficiency stud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brundaban Patro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study of combination tube boilers, as applicable to commercial use, along with the significant features, limitations, and applicability. A heat balance sheet is prepared to know the various heat losses in two different two-pass combination tube boilers, using low grade coal and rice husk as a fuel. Also, the efficiency of the combination tube boilers is studied by the direct and heat loss methods. It is observed that the dry flue gas loss is a major loss in the combination tube boilers. The loss due to the unburnt in the fly ash is very less in the combination tube boilers, due to the surrounded membrane wall. It is also observed that the loss due to the unburnt in the bottom ash has a considerable amount for the heat loss, and cannot be ignored.

  10. Efficiency wages and bargaining

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Frank

    2005-01-01

    I argue that in contrast to the literature to date efficiency wage and bargaining solutions will typically be independent. If the bargained wage satisfies the efficiency wage constraint efficiency wages are irrelevant. If it does not, typically we have the efficiency wage solution and bargaining is irrelevant.

  11. Technical efficiency, efficiency change, technical progress and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In May 2006, the Ministers of Health of all the countries on the African continent, at a special session of the African Union, undertook to institutionalise efficiency monitoring within their respective national health information management systems. The specific objectives of this study were: (i) to assess the technical efficiency of ...

  12. The ethics of efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction. Efficiency is generally regarded as a value-neutral concept, concerned with assessing whether an economy produces at its possibility frontier, that is, generating maximum possible market output with given resources. Efficiency analysis generally rejects concerns

  13. Energy Efficient Content Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo J.; Giroire F.; Liu Y; Modrzejewski R.; Moulierac J.

    2016-01-01

    To optimize energy efficiency in network, operators try to switch off as many network devices as possible. Recently, there is a trend to introduce content caches as an inherent capacity of network equipment, with the objective of improving the efficiency of content distribution and reducing network congestion. In this work, we study the impact of using in-network caches and CDN cooperation on an energy-efficient routing. We formulate this problem as Energy Efficient Content Distribution. The ...

  14. Energy efficiency; Efficacite energetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the energy efficiency. It presents the energy efficiency and intensity around the world with a particular focus on Europe, the energy efficiency in industry and Total commitment. (A.L.B.)

  15. The Ethics behind Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Jonathan B.

    2017-01-01

    The normative elements underlying efficiency are more complex than generally portrayed and rely upon ethical frameworks that are generally absent from classroom discussions. Most textbooks, for example, ignore the ethical differences between Pareto efficiency (based on voluntary win-win outcomes) and the modern Kaldor-Hicks efficiency used in…

  16. Generating steam efficiently

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V. [ABCO Industries, Abilene, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper outlines a few methods or options for generating steam efficiently in cogeneration plants when using conventional steam generators (boilers) and gas turbine Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSGS). By understanding the performance characteristics of these systems and operating them at their most efficient loads, steam can be generated at low cost. Suggestions are also made to improve the efficiency of existing HRSGS.

  17. Feedback and efficient behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, Sandro; DellaValle, Nives; Mittone, Luigi; Soraperra, Ivan

    2017-01-01

    Feedback is an effective tool for promoting efficient behavior: it enhances individuals' awareness of choice consequences in complex settings. Our study aims to isolate the mechanisms underlying the effects of feedback on achieving efficient behavior in a controlled environment. We design a laboratory experiment in which individuals are not aware of the consequences of different alternatives and, thus, cannot easily identify the efficient ones. We introduce feedback as a mechanism to enhance the awareness of consequences and to stimulate exploration and search for efficient alternatives. We assess the efficacy of three different types of intervention: provision of social information, manipulation of the frequency, and framing of feedback. We find that feedback is most effective when it is framed in terms of losses, that it reduces efficiency when it includes information about inefficient peers' behavior, and that a lower frequency of feedback does not disrupt efficiency. By quantifying the effect of different types of feedback, our study suggests useful insights for policymakers.

  18. Efficient probability sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Regnier, Eva

    2014-01-01

    A probability sequence is an ordered set of probability forecasts for the same event. Although single-period probabilistic forecasts and methods for evaluating them have been extensively analyzed, we are not aware of any prior work on evaluating probability sequences. This paper proposes an efficiency condition for probability sequences and shows properties of efficient forecasting systems, including memorylessness and increasing discrimination. These results suggest tests for efficiency and ...

  19. Efficient emissions reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Roussillon, Beatrice; Schweinzer, Paul

    2010-01-01

    We propose a simple mechanism capable of achieving international agreement on the reduction of harmful emissions to their efficient level. It employs a contest creating incentives among participating nations to simultaneously exert efficient productive and efficient abatement efforts. Participation in the most stylised formulation of the scheme is voluntary and individually rational. All rules are mutually agreeable and are unanimously adopted if proposed. The scheme balances its budget and r...

  20. Landscaping for energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    This publication by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory addresses the use of landscaping for energy efficiency. The topics of the publication include minimizing energy expenses; landscaping for a cleaner environment; climate, site, and design considerations; planning landscape; and selecting and planting trees and shrubs. A source list for more information on landscaping for energy efficiency and a reading list are included.

  1. Institutions, Equilibria and Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Competition and efficiency is at the core of economic theory. This volume collects papers of leading scholars, which extend the conventional general equilibrium model in important ways. Efficiency and price regulation are studied when markets are incomplete and existence of equilibria...

  2. More efficient together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Tian

    2015-01-01

    approach to make photosynthesis more efficient is to build hybrid systems that combine inorganic and microbial components to produce specific chemicals. Such hybrid bioinorganic systems lead to improved efficiency and specificity and do not require processed vegetable biomass. They thus prevent harmful...

  3. Energy Efficiency Collaboratives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Michael [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Bryson, Joe [US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Collaboratives for energy efficiency have a long and successful history and are currently used, in some form, in more than half of the states. Historically, many state utility commissions have used some form of collaborative group process to resolve complex issues that emerge during a rate proceeding. Rather than debate the issues through the formality of a commission proceeding, disagreeing parties are sent to discuss issues in a less-formal setting and bring back resolutions to the commission. Energy efficiency collaboratives take this concept and apply it specifically to energy efficiency programs—often in anticipation of future issues as opposed to reacting to a present disagreement. Energy efficiency collaboratives can operate long term and can address the full suite of issues associated with designing, implementing, and improving energy efficiency programs. Collaboratives can be useful to gather stakeholder input on changing program budgets and program changes in response to performance or market shifts, as well as to provide continuity while regulators come and go, identify additional energy efficiency opportunities and innovations, assess the role of energy efficiency in new regulatory contexts, and draw on lessons learned and best practices from a diverse group. Details about specific collaboratives in the United States are in the appendix to this guide. Collectively, they demonstrate the value of collaborative stakeholder processes in producing successful energy efficiency programs.

  4. Energy Efficient TCP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donckers, L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, L.T.

    This paper describes the design of an energy-efficient transport protocol for mobile wireless communication. First we describe the metrics used to measure the energy efficiency of transport protocols. We identify several problem areas that prevent TCP/IP from reaching high levels of energy

  5. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, O.

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for communications about resource use efficiency and for measures to increase the use efficiency of nutrients in relation to food production. This holds especially for nitrogen. Nitrogen (N) is essential for life and a main nutrient element. It is needed in relatively large

  6. Learning efficient correlated equilibria

    KAUST Repository

    Borowski, Holly P.

    2014-12-15

    The majority of distributed learning literature focuses on convergence to Nash equilibria. Correlated equilibria, on the other hand, can often characterize more efficient collective behavior than even the best Nash equilibrium. However, there are no existing distributed learning algorithms that converge to specific correlated equilibria. In this paper, we provide one such algorithm which guarantees that the agents\\' collective joint strategy will constitute an efficient correlated equilibrium with high probability. The key to attaining efficient correlated behavior through distributed learning involves incorporating a common random signal into the learning environment.

  7. The Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petermann, Nils

    2006-03-31

    The Efficient Windows Collaborative (EWC) is a coalition of manufacturers, component suppliers, government agencies, research institutions, and others who partner to expand the market for energy efficient window products. Funded through a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy, the EWC provides education, communication and outreach in order to transform the residential window market to 70% energy efficient products by 2005. Implementation of the EWC is managed by the Alliance to Save Energy, with support from the University of Minnesota and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  8. Energy Efficient Cryogenics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghelli, Barry J.; Notardonato, William; Fesmire, James E.

    2016-01-01

    The Cryogenics Test Laboratory, NASA Kennedy Space Center, works to provide practical solutions to low-temperature problems while focusing on long-term technology targets for the energy-efficient use of cryogenics on Earth and in space.

  9. ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND GDP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Gvozdenac-Urošević

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Improving energy efficiency can be powerful tool for achieving sustainable economic development and most important for reducing energy consumption and environmental pollution on national level. Unfortunately, energy efficiency is difficult to conceptualize and there is no single commonly accepted definition. Because of that, measurement of achieved energy efficiency and its impact on national or regional economy is very complicated. Gross Domestic Product (GDP is often used to assess financial effects of applied energy efficiency measures at the national and regional levels. The growth in energy consumption per capita leads to a similar growth in GDP, but it is desirable to provide for the fall of these values. The paper analyzes some standard indicators and the analysis has been applied to a very large sample ensuring reliability for conclusion purposes. National parameters for 128 countries in the world in 2007 were analyzed. In addition to that, parameters were analyzed in the last years for global regions and Serbia.

  10. Transport Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Transport is the sector with the highest final energy consumption and, without any significant policy changes, is forecast to remain so. In 2008, the IEA published 25 energy efficiency recommendations, among which four are for the transport sector. The recommendations focus on road transport and include policies on improving tyre energy efficiency, fuel economy standards for both light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty vehicles, and eco-driving. Implementation of the recommendations has been weaker in the transport sector than others. This paper updates the progress that has been made in implementing the transport energy efficiency recommendations in IEA countries since March 2009. Many countries have in the last year moved from 'planning to implement' to 'implementation underway', but none have fully implemented all transport energy efficiency recommendations. The IEA calls therefore for full and immediate implementation of the recommendations.

  11. Institutions, Equilibria and Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Competition and efficiency is at the core of economic theory. This volume collects papers of leading scholars, which extend the conventional general equilibrium model in important ways. Efficiency and price regulation are studied when markets are incomplete and existence of equilibria in such set......Competition and efficiency is at the core of economic theory. This volume collects papers of leading scholars, which extend the conventional general equilibrium model in important ways. Efficiency and price regulation are studied when markets are incomplete and existence of equilibria...... in such settings is proven under very general preference assumptions. The model is extended to include geographical location choice, a commodity space incorporating manufacturing imprecision and preferences for club-membership, schools and firms. Inefficiencies arising from household externalities or group...... in OLG, learning in OLG and in games, optimal pricing of derivative securities, the impact of heterogeneity...

  12. Improving efficiency in stereology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Kresten Krarup; Andersen, Ina Trolle; Andersen, Johnnie Bremholm

    2013-01-01

    of the study was to investigate the time efficiency of the proportionator and the autodisector on virtual slides compared with traditional methods in a practical application, namely the estimation of osteoclast numbers in paws from mice with experimental arthritis and control mice. Tissue slides were scanned......, a proportionator sampling and a systematic, uniform random sampling were simulated. We found that the proportionator was 50% to 90% more time efficient than systematic, uniform random sampling. The time efficiency of the autodisector on virtual slides was 60% to 100% better than the disector on tissue slides. We...... conclude that both the proportionator and the autodisector on virtual slides may improve efficiency of cell counting in stereology....

  13. Efficient Vocabulary Testing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Mykhailiuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of teaching vocabulary. Different aspects of vocabulary (pronunciation, spelling, grammar, collocation, meaning, word formation are considered alongside with efficient vocabulary testing techniques.

  14. Efficient probability sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Regnier, Eva

    2014-01-01

    DRMI working paper A probability sequence is an ordered set of probability forecasts for the same event. Although single-period probabilistic forecasts and methods for evaluating them have been extensively analyzed, we are not aware of any prior work on evaluating probability sequences. This paper proposes an efficiency condition for probability sequences and shows properties of efficiency forecasting systems, including memorylessness and increasing discrimination. These res...

  15. Efficient incremental relaying

    KAUST Repository

    Fareed, Muhammad Mehboob

    2013-07-01

    We propose a novel relaying scheme which improves the spectral efficiency of cooperative diversity systems by utilizing limited feedback from destination. Our scheme capitalizes on the fact that relaying is only required when direct transmission suffers deep fading. We calculate the packet error rate for the proposed efficient incremental relaying scheme with both amplify and forward and decode and forward relaying. Numerical results are also presented to verify their analytical counterparts. © 2013 IEEE.

  16. Centrifugal Contactor Efficiency Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mincher, Bruce Jay [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tillotson, Richard Dean [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Grimes, Travis Shane [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The contactor efficiency of a 2-cm acrylic centrifugal contactor, fabricated by ANL using 3D printer technology was measured by comparing a contactor test run to 5-min batch contacts. The aqueous phase was ~ 3 ppm depleted uranium in 3 M HNO3, and the organic phase was 1 M DAAP/dodecane. Sampling during the contactor run showed that equilibrium was achieved within < 3 minutes. The contactor efficiency at equilibrium was 95% to 100 %, depending on flowrate.

  17. Efficiency in Shared Services

    OpenAIRE

    Prachýl, Lukáš

    2010-01-01

    The thesis describes and analyzes shared services organizations as a management tool to achieve efficiency in the organizations' processes. Paper builds on established theoretical principles, enhance them with up-to-date insights on the current situation and development and create a valuable knowledge base on shared services organizations. Strong emphasis is put on concrete means on how exactly efficiency could be achieved. Major relevant topics such as reasons for shared services, people man...

  18. Feedback and efficient behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Casal

    Full Text Available Feedback is an effective tool for promoting efficient behavior: it enhances individuals' awareness of choice consequences in complex settings. Our study aims to isolate the mechanisms underlying the effects of feedback on achieving efficient behavior in a controlled environment. We design a laboratory experiment in which individuals are not aware of the consequences of different alternatives and, thus, cannot easily identify the efficient ones. We introduce feedback as a mechanism to enhance the awareness of consequences and to stimulate exploration and search for efficient alternatives. We assess the efficacy of three different types of intervention: provision of social information, manipulation of the frequency, and framing of feedback. We find that feedback is most effective when it is framed in terms of losses, that it reduces efficiency when it includes information about inefficient peers' behavior, and that a lower frequency of feedback does not disrupt efficiency. By quantifying the effect of different types of feedback, our study suggests useful insights for policymakers.

  19. Efficient Windows Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nils Petermann

    2010-02-28

    The project goals covered both the residential and commercial windows markets and involved a range of audiences such as window manufacturers, builders, homeowners, design professionals, utilities, and public agencies. Essential goals included: (1) Creation of 'Master Toolkits' of information that integrate diverse tools, rating systems, and incentive programs, customized for key audiences such as window manufacturers, design professionals, and utility programs. (2) Delivery of education and outreach programs to multiple audiences through conference presentations, publication of articles for builders and other industry professionals, and targeted dissemination of efficient window curricula to professionals and students. (3) Design and implementation of mechanisms to encourage and track sales of more efficient products through the existing Window Products Database as an incentive for manufacturers to improve products and participate in programs such as NFRC and ENERGY STAR. (4) Development of utility incentive programs to promote more efficient residential and commercial windows. Partnership with regional and local entities on the development of programs and customized information to move the market toward the highest performing products. An overarching project goal was to ensure that different audiences adopt and use the developed information, design and promotion tools and thus increase the market penetration of energy efficient fenestration products. In particular, a crucial success criterion was to move gas and electric utilities to increase the promotion of energy efficient windows through demand side management programs as an important step toward increasing the market share of energy efficient windows.

  20. Supernovae Discovery Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Colin

    2018-01-01

    Abstract:We present supernovae (SN) search efficiency measurements for recent Hubble Space Telescope (HST) surveys. Efficiency is a key component to any search, and is important parameter as a correction factor for SN rates. To achieve an accurate value for efficiency, many supernovae need to be discoverable in surveys. This cannot be achieved from real SN only, due to their scarcity, so fake SN are planted. These fake supernovae—with a goal of realism in mind—yield an understanding of efficiency based on position related to other celestial objects, and brightness. To improve realism, we built a more accurate model of supernovae using a point-spread function. The next improvement to realism is planting these objects close to galaxies and of various parameters of brightness, magnitude, local galactic brightness and redshift. Once these are planted, a very accurate SN is visible and discoverable by the searcher. It is very important to find factors that affect this discovery efficiency. Exploring the factors that effect detection yields a more accurate correction factor. Further inquires into efficiency give us a better understanding of image processing, searching techniques and survey strategies, and result in an overall higher likelihood to find these events in future surveys with Hubble, James Webb, and WFIRST telescopes. After efficiency is discovered and refined with many unique surveys, it factors into measurements of SN rates versus redshift. By comparing SN rates vs redshift against the star formation rate we can test models to determine how long star systems take from the point of inception to explosion (delay time distribution). This delay time distribution is compared to SN progenitors models to get an accurate idea of what these stars were like before their deaths.

  1. Span efficiency in hawkmoths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsson, Per; Bomphrey, Richard J

    2013-07-06

    Flight in animals is the result of aerodynamic forces generated as flight muscles drive the wings through air. Aerial performance is therefore limited by the efficiency with which momentum is imparted to the air, a property that can be measured using modern techniques. We measured the induced flow fields around six hawkmoth species flying tethered in a wind tunnel to assess span efficiency, ei, and from these measurements, determined the morphological and kinematic characters that predict efficient flight. The species were selected to represent a range in wingspan from 40 to 110 mm (2.75 times) and in mass from 0.2 to 1.5 g (7.5 times) but they were similar in their overall shape and their ecology. From high spatio-temporal resolution quantitative wake images, we extracted time-resolved downwash distributions behind the hawkmoths, calculating instantaneous values of ei throughout the wingbeat cycle as well as multi-wingbeat averages. Span efficiency correlated positively with normalized lift and negatively with advance ratio. Average span efficiencies for the moths ranged from 0.31 to 0.60 showing that the standard generic value of 0.83 used in previous studies of animal flight is not a suitable approximation of aerodynamic performance in insects.

  2. Energy efficiency in pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaya, Durmus; Yagmur, E. Alptekin [TUBITAK-MRC, P.O. Box 21, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Yigit, K. Suleyman; Eren, A. Salih; Celik, Cenk [Engineering Faculty, Kocaeli University, Kocaeli (Turkey); Kilic, Fatma Canka [Department of Air Conditioning and Refrigeration, Kocaeli University, Kullar, Kocaeli (Turkey)

    2008-06-15

    In this paper, ''energy efficiency'' studies, done in a big industrial facility's pumps, are reported. For this purpose; the flow rate, pressure and temperature have been measured for each pump in different operating conditions and at maximum load. In addition, the electrical power drawn by the electric motor has been measured. The efficiencies of the existing pumps and electric motor have been calculated by using the measured data. Potential energy saving opportunities have been studied by taking into account the results of the calculations for each pump and electric motor. As a conclusion, improvements should be made each system. The required investment costs for these improvements have been determined, and simple payback periods have been calculated. The main energy saving opportunities result from: replacements of the existing low efficiency pumps, maintenance of the pumps whose efficiencies start to decline at certain range, replacements of high power electric motors with electric motors that have suitable power, usage of high efficiency electric motors and elimination of cavitation problems. (author)

  3. Efficiency in Microfinance Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARTARSKA, Valentina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recognition of cooperatives’ contribution to the socio-economic well-being of their participants, the United Nations has declared 2012 as the International Year of Cooperatives. Microfinance cooperatives make a large part of the microfinance industry. We study efficiency of microfinance cooperatives and provide estimates of the optimal size of such organizations. We employ the classical efficiency analysis consisting of estimating a system of equations and identify the optimal size of microfinance cooperatives in terms of their number of clients (outreach efficiency, as well as dollar value of lending and deposits (sustainability. We find that microfinance cooperatives have increasing returns to scale which means that the vast majority can lower cost if they become larger. We calculate that the optimal size is around $100 million in lending and half of that in deposits. We find less robust estimates in terms of reaching many clients with a range from 40,000 to 180,000 borrowers.

  4. Bandwidth efficient coding

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, John B

    2017-01-01

    Bandwidth Efficient Coding addresses the major challenge in communication engineering today: how to communicate more bits of information in the same radio spectrum. Energy and bandwidth are needed to transmit bits, and bandwidth affects capacity the most. Methods have been developed that are ten times as energy efficient at a given bandwidth consumption as simple methods. These employ signals with very complex patterns and are called "coding" solutions. The book begins with classical theory before introducing new techniques that combine older methods of error correction coding and radio transmission in order to create narrowband methods that are as efficient in both spectrum and energy as nature allows. Other topics covered include modulation techniques such as CPM, coded QAM and pulse design.

  5. Efficient convolutional sparse coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlberg, Brendt

    2017-06-20

    Computationally efficient algorithms may be applied for fast dictionary learning solving the convolutional sparse coding problem in the Fourier domain. More specifically, efficient convolutional sparse coding may be derived within an alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) framework that utilizes fast Fourier transforms (FFT) to solve the main linear system in the frequency domain. Such algorithms may enable a significant reduction in computational cost over conventional approaches by implementing a linear solver for the most critical and computationally expensive component of the conventional iterative algorithm. The theoretical computational cost of the algorithm may be reduced from O(M.sup.3N) to O(MN log N), where N is the dimensionality of the data and M is the number of elements in the dictionary. This significant improvement in efficiency may greatly increase the range of problems that can practically be addressed via convolutional sparse representations.

  6. Energy efficiency; Energieffektivisering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-06-15

    The Low Energy Panel will halve the consumption in buildings. The Panel has proposed a halving of consumption in the construction within 2040 and 20 percent reduction in the consumption in the industry within 2020. The Panel consider it as possible to gradually reduce consumption in buildings from the current level of 80 TWh with 10 TWh in 2020, 25 TWh in 2030 and 40 TWh in 2040. According the committee one such halving can be reached by significant efforts relating to energy efficiency, by greater rehabilitations, energy efficiency in consisting building stock and stricter requirements for new construction. For the industry field the Panel recommend a political goal to be set at least 20 percent reduction in specific energy consumption in the industry and primary industry beyond general technological development by the end of 2020. This is equivalent to approximately 17 TWh based on current level of activity. The Panel believes that a 5 percent reduction should be achieved by the end of 2012 by carrying out simple measures. The Low Energy Panel has since March 2009 considered possibilities to strengthen the authorities' work with energy efficiency in Norway. The wide complex panel adds up proposals for a comprehensive approach for increased energy efficiency in particular in the building- and industry field. The Panel has looked into the potential for energy efficiency, barriers for energy efficiency, assessment of strengths and weaknesses in the existing policy instruments and members of the Panel's recommendations. In addition the report contains a review of theoretical principles for effects of instruments together with an extensive background. One of the committee members have chosen to take special notes on the main recommendations in the report. (AG)

  7. The Energy Efficient Enterprise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Bashir

    2010-09-15

    Since rising energy costs have become a crucial factor for the economy of production processes, the optimization of energy efficiency is of essential importance for industrial enterprises. Enterprises establish energy saving programs, specific to their needs. The most important elements of these energy efficiency programs are energy savings, energy controlling, energy optimization, and energy management. This article highlights the industrial enterprise approach to establish sustainable energy management programs based on the above elements. Globally, if organizations follow this approach, they can significantly reduce the overall energy consumption and cost.

  8. Financing Energy Efficient Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    Existing buildings require over 40% of the world's total final energy consumption, and account for 24% of world CO2 emissions (IEA, 2006). Much of this consumption could be avoided through improved efficiency of building energy systems (IEA, 2006) using current, commercially-viable technology. In most cases, these technologies make economic sense on a life-cycle cost analysis (IEA, 2006b). Moreover, to the extent that they reduce dependence on risk-prone fossil energy sources, energy efficient technologies also address concerns of energy security.

  9. Efficient Learning Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godsk, Mikkel

    engaging educators in the design process and developing teaching and learning, it is a shift in educational practice that potentially requires a stakeholder analysis and ultimately a business model for the deployment. What is most important is to balance the institutional, educator, and student...... perspectives and to consider all these in conjunction in order to obtain a sustainable, efficient learning design. The approach to deploying learning design in terms of the concept of efficient learning design, the catalyst for educational development, i.e. the learning design model and how it is being used...

  10. Efficient use of energy

    CERN Document Server

    Dryden, IGC

    2013-01-01

    The Efficient Use of Energy, Second Edition is a compendium of papers discussing the efficiency with which energy is used in industry. The collection covers relevant topics in energy handling and describes the more important features of plant and equipment. The book is organized into six parts. Part I presents the various methods of heat production. The second part discusses the use of heat in industry and includes topics in furnace design, industrial heating, boiler plants, and water treatment. Part III deals with the production of mechanical and electrical energy. It tackles the principles o

  11. Smart Efficient Lightweight Facade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martjanova, I.; Miraliyari, M.; Kakolyri, T.

    2014-01-01

    This "designers' manual" is made during the TIDO-course AR0533 Innovation & Sustainability. The purpose of the manual is to describe and demonstrate innovative materials for an efficient, lightweight and smartly working facade. We explain their current state and their technological progress so the

  12. Web anonymization efficiency study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sochor, Tomas

    2017-11-01

    The analysis of TOR, JonDo and CyberGhost efficiency (measured the as latency increase and transmission speed decrease) is presented in the paper. Results showed that all tools have relatively favorable latency increase (no more than 60% RTT increase). The transmission speed increase was much more significant (more than 60%), and even more for JonDo (above 90%).

  13. Investment Project Efficiency Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Miljenko Crnjac; Dominika Crnjac

    2006-01-01

    Financial efficiency of investment project is being evaluated in this paper. It is showed that the net present value function is constant and that quota value is equal to c0 when i converges to the infinite. Optimal rates i are analyzed in certain cases and everything is illustrated through examples.

  14. Efficient XPath Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, B.; Feng, L.; Shen, Y.

    Inspired by the best querying performance of ViST among the rest of the approaches in the literature, and meanwhile to overcome its shortcomings, in this paper, we present another efficient and novel geometric sequence mechanism, which transforms XML documents and XPath queries into the

  15. Efficient graph algorithms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Outline of the talk. Introduction. Computing connectivities between all pairs of vertices. All pairs shortest paths/distances. Optimal bipartite matching . – p.2/30 .... Efficient Algorithm. The time taken for this computation on any input should be bounded by a small polynomial in the input size. . – p.6/30 ...

  16. Shrew trap efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gambalemoke, Mbalitini; Mukinzi, Itoka; Amundala, Drazo

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the efficiency of four trap types (pitfall, Sherman LFA, Victor snap and Museum Special snap traps) to capture shrews. This experiment was conducted in five inter-riverine forest blocks in the region of Kisangani. The total trapping effort was 6,300, 9,240, 5,280 and 5,460 trap...

  17. ERP=Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violino, Bob

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the enterprise resource planning (ERP) system. Deploying an ERP system is one of the most extensive--and expensive--IT projects a college or university can undertake. The potential benefits of ERP are significant: a more smoothly running operation with efficiencies in virtually every area of administration, from automated…

  18. Efficient Immutable Collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steindorfer, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis proposes novel and efficient data structures, suitable for immutable collection libraries, that carefully balance memory footprint and runtime performance of operations, and are aware of constraints and platform co-design challenges on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). Collection data

  19. Efficiency Efficiency, Diversity, and Complexity with Multicomponent Reactions Efficiency Efficiency, Diversity, and Complexity with Multicomponent Reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, G.; Ruijter, E.; Orru, R.V.A.

    2013-01-01

    Multicomponent reactions (MCRs) are versatile syntheses for obtaining structurally diverse sets of complex scaffolds with high efficiency. As such, they can be attractive synthetic tools for the realization of diversity- and/or biology-oriented synthesis design strategies for focused libraries. In

  20. Fuzzy efficiency without convexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Balezentis, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    approach builds directly upon the definition of Farrell's indexes of technical efficiency used in crisp FDH. Therefore we do not require the use of fuzzy programming techniques but only utilize ranking probabilities of intervals as well as a related definition of dominance between pairs of intervals. We...

  1. ENERGY EFFICIENT LAUNDRY PROCESS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tim Richter

    2005-04-01

    With the rising cost of energy and increased concerns for pollution and greenhouse gas emissions from power generation, increased focus is being put on energy efficiency. This study looks at several approaches to reducing energy consumption in clothes care appliances by considering the appliances and laundry chemistry as a system, rather than individually.

  2. The Efficiency of Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Madsen, Christian; Kræmmergaard, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    The Danish e-government strategy aims to increase the efficiency of public sector administration by making e-government channels mandatory for citizens by 2015. Although Danish citizens have adopted e-government channels to interact with public authorities, many also keep using traditional channe...

  3. Microeconomics : Equilibrium and Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ten Raa, T.

    2013-01-01

    Microeconomics: Equilibrium and Efficiency teaches how to apply microeconomic theory in an innovative, intuitive and concise way. Using real-world, empirical examples, this book not only covers the building blocks of the subject, but helps gain a broad understanding of microeconomic theory and

  4. Chlorific efficiency of coal hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schappert, H.

    1942-10-20

    In studies on the calorific efficiency of coal hydrogenation, the efficiency for H/sub 2/ production was calculated to be 26%, the efficiency for hydrogenation was calculated to be 49%, and the efficiency of hydrogenation including H/sub 2/ production was 27.2%. The efficiency of hydrogenation plus hydrogen production was almost equal to the efficiency of hydrogen production alone, even though this was not expected because of the total energy calculated in the efficiency of hydrogenation proper. It was entirely possible, but did not affect computations, that the efficiency of one or the other components of hydrogenation process differed somewhat from 49%. The average efficiency for all cases was 49%. However, when hydrogen was not bought, but was produced--(efficiency of hydrogen production was 26%, not 100%-- then the total energy changed and the efficiency of hydrogen production and combination was not 26%, but 13%. This lower value explained the drop of hydrogenation efficiency to 27.2%.

  5. Higher Efficiency HVAC Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flynn, Charles Joseph

    2018-02-13

    The objective of this project was to design and build a cost competitive, more efficient heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) motor than what is currently available on the market. Though different potential motor architectures among QMP’s primary technology platforms were investigated and evaluated, including through the building of numerous prototypes, the project ultimately focused on scaling up QM Power, Inc.’s (QMP) Q-Sync permanent magnet synchronous motors from available sub-fractional horsepower (HP) sizes for commercial refrigeration fan applications to larger fractional horsepower sizes appropriate for HVAC applications, and to add multi-speed functionality. The more specific goal became the research, design, development, and testing of a prototype 1/2 HP Q-Sync motor that has at least two operating speeds and 87% peak efficiency compared to incumbent electronically commutated motors (EC or ECM, also known as brushless direct current (DC) motors), the heretofore highest efficiency HVACR fan motor solution, at approximately 82% peak efficiency. The resulting motor prototype built achieved these goals, hitting 90% efficiency and .95 power factor at full load and speed, and 80% efficiency and .7 power factor at half speed. Q-Sync, developed in part through a DOE SBIR grant (Award # DE-SC0006311), is a novel, patented motor technology that improves on electronically commutated permanent magnet motors through an advanced electronic circuit technology. It allows a motor to “sync” with the alternating current (AC) power flow. It does so by eliminating the constant, wasteful power conversions from AC to DC and back to AC through the synthetic creation of a new AC wave on the primary circuit board (PCB) by a process called pulse width modulation (PWM; aka electronic commutation) that is incessantly required to sustain motor operation in an EC permanent magnet motor. The Q-Sync circuit improves the power factor of the motor by removing all

  6. Multi-directional program efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Balezentis, Tomas; Hougaard, Jens Leth

    2016-01-01

    The present paper analyses both managerial and program efficiencies of Lithuanian family farms, in the tradition of Charnes et al. (Manag Sci 27(6):668–697, 1981) but with the important difference that multi-directional efficiency analysis rather than the traditional data envelopment analysis...... farms have the highest program efficiency, but the lowest managerial efficiency and that the mixed farms have the lowest program efficiency (yet not the highest managerial efficiency)....

  7. Energy Efficiency Project Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IUEP

    2004-03-01

    The International Utility Efficiency Partnerships, Inc. (IUEP) has been a leader among the industry groups that have supported voluntary initiatives to promote international energy efficiency projects and address global climate change. The IUEP maintains its leadership by both supporting international greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction projects under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and by partnering with U.S. and international organizations to develop and implement strategies and specific energy efficiency projects. The goals of the IUEP program are to (1) provide a way for U.S. industry to maintain a leadership role in international energy efficiency infrastructure projects; (2) identify international energy project development opportunities to continue its leadership in supporting voluntary market-based mechanisms to reduce GHG emissions; and (3) demonstrate private sector commitment to voluntary approaches to global climate issues. The IUEP is dedicated to identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in the registration of international energy efficiency projects that result in demonstrated voluntary reductions of GHG emissions. This Final Technical Report summarizes the IUEP's work in identifying, promoting, managing, and assisting in development of these projects and IUEP's effort in creating international cooperative partnerships to support project development activities that develop and deploy technologies that (1) increase efficiency in the production, delivery and use of energy; (2) increase the use of cleaner, low-carbon fuels in processing products; and (3) capture/sequester carbon gases from energy systems. Through international cooperative efforts, the IUEP intends to strengthen partnerships for energy technology innovation and demonstration projects capable of providing cleaner energy in a cost-effective manner. As detailed in this report, the IUEP met program objectives and goals during the reporting period January 1

  8. Energy efficiency system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, A. M.; Rahman, K. A.; Chong, Haw Jie; Salleh, Mohd Najib Mohd; Yusof, M. Z. M.

    2017-09-01

    By subjecting to the massive usage of electrical energy in Malaysia, energy efficiency is now one of the key areas of focus in climate change mitigation. This paper focuses on the development of an energy efficiency system of household electrical appliances for residential areas. Distribution of Questionnaires and pay a visit to few selected residential areas are conducted during the fulfilment of the project as well as some advice on how to save energy are shared with the participants. Based on the collected data, the system developed by the UTHM Energy Team is then evaluated from the aspect of the consumers' behaviour in using electrical appliances and the potential reduction targeted by the team. By the end of the project, 60% of the participants had successfully reduced the electrical power consumption set by the UTHM Energy Team. The reasons for whether the success and the failure is further analysed in this project.

  9. Efficiency and Logistics

    CERN Document Server

    Hompel, Michael; Klumpp, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The „EffizienzCluster LogistikRuhr“ was a winner in the Leading Edge Science Cluster competition run by the German federal Ministry of Education and Research. The mission and aim of the „EffizienzCluster LogistikRuhr“ is to facilitate tomorrow’s individuality – in the sense of individual goods supply, mobility, and production – using 75 percent of today’s resources. Efficiency – both in economical and ecological terms – is enabled by state-of-the-art and innovative logistical solutions including transportation, production and intralogistics. These proceedings “Efficiency and Logistics” give first answers from 27 research projects as an insight into the current state of research of Europe’s leading research and development cluster in logistics and as a contribution to the discussion on how logistics as a science can help to cope with foreseeable resource shortage and sustainability as global challenges.

  10. Energy efficiency and behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carstensen, Trine Agervig; Kunnasvirta, Annika; Kiviluoto, Katariina

    factors. The main addressees of D5.1. are city officials, NGO representatives, private sector actors and any other relevant actors who plan and realize behavioural energy efficiency interventions in European cities. The WP5 team will also further apply results from D5.1. with a more general model on how...... to conduct behavioural interventions, to be presented in Deliverable 5.5., the final report. This report will also provide valuable information for the WP6 general model for an Energy-Smart City. Altogether 38 behavioural interventions are analysed in this report. Each collected and analysed case study...... and combining best practices,PLEEC will develop a general model for energy efficiency and sustainable city planning. By connecting scientific excellence and innovative enterprises in the energy sector with ambitious and well‐organized cities, the project aims to reduce energy use in Europe in the near future...

  11. Energy efficiency: A proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pendić Zoran R.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Increase of energy efficiency in Serbia is one of the priority tasks. Sector of electric lighting offers great opportunities for increasing energy efficiency due to the rapid development of LED technology. Nowadays LED lighting is still expensive and have relatively little application in the domain of electric lighting. However, it is anticipated that LED products would soon greatly transform the electric lighting market. In recent years, LED technology has significantly improved, and constantly evolving. It is expected that advanced and future LED bulbs / lamps to be getting cheaper and with a better technical characteristics and that they will soon be dominant on the lighting market. Serbia must prepare for the LED future, creating appropriate legislation and promotion of appropriate incentive measures.

  12. High efficiency incandescent lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermel, Peter; Ilic, Ognjen; Chan, Walker R.; Musabeyoglu, Ahmet; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Harradon, Michael Robert; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-09-02

    Incandescent lighting structure. The structure includes a thermal emitter that can, but does not have to, include a first photonic crystal on its surface to tailor thermal emission coupled to, in a high-view-factor geometry, a second photonic filter selected to reflect infrared radiation back to the emitter while passing visible light. This structure is highly efficient as compared to standard incandescent light bulbs.

  13. HIGH EFFICIENCY TURBINE

    OpenAIRE

    VARMA, VIJAYA KRUSHNA

    2012-01-01

    Varma designed ultra modern and high efficiency turbines which can use gas, steam or fuels as feed to produce electricity or mechanical work for wide range of usages and applications in industries or at work sites. Varma turbine engines can be used in all types of vehicles. These turbines can also be used in aircraft, ships, battle tanks, dredgers, mining equipment, earth moving machines etc, Salient features of Varma Turbines. 1. Varma turbines are simple in design, easy to manufac...

  14. Carbon Efficient Building Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellervo Matilainen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the Finnish legislation have focused on energy use and especially on energy used for heating space in buildings. However, in many cases this does not lead to the optimal concept in respect to minimizing green house gases. This paper studies how CO2 emission levels are affected by different measures to reduce energy use in buildings. This paper presents two real apartment buildings with different options of energy efficiency and power sources. The calculations clearly show that in the future electricity and domestic hot water use will have high importance in respect to energy efficiency, and therefore also CO2 equivalent (eq emissions. The importance increases when the energy efficiency of the building increases. There are big differences between average Finnish production and individual power plants; CO2 eq emissions might nearly double depending on the energy source and the power plant type. Both a building with an efficient district heating as a power source, and a building with ground heat in addition to nuclear power electricity as a complimentary electricity source performed very similarly to each other in respect to CO2 eq emissions. However, it is dangerous to conclude that it is not important which energy source is chosen. If hypothetically, the use of district heating would dramatically drop, the primary energy factor and CO2 eq emissions from electricity would rise, which in turn would lead to the increase of the ground heat systems emissions. A problem in the yearly calculations is that the fact that it is very important, sometimes even crucial, when energy is needed, is always excluded.

  15. Efficient Non Linear Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bo R.; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2006-01-01

    Loudspeakers have traditionally been designed to be as linear as possible. However, as techniques for compensating non linearities are emerging, it becomes possible to use other design criteria. This paper present and examines a new idea for improving the efficiency of loudspeakers at high levels...... by changing the voice coil layout. This deliberate non-linear design has the benefit that a smaller amplifier can be used, which has the benefit of reducing system cost as well as reducing power consumption....

  16. efficience technico-economique

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    L'agriculture marocaine, confrontée aux problèmes récurrents de sécheresses, se doit de faire preuve d'efficience notamment dans l'utilisation des facteurs de production telles que l'eau d'irrigation, les semences, etc. dans l'agriculture, en général, et dans le maraîchage, en particulier. Le secteur maraîcher marocain.

  17. ATLAS Muon Reconstruction Efficiency

    CERN Document Server

    Spearman, W; The ATLAS collaboration

    2012-01-01

    In 2012 the LHC will be operated in a mode leading to up to 40 inelastic pp collisions per bunch crossing, so-called "pile-up". The reconstruction and identification of muons produced in a hard collisions is difficult in this challenging environment. Di-muon decays of J/ψ mesons and Z bosons have been used to study the muon reconstruction and identification efficiency of the ATLAS detector as a function of the muon transverse momentum from pT=4 GeV to pT=100 GeV and the number of inelastic collisions per event. The results show a steep efficiency turn-on curve reaching its plateau value of 100% at pT ~ 6 GeV and no dependence of the muon reconstruction efficiency on the amount pile-up. The studies also reveal that the use of inner detector tracks allows us to distinguish between isolated muons and non-isolated muons produced in jets with high separation power even at the highest pile-up levels.

  18. High-efficiency CARM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bratman, V.L.; Kol`chugin, B.D.; Samsonov, S.V.; Volkov, A.B. [Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    The Cyclotron Autoresonance Maser (CARM) is a well-known variety of FEMs. Unlike the ubitron in which electrons move in a periodical undulator field, in the CARM the particles move along helical trajectories in a uniform magnetic field. Since it is much simpler to generate strong homogeneous magnetic fields than periodical ones for a relatively low electron energy ({Brit_pounds}{le}1-3 MeV) the period of particles` trajectories in the CARM can be sufficiently smaller than in the undulator in which, moreover, the field decreases rapidly in the transverse direction. In spite of this evident advantage, the number of papers on CARM is an order less than on ubitron, which is apparently caused by the low (not more than 10 %) CARM efficiency in experiments. At the same time, ubitrons operating in two rather complicated regimes-trapping and adiabatic deceleration of particles and combined undulator and reversed guiding fields - yielded efficiencies of 34 % and 27 %, respectively. The aim of this work is to demonstrate that high efficiency can be reached even for a simplest version of the CARM. In order to reduce sensitivity to an axial velocity spread of particles, a short interaction length where electrons underwent only 4-5 cyclotron oscillations was used in this work. Like experiments, a narrow anode outlet of a field-emission electron gun cut out the {open_quotes}most rectilinear{close_quotes} near-axis part of the electron beam. Additionally, magnetic field of a small correcting coil compensated spurious electron oscillations pumped by the anode aperture. A kicker in the form of a sloping to the axis frame with current provided a control value of rotary velocity at a small additional velocity spread. A simple cavity consisting of a cylindrical waveguide section restricted by a cut-off waveguide on the cathode side and by a Bragg reflector on the collector side was used as the CARM-oscillator microwave system.

  19. Merging {DBMs} Efficiently

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we present different algorithms to reduce the number of DBMs in federations by merging them. Federations are unions of DBMs and are used to represent non-convex zones. Inclusion checking between DBMs is a limited technique to reduce the size of federations and how to choose some DBMs...... to merge them into a larger one is a combi-natorial problem. We present a number of simple but efficient techniques to avoid searching the combinations while still being able to merge any number of DBMs...

  20. Energy efficient data centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman

    2004-03-30

    Data Center facilities, prevalent in many industries and institutions are essential to California's economy. Energy intensive data centers are crucial to California's industries, and many other institutions (such as universities) in the state, and they play an important role in the constantly evolving communications industry. To better understand the impact of the energy requirements and energy efficiency improvement potential in these facilities, the California Energy Commission's PIER Industrial Program initiated this project with two primary focus areas: First, to characterize current data center electricity use; and secondly, to develop a research ''roadmap'' defining and prioritizing possible future public interest research and deployment efforts that would improve energy efficiency. Although there are many opinions concerning the energy intensity of data centers and the aggregate effect on California's electrical power systems, there is very little publicly available information. Through this project, actual energy consumption at its end use was measured in a number of data centers. This benchmark data was documented in case study reports, along with site-specific energy efficiency recommendations. Additionally, other data center energy benchmarks were obtained through synergistic projects, prior PG&E studies, and industry contacts. In total, energy benchmarks for sixteen data centers were obtained. For this project, a broad definition of ''data center'' was adopted which included internet hosting, corporate, institutional, governmental, educational and other miscellaneous data centers. Typically these facilities require specialized infrastructure to provide high quality power and cooling for IT equipment. All of these data center types were considered in the development of an estimate of the total power consumption in California. Finally, a research ''roadmap'' was developed

  1. Danish Energy Efficiency Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Mikael; Larsen, Anders; Dyhr-Mikkelsen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    of the entire Danish energy efficiency policy portfolio must be carried out before end 2008 and put forward for discussion among governing parties no later than February 2009. A consortium comprising Ea Energy Analyses, Niras, the Department of Society and Globalisation (Roskilde University) and 4-Fact...... to meet the required reduction in final energy consumption (goal for 2013) and in primary energy consumption (with goals in 2011 and 2020) as planned by parliament? Recommendations were made on how to improve and develop the portfolio using cost effectiveness as well as organisational clarity as criteria...

  2. Efficiency improvements in transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, J. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Christensen, Linda; Jensen, Thomas C. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Transport, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2012-11-15

    Transport of people, personal belongings and goods in private cars is fundamental to our modern welfare society and economic growth, and has grown steadily over many decades. Motor fuels have been based almost entirely on crude oil for the last century. During the last couple of decades engines built for traditional fuels have become more advanced and efficient; this has reduced fuel consumption by around 40% and emissions by more than 90%. Only in the same time span have we begun to look at alternatives to fossil fuels. Biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethanol and biogas can replace petrol and diesel, and in recent years algae have shown a new potential for diesel fuel. Natural gas is also becoming an interesting fuel due to its large resources worldwide. GTL, CTL and BTL are liquid fuels produced from solid or gaseous sources. GTL and CTL are expensive to produce and not very CO{sub 2}-friendly, but they are easily introduced and need little investment in infrastructure and vehicles. DME is an excellent fuel for diesel engines. Methanol and DME produced from biomass are among the most CO{sub 2}-reducing fuels and at the same time the most energy-efficient renewable fuels. Fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) are currently fuelled by hydrogen, but other fuels are also possible. There are, however, several barriers to the implementation of fuel cell vehicles. In particular, a hydrogen infrastructure needs to be developed. Electric vehicles (EVs) have the advantage that energy conversion is centralised at the power plant where it can be done at optimum efficiency and emissions. EVs have to be charged at home, and also away from home when travelling longer distances. With an acceptable fast charging infrastructure at least 85% of the one-car families in Denmark could be potential EV customers. Range improvements resulting from better batteries are expected to create a large increase in the number of EVs in Denmark between 2020 and 2030. The hybrid electric vehicle

  3. Energy efficient quantum machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abah, Obinna; Lutz, Eric

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the performance of a quantum thermal machine operating in finite time based on shortcut-to-adiabaticity techniques. We compute efficiency and power for a paradigmatic harmonic quantum Otto engine by taking the energetic cost of the shortcut driving explicitly into account. We demonstrate that shortcut-to-adiabaticity machines outperform conventional ones for fast cycles. We further derive generic upper bounds on both quantities, valid for any heat engine cycle, using the notion of quantum speed limit for driven systems. We establish that these quantum bounds are tighter than those stemming from the second law of thermodynamics.

  4. Energy Efficient Digital Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanzisera, Steven [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brown, Richard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Digital networks are the foundation of the information services, and play an expanding and indispensable role in our lives, via the Internet, email, mobile phones, etc. However, these networks consume energy, both through the direct energy use of the network interfaces and equipment that comprise the network, and in the effect they have on the operating patterns of devices connected to the network. The purpose of this research was to investigate a variety of technology and policy issues related to the energy use caused by digital networks, and to further develop several energy-efficiency technologies targeted at networks.

  5. Fuze Gear Train Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    P6.06. S a1.0 POINTIFr .94;11 ALPHA)) -02 .O~ 5 La1. POINTEr a94 AIPHA)) a Pfl.3E S *1.0 P’) INTEF a 94149 AIPHAO a Pnl*h& S v 1.0 POINTirr a .949!. ALPHA...conditions, the point efficiency is computed according to equation 3 (ref E-1), i.e., Cŕ PO INTEF KRA 3IO M-in where, withb Ka lt ny The cycle

  6. Cost efficient command management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Theresa; Murphy, C. W.; Kuntz, Jon; Barlett, Tom

    1996-01-01

    The design and implementation of a command management system (CMS) for a NASA control center, is described. The technology innovations implemented in the CMS provide the infrastructure required for operations cost reduction and future development cost reduction through increased operational efficiency and reuse in future missions. The command management design facilitates error-free operations which enables the automation of the routine control center functions and allows for the distribution of scheduling responsibility to the instrument teams. The reusable system was developed using object oriented methodologies.

  7. The efficient learner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almåsbakk, B; Whiting, H T; Helgerud, J

    2001-02-01

    The research to be reported examines the concept of efficiency, defined as the relation of metabolic energy expended to mechanical work done. The development of movement coordination was investigated in the context of the hypothesis that an increase in coordination would be accompanied by a parallel reduction in overall energy expenditure, relative to the increase in energy expenditure demanded by improvements in work output. The task involved learning to make cyclical, slalom-like, ski movements on a ski apparatus. Development of coordination was indexed by changes in the timing of forcing while on-line measurements of oxygen consumption were used as indices of energy expenditure. Six female volunteers served as subjects in nine training sessions. The change in the coordination pattern, between the subject and the apparatus, as indexed by the development of the phase lag, was paralleled by an improvement in efficiency. It was concluded that learning the skill used in this study involves a search by the system for perception-action couplings (phase relations in the present study) that require minimal energy expenditure.

  8. An Evolutionary Efficiency Alternative to the Notion of Pareto Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    van Staveren, Irene

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe paper argues that the notion of Pareto efficiency builds on two normative assumptions: the more general consequentialist norm of any efficiency criterion, and the strong no-harm principle of the prohibition of any redistribution during the economic process that hurts at least one person. These normative concerns lead to a constrained and static notion of efficiency in mainstream economics, ignoring dynamic efficiency gains from more equal allocations of resources. The paper ar...

  9. ENERGY EFFICIENT DESALINATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ismailov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the research is to develop a thin-film semiconductor thermoelectric heat pump of cylindrical shape for the desalination of sea water.Methods. To improve the efficiency of the desalination device, a  special thin-film semiconductor thermoelectric heat pump of  cylindrical shape is developed. The construction of the thin-film  semiconductor thermoelectric heat pump allows the flow rates of  incoming sea water and outflowing fresh water and brine to be  equalised by changing the geometric dimensions of the desalinator.  The cross-sectional area of the pipeline for incoming sea water is equal to the total area of outflowing fresh water and brine.Results. The use of thin-film semiconductor p- and n-type branches  in a thermo-module reduces their electrical resistance virtually to  zero and completely eliminates Joule's parasitic heat release. The  Peltier thermoelectric effect on heating and cooling is completely  preserved, bringing the efficiency of the heat pump to almost 100%, improving the energy-saving characteristics of the  desalinator as a whole. To further increase the efficiency of the  proposed desalinator, thermoelectric modules with radiation can be  used as thermoelectric devices.Conclusion. As a consequence of the creation of conditions of high rarefaction under which water will be converted to steam, which, at  20° C, is cold (as is the condensed distilled water, energy costs can  be reduced. In this case, the energy for heating and cooling is not  wasted; moreover, sterilisation is also achieved using the ultraviolet  radiation used in the thermoelectric devices, which, on the one hand, generate electromagnetic ultraviolet radiation, and, on the other, cooling. Such devices operate in optimal mode without heat  release. The desalination device can be used to produce fresh water and concentrated solutions from any aqueous solutions, including wastewater from industrial

  10. High Efficiency Integrated Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibbetson, James

    2013-09-15

    Solid-state lighting based on LEDs has emerged as a superior alternative to inefficient conventional lighting, particularly incandescent. LED lighting can lead to 80 percent energy savings; can last 50,000 hours – 2-50 times longer than most bulbs; and contains no toxic lead or mercury. However, to enable mass adoption, particularly at the consumer level, the cost of LED luminaires must be reduced by an order of magnitude while achieving superior efficiency, light quality and lifetime. To become viable, energy-efficient replacement solutions must deliver system efficacies of ≥ 100 lumens per watt (LPW) with excellent color rendering (CRI > 85) at a cost that enables payback cycles of two years or less for commercial applications. This development will enable significant site energy savings as it targets commercial and retail lighting applications that are most sensitive to the lifetime operating costs with their extended operating hours per day. If costs are reduced substantially, dramatic energy savings can be realized by replacing incandescent lighting in the residential market as well. In light of these challenges, Cree proposed to develop a multi-chip integrated LED package with an output of > 1000 lumens of warm white light operating at an efficacy of at least 128 LPW with a CRI > 85. This product will serve as the light engine for replacement lamps and luminaires. At the end of the proposed program, this integrated package was to be used in a proof-of-concept lamp prototype to demonstrate the component’s viability in a common form factor. During this project Cree SBTC developed an efficient, compact warm-white LED package with an integrated remote color down-converter. Via a combination of intensive optical, electrical, and thermal optimization, a package design was obtained that met nearly all project goals. This package emitted 1295 lm under instant-on, room-temperature testing conditions, with an efficacy of 128.4 lm/W at a color temperature of ~2873

  11. Measuring Tax Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2004-01-01

    , thereby, the degree of efficiency of a taxsystem. We call this number the Tax Optimality Index. We show howthe basic method can be altered in order to derive a revenue equivalentuniform tax, which measures the size of the public sector. A numericalexample is used to illustrate the method developed......This paper introduces an index of tax optimality thatmeasures the distance of some current tax structure from the optimal taxstructure in the presence of public goods. In doing so, we derive a [0, 1]number that reveals immediately how far the current tax configurationis from the optimal one and.......JEL Code: H21, H41.Keywords: Tax optimality index, excess burden, distance function.Authors Affiliations: Raimondos-Møller: Copenhagen Business School, CEPR,CESifo, and EPRU. Woodland: University of Sydney....

  12. Efficient Graffiti Image Retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chunlei; Wong, Pak C.; Ribarsky, William; Fan, Jianping

    2012-07-05

    Research of graffiti character recognition and retrieval, as a branch of traditional optical character recognition (OCR), has started to gain attention in recent years. We have investigated the special challenge of the graffiti image retrieval problem and propose a series of novel techniques to overcome the challenges. The proposed bounding box framework locates the character components in the graffiti images to construct meaningful character strings and conduct image-wise and semantic-wise retrieval on the strings rather than the entire image. Using real world data provided by the law enforcement community to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, we show that the proposed framework outperforms the traditional image retrieval framework with better retrieval results and improved computational efficiency.

  13. Efficiency in Social Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Ballester-Miquel

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to offer a review of the impact the different methodologies of analysis have on social enterprises, focusing the study on processes that establish a greater universality based on the degree of success achieved in their social objectives, the social reinvestment of their benefits and their democratic organisation, parameters that should favour the creation of a clear and simple method, as well as adaptable to change. The systematics will allow to establish systems for the measurement of the efficiency of social enterprises, in order to both organise objective procedures of comparison and offer support when applying for public aid derived from European and national funds set up for this purpose. The quantification of the social impact of the companies that constitute the social economy is vital to assess and follow up on their social mission.

  14. High efficiency poplar transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cseke, Leland J; Cseke, Sarah Beth; Podila, Gopi K

    2007-09-01

    With the completion of the poplar tree genome database, Populus species have become one of the most useful model systems for the study of woody plant biology. Populus tremuloides (quaking aspen) is the most wide-spread tree species in North America, and its rapid growth generates the most abundant wood-based biomass out of any other plant species. To study such beneficial traits, there is a need for easier and more efficient transformation procedures that will allow the study of large numbers of tree genes. We have developed transformation procedures that are suitable for high-throughput format transformations using either Agrobacterium tumefaciens to produce transformed trees or Agrobacterium rhizogenes to generate hairy roots. Our method uses Agrobacterium inoculated aspen seedling hypocotyls followed by direct thidiazuron (TDZ)-mediated shoot regeneration on selective media. Transformation was verified through beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene expression in all tree tissues, PCR amplification of appropriate vector products from isolated genomic DNA, and northern hybridization of incorporated and expressed transgenes. The hairy root protocol follows the same inoculation procedures and was tested using GUS reporter gene integration and antibiotic selection. The benefit of these procedures is that they are simple and efficient, requiring no maintenance of starting materials and allowing fully formed transgenic trees (or hairy roots) to be generated in only 3-4 months, rather than the 6-12 months required by more traditional methods. Likewise, the fact that the protocols are amenable to high-throughput formats makes them better suited for large-scale functional genomics studies in poplars.

  15. Subspace Detectors: Efficient Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, D B; Paik, T

    2006-07-26

    computed efficiently for continuous multichannel seismic data. The speed of the calculation is significant as it may become desirable to deploy subspace detectors numbering in the thousands. One application contemplated for these detectors is as screens against signals from repeating sources such as mines or aftershocks of large earthquakes. With many tens of stations and potentially hundreds of sources to screen, efficient implementations are desirable. Speed, of course, can be achieved by procuring faster computers or special-purpose hardware. The approach we examine here is the development of two efficient algorithms that can make the calculations run faster on any machine. In the first section, we describe the subspace detector as we use it for the detection of repeating seismic events, defining terms and the parameterization used in succeeding sections. This section also reviews how the correlation computations central to the matched filter and subspace detectors can be implemented as a collection of convolution operations. Convolution algorithms using fast Fourier transforms, such as the overlap-add and overlap-save methods, have long been known as efficient implementations of discrete-time finite-impulse-response filters [e.g. Oppenheim and Schafer, 1975]. These may be extended in a straightforward manner to implement multichannel correlation detectors. In the second section, we describe how multichannel data can be multiplexed to compute the required convolutions with a single pair of FFT operations instead of a pair for each channel. This approach increases speed approximately twofold. Seismic data, almost invariably, are oversampled. This characteristic provides an opportunity for increased efficiency by decimating the data prior to performing the correlation calculations. In the third section, we describe a bandpass transformation of the data that allows a more aggressive decimation of the data without significant loss of fidelity in the correlation calculation

  16. Challenges in measuring feed efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term feed efficiency is vague, and is defined differently by people. Historically, feed efficiency has been defined as the feed:gain (F:G) ratio or the inverse (G:F). Indexes have been developed to rank animals for feed efficiency. These indexes include residual feed intake (RFI) and residual...

  17. Declining Efficiency in the Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses the concept of resource efficiency in the economy as a whole. This implies some unfoldings of the simple definition of efficiency as human satisfaction over throughput of resources. It is suggested, that the efficiency of the economic systems is declining in the countries...

  18. Improving efficiency in pig production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improving efficiency in pig production. The relative importance of different components of efficiency depends on whether one's interest is biological or economic. A study of the elements of biological efficiency shows that the choice of slaughter mass has a profound effect, and that in rela- tive terms reproductive ...

  19. Impacts of appliance efficiency standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, P.; Kesselring, J.

    1992-12-01

    Federal efficiency standards for appliances limit the range of models available on the market. Utility energy efficiency programs often encourage consumers to purchase the most efficient of the remaining options, but more-stringent efficiency standards could have a significant impact on such utility efforts. Using long-run technology scenario forecasting, EPRI-sponsored researchers studied ways in which the interplay of technological change, federal standards, utility efficiency programs, and market forces could affect future energy markets for three major residential end uses: refrigeration, central air conditioning, and water heating. The researchers reached several important conclusions about utility demand-side management efforts. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Efficiency Evaluation of Energy Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kanoğlu, Mehmet; Dinçer, İbrahim

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency is one of the most frequently used terms in thermodynamics, and it indicates how well an energy conversion or process is accomplished. Efficiency is also one of the most frequently misused terms in thermodynamics and is often a source of misunderstanding. This is because efficiency is often used without being properly defined first. This book intends to provide a comprehensive evaluation of various efficiencies used for energy transfer and conversion systems including steady-flow energy devices (turbines, compressors, pumps, nozzles, heat exchangers, etc.), various power plants, cogeneration plants, and refrigeration systems. The book will cover first-law (energy based) and second-law (exergy based) efficiencies and provide a comprehensive understanding of their implications. It will help minimize the widespread misuse of efficiencies among students and researchers in energy field by using an intuitive and unified approach for defining efficiencies. The book will be particularly useful for a clear ...

  1. Efficient exact motif discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, Tobias; Rahmann, Sven

    2009-06-15

    The motif discovery problem consists of finding over-represented patterns in a collection of biosequences. It is one of the classical sequence analysis problems, but still has not been satisfactorily solved in an exact and efficient manner. This is partly due to the large number of possibilities of defining the motif search space and the notion of over-representation. Even for well-defined formalizations, the problem is frequently solved in an ad hoc manner with heuristics that do not guarantee to find the best motif. We show how to solve the motif discovery problem (almost) exactly on a practically relevant space of IUPAC generalized string patterns, using the p-value with respect to an i.i.d. model or a Markov model as the measure of over-representation. In particular, (i) we use a highly accurate compound Poisson approximation for the null distribution of the number of motif occurrences. We show how to compute the exact clump size distribution using a recently introduced device called probabilistic arithmetic automaton (PAA). (ii) We define two p-value scores for over-representation, the first one based on the total number of motif occurrences, the second one based on the number of sequences in a collection with at least one occurrence. (iii) We describe an algorithm to discover the optimal pattern with respect to either of the scores. The method exploits monotonicity properties of the compound Poisson approximation and is by orders of magnitude faster than exhaustive enumeration of IUPAC strings (11.8 h compared with an extrapolated runtime of 4.8 years). (iv) We justify the use of the proposed scores for motif discovery by showing our method to outperform other motif discovery algorithms (e.g. MEME, Weeder) on benchmark datasets. We also propose new motifs on Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The method has been implemented in Java. It can be obtained from http://ls11-www.cs.tu-dortmund.de/people/marschal/paa_md/.

  2. USE Efficiency -- Universities and Students for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melandri, Daniela

    2010-09-15

    Universities and Student for Energy Efficiency is a European Project within the Intelligent Energy Programme. It intends to create a common stream for energy efficiency systems in university buildings. Universities and students are proposed as shining examples for energy efficiency solutions and behaviour. The Project involves 10 countries and has the aim to improve energy efficiency in university buildings. Students are the main actors of the project together with professors and technicians. To act on students means to act on direct future market players in diffusion of public opinions. A strong communication action supports the succeeding of the action.

  3. Improving Gas Flooding Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid Grigg; Robert Svec; Zheng Zeng; Alexander Mikhalin; Yi Lin; Guoqiang Yin; Solomon Ampir; Rashid Kassim

    2008-03-31

    This study focuses on laboratory studies with related analytical and numerical models, as well as work with operators for field tests to enhance our understanding of and capabilities for more efficient enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Much of the work has been performed at reservoir conditions. This includes a bubble chamber and several core flood apparatus developed or modified to measure interfacial tension (IFT), critical micelle concentration (CMC), foam durability, surfactant sorption at reservoir conditions, and pressure and temperature effects on foam systems.Carbon dioxide and N{sub 2} systems have been considered, under both miscible and immiscible conditions. The injection of CO2 into brine-saturated sandstone and carbonate core results in brine saturation reduction in the range of 62 to 82% brine in the tests presented in this paper. In each test, over 90% of the reduction occurred with less than 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected, with very little additional brine production after 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected. Adsorption of all considered surfactant is a significant problem. Most of the effect is reversible, but the amount required for foaming is large in terms of volume and cost for all considered surfactants. Some foams increase resistance to the value beyond what is practical in the reservoir. Sandstone, limestone, and dolomite core samples were tested. Dissolution of reservoir rock and/or cement, especially carbonates, under acid conditions of CO2 injection is a potential problem in CO2 injection into geological formations. Another potential change in reservoir injectivity and productivity will be the precipitation of dissolved carbonates as the brine flows and pressure decreases. The results of this report provide methods for determining surfactant sorption and can be used to aid in the determination of surfactant requirements for reservoir use in a CO{sub 2}-foam flood for mobility control. It also provides data to be used to determine rock permeability

  4. Stock Liquidity and Investment Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    HEIDI HOOI KHUAN QUAH

    2017-01-01

    This PhD study investigates the implications of stock liquidity on firm investments efficiency. The study finds that high stock liquidity has a positive impact on investment efficiency and shows that the beneficial effect of stock liquidity on investment efficiency is stronger among firms with higher information asymmetry and higher monitoring institutional investors. These findings suggest that high stock liquidity plays important informational and governance roles in mitigating information ...

  5. New predictors of sleep efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Da Woon; Lee, Yu Jin; Jeong, Do-Un; Park, Kwang Suk

    2017-01-01

    Sleep efficiency is a commonly and widely used measure to objectively evaluate sleep quality. Monitoring sleep efficiency can provide significant information about health conditions. As an attempt to facilitate less cumbersome monitoring of sleep efficiency, our study aimed to suggest new predictors of sleep efficiency that enable reliable and unconstrained estimation of sleep efficiency during awake resting period. We hypothesized that the autonomic nervous system activity observed before falling asleep might be associated with sleep efficiency. To assess autonomic activity, heart rate variability and breathing parameters were analyzed for 5 min. Using the extracted parameters as explanatory variables, stepwise multiple linear regression analyses and k-fold cross-validation tests were performed with 240 electrocardiographic and thoracic volume change signal recordings to develop the sleep efficiency prediction model. The developed model's sleep efficiency predictability was evaluated using 60 piezoelectric sensor signal recordings. The regression model, established using the ratio of the power of the low- and high-frequency bands of the heart rate variability signal and the average peak inspiratory flow value, provided an absolute error (mean ± SD) of 2.18% ± 1.61% and a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.94 (p efficiency predictive values and the reference values. Our study is the first to achieve reliable and unconstrained prediction of sleep efficiency without overnight recording. This method has the potential to be utilized for home-based, long-term monitoring of sleep efficiency and to support reasonable decision-making regarding the execution of sleep efficiency improvement strategies.

  6. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    OpenAIRE

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-01-01

    This Methodology Booklet provides a comprehensive review and methodology guiding principles for constructing energy efficiency indicators, with illustrative examples of application to individual countries. It reviews work done by international agencies and national government in constructing meaningful energy efficiency indicators that help policy makers to assess changes in energy efficiency over time. Building on past OECD experience and best practices, and the knowledge of these countries'...

  7. Energy efficiency policies and measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document makes a review of the energy efficiency and demand side management (DSM) policies and measures in European Union countries and Norway in 1999: institutional changes, measures and programmes, budget, taxation, existence of a national DSM programme, national budgets for DSM programmes, electricity pricing: energy/environment tax, national efficiency standards and regulation for new electrical appliances, implementation of Commission directives, efficiency requirements, labelling, fiscal and economic incentives. (J.S.)

  8. An Evolutionary Efficiency Alternative to the Notion of Pareto Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe paper argues that the notion of Pareto efficiency builds on two normative assumptions: the more general consequentialist norm of any efficiency criterion, and the strong no-harm principle of the prohibition of any redistribution during the economic process that hurts at least one

  9. Efficient vehicles versus efficient transportation : comprehensive comparison of fuel efficiency standards and Transportation Demand Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litman, T.

    2001-11-21

    There are two basic approaches for reducing fuel consumption in vehicles. The first is to increase fuel efficiency, and the other is to increase transportation system efficiency. The three strategies commonly proposed to increase fuel efficiency are: (1) Corporate Average Fuel Efficiency (CAFE) standards, which require vehicle manufacturers to produce and sell more efficient vehicles, (2) Feebates, which impose a surcharge on the purchase of fuel inefficient vehicles. Revenues from Feebates are used to provide a rebate on the purchase of fuel efficient vehicles, and (3) Predictable, long-term fuel tax increases, which involve raising fuel taxes beyond what would otherwise occur to motivate motorists to buy fuel efficient vehicles. There are several transportation management strategies which can help accomplish better efficiency in a transportation system. These include: (1) road pricing which charges motorists for using certain roads, (2) parking pricing, (3) Pay-As-You-Drive vehicle insurance, (4) improved transportation choices such as transit, cycling and walking improvements, rideshare programs, high occupancy vehicle (HOV) priority, telework and delivery services, (5) commute trip reduction programs, and (6) fuel price increases which involve raising fuel taxes to provide incentive to motorists to buy more fuel efficient vehicles. Energy conservation strategies that reduce vehicle mileage result in reduced traffic congestion, savings in parking facility costs, better traffic safety and environmental benefits. 17 refs., 3 tabs.

  10. Worst Case Efficient Data Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting

    We study the design of efficient data structures. In particular we focus on the design of data structures where each operation has a worst case efficient implementations. The concrete problems we consider are partial persistence, implementation of priority queues, and implementation of dictionaries...

  11. Market Competition and Efficient Cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandts, J.; Riedl, Arno

    2016-01-01

    We find that in market-partners, market experience has adverse effects on the efficiency of cooperation on both market-winner and market-loser pairs. In market-strangers, pairs of market-winners manage to cooperate more efficiently. These results indicate that it is not market experience per se that

  12. Domestic energy efficiency improving algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molderink, Albert; Bakker, Vincent; Bosman, M.G.C.; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    Due to increasing energy prices and the greenhouse effect more efficient electricity production is desirable, referably based on renewable sources. In the last years, a lot of technologies have been developed to improve the efficiency of the electricity usage and supply. Next to large scale

  13. Guide to Home Water Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-10-01

    A fact sheet from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: A water-efficient home helps you minimize your water use, harness water for reuse, conserve energy, and save money.

  14. Energy efficient wireless ATM design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Bos, M.

    1999-01-01

    Energy efficiency is an important issue for mobile computers since they must rely on their batteries. We present an architecture for wireless ATM and a novel MAC protocol that achieves a good energy efficiency of the wireless interface of the mobile and provides QoS support for diverse traffic

  15. Motor-operated gearbox efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Bramwell, D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Weidenhamer, G.H.

    1996-12-01

    Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory recently conducted tests investigating the operating efficiency of the power train (gearbox) in motor-operators typically used in nuclear power plants to power motor-operated valves. Actual efficiency ratios were determined from in-line measurements of electric motor torque (input to the operator gearbox) and valve stem torque (output from the gearbox) while the operators were subjected to gradually increasing loads until the electric motor stalled. The testing included parametric studies under reduced voltage and elevated temperature conditions. As part of the analysis of the results, the authors compared efficiency values determined from testing to the values published by the operator manufacturer and typically used by the industry in calculations for estimating motor-operator capabilities. The operators they tested under load ran at efficiencies lower than the running efficiency (typically 50%) published by the operator manufacturer.

  16. Efficiency of Capacitively Loaded Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas; Huang, Lina; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the characteristic of capacitance versus voltage for dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) actuator, 2kV polypropylene film capacitor as well as 3kV X7R multi layer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) at the beginning. An energy efficiency for capacitively loaded converters...... is introduced as a definition of efficiency. The calculated and measured efficiency curves for charging DEAP actuator, polypropylene film capacitor and X7R MLCC are provided and compared. The attention has to be paid for the voltage dependent capacitive load, like X7R MLCC, when evaluating the charging...... efficiency of converter. Based on the capacitancevoltage curve, the correct capacitance should be chosen when calculating the stored energy; otherwise misleading optimistic efficiency can always be obtained. Actually, when DEAP actuator is not available at the early developing stage, the voltage independent...

  17. Solar water splitting: efficiency discussion

    CERN Document Server

    Juodkazyte, Jurga; Sebeka, Benjaminas; Savickaja, Irena; Malinauskas, Tadas; Badokas, Kazimieras; Juodkazis, Kestutis; Juodkazis, Saulius

    2016-01-01

    The current state of the art in direct water splitting in photo-electrochemical cells (PECs) is presented together with: (i) a case study of water splitting using a simple solar cell with the most efficient water splitting electrodes and (ii) a detailed mechanism analysis. Detailed analysis of the energy balance and efficiency of solar hydrogen production are presented. The role of hydrogen peroxide formation as an intermediate in oxygen evolution reaction is newly revealed and explains why an oxygen evolution is not taking place at the thermodynamically expected 1.23 V potential. Solar hydrogen production with electrical-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency of 52% is demonstrated using a simple ~0.7%-efficient n-Si/Ni Schottky solar cell connected to a water electrolysis cell. This case study shows that separation of the processes of solar harvesting and electrolysis avoids photo-electrode corrosion and utilizes optimal electrodes for hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions and achieves ~10% efficiency in light...

  18. Material Efficiency of Building Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti Ruuska

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Better construction and use of buildings in the European Union would influence 42% of final energy consumption, about 35% of our greenhouse gas emissions and more than 50% of all extracted materials. It could also help to save up to 30% of water consumption. This paper outlines and draws conclusions about different aspects of the material efficiency of buildings and assesses the significance of different building materials on the material efficiency. The research uses an extensive literature study and a case-study in order to assess: should the depletion of materials be ignored in the environmental or sustainability assessment of buildings, are the related effects on land use, energy use and/or harmful emissions significant, should related indicators (such as GHGs be used to indicate the material efficiency of buildings, and what is the significance of scarce materials, compared to the use of other building materials. This research suggests that the material efficiency should focus on the significant global impacts of material efficiency; not on the individual factors of it. At present global warming and greenhouse gas emissions are among the biggest global problems on which material efficiency has a direct impact on. Therefore, this paper suggests that greenhouse gas emissions could be used as an indicator for material efficiency in building.

  19. Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Polish Foundation for Energy Efficiency (FEWE) was established in Poland at the end of 1990. FEWE, as an independent and non-profit organization, has the following objectives: to strive towards an energy efficient national economy, and to show the way and methods by use of which energy efficiency can be increased. The activity of the Foundation covers the entire territory of Poland through three regional centers: in Warsaw, Katowice and Cracow. FEWE employs well-known and experienced specialists within thermal and power engineering, civil engineering, economy and applied sciences. The organizer of the Foundation has been Battelle Memorial Institute - Pacific Northwest Laboratories from the USA.

  20. Planning for resource efficient cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Groth, Niels Boje

    2016-01-01

    development from energy consumption are crucial for a city’s future vulnerability and resilience against changes in general resource availability. The challenge gets further complex, as resource and energy efficiency in a city is deeply interwoven with other aspects of urban development such as social......, cities act as entrepreneurs of new energy solutions acknowledging that efficient monitoring of energy and climate policies has become important to urban branding and competitiveness. This special issue presents findings from the European FP7 project ‘Planning for Energy Efficient Cities’ (PLEEC...

  1. Absorption Efficiency of Receiving Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Frandsen, Aksel

    2005-01-01

    A receiving antenna with a matched load will always scatter some power. This paper sets an upper and a lower bound on the absorption efficiency (absorbed power over sum of absorbed and scattered powers), which lies between 0 and 100% depending on the directivities of the antenna and scatter...... patterns. It can approach 100% as closely as desired, although in practice this may not be an attractive solution. An example with a small endfire array of dipoles shows an efficiency of 93%. Several examples of small conical horn antennas are also given, and they all have absorption efficiencies less than...

  2. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanton, Donald W. [Cummins Inc., Columbus, IN (United States)

    2011-06-03

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy’s Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of our objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded.

  3. Efficiency principles of consulting entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Moroz Yustina S.; Drozdov Igor N.

    2015-01-01

    The article reviews the primary goals and problems of consulting entrepreneurship. The principles defining efficiency of entrepreneurship in the field of consulting are generalized. The special attention is given to the importance of ethical principles of conducting consulting entrepreneurship activity.

  4. High-efficiency wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, L. A.; Myers, W. N.

    1980-01-01

    Vertical axis wind turbine incorporates several unique features to extract more energy from wind increasing efficiency 20% over conventional propeller driven units. System also features devices that utilize solar energy or chimney effluents during periods of no wind.

  5. Efficiency Management in Spaceflight Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency in spaceflight is often approached as “faster, better, cheaper – pick two”. The high levels of performance and reliability required for each mission suggest that planners can only control for two of the three. True efficiency comes by optimizing a system across all three parameters. The functional processes of spaceflight become technical requirements on three operational groups during mission planning: payload, vehicle, and launch operations. Given the interrelationships among the functions performed by the operational groups, optimizing function resources from one operational group to the others affects the efficiency of those groups and therefore the mission overall. This paper helps outline this framework and creates a context in which to understand the effects of resource trades on the overall system, improving the efficiency of the operational groups and the mission as a whole. This allows insight into and optimization of the controlling factors earlier in the mission planning stage.

  6. High Efficiency Refrigeration Process Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It has been proposed by NASA JSC studies, that the most mass efficient (non-nuclear) method of Lunar habitat cooling is via photovoltaic (PV) direct vapor...

  7. Improving efficiency in meat production

    OpenAIRE

    Brameld, John M; Parr, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Selective breeding and improved nutritional management over the past 20–30 years has resulted in dramatic improvements in growth efficiency for pigs and poultry, particularly lean tissue growth. However, this has been achieved using high-quality feed ingredients, such as wheat and soya that are also used for human consumption and more recently biofuels production. Ruminants on the other hand are less efficient, but are normally fed poorer quality ingredients that cannot be digested by human s...

  8. Is the stock market efficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkiel, B G

    1989-03-10

    A stock market is said to be efficient if it accurately reflects all relevant information in determining security prices. Critics have asserted that share prices are far too volatile to be explained by changes in objective economic events-the October 1987 crash being a case in point. Although the evidence is not unambiguous, reports of the death of the efficient market hypothesis appear premature.

  9. Efficient computation of argumentation semantics

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Beishui

    2013-01-01

    Efficient Computation of Argumentation Semantics addresses argumentation semantics and systems, introducing readers to cutting-edge decomposition methods that drive increasingly efficient logic computation in AI and intelligent systems. Such complex and distributed systems are increasingly used in the automation and transportation systems field, and particularly autonomous systems, as well as more generic intelligent computation research. The Series in Intelligent Systems publishes titles that cover state-of-the-art knowledge and the latest advances in research and development in intelligen

  10. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-05-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  11. Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

    2012-08-01

    The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

  12. Advanced high efficiency concentrator cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gale, R. (Varian Associates, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States). Varian Research Center)

    1992-06-01

    This report describes research to develop the technology needed to demonstrate a monolithic, multijunction, two-terminal, concentrator solar cell with a terrestrial power conversion efficiency greater than 35%. Under three previous subcontracts, Varian developed many of the aspects of a technology needed to fabricate very high efficiency concentrator cells. The current project was aimed at exploiting the new understanding of high efficiency solar cells. Key results covered in this report are as follows. (1) A 1.93-eV AlGaAs/1.42-eV GaAs metal-interconnected cascade cell was manufactured with a one-sun efficiency at 27.6% at air mass 1.5 (AM1.5) global. (2) A 1.0eV InGaAs cell was fabricated on the reverse'' side of a low-doped GaAs substrate with a one-sun efficiency of 2.5% AM1.5 diffuse and a short-circuit current of 14.4 mA/cm{sup 2}. (3) Small-scale manufacturing of GaAs p/n concentrator cells was attempted and obtained an excellent yield of high-efficiency cells. (4) Grown-in tunnel junction cell interconnects that are transparent and thermally stable using C and Si dopants were developed. 10 refs.

  13. Towards high efficiency heliostat fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbes, Florian; Wöhrbach, Markus; Gebreiter, Daniel; Weinrebe, Gerhard

    2017-06-01

    CSP power plants have great potential to substantially contribute to world energy supply. To set this free, cost reductions are required for future projects. Heliostat field layout optimization offers a great opportunity to improve field efficiency. Field efficiency primarily depends on the positions of the heliostats around the tower, commonly known as the heliostat field layout. Heliostat shape also influences efficiency. Improvements to optical efficiency results in electricity cost reduction without adding any extra technical complexity. Due to computational challenges heliostat fields are often arranged in patterns. The mathematical models of the radial staggered or spiral patterns are based on two parameters and thus lead to uniform patterns. Optical efficiencies of a heliostat field do not change uniformly with the distance to the tower, they even differ in the northern and southern field. A fixed pattern is not optimal in many parts of the heliostat field, especially when used as large scaled heliostat field. In this paper, two methods are described which allow to modify field density suitable to inconsistent field efficiencies. A new software for large scale heliostat field evaluation is presented, it allows for fast optimizations of several parameters for pattern modification routines. It was used to design a heliostat field with 23,000 heliostats, which is currently planned for a site in South Africa.

  14. Mobilising Investment in Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Taxes, loans and grants, trading schemes and white certificates, public procurement and investment in R&D or infrastructure: known collectively as 'economic instruments', these tools can be powerful means of mobilising the finances needed to achieve policy goals by implementing energy efficiency measures. The role of economic instruments is to kick-start the private financial markets and to motivate private investors to fund EE measures. They should reinforce and promote energy performance regulations. This IEA analysis addresses the fact that, to date, relatively little effort has been directed toward evaluating how well economic instruments work. Using the buildings sector to illustrate how such measures can support energy efficiency, this paper can help policy makers better select and design economic instruments appropriate to their policy objectives and national contexts. This report’s three main aims are to: 1) Examine how economic instruments are currently used in energy efficiency policy; 2) Consider how economic instruments can be more effective and efficient in supporting low-energy buildings; and 3) Assess how economic instruments should be funded, where public outlay is needed. Detailed case studies in this report assess examples of economic instruments for energy efficiency in the buildings sector in Canada (grants), France (tax relief and loans), Germany (loans and grants), Ireland (grants) and Italy (white certificates and tax relief).

  15. Improving efficiency in meat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brameld, John M; Parr, Tim

    2016-08-01

    Selective breeding and improved nutritional management over the past 20-30 years has resulted in dramatic improvements in growth efficiency for pigs and poultry, particularly lean tissue growth. However, this has been achieved using high-quality feed ingredients, such as wheat and soya that are also used for human consumption and more recently biofuels production. Ruminants on the other hand are less efficient, but are normally fed poorer quality ingredients that cannot be digested by human subjects, such as grass or silage. The challenges therefore are to: (i) maintain the current efficiency of growth of pigs and poultry, but using more ingredients not needed to feed the increasing human population or for the production of biofuels; (ii) improve the efficiency of growth in ruminants; (iii) at the same time produce animal products (meat, milk and eggs) of equal or improved quality. This review will describe the use of: (a) enzyme additives for animal feeds, to improve feed digestibility; (b) known growth promoting agents, such as growth hormone, β-agonists and anabolic steroids, currently banned in the European Union but used in other parts of the world; (c) recent transcriptomic studies into molecular mechanisms for improved growth efficiency via low residual feed intake. In doing so, the use of genetic manipulation in animals will also be discussed.

  16. Metasurface holograms reaching 80% efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guoxing; Mühlenbernd, Holger; Kenney, Mitchell; Li, Guixin; Zentgraf, Thomas; Zhang, Shuang

    2015-04-01

    Surfaces covered by ultrathin plasmonic structures--so-called metasurfaces--have recently been shown to be capable of completely controlling the phase of light, representing a new paradigm for the design of innovative optical elements such as ultrathin flat lenses, directional couplers for surface plasmon polaritons and wave plate vortex beam generation. Among the various types of metasurfaces, geometric metasurfaces, which consist of an array of plasmonic nanorods with spatially varying orientations, have shown superior phase control due to the geometric nature of their phase profile. Metasurfaces have recently been used to make computer-generated holograms, but the hologram efficiency remained too low at visible wavelengths for practical purposes. Here, we report the design and realization of a geometric metasurface hologram reaching diffraction efficiencies of 80% at 825 nm and a broad bandwidth between 630 nm and 1,050 nm. The 16-level-phase computer-generated hologram demonstrated here combines the advantages of a geometric metasurface for the superior control of the phase profile and of reflectarrays for achieving high polarization conversion efficiency. Specifically, the design of the hologram integrates a ground metal plane with a geometric metasurface that enhances the conversion efficiency between the two circular polarization states, leading to high diffraction efficiency without complicating the fabrication process. Because of these advantages, our strategy could be viable for various practical holographic applications.

  17. Humid free efficient solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjwani, Manoj Kumar; Panjwani, Suresh Kumar; Mangi, Fareed Hussain; Khan, Danish; Meicheng, Li

    2017-09-01

    The paper examines the impact of the humidity on the Solar panels which makes a space for the drastic variation in the power generated and makes the device less efficient. Humidity readily affects the efficiency of the solar cells and creates a minimal layer of water on its surface. It also decreases the efficiency by 10-20% of the total power output produced. Moreover, to handle this issue, all around characterized measures are required to be taken to guarantee the smooth working of the solar panels utilized in humid areas. In connection with this issue, Karachi, the biggest city of Pakistan which is located near the costal line touching Arabian Sea, was taken as a reference city to measure the humidity range. In Karachi, the average humidity lies between 25-70% (as per Pakistan Meteorological Department PMD), that indirectly leads in decreasing power acquired from a Solar Panel and develops various complexities for the solar system. The system on average experiences stability issues, such as those of power fluctuations etc., due to which, the whole solar system installed observes abnormal variations in acquired power. Silica Gel was used as a desiccant material in order to assure dryness over the solar panel. More than four experiments were conducted with the usage of water absorbent to improve the efficiency and to make system more power efficient.

  18. Green corridor : energy efficiency initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartlett, M.; Strickland, R.; Harding, N. [Windsor Univ., ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This presentation discussed environmental sustainability using alternative energy technologies. It discussed Ecohouse, which is a house designed using conventional and inventive products and techniques to represent an eco-efficient model for living, a more sustainable house, demonstrating sustainable technologies in action and setting a new standard for resource efficiency in Windsor. The presentation provided a building analysis and discussed the following: geothermal heating; distributive power; green roof; net metering; grey water plumbing; solar water heating; passive lighting; energy efficient lighting and geothermal heating and cooling. It also discussed opportunities for innovation, namely: greenhouse; composting toilets; alternative insulation; net metering; solar arrays; hydroponics; and expansion of the house. Also discussed were a nature bridge, an underwater electric kite, and a vertically aerodynamic turbine. The benefits of renewable energy, small hydro power potential, and instream energy generation technology were presented. 9 refs., figs.

  19. Cleanroom Energy Efficiency Workshop Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tschudi, Bill

    1999-03-15

    On March 15, 1999, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory hosted a workshop focused on energy efficiency in Cleanroom facilities. The workshop was held as part of a multiyear effort sponsored by the California Institute for Energy Efficiency, and the California Energy Commission. It is part of a project that concentrates on improving energy efficiency in Laboratory type facilities including cleanrooms. The project targets the broad market of laboratory and cleanroom facilities, and thus cross-cuts many different industries and institutions. This workshop was intended to raise awareness by sharing case study success stories, providing a forum for industry networking on energy issues, contributing LBNL expertise in research to date, determining barriers to implementation and possible solutions, and soliciting input for further research.

  20. Intrinsic efficiencies of TL materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meijvogel, K.; Burg, B. van der; Bos, A.J.J. [Tech. Hogeschool Delft (Netherlands). Inter-Faculty Reactor Inst.

    1996-12-31

    The intrinsic efficiency is studied theoretically and experimentally. A simple model describing the various processes of trapping, transfer and recombination of charge carriers leads to a theoretical upper limit for common TL materials of the intrinsic efficiency of approximately 14%. A TL reader was calibrated for measurements of the absolute number of emitted TL photons. The prompt light yield (during irradiation) was also measured. The intrinsic efficiency was determined for a number of commonly used thermoluminescence materials to give the following results: LiF(TLD-100, single crystals), 0.017%; LiF(TLD-100), 0.031%; LiF(GR-200A), 0.91%; CaF{sub 2}(TLD-200), 4.1%; CaF{sub 2}:Tm(TLD-300), 0.29% and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:C, 0.84%. (author).

  1. The Efficiency of Educational Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Heinesen, Eskil; Tranæs, Torben

    2015-01-01

    Focusing in particular on upper secondary education, this paper examines whether the relatively high level of expenditure on education in the Nordic countries is matched by high output from the educational sector, both in terms of student enrolment and indicators of output quality in the form...... in order to analyse different aspects of efficiency. In purely quantitative models (where inputs and outputs are expenditure and number of students at different levels of the educational system) and in models where graduation or completion rates are included as indicators of output quality, Finland...... is the most efficient Nordic country (often fully efficient), whereas Sweden and especially Norway and Denmark are clearly inefficient. However, using PISA test scores as indicators of student input quality in upper secondary education reduces the inefficiencies of these three countries. Also, when expected...

  2. The Efficiency of Educational Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogetoft, Peter; Heinesen, Eskil; Tranæs, Torben

    Focusing in particular on upper secondary education, this paper examines whether the relatively high level of expenditure on education in the Nordic countries is matched by high output from the educational sector, both in terms of student enrolment and indicators of output quality in the form...... in order to analyse different aspects of efficiency. In purely quantitative models (where inputs and outputs are expenditure and number of students at different levels of the educational system) and in models where graduation or completion rates are included as an indicator of output quality, Finland...... is the most efficient Nordic country (often fully efficient), whereas Sweden and especially Norway and Denmark are clearly inefficient. However, using PISA test scores as indicators of student input quality in upper secondary education reduces the inefficiencies of these three countries. Also, when expected...

  3. Institutional Efficiency in Selected Universities in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amina, Nakimuli; Turyahebwa, Abanis

    2015-01-01

    Universities are accountable This study looked into Institutional Efficiency in selected Universities in Central Uganda. The study was guided by the following objectives; Determine the level of institutional efficiency of the universities in terms of educational efficiency; research efficiency and community service efficiency. The study employed…

  4. Energy Efficiency in Future PONs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reschat, Halfdan; Laustsen, Johannes Russell; Wessing, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    There is a still increasing tendency to give energy efficiency a high priority, even in already low energy demanding systems. This is also the case for Passive Optical Networks (PONs) for which many different methods for saving energy are proposed. This paper uses simulations to evaluate three...... proposed power saving solutions for PONs which use sleep mechanisms for saving power. The discovered advantages and disadvantages of these methods are then used as a basis for proposing a new solution combining different techniques in order to increase the energy efficiency further. This novel solution...

  5. Information efficiency in visual communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter-Gartenberg, Rachel; Rahman, Zia-Ur

    1993-01-01

    This paper evaluates the quantization process in the context of the end-to-end performance of the visual-communication channel. Results show that the trade-off between data transmission and visual quality revolves around the information in the acquired signal, not around its energy. Improved information efficiency is gained by frequency dependent quantization that maintains the information capacity of the channel and reduces the entropy of the encoded signal. Restorations with energy bit-allocation lose both in sharpness and clarity relative to restorations with information bit-allocation. Thus, quantization with information bit-allocation is preferred for high information efficiency and visual quality in optimized visual communication.

  6. Technology for aircraft energy efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klineberg, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    Six technology programs for reducing fuel use in U.S. commercial aviation are discussed. The six NASA programs are divided into three groups: Propulsion - engine component improvement, energy efficient engine, advanced turboprops; Aerodynamics - energy efficient transport, laminar flow control; and Structures - composite primary structures. Schedules, phases, and applications of these programs are considered, and it is suggested that program results will be applied to current transport derivatives in the early 1980s and to all-new aircraft of the late 1980s and early 1990s.

  7. Light Duty Efficient, Clean Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald Stanton

    2010-12-31

    Cummins has successfully completed the Light Duty Efficient Clean Combustion (LDECC) cooperative program with DoE. This program was established in 2007 in support of the Department of Energy's Vehicles Technologies Advanced Combustion and Emissions Control initiative to remove critical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high efficiency, emissions compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light duty vehicles. Work in this area expanded the fundamental knowledge of engine combustion to new regimes and advanced the knowledge of fuel requirements for these diesel engines to realize their full potential. All of the following objectives were met with fuel efficiency improvement targets exceeded: (1) Improve light duty vehicle (5000 lb. test weight) fuel efficiency by 10.5% over today's state-of-the-art diesel engine on the FTP city drive cycle; (2) Develop and design an advanced combustion system plus aftertreatment system that synergistically meets Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx and PM emissions standards while demonstrating the efficiency improvements; (3) Maintain power density comparable to that of current conventional engines for the applicable vehicle class; and (4) Evaluate different fuel components and ensure combustion system compatibility with commercially available biofuels. Key accomplishments include: (1) A 25% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system compared to the 10.5% target; (2) An 11% improvement in fuel efficiency was achieved with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreamtent system; (3) Tier 2 Bin 5 and SFTP II emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine equipped with a novel SCR aftertreatment system; (4) Tier 2 Bin 5 emissions regulations were met with the advanced LDECC engine and no NOx aftertreatment, but SFTP II emissions regulations were not met for the US06 test cycle - Additional technical barriers exist for the no NOx

  8. Design-Efficiency in Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuksel, Ender; Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    In this document, we present our applied results on balancing security and performance using a running example, which is based on sensor networks. These results are forming a basis for a new approach to balance security and performance, and therefore provide design-­efficiency of key updates. We...

  9. Improving efficiency in pig production

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    My approach has been to consider efficiency in terms com- parable to those used by the working party of the Agricul- tural Research Council (ARC, 1981)of which I was a mem- ber. The factors considered are the costs of tissue synthesis for both protein and lipid, the maintenance cost, the parti- tion between protein and fat, ...

  10. Efficiently learning simple timed automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, S.E.; De Weerdt, M.M.; Witteveen, C.

    2008-01-01

    We describe an efficient algorithm for learning deterministic real-time automata (DRTA) from positive data. This data can be obtained from observations of the process to be modeled. The DRTA model we learn from such data can be used reason and gain knowledge about realtime systems such as network

  11. Energy sustainability: consumption, efficiency, and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the critical challenges in achieving sustainability is finding a way to meet the energy consumption needs of a growing population in the face of increasing economic prosperity and finite resources. According to ecological footprint computations, the global resource consumption began exceeding planetary supply in 1977 and by 2030, global energy demand, population, and gross domestic product are projected to greatly increase over 1977 levels. With the aim of finding sustainable energy solutions, we present a simple yet rigorous procedure for assessing and counterbalancing the relationship between energy demand, environmental impact, population, GDP, and energy efficiency. Our analyses indicated that infeasible increases in energy efficiency (over 100 %) would be required by 2030 to return to 1977 environmental impact levels and annual reductions (2 and 3 %) in energy demand resulted in physical, yet impractical requirements; hence, a combination of policy and technology approaches is needed to tackle this critical challenge. This work emphasizes the difficulty in moving toward energy sustainability and helps to frame possible solutions useful for policy and management. Based on projected energy consumption, environmental impact, human population, gross domestic product (GDP), and energy efficiency, for this study, we explore the increase in energy-use efficiency and the decrease in energy use intensity required to achieve sustainable environmental impact le

  12. Assessment of Issue Handling Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijten, B.; Visser, J.; Zaidman, A.

    2013-01-01

    We mined the issue database of GNOME to assess how issues are handled. How many issues are submitted and resolved? Does the backlog grow or decrease? How fast are issues resolved? Does issue resolution speed increase or decrease over time? In which subproject are issues handled most efficiently? To

  13. Efficiency measures for industrial organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Raa, Thijs; Ray, Subhash C.; Kumbhakar, Subal C.; Dua, Pami

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to measure the efficiency of an industry, and to decompose it in firm efficiencies—which indicate how close firms approximate best practices—and an organization efficiency—which indicates the degree of optimality of the number of firms and their distribution. The latter

  14. Unconventional, High-Efficiency Propulsors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul

    1996-01-01

    The development of ship propellers has generally been characterized by search for propellers with as high efficiency as possible and at the same time low noise and vibration levels and little or no cavitation. This search has lead to unconventional propulsors, like vane-wheel propulsors, contra-r...

  15. Hospital mergers and economic efficiency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blair, Roger D; Durrance, Christine Piette; Sokol, D. Daniel

    2016-01-01

    .... Second, the article examines the justification for integration as a way to address countervailing power in health care, the reduction of transaction costs, and potential cost and quality efficiencies. Third, the article applies the economics of these issues to merger case law generally and specifically to the St. Luke's decision.

  16. Efficiency of participation in planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Farouk Hassan

    2011-06-01

    A comparison between the two processes will take place in order to indentify the participation activities and their real efficiency. The comparison will be focused on the parameter of participation realized in each case in order to find gaps that have negative effects and needs to be filled.

  17. Efficient synthesis of substituted dihydrotetraazapentacenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seillan, Claire; Brisset, Hugues; Siri, Olivier

    2008-09-18

    We describe a versatile and very efficient synthesis of previously unknown substituted 5,14-dihydro-5,7,12,14-tetraazapentacenes (DHTAPs). A structural study by NMR spectroscopy showed that the conjugated pi-system of the pentacyclic skeleton rearranges depending on the electronic effect of the substituent(s).

  18. Energy Efficiency Indicators Methodology Booklet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant; Price, Lynn; McNeil, Michael; de la rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-05-01

    This Methodology Booklet provides a comprehensive review and methodology guiding principles for constructing energy efficiency indicators, with illustrative examples of application to individual countries. It reviews work done by international agencies and national government in constructing meaningful energy efficiency indicators that help policy makers to assess changes in energy efficiency over time. Building on past OECD experience and best practices, and the knowledge of these countries' institutions, relevant sources of information to construct an energy indicator database are identified. A framework based on levels of hierarchy of indicators -- spanning from aggregate, macro level to disaggregated end-use level metrics -- is presented to help shape the understanding of assessing energy efficiency. In each sector of activity: industry, commercial, residential, agriculture and transport, indicators are presented and recommendations to distinguish the different factors affecting energy use are highlighted. The methodology booklet addresses specifically issues that are relevant to developing indicators where activity is a major factor driving energy demand. A companion spreadsheet tool is available upon request.

  19. Efficient audio power amplification - challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    For more than a decade efficient audio power amplification has evolved and today switch-mode audio power amplification in various forms are the state-of-the-art. The technical steps that lead to this evolution are described and in addition many of the challenges still to be faced and where extensive research and development are needed is covered. (au)

  20. Efficient Audio Power Amplification - Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    For more than a decade efficient audio power amplification has evolved and today switch-mode audio power amplification in various forms are the state-of-the-art. The technical steps that lead to this evolution are described and in addition many of the challenges still to be faced and where...... extensive research and development are needed is covered....

  1. Efficiency Analysis of Ejector Cooler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vytautas Ališauskas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the review of ejection coolers’ constructions and operation principles is presented. The ejection cooler’s with diffe-rent separators work efficiency reates’ dependence from confusor inlet opening’s angle and the cooled water’s temperature is exa-mined.

  2. Building an efficient supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalise, Dagmara

    2005-08-01

    Realizing at last that supply chain management can produce efficiencies and save costs, hospitals are beginning to adopt practices from other industries, such as the concept of extended supply chains, to improve product flow. They're also investing in enterprise planning resource software, radio frequency identification and other technologies, using quality data to drive standardization and streamlining processes.

  3. Energy-efficient wireless communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2000-01-01

    In this chapter we present an energy-efficient highly adaptive network interface architecture and a novel data link layer protocol for wireless networks that provides Quality of Service (QoS) support for diverse traffic types. Due to the dynamic nature of wireless networks, adaptations in bandwidth

  4. Quality, efficiency, and organizational structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterns, Jay B

    2007-01-01

    Physicians and their practice patterns are the largest single determinant of the level of aggregate national health care expenditures. Integrated delivery systems (organizations linking a multispecialty physician groups and acute care hospitals) appear to be more efficient than other organizational structures while providing better clinical outcomes. To determine whether a subset of hospitals was more or less efficient than the national average, we relied on data from the Dartmouth Atlas Project, which included data from 4,346 hospitals. The analysis was restricted to patients who had one or more of 12 chronic illnesses associated with a high probability of death, and the number of hospitals identified as our control group was 14, represented by 13 organizations. Based on the preliminary data, physicians operating in a multispecialty group appear to use less physician resources to care for their patients and admit less often to a hospital, thereby reducing health care expenditures. As the federal government seeks to foster more efficient health care delivery and better outcomes, it may look to the physician-led integrated delivery network as an example of an efficient and high quality model.

  5. Regional reserves of energy efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Aleksandrovich Bayev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of peculiarities of power consumption and energy efficiency of the Russian regions. The level of energy efficiency in Russia compared with other countries of the world is analyzed. The indicators of energy consumption and industrial structure of the regions are compared. The dependence of the electricity consumption in the regions and the gross regional product per capita is studied. Based on the made analysis, the map of electricity consumption in the regions demonstrating the high level of differentiation of Russian regions on a level of energy efficiency is formulated. The authors have suggested the recommendations on the selection of priority directions of implementation of energy conservation policy for the subjects of the Russian Federation. On the example of the Chelyabinsk region, the features of realization of the regional program on energy efficiency are considered. The ways of its improvement on the basis of developed are offered by the authors of the matrix electricity consumption. Research results have practical significance and can be used to improve existing regional energy saving programs for individual sectors of the regional economy, and for the regions in general

  6. Efficiency of tax administration: concepts and contents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Proskura Ekaterina Petrovna

    2013-01-01

    The paper investigates the nature and content of the efficiency of tax administration, reviews the different points of view on the concept of fiscal efficiency, discloses factors affecting such efficiency...

  7. Determinant Efficiencies in Ill-Conditioned Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Jensen

    2011-01-01

    designs. Studies on D- and -efficiencies confirm that designs are seldom efficient for both. Determinant identities demonstrate the propensity for -inefficient subsets to be masked through near collinearities in overall D-efficient designs.

  8. Power-Efficiency Comparison of Spectrum-Efficient Optical Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Iyer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With steady traffic volume growth in the core networks, it is predicted that the future optical network communication will be constrained mainly by the power consumption. Hence, for future internet sustainability, it will be a mandate to ensure power-efficiency in the optical networks. Two paradigms known to support both, the traffic heterogeneity and high bandwidth requests are the: (i next generation flexible (or elastic orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM based networks which provide flexible bandwidth allocation per wavelength, and (ii currently deployed mixed-line-rate (MLR based networks which provision the co-existence of 10/40/100 Gbps on varied wavelengths within the same fiber. In this work, the power-efficiency of an OFDM, and a MLR based network has been compared for which, a mixed integer linear program (MILP model has been formulated considering deterministic traffic between every network source-destination pair. The simulation results show that in regard to power-efficiency, the OFDM based network outperforms the MLR based network.

  9. THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS EFFICIENT MASS VALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koshel A.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the article the theoretical basis for determining the effectiveness of mass valuation of land in present-day conditions are described. The concept defenitsy effect and effectiveness as economic categories and their classification values for mass valuation of land are presented. The effectiveness of mass valuation of land in the settlements defines the structure of local budget and economic activities undertaken by local authorities on the basis of the results of the mass appraisal of real estate. Mass valuation is regular and it is characterized by high degree of standardization of procedures and a significant increase in the role of statistical methods for processing data related to the use of the most significant factors influencing the parameters of the object to its cost, as well as the need to determine the value of the objective laws change equivalent, which is only possible when using economic and mathematical methods and statistical analysis. Quality control results of mass valuation carried out principally in other ways, as obtained by applying statistical machine results can be checked as soon statistical methods. This shows the relevance of research topic and lack of elaboration for Ukraine problems of efficiency of mass land valuation. Scientific research conducted through the use of the dialectical method and techniques of abstraction, comparative analysis and synthesis, the article various models and methods of valuation of land for taxation purposes are analyzed. In addition, the group explored methods used, comparisons, and more. In economic theory and practice problems and determine the effect of efficiency aimed at profit is quite relevant. Economists consider cost-effectiveness, such as economic efficiency. In this case, the production can be attributed to the activities to conduct and organization of mass valuation of land. This pushes many different positions on criteria and indicators of economic efficiency, the

  10. 75 FR 30014 - Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant Program AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), has experienced historic growth and unprecedented workload challenges...

  11. Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Robin; Sonne, Jeffrey; Withers, Charles; Cummings, James; Verdict, Malcolm; Roberts, Sydney

    2009-09-30

    The Southern Energy Efficiency Center (SEEC) builds collaborative partnerships with: state and local governments and their program support offices, the building delivery industry (designers, contractors, realtors and commissioning agents), product manufacturers and their supply chains, utilities and their program implementers, consumers and other stakeholders in order to forge a strong regional network of building energy efficiency allies. Through a project Steering Committee composed of the state energy offices and building industry stakeholders, the SEEC works to establish consensus-based goals, priorities and strategies at the regional, state and local levels that will materially advance the deployment of high-performance “beyond code” buildings. In its first Phase, SEEC will provide limited technical and policy support assistance, training, certification and education to a wide spectrum of the building construction, codes and standards, and the consumer marketplace.

  12. Hadoop Tutorial - Efficient data ingestion

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Baranowski, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The Hadoop ecosystem is the leading opensource platform for distributed storage and processing of "big data". The Hadoop platform is available at CERN as a central service provided by the IT department. Real-time data ingestion to Hadoop ecosystem due to the system specificity is non-trivial process and requires some efforts (which is often underestimated) in order to make it efficient (low latency, optimize data placement, footprint on the cluster). In this tutorial attendees will learn about: The important aspects of storing the data in Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS).  Data ingestion techniques and engines that are capable of shipping data to Hadoop in an efficient way. Setting up a full data ingestion flow into a Hadoop Distributed Files System from various sources (streaming, log files, databases) using the best practices and components available around the ecosystem (including Sqoop, Kite, Flume, Kafka...

  13. Efficient transformer for electromagnetic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R.B.

    A transformer structure for efficient transfer of electromagnetic energy from a transmission line to an unmatched load provides voltage multiplication and current division by a predetermined constant. Impedance levels are transformed by the square of that constant. The structure includes a wave splitter, connected to an input transmission device and to a plurality of output transmission devices. The output transmission devices are effectively connected in parallel to the input transmission device. The output transmission devices are effectively series connected to provide energy to a load. The transformer structure is particularly effective in increasing efficiency of energy transfer through an inverting convolute structure by capturing and transferring energy losses from the inverter to the load.

  14. Clean and Efficient Diesel Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-12-31

    Task 1 was to design study for fuel-efficient system configuration. The objective of task 1 was to perform a system design study of locomotive engine configurations leading to a 5% improvement in fuel efficiency. Modeling studies were conducted in GT-Power to perform this task. GT-Power is an engine simulation tool that facilitates modeling of engine components and their system level interactions. It provides the capability to evaluate a variety of engine technologies such as exhaust gas circulation (EGR), variable valve timing, and advanced turbo charging. The setup of GT-Power includes a flexible format that allows the effects of variations in available technologies (i.e., varying EGR fractions or fuel injection timing) to be systematically evaluated. Therefore, development can be driven by the simultaneous evaluation of several technology configurations.

  15. High Efficiency Germanium Immersion Gratings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmenko, P J; Davis, P J; Little, S L; Little, L M; Bixler, J V

    2006-05-01

    We have fabricated several germanium immersion gratings by single crystal, single point diamond flycutting on an ultra-precision lathe. Use of a dead sharp tool produces groove corners less than 0.1 micron in radius and consequently high diffraction efficiency. We measured first order efficiencies in immersion of over 80% at 10.6 micron wavelength. Wavefront error was low averaging 0.06 wave rms (at 633 nm) across the full aperture. The grating spectral response was free of ghosts down to our detection limit of 1 part in 10{sup 4}. Scatter should be low based upon the surface roughness. Measurement of the spectral line profile of a CO{sub 2} laser sets an upper bound on total integrated scatter of 0.5%.

  16. Selected Banks Economic Efficiency Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Szafarczyk

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available There are a lot of economic efficiency indicators in theory. It is necessary to choice some of them for concrete purposes. ROA, ROE and C/I play important role due to last experience of polish banks.Cost to Income Ratio plays very important role affecting not only efficiency monitoring process in the banks but also becoming a very important target in strategy or finance plan. There are several methodological approaches to construct this index in detail. Results are differing due to implementing methodology. This article describes trends C/I concerning both polish and foreign banks. It is difficult to compare banks in emerging country and real giants in finance mature economies.

  17. An efficient basket trial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunanan, Kristen M; Iasonos, Alexia; Shen, Ronglai; Begg, Colin B; Gönen, Mithat

    2017-05-10

    The landscape for early phase cancer clinical trials is changing dramatically because of the advent of targeted therapy. Increasingly, new drugs are designed to work against a target such as the presence of a specific tumor mutation. Because typically only a small proportion of cancer patients will possess the mutational target, but the mutation is present in many different cancers, a new class of basket trials is emerging, whereby the drug is tested simultaneously in different baskets, that is, subgroups of different tumor types. Investigators desire not only to test whether the drug works but also to determine which types of tumors are sensitive to the drug. A natural strategy is to conduct parallel trials, with the drug 's effectiveness being tested separately, using for example, the popular Simon two-stage design independently in each basket. The work presented is motivated by the premise that the efficiency of this strategy can be improved by assessing the homogeneity of the baskets ' response rates at an interim analysis and aggregating the baskets in the second stage if the results suggest the drug might be effective in all or most baskets. Via simulations, we assess the relative efficiencies of the two strategies. Because the operating characteristics depend on how many tumor types are sensitive to the drug, there is no uniformly efficient strategy. However, our investigation demonstrates that substantial efficiencies are possible if the drug works in most or all baskets, at the cost of modest losses of power if the drug works in only a single basket. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Energy efficiency opportunities in Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Said

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the statistics in Egypt (2013, the number of hotels is 1193, about 407 of them have contracted power greater than 500 kW.Air conditioning, lighting, water heating and refrigeration represent the main activities demanding electrical energy in hotel business.The energy consumption per night spend changes a lot, depending on various factors; facilities provided, category of hotel, occupancy , geographical situation, weather conditions, nationality of clients, design and control of the installations.Energy benchmarking is an internal management tool designed to provide ongoing, reliable and verifiable tracking on the hotels performance. The most useful performance indicator (or Energy Efficiency Benchmarking of hotels are: Lighting Power Density (LPD in W (for lighting/m2, and energy intensity (kWh/m2/ y.There are multiple benefits for improving energy in hotel business; reduces the hotel's operating cost, reduces climate change risks and promotes green tourism.Energy efficiency opportunities are low-cost measures and cost- effective investments.   There are many energy saving opportunities for lighting in hotel's guest rooms as well as the more obvious savings in lobbies and exterior lighting areas. Behavior campaigns can yield substantial energy savings, both through the guests and housekeeper behavior. Encouraging housekeepers to use natural light during room cleaning is a simple first step to implement energy saving program.This paper presents the energy efficiency guidelines and energy benchmarking for hotels. Also a case study showing how the energy efficiency program implemented is presented. 

  19. USSR Energy Efficiency and Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Sinyak, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The USSR is the largest energy producer and the second largest energy consumer in the world. Its share of global energy reached above 17% in 1988. The Soviet energy system is characterized by low efficiency and high "per capita" energy consumption, although there are some reasons justifying the greater USSR energy use per unit of product output than in other industrialized countries. The present energy savings potential is approximately equal to one-half of the domestic energy consumption. Im...

  20. Efficient Electrotransformation of Bacteroides fragilis▿

    OpenAIRE

    Ichimura, Minoru; Nakayama-Imaohji, Haruyuki; Wakimoto, Shin; Morita, Hidetoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Kuwahara, Tomomi

    2010-01-01

    This study describes refined electroporation parameters for efficient transformation of Bacteroides fragilis by plasmids prepared from laboratory strains of Escherichia coli. Development of the method used included determination of the optimal growth conditions for competent cell preparation, selectable antimicrobial resistance markers, electric field strength, and postpulse incubation time. Of the four E. coli-Bacteroides shuttle plasmids tested (pVAL-1, pVAL-2, pNLY1, and pLYL05), pLYL05 co...

  1. Electricity industry and economic efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magerl, H.

    1981-06-01

    For a highly developed national economy as that of the Federal Republic of Germany, a safe and economical power supply is of great importance. In the industrial as in the commercial and public services as in the private sphere, an efficient power supply is a substantial precondition for regular functioning, for progress of the productivity and for the humanization of the working world, for the improvement of the environmental conditions, and for saving time and for easing work.

  2. Efficient public-private partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Moszoro, Marian

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a model to assess the efficiency of the capital structure in public-private partnerships (PPP). A main argument supporting the PPP approach to investment projects is the transfer of managerial skills and know-how from the private partner to the investment vehicle. The paper shows how different managerial skills and knowledge transfer schemes determine an optimal shareholding structure of the PPP. Under the assumption of lower capital cost of the public partner and lower de...

  3. Commodity futures and market efficiency

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krištoufek, Ladislav; Vošvrda, Miloslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 1 (2014), s. 50-57 ISSN 0140-9883 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/0965 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/11/0948 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : commodities * efficiency * entropy * long-term memory * fractal dimension Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.708, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/kristoufek-0420811.pdf

  4. Efficiency of tax bodies' performance

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorovskaya, M.

    2011-01-01

    The problems of assessment of tax bodies' activities efficiency which tax administration faces are touched upon. Suggestions made provide an opportunity for bodies of legislative and executive power to take specific measures aimed at enhancing the system of tax administration in the country. Suggested criteria for assessing tax bodies' performance can be put into practice by tax authorities. A new approach to aspects of solving tasks of control over tax compliance, preventing and excluding ta...

  5. Efficient Completion of Weighted Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Waldmann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider directed graphs with edge labels from a semiring. We present an algorithm that allows efficient execution of queries for existence and weights of paths, and allows updates of the graph: adding nodes and edges, and changing weights of existing edges. We apply this method in the construction of matchbound certificates for automatically proving termination of string rewriting. We re-implement the decomposition/completion algorithm of Endrullis et al. (2006 in our framework, and achieve comparable performance.

  6. Combining activity and economic efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fersch, Barbara

    In the Danish welfare state, long-term care is a universal service that is run by the municipalities. The municipalities, although bound by a national legal framework, do have considerable autonomy concerning the concrete definition and organization of long-term care services. One of the newest “....... The paper provides a discourse analysis of the interviewees’ accounts, that shows how discourses on activity and economic efficiency have been combined in the Danish context....

  7. High Efficiency Room Air Conditioner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bansal, Pradeep [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This project was undertaken as a CRADA project between UT-Battelle and Geberal Electric Company and was funded by Department of Energy to design and develop of a high efficiency room air conditioner. A number of novel elements were investigated to improve the energy efficiency of a state-of-the-art WAC with base capacity of 10,000 BTU/h. One of the major modifications was made by downgrading its capacity from 10,000 BTU/hr to 8,000 BTU/hr by replacing the original compressor with a lower capacity (8,000 BTU/hr) but high efficiency compressor having an EER of 9.7 as compared with 9.3 of the original compressor. However, all heat exchangers from the original unit were retained to provide higher EER. The other subsequent major modifications included- (i) the AC fan motor was replaced by a brushless high efficiency ECM motor along with its fan housing, (ii) the capillary tube was replaced with a needle valve to better control the refrigerant flow and refrigerant set points, and (iii) the unit was tested with a drop-in environmentally friendly binary mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration)/R125 (10% molar concentration). The WAC was tested in the environmental chambers at ORNL as per the design rating conditions of AHAM/ASHRAE (Outdoor- 95F and 40%RH, Indoor- 80F, 51.5%RH). All these modifications resulted in enhancing the EER of the WAC by up to 25%.

  8. A high efficiency microturbine concept

    OpenAIRE

    Malkamäki, Matti; Jaatinen-Värri, Ahti; Honkatukia, Ahti; Backman, Jari; Larjola, Jaakko

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing trend towards decentralized electricity and heat production throughout the world. Reciprocating engines and gas turbines have an essential role in the global decentralized energy markets and any improvement in their electrical efficiency has a significant impact from the environmental and economic viewpoints. This paper introduces an inter-cooled and recuperated two-shaft microturbine at 500 kW electric output range. The microturbine is optimized for a realistic combination...

  9. Efficiency of antlion trap construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertin, Arnold; Casas, Jérôme

    2006-09-01

    Assessing the architectural optimality of animal constructions is in most cases extremely difficult, but is feasible for antlion larvae, which dig simple pits in sand to catch ants. Slope angle, conicity and the distance between the head and the trap bottom, known as off-centring, were measured using a precise scanning device. Complete attack sequences in the same pits were then quantified, with predation cost related to the number of behavioural items before capture. Off-centring leads to a loss of architectural efficiency that is compensated by complex attack behaviour. Off-centring happened in half of the cases and corresponded to post-construction movements. In the absence of off-centring, the trap is perfectly conical and the angle is significantly smaller than the crater angle, a physical constant of sand that defines the steepest possible slope. Antlions produce efficient traps, with slopes steep enough to guide preys to their mouths without any attack, and shallow enough to avoid the likelihood of avalanches typical of crater angles. The reasons for the paucity of simplest and most efficient traps such as theses in the animal kingdom are discussed.

  10. Highly Efficient Freestyle Magnetic Nanoswimmer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianlong; Li, Jinxing; Morozov, Konstantin I; Wu, Zhiguang; Xu, Tailin; Rozen, Isaac; Leshansky, Alexander M; Li, Longqiu; Wang, Joseph

    2017-08-09

    The unique swimming strategies of natural microorganisms have inspired recent development of magnetic micro/nanorobots powered by artificial helical or flexible flagella. However, as artificial nanoswimmers with unique geometries are being developed, it is critical to explore new potential modes for kinetic optimization. For example, the freestyle stroke is the most efficient of the competitive swimming strokes for humans. Here we report a new type of magnetic nanorobot, a symmetric multilinked two-arm nanoswimmer, capable of efficient "freestyle" swimming at low Reynolds numbers. Excellent agreement between the experimental observations and theoretical predictions indicates that the powerful "freestyle" propulsion of the two-arm nanorobot is attributed to synchronized oscillatory deformations of the nanorobot under the combined action of magnetic field and viscous forces. It is demonstrated for the first time that the nonplanar propulsion gait due to the cooperative "freestyle" stroke of the two magnetic arms can be powered by a plane oscillatory magnetic field. These two-arm nanorobots are capable of a powerful propulsion up to 12 body lengths per second, along with on-demand speed regulation and remote navigation. Furthermore, the nonplanar propulsion gait powered by the consecutive swinging of the achiral magnetic arms is more efficient than that of common chiral nanohelical swimmers. This new swimming mechanism and its attractive performance opens new possibilities in designing remotely actuated nanorobots for biomedical operation at the nanoscale.

  11. Benchmarks for industrial energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amarnath, K.R. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Kumana, J.D. [Linnhoff March, Inc., Houston, TX (United States); Shah, J.V. [Electric Power Research Inst., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Chemicals and Petroleum Center

    1996-12-31

    What are the standards for improving energy efficiency for industries such as petroleum refining, chemicals, and glass manufacture? How can different industries in emerging markets and developing accelerate the pace of improvements? This paper discusses several case studies and experiences relating to this subject emphasizing the use of energy efficiency benchmarks. Two important benchmarks are discussed. The first is based on a track record of outstanding performers in the related industry segment; the second benchmark is based on site specific factors. Using energy use reduction targets or benchmarks, projects have been implemented in Mexico, Poland, India, Venezuela, Brazil, China, Thailand, Malaysia, Republic of South Africa and Russia. Improvements identified through these projects include a variety of recommendations. The use of oxy-fuel and electric furnaces in the glass industry in Poland; reconfiguration of process heat recovery systems for refineries in China, Malaysia, and Russia; recycling and reuse of process wastewater in Republic of South Africa; cogeneration plant in Venezuela. The paper will discuss three case studies of efforts undertaken in emerging market countries to improve energy efficiency.

  12. Efficient, sparse biological network determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papachristodoulou Antonis

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determining the interaction topology of biological systems is a topic that currently attracts significant research interest. Typical models for such systems take the form of differential equations that involve polynomial and rational functions. Such nonlinear models make the problem of determining the connectivity of biochemical networks from time-series experimental data much harder. The use of linear dynamics and linearization techniques that have been proposed in the past can circumvent this, but the general problem of developing efficient algorithms for models that provide more accurate system descriptions remains open. Results We present a network determination algorithm that can treat model descriptions with polynomial and rational functions and which does not make use of linearization. For this purpose, we make use of the observation that biochemical networks are in general 'sparse' and minimize the 1-norm of the decision variables (sum of weighted network connections while constraints keep the error between data and the network dynamics small. The emphasis of our methodology is on determining the interconnection topology rather than the specific reaction constants and it takes into account the necessary properties that a chemical reaction network should have – something that techniques based on linearization can not. The problem can be formulated as a Linear Program, a convex optimization problem, for which efficient algorithms are available that can treat large data sets efficiently and uncertainties in data or model parameters. Conclusion The presented methodology is able to predict with accuracy and efficiency the connectivity structure of a chemical reaction network with mass action kinetics and of a gene regulatory network from simulation data even if the dynamics of these systems are non-polynomial (rational and uncertainties in the data are taken into account. It also produces a network structure that can

  13. Efficient, sparse biological network determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    August, Elias; Papachristodoulou, Antonis

    2009-02-23

    Determining the interaction topology of biological systems is a topic that currently attracts significant research interest. Typical models for such systems take the form of differential equations that involve polynomial and rational functions. Such nonlinear models make the problem of determining the connectivity of biochemical networks from time-series experimental data much harder. The use of linear dynamics and linearization techniques that have been proposed in the past can circumvent this, but the general problem of developing efficient algorithms for models that provide more accurate system descriptions remains open. We present a network determination algorithm that can treat model descriptions with polynomial and rational functions and which does not make use of linearization. For this purpose, we make use of the observation that biochemical networks are in general 'sparse' and minimize the 1-norm of the decision variables (sum of weighted network connections) while constraints keep the error between data and the network dynamics small. The emphasis of our methodology is on determining the interconnection topology rather than the specific reaction constants and it takes into account the necessary properties that a chemical reaction network should have - something that techniques based on linearization can not. The problem can be formulated as a Linear Program, a convex optimization problem, for which efficient algorithms are available that can treat large data sets efficiently and uncertainties in data or model parameters. The presented methodology is able to predict with accuracy and efficiency the connectivity structure of a chemical reaction network with mass action kinetics and of a gene regulatory network from simulation data even if the dynamics of these systems are non-polynomial (rational) and uncertainties in the data are taken into account. It also produces a network structure that can explain the real experimental data of L. lactis and is similar

  14. From energy efficiency towards resource efficiency within the Ecodesign Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Anja Marie; Mosgaard, Mette; Remmen, Arne

    2017-01-01

    significant environmental impact. For the introduction of resource efficiency requirements into the Ecodesign Directive, these requirements have to be included in the preparatory study. It is therefore recommended to broaden the scope of the Methodology for the Ecodesign of Energy-related products and the Eco......-General for Energy and The Directorate-General for Internal Market, Industry, Entrepreneurship and SMEs have the leadership of the main adopted product groups within the Ecodesign Directive. DG Environment is involved in the process and has a shared leadership of the preparatory study on washing machines...

  15. Role of Appraisals in Energy Efficiency Financing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, V.; Bhargava, A.

    2012-05-01

    This research identifies barriers and challenges and current industry status including several key appraisal industry developments for identifying and valuing energy efficiency, critical obstacles to documenting and assessing the potential added value from energy efficiency improvements, current opportunities to support and standardize reporting on energy efficiency and to ensure proper valuation, and next steps towards enabling energy efficiency financing market transformation.

  16. Efficiency Analysis of Public Universities in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantabutra, Saranya; Tang, John C. S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the performance of Thai public universities in terms of efficiency, using a non-parametric approach called data envelopment analysis. Two efficiency models, the teaching efficiency model and the research efficiency model, are developed and the analysis is conducted at the faculty level. Further statistical analyses are also…

  17. 43 CFR 418.12 - Project efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Project efficiency. 418.12 Section 418.12... Delivery § 418.12 Project efficiency. (a) The principal feature of this part is to obtain a reasonable level of efficiency in supplying water to the headgate by the District. The efficiency targets...

  18. Efficient flapping flight of pterosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strang, Karl Axel

    In the late eighteenth century, humans discovered the first pterosaur fossil remains and have been fascinated by their existence ever since. Pterosaurs exploited their membrane wings in a sophisticated manner for flight control and propulsion, and were likely the most efficient and effective flyers ever to inhabit our planet. The flapping gait is a complex combination of motions that sustains and propels an animal in the air. Because pterosaurs were so large with wingspans up to eleven meters, if they could have sustained flapping flight, they would have had to achieve high propulsive efficiencies. Identifying the wing motions that contribute the most to propulsive efficiency is key to understanding pterosaur flight, and therefore to shedding light on flapping flight in general and the design of efficient ornithopters. This study is based on published results for a very well-preserved specimen of Coloborhynchus robustus, for which the joints are well-known and thoroughly described in the literature. Simplifying assumptions are made to estimate the characteristics that can not be inferred directly from the fossil remains. For a given animal, maximizing efficiency is equivalent to minimizing power at a given thrust and speed. We therefore aim at finding the flapping gait, that is the joint motions, that minimize the required flapping power. The power is computed from the aerodynamic forces created during a given wing motion. We develop an unsteady three-dimensional code based on the vortex-lattice method, which correlates well with published results for unsteady motions of rectangular wings. In the aerodynamic model, the rigid pterosaur wing is defined by the position of the bones. In the aeroelastic model, we add the flexibility of the bones and of the wing membrane. The nonlinear structural behavior of the membrane is reduced to a linear modal decomposition, assuming small deflections about the reference wing geometry. The reference wing geometry is computed for

  19. Efficient exploration of multiplex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battiston, Federico; Nicosia, Vincenzo; Latora, Vito

    2016-04-01

    Efficient techniques to navigate networks with local information are fundamental to sample large-scale online social systems and to retrieve resources in peer-to-peer systems. Biased random walks, i.e. walks whose motion is biased on properties of neighbouring nodes, have been largely exploited to design smart local strategies to explore a network, for instance by constructing maximally mixing trajectories or by allowing an almost uniform sampling of the nodes. Here we introduce and study biased random walks on multiplex networks, graphs where the nodes are related through different types of links organised in distinct and interacting layers, and we provide analytical solutions for their long-time properties, including the stationary occupation probability distribution and the entropy rate. We focus on degree-biased random walks and distinguish between two classes of walks, namely those whose transition probability depends on a number of parameters which is extensive in the number of layers, and those whose motion depends on intrinsically multiplex properties of the neighbouring nodes. We analyse the effect of the structure of the multiplex network on the steady-state behaviour of the walkers, and we find that heterogeneous degree distributions as well as the presence of inter-layer degree correlations and edge overlap determine the extent to which a multiplex can be efficiently explored by a biased walk. Finally we show that, in real-world multiplex transportation networks, the trade-off between efficient navigation and resilience to link failure has resulted into systems whose diffusion properties are qualitatively different from those of appropriately randomised multiplex graphs. This fact suggests that multiplexity is an important ingredient to include in the modelling of real-world systems.

  20. Efficient Type Representation in TAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Certifying compilers generate proofs for low-level code that guarantee safety properties of the code. Type information is an essential part of safety proofs. But the size of type information remains a concern for certifying compilers in practice. This paper demonstrates type representation techniques in a large-scale compiler that achieves both concise type information and efficient type checking. In our 200,000-line certifying compiler, the size of type information is about 36% of the size of pure code and data for our benchmarks, the best result to the best of our knowledge. The type checking time is about 2% of the compilation time.

  1. High-efficiency solar concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.; Dorman, J.

    1980-01-01

    A new type of solar concentrator is presented using liquid lenses and simple translational tracking mechanism. The concentrator achieves a 100:1 nominal concentration ratio and is compared in performance with a flat-plate collector having two sheets of glazing and non-selective coating. The results of the thermal analysis show that higher temperatures can be obtained with the concentrator than is possible with the non-concentrator flat-plate type. Furthermore, the thermal efficiency far exceeds that of the comparative flat-plate type for all operating conditions.

  2. Efficient Measurement of Superconducting Resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendelbach, Steven; Stoutimore, Micah; Strong, Josh; Naaman, Ofer; Campbell, Brooks; Martinis, John

    2014-03-01

    S-parameter measurements of high-Q superconducting resonators at single-photon drive powers often require significant averaging with associated long acquisition time. We have developed a procedure for optimizing the frequency sweep-plan of the measurement, and found that an appropriate choice of frequencies has a significant impact on its efficiency. An optimized sweep-plan design offers up to a factor of two reduction in the variance of extracted parameters, in comparison to a linear sweep-plan having the same total acquisition time. We experimentally compare the performance of the optimized and linear sweeps in measurements of high-Q aluminum CPW resonators.

  3. Performance of efficient digital filters

    OpenAIRE

    Agbonogieva, Osazee

    2009-01-01

    An efficient digital signal uses an 8-bit embedded processor on a DSP platform, which was developed to design the technical specifications in this final year project. The goal was to design a program that counts maximum bits time of 8, 16, 32 and 64 on a Matlab platform, specify the filter design and generate the C header as an export bit integer signed or unsigned, copy the filter coefficients to a platform called PSoC, and initialize with the coefficients generated by Matlab. The prop...

  4. Energy efficiency in wireless networks

    CERN Document Server

    Jumira, Oswald

    2013-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed an unprecedented development and growth in global wireless communications systems, technologies and network "traffic" generated over network infrastructures.This book presents state-of-the-art energy-efficient techniques, designs and implementations that pertain to wireless communication networks such as cellular networks, wireless local area networks (WLANs) and wireless ad hoc networks (WAHNs) including mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), and wireless sensor networks (WSNs) as they are deployed across the world to facilitate "always on" reliable high-speed

  5. The development of efficient sunscreens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Moyal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin exposure to acute or repetitive ultraviolet light induces risks which are now well identified. An efficient photoprotection is thus required for both UVB and UVA radiation. In particular, increasing evidence of the detrimental effects of UVA on skin has led to the development of a new generation of sunscreens that provide effective protection throughout the whole UV radiation spectrum. Many new UV filters have been introduced in the last decade, particularly UVA filters, with improved efficacy and safety. Sunscreen filters must be carefully combined to achieve esthetically pleasing products offering photostable and well-balanced photoprotection.

  6. Efficient separations & processing crosscutting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (ESP) was created in 1991 to identify, develop, and perfect chemical and physical separations technologies and chemical processes which treat wastes and address environmental problems throughout the DOE complex. The ESP funds several multiyear tasks that address high-priority waste remediation problems involving high-level, low-level, transuranic, hazardous, and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. The ESP supports applied research and development (R & D) leading to the demonstration or use of these separations technologies by other organizations within the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management.

  7. Efficient transfer of francium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, Seth; Behr, John; Gorelov, Alexander; Pearson, Matt; Tandecki, Michael; Collister, Robert; Gwinner, Gerald; Shiells, Kyle; Gomez, Eduardo; Orozco, Luis; Zhang, Jiehang; Zhao, Yanting; FrPNC Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    We report on the progress of the FrPNC collaboration towards Parity Non Conservation Measurements (PNC) using francium atoms at the TRIUMF accelerator. We demonstrate efficient transfer (higher than 40%) to the science vacuum chamber where the PNC measurements will be performed. The transfer uses a downward resonant push beam from the high-efficiency capture magneto optical trap (MOT) towards the science chamber where the atoms are recaptured in a second MOT. The transfer is very robust with respect to variations in the parameters (laser power, detuning, alignment, etc.). We accumulate a growing number of atoms at each transfer pulse (limited by the lifetime of the MOT) since the push beam does not eliminate the atoms already trapped in the science MOT. The number of atoms in the science MOT is on track to meet the requirements for competitive PNC measurements when high francium rates (previously demonstrated) are delivered to our apparatus. The catcher/neutralizer for the ion beam has been tested reliably to 100,000 heating/motion cycles. We present initial tests on the direct microwave excitation of the ground hyperfine transition at 45 GHz. Support from NSERC and NRC from Canada, NSF and Fulbright from USA, and CONACYT from Mexico.

  8. Mitochondrial efficiency and insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella eCrescenzo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance, ‘a relative impairment in the ability of insulin to exert its effects on glucose,protein and lipid metabolism in target tissues’, has many detrimental effects on metabolism and is strongly correlated to deposition of lipids in non-adipose tissues. Mitochondria are the main cellular sites devoted to ATP production and fatty acid oxidation. Therefore, a role for mitochondrial dysfunction in the onset of skeletal muscle insulin resistance has been proposed and many studies have dealt with possible alteration in mitochondrial function in obesity and diabetes, both in humans and animal models. Data reporting evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus are numerous, even though the issue that this reduced mitochondrial function is causal in the development of the disease is not yet solved, also because a variety of parameters have been used in the studies carried out on this subject. By assessing the alterations in mitochondrial efficiency as well as the impact of this parameter on metabolic homeostasis of skeletal muscle cells, we have obtained results that allow us to suggest that an increase in mitochondrial efficiency precedes and therefore can contribute to the development of high-fat-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.

  9. Energy efficient and healthy buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullberg, Monica [AaF Process (Sweden); Oefverholm, Egil [Swedish Energy Agency, Eskilstuna (Sweden); Bengtsson, Magnus; Tolstoy, Nikolaj [National Board of Housing, Building and Planning (Sweden)

    2007-07-01

    Indoor environment has become an important subject matter in Scandinavia since increasingly many buildings demonstrate poor indoor air quality, problems with mould and other sick building syndromes. There are worries that the malignity is derived from tighter constructions and more sparse ventilation since problems have been escalating contemporary to better energy efficiency in the building stock. Based on this possible linkage, Sweden has decided to include also indoor environment aspects in the implementation of the directive on energy declaration of buildings. By the same token, a co-operation between the Swedish Energy Agency and the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning is underway where more than 100 schools are investigated regarding their energy usage patterns as well as their indoor environment status. Results from this inventory will be elaborated in this paper. The hypothesis for the investigation is that it is quite possible to demonstrate energy efficient and healthy buildings, and therefore results will give no significant statistical linkage between poor indoor quality and low specific energy use. Preliminary findings underpin this assumption. The paper will discuss the factors and their statistical interaction in more detail, and a discussion will be held on what other reasons there can be behind the sick buildings.

  10. Efficient functionalization of alginate biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalheim, Marianne Ø; Vanacker, Julie; Najmi, Maryam A; Aachmann, Finn L; Strand, Berit L; Christensen, Bjørn E

    2016-02-01

    Peptide coupled alginates obtained by chemical functionalization of alginates are commonly used as scaffold materials for cells in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. We here present an alternative to the commonly used carbodiimide chemistry, using partial periodate oxidation followed by reductive amination. High and precise degrees of substitution were obtained with high reproducibility, and without formation of by-products. A protocol was established using l-Tyrosine methyl ester as a model compound and the non-toxic pic-BH3 as the reducing agent. DOSY was used to indirectly verify covalent binding and the structure of the product was further elucidated using NMR spectroscopy. The coupling efficiency was to some extent dependent on alginate composition, being most efficient on mannuronan. Three different bioactive peptide sequences (GRGDYP, GRGDSP and KHIFSDDSSE) were coupled to 8% periodate oxidized alginate resulting in degrees of substitution between 3.9 and 6.9%. Cell adhesion studies of mouse myoblasts (C2C12) and human dental stem cells (RP89) to gels containing various amounts of GRGDSP coupled alginate demonstrated the bioactivity of the material where RP89 cells needed higher peptide concentrations to adhere. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. State ownership and efficiency characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Abramov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the influence of state participation in the ownership structure of companies on their financial efficiency using a sample of 114 largest companies in Russia. As an indirect indicator of efficiency, we used a variety of financial indicators: revenue per employee (gross margin, return on equity, profit margin and debt burden. The effects of direct and indirect state ownership are considered separately. Using econometric analysis, we conclude that the dominance of the block of shares owned by the state has a negative effect on the performance characteristics, and its increase is associated with an increase in the debt burden of the companies. According to our criteria, state-owned enterprises (SOEs perform worse on average than private companies. The mechanism of how changes in the “real sector” affect profitability is examined particularly closely. The study shows that a change in the profitability of private companies is characterized by a significant dependence on the movement of labor productivity characteristics. At the same time, for SOEs, a similar correlation was not revealed. These companies demonstrated no visible relationship between their profitability and performance characteristics. The study shows that increases in the size of direct government ownership lead to lower labor productivity and profitability; the impact of indirect ownership is, seemingly, more complicated.

  12. Efficiency of fermionic quantum distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbrych, J.; Feiguin, A. E.; Dagotto, E.; Heidrich-Meisner, F.

    2017-09-01

    We present a time-dependent density-matrix renormalization group investigation of the quantum distillation process within the Fermi-Hubbard model on a quasi-one-dimensional ladder geometry. The term distillation refers to the dynamical, spatial separation of singlons and doublons in the sudden expansion of interacting particles in an optical lattice, i.e., the release of a cloud of atoms from a trapping potential. Remarkably, quantum distillation can lead to a contraction of the doublon cloud, resulting in an increased density of the doublons in the core region compared to the initial state. As a main result, we show that this phenomenon is not limited to chains that were previously studied. Interestingly, there are additional dynamical processes on the two-leg ladder such as density oscillations and self-trapping of defects that lead to a less efficient distillation process. An investigation of the time evolution starting from product states provides an explanation for this behavior. Initial product states are also considered since in optical lattice experiments, such states are often used as the initial setup. We propose configurations that lead to a fast and efficient quantum distillation.

  13. Mathematical efficiency calibration in gamma spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminski, S; Wilhelm, C

    2003-01-01

    Mathematical efficiency calibration with the LabSOCS software was introduced for two detectors in the measurement laboratory of the Central Safety Department of Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. In the present contribution, conventional efficiency calibration of gamma spectroscopy systems and mathematical efficiency calibration with LabSOCS are compared with respect to their performance, uncertainties, expenses, and results. It is reported about the experience gained, and the advantages and disadvantages of both methods of efficiency calibration are listed. The results allow the conclusion to be drawn that mathematical efficiency calibration is a real alternative to conventional efficiency calibration of gamma spectroscopy systems as obtained by measurements of mixed gamma ray standard sources.

  14. Efficient universal blind quantum computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannetti, Vittorio; Maccone, Lorenzo; Morimae, Tomoyuki; Rudolph, Terry G

    2013-12-06

    We give a cheat sensitive protocol for blind universal quantum computation that is efficient in terms of computational and communication resources: it allows one party to perform an arbitrary computation on a second party's quantum computer without revealing either which computation is performed, or its input and output. The first party's computational capabilities can be extremely limited: she must only be able to create and measure single-qubit superposition states. The second party is not required to use measurement-based quantum computation. The protocol requires the (optimal) exchange of O(Jlog2(N)) single-qubit states, where J is the computational depth and N is the number of qubits needed for the computation.

  15. Highly efficient high temperature electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauch, Anne; Ebbesen, Sune; Jensen, Søren Højgaard

    2008-01-01

    High temperature electrolysis of water and steam may provide an efficient, cost effective and environmentally friendly production of H-2 Using electricity produced from sustainable, non-fossil energy sources. To achieve cost competitive electrolysis cells that are both high performing i.e. minimum...... electrolysis is favourable from a thermodynamic point of view, because a part of the required energy can be supplied as thermal heat, and the activation barrier is lowered increasing the H-2 production rate. Only two types of cells operating at high temperature (above 200 degrees C) have been described...... electrolysis using SOECs is competitive to H-2 production from fossil fuels at electricity prices below 0.02-0.03 is an element of per kWh. Though promising SOEC results on H-2 production have been reported a substantial R&D is still required to obtain inexpensive, high performing and long-term stable...

  16. Transparent Electrodes for Efficient Optoelectronics

    KAUST Repository

    Morales-Masis, Monica

    2017-03-30

    With the development of new generations of optoelectronic devices that combine high performance and novel functionalities (e.g., flexibility/bendability, adaptability, semi or full transparency), several classes of transparent electrodes have been developed in recent years. These range from optimized transparent conductive oxides (TCOs), which are historically the most commonly used transparent electrodes, to new electrodes made from nano- and 2D materials (e.g., metal nanowire networks and graphene), and to hybrid electrodes that integrate TCOs or dielectrics with nanowires, metal grids, or ultrathin metal films. Here, the most relevant transparent electrodes developed to date are introduced, their fundamental properties are described, and their materials are classified according to specific application requirements in high efficiency solar cells and flexible organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). This information serves as a guideline for selecting and developing appropriate transparent electrodes according to intended application requirements and functionality.

  17. Energy Efficiency in Manufacturing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Thiede, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Energy consumption is of great interest to manufacturing companies. Beyond considering individual processes and machines, the perspective on process chains and factories as a whole holds major potentials for energy efficiency improvements. To exploit these potentials, dynamic interactions of different processes as well as auxiliary equipment (e.g. compressed air generation) need to be taken into account. In addition, planning and controlling manufacturing systems require  balancing technical, economic and environmental objectives. Therefore, an innovative and comprehensive methodology – with a generic energy flow-oriented manufacturing simulation environment as a core element – is developed and embedded into a step-by-step application cycle. The concept is applied in its entirety to a wide range of case studies such as aluminium die casting, weaving mills, and printed circuit board assembly in order to demonstrate the broad applicability and the benefits that can be achieved.

  18. An Efficient Universal Trajectory Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, George E.; Guerreiro, Nelson M.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Butler, Ricky W.

    2017-01-01

    The Efficient Universal Trajectory Language (EUTL) is a language for specifying and representing trajectories for Air Traffic Management (ATM) concepts such as Trajectory-Based Operations (TBO). In these concepts, the communication of a trajectory between an aircraft and ground automation is fundamental. Historically, this trajectory exchange has not been done, leading to trajectory definitions that have been centered around particular application domains and, therefore, are not well suited for TBO applications. The EUTL trajectory language has been defined in the Prototype Verification System (PVS) formal specification language, which provides an operational semantics for the EUTL language. The hope is that EUTL will provide a foundation for mathematically verified algorithms that manipulate trajectories. Additionally, the EUTL language provides well-defined methods to unambiguously determine position and velocity information between the reported trajectory points. In this paper, we present the EUTL trajectory language in mathematical detail.

  19. Community mental health program efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, B H; Bigelow, D A; Smith, J; Mofidi, A

    1997-07-01

    Six urban community mental health centers participated in a capitated payment system designed for persons with severe mental illness who frequently used the state hospital. The centers and their funding agency agreed that a chief outcome measure would be the length of time clients were able to remain enrolled in the outpatient program. Clients of the six agencies were quite similar to one another. During the 18-month study length of enrollment in the outpatient program did not vary among the agencies whereas agency expenditures varied by more than three-fold. Although some of this expenditure variation was due to economies of scale at larger agencies, different practice styles also contributed to variable efficiency.

  20. Energy efficient sensor network implementations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, Janette R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Raby, Eric Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brennan, Sean M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kulathumani, Vinod [WEST VIRGINIA UNIV.; Rosten, Ed [CAMBRIDGE UNIV.; Wolinski, Christophe [IRISA; Wagner, Charles [IRISA; Charot, Francois [IRISA

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a low power embedded sensor node architecture we are developing for distributed sensor network systems deployed in a natural environment. In particular, we examine the sensor node for energy efficient processing-at-the-sensor. We analyze the following modes of operation; event detection, sleep(wake-up), data acquisition, data processing modes using low power, high performance embedded technology such as specialized embedded DSP processors and a low power FPGAs at the sensing node. We use compute intensive sensor node applications: an acoustic vehicle classifier (frequency domain analysis) and a video license plate identification application (learning algorithm) as a case study. We report performance and total energy usage for our system implementations and discuss the system architecture design trade offs.

  1. Eco-efficiency in aviation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker Grewe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Air traffic guarantees mobility and serves the needs of society to travel over long distances in a decent time. But aviation also contributes to climate change. Here, we present various mitigation options, based on technological and operational measures and present a framework to compare the different mitigation options by taking into account aspects, such as changes in operational costs, climate impact reduction, eco-efficiency, possible starting point of the mitigation option and the investment costs. We show that it is not possible to directly rank these options because of the different requirements and framework conditions. Instead, we introduce two different presentations that take into account these different aspects and serve as a framework for intercomparison.

  2. Efficient Searching with Linear Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff

    2000-01-01

    We show how to preprocess a set S of points in d into an external memory data structure that efficiently supports linear-constraint queries. Each query is in the form of a linear constraint xd a0+∑d−1i=1 aixi; the data structure must report all the points of S that satisfy the constraint...... space and answers linear-constraint queries using an optimal number of I/Os in the worst case. For d=3, we present a near-linear-size data structure that answers queries using an optimal number of I/Os on the average. We present linear-size data structures that can answer d-dimensional linear-constraint...

  3. [Biosimilars and the efficiency principle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münnch, T

    2017-12-01

    Biosimilars are subject to the efficiency evaluation according to section 106 Social Code Book Five (SGB V). The specific evaluation method influences the physician's prescription behaviour. In the case of an individual prescription limit evaluation (Richtgrößenprüfung), the prescription of biosimilars would usually not result in recourse but, as a start, in the initiation of the evaluation proceedings. Starting from 2017, the individual prescription limit evaluation will be cancelled. The active ingredient evaluation (Wirkstoffprüfung) expected instead at a regional level may provide for biosimilar to original drug ratios and result in recourses if these ratios are missed. First agreements on specific evaluation proceedings at a regional level are expected for this year. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Recovering waste industrial heat efficiently

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hnat, J.G.; Bartone, L.M.; Cutting, J.C.; Patten, J.S.

    1983-03-01

    Organic Rankine Cycles (ORC's) are being used in the generation of electrical or mechanical power in situations where little demand exists for process steam. Using organic fluids in Rankine cycles improves the potential for economic recovery of waste heat. The right organic fluid can enhance the conversion efficiency by tailoring the ORC heat recovery cycle to the thermodynamic characteristics of the waste heat stream. The selection of the working fluid is affected by its flammability, toxicity, environmental impact, materials compatibility, and cost. Water, ethanol, 2-methyl Pyridine/H2O, Flourinol, Toluene, Freon R-11, and Freon R-113 are compared. An organic cycle using toluene as the working fluid is schematicized.

  5. Urban liveability versus economic efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farné Fratini, Chiara; Jensen, Jens Stissing

    2013-01-01

    development. Against this agenda a national strategy is currently being enforced which addresses water as a context-independent functional sector. This agenda operates with a narrow definition of economic efficiency in service provision through a benchmarking system focusing only on technical performances......The urban water management regime in Copenhagen is currently influenced by contradictive models of innovation. During the last 20 years the development of the water infrastructure in Copenhagen has been under the influence of an urban political agenda. This agenda has addressed water as a place...... based infrastructure, i.e. as an infrastructure that has been understood and developed as an integrated component of the urban fabric. An outcome of this agenda has been the establishment of bathing facilities in the inner harbor of Copenhagen, which has linked water to urban livability and urban...

  6. Bitwise efficiency in chaotic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffress, Stephen; Düben, Peter; Palmer, Tim

    2017-09-01

    Motivated by the increasing energy consumption of supercomputing for weather and climate simulations, we introduce a framework for investigating the bit-level information efficiency of chaotic models. In comparison with previous explorations of inexactness in climate modelling, the proposed and tested information metric has three specific advantages: (i) it requires only a single high-precision time series; (ii) information does not grow indefinitely for decreasing time step; and (iii) information is more sensitive to the dynamics and uncertainties of the model rather than to the implementation details. We demonstrate the notion of bit-level information efficiency in two of Edward Lorenz's prototypical chaotic models: Lorenz 1963 (L63) and Lorenz 1996 (L96). Although L63 is typically integrated in 64-bit `double' floating point precision, we show that only 16 bits have significant information content, given an initial condition uncertainty of approximately 1% of the size of the attractor. This result is sensitive to the size of the uncertainty but not to the time step of the model. We then apply the metric to the L96 model and find that a 16-bit scaled integer model would suffice given the uncertainty of the unresolved sub-grid-scale dynamics. We then show that, by dedicating computational resources to spatial resolution rather than numeric precision in a field programmable gate array (FPGA), we see up to 28.6% improvement in forecast accuracy, an approximately fivefold reduction in the number of logical computing elements required and an approximately 10-fold reduction in energy consumed by the FPGA, for the L96 model.

  7. Energy efficiency networks; Energieeffizienz-Netzwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, Anna [Forschungsgesellschaft fuer Energiewirtschaft mbH (FfE GmbH), Muenchen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Energy efficiency networks are an attractive method to increase the energy efficiency and to reduce the costs and CO{sub 2} emissions of the companies operating in this network. A special feature of the energy efficiency networks is the exchange of experiences and training of the energy managers. Energy efficiency networks consist of about ten to fifteen locally domiciled companies. During the project period of three to four years, there are two main phases. In the first phase, the initial consultation phase, the actual state of a company is captured, and measures to increase the efficiency and energy conservation are identified. Parallel to this, in the second phase every three months a meeting with the participating companies takes place. Experience exchange and implementation of energy efficiency measures are the focus of these meetings. Initial studies show that the increase of the energy efficiency during participating in the energy efficiency network almost can be doubled in comparison to the average of the industry.

  8. LiDAR for data efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    This report documents the AHMCT research project: LiDAR for Data Efficiency for the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT). The research objective was to evaluate mobile LiDAR technology to enhance safety, determine efficiency ga...

  9. Solar thermoelectric generators: Pushing the efficiency up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toberer, Eric

    2016-11-01

    Concentrated thermoelectric generators convert solar energy to electricity, but historically their conversion efficiency has lagged behind their potential. Now, full system efficiencies of 7.4% are achieved by segmentation of two thermoelectric materials and a spectrally selective surface.

  10. Motor Carrier Efficiency Study Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU, Public Law 109-59), Section 5503, set aside funding to examine the application of wireless technology to improve the safety and efficiency of trucki...

  11. Improving pumping system efficiency at coal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livoti, W.C.; McCandless, S.; Poltorak, R. [Baldor Electric Co. (United States)

    2009-03-15

    The industry must employ ultramodern technologies when building or upgrading power plant pumping systems thereby using fuels more efficiently. The article discusses the uses and efficiencies of positive displacement pumps, centrifugal pumps and multiple screw pumps. 1 ref., 4 figs.

  12. Optimization analysis of propulsion motor control efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAI Qingnan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] This paper aims to strengthen the control effect of propulsion motors and decrease the energy used during actual control procedures.[Methods] Based on the traditional propulsion motor equivalence circuit, we increase the iron loss current component, introduce the definition of power matching ratio, calculate the highest efficiency of a motor at a given speed and discuss the flux corresponding to the power matching ratio with the highest efficiency. In the original motor vector efficiency optimization control module, an efficiency optimization control module is added so as to achieve motor efficiency optimization and energy conservation.[Results] MATLAB/Simulink simulation data shows that the efficiency optimization control method is suitable for most conditions. The operation efficiency of the improved motor model is significantly higher than that of the original motor model, and its dynamic performance is good.[Conclusions] Our motor efficiency optimization control method can be applied in engineering to achieve energy conservation.

  13. The ways of SOFC systems efficiency increasing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demin, A.K.; Timofeyeva, N.

    1996-04-01

    The efficiency of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is described. This paper considers methods to lift the fuel utilization and/or the average cell voltage with the goal of increasing the cell efficiency by improved cell designs.

  14. Model Energy Efficiency Program Impact Evaluation Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document provides guidance on model approaches for calculating energy, demand, and emissions savings resulting from energy efficiency programs. It describes several standard approaches that can be used in order to make these programs more efficient.

  15. Power-efficient computer architectures recent advances

    CERN Document Server

    Själander, Magnus; Kaxiras, Stefanos

    2014-01-01

    As Moore's Law and Dennard scaling trends have slowed, the challenges of building high-performance computer architectures while maintaining acceptable power efficiency levels have heightened. Over the past ten years, architecture techniques for power efficiency have shifted from primarily focusing on module-level efficiencies, toward more holistic design styles based on parallelism and heterogeneity. This work highlights and synthesizes recent techniques and trends in power-efficient computer architecture.Table of Contents: Introduction / Voltage and Frequency Management / Heterogeneity and Sp

  16. Attainability of Carnot efficiency with autonomous engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Naoto

    2015-11-01

    The maximum efficiency of autonomous engines with a finite chemical potential difference is investigated. We show that, without a particular type of singularity, autonomous engines cannot attain the Carnot efficiency. This singularity is realized in two ways: single particle transports and the thermodynamic limit. We demonstrate that both of these ways actually lead to the Carnot efficiency in concrete setups. Our results clearly illustrate that the singularity plays a crucial role in the maximum efficiency of autonomous engines.

  17. Singlet fission: Towards efficient solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havlas, Zdeněk; Wen, Jin [Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Flemingovo nám. 2, 16610 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Michl, Josef [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0215 (United States); Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Flemingovo nám. 2, 16610 Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-31

    Singlet fission (SF) offers an opportunity to improve solar cell efficiency, but its practical use is hindered by the limited number of known efficient materials, limited knowledge of SF mechanism, mainly the relation between the dimer structure and SF efficiency and diffusion of the triplet states allowing injection of electrons into the solar cell semiconductor band. Here we report on our attempt to design new classes of chromophores and to study the relation between the structure and SF efficiency.

  18. High efficiency, long life terrestrial solar panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.; Khemthong, S.; Ling, R.; Olah, S.

    1977-01-01

    The design of a high efficiency, long life terrestrial module was completed. It utilized 256 rectangular, high efficiency solar cells to achieve high packing density and electrical output. Tooling for the fabrication of solar cells was in house and evaluation of the cell performance was begun. Based on the power output analysis, the goal of a 13% efficiency module was achievable.

  19. Integrated Resource Efficiency: Measurement and Management

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, S.C.; Morris, J.; Ebrahimi, S.M.; Obayi, R.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on the Systems Theory and the Natural Resource Based View, this paper advances an Integrated Resource Efficiency View (IREV) and derives a composite ‘Integrated Resource Efficiency Index’ (IRE-Index) for assessing the environmental, economic, and social resource efficiencies of production economies.

  20. Global status report on energy efficiency 2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, K.; van Breevoort, P.; Roes, A.L.; Coenraads, R.; Müller, N.

    2008-01-01

    There is wide agreement that energy efficiency improvement is one of the key strategies to achieve greater sustainability of the energy system. In the past, the contribution of energy efficiency has already been considerable.Without the energy efficiency improvements achieved since the 1970s,

  1. Energy efficiency public service advertising campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson-Grant, Amanda [Advertising Council, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-06-12

    The Advertising Council (“the Ad Council”) and The United States Department of Energy (DOE) created and launched a national public service advertising campaign designed to promote energy efficiency. The objective of the Energy Efficiency campaign was to redefine how consumers approach energy efficiency by showing that saving energy can save homeowners money.

  2. The smallest refrigerators can reach maximal efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skrzypczyk, Paul; Brunner, Nicolas; Popescu, Sandu [H H Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Linden, Noah, E-mail: paul.skrzypczyk@bristol.ac.uk, E-mail: n.brunner@bristol.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, University of Bristol, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TW (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-09

    We investigate whether size imposes a fundamental constraint on the efficiency of small thermal machines. We analyse in detail a model of a small self-contained refrigerator consisting of three qubits. We show analytically that this system can reach the Carnot efficiency, thus demonstrating that there exists no complementarity between size and efficiency. (fast track communication)

  3. Thermodynamic Efficiency. An Issue Oriented Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert D.

    This module applies basic laws of thermodynamics to the study of the efficiency at which heat can be converted to other useful forms of energy, including heat at low temperatures. The module is divided into four major sections. Section I treats energy conversion efficiency and defines the concept of first-law efficiency, the most widely used…

  4. A Mechatronic Solution for Efficiency Optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Hansen, M.R.; Andersen, T.O.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses concepts concerning regeneration of potential energy in hydraulic forklift trucks. A conventional forklift system has been investigated for energy efficiency and compared to an investigated for energy efficiency and compared to an investigated for energy efficiency...

  5. Efficiency of Health Investment: Education or Intelligence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.E. Bijwaard (Govert); J.L.W. van Kippersluis (Hans)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we hypothesize that education is associated with a higher efficiency of health investment, yet that this efficiency advantage is solely driven by intelligence. We operationalize efficiency of health investment as the probability of dying conditional on a certain hospital

  6. Efficiency of Health Investment: Education or Intelligence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijwaard, G.E.; van Kippersluis, H.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we hypothesize that education is associated with a higher efficiency of health investment, yet that this efficiency advantage is solely driven by intelligence. We operationalize efficiency of health investment as the probability of dying conditional on a certain hospital diagnosis and

  7. Efficiency of Health Investment: Education or Intelligence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.E. Bijwaard (Govert); J.L.W. van Kippersluis (Hans)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ In this paper we hypothesize that education is associated with a higher efficiency of health investment, yet that this efficiency advantage is solely driven by intelligence. We operationalize efficiency of health investment as the probability of dying conditional on a

  8. Efficiency of Health Investment: Education or Intelligence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijwaard, G.E.; van Kippersluis, H.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we hypothesize that education is associated with a higher efficiency of health investment, yet that this efficiency advantage is solely driven by intelligence. We operationalize efficiency of health investment as the probability of dying conditional on a certain hospital diagnosis, and

  9. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of drainage pipes. The co-authors emphasize that the use of ice compared to other methods of pipe cleaning has a number of advantages due to the relative simplicity and cheapness of the process, economical efficiency and lack of environmental risk. The equipment for performing ice cleaning is presented, its technological options, terms of cleansing operations, as well as the volumes of disposed pollution per unit length of the water supply and drainage pipelines. It is noted that ice cleaning requires careful planning in the process of cooking ice and in the process of its supply in the pipe. There are specific requirements to its quality. In particular, when you clean drinking water system the ice applied should be hygienically clean and meet sanitary requirements.In pilot projects, in particular, quantitative and qualitative analysis of sediments adsorbed by ice is conducted, as well as temperature and the duration of the process. The degree of pollution of the pipeline was estimated by the volume of the remote sediment on 1 km of pipeline. Cleaning pipelines using ice can be considered one of the methods of trenchless technologies, being a significant alternative to traditional methods of cleaning the pipes. The method can be applied in urban pipeline systems of drinking water supply for the diameters of 100—600 mm, and also to diversion collectors. In the world today 450 km of pipelines are subject to ice cleaning method.Ice cleaning method is simple

  10. Estimating the NIH efficient frontier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios Bisias

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The National Institutes of Health (NIH is among the world's largest investors in biomedical research, with a mandate to: "…lengthen life, and reduce the burdens of illness and disability." Its funding decisions have been criticized as insufficiently focused on disease burden. We hypothesize that modern portfolio theory can create a closer link between basic research and outcome, and offer insight into basic-science related improvements in public health. We propose portfolio theory as a systematic framework for making biomedical funding allocation decisions-one that is directly tied to the risk/reward trade-off of burden-of-disease outcomes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using data from 1965 to 2007, we provide estimates of the NIH "efficient frontier", the set of funding allocations across 7 groups of disease-oriented NIH institutes that yield the greatest expected return on investment for a given level of risk, where return on investment is measured by subsequent impact on U.S. years of life lost (YLL. The results suggest that NIH may be actively managing its research risk, given that the volatility of its current allocation is 17% less than that of an equal-allocation portfolio with similar expected returns. The estimated efficient frontier suggests that further improvements in expected return (89% to 119% vs. current or reduction in risk (22% to 35% vs. current are available holding risk or expected return, respectively, constant, and that 28% to 89% greater decrease in average years-of-life-lost per unit risk may be achievable. However, these results also reflect the imprecision of YLL as a measure of disease burden, the noisy statistical link between basic research and YLL, and other known limitations of portfolio theory itself. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis is intended to serve as a proof-of-concept and starting point for applying quantitative methods to allocating biomedical research funding that are objective, systematic, transparent

  11. Electrostatic collection efficiency in binary fluidized beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, A.; Guardiola, J.; Rincon, J. (Univ. of Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain))

    1992-01-01

    Fluidized beds of binary mixtures have been used to clean air streams containing dust particles in the size range 4.4 to 14 {mu}m. All beds were composed of glass beads and plastic granules mixed at different proportions. The effect on the electrostatic collection efficiency of a number of variables, including type of collecting mixture, bed height, and gas velocity, was examined. To calculate the single collection efficiency from experimental results, an early model proposed by Clift et al. was used. The electrostatic collection efficiency was determined by subtracting the other individual mechanism efficiencies from the single particle collection efficiency.

  12. Premium Efficiency Motors And Market Penetration Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benhaddadi, Mohamed; Olivier, Guy

    2010-09-15

    This paper illustrates the induced enormous energy saving potential, permitted by using high-efficiency motors. Furthermore, the most important barriers to larger high-efficiency motors utilization are identified, and some incentives recommendations are given to overcome identified impediments. The authors consider that there is a strong case to enhance incentives policies for larger market penetration. The US Energy Policy Act and the Canadian Energy Efficient Act have lead to North American leadership on motor efficiency implementation. North America is not on the leading edge for energy saving and conservation. Motor efficiency is an exception that should be at least maintained.

  13. New controls spark boiler efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, T. (Monsanto, University Park, IL (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Monsanto's NutraSweet plant in University Park, IL, produces aspartame, the patented NutraSweet artificial sweetener product. Until recently, boiler control was managed by a '60s-era Fireye jackshaft system in which air and natural gas were mechanically linked with an offset to compensate for oxygen trim. The interlocking devices on the Fireye system were becoming obsolete, and the boiler needed a new front end retrofitted for low emissions. In order to improve boiler control efficiency, we decided to modernize and automate the entire boiler control system. We replaced the original jackshaft system, and installed a Gordon-Piet burner system, including gas valves, air dampers, blowers, and burner. The upgrade challenges included developing a control strategy and selecting and implementing a process control system. Since our plant has standardized on the PROVOX process management information system from Fisher Controls (now Fisher-Rosemount Systems) to support most of our process, it was a natural and logical choice for boiler controls as well. 2 figs.

  14. Environmental influence on photosynthetic efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilinskas, Barbara A.

    Photosynthesis is arguably the single most important metabolic process on earth. Through a series of reactions, ranging from 10-15 sec for absorption of light to 106 sec for primary productivity of a field crop, atmospheric CO2 is assimilated into carbohydrate necessary for the sustenance of all life forms. The process involves movement of electrons from water to CO2 through a series of charge transfer reactions. The ultimate source of energy to drive these reactions is solar energy absorbed by a collection of light-harvesting pigment-proteins and specialized reaction centers. Approximately half of the solar irradiance is useful in photosynthesis, but of this only 2-3% is converted into organic matter. Usually, light does not limit photosynthesis, but other environmental factors do, most often CO2 and water availability. Three different biochemical pathways for CO2 assimilation have independently evolved. These provide C3, C4 and CAM plants (names designating the different means of assimilating CO2) with adaptive advantages under the various environmental conditions encountered by plants in nature. Our current understanding of the photosynthetic light and carbon-fixing reactions now permits a closer look at responses of photosynthesis to changes in the environment, particularly with regard to making predictive models for absolute efficiencies of light, CO2 and water utilization.

  15. High efficiency focus neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, H.; Amrollahi, R.; Zare, M.; Fazelpour, S.

    2017-12-01

    In the present paper, the new idea to increase the neutron yield of plasma focus devices is investigated and the results are presented. Based on many studies, more than 90% of neutrons in plasma focus devices were produced by beam target interactions and only 10% of them were due to thermonuclear reactions. While propounding the new idea, the number of collisions between deuteron ions and deuterium gas atoms were increased remarkably well. The COMSOL Multiphysics 5.2 was used to study the given idea in the known 28 plasma focus devices. In this circumstance, the neutron yield of this system was also obtained and reported. Finally, it was found that in the ENEA device with 1 Hz working frequency, 1.1 × 109 and 1.1 × 1011 neutrons per second were produced by D–D and D–T reactions, respectively. In addition, in the NX2 device with 16 Hz working frequency, 1.34 × 1010 and 1.34 × 1012 neutrons per second were produced by D–D and D–T reactions, respectively. The results show that with regards to the sizes and energy of these devices, they can be used as the efficient neutron generators.

  16. Advanced Energy Efficient Roof System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jane Davidson

    2008-09-30

    Energy consumption in buildings represents 40 percent of primary U.S. energy consumption, split almost equally between residential (22%) and commercial (18%) buildings.1 Space heating (31%) and cooling (12%) account for approximately 9 quadrillion Btu. Improvements in the building envelope can have a significant impact on reducing energy consumption. Thermal losses (or gains) from the roof make up 14 percent of the building component energy load. Infiltration through the building envelope, including the roof, accounts for an additional 28 percent of the heating loads and 16 percent of the cooling loads. These figures provide a strong incentive to develop and implement more energy efficient roof systems. The roof is perhaps the most challenging component of the building envelope to change for many reasons. The engineered roof truss, which has been around since 1956, is relatively low cost and is the industry standard. The roof has multiple functions. A typical wood frame home lasts a long time. Building codes vary across the country. Customer and trade acceptance of new building products and materials may impede market penetration. The energy savings of a new roof system must be balanced with other requirements such as first and life-cycle costs, durability, appearance, and ease of construction. Conventional residential roof construction utilizes closely spaced roof trusses supporting a layer of sheathing and roofing materials. Gypsum board is typically attached to the lower chord of the trusses forming the finished ceiling for the occupied space. Often in warmer climates, the HVAC system and ducts are placed in the unconditioned and otherwise unusable attic. High temperature differentials and leaky ducts result in thermal losses. Penetrations through the ceilings are notoriously difficult to seal and lead to moisture and air infiltration. These issues all contribute to greater energy use and have led builders to consider construction of a conditioned attic. The

  17. Efficiency of osmotic pipe flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaning, Louise Sejling; Jensen, Kaare Hartvig; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine; Bohr, Tomas

    2013-05-01

    We present experiments and theory for flows of sugar or salt solutions in cylindrical tubes with semipermeable walls (hollow fiber membranes) immersed in water, quantifying the strength of the osmotic driving force in relation to the dimensionless parameters that specify the system. The pumping efficiency of these flows is limited by the presence of “unstirred” concentration boundary layers near the tube walls, and our primary aim is to understand and quantify these layers and their effect on the flow. We measure the outlet flow rate Qout while varying the inlet flow rate Q*, concentration c*, and tube length L, and map out the dependence of the flow rate gain γ=Qout/Q*-1 on these parameters. A theoretical analysis based on (1) the known velocity field for slow flow in cylindrical porous tubes and (2) a parabolic concentration profile allows us to compute analytically how the flow gain depends on the relative magnitude of radial diffusion and advection as well as the ratio of the osmotic velocity to pumping velocity, in very good agreement with experiments and with no adjustable parameters. Our analysis provides criteria that are useful for optimizing osmotic flow processes in, e.g., water purification devices.

  18. Energy Efficient Resource Management in Mobile Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlin Li

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficient computing has recently become hot research area. Many works have been carried out on conserving energy, but considering energy efficiency in grid computing is few. This paper proposes energy efficient resource management in mobile grid. The objective of energy efficient resource management in mobile grid is to maximize the utility of the mobile grid which is denoted as the sum of grid application utility. The utility function models benefits of application and system. By using nonlinear optimization theory, energy efficient resource management in mobile grid can be formulated as multi objective optimization problem. In order to derive a distributed algorithm to solve global optimization problem in mobile grid, we decompose the problem into the sub problems. The proposed energy efficient resource management algorithm decomposes the optimization problem via iterative method. To test the performance of the proposed algorithm, the simulations are conducted to compare proposed energy efficient resource management algorithm with other energy aware scheduling algorithm.

  19. Has competition increased hospital technical efficiency?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keon-Hyung; Park, Jungwon; Lim, Seunghoo; Park, Sang-Chul

    2015-01-01

    Hospital competition and managed care have affected the hospital industry in various ways including technical efficiency. Hospital efficiency has become an important topic, and it is important to properly measure hospital efficiency in order to evaluate the impact of policies on the hospital industry. The primary independent variable is hospital competition. By using the 2001-2004 inpatient discharge data from Florida, we calculate the degree of hospital competition in Florida for 4 years. Hospital efficiency scores are developed using the Data Envelopment Analysis and by using the selected input and output variables from the American Hospital Association's Annual Survey of Hospitals for those acute care general hospitals in Florida. By using the hospital efficiency score as a dependent variable, we analyze the effects of hospital competition on hospital efficiency from 2001 to 2004 and find that when a hospital was located in a less competitive market in 2003, its technical efficiency score was lower than those in a more competitive market.

  20. Resource efficiency and its necessity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamás, András; Nagy, Orsolya; Balla, Zoltán; Kith, Károly

    2015-04-01

    Renewable energy resources have an important role by improving energy efficiency, thereby contributing to the sustainable and eco-friendly use of local energy resources. The rationalization of energy management and the implementation of innovative renewable energy projects can be an excellent tool in terms of both corporate, municipal and household levels to reduce energy costs. The Hungarian Power Companies Ltd. calculates that in Hungary new electricity generating capacity is needed for establishing growth in consumer demand and the replacement of old power plants. On 31th December 2013, there was 9 197 megawatts of installed electrical capacity in the Hungarian electricity system. By 2019, only 70% is expected to be available and by 2030, only 5 100 megawatts of capacity can be calculated. In addition to the replacement needs, the supposed increase in consumer demand also requires the establishment of new capacities (MTI, 2014). In this study, we examined one of Hungary's leading agribusiness companies' technical and other parameters. In the company's head office, hot water is produced by a solar panel. The roof-mounted solar cells heat a 200-liter reservoir of stored water. The daily use of water each day account to between 50 and 200 liters. Waste heat in the cooling system of the company's shop is utilized by using a group-agregator. Cooling is done with significant heat removal. This amount of heat or a portion of it could be recovered. Therefore, a heat exchanger was inserted into the cooling gas cycle which leads to a secondary water cycle with a 300 litre water tank. This solution produces hot water, providing the shop workers' daily hot water needs. Lighting was upgraded by replacing traditional high-performance 250-watt bulbs to 130-watt more energy-efficient light bulbs. The saving achieved is 120 watts per bulb. The energy-saving light bulbs last longer than the mercury-filled bulbs. It is important that the sockets be the same, so they do not have to

  1. Efficient Web Services Policy Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatan, Farrokh; Harman, Joseph G.

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale Web security systems usually involve cooperation between domains with non-identical policies. The network management and Web communication software used by the different organizations presents a stumbling block. Many of the tools used by the various divisions do not have the ability to communicate network management data with each other. At best, this means that manual human intervention into the communication protocols used at various network routers and endpoints is required. Developing practical, sound, and automated ways to compose policies to bridge these differences is a long-standing problem. One of the key subtleties is the need to deal with inconsistencies and defaults where one organization proposes a rule on a particular feature, and another has a different rule or expresses no rule. A general approach is to assign priorities to rules and observe the rules with the highest priorities when there are conflicts. The present methods have inherent inefficiency, which heavily restrict their practical applications. A new, efficient algorithm combines policies utilized for Web services. The method is based on an algorithm that allows an automatic and scalable composition of security policies between multiple organizations. It is based on defeasible policy composition, a promising approach for finding conflicts and resolving priorities between rules. In the general case, policy negotiation is an intractable problem. A promising method, suggested in the literature, is when policies are represented in defeasible logic, and composition is based on rules for non-monotonic inference. In this system, policy writers construct metapolicies describing both the policy that they wish to enforce and annotations describing their composition preferences. These annotations can indicate whether certain policy assertions are required by the policy writer or, if not, under what circumstances the policy writer is willing to compromise and allow other assertions to take

  2. HIGH-EFFICIENCY INFRARED RECEIVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Esman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research and development show promising use of high-performance solid-state receivers of the electromagnetic radiation. These receivers are based on the low-barrier Schottky diodes. The approach to the design of the receivers on the basis of delta-doped low-barrier Schottky diodes with beam leads without bias is especially actively developing because for uncooled receivers of the microwave radiation these diodes have virtually no competition. The purpose of this work is to improve the main parameters and characteristics that determine the practical relevance of the receivers of mid-infrared electromagnetic radiation at the operating room temperature by modifying the electrodes configuration of the diode and optimizing the distance between them. Proposed original design solution of the integrated receiver of mid-infrared radiation on the basis of the low-barrier Schottky diodes with beam leads allows to effectively adjust its main parameters and characteristics. Simulation of the electromagnetic characteristics of the proposed receiver by using the software package HFSS with the basic algorithm of a finite element method which implemented to calculate the behavior of electromagnetic fields on an arbitrary geometry with a predetermined material properties have shown that when the inner parts of the electrodes of the low-barrier Schottky diode is performed in the concentric elliptical convex-concave shape, it can be reduce the reflection losses to -57.75 dB and the standing wave ratio to 1.003 while increasing the directivity up to 23 at a wavelength of 6.09 μm. At this time, the rounded radii of the inner parts of the anode and cathode electrodes are equal 212 nm and 318 nm respectively and the gap setting between them is 106 nm. These parameters will improve the efficiency of the developed infrared optical-promising and electronic equipment for various purposes intended for work in the mid-infrared wavelength range. 

  3. Energy Efficiency Through Lighting Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berst, Kara [Chickasaw Nation, Ada, OK (United States); Howeth, Maria [Chickasaw Nation, Ada, OK (United States)

    2013-02-26

    Lighting upgrades including neon to LED, incandescent to CFL's and T-12 to T-8 and T-5's were completed through this grant. A total of 16 Chickasaw nation facilities decreased their carbon footprint because of these grant funds. Calculations used were based on comparing the energy usage from the previous year's average and the current energy usage. For facilities without a full year's set of energy bills, the month after installation was compared to the same month from the previous year. Overall, the effect the lighting change-outs had for the gaming centers and casinos far exceeded expectations. For the Madill Gaming Center; both an interior and exterior upgrade was performed which resulted in a 31% decrease in energy consumption. This same reduction was seen in every facility that participated in the grant. Just by simply changing out light bulbs to newer energy efficient equivalents, a decrease in energy usage can be achieved and this was validated by the return on investment seen at Chickasaw Nation facilities. Along with the technical project tasks were awareness sessions presented at Chickasaw Head Starts. The positive message of environmental stewardship was passed down to head start students and passed along to Chickasaw employees. Excitement was created in those that learned what they could do to help reduce their energy bills and many followed through and took the idea home. For a fairy low cost, the general public can also use this technique to lower their energy consumption both at home and at work. Although the idea behind the project was somewhat simple, true benefits have been gained through environmental awareness and reductions of energy costs.

  4. Efficient array design for sonotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Douglas N.; Kruse, Dustin E.; Ergun, Arif S.; Barnes, Stephen; Lu, X. Ming; Ferrara, Katherine W.

    2008-07-01

    New linear multi-row, multi-frequency arrays have been designed, constructed and tested as fully operational ultrasound probes to produce confocal imaging and therapeutic acoustic intensities with a standard commercial ultrasound imaging system. The triple-array probes and imaging system produce high quality B-mode images with a center row imaging array at 5.3 MHz and sufficient acoustic power with dual therapeutic arrays to produce mild hyperthermia at 1.54 MHz. The therapeutic array pair in the first probe design (termed G3) utilizes a high bandwidth and peak pressure, suitable for mechanical therapies. The second multi-array design (termed G4) has a redesigned therapeutic array pair which is optimized for a high time-averaged power output suitable for mild hyperthermia applications. The 'thermal therapy' design produces more than 4 W of acoustic power from the low-frequency arrays with only a 10.5 °C internal rise in temperature after 100 s of continuous use with an unmodified conventional imaging system or substantially longer operation at lower acoustic power. The low-frequency arrays in both probe designs were examined and contrasted for real power transfer efficiency with a KLM model which includes all lossy contributions in the power delivery path from system transmitters to the tissue load. Laboratory verification was successfully performed for the KLM-derived estimates of transducer parallel model acoustic resistance and dissipation resistance, which are the critical design factors for acoustic power output and undesired internal heating, respectively.

  5. Efficient array design for sonotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Douglas N; Kruse, Dustin E; Ferrara, Katherine W [University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Ergun, Arif S; Barnes, Stephen [Siemens Corporate Research, Inc., Imaging and Visualization, 755 College Road East, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Lu, X Ming [Siemens Medical Solutions, 22010 SE 51st Street, Issaquah, Washington 98029-7298 (United States)], E-mail: dnstephens@ucdavis.edu, E-mail: kwferrara@ucdavis.edu

    2008-07-21

    New linear multi-row, multi-frequency arrays have been designed, constructed and tested as fully operational ultrasound probes to produce confocal imaging and therapeutic acoustic intensities with a standard commercial ultrasound imaging system. The triple-array probes and imaging system produce high quality B-mode images with a center row imaging array at 5.3 MHz and sufficient acoustic power with dual therapeutic arrays to produce mild hyperthermia at 1.54 MHz. The therapeutic array pair in the first probe design (termed G3) utilizes a high bandwidth and peak pressure, suitable for mechanical therapies. The second multi-array design (termed G4) has a redesigned therapeutic array pair which is optimized for a high time-averaged power output suitable for mild hyperthermia applications. The 'thermal therapy' design produces more than 4 W of acoustic power from the low-frequency arrays with only a 10.5 deg. C internal rise in temperature after 100 s of continuous use with an unmodified conventional imaging system or substantially longer operation at lower acoustic power. The low-frequency arrays in both probe designs were examined and contrasted for real power transfer efficiency with a KLM model which includes all lossy contributions in the power delivery path from system transmitters to the tissue load. Laboratory verification was successfully performed for the KLM-derived estimates of transducer parallel model acoustic resistance and dissipation resistance, which are the critical design factors for acoustic power output and undesired internal heating, respectively.

  6. Efficient Adjustable Reflectivity Smart Window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Morgan Tench

    2005-12-01

    This project addressed the key technical issues for development of an efficient smart window based on reversible electrochemical transfer of silver between a mirror electrode and a localized counter electrode. Effort to provide uniform switching over large areas focused on use of a resistive transparent electrode innerlayer to increase the interelectrode resistance. An effective edge seal was developed in collaboration with adhesive suppliers and an electrochromic device manufacturer. Work to provide a manufacturable counter electrode focused on fabricating a dot matrix electrode without photolithography by electrodeposition of Pt nuclei on inherent active sites on a transparent oxide conductor. An alternative counter electrode based on a conducting polymer and an ionic liquid electrolyte was also investigated. Work in all of these areas was successful. Sputtered large-bandgap oxide innerlayers sandwiched between conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were shown to provide sufficient cross-layer resistance (>300 ohm/cm{sup 2}) without significantly affecting the electrochemical properties of the ITO overlayer. Two edge seal epoxies, one procured from an epoxy manufacturer and one provided by an electrochromic device manufacturer in finished seals, were shown to be effective barriers against oxygen intrusion up to 80 C. The optimum density of nuclei for the dot matrix counter electrode was attained without use of photolithography by electrodeposition from a commercial alkaline platinum plating bath. Silver loss issues for cells with dot matrix electrodes were successfully addressed by purifying the electrolyte and adjusting the cell cycling parameters. More than 30K cycles were demonstrated for a REM cell (30-cm square) with a dot matrix counter electrode. Larger cells (30-cm square) were successfully fabricated but could not be cycled since the nucleation layers (provided by an outside supplier) were defective so that mirror deposits could not be produced.

  7. Energy efficiency of mobile soft robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Langquan; Zhu, Liangliang; Yang, Zhe; Liu, Yilun; Chen, Xi

    2017-11-15

    The performance of mobile soft robots is usually characterized by their locomotion/velocity efficiency, whereas the energy efficiency is a more intrinsic and fundamental criterion for the performance evaluation of independent or integrated soft robots. In this work, a general framework is established to evaluate the energy efficiency of mobile soft robots by considering the efficiency of the energy source, actuator and locomotion, and some insights for improving the efficiency of soft robotic systems are presented. Proposed as the ratio of the desired locomotion kinetic energy to the input mechanical energy, the energy efficiency of locomotion is found to play a critical role in determining the overall energy efficiency of soft robots. Four key factors related to the locomotion energy efficiency are identified, that is, the locomotion modes, material properties, geometric sizes, and actuation states. It is found that the energy efficiency of most mobile soft robots reported in the literature is surprisingly low (mostly below 0.1%), due to the inefficient mechanical energy that essentially does not contribute to the desired locomotion. A comparison of the locomotion energy efficiency for several representative locomotion modes in the literature is presented, showing a descending ranking as: jumping ≫ fish-like swimming > snake-like slithering > rolling > rising/turning over > inchworm-like inching > quadruped gait > earthworm-like squirming. Besides, considering the same locomotion mode, soft robots with lower stiffness, higher density and larger size tend to have higher locomotion energy efficiency. Moreover, a periodic pulse actuation instead of a continuous actuation mode may significantly reduce the input mechanical energy, thus improving the locomotion energy efficiency, especially when the pulse actuation matches the resonant states of the soft robots. The results presented herein indicate a large and necessary space for improving the locomotion energy

  8. High efficiency turbine blade coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youchison, Dennis L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gallis, Michail A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The development of advanced thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) that exhibit lower thermal conductivity through better control of electron beam - physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) processing is of prime interest to both the aerospace and power industries. This report summarizes the work performed under a two-year Lab-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project (38664) to produce lower thermal conductivity, graded-layer thermal barrier coatings for turbine blades in an effort to increase the efficiency of high temperature gas turbines. This project was sponsored by the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Investment Area. Therefore, particular importance was given to the processing of the large blades required for industrial gas turbines proposed for use in the Brayton cycle of nuclear plants powered by high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). During this modest (~1 full-time equivalent (FTE)) project, the processing technology was developed to create graded TBCs by coupling ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD) with substrate pivoting in the alumina-YSZ system. The Electron Beam - 1200 kW (EB-1200) PVD system was used to deposit a variety of TBC coatings with micron layered microstructures and reduced thermal conductivity below 1.5 W/m.K. The use of IBAD produced fully stoichiometric coatings at a reduced substrate temperature of 600°C and a reduced oxygen background pressure of 0.1 Pa. IBAD was also used to successfully demonstrate the transitioning of amorphous PVD-deposited alumina to the -phase alumina required as an oxygen diffusion barrier and for good adhesion to the substrate Ni2Al3 bondcoat. This process replaces the time consuming thermally grown oxide formation required before the YSZ deposition. In addition to the process technology, Direct Simulation Monte Carlo plume modeling and spectroscopic characterization of the PVD plumes were performed. The project consisted of five tasks. These included the

  9. Energy Efficient Solar Milk Chiller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneeb Bin Muzzamal

    2017-12-01

    bottom of the chiller. Inverter technology was also coupled with the chiller to eliminate the torque load of 9-10 ampere to a uniform torque load of 3.2 ampere which is a big hurdle in using solar PV system. Efficiency of the system was achieved up-to 69. The Coefficient of Performance COP of the system was found to be 3.18 and the cost of the processing milk was calculated1.17Rsliter.

  10. CC Cryostat Vacuum Pumping Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, J.B.; /Fermilab

    1987-10-13

    This report calculates the effect of the conductances of the pumping lines on the pumping speeds of the vacuum pumps being used to pump the inner vessel, and annular space, vacuum tight during the CC Cryostat testing. Effective pumping speeds were calculated for various values of pressure via the above stated formulas (see calculations). Conductances of valves, elbows, and tees were calculated with the help of ref. 1, and the volumes of the inner vessel and annular space were calculated wtth the aid of ref. 2. The major results of these calculations follow. The attached graphs show the effective pumping speed vs. pressure, as well as the pressure vs. pumpdown time for both the inner vessel pumpdown and the annular space pumpdown. Many intervals of pressure were chosen in order to give a complete picture of the effects on the pumping speed, and pumpdown time. An important rule of thumb is that the effective pumping speed be close to the intrinsic pump speed in the region of interest for the best efficiency. With an infinite conductance, these quantities become equal. In the case of the annular space pumpdown. the effective pumping speed is within approximately 15% of the intrinsic pump speed for pressures down to 6000{mu}, and at that point, the conductance effects slow the system down and provide a 49% difference at 1000{mu}. To Improve these numbers, the line length must be shortened, or even better, the line diameter increased. As far as pumpdown time is concerned, the actual pumpdown was completed in a reasonable amount of time, and would have been even better if the pumping system did not lag due to a leaK and its repair time. The inner vessel pumpdown shows a pumpdown time near 1 hour to reach 100{mu} pressure. The effective pumping speed matches to within 10% of the intrinsic pump speed to 6000{mu}, and then the conductance effects become more important and provide a 41% difference at 1000{mu}. The actual pumpdown was completed in a reasonable amount of time

  11. High efficiency stationary hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hynek, S.; Fuller, W.; Truslow, S. [Arthur D. Little, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Stationary storage of hydrogen permits one to make hydrogen now and use it later. With stationary hydrogen storage, one can use excess electrical generation capacity to power an electrolyzer, and store the resultant hydrogen for later use or transshipment. One can also use stationary hydrogen as a buffer at fueling stations to accommodate non-steady fueling demand, thus permitting the hydrogen supply system (e.g., methane reformer or electrolyzer) to be sized to meet the average, rather than the peak, demand. We at ADL designed, built, and tested a stationary hydrogen storage device that thermally couples a high-temperature metal hydride to a phase change material (PCM). The PCM captures and stores the heat of the hydriding reaction as its own heat of fusion (that is, it melts), and subsequently returns that heat of fusion (by freezing) to facilitate the dehydriding reaction. A key component of this stationary hydrogen storage device is the metal hydride itself. We used nickel-coated magnesium powder (NCMP) - magnesium particles coated with a thin layer of nickel by means of chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Magnesium hydride can store a higher weight fraction of hydrogen than any other practical metal hydride, and it is less expensive than any other metal hydride. We designed and constructed an experimental NCM/PCM reactor out of 310 stainless steel in the form of a shell-and-tube heat exchanger, with the tube side packed with NCMP and the shell side filled with a eutectic mixture of NaCL, KCl, and MgCl{sub 2}. Our experimental results indicate that with proper attention to limiting thermal losses, our overall efficiency will exceed 90% (DOE goal: >75%) and our overall system cost will be only 33% (DOE goal: <50%) of the value of the delivered hydrogen. It appears that NCMP can be used to purify hydrogen streams and store hydrogen at the same time. These prospects make the NCMP/PCM reactor an attractive component in a reformer-based hydrogen fueling station.

  12. Chapter 20: Data Center IT Efficiency Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Robert [Cadmus Group, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States); Masanet, Eric [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Data centers use about 2% of the electricity in the United States; a typical data center has 100 to 200 times the energy use intensity of a commercial building. Data centers present tremendous opportunities--energy use can be reduced as much as 80% between inefficient and efficient data centers. Data center efficiency measures generally fall into the following categories: power infrastructure (e.g., more efficient uninterruptible power supplies, power distribution units); cooling (e.g., free cooling, variable-speed drives, temperature and humidity set points); airflow management (e.g., hot aisle/cold aisle, containment, grommets); and information technology efficiency (e.g., server virtualization, efficient servers, efficient data storage).

  13. Enzyme efficiency: An open reaction system perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Kinshuk, E-mail: kb36@rice.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, Rajabazar Science College Campus, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Bhattacharyya, Kamal, E-mail: pchemkb@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India)

    2015-12-21

    A measure of enzyme efficiency is proposed for an open reaction network that, in suitable form, applies to closed systems as well. The idea originates from the description of classical enzyme kinetics in terms of cycles. We derive analytical expressions for the efficiency measure by treating the network not only deterministically but also stochastically. The latter accounts for any significant amount of noise that can be present in biological systems and hence reveals its impact on efficiency. Numerical verification of the results is also performed. It is found that the deterministic equation overestimates the efficiency, the more so for very small system sizes. Roles of various kinetics parameters and system sizes on the efficiency are thoroughly explored and compared with the standard definition k{sub 2}/K{sub M}. Study of substrate fluctuation also indicates an interesting efficiency-accuracy balance.

  14. Efficiency of Financing in Sharia Cooperatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djaka Badranaya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency is one of the performance’s indicator in sharia cooperatives. This study uses data envelopment analysis (DEA method to measure the efficiency of financing sharia cooperatives. DEA is one method of measuring efficiency using frontier analysis that has proven its use. Samples to be used are KJKS Kota Bambu Utara (KBU and Kota Bambu Selatan (KBS. On average, KJKS KBU has a value high enough efficiency reached 98.7%. Meanwhile, KJKS KBS achieve 100% efficiency. This research has an important role in optimizing the efficiency of sharia cooperative, so that its presence can provide great benefits to society.DOI: 10.15408/etk.v16i2.5437

  15. Engineering crop nutrient efficiency for sustainable agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liyu; Liao, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Increasing crop yields can provide food, animal feed, bioenergy feedstocks and biomaterials to meet increasing global demand; however, the methods used to increase yield can negatively affect sustainability. For example, application of excess fertilizer can generate and maintain high yields but also increases input costs and contributes to environmental damage through eutrophication, soil acidification and air pollution. Improving crop nutrient efficiency can improve agricultural sustainability by increasing yield while decreasing input costs and harmful environmental effects. Here, we review the mechanisms of nutrient efficiency (primarily for nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and iron) and breeding strategies for improving this trait, along with the role of regulation of gene expression in enhancing crop nutrient efficiency to increase yields. We focus on the importance of root system architecture to improve nutrient acquisition efficiency, as well as the contributions of mineral translocation, remobilization and metabolic efficiency to nutrient utilization efficiency. © 2017 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  16. Consumer Efficiency in Conflict with GDP Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    of consumption: durable goods, services, and non-durable goods. Real life cases illustrate the huge potential for overall energy efficiency improvement. Longevity of durable goods makes up one case. Another case is the often-mentioned potential for more energy efficient end-use technologies. Most discussion is......During the last couple of decades some attention has been devoted to the potential for utilizing energy more efficiently. Most of this debate has not concentrated on the energy efficiency of the economy as a whole, but merely addressed options for implementing more energy efficient technology....... This paper is an attempt to unfold the whole economy chain, stretching from extraction of resources from nature to satisfying human needs. Ways are suggested to analyze the energy efficiencies of the various links in the chain, mainly seen from the point of view of the three standard categories...

  17. Feed efficiency metrics in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón Díaz, J A; Berry, D P; Rebeiz, N; Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Magowan, E; Gardiner, G E; Lawlor, P G

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to quantify the interrelationships between different feed efficiency measures in growing pigs and characterize pigs divergent for a selection of these measures. The data set included data from 311 growing pigs between 42 and 91 d of age from 3 separate batches. Growth-related metrics available included midtest metabolic BW (BW), energy intake (EI), and ADG. Ratio efficiency traits included energy conversion ratio (ECR), Kleiber ratio (ADG/BW), relative growth rate (RGR), residual EI (REI), and residual daily gain (RDG). Residual intake and gain (RIG; i.e., a dual index of both REI and RDG) and residual midtest metabolic weight (RMW) were also calculated. Simple Pearson correlations were estimated between the growth and feed efficiency metrics. In litters with at least 3 pigs of each sex, pigs were separately stratified on each residual trait as high, medium, and low rank. Considerable interanimal variability existed in all metrics evaluated. Male pigs were superior to females for all metrics ( efficiency metrics improved as birth BW increased ( efficiency metrics were strong to moderate ( efficient) had lower EI and ECR and were superior for RIG ( efficient) had greater BW gain and better ECR ( Energy conversion ratio, REI, and RIG were superior ( efficient) compared with medium-RMW pigs. High-RIG pigs (i.e., more efficient) had lower EI ( efficiency traits investigated in this study were different from unity, indicating that each trait is depicting a different aspect of efficiency in pigs, although the moderate to strong correlations suggest that improvement in one trait would, on average, lead to improvements in the others. Pigs ranked as more efficient on residual traits such as REI consumed less energy for a similar BW gain, which would translate into an economic benefit for pig producers.

  18. Efficiency of the biodiesel production from microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernova, N. I.; Kiseleva, S. V.; Popel', O. S.

    2014-06-01

    Biomass of the highly productive algae is a promising nontraditional raw material for biopower engineering, including production of energy and motor fuels from it. The paper presents an analysis of the efficiency of solar energy conversion to microalgae biofuel based both on the general theoretical approaches and on the experimental results obtained in various pilot projects. Some data on the economic efficiency of biofuel production from algae are also discussed. The possible ways to enhance the efficiency of microalgae energy use are formulated.

  19. Cournot Competition, Financial Option Markets, and Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Bert

    2005-01-01

    Allaz and Vila (1993) show that the existence of futures markets increases the efficiency of markets in a Cournot setting. This paper looks at the efficiency effect of financial options in a similar framework. It shows that the existence of financial options also makes markets more efficient; though to a smaller extent than futures. This is particularly relevant for markets with market power and costly storage, like electricity markets.

  20. Factors affecting feed efficiency in dairy goats

    OpenAIRE

    Tadeu Silva de Oliveira; Fernando de Paula Leonel; Cássio José da Silva; Danielle Ferreira Baffa; José Carlos Pereira; Joanis Tilemahos Zervoudakis

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to present some factors affecting feed efficiency in dairy goats. To develop our work, individual and average data from performance experiments with lactating goats were used. The following variables were evaluated: gross feed efficiency, adjusted feed efficiency, dry matter intake, milk-yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield, dry matter digestibility, dietary neutral detergent fiber content, different roughage-to-concentrate ratios and body weight. The statistic...

  1. PROBLEMS OF ENERGY EFFICIENCE STRATEGY AND THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Danilov

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Data of energy saving politics strategy in the light of the principles of global energy safety system are presented. Theoretical base of energy efficiency and energy saving (integral energy – ecological analysis is worked out. The realization and efficiency results of action of energy saving by the example of Sverdlovsk Region are cited. Practical significance of main principle of energy efficiency economics – energy capacity reduction by Gross Returns increasing – is determined.

  2. Energy efficiency, market failures, and government policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.D.; Koomey, J.G.; McMahon, J.E.; Sanstad, A.H. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.; Hirst, E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Energy Div.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating engineering-economic evidence on the diffusion of energy efficiency improvements. Four examples are evaluated within this framework. The analysis provides evidence of market failures related to energy efficiency. Specific market failures that may impede the adoption of cost-effective energy efficiency are discussed. Two programs that have had a major impact in overcoming these market failures, utility DSM programs and appliance standards, are described.

  3. Efficiency in Bulgaria's schools : a nonparametric study

    OpenAIRE

    Bogetic, Zeljko; Chattophadyay, Sajal

    1995-01-01

    In Eastern European countries in large social sectors such as education, inefficiency and technical deficiencies are the legacy of the old command economy. The authors examine the technical efficiency of classroom use (defined as the number of classes per classroom in one transitional economy -- Bulgaria. They examine the concept of efficiency in 199 urban and rural municipalities, using data envelopment analysis to generate efficiency scores. Those scores -- discussed in terms of frequency a...

  4. Do Interconnections Matter for Bank Efficiency?

    OpenAIRE

    Solange Maria Guerra; Benjamin Miranda Tabak; Rodrigo Cesar de Castro Miranda

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the issue of how individual bank interconnectivity and the interbank network topology impact on Brazilian banking efficiency between 2007 and 2013. We use several network measures to analyze the effects of bank interconnections on cost, profit and risk-taking efficiency. The results suggest that interconnections matter for bank efficiency. We find that interconnectivity can increase cost and risk-taking inefficiency levels. We also find that the density of the network top...

  5. Electroluminescence Efficiency Enhancement using Metal Nanoparticles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soref, Richard A; Khurgin, J. B; Sun, G

    2008-01-01

    We apply the "effective mode volume" theory to evaluate enhancement of the electroluminescence efficiency of semiconductor emitters placed in the vicinity of isolated metal nanoparticles and their arrays...

  6. State-Level Benefits of Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [ORNL

    2007-02-01

    This report describes benefits attributable to state-level energy efficiency programs. Nationwide, state-level energy efficiency programs have targeted all sectors of the economy and have employed a wide range of methods to promote energy efficiency. Standard residential and industrial programs typically identify between 20 to 30% energy savings in homes and plants, respectively. Over a 20 year period of time, an average state that aggressively pursues even a limited array of energy efficiency programs can potentially reduce total state energy use by as much as 20%. Benefit-cost ratios of effective energy efficiency programs typically exceed 3 to 1 and are much higher when non-energy and macroeconomic benefits are included. Indeed, energy efficiency and associated programs and investments can create significant numbers of new jobs and enhance state tax revenues. Several states have incorporated energy efficiency into their economic development programs. It should also be noted that increasing amounts of venture capital are being invested in the energy sector in general and in specific technologies like solar power in particular. Well-designed energy efficiency programs can be expected to help overcome numerous barriers to the market penetration of energy efficient technologies and accelerate the market penetration of the technologies.

  7. Lightweight and Energy Efficient Heat Pump Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future Spacecraft from the JPL will require increasingly sophisticated thermal control technology. A need exists for efficient, lightweight Vapor Compression Cycle...

  8. Scaling up energy efficiency under the CDM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arquit Niederberger, A.

    2009-07-01

    This paper analyses the barriers to end-use energy efficiency under the CDM, presents elements of a new shared vision for a CDM that will encourage end-use energy efficiency and suggests necessary reforms in the international climate framework that go beyond the traditional conception of CDM reform. For the CDM to achieve its dual mitigation and sustainable development objectives, the Parties to the UNFCCC can no longer be satisfied with the perfect environmental integrity of a zero-sum CDM at the expense of real action on end-use efficiency. Nothing short of a global energy efficiency offensive is needed in Copenhagen in 2009. (au)

  9. National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency

    2006-07-01

    Summarizes recommendations, key barriers, and methods for energy efficiency in utility ratemaking as well as revenue requirements, resource planning processes, rate design, and program best practices.

  10. Efficient magnetic fields for supporting toroidal plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landreman, Matt, E-mail: mattland@umd.edu [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Boozer, Allen H. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    The magnetic field that supports tokamak and stellarator plasmas must be produced by coils well separated from the plasma. However, the larger the separation, the more difficult it is to produce a given magnetic field in the plasma region, so plasma configurations should be chosen that can be supported as efficiently as possible by distant coils. The efficiency of an externally generated magnetic field is a measure of the field's shaping component magnitude at the plasma compared to the magnitude near the coils; the efficiency of a plasma equilibrium can be measured using the efficiency of the required external shaping field. Counterintuitively, plasma shapes with low curvature and spectral width may have low efficiency, whereas plasma shapes with sharp edges may have high efficiency. Two precise measures of magnetic field efficiency, which correctly identify such differences in difficulty, will be examined. These measures, which can be expressed as matrices, relate the externally produced normal magnetic field on the plasma surface to the either the normal field or current on a distant control surface. A singular value decomposition (SVD) of either matrix yields an efficiency ordered basis for the magnetic field distributions. Calculations are carried out for both tokamak and stellarator cases. For axisymmetric surfaces with circular cross-section, the SVD is calculated analytically, and the range of poloidal and toroidal mode numbers that can be controlled to a given desired level is determined. If formulated properly, these efficiency measures are independent of the coordinates used to parameterize the surfaces.

  11. Monitoring tools for energy efficiency in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document brings together the different definitions of the indicators used in the European Odyssee project on energy efficiency indicators. This project was initiated in 1990. It benefits from the combined support of the SAVE programme of the European Commission, of Ademe and of 15 national Efficiency Agencies within the European network of energy efficiency agencies. The objective of the project is to develop and maintain indicators that enable to review progress in energy efficiency and CO{sub 2} emissions abatement, by sector, end-use, etc.. for each country and the EU as a whole. To reach this objective, all data and indicators are stored in a common database called ODYSSEE that is regularly updated. A common methodology is used to produce comparative energy efficiency indicators from the database. The definitions presented in this document concern: 1) the general points (energy intensity, consumption, savings, efficiency, the unit consumption effect and index, the technological effect or savings, the substitution effect and the behavioural/management effect); 2) the macro-indicators (primary and final energy intensities at constant structure, at purchasing power parities, at reference economic structure); 3) industry (energy intensity of industry/manufacturing, of industry at constant structure and at reference structure, unit consumption of steel, cement etc.., process effect); 4) transports (energy intensity, unit consumption of vehicles, average specific consumption, test specific consumption, unit consumption, specific consumption, behavioural energy savings; 5) households and services (unit consumption, specific consumption, energy intensity of households, appliances); 6) transformations (apparent efficiency of energy sector or transformations, efficiency at constant fuel mix, efficiency of electricity sector). The same work is made for the 'key energy efficiency indicators', for the 'aggregate energy efficiency indicators' for

  12. Genetic identification and symbiotic efficiency of Sinorhizobium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quantitative expression of symbiotic efficiency was evaluated by measurement of total nitrogen in plants and dry matter yield of plants. All strains nodulated alfalfa cultivar CAF 101 but with different efficiency. Significant differences in dry mater yield of alfalfa as well as total nitrogen content were determined depending on ...

  13. Schools water efficiency and awareness project

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    2002-04-23

    Apr 23, 2002 ... specifications to achieve optimum water efficiency. Benefits. In the process of striving towards water efficiency, the schools will find many benefits. The school environment improves as leaks and drips are identified and eliminated; awareness levels of the Care- taker are raised; awareness levels of the Head ...

  14. Some factors facilitating efficient Chinese teacher training

    OpenAIRE

    Popova, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of Chinese teacher training major. The factors facilitating efficient Chinese teacher training as well as the most common linguistic difficulties of the Chinese language are specified in the article. The author touches upon the peculiarities of the realization of the proposed model aimed at efficient educational success within the Ukraine’s system of education.

  15. Determination of generator losses and efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klasnić Ilija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of deriving by calculation the local and total losses of the generator as well as efficiency determination of the revitalised hydro-generator unit A4 in HPP 'Djerdap 1'. In order to determine the generator losses and generator efficiency, measurements are performed during the acceptance tests of revitalised aggregate A4 in HPP 'Djerdap 1'.

  16. The paradigm of efficiency and sustainability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    John Roche

    Abstract. For many, the terms efficiency in food production and sustainability are perceived to be mutually exclusive. This perception is often the result of too narrow a definition of sustainability. This paper reviews the sustainability of efficient dairying systems using the Framework for Evaluating Sustainable Land.

  17. Energy-efficient adaptive wireless network design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havinga, Paul J.M.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria; Bos, M.

    Energy efficiency is an important issue for mobile computers since they must rely on their batteries. We present an energy-efficient highly adaptive architecture of a network interface and novel data link layer protocol for wireless networks that provides quality of service (QoS) support for diverse

  18. Area-based management and fishing efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marchal, P.; Ulrich, Clara; Pastoors, M.

    2002-01-01

    linear model (GLM) analysis of the index of fishing power. The fishing efficiency of Danish gill-netters and, to some extent, Danish seiners, has overall increased inside the 'plaice box', whilst remaining relatively stable outside. However, the fishing efficiency of the other exemption fleets has...

  19. Technical efficiency of irrigated vegetable production among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data collected were subjected to analysis using descriptive statistics, stochastic frontier model, gross margin and net farm income. The study revealed that farm size, labour and fertilizer positively affect the technical efficiency of the farmers. The mean technical efficiency was 68.5 and vegetable farmers were not operating at ...

  20. Energy Efficiency Policy and Carbon Pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The main message of this paper is that while carbon pricing is a prerequisite for least-cost carbon mitigation strategies, carbon pricing is not enough to overcome all the barriers to cost-effective energy efficiency actions. Energy efficiency policy should be designed carefully for each sector to ensure optimal outcomes for a combination of economic, social and climate change goals. This paper aims to examine the justification for specific energy efficiency policies in economies with carbon pricing in place. The paper begins with an inventory of existing market failures that attempt to explain the limited uptake of energy efficiency. These market failures are investigated to see which can be overcome by carbon pricing in two subsectors -- electricity use in residential appliances and heating energy use in buildings. This analysis finds that carbon pricing addresses energy efficiency market failures such as externalities and imperfect energy markets. However, several market and behavioural failures in the two subsectors are identified that appear not to be addressed by carbon pricing. These include: imperfect information; principal-agent problems; and behavioural failures. In this analysis, the policies that address these market failures are identified as complementary to carbon pricing and their level of interaction with carbon pricing policies is relatively positive. These policies should be implemented when they can improve energy efficiency effectively and efficiently (and achieve other national goals such as improving socio-economic efficiency).

  1. Efficiently adapting graphical models for selectivity estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzoumas, Kostas; Deshpande, Amol; Jensen, Christian S.

    2013-01-01

    in estimation accuracy. We show how to efficiently construct such a graphical model from the database using only two-way join queries, and we show how to perform selectivity estimation in a highly efficient manner. We integrate our algorithms into the PostgreSQL DBMS. Experimental results indicate...

  2. Energy-Efficient Capacitive-Sensor Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, Z.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the theory, design and realization of energy-efficient capacitive-sensor interfaces that are dedicated to energy-constrained applications. The goal of this work is to explore energy-efficient capacitive-sensor interface design techniques both at the system and the circuit

  3. Modeling Fuel Efficiency: MPG or GPHM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkovich, Kevin G.

    2013-01-01

    The standard for measuring fuel efficiency in the U.S. has been miles per gallon (mpg). However, the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) switch in rating fuel efficiency from miles per gallon to gallons per hundred miles with the 2013 model-year cars leads to interesting and relevant mathematics with real-world connections. By modeling…

  4. Coagulation efficiency of Dicerocaryum eriocarpum (DE) plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A coagulation efficiency of 99% using modified mucilage coagulant was achieved. The modified mucilage of potassium crude extract and sodium crude extract displayed higher coagulation efficiencies than unmodified mucilage of deionized water crude extract. An increase in coagulant dosage and initial turbidity influenced ...

  5. Promotion of Efficient Use of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harry Misuriello; DOE Project Officer - Keith Bennett

    2006-01-25

    The Department of Energy funded the Alliance to Save Energy to promote the efficient use of energy under a multiyear cooperative agreement. This funding allowed the Alliance to be innovative and flexible in its program development, and to initiate and enhance projects it would otherwise not have been able to pursue. The program period was 1999 through 2004. The mission of the Alliance to Save Energy is to promote energy efficiency domestically and worldwide. The Alliance followed this mission by working closely with consumers, government, policy makers, and energy efficient product and service providers. The projects that were initiated by the Alliance included communication and consumer education, policy analysis and research, the promotion of interaction among the energy efficiency industry, and international energy efficiency programs. The funding from the Department of Energy allowed the Alliance to study new issues in energy efficiency, draw public attention to those issues, and create targeted programs, such as the Efficient Windows Collaborative or the Green Schools program, which now function on their own to promote energy efficiency in important areas.

  6. Guide to Energy-Efficient Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-10-01

    A fact sheet from the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy: Lighting accounts for about 15% of an average home’s electricity use, so it pays to make energy-efficient choices.

  7. Exercise efficiency of low power output cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reger, M; Peterman, J E; Kram, R; Byrnes, W C

    2013-12-01

    Exercise efficiency at low power outputs, energetically comparable to daily living activities, can be influenced by homeostatic perturbations (e.g., weight gain/loss). However, an appropriate efficiency calculation for low power outputs used in these studies has not been determined. Fifteen active subjects (seven females, eight males) performed 14, 5-min cycling trials: two types of seated rest (cranks vertical and horizontal), passive (motor-driven) cycling, no-chain cycling, no-load cycling, cycling at low (10, 20, 30, 40 W), and moderate (50, 60, 80, 100, 120 W) power outputs. Mean delta efficiency was 57% for low power outputs compared to 41.3% for moderate power outputs. Means for gross (3.6%) and net (5.7%) efficiencies were low at the lowest power output. At low power outputs, delta and work efficiency values exceeded theoretical values. In conclusion, at low power outputs, none of the common exercise efficiency calculations gave values comparable to theoretical muscle efficiency. However, gross efficiency and the slope and intercept of the metabolic power vs mechanical power output regression provide insights that are still valuable when studying homeostatic perturbations. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Eco-efficiency in industrial production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Raesfeld Meijer, Ariane M.; de Bakker, F.G.A.; Groen, Arend J.

    2001-01-01

    English AbstractThis report of the MATRIC project investigated 'Eco-efficiency in industrial production'. After a general introduction into the domain of eco-efficiency, the first part of this report further focusses on the organisation of Product-Oriented Environmental Management (POEM), which is

  9. Factors affecting feed efficiency in dairy goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeu Silva de Oliveira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to present some factors affecting feed efficiency in dairy goats. To develop our work, individual and average data from performance experiments with lactating goats were used. The following variables were evaluated: gross feed efficiency, adjusted feed efficiency, dry matter intake, milk-yield, 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield, dry matter digestibility, dietary neutral detergent fiber content, different roughage-to-concentrate ratios and body weight. The statistical analyses involved the application of descriptive and dispersion measures besides Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis. The analyzed variables were highly correlated with feed efficiency. The feed efficiency of lactating goats was affected by the milk fat correction, dry matter digestibility, dietary fiber content, proportion of roughage in the diet and body weight. Among these factors, standardization of the milk fat appeared to be the most efficient in correcting the feed efficiency in lactating goats. Correction of some of these factors implies greater precision in the measurement of feed efficiency.

  10. Efficient Collision Detection in a Simulated Hydrocyclone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijkeren, D.F.; Krebs, T.; Hoeijmakers, Hendrik Willem Marie

    2015-01-01

    Hydrocyclones enhance oil–water separation efficiency compared to conventional separation methods. An efficient collision detection scheme with Np ln Np dependency on the number of particles is proposed. The scheme is developed to investigate the importance of particle–particle interaction for flow

  11. Effects of heterogeneity on bank efficiency scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J. W. B.; Koetter, M.; Kolari, J. W.; Kool, C. J. M.

    2009-01-01

    Bank efficiency estimates often serve as a proxy of managerial skill since they quantify sub-optimal production choices. But such deviations can also be due to omitted systematic differences among banks. In this study, we examine the effects of heterogeneity on bank efficiency scores. We compare

  12. Energy efficiency governance an emerging priority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jollands, Nigel (Energy Efficiency and Environment Div., International Energy Agency, Paris (France)); Ellis, Mark (Mark Ellis and Associates, Wagstaffe, NSW (Australia))

    2009-07-01

    End-use energy efficiency is widely accepted as providing least-cost solutions to greenhouse gas mitigation and energy supply. However, maximising this potential resource is proving difficult, even elusive. Despite widespread energy efficiency policies covering many sectors, most evaluations show that we are falling well short of the potential level of energy efficiency. One reason for this is that estimates of potential tend to cover the whole of an economy or large sectors, whereas policy measures tend to be targeted towards individual, smaller parts of the economy. The authors contend that the energy efficiency potential within an economy will not be maximised without understanding the complete governance framework the central mechanism for marshalling drivers within the public and private sectors of an economy and ensuring that it is aligned towards energy efficiency. This paper explores the rationale for focusing on energy efficiency governance. In doing so, we attempt to define energy efficiency governance and present a conceptual framework for the better understanding of the issues involved. After reviewing the available literature in this field we present a description of the IEA governance programme of work that aims to assist countries to establish the most effective energy efficiency institutional structures at national and local levels.

  13. Highly efficient silicon light emitting diode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Le Minh, P.; Holleman, J.; Wallinga, Hans

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the fabrication, using standard silicon processing techniques, of silicon light-emitting diodes (LED) that efficiently emit photons with energy around the silicon bandgap. The improved efficiency had been explained by the spatial confinement of charge carriers due to a

  14. Athos: Efficient Authentication of Outsourced File Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triandopoulos, Nikolaos; Goodrich, Michael T.; Papamanthou, Charalampos

    2008-01-01

    outsourced storage. Using light-weight cryptographic primitives and efficient data-structuring techniques, we design authentication schemes that allow a client to efficiently verify that the file system is fully consistent with the exact history of updates and queries requested by the client. In Athos, file...

  15. Towards high efficiency segmented thermoelectric unicouples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Hoang Ngan; Christensen, Dennis Valbjørn; Snyder, Gerald Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    of the theoretical efficiency of the best performing unicouples designed from segmenting the state-of-the-art TE materials. The efficiencies are evaluated using a 1D numerical model which includes all thermoelectric effects, heat conduction, Joule effects and temperature dependent material properties, but neglects...

  16. Efficient Estimation in Heteroscedastic Varying Coefficient Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanhua Wei

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers statistical inference for the heteroscedastic varying coefficient model. We propose an efficient estimator for coefficient functions that is more efficient than the conventional local-linear estimator. We establish asymptotic normality for the proposed estimator and conduct some simulation to illustrate the performance of the proposed method.

  17. Role of computational efficiency in process simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Strand

    1989-07-01

    Full Text Available It is demonstrated how efficient numerical algorithms may be combined to yield a powerful environment for analysing and simulating dynamic systems. The importance of using efficient numerical algorithms is emphasized and demonstrated through examples from the petrochemical industry.

  18. FARMER EFFICIENCY AND TECHNOLOGY USE WITH AGE

    OpenAIRE

    Tauer, Loren W.; Lordkipanidze, Nazibrola

    2000-01-01

    Productivity of U.S. farmers by age is measured by non-parametric programming using 1992 Census data, decomposed into efficiency and technology Malmquist index components. Productivity increases slightly with age and then decreases. In most states productivity variations are from technology use rather than efficiency differences.

  19. Valuating the Investment Efficiency of Distribution Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Karajica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The task of this study is to valuate the investment efficiency of distribution companies. Although a series of publications and studies has been dedicated to this topic, it is difficult to find a general consensus in defining the investment efficiency of a company. Nevertheless if we simplify an imaginary  company as a production unit in which a series of actions transforms inputs to outputs, efficiency can be understood as like an effort to achieve maximum value of the outputs together with minimum usage of inputs, where the inputs constitute investments by a company. The investment efficiency of a company can be measured by expressing the absolute values of selected inputs and outputs, a relative expression of inputs and outputs, and perhaps an expression of the difference between them. However, an examination of the efficiency of a certain company is impossible without a valuation of other companies. In view of the amount of benchmarking, it should be emphasized, that this study is dedicated to a certain category of benchmarking, which we may term investment benchmarking. This benchmarking can be defined as a comparison of companies in terms investment efficiency. The purpose of this comparison is not only to investigate levels of investment efficiency and to relate them to other companies from the same branch, but also to locate the greatest efficiency and indicate potential improvement. 

  20. User community vs. producer innovation development efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hienerth, Christoph; von Hippel, Eric; Jensen, Morten Berg

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we report upon a first empirical exploration of the relative efficiency of innovation development by product users vs. product producers. In a study of over 50 years of product innovation in the whitewater kayaking field, we find users in aggregate were approximately 3× more efficie...

  1. Risk Assessment of Energy-Efficient Walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pallin, Simon B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jackson, Roderick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kehrer, Manfred [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This multi-year project aims to provide the residential construction industry with energy-efficient wall designs that are moisture durable. The present work focused on the initial step of this project, which is to develop a moisture durability protocol that identifies energy efficient wall designs that have a low probability of experiencing moisture problems.

  2. On the Definition of Economic Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Makdissi

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the definition of economic efficiency. The standard definition used in economic literature is the Pareto Optimum which is based in the space of individual utilities. This paper proposes new definitions based on alternative spaces. The paper also introduces a dominance criterion for efficiency over a set of social evaluation spaces.

  3. Quality, Efficiency, and Accountability: Definitions and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbell, Loren Loomis

    2007-01-01

    This article presents working definitions of efficiency, accountability, and quality, offering a framework in which an individual institution can make idiosyncratic use of these definitions, suggests tools for managing educational processes with respect to these three attributes, and presents examples of how institutions have improved efficiency,…

  4. Priorities for energy efficiency measures in agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, de C.L.M.

    2013-01-01

    This report provides research gaps and priorities for energy efficiency measures in agriculture across Europe, based on the analysis of the Coordination and Support Action AGREE (Agriculture & Energy Efficiency) funded by the 7th research framework of the EU (www.agree.aua.gr). The analysis from

  5. Banking efficiency under corporate social responsibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohene-Asare, Kwaku; Asmild, Mette

    2012-01-01

    using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) thus contributing to the scanty research on African banks. We observe a significant difference between the DEA model that includes CSR and the other without CSR, an indication that the inclusion of CSR may be important for bank efficiency assessment. As a further......This paper expands the banking efficiency literature by developing a banking intermediation model that captures both profit-maximizing and Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR) of banks. Using a data set of 21 banks for each year 2006-2008, we evaluate the relative efficiency of Ghanaian banks...... analysis, we use a second stage OLS regression which confirms a positive relationship between CSR and profitability and efficiency indicators. The findings suggest that considering CSR in efficiency assessment of banks is not only important on conceptual grounds, but also indicates that banks...

  6. DECENTRALIZATION, FISCAL CAPABILITY AND PUBLIC SPENDING EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hakim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Assigning autonomy to regency governments in Indonesia has failed to increase regency’s economies.While it increases regency government role in planning and initiating policies, its impact oneconomic development has been insignificant. This stems from the lack of institution’s capacity inorganizing the bulk funds transfer from the central government which leads to inefficiency in resourceallocation. This paper maps these regencies based on their fiscal dependency. This paperalso applies Data Envelopment Analysis to identify the efficient and non efficient regencies in sucha way that the non efficient regencies might use the efficient ones as the benchmark to increase theirefficiency.Keywords: Autonomy, regency government, efficiencyJEL classification numbers: H21, H53, H71, H72

  7. Development of Energy Efficiency Indicators in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Russia is sometimes referred to as 'the Saudi Arabia of energy efficiency'; its vast potential to reduce energy consumption can be considered a significant 'energy reserve'. Russia, recognising the benefits of more efficient use of energy, is taking measures to exploit this potential. The president has set the goal to reduce energy intensity by 40% between 2007 and 2020. In the past few years, the IEA has worked closely with Russian authorities to support the development of energy efficiency indicators in Russia, critical to an effective implementation and monitoring of Russia's ambitious energy intensity and efficiency goals. The key findings of the IEA work with Russia on developing energy efficiency indicators form the core of this report.

  8. Energy Efficiency in Norway 1990-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, Eva

    2003-06-01

    This is the national report for Norway in the EU/SAVE project ''Indicators for Energy Efficiency Monitoring and Target setting (ODYSSEE)''. The report deals with energy use and energy efficiency in Norway 1990-2000 (2001 for overall energy use). Final energy use per Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was reduced by approximately 1.9% pr year in the period 1990 to 2001. The energy efficiency improvement has been calculated to 0.6% pr year, while the role of structural changes has been 1.3% pr year. A detailed sector analysis has been done, applying Laspeyres indices to attribute changes in energy use to activity, structure or intensity (efficiency). Aggregating sectors, we have found a total efficiency improvement of approximately 11 TWh from 1990 to 2000. (author)

  9. Efficiency of Compressed Air Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Brix, Wiebke

    2011-01-01

    The simplest type of a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) facility would be an adiabatic process consisting only of a compressor, a storage and a turbine, compressing air into a container when storing and expanding when producing. This type of CAES would be adiabatic and would if the machines...... electricity storage is 25-45% and thus has a quite low efficiency, which is close to the efficiency of the simple diabatic CAES-process. Adiabatic CAES would reach significantly higher storage efficiency about 70-80%....... were reversible have a storage efficiency of 100%. However, due to the specific capacity of the storage and the construction materials the air is cooled during and after compression in practice, making the CAES process diabatic. The cooling involves exergy losses and thus lowers the efficiency...

  10. Energy Efficiency and Emissions Intensity Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fell, Harrison; Kaffine, Daniel; Steinberg, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the role of energy efficiency in rate-based emissions intensity standards, a particularly policy-relevant consideration given that the Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Power Plan allows crediting of electricity savings as a means of complying with state-specific emissions standards. We show that with perfectly inelastic energy services demand, crediting efficiency measures can recover the first-best allocation. However, when demand for energy services exhibits some elasticity, crediting energy efficiency can no longer recover first-best. While crediting removes the relative distortion between energy generation and energy efficiency, it distorts the absolute level of energy services. Building on these results, we derive the conditions determining the second-best intensity standard and crediting rule. Simulations calibrated to the electricity sector in Texas find that while some form of crediting is generally welfare-improving, the proposed one-for-one crediting of energy savings is unlikely to achieve efficient outcomes.

  11. Thrust Efficiency, Energy Efficiency, and the Role of VDF in Hall Thruster Performance Analysis (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larson, C. W; Hargus, William A; Brown, Daniel L

    2007-01-01

    ...) of the propellant jet on the conversion of anode electrical energy to jet kinetic energy. This enabled a mathematically rigorous distinction to be made between thrust efficiency and energy efficiency...

  12. Thrust Efficiency, Energy Efficiency, and the Role of VDF in Hall Thruster Performance Analysis (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larson, C. W; Hargus, William A; Brown, Daniel L

    2007-01-01

    ...) of the propellant jet on the conversion of anode electrical energy to jet kinetic energy. This enabled a mathematically rigorous distinction to be made between thrust efficiency and energy efficiency...

  13. Contracting for Efficiency: A Best Practices Guide for Energy Efficient Product Procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunch, Saralyn [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Payne, Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    The requirement to buy energy- and water-efficient products applies to federal purchases made through any procurement pathway (e.g., purchase cards, e-retailers, and solicitations) and to a wide variety of federal projects. The Federal Energy Management Program’s (FEMP's) Buy Energy-Efficient Products buyer overview fact sheet and Contracting for Efficiency best practices guide for product procurement are designed to support federal buyers in the purchase of energy- and water-efficient products.

  14. Port Efficiency and International Trade: Port Efficiency as a Determinant of Maritime Transport Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Ricardo J.; Jan Hoffmann; Alejandro Micco; Georgina V Pizzolitto; Martín Sgut; Gordon Wilmsmeier

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants of waterborne transport costs, with particular emphasis on the efficiency at port level. Its main contribution is (1) to generate statistically quantifiable measures of port efficiency from a survey of Latin American common user ports, and (2) to estimate a model of waterborne transport costs, including the previously generated port efficiency measures as explanatory variables. In order to incorporate different port efficiency measures from the survey, we ...

  15. Contracting for Efficiency. A Best Practices Guide for Energy-Efficient Product Procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunch, Saralyn [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States); Payne, Christopher [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The requirement to buy energy- and water-efficient products applies to federal purchases made through any procurement pathway (e.g., purchase cards, e-retailers, and solicitations) and to a wide variety of federal projects. The Federal Energy Management Program’s (FEMP's) Buy Energy-Efficient Products buyer overview fact sheet and Contracting for Efficiency best practices guide for product procurement are designed to support federal buyers in the purchase of energy- and water-efficient products.

  16. Interaction between output efficiency and environmental efficiency : evidence from the textile industry in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Lei; Folmer, Henk; Bu, Maoliang

    2016-01-01

    Environmental efficiency improvement has played a crucial role in the theory and practice of stimulating clean production. This paper analyzes the interaction between environmental efficiency and output efficiency, particularly whether they reinforce each other or compete with each other, on the

  17. Multi-directional efficiency analysis of efficiency patterns in Chinese banks 1997-2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmild, Mette; Matthews, Kent

    2012-01-01

    DEA-type efficiency studies are often used to investigate levels of efficiencies, differences in those levels between subgroups within a data set and possible determinants of such differences. In the current paper we show how differences in the efficiency patterns between different subgroups within...

  18. Current-flow efficiency of networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Yan, Xiaoyong

    2018-02-01

    Many real-world networks, from infrastructure networks to social and communication networks, can be formulated as flow networks. How to realistically measure the transport efficiency of these networks is of fundamental importance. The shortest-path-based efficiency measurement has limitations, as it assumes that flow travels only along those shortest paths. Here, we propose a new metric named current-flow efficiency, in which we calculate the average reciprocal effective resistance between all pairs of nodes in the network. This metric takes the multipath effect into consideration and is more suitable for measuring the efficiency of many real-world flow equilibrium networks. Moreover, this metric can handle a disconnected graph and can thus be used to identify critical nodes and edges from the efficiency-loss perspective. We further analyze how the topological structure affects the current-flow efficiency of networks based on some model and real-world networks. Our results enable a better understanding of flow networks and shed light on the design and improvement of such networks with higher transport efficiency.

  19. Error and efficiency of simulated tempering simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosta, Edina; Hummer, Gerhard

    2010-01-21

    We derive simple analytical expressions for the error and computational efficiency of simulated tempering (ST) simulations. The theory applies to the important case of systems whose dynamics at long times is dominated by the slow interconversion between two metastable states. An extension to the multistate case is described. We show that the relative gain in efficiency of ST simulations over regular molecular dynamics (MD) or Monte Carlo (MC) simulations is given by the ratio of their reactive fluxes, i.e., the number of transitions between the two states summed over all ST temperatures divided by the number of transitions at the single temperature of the MD or MC simulation. This relation for the efficiency is derived for the limit in which changes in the ST temperature are fast compared to the two-state transitions. In this limit, ST is most efficient. Our expression for the maximum efficiency gain of ST simulations is essentially identical to the corresponding expression derived by us for replica exchange MD and MC simulations [E. Rosta and G. Hummer, J. Chem. Phys. 131, 165102 (2009)] on a different route. We find quantitative agreement between predicted and observed efficiency gains in a test against ST and replica exchange MC simulations of a two-dimensional Ising model. Based on the efficiency formula, we provide recommendations for the optimal choice of ST simulation parameters, in particular, the range and number of temperatures, and the frequency of attempted temperature changes.

  20. Bank Performance and Efficiency in Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asror NIGMONOV

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of financial system in Uzbekistan over the last decade puts lots of challenging tasks for the managers of this financial institutions and regulatory bodies. These tasks on its turn demand application of new innovative approaches into the banking system. As a reflection from these issues this paper seeks to apply relatively new method of performance measurement for this country called Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. For measuring the efficiency it uses two basic DEA models under the assumptions of constant and variable returns to scale. By using these analyses it seeks to measure and break down the efficiency levels of Uzbek banks during 2004-2006. The results have shown that the overall efficiency levels of banks on average decreased during this period. Additionally, it breaks down overall efficiency level of the banks into that originating from the technical efficiency and scale efficiency. The study found that the main source of inefficiency was due to the technical efficiency. By going further the DEA analysis was able to investigate the reasons for inefficiency for each individual bank. It then compared the relative performance between the private, joint-stock and foreign banks for which no significant divergence were found. The investigation of differences between the small, medium and large banks lead to the observation of significant difference between the small and medium sized banks.

  1. SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ECO-EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana\tLUPAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current economic and social contexts have brought forth the issues regarding growth and sustainability. The concept of growth has always been linked to an increase in consumption levels, and this inevitably led to pressures on the environment and on the resources that support human activity. Given these circumstances, the question whether we can avoid an environmental disaster while maintaining economic growth, has become more stringent. We chose to approach this aspect by examining the concept of eco-efficiency, a concept that embodies aspects of both economic efficiency and environmental efficiency. Eco-efficiency can be regarded as the effectiveness with which resources are used in order to create products and services that satisfy human needs. Based on this idea, the last decade has produced an increasing number of studies on eco-efficiency and how it can be measured and implemented in the production of goods and services, but also in the field regarding demand patterns. An analysis regarding the aspects of eco-efficiency at the macro level of the Romanian economy is in line with the current environmental concerns, thus I have chosen to cover these questions, as well as the evolution of the locale economy towards a more sustainable development. The outcome of the examined aspects shows that, in spite of an increase in eco-efficiency levels, energy and material consumption and emissions have increased. This raises the question if measuring economic and environmental efficiency by reporting to the GDP value is becoming obsolete and if there is a need to revaluate eco-efficiency indicators in order to measure the transition to a greener and more sustainable development from different points of view.

  2. Calorific efficiency of bituminous coal hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, H.; Schappert, H.

    1942-02-20

    The calorific efficiency of coal hydrogenation was the relation between the calories contained in the desired final product, that is, gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (L.P.G.), and the calories contained in the coal required to produce the desired final product. A table of the efficiency of the power plant was given. Calorific efficiency of hydrogen production was then discussed, with figure 1 showing the heat flow diagram; tables 1 and 2 contained data for the coke plant and the water gas plant, respectively. Calorific efficiency of hydrogenation proper was discussed, with figure 2 showing the heat flow diagram for the production of aviation gasoline, and with the corresponding energy values given in table 3. The next topic of discussion was the possibility of increasing the calorific efficiency of total hydrogenation by: introduction of Linde process, utilization of kiln residues, introduction of paste heat exchange, and recovering the waste heat from the hot letdown and products. Table 4 gave data on the hydrogenation for aviation gasoline. The efficiency of hydrogen production was 26.3% without counting possible improvements or by-products for the process. The efficiency of the hydrogenation process itself was 49.0% for production of aviation gasoline and 51.1% for production of auto gasoline. However, for combined hydrogenation and hydrogen production, the efficiencies became 27.2% and 28.9% respectively. If all of the improvements mentioned above (including hydrogen production by Linde-process decomposition of product gases) were introduced, the efficiencies would rise to about 34.6% and 36.8%, respectively. 5 diagrams, 4 tables

  3. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, Charles; Reid, Michael; Levy, Roger; Silverstein, Alison

    2010-01-29

    This paper reviews the relationship between energy efficiency and demand response and discusses approaches and barriers to coordinating energy efficiency and demand response. The paper is intended to support the 10 implementation goals of the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency's Vision to achieve all cost-effective energy efficiency by 2025. Improving energy efficiency in our homes, businesses, schools, governments, and industries - which consume more than 70 percent of the nation's natural gas and electricity - is one of the most constructive, cost-effective ways to address the challenges of high energy prices, energy security and independence, air pollution, and global climate change. While energy efficiency is an increasingly prominent component of efforts to supply affordable, reliable, secure, and clean electric power, demand response is becoming a valuable tool in utility and regional resource plans. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) estimated the contribution from existing U.S. demand response resources at about 41,000 megawatts (MW), about 5.8 percent of 2008 summer peak demand (FERC, 2008). Moreover, FERC recently estimated nationwide achievable demand response potential at 138,000 MW (14 percent of peak demand) by 2019 (FERC, 2009).2 A recent Electric Power Research Institute study estimates that 'the combination of demand response and energy efficiency programs has the potential to reduce non-coincident summer peak demand by 157 GW' by 2030, or 14-20 percent below projected levels (EPRI, 2009a). This paper supports the Action Plan's effort to coordinate energy efficiency and demand response programs to maximize value to customers. For information on the full suite of policy and programmatic options for removing barriers to energy efficiency, see the Vision for 2025 and the various other Action Plan papers and guides available at www.epa.gov/eeactionplan.

  4. Financial Crisis and Energy Efficiency. Information paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de T' Serclaes, Philippine; Gasc, Emilien; Saussay, Aurelien

    2009-10-15

    Governments have understood the importance of financing energy efficiency now. This realisation is exemplified through the central role occupied by energy efficiency in most stimulus packages. The purpose of this memo is to identify the impact of the financial and economic crisis on the evolution of public sector investments, energy efficiency policy development, and private sector investments. The paper will first identify trends which have emerged from the implementation of IEA government stimulus packages. Most relevant case studies are then provided along with lessons and challenges.

  5. Efficient secure two-party protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Hazay, Carmit

    2010-01-01

    The authors present a comprehensive study of efficient protocols and techniques for secure two-party computation -- both general constructions that can be used to securely compute any functionality, and protocols for specific problems of interest. The book focuses on techniques for constructing efficient protocols and proving them secure. In addition, the authors study different definitional paradigms and compare the efficiency of protocols achieved under these different definitions.The book opens with a general introduction to secure computation and then presents definitions of security for a

  6. Transportation Telematics Systems Operation Efficiency Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siergiejczyk, Mirosław

    2012-03-01

    In the paper is presented a method of assessing of the exploitation efficiency of transport telematics systems. In order to obtain as an overall assessment of transport telematics systems, as the method for evaluating was accepted the multi-state analysis of the exploitation process. Then was elaborated the model of exploitation process of the telematics system. The problem of fundamental importance in the study of efficiency is to determine the partial measures of effectiveness. Using the characteristics of the exploitation process, a model of exploitation efficiency of telematics system was elaborated and the measures of its evaluation are presented.

  7. RAM-efficient external memory sorting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arge, Lars; Thorup, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    In recent years a large number of problems have been considered in external memory models of computation, where the complexity measure is the number of blocks of data that are moved between slow external memory and fast internal memory (also called I/Os). In practice, however, internal memory tim...... often dominates the total running time once I/O-efficiency has been obtained. In this paper we study algorithms for fundamental problems that are simultaneously I/O-efficient and internal memory efficient in the RAM model of computation....

  8. Efficient upconversion systems for silicon solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Löper, P.; Goldschmidt, J. C.; Peters, M.; Biner, D.; Krämer, K.; Schultz, O.; Glunz, S.W.; Luther, J.

    2007-01-01

    Frequency upconversion of sub-bandgap photons is one approach to push the efficiency limit of solar cells with one bandgap. A highly efficient upconversion system is Erbium doped NaYF4. In this paper we present photoluminescence studies on NaYF4 with 10%, 20% and 30% Erbium doping. We show experimental results of an upconversion system consisting of an upconverting powder on a bifacial silicon solar cell. The system has a quantum efficiency of 2.5·10-3% at 1520nm wavelength. We model the effi...

  9. Efficiency Tests in Foreign Exchange Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Hsien Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the paper is applying filter rules to examine the efficiency of foreign exchange. This paper uses three strategies of filter rules (buy long, sell short, buy long and sell short strategies to test the performance of the transaction for EUR, JPY, GBP. The findings show that people will obtain more return by taking buy long/ sell short strategies of filter rules without considering transaction cost. However, the transaction of these three foreign exchange rate (EUR, JPY, GBP will be more efficient by considering transaction cost. The results imply the foreign exchange market is efficient for the EUR, JPY and GBP.

  10. Melting Efficiency During Plasma Arc Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, J.C.; Evans, D. M.; Tang, W.; Nunes, A. C.

    1999-01-01

    A series of partial penetration Variable Polarity Plasma Arc welds were made at equal power but various combinations of current and voltage on 2219 aluminum. Arc Efficiency was measured calorimetrically and ranged between 48% and 66%. Melting efficiency depends on the weld pool shape. Increased current increases the melting efficiency as it increases the depth to width ratio of the weld pool. Higher currents are thought to raise arc pressure and depress the liquid at the bottom of the weld pool causing a more nearly two dimensional heat flow condition.

  11. Efficiency Versus Instability in Plasma Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, Valeri [Fermilab; Burov, Alexey [Fermilab; Nagaitsev, Sergei [Fermilab

    2017-01-05

    Plasma wake-field acceleration in a strongly nonlinear (a.k.a. the blowout) regime is one of the main candidates for future high-energy colliders. For this case, we derive a universal efficiency-instability relation, between the power efficiency and the key instability parameter of the witness bunch. We also show that in order to stabilize the witness bunch in a regime with high power efficiency, the bunch needs to have high energy spread, which is not presently compatible with collider-quality beam properties. It is unclear how such limitations could be overcome for high-luminosity linear colliders.

  12. Energy efficient lighting in the retail sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This Good Practice Guide gives details on how energy efficient lighting can be incorporated in the brief for a lighting consultant or contractor. The advantages of energy efficiency are highlighted, and the lighting of retail stores, the introduction of energy efficiency measures, and the application of good practice are discussed. Case studies of W H Smith, Cambridge, Tesco Stores, Boots plc, the Harvey Centre, Harlow, and the National Westminster Bank plc are presented. A guide for senior executives and specialists in lighting design is also included. (UK)

  13. Improving plasmonic waveguides coupling efficiency using nanoantennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andryieuski, Andrei; Malureanu, Radu; Bouillard, Jean-Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    Plasmonic waveguides bear a lot of potential for photonic applications. However, one of the challenges for implementing them in devices is the low coupling efficiency to and from optical fibers. We report on our approach to facilitate the coupling efficiency with the use of metallic nanoantennas....... The classical dipole antenna scheme can be improved by changing the nanoantenna geometry, adding constructive elements such as reflecting bars and mirrors and using arrays of antennas. The modelling designates that the coupling efficiency from a vertical fiber to a plasmonic waveguide can be improved more than...

  14. Industrial Energy Efficiency and Climate Change Mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Harnisch, Jochen

    2009-02-02

    Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through consumed electricity) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which over 80% is from energy use. Total energy-related emissions, which were 9.9 GtCO2 in 2004, have grown by 65% since 1971. Even so, industry has almost continuously improved its energy efficiency over the past decades. In the near future, energy efficiency is potentially the most important and cost-effective means for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from industry. This paper discusses the potential contribution of industrial energy efficiency technologies and policies to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions to 2030.

  15. Addressing resource efficiency through the Ecodesign Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalhammar, Carl; Machacek, Erika; Bundgaard, Anja Marie

    related to energy efficiency, but there is potential for setting legal standards that increase product durability and promote the future re-use and recycling of components and materials. This paper examines the potential benefits and disadvantages in applying the Directive for this purpose, and analyzes......The European Union has initiated a number of initiatives to improve resource efficiency in Europe. The Ecodesign Directive is one of the policy instruments that could aid the transition towards a more resource efficient economy. So far, the Directive has mainly been applied to set requirements...

  16. Energy efficiency: a recipe for success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    Produced in cooperation with ADEME and Enerdata, this report presents and evaluates energy efficiency policies and trends in about 90 countries around the world. It reviews the impact of energy efficiency measures and highlights the trends and results of their implementation. Energy efficiency is ''a low hanging fruit'' on the ''energy tree'' which can help address a number of objectives at the same time and at a low or negative cost: security of supply, environmental impacts, competitiveness, balance of trade, investment requirements, social aspects and others. Despite its significant potential for energy savings, energy efficiency is still far from realising this potential. Why? There is no single answer to this question. A meaningful response requires major research and an analytical effort.

  17. ENERGY EFFICIENT RENOVATION OF SOCIAL HOUSING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blyt, Henrik; Christiansen, Michael; Bech-Nielsen, Grith

    is out of step with modern requirements when it comes to plan arrangements, energy frame calculation, flexible building services and social challenges. It is no longer enough to focus on developing efficient products concerning energy renovation. To be able to achieve an environmental, economically...... and socially sustainable objective, which seeks towards energy efficient renovation as an overall, systemic and interdisciplinary collaboration, the construction industry needs to focus on developing, testing, evaluating and implementing tools and methods to optimize and improve processes in a value....... Secondly we present follow up methods for developing an overall future energy efficient renovation housing sector strategy. All in all, our project contributes to the building sector by testing new methods and suggesting methods for meeting challenges concerning energy efficient renovation. It also...

  18. Production Efficiency Audit on Tea Beverage Agroindustry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Adiyatna, . Marimin

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate and to apply economic efficiency performance measurement methods for tea beverage agroindustry. These measurements were based on twelve technique and economic efficiency criteria, which illustrate the condition of the processes. This illustration was able to explain the material and the energy utilization, variance of the processes and product, handling of the waste and acceptance in the market. The methodology was divided into three steps: (1 defining the technique and the economic criteria, appropriate to the circumstance of the processes, (2 state efficiency the level status, (3 evaluation and structure prioritizing of the processes improvement alternatives. The results of this work indicates that there are seven appropriate criteria. The status of the efficiency is in the medium level. The improvement priorities recommended include optimization of material and energy usage and minimization of breaktime of the critical processes

  19. Aerodynamic Efficiency Enhancements for Air Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need for aerodynamics-based efficiency enhancements for air vehicles is presented. The results of the Phase I investigation of concepts for morphing aircraft are...

  20. Aerodynamic Efficiency Enhancements for Air Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The need for aerodynamics-based efficiency enhancements for air vehicles is presented. Concepts are presented for morphing aircraft, to enable the aircraft to...

  1. Practice efficiency: the customized treatment process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Al E

    2004-05-01

    In business, operating efficiently and achieving economies of scale are goals managers continuously strive to meet. In orthodontics, achieving these goals can mean treating more patients in less time and at a lower cost but with an outcome that meets the professional standard and meets or exceeds the patient's expectations. Efficiency allows the orthodontist to maximize the return on constrained capital assets. This article presents a treatment process designed to enhance efficiency. It outlines and discusses the processes of dynamic diagnosis, customized mechanics, patient integration in the treatment, and management of expectations. These elements combine to make an integrated system of treatment. Finally, this article will discuss how efficient treatment is also cost-effective treatment and contributes to continuous profit.

  2. Metallic nanostructures for efficient LED lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, G.; Rodriguez, S. R. K.; Verschuuren, M. A.; J. Gomez Rivas,

    2016-01-01

    Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are driving a shift toward energy-efficient illumination. Nonetheless, modifying the emission intensities, colors and directionalities of LEDs in specific ways remains a challenge often tackled by incorporating secondary optical components. Metallic nanostructures

  3. From Efficient Markets Theory to Behavioral Finance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shiller, Robert J

    2003-01-01

    .... Finance literature in this decade and after suggests a more nuanced view of the value of the efficient markets theory, and, starting in the 1990s, a blossoming of research on behavioral finance...

  4. Econometric Analysis on Efficiency of Estimator

    OpenAIRE

    M Khoshnevisan; Kaymram, F.; Singh, Housila P.; Singh, Rajesh; Smarandache, Florentin

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the efficiency of an alternative to ratio estimator under the super population model with uncorrelated errors and a gamma-distributed auxiliary variable. Comparisons with usual ratio and unbiased estimators are also made.

  5. Implementing black hole as efficient power plant

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Shao-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Treating the black hole molecules as working substance and considering its phase structure, we study the black hole heat engine by a charged anti-de Sitter black hole. In the reduced temperature-entropy chart, it is found that the work, heat, and efficiency of the engine are independent of the black hole charge. Applying the Rankine cycle with or without a back pressure mechanism to the black hole heat engine, the efficiency is numerically solved. The result shows that the black hole engine working along the Rankine cycle with a back pressure mechanism has a higher efficiency. This provides a novel and efficient mechanism to produce the useful mechanical work with black hole, and such heat engine may act as a possible energy source for the high energy astrophysical phenomena near the black hole.

  6. Ecosystems Surveys Branch Gear Efficiency Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An experiment aimed at quantifying the herding efficiency of flatfish for the Northeast Fisheries Science Center (NEFSC) survey trawl bridles was conducted during...

  7. Mounting for diodes provides efficient heat sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-01-01

    Efficient heat sink is provided by soldering diodes to metal support bars which are brazed to a ceramic base. Electrical connections between diodes on adjacent bars are made flexible by metal strips which aid in heat dissipation.

  8. Travel Efficiency Assessment Method: Three Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    This slide presentation summarizes three case studies EPA conducted in partnership with Boston, Kansas City, and Tucson, to assess the potential benefits of employing travel efficiency strategies in these areas.

  9. Energy efficiency: Building labels lead to savings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, Margaret

    2017-03-01

    Various programmes have been introduced to increase energy efficiency in buildings. A study of commercial buildings in Los Angeles, USA, now finds that voluntary certification programmes have been effective at lowering energy use, bringing savings of up to 30%.

  10. Efficient Space Borne MMIC Interface Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We are proposing to develop high power, high efficiency Ka-band and W-band amplifiers for future NASA missions. The significance of the innovation primarily lies in...

  11. High Efficiency Low Scatter Echelle Grating Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A high efficiency low scatter echelle grating will be developed using a novel technique of multiple diamond shaving cuts. The grating will have mirror surfaces on...

  12. High Efficiency Solar Furnace Core Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is proposed to develop a high efficiency solar furnace core that greatly lessens the heat losses from the furnace core, either greatly reducing the amount of...

  13. Improved Efficiency Type II Second Harmonic Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Norman P.; Walsh, Brian M.; Reichle, Donald J., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Second harmonic efficiency is limited by lateral and temporal separation of the ordinary and extraordinary components of the fundamental. A mode locked dual beam laser demonstrated these effects and a novel method to minimize them.

  14. Energy Efficiency in Water and Wastewater Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Local Government Climate and Energy Strategy Series provides a comprehensive, straightforward overview of green-house gas (GHG) emissions reduction strategies for local governments. Developing and implementing energy efficiency improvements in water an

  15. Efficient 3-D Ladar Source Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the Phase I program we demonstrated the efficacy of the proposed innovation by experimentally demonstrating an improvement in slope efficiency of ~11% by changing...

  16. Evaluating architecture impact on system energy efficiency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shijie Yu; Hailong Yang; Rui Wang; Zhongzhi Luan; Depei Qian

    2017-01-01

    As the energy consumption has been surging in an unsustainable way, it is important to understand the impact of existing architecture designs from energy efficiency perspective, which is especially...

  17. Editorial: South African Guidelines Excellence (SAGE): Efficient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Editorial: South African Guidelines Excellence (SAGE): Efficient, effective and unbiased clinical practice guideline teams. Karen Grimmer, Janine Margarita Dizon, Quinette Louw, Tamara Kredo, Taryn Young, Shingai Machingaidze ...

  18. Material efficiency and the 3 Rs

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available of this chapter is to make building designers aware of how to reduce environmental impacts by improving material efficiency particularly through recycling, reuse, material substitution, maintaining existing products for longer, re-using components from unwanted...

  19. Isobars and the Efficient Market Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Kristýna Ivanková

    2010-01-01

    Isobar surfaces, a method for describing the overall shape of multidimensional data, are estimated by nonparametric regression and used to evaluate the efficiency of selected markets based on returns of their stock market indices.

  20. Energy efficient technologies for the mining industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, B.; Bamber, A.; Weatherwax, T.; Dozdiak, J.; Nadolski, S.; Roufail, R.; Parry, J.; Roufail, R.; Tong, L.; Hall, R. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Centre for Environmental Research in Minerals, Metals and Materials, Norman B. Keevil Inst. of Mining Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Mining in British Columbia is the second largest industrial electricity consumer. This presentation highlighted methods to help the mining industry reduce their energy requirements by limiting waste and improving efficiency. The measures are aimed at optimizing energy-use and efficiency in mining and processing and identifying opportunities and methods of improving this efficiency. Energy conservation in comminution and beneficiation is a primary focus of research activities at the University of British Columbia (UBC). The objective is to reduce energy usage in metal mines by 20 per cent overall. Open pit copper, gold and molybdenum mines are being targeted. Projects underway at UBC were outlined, with particular reference to energy usage, recovery and alternative energy sources; preconcentration; reducing energy usage from comminution in sorting, high pressure grinding rolls and high speed stirred mills; Hydromet; other energy efficient technologies such as control and flotation; and carbon dioxide sequestration. Studies were conducted at various mining facilities, including mines in Sudbury, Ontario. tabs., figs.

  1. Technology and cost efficiency in banking

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Günter

    1995-01-01

    Technology and cost efficiency in banking : a "thick frontier"-analysis of the German banking industry / Günter Lang and Peter Welzel. - Augsburg, 1995. - 26 S. - (Volkswirtschaftliche Diskussionsreihe ; 130)

  2. High-efficiency crystalline silicon technology development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, M. B.

    1984-01-01

    The rationale for pursuing high efficiency crystalline silicon technology research is discussed. Photovoltaic energy systems are reviewed as to their cost effectiveness and their competitiveness with other energy systems. The parameters of energy system life are listed and briefly reviewed.

  3. Moving around efficiently: Energy and transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermans L. J. F.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, transportation takes almost 20% of the total energy use, and more than half of the oil consumption. By far the largest part is used by cars powered by internal combustion engines. The reason is simple: oil and gasoline are ideal energy carriers for transportation, since their energy density is extremely high. However, in terms of energy efficiency the internal combustion engine has a poor performance: about 25% only. How does this compare with electric cars? What are the alternative transportation systems and their efficiencies anyway? In this lecture we will analyse the efficiency of various transport systems, using elementary physics principles. We will look at cars, buses, trains and TGVs, ships, aircraft and zeppelins. Also the efficiency of human powered vehicles will be considered. Special attention is given to future mobile energy carriers like hydrogen, batteries and super capacitors.

  4. Solar cell efficiency tables (version 50)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Martin A. [Australian Centre for Advanced Photovoltaics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 Australia; Hishikawa, Yoshihiro [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Research Center for Photovoltaics (RCPV), Central 2, Umezono 1-1-1, Ibaraki Tsukuba 305-8568 Japan; Warta, Wilhelm [Department: Characterisation and Simulation/CalLab Cells, Fraunhofer-Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Heidenhofstr. 2 Freiburg D-79110 Germany; Dunlop, Ewan D. [European Commission-Joint Research Centre, Directorate C-Energy, Transport and Climate, Via E. Fermi 2749 Ispra IT-21027 VA Italy; Levi, Dean H. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden CO 80401 USA; Hohl-Ebinger, Jochen [Department: Characterisation and Simulation/CalLab Cells, Fraunhofer-Institute for Solar Energy Systems, Heidenhofstr. 2 Freiburg D-79110 Germany; Ho-Baillie, Anita W. H. [Australian Centre for Advanced Photovoltaics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 Australia

    2017-06-21

    Consolidated tables showing an extensive listing of the highest independently confirmed efficiencies for solar cells and modules are presented. Guidelines for inclusion of results into these tables are outlined, and new entries since January 2017 are reviewed.

  5. Thermodynamic Efficiency of Pumped Heat Electricity Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thess, André

    2013-09-01

    Pumped heat electricity storage (PHES) has been recently suggested as a potential solution to the large-scale energy storage problem. PHES requires neither underground caverns as compressed air energy storage (CAES) nor kilometer-sized water reservoirs like pumped hydrostorage and can therefore be constructed anywhere in the world. However, since no large PHES system exists yet, and theoretical predictions are scarce, the efficiency of such systems is unknown. Here we formulate a simple thermodynamic model that predicts the efficiency of PHES as a function of the temperature of the thermal energy storage at maximum output power. The resulting equation is free of adjustable parameters and nearly as simple as the well-known Carnot formula. Our theory predicts that for storage temperatures above 400°C PHES has a higher efficiency than existing CAES and that PHES can even compete with the efficiencies predicted for advanced-adiabatic CAES.

  6. A quantitative description for efficient financial markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immonen, Eero

    2015-09-01

    In this article we develop a control system model for describing efficient financial markets. We define the efficiency of a financial market in quantitative terms by robust asymptotic price-value equality in this model. By invoking the Internal Model Principle of robust output regulation theory we then show that under No Bubble Conditions, in the proposed model, the market is efficient if and only if the following conditions hold true: (1) the traders, as a group, can identify any mispricing in asset value (even if no one single trader can do it accurately), and (2) the traders, as a group, incorporate an internal model of the value process (again, even if no one single trader knows it). This main result of the article, which deliberately avoids the requirement for investor rationality, demonstrates, in quantitative terms, that the more transparent the markets are, the more efficient they are. An extensive example is provided to illustrate the theoretical development.

  7. Efficient healthcare logistics with a human touch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Vrugt, Noëlle Maria

    2016-01-01

    Despite the long experienced urgency of rapidly increasing healthcare expenditures, there is still a large potential to improve hospitals' logistical efficiency. Operations Research (OR) methodologies may support healthcare professionals in making better decisions concerning planning and capacity

  8. Transition Towards Energy Efficient Machine Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Zein, André

    2012-01-01

    Energy efficiency represents a cost-effective and immediate strategy of a sustainable development. Due to substantial environmental and economic implications, a strong emphasis is put on the electrical energy requirements of machine tools for metalworking processes. The improvement of energy efficiency is however confronted with diverse barriers, which sustain an energy efficiency gap of unexploited potential. The deficiencies lie in the lack of information about the actual energy requirements of machine tools, a minimum energy reference to quantify improvement potential and the possible actions to improve the energy demand. Therefore, a comprehensive concept for energy performance management of machine tools is developed which guides the transition towards energy efficient machine tools. It is structured in four innovative concept modules, which are embedded into step-by-step workflow models. The capability of the performance management concept is demonstrated in an automotive manufacturing environment. The ...

  9. [Eco-efficiency of Jiaozuo industry sectors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yan-chun; Jiang, Pan; Mao, Jian-su; Xu, Lin-yu

    2011-05-01

    Jiaozuo city was taken as a representative industry city and its industry energy consumption and industry emissions such as wastewater,solid waste, SO2, dust and so on were selected as corresponding environmental loads. The contribution rate to the environmental loads and eco-efficiencies of Jiaozuo industry sectors were analyzed quantitatively. The results show that, the industry sector with the highest energy eco-efficiency is Mining and Processing of Ferrous Metal Ores (FMM), 43.19 x 10(4) yuan x tce(-1), and its contribution rate is 0.003%; the one with the highest wastewater-related eco-efficiency is Manufacture of Transport Equipment (TRM), 3.58 x 10(4) yuan x t(-1), and its contribution rate is 0.0001%; the one with the highest solid waste-related eco-efficiency is Manufacture of Special Purpose Machinery( SMM), 323.22 x 10(4) yuan x t(-1), and its contribution rate is 0.005%; the one with the highest SO2 emission-related eco-efficiency is Manufacture of Special Purpose Machinery (SMM), 19.74 x 10(4) yuan x kg(-1), and its contribution rate is 0.0001%; the one with the highest dust emission-related eco-efficiency is Manufacture of Rubber (RUM), 6.75 x 10(4) yuan x kg(-1), and its contribution rate is 0.001%. It can be seen that the industry sector with high value of eco-efficiency always contributes less to its environmental load, which results that the industry sectors with high eco-efficiencies only play a weak role in leading the overall industry eco-efficiency. A succinct distance index (SDI) was proposed to estimate the differences between Jiaozuo and China average for their eco-efficiency of every industrial sector. The values of SDI range from -1 to 63.45, and the absolute value of SDI with positive value is much greater than that with negative value, which indicates that the values of eco-efficiencies for the advanced industry sectors of Jiaozuo city are much higher than those for China's industry sectors average.

  10. Energy Efficiency Index Applied to Reactive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    P. Góes; J. Manzi

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development of an energy efficiency index that will be applied to reactive systems, which is based in the First and Second Law of Thermodynamics, by giving particular consideration to the concept of maximum entropy. Among the requirements of such energy efficiency index, the practical feasibility must be essential. To illustrate the performance of the proposed index, such an index was used as decisive factor of evaluation for the optimization process of an industrial...

  11. Energy Efficiency in Grocery Distribution in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Evaluation of the development of the energy efficiency of grocery distribution from 1960 to the present in Denmark, covering both the distribution to the shops and the shopping transport (distribution from shops to individual homes)......Evaluation of the development of the energy efficiency of grocery distribution from 1960 to the present in Denmark, covering both the distribution to the shops and the shopping transport (distribution from shops to individual homes)...

  12. A multisector model of efficiency wages

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Frank

    1999-01-01

    The pattern of effort and wages is derived in a multisector efficiency wage model. Firms choose effort endogenously. Easily monitored or low-turnover jobs have high effort and may have low wages in equilibrium. Empirical wage differentials from a measure of supervision are smaller than observed industry differentials that have been attributed to efficiency wage models and are closer to those predicted by the model. Workers can search for and avail of on-the-job offers. If sectors grow at diff...

  13. EFFICIENCY METRICS COMPUTING IN COMBINED SENSOR NETWORKS

    OpenAIRE

    Luntovskyy, Andriy; Vasyutynskyy, Volodymyr

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the computer-aided design of combined networks for offices and building automation systems based on diverse wired and wireless standards. The design requirements for these networks are often contradictive and have to consider performance, energy and cost efficiency together. For usual office communication, quality of service is more important. In the wireless sensor networks, the energy efficiency is a critical requirement to ensure their long life, to reduce maintenance ...

  14. Energy-efficient fault-tolerant systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mathew, Jimson; Pradhan, Dhiraj K

    2013-01-01

    This book describes the state-of-the-art in energy efficient, fault-tolerant embedded systems. It covers the entire product lifecycle of electronic systems design, analysis and testing and includes discussion of both circuit and system-level approaches. Readers will be enabled to meet the conflicting design objectives of energy efficiency and fault-tolerance for reliability, given the up-to-date techniques presented.

  15. The Sharpe ratio of estimated efficient portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Kourtis, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    Investors often adopt mean-variance efficient portfolios for achieving superior risk-adjusted returns. However, such portfolios are sensitive to estimation errors, which affect portfolio performance. To understand the impact of estimation errors, I develop simple and intuitive formulas of the squared Sharpe ratio that investors should expect from estimated efficient portfolios. The new formulas show that the expected squared Sharpe ratio is a function of the length of the available data, the ...

  16. Efficient Determination of Reverberation Chamber Time Constant

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xiaotian; Robinson, Martin P.; Flintoft, Ian D.; Dawson, John F.

    2017-01-01

    Determination of the rate of energy loss in a reverberation chamber is fundamental to many different measurements such as absorption cross-section, antenna efficiency, radiated power, and shielding effectiveness. Determination of the energy decay time-constant in the time domain by linear fitting the power delay profile, rather than using the frequency domain quality-factor, has the advantage of being independent of the radiation efficiency of antennas used in the measurement. However, determ...

  17. Skinner’s Concept of Efficient Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Ieda Maria Bertola Mazzo; Maura Alves Nunes Gongora

    2009-01-01

    This essay presents the results of an analysis of Skinnerian texts, developed with the aim of making explicit the criteria with which Skinner uses the term efficient to qualify behaviors. Some texts in which he uses this term were examined: those that deal with reinforcement contingencies, contingency planning and cultures’ survival. It was verified that Skinner tended to use the expression “efficient behavior” in reference to two themes: 1 – possibilities or chances of reinforcement and 2 – ...

  18. Improving efficiency of heat recovery steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V. [ABCO Industries, Abilene, TX (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Gas Turbine Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSGs) are widely used in cogeneration and combined cycle plants. Single pressure HRSGs are preferred in small capacity units, while larger units can justify multiple pressure level steam generation, which improves the efficiency of energy recovery. This paper reviews a few methods of improving the efficiency of single and multiple pressure HRSGs, which may be of interest to consultants and plant engineers, who are planning new cogeneration projects.

  19. Divestitures and the Screening of Efficiency Gains.

    OpenAIRE

    Aldo González Tissinetti

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies how the use of divestiture in merger control can affect the revelation of information about the level of efficiency gains that a proposed merger carries. We show that a decision policy that uses costly divestiture as a screening instrument presents superior results respect to a blind policy where the decision is based only on a priori beliefs about the level of efficiency gains. This new optimal policy eliminates type I error -allowing inefficient mergers- and mitigates typ...

  20. Multiresolution molecular mechanics: Implementation and efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biyikli, Emre; To, Albert C., E-mail: albertto@pitt.edu

    2017-01-01

    Atomistic/continuum coupling methods combine accurate atomistic methods and efficient continuum methods to simulate the behavior of highly ordered crystalline systems. Coupled methods utilize the advantages of both approaches to simulate systems at a lower computational cost, while retaining the accuracy associated with atomistic methods. Many concurrent atomistic/continuum coupling methods have been proposed in the past; however, their true computational efficiency has not been demonstrated. The present work presents an efficient implementation of a concurrent coupling method called the Multiresolution Molecular Mechanics (MMM) for serial, parallel, and adaptive analysis. First, we present the features of the software implemented along with the associated technologies. The scalability of the software implementation is demonstrated, and the competing effects of multiscale modeling and parallelization are discussed. Then, the algorithms contributing to the efficiency of the software are presented. These include algorithms for eliminating latent ghost atoms from calculations and measurement-based dynamic balancing of parallel workload. The efficiency improvements made by these algorithms are demonstrated by benchmark tests. The efficiency of the software is found to be on par with LAMMPS, a state-of-the-art Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation code, when performing full atomistic simulations. Speed-up of the MMM method is shown to be directly proportional to the reduction of the number of the atoms visited in force computation. Finally, an adaptive MMM analysis on a nanoindentation problem, containing over a million atoms, is performed, yielding an improvement of 6.3–8.5 times in efficiency, over the full atomistic MD method. For the first time, the efficiency of a concurrent atomistic/continuum coupling method is comprehensively investigated and demonstrated.

  1. EFFICIENT ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION - A KEY TO SUCCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Emanoil MUSCALU; Ramona TODERICIU; Lucia FRATICIU

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims to analyse organizational communication, since it is well known that the process of communication is present in all the activities of the companies. It is well known that only an efficient communication can facilitate the exercise of the functions of forecasting, organization, coordination, empowerment or control, and the participation of the members of the organization to achieving the objectives becomes possible also due to an efficient communication. Communication can be see...

  2. Current efficiency in the chlorate cell process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević Miroslav D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model has been set up for current efficiency in a chlorate cell acting as an ideal electrochemical tubular reactor with a linear increase in hypochlorite concentration from the entrance to the exit. Good agreement was found between the results on current efficiency experimentally obtained under simulated industrial chlorate production conditions and the theoretical values provided by the mathematical model. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172057 i br. 172062

  3. Evaluating baghouse systems for energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-02-01

    Energy efficiency of pulse jet baghouses may be evaluated by the magnitude of the pressure drop across the unit and the amount of cleaning energy it takes to properly clean the filter bags. The higher the pressure drop, the higher the energy consumption. Hints are given on optimum pressure drop specification, and efficient pulse system design. Proper insulation of the collector and proper flow control devices also help to conserve energy.

  4. Efficient Power Amplifier for Motor Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Pulse-width-modulated amplifier supplies high current as efficiently as low current needed for starting and running motor. Key to efficiency of motor-control amplifier is V-channel metal-oxide/semiconductor transistor Q1. Device has low saturation resistance. However, has large gate input capacitance and small margin between its turn-on voltage and maximum allowable gate-to-source voltage. Circuits for output stages overcome limitations of VMOS device.

  5. Market Efficiency in Indian Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    Sahani, Rishi

    2009-01-01

    In this era, efficient market hypothesis has become a very important theory for all the investors who wish to hold or plan to have an international diversified portfolio. As today, all the world economies and markets are globally getting connected, and investors have all the opportunities to invest internationally, so the understanding of market efficiency concept is gaining greater importance for all kinds of investors. In this research I have test the weak form hypothesis and random walk hy...

  6. Adopting Energy Efficiency in Connected Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, Dane T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kemper, Emily [CLEAResult

    2017-10-02

    This presentation on connected homes was presented at the 11th Rocky Mountain Utility Efficiency Exchange on September 28, 2017. The discussion covered the integration of energy efficiency measures and practices with Internet of Things (IoT) awareness and adoption of smart technologies and services via WiFi/ Bluetooth enabled home and office equipment. The presentation also describes the benefits to the home and business and benefits/challenges for the utility/implementer.

  7. Coping Intelligence: Efficient Life Stress Management

    OpenAIRE

    Libin, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Coping Intelligence is defined as efficient individual ways of managing life stress. This paper presents a new assessment instrument named Coping IQ (CIQ; Coping Intelligence Questionnaire). A measure is based on the Multidimensional Positive Coping Model, which includes three cross-cutting parameters that characterize coping strategy as efficient or inefficient, emotional, cognitive or behavioral, and active or passive. Results of the factor analysis verified a basic two-factor structure of ...

  8. Efficiency improvement in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Abigail J; Smith, Meghan; Langerman, Alexander

    2016-08-01

    In the changing health care environment, health systems, hospitals, and health care providers must focus on improving efficiency to meet an increasing demand for high-quality, low-cost health care. Much has been written about strategies and efforts to improve efficiency in the perioperative periods, yet the time when the patient is in the operating room-the intraoperative period-has received less attention. Yet, this is the period in which surgeons may have the most influence. Systematically review published efforts to improve intraoperative efficiency; assess the outcomes of these efforts, and propose standardized reporting of future studies. A total of 39 studies were identified that met inclusion criteria. These divided naturally into small (single operative team), medium (multi-operative team), and large (institutional) interventions. Most studies used time or money as their metric for efficiency, though others were used as well. There is substantial opportunity to enhance operating room efficiency during the intraoperative period. Surgeons may have a particular role in procedural efficiency, which has been relatively unstudied. Common themes were standardizing tasks, collecting and using actionable data, and maintaining effective team communication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Productivity benefits of industrial energy efficiency measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worrell, Ernst; Laitner, John A.; Michael, Ruth; Finman, Hodayah

    2004-08-30

    We review the relationship between energy efficiency improvement measures and productivity in industry. We review over 70 industrial case studies from widely available published databases, followed by an analysis of the representation of productivity benefits in energy modeling. We propose a method to include productivity benefits in the economic assessment of the potential for energy efficiency improvement. The case-study review suggests that energy efficiency investments can provide a significant boost to overall productivity within industry. If this relationship holds, the description of energy-efficient technologies as opportunities for larger productivity improvements has significant implications for conventional economic assessments. The paper explores the implications this change in perspective on the evaluation of energy-efficient technologies for a study of the iron and steel industry in the US. This examination shows that including productivity benefits explicitly in the modeling parameters would double the cost-effective potential for energy efficiency improvement, compared to an analysis excluding those benefits. We provide suggestions for future research in this important area.

  10. Technical Efficiency of Wet Season Melon Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananti Yekti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Melon is one of high-value horticulture commodity which is cultivated widely in Kulon Progo regency. The nature of agricultural products is heavily dependent on the season, so it causes the prices of agricultural products always fluctuated every time. In wet season the price of agricultural products tends to be more expensive. Melon cultivation in wet season provide an opportunity to earn higher profits than in the dry season. The price of agricultural products tends to be more expensive in wet season, thus melon cultivation in wet season prospectively generate high profits. In order to achieve high profitability, melon farming has to be done efficiently. Objective of this study was to 1 determined the factors that influence melon production in wet season 2 measured technical efficiency of melon farming and 3 identified the factors that influanced technical efficiency. Data collected during April – June 2014. Location determined by multistage cluster sampling. 45 samples of farmers who cultivated melon during wet season obtained based on quota sampling technique. Technical efficiency was measured using Cobb-Douglas Stochastic Frontier. The result reveals that 1 land use, quantity of seed, K fertilizer contributed significantly increasing melon production, while N fertilizer decreased melon production significantly 2 technical efficiency indeces ranged from 0.40 to 0.99, with a mean of  0.77; 3 farmer’s experience gave significant influence to technical efficiency of melon farming in wet season.

  11. Traveling-Wave Tube Efficiency Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, James A., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Traveling-wave tubes (TWT's) are used to amplify microwave communication signals on virtually all NASA and commercial spacecraft. Because TWT's are a primary power user, increasing their power efficiency is important for reducing spacecraft weight and cost. NASA Glenn Research Center has played a major role in increasing TWT efficiency over the last thirty years. In particular, two types of efficiency optimization algorithms have been developed for coupled-cavity TWT's. The first is the phase-adjusted taper which was used to increase the RF power from 420 to 1000 watts and the RF efficiency from 9.6% to 22.6% for a Ka-band (29.5 GHz) TWT. This was a record efficiency at this frequency level. The second is an optimization algorithm based on simulated annealing. This improved algorithm is more general and can be used to optimize efficiency over a frequency bandwidth and to provide a robust design for very high frequency TWT's in which dimensional tolerance variations are significant.

  12. THE EFFICIENCY OF TENNIS DOUBLES SCORING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoff Pollard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a family of scoring systems for tennis doubles for testing the hypothesis that pair A is better than pair B versus the alternative hypothesis that pair B is better than A, is established. This family or benchmark of scoring systems can be used as a benchmark against which the efficiency of any doubles scoring system can be assessed. Thus, the formula for the efficiency of any doubles scoring system is derived. As in tennis singles, one scoring system based on the play-the-loser structure is shown to be more efficient than the benchmark systems. An expression for the relative efficiency of two doubles scoring systems is derived. Thus, the relative efficiency of the various scoring systems presently used in doubles can be assessed. The methods of this paper can be extended to a match between two teams of 2, 4, 8, …doubles pairs, so that it is possible to establish a measure for the relative efficiency of the various systems used for tennis contests between teams of players.

  13. Measuring cardiac efficiency using PET/MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gullberg, Grand [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States); Aparici, Carina Mari; Brooks, Gabriel [University of California San Francisco (United States); Liu, Jing; Guccione, Julius; Saloner, David; Seo, Adam Youngho; Ordovas, Karen Gomes [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (United States)

    2015-05-18

    Heart failure (HF) is a complex syndrome that is projected by the American Heart Association to cost $160 billion by 2030. In HF, significant metabolic changes and structural remodeling lead to reduced cardiac efficiency. A normal heart is approximately 20-25% efficient measured by the ratio of work to oxygen utilization (1 ml oxygen = 21 joules). The heart requires rapid production of ATP where there is complete turnover of ATP every 10 seconds with 90% of ATP produced by mitochondrial oxidative metabolism requiring substrates of approximately 30% glucose and 65% fatty acids. In our preclinical PET/MRI studies in normal rats, we showed a negative correlation between work and the influx rate constant for 18FDG, confirming that glucose is not the preferred substrate at rest. However, even though fatty acid provides 9 kcal/gram compared to 4 kcal/gram for glucose, in HF the preferred energy source is glucose. PET/MRI offers the potential to study this maladapted mechanism of metabolism by measuring work in a region of myocardial tissue simultaneously with the measure of oxygen utilization, glucose, and fatty acid metabolism and to study cardiac efficiency in the etiology of and therapies for HF. MRI is used to measure strain and a finite element mechanical model using pressure measurements is used to estimate myofiber stress. The integral of strain times stress provides a measure of work which divided by energy utilization, estimated by the production of 11CO2 from intravenous injection of 11C-acetate, provides a measure of cardiac efficiency. Our project involves translating our preclinical research to the clinical application of measuring cardiac efficiency in patients. Using PET/MRI to develop technologies for studying myocardial efficiency in patients, provides an opportunity to relate cardiac work of specific tissue regions to metabolic substrates, and measure the heterogeneity of LV efficiency.

  14. Breeding for high water-use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, A G; Richards, R A; Rebetzke, G J; Farquhar, G D

    2004-11-01

    There is a pressing need to improve the water-use efficiency of rain-fed and irrigated crop production. Breeding crop varieties with higher water-use efficiency is seen as providing part of the solution. Three key processes can be exploited in breeding for high water-use efficiency: (i) moving more of the available water through the crop rather than it being wasted as evaporation from the soil surface or drainage beyond the root zone or being left behind in the root zone at harvest; (ii) acquiring more carbon (biomass) in exchange for the water transpired by the crop, i.e. improving crop transpiration efficiency; (iii) partitioning more of the achieved biomass into the harvested product. The relative importance of any one of these processes will vary depending on how water availability varies during the crop cycle. However, these three processes are not independent. Targeting specific traits to improve one process may have detrimental effects on the other two, but there may also be positive interactions. Progress in breeding for improved water-use efficiency of rain-fed wheat is reviewed to illustrate the nature of some of these interactions and to highlight opportunities that may be exploited in other crops as well as potential pitfalls. For C3 species, measuring carbon isotope discrimination provides a powerful means of improving water-use efficiency of leaf gas exchange, but experience has shown that improvements in leaf-level water-use efficiency may not always translate into higher crop water-use efficiency or yield. In fact, the reverse has frequently been observed. Reasons for this are explored in some detail. Crop simulation modelling can be used to assess the likely impact on water-use efficiency and yield of changing the expression of traits of interest. Results of such simulations indicate that greater progress may be achieved by pyramiding traits so that potential negative effects of individual traits are neutralized. DNA-based selection techniques may

  15. Population-weighted efficiency in transportation networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lei; Li, Ruiqi; Zhang, Jiang; Di, Zengru

    2016-05-27

    Transportation efficiency is critical for the operation of cities and is attracting great attention worldwide. Improving the transportation efficiency can not only decrease energy consumption, reduce carbon emissions, but also accelerate people's interactions, which will become more and more important for sustainable urban living. Generally, traffic conditions in less-developed countries are not so good due to the undeveloped economy and road networks, while this issue is rarely studied before, because traditional survey data in these areas are scarce. Nowadays, with the development of ubiquitous mobile phone data, we can explore the transportation efficiency in a new way. In this paper, based on users' call detailed records (CDRs), we propose an indicator named population-weighted efficiency (PWE) to quantitatively measure the efficiency of the transportation networks. PWE can provide insights into transportation infrastructure development, according to which we identify dozens of inefficient routes at both the intra- and inter-city levels, which are verified by several ongoing construction projects in Senegal. In addition, we compare PWE with excess commuting indices, and the fitting result of PWE is better than excess commuting index, which also proves the validity of our method.

  16. Simplified method for calculating SNCR system efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pronobis Marek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available SNCR (Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction technology is aimed at reducing NOx emissions. SNCR efficiency is appropriately high only for the reaction temperature range called ‘the SNCR temperature window’. It is a narrow temperature range defined in various ways in the literature, which makes it difficult to evaluate the DeNOx system’s efficiency. Therefore, this study attempts to approximate the relationship between SNCR system efficiency and the flue gas temperature. The approximation was performed on the basis of literature data and verified using data from an experiment. Measurements were performed in a Polish boiler with a maximum continuous rating of 230 t/h. The verified, evaluated function could be used to forecast efficiency of SNCR systems in existing units that use urea or ammonia as a reagent. The approximation results are polynomial functions that depend on flue gas temperature, which fit the literature data with the coefficient of determination R2 = 0.83-0.86. Therefore, these equations could be used by the designer or operator of the boiler for preliminary determination of current SNCR system efficiency.

  17. Efficiency and productivity of hospitals in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thuy Linh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the relative efficiency and productivity of hospitals during the health reform process. Data envelopment analyses method (DEA) with the input-oriented variable-returns-to-scale model was used to calculate efficiency scores. Malmquist total factor productivity index approach was then employed to calculate productivity of hospitals. Data of 101 hospitals was extracted from databases of the Ministry of Health, Vietnam from the years 1998 to 2006. There was evidence of improvement in overall technical efficiency from 65 per cent in 1998 to 76 per cent in 2006. Hospitals' productivity progressed around 1.4 per cent per year, which was mainly due to the technical efficiency improvement. Furthermore, provincial hospitals were more technically efficient than their central counterparts and hospitals located in different regions performed differently. The paper provides an insight in the performance of Vietnamese public hospitals that has been rarely examined before and contributes to the existing literature of hospital performance in developing countries

  18. Typology of efficiency of functioning of enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Svitlyshyn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Measuring and estimation of the efficiency of functioning of enterprises of agrarian sector traditionally performed by applying only some of its types, which focuses mainly on operating activity. Investment and financial activity, as inalienable constituent of economic process of enterprise, remain regardless thus. In addition, in scientific literature and practical activity to research of efficiency focuses on the stages «production-exchange». The stages of «distribution» and «consumption» at the level of enterprise are not examined. This distorts the results of measuring and estimation of efficiency and makes uneffective proposals for its growth. Coming from what, approach is worked out to determination and systematization of basic types of efficiency of functioning of enterprises of agrarian sector. Approach is based on the offered model, that system represents all stages and types of economic activity of the enterprise. The basic lines of efficiency are interpreted on every stage and in the cut of types of economic activity of enterprise. It allows to provide a complexity and system during its measuring and estimation.

  19. Skinner’s Concept of Efficient Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieda Maria Bertola Mazzo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents the results of an analysis of Skinnerian texts, developed with the aim of making explicit the criteria with which Skinner uses the term efficient to qualify behaviors. Some texts in which he uses this term were examined: those that deal with reinforcement contingencies, contingency planning and cultures’ survival. It was verified that Skinner tended to use the expression “efficient behavior” in reference to two themes: 1 – possibilities or chances of reinforcement and 2 – cultural behavior and cultural survival. In the first case, he uses the term to qualify: operant responses, specific operant response classes and special behavior repertoire that present more probability of producing environmental reinforcing consequences. In the second case, efficient behavior not only produces reinforcing consequences, but also socially relevant cultural consequences. It was observed that the criteria made explicit here constitute part of the arguments with which Skinner defends contingency planning as the one way of assuring the learning of efficient human behavior.   Keywords: B. F. Skinner; efficient behavior; reinforcement chances; cultural behavior.

  20. Population-weighted efficiency in transportation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Lei; Li, Ruiqi; Zhang, Jiang; di, Zengru

    2016-05-01

    Transportation efficiency is critical for the operation of cities and is attracting great attention worldwide. Improving the transportation efficiency can not only decrease energy consumption, reduce carbon emissions, but also accelerate people’s interactions, which will become more and more important for sustainable urban living. Generally, traffic conditions in less-developed countries are not so good due to the undeveloped economy and road networks, while this issue is rarely studied before, because traditional survey data in these areas are scarce. Nowadays, with the development of ubiquitous mobile phone data, we can explore the transportation efficiency in a new way. In this paper, based on users’ call detailed records (CDRs), we propose an indicator named population-weighted efficiency (PWE) to quantitatively measure the efficiency of the transportation networks. PWE can provide insights into transportation infrastructure development, according to which we identify dozens of inefficient routes at both the intra- and inter-city levels, which are verified by several ongoing construction projects in Senegal. In addition, we compare PWE with excess commuting indices, and the fitting result of PWE is better than excess commuting index, which also proves the validity of our method.

  1. Influence of propulsion efficiency on contrail formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, U.

    2000-09-01

    Aircraft cause contrails when flying in an atmosphere colder than a threshold temperature which depends on the overall efficiency {eta} of propulsion of the aircraft/engine combination. Higher {eta} causes contrails at higher ambient temperatures and over a larger range of flight altitudes. The ratio of temperature increase relative to moisture increase in engine plumes is lower for engines with higher {eta}. Thermodynamic arguments are given for this fact and measurements and observations are reported which support the validity of the given criterion. The measurements include contrail observations for identified aircraft flying at ambient temperature and humidity conditions measured with high precision in-situ instruments, measurements of the temperature and humidity increases in an aircraft exhaust plume, and an observation of contrail formation behind two different four-engine jet aircraft with different engines flying wing by wing. The observations show that an altitude range exists in which the aircraft with high efficiency causes contrails while the other aircraft with lower efficiency causes none. Aircraft with more efficient propulsion cause contrails more frequently. The climatic impact depends on the relative importance of increased contrail frequency and reduced carbon dioxide emissions for increased efficiency, and on other parameters, and has not yet been quantified. (author)

  2. Average neutron detection efficiency for DEMON detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S.; Lin, W.; Rodrigues, M. R. D.; Huang, M.; Wada, R.; Liu, X.; Zhao, M.; Jin, Z.; Chen, Z.; Keutgen, T.; Kowalski, S.; Hagel, K.; Barbui, M.; Bonasera, A.; Bottosso, C.; Materna, T.; Natowitz, J. B.; Qin, L.; Sahu, P. K.; Schmidt, K. J.; Wang, J.

    2013-05-01

    The neutron detection efficiency of a DEMON detector, averaged over the whole volume, was calculated using GEANT and applied to determine neutron multiplicities in an intermediate heavy ion reaction. When a neutron source is set at a distance of about 1 m from the front surface of the detector, the average efficiency, ɛav, is found to be significantly lower (20-30%) than the efficiency measured at the center of the detector, ɛ0. In the GEANT simulation the ratio R=ɛav/ɛ0 was calculated as a function of neutron energy. The experimental central efficiency multiplied by R was then used to determine the average efficiency. The results were applied to a study of the 64Zn+112Sn reaction at 40 A MeV which employed 16 DEMON detectors. The neutron multiplicity was extracted using a moving source fit. The derived multiplicities are compared well with those determined using the neutron ball in the NIMROD detector array in a separate experiment. Both are in good agreement with multiplicities predicted by a transport model calculation using an antisymmetric molecular dynamics (AMD) model code.

  3. Efficiently generate steam from cogeneration plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganapathy, V. [ABCO Industries, Abilene, TX (United States)

    1997-05-01

    As cogeneration gets more popular, some plants have two choices of equipment for generating steam. Plant engineers need to have a decision chart to split the duty efficiently between (oil-fired or gas-fired) steam generators (SGs) and heat recovery steam generators (HRSGs) using the exhaust from gas turbines. Underlying the dilemma is that the load-versus-efficiency characteristics of both types of equipment are different. When the limitations of each type of equipment and its capability are considered, analysis can come up with several selection possibilities. It is almost always more efficient to generate steam in an HRSG (designed for firing) as compared with conventional steam generators. However, other aspects, such as maintenance, availability of personnel, equipment limitations and operating costs, should also be considered before making a final decision. Loading each type of equipment differently also affects the overall efficiency or the fuel consumption. This article describes the performance aspects of representative steam generators and gas turbine HRSGs and suggests how plant engineers can generate steam efficiently. It also illustrates how to construct a decision chart for a typical installation. The equipment was picked arbitrarily to show the method. The natural gas fired steam generator has a maximum capacity of 100,000 lb/h, 400-psig saturated steam, and the gas-turbine-exhaust HRSG has the same capacity. It is designed for supplementary firing with natural gas.

  4. Novel Nanophosphors for High Efficiency Fluorescent Lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alok M. Srivastava

    2005-09-30

    This is the Yearly Report of the Novel Nanophosphors for High Efficiency Fluorescent Lamps, Department of Energy (DOE). The overall goal of this three-year program is to develop novel hybrid phosphors by coating commercially available lamp phosphors with highly stable wide band-gap nanocrystalline phosphors (NCP). The novel hybrid phosphors will increase the efficiency of the fluorescent lamps by up to 32%, enabling total energy savings of 0.26 quads, the reduction in the U.S. energy bill by $6.5 billion and the reduction of the annual carbon emission by 4.1 billion kilogram. The prime technical approach is the development of NCP quantum-splitting phosphor (QSP) and ultra-violet emitting phosphors with quantum efficiencies exceeding that of the conventional phosphors at 185 nm. Our chief achievement, during the current contract period, pertains to the successful synthesis and characterization of coated phosphors. We demonstrated several synthesis techniques for the coating of micron sized commercial phosphors with quantum-splitting and UV emitting nanophosphors. We have also continued our fundamental investigations into the physical processes that determine the quantum efficiency of the nanophosphors and this has further helped codify a set of rules for the host lattice that support efficient quantum splitting and UV emission at room temperature. In this report we summarize the technical work completed under the Program, summarize our findings about the performance limits of the various technologies we investigated, and outline promising paths for future work.

  5. Highly efficient, gearless drive; Hocheffizienter, getriebeloser Antrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niederer, R.

    2004-07-01

    Highly efficient, gearless variable-speed drive systems for low-speed applications have been developed. These systems consist of an inverter with active switches (IGBTs, MOSFETs, resp.) and a synchronous machine excited with permanent magnets. Therefore, these systems can be used for drive as well as for generator applications. They operate very efficiently since a gearbox is obsolete, furthermore weight, dimensions, noise and maintenance can be reduced. The inverter controllers do not require any speed sensors, thus reliability is increased and costs are decreased. Application for low-speed variable-speed drive systems can be found in industrial applications, cable railways or wind turbines. Both systems have been optimized in several iterative loops, in what regards overall efficiency and material expenditure. For both systems, prototypes have been developed and tested. Both prototypes performed reliably and fulfilled the expectations. The high power system (1200 kW, 20 rpm) operated at rated load with an overall efficiency of 93.1%, the lower power system (3 kW, 60 rpm) with an overall efficiency of 85%. Thus the losses of these new systems are at rated load about 4% lower compared to conventional drive systems equipped with a mechanical gearbox. (author)

  6. Energy Efficiency Plan 2009-2012; Energie Efficiency Plan 2009-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meulen, M.M.W. (ed.)

    2009-02-15

    The aim of the Energy Efficiency Plan is to give an overview of the energy conservation plans of the Eindhoven University of Technology in Eindhoven, Netherlands, which must result in efficient use of energy conform the long-range agreements between businesses, industry and organizations and the Dutch government to improve energy efficiency (MJA3) [Dutch] Het doel van het EEP (Energie Efficiency Plan) is het in beeld brengen van de energiebesparingsplannen die leiden tot een efficienter gebruik van energie conform de MJA-3 afspraak (de derde Meerjaren Afspraak)

  7. Efficiency analysis system of material management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogusław Śliwczyński

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Significant scope of enterprise's efficiency management is improving of material management process both the strategic and operational level. The complexity of material flow processes can lead to a threat such as distraction and disintegration of analysis focusing on many different factors influenced on effective sourcing and procurement management, transport and warehousing processes, inventory management, working capital and cash flow management. Material and methods: The presented article focuses on multidimensional and multi-criteria analysis of material management efficiency that is considered as decision support system. Authors have presented results of the research regarding ineffective material management confirm insufficient analytical supporting in various decisions of procurement operations. Results and conclusions: Based on research results authors presented in the article model of efficiency analysis system of material management.

  8. The Study on Energy Efficiency in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinduo

    This paper is dedicated to explore the dynamic performance of energy efficiency in Africa, with panel data in country level, taking energy yield, power consumption, electricity transmission and distribution losses into account, the paper employ stochastic frontier mode,highlighting a dummy variable in energy output in terms of net imports of energy and power, which minify the deviation of estimated variables. The results show that returns of scale did not appear in energy and power industry in Africa, electricity transmission and distribution losses contribute most to GDP per unit of energy. In country level, Republic of Congo and Botswana suggest an obvious energy efficiency advantage. Energy efficiency in Mozambique and Democratic Republic of Congo are not very satisfying during the studying year

  9. Energy efficient thermal management of data centers

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Pramod

    2012-01-01

    Energy Efficient Thermal Management of Data Centers examines energy flow in today's data centers. Particular focus is given to the state-of-the-art thermal management and thermal design approaches now being implemented across the multiple length scales involved. The impact of future trends in information technology hardware, and emerging software paradigms such as cloud computing and virtualization, on thermal management are also addressed. The book explores computational and experimental characterization approaches for determining temperature and air flow patterns within data centers. Thermodynamic analyses using the second law to improve energy efficiency are introduced and used in proposing improvements in cooling methodologies. Reduced-order modeling and robust multi-objective design of next generation data centers are discussed. This book also: Provides in-depth treatment of energy efficiency ideas based on  fundamental heat transfer, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics, controls, and computer science Focus...

  10. Electromagnetic Shielding Efficiency Measurement of Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dřínovský, J.; Kejík, Z.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the theoretical and practical aspects of the shielding efficiency measurements of construction composite materials. This contribution describes an alternative test method of these measurements by using the measurement circular flange. The measured results and parameters of coaxial test flange are also discussed. The measurement circular flange is described by measured scattering parameters in the frequency range from 9 kHz up to 1 GHz. The accuracy of the used shielding efficiency measurement method was checked by brass calibration ring. The suitability of the coaxial test setup was also checked by measurements on the EMC test chamber. This data was compared with the measured data on the real EMC chamber. The whole measurement of shielding efficiency was controlled by the program which runs on a personal computer. This program was created in the VEE Pro environment produced by © Agilent Technology.

  11. Energy-Efficiency in Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saldaña Cercos, Silvia

    This thesis expands the state-of-the-art on the complex problem of implementing energy efficient optical networks. The main contribution of this Ph.D. thesis is providing a holistic approach in a multi-layered manner where different tools are used to tackle the urgent need of both estimating...... with current traffic demands and this dissertation tackles the trade-off between energy efficiency and quality of service in terms of latency. Another important contribution of this thesis is the novel mixed integer linear programing (MILP) formulation for internet protocol (IP) over wavelength division...... with parallel optics and WDM systems is reported. These results show the trade-off between increased capacity and both power consumption and system performance. In conclusion, an energy-efficient set of tools has been provided covering different aspects of the telecommunication network resulting in a cohesive...

  12. Metamaterial-Inspired Efficient Electrically Small Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erentok, Aycan; Ziolkowski, R. W.

    2008-01-01

    Planar two-dimensional (2D) and volumetric three-dimensional (3D) metamaterial-inspired efficient electrically-small antennas that are easy to design; are easy and inexpensive to build; and are easy to test; are reported, i.e., the EZ antenna systems. The proposed 2D and 3D electrical- and magnetic......-based EZ antennas are shown to be naturally matched to a 50 source, i.e., without the introduction of a matching network. It is demonstrated numerically that these EZ antennas have high radiation efficiencies with very good impedance matching between the source and the antenna and, hence, that they have...... high overall efficiencies. The reported 2D and 3D EZ antenna designs are linearly scalable to a wide range of frequencies and yet maintain their easy-to-build characteristics. Several versions of the 2D EZ antennas were fabricated and tested. The measurement results confirm the performance predictions...

  13. Panel discussion: Gas emissions with diesel efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, J. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The second of three papers in the panel discussion outlined the characteristics of spark-ignited natural gas (SING) engines. Currently, the SING engine is considered less efficient than a diesel engine because of the reduced compression ratio, the use of air-throttles, retarded ignition for low NOx, and increased heat transfer. To improve upon these characteristics and to make the SING engine equal to, or even surpass the diesel engine in efficiency, more research work needs to be done on advanced controls. These include (knock, misfire, humidity detection), various ignition enhancements (variable energy/gap plug, long-life plug, laser ignition), and possibly camless operation (cylinder deactivation, throttleless operation). The late-cycle High Pressure Gas Injection (LaCHIP) as an alternate means of improving the efficiency of natural gas engines was also described.

  14. Large Efficient Intelligent Heating Relay Station System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C. Z.; Wei, X. G.; Wu, M. Q.

    2017-12-01

    The design of large efficient intelligent heating relay station system aims at the improvement of the existing heating system in our country, such as low heating efficiency, waste of energy and serious pollution, and the control still depends on the artificial problem. In this design, we first improve the existing plate heat exchanger. Secondly, the ATM89C51 is used to control the whole system and realize the intelligent control. The detection part is using the PT100 temperature sensor, pressure sensor, turbine flowmeter, heating temperature, detection of user end liquid flow, hydraulic, and real-time feedback, feedback signal to the microcontroller through the heating for users to adjust, realize the whole system more efficient, intelligent and energy-saving.

  15. Evaluating efficiency in the Brazilian trucking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the issue of efficiency in the Brazilian motor carrier industry using both DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis and SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis in a complimentary fashion. The study is based on secondary data collected from Transporte Moderno/Maiores e Melhores, a specialized magazine that annually reports statistics on the largest Brazilian trucking companies. Results corroborate not only that increasing returns to scale prevail within this industry, but also provide support for a moderate impact of economies of scope on efficiency levels. Implications in terms of mergers and acquisitions and the impact of cargo diversity and the geographical scope of the operation on virtual efficiency levels are also addressed.

  16. Evaluating efficiency in the Brazilian trucking industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fernandes Wanke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the issue of efficiency in the Brazilian motor carrier industry using both DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis and SFA (Stochastic Frontier Analysis in a complimentary fashion. The study is based on secondary data collected from Transporte Moderno/Maiores e Melhores, a specialized magazine that annually reports statistics on the largest Brazilian trucking companies. Results corroborate not only that increasing returns to scale prevail within this industry, but also provide support for a moderate impact of economies of scope on efficiency levels. Implications in terms of mergers and acquisitions and the impact of cargo diversity and the geographical scope of the operation on virtual efficiency levels are also addressed.

  17. Energy and bandwidth-efficient wireless transmission

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Wei

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces key modulation and predistortion techniques for approaching energy and spectrum-efficient transmission for wireless communication systems. The book presents a combination of theoretical principles, practical implementations, and actual tests. It focuses on spectrum-efficient modulation and energy-efficient transmission techniques in the portable wireless communication systems, and introduces currently developed and designed RF transceivers in the latest wireless markets. Most materials, design examples, and design strategies used are based on the author’s two decades of work in the digital communication fields, especially in the areas of the digital modulations, demodulations, digital signal processing, and linearization of power amplifiers. The applications of these practical products and equipment cover the satellite communications on earth station systems, microwave communication systems, 2G GSM and 3G WCDMA mobile communication systems, and 802.11 WLAN systems.

  18. An inherent instability of efficient markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzelt, Felix; Pawelzik, Klaus

    2013-09-27

    Speculative markets are often described as "informationally efficient" such that predictable price changes are eliminated by traders exploiting them, leaving only residual unpredictable fluctuations. This classical view of markets operating close to an equilibrium is challenged by extreme price fluctuations which occur far more frequently than can be accounted for by external news. Here we show that speculative markets which absorb self-generated information can exhibit both: evolution towards efficient equilibrium states as well as their subsequent destabilisation. We introduce a minimal agent-based market model where the impacts of trading strategies naturally adapt according to their success. This implements a learning rule for the whole market minimising predictable price changes, and an extreme succeptibility at the point of perfect balance. The model quantitatively reproduces real heavy-tailed log return distributions and volatility clusters. Our results demonstrate that market instabilities can be a consequence of the very mechanisms that lead to market efficiency.

  19. ECO-EFFICIENCY INDICATORS’ EVOLUTION IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia CAMASOIU

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of improving the environmental performance and of integrating the environmental protection policies in long-term strategies, the practical interest has increased for identifying, selecting and building the most expressive eco-efficiency indicators. The paper analyses the basic performance indicators for environment at micro-economic level, which might show progress on the sustainable development road. The study of the eco-efficiency was developed based on a financing pilot study of urban infrastructure investments in Calarasi county for a municipal association. The main objective was to improve gas and sewerage systems for four localities (Calarasi, Oltenita, Lehliu Gara and Budesti under the conditions of improving the economic and ecological efficiency of the proposed project.

  20. Methodologies for high efficiency perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nam-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Since the report on long-term durable solid-state perovskite solar cell in 2012, perovskite solar cells based on lead halide perovskites having organic cations such as methylammonium CH3NH3PbI3 or formamidinium HC(NH2)2PbI3 have received great attention because of superb photovoltaic performance with power conversion efficiency exceeding 22 %. In this review, emergence of perovskite solar cell is briefly introduced. Since understanding fundamentals of light absorbers is directly related to their photovoltaic performance, opto-electronic properties of organo lead halide perovskites are investigated in order to provide insight into design of higher efficiency perovskite solar cells. Since the conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cell is found to depend significantly on perovskite film quality, methodologies for fabricating high quality perovskite films are particularly emphasized, including various solution-processes and vacuum deposition method.

  1. Highly efficient electrocaloric cooling with electrostatic actuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rujun; Zhang, Ziyang; Tong, Kwing; Huber, David; Kornbluh, Roy; Ju, Yongho Sungtaek; Pei, Qibing

    2017-09-01

    Solid-state refrigeration offers potential advantages over traditional cooling systems, but few devices offer high specific cooling power with a high coefficient of performance (COP) and the ability to be applied directly to surfaces. We developed a cooling device with a high intrinsic thermodynamic efficiency using a flexible electrocaloric (EC) polymer film and an electrostatic actuation mechanism. Reversible electrostatic forces reduce parasitic power consumption and allow efficient heat transfer through good thermal contacts with the heat source or heat sink. The EC device produced a specific cooling power of 2.8 watts per gram and a COP of 13. The new cooling device is more efficient and compact than existing surface-conformable solid-state cooling technologies, opening a path to using the technology for a variety of practical applications.

  2. PRODUCT EFFICIENCY IN THE SPANISH AUTOMOBILE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates product efficiency in the Spanish automobile market. We use non parametric frontier techniques in order to estimate product efficiency scores for each model. These scores reflect the minimum price for which each car could be sold, given the bundle of tangible features it offers in comparison to the best-buy models. Unlike previous research, we use discounted prices which have been adjusted by car dealerships to meet sale targets. Therefore, we interpret the efficiency scores as indicators of the value of the intangible features of the brand. The results show that Audi, Volvo, Volkswagen and Mercedes offer the greatest intangible value, since they are heavily overpriced in terms of price/product ratios. Conversely, Seat, Kia, Renault and Dacia are the brands that can be taken as referent in terms of price/product ratios.

  3. Market efficiency in foreign exchange markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Gabjin; Kim, Seunghwan; Eom, Cheoljun

    2007-08-01

    We investigate the relative market efficiency in financial market data, using the approximate entropy(ApEn) method for a quantification of randomness in time series. We used the global foreign exchange market indices for 17 countries during two periods from 1984 to 1998 and from 1999 to 2004 in order to study the efficiency of various foreign exchange markets around the market crisis. We found that on average, the ApEn values for European and North American foreign exchange markets are larger than those for African and Asian ones except Japan. We also found that the ApEn for Asian markets increased significantly after the Asian currency crisis. Our results suggest that the markets with a larger liquidity such as European and North American foreign exchange markets have a higher market efficiency than those with a smaller liquidity such as the African and Asian markets except Japan.

  4. Complexity-aware high efficiency video coding

    CERN Document Server

    Correa, Guilherme; Agostini, Luciano; Cruz, Luis A da Silva

    2016-01-01

    This book discusses computational complexity of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) encoders with coverage extending from the analysis of HEVC compression efficiency and computational complexity to the reduction and scaling of its encoding complexity. After an introduction to the topic and a review of the state-of-the-art research in the field, the authors provide a detailed analysis of the HEVC encoding tools compression efficiency and computational complexity.  Readers will benefit from a set of algorithms for scaling the computational complexity of HEVC encoders, all of which take advantage from the flexibility of the frame partitioning structures allowed by the standard.  The authors also provide a set of early termination methods based on data mining and machine learning techniques, which are able to reduce the computational complexity required to find the best frame partitioning structures. The applicability of the proposed methods is finally exemplified with an encoding time control system that emplo...

  5. Addressing resource efficiency through the Ecodesign Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalhammar, Carl Johan; Machacek, Erika; Bundgaard, Anja

    related to energy efficiency, but there is potential for setting legal standards that increase product durability and promote the future re-use and recycling of components and materials. This paper examines the potential benefits and disadvantages in applying the Directive for this purpose, and analyzes......The European Union has initiated a number of initiatives to improve resource efficiency in Europe. The Ecodesign Directive is one of the policy instruments that could aid the transition towards a more resource efficient economy. So far, the Directive has mainly been applied to set requirements...... the potential to apply certain types of legal standards. There is a need for continuous development of indicators and methods in order to allow for a broader range of legal standards in the future. The study provides some short and long term recommendations on the way forward....

  6. Efficiency gain from elastic optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morea, Annalisa; Rival, Olivier

    2011-12-01

    We compare the cost-efficiency of optical networks based on mixed datarates (10, 40, 100Gb/s) and datarateelastic technologies. A European backbone network is examined under various traffic assumptions (volume of transported data per demand and total number of demands) to better understand the impact of traffic characteristics on cost-efficiency. Network dimensioning is performed for static and restorable networks (resilient to one-link failure). In this paper we will investigate the trade-offs between price of interfaces, reach and reconfigurability, showing that elastic solutions can be more cost-efficient than mixed-rate solutions because of the better compatibility between different datarates, increased reach of channels and simplified wavelength allocation.

  7. Malmquist Productivity Index on Efficiency Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rezai balf ∗

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA, a popular linear programming technique is useful to rate comparatively operational effiency of decision Making Unit (DMU based on the their deterministic inputoutput data. The Malmquist productivity index in DEA, calculable with the distance function, for measurement the productivity change among two variant time period or two variant group in the same time. This index is based on two factor of efficiency change index and a technological change index. In this paper, we operate on the collective Malmquist productivity index, which performs clustering operation DMUs with classification into different levels of efficient frontier, and then we discuss on the relation between Malmquist index on the efficiency layers and their attractiveness and progress

  8. Appliance Efficiency Standards and Price Discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spurlock, Cecily Anna [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-08

    I explore the effects of two simultaneous changes in minimum energy efficiency and ENERGY STAR standards for clothes washers. Adapting the Mussa and Rosen (1978) and Ronnen (1991) second-degree price discrimination model, I demonstrate that clothes washer prices and menus adjusted to the new standards in patterns consistent with a market in which firms had been price discriminating. In particular, I show evidence of discontinuous price drops at the time the standards were imposed, driven largely by mid-low efficiency segments of the market. The price discrimination model predicts this result. On the other hand, in a perfectly competition market, prices should increase for these market segments. Additionally, new models proliferated in the highest efficiency market segment following the standard changes. Finally, I show that firms appeared to use different adaptation strategies at the two instances of the standards changing.

  9. Technology Development for High Efficiency Optical Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, William H.

    2012-01-01

    Deep space optical communications is a significantly more challenging operational domain than near Earth space optical communications, primarily due to effects resulting from the vastly increased range between transmitter and receiver. The NASA Game Changing Development Program Deep Space Optical Communications Project is developing four key technologies for the implementation of a high efficiency telecommunications system that will enable greater than 10X the data rate of a state-of-the-art deep space RF system (Ka-band) for similar transceiver mass and power burden on the spacecraft. These technologies are a low mass spacecraft disturbance isolation assembly, a flight qualified photon counting detector array, a high efficiency flight laser amplifier and a high efficiency photon counting detector array for the ground-based receiver.

  10. Information technology applications in improving energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M.; Heine, P. (Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Power systems, Espoo (Finland)); Koski, P. (Motiva, Helsinki (Finland)), email: pertti.koski@motiva.fi

    2009-07-01

    The goal of the project was to study how the different statistical analysis and optimization methods can be applied in the data obtained from data systems and energy measurement databases, in order to increase the energy efficiency in small and medium size industry, in commercial and public sector and in households. The project had two subtasks: (1) Development of analysis techniques and their applications in kWh-metering databases, combined with data from various other databases, like customer data bases, data bases of building authorities etc. The aim is to identify the key technologies of energy efficiency, and their potential. (2) Development of business models for energy saving activities: How to find motivation for increasing energy efficiency, howto divide benefits, how to divide activities between different parties. (orig.)

  11. Efficient Reanalysis Procedures in Structural Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amir, Oded

    This thesis examines efficient solution procedures for the structural analysis problem within topology optimization. The research is motivated by the observation that when the nested approach to structural optimization is applied, most of the computational effort is invested in repeated solutions...... effort invested in the solution of the nested problem is even more dominant since nonlinear equation systems are to be solved repeatedly. Efficient procedures for nonlinear structural analysis are proposed, based on transferring solutions and factorized tangent stiffnesses from one design cycle...... is on the utilization of various approximations to the solution of the analysis problem, where the underlying model corresponds to linear elasticity. For computational environments that enable the direct solution of large linear equation systems using matrix factorization, we propose efficient procedures based...

  12. A Look at Efficiency in Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Manzoor

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the imperatives of public administration is the achievement of efficiency at all levels. Public organizations are responsible to provide the necessary public goods and services to the citizens but that too without any discrimination specifically based on affordability. Hence, the multidimensional objectives of public administration demand that performance not only is limited to mere cost–benefit analysis but also incorporates the essential element of providing value to citizens. In the present era where scarce resources have become even scarcer, it is important to visit the historic viewpoints on efficiency in public administration and attempt to foresee its future. This article looks into efficiency as defined in public administration over the years and attempts to predict its meaning and role in the future of the field. It is predicted that advancement in technology will have tremendous impact that will influence the evolution of public administration as a dynamic field.

  13. Conditional Probability Modulates Visual Search Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan eCort

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of probability on visual search. Previous work has shown that people can utilize spatial and sequential probability information to improve target detection. We hypothesized that performance improvements from probability information would extend to the efficiency of visual search. Our task was a simple visual search in which the target was always present among a field of distractors, and could take one of two colors. The absolute probability of the target being either color was 0.5; however, the conditional probability – the likelihood of a particular color given a particular combination of two cues – varied from 0.1 to 0.9. We found that participants searched more efficiently for high conditional probability targets and less efficiently for low conditional probability targets, but only when they were explicitly informed of the probability relationship between cues and target color.

  14. Sampling efficiency of the Moore egg collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Thomas A.; Brewer, Shannon K.; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Mueller, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative studies focusing on the collection of semibuoyant fish eggs, which are associated with a pelagic broadcast-spawning reproductive strategy, are often conducted to evaluate reproductive success. Many of the fishes in this reproductive guild have suffered significant reductions in range and abundance. However, the efficiency of the sampling gear used to evaluate reproduction is often unknown and renders interpretation of the data from these studies difficult. Our objective was to assess the efficiency of a modified Moore egg collector (MEC) using field and laboratory trials. Gear efficiency was assessed by releasing a known quantity of gellan beads with a specific gravity similar to that of eggs from representatives of this reproductive guild (e.g., the Arkansas River Shiner Notropis girardi) into an outdoor flume and recording recaptures. We also used field trials to determine how discharge and release location influenced gear efficiency given current methodological approaches. The flume trials indicated that gear efficiency ranged between 0.0% and 9.5% (n = 57) in a simple 1.83-m-wide channel and was positively related to discharge. Efficiency in the field trials was lower, ranging between 0.0% and 3.6%, and was negatively related to bead release distance from the MEC and discharge. The flume trials indicated that the gellan beads were not distributed uniformly across the channel, although aggregation was reduced at higher discharges. This clustering of passively drifting particles should be considered when selecting placement sites for an MEC; further, the use of multiple devices may be warranted in channels with multiple areas of concentrated flow.

  15. Efficient power combiner for THz radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamide Seidfaraji

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most dangerous explosive materials, both toxic and radioactive, contain nitrogen salts with resonant absorption lines in the frequency range 0.3-10 THz. Therefore, there has been growing interest in remotely detecting such materials by observing the spectrum of reflected signals when the suspicious material is interrogated by THz radiation. Practical portable THz sources available today generate only 20–40 mW output power. This power level is too low to interrogate suspicious material from a safe distance, especially if the material is concealed. Hence, there is a need for sources that can provide greater power in the THz spectrum. Generating and extracting high output power from THz sources is complicated and inefficient. The efficiency of vacuum electronic microwave sources is very low when scaled to the THz range and THz sources based on scaling down semiconductor laser sources have low efficiency as well, resulting in the well known “THz gap.” The reason for such low efficiencies for both source types is material losses in the THz band. In this article an efficient power combiner is described that is based on scaling to higher frequencies a microwave combiner that increases the output power in the THz range of interest in simulation studies. The proposed power combiner not only combines the THz power output from several sources, but can also form a Gaussian wavebeam output. A minimum conversion efficiency of 89% with cophased inputs in a lossy copper power combiner and maximum efficiency of 100% in a Perfect Electric Conductor (PEC-made power combiner were achieved in simulations. Also, it is shown that the TE01 output mode is a reasonable option for THz applications due to the fact that conductive loss decreases for this mode as frequency increases.

  16. 13 CFR 101.500 - Small Business Energy Efficiency Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small Business Energy Efficiency... ADMINISTRATION Small Business Energy Efficiency § 101.500 Small Business Energy Efficiency Program. (a) The... becoming more energy efficient, understanding the cost savings from improved energy efficiency, and...

  17. The energy efficiency of onboard hydrogen storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Li, Qingfeng; Bjerrum, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Global warming resulting from the use of fossil fuels is threatening the environment and energy efficiency is one of the most important ways to reduce this threat. Industry, transport and buildings are all high energy-using sectors in the world and even in the most technologically optimistic...... perspectives energy use is projected to increase in the next 50 years. How and when energy is used determines society's ability to create long-term sustainable energy systems. This is why this book, focusing on energy efficiency in these sectors and from different perspectives, is sharp and also important...

  18. Energy efficiency in existing detached housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    This memo is written as an input to the German project Enef-haus on energy- efficient restoration of single-family houses in Germany. The memo contains a summary of the Danish experiences divided into three main sections: first is a short historic overview of the Danish energy policy indicating...... when different relevant instruments have been introduced to increase the energy efficiency of privately owned single-family houses. Second is a short introduction to the Danish housing sector and its energy supplies. The third and main part of the report is an examination of the most recent...

  19. Evaluating Reverse Supply Chain Efficiency: Manufacturer's Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, M.; Tiwari, M. K.; Wong, K. Y.

    2014-01-01

    The paper aims to illustrate the use of fuzzy data envelopment analysis (DEA) in analyzing reverse supply chain (RSC) performance from the manufacturer's perspective. By using an alternative alpha-cut approach, the fuzzy DEA model was converted into a crisp linear programming problem, thereby...... altering the problem to an interval programming one. The model is able to obtain precise and robust efficiency values. An investigation was also made between the obtained efficiency scores and certain relevant background information of the companies. The study revealed that while ISO 14001 certification...

  20. Determination of turbine relative efficiency in SHPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Džepčeski Dane

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the fulfillment of contract conditions for the equipment delivery, determining the properties and capabilities of a generating unit or some part of it, the measurements carried out under real operating conditions were necessary. In this paper, the results of the test that was carried out in a small hydropower plant (SHPP, aimed at determining the relative efficiency of the hydraulic turbine and its comparison with the guaranteed values, are presented. The dependence of the turbine efficiency on the turbine discharge was determined based on the test results, using the index method. The test was performed at one net head.

  1. SCALE EFFICIENCY IN EUROPEAN PORK PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas CECHURA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses scale efficiency in European pork production. The analysis shows significant differences in the exploitation of economies of scale among EU member states. In particular, old member states exhibit increasing returns to scale whereas most new member states show either constant or decreasing returns to scale. The differences among old and new member states are also pronounced from a dynamic perspective: whereas the old member states improved their productivity in pork production through scale efficiency, its impact in new member states was rather negative.

  2. High efficiency lighting: Cost benefit analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Franco, N. (ENEA, Rome (Italy))

    1992-12-01

    Analysis of the incandescent and fluorescent lamp market in Italy reveals that, by the substitution of conventional equipment with high efficiency lamps, energy savings of up to 3.5 billion kWh could be realized. However, the proper selection of these highly efficient lamps, e.g., compact fluorescent, fluorescent systems using electronic reactors, outdoor systems using sodium or metal iodides, etc., requires a thorough and accurate cost benefit analysis. This article suggests a calculation model for a cost evaluation beginning from the technical and economic aspects of alternative appliances.

  3. THE CAM DESIGN FOR A BETTER EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETRESCU Ion Florian

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an original method to determine the efficiency of a mechanism with cam and follower. The originality of this method consists in eliminate of the friction modulus. In this paper on analyze three types of cam mechanisms: 1.The mechanism with rotary cam and plate translated follower; 2.The mechanism with rotary cam and translated follower with roll; 3.The mechanism with rotary cam and rocking-follower with roll. In every kind of cam and follower mechanism on utilize a different method for the best efficiency design.

  4. Celer: an Efficient Program for Genotype Elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta De Francesco

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an efficient program for checking Mendelian consistency in a pedigree. Since pedigrees may contain incomplete and/or erroneous information, geneticists need to pre-process them before performing linkage analysis. Removing superfluous genotypes that do not respect the Mendelian inheritance laws can speed up the linkage analysis. We have described in a formal way the Mendelian consistency problem and algorithms known in literature. The formalization helped to polish the algorithms and to find efficient data structures. The performance of the tool has been tested on a wide range of benchmarks. The results are promising if compared to other programs that treat Mendelian consistency.

  5. Measures for energy efficiency improvement of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukadinović Ana V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in energy consumption in buildings causes the need to propose energy efficiency improvement measures. Urban planning in accordance with micro location conditions can lead to energy consumption reduction in buildings through the passive solar design. While satisfying the thermal comfort to the user space purpose, energy efficiency can be achieved by optimizing the architectural and construction parameters such as shape of the building, envelope structure and the percentage of glazing. The improvement of the proposed measures, including the use of renewable energy sources, can meet requirements of Directive 2010/31 / EU of 'nearly zero energy buildings'.

  6. Measure Guideline. High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States); Rose, W. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This measure guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces, including: when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure; how to identify and address risks; and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  7. Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01

    This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  8. Luminescence efficiency during ion implantation of sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alghamdi, A.; Townsend, P.D. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences)

    1990-01-01

    Luminescence signals produced during ion implantation of sapphire are related to the F,F{sup +} and F{sub 2} defect centres. However, the efficiency of light production changes with ion beam dose, the rate of energy deposition and radiation damage, hence the signals are not proportional to the defect concentrations. Data are presented which suggest that the light is primarily produced by electronic excitation. Luminescence efficiency within the region of nuclear collisions is very low. It is not possible to determine the energy dependence of the luminescence intensity, as a function of ion energy, by energy variations within a single target crystal. (author).

  9. ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL EFFICIENCY OF PROPERTY INVESTMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Oana Virlanuta

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Investments play a key part within the goods and services industry, consumerism and community as well. The effects generated by any investment project substantiate this statement, regardless the sector of activity in which they are implemented. In the current market economy, economic efficiency indicators are playing an important role in assessing and analyzing an investment project since due to these indicators, the investor can become aware of the most important aspects they need to respond promptly. In this respect, we conducted a market analysis of real estate investments in Romania, highlighting economic and social efficiency of property investments.

  10. Energy Efficient Design for Body Sensor Nodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanqing Zhang

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the hardware requirements and design constraints that derive from unique features of body sensor networks (BSNs. Based on the BSN requirements, we examine the tradeoff between custom hardware and commercial off the shelf (COTS designs for BSNs. The broad range of BSN applications includes situations where either custom chips or COTS design is optimal. For both types of nodes, we survey key techniques to improve energy efficiency in BSNs and identify general approaches to energy efficiency in this space.

  11. Energy efficient affordable housing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    In 1994, the Southface Energy Institute, working with support from US DOE, initiated a program to provide technical assistance to nonprofit organizations developing affordable housing in the Olympic target communities of Atlanta. The specific project goals were: Identify the barriers that nonprofit affordable housing providers face in increasing the energy and resource efficiency of affordable housing; Assist them in developing the resources to overcome these barriers; Develop specific technical materials and program models that will enable these affordable housing groups to continue to improve the energy efficiency of their programs; and, To transfer the program materials to other affordable housing providers. This report summarizes the progress made in each of these areas.

  12. Electrical energy efficiency technologies and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sumper, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The improvement of electrical energy efficiency is fast becoming one of the most essential areas of sustainability development, backed by political initiatives to control and reduce energy demand. Now a major topic in industry and the electrical engineering research community, engineers have started to focus on analysis, diagnosis and possible solutions. Owing to the complexity and cross-disciplinary nature of electrical energy efficiency issues, the optimal solution is often multi-faceted with a critical solutions evaluation component to ensure cost effectiveness. This single-source refer

  13. Hydraulic efficiency of a Rushton turbine impeller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chara, Z.; Kysela, B.; Fort, I.

    2017-07-01

    Based on CFD simulations hydraulic efficiency of a standard Rushton turbine impeller in a baffled tank was determined at a Reynolds number of ReM=33330. Instantaneous values of pressure and velocity components were used to draw up the macroscopic balance of the mechanical energy. It was shown that the hydraulic efficiency of the Rushton turbine impeller (energy dissipated in a bulk volume) is about 57%. Using this result we estimated a length scale in a non-dimensional equation of kinetic energy dissipation rate in the bulk volume as L=D/2.62.

  14. Microencapsulation techniques, factors influencing encapsulation efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, N Venkata Naga; Prasanna, P Muthu; Sakarkar, Suhas Narayan; Prabha, K Surya; Ramaiah, P Seetha; Srawan, G Y

    2010-05-01

    Microencapsulation is one of the quality preservation techniques of sensitive substances and a method for production of materials with new valuable properties. Microencapsulation is a process of enclosing micron-sized particles in a polymeric shell. There are different techniques available for the encapsulation of drug entities. The encapsulation efficiency of the microparticle or microsphere or microcapsule depends upon different factors like concentration of the polymer, solubility of polymer in solvent, rate of solvent removal, solubility of organic solvent in water, etc. The present article provides a literature review of different microencapsulation techniques and different factors influencing the encapsulation efficiency of the microencapsulation technique.

  15. High Efficiency Solar Integrated Roof Membrane Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partyka, Eric; Shenoy, Anil

    2013-05-15

    This project was designed to address the Solar Energy Technology Program objective, to develop new methods to integrate photovoltaic (PV) cells or modules within a building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) application that will result in lower installed cost as well as higher efficiencies of the encapsulated/embedded PV module. The technology assessment and development focused on the evaluation and identification of manufacturing technologies and equipment capable of producing such low-cost, high-efficiency, flexible BIPV solar cells on single-ply roofing membranes.

  16. Energy efficiency: The Italian situation and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerici, Alessandro; Beccarello, Massimo; Gallanti, Massimo

    2010-09-15

    The paper reports the results of a study led by Confindustria (Italian Federation of Industrial Associations) on the Italian situation with respect to energy efficiency policies and their effective implementations. The study is being continuously updated with the contributions of ENEA (Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development) and ERSE (previously CESI Ricerca) and highlights the obtainable savings through efficient technologies now already available for applications in the final uses of energy for both the industrial, commercial and domestic sectors.

  17. LEAN and energy efficiency; Lean og energieffektivisering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jespersen, Per T.; Vesterager Christensen, D.; Andersen, Hans (Teknologisk Institut, Energi og Klima, Taastrup (Denmark)); Dam Wied, M.; Dam, M. (NRGi Raadgivning, Aarhus (Denmark)); Thorndahl, M. (Horsens Kommune, Horsens (Denmark)); Weldingh, P. (Lokal Energi, Viby J. (Denmark)); Maagoee, P.; Kristensen, Kenneth T. (Viegand og Maagoee, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Kirketerp Friis, A. (Novozymes, Bagsvaerd (Denmark))

    2010-03-15

    By means of theoretical reports and three specific cases, the project showed how Lean principles can improve energy consulting efficiency, thus making it easier for end-users and energy consultants to record and document energy savings achieved. The three cases documented various types of extra benefits of integrating energy efficiency improvement in Lean processes. As a result of process optimisation, one manufacturing company successfully reduced both staffing and energy consumption, thus making production in Denmark competitive with out-sourced production in Asia. (LN)

  18. Production and efficiency analysis with R

    CERN Document Server

    Behr, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    This textbook introduces essential topics and techniques in production and efficiency analysis and shows how to apply these methods using the statistical software R. Numerous small simulations lead to a deeper understanding of random processes assumed in the models and of the behavior of estimation techniques. Step-by-step programming provides an understanding of advanced approaches such as stochastic frontier analysis and stochastic data envelopment analysis. The text is intended for master students interested in empirical production and efficiency analysis. Readers are assumed to have a general background in production economics and econometrics, typically taught in introductory microeconomics and econometrics courses.

  19. Are large farms more efficient? Tenure security, farm size and farm efficiency: evidence from northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuepeng; Ma, Xianlei; Shi, Xiaoping

    2017-04-01

    How to increase production efficiency, guarantee grain security, and increase farmers' income using the limited farmland is a great challenge that China is facing. Although theory predicts that secure property rights and moderate scale management of farmland can increase land productivity, reduce farm-related costs, and raise farmer's income, empirical studies on the size and magnitude of these effects are scarce. A number of studies have examined the impacts of land tenure or farm size on productivity or efficiency, respectively. There are also a few studies linking farm size, land tenure and efficiency together. However, to our best knowledge, there are no studies considering tenure security and farm efficiency together for different farm scales in China. In addition, there is little study analyzing the profit frontier. In this study, we particularly focus on the impacts of land tenure security and farm size on farm profit efficiency, using farm level data collected from 23 villages, 811 households in Liaoning in 2015. 7 different farm scales have been identified to further represent small farms, median farms, moderate-scale farms, and large farms. Technical efficiency is analyzed with stochastic frontier production function. The profit efficiency is regressed on a set of explanatory variables which includes farm size dummies, land tenure security indexes, and household characteristics. We found that: 1) The technical efficiency scores for production efficiency (average score = 0.998) indicate that it is already very close to the production frontier, and thus there is little room to improve production efficiency. However, there is larger space to raise profit efficiency (average score = 0.768) by investing more on farm size expansion, seed, hired labor, pesticide, and irrigation. 2) Farms between 50-80 mu are most efficient from the viewpoint of profit efficiency. The so-called moderate-scale farms (100-150 mu) according to the governmental guideline show no

  20. The SEAD global efficiency medal competition: accelerating market transformation for efficient televisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravi, Kavita [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Bennich, Peter [Swedish Energy Agency (Sweden); Cockburn, John [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Doi, Naoko [Institute of Energy Economics (Japan); Garg, Sandeep [United Nations Development Programme, New York, NY (United States); Garnaik, S.P. [ICF International (India); Holt, Shane [Energy and Tourism, Canberra (Australia); Walker, Mike [Food and Rural Affairs (United Kingdom); Westbrook-Trenholm, Elizabeth [Natural Resources, Canada, Ottawa (Canada). Office of Energy Efficiency; Lising, Anna [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States); Pantano, Steve [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States); Khare, Amit [Collaborative Labeling and Appliance Standards Program (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The Global Efficiency Medal competition, a cornerstone activity of the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) Initiative, is an awards program that encourages the production and sale of super-efficient products. SEAD is a voluntary multinational government collaboration of the Clean Energy Ministerial (CEM). This winner-takes-all competition recognizes products with the best energy efficiency, guides early adopter purchasers towards the most efficient product choices and demonstrates the levels of energy efficiency achievable by commercially available and emerging technologies. The first Global Efficiency Medals were awarded to the most energy-efficient flat panel televisions; an iconic consumer purchase. SEAD Global Efficiency Medals were awarded to televisions that have proven to be substantially more energy efficient than comparable models available at the time of the competition (applications closed in the end of May 2012). The award-winning TVs consume between 33 to 44 percent less energy per 2 unit of screen area than comparable LED-backlit LCD televisions sold in each regional market and 50 to 60 percent less energy than CCFL-backlit LCD TVs. Prior to the launch of this competition, SEAD conducted an unprecedented international round-robin test (RRT) to qualify TV test laboratories to support verification testing for SEAD awards. The RRT resulted in increased test laboratory capacity and expertise around the world and ensured that the test results from participating regional test laboratories could be compared in a fair and transparent fashion. This paper highlights a range of benefits resulting from this first SEAD awards competition and encourages further investigation of the awards concept as a means to promote energy efficiency in other equipment types.

  1. Framing car fuel efficiency : linearity heuristic for fuel consumption and fuel-efficiency ratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, T.M.; Bolderdijk, J.W.; Steg, L.

    2014-01-01

    People are sensitive to the way information on fuel efficiency is conveyed. When the fuel efficiency of cars is framed in terms of fuel per distance (FPD; e.g. l/100 km), instead of distance per units of fuel (DPF; e.g. km/l), people have a more accurate perception of potential fuel savings. People

  2. Energy efficiency, economic efficiency and future CO{sub 2} emissions form the developing world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, P.J.G.; Fouquet, R. [Centre for Environmental Technology, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    The authors examine the role of energy and economic efficiency in influencing future carbon dioxide emissions of developing countries. The reasons that controlling emissions of developing countries is important are examined along with future scenarios of future energy related emissions and potential for energy efficiency improvements. A number of the policy options are presented. 56 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Chemical Deinking Flotation Efficiency Of Coloured Toner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeljka Barbaric-Mikocevic

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Recycling of paper printed with colour laser printer xerox phaser 7700 has been investigated in this work. The recycling was performed by chemical deinking with double stage flotation with the usage of anion surfactant. Froths collected by flotation were re-floated in purpose to increase the usage of fibers. The efficiency of first flotation of magenta particles (98.3%, cyan (96.9% and carbon ones (91.5% was calculated from results of the image analysis method. The same method was not effective for the identification of the yellow toner particles. The particle size is important characteristic for flotation efficiency. The efficiency of the first flotation is the best for smallest particles (magenta and for them the second flotation is unnecessary, while for bigger toner particles (cyan, carbon second flotation is desirable. The efficiency of second (abf flotation as a function of each colour (cyan 78.0%, magenta 58.6% and carbon 61.4% of particle number detected by image analysis method has shown that double stage flotation is successful method of improving the usage of fibres in recycling process.

  4. Chemical Deinking Flotation Efficiency Of Coloured Toner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Višnja Mikac Dadić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycling of paper printed with colour laser printer xerox phaser 7700 has been investigated in this work. The recycling was performed by chemical deinking with double stage flotation with the usage of anion surfactant. Froths collected by flotation were re-floated in purpose to increase the usage of fibers. The efficiency of first flotation of magenta particles (98.3%, cyan (96.9% and carbon ones (91.5% was calculated from results of the image analysis method. The same method was not effective for the identification of the yellow toner particles. The particle size is important characteristic for flotation efficiency. The efficiency of the first flotation is the best for smallest particles (magenta and for them the second flotation is unnecessary, while for bigger toner particles (cyan, carbon second flotation is desirable. The efficiency of second (abf flotation as a function of each colour (cyan 78.0%, magenta 58.6% and carbon 61.4% of particle number detected by image analysis method has shown that double stage flotation is successful method of improving the usage of fibers in recycling process.

  5. Increasing operating room efficiency through parallel processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, David M; Sokal, Suzanne M; Chang, Yuchiao; Berger, David L

    2006-01-01

    Because of rising costs and shrinking reimbursements, hospitals must continually find ways to improve efficiency and productivity. This study attempts to increase caseloads in ambulatory surgery operating rooms while maintaining patient satisfaction and safety. In most hospitals, patients move through their operative day in a linear fashion, starting at registration and finishing in the recovery room. Given this pattern, only 1 patient may occupy the efforts of the operating room team at a time. By processing patients in a parallel fashion, operating room efficiency and patient throughput are increased while costs remain stable. Patients undergoing hernia repairs under local anesthesia with intravenous sedation were divided into a control group and an experimental group. Patients in the control group received their local anesthesia in the operating room at the start of the surgery. The experimental group patients received their local anesthesia in the induction room by the surgeon while the operating room was being cleaned and set up. While operative time for the control group and the experimental group were nearly identical, the turnover time and the induction time were significantly shorter for the experimental group. The cumulative reduction in time during the operative day was sufficient to allow the addition of new operative cases. This study demonstrates a system of increasing operating room efficiency by changing patient flow rather than simply working to streamline existing steps. This increase in efficiency is not associated with the expansion of hospital budgets or a decrease in patient safety or satisfaction.

  6. Measurement of heat and moisture exchanger efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, M

    2013-09-01

    Deciding between a passive heat and moisture exchanger or active humidification depends upon the level of humidification that either will deliver. Published international standards dictate that active humidifiers should deliver a minimum humidity of 33 mg.l(-1); however, no such requirement exists, for heat and moisture exchangers. Anaesthetists instead have to rely on information provided by manufacturers, which may not allow comparison of different devices and their clinical effectiveness. I suggest that measurement of humidification efficiency, being the percentage moisture returned and determined by measuring the temperature of the respired gases, should be mandated, and report a modification of the standard method that will allow this to be easily measured. In this study, different types of heat and moisture exchangers for adults, children and patients with a tracheostomy were tested. Adult and paediatric models lost between 6.5 mg.l(-1) and 8.5 mg.l(-1) moisture (corresponding to an efficiency of around 80%); however, the models designed for patients with a tracheostomy lost between 16 mg.l(-1) and 18 mg.l(-1) (60% efficiency). I propose that all heat and moisture exchangers should be tested in this manner and percentage efficiency reported to allow an informed choice between different types and models. © 2013 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  7. Structure And Efficiency Of Timber Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian C. Murray; Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2003-01-01

    Perfect competition has long been the standard by which economists have judged the market's ability to achieve an efficient social outcome. The competitive process, unfettered by the imperfections discussed below, forges an outcome in which goods and services are produced at their lowest possible cost, and market equilibrium is achieved at the point at which the...

  8. Electrothermal efficiency, temperature and thermal conductivity of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A study was made to evaluate the electrothermal efficiency of a DC arc plasma torch and temperature and thermal conductivity of plasma jet in the torch. The torch was operated at power levels from 4 to 20 kW in non-transferred arc mode. The effect of nitrogen in combination with argon as plasma gas on the above ...

  9. The energy efficiency of lead selfsputtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Henrik

    1968-01-01

    The sputtering efficiency (i.e. ratio between sputtered energy and impinging ion energy) has been measured for 30–75‐keV lead ions impinging on polycrystalline lead. The results are in good agreement with recent theoretical estimates. © 1968 The American Institute of Physics...

  10. Energy Efficiency in Self Organising Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kisielius, Edvinas; Popovska Avramova, Andrijana; Zakrzewska, Anna

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the performance of an energy efficient algorithm that controls power emissions and the number of powered cell sites (eNBs) in overlaid Long Term Evolution (LTE) networks. Simulations are carried out in OPNET Modeler and we investigate cells cites designed to meet peak hours trac demand...

  11. The Energy Efficiency of Onboard Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Vestbø, Andreas Peter; Li, Qingfeng

    2007-01-01

    A number of the most common ways of storing hydrogen are reviewed in terms of energy efficiency. Distinction is made between energy losses during regeneration and during hydrogen liberation. In the latter case, the energy might have to be provided by part of the released hydrogen, and the true...

  12. Factors affecting commuter rail energy efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-17

    The objective of this study is to develop a planninglevel model of commuter rail energy efficiency. The : environmental benefits of commuter rail are often cited as one of the key benefits and motivators for its rapid development as a public trans...

  13. Energy efficient control of a refrigeration plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik; Larsen, Lars F. S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for superheat and capacity control of refrigeration systems. The new idea is to control the superheat by the compressor speed and capacity by the refrigerant flow. A new low order nonlinear model of the evaporator is developed and used in a backstepping design o...... and the methods are evaluated with respect to energy efficiency....

  14. Energy Efficient Routing in Nomadic Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Darø; Bouvin, Niels Olof

    2007-01-01

    We present an evaluation of a novel energy-efficient routing protocol for mobile ad-hoc networks. We combine two techniques for optimizing energy levels with a well-known routing protocol. We examine the behavior of this combination in a nomadic network setting, where some nodes are stationary...

  15. The Next Frontier in Industiral Energy Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worrell, E.

    2010-01-01

    Industry contributes directly and indirectly (through consumed electricity) about 37% of the global greenhouse gas emissions, of which over 80% is from energy use. Total energy-related emissions, which were 9.9 GtCO2 in 2004, have grown by 65% since 1971. In the near future, energy efficiency is

  16. Efficiently learning timed system models from observations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verwer, S.E.; De Weerdt, M.M.; Witteveen, C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an efficient algorithm for learning a timed model from observations. The algorithm is based on the state merging method for learning a deterministic finite state automaton (DFA). This method and its problem have been the subject of many studies within the grammatical inference

  17. Efficient GPU-based skyline computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh, Kenneth Sejdenfaden; Assent, Ira; Magnani, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    The skyline operator for multi-criteria search returns the most interesting points of a data set with respect to any monotone preference function. Existing work has almost exclusively focused on efficiently computing skylines on one or more CPUs, ignoring the high parallelism possible in GPUs. In...

  18. Is REDD+ effective, efficient, and equitable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nathan, Iben; Pasgaard, Maya

    2017-01-01

    economic (efficiency), environmental (effectiveness), and social (equity) concerns at the same time by drawing on own field results from a REDD+ project in Cambodia. The paper follows three tracks. The first is to develop and explain the conceptual and analytical framework for our empirical investigations...

  19. Oxygen uptake efficiency slope in healthy children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Moniek; Van Brussel, Marco; Bongers, Bart C.; Hulzebos, Erik; Helders, Paul J.M.; Takken, Tim

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics of the submaximal Oxygen Uptake Efficiency Slope (OUES) in a healthy pediatric population. Bicycle ergometry exercise tests with gas-analyses were performed in 46 healthy children aged 7–17 years. Maximal OUES, submaximal OUES,

  20. Computationally efficient analysis procedure for frames with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Computationally-efficient analytical procedure that provides high-quality analysis results for two-dimensional skeletal structure with segmented (stepped) and linearly-tapered non-prismatic flexural members has been developed based on the stiffness method of structural analysis. A computer program coded in FORTRAN ...