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Sample records for tetradecanoylphorbol acetate

  1. Anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extracts of spent Pleurotus ostreatus substrates in mouse ears treated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-Pérez, Nallely; Ayala-Martínez, Maricela; Zepeda-Bastida, Armando; Meneses-Mayo, Marcos; Ojeda-Ramírez, Deyanira

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the application of spent Pleurotus ostreatus substrates, enriched or not with medicinal herbs, as a source of anti-inflammatory compounds. P. ostreatus was cultivated on five different substrates: Barley straw (BS) and BS combined 80:20 with medicinal herbs (Chenopodium ambrosioides L. [BS/CA], Rosmarinus officinalis L. [BS/RO], Litsea glaucescens Kunth [BS/LG], and Tagetes lucida Cav. [BS/TL]). The anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extracts of spent mushroom substrates (SMSs) (4 mg/ear) was studied using an acute inflammation model in the mouse ear induced with 2.5 μg/ear 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol13-acetate (TPA). Groups treated with BS/CA, BS/RO, and BS/LG aqueous extracts exhibited the best anti-inflammatory activity (94.0% ± 5.5%, 92.9% ± 0.6%, and 90.4% ± 5.0% inhibition of auricular edema [IAO], respectively), and these effects were significantly different (P ostreatus substrate of BS possesses a slight anti-inflammatory effect. The addition of CA L. to mushroom substrate showed a slightly synergistic effect while RO L. had an additive effect. In addition, LG Kunth and TL Cav. enhanced the anti-inflammatory effect of SMS. However, to determine whether there is a synergistic or additive effect, it is necessary to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of each medicinal herb.

  2. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and EZH2 inhibition: A novel approach for promoting myogenic differentiation in embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesi, Irene; Sanna, Luca; Fais, Milena; Fiorentino, Francesco P; Giordano, Antonio; Bagella, Luigi

    2018-03-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a soft tissue sarcoma that arises from muscle precursors affecting predominately children and young adults. It can be divided into two main classes: embryonal (eRMS) and alveolar rhabodomyosarcomas (aRMS). Despite the expression of early muscle specific genes, RMS cells fail to complete myogenesis even in differentiation conditions. We previously demonstrated that Enhancer Zeste of Homolog 2 (EZH2), the catalytic subunits of PRC2 complex, contributes to inhibit muscle differentiation in eRMS and its down-regulation causes a partial recovery of myogenesis. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) is a molecule able to induce differentiation in eRMS with a mechanism that involves the protein kinase C (PKC). In this paper we report that treatment with TPA reduces the expression of EZH2 without affecting levels of H3K27me3. The combination of TPA with GSK126, an inhibitor of the catalytic activity of EZH2, has a synergic effect on the induction of muscle differentiation in RD rhabdomyosarcoma cells, suggesting a new therapeutic combinatory approach for RMS treatment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. The cis-acting phorbol ester "12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate"-responsive element is involved in shear stress-induced monocyte chemotactic protein 1 gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyy, J Y; Lin, M C; Han, J; Lu, Y; Petrime, M; Chien, S

    1995-08-15

    Vascular endothelial cells, serving as a barrier between vessel and blood, are exposed to shear stress in the body. Although endothelial responses to shear stress are important in physiological adaption to the hemodynamic environments, they can also contribute to pathological conditions--e.g., in atherosclerosis and reperfusion injury. We have previously shown that shear stress mediates a biphasic response of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) gene expression in vascular endothelial cells and that the regulation is at the transcriptional level. These observations led us to functionally analyze the 550-bp promoter region of the MCP-1-encoding gene to define the cis element responding to shear stress. The shear stress/luciferase assay on the deletion constructs revealed that a 38-bp segment (-53 to -90 bp relative to the transcription initiation site) containing two divergent phorbol ester "12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate" (TPA)-responsive elements (TRE) is critical for shear inducibility. Site-specific mutations on these two sites further demonstrated that the proximal one (TGACTCC) but not the distal one (TCACTCA) was shear-responsive. Shear inducibility was lost after the mutation or deletion of the proximal site. This molecular mechanism of shear inducibility of the MCP-1 gene was functional in both the epithelial-like HeLa cells and bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC). In a construct with four copies of the TRE consensus sequences TGACTACA followed by the rat prolactin minimal promoter and luciferase gene, shear stress induced the reporter activities by 35-fold and 7-fold in HeLa cells and BAEC, respectively. The application of shear stress on BAEC also induced a rapid and transient phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases. Pretreatment of BAEC with TPA attenuated the shear-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, suggesting that shear stress and TPA share a similar signal transduction pathway in activating cells. The

  4. Anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extracts of spent Pleurotus ostreatus substrates in mouse ears treated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-Pérez, Nallely; Ayala-Martínez, Maricela; Zepeda-Bastida, Armando; Meneses-Mayo, Marcos; Ojeda-Ramírez, Deyanira

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the application of spent Pleurotus ostreatus substrates, enriched or not with medicinal herbs, as a source of anti-inflammatory compounds. Subjects and Methods: P. ostreatus was cultivated on five different substrates: Barley straw (BS) and BS combined 80:20 with medicinal herbs (Chenopodium ambrosioides L. [BS/CA], Rosmarinus officinalis L. [BS/RO], Litsea glaucescens Kunth [BS/LG], and Tagetes lucida Cav. [BS/TL]). The anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extracts of spent mushroom substrates (SMSs) (4 mg/ear) was studied using an acute inflammation model in the mouse ear induced with 2.5 μg/ear 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol13-acetate (TPA). Results: Groups treated with BS/CA, BS/RO, and BS/LG aqueous extracts exhibited the best anti-inflammatory activity (94.0% ± 5.5%, 92.9% ± 0.6%, and 90.4% ± 5.0% inhibition of auricular edema [IAO], respectively), and these effects were significantly different (P < 0.05) from that of the positive control indomethacin (0.5 mg/ear). BS/TL and BS were also able to reduce TPA-induced inflammation but to a lesser extent (70.0% ± 6.7% and 43.5% ± 6.6% IAO, respectively). Conclusions: Spent P. ostreatus substrate of BS possesses a slight anti-inflammatory effect. The addition of CA L. to mushroom substrate showed a slightly synergistic effect while RO L. had an additive effect. In addition, LG Kunth and TL Cav. enhanced the anti-inflammatory effect of SMS. However, to determine whether there is a synergistic or additive effect, it is necessary to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of each medicinal herb. PMID:27127316

  5. Structure-dependent inhibitory effects of synthetic cannabinoids against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammation and skin tumour promotion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Jun'ichi; Nakae, Dai; Yasukawa, Ken

    2013-08-01

    Whether and how synthetic cannabinoids affect inflammation and carcinogenesis has not been well studied. The present study was thus conducted to assess effects of synthetic cannabinoids on inflammation and carcinogenesis in vivo in mice. Twenty-three analogues of synthetic cannabinoids were isolated from, and identified as adulterants in, illegal drugs distributed in the Tokyo metropolitan area, and were examined for their inhibitory effects on the induction of oedema in mouse ears by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Furthermore, selected cannabinoids, JWH-018, -122 and -210, were studied for their effects on carcinogenesis induced in mouse skin initiated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and promoted by TPA. Among cannabinoids, naphthoylindoles mostly exhibited superior inhibitory effects against TPA-induced ear oedema and, especially, JWH-018, -122 and -210 showed potent activity with 50% inhibitory dose (ID50) values of 168, 346 and 542 nm, respectively (an activity corresponding to that of indometacin (ID50 = 908 nm)). Furthermore these three compounds also markedly suppressed the tumour-promoting activity of TPA. This is the first report indicating the structure-activity relationships for the anti-inflammatory activity of synthetic cannabinoids on TPA-induced inflammation in mice. Naphthoylindoles, JWH-018, -122 and -210, had the most potent anti-inflammatory activity and also markedly inhibited tumour promotion by TPA in the two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis model. The present results suggest that synthetic cannabinoids, such as JWH-018, -122 and -210, may be used as cancer chemopreventive agents in the future. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  6. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of coumarins isolated from Foeniculum vulgare in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-stimulated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, In Jun; Lee, Dong Ung; Shin, Heung Mook

    2015-06-01

    Foeniculum vulgare (F. vulgare) is traditionally used to treat inflammatory diseases. Recently, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of methanol extract of the fruits of F. vulgare were reported. To identify biologically active compounds responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity, we isolated four coumarins, scopoletin, 8-methoxypsoralen, bergapten and imperatorin from the fruits of F. vulgare. This study assessed the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of coumarins isolated from F. vulgare in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-stimulated mice. RAW 264.7 cells were treated with the coumarins (30 µM) and then stimulated with LPS (100 ng/ml). Ears of ICR mice were treated with TPA (1 µg/ear) once a day. Ten microliters each of the four coumarins (200 μg/ml) were topically applied to the ears for 3 days. Antioxidant activities were examined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis 3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) scavenging assays. All the tested coumarins showed excellent antioxidant activities in DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays. Among the coumarins, imperatorin had the greatest anti-inflammatory activities as measured by inhibition of the pro-inflammatory cytokines production including interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells through blockade of the IκB kinase (IKK)/inhibitor of kappa B (IκB)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway. In vivo experiments showed that imperatorin reduced TPA-induced ear thickness/weight, cutaneous cytokines expression and improved histopathological features. Although four coumarins isolated from the fruits of F. vulgare provide effective anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, imperatorin is most potent.

  7. Ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation and morphological changes in response to the tumour promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate in primary human tumour cells, established and transformed cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rance, A J; Thönnes, M; Issinger, O G

    1985-01-01

    was about 4-6-fold. Established and transformed cell lines showed enhanced S6 phosphorylation which was not further stimulated by the addition of TPA. These findings indicated that the influence of TPA on the metabolic pathway, that finally leads to the phosphorylation of protein S6 in cells with a limited...... lifespan (fibroblasts, primary human tumour cells) can be mimicked by unknown steps also associated with immortalization (establishment function) and the transformed state of the tumour cells. Another interesting observation were morphological changes of the established and SV40-transformed cells which......The phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 in fibroblasts, primary human tumour cells, established and SV40-transformed human cell lines was compared after the addition of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). In fibroblasts and primary tumour cell cultures, stimulation of S6 phosphorylation...

  8. Stimulation of proliferation of HL60 cells by low concentrations of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and its relationship to the mitogenic effects of insulin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trayner, I.D.; Clemens, M.J. (St. George' s Hospital Medical School, London (United Kingdom))

    1992-03-01

    The effects of the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on the growth and differentiation of cultured human acute promyelocytic leukemia (HL60) cells have been studied using cells growing in a fully defined medium consisting of RPMI 1640 supplemented with selenium dioxide, insulin, and either transferrin or ferric citrate. High concentrations of TPA cause the expected inhibition of proliferation and induction of macrophage-like differentiation. In contrast, in cells deprived in insulin, which continue to grow at a slow rate, lower concentrations of TPA stimulate proliferation without inducing differentiation. The ability of higher concentrations of TPA to induce differentiation is independent of the presence of insulin. Low-TPA also stimulates the short-term incorporation of thymidine by three- to fourfold, as compared to a seven fold stimulation by insulin. The proliferative response to low TPA concentrations provides a useful model for dissecting the signaling pathways that control cell proliferation following stimulation by insulin and activators of protein kinase C.

  9. N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine induces and cooperates with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-1,3-acetate/sodium butyrate to enhance Epstein-Barr virus reactivation and genome instability in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sheng-Yen; Fang, Chih-Yeu; Tsai, Ching-Hwa; Chang, Yao; Takada, Kenzo; Hsu, Tsuey-Ying; Chen, Jen-Yang

    2010-12-05

    Seroepidemiological studies implicate a correlation between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation and the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Moreover, N-nitroso compounds are known chemical carcinogens in preserved foodstuffs and cigarettes and have been implicated as risk factors contributing to the development of NPC. Here, NPC cell lines latently infected with EBV, NA and HA, and the corresponding EBV-negative NPC cell lines, NPC-TW01 and HONE-1, were used as the model system in this study. We demonstrate that the reactivation of EBV increases with increasing concentrations of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG). MNNG at a single non-toxic concentration (0.1μg/ml) did not induce discernible reactivation of EBV, but repeated treatment with this concentration of MNNG significantly induced viral reactivation. Furthermore, low dose MNNG (0.1μg/ml) had a synergistic effect with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-1,3-acetate (TPA)/sodium butyrate (SB) (10ng/ml and 0.75mM, respectively) on EBV reactivation. Through promoter activity assay, MNNG was found to enhance the transcriptional activity of Rta on Rta and Zta promoters. Using siZta to block EBV reactivation, the concomitant induction of genome instability was diminished indicating that reactivation is critical for enhancing genome instability. Co-treatment with TPA/SB and MNNG markedly increased the levels of γH2AX and ROS formation in NPC cells, which may be responsible for the increase of genome instability. Our findings offer a possible mechanism by which N-nitroso compounds induce reactivation of EBV and contribute to malignant progression by enhancing genome instability in NPC cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of the antioxidant/prooxidant status of murine skin following topical treatment with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate and throughout the ontogeny of skin cancer. Part II: Quantitation of glutathione and glutathione disulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiners, J J; Kodari, E; Cappel, R E; Gilbert, H F

    1991-12-01

    Tissue glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) contents were quantitated in the skins of female SENCAR mice following the topical application of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), and in the skin tumors generated by an initiation-promotion protocol. Total epidermal GSHt (GSH + GSSG) and GSSG contents were not reproducibly and significantly altered 0.5, 4 or 24 h after one or four topical applications of 1 microgram TPA, relative to the values obtained in age-matched, solvent-treated mice. Similar findings held for dermal GSHt at all times of analyses, and for dermal GSSG contents 0.5 and 4 h after TPA application. However, dermal GSSG contents were slightly elevated 24 h after TPA application. The GSHt and GSSG contents of skins initiated with 10 nmol 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and harvested 17, 29 and 37 days after the cessation of chronic treatment with acetone (14 weeks, twice a week) were comparable to the values measured in age-matched, non-treated skins. In contrast, GSHt contents of papillomas harvested 17, 29 and 37 days after the cessation of chronic treatment with 1 microgram TPA (14 weeks, twice a week) were 2- to 4-fold greater than the values measured in non-treated mice, and DMBA-initiated, acetone-promoted mice, and the non-tumorous tissue adjacent to the papillomas. Comparable changes did not occur in papilloma GSSG contents. GSHt contents in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) were twice the values measured in papillomas and 5- to 8-fold greater than the values measured in non-treated skins, and the non-tumorous tissue adjacent to SCC. Similarly, GSSG contents in SCC were elevated multifold relative to papillomas, non-treated skin and the non-tumorous tissue adjacent to SCC. Epidermal cell suspensions prepared by the trypsin-flotation procedure retained less than 2% of their original GSHt content and had reduced GSHt/GSSG ratios. Collectively these studies suggest that (i) if promoting doses of TPA induce oxidative stress

  11. α-Mangostin suppresses 12-o-tetradecanoylphorbol-13- acetate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Odontology 2013; 101: 227-232. 16. Yuan J, Wu Y, Lu G. Alpha-mangostin suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced invasion by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase-2/9 and increasing E-cadherin expression through extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in pancreatic cancer cells. Oncol Lett 2013; 5: 1958-1964. 17.

  12. The cis-acting phorbol ester "12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate"-responsive element is involved in shear stress-induced monocyte chemotactic protein 1 gene expression.

    OpenAIRE

    Shyy, J Y; Lin, M C; Han, J; Lu, Y; Petrime, M; Chien, S

    1995-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells, serving as a barrier between vessel and blood, are exposed to shear stress in the body. Although endothelial responses to shear stress are important in physiological adaption to the hemodynamic environments, they can also contribute to pathological conditions--e.g., in atherosclerosis and reperfusion injury. We have previously shown that shear stress mediates a biphasic response of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1) gene expression in vascular endothelial cells...

  13. A diacetylenic spiroketal enol ether epoxide, AL-1, from Artemisia lactiflora inhibits 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced tumor promotion possibly by suppression of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Y; Kawamoto, N; Ohto, Y; Torikai, K; Murakami, A; Ohigashi, H

    1999-06-01

    The inhibitory effects of the diacetylenic spiroketal enol ether epoxide AL-1 from Artemisia lactiflora on a variety of tumor promoter-induced biological responses such as oxidative stress as well as tumor promotion in ICR mouse skin were investigated. AL-1 inhibited TPA-induced intracellular peroxide formation in differentiated HL-60 cells, suggesting that this suppression might be attributable to the inhibition of O2- generation. In a double TPA application system in mouse skin, double pretreatments of AL-1 (810 nmol) significantly suppressed double TPA application-induced H2O2 generation. Pretreatment of AL-1 only before the second TPA treatment was sufficient to inhibit, while only with first treatment was not. From these results we concluded that AL-1 is a specific inhibitor of the activation phase in H2O2 production induced by double TPA treatments. In addition, AL-1 strongly inhibited tumor promoter-induced Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) activation in Raji cells (IC50 = 0.5 microM), which was comparable to or even stronger than that of curcumin, a well-known antioxidative chemopreventer from turmeric. In a two-stage carcinogenesis experiment with TPA (topical application at 1.6 nmol) and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA, at 0.19 micromol) in ICR mouse skin, topical application of AL-1 (at 160 nmol) significantly reduced tumor incidence, the numbers of tumors per mouse, and edema formation by 58% (P < 0.01 in t-test), 20% (P < 0.005 in chi2-test) and 42% (P < 0.01), respectively. These results together indicate that an inhibitor of O2 generation is an effective chemopreventer of mouse skin carcinogenesis by their antioxidative property.

  14. Effect of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced psoriasis-like skin lesions on systemic inflammation and atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolaemic apolipoprotein E deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Marie; Hansen, Peter Riis; Nielsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    skin inflammation with increased epidermal thickness, infiltration of inflammatory-like cells and augmented tissue interleukin-17F levels. Systemic effects of the topical application of TPA were demonstrated by increased plasma concentration of serum amyloid A and splenic immune modulation...... systemic immune-inflammatory effects, but did not affect atherogenesis. The results may question the role of psoriasis-induced inflammation in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in psoriasis patients....

  15. Synergism between thapsigargin and the phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate on the release of [C]arachidonic acid and histamine from rat peritoneal mast cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.

    1987-01-01

    Thapsigargin is a potent skin irritating sesquiterpene lactone isolated from the roots of Thapsia garganica L. (Apiaceae). In rat peritoneal mast cells thapsigargin induced a calcium-dependent non-cytotoxic [C]arachidonic acid and histamine release. A minor amount of the released [C]arachidonic a......Thapsigargin is a potent skin irritating sesquiterpene lactone isolated from the roots of Thapsia garganica L. (Apiaceae). In rat peritoneal mast cells thapsigargin induced a calcium-dependent non-cytotoxic [C]arachidonic acid and histamine release. A minor amount of the released [C...

  16. Obtaining of inulin acetate

    OpenAIRE

    Khusenov, Arslonnazar; Rakhmanberdiev, Gappar; Rakhimov, Dilshod; Khalikov, Muzaffar

    2014-01-01

    In the article first obtained inulin ester inulin acetate, by etherification of inulin with acetic anhydride has been exposed. Obtained product has been studied using elementary analysis and IR spectroscopy.

  17. Pallidol hexa-acetate ethyl acetate monosolvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Qinyong; Taylor, Dennis K; Ng, Seik Weng; Tiekink, Edward R T

    2013-01-01

    The entire mol-ecule of pallidol hexa-acetate {systematic name: (±)-(4bR,5R,9bR,10R)-5,10-bis-[4-(acet-yloxy)phen-yl]-4b,5,9b,10-tetra-hydro-indeno-[2,1-a]indene-1,3,6,8-tetrayl tetra-acetate} is completed by the application of twofold rotational symmetry in the title ethyl acetate solvate, C40H34O12·C4H8O2. The ethyl acetate mol-ecule was highly disordered and was treated with the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2009 ▶). Acta Cryst. D65, 148-155]; the crystallographic data take into account the presence of the solvent. In pallidol hexa-acetate, the dihedral angle between the fused five-membered rings (r.m.s. deviation = 0.100 Å) is 54.73 (6)°, indicating a significant fold in the mol-ecule. Significant twists between residues are also evident as seen in the dihedral angle of 80.70 (5)° between the five-membered ring and the pendent benzene ring to which it is attached. Similarly, the acetate residues are twisted with respect to the benzene ring to which they are attached [C-O(carb-oxy)-C-C torsion angles = -70.24 (14), -114.43 (10) and -72.54 (13)°]. In the crystal, a three-dimensional architecture is sustained by C-H⋯O inter-actions which encompass channels in which the disordered ethyl acetate mol-ecules reside.

  18. Ulipristal acetate versus leuprolide acetate for uterine fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnez, Jacques; Tomaszewski, Janusz; Vázquez, Francisco; Bouchard, Philippe; Lemieszczuk, Boguslav; Baró, Francesco; Nouri, Kazem; Selvaggi, Luigi; Sodowski, Krzysztof; Bestel, Elke; Terrill, Paul; Osterloh, Ian; Loumaye, Ernest

    2012-02-02

    The efficacy and side-effect profile of ulipristal acetate as compared with those of leuprolide acetate for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids before surgery are unclear. In this double-blind noninferiority trial, we randomly assigned 307 patients with symptomatic fibroids and excessive uterine bleeding to receive 3 months of daily therapy with oral ulipristal acetate (at a dose of either 5 mg or 10 mg) or once-monthly intramuscular injections of leuprolide acetate (at a dose of 3.75 mg). The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with controlled bleeding at week 13, with a prespecified noninferiority margin of -20%. Uterine bleeding was controlled in 90% of patients receiving 5 mg of ulipristal acetate, in 98% of those receiving 10 mg of ulipristal acetate, and in 89% of those receiving leuprolide acetate, for differences (as compared with leuprolide acetate) of 1.2 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], -9.3 to 11.8) for 5 mg of ulipristal acetate and 8.8 percentage points (95% CI, 0.4 to 18.3) for 10 mg of ulipristal acetate. Median times to amenorrhea were 7 days for patients receiving 5 mg of ulipristal acetate, 5 days for those receiving 10 mg of ulipristal acetate, and 21 days for those receiving leuprolide acetate. Moderate-to-severe hot flashes were reported for 11% of patients receiving 5 mg of ulipristal acetate, for 10% of those receiving 10 mg of ulipristal acetate, and for 40% of those receiving leuprolide acetate (Pulipristal acetate vs. leuprolide acetate). Both the 5-mg and 10-mg daily doses of ulipristal acetate were noninferior to once-monthly leuprolide acetate in controlling uterine bleeding and were significantly less likely to cause hot flashes. (Funded by PregLem; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00740831.).

  19. EFFECT OF LEAD ACETATE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICROSOFT

    The project was conducted to evaluate the effect of lead administered as lead acetate at different dosage levels via drinking water in broiler chicks. Thirty-five healthy chicks were divided into seven groups (five chicks each) and one group was kept as un-medicated control. Groups A, B, C, D, E and F were medicated with ...

  20. furfural and acetic acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigating the effects of two lignocellulose degradation by-products (furfural and acetic acid) on ethanol fermentations by six ethanologenic yeast strains. ... Among the tested yeast strains, 1300 exhibited the highest growth rate, thus can be a promising candidate for mass production of bioethanol. Three important ...

  1. Ulipristal acetate: in uterine fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croxtall, Jamie D

    2012-05-28

    Ulipristal acetate, a selective progesterone-receptor modulator, inhibits the proliferation and induces apoptosis of leiomyoma cells in vitro. It also modulates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factors and hormone receptors and modulates extracellular matrix breakdown in leiomyoma cells but not in myometrial cells. In two randomized, double-blind, multinational phase III trials of 13 weeks' duration in women aged 18-50 years with uterine fibroids, a once-daily regimen of oral ulipristal acetate 5 mg/day controlled excessive uterine bleeding (primary endpoint) in ≥90% of patients. Ulipristal acetate 5 mg/day was more effective than placebo and was shown to be noninferior to intramuscular leuprolide acetate 3.75 mg once monthly in controlling uterine bleeding. Uterine bleeding was rapidly controlled by ulipristal acetate. Approximately half of recipients of ulipristal acetate 5 mg/day became amenorrhoeic within the first 10 days of treatment. Furthermore, uterine bleeding was controlled significantly more rapidly for recipients of ulipristal acetate than recipients of leuprolide acetate. A significantly greater median reduction from baseline in total fibroid volume was observed for recipients of ulipristal acetate 5 mg once daily than recipients of placebo following 13 weeks' treatment (coprimary endpoint). For patients who did not undergo surgery, the volume reduction was maintained for at least 6 months after discontinuing treatment. Ulipristal acetate was generally well tolerated in women with uterine fibroids. The incidence of hot flush occurred with a significantly lower frequency for recipients of ulipristal acetate than for recipients of leuprolide acetate.

  2. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup

    2014-01-01

    of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram......-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms....

  3. ACETIC ACID AND A BUFFER

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent.......The present invention relates to a composition comprising : a) 0.01-20% wt/wt acetic acid and b) a physiologically tolerable buffer capable of maintaining acetic acid at a pH in the range of 2-7; and use of such a composition as an antimicrobial agent....

  4. Drug-loaded Cellulose Acetate and Cellulose Acetate Butyrate Films ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this research work was to evaluate the contribution of formulation variables on release properties of matrix type ocular films containing chloramphenicol as a model drug. This study investigated the use of cellulose acetate and cellulose acetate butyrate as film-forming agents in development of ocular films.

  5. Acetate metabolism in Methanothrix soehngenii

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetten, M.S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Acetate is quantitatively the most important intermediate in the anaerobic degradation of soluble organic matter. The conversion rate of acetate by methanogenic bacteria is proposed to be the rate limiting step in this degradation The study of acetoclastic methanogens, therefore is of

  6. (VI) oxide in acetic acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The oxidation of cyclohexene by chromium (VI) oxide in aqueous and acetic media was studied. The reaction products were analysed using infra red (IR) and gas chromatography coupled with mass (GC/MS) spectroscopy. The major products of the oxidation reaction in acetic acid medium were cyclohexanol, ...

  7. Ulipristal acetate for emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, J A; Creinin, M D

    2010-09-01

    Ulipristal acetate is a progesterone receptor modulator. As an emergency contraceptive, a 30-mg micronized formulation is effective for use up to 120 h from unprotected sexual intercourse. Ulipristal acetate acts as an antagonist of the progesterone receptor at the transcriptional level and a competitive antagonist of glucocorticoid receptor function. In contrast to other contraceptives, it has little effect on sex hormone-binding globulin. Although a single small study demonstrated some potential endometrial effects after ulipristal acetate administration, the clinical relevance of these findings is unclear. The incidence of adverse events in clinical trials for emergency contraception has typically been minimal, with one study showing a higher than expected incidence of nausea upon ulipristal acetate use. Ulipristal acetate, like other emergency contraceptive products, can lengthen the time to the next expected menstruation. Ulipristal acetate may have several advantages over currently approved emergency contraceptives. When compared to levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate maintains its efficacy for a full 120 h, whereas levonorgestrel formulations have declining efficacy over that time frame. Moreover, although the copper intrauterine device (IUD) is highly effective as an emergency contraceptive, accessibility is an issue since the IUD requires a skilled provider for insertion. Copyright 2010 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  8. Catalytic Combustion of Ethyl Acetate

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZÇELİK, Tuğba GÜRMEN; ATALAY, Süheyda; ALPAY, Erden

    2014-01-01

    The catalytic combustion of ethyl acetate over prepared metal oxide catalysts was investigated. CeO, Co2O3, Mn2O3, Cr2O3, and CeO-Co2O3 catalysts were prepared on monolith supports and they were tested. Before conducting the catalyst experiments, we searched for the homogeneous gas phase combustion reaction of ethyl acetate. According to the homogeneous phase experimental results, 45% of ethyl acetate was converted at the maximum reactor temperature tested (350 °C). All the prepare...

  9. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Nielsen, Anne K.; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Homøe, Preben; Høiby, Niels; Givskov, Michael; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are known to be extremely tolerant toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. These biofilms cause the persistence of chronic infections. Since antibiotics rarely resolve these infections, the only effective treatment of chronic infections is surgical removal of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms. PMID:26155378

  10. Methanogenesis from acetate: enrichment studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baresi, L; Mah, R A; Ward, D M; Kaplan, I R

    1978-01-01

    An acetate enrichment culture was initiated by inoculating anaerobic sludge from a mesophilic methane digestor into a mineral salts medium with calcium acetate as the sole carbon and energy source. This enrichment was maintained indefinitely by weekly transfer into medium of the same composition. A study of this enrichment disclosed an unexpected age-dependent inhibition of methanogenesis by H2 and formate which apparently differed from the inhibition by chloroform and benzyl viologen. This age-dependent inhibition indicated that microbial interactions of the mixed enrichment population may play a regulatory role in methane formation. Futhermore, stimulation of methanogenesis in the acetate enrichment by addition of yeast extract showed a nutrient limitation which indicated that syntrophic interactions leading to formation of growth factors may also occur. A model is presented to illustrate the possible interrelationships between methanogenic and nonmethanogenic bacteria in their growth and formation of methane and carbon dioxide from acetate. Images PMID:697356

  11. Zinc Acetate Immobilized on Mesoporous Materials by Acetate Ionic Liquids as Catalysts for Vinyl Acetate Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Xu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionic liquid containing active ingredient Zn(CH3COO2 was loaded in mesoporous silica gel to form supported ionic liquids catalyst (SILC which was used to synthesize vinyl acetate monomer (VAM. SILC was characterized by 1HNMR, FT-IR, TGA, BET, and N2 adsorption/desorption and the acetylene method was used to evaluate SILC catalytic activity and stability in fixed reactor. The result shows that 1-allyl-3-acetic ether imidazole acetate ionic liquid is successfully fixed within mesoporous channel of silica gel. The average thickness of ionic liquid catalyst layer is about 1.05 nm. When the catalytic temperature is 195°C, the acetic acid (HAc conversion is 10.9% with 1.1 g vinyl acetate yield and 98% vinyl acetate (VAc selectivity. The HAc conversion is increased by rise of catalytic temperature and molar ratio of C2H2 : HAc and decreased by mass space velocity (WHSV. The catalyst activity is not significantly reduced within 7 days and VAc selectivity has a slight decrease.

  12. 27 CFR 21.107 - Ethyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl acetate. 21.107....107 Ethyl acetate. (a) 85 percent ester: (1) Acidity (as acetic acid). Not more than 0.015 percent by...); for incorporation by reference, see § 21.6(b).) When 100 ml of ethyl acetate are distilled by this...

  13. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and..., Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.228 Ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate (CAS Reg. No. 141-78... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which are...

  14. 5-(Chloromethylquinolin-8-yl acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qian Kong

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C12H10ClNO2, crystallizes with two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit; these are approximate mirror images of each other. In each molecule, the chloromethyl and acetate groups lie on the same side of the quinoline ring system, with dihedral angles between the ring plane and the plane of the acetate group of 82.0 (1 and −79.2 (1°. The C—C—C—Cl torsion angles for the chloromethyl groups of the two molecules are 80.9 (2 and −83.1 (2°.

  15. Desmopressin Acetate in Intracranial Haemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kapapa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The secondary increase in the size of intracranial haematomas as a result of spontaneous haemorrhage or trauma is of particular relevance in the event of prior intake of platelet aggregation inhibitors. We describe the effect of desmopressin acetate as a means of temporarily stabilising the platelet function. Patients and Methods. The platelet function was analysed in 10 patients who had received single (N=4 or multiple (N=6 doses of acetylsalicylic acid and 3 patients (control group who had not taken acetylsalicylic acid. All subjects had suffered intracranial haemorrhage. Analysis was performed before, half an hour and three hours after administration of desmopressin acetate. Statistical analysis was performed by applying a level of significance of P≤0.05. Results. (1 Platelet function returned to normal 30 minutes after administration of desmopressin acetate. (2 The platelet function worsened again after three hours. (3 There were no complications related to electrolytes or fluid balance. Conclusion. Desmopressin acetate can stabilise the platelet function in neurosurgical patients who have received acetylsalicylic acid prior to surgery without causing transfusion-related side effects or a loss of time. The effect is, however, limited and influenced by the frequency of drug intake. Further controls are needed in neurosurgical patients.

  16. Crystalline organomercuric acetates via organoboranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunda, S.A.; Varma, R.S.; Kabalka, G.W.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that the organomercuric acetates (OMA) can be synthesized rapidly using organomercury derivatives as intermediates. The OMAs can be readily prepared as crystalline solids. The reactions proceed with sufficient rapidity to make the synthesis useful for isotopic labelling of physiologically active compounds.

  17. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... synthetically by the neutralization of acetic acid with sodium carbonate or by treating calcium acetate with...(n)(43) of this chapter. (e) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  19. Pallidol hexaacetate ethyl acetate monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinyong Mao

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The entire molecule of pallidol hexaacetate {systematic name: (±-(4bR,5R,9bR,10R-5,10-bis[4-(acetyloxyphenyl]-4b,5,9b,10-tetrahydroindeno[2,1-a]indene-1,3,6,8-tetrayl tetraacetate} is completed by the application of twofold rotational symmetry in the title ethyl acetate solvate, C40H34O12·C4H8O2. The ethyl acetate molecule was highly disordered and was treated with the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2009. Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]; the crystallographic data take into account the presence of the solvent. In pallidol hexaacetate, the dihedral angle between the fused five-membered rings (r.m.s. deviation = 0.100 Å is 54.73 (6°, indicating a significant fold in the molecule. Significant twists between residues are also evident as seen in the dihedral angle of 80.70 (5° between the five-membered ring and the pendent benzene ring to which it is attached. Similarly, the acetate residues are twisted with respect to the benzene ring to which they are attached [C—O(carboxy—C—C torsion angles = −70.24 (14, −114.43 (10 and −72.54 (13°]. In the crystal, a three-dimensional architecture is sustained by C—H...O interactions which encompass channels in which the disordered ethyl acetate molecules reside.

  20. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acetic acid. 184.1005 Section 184.1005 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2H4O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation of...

  1. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  2. Ulipristal acetate in emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstajn, Marina Sprem; Baldani, Dinka Pavicić; Skrgatić, Lana; Radaković, Branko; Vrbić, Hrvoje; Canić, Tomislav

    2014-03-01

    Despite the widespread availability of highly effective methods of contraception, unintended pregnancy is common. Unplanned pregnancies have been linked to a range of health, social and economic consequences. Emergency contraception reduces risk of pregnancy after unprotected intercourse, and represents an opportunity to decrease number of unplanned pregnancies and abortions. Emergency contraception pills (ECP) prevent pregnancy by delaying or inhibiting ovulation, without interfering with post fertilization events. If pregnancy has already occurred, ECPs will not be effective, therefore ECPs are not abortificants. Ulipristal acetate (17alpha-acetoxy-11beta-(4N-N,N-dymethilaminophenyl)-19-norpregna--4,9-diene-3,20-dione) is the first drug that was specifically developed and licensed for use as an emergency contraceptive. It is an orally active, synthetic, selective progesterone modulator that acts by binding with high affinity to the human progesterone receptor where it has both antagonist and partial agonist effects. It is a new molecular entity and the first compound in a new pharmacological class defined by the pristal stem. Up on the superior clinical efficacy evidence, UPA has been quickly recognized as the most effective emergency contraceptive pill, and recently recommended as the first prescription choice for all women regardless of the age and timing after intercourse. This article provides literature review of UPA and its role in emergency contraception.

  3. Acetobacter pasteurianus metabolic change induced by initial acetic acid to adapt to acetic acid fermentation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu; Zhang, Renkuan; Yin, Haisong; Bai, Xiaolei; Chang, Yangang; Xia, Menglei; Wang, Min

    2017-09-01

    Initial acetic acid can improve the ethanol oxidation rate of acetic acid bacteria for acetic acid fermentation. In this work, Acetobacter pasteurianus was cultured in ethanol-free medium, and energy production was found to increase by 150% through glucose consumption induced by initial acetic acid. However, oxidation of ethanol, instead of glucose, became the main energy production pathway when upon culturing ethanol containing medium. Proteome assay was used to analyze the metabolism change induced by initial acetic acid, which provided insight into carbon metabolic and energy regulation of A. pasteurianus to adapt to acetic acid fermentation conditions. Results were further confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. In summary, decreased intracellular ATP as a result of initial acetic acid inhibition improved the energy metabolism to produce more energy and thus adapt to the acetic acid fermentation conditions. A. pasteurianus upregulated the expression of enzymes related to TCA and ethanol oxidation to improve the energy metabolism pathway upon the addition of initial acetic acid. However, enzymes involved in the pentose phosphate pathway, the main pathway of glucose metabolism, were downregulated to induce a change in carbon metabolism. Additionally, the enhancement of alcohol dehydrogenase expression promoted ethanol oxidation and strengthened the acetification rate, thereby producing a strong proton motive force that was necessary for energy production and cell tolerance to acetic acid.

  4. Conversion to eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Jacqueline; Jacobson, Mercedes P.; Pazdera, Ladislav; Gough, Mallory; Cheng, Hailong; Grinnell, Todd; Blum, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) monotherapy. Methods: This post hoc pooled analysis of 2 randomized double-blind studies (093-045 and -046) included adults with partial-onset seizures medically uncontrolled by 1 or 2 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Following the baseline period (8 weeks), eligible patients were randomized 2:1 to receive ESL 1,600 mg or 1,200 mg once daily for 18 weeks; the primary endpoint was study exit by meeting predefined exit criteria (signifying worsening seizure control). In each study, treatment was considered effective if the upper 95% confidence limit for exit rate was lower than the historical control threshold (65.3%). Results: Pooled exit rates were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 20.6% (95% confidence interval: 15.6%–26.8%); ESL 1,200 mg = 30.8% (23.0%–40.5%). Use of 2 baseline AEDs or rescue medication, US location, epilepsy duration ≥20 years, and higher maximum baseline seizure frequency were associated with higher exit risks. Median percent reductions in standardized seizure frequency between baseline and the 18-week double-blind period were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 43.2%; ESL 1,200 mg = 35.7%; baseline carbamazepine use was associated with smaller reductions. Safety profiles were similar between ESL doses. Conclusions: Exit rates for ESL monotherapy (1,600 mg and 1,200 mg once daily) were lower than the historical control threshold, irrespective of baseline AED use and region, with no additional safety concerns identified. Clinical factors and location clearly influence treatment responses in conversion-to-monotherapy trials. Classification of evidence: This pooled analysis provides Class IV evidence that for adults with medically uncontrolled partial-onset seizures, ESL monotherapy is well tolerated and effective. PMID:26911639

  5. Degradation of Isotopic Lactate and Acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aronoff, S.; Haas, V.A.; Fries, B.A.

    1948-02-24

    A scheme of glucose degradation has been validated by the use of intermediates of known isotopic composition. In this scheme: glucose {yields} lactic acid {yields} CO{sub 2} (C-3,4) + acetic acid {yields} CO{sub 2} (C-2,5) + acetone {yields} iodoform (C-1,6) + acetate (C-1,6; 2,5), it was found that (a) in the oxidation of lactic acid, approximately 4.7% of the acetic acid was oxidized to CO{sub 2}; and (b) under the conditions prescribed, BaCO{sub 3} from the degradation of Ba acetate contained approximately 1.5% of the activity of the methyl group.

  6. Luminescence properties of uranyl-acetate species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, Hannes; Moll, Henry [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Inst. of Resource Ecology; Stumpf, Thorsten [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V., Dresden (Germany). Biogeochemistry

    2017-06-01

    Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) was applied to characterize uranium(VI)- acetate species based on their luminescence properties. In contrast to previous interpretations, no indications were detected for the existence of the 1: 3 complex.

  7. Methanogenesis from acetate: a nonmethanogenic bacterium from an anaerobic acetate enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, D M; Mah, R A; Kaplan, I R

    1978-06-01

    A methanogenic acetate enrichment was initiated by inoculation of an acetate-mineral salts medium with domestic anaerobic digestor sludge and maintained by weekly transfer for 2 years. The enrichment culture contained a Methanosarcina and several obligately anaerobic nonmethanogenic bacteria. These latter organisms formed varying degrees of association with the Methanosarcina, ranging from the nutritionally fastidious gram-negative rod called the satellite bacterium to the nutritionally nonfastidious Eubacterium limosum. The satellite bacterium had growth requirements for amino acids, a peptide, a purine base, vitamin B12, and other B vitamins. Glucose, mannitol, starch, pyruvate, cysteine, lysine, leucine, isoleucine, arginine, and asparagine stimulated growth and hydrogen production. Acetate was neither incorporated nor metabolized by the satellite organism. Since acetate was the sole organic carbon source in the enrichment culture, organism(s) which metabolize acetate (such as the Methanosarcina) must produce substrates and growth factors for associated organisms which do not metabolize acetate.

  8. Hemo-De as substitute for ethyl acetate in formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique.

    OpenAIRE

    Neimeister, R; Logan, A L; Gerber, B; Egleton, J H; Kleger, B

    1987-01-01

    In comparative studies, Hemo-De (PMP Medical Industries, Inc., Irving, Tex.) was found to be a suitable replacement for ethyl acetate in the Formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique. With essentially equivalent recovery rates for both procedures, the Formalin-Hemo-De concentration technique is considered to be the preferred technique because Hemo-De is less toxic and less flammable and does not present disposal problems, and its cost is approximately one-fourth that of ethyl acetate.

  9. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. 584.200... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets... having had added the equivalent of 4.25 gallons of 100 percent ethyl acetate. It is used in accordance...

  10. Different cerebrovascular effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate and norethisterone acetate in the New Zealand White rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S H; Pedersen, N G; Dalsgaard, T

    2004-01-01

    of different progestins on cerebrovascular reactivity in an animal model. METHODS: Fifty-six ovariectomized New Zealand White rabbits were randomized into seven groups receiving hormone treatment for 4 weeks: medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) (10 mg/day); norethisterone acetate (NETA) (3 mg/day); conjugated...

  11. Acetic acid production from food wastes using yeast and acetic acid bacteria micro-aerobic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; He, Dongwei; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-05-01

    In this study, yeast and acetic acid bacteria strains were adopted to enhance the ethanol-type fermentation resulting to a volatile fatty acids yield of 30.22 g/L, and improve acetic acid production to 25.88 g/L, with food wastes as substrate. In contrast, only 12.81 g/L acetic acid can be obtained in the absence of strains. The parameters such as pH, oxidation reduction potential and volatile fatty acids were tested and the microbial diversity of different strains and activity of hydrolytic ferment were investigated to reveal the mechanism. The optimum pH and oxidation reduction potential for the acetic acid production were determined to be at 3.0-3.5 and -500 mV, respectively. Yeast can convert organic matters into ethanol, which is used by acetic acid bacteria to convert the organic wastes into acetic acid. The acetic acid thus obtained from food wastes micro-aerobic fermentation liquid could be extracted by distillation to get high-pure acetic acid.

  12. Fluorescence quenching of etilefrine by acetate anion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero Osso, B.; Carazo Rodríguez, F. M.; Morales Domingo, J. J.; Cabeza González, M. C.; Thomas Gómez, J.

    1999-02-01

    Acid dissociation in the excited state of antihypotensor drug etilefrine [2-(ethylamino1-3-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol] is studied. Fluorescence of etilefrine decreases at pH7. Analyses of the absorption and fluorescence spectra of aqueous solutions of etilefrine in the presence of acetate anions have been made. Considering the existence of an equilibrium in the excited state the values of 3.47×10 -9 and 0.216×10 -9 M -1 s -1 have been obtained for the rate constants for direct and inverse reactions, respectively. Moreover, the lifetime ( τ0'=0.58×10 -9 s) and quantum yield (0.01) of non-protonated etilefrine have been determined. Our results seem to support the existence of a dynamic quenching process based on a proton transfer mechanism induced by acetate anions. This process could represent a serious inconvenience in analytical fluorimetric techniques taking into account that the acetic acid/acetate pair is commonly used as a buffer. Additional fluorescence quenching by H + ions could be involved in acid aqueous mediums. At high concentrations of acetic acid, a value of 2.98×10 -9 M -1 s -1 for the bimolecular constant for the quenching by H + has been calculated.

  13. Ulipristal acetate: An update for Australian GPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Danielle

    2017-01-01

    In Australia, use and understanding of emergency contraception among women remains relatively low. This is despite the introduction of levonorgestrel emergency contraceptive pills (ECPs) more than a decade ago. In April 2016, a new ECP with the active ingredient ulipristal acetate became available in Australia. The aims of this article are to increase understanding of the recently introduced ulipristal acetate ECP, including its safety profile, effi-cacy and special considerations; dispel common myths and misconceptions about emergency contraception; and to provide guidance on emergency contraceptive management in general practice, considering the recent advances. Women are more receptive to information about emergency contraception that has been provided by a general practitioner (GP). As such, the availability of the ulipristal acetate ECP in Australia provides an important opportunity for GPs to help women prevent unplanned pregnancies.

  14. Acetic acid mediated interactions between alumina surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kimiyasu; Yılmaz, Hüseyin; Ijuin, Atsuko; Hotta, Yuji; Watari, Koji

    2012-02-01

    Low-molecular-weight organic acids have been known to modify colloidal stability of alumina-based suspensions. We investigated interaction forces between alumina surfaces mediated by acetic acid which is one of the simplest organic acids. Forces between alumina surfaces were measured using the colloid-probe method of atomic force microscope (AFM). Repulsive forces attributed to steric repulsion due to adsorbed molecules and electrostatic repulsion dominated the interaction. Results of rheological characterization of the alumina slurry containing acetic acid supported the finding.

  15. Effect of fluorogesterone acetate impregnated intravaginal sponges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacterial flora of the vagina of ten ewes was determined at sponge removal and two days later before insertion of nuorogesterone acetate intravaginal sponge. Using E coli as marker species, there· was a significant increase (P< 0.05) in bactedal population when samples taken before sponge insertion and at ttmoval ...

  16. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Brown, Dan; Eustace, John

    2015-01-01

    Increment 45 - 46 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  17. Formation of asymmetric cellulose acetate membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhorst, H.; Altena, F.W.; Smolders, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    Cellulose acetate membranes were prepared from casting solutions containing dioxane as a solvent and varying concentrations (up to 6%) of maleic acid as an additive. Coagulation took place in water at different temperatures. The effect of these variables on membrane structure and membrane properties

  18. Acetate causes alcohol hangover headache in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina R Maxwell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mechanism of veisalgia cephalgia or hangover headache is unknown. Despite a lack of mechanistic studies, there are a number of theories positing congeners, dehydration, or the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde as causes of hangover headache. METHODS: We used a chronic headache model to examine how pure ethanol produces increased sensitivity for nociceptive behaviors in normally hydrated rats. RESULTS: Ethanol initially decreased sensitivity to mechanical stimuli on the face (analgesia, followed 4 to 6 hours later by inflammatory pain. Inhibiting alcohol dehydrogenase extended the analgesia whereas inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase decreased analgesia. Neither treatment had nociceptive effects. Direct administration of acetate increased nociceptive behaviors suggesting that acetate, not acetaldehyde, accumulation results in hangover-like hypersensitivity in our model. Since adenosine accumulation is a result of acetate formation, we administered an adenosine antagonist that blocked hypersensitivity. DISCUSSION: Our study shows that acetate contributes to hangover headache. These findings provide insight into the mechanism of hangover headache and the mechanism of headache induction.

  19. The effectiveness of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oestrus was synchronized in crossbred ewes (Djallonke x Sahel F2 generation) on the Ghana Government /UNDPI FAO Sheep and Goat Project Farm at Ejura. Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MAP), 60 mg, was applied in an antibiotic-treated intravaginal sponge and allowed to remain for 14 days. Pregnant mare serum ...

  20. Effect of Thidiazuron, Benzylaminopurine and Naphthalene Acetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Thidiazuron, Benzylaminopurine and Naphthalene Acetic acid on In vitro propagation of Tuberose ( Polianthes tuberosa L. ) from shoot tip explants. ... One of the main challenges facing production and marketing of good quality Tuberose cut flowers is the lack of clean planting material as the resource-poor farmers ...

  1. Correlation of vapor - liquid equilibrium data for acetic acid - isopropanol - water - isopropyl acetate mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Mandagarán

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available A correlation procedure for the prediction of vapor - liquid equilibrium of acetic acid - isopropanol - water - isopropyl acetate mixtures has been developed. It is based on the NRTL model for predicting liquid activity coefficients, and on the Hayden-O'Connell second virial coefficients for predicting the vapor phase of systems containing association components. When compared with experimental data the correlation shows a good agreement for binary and ternary data. The correlation also shows good prediction for reactive quaternary data.

  2. Viscometric study of chitosan solutions in acetic acid/sodium acetate and acetic acid/sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Cristiane N; Teixeira, Viviane G; Delpech, Marcia C; Souza, Josefa Virginia S; Costa, Marcos A S

    2015-11-20

    A viscometric study was carried out at 25°C to assess the physical-chemical behavior in solution and the mean viscometric molar mass (M¯v) of chitosan solutions with different deacetylation degrees, in two solvent mixtures: medium 1-acetic acid 0.3mol/L and sodium acetate 0.2mol/L; and medium 2-acetic acid 0.1mol/L and sodium chloride 0.2mol/L. Different equations were employed, by graphical extrapolation, to calculate the intrinsic viscosities [η] and the viscometric constants, to reveal the solvent's quality: Huggins (H), Kraemer (K) and Schulz-Blaschke (SB). For single-point determination, the equations used were SB, Solomon-Ciuta (SC) and Deb-Chanterjee (DC), resulting in a faster form of analysis. The values of ̄M¯v were calculated by applying the equation of Mark-Houwink-Sakurada. The SB and SC equations were most suitable for single-point determination of [η] and ̄M¯v and the Schulz-Blachke constant (kSB), equal to 0.28, already utilized for various systems, can also be employed to analyze chitosan solutions under the conditions studied. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Oestrus induction using fluorogestone acetate sponges and equine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fluorogestone acetate sponge) alone or in combination with equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) on oestrus response in Red Sokoto (RS) goats. One hundred RS does were treated with 30 mg fluorogestone acetate (FGA) sponges for 14 ...

  4. Studies on an acetate-fermenting strain of Methanosarcina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, R A; Smith, M R; Baresi, L

    1978-06-01

    An acetate-fermenting strain of Methanosarcina was isolated from an acetate enrichment culture inoculated with anaerobic sludge from a waste treatment digestor. In pure culture, this organism fermented acetate in the absence of added hydrogen at rates comparable in magnitude to those found in digestor systems. This rate was significantly higher than previously obtained for pure cultures of this genus. Mineral components of yeast extract were highly stimulatory for cultures growing on methanol. Comparable stimulation was not observed for cultures growing on acetate. Labeling studies indicated that acetate was converted to methane and CO2 as predicted by previous studies on mixed cultures. Total oxidation or reduction of acetate was not the mechanism of conversion of acetate to methane by the pure culture. The ability of this strain to form colonies or to produce methane from acetate was apparently influenced by the choice of substrate and conditions used for growing the inoculum.

  5. Expression of acetate permease-like (apl) genes in subsurface communities of Geobacter species under fluctuating acetate concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elifantz, H.; N' Guessan, L.A.; Mouser, P.J.; Williams, K H.; Wilkins, M J.; Risso, C.; Holmes, D.E.; Long, P.E.; Lovley, D.R.

    2010-03-01

    The addition of acetate to uranium-contaminated aquifers in order to stimulate the growth and activity of Geobacter species that reduce uranium is a promising in situ bioremediation option. Optimizing this bioremediation strategy requires that sufficient acetate be added to promote Geobacter species growth. We hypothesized that under acetate-limiting conditions, subsurface Geobacter species would increase the expression of either putative acetate symporters genes (aplI and aplII). Acetate was added to a uranium-contaminated aquifer (Rifle, CO) in two continuous amendments separated by 5 days of groundwater flush to create changing acetate concentrations. While the expression of aplI in monitoring well D04 (high acetate) weakly correlated with the acetate concentration over time, the transcript levels for this gene were relatively constant in well D08 (low acetate). At the lowest acetate concentrations during the groundwater flush, the transcript levels of aplII were the highest. The expression of aplII decreased 2-10-fold upon acetate reintroduction. However, the overall instability of acetate concentrations throughout the experiment could not support a robust conclusion regarding the role of apl genes in response to acetate limitation under field conditions, in contrast to previous chemostat studies, suggesting that the function of a microbial community cannot be inferred based on lab experiments alone.

  6. Gold-catalyzed cyclization of allenyl acetal derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhananjayan Vasu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The gold-catalyzed transformation of allenyl acetals into 5-alkylidenecyclopent-2-en-1-ones is described. The outcome of our deuterium labeling experiments supports a 1,4-hydride shift of the resulting allyl cationic intermediates because a complete deuterium transfer is observed. We tested the reaction on various acetal substrates bearing a propargyl acetate, giving 4-methoxy-5-alkylidenecyclopent-2-en-1-ones 4 via a degradation of the acetate group at the allyl cation intermediate.

  7. 21 CFR 522.960b - Flumethasone acetate injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flumethasone acetate injection. 522.960b Section... § 522.960b Flumethasone acetate injection. (a) Chemical name. 6-alpha,9-alpha-difluoro - 16 - alpha - methylprednisolone 21-acetate. (b) Specifications. Flumethasone injection is sterile and contains per cubic...

  8. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

  9. 21 CFR 177.1350 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. 177.1350 Section... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1350 Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers may be safely used as articles or components of articles...

  10. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; Schuur, Boelo

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  11. Thermochemical characteristics of cellulose acetates with different degrees of acetylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, V. N.; Ur'yash, V. F.; Kushch, D. S.

    2012-12-01

    The standard enthalpies of combustion and formation of cellulose acetates with different degrees of acetylation are determined. It is established that there is a proportional dependence of these thermochemical characteristics vs. the degree of acetylation, weight fraction of bonded acetic acid, and molar mass of the repeating unit of cellulose acetates.

  12. Fermentation characteristics of Fusarium oxysporum grown on acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panagiotou, Gianni; Pachidou, Fotini; Petroutsos, Dimitris

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the growth characteristics of Fusarium oxysporum were evaluated in minimal medium using acetate or different mixtures of acetate and glucose as carbon source. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of acetic acid that F oxysporum cells could tolerate was 0.8% w/v while glucose ...

  13. Perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) nanowires for sensing ethyl acetate in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khopkar, Yashdeep; Kojtari, Arben; Swearer, Dayne; Zivanovic, Sandra; Ji, Hai-Feng

    2014-09-01

    We report the application of perylenetetracarboxylic diimide (PTCDI) nanowires for sensing ethyl acetate. The conductivity of the crystalline nano/microwires increases quickly and selectively in the presence of ethyl acetate vapor, but not with water, acid and alcohol vapors, suggesting that the nanowires of PTCDI may be used for monitoring ethyl acetate during a wine manufacturing process.

  14. Development of Chitosan Acetate Films for Transdermal Delivery of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To formulate and evaluate chitosan acetate films designed for transdermal delivery of propranolol hydrochloride. Methods: Chitosan acetate was chemically modified with acetaldehyde and the solution was prepared with 1 % acetic acid, in which was dissolved propranolol hydrochloride, was cast as films in Petri ...

  15. Enzymatic Systems for Cellulose Acetate Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar Haske-Cornelius

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose acetate (CA-based materials, like cigarette filters, contribute to landscape pollution challenging municipal authorities and manufacturers. This study investigates the potential of enzymes to degrade CA and to be potentially incorporated into the respective materials, enhancing biodegradation. Deacetylation studies based on Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry-Time of Flight (LC-MS-TOF, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, and spectrophotometric analysis showed that the tested esterases were able to deacetylate the plasticizer triacetin (glycerol triacetate and glucose pentaacetate (cellulose acetate model compound. The most effective esterases for deacetylation belong to the enzyme family 2 (AXE55, AXE 53, GAE, they deacetylated CA with a degree of acetylation of up to 1.8. A combination of esterases and cellulases showed synergistic effects, the absolute glucose recovery for CA 1.8 was increased from 15% to 28% when an enzymatic deacetylation was performed. Lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO, and cellobiohydrolase were able to cleave cellulose acetates with a degree of acetylation of up to 1.4, whereas chitinase showed no activity. In general, the degree of substitution, chain length, and acetyl group distribution were found to affect CA degradation. This study shows that, for a successful enzyme-based deacetylation system, a cocktail of enzymes, which will randomly cleave and generate shorter CA fragments, is the most suitable.

  16. Compound list: desmopressin acetate [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available desmopressin acetate DDAVP 00159 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LA...TEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/desmopressin_acetate.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/a...rchive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/desmopressin_acetate.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ftp://...ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Kidney/Single/desmopre...ssin_acetate.Rat.in_vivo.Kidney.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Kidney/Repeat/desmopressin_acetate.Rat.in_vivo.Kidney.Repeat.zip ...

  17. Lipase Mediated Isoamyl Acetate Synthesis in Solvent-Free System Using Vinyl Acetate as Acyl Donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annapurna Kumari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of isoamyl acetate, a flavour ester extensively used in food industry, has been carried out in a solvent-free system. In the present study, an attempt has been made to enhance the isoamyl acetate synthesis yield by transesterification of isoamyl alcohol with vinyl acetate using immobilized Rhizopus oryzae NRRL 3562 lipase. In the present synthesis, substrates had no inhibitory effect on immobilized lipase. The effects of various reaction parameters on isoamyl acetate synthesis were studied and maximum conversion was achieved at 16 % (by mass per volume of immobilized lipase, 40 °C and 200 rpm. Under these conditions, 8-hour reaction time was sufficient to reach a high ester conversion of 95 % with 0.5 mol/L of isoamyl alcohol. The structure of the transesterified product was confirmed by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies. Immobilized lipase had Km and vmax values of 306.53 mmol/L and 99 µmol/(h·g respectively, for isoamyl acetate synthesis in a solvent-free system.

  18. Overview on mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-02-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of gram-negative or gram-variable bacteria which possess an obligate aerobic property with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, meanwhile transform ethanol and sugar to corresponding aldehydes, ketones and organic acids. Since the first genus Acetobacter of AAB was established in 1898, 16 AAB genera have been recorded so far. As the main producer of a world-wide condiment, vinegar, AAB have evolved an elegant adaptive system that enables them to survive and produce a high concentration of acetic acid. Some researches and reviews focused on mechanisms of acid resistance in enteric bacteria and made the mechanisms thoroughly understood, while a few investigations did in AAB. As the related technologies with proteome, transcriptome and genome were rapidly developed and applied to AAB research, some plausible mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in some AAB strains have been published. In this review, the related mechanisms of AAB against acetic acid with acetic acid assimilation, transportation systems, cell morphology and membrane compositions, adaptation response, and fermentation conditions will be described. Finally, a framework for future research for anti-acid AAB will be provided.

  19. Acetic acid removal from corn stover hydrolysate using ethyl acetate and the impact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioethanol fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Ladisch, Michael R; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-08

    Acetic acid is introduced into cellulose conversion processes as a consequence of composition of lignocellulose feedstocks, causing significant inhibition of adapted, genetically modified and wild-type S. cerevisiae in bioethanol fermentation. While adaptation or modification of yeast may reduce inhibition, the most effective approach is to remove the acetic acid prior to fermentation. This work addresses liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from biomass hydrolysate through a pathway that mitigates acetic acid inhibition while avoiding the negative effects of the extractant, which itself may exhibit inhibition. Candidate solvents were selected using simulation results from Aspen Plus™, based on their ability to extract acetic acid which was confirmed by experimentation. All solvents showed varying degrees of toxicity toward yeast, but the relative volatility of ethyl acetate enabled its use as simple vacuum evaporation could reduce small concentrations of aqueous ethyl acetate to minimally inhibitory levels. The toxicity threshold of ethyl acetate, in the presence of acetic acid, was found to be 10 g L(-1) . The fermentation was enhanced by extracting 90% of the acetic acid using ethyl acetate, followed by vacuum evaporation to remove 88% removal of residual ethyl acetate along with 10% of the broth. NRRL Y-1546 yeast was used to demonstrate a 13% increase in concentration, 14% in ethanol specific production rate, and 11% ethanol yield. This study demonstrated that extraction of acetic acid with ethyl acetate followed by evaporative removal of ethyl acetate from the raffinate phase has potential to significantly enhance ethanol fermentation in a corn stover bioethanol facility. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:929-937, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  20. Detoxification of biomass derived acetate via metabolic conversion to ethanol, acetone, isopropanol, or ethyl acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillers, William Ryan; Van Dijken, Hans; Licht, Steve; Shaw, IV, Arthur J.; Gilbert, Alan Benjamin; Argyros, Aaron; Froehlich, Allan C.; McBride, John E.; Xu, Haowen; Hogsett, David A.; Rajgarhia, Vineet B.

    2017-03-28

    One aspect of the invention relates to a genetically modified thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism, wherein a first native gene is partially, substantially, or completely deleted, silenced, inactivated, or down-regulated, which first native gene encodes a first native enzyme involved in the metabolic production of an organic acid or a salt thereof, thereby increasing the native ability of said thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism to produce lactate or acetate as a fermentation product. In certain embodiments, the aforementioned microorganism further comprises a first non-native gene, which first non-native gene encodes a first non-native enzyme involved in the metabolic production of lactate or acetate. Another aspect of the invention relates to a process for converting lignocellulosic biomass to lactate or acetate, comprising contacting lignocellulosic biomass with a genetically modified thermophilic or mesophilic microorganism.

  1. Different cerebrovascular effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate and norethisterone acetate in the New Zealand White rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S H; Pedersen, N G; Dalsgaard, T

    2004-01-01

    of different progestins on cerebrovascular reactivity in an animal model. METHODS: Fifty-six ovariectomized New Zealand White rabbits were randomized into seven groups receiving hormone treatment for 4 weeks: medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) (10 mg/day); norethisterone acetate (NETA) (3 mg/day); conjugated....... No overall differences were seen between CEE and E2. CONCLUSIONS: In rabbit cerebral arteries, MPA treatment causes a higher development in arterial tension compared with NETA, indicating that different progestins may display different cerebrovascular effects. However, when accompanied by estrogens...

  2. High-flux cellulose acetate membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeddeker, K.W.; Finken, H.; Wenzlaff, A.

    1981-01-01

    Three routes to increase the permeate flux of asymmetric cellulose diacetate membranes of the Loeb-Sourirajan type are investigated: increasing the hydrophilicity of the membranes; increasing their compaction stability; employing a swelling agent which allows for higher solvent-to-polymer ratio in the casting solution. The effect of casting solution composition on flux and rejection of formamide-modified cellulose acetate membranes is shown in Figure 1, illustrating the general capability of this membrane type as function of solvent concentration. Membranes of casting solution composition cellulose diacetate/acetone/formamide 23/52/25 (solvent-to-polymer ratio 2.26) were used as reference membranes in this work.

  3. High-flux cellulose acetate membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeddeker, K.W.; Finken, H.; Wenzlaff, A.

    1981-01-01

    Three routes to increase the permeate flux of asymmetric cellulose diacetate membranes of the Loeb-Sourirajan type were investigated: increasing the hydrophilicity of the membranes; increasing their compaction stability, and employing a swelling agent which allows for higher solvent-to-polymer ratio in the casting solution. The effect of casting solution composition on flux and rejection of formamide-modified cellulose acetate membrane is included, illustrating the general capability of this membrane type as function of solvent concentration. Membranes of casting solution composition cellulose diacetate/acetone/formamide 23/52/25 were used as reference membranes in the work. 6 figures. (DP)

  4. Photoelectron spectroscopy of a series of acetate and propionate esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmiałek, Małgorzata A.; Guthmuller, Julien; MacDonald, Michael A.; Zuin, Lucia; Delwiche, Jacques; Hubin-Franskin, Marie-Jeanne; Lesniewski, Tadeusz; Mason, Nigel J.; Limão-Vieira, Paulo

    2017-10-01

    The electronic state and photoionization spectroscopy of a series of acetate esters: methyl acetate, isopropyl acetate, butyl acetate and pentyl acetate as well as two propionates: methyl propionate and ethyl propionate, have been determined using vacuum-ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. These experimental investigations are complemented by ab initio calculations. The measured first adiabatic and vertical ionization energies were determined as: 10.21 and 10.45 eV for methyl acetate, 9.99 and 10.22 eV for isopropyl acetate, 10.07 and 10.26 eV for butyl acetate, 10.01 and 10.22 eV for pentyl acetate, 10.16 and 10.36 eV for methyl propionate and 9.99 and 10.18 eV for ethyl propionate. For the four smaller esters vibrational transitions were calculated and compared with those identified in the photoelectron spectrum, revealing the most distinctive ones to be a Csbnd O stretch combined with a Cdbnd O stretch. The ionization energies of methyl and ethyl esters as well as for a series of formates and acetates were compared showing a clear dependence of the value of the ionization energy on the size of the molecule with very little influence of its conformation.

  5. Sphingolipids contribute to acetic acid resistance in Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Lina; Genheden, Samuel; Eriksson, Leif A; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Lignocellulosic raw material plays a crucial role in the development of sustainable processes for the production of fuels and chemicals. Weak acids such as acetic acid and formic acid are troublesome inhibitors restricting efficient microbial conversion of the biomass to desired products. To improve our understanding of weak acid inhibition and to identify engineering strategies to reduce acetic acid toxicity, the highly acetic-acid-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii was studied. The impact of acetic acid membrane permeability on acetic acid tolerance in Z. bailii was investigated with particular focus on how the previously demonstrated high sphingolipid content in the plasma membrane influences acetic acid tolerance and membrane permeability. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we concluded that membranes with a high content of sphingolipids are thicker and more dense, increasing the free energy barrier for the permeation of acetic acid through the membrane. Z. bailii cultured with the drug myriocin, known to decrease cellular sphingo-lipid levels, exhibited significant growth inhibition in the presence of acetic acid, while growth in medium without acetic acid was unaffected by the myriocin addition. Furthermore, following an acetic acid pulse, the intracellular pH decreased more in myriocin-treated cells than in control cells. This indicates a higher inflow rate of acetic acid and confirms that the reduction in growth of cells cultured with myriocin in the medium with acetic acid was due to an increase in membrane permeability, thereby demonstrating the importance of a high fraction of sphingolipids in the membrane of Z. bailii to facilitate acetic acid resistance; a property potentially transferable to desired production organisms suffering from weak acid stress. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. [Ulipristal acetate, 5mg: a new alternative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monleón Sancho, Javier; Romaguera, Eugenia; Romero, Ainhoa; Higueras, Gema; Morcillo, Inmaculada; Fuster, Sonia

    2013-07-01

    Fibroids have a high prevalence (approaching 50%) in the female population. Although they are a benign entity, they represent a health problem of considerable magnitude, causing hemorrhaging, pain and sterility. Surgical treatment is currently safe and effective, but in recent decades numerous less invasive alternatives have appeared, such as uterine artery embolization and thermal ablation (HIFU and radiofrequency). New possibilities for medical treatment have also emerged, such as GnRh analogues, aromatase inhibitors and selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs). SPRMs act through progesterone receptors and behave as agonists or antagonists in various target organs. Among them, ulipristal acetate (UA) inhibits the proliferation and induction of apoptosis and cell death pathways in leiomyoma cells, translating at the clinical level to smaller fibroids and lower uterine volumes, with no significant side effects. UA also produces amenorrhea in most patients. Randomized, phase III (PEARL I and II) clinical trials have shown the efficacy and security of UA versus placebo and leuprolide acetate (LA). UA is similar to LA, and superior to placebo in controlling bleeding and decreasing the size of the fibroid, with fewer side effects than LA. The safety and tolerance of UA have been satisfactory. UA is a reality in the preoperative treatment of fibroids, with broad potential for further development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Platinum acetate blue: synthesis and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkashina, Natalia V; Kochubey, Dmitry I; Kanazhevskiy, Vladislav V; Zaikovskii, Vladimir I; Ivanov, Vladimir K; Markov, Alexander A; Klyagina, Alla P; Dobrokhotova, Zhanna V; Kozitsyna, Natalia Yu; Baranovsky, Igor B; Ellert, Olga G; Efimov, Nikolai N; Nefedov, Sergei E; Novotortsev, Vladimir M; Vargaftik, Michael N; Moiseev, Ilya I

    2014-08-18

    Platinum acetate blue (PAB) of the empirical formula Pt(OOCMe)2.5±0.25, a byproduct in the synthesis of crystalline platinum(II) acetate Pt4(OOCMe)8, is an X-ray amorphous substance containing platinum in the oxidation state between (II) and (III). Typical PAB samples were studied with X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis-thermogravimetric, extended X-ray absorption fine structure, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, magnetochemistry, and combined quantum chemical density functional theory-molecular mechanics modeling to reveal the main structural features of the PAB molecular building blocks. The applicability of PAB to the synthesis of platinum complexes was demonstrated by the preparation of the new homo- and heteronuclear complexes Pt(II)(dipy)(OOCMe)2 (1), Pt(II)(μ-OOCMe)4Co(II)(OH2) (2), and Pt(III)2(OOCMe)4(O3SPhMe)2 (3) with the use of PAB as starting material.

  8. Genetic dissection of acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Peng; Xiao, Yin; Hu, Yun; Sun, Haiye; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Gui-Yang

    2016-09-01

    Dissection of the hereditary architecture underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae tolerance to acetic acid is essential for ethanol fermentation. In this work, a genomics approach was used to dissect hereditary variations in acetic acid tolerance between two phenotypically different strains. A total of 160 segregants derived from these two strains were obtained. Phenotypic analysis indicated that the acetic acid tolerance displayed a normal distribution in these segregants, and suggested that the acetic acid tolerant traits were controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Thus, 220 SSR markers covering the whole genome were used to detect QTLs of acetic acid tolerant traits. As a result, three QTLs were located on chromosomes 9, 12, and 16, respectively, which explained 38.8-65.9 % of the range of phenotypic variation. Furthermore, twelve genes of the candidates fell into the three QTL regions by integrating the QTL analysis with candidates of acetic acid tolerant genes. These results provided a novel avenue to obtain more robust strains.

  9. Fabrication of Gold Nanochains with Octreotide Acetate Template

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We described a facile method for assembly gold nanochains by using octreotide acetate as template in aqueous environment. In acidic solution, octreotide acetate was conferred positive charges and its structure changed to chain-like. The monodisperse negative gold nanoparticles were bound to the surface of octreotide acetate template by electrostatic attraction and the interaction of gold nanoparticles with amino acid residues (tryptophan and lysine. The fabricated gold nanostructure presented chain-like observed by transmission electron microscopy. The cytotoxicity of gold nanochains was examined by tetrazolium dye-based microtitration (MTT assay, which demonstrated significantly less toxicity than that of octreotide acetate alone. The MTT assay also reflected the combinative action between the gold nanoparticles with octreotide acetate. Our work lays the groundwork for developing octreotide acetate-templated nanomaterials that can be used as a building block for the creation of nanomaterials. Meanwhile, the harmfulless gold nanochains have great application prospects in the biomedical filed.

  10. Effect of Acetate Group Content in Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Copolymer on Properties of Composite Based on Low Density Polyethylene and Polyamide-6

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bui, Nhi Dinh; Vu, Ngo Dinh; Minh, Thao Thi; Dam, Huong Thi Thanh; Spiridonova, Regina Romanovna; Sirotkin, Semenovich Alexandr

    2016-01-01

    .... Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer containing less vinyl acetate groups (10-14 wt.%) has a positive compatibility effect on polymer composite than ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer containing 21-30 wt...

  11. Ulipristal acetate versus placebo for fibroid treatment before surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnez, Jacques; Tatarchuk, Tetyana F; Bouchard, Philippe; Puscasiu, Lucian; Zakharenko, Nataliya F; Ivanova, Tatiana; Ugocsai, Gyula; Mara, Michal; Jilla, Manju P; Bestel, Elke; Terrill, Paul; Osterloh, Ian; Loumaye, Ernest

    2012-02-02

    The efficacy and safety of oral ulipristal acetate for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids before surgery are uncertain. We randomly assigned women with symptomatic fibroids, excessive uterine bleeding (a score of >100 on the pictorial blood-loss assessment chart [PBAC, an objective assessment of blood loss, in which monthly scores range from 0 to >500, with higher numbers indicating more bleeding]) and anemia (hemoglobin level of ≤10.2 g per deciliter) to receive treatment for up to 13 weeks with oral ulipristal acetate at a dose of 5 mg per day (96 women) or 10 mg per day (98 women) or to receive placebo (48 women). All patients received iron supplementation. The coprimary efficacy end points were control of uterine bleeding (PBAC score of ulipristal acetate, 92% of those receiving 10 mg of ulipristal acetate, and 19% of those receiving placebo (Pulipristal acetate with placebo). The rates of amenorrhea were 73%, 82%, and 6%, respectively, with amenorrhea occurring within 10 days in the majority of patients receiving ulipristal acetate. The median changes in total fibroid volume were -21%, -12%, and +3% (P=0.002 for the comparison of 5 mg of ulipristal acetate with placebo, and P=0.006 for the comparison of 10 mg of ulipristal acetate with placebo). Ulipristal acetate induced benign histologic endometrial changes that had resolved by 6 months after the end of therapy. Serious adverse events occurred in one patient during treatment with 10 mg of ulipristal acetate (uterine hemorrhage) and in one patient during receipt of placebo (fibroid protruding through the cervix). Headache and breast tenderness were the most common adverse events associated with ulipristal acetate but did not occur significantly more frequently than with placebo. Treatment with ulipristal acetate for 13 weeks effectively controlled excessive bleeding due to uterine fibroids and reduced the size of the fibroids. (Funded by PregLem; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00755755.).

  12. Leuprorelin Acetate in Prostate Cancer: a European Update

    OpenAIRE

    Persad R

    2002-01-01

    This review provides an update on leuprorelin acetate, the world's most widely prescribed depot luteinising hormone-releasing hormone analogue. Leuprorelin acetate has been in clinical use in the palliative treatment of prostate cancer for more than 20 years, but advances continue to be made in terms of convenience and flexibility of administration, and in the incorporation of leuprorelin acetate into novel treatment regimens. The drug is administered in the form of a depot injection containi...

  13. Sphingolipids contribute to acetic acid resistance in Zygosaccharomyces bailii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Lina; Genheden, Samuel; Eriksson, Leif A.; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lignocellulosic raw material plays a crucial role in the development of sustainable processes for the production of fuels and chemicals. Weak acids such as acetic acid and formic acid are troublesome inhibitors restricting efficient microbial conversion of the biomass to desired products. To improve our understanding of weak acid inhibition and to identify engineering strategies to reduce acetic acid toxicity, the highly acetic‐acid‐tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii was studied. The impact of acetic acid membrane permeability on acetic acid tolerance in Z. bailii was investigated with particular focus on how the previously demonstrated high sphingolipid content in the plasma membrane influences acetic acid tolerance and membrane permeability. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we concluded that membranes with a high content of sphingolipids are thicker and more dense, increasing the free energy barrier for the permeation of acetic acid through the membrane. Z. bailii cultured with the drug myriocin, known to decrease cellular sphingo­lipid levels, exhibited significant growth inhibition in the presence of acetic acid, while growth in medium without acetic acid was unaffected by the myriocin addition. Furthermore, following an acetic acid pulse, the intracellular pH decreased more in myriocin‐treated cells than in control cells. This indicates a higher inflow rate of acetic acid and confirms that the reduction in growth of cells cultured with myriocin in the medium with acetic acid was due to an increase in membrane permeability, thereby demonstrating the importance of a high fraction of sphingolipids in the membrane of Z. bailii to facilitate acetic acid resistance; a property potentially transferable to desired production organisms suffering from weak acid stress. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 744–753. © 2015 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26416641

  14. Sphingolipids contribute to acetic acid resistance in Zygosaccharomyces bailii

    OpenAIRE

    Lindahl, Lina; Genheden, Samuel; Eriksson, Leif A.; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lignocellulosic raw material plays a crucial role in the development of sustainable processes for the production of fuels and chemicals. Weak acids such as acetic acid and formic acid are troublesome inhibitors restricting efficient microbial conversion of the biomass to desired products. To improve our understanding of weak acid inhibition and to identify engineering strategies to reduce acetic acid toxicity, the highly acetic?acid?tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii was studied...

  15. Spontaneous pregnancy during ulipristal acetate treatment of giant uterine leiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrgovic, Z; Habek, D; Cerkez Habek, J; Hrgovic, I; Jerkovic Gulin, S; Gulin, D

    2018-02-01

    Ulipristal acetate, a progesterone receptor modulator, pharmacologically inhibits endometrial proliferation and thereby prevents pregnancy. It is primarily used as emergency contraception, but also for the treatment of fibroids in women of reproductive age. There have been no published cases of pregnancy, while on therapy with ulipristal acetate. In this article, we present a case report of spontaneous pregnancy during ulipristal acetate therapy. To our knowledge, this is the first patient with spontaneous conception, while on ulipristal acetate treatment. There were no drug-related complications, and the pregnancy resulted in the delivery of a healthy baby. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Omics analysis of acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Peng; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Gui Yang

    2017-05-01

    Acetic acid is an inhibitor in industrial processes such as wine making and bioethanol production from cellulosic hydrolysate. It causes energy depletion, inhibition of metabolic enzyme activity, growth arrest and ethanol productivity losses in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of the yeast responses to acetic acid stress is essential for improving acetic acid tolerance and ethanol production. Although 329 genes associated with acetic acid tolerance have been identified in the Saccharomyces genome and included in the database ( http://www.yeastgenome.org/observable/resistance_to_acetic_acid/overview ), the cellular mechanistic responses to acetic acid remain unclear in this organism. Post-genomic approaches such as transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics and chemogenomics are being applied to yeast and are providing insight into the mechanisms and interactions of genes, proteins and other components that together determine complex quantitative phenotypic traits such as acetic acid tolerance. This review focuses on these omics approaches in the response to acetic acid in S. cerevisiae. Additionally, several novel strains with improved acetic acid tolerance have been engineered by modifying key genes, and the application of these strains and recently acquired knowledge to industrial processes is also discussed.

  17. Glatiramer Acetate-associated Refractory Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftach Sagy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of glatiramer acetate-associated refractory immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP in a female patient with multiple sclerosis. A search of MEDLINE/PubMed did not find any connection between glatiramer acetate and thrombocytopenia, specifically ITP. The autoimmune reaction was resistant to conservative ITP treatment, and was eventually managed only by splenectomy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of glatiramer acetate-associated ITP. Physicians should be aware of this condition, and consider performing routine blood counts at the beginning of glatiramer acetate treatment.

  18. Emergency Contraception Options: Focus on Ulipristal Acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon T. Cameron

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulipristal acetate (UPA is a progesterone receptor modulator that is available for emergency contraception (EC and can be taken up to 120 hours after unprotected intercourse. A meta-analysis of clinical trials comparing UPA with levonorgestrel (LNG for EC, demonstrated that UPA has higher efficacy than LNG. This higher efficacy is supported by biomedical studies that have demonstrated that UPA is a more potent inhibitor of ovulation, being able to delay ovulation in the immediate preovulatory period, when LNG is no longer effective. A recent study that explored risk factors for failure of EC, demonstrated that obese women were at increased risk of EC failure, with either UPA or LNG. However, failure was significantly less amongst women receiving UPA than those receiving LNG. There is growing evidence therefore, that UPA should be the preferred oral method of EC.

  19. Acetic Acid Bacteria as Symbionts of Insects

    KAUST Repository

    Crotti, Elena

    2016-06-14

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are being increasingly described as associating with different insect species that rely on sugar-based diets. AAB have been found in several insect orders, among them Diptera, Hemiptera, and Hymenoptera, including several vectors of plant, animal, and human diseases. AAB have been shown to associate with the epithelia of different organs of the host, they are able to move within the insect’s body and to be transmitted horizontally and vertically. Here, we review the ecology of AAB and examine their relationships with different insect models including mosquitoes, leafhoppers, and honey bees. We also discuss the potential use of AAB in symbiont-based control strategies, such as “Trojan-horse” agents, to block the transmission of vector-borne diseases.

  20. Emergency contraception: potential role of ulipristal acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Gemzell-Danielsson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Kristina Gemzell-Danielsson, Chun-Xia MengDepartment of Women’s and Children’s Health, Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, SwedenAbstract: Unintended pregnancy is a global reproductive health problem. Emergency contraception (EC provides women with a safe means of preventing unwanted pregnancies after having unprotected intercourse. While 1.5 mg of levonorgestrel (LNG as a single dose or in 2 doses with 12 hours apart is the currently gold standard EC regimen, a single dose of 30 mg ulipristal acetate (UPA has recently been proposed for EC use up to 120 hours of unprotected intercourse with similar side effect profiles as LNG. The main mechanism of action of both LNG and UPA for EC is delaying or inhibiting ovulation. However, the ‘window of effect’ for LNG EC seems to be rather narrow, beginning after selection of the dominant follicular and ending when luteinizing hormone peak begins to rise, whereas UPA appears to have a direct inhibitory effect on follicular rupture which allows it to be also effective even when administered shortly before ovulation, a time period when use of LNG is no longer effective. These experimental findings are in line with results from a series of clinical trials conducted recently which demonstrate that UPA seems to have higher EC efficacy compared to LNG. This review summarizes some of the data available on UPA used after unprotected intercourse with the purpose to provide evidence that UPA, a new type of second-generation progesterone receptor modulator, represents a new evolutionary step in EC treatment.Keywords: emergency contraception, ulipristal acetate, levonorgestrel

  1. Phytogenic biosynthesis and emission of methyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Kolby; Wegener, Frederik; Abrell, Leif; van Haren, Joost; Werner, Christiane

    2014-02-01

    Acetylation of plant metabolites fundamentally changes their volatility, solubility and activity as semiochemicals. Here we present a new technique termed dynamic (13) C-pulse chasing to track the fate of C1-3 carbon atoms of pyruvate into the biosynthesis and emission of methyl acetate (MA) and CO2 . (13) C-labelling of MA and CO2 branch emissions respond within minutes to changes in (13) C-positionally labelled pyruvate solutions fed through the transpiration stream. Strong (13) C-labelling of MA emissions occurred only under pyruvate-2-(13) C and pyruvate-2,3-(13) C feeding, but not pyruvate-1-(13) C feeding. In contrast, strong (13) CO2 emissions were only observed under pyruvate-1-(13) C feeding. These results demonstrate that MA (and other volatile and non-volatile metabolites) derive from the C2,3 atoms of pyruvate while the C1 atom undergoes decarboxylation. The latter is a non-mitochondrial source of CO2 in the light generally not considered in studies of CO2 sources and sinks. Within a tropical rainforest mesocosm, we also observed atmospheric concentrations of MA up to 0.6 ppbv that tracked light and temperature conditions. Moreover, signals partially attributed to MA were observed in ambient air within and above a tropical rainforest in the Amazon. Our study highlights the potential importance of acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis as a source of acetate esters and CO2 to the atmosphere. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by an enzyme preparation from Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinecke, D. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

  3. Kinetic Modelling and Experimental Study of Small Esters: Methyl Acetate and Ethyl Acetate

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Ahfaz

    2017-12-14

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism comprising methyl acetate and ethyl acetate has been developed based on the previous work by Westbrook et al. [1]. The newly developed kinetic mechanism has been updated with new reaction rates from recent theoretical studies. To validate this model, shock tube experiments measuring ignition delay time have been conducted at 15 & 30 bar and equivalence ratio 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. Another set of experiments measuring laminar burning velocity was also performed on a heat flux burner at atmospheric pressure over wide range of equivalence ratios [~0.7-1.4]. The new mechanism shows significant improvement in prediction of experimental data over earlier model across the range of experiments.

  4. Liquid-Liquid equilibria of the water-acetic acid-butyl acetate system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ince E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental liquid-liquid equilibria of the water-acetic acid-butyl acetate system were studied at temperatures of 298.15± 0.20, 303.15± 0.20 and 308.15± 0.20 K. Complete phase diagrams were obtained by determining solubility and tie-line data. The reliability of the experimental tie-line data was ascertained by using the Othmer and Tobias correlation. The UNIFAC group contribution method was used to predict the observed ternary liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE data. It was found that UNIFAC group interaction parameters used for LLE did not provide a good prediction. Distribution coefficients and separation factors were evaluated for the immiscibility region.

  5. Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramprasad, Dorai; Waller, Francis Joseph

    1999-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

  6. Combined XPS and contact angle studies of ethylene vinyl acetate and polyvinyl acetate blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucar, I. O.; Doganci, M. D.; Cansoy, C. E.; Erbil, H. Y.; Avramova, I.; Suzer, S.

    2011-09-01

    In this study, we prepared thin films by blending ethylene vinyl acetate copolymers (EVA) containing 12-33 (wt.%) vinyl acetate (VA) with polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) and high density polyethylene homopolymers. Large area micropatterns having controlled protrusion sizes were obtained by phase-separation especially for the PVAc/EVA-33 blends using dip coating. These surfaces were characterized by XPS and contact angle measurements. A reasonably linear relation was found between the VA content on the surface (wt.%) obtained from XPS analysis and the VA content in bulk especially for PVAc/EVA-33 blend surfaces. PE segments were more enriched on the surface than that of the bulk for pure EVA copolymer surfaces similar to previous reports and VA enrichment was found on the EVA/HDPE blend surfaces due to high molecular weight of HDPE. Water θ decreased with the increase in the VA content on the blend surface due to the polarity of VA. A good agreement was obtained between γs- and atomic oxygen surface concentration with the increase of VA content. The applicability of Cassie-Baxter equation was tested and found that it gave consistent results with the experimental water contact angles for the case where VA content was lower than 55 wt.% in the bulk composition.

  7. Acetalization of furfural with zeolites under benign reaction conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rubio-Caballeroa, Juan Miguel; Shunmugavel, Saravanamurugan; Maireles-Torres, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Acetalization is a viable method to protect carbonyl functionalities in organic compounds and offers apotential synthetic strategy for synthesizing derived chemicals. In this work, several families of commer-cial zeolites have been employed as solid acid catalysts in the acetalization of furfural...

  8. Development of Chitosan Acetate Films for Transdermal Delivery of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    interaction between the drug and the polymers used. NMR spectra showed the appearance of specific peaks for acetate group. Differences between chitosan acetate and chitosan were significant (p < 0.05) with regard to permeability, swelling and in vitro drug release. Conclusion: The films prepared using the synthesised ...

  9. Bioelectrochemical Ethanol Production through Mediated Acetate Reduction by Mixed Cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Schaap, J.D.; Kampman, C.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Biological acetate reduction with hydrogen is a potential method to convert wet biomass waste into ethanol. Since the ethanol concentration and reaction rates are low, this research studies the feasibility of using an electrode, in stead of hydrogen, as an electron donor for biological acetate

  10. Modelling and Simulation of the Batch Hydrolysis of Acetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The kinetic modelling of the batch synthesis of acetic acid from acetic anhydride was investigated. The kinetic data of the reaction was obtained by conducting the hydrolysis reaction in a batch reactor. A dynamic model was formulated for this process and simulation was carried out using gPROMS® an advanced process ...

  11. Microbial acetate oxidation in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The microbial culture was not only grown in a suspension but also in the form of a biofilm on the interior surface of HRTB. Efficiency of the bioprocess was monitored by determination of the acetate concentration and chemical oxygen demand (COD). While acetate inlet concentration and feeding rate influenced efficiency of ...

  12. Development of Chitosan Acetate Films for Transdermal Delivery of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    KSY Hemant* and HG Shivakumar. Department of Pharmaceutics, J.S.S. College of Pharmacy, JSS University, S.S. Nagar, Mysore-570 015, Karnataka,. India. Abstract. Purpose: To formulate and evaluate chitosan acetate films designed for transdermal delivery of propranolol hydrochloride. Methods: Chitosan acetate was ...

  13. Controlled free radical polymerization of vinyl acetate with cobalt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    this polymer is biodegradable and have found many applications in coatings, paper, and drug industries. In recent years, polyvinyl acetate with a well defined struc- ture has been reported to be used in block copolymers and in the controlled radical polymerizations (CRP). In this process the unreacted vinyl acetate monomer ...

  14. Effect of antimicrobial agents on cellulose acetate nano composites properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Francisco J.; Bruna, Julio E.; Galotto, Maria J.; Guarda, Abel; Sepulveda, Hugo, E-mail: francisco.rodriguez.m@usach.cl [Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA). Universidad de Santiago de Chile. Faculty of Technology. Department of Food Science and Technology. Food Packaging Laboratory. Santiago (Chile)

    2011-07-01

    Nano composites based on cellulose acetate, Cloisite 30B, triethyl citrate and thymol or cinnamaldehyde were prepared using a dissolution casting technique. The effect of thymol and cinnamaldehyde on the cellulose acetate nano composite properties was evaluated by XRD and DSC. Important changes on the thermal properties and morphological structure were observed according to thymol and cinnamaldehyde content. (author)

  15. Ethyl acetate production by the elusive alcohol acetyltransferase from yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, Alex; Levisson, Mark; Mars, Astrid E.; Ploeg, van der Max; Garcés Daza, Fernando; Ellena, Valeria; Kengen, Servé W.M.; Oost, van der John; Weusthuis, Ruud A.

    2017-01-01

    Ethyl acetate is an industrially relevant ester that is currently produced exclusively through unsustainable processes. Many yeasts are able to produce ethyl acetate, but the main responsible enzyme has remained elusive, hampering the engineering of novel production strains. Here we describe the

  16. Antibacterial activity of various fractions of ethyl acetate extract from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial activity of various fractions of ethyl acetate extract isolated from edible fungi, Tirmania pinoyi (Maire) Malençon, growing in Algeria, was investigated. Extraction was done by the Soxhlet and the fractions obtained were purified with silica-gel column. Two fractions of ethyl acetate extract were tested against ...

  17. Antimicrobial activity of ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine the antimicrobial activity and chemical constituents of ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds. Methods: Antimicrobial activity of the ethyl acetate extract of the seeds of C. lanatus was evaluated against Staphylococus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus subtilis ...

  18. Antidiarrheal Activity of the Ethyl Acetate Extract of Morinda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The objective of the study was to investigate the ethyl acetate extract of Morinda morindoides (Baker) Milne-Redh (Rubiaceae) (MM-EA) properties against experimental diarrheoa induced by castor oil in albino Wistar rats. Methods: The ethyl acetate extract of Morinda morindoides (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg body ...

  19. short communication chemical constituents of the ethyl acetate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ABSTRACT. The antibacterial activities of ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous extracts of the stem bark of Dichrostachys cinerea and the roots of Parkia bicolor have been evaluated. Ethyl acetate extracts have been investigated, studies that led to a series of known compounds, amongst which many are reported here for ...

  20. Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Methyl Acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polichnowski, S. W.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a study of the rhodium-catalyzed, ioding-promoted carbonylation of methyl acetate. This study provides an interesting contrast between the carbonylation of methyl acetate and the carbonylation of methanol when similar rhodium/iodine catalyst systems are used. (JN)

  1. Cloning, expression and purification of cold adapted acetate kinase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After extraction of crude recombinant acetate kinase, the desired enzyme was able to be purified on a Blue Sepharose CL-6B and Super-Q affinity column ... The structural comparison to mesophilic and thermophilic acetate kinases demonstrates that the psychrophilic one contains lower number of salt bridges and cation-pi ...

  2. Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (Depo-Provlera) as a Contrac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (Depo-Provlera) as a Contrac·eptive Preparation. Basil Bloch. Abstract. Experience with depot medroxyprogesterone acetate as a contraceptive preparation in 7 335 patients for a total of 38 714 months over a 3-year period is described. The discontinuation rate was 18.3% and the ...

  3. Effects of culture conditions on acetic acid production by bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-11-30

    Nov 30, 2015 ... and 0.6-2.9 % (Ho et al., 2014) respectively for citric, acetic and lactic acids. Consequently, this suggested that such conditions might prevent the production of acetic acid by these isolates during cocoa fermentation assay since Soumahoro et al. (2015) found in previous study incapacity of all tested strains ...

  4. Disorder effects in Mn(12)-acetate at 83 K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornia, Andrea; Fabretti, Antonio Costantino; Sessoli, Roberta; Sorace, Lorenzo; Gatteschi, Dante; Barra, Anne-Laure; Daiguebonne, Carole; Roisnel, Thierry

    2002-07-01

    The structure of hexadeca-mu-acetato-tetraaquadodeca-mu(3)-oxo-dodecamanganese bis(acetic acid) tetrahydrate, [Mn(12)O(12)(CH(3)COO)(16)(H(2)O)(4)] x 2CH(3)COOH x 4H(2)O, known as Mn(12)-acetate, has been determined at 83 (2) K by X-ray diffraction methods. The fourfold (S(4)) molecular symmetry is disrupted by a strong hydrogen-bonding interaction with the disordered acetic acid molecule of solvation, which displaces one of the acetate ligands in the cluster. Up to six Mn(12) isomers are potentially present in the crystal lattice, which differ in the number and arrangement of hydrogen-bonded acetic acid molecules. These results considerably improve the structural information available on this molecular nanomagnet, which was first synthesized and characterized by Lis [Acta Cryst. (1980), B36, 2042-2046].

  5. Antimicrobial activity of Butyl acetate, Ethyl acetate and Isopropyl alcohol on undesirable microorganisms in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, C; Malet, G; Cupferman, S

    2016-10-01

    The microbiological contamination risk of a cosmetic product has to be assessed by the manufacturer, according to the composition, to determine whether microbiological testing is required. Certain ingredients in cosmetic formulations help to create an environment hostile towards microbial growth. In this study, the influence on microbial survival of some solvents used in nail varnishes was evaluated. The purpose of this study was two-fold. The first was to define the thresholds to be considered for the exemption of products from microbiological testing. The second was to assess the cross-contamination risk linked to the use on successive consumers of solvent-based products in beauty salons. Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Trichophyton rubrum were exposed to various concentrations of ethyl acetate, butyl acetate and isopropyl alcohol in culture medium to estimate their MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration). These strains are relevant to cosmetic products as they are associated with skin and nail infections. Mixtures of the three solvents, which are characteristic of nail varnish compositions, were also tested for their cidal activity. Ethyl and butyl acetates had a stronger impact than isopropyl alcohol: the MIC of ethyl and butyl acetate is ≤5% for all of the tested strains, whereas that of isopropyl alcohol is ≤10%. Various combinations of the three solvents tested showed a significant effect on both fungal and bacterial strains (greater than 3 log reduction in 15 min for the bacterial test strains and in 30 min for T. rubrum). Products containing more than 5% ethyl or butyl acetate or more than 10% isopropyl alcohol are hostile towards microbial growth. These products can therefore be considered as microbiologically low risk during both production and use, and so do not require microbiological testing (challenge test and end-product testing). Moreover, the nine tested mixtures of these three

  6. The clinical use of PET with 11C-acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Ilaria; Nanni, Cristina; Allegri, Vincenzo; Morigi, Joshua James; Montini, Gian Carlo; Castellucci, Paolo; Fanti, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review is to evaluate clinical applications of 11C-acetate positron emission tomography (PET). Acetate is quickly metabolized into acetyl-CoA in human cells. In this form it can either enter into the tricarboxylic acid cycle, thus producing energy, as happens in the myocardium, or participate in cell membrane lipid synthesis, as happens in tumor cells. 11C-acetate PET was originally employed in cardiology, to study myocardial oxygen metabolism. More recently it has also been used to evaluate myocardial perfusion, as well as in oncology. The first studies of 11C-acetate focused on its use in prostate cancer. Subsequently, 11C-acetate was studied in other urological malignancies, as well as renal cell carcinoma and bladder cancer. Well differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma represents an 18F-fluoro-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET pitfall, so many authors have proposed to use 11C-acetate in addition to 18F-FDG in studying this tumor. 11C-acetate PET has also been used in other malignancies, such as brain tumors and lung carcinoma. Some authors reported a few cases in which 11C-acetate PET incidentally found multiple myeloma or rare tumors, such as thymoma, multicentric angiomyolipoma of the kidney and cerebellopontine angle schwannoma. Lastly, 11C-acetate PET was also employed in a differential diagnosis case between glioma and encephalitis. The numerous studies on 11C-acetate have demonstrated that it can be used in cardiology and oncology with no contraindications apart from pregnancy and the necessity of a rapid scan. Despite its limited availability, this tracer can surely be considered to be a promising one, because of its versatility and capacity to even detect non 18F-FDG-avid neoplasm, such as differentiated lung cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:23133801

  7. Fermentation of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsanipour, Mandana; Suko, Azra Vajzovic; Bura, Renata

    2016-06-01

    A systematic study of bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica (strain ATCC 39073) was conducted. Four different water-soluble fractions (hydrolysates) obtained after steam pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass were selected and fermented to acetic acid in batch fermentations. M. thermoacetica can effectively ferment xylose and glucose in hydrolysates from wheat straw, forest residues, switchgrass, and sugarcane straw to acetic acid. Xylose and glucose were completely utilized, with xylose being consumed first. M. thermoacetica consumed up to 62 % of arabinose, 49 % galactose and 66 % of mannose within 72 h of fermentation in the mixture of lignocellulosic sugars. The highest acetic acid yield was obtained from sugarcane straw hydrolysate, with 71 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (17 g/L acetic acid from 24 g/L total sugars). The lowest acetic acid yield was observed in forest residues hydrolysate, with 39 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (18 g/L acetic acid from 49 g/L total sugars). Process derived compounds from steam explosion pretreatment, including 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (0.4 g/L), furfural (0.1 g/L) and total phenolics (3 g/L), did not inhibit microbial growth and acetic acid production yield. This research identified two major factors that adversely affected acetic acid yield in all hydrolysates, especially in forest residues: (i) glucose to xylose ratio and (ii) incomplete consumption of arabinose, galactose and mannose. For efficient bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid, it is imperative to have an appropriate balance of sugars in a hydrolysate. Hence, the choice of lignocellulosic biomass and steam pretreatment design are fundamental steps for the industrial application of this process.

  8. Hydrolyses of alpha-naphthyl acetate, beta-naphthyl acetate, and acetyl-DL-phenylalanine beta-naphthyl ester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Moe, D

    1983-01-01

    Using simultaneous coupling azo dye techniques kidney enzymes active against alpha-naphthyl acetate, beta-naphthyl acetate, and acetyl-DL-phenylalanine beta-naphthyl ester are characterized. The enzymes show identical distribution in the section. The banding patterns in zymograms are the same after...

  9. Measurement of the rates of oxindole-3-acetic acid turnover, and indole-3-acetic acid oxidation in Zea mays seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    Oxindole-3-acetic acid is the principal catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Zea mays seedlings. In this paper measurements of the turnover of oxindole-3-acetic acid are presented and used to calculate the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation. [3H]Oxindole-3-acetic acid was applied to the endosperm of Zea mays seedlings and allowed to equilibrate for 24 h before the start of the experiment. The subsequent decrease in its specific activity was used to calculate the turnover rate. The average half-life of oxindole-3-acetic acid in the shoots was found to be 30 h while that in the kernels had an average half-life of 35h. Using previously published values of the pool sizes of oxindole-3-acetic acid in shoots and kernels from seedlings of the same age and variety, and grown under the same conditions, the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation was calculated to be 1.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the shoots and 7.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the kernels.

  10. Biological Function of Acetic Acid-Improvement in Obesity and Glucose Tolerance by Acetic Acid in Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Hiromi

    2016-07-29

    Fatty acids derived from adipose tissue are oxidized by β-oxidation to form ketone bodies as final products under the starving condition. Previously, we found that free acetic acid was formed concomitantly with the production of ketone bodies in isolated rat liver perfusion, and mitochondrial acetyl CoA hydrolase was appeared to be involved with the acetic acid production. It was revealed that acetic acid was formed as a final product of enhanced β-oxidation of fatty acids and utilized as a fuel in extrahepatic tissues under the starving condition. Under the fed condition, β-oxidation is suppressed and acetic acid production is decreased. When acetic acid was taken daily by obesity-linked type 2 diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats under the fed condition, it protected OLETF rats against obesity. Furthermore, acetic acid contributed to protect from the accumulation of lipid in the liver as well as abdominal fat in OLETF rats. Transcripts of lipogenic genes in the liver were decreased, while transcripts of myoglobin and Glut4 genes in abdominal muscles were increased in the acetic acid-administered OLETF rats. It is indicated that exogenously administered acetic acid would have effects on lipid metabolism in both the liver and the skeletal muscles, and have function that works against obesity and obesity-linked type 2 diabetes.

  11. Co-fermentation of acetate and sugars facilitating microbial lipid production on acetate-rich biomass hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhiwei; Zhou, Wenting; Shen, Hongwei; Yang, Zhonghua; Wang, Guanghui; Zuo, Zhenyu; Hou, Yali; Zhao, Zongbao K

    2016-05-01

    The process of lignocellulosic biomass routinely produces a stream that contains sugars plus various amounts of acetic acid. As acetate is known to inhibit the culture of microorganisms including oleaginous yeasts, little attention has been paid to explore lipid production on mixtures of acetate and sugars. Here we demonstrated that the yeast Cryptococcus curvatus can effectively co-ferment acetate and sugars for lipid production. When mixtures of acetate and glucose were applied, C. curvatus consumed both substrates simultaneously. Similar phenomena were also observed for acetate and xylose mixtures, as well as acetate-rich corn stover hydrolysates. More interestingly, the replacement of sugar with equal amount of acetate as carbon source afforded higher lipid titre and lipid content. The lipid products had fatty acid compositional profiles similar to those of cocoa butter, suggesting their potential for high value-added fats and biodiesel production. This co-fermentation strategy should facilitate lipid production technology from lignocelluloses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Acetyl substitution patterns of amylose and amylopectin populations in cowpea starch modified with acetic anhydride and vinyl acetate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, J.; Schols, H.A.; Klaver, R.; Jin, Z.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    To study the effect of reagent type on the distribution pattern of acetyl groups in acetylated cowpea starch, amylose and amylopectin populations were isolated from the starch granules after modification to a low degree of substitution (DS <0.1) with acetic anhydride and vinyl acetate,

  13. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid and oxindole-3-acetic acid to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside in Zea mays seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Radiolabeled oxindole-3-acetic acid was metabolized by roots, shoots, and caryopses of dark grown Zea mays seedlings to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glycopyranoside with the simpler name of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside. This compound was also formed from labeled indole-3-acetic acid supplied to intact seedlings and root segments. The glucoside of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid was also isolated as an endogenous compound in the caryopses and shoots of 4-day-old seedlings. It accumulates to a level of 4.8 nanomoles per plant in the kernel, more than 10 times the amount of oxindole-3-acetic acid. In the shoot it is present at levels comparable to that of oxindole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid (62 picomoles per shoot). We conclude that 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside is a natural metabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Z. mays seedlings. From the data presented in this paper and in previous work, we propose the following route as the principal catabolic pathway for indole-3-acetic acid in Zea seedlings: Indole-3-acetic acid --> Oxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside.

  14. Pharmacokinetics and drug interactions of eslicarbazepine acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialer, Meir; Soares-da-Silva, Patricio

    2012-06-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a novel once-daily antiepileptic drug (AED) approved in Europe since 2009 that was found to be efficacious and well tolerated in a phase III clinical program in adult patients with partial onset seizures previously not controlled with treatment with one to three AEDs, including carbamazepine (CBZ). ESL shares with CBZ and oxcarbazepine (OXC) the dibenzazepine nucleus bearing the 5-carboxamide substitute, but is structurally different at the 10,11 position. This molecular variation results in differences in metabolism, preventing the formation of toxic epoxide metabolites such as carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide. Unlike OXC, which is metabolized to both eslicarbazepine and (R)-licarbazepine, ESL is extensively converted to eslicarbazepine. The systemic exposure to eslicarbazepine after ESL oral administration is approximately 94% of the parent dose, with minimal exposure to (R)-licarbazepine and OXC. After ESL oral administration, the effective half-life (t(1/2,eff) ) of eslicarbazepine was 20-24 h, which is approximately two times longer than its terminal half-life (t(1/2)). At clinically relevant doses (400-1,600 mg/day) ESL has linear pharmacokinetics (PK) with no effects of gender or moderate liver impairment. However, because eslicarbazepine is eliminated primarily (66%) by renal excretion, dose adjustment is recommended for patients with renal impairment. Eslicarbazepine clearance is induced by phenobarbital, phenytoin, and CBZ and it dose-dependently decreases plasma exposure of oral contraceptive and simvastatin. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.

  15. Emergency contraception: potential role of ulipristal acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Meng, Chun-Xia

    2010-01-01

    Unintended pregnancy is a global reproductive health problem. Emergency contraception (EC) provides women with a safe means of preventing unwanted pregnancies after having unprotected intercourse. While 1.5 mg of levonorgestrel (LNG) as a single dose or in 2 doses with 12 hours apart is the currently gold standard EC regimen, a single dose of 30 mg ulipristal acetate (UPA) has recently been proposed for EC use up to 120 hours of unprotected intercourse with similar side effect profiles as LNG. The main mechanism of action of both LNG and UPA for EC is delaying or inhibiting ovulation. However, the ‘window of effect’ for LNG EC seems to be rather narrow, beginning after selection of the dominant follicular and ending when luteinizing hormone peak begins to rise, whereas UPA appears to have a direct inhibitory effect on follicular rupture which allows it to be also effective even when administered shortly before ovulation, a time period when use of LNG is no longer effective. These experimental findings are in line with results from a series of clinical trials conducted recently which demonstrate that UPA seems to have higher EC efficacy compared to LNG. This review summarizes some of the data available on UPA used after unprotected intercourse with the purpose to provide evidence that UPA, a new type of second-generation progesterone receptor modulator, represents a new evolutionary step in EC treatment. PMID:21072297

  16. Microsomal metabolism of trenbolone acetate metabolites ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenbolone acetate (TBA) is a synthetic growth promoter widely used in animal agriculture, and its metabolites are suspected endocrine disrupting compounds in agriculturally impacted receiving waters. However, beyond the three widely recognized TBA metabolites (17-trenbolone, 17-trenbolone and trendione), little is known about other metabolites formed in vivo and subsequently discharged into the environment, with some evidence suggesting these unknown metabolites comprise a majority of the TBA mass dosed to the animal. Here, we explored the metabolism of the three known TBA metabolites using rat liver microsome studies. All TBA metabolites are transformed into a complex mixture of monohydroxylated products. Based on product characterization, the majority are more polar than the parent metabolites but maintain their characteristic trienone backbone. A minor degree of interconversion between known metabolites was also observed, as were higher order hydroxylated products with a greater extent of reaction. Notably, the distribution and yield of products were generally comparable across a series of variably induced rat liver microsomes, as well as during additional studies with human and bovine liver microsomes. Bioassays conducted with mixtures of these transformation products suggest that androgen receptor (AR) binding activity is diminished as a result of the microsomal treatment, suggesting that the transformation products are generally less potent than

  17. Dexamethasone acetate encapsulation into Trojan particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Gaete, Carolina; Fattal, Elias; Silva, Lídia; Besnard, Madeleine; Tsapis, Nicolas

    2008-05-22

    We have combined the therapeutic potential of nanoparticles systems with the ease of manipulation of microparticles by developing a hybrid vector named Trojan particles. We aim to use this new delivery vehicle for intravitreal administration of dexamethasone. Initialy, dexamethasone acetate (DXA) encapsulation into biodegradable poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles was optimized. Then, Trojan particles were formulated by spray drying 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-Glycero-3-Phosphocholine (DPPC), hyaluronic acid (HA) and different concentrations of nanoparticle suspensions. The effect of nanoparticles concentration on Trojan particle physical characteristics was investigated as well as the effect of the spray drying process on nanoparticles size. Finally, DXA in vitro release from nanoparticles and Trojan particles was evaluated under sink condition. SEM and confocal microscopy show that most of Trojan particles are spherical, hollow and possess an irregular surface due to the presence of nanoparticles. Neither Trojan particle tap density nor size distribution are significantly modified as a function of nanoparticles concentration. The mean nanoparticles size increase significantly after spray drying. Finally, the in vitro release of DXA shows that the excipient matrix provides protection to encapsulated nanoparticles by slowing drug release.

  18. Perspectives for the biotechnological production of ethyl acetate by yeasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löser, Christian; Urit, Thanet; Bley, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Ethyl acetate is an environmentally friendly solvent with many industrial applications. The production of ethyl acetate currently proceeds by energy-intensive petrochemical processes which are based on natural gas and crude oil without exception. Microbial synthesis of ethyl acetate could become an interesting alternative. The formation of esters as aroma compounds in food has been repeatedly reviewed, but a survey which deals with microbial synthesis of ethyl acetate as a bulk product is missing. The ability of yeasts for producing larger amounts of this ester is known for a long time. In the past, this potential was mainly of scientific interest, but in the future, it could be applied to large-scale ester production from renewable raw materials. Pichia anomala, Candida utilis, and Kluyveromyces marxianus are yeasts which convert sugar into ethyl acetate with a high yield where the latter is the most promising one. Special attention was paid to the mechanism of ester synthesis including regulatory aspects and to the maximum and expectable yield. Synthesis of much ethyl acetate requires oxygen which is usually supplied by aeration. Ethyl acetate is highly volatile so that aeration results in its phase transfer and stripping. This stripping process cannot be avoided but requires adequate handling during experimentation and offers a chance for a cost-efficient process-integrated recovery of the synthesized ester.

  19. Acetate:succinate CoA-transferase in the hydrogenosomes of Trichomonas vaginalis: Identification and characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.W.A. Grinsven; S. Rosnowsky (Silke); S.W.H. van Weelden (Susanne); S. Pütz (Simone); M. van der Giezen (Mark); W. Martin (William); J.J. van Hellemond (Jaap); A.G.M. Tielens (Aloysius); K. Henze (Katrin)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractAcetate:succinate CoA-transferases (ASCT) are acetate-producing enzymes in hydrogenosomes, anaerobically functioning mitochondria and in the aerobically functioning mitochondria of trypanosomatids. Although acetate is produced in the hydrogenosomes of a number of anaerobic microbial

  20. Selective Cross-Coupling of Organic Halides with Allylic Acetates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anka-Lufford, Lukiana L.; Prinsell, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    A general protocol for the coupling of haloarenes with a variety of allylic acetates is presented. Strengths of the method are a tolerance for electrophilic (ketone, aldehyde) and acidic (sulfonamide, trifluoroacetamide) substrates and the ability to couple with a variety of substituted allylic acetates. Secondary alkyl bromides can also be allylated under slightly modified conditions, demonstrating the generality of the approach. Finally, the coupling of a reactive vinyl halide could be achieved by the use of a very hindered ligand and more reactive, branched allylic acetates. PMID:23095043

  1. Polyvinyl acetate-based film coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolter, K; Dashevsky, A; Irfan, Muhamad; Bodmeier, R

    2013-12-05

    Polyvinyl acetate-based colloidal aqueous polymer dispersion Kollicoat(®) SR 30 D results in coatings characterized by moderate swelling behaviour, lipophilicity, pH-independent permeability for actives and high flexibility to withstand mechanical stress and is therefore used for controlled release coating. The colloidal aqueous polymer dispersion of Kollicoat(®) SR 30 D can be easily processed due to an optimal low minimum film forming temperature (MFT) of 18 °C without plasticizer addition and a thermal after-treatment (curing) of coated pellets. The drug release from Kollicoat(®) SR 30 D coated pellets was almost pH independent. Drug release could be easily adjusted by coating level or addition of soluble pore forming polymers. Physically stable Kollicoat(®) SR 30 D dispersions were obtained with the water-soluble polymers Kollidon(®) 30 and Kollicoat(®) IR up to 50% w/w. The addition of only 10% w/w triethyl citrate as plasticizer improved the flexibility of the films significantly and allowed compaction of the pellets. The drug release was almost independent of the compression force and the pellet content of the tablets. The inclusion of various tableting excipients slightly affected the drug release, primarily because of a different disintegration rate of the tablets. A combination of Kollicoat(®) SR 30 D and Kollicoat(®) IR with higher coating levels>10 mg/cm(2) is a relatively new alternative to OROS system which does not require drilling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Eslicarbazepine acetate in clinical practice. Efficacy and safety results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Serrano-Castro, Pedro J; Payán-Ortiz, Manuel; Cimadevilla, José M; Quiroga-Subirana, Pablo; Fernández-Pérez, Javier

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a new antiepileptic drug (AED) licensed in Spain in February 2011 as an adjunctive therapy in adults with partial seizures with or without secondary generalization...

  3. Dynamic modeling of the isoamyl acetate reactive distillation process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Syed Sadiq Ali; Sk Safdar Hossain; Mohammad Asif

    2017-01-01

    .... As a result of carrying out simulations using Aspen Plus, it is shown that the RD process for isoamyl acetate production was much more economical than conventional reactor distillation configuration...

  4. Effects of acetic, propionic and butyric acids given intraruminally at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of acetic, propionic and butyric acids given intraruminally at different molar proportions or individually on rumen papillae growth and IGF-I and IGFBP-3 in plasma, liver and rumen tissue in growing sheep nourished by total intragastric infusions.

  5. Contraception with depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , South-South Nigeria. Cosmos E. Enyindah, Faith C. Mmom. Abstract. Clinical experience with depot medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA) at the family planning clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital st st between 1 of ...

  6. Migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Lund, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    and 3% acetic acid testing at 40degrees C for 10 days. The Danish Veterinary and Food Administration (DVFA) has assessed that a migration above 0.33 mg for 2-BEA and a group of eight related substances kg(-1) foodstuff from plastics articles used exclusively for infants is unacceptable. Migration of 2...... to 3% acetic acid in the third test, whereas no migration to distilled water was observed in the third test. The average recovery of 2-BEA after the 10-day exposure at the target value of 0.33 mg kg(-1) was 77% into distilled water and 36% into 3% acetic acid. The limited recovery was understandable......An enforcement campaign was carried out to assess the migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate (2-BEA) from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles intended for repeated use. Migration was measured by three successive migration tests into two of the European Union official food simulants: distilled water...

  7. Disposition of eslicarbazepine acetate in the mouse after oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Gilberto; Figueiredo, Isabel; Castel-Branco, Margarida; Lourenço, Nulita; Falcão, Amílcar; Caramona, Margarida; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2008-10-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate is a promising antiepileptic drug structurally related to carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine, which is in the final phase of clinical development. The metabolism of eslicarbazepine acetate is clearly species dependent and, in this case, among small laboratory animals, the mouse seems to be the most relevant species to humans. Hence, the aim of this study was to investigate the plasma, brain and liver disposition of eslicarbazepine acetate in mice to better understand its disposition in humans. Adult male CD-1 mice were treated orally with a single dose of eslicarbazepine acetate 350 mg/kg. Blood samples, brain and liver tissues were taken at 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 4, 6, 10, 16 and 24 h post-dose. Plasma and tissue levels of eslicarbazepine acetate and its metabolites (S-licarbazepine, R-licarbazepine and oxcarbazepine) were assessed by using high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. Both eslicarbazepine acetate and R-licarbazepine concentrations were below the limit of quantification of the assay in all matrices. Eslicarbazepine acetate was rapidly and extensively metabolized to S-licarbazepine (major metabolite), which was oxidized to oxcarbazepine to a small extent. The brain/plasma ratios suggest that the brain exposure to S-licarbazepine and oxcarbazepine was approximately 30% of their total systemic exposure. However, S-licarbazepine crossed the blood-brain barrier (BBB) less efficiently than oxcarbazepine. On the other hand, the liver/plasma ratios support the notion that S-licarbazepine undergoes hepatic accumulation, whereas oxcarbazepine appears to leave this compartment twice as fast as S-licarbazepine. Thus, the diffusion through the BBB is favourable to oxcarbazepine and the liver acts like a deposit of the pharmacologically active metabolite of eslicarbazepine acetate (S-licarbazepine).

  8. Production and Characterization of 3-Methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane Modified Polyvinyl Acetate Dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Dubininkas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Semi-continuous vinyl acetate (VAc radical emulsion polymerization in water with 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GF31 co-monomer was performed using protective colloid PVA and surface-active compound. The impact of GF31 on polyvinyl acetate (PVAc dispersion physicochemical and production parameters were determined. Even low quantities of GF31 (up to 1.5 % of VAc mass had crucial impact on PVAc dispersion and dispersion film’s parameters.

  9. Microorganisms having enhanced resistance to acetate and methods of use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Steven D; Yang, Shihui

    2014-10-21

    The present invention provides isolated or genetically modified strains of microorganisms that display enhanced resistance to acetate as a result of increased expression of a sodium proton antiporter. The present invention also provides methods for producing such microbial strains, as well as related promoter sequences and expression vectors. Further, the present invention provides methods of producing alcohol from biomass materials by using microorganisms with enhanced resistance to acetate.

  10. Acetate transiently inhibits myocardial contraction by increasing mitochondrial calcium uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schooley, James F; Namboodiri, Aryan M A; Cox, Rachel T; Bünger, Rolf; Flagg, Thomas P

    2014-12-09

    There is a close relationship between cardiovascular disease and cardiac energy metabolism, and we have previously demonstrated that palmitate inhibits myocyte contraction by increasing Kv channel activity and decreasing the action potential duration. Glucose and long chain fatty acids are the major fuel sources supporting cardiac function; however, cardiac myocytes can utilize a variety of substrates for energy generation, and previous studies demonstrate the acetate is rapidly taken up and oxidized by the heart. In this study, we tested the effects of acetate on contractile function of isolated mouse ventricular myocytes. Acute exposure of myocytes to 10 mM sodium acetate caused a marked, but transient, decrease in systolic sarcomere shortening (1.49 ± 0.20% vs. 5.58 ± 0.49% in control), accompanied by a significant increase in diastolic sarcomere length (1.81 ± 0.01 μm vs. 1.77 ± 0.01 μm in control), with a near linear dose response in the 1-10 mM range. Unlike palmitate, acetate caused no change in action potential duration; however, acetate markedly increased mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. Moreover, pretreatment of cells with the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake blocker, Ru-360 (10 μM), markedly suppressed the effect of acetate on contraction. Lehninger and others have previously demonstrated that the anions of weak aliphatic acids such as acetate stimulate Ca(2+) uptake in isolated mitochondria. Here we show that this effect of acetate appears to extend to isolated cardiac myocytes where it transiently modulates cell contraction.

  11. Larazotide acetate promotes tight junction assembly in epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalakrishnan, Shobha; Tripathi, Amit; Tamiz, Amir P; Alkan, Sefik S; Pandey, Niranjan B

    2012-05-01

    Tight junctions (TJ) control paracellular permeability and apical-basolateral polarity of epithelial cells. Dysregulated permeability is associated with pathological conditions, such as celiac disease and inflammatory bowel disease. TJ formation is dependent on E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion and actin rearrangement, and is regulated by the Rho family GTPase and aPKC signaling pathways. Larazotide acetate, an 8-mer peptide and TJ modulator, inhibits TJ disassembly and dysfunction caused by endogenous and exogenous stimuli in intestinal epithelial cells. Here, we examined the effect of larazotide acetate on de novo TJ assembly using 2 different model systems. In MDCK cells, larazotide acetate promoted TJ assembly in a calcium switch assay. Larazotide acetate also promoted actin rearrangement, and junctional distribution of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, claudins, and E-cadherin. Larazotide acetate promoted TJ maturation and decreased paracellular permeability in "leaky" Caco-2 cells. Taken together, our data indicate that larazotide acetate enhances TJ assembly and barrier function by promoting actin rearrangement and redistribution of TJ and AJ proteins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ethyl acetate production by the elusive alcohol acetyltransferase from yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, Aleksander J; Levisson, Mark; Mars, Astrid E; van der Ploeg, Max; Garcés Daza, Fernando; Ellena, Valeria; Kengen, Servé W M; van der Oost, John; Weusthuis, Ruud A

    2017-05-01

    Ethyl acetate is an industrially relevant ester that is currently produced exclusively through unsustainable processes. Many yeasts are able to produce ethyl acetate, but the main responsible enzyme has remained elusive, hampering the engineering of novel production strains. Here we describe the discovery of a new enzyme (Eat1) from the yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus that resulted in high ethyl acetate production when expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli. Purified Eat1 showed alcohol acetyltransferase activity with ethanol and acetyl-CoA. Homologs of eat1 are responsible for most ethyl acetate synthesis in known ethyl acetate-producing yeasts, including S. cerevisiae, and are only distantly related to known alcohol acetyltransferases. Eat1 is therefore proposed to compose a novel alcohol acetyltransferase family within the α/β hydrolase superfamily. The discovery of this novel enzyme family is a crucial step towards the development of biobased ethyl acetate production and will also help in selecting improved S. cerevisiae brewing strains. Copyright © 2017 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Aerobic oxidation of aqueous ethanol using heterogeneous gold catalysts: Efficient routes to acetic acid and ethyl acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Betina; Christiansen, Sofie Egholm; Thomsen, M.L.D.

    2007-01-01

    conditions, yields of 90-95% of acetic acid could be achieved at moderate temperatures and pressures. Based on our findings, a reaction pathway for the catalytic oxidation of ethanol via acetaldehyde to acetic acid is proposed, and the rate-determining step (RDS) in the mechanism is found to be the (possibly......The aerobic oxidation of aqueous ethanol to produce acetic acid and ethyl acetate was studied using heterogeneous gold catalysts. Comparing the performance of Au/MgAl2O4 and Au/TiO2 showed that these two catalysts exhibited similar performance in the reaction. By proper selection of the reaction...... oxygen-assisted) dehydrogenation of ethanol to produce acetaldehyde. It also is concluded that most of the CO2 formed as a byproduct in the reaction results from the absorbed intermediate in the dehydrogenation of ethanol to produce acetaldehyde. By varying the amount of water in the reaction mixture...

  14. Tetrazole acetic acid: Tautomers, conformers, and isomerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo-Andrade, C. [Unidad Académica de Física de la Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico); Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Reva, I., E-mail: reva@qui.uc.pt; Fausto, R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2014-02-14

    Monomers of (tetrazol-5-yl)-acetic acid (TAA) were obtained by sublimation of the crystalline compound and the resulting vapors were isolated in cryogenic nitrogen matrices at 13 K. The conformational and tautomeric composition of TAA in the matrix was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and vibrational calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. TAA may adopt two tautomeric modifications, 1H- and 2H-, depending on the position of the annular hydrogen atom. Two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of TAA were theoretically calculated at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level, for each tautomer. Four and six symmetry-unique minima were located on these PESs, for 1H- and 2H-TAA, respectively. The energetics of the detected minima was subsequently refined by calculations at the QCISD level. Two 1H- and three 2H-conformers fall within the 0–8 kJ mol{sup −1} energy range and should be appreciably populated at the sublimation temperature (∼330 K). Observation of only one conformer for each tautomer (1ccc and 2pcc) is explained in terms of calculated barriers to conformational rearrangements. All conformers with the cis O=COH moiety are separated by low barriers (less than 10 kJ mol{sup −1}) and collapse to the most stable 1ccc (1H-) and 2pcc (2H-) forms during deposition of the matrix. On the trans O=COH surfaces, the relative energies are very high (between 12 and 27 kJ mol{sup −1}). The trans forms are not thermally populated at the sublimation conditions and were not detected in matrices. One high-energy form in each tautomer, 1cct (1H-) and 2pct (2H-), was found to differ from the most stable form only by rotation of the OH group and separated from other forms by high barriers. This opened a perspective for their stabilization in a matrix. 1cct and 2pct were generated in the matrices selectively by means of narrow-band near-infrared (NIR) irradiations of the samples at 6920 and 6937 cm{sup −1}, where the first OH stretching overtone

  15. Ulipristal acetate: a review of its use in emergency contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeage, Kate; Croxtall, Jamie D

    2011-05-07

    Ulipristal acetate (ellaOne®; ella®) is the first of a new class of selective progesterone receptor modulators, and is indicated for emergency contraception within 120 hours after unprotected sexual intercourse or contraceptive failure. The principal effect of ulipristal acetate is to inhibit or delay ovulation. This effect may result from the drug's ability to delay the onset of luteinizing hormone (LH) surge or postpone LH peak if LH surge has started, or possibly by a direct inhibitory effect on follicular rupture, when administered in the follicular phase (including just before ovulation). In clinical trials, a single oral dose of ulipristal acetate 30 mg was effective in preventing pregnancies in women requesting emergency contraception after unprotected sexual intercourse and provided sustained efficacy throughout the 120-hour postcoital period in which it is indicated. When compared with levonorgestrel in well designed noninferiority trials, it was no less effective in preventing pregnancies when administered within 72 hours of unprotected intercourse, but was more effective when administered later (within 72-120 hours). Results of a meta-analysis suggest that ulipristal acetate may be more effective than levonorgestrel from day 1 and throughout the entire 5-day period following unprotected sexual intercourse. Ulipristal acetate is generally well tolerated, with a similar tolerability profile to that of levonorgestrel. In general, the onset of menses is delayed by 2-3 days following treatment. Although, ulipristal acetate is more expensive than levonorgestrel, it may represent a cost-effective alternative to levonorgestrel for women requesting emergency contraception within 120 hours of unprotected intercourse. Thus, ulipristal acetate provides effective, sustained and well tolerated emergency contraception when taken within 120 hours of unprotected sexual intercourse, thereby offering an extended treatment window compared with levonorgestrel, which

  16. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid...

  17. Endometrial changes during ulipristal acetate use: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Milliano, Inge; Van Hattum, Dominique; Ket, Johannes C F; Huirne, Judith A F; Hehenkamp, Wouter J K

    2017-07-01

    Ulipristal acetate is increasingly used for several clinical indications, like emergency contraception and pre-treatment of uterine fibroids. It has mixed progesterone agonist and antagonist effects in the myometrium and endometrium. Due to its progesterone antagonistic effect, an unopposed estrogen effect could occur which could cause (pre-)malignant lesions in the endometrium. Several studies have been performed to evaluate this possible increased risk for endometrial malignancies when using ulipristal acetate. The specific spectrum of morphological changes due to ulipristal acetate, named progesterone receptor modulator associated endometrial changes (PAEC), occurs to be reversible after discontinuing ulipristal acetate. In this systematic review we provide a detailed overview of the literature on histopathological endometrial changes and imaging characteristics of the endometrium in ulipristal acetate users. We performed an extensive search in Embase.com, Wiley/Cochrane Library and PubMed in accordance with the prisma guidelines. All studies published as full papers in peer reviewed journals using ulipristal acetate reporting on endometrial changes were included, independent of clinical indication, dosage taken and duration of therapy. No language restrictions were applied. Ten studies with a total of 1450 participants were included. Seven were randomized clinical trials and three prospective cohort studies. A quality assessment of all included studies was performed. In only five of ten studies an endometrial biopsy was performed during treatment. All of these studies described specific histological non-physiological endometrial changes (PAEC) due to ulipristal acetate, varying from 41 to 78.8% of all patients. Three of these studies also performed follow-up biopsies after discontinuing ulipristal acetate. The percentage of PAEC decreased from 62% to 0%, 78.8% to 0% and from 59% to 6-7% after the treatment period. In six of 1450 women (0.4%) endometrial

  18. Eslicarbazepine acetate: an update on efficacy and safety in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrotti, Alberto; Loiacono, Giulia; Rossi, Alessandra; Zaccara, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder. Despite a broad range of commonly used antiepileptic drugs, approximately 30% of patients with epilepsy have drug resistance or encounter significant adverse effects. Eslicarbazepine acetate is a new central nervous system-active compound with anticonvulsant activity whose mechanism of action is by blocking the voltage-gated sodium channel. Eslicarbazepine acetate was approved by the European Medicines Agency and launched onto the European market in 2009 for adjunctive treatment in adult subjects of partial-onset seizures, with or without secondary generalization. This article provides an overview on the recent studies on eslicarbazepine acetate in the treatment of drug-resistant partial epilepsy. Efficacy and safety of this drug for partial-onset seizures were assessed in four randomized clinical trials with responder rates ranged between 17% and 43%. Adverse events were usually mild to moderate in intensity and the most common were dizziness, somnolence, nausea, diplopia, headache, vomiting, abnormal coordination, blurred vision, vertigo and fatigue. Eslicarbazepine acetate is not recommended below 18 years, but a published phase II trial had the main goal to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of this drug in pediatric population. Eslicarbazepine acetate appears to be a safe and effective drug with a linear pharmacokinetics, very low potential for drug-drug interactions and therefore it can offer a valid alternative to current antiepileptic drugs. Additionally, it is undergoing investigation for monotherapy in subjects with partial epilepsy, and other neurological and psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ulipristal Acetate: A Review in Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnock-Jones, Karly P; Duggan, Sean T

    2017-10-01

    Oral ulipristal acetate (Esmya®; Fibristal®), a synthetic selective progesterone receptor modulator, is the first selective progesterone modulator to be approved for the treatment of uterine fibroids. It was initially approved for the preoperative treatment of moderate to severe uterine fibroid symptoms in women of reproductive age. Recently, the indication was extended in the EU to include the intermittent treatment of moderate to severe uterine fibroid symptoms. This narrative review summarizes pharmacological, efficacy and tolerability data relevant to the preoperative and intermittent use of ulipristal acetate in patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids. Ulipristal acetate is an effective and generally well tolerated treatment for patients with symptomatic uterine fibroids, both as preoperative, single-course treatment and as intermittent, longer-term treatment. It is noninferior in efficacy to intramuscular leuprolide acetate, as a preoperative treatment, and is associated with a lower rate of hot flashes, a common adverse event with gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues. Thus, ulipristal acetate is an effective option for both preoperative and intermittent treatment of moderate to severe, symptomatic uterine fibroids in women of reproductive age.

  20. Leuprorelin Acetate in Prostate Cancer: a European Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persad R

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an update on leuprorelin acetate, the world's most widely prescribed depot luteinising hormone-releasing hormone analogue. Leuprorelin acetate has been in clinical use in the palliative treatment of prostate cancer for more than 20 years, but advances continue to be made in terms of convenience and flexibility of administration, and in the incorporation of leuprorelin acetate into novel treatment regimens. The drug is administered in the form of a depot injection containing leuprorelin acetate microspheres, and is at least as effective in suppressing testosterone secretion as orchiectomy. In patients with prostate cancer, serum testosterone levels are reduced to castrate levels (= 50 ng/dl within 2-3 weeks of the first one-month depot injection of 3.75 mg or three-month depot injection of 11.25 mg. Both the one-month and three-month formulations are effective in delaying tumour progression and alleviating symptoms of locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer. Tolerability is generally good, with side-effects reflecting effective testosterone suppression. Recent studies have investigated the place of leuprorelin acetate as part of continuous or intermittent maximal androgen blockade (MAB and in neoadjuvant therapy (ie, to reduce the size of the prostate and downsize the tumour before radiotherapy. Additional formulations and presentations are in development, including a six-month injection, with the aim of adding to the clinical flexibility and patient acceptability of this important palliative treatment for prostate cancer.

  1. Microbial manganese(III) reduction fuelled by anaerobic acetate oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeinbaum, Nadia; Lin, Hui; Brandes, Jay A; Taillefert, Martial; Glass, Jennifer B; DiChristina, Thomas J

    2017-09-01

    Soluble manganese in the intermediate +III oxidation state (Mn 3+ ) is a newly identified oxidant in anoxic environments, whereas acetate is a naturally abundant substrate that fuels microbial activity. Microbial populations coupling anaerobic acetate oxidation to Mn 3+ reduction, however, have yet to be identified. We isolated a Shewanella strain capable of oxidizing acetate anaerobically with Mn 3+ as the electron acceptor, and confirmed this phenotype in other strains. This metabolic connection between acetate and soluble Mn 3+ represents a new biogeochemical link between carbon and manganese cycles. Genomic analyses uncovered four distinct genes that allow for pathway variations in the complete dehydrogenase-driven TCA cycle that could support anaerobic acetate oxidation coupled to metal reduction in Shewanella and other Gammaproteobacteria. An oxygen-tolerant TCA cycle supporting anaerobic manganese reduction is thus a new connection in the manganese-driven carbon cycle, and a new variable for models that use manganese as a proxy to infer oxygenation events on early Earth. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Energy Efficiency and Productivity Enhancement of Microbial Electrosynthesis of Acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward V. LaBelle

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available It was hypothesized that a lack of acetogenic biomass (biocatalyst at the cathode of a microbial electrosynthesis system, due to electron and nutrient limitations, has prevented further improvement in acetate productivity and efficiency. In order to increase the biomass at the cathode and thereby performance, a bioelectrochemical system with this acetogenic community was operated under galvanostatic control and continuous media flow through a reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC foam cathode. The combination of galvanostatic control and the high surface area cathode reduced the electron limitation and the continuous flow overcame the nutrient limitation while avoiding the accumulation of products and potential inhibitors. These conditions were set with the intention of operating the biocathode through the production of H2. Biofilm growth occurred on and within the unmodified RVC foam regardless of vigorous H2 generation on the cathode surface. A maximum volumetric rate or space time yield for acetate production of 0.78 g/Lcatholyte/h was achieved with 8 A/Lcatholyte (83.3 A/m2projected surface area of cathode supplied to the continuous flow/culture bioelectrochemical reactors. The total Coulombic efficiency in H2 and acetate ranged from approximately 80–100%, with a maximum of 35% in acetate. The overall energy efficiency ranged from approximately 35–42% with a maximum to acetate of 12%.

  3. In vitro activity of phenylmercuric acetate against ocular pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Zhao, Dongqing; Gao, Chuanwen; Zhou, Lutan; Pang, Guangren; Sun, Shengtao

    2012-08-01

    To determine the antifungal activity of phenylmercuric acetate against ocular pathogenic fungi in vitro and develop new antifungal eye drops to combat keratomycosis. The in vitro activity of phenylmercuric acetate was assessed against 261 isolates of ocular pathogenic fungi that included 136 Fusarium spp. isolates, 98 Aspergillus spp. isolates, 10 Alternaria alternata isolates and 17 other pathogens. The activity of phenylmercuric acetate was compared with the activities of amphotericin B and natamycin. In vitro susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution assay, in accordance with the CLSI (formerly NCCLS) M38-A guidelines for filamentous fungi. MIC₉₀s of phenylmercuric acetate were 0.0156, 0.0156, 0.0156 and 0.0156 mg/L for Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., A. alternata and other pathogens, respectively. MIC₉₀s of amphotericin B were 2, 2, 1 and 1 mg/L for Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., A. alternata and other pathogens, respectively. MIC₉₀s of natamycin were 8, 32, 4 and 4 mg/L for Fusarium spp., Aspergillus spp., A. alternata and other pathogens, respectively. Phenylmercuric acetate has promising antifungal activity, which is significantly superior to the activities of amphotericin B and natamycin against a wide variety of ocular pathogenic fungi based on comparative MIC values. Additional evaluation is required to determine its clinical utility.

  4. Alcohols enhance the rate of acetic acid diffusion in S. cerevisiae: biophysical mechanisms and implications for acetic acid tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Lindahl

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Microbial cell factories with the ability to maintain high productivity in the presence of weak organic acids, such as acetic acid, are required in many industrial processes. For example, fermentation media derived from lignocellulosic biomass are rich in acetic acid and other weak acids. The rate of diffusional entry of acetic acid is one parameter determining the ability of microorganisms to tolerance the acid. The present study demonstrates that the rate of acetic acid diffusion in S. cerevisiae is strongly affected by the alcohols ethanol and n-butanol. Ethanol of 40 g/L and n-butanol of 8 g/L both caused a 65% increase in the rate of acetic acid diffusion, and higher alcohol concentrations caused even greater increases. Molecular dynamics simulations of membrane dynamics in the presence of alcohols demonstrated that the partitioning of alcohols to the head group region of the lipid bilayer causes a considerable increase in the membrane area, together with reduced membrane thickness and lipid order. These changes in physiochemical membrane properties lead to an increased number of water molecules in the membrane interior, providing biophysical mechanisms for the alcohol-induced increase in acetic acid diffusion rate. n-butanol affected S. cerevisiae and the cell membrane properties at lower concentrations than ethanol, due to greater and deeper partitioning in the membrane. This study demonstrates that the rate of acetic acid diffusion can be strongly affected by compounds that partition into the cell membrane, and highlights the need for considering interaction effects between compounds in the design of microbial processes.

  5. Alcohols enhance the rate of acetic acid diffusion inS. cerevisiae: biophysical mechanisms and implications for acetic acid tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Lina; Genheden, Samuel; Faria-Oliveira, Fábio; Allard, Stefan; Eriksson, Leif A; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2017-12-01

    Microbial cell factories with the ability to maintain high productivity in the presence of weak organic acids, such as acetic acid, are required in many industrial processes. For example, fermentation media derived from lignocellulosic biomass are rich in acetic acid and other weak acids. The rate of diffusional entry of acetic acid is one parameter determining the ability of microorganisms to tolerance the acid. The present study demonstrates that the rate of acetic acid diffusion in S. cerevisiae is strongly affected by the alcohols ethanol and n-butanol. Ethanol of 40 g/L and n-butanol of 8 g/L both caused a 65% increase in the rate of acetic acid diffusion, and higher alcohol concentrations caused even greater increases. Molecular dynamics simulations of membrane dynamics in the presence of alcohols demonstrated that the partitioning of alcohols to the head group region of the lipid bilayer causes a considerable increase in the membrane area, together with reduced membrane thickness and lipid order. These changes in physiochemical membrane properties lead to an increased number of water molecules in the membrane interior, providing biophysical mechanisms for the alcohol-induced increase in acetic acid diffusion rate. n-butanol affected S. cerevisiae and the cell membrane properties at lower concentrations than ethanol, due to greater and deeper partitioning in the membrane. This study demonstrates that the rate of acetic acid diffusion can be strongly affected by compounds that partition into the cell membrane, and highlights the need for considering interaction effects between compounds in the design of microbial processes.

  6. Study on the Reduction of Acetic Acid from Cabinets for Microfilms

    OpenAIRE

    佐野, 千絵; 古田嶋, 智子; 井上, さやか; 津田, 徹英; 呂, 俊民

    2012-01-01

    Concentration of acetic acid in cabinets, film storage and adjacent room were measured. Two cabinets were filled with acetic acid generated from aged microfilms. Absorbents were placed in one of the cabinets to remove acetic acid. It was confirmed thatconcentration of acetic acid decreased one week after setting the absorbents. Concentration in the other cabinet in which acetic-acid-absorbents were not placed remained high. From this result, it may be said that the absorbents were effective i...

  7. Functional analysis of the acetic acid resistance (aar) gene cluster in Acetobacter aceti strain 1023

    OpenAIRE

    Mullins, Elwood; Kappock, T. Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Vinegar production requires acetic acid bacteria that produce, tolerate, and conserve high levels of acetic acid. When ethanol is depleted, aerobic acetate overoxidation to carbon dioxide ensues. The resulting diauxic growth pattern has two logarithmic growth phases, the first associated with ethanol oxidation and the second associated with acetate overoxidation. The vinegar factory isolate Acetobacter aceti strain 1023 has a long intermediate stationary phase that persists at elevated acetic...

  8. Final report of the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel on the safety assessment of methyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2012-01-01

    Alkyl acetates, as well as acetic acid and acetate salts, are widely used cosmetic ingredients, with a wide range of functions as fragrances, solvents, or skin-conditioning agents, depending on the specific ingredient. Available data on alkyl acetates, and acetic acid and the alcohol to which they could be metabolized, were considered adequate to support the safety of the entire group in the present practices of use and concentration in cosmetics.

  9. Biodegradable polymers by reactive blending trans-esterification of thermoplastic starch with poly (vinyl acetate) and poly (vinyl acetate-co-butyl acrylate)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vargha, V

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat starch was reacted with poly (vinyl acetate) and with poly (vinyl acetate-co-butyl acrylate) in an internal mixer at 150 _C in the absence of catalyst, and in the presence of sodium carbonate, zinc-acetate and titanium (IV) but oxide...

  10. Crystal structure of febuxostat–acetic acid (1/1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound [systematic name: 2-(3-cyano-4-isobutyloxyphenyl-4-methylthiazole-5-carboxylic acid–acetic acid (1/1], C16H16N2O3S·CH3COOH, contains a febuxostat molecule and an acetic acid molecule. In the febuxostat molecule, the thiazole ring is nearly coplanar with the benzene ring [dihedral angle = 3.24 (2°]. In the crystal, the febuxostat and acetic acid molecules are linked by O—H...O, O—H...N hydrogen bonds and weak C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming supramolecular chains propagating along the b-axis direction. π–π stacking is observed between nearly parallel thiazole and benzene rings of adjacent molecules; the centroid-to-centroid distances are 3.8064 (17 and 3.9296 (17 Å.

  11. Enzymatic kinetic resolution of Morita-Baylis-Hillman acetates

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Juma, WP

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available .608 mol) and DABCO (10.9 g, 0.098 mol) were stirred at 0 �C for 19 h. After completion, ethyl acetate and water were added to the reaction mixture. The organic layer was separated, dried over MgSO4, and purified by column chromatography (40% ethyl acetate.../hexane) to afford the desired product 4) as a colourless oil (14.81 g, 95%). Rf = 0.56 (40% ethyl acetate/hexane); IR (neat, cm�1) 3421, 3032, 2229, 1453; 1H NMR (300 MHz, CDCl3) d 7.41– 260 7.34 (m, 5H), 6.09 (d, J = 1.5 Hz, 1H), 6.01 (d, J = 1.2 Hz, 1H), 5...

  12. [Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinder, S.H.

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal of this project is to obtain a better understanding of thermophilic microorganisms which convert acetic acid to CH[sub 4]. The previous funding period represents a departure from earlier research in this laboratory, which was more physiological and ecological. The present work is centered on the biochemistry of the thermophile Methanothrix sp. strain CALS-1. this organism presents a unique opportunity, with its purity and relatively rapid growth, to do comparative biochemical studies with the other major acetotrophic genus Methanosarcina. We previously found that Methanothrix is capable of using acetate at concentrations 100 fold lower than Methanosarcina. This finding suggests that there are significant differences in the pathways of methanogenesis from acetate in the two genera.

  13. Optimization of biodiesel production by supercritical methyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goembira, Fadjar; Saka, Shiro

    2013-03-01

    This work has been done to find out the optimum condition of supercritical methyl acetate method in biodiesel production. The reaction temperature, pressure, time and molar ratio in methyl acetate to oil were the key parameters that must all be considered to produce an optimum condition. Evaluation of thermal decomposition on products, cis-trans isomerization and tocopherol content were required to further optimize the reaction condition. It was, therefore, concluded that for the supercritical methyl acetate method, reaction condition of 350 °C/20 MPa/45 min/42 M ratio gave the highest yields of FAME (96.7 wt.%) and triacetin (8.8 wt.%). Yet, at such a reaction condition, the optimum reaction condition was compromised due particularly to the unavoidable thermal decomposition of products, and tocopherols as natural anti-oxidants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. High purity neodymium acetate from mixed rare earth carbonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Carlos A. da Silva; Rocha, Soraya M. Rizzo da; Vasconcellos, Mari E. de; Lobo, Raquel M.; Seneda, Jose A., E-mail: cqueiroz@ipen.b, E-mail: smrrocha@ipen.b, E-mail: mstela@ipen.b, E-mail: rmlobo@ipen.b, E-mail: jaseneda@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Pedreira, Walter dos R., E-mail: walter.pedreira@fundacentro.gov.b [Fundacao Jorge Duprat Figueiredo de Seguranca e Medicina do Trabalho (FUNDACENTRO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    A simple and economical chemical process for obtaining high purity neodymium acetate is discussed. The raw material in the form rare earth carbonate is produced industrially from the chemical treatment of Brazilian monazite. Ion exchange chromatography technique with a strong cationic resin, proper to water treatment, and without the use of retention ions was used for the fractionating of the rare earth elements (REE). In this way, it was possible to obtain 99.9% pure Nd{sub 2}O{sub 3} in yields greater than or equal 80%, with the elution of the REE using ammonium salt of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) solution in pH controlled. The complex of EDTA-neodymium was transformed into neodymium oxide, which was subsequently dissolved in acetic acid to obtain the neodymium acetates. Molecular absorption spectrophotometry was used to monitor the neodymium content during the process and sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to certify the purity of the neodymium acetates. The typical neodymium acetates obtained contain the followings contaminants in {mu}g g{sup -1}: Sc(5.1); Y (0.9); La (1.0); Ce (6.1); Pr (34,4); Sm (12.8); Eu (1.1); Gd (15.4); Tb (29.3); Dy (5.2), Ho(7.4); Er (14.6); Tm (0.3); Yb (2.5); Lu (1.0). The high purity neodymium acetates obtained from this procedure have been applied, replacing the imported product, in research and development area on rare earth catalysts. (author)

  15. Increased brain transport and metabolism of acetate in hypoglycemia unawareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulanski, Barbara I; De Feyter, Henk M; Page, Kathleen A; Belfort-DeAguiar, Renata; Mason, Graeme F; Rothman, Douglas L; Sherwin, Robert S

    2013-09-01

    Intensive insulin therapy reduces the risk for long-term complications in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) but increases the risk for hypoglycemia-associated autonomic failure (HAAF), a syndrome that includes hypoglycemia unawareness and defective glucose counterregulation (reduced epinephrine and glucagon responses to hypoglycemia). The objective of the study was to address mechanisms underlying HAAF, we investigated whether nonglucose fuels such as acetate, a monocarboxylic acid (MCA), can support cerebral energetics during hypoglycemia in T1DM individuals with hypoglycemia unawareness. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to measure brain transport and metabolism of [2-(13)C]acetate under hypoglycemic conditions. The study was conducted at the Yale Center for Clinical Investigation Hospital Research Unit, Yale Magnetic Resonance Research Center. T1DM participants with moderate to severe hypoglycemia unawareness (n = 7), T1DM controls without hypoglycemia unawareness (n = 5), and healthy nondiabetic controls (n = 10) participated in the study. Brain acetate concentrations, (13)C percent enrichment of glutamine and glutamate, and absolute rates of acetate metabolism were measured. Absolute rates of acetate metabolism in the cerebral cortex were 1.5-fold higher among T1DM/unaware participants compared with both control groups during hypoglycemia (P = .001). Epinephrine levels of T1DM/unaware subjects were significantly lower than both control groups (P acetate use across the entire study population (P < .01), suggesting a relationship between up-regulated brain MCA use and HAAF. Increased MCA transport and metabolism among T1DM individuals with hypoglycemia unawareness may be a mechanism to supply the brain with nonglucose fuels during episodes of acute hypoglycemia and may contribute to the syndrome of hypoglycemia unawareness, independent of diabetes.

  16. Search for Deuterated methyl acetate in the ISM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, Prasanta; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Das, Ankan; Majumdar, Liton; Sahu, Dipen; Sivaraman, Bhalamurugan

    2016-07-01

    Methyl acetate (CH_3COOCH_3 ) has been recently observed by IRAM 30 m radio telescope in Orion. But the existence of its deuterated form are yet to be confirmed. Here, we study the properties of methyl acetate and its singly deuterated forms (CH_3COOCH_3, CH_2DCOOCH_3 and CH_3COOCH_2D). Our simulation results reveal that deuterated forms of methyl acetate could efficiently be produced both in gas as well as in ice phase. Production of methyl acetate could follow radical-radical reaction between acetyl (CH_3CO) and methoxy (CH_3O) radicals. To predict abundances of CH_3COOCH_3 along with its two singly deuterated isotopomers and its two isomers (ethyl formate and hydroxy acetone), we prepare a large gas-grain chemical network to study chemical evolution of these molecules. Since gas phase rate coefficients of our newly adopted network for methyl acetate and its related species were unknown, in our simulation, either we consider similar rate coefficients for similar types of reactions (by following existing data bases) or we carry out quantum chemical calculations to estimate the unknown rate coefficients. For the surface reactions, we use adsorption energies of reactants from some earlier studies. Moreover, we perform quantum chemical calculations to find out various spectral properties of various forms of methyl acetate in infrared, ultraviolet and sub-millimeter regions. We prepare two catalog files for the rotational transitions of CH_2DCOOCH_3 and CH_3COOCH_2D in JPL format, which might be useful for its detection in regions of interstellar media where CH_3COOCH_3 has already been observed.

  17. Zuclopenthixol acetate for acute schizophrenia and similar serious mental illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakody, Kaushadh; Gibson, Roger Carl; Kumar, Ajit; Gunadasa, Shalmini

    2012-04-18

    Medication used for acute aggression in psychiatry must have rapid onset of effect, low frequency of administration and low levels of adverse effects. Zuclopenthixol acetate is said to have these properties. To estimate the clinical effects of zuclopenthixol acetate for the management of acute aggression or violence thought to be due to serious mental illnesses, in comparison to other drugs used to treat similar conditions. We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia's Group Trials Register (July 2011). We supplemented this by citation searching and personal contact with authors and relevant pharmaceutical companies. All randomised clinical trials involving people thought to have serious mental illnesses comparing zuclopenthixol acetate with other drugs. Two review authors extracted and cross-checked data independently. We calculated fixed-effect relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous data. We analysed by intention-to-treat. We used mean differences (MD) for continuous variables. We found no data for the primary outcome, tranquillisation. Compared with haloperidol, zuclopenthixol acetate was no more sedating at two hours (n = 40, 1 RCT, RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.34). People given zuclopenthixol acetate were not at reduced risk of being given supplementary antipsychotics (n = 134, 3 RCTs, RR 1.49, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.30) although additional use of benzodiazepines was less (n = 50, 1 RCT, RR 0.03, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.47). People given zuclopenthixol acetate had fewer injections over seven days compared with those allocated to haloperidol IM (n = 70, 1 RCT, RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.84, NNT 4, CI 3 to 14). We found no data on more episodes of aggression or harm to self or others. One trial (n = 148) reported no significant difference in adverse effects for people receiving zuclopenthixol acetate compared with those allocated haloperidol at one, three and six days (RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.27). Compared with haloperidol or clotiapine, people

  18. First synthesis and characterization for the stereoisomers of Ulipristal acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Li, Xiaolong; Liu, Hong; Yu, Yongguo; Hai, Li; Guo, Li; Wu, Yong

    2015-03-01

    The three stereoisomers, 11α,17α-isomer I, 11α,17β-isomer II and 11β,17β-isomer III are related substances of the selective progesterone receptor modulator Ulipristal acetate. Herein, we presented an efficient and practical synthesis approach to deliver these three stereoisomers for the first time, and also confirmed the structure of the key intermediate 5a by single-crystal X-ray analysis. Our research will be of immense help for organic chemists to study the impurity profile of Ulipristal acetate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Electrical properties of cellulose acetate-based polymer gel electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, S. Z. Z.; Ali, A. M.; Jaafar, N. K.; Yahya, M. Z. A.

    2017-09-01

    Polymer gel electrolytes based on cellulose acetate with lithium bis(oxalato)borate salt were prepared by dissolving in γ-butyrolactone solvent. The ionic conductivity and dielectric constant of the polymer gel electrolyte samples are investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy over a frequency range from 100 Hz to 1 MHz. The ionic conductivity increased with increasing in the cellulose acetate concentration up to 2.4 wt.% (1.41 × 10-2 S cm-1) and thereafter decreased. The relationship between the dielectric constant and ionic conductivity has been interpreted. The optimum conducting polymer gel electrolyte shows electrochemical stability up to 4.7 V versus Li.

  20. Unimolecular Gas-Phase Thermolysis of Ethyl Acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsgaard, Helge; Carlsen, Lars

    1983-01-01

    The unimolecular gas-phase thermolysis of ethyl acetate has been investigated by the Flash-Vacuum-Thermolysis/Field-Ionization Mass Spectrometry (FVT/FI-MS) method in combination with Collision Activation (CA) mass spectrometry at 1253K. Two predominant reactions are observed: elimination...... of ethylene affording acetic acid, the latter to some extent consecutively yielding ketene, and intramolecular oxygen to oxygen ethyl group migration. Additionally minor amounts of acetaldehyde is formed. The mechanistic aspects are discussed based on 18O and 18O/ 13C labelling....

  1. Fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues from sheep amd calves implanted with tritium-labeled trenbolone acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evrard, P.; Maghuin-Rogister, G.; Rico, A.G. (Univ. of Liege (Belgium))

    1989-06-01

    In order to study the fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues, two groups of six animals from two ruminant species (ewes and calves) were implanted with (3H)trenbolone acetate. The distribution of extractable radioactive residues was measured in liver, kidney and muscle. We found that the largest proportion of residues was not extractable and thus was considered as covalently bound residues. The proportion of the main extractable metabolites (17 alpha-trenbolone, trendione, 17 beta-trenbolone) was measured. The evaluation of the distribution of trenbolone acetate metabolites directly soluble in water showed that unknown metabolite(s) were predominant. The covalent binding to nucleic acids was measured. It was so low that it was not detectable. The results are discussed in light of the data presented in the scientific report on anabolic agents in animal production from the European scientific working group.

  2. Effect of Acetate Group Content in Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Copolymer on Properties of Composite Based on Low Density Polyethylene and Polyamide-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhi Dinh Bui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the content of vinyl acetate groups in ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer on the properties of polymer composite based on low density polyethylene and polyamide-6 was studied. Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer containing less vinyl acetate groups (10–14 wt.% has a positive compatibility effect on polymer composite than ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer containing 21–30 wt.% vinyl acetate groups. The polymer composites of LDPE, PA-6, and EVA containing 10–14 wt.% vinyl acetate groups possess the ability of biodegradation. The physical-mechanical properties of sample and molecular mass reduce after 28 days of incubation.

  3. Condensation of acetol and acetic acid vapor with sprayed liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    A cellulose-derived fraction of biomass pyrolysis vapor was simulated by evaporating acetol and acetic acid (AA) from flasks on a hot plate. The liquid in the flasks was infused with heated nitrogen. The vapor/nitrogen stream was superheated in a tube oven and condensed by contact with a cloud of ...

  4. Antioxidant defense of zinc acetate supplementation on the brain of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Gatsing

    the brain of protein-undernourished (PU) rats was investigated following the ad libitum ingestion of zinc acetate (30 mg/L) in ... Keywords: Protein-undernutrition, Oxidative stress, Brain weight, Lipid peroxidation, Glutathione, Catalase. INTRODUCTION .... Aksernov MY, Tuker HM, Nair P, Aksenova. MV, Butterfield DA, Estus ...

  5. Antimicrobial activity of ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Original Research Article. Antimicrobial activity of ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus lanatus seeds. Upe Francisca Babaiwa1, Osayemwenre Erharuyi2, Abiodun Falodun2 and John. O Akerele1. 1Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City Nigeria, 2Department of.

  6. Thermophilic anaerobic acetate-utilizing methanogens and their metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mladenovska, Zuzana

    Methanosarcina strains required vitamins as growth factor. The isolates differed in cardinal growth pH and temperatures, the kinetic parameters - maximum specific growth rate and half saturation constant - and threshold values during growth on acetate. Analysis of total cell proteins by SDS-page gel...

  7. Eslicarbazepine acetate in the management of refractory bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Kamal; Bhattacharya, Arnab; Praharaj, Samir Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate is a novel third-generation antiepileptic related to carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine with a benign adverse effect profile. We report a patient with bipolar mania with intolerance to multiple antimanic drugs, responding to eslicarbazepine without any serious adverse effect.

  8. Effects of culture conditions on acetic acid production by bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-11-30

    Nov 30, 2015 ... 2001). Therefore, activities of AAB during cocoa fermentation are essential for the production of high-quality cocoa (Quesnel, 1965). On the other hand, cocoa fermentation remains difficult to .... Afoakwa et al., 2013 ; Ardhana and Fleet, 2003; Guehi et al., 2010). On the other hand, acetic acid bacteria.

  9. Gastroprotective Properties of Manganese Chloride on Acetic Acid

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    3 days after laparotomy of which chronic gastric ulcer was induced using acetic acid. On days 7 and 14, gastric ... that Manganese had dose and treatment duration dependent effect on healing of ulcerated stomach. Ulcer index in Manganese ... laboratory condition of room temperature (23 ±2oC), humidity (55 ± 15%) with ...

  10. Cloning, expression and purification of cold adapted acetate kinase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-04-10

    Apr 10, 2012 ... decomposition of organic matter by anaerobic microbial consortia ... large flexibility, etc. to adapt to the organisms in cold environment (Gerday et al., 2000; Feller et al., 1999;. Chiuri et al., 2009). For this specific nature, the enzymes are offered in ..... binds acetate (Buss et al., 2001; Ingram-Smith et al.,.

  11. A Simple Way to Pattern Mn_12-acetate Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K.; Seo, D. M.; Means, J.; Viswanathan, M.; Teizer, W.

    2004-03-01

    We have observed that Mn_12-acetate ([Mn_12O_12(CH_3COO)_16(H_2O)_4]ot2CH_3COOHot4H_2O) molecules, dissolved in organic solvents, can be self-assembled along the edge of the Mn_12 solution droplet on a Si/SiO2 substrate as the solvent is evaporated. This phenomenon may be related to the well known "coffee-stain effect"”, which leads to a dense particulate deposit along the edge of a drying droplet of coffee on a solid surface. In our study, we have observed such a deposit of Mn_12-acetate at the perimeter of a droplet, after a dilute solution in various organic solvents has been dried. We investigated how the deposits depend on the evaporation rate. Also, we controlled the concentration of the solution to find its relation to the resulting pattern deposit. By patterning the surface with resist and performing a lift-off we created what are, to our knowledge, the first artificial patterns of Mn_12-acetate. This may allow for convenient thin film devices of Mn_12-acetate and work in this direction is ongoing. This work was supported by the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board and Texas A University.

  12. modelling and simulation of the batch hydrolysis of acetic ing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    acid has been studied with a number of techniques for measuring reaction rate reported in literature. Ampelli et al, [7] integrated an ultraviolet-visible. (UV-Vis) spectrometer with an isoperibolic reaction calorimeter to study the kinetics of hydrolysis of acetic anhydride. An acid–base indicator was added to the reaction mixture ...

  13. Effect of Listeria monocytogenes inoculation, sodium acetate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-08

    Aug 8, 2011 ... combination treatments. Key words: Listeria monocytogenes, nisin, sodium acetate, microbial quality, chemical quality, grass carp. ... Eight batches were dipped in pre-chilled (4°C) aqueous solution. (0, 0.1 and 0.2% nisin ... serial solution was prepared with a normal saline (0.85% NaCl) and used for the ...

  14. Antimycobacterial activity of two natural alkaloids, vasicine acetate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    They were bioassayed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The two compounds showed strong antimycobacterial activity. Vasicine acetate and 2-acetyl benzylamine isolated from hexane extract of A. vasica leaves, significantly inhibited M. tuberculosis and one multi-drug-resistant (MDR) strain and one sensitive strain at ...

  15. Page 1 Acetylation of Phenols Using Acetic Acid 351 Resorcinol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and 12g of glacial acetic acid, only 15g. of diacetyl resorcinol, boiling at. 278° C., was obtained. Since there was the chance for mono-acetylation also to take place, the alkaline extract from the ethereal Solution containing the reaction products was diluted with water to 200 c.c., acidified with hydrochloric acid and then.

  16. Page 1 286 Salimuzzaman Siddiqui and others acetic acid, yielded ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hydrochloride was obtained by adding ethereal hydrochlor to a solution of the base in ethyl acetate and ether as snow-white agg of needles. Recrystallised from a mixture of alcohol, acetone and e melted at 259-60. It is soluble in alcohol and water, difficultly sol1 acetone, insoluble in ether. Found: after drying in air, Cl, 17.2.

  17. Cryotherapy Following Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Cervical cancer can be prevented and mortality/morbidity reduced by early detection and referral. Developing countries are likely to benefit from more cost effective methods of screening and treatment. Visual inspection with acetic acid and Lugol`s iodine (VIA/VILI) offers a see and treat solution thus an ...

  18. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria of water + ethanol + hexyl acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arce, A.; Soto, A. [Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Orge, B.; Tojo, J. [Univ. of Vigo (Spain). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1995-09-01

    The authors determined the isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the ternary system water + ethanol + hexyl acetate at 101.325 kPa using a distillation apparatus recycling both liquid and vapor phases. The results were compared with those predicted using group contribution methods. The UNIFAC method gave the best predictions.

  19. 21 CFR 182.8892 - α-Tocopherol acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true α-Tocopherol acetate. 182.8892 Section 182.8892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8892 α...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  1. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false a-Tocopherol acetate. 582.5892 Section 582.5892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  2. Acetate as a Metabolic and Epigenetic Modifier of Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Diane M; Namboodiri, Aryan M A; Moffett, John R

    2016-03-01

    Metabolic networks are significantly altered in neoplastic cells. This altered metabolic program leads to increased glycolysis and lipogenesis and decreased dependence on oxidative phosphorylation and oxygen consumption. Despite their limited mitochondrial respiration, cancer cells, nonetheless, derive sufficient energy from alternative carbon sources and metabolic pathways to maintain cell proliferation. They do so, in part, by utilizing fatty acids, amino acids, ketone bodies, and acetate, in addition to glucose. The alternative pathways used in the metabolism of these carbon sources provide opportunities for therapeutic manipulation. Acetate, in particular, has garnered increased attention in the context of cancer as both an epigenetic regulator of posttranslational protein modification, and as a carbon source for cancer cell biomass accumulation. However, to date, the data have not provided a clear understanding of the precise roles that protein acetylation and acetate oxidation play in carcinogenesis, cancer progression or treatment. This review highlights some of the major issues, discrepancies, and opportunities associated with the manipulation of acetate metabolism and acetylation-based signaling in cancer development and treatment. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Characterization of indole acetic acid endophyte producers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work contributes to the knowledge of the phytobacteria diversity in aquatic plants, particularly in Lemnaceae species; here the majority of the isolates have been characterized as higher indole acetic acid producers, recommended as candidates for their use as biofertilizers. Key words: Plant growth-promoting bacteria, ...

  4. Effects of culture conditions on acetic acid production by bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: This study investigates the acidification capacity under various culture conditions of high acetic acid producer AAB strains previously isolated from Ivoirian cocoa beans fermentation. Methodology and Results: Effect of culture conditions was studied in agar medium and acid production was monitored by ...

  5. Analysis of some functional properties of acetic acid bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To investigate some functional properties of acetic acid bacteria (AAB), involved in Côte d'Ivoire cocoa fermentation. Methods and results: Six day heap fermentation on banana leaves was conducted at farm level and AAB growth was monitored during this process at 24 h interval by numeration on plate agar.

  6. Selenium dioxide catalysed oxidation of acetic acid hydrazide by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Selenium dioxide catalysed acetic acid hydrazide oxidation by bromate was studied in hydrochloric acid medium. The order in oxidant concentration, substrate and catalyst were found to be unity. Increasing hydrogen ion concentration increases the rate of the reaction due to protonation equilibria of the oxidant.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of rhodanine-3-acetic acid derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krátký, Martin; Vinšová, Jarmila; Stolaříková, Jiřina

    2017-03-15

    Twenty-four 2-(4-oxo-2-thioxothiazolidin-3-yl)acetic acid (rhodanine-3-acetic acid)-based amides, esters and 5-arylalkylidene derivatives were synthesized, characterized and evaluated as potential antimicrobial agents against a panel of bacteria, mycobacteria and fungi. All of the derivatives were active against mycobacteria. N-(4-Chlorophenyl)-2-[5-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)-4-oxo-2-thioxothiazolidin-3-yl]acetamide demonstrated the highest activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 8-16μM. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria were the most susceptible to 2-[5-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)-4-oxo-2-thioxothiazolidin-3-yl]acetic acids (MIC values ⩾32μM). The highest antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus exhibited 4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl 2-(4-oxo-2-thioxothiazolidin-3-yl)acetate (MIC⩾15.62μM). Several structure-activity relationships were identified. The activity against Gram-negative and fungal pathogens was marginal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hypolipidemic activity of ethyl acetate fraction of methanolic seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parts of Persea americana Mill are used for various ethnomedicinal purposes. The aqueous seed extract is used locally by herbalists for the treatment of hyperlipidemia. In this study, our objective was to investigate the possible hypolipidemic effect of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of the methanolic seed extract on olive oil- ...

  9. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Activities of Ethyl Acetate Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... that ethyl acetate extract of T. superba lowers blood glucose and hyperlipidemia, prevents oxidative stress and reduces blood pressure in diabetic conditions, thus justify its traditional use for the management of diabetes and hypertension. Keywords: Antidiabetic, antioxidant, streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetes, ...

  10. 40 CFR 721.303 - Substituted acetate (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Section 721.303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted acetate (PMN P-99... subpart A of this part apply to this section except as modified by this paragraph. (1) Recordkeeping...

  11. Protective role of flaxseed oil against lead acetate induced oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Even though the toxic effects of lead compounds had been studied over many years, inconsistent results have been obtained about their oxidative stress in the testes of adult rats. Lead acetate (20 mg/kg) alters the histology of testes as well as enhances lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide production in both serum and testes ...

  12. In Vivo Activity of (8-Hydroxymethylen)-Trieicosanyl Acetate against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hydroxymethylen)-trieicosanyl acetate was evaluated in BALB/c mice during the acute phase of Chagas' disease (15 days after infection). Animals were treated during 15 days at doses of 16.8 and 33.6 μg/g, reduced parasitemia of 77.6 and 64.1% was ...

  13. Polyphenolic acetates: A newer anti-Mycobacterial therapeutic option

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The various Polyphenol acetate compounds were tested for their antimycobacterial activities. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were calculated by Alamar blue dye assay method. The GST protein was used as a receptor protein and purified Mycobacterial Glutamine Synthetase (GS) as TAase for acetylation by DAMC.

  14. Optical detection of sodium salts of fluoride, acetate and phosphate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Logo of the Indian Academy of Sciences ... Optical detection of sodium salts of fluoride, acetate and phosphate by a diacylhydrazine ligand by the formation of a colour alkali metal complex. Purnandhu Bose Ranjan ... Keywords. Anion sensing; colourimetric detection; alkali metal complex; single crystal X-ray; deprotonation.

  15. Antioxidant defense of zinc acetate supplementation on the brain of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of zinc on brain weight, glutathione (GSH) level, catalase activity and lipid peroxidation in the brain of protein-undernourished (PU) rats was investigated following the ad libitum ingestion of zinc acetate (30 mg/L) in drinking water for two weeks. Results show that protein-undernutrition induced significant ...

  16. π Hydrogen bonded complexes of Acetic acid and Trifluoroacetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Matrix isolation infrared spectra of O-H···π Hydrogen bonded complexes of Acetic acid and Trifluoroacetic acid with Benzene. PUJARINI BANERJEE, INDRANI BHATTACHARYA and TAPAS CHAKRABORTY. ∗. Department of Physical Chemistry, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata 700 032, India.

  17. Advanced Colloids Experiment (Temperature Controlled) - ACE-T9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, David W. M.; Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ronald; Bailey, Kelly; Eustace, John G.

    2017-01-01

    Increment 53 - 54 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T9) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  18. Advanced Colloids Experiment (Temperature Controlled) - ACE-T6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ronald J.; Bailey, Kelly; Eustace, John; Lynch, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Increment 53 - 54 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T6) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  19. Effects of ethyl acetate leaf extracts of Vitex simplicifolia on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of oral administration of ethyl acetate leaf extract of Vitex simplicifolia on vitamins A, E and C, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid profile levels in alloxan induced diabetic Wistar rats were investigated. The study was conducted with 30 Wistar rats, assigned into six groups of five rats each, and daily ...

  20. Dietary vitamin E (α-tocopheryl acetate) and organic selenium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enriched yeast) and vitamin E (α-tocopheryl acetate) supplementation, alone or together, on the performance and antioxidant status of broilers fed diets enriched in n-3 PUFAs using fish oil. Day-old Hubbard-JV strain broiler chicks allocated to one ...

  1. EFFECTS OF ETHYL ACETATE LEAF EXTRACTS OF Vitex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2017-06-01

    Jun 1, 2017 ... ABSTRACT. The effects of oral administration of ethyl acetate leaf extract of Vitex simplicifolia on vitamins A, E and C, Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lipid profile levels in alloxan induced diabetic Wistar rats were investigated. The study was conducted with 30 Wistar rats, assigned into six groups of five.

  2. Effects of acetic, propionic and butyric acids given intraruminally at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-19

    Apr 19, 2010 ... gluconeogenesis (Bergman, 1990). However, the contri- bution of propionate to blood glucose via gluconeogenesis could probably be covered by the glucose infused into the abomasum. Effects of acetic, propionic and butyric acids given individually on rumen papillae size, and IGF-I, IGFBP-. 3, GH and ...

  3. Antisecretory and antiulcerative effects of ethyl acetate fraction of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work was carried out to investigate the possible effects of ethyl acetate seed fraction of Nigella sativa on gastric ulcers and basal gastric secretions using the Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug-induced (NSAID) model. Phytochemical screening according to Trease and Evans, 2002 and acute toxicity tests ...

  4. Effects of Piliostigma thonningii ethyl acetate leaf extract on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent research findings extol the medicinal significance of the different parts of Piliostigma thonningii. The present study investigated the hepatoprotective effect of its ethyl acetate leaf extract against AlCl3-induced hepatocellular derangement in mature male rats. Thirty male Wistar rats (mean weight, 207 ± 11.01g) were ...

  5. Effect of lead acetate administered orally at different dosage levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The project was conducted to evaluate the effect of lead administered as lead acetate at different dosage levels via drinking water in broiler chicks. Thirty-five healthy chicks were divided into seven groups (five chicks each) and one group was kept as un-medicated control. Groups A, B, C, D, E and F were medicated with ...

  6. Acetate stimulates secretion in the rabbit mandibular gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Young, J A

    1989-01-01

    In isolated perfused rabbit mandibular glands undergoing stimulation with 0.8 microM acetylcholine, replacement of HCO3- with acetate (25 mM) increased fluid secretion by more than 100%. Other short-chain fatty acids, except for propionate, had a similar effect. We focused our further studies...

  7. Thiosulphate conversion in a methane and acetate fed membrane bioreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez Zuluaga, D.A.; Timmers, P.H.A.; Plugge, C.M.; Stams, A.J.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Weijma, J.

    2016-01-01

    The use of methane and acetate as electron donors for biological reduction of thiosulphate in a 5-L laboratory membrane bioreactor was studied and compared to disproportionation of thiosulphate as competing biological reaction. The reactor was operated for 454 days in semi-batch mode; 30 % of its

  8. Controlled free radical polymerization of vinyl acetate with cobalt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The polymerization of vinyl acetate with the complex catalyst of cobalt acetoacetonate [Co (acac)2] and DMF ligand with benzoyl peroxide initiator has been successfully carried out in bulk and in solution. The bulk polymerization has been used in a new route consisting of a one-step polymer formation in a fine capillary tube ...

  9. Analysis of some functional properties of acetic acid bacteria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2014-03-31

    Mar 31, 2014 ... ABSTRACT. Objective: To investigate some functional properties of acetic acid bacteria (AAB), involved in Côte d'Ivoire ... Functional properties such as acid production, thermotolerance, resistance to alcoholic stress carbon metabolism and .... was carried out in HS broth medium containing 0.05 % glucose ...

  10. Acetate-triggered granular sludge floatation in methanogenic bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanquan; Liang, Zhiwei

    2016-12-15

    Methanogenic granular sludge from anaerobic bioreactors plays a primary role in treatment of various high-strength industrial wastewaters. The common problem of sludge floatation can lead to washout of granules from the reactor and severely affect reactor performance. However, an understanding of the specific key trigger-factors and appropriate control strategies for granular sludge floatation remains elusive. In this study, the concentration of acetate, rather than that of other volatile fatty acids (VFAs, i.e. propionate and butyrate) and granular sludge properties, was identified to be positively, linearly correlated with the amount of floating granules. The number of floating granules on propionate (18 ± 6) or butyrate-containing (34 ± 13) wastewater was comparable with that of non-VFA control wastewater (30.5 ± 7.5), and much lower than that of acetate-containing wastewater (80.5 ± 10.5). A scenario of excessive acetate-triggered granular sludge floatation is proposed based on these results as well as on the microbial community profile and spatial distribution, porous structure of granules, and impacts of operational parameters. Two new strategies, acetate-depletion and co-substrate addition, effectively reduced the number of floating granules by 28.5% and 51.6%, respectively. These results deepen our understanding of granular sludge floatation in methanogenic bioreactors and provide effective strategies to control sludge floatation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Photocatalytic decomposition of cortisone acetate in aqueous solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobral Romao, J.I.; Saad, M.H.; Mul, Guido; Baltrusaitis, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The photocatalytic decomposition of cortisone 21-acetate (CA), a model compound for the commonly used steroid, cortisone, was studied. CA was photocatalytically decomposed in a slurry reactor with the initial rates between 0.11 and 0.46 mg L−1 min−1 at 10 mg L−1 concentration, using the following

  12. Occurrence and metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid in Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewer, P.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was identified as a catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in germinating kernels of Zea mays and found to be present in amounts of ca 3.1 nmol/kernel. 7-Hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid was shown to be a biosynthetic intermediate between 2-indolinone-3-acetic acid and 7-hydroxy-2-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside in both kernels and roots of Zea mays. Further metabolism of 7-hydroxy-2-[5-3H]-indolinone-3-acetic acid-7'-O-glucoside occurred to yield tritiated water plus, as yet, uncharacterized products.

  13. Highly Concentrated Acetic Acid Poisoning: 400 Cases Reviewed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Brusin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caustic substance ingestion is known for causing a wide array of gastrointestinal and systemic complications. In Russia, ingestion of acetic acid is a major problem which annually affects 11.2 per 100,000 individuals. The objective of this study was to report and analyze main complications and outcomes of patients with 70% concentrated acetic acid poisoning. Methods: This was a retrospective study of patients with acetic acid ingestion who were treated at Sverdlovsk Regional Poisoning Treatment Center during 2006 to 2012. GI mucosal injury of each patient was assessed with endoscopy according to Zargar’s scale. Data analysis was performed to analyze the predictors of stricture formation and mortality. Results: A total of 400 patients with median age of 47 yr were included. GI injury grade I was found in 66 cases (16.5%, IIa in 117 (29.3%, IIb in 120 (30%, IIIa in 27 (16.7% and IIIb in 70 (17.5%. 11% of patients developed strictures and overall mortality rate was 21%. Main complications were hemolysis (55%, renal injury (35%, pneumonia (27% and bleeding during the first 3 days (27%. Predictors of mortality were age 60 to 79 years, grade IIIa and IIIb of GI injury, pneumonia, stages “I”, “F” and “L” of kidney damage according to the RIFLE scale and administration of prednisolone. Predictors of stricture formation were ingestion of over 100 mL of acetic acid and grade IIb and IIIa of GI injury. Conclusion: Highly concentrated acetic acid is still frequently ingested in Russia with a high mortality rate. Patients with higher grades of GI injury, pneumonia, renal injury and higher amount of acid ingested should be more carefully monitored as they are more susceptible to develop fatal consequences.          

  14. Eslicarbazepine Acetate Monotherapy: A Review in Partial-Onset Seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Matt; Dhillon, Sohita

    2016-04-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (Aptiom(®)) is a once-daily, orally administered antiepileptic drug (AED) approved previously in the EU, USA and several other countries for use as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of partial-onset seizures. Based on the findings of two randomized, dose-blinded, conversion-to-monotherapy phase III trials in patients with uncontrolled partial epilepsy, the US license for eslicarbazepine acetate has recently been expanded to include use as monotherapy for partial-onset seizures. The pivotal trials demonstrated that seizure control following conversion from other AEDs was superior for eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy (1200 or 1600 mg once daily) compared with a pseudo-placebo historical control. Other efficacy outcomes appeared to support the benefit of treatment, with up to 10 % of patients remaining seizure free and up to 46 % of patients experiencing a ≥50 % reduction from baseline in standardized seizure frequency during the monotherapy periods of the trials. Eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy was generally well tolerated, with most treatment-emergent adverse events being mild to moderate in severity. Its tolerability profile was generally consistent with the established profile of the drug based on its use as adjunctive therapy. Thus, once-daily eslicarbazepine acetate, either as monotherapy or adjunctive therapy, represents a useful option for the treatment of patients with partial-onset seizures. The recent licensing of the drug in the USA as monotherapy expands the range of treatment options for patients with partial-onset seizures and increases the opportunity to tailor therapy to the individual patient.

  15. Dynamic changes of carbon isotope apparent fractionation factor to describe transition to syntrophic acetate oxidation during cellulose and acetate methanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavilin, Vasily A; Rytov, Sergey V

    2017-05-01

    To identify predominant metabolic pathway for cellulose methanization new equations that take into account dynamics of 13C are added to the basic model of cellulose methanization. The correct stoichiometry of hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis steps including biomass is considered. Using experimental data by Laukenmann et al. [Identification of methanogenic pathway in anaerobic digesters using stable carbon isotopes. Eng. Life Sci. 2010;10:1-6], who reported about the importance of ace`tate oxidation during mesophilic cellulose methanization, the model confirmed that, at high biomass concentration of acetate oxidizers, the carbon isotope fractionation factor amounts to about 1.085. The same model, suggested firstly for cellulose degradation, was used to describe, secondly, changes in, and in methane and carbon dioxide during mesophylic acetate methanization measured by Grossin-Debattista [Fractionnements isotopiques (13C/12C) engendres par la methanogenese: apports pour la comprehension des processus de biodegradation lors de la digestion anaerobie [doctoral thesis]. 2011. Bordeaux: Universite Bordeaux-1;2011. Available from: http://ori-oai.u-bordeaux1.fr/pdf/2011/GROSSIN-DEBATTISTA_JULIEN_2011.pdf . French].The model showed that under various ammonium concentrations, at dominating acetoclastic methanogenesis, the value decreases over time to a low level (1.016), while at dominating syntrophic acetate oxidation, coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, slightly increases, reaching 1.060 at the end of incubation.

  16. The key to acetate: metabolic fluxes of acetic acid bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Philipp; Frey, Lasse Jannis; Berger, Antje; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Hansen, Carl Erik; Wittmann, Christoph

    2014-08-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role during cocoa fermentation, as their main product, acetate, is a major driver for the development of the desired cocoa flavors. Here, we investigated the specialized metabolism of these bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions. A carefully designed combination of parallel 13C isotope labeling experiments allowed the elucidation of intracellular fluxes in the complex environment of cocoa pulp, when lactate and ethanol were included as primary substrates among undefined ingredients. We demonstrate that AAB exhibit a functionally separated metabolism during coconsumption of two-carbon and three-carbon substrates. Acetate is almost exclusively derived from ethanol, while lactate serves for the formation of acetoin and biomass building blocks. Although this is suboptimal for cellular energetics, this allows maximized growth and conversion rates. The functional separation results from a lack of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzymes, typically present in bacteria to interconnect metabolism. In fact, gluconeogenesis is driven by pyruvate phosphate dikinase. Consequently, a balanced ratio of lactate and ethanol is important for the optimum performance of AAB. As lactate and ethanol are individually supplied by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts during the initial phase of cocoa fermentation, respectively, this underlines the importance of a well-balanced microbial consortium for a successful fermentation process. Indeed, AAB performed the best and produced the largest amounts of acetate in mixed culture experiments when lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were both present.

  17. The effective reaction of 2-chloro-3-formylquinoline and acetic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    formylquinolines in a single step by treating with sodium acetate and acetic acid under microwave irradiation. The structures of the compounds have been established by IR, NMR and mass spectral data. Unexpectedly ...

  18. Separation of Acetic Acid from Aqueous Solution using Various Organic Solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Zaved Hossain Khan

    2014-01-01

    In the study a model has been developed to separate the acetic acid from aqueous solution by liquid-liquid extraction and find out the proper solvent for this separation. Various solvents such as n-butanol, iso butanol, amyl alcohol and ethyl acetate are used for separation of acetic acid from water. The binodal curves (mutual solubility curves) for acetic acid distributed between water and an organic solvent were obtained by titrating known mixtures of two components (water and solvents) wit...

  19. Isolation, characterization and optimization of indigenous acetic acid bacteria and evaluation of their preservation methods

    OpenAIRE

    Sharafi, SM; Rasooli, I; Beheshti-Maal, K

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are useful in industrial production of vinegar. The present study aims at isolation and identification of acetic acid bacteria with characterization, optimization, and evaluation of their acetic acid productivity. Materials and Methods Samples from various fruits were screened for presence of acetic acid bacteria on glucose, yeast extract, calcium carbonate (GYC) medium. Carr medium supplemented with bromocresol green was used for distingui...

  20. Dissolution of paracetamol crystallized in the presence of poly(vinyl acetate-co-maleic anhydride)

    OpenAIRE

    Raval D; Parikh D; Patel V

    2006-01-01

    Copolymer of vinyl acetate and maleic anhydride, poly (vinyl acetate-co-maleic anhydride) was prepared by precipitation polymerization and characterized. Paracetamol was crystallized in presence of different concentrations of poly (vinyl acetate-co-maleic anhydride). Crystals were characterized by sieve analysis, solubility and dissolution study. Crystallization of paracetamol in presence of poly (vinyl acetate-co-maleic anhydride) caused a marked enhancement in its dissolution rate with incr...

  1. Ulipristal acetate, a progesterone receptor modulator for emergency contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadav, Shilpa P.; Parmar, Dinesh M.

    2012-01-01

    Unwanted pregnancy is a global reproductive health problem. Emergency contraception is defined as the use of drug or device after unprotected or underprotected intercourse to prevent an unwanted pregnancy. 1.5 mg of levonorgestrel as a single dose or in two doses with 12 h apart taken within 72 h of unprotected intercourse is the current gold standard emergency contraception regimen. This method is only effective if used as soon as possible after sexual intercourse and before ovulation. A single dose of 30 mg ulipristal acetate, a novel selective progesterone receptor modulator, has recently been proposed for the emergency contraception use up to 120 h of unprotected intercourse with similar side effect profiles as levonorgestrel. Ulipristal acetate could possibly prevent pregnancy when administered in the advanced follicular phase, even if luteinizing hormone levels have already begun to rise, a time when levonorgestrel is no longer effective in inhibiting ovulation. PMID:22629083

  2. Acetic acid pretreatment improves the hardness of cooked potato slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenlin; Shehzad, Hussain; Yan, Shoulei; Li, Jie; Wang, Qingzhang

    2017-08-01

    The effects of acetic acid pretreatment on the texture of cooked potato slices were investigated in this work. Potato slices were pretreated with acetic acid immersion (AAI), distilled water immersion (DWI), or no immersion (NI). Subsequently, the cell wall material of the pretreated samples was isolated and fractioned to evaluate changes in the monosaccharide content and molar mass (MM), and the hardness and microscopic structure of the potato slices in different pretreatments before and after cooking were determined. The results showed that the highest firmness was obtained with more intact structure of the cell wall for cooked potato slices with AAI pretreatment. Furthermore, the MM and sugar ratio demonstrated that the AAI pretreated potato slices contained a higher content of the small molecular polysaccharides of cell walls, especially in the hemicellulose fraction. This work may provide a reference for potato processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [HPLC fingerprint of ethyl acetate extraction of Saxifraga stolonifera].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mei; Chen, Hua-Guo; Xian, Chun; Huang, Zhi-Jin; Zhou, Xin

    2013-04-01

    To establish an HPLC fingerprint of ethyl acetate extraction of Saxifraga stolonifera. The HPLC analysis was performed on a Diamonsil C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) column with isocratic elution of acetonitrile-0.05% phosphoric acid at a flow rate of 1.0 mL x min(-1). The detection wavelength was set at 256 nm and the column temperature was set at 30 degrees C. The HPLC fingerprint of ethyl acetate extraction of S. stolonifera has been established. There were fifteen common peaks, seven of which were identified by reference substances. The RSD of relative retention time was less than 3% in the precision and repeated tests. Eleven samples from different area can be distinguished from their fingerprints. This method is reasonable and reliable and can be used for quality control of S. stolonifera.

  4. Measurement of acetates in air using differential ion mobility spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczurek, Andrzej; Maciejewska, Monika; Zajiczek, Żaneta; Maziejuk, Mirosław

    2017-11-01

    Volatile organic compounds are one of the most important group of air pollutants. Potential health and environmental problems resulting from their emission prompted the requirement for monitoring these species. It motivates development of new measurement techniques which are fast, cost effective, reliable and field deployable. One of novel approaches is ion mobility spectrometry. It dwells on ion separation in electric field, based on differences in ion mobility. Many variants of this method are developed. In this wok, differential ion mobility spectrometry (DMS) was considered in respect of acetate measurements in air. It was demonstrated that DMS offers linear response to methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl acetate in concentration range from 0.3 ppm to 7 ppm. Positive ions spectrum has to be utilised for this purpose. We showed that fragments of DMS spectrum which secure linearity are compound-specific. The obtained results are promising from the application point of view.

  5. C-6 regioselective bromination of methyl indolyl-3-acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Castillo, Oscar R; Meléndez-Rodríguez, Myriam; Beiza-Granados, Lidia; Cano-Escudero, Indira C; Morales-Ríos, Martha S; Joseph-Nathan, Pedro

    2011-04-01

    An efficient route to natural occurring methyl 6-bromoindolyl-3-acetate 1c from methyl indolyl-3-acetate 3 was achieved in 3 steps and 68% overall yield. Thus, in order to regioselectively brominate 3 at the C6-position, introduction of electron withdrawing substituents at N1 and C8 was affected to give intermediate 4 in 82% yield. Bromination of 4 with 8 equiv of bromine in CCl4 and washings with aqueous Na2SO3 gave 5 in 86% yield, which was N- and C-decarbomethoxylated by treatment with NaCN in DMSO, affording 1c in 97% yield. The regioselectivity of bromination was evidenced by NMR spectroscopy and X- ray diffraction analysis.

  6. Methyl internal rotation in the microwave spectrum of vinyl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha Vinh Lam; Jabri, Atef; Van, Vinh; Stahl, Wolfgang

    2014-12-26

    The rotational spectrum of vinyl acetate, CH3(CO)OCH═CH2, was measured using two molecular beam Fourier transform microwave spectrometers operating in the frequency range from 2 to 40 GHz. Large splittings up to 2 GHz occurred due to the internal rotation of the acetyl methyl group CH3CO with a V3 potential of 151.492(34) cm(-1), much larger than the barrier of approximately 100 cm(-1) often found in acetates. The torsional transitions were fitted using three different programs XIAM, ERHAM, and BELGI-Cs, whereby the rotational constants, centrifugal distortion constants, and the internal rotation parameters could be determined with very high accuracy. The experimental results were supported by quantum chemical calculations. For a conformational analysis, potential energy surfaces were calculated.

  7. Acetate Dose-Dependently Stimulates Milk Fat Synthesis in Lactating Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia, Natalie L; Harvatine, Kevin J

    2017-05-01

    Background: Acetate is a short-chain fatty acid (FA) that is especially important to cows because it is the major substrate for de novo FA synthesis. However, the effect of acetate supply on mammary lipid synthesis is not clear.Objective: The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of increasing acetate supply on milk fat synthesis in lactating dairy cows.Methods: Six multiparous lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatments in a replicated design to investigate the effect of acetate supply on milk fat synthesis. Treatments were 0 (control), 5, 10, and 15 mol acetate/d continuously infused into the rumen for 4 d. Rumen short-chain FAs, plasma hormones and metabolites, milk fat concentration, and milk FA profile were analyzed on day 4 of each treatment. Polynomial contrasts were used to test the linear and quadratic effects of increasing acetate supply.Results: Acetate increased milk fat yield quadratically (P synthesis pathways. Apparent transfer of acetate to milk fat was 33.4%, 36.2%, and 20.6% for 5, 10, and 15 mol/d, respectively. Acetate infusion linearly increased the relative concentration of rumen acetate (P synthesis, suggesting that nutritional strategies that increase ruminal acetate absorption would be expected to increase milk fat by increasing de novo FA synthesis. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. 76 FR 36556 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License; The Development of Ulipristal Acetate for the Treatment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-22

    ... Ulipristal Acetate for the Treatment of Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids AGENCY: National Institutes of Health... field of use may be limited to: The use of ulipristal acetate for the treatment of symptomatic uterine... using a selective progesterone receptor modulator compound, ulipristal acetate (a.k.a. CDB-2914...

  9. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers... for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1360 Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers (CAS Reg. No. 26221-27-2...

  10. 75 FR 52269 - Acetic Acid Ethenyl Ester, Polymer With Oxirane; Tolerance Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ...-2010-0429; FRL-8841-2] Acetic Acid Ethenyl Ester, Polymer With Oxirane; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY... from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of acetic acid ethenyl ester, polymer with oxirane... permissible level for residues of acetic acid ethenyl ester, polymer with oxirane on food or feed commodities...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1258 - Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetic acid; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1258 Acetic acid; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An... acetic acid when used as a preservative on post-harvest agricultural commodities intended for animal feed...

  12. Investigations on organolead compounds III. The reaction of organolead compounds with ketene. (Triphenylplumbyl)acetic anhydride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsens, L.C.; Kerk, G.J.M. van der

    The reaction of ketene with triphenyllead hydroxide in diethyl ether gave (triphenylplumbyl)acetic anhydride, (Ph3PbCH2CO)2O, the first anhydride-substituted organolead compound known. The reaction of ketene with triphenyllead acetate in absolute ethanol gave ethyl (triphenylplumbyl)acetate,

  13. Effects of benzylaminopurine and naphthalene acetic acid on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the pineapple regeneration and shoot growth as affected by 6- benzylaminopurine (BAP) at 2.0 mg/l and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) at 0.2 mg/l in vitro. BAP and NAA at the concentration of 2.0 and 0.2 mg/l were used in this study. BAP at 2.0 mg/l significantly affected the production ...

  14. Dietary vitamin E (α-tocopheryl acetate) and organic selenium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hatice BASMANCIOGLU

    and flaxseed on cholesterol and fatty acid composition of egg yolk and blood parameters of laying hens. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci. 33, 265-273. Basmacıoğlu, H., Tokuşoğlu, Ö. & Ergül, M., 2004. The effect of oregano and rosemary essential oils or alpha-tocopheryl acetate on performance and lipid oxidation of meat enriched with ...

  15. Application of ulipristal acetate in female patients with uterine fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzechocinska, Barbara; Gadomska, Halina; Zygula, Aleksandra; Wielgos, Miroslaw

    2014-01-01

    Uterine fibroids are the most common benign tumors in women of reproductive age. Evidence suggest that ovarian steroid hormones, in particular, progesterone play a major role in promoting leiomyoma development and growth. For the last years there was an extensive research on selective progesterone receptor modulators and their use in therapy. Ulipristal acetate (UPA) is one of these modulators. The aim of this paper is to evaluate efficacy and safety of oral ulipristal acetate for the treatment in women with symptomatic uterine fibroids. The study group comprised five patients with uterine fibroids. All patients received 5 mg of ulipristal acetate per day for three months. The total volume of fibroids decreased by 33-68%. In all patients during the administration of UPA significant reduction of menstrual bleeding was observed. Increase of endometrial thickness without clinical significance was observed in two patients. No significant side-effects were observed during the treatment period. 1) The volume offibroids decreased from 33 to 68%. 2) The UPA administration effectively controlled excessive bleeding. 3) Treatment with UPA may modify the scope of the surgery. 4) UPA is a well-tolerated drug.

  16. Safe use and waste disposal of uranyl acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, A.; Calvo, S.; Caparros, G.; Gallego, E.; Rascon, J.; Valladares, M.C. [Centro de Biologia Molecular, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    Radioactive labelled molecules are widely used in Biological Research Centres. The most common radioisotopes are: {sup 32}P,{sup 33}P, {sup 35}S,{sup 3}H,{sup 14}C,{sup 125}I and {sup 45}Ca.Due to the inherent risk in the manipulation of these radiation unsealed sources, in these radioactive installations there are established radiological protection programs to reduce this potential risk and the professional exposure in the manipulation and in the radioactive waste generated. In these Biological Research Centres we used techniques with other radioactive products less used, that we must to control. It is the case of the use of uranyl acetate. Uranyl acetate is a uranium salt used in the preparation of samples for analysis in the electron microscope. Although the amounts used are relatively small, both the chemical and radiological toxicities of these compounds are significant and require working whit that some cautions, with the main emphasis on avoiding the possibility of inhalation of fine particulates or vapours. Due to changes in the Spanish regulations for this product, it was necessary to establish a specific control program in its manipulation. The purpose of this work is the accomplishment of specific protocols for the acquisition, manipulation, contamination measurements, inspections of the work zone and waste management, in order to minimize the risks in the manipulation of uranyl acetate,as well as apply the knowledge and use of specific norms for working with this product. (authors)

  17. Acetate enhances startup of a H₂-producing microbial biocathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremiasse, Adriaan W; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Croese, Elsemiek; Buisman, Cees J N

    2012-03-01

    H(2) can be produced from organic matter with a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). To decrease MEC capital costs, a cathode is needed that is made of low-cost material and produces H(2) at high rate. A microbial biocathode is a low-cost candidate, but suffers from a long startup and a low H(2) production rate. In this study, the effects of cathode potential and carbon source on microbial biocathode startup were investigated. Application of a more negative cathode potential did not decrease the startup time of the biocathode. If acetate instead of bicarbonate was used as carbon source, the biocathode started up more than two times faster. The faster startup was likely caused by a higher biomass yield for acetate than for bicarbonate, which was supported by thermodynamic calculations. To increase the H(2) production rate, a flow through biocathode fed with acetate was investigated. This biocathode produced 2.2 m(3) H(2) m(-3)  reactor day(-1) at a cathode potential of -0.7 V versus NHE, which was seven times that of a parallel flow biocathode of a previous study. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Catabolism of indole-3-acetic acid and 4- and 5-chloroindole-3-acetic acid in Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J B; Egsgaard, H; Van Onckelen, H

    1995-01-01

    Some strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum have the ability to catabolize indole-3-acetic acid. Indoleacetic acid (IAA), 4-chloro-IAA (4-Cl-IAA), and 5-Cl-IAA were metabolized to different extents by strains 61A24 and 110. Metabolites were isolated and analyzed by high-performance liquid...... chromatography and conventional mass spectrometry (MS) methods, including MS-mass spectroscopy, UV spectroscopy, and high-performance liquid chromatography-MS. The identified products indicate a novel metabolic pathway in which IAA is metabolized via dioxindole-3-acetic acid, dioxindole, isatin, and 2......-aminophenyl glyoxylic acid (isatinic acid) to anthranilic acid, which is further metabolized. Degradation of 4-Cl-IAA apparently stops at the 4-Cl-dioxindole step in contrast to 5-Cl-IAA which is metabolized to 5-Cl-anthranilic acid. Udgivelsesdato: 1995-Oct...

  19. Aqueous-Phase Acetic Acid Ketonization over Monoclinic Zirconia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Qiuxia [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest; College; Lopez-Ruiz, Juan A. [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest; Cooper, Alan R. [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest; Wang, Jian-guo [College; Albrecht, Karl O. [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest; Mei, Donghai [Institute for Integrated Catalysis, Pacific Northwest

    2017-12-13

    The effect of aqueous phase on the acetic acid ketonization over monoclinic zirconia has been investigated using first-principles based density functional theory (DFT) calculations. To capture the aqueous phase chemistry over the solid zirconia catalyst surface, the aqueous phase is represented by 111 explicit water molecules with a liquid water density of 0.93 g/cm3 and the monoclinic zirconia is modeled by the most stable surface structure . The dynamic nature of aqueous phase/ interface was studied using ab initio molecular dynamics simulation, indicating that nearly half of the surface Zr sites are occupied by either adsorbed water molecules or hydroxyl groups at 550 K. DFT calculations show that the adsorption process of acetic acid from the liquid water phase to the surface is nearly thermodynamically neutral with a Gibbs free energy of -2.3 kJ/mol although the adsorption strength of acetic acid on the surface in aqueous phase is much stronger than in vapor phase. Therefore it is expected that the adsorption of acetic acid will dramatically affects aqueous phase ketonization reactivity over the monoclinic zirconia catalyst. Using the same ketonization mechanism via the β-keto acid intermediate, we have compared acetic acid ketonization to acetone in both vapor and aqueous phases. Our DFT calculation results show although the rate-determining step of the β-keto acid formation via the C-C coupling is not pronouncedly affected, the presence of liquid water molecules will dramatically affect dehydrogenation and hydrogenation steps via proton transfer mechanism. This work was financially supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE)’s Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is a multi-program national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute. Computing time and advanced catalyst characterization use was granted by a user proposal at the William R. Wiley

  20. Change in the plasmid copy number in acetic acid bacteria in response to growth phase and acetic acid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akasaka, Naoki; Astuti, Wiwik; Ishii, Yuri; Hidese, Ryota; Sakoda, Hisao; Fujiwara, Shinsuke

    2015-06-01

    Plasmids pGE1 (2.5 kb), pGE2 (7.2 kb), and pGE3 (5.5 kb) were isolated from Gluconacetobacter europaeus KGMA0119, and sequence analyses revealed they harbored 3, 8, and 4 genes, respectively. Plasmid copy numbers (PCNs) were determined by real-time quantitative PCR at different stages of bacterial growth. When KGMA0119 was cultured in medium containing 0.4% ethanol and 0.5% acetic acid, PCN of pGE1 increased from 7 copies/genome in the logarithmic phase to a maximum of 12 copies/genome at the beginning of the stationary phase, before decreasing to 4 copies/genome in the late stationary phase. PCNs for pGE2 and pGE3 were maintained at 1-3 copies/genome during all phases of growth. Under a higher concentration of ethanol (3.2%) the PCN for pGE1 was slightly lower in all the growth stages, and those of pGE2 and pGE3 were unchanged. In the presence of 1.0% acetic acid, PCNs were higher for pGE1 (10 copies/genome) and pGE3 (6 copies/genome) during the logarithmic phase. Numbers for pGE2 did not change, indicating that pGE1 and pGE3 increase their PCNs in response to acetic acid. Plasmids pBE2 and pBE3 were constructed by ligating linearized pGE2 and pGE3 into pBR322. Both plasmids were replicable in Escherichia coli, Acetobacter pasteurianus and G. europaeus, highlighting their suitability as vectors for acetic acid bacteria. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Can Small Hepatocellular Carcinoma be Cured by Percutaneous Acetic Acid Injection Therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.-T. Fan

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available To assess the efficacy of ultrasound (US-guided percutaneous acetic acid (in concentrations of 15%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% injection for small hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs for long-term prognosis, percutaneous acetic acid injection using 15% to 50% acetic acid was performed in 91 patients with one to four HCCs smaller than 3 cm during the past 6.5 years. During the series of treatment sessions for each patient, the same concentration of acetic acid was used. All tumors could be treated successfully with percutaneous acetic acid injection despite the differences in acetic acid concentration used. The number of treatment sessions to treat similar size of tumor was less when the higher concentration of acetic acid was used. No serious complications occurred as a direct sequela to percutaneous acetic acid injection. None of the tumor treated regrew. The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year survival rates for 91 patients were 95%, 87%, 80%, 63%, and 49%, respectively. The 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, and 5-year cancer-free survival rates of these patients were 83%, 54%, 50%, 37%, and 29%, respectively. Both liver function and size of tumor affected both survival rate and cancer-free survival rate significantly, but the number of tumors did not. The concentration of acetic acid did not affect the survival rate. Percutaneous acetic acid using 15% to 50% acetic acid will be effective therapy for small HCCs for long-term prognosis.

  2. Influence of Alkylammonium Acetate Buffers on Protein-Ligand Noncovalent Interactions Using Native Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Xiaoyu; Gavriilidou, Agni F. M.; Zenobi, Renato

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the influence of three volatile alkylammonium acetate buffers on binding affinities for protein-ligand interactions determined by native electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Four different types of proteins were chosen for this study. A charge-reduction effect was observed for all the cases studied, in comparison to the ions formed in ammonium acetate solution. When increasing the collision energy, the complexes of trypsin and the ligand were found to be more stable when sprayed from alkylammonium acetate buffers than from ammonium acetate. The determined dissociation constant (Kd) also exhibited a drop (up to 40%) when ammonium acetate was replaced by alkylammonium acetate buffers for the case of lysozyme and the ligand. The prospective uses of these ammonium acetate analogs in native ESI-MS are discussed in this paper as well.

  3. A simple and convenient synthetic route to Ulipristal acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongguo; He, Yun; Zhao, Yi; Hai, Li; Wu, Yong

    2013-12-11

    We set out to describe a new and efficient route for preparing Ulipristal acetate with a good yield. The selected epoxidization conditions gave out 80% of 5α,10α-epoxide 2a in the two diastereoisomers which greatly improved the yield of 11β-substituted isomer 4a. And phenyl-sulfinyl compound 6 was synthesized from ketone 5 directly treated with phenylsulfenyl chloride in the presence of triethylamine. These synthetic procedures is only 8 steps, less than currently reported in the literature, but more suitable for industrial process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Negative-tone resist system using vinyl cyclic acetal crosslinker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wu-Song; Lee, Kim Y.; Chen, K. Rex; Schepis, Dominic

    1996-06-01

    Most high performance negative tone resists are chemically amplified systems. The chemistry involves a creation of acid during photo-exposure and subsequent crosslinking of the polymer matrix during post-exposure bake. The commonly used crosslinkers are epoxies, melamines, benzyl alcohol and benzyl acetates. In light of the high reactivity of vinyl group on vinyl ether type compounds, literature has suggested that photochemical addition reaction of a polymer- bearing pendant vinyl ether with various thiol compounds can potentially be highly sensitive negative-type photoresists. Recently, bis-dihydropyrane derivative has been used for the first time to develop high performance negative tone resists for DUV, E-beam and x-ray applications. A cyclic acetal system based on acetal blocked aromatic aldehyde has also been demonstrated to be a good crosslinker for negative DUV resist. In order to take advantage of the above chemistries, we have investigated a crosslinker, 3,9-divinylspirobi(M-dioxane) (DVSDO), which contains both cyclic acetal groups and vinyl groups. Different loadings of DVSDO from 8% to 17% were formulated in combination with triphenyl sulfonyl triflate and N-sulfonyl triflate derivatives in polyhydroxystyrene matrix. One composition contains 8% N- sulfonyloxy derivative, 12% DVSDO in 20% solid of polyhydroxystyrene has shown resolution to 0.35 micrometer from Canon 0.37 NA DUV stepper. It also shows promising resolution in E-beam lithography. Varying the post apply bake (PAB) temperatures and post exposure bake temperatures (PEB) demonstrate a great dependency of sensitivity to baking temperature. The sensitivity increases with decreasing PAB, while decreases with decreasing PEB. Insufficient baking time (less than 4 - 5 minutes) at lower PEB temperature 90 degrees Celsius causes significant film loss after development in 0.14N TMAH for 60 - 75s. On the other hand, when the PEB temperature is too high (greater than 120 degrees Celsius), the resist

  5. Indole-3-acetic acid in plant-microbe interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duca, Daiana; Lorv, Janet; Patten, Cheryl L; Rose, David; Glick, Bernard R

    2014-07-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is an important phytohormone with the capacity to control plant development in both beneficial and deleterious ways. The ability to synthesize IAA is an attribute that many bacteria including both plant growth-promoters and phytopathogens possess. There are three main pathways through which IAA is synthesized; the indole-3-pyruvic acid, indole-3-acetamide and indole-3-acetonitrile pathways. This chapter reviews the factors that effect the production of this phytohormone, the role of IAA in bacterial physiology and in plant-microbe interactions including phytostimulation and phytopathogenesis.

  6. Synthesis and crystal structure analysis of uranyl triple acetates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepov, Vladislav V., E-mail: vladislavklepov@gmail.com [Institute for Energy and Climate Research (IEK-6), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52428 Jülich (Germany); Department of Chemistry, Samara National Research University, 443086 Samara (Russian Federation); Serezhkina, Larisa B.; Serezhkin, Victor N. [Department of Chemistry, Samara National Research University, 443086 Samara (Russian Federation); Alekseev, Evgeny V., E-mail: e.alekseev@fz-juelich.de [Institute for Energy and Climate Research (IEK-6), Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52428 Jülich (Germany); Institut für Kristallographie, RWTH Aachen University, 52066 Aachen (Germany)

    2016-12-15

    Single crystals of triple acetates NaR[UO{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 3}]{sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O (R=Mg, Co, Ni, Zn), well-known for their use as reagents for sodium determination, were grown from aqueous solutions and their structural and spectroscopic properties were studied. Crystal structures of the mentioned phases are based upon (Na[UO{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 3}]{sub 3}){sup 2–} clusters and [R(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}]{sup 2+} aqua-complexes. The cooling of a single crystal of NaMg[UO{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 3}]{sub 3}·6H{sub 2}O from 300 to 100 K leads to a phase transition from trigonal to monoclinic crystal system. Intermolecular interactions between the structural units and their mutual packing were studied and compared from the point of view of the stereoatomic model of crystal structures based on Voronoi-Dirichlet tessellation. Using this method we compared the crystal structures of the triple acetates with Na[UO{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 3}] and [R(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}][UO{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 3}]{sub 2} and proposed reasons of triple acetates stability. Infrared and Raman spectra were collected and their bands were assigned. - Graphical abstract: Single crystals of uranium based triple acetates, analytical reagents for sodium determination, were synthesized and structurally, spectroscopically and topologically characterized. The structures were compared with the structures of compounds from preceding families [M(H{sub 2}O){sub 6})][UO{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 3}]{sub 2} (M = Mg, Co, Ni, Zn) and Na[UO{sub 2}(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 3}]. Analysis was performed with the method of molecular Voronoi-Dirichlet polyhedra to reveal a large contribution of the hydrogen bonds into intermolecular interactions which can be a reason of low solubility of studied complexes.

  7. Acetic acid bacteria in fermented foods and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Roos, Jonas; De Vuyst, Luc

    2017-08-29

    Although acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are commonly found in spontaneous or backslopped fermented foods and beverages, rather limited knowledge about their occurrence and functional role in natural food fermentation ecosystems is available. Not only is their cultivation, isolation, and identification difficult, their cells are often present in a viable but not culturable state. Yet, they are promising starter cultures either to better control known food fermentation processes or to produce novel fermented foods and beverages. This review summarizes the most recent findings on the occurrence and functional role of AAB in natural food fermentation processes such as lambic beer, water kefir, kombucha, and cocoa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Single crystal: Urea bisthiourea sodium acetate synthesis, growth and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickam, R.; Srinivasan, G.

    2017-05-01

    Crystals of urea bisthiourea sodium acetate (UBTSA) were successfully grown from an aqueous solution by slow evaporation method at room temperature. Recrystallization process was used to increase the purity of the grown crystal. The grown crystals were characterized by single crystal XRD, FT-Raman, UV and TGA/DTA analysis. Structure and unit cell parameters were determined by single crystal XRD. Functional groups of grown crystal and their modes of vibration were identified using FT-Raman spectral analysis. Absorbance percentage of the grown crystal was studied using UV analysis. Thermo gravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis reveal that the good thermal stability of the material.

  9. A Kinetic Study of the Emulsion Polymerization of Vinyl Acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, N.; Nyhagen, L.

    1973-01-01

    The emulsion polymerization of vinyl acetate was studied at 50°C. It was found that the rate of polymerization was proportional to the 0.5 power of the initiator concentration and the 0.25 power of the number of particles. The number of particles was proportional to the power 0.5 ± 0.05 of the em...... to that of vinyl chloride. The linearity of the conversion-versus-time curve is explained as being due partly to a decrease in the desorption rate of radicals from the polymer particles and partly to a decrease in the termination rate constant....

  10. A novel antihepatitis drug, bicyclol, prevents liver carcinogenesis in diethylnitrosamine-initiated and phenobarbital-promoted mice tumor model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Hua; Yu, Linghong; Wei, Huailing; Liu, Gengtao

    2012-01-01

    Bicyclol, an antihepatitis drug developed by Chinese scientists, has been shown to prevent the malignant transformation induced by 3-methylcholanthrene and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in WB...

  11. A Novel Antihepatitis Drug, Bicyclol, Prevents Liver Carcinogenesis in Diethylnitrosamine-Initiated and Phenobarbital-Promoted Mice Tumor Model

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sun, Hua; Yu, Linghong; Wei, Huailing; Liu, Gengtao

    2012-01-01

    Bicyclol, an antihepatitis drug developed by Chinese scientists, has been shown to prevent the malignant transformation induced by 3-methylcholanthrene and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in WB...

  12. Acetic Acid Causes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Induces the Unfolded Protein Response inSaccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazoe, Nozomi; Kimata, Yukio; Izawa, Shingo

    2017-01-01

    Since acetic acid inhibits the growth and fermentation ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae , it is one of the practical hindrances to the efficient production of bioethanol from a lignocellulosic biomass. Although extensive information is available on yeast response to acetic acid stress, the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and unfolded protein response (UPR) has not been addressed. We herein demonstrated that acetic acid causes ER stress and induces the UPR. The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER and activation of Ire1p and Hac1p, an ER-stress sensor and ER stress-responsive transcription factor, respectively, were induced by a treatment with acetic acid stress (>0.2% v/v). Other monocarboxylic acids such as propionic acid and sorbic acid, but not lactic acid, also induced the UPR. Additionally, ire1 Δ and hac1 Δ cells were more sensitive to acetic acid than wild-type cells, indicating that activation of the Ire1p-Hac1p pathway is required for maximum tolerance to acetic acid. Furthermore, the combination of mild acetic acid stress (0.1% acetic acid) and mild ethanol stress (5% ethanol) induced the UPR, whereas neither mild ethanol stress nor mild acetic acid stress individually activated Ire1p, suggesting that ER stress is easily induced in yeast cells during the fermentation process of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. It was possible to avoid the induction of ER stress caused by acetic acid and the combined stress by adjusting extracellular pH.

  13. Heterogeneous Reactions of Acetic Acid with Oxide Surfaces: Effects of Mineralogy and Relative Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mingjin; Larish, Whitney A; Fang, Yuan; Gankanda, Aruni; Grassian, Vicki H

    2016-07-21

    We have investigated the heterogeneous uptake of gaseous acetic acid on different oxides including γ-Al2O3, SiO2, and CaO under a range of relative humidity conditions. Under dry conditions, the uptake of acetic acid leads to the formation of both acetate and molecularly adsorbed acetic acid on γ-Al2O3 and CaO and only molecularly adsorbed acetic acid on SiO2. More importantly, under the conditions of this study, dimers are the major form for molecularly adsorbed acetic acid on all three particle surfaces investigated, even at low acetic acid pressures under which monomers are the dominant species in the gas phase. We have also determined saturation surface coverages for acetic acid adsorption on these three oxides under dry conditions as well as Langmuir adsorption constants in some cases. Kinetic analysis shows that the reaction rate of acetic acid increases by a factor of 3-5 for γ-Al2O3 when relative humidity increases from 0% to 15%, whereas for SiO2 particles, acetic acid and water are found to compete for surface adsorption sites.

  14. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of ethyl acetate and ethanol in rodents and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowell, S R; Smith, J N; Creim, J A; Faber, W; Teeguarden, J G

    2015-10-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed and applied to a metabolic series approach for the ethyl series (i.e., ethyl acetate, ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetate). This approach bases toxicity information on dosimetry analyses for metabolically linked compounds using pharmacokinetic data for each compound and toxicity data for parent or individual compounds. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies of ethyl acetate and ethanol were conducted in rats following IV and inhalation exposure. Regardless of route, ethyl acetate was rapidly converted to ethanol. Blood concentrations of ethyl acetate and ethanol following both IV bolus and infusion suggested linear kinetics across blood concentrations from 0.1 to 10 mM ethyl acetate and 0.01-0.8 mM ethanol. Metabolic parameters were optimized and evaluated based on available pharmacokinetic data. The respiratory bioavailability of ethyl acetate and ethanol were estimated from closed chamber inhalation studies and measured ventilation rates. The resulting ethyl series model successfully reproduces blood ethyl acetate and ethanol kinetics following IV administration and inhalation exposure in rats, and blood ethanol kinetics following inhalation exposure to ethanol in humans. The extrapolated human model was used to derive human equivalent concentrations for the occupational setting of 257-2120 ppm ethyl acetate and 72-517 ppm ethyl acetate for continuous exposure, corresponding to rat LOAELs of 350 and 1500 ppm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Acetic Acid Causes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Induces the Unfolded Protein Response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawazoe, Nozomi; Kimata, Yukio; Izawa, Shingo

    2017-01-01

    Since acetic acid inhibits the growth and fermentation ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is one of the practical hindrances to the efficient production of bioethanol from a lignocellulosic biomass. Although extensive information is available on yeast response to acetic acid stress, the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and unfolded protein response (UPR) has not been addressed. We herein demonstrated that acetic acid causes ER stress and induces the UPR. The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER and activation of Ire1p and Hac1p, an ER-stress sensor and ER stress-responsive transcription factor, respectively, were induced by a treatment with acetic acid stress (>0.2% v/v). Other monocarboxylic acids such as propionic acid and sorbic acid, but not lactic acid, also induced the UPR. Additionally, ire1Δ and hac1Δ cells were more sensitive to acetic acid than wild-type cells, indicating that activation of the Ire1p-Hac1p pathway is required for maximum tolerance to acetic acid. Furthermore, the combination of mild acetic acid stress (0.1% acetic acid) and mild ethanol stress (5% ethanol) induced the UPR, whereas neither mild ethanol stress nor mild acetic acid stress individually activated Ire1p, suggesting that ER stress is easily induced in yeast cells during the fermentation process of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. It was possible to avoid the induction of ER stress caused by acetic acid and the combined stress by adjusting extracellular pH. PMID:28702017

  16. Acetic Acid Causes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Induces the Unfolded Protein Response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozomi Kawazoe

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since acetic acid inhibits the growth and fermentation ability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, it is one of the practical hindrances to the efficient production of bioethanol from a lignocellulosic biomass. Although extensive information is available on yeast response to acetic acid stress, the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER and unfolded protein response (UPR has not been addressed. We herein demonstrated that acetic acid causes ER stress and induces the UPR. The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER and activation of Ire1p and Hac1p, an ER-stress sensor and ER stress-responsive transcription factor, respectively, were induced by a treatment with acetic acid stress (>0.2% v/v. Other monocarboxylic acids such as propionic acid and sorbic acid, but not lactic acid, also induced the UPR. Additionally, ire1Δ and hac1Δ cells were more sensitive to acetic acid than wild-type cells, indicating that activation of the Ire1p-Hac1p pathway is required for maximum tolerance to acetic acid. Furthermore, the combination of mild acetic acid stress (0.1% acetic acid and mild ethanol stress (5% ethanol induced the UPR, whereas neither mild ethanol stress nor mild acetic acid stress individually activated Ire1p, suggesting that ER stress is easily induced in yeast cells during the fermentation process of lignocellulosic hydrolysates. It was possible to avoid the induction of ER stress caused by acetic acid and the combined stress by adjusting extracellular pH.

  17. Metabolic Regulation in Pseudomonas oxalaticus OX1 : Diauxic Growth on Mixtures of Oxalate and Formate or Acetate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkhuizen, L.; Werf, B. van der; Harder, W.

    1980-01-01

    Diauxic growth was observed in batch cultures of Pseudomonas oxalaticus when cells were pregrown on acetate and then transferred to mixtures of acetate and oxalate. In the first phase of growth only acetate was utilized. After the exhaustion of acetate from the medium enzymes involved in the

  18. Selective inhibition of methanogenesis to enhance ethanol and n-butyrate production through acetate reduction in mixed culture fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbusch, K.J.J.; Arvaniti, E.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2009-01-01

    Acetate reduction is an alternative digestion process to convert organic waste into ethanol. Using acetate for fuel ethanol production offers the opportunity to use organic waste materials instead of sugar-containing feedstock. Methanogenesis, however, competes with acetate reduction for acetate and

  19. Pharmacokinetics of eslicarbazepine acetate in patients with moderate hepatic impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Luis; Potgieter, J Hendrick; Maia, Joana; Potgieter, M Alida; Mota, Fernando; Soares-da-Silva, P

    2008-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of moderate liver impairment on the pharmacokinetics of eslicarbazepine acetate (BIA 2-093, ESL), a novel voltage-gated sodium channel blocker currently in clinical development. The pharmacokinetics of ESL following an administration regimen of 800 mg once-daily for 8 days was characterized in patients with moderate liver impairment (n = 8) and in subjects with normal liver function (n = 8, control group). Eslicarbazepine acetate was rapidly and extensively metabolized by first-pass metabolism to its main active metabolite, eslicarbazepine (S-licarbazepine). There were more subjects with measurable plasma concentrations of the parent drug (ESL) in the hepatic impairment group than in the control group, suggesting that first-pass metabolism was slightly decreased by liver impairment. However, ESL plasma concentrations remained very low, representing only about 0.01% of total systemic exposure. No differences in the pharmacokinetics of eslicarbazepine or its metabolites were found between the hepatic impairment and control groups. Urinary excretion of eslicarbazepine and its glucuronide form was similar in the liver impaired and control subjects. The sum of drug moieties recovered in the urine corresponded to 91% of the administered dose in the control group and to 84% of the administered dose in the liver impairment group. The pharmacokinetics of ESL was not affected by moderate hepatic impairment. Therefore, patients with mild to moderate liver impairment treated with ESL do not require dosage adjustment.

  20. Facile pulping of lignocellulosic biomass using choline acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fangchao; Wang, Hui; Chatel, Gregory; Gurau, Gabriela; Rogers, Robin D

    2014-07-01

    Treating ground bagasse or Southern yellow pine in the biodegradable ionic liquid (IL), choline acetate ([Cho][OAc]), at 100°C for 24h led to dissolution of hemicellulose and lignin, while leaving the cellulose pulp undissolved, with a 54.3% (bagasse) or 34.3% (pine) reduction in lignin content. The IL solution of the dissolved biopolymers can be separated from the undissolved particles either by addition of water (20 wt% of IL) followed by filtration or by centrifugation. Hemicellulose (19.0 wt% of original bagasse, 10.2 wt% of original pine, containing 14-18 wt% lignin) and lignin (5.0 wt% of original bagasse, 6.0 wt% of original pine) could be subsequently precipitated. The pulp obtained from [Cho][OAc] treatment can be rapidly dissolved in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (e.g., 17 h for raw bagasse vs. 7h for pulp), and precipitated as cellulose-rich material (CRM) with a lower lignin content (e.g., 23.6% for raw bagasse vs. 10.6% for CRM). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Olfactory attraction of Drosophila suzukii by symbiotic acetic acid bacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Mazzetto, Fabio

    2016-03-24

    Some species of acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play relevant roles in the metabolism and physiology of Drosophila spp. and in some cases convey benefits to their hosts. The pest Drosophila suzukii harbors a set of AAB similar to those of other Drosophila species. Here, we investigate the potential to exploit the ability of AAB to produce volatile substances that attract female D. suzukii. Using a two-way olfactometer bioassay, we investigate the preference of D. suzukii for strains of AAB, and using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography–mass spectrometry we specifically characterize their volatile profiles to identify attractive and non-attractive components produced by strains from the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, and Komagataeibacter. Flies had a preference for one strain of Komagataeibacter and two strains of Gluconobacter. Analyses of the volatile profiles from the preferred Gluconobacter isolates found that acetic acid is distinctively emitted even after 2 days of bacterial growth, confirming the relevance of this volatile in the profile of this isolate for attracting flies. Analyses of the volatile profile from the preferred Komagataeibacter isolate showed that a different volatile in its profile could be responsible for attracting D. suzukii. Moreover, variation in the concentration of butyric acid derivatives found in some strains may influence the preference of D. suzukii. Our results indicate that Gluconobacter and Komagataeibacter strains isolated from D. suzukii have the potential to provide substances that could be exploited to develop sustainable mass-trapping-based control approaches. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  2. Improving the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells with acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Li, G. R.; Song, Jian; Zhao, Yulong; Qiang, Yinghuai; Gao, X. P.

    2016-01-01

    In an all-solid-state perovskite solar cell, methylammonium lead halide film is in charge of generating photo-excited electrons, thus its quality can directly influence the final photovoltaic performance of the solar cell. This paper accentuates a very simple chemical approach to improving the quality of a perovskite film with a suitable amount of acetic acid. With introduction of acetate ions, a homogeneous, continual and hole-free perovskite film comprised of high-crystallinity grains is obtained. UV-visible spectra, steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectra reveal that the obtained perovskite film under the optimized conditions shows a higher light absorption, more efficient electron transport, and faster electron extraction to the adjoining electron transport layer. The features result in the optimized perovskite film can provide an improved short-circuit current. The corresponding solar cells with a planar configuration achieves an improved power conversion efficiency of 13.80%, and the highest power conversion efficiency in the photovoltaic measurements is up to 14.71%. The results not only provide a simple approach to optimizing perovskite films but also present a novel angle of view on fabricating high-performance perovskite solar cells. PMID:27934924

  3. Probiotic and Acetic Acid Effect on Broiler Chickens Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Král

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics and organic acids are widely accepted as an alternative to in-feed antibiotics in poultry production. We carried the experiment with broiler chickens. In experiment we research effect of probiotic and acetic acids on the performance of broiler chickens. A total number of 200 one day old broiler chickens were distributed to two dietary groups. Broiler chickens in control group were fed with standard feed mixture and experimental group 1% vinegar contained 5% acetic acid used in drinking water and probiotics mixed with feed mixture. Body weight, FCR and GIT pH were recorded. The performance showed no statistically significant increase in body weight (P>0.05 in the weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4 of age. The body weight of broiler chickens was significant increase (P0.05 in weeks 5, and 6 of age. In different segments of the GIT was not statistically significant (P>0.05 difference of pH between the control and experimental groups.

  4. Indium acetate toxicity in male reproductive system in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kuo-Hsin; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Leung, Chung-Man; Chen, Hsin-Pao; Hsu, Ping-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Indium, a rare earth metal characterized by high plasticity, corrosion resistance, and a low melting point, is widely used in the electronics industry, but has been reported to be an environmental pollutant and a health hazard. We designed a study to investigate the effects of subacute exposure of indium compounds on male reproductive function. Twelve-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into test and control groups, and received weekly intraperitoneal injections of indium acetate (1.5 mg/kg body weight) and normal saline, respectively, for 8 weeks. Serum indium levels, cauda epididymal sperm count, motility, morphology, chromatin DNA structure, mitochondrial membrane potential, oxidative stress, and testis DNA content were investigated. The indium acetate-treated group showed significant reproductive toxicity, as well as an increased percentage of sperm morphology abnormality, chromatin integrity damage, and superoxide anion generation. Furthermore, positive correlations among sperm morphology abnormalities, chromatin DNA damage, and superoxide anion generation were also noted. The results of this study demonstrated the toxic effect of subacute low-dose indium exposure during the period of sexual maturation on male reproductive function in adulthood, through an increase in oxidative stress and sperm chromatin DNA damage during spermiogenesis, in a rodent model. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Scalar Relativistic Study of the Structure of Rhodium Acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily E. Edwards

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Rhodium acetate, related rhodium carboxylates, and rhodium amide complexes are powerful catalysts for carbene chemistry. They readily promote the decomposition of diazo compounds and transfer the resulting carbene to a variety of substrates. There have been several quantum chemistry studies of these compounds, particularly of the acetate. These have all used non-relativistic methods, and all have shown optimized Rh-Rh bond lengths significantly longer than the experimental value. In this study we have surveyed several scalar relativistic DFT methods using Gaussian, Slater, and numerical basis functions (in DGAUSS, ADF, and DMOL3. Several combinations of exchange-correlation functionals with relativistic and non-relativistic effective core potentials (ECP were investigated, as were non-relativistic and all electron scalar relativistic methods. The combination of the PW91 exchange and PW91 correlation functional with the Christiansen-Ermler ECP gave the best results: 2.3918 Å compared to the experimental value of 2.3855±0.0005 Å.

  6. Covalent interaction of chloroacetic and acetic acids with cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, H K; Ansari, G A

    1989-01-01

    The covalent interaction of chloroacetic acid with rat liver lipids was studied in vivo. Rats were given a single oral dose (8.75 mg/kg, 50 microCi) of 1-[14C]chloroacetic acid and sacrificed after 24 hours. Lipids extracted from the livers were separated into neutral lipids and phospholipids by solid-phase extraction using sep-pak silica cartridges. The neutral lipid fraction was further fractionated by preparative thin-layer chromatography followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The fraction corresponding to the retention time of standard cholesteryl chloroacetate gave a pseudomolecular ion peak at m/z 480/482 ratio: (3:1) on ammonia chemical ionization mass spectrometry, and the fragmentation pattern was found to be similar to that of the standard sample. Under similar conditions, acetic acid resulted in the formation of cholesteryl acetate. The effect of such conjugation reactions on the cell membrane and their contribution to toxicity is presently unknown.

  7. DISCOVERY OF METHYL ACETATE AND GAUCHE ETHYL FORMATE IN ORION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; Lopez, A.; Caro, G. M. Munoz [Department of Astrophysics, CAB, INTA-CSIC, Crta Torrejon-Ajalvir, km. 4, E-28850 Torrejon de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Kleiner, I.; Nguyen, H. V. L., E-mail: terceromb@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: jcernicharo@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: lopezja@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: munozcg@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: isabelle.kleiner@lisa.u-pec.fr, E-mail: nguyen@pc.rwth-aachen.de [Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systemes Atmospheriques, CNRS/IPSL UMR7583 et Universites Paris Diderot et Paris Est, 61 av. General de Gaulle, F-94010 Creteil (France)

    2013-06-10

    We report on the discovery of methyl acetate, CH{sub 3}COOCH{sub 3}, through the detection of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule: AA species (A{sub 1} or A{sub 2}), EA species (E{sub 1}), AE species (E{sub 2}), and EE species (E{sub 3} or E{sub 4}). We also report, for the first time in space, the detection of the gauche conformer of ethyl formate, CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OCOH, in the same source. The trans conformer is also detected for the first time outside the Galactic center source SgrB2. From the derived velocity of the emission of methyl acetate, we conclude that it arises mainly from the compact ridge region with a total column density of (4.2 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2}. The derived rotational temperature is 150 K. The column density for each conformer of ethyl formate, trans and gauche, is (4.5 {+-} 1.0) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2}. Their abundance ratio indicates a kinetic temperature of 135 K for the emitting gas and suggests that gas-phase reactions could participate efficiently in the formation of both conformers in addition to cold ice mantle reactions on the surface of dust grains.

  8. Improving the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells with acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qian; Li, G R; Song, Jian; Zhao, Yulong; Qiang, Yinghuai; Gao, X P

    2016-12-09

    In an all-solid-state perovskite solar cell, methylammonium lead halide film is in charge of generating photo-excited electrons, thus its quality can directly influence the final photovoltaic performance of the solar cell. This paper accentuates a very simple chemical approach to improving the quality of a perovskite film with a suitable amount of acetic acid. With introduction of acetate ions, a homogeneous, continual and hole-free perovskite film comprised of high-crystallinity grains is obtained. UV-visible spectra, steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectra reveal that the obtained perovskite film under the optimized conditions shows a higher light absorption, more efficient electron transport, and faster electron extraction to the adjoining electron transport layer. The features result in the optimized perovskite film can provide an improved short-circuit current. The corresponding solar cells with a planar configuration achieves an improved power conversion efficiency of 13.80%, and the highest power conversion efficiency in the photovoltaic measurements is up to 14.71%. The results not only provide a simple approach to optimizing perovskite films but also present a novel angle of view on fabricating high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  9. Protection of historical lead against acetic acid vapour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pecenová Z.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Historical lead artefacts (small figurines, appliques, bull (metal seal can be stored in depository and archives in inconvenient storage conditions. The wooden show-case or paper packagings release volatile organic compound to the air during their degradation. These acids, mainly acetic acid are very corrosive for lead. The thin layer of corrosion products which slows atmospheric corrosion is formed on lead surface in atmospheric condition. In presence of acetic acid vapour the voluminous corrosion products are formed and fall off the surface. These corrosion products do not have any protection ability. The lead could be protected against acid environment by layer of “metal soup” which is formed on surface after immersion in solution of salt of carboxylic acid for 24 hours. The solutions of acids (with vary long of carbon chain and their salts are examined. Longer carbon chain provides better efficiency convers layer. The disadvantages are low solubility of carboxylic acids in water and bad abrasion resistance of formed layer.

  10. Effect of ammonium and acetate on methanogenic pathway and methanogenic community composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fotidis, Ioannis; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Kotsopoulos, T. A.

    2013-01-01

    Methanogenesis from acetate (aceticlastic methanogenesis or syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO) coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis) is the most important step for the biogas process. The major environmental factors influencing methanogenesis are volatile fatty acids, ammonia, p...... exposure to different ammonia concentrations. The methanogenic pathway was determined by following the production of (14) CH(4) and (14) CO(2) from acetate labeled in the methyl group (C-2). Microbial communities' composition was determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Upon acclimatization......H, and temperature. In our study, the effect of acetate and ammonia concentration on the methanogenic pathway from acetate and on the methanogenic communities was elucidated in two experiments: one where inocula were gradually exposed to increasing concentrations of acetate or ammonia, and another with direct...

  11. Double salt ionic liquids based on 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and hydroxyl-functionalized ammonium acetates: strong effects of weak interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jorge F B; Barber, Patrick S; Kelley, Steven P; Berton, Paula; Rogers, Robin D

    2017-10-11

    The properties of double salt ionic liquids based on solutions of cholinium acetate ([Ch][OAc]), ethanolammonium acetate ([NH 3 (CH 2 ) 2 OH][OAc]), hydroxylammonium acetate ([NH 3 OH][OAc]), ethylammonium acetate ([NH 3 CH 2 CH 3 ][OAc]), and tetramethylammonium acetate ([N(CH 3 ) 4 ][OAc]) in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C 2 mim][OAc]) were investigated by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. Through mixture preparation, the solubility of [N(CH 3 ) 4 ][OAc] is the lowest, and [Ch][OAc] shows a 3-fold lower solubility than the other hydroxylated ammonium acetate-based salts in [C 2 mim][OAc] at room temperature. NMR and X-ray crystallographic studies of the pure salts suggest that the molecular-level mechanisms governing such miscibility differences are related to the weaker interactions between the -NH 3 groups and [OAc] - , even though three of these salts possess the same strong 1 : 1 hydrogen bonds between the cation -OH group and the [OAc] - ion. The formation of polyionic clusters between the anion and those cations with unsatisfied hydrogen bond donors seems to be a new tool by which the solubility of these salts in [C 2 mim][OAc] can be controlled.

  12. Effect of eslicarbazepine acetate and oxcarbazepine on cognition and psychomotor function in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovan, Denise; Almeida, Luis; Romach, Myroslava K; Nunes, Teresa; Rocha, José Francisco; Sokowloska, Marta; Sellers, Edward M; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2010-08-01

    The results of two single-blind studies conducted to evaluate the cognitive and psychomotor effects of eslicarbazepine acetate and oxcarbazepine following single and repeated administration in healthy volunteers are reported. The cognitive and psychomotor evaluation consisted of several computerized and paper-and-pencil measures. Eslicarbazepine acetate and oxcarbazepine had similar overall cognitive profiles and did not cause clinically relevant cognitive impairment. The incidence of adverse events was lower with eslicarbazepine acetate than with oxcarbazepine. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Synthesis of imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid hydrochloride: A key intermediate for zoledronic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A convenient and practical synthesis of imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid hydrochloride was achieved via N-alkylation of imidazole using tert-butyl chloroacetate followed by a non-aqueous ester cleavage of the resulting imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid tert-butyl ester in the presence of titanium tetrachloride. The synthesized imidazol-1-yl-acetic acid hydrochloride was then utilized to prepare zoledronic acid.

  14. Process for the preparation of protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal and derivatives thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, Rawle I. (Haslett, MI); Wang, Guijun (East Lansing, MI)

    2000-01-01

    A process for producing protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal, particularly in chiral forms, for use as an intermediate in the preparation of various 3-carbon compounds which are chiral. In particular, the present invention relates to the process for preparation of 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane isopropylidene acetal. The protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal is a key intermediate to the preparation of chiral 3-carbon compounds which in turn are intermediates to various pharmaceuticals.

  15. Inability of Microorganisms To Degrade Cellulose Acetate Reverse-Osmosis Membranes †

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Leighton C. W.; Martin, David D.; Lindemann, William C.

    1983-01-01

    Operational cellulose acetate reverse-osmosis membranes were examined for evidence of biological degradation. Numerous fungi and bacteria were isolated by direct and enrichment techniques. When tested, most of the fungi were active cellulose degraders, but none of the bacteria were. Neither fungi nor bacteria were able to degrade cellulose acetate membrane in vitro, although many fungi were able to degrade cellulose acetate membrane after it had been deacetylated. Organisms did not significan...

  16. THE DISTRIBUTION COEFFICIENTS OF ACETIC ACID BETWEEN WATER AND SOLVENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet MAHRAMANLIOĞLU

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Distribution coefficients of acetic acid between aqueous phase and solvents (water-C6-C10 alcohols, butyl acetate, ether and benzene were studied. Synergetic effect was obtained for alcohol and ester systems. A slightly positive deviation was obtained for benzene–ester mixtures. The best distribution coefficient was obtained for hexanol-butyl acetate systems. The coefficients of Redlisch-Kister equation were obtained for the deviations.

  17. Clinical comparison of ethyl acetate and diethyl ether in the formalin-ether sedimentation technique.

    OpenAIRE

    Erdman, D D

    1981-01-01

    A substitute for the volatile solvent diethyl ether has been actively sought for the Formalin-ether sedimentation technique. Ethyl acetate has recently been shown to be a comparable substitute. In an effort to verify these findings and evaluate ethyl acetate under clinical conditions, comparison studies with 62 fresh human stool specimens were performed. Parallel concentrates with diethyl ether and ethyl acetate were prepared for each specimen, and the quantity and appearance of recovered par...

  18. Sum-frequency generation of acetate adsorption on Au and Pt surfaces: Molecular structure effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunschweig, Björn; Mukherjee, Prabuddha; Kutz, Robert B.; Wieckowski, Andrzej; Dlott, Dana D.

    2010-12-01

    The reversible adsorption of acetate on polycrystalline Au and Pt surfaces was investigated with broadband sum-frequency generation (SFG) and cyclic voltammetry. Specifically adsorbed acetate as well as coadsorbed sulfuric acid anions are observed for the first time with SFG and give rise to dramatically different SFG intensities on Au and Pt surfaces. While similar coverages of acetate adlayers on Au and Pt surfaces are well established by previous studies, an identification of the interfacial molecular structure has been elusive. However, we have applied the high sensitivity of SFG for interfacial polar ordering to identify different acetate structures at Au and Pt surfaces in contact with HClO4 and H2SO4 electrolytes. Acetate competes with the formation of surface oxides and shifts the oxidation threshold of both Au and Pt electrodes anodically. Effects of the supporting electrolyte on the formation of acetate adlayers are revealed by comparing SFG spectra in HClO4 and H2SO4 solutions: Sulfuric acid anions modify the potential-dependent acetate adsorption, compete with adsorbed acetate on Au and coadsorb with acetate on Pt surfaces.

  19. Lead Acetate Induces Epithelium-Dependent Contraction of Airway Smooth Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    , Ramadan B. Sopi; , Kemajl Bislimi; , Fetah Halili; , Mentor Sopjani; , Burim Neziri; , Muharrem Jakupi

    2016-01-01

    The effect of lead acetate on tracheal smooth muscle (TSM) of dog pups was investigated in this study. In addition we studied the role of epithelium and involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in counteracting the effects of lead acetate on TSM as well as the modifying effects of lead acetate on contractile responses of TSM to acetylcholine (ACh) . Tracheal rings were excised and placed in in vitro organ baths. In vitro administration of lead acetate in increasing concentrations(10-7–10-3 M) induced...

  20. (14C)acetate assimilation by a type I obligate methylotroph, Methylococcus capsulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, R N; Hoare, S L; Hoare, D S; Taylor, B F

    1977-01-01

    Methanol and formate oxidation supported the assimilation of [14C]acetate by cell suspensions of Methylococcus capsulatus; oxidation of other primary alcohols, except ethanol, did not. The extent of [1-14C]acetate assimilation supported by methanol oxidation was decreased in the presence of primary alcohols, except ethanol. Potassium cyanide (0.33 mM) completely inhibited the oxidation of formate and its stimulation of [1-14C]acetate assimilation. The amount of [1-14C]acetate assimilation supported by methanol oxidation was significantly inhibited by cyanide. PMID:412469

  1. [Cerebrospinal fluid pressure studies after the intravenous administration of the steroid narcotic, alphaxolone + alphadolone acetate (Althesin)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekhart, E; List, W F; Vadon, P; Oberbauer, R

    1979-09-30

    The effect of alphaxalon + alphadolon-acetate on cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP), mean arterial blood pressure (MPA), heart rate (BMP) and blood gases was investigated in 18 patients. Cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) was calculated from the difference MAP minus CSFP. Alphaxalon + alphadolon-acetate lowered the normal CSFP and normalized ketamin induced increase of CSFP. Premedication with alphaxalon + alphadolon-acetate delayed the ketamin induced increase of CSFP, which returned to norm after a second dose of alphaxalon + alphadolon-acetate. This effect was seen despite elevation of pCO2 in all patients breathing spontaneously.

  2. Pyometra and uterine adenocarcinoma in a melengestrol acetate-implanted captive coati (Nasua nasua).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittick, E; Rotstein, D; Brown, T; Wolfe, B

    2001-06-01

    A 9-yr and 3-mo-old captive female coati (Nasua nasua) was implanted with melengestrol acetate for contraception for 4.5 yr prior to presentation. During her annual examination, purulent vaginal discharge and a palpably prominent uterus were identified. Ancillary diagnostic tests including hematology, cystocentesis, radiographs, and abdominal ultrasound were consistent with pyometra. An ovariohysterectomy was performed and histologic examination revealed pyometra and uterine adenocarcinoma, similar to pathology that has been associated with melengestrol acetate contraception in felids, canids, and primates. Given the potential association between melengestrol acetate and uterine pathology in this case, we recommend caution with melengestrol acetate use in procyonids.

  3. Enhanced biofuel production through coupled acetic acid and xylose consumption by engineered yeast

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wei, Na; Quarterman, Josh; Kim, Soo Rin; Cate, Jamie H D; Jin, Yong-Su

    2013-01-01

    .... However, commercial production of cellulosic biofuel has been hampered by inefficient fermentation of xylose and the toxicity of acetic acid, which constitute substantial portions of cellulosic biomass...

  4. Effect of citric acid and acetic acid on the performance of broilers

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, M. Z.; Khandaker, Z.H; Chowdhury, S D; Islam, K.M.S

    2008-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with commercial broilers to investigate the effects of feeding citric acid, acetic acid and their combination on their performance and to determine the economic competence of using citric acid and acetic acid in broiler rations. A total number of 108 one day old straight run broiler chicks were distributed to four dietary treatments i.e. 0 % citric or acetic acid (A) , 0.5% citric acid (B), 0.5% acetic acid (C) and their combinations 0.5% citric acid and 0.5% aceti...

  5. Effect of acetic acid on lipid accumulation by glucose-fed activated sludge cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondala, Andro; Hernandez, Rafael; French, Todd; McFarland, Linda; Sparks, Darrell; Holmes, William; Haque, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The effect of acetic acid, a lignocellulose hydrolysis by-product, on lipid accumulation by activated sludge cultures grown on glucose was investigated. This was done to assess the possible application of lignocellulose as low-cost and renewable fermentation substrates for biofuel feedstock production. Results: Biomass yield was reduced by around 54% at a 2 g L -1 acetic acid dosage but was increased by around 18% at 10 g L -1 acetic acid dosage relative to the control run. The final gravimetric lipid contents at 2 and 10 g L -1 acetic acid levels were 12.5 + 0.7% and 8.8 + 3.2% w/w, respectively, which were lower than the control (17.8 + 2.8% w/w). However, biodiesel yields from activated sludge grown with acetic acid (5.6 + 0.6% w/w for 2 g L -1 acetic acid and 4.2 + 3.0% w/w for 10 g L -1 acetic acid) were higher than in raw activated sludge (1-2% w/w). The fatty acid profiles of the accumulated lipids were similar with conventional plant oil biodiesel feedstocks. Conclusions: Acetic acid enhanced biomass production by activated sludge at high levels but reduced lipid production. Further studies are needed to enhance acetic acid utilization by activated sludge microorganisms for lipid biosynthesis.

  6. Computer simulations of alkali-acetate solutions: Accuracy of the forcefields in difference concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrand, Emma; Zukerman Schpector, Julio; Friedman, Ran

    2017-11-01

    When proteins are solvated in electrolyte solutions that contain alkali ions, the ions interact mostly with carboxylates on the protein surface. Correctly accounting for alkali-carboxylate interactions is thus important for realistic simulations of proteins. Acetates are the simplest carboxylates that are amphipathic, and experimental data for alkali acetate solutions are available and can be compared with observables obtained from simulations. We carried out molecular dynamics simulations of alkali acetate solutions using polarizable and non-polarizable forcefields and examined the ion-acetate interactions. In particular, activity coefficients and association constants were studied in a range of concentrations (0.03, 0.1, and 1M). In addition, quantum-mechanics (QM) based energy decomposition analysis was performed in order to estimate the contribution of polarization, electrostatics, dispersion, and QM (non-classical) effects on the cation-acetate and cation-water interactions. Simulations of Li-acetate solutions in general overestimated the binding of Li+ and acetates. In lower concentrations, the activity coefficients of alkali-acetate solutions were too high, which is suggested to be due to the simulation protocol and not the forcefields. Energy decomposition analysis suggested that improvement of the forcefield parameters to enable accurate simulations of Li-acetate solutions can be achieved but may require the use of a polarizable forcefield. Importantly, simulations with some ion parameters could not reproduce the correct ion-oxygen distances, which calls for caution in the choice of ion parameters when protein simulations are performed in electrolyte solutions.

  7. STABILITY OF ETHYL ACETATE IN WHOLE BLOOD DURING STORAGE UNDER VARIOUS CONDITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Watanabe, Kanako; Ishii, Akira; Seno, Hiroshi; Kumazawa, Takeshi; Suzuki, Osamu; Suzuki, Kanako

    2000-01-01

    Various conditions of storage have been tested for stability of ethyl acetate in whole blood. Ethyl acetate (5μg/ml) was spiked to whole blood, and kept at room temperature or at 4℃ for various intervals in the presence or absence of sodium fluoride. Ethyl acetate and ethanol were simultaneously measured by our cryogenic oven trapping gas chromatography. Ethyl acetate was found stable at room temperature for 3 days in the presence of 10 mg sodium azide and 50 mg sodium fluoride in 1 ml whole ...

  8. Mixture effects during the oxidation of toluene, ethyl acetate and ethanol over a cryptomelane catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, V P; Pereira, M F R; Órfão, J J M; Figueiredo, J L

    2011-01-30

    The catalytic oxidation of two-component VOC mixtures (ethanol, ethyl acetate and toluene) was studied over cryptomelane. Remarkable mixture effects were observed on the activity and the selectivity. Toluene inhibits both ethyl acetate and ethanol oxidation, this effect being more evident in the case of ethyl acetate. For instance, the temperature for 100% conversion is about 210 °C when ethyl acetate is oxidised alone, and 250 °C or higher, when it is oxidised in mixtures with toluene. On the contrary, toluene oxidation is only slightly inhibited by the presence of ethyl acetate, while the presence of ethanol has a promoting effect. Concerning the mixtures of ethyl acetate and ethanol, both compounds have a mutual inhibitory effect, which is more evident in the case of ethyl acetate (the temperature for 100% conversion of ethyl acetate is about 45 °C higher when ethyl acetate is oxidised in mixtures with ethanol, while in the case of ethanol the corresponding increase is only 10 °C). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental analysis in different batch operating units for process intensification: methyl acetate production case study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ganesh, B; Rani, K Yamuna; Satyavathi, B; Patnaik, K S. K. Rao

    2014-01-01

    ... considering methyl acetate formation reaction as an experimental case study. The options explored include operation in different batch operating units and use of different molar ratios of reactants...

  10. Vacuum ultraviolet and infrared spectra of condensed methyl acetate on cold astrochemical dust analogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaraman, B. [Space and Atmospheric Sciences Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad 380009 (India); Nair, B. G.; Mason, N. J. [Department of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Lo, J.-I.; Cheng, B.-M. [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 101 Hsin-Ann Road, Hsinchu Science Park, Hsinchu 30076, Taiwan (China); Kundu, S.; Davis, D.; Prabhudesai, V.; Krishnakumar, E. [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India); Raja Sekhar, B. N., E-mail: bhala@prl.res.in [B-4, Indus-1, BARC Spectroscopy Lab at Indus-1, Atomic and Molecular Physics Division, BARC, Mumbai and RRCAT, Indore 452013 (India)

    2013-12-01

    Following the recent report of the first identification of methyl acetate (CH{sub 3}COOCH{sub 3}) in the interstellar medium (ISM), we have carried out vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy studies on methyl acetate from 10 K until sublimation in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber simulating astrochemical conditions. We present the first VUV and IR spectra of methyl acetate relevant to ISM conditions. Spectral signatures clearly showed molecular reorientation to have started in the ice by annealing the amorphous ice formed at 10 K. An irreversible phase change from amorphous to crystalline methyl acetate ice was found to occur between 110 K and 120 K.

  11. Physiology and Genetics of Biogenic Methane-Production from Acetate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowers, Kevin R

    2013-04-04

    Biomass conversion catalyzed by methanogenic consortia is a widely available, renewable resource for both energy production and waste treatment. The efficiency of this process is directly dependent upon the interaction of three metabolically distinct groups of microorganisms; the fermentative and acetogenic Bacteria and the methanogenic Archaea. One of the rate limiting steps in the degradation of soluble organic matter is the dismutation of acetate, a predominant intermediate in the process, which accounts for 70 % or more of the methane produced by the methanogens. Acetate utilization is controlled by regulation of expression of carbon monoxide dehydrogensase (COdh), which catalyzes the dismutation of acetate. However, physiological and molecular factors that control differential substrate utilization have not been identified in these Archaea. Our laboratory has identified sequence elements near the promoter of the gene (cdh) encoding for COdh and we have confirmed that these sequences have a role in the in vivo expression of cdh. The current proposal focuses on identifying the regulatory components that interact with DNA and RNA elements, and identifying the mechanisms used to control cdh expression. We will determine whether expression is controlled at the level of transcription or if it is mediated by coordinate interaction of transcription initiation with other processes such as transcription elongation rate and differential mRNA stability. Utilizing recently sequenced methanosarcinal genomes and a DNA microarray currently under development genes that encode regulatory proteins and transcription factors will be identified and function confirmed by gene disruption and subsequent screening on different substrates. Functional interactions will be determined in vivo by assaying the effects of gene dosage and site-directed mutagenesis of the regulatory gene on the expression of a cdh::lacZ operon fusion. Results of this study will reveal whether this critical

  12. Ulipristal acetate for uterine fibroid-related symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchar, A; Luton, D; Koskas, M

    2015-11-01

    Uterine fibroids are the most common benign uterine tumors in women of reproductive age. Although most women are asymptomatic (80%), fibroids, according to their type and location, can cause several symptoms and impact quality of life. To date, no medical treatment is able to eliminate fibroids. Ulipristal acetate (UPA) is an orally active synthetic selective progesterone receptor modulator (SPRM) characterized by a tissue-specific progesterone antagonist effect that reduces the proliferation of leiomyoma cells and induces apoptosis. It was licensed in Europe for preoperative fibroid treatment in 2012. Its pharmacological and pharmacodynamic characteristics, its efficacy and good tolerance make UPA a new important tool in the management of uterine fibroids. Copyright 2015 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  13. Cellulose acetate propionate coated titanium: characterization and biotechnological application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme da Silva Gomes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Surfaces of pure titanium and Ti coated with cellulose acetate propionate (CAP have been characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy X ray coupled with elemental microanalysis (SEM-EDS, ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM and contact angle measurements. Coating Ti surfaces with CAP ultrathin films reduced original surface roughness. Surface energy and wettability of CAP covered Ti surfaces pure Ti surfaces were similar. The adsorption of lysozyme (LYZ, an antibacterial protein, onto Ti and CAP-coated Ti surfaces has been studied by means of ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The adsorption of LYZ was mainly driven by hydrophobic interaction between protein hydrophobic residues and CAP propyl groups. Pure Ti and CAP coated Ti surfaces presented no cytotoxicity effect and proved to be adequate substrates for cell adhesion. The biocompatibility of CAP coated Ti surfaces was attributed to the surface enrichment in glucopyranosyl residues and short alkyl side groups.

  14. A study of butyl acetate synthesis. 4-reaction kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Orjuela Londoño

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This work was aimed at studying liquid-phase acetic acid and butyl alcohol esterification reaction (P atm =0.76 Bar,using an ion exchange resin (Lewatit K-2431 as catalyst. The effect of the absence of internal and external mass transport on catalyst particles was established in the research conditions used here. A set of assays to determine the effect of catalyst load (0.5%, 1%, 2% w/w temperature (73°C, 80°C, 87°C and molar ratio (1:2, 1:1, 2:1 acid/alcohol on reaction rate was carried out and both LHHW and pseudo-homogeneous kinetic expressions were obtained, these being in good agreement with the experimental data.

  15. 11β,13-Dihydrolactucin-8-O-acetate hemihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris F. Fronczek

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The title structure (systematic name: 9-hydroxymethyl-3,6-dimethyl-3-methylene-2,7-dioxo-3,3a,4,5,9a,9b-hexahydroazuleno[4,5-b]furan-4-yl acetate hemihydrate, C17H20O6·0.5H2O, from Lactuca floridana, has two independent sesquiterpene lactone molecules in the asymmetric unit. Both have their seven-membered rings in the chair conformation. In the crystal, the OH groups and the water molecule form classical O—H...O hydrogen bonds with O...O distances in the range 2.6750 (17–2.8160 (18 Å.

  16. Some enzyme activities of acetate mutants of Yarrowia lypolytica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robak, M.; Wojtatowicz, M.; Rymowicz, W. [Akademia Rolnicza, Wroclaw (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Activity at the following enzymes: CS (oxaloacetate-lyase citrate), AH (citrate (isocitrate) hydrolyase), ICDH (threo-Ds-isocitrate: NADP oxidoreductase) and ICL (threo-Ds-isocitrate glyoxyglate-lyase) was measured at subsequent stages of citrate fermentation on glucose by wild type strain `Y, lipolytica A-101` and 2 acetate defective mutants, in order to recognize metabolic disorders in those mutants, which resulted in markedly improved homogeneity of citric acid production. Mutants did not show significant changes in activity of TCA cycle enzymes and ICL. Thus suggests that the control of citric:isocitric acid ratio is more difficult and it can also depend on transportation systems of both acids. (author). 19 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs.

  17. Cashew wine vinegar production: alcoholic and acetic fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Silva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Cashew wine of demi-sec grade was produced in a stirred batch reactor. The kinetic parameters obtained for cashew wine fermentation were Y X/S=0.061, Y P/S=0.3 and µmax=0.16 h-1. The yield and the productivity of cashew wine were 57.7% and 0.78 g/Lh respectively. A 2² factorial experimental design was used for the cashew wine vinegar fermentation optimization study. The cashew wine vinegar process optimization ranges found for initial concentrations of ethanol and acetic acid as independent variables were 4.8 to 6.0% and 1.0 to 1.3% respectively.

  18. New Biopolymer Nanoparticles Improve the Solubility of Lipophilic Megestrol Acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malwina Lachowicz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available As many substances are poorly soluble in water and thus possess decreased bioavailability, creating orally administered forms of these substances is a challenge. The objective of this study was to determine whether the solubility of megestrol acetate, a Biopharmaceutical Classification System (BCS class II drug, can be improved by using a newly-synthesized surfactant (Rofam 70: a rapeseed methyl ester ethoxylate and compare it with two references surfactants (Tween 80, Pluronic F68 at three different pH values. Spectrophotometry was used to compare the solubility profiles in the presence of three tested surfactants at pH 5.0, 7.4 and 9.0. Rapeseed methyl ester ethoxylate was found to improve the solubility of the BCS Class II drug and increase its bioavailability; It increased drug solubility more effectively than Pluronic F68. Its cytotoxicity results indicate its possible value as a surfactant in Medicine and Pharmacy.

  19. Ammonia effect on hydrogenotrophic methanogens and syntrophic acetate oxidizing bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Han; Fotidis, Ioannis; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia-rich substrates can cause inhibition on anaerobic digestion process. Syntrophic acetate oxidizing bacteria (SAOB) and hydrogenotrophic methanogens are important for the ammonia inhibitory mechanism on anaerobic digestion. The roles and interactions of SAOB and hydrogenotrophic methanogens.......26, 3, 5 and 7 g NH4+-N L−1. The results showed that some hydrogenotrophic methanogens were equally, or in some cases, more tolerant to high ammonia levels compared to SAOB. Furthermore, a mesophilic hydrogenotrophic methanogen was more sensitive to ammonia toxicity compared to thermophilic methanogens...... tested in the study; which is contradicting to the general belief that thermophilic methanogens are more vulnerable to high ammonia loads compared to mesophilic. This unexpected finding underlines the fact that the complete knowledge of ammonia inhibition effect on hydrogenotrophic methanogens is still...

  20. Regioselective Alcoholysis of Silychristin Acetates Catalyzed by Lipases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Vavříková

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A panel of lipases was screened for the selective acetylation and alcoholysis of silychristin and silychristin peracetate, respectively. Acetylation at primary alcoholic group (C-22 of silychristin was accomplished by lipase PS (Pseudomonas cepacia immobilized on diatomite using vinyl acetate as an acetyl donor, whereas selective deacetylation of 22-O-acetyl silychristin was accomplished by Novozym 435 in methyl tert-butyl ether/ n-butanol. Both of these reactions occurred without diastereomeric discrimination of silychristin A and B. Both of these enzymes were found to be capable to regioselective deacetylation of hexaacetyl silychristin to afford penta-, tetra- and tri-acetyl derivatives, which could be obtained as pure synthons for further selective modifications of the parent molecule.

  1. Preparation and characterization of novel oxidized cellulose acetate methyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, D; Kumar, V

    2012-11-06

    In this paper, we report the preparation of oxidized cellulose acetate methyl esters (OCAM) from OCA (OC14A: carboxylic acid content 10.6% (w/w), degree of acetyl group substitution: 1.89; OC21A: carboxylic acid content 15.7% (w/w), degree of acetyl group substitution: 1.70) by treatment with methanol at room temperature using 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) as a catalyst and dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) as a coupling agent. The new polymers were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies, carboxylic acid content determination, moisture sorption isotherms, intrinsic viscosity, and powder X-ray diffractometry. The new polymers are amorphous powders. It is practically insoluble in water but show solubility in a range of organic solvents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Eslicarbazepine acetate as adjunctive therapy in clinical practice: ESLADOBA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, J; Breia, P; Pimentel, J; Pelejão, R; Carvalho, M; Mateus, P; Grebe, H; Mestre, A; Fernandes, H; Sousa, R; Gala, A

    2017-11-01

    To assess seizure control and tolerability of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) as adjunctive therapy to one baseline antiepileptic drug (AED), in adults with partial-onset seizures (POS) with or without secondary generalization. Multicenter, non-interventional, prospective cohort study conducted between March 2012 and September 2014 at 12 neurology departments in Portugal. Adults with POS not controlled with one AED who had initiated ESL as adjunctive treatment were enrolled. Retention rate was defined at the final visit (Vfinal) 6-9 months of follow-up. Proportion of responders, seizure-free, changes in seizure frequency were evaluated using patients' diaries. Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGI-C) and Clinical Global Impression of Severity (CGI-S) were assessed by the neurologist. Fifty-two patients (48.1% male) were included with mean age 41.5±13.3 years. Mean epilepsy duration was 18.5±14.8 years; mean seizure frequency in the four previous weeks to baseline was 7.5±12.7. At Vfinal, retention rate was 73.0%; responder rate and seizure-free rates were 71.1% and 39.5%, respectively. The median relative reduction in seizure frequency between baseline and Vfinal was 82.2%. A reduction in epilepsy severity (CGI-S) was observed in 42.1%. According to CGI-C, 73.6% patients had their epilepsy "much improved" or "very much improved". Twelve patients (23.1%) had at least one adverse event (AE), two (3.9%) had one serious AE, and five (9.6%) discontinued due to AE. Eslicarbazepine acetate showed good retention rates, elicited a significant reduction in seizure frequency, and was well tolerated when used in the clinical practice. © 2017 The Authors. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Recent advances in nitrogen-fixing acetic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, Raúl O

    2008-06-30

    Nitrogen is an essential plant nutrient, widely applied as N-fertilizer to improve yield of agriculturally important crops. An interesting alternative to avoid or reduce the use of N-fertilizers could be the exploitation of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), capable of enhancing growth and yield of many plant species, several of agronomic and ecological significance. PGPB belong to diverse genera, including Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Herbaspirillum, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, and Gluconacetobacter, among others. They are capable of promoting plant growth through different mechanisms including (in some cases), the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), the enzymatic reduction of the atmospheric dinitrogen (N(2)) to ammonia, catalyzed by nitrogenase. Aerobic bacteria able to oxidize ethanol to acetic acid in neutral or acid media are candidates of belonging to the family Acetobacteraceae. At present, this family has been divided into ten genera: Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Gluconobacter, Acidomonas, Asaia, Kozakia, Saccharibacter, Swaminathania, Neoasaia, and Granulibacter. Among them, only three genera include N(2)-fixing species: Gluconacetobacter, Swaminathania and Acetobacter. The first N(2)-fixing acetic acid bacterium (AAB) was described in Brazil. It was found inside tissues of the sugarcane plant, and first named as Acetobacter diazotrophicus, but then renamed as Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus. Later, two new species within the genus Gluconacetobacter, associated to coffee plants, were described in Mexico: G. johannae and G. azotocaptans. A salt-tolerant bacterium named Swaminathania salitolerans was found associated to wild rice plants. Recently, N(2)-fixing Acetobacter peroxydans and Acetobacter nitrogenifigens, associated with rice plants and Kombucha tea, respectively, were described in India. In this paper, recent advances involving nitrogen-fixing AAB are presented. Their natural habitats, physiological and genetic aspects

  4. Master equation description of the multiphoton decomposition of ethyl acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, J. E.; Knott, R. B.; Pryor, A. W.; Gilbert, Robert G.

    1982-07-01

    In experimental observations of the multiphoton decomposition of ethyl acetate by a CO 2 laser at 1045.0 cm -1 fluences up to 4 J cm -2 were employed to dissociate 2 Pa of ethyl acetate in up to 600 Pa of N 2, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, ethylene and acetone bath gases. The fraction dissociated was measured in a closed cell, either by rate of removal of reactant, monitored by a probe laser and spectrophone, or by rate of pressure rise, monitored by a capacitance manometer. Total absorption and transient absorption changes were also measured in separate experiments. Data were analysed by finite difference solution of the energy-grained master equation, incorporating collisional effects and changes in transitional temperature. The convergence of the solutions was checked with decrease in the size of the energy grain. Microscopic reaction rates were described by an RRKM formulation with parameters from thermal experiments. Radiation absorption was described by an energy-dependent cross section with one free parameter chosen to match independent data. The collisional energy transfer function was an exponential form with the mean down transfer energy as a parameter. Dissociation versus pressure and fluence was fitted by one value of for each bath gas: N 2-820, He-550, Ne-700, Ar-930, Kr-905, Xe-920, C 2H 4-3000, CO(CH 3) 2-5000 cm -1. The technique appears to be a reliable means of obtaining energy transfer data at low temperatures. In addition to the experiments with reactant diluted in bath gas, the decomposition of undiluted reactant was also observed, at pressures in the range 1 to 800 Pa; here, reaction was terminated by collisions of irradiated molecules with molecules outside the beam; an approximate theory which appears to confirm the hypotheses is presented.

  5. Nomegestrol acetate-17b-estradiol for oral contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burke A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anne Burke Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Oral contraceptives remain a popular method of contraception over 50 years after their introduction. While safe and effective for many women, the failure rate of oral contraception is about 8%. Concerns about the risk of venous thromboembolism continue to drive the search for the safest oral contraceptive formulations. The oral contraceptive NOMAC-E2 contains nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC 2.5 mg + 17b-estradiol (E2 1.5 mg. The approved dosing regimen is 24 days of active hormone, followed by a 4-day hormone-free interval. NOMAC is a progestin derived from testosterone, which has high bioavailability, rapid absorption, and a long half-life. Estradiol, though it has a lower bioavailability, has been successfully combined with NOMAC in a monophasic oral contraceptive. Two recently published randomized controlled trials demonstrate that NOMAC-E2 is an effective contraceptive, with a Pearl Index less than one pregnancy per 100 woman-years. The bleeding pattern on NOMAC-E2 is characterized by fewer bleeding/spotting days, shorter withdrawal bleeds, and a higher incidence of amenorrhea than the comparator oral contraceptive containing drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol. The adverse event profile appears to be acceptable. Few severe adverse events were reported in the randomized controlled trials. The most common adverse events were irregular bleeding, acne, and weight gain. Preliminary studies suggest that NOMAC-E2 does not seem to have negative effects on hemostatic and metabolic parameters. While no one oral contraceptive formulation is likely to be the optimum choice for all women, NOMAC-E2 is a formulation with effectiveness comparable with that of other oral contraceptives, and a reassuring safety profile.Keywords: oral contraception, nomegestrol acetate, estradiol

  6. Crystal structure of azilsartan methyl ester ethyl acetate hemisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C26H22N4O5 (systematic name: methyl 2-ethoxy-1-{4-[2-(5-oxo-4,5-dihydro-1,2,4-oxadiazol-3-ylphenyl]benzyl}-1H-1,3-benzodiazole-7-carboxylate ethyl acetate hemisolvate, was obtained via cyclization of methyl (Z-2-ethoxy-1-{(2′-(N′-hydroxycarbamimidoyl-[1,1′-biphenyl]-4-ylmethyl}-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-7-carboxylate with diphenyl carbonate. There are two independent molecules (A and B with different conformations and an ethyl acetate solvent molecule in the asymmetric unit. In molecule A, the dihedral angle between the benzene ring and its attached oxadiazole ring is 59.36 (17; the dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 43.89 (15 and that between the benzene ring and its attached imidazole ring system is 80.06 (11°. The corresponding dihedral angles in molecule B are 58.45 (18, 50.73 (16 and 85.37 (10°, respectively. The C—O—C—Cm (m = methyl torsion angles for the ethoxy side chains attached to the imidazole rings in molecules A and B are 93.9 (3 and −174.6 (3°, respectively. In the crystal, the components are linked by N—H...N and C—H...O hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network. Aromatic π–π stacking interactions [shortest centroid–centroid separation = 3.536 (3Å] are also observed.

  7. Inflammatory cells′ role in acetic acid-induced colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H Sanei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free radicals are the known mechanisms responsible for inducing colitis with two origins: Inflammatory cells and tissues. Only the inflammatory cells can be controlled by corticosteroids. Our aim was to assess the importance of neutrophils as one of the inflammatory cells in inducing colitis and to evaluate the efficacy of corticosteroids in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six mice were divided into six groups of six mice each. Colitis was induced in three groups by exposing them to acetic acid through enema (group 1, ex vivo (group 3, and enema after immune suppression (group 5. Each group had one control group that was exposed to water injection instead of acetic acid. Tissue samples were evaluated and compared based on macroscopic damages and biochemical and pathological results. Results: Considering neutrophilic infiltration, there were significant differences between groups 1, 3, 5, and the control of group 1. Groups 3, 5, and their controls, and group 1 and the control of group 3 had significant differences in terms of goblet depletion. Based on tissue originated H 2 O 2 , we found significant differences between group 1 and its control and group 3, and also between groups 5 and the control of group 3. All the three groups were significantly different from their controls based on Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP and such differences were also seen between group 1 with two other groups. Conclusion: Neutrophils may not be the only cause of oxidation process in colitis, and also makes the effectiveness of corticosteroids in the treatment of this disease doubtful.

  8. Crystal structure of azilsartan methyl ester ethyl acetate hemisolvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengyi; Liu, Rong; Zhu, Meilan; Chen, Liang; Sun, Xiaoqiang

    2015-02-01

    The title compound, C26H22N4O5 (systematic name: methyl 2-eth-oxy-1-{4-[2-(5-oxo-4,5-di-hydro-1,2,4-oxa-diazol-3-yl)phenyl]benz-yl}-1H-1,3-benzo-diazole-7-carboxyl-ate ethyl acetate hemisolvate), was obtained via cyclization of methyl (Z)-2-eth-oxy-1-{(2'-(N'-hy-droxy-carbamimido-yl)-[1,1'-biphen-yl]-4-yl)meth-yl}-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-7-carboxyl-ate with diphen-yl carbonate. There are two independent mol-ecules (A and B) with different conformations and an ethyl acetate solvent mol-ecule in the asymmetric unit. In mol-ecule A, the dihedral angle between the benzene ring and its attached oxa-diazole ring is 59.36 (17); the dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 43.89 (15) and that between the benzene ring and its attached imidazole ring system is 80.06 (11)°. The corres-ponding dihedral angles in mol-ecule B are 58.45 (18), 50.73 (16) and 85.37 (10)°, respectively. The C-O-C-Cm (m = meth-yl) torsion angles for the eth-oxy side chains attached to the imidazole rings in mol-ecules A and B are 93.9 (3) and -174.6 (3)°, respectively. In the crystal, the components are linked by N-H⋯N and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating a three-dimensional network. Aromatic π-π stacking inter-actions [shortest centroid-centroid separation = 3.536 (3)Å] are also observed.

  9. Megestrol acetate NCD oral suspension--Par Pharmaceutical: megestrol acetate nanocrystal dispersion oral suspension, PAR 100.2, PAR-100.2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Par Pharmaceutical has developed megestrol acetate (Megace ES) oral suspension for the treatment of anorexia, cachexia and a significant weight loss associated with AIDS. Par Pharmaceutical used Elan Corporation's NanoCrystal Dispersion (NCD) technology to develop an advanced, concentrated formulation of megestrol acetate with improved bioavailability, more rapid onset of action, more convenient dosing and a lower dosing regimen compared with the original marketed formulation of megestrol acetate oral suspension. Patients are administered a teaspoon (5mL) of the new NCD formulation once daily, compared with a daily 20mL dosage cup of the original formulation. The new megestrol acetate NCD formulation represents a line-extension of Par's megestrol acetate oral suspension (800mg/20mL, Megace O/S) that has been marketed for anorexia, cachexia and AIDS-related weight loss since July 2001. Par's megestrol acetate is the generic version of Bristol-Myers Squibb's Megace Oral Suspension. NanoCrystal Dispersion (NCD) is a trademark of Elan Corporation. Par Pharmaceutical will market megestol acetate NCD oral suspension under the Megace brand name. The company licensed the Megace name from Bristol-Myers Squib in August 2003. The US FDA approved megestrol acetate oral suspension (625 mg/mL) in July 2005 for the treatment of anorexia, cachexia or a significant, unexplained weight loss in patients with AIDS. The NDA for the product was accepted for review by the agency in September 2004, following its submission in June of that year.Par Pharmaceutical commenced the first of two phase III clinical trials of megestrol acetate oral suspension (PAR 100.2) in cancer-induced anorexia in the first quarter of 2006. However, this trial was discontinued in September 2006 because of slow patient enrolment. The company intends to discuss future development options in this indication with the FDA.New formulations or dosage forms of megestrol acetate concentrated suspension are also in

  10. Effects of Oxygen Availability on Acetic Acid Tolerance and Intracellular pH in Dekkera bruxellensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capusoni, Claudia; Arioli, Stefania; Zambelli, Paolo; Moktaduzzaman, M.; Mora, Diego

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis, associated with wine and beer production, has recently received attention, because its high ethanol and acid tolerance enables it to compete with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in distilleries that produce fuel ethanol. We investigated how different cultivation conditions affect the acetic acid tolerance of D. bruxellensis. We analyzed the ability of two strains (CBS 98 and CBS 4482) exhibiting different degrees of tolerance to grow in the presence of acetic acid under aerobic and oxygen-limited conditions. We found that the concomitant presence of acetic acid and oxygen had a negative effect on D. bruxellensis growth. In contrast, incubation under oxygen-limited conditions resulted in reproducible growth kinetics that exhibited a shorter adaptive phase and higher growth rates than those with cultivation under aerobic conditions. This positive effect was more pronounced in CBS 98, the more-sensitive strain. Cultivation of CBS 98 cells under oxygen-limited conditions improved their ability to restore their intracellular pH upon acetic acid exposure and to reduce the oxidative damage to intracellular macromolecules caused by the presence of acetic acid. This study reveals an important role of oxidative stress in acetic acid tolerance in D. bruxellensis, indicating that reduced oxygen availability can protect against the damage caused by the presence of acetic acid. This aspect is important for optimizing industrial processes performed in the presence of acetic acid. IMPORTANCE This study reveals an important role of oxidative stress in acetic acid tolerance in D. bruxellensis, indicating that reduced oxygen availability can have a protective role against the damage caused by the presence of acetic acid. This aspect is important for the optimization of industrial processes performed in the presence of acetic acid. PMID:27235432

  11. Effects of Oxygen Availability on Acetic Acid Tolerance and Intracellular pH in Dekkera bruxellensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capusoni, Claudia; Arioli, Stefania; Zambelli, Paolo; Moktaduzzaman, M; Mora, Diego; Compagno, Concetta

    2016-08-01

    The yeast Dekkera bruxellensis, associated with wine and beer production, has recently received attention, because its high ethanol and acid tolerance enables it to compete with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in distilleries that produce fuel ethanol. We investigated how different cultivation conditions affect the acetic acid tolerance of D. bruxellensis We analyzed the ability of two strains (CBS 98 and CBS 4482) exhibiting different degrees of tolerance to grow in the presence of acetic acid under aerobic and oxygen-limited conditions. We found that the concomitant presence of acetic acid and oxygen had a negative effect on D. bruxellensis growth. In contrast, incubation under oxygen-limited conditions resulted in reproducible growth kinetics that exhibited a shorter adaptive phase and higher growth rates than those with cultivation under aerobic conditions. This positive effect was more pronounced in CBS 98, the more-sensitive strain. Cultivation of CBS 98 cells under oxygen-limited conditions improved their ability to restore their intracellular pH upon acetic acid exposure and to reduce the oxidative damage to intracellular macromolecules caused by the presence of acetic acid. This study reveals an important role of oxidative stress in acetic acid tolerance in D. bruxellensis, indicating that reduced oxygen availability can protect against the damage caused by the presence of acetic acid. This aspect is important for optimizing industrial processes performed in the presence of acetic acid. This study reveals an important role of oxidative stress in acetic acid tolerance in D. bruxellensis, indicating that reduced oxygen availability can have a protective role against the damage caused by the presence of acetic acid. This aspect is important for the optimization of industrial processes performed in the presence of acetic acid. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Insights into the mechanism of acetic acid hydrogenation to ethanol on Cu(111) surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Minhua; Yao, Rui; Jiang, Haoxi; Li, Guiming [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, R& D Center for Petrochemical Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China); Chen, Yifei, E-mail: yfchen@tju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, R& D Center for Petrochemical Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • The scission of C–OH bond of acetic acid is the rate-determined step in acetic acid hydrogenation to ethanol on Cu(111). • Acetic acid adsorption and reaction barrier of C–OH scission of acetic acid are factors related to acetic acid conversion. • Acetaldehyde adsorption and reaction barriers of O–H formation of C{sub 2}–oxygenates are factors related to ethanol selectivity. - Abstract: Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were employed to theoretically explain the reaction mechanism of acetic acid hydrogenation to ethanol on Cu catalyst. The activation barriers of key elementary steps and the adsorption configurations of key intermediates involved in acetic acid hydrogenation on Cu(111) surface were investigated. The results indicated that the direct dissociation of acetic acid to acetyl (CH{sub 3}COOH → CH{sub 3}CO + OH) is the rate-determined step. The activation barrier of acetic acid scission to acetyl and the adsorption energy of acetic acid are two descriptors which could determine the conversion of acetic acid. The descriptors might have effects on the ethanol selectivity including: the adsorption energy of acetaldehyde and the activation barriers for O−H bond formation of C{sub 2}-oxygenates (CH{sub 3}CO + H → CH{sub 3}COH, CH{sub 3}CHO + H → CH{sub 3}CHOH and CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}O + H → CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}OH). These proposed descriptors could be used as references to design new Cu-based catalysts that have excellent catalytic performance.

  13. Acetate biodegradation by anaerobic microorganisms at high pH and high calcium concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Takahiro, E-mail: t-yoshida@rwmc.or.j [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Nuclear Technology Research Laboratory, 2-11-1, Iwado-kita, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    Acetate biodegradation at a high pH and a high calcium concentration was examined to clarify the effect of bacterial activity on the migration of organic {sup 14}C compounds in cementitious repositories. Tamagawa river sediment or Teganuma pond sediment was anaerobically cultured with 5 mM acetate and 10 mM nitrate at pH 9.5-12 at 30 {sup o}C. After 20 and 90 days, the acetate concentration of the culture medium was analyzed and found to have decreased below 5 mM at pH {<=} 11. On the other hand, it did not decrease when either sediment was incubated in the absence of nitrate. These results suggest that nitrate-reducing bacteria can biodegrade acetate under more alkaline conditions than the reported pH range in which nitrate-reducing bacteria can exhibit activity. Acetate biodegradation was also examined at a high calcium concentration. Sediments were anaerobically cultured at pH 9.5 with 5 mM acetate and 10 mM nitrate in solution, equilibrated with ordinary Portland cement hydrate, in which the Ca concentration was 14.6 mM. No decrease in acetate concentration after incubation of the sediments was observed, nor was it lower than in the absence of cementitious composition, suggesting that kinetics of acetate biodegradation by anaerobic microorganisms is lowered by a high Ca concentration. - Research highlights: {yields} Acetate biodegradation at a high pH and a high calcium concentration was examined to clarify the effect of bacterial activity on the migration of organic {sup 14}C compounds in cementitious repositories. {yields} Nitrate-reducing bacteria can biodegrade acetate at pH {<=} 11. {yields} Kinetics of acetate biodegradation by anaerobic microorganisms might be lowered by a high Ca concentration.

  14. [Effects of valerian root oil, borneol, isoborneol, bornyl acetate and isobornyl acetate on the motility of laboratory animals (mice) after inhalation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchbauer, G; Jäger, W; Jirovetz, L; Meyer, F; Dietrich, H

    1992-08-01

    The aromatherapeutical use of commercial valerian root oil (Chinese origin) and of pure fragrance compounds--borneol, isoborneol, bornyl acetate (main constituent of the proved valerian root oil) and isobornyl acetate--as potentially drugs with sedative effects after inhalation was investigated in an animal experiment (mice). In additional analyses the mice were treated i.p. by caffeine and distinct sedative effects were observed only by inhalation of the cited substances.

  15. Transcriptome analysis of acetic-acid-treated yeast cells identifies a large set of genes whose overexpression or deletion enhances acetic acid tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeji; Nasution, Olviyani; Choi, Eunyong; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Wankee; Choi, Wonja

    2015-08-01

    Acetic acid inhibits the metabolic activities of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Therefore, a better understanding of how S. cerevisiae cells acquire the tolerance to acetic acid is of importance to develop robust yeast strains to be used in industry. To do this, we examined the transcriptional changes that occur at 12 h post-exposure to acetic acid, revealing that 56 and 58 genes were upregulated and downregulated, respectively. Functional categorization of them revealed that 22 protein synthesis genes and 14 stress response genes constituted the largest portion of the upregulated and downregulated genes, respectively. To evaluate the association of the regulated genes with acetic acid tolerance, 3 upregulated genes (DBP2, ASC1, and GND1) were selected among 34 non-protein synthesis genes, and 54 viable mutants individually deleted for the downregulated genes were retrieved from the non-essential haploid deletion library. Strains overexpressing ASC1 and GND1 displayed enhanced tolerance to acetic acid, whereas a strain overexpressing DBP2 was sensitive. Fifty of 54 deletion mutants displayed enhanced acetic acid tolerance. Three chosen deletion mutants (hsps82Δ, ato2Δ, and ssa3Δ) were also tolerant to benzoic acid but not propionic and sorbic acids. Moreover, all those five (two overexpressing and three deleted) strains were more efficient in proton efflux and lower in membrane permeability and internal hydrogen peroxide content than controls. Individually or in combination, those physiological changes are likely to contribute at least in part to enhanced acetic acid tolerance. Overall, information of our transcriptional profile was very useful to identify molecular factors associated with acetic acid tolerance.

  16. Methyl 2,2-difluoro-2-(fluorosulfonyl)acetate, a difluorocarbene reagent with reactivity comparable to that of trimethylsilyl 2,2-difluoro-2-(fluorosulfonyl)acetate (TFDA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eusterwiemann, Steffen; Martinez, Henry; Dolbier, William R

    2012-06-15

    Under specific high concentration, high temperature conditions, methyl 2,2-difluoro-2-(fluorosulfonyl)acetate (MDFA) has been found to act as a very efficient source of difluorocarbene, exhibiting carbene reactivity characteristics comparable to those exhibited by trimethylsilyl 2,2-difluoro-2-(fluorosulfonyl)acetate (TFDA). For example, in reaction with highly unreactive n-butyl acrylate and using only 2 equiv of MDFA, a yield of 76% of difluorocyclopropane product was obtained after 2 days.

  17. Growth of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in acetate-free medium when co-cultured with alginate-encapsulated, acetate-producing strains of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therien, Jesse B; Zadvornyy, Oleg A; Posewitz, Matthew C; Bryant, Donald A; Peters, John W

    2014-01-01

    The model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii requires acetate as a co-substrate for optimal production of lipids, and the addition of acetate to culture media has practical and economic implications for algal biofuel production. Here we demonstrate the growth of C. reinhardtii on acetate provided by mutant strains of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Optimal growth conditions for co-cultivation of C. reinhardtii with wild-type and mutant strains of Synechococcus sp. 7002 were established. In co-culture, acetate produced by a glycogen synthase knockout mutant of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was able to support the growth of a lipid-accumulating mutant strain of C. reinhardtii defective in starch production. Encapsulation of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 using an alginate matrix was successfully employed in co-cultures to limit growth and maintain the stability. The ability of immobilized strains of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 to produce acetate at a level adequate to support the growth of lipid-accumulating strains of C. reinhartdii offers a potentially practical, photosynthetic alternative to providing exogenous acetate into growth media.

  18. Modification of wheat starch with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures I. Thermophysical and pasting properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subarić, Drago; Ačkar, Durđica; Babić, Jurislav; Sakač, Nikola; Jozinović, Antun

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of modification with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures on thermophysical and pasting properties of wheat starch. Starch was isolated from two wheat varieties and modified with mixtures of succinic acid and acetic anhydride, and azelaic acid and acetic anhydride in 4, 6 and 8 % (w/w). Thermophysical, pasting properties, swelling power, solubility and amylose content of modified starches were determined. The results showed that modifications with mixtures of afore mentioned dicarboxylic acids with acetic anhydride decreased gelatinisation and pasting temperatures. Gelatinisation enthalpy of Golubica starch increased, while of Srpanjka starch decreased by modifications. Retrogradation after 7 and 14 day-storage at 4 °C decreased after modifications of both starches. Maximum, hot and cold paste viscosity of both starches increased, while stability during shearing at high temperatures decreased. % setback of starches modified with azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixture decreased. Swelling power and solubility of both starches increased by both modifications.

  19. EFFECT OF AGE AND GENDER ON THE PHARMACOKINETICS OF ESLICARBAZEPINE ACETATE

    OpenAIRE

    Soares-da-Silva, Patricio; Almeida, Luís; Falcão, Amílcar; Maia, Joana

    2005-01-01

    AES Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Epilepsy Society Eslicarbazepine acetate is a novel voltage-gated sodium channel blocker in development for the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorder and neuropathic pain. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of age and gender on the pharmacokinetics of eslicarbazepine acetate.

  20. Eslicarbazepine acetate: a review of its use as adjunctive therapy in refractory partial-onset seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, Gillian M

    2014-07-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (Aptiom(®), Zebinix(®)) is approved for the adjunctive treatment of partial-onset seizures in adults aged ≥18 years. Adjunctive therapy with oral eslicarbazepine acetate 800 or 1,200 mg once daily was associated with a significantly lower standardized seizure frequency (primary endpoint) than placebo in patients aged ≥18 years with refractory partial-onset seizures in three, randomized, double-blind, multinational, phase III trials. In a fourth randomized, double-blind, multinational, phase III trial in patients aged ≥16 years with refractory partial-onset seizures, adjunctive eslicarbazepine acetate 1,200 mg once daily, but not 800 mg once daily, was associated with a significantly lower standardized seizure frequency (primary endpoint). Responder rates were significantly higher with eslicarbazepine acetate 1,200 mg once daily than with placebo in these four trials, and with eslicarbazepine acetate 800 mg once daily than with placebo in two trials. The efficacy of eslicarbazepine acetate was maintained in the longer term, according to the results of 1-year extension studies. Adjunctive therapy with oral eslicarbazepine acetate was generally well tolerated in patients with refractory partial-onset seizures, with most adverse events being of mild to moderate severity. In conclusion, eslicarbazepine acetate is a useful option for the adjunctive treatment of patients with refractory partial-onset seizures.

  1. Zymomonas with improved ethanol production in medium containing concentrated sugars and acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimi, Perry G.; Chou, Yat-Chen; Franden, Mary Ann; Knoke, Kyle; Tao, Luan; Viitanen, Paul V.; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Yuying

    2010-09-28

    Through screening of a Zymomonas mutant library the himA gene was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of acetate on Zymomonas performance. Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas further engineered to reduce activity of the himA gene were found to have increased ethanol production in comparison to a parental strain, when cultured in medium comprising xylose and acetate.

  2. Acetate is a superior substrate for microbial fuel cell initiation preceding bioethanol effluent utilization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Guotao; Thygesen, Anders; Meyer, Anne S.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed cell voltage development, electricity recovery, and microbial community composition in response to initial substrate including acetate, xylose, acetate/xylose 1:1 mixture (ace/xyl), and bioethanol effluent (BE)during microbial fuel cell (MFC) operation at 1000Ω external resist...

  3. Efficacy and safety of repeated use of ulipristal acetate in uterine fibroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donnez, Jacques; Hudecek, Robert; Donnez, Olivier; Matule, Dace; Arhendt, Hans Joachim; Zatik, Janos; Kasilovskiene, Zaneta; Dumitrascu, Mihai Cristian; Fernandez, Hervé; Barlow, David H.; Bouchard, Philippe; Fauser, Bart C J M; Bestel, Elke; Terrill, Paul; Osterloh, Ian; Loumaye, Ernest

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of repeated 12-week courses of 5 or 10 mg daily of ulipristal acetate for intermittent treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids. Design Double-blind, randomized administration of two 12-week courses of ulipristal acetate. Setting Gynecology centers.

  4. Long-term medical management of uterine fibroids with ulipristal acetate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donnez, Jacques; Donnez, Olivier; Matule, Dace; Ahrendt, Hans Joachim; Hudecek, Robert; Zatik, Janos; Kasilovskiene, Zaneta; Dumitrascu, Mihai Cristian; Fernandez, Hervé; Barlow, David H.; Bouchard, Philippe; Fauser, Bart C J M; Bestel, Elke; Loumaye, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and safety of repeated 12-week courses of 5 or 10 mg daily ulipristal acetate for intermittent treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids. Design Double-blind, randomized administration of four 12-week courses of ulipristal acetate. Setting Gynecology centers.

  5. A Highly Efficient Solvent-Free Acetalization of Aldehydes to 1,1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Introduction. Protection of aldehydes is a frequently used and important method in organic chemistry. Many procedures have been developed for this aim. For the acetalization of carbonyl groups, acetic anhydride can be used in the presence of different cata- lysts such as sulphuric acid,1 NBS,2 ZrCl4,3 zinc(II) perchlorate,4.

  6. The direct transformation of ethanol to ethyl acetate over Cu/SiO2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    key factor to achieve direct transformation of ethanol to ethyl acetate. Keywords. Ethanol; ethyl acetate; copper .... Pyridine adsorption Fourier transform infrared spectrum was performed according to literature.24 ..... Ji Chan Park H J L, Jung Up Bang, Kang Hyun Park and. Hyunjoon Song 2009 Chem. Commun. 7345. 8.

  7. Zonation of acetate labeling across the liver: implications for studies of lipogenesis by MIDA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michelle A. Puchowicz; Ilya R. Bederman; Blandine Comte; Dawei Yang; France David; Eric Stone; Kareem Jabbour; David H. Wasserman; Henri Brunengraber

    1999-01-01

    ... from [13C]acetate assumes constant enrichment of lipogenic acetyl-CoA in all hepatocytes. This would not be the case if uptake and release of acetate by the liver resulted in transhepatic gradients of acetyl-CoA enrichment...

  8. Acetalization of 2-Hydroxybenzaldehyde mechanism using halogen acid catalysts based on ab initio methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusuf, Muhammad; Roza, Destria; Nasution, Ahmad Kamil

    2017-11-01

    The computational calculation was performed on the acetalization of 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde by using ab initio method. Ab initio method is derived directly from theoretical principles with no inclusion of experimental data and this is an approximate quantum mechanical calculation. The aim of this research was to studies the acetalization of 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde mechanism using halogen acid catalysts. Computational calculation which was applied on the acetalization of 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde using halogen acid catalysts provided possible reaction steps. The first step was formation of a labile hemiacetal because it is essentially tetrahedral intermediates containing a leaving group. The second step was formation of a stable acetal. The results of computational calculation of acetalization of 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde provided possible energy change in the each step of the reaction process. A labile hemiacetal showed higher energy (481.04 kJ/mol) than 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde dimethyl acetal (65.32 kJ/mol) and 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde (0 kJ/mol) due to its instability. In general, acetalization of 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde reaction is a reversible reaction. The effect of Lewis acidity on halogen acid catalysts was also studied in this research. Based on the Mulliken charge on the H atom, it is found that HF has the highest Lewis acidity compared to other halogen acids with order HF> HCl> HBr> HI. As a result, HF was the efficient catalysts for acetalization of 2-Hydroxybenzaldehyde.

  9. 21 CFR 524.1881 - Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic and topical dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS OPHTHALMIC AND TOPICAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1881 Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic and topical dosage forms. ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prednisolone acetate ophthalmic and topical dosage...

  10. Cervical Pattern on Visual Inspection With Aceto Acetic Acid in A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: One of the commonest alternatives to Pap's smear is direct visualization of the cervix using Acetic acid. The investigators set out to evaluate cervical cancer screening using Visual inspection with Acetic acid in a Faith based organizational setting. Methods: The study was carried out at the premises of the headquarters ...

  11. Distribution of planktonic decapods with special reference to Acetes from nearshore waters of Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gajbhiye, S.N.; Nair, V.R.; Desai, B.N.

    , they were more off Versova (av. 1766/100 m3) than Mahim (av. 970/100 m3). Acetes spp. were common along both the transects. They were represented by Acetes indicus. A. siibogae and A. erythraeus. The effect of physico-chemical parameters in the occurrence...

  12. Sustainable hydrogen from bio-oil - Catalytic steam reforming of acetic acid as a model oxygenate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Seshan, K.; Lefferts, Leon; Aika, Ken-ichi

    2004-01-01

    Steam reforming of acetic acid as a model oxygenate present in bio-oil over Pt/ZrO2 catalysts has been studied. Pt/ZrO2 catalysts are very active, completely converting acetic acid and give hydrogen yield close to thermodynamic equilibrium. The catalyst deactivated by formation of oligomers, which

  13. Efficacy of Acetic Acid againstListeria monocytogenesAttached to Poultry Skin during Refrigerated Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Fandos, Elena; Herrera, Barbara

    2014-09-11

    This work evaluates the effect of acetic acid dipping on the growth of L . monocytogenes on poultry legs stored at 4 °C for eight days. Fresh inoculated chicken legs were dipped into either a 1% or 2% acetic acid solution (v/v) or distilled water (control). Changes in mesophiles, psychrotrophs, Enterobacteriaceae counts and sensorial characteristics (odor, color, texture and overall appearance) were also evaluated. The shelf life of the samples washed with acetic acid was extended by at least two days over the control samples washed with distilled water. L . monocytogenes counts before decontamination were 5.57 log UFC/g, and after treatment with 2% acetic acid (Day 0), L . monocytogenes counts were 4.47 log UFC/g. Legs washed with 2% acetic acid showed a significant ( p acetic acid. This study demonstrates that while acetic acid did reduce populations of L . monocytogenes on meat, it did not completely inactivate the pathogen. The application of acetic acid may be used as an additional hurdle contributing to extend the shelf life of raw poultry and reducing populations of L . monocytogenes .

  14. Cervical cancer risk factors and feasibility of visual inspection with acetic acid screening in Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed; Rasch, Vibeke; Pukkala, Eero

    2011-01-01

    To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan.......To assess the risk factors of cervical cancer and the feasibility and acceptability of a visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) screening method in a primary health center in Khartoum, Sudan....

  15. Acetic acid induces pH-independent cellular energy depletion in Salmonella enterica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sin Mei; Lee, Sui Mae; Dykes, Gary A

    2015-03-01

    Weak organic acids are widely used as preservatives and disinfectants in the food industry. Despite their widespread use, the antimicrobial mode of action of organic acids is still not fully understood. This study investigated the effect of acetic acid on the cell membranes and cellular energy generation of four Salmonella strains. Using a nucleic acid/protein assay, it was established that acetic acid did not cause leakage of intracellular components from the strains. A scanning electron microscopy study further confirmed that membrane disruption was not the antimicrobial mode of action of acetic acid. Some elongated Salmonella cells observed in the micrographs indicated a possibility that acetic acid may inhibit DNA synthesis in the bacterial cells. Using an ATP assay, it was found that at a neutral pH, acetic acid caused cellular energy depletion with an ADP/ATP ratio in the range between 0.48 and 2.63 (pacid molecules. The antimicrobial effect of acetic acid was better under acidic conditions (ADP/ATP ratio of 5.56 ± 1.27; pacid molecules can act together. We concluded that the inhibitory effect of acetic acid is not solely attributable to acidic pH but also to undissociated acid molecules. This finding has implication for the use of acetic acid as an antimicrobial against Salmonella on food products, such as chicken meat, which can buffer its pH.

  16. Sustainable hydrogen from bio-oil - Steam reforming of acetic acid as a model oxygenate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takanabe, K.; Aika, Ken-ichi; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Lefferts, Leonardus

    2004-01-01

    Steam reforming of acetic acid over Pt/ZrO2 catalysts has been investigated. Pt/ZrO2 catalysts are very active, completely converting acetic acid, and give a hydrogen yield close to thermodynamic equilibrium. The catalyst deactivated by formation of oligomers which block the active sites. The

  17. 21 CFR 529.1003 - Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flurogestone acetate-impregnated vaginal sponge. 529.1003 Section 529.1003 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS CERTAIN OTHER DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 529.1003 Flurogestone acetate-impregnate...

  18. Kinetics of butyrate, acetate, and hydrogen metabolism in a thermophilic, anaerobic, butyrate-degrading triculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahring, B K; Westermann, P

    1987-02-01

    Kinetics of butyrate, acetate, and hydrogen metabolism were determined with butyrate-limited, chemostat-grown tricultures of a thermophilic butyrate-utilizing bacterium together with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum and the TAM organism, a thermophilic acetate-utilizing methanogenic rod. Kinetic parameters were determined from progress curves fitted to the integrated form of the Michaelis-Menten equation. The apparent half-saturation constants, K(m), for butyrate, acetate, and dissolved hydrogen were 76 muM, 0.4 mM, and 8.5 muM, respectively. Butyrate and hydrogen were metabolized to a concentration of less than 1 muM, whereas acetate uptake usually ceased at a concentration of 25 to 75 muM, indicating a threshold level for acetate uptake. No significant differences in K(m) values for butyrate degradation were found between chemostat- and batch-grown tricultures, although the maximum growth rate was somewhat higher in the batch cultures in which the medium was supplemented with yeast extract. Acetate utilization was found to be the rate-limiting reaction for complete degradation of butyrate to methane and carbon dioxide in continuous culture. Increasing the dilution rate resulted in a gradual accumulation of acetate. The results explain the low concentrations of butyrate and hydrogen normally found during anaerobic digestion and the observation that acetate is the first volatile fatty acid to accumulate upon a decrease in retention time or increase in organic loading of a digestor.

  19. 40 CFR 721.8658 - Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified polymer of vinyl acetate and quaternary... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified polymer of vinyl acetate and... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES...

  20. Single-cell level based approach to investigate acetate metabolism during batch industrial fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nierychlo, Marta; Larsen, Poul; Eriksen, Niels T.

    on the sub-population level. We hypothesized that during the fermentation process, bacterial subpopulation exist, which exhibit different metabolic strategies towards the acetate. In this study, pure culture of Escherichia coli MG1655 was used to investigate in situ acetate metabolism at single-cell level...

  1. Enzymology of the Pathway for Acetate Conversion to Methane in Methanosarcina thermophilia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, James G.

    1999-05-04

    These topics are covered: Regulation of enzyme synthesis; Activation of acetate to acetyl-CoA; Biochemistry of acetyl-CoA cleavage; Electron transport; Other enzymes implicated in the pathway of acetate conversion to methane; and publications resulting from this work.

  2. Antibacterial performance of Chlorhexidine acetate treated plain cotton and β-cyclodextrin treated cotton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amrit, Usha; Nabers, M.G.D.; Agrawal, Pramod; Warmoeskerken, Marinus

    2014-01-01

    Cotton was treated with β-cyclodextrin via a crosslinker 1, 2, 3, 4, butane tetracarboxylic acid. β-cyclodextrin attached cotton and plain cotton was treated with the antimicrobial agent Chlorhexidine acetate. The difference in amount of Chlorhexidine acetate loaded onto the two types of fabrics for

  3. Development of seasonal heat storage based on stable supercooling of a sodium acetate water mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua; Andersen, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    to and from the sodium acetate water mixture in the modules. By means of the experiments: • The heat exchange capacity rates to and from the sodium acetate water mixture in the heat storage modules were determined for different volume flow rates. • The heat content of the heat storage modules were determined...

  4. Chemical constituents of the ethyl acetate extracts of the stem bark ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antibacterial activities of ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous extracts of the stem bark of Dichrostachys cinerea and the roots of Parkia bicolor have been evaluated. Ethyl acetate extracts have been investigated, studies that led to a series of known compounds, amongst which many are reported here for the very first ...

  5. Excited-state proton transfer from pyranine to acetate in methanol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    trisulphonate, HPTS) to acetate in methanol has been studied by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The rate constant of direct proton transfer from pyranine to acetate (1) is calculated to be ∼ 1 × 109 M-1 s-1. This is slower by ...

  6. Electron attachment and electron ionization of acetic acid clusters embedded in helium nanodroplets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    da Silva, F. Ferreira; Jaksch, S.; Martins, G.; Dang, H. M.; Dampc, M.; Denifl, S.; Maerk, T. D.; Limao-Vieira, P.; Liu, J.; Yang, S.; Ellis, A. M.; Scheier, P.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of incident electrons on acetic acid clusters is explored for the first time. The acetic acid clusters are formed inside liquid helium nanodroplets and both cationic and anionic products ejected into the gas phase are detected by mass spectrometry. The cation chemistry (induced by

  7. Biological caproate production by Clostridium kluyveri from ethanol and acetate as carbon sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Yanan; Zhang, Yifeng; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2017-01-01

    Caproate is a valuable industrial product and chemical precursor. In this study, batch tests were conducted to investigate the fermentative caproate production through chain elongation from acetate and ethanol. The effect of acetate/ethanol ratio and initial ethanol concentration on caproate...... ≥7:3. Caproate production increased with the increase of carbon source until ethanol concentration over 700 mM, which inhibited the fermentation process. The highest caproate concentration of 8.42 g/L was achieved from high ethanol strength wastewater with an ethanol/acetate ratio of 10:1 (550 m...... production was examined. When substrate concentration was controlled at 100 mM total carbon, hydrogen was used as an additional electron donor. The highest caproate concentration of 3.11 g/L was obtained at an ethanol/acetate ratio of 7:3. No additional electron donor was needed upon an ethanol/acetate ratio...

  8. Cinnamyl acetate synthesis by lipase-catalyzed transesterification in a solvent-free system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Bo; Wang, Mengfan; Qi, Wei; Su, Rongxin; He, Zhimin

    2012-01-01

    Cinnamyl acetate was synthesized using immobilized lipase through transesterification between ethyl acetate and cinnamyl alcohol. In the solvent-free system, ethyl acetate acted as not only the acyl donor but also as the solvent of cinnamyl alcohol. Conversion (90.06%) was achieved after 3 H when transesterification was carried out at ethyl acetate/cinnamyl alcohol 15:1, 2.67 g L of lipase (Novozym 435) loading, and 40°C. Excellent stability and reusability of the enzyme resulted from the moderate reaction system. Kinetic studies showed that the Michaelis constants for ethyl acetate and cinnamyl alcohol and the inhibition constant of cinnamyl alcohol were 2.241, 206.82, and 0.461 mmol L⁻¹, respectively, which indicated that the reaction complied with the Ping-Pong Bi-Bi mechanism, with the inhibition of cinnamyl alcohol on lipase. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Phase equilibrium modelling for mixtures with acetic acid using an association equation of state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muro Sunè, Nuria; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; von Solms, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Acetic acid is a very important compound in the chemical industry with applications both as solvent and intermediate in the production of, e.g., polyesters. The design of these processes requires knowledge of the phase equilibria of mixtures containing acetic acid and a wide variety of compounds...... to a wide variety of mixtures containing acetic acid, including gas solubilities, cross-associating systems (with water and alcohols), and polar chemicals like acetone and esters. Vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria are considered for both binary and ternary mixtures. With the exception of a somewhat...... inferior performance for the water-acetic acid VLE, which does not seem to affect substantially the performance for the multicomponent systems studied, CPA performs satisfactorily in most cases, using a single interaction parameter over extensive temperature ranges. For accurate description of water-acetic...

  10. Cell wall dynamics modulate acetic acid-induced apoptotic cell death of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego, António; Duarte, Ana M.; Azevedo, Flávio; Sousa, Maria J.; Côrte-Real, Manuela; Chaves, Susana R.

    2014-01-01

    Acetic acid triggers apoptotic cell death in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, similar to mammalian apoptosis. To uncover novel regulators of this process, we analyzed whether impairing MAPK signaling affected acetic acid-induced apoptosis and found the mating-pheromone response and, especially, the cell wall integrity pathways were the major mediators, especially the latter, which we characterized further. Screening downstream effectors of this pathway, namely targets of the transcription factor Rlm1p, highlighted decreased cell wall remodeling as particularly important for acetic acid resistance. Modulation of cell surface dynamics therefore emerges as a powerful strategy to increase acetic acid resistance, with potential application in industrial fermentations using yeast, and in biomedicine to exploit the higher sensitivity of colorectal carcinoma cells to apoptosis induced by acetate produced by intestinal propionibacteria. PMID:28357256

  11. Synthesis of 4-nitrophenyl acetate using molecular sieve-immobilized lipase from Bacillus coagulans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuvanshi, Shilpa; Gupta, Reena

    2009-03-01

    Extracellular lipase from Bacillus coagulans BTS-3 was immobilized on (3 A x 1.5 mm) molecular sieve. The molecular sieve showed approximately 68.48% binding efficiency for lipase (specific activity 55 IU mg(-1)). The immobilized enzyme achieved approx 90% conversion of acetic acid and 4-nitrophenol (100 mM each) into 4-nitrophenyl acetate in n-heptane at 65 degrees C in 3 h. When alkane of C-chain length other than n-heptane was used as the organic solvent, the conversion of 4-nitrophenol and acetic acid was found to decrease. About 88.6% conversion of the reactants into ester was achieved when reactants were used at molar ratio of 1:1. The immobilized lipase brought about conversion of approximately 58% for esterification of 4-nitrophenol and acetic acid into 4-nitrophenyl acetate at a temperature of 65 degrees C after reuse for 5 cycles.

  12. Development of Acetic Acid Removal Technology for the UREX+Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Counce; Jack S. Watson

    2009-06-30

    It is imperative that acetic acid is removed from a waste stream in the UREX+process so that nitric acid can be recycled and possible interference with downstreatm steps can be avoidec. Acetic acid arises from acetohydrozamic acid (AHA), and is used to suppress plutonium in the first step of the UREX+process. Later, it is hydrolyzed into hydroxyl amine nitrate and acetic acid. Many common separation technologies were examined, and solvent extraction was determined to be the best choice under process conditions. Solvents already used in the UREX+ process were then tested to determine if they would be sufficient for the removal of acetic acid. The tributyl phosphage (TBP)-dodecane diluent, used in both UREX and NPEX, was determined to be a solvent system that gave sufficient distribution coefficients for acetic acid in addition to a high separation factor from nitric acid.

  13. Deletion of JJJ1 improves acetic acid tolerance and bioethanol fermentation performance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuechang; Zhang, Lijie; Jin, Xinna; Fang, Yahong; Zhang, Ke; Qi, Lei; Zheng, Daoqiong

    2016-07-01

    To improve tolerance to acetic acid that is present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates and affects bioethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with improved tolerance to acetic acid were obtained through deletion of the JJJ1 gene. The lag phase of the JJJ1 deletion mutant BYΔJJJ1 was ~16 h shorter than that of the parent strain, BY4741, when the fermentation medium contained 4.5 g acetic acid/l. Additionally, the specific ethanol production rate of BYΔJJJ1 was increased (0.057 g/g h) compared to that of the parent strain (0.051 g/g h). Comparative transcription and physiological analyses revealed higher long chain fatty acid, trehalose, and catalase contents might be critical factors responsible for the acetic acid resistance of JJJ1 knockout strains. JJJ1 deletion improves acetic acid tolerance and ethanol fermentation performance of S. cerevisiae.

  14. Influence of acetic acid on a pap smear of dysplastic lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoellen, Friederike; Bohlmann, Michael K; Brade, Joachim; Rody, Achim; Diedrich, Klaus; Husstedt, Wolf-Diedrich; Hornemann, Amadeus

    2013-03-01

    Cervical cancer prevention is performed by taking Pap smears. The correct execution of the smear is crucial as an inadequate smear might result in underdiagnosis. The second means of cervical cancer prevention is visual inspection of the cervix uteri with acetic acid, while often both methods are combined. We investigated whether the application of acetic acid compromises the Pap smear. A total of 100 patients with dysplasia were prospectively included; Pap smears were obtained before and after the application of acetic acid. We observed an alteration of the result of the Pap smear after acetic acid application in 41%. However, these alterations did not result in a dysplastic case being classed as a normal smear or vice versa. The application of acetic acid to the transformation zone of the cervix uteri may enhance changes of the Pap smear in dysplasia, however, the changes affect subgroups of dysplasia and thus do not change therapeutic management.

  15. Megestrol acetate for treatment of anorexia-cachexia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Garcia, Vicente; López-Briz, Eduardo; Carbonell Sanchis, Rafael; Gonzalvez Perales, Jose Luis; Bort-Marti, Sylvia

    2013-03-28

    This is an updated version of a previously published review in The Cochrane Library (2005, Issue 2) on 'Megestrol acetate for the treatment of anorexia-cachexia syndrome'. Megestrol acetate (MA) is currently used to improve appetite and to increase weight in cancer-associated anorexia. In 1993, MA was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of anorexia, cachexia or unexplained weight loss in patients with AIDS. The mechanism by which MA increases appetite is unknown and its effectiveness for anorexia and cachexia in neoplastic and AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) patients is under investigation. To evaluate the efficacy, effectiveness and safety of MA in palliating anorexia-cachexia syndrome in patients with cancer, AIDS and other underlying pathologies. We sought studies through an extensive search of electronic databases, journals, reference lists, contact with investigators and other search strategies outlined in the methods. The most recent search for this update was carried out in May 2012. Studies were included in the review if they assessed MA compared to placebo or other drug treatments in randomised controlled trials of patients with a clinical diagnosis of anorexia-cachexia syndrome related to cancer, AIDS or any other underlying pathology. Two independent review authors conducted data extraction and evaluated methodological quality. We performed quantitative analyses using appetite and quality of life as a dichotomous variable, and analysed weight gain as continuous and dichotomous variables. We included 35 trials in this update, the same number but not the same trials as in the previous version of the review. The trials comprised 3963 patients for effectiveness and 3180 for safety. Sixteen trials compared MA at different doses with placebo, seven trials compared different doses of MA with other drug treatments and 10 trials compared different doses of MA. Meta-analysis showed a benefit of MA compared with placebo

  16. Photocatalytic decomposition of cortisone acetate in aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romão, Joana Sobral; Hamdy, Mohamed S.; Mul, Guido, E-mail: g.mul@utwente.nl; Baltrusaitis, Jonas, E-mail: j.baltrusaitis@utwente.nl

    2015-01-23

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Most efficient photocatalysts for cortisone 21-acetate (CA) degradation were ZnO and TiO{sub 2} (P25). • The decomposition rate increased at low CA concentrations. • No pH dependence was observed allowing CA photocatalytic degradation at native pH. • Synergistic CA degradation effects between TiO{sub 2} and S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−} were found. • LC–MS confirmed a decrease in CA concentration, but no intermediate products were detected. - Abstract: The photocatalytic decomposition of cortisone 21-acetate (CA), a model compound for the commonly used steroid, cortisone, was studied. CA was photocatalytically decomposed in a slurry reactor with the initial rates between 0.11 and 0.46 mg L{sup −1} min{sup −1} at 10 mg L{sup −1} concentration, using the following heterogeneous photocatalysts in decreasing order of their catalytic activity: ZnO > Evonik TiO{sub 2} P25 > Hombikat TiO{sub 2} > WO{sub 3}. Due to the lack of ZnO stability in aqueous solutions, TiO{sub 2} P25 was chosen for further experiments. The decomposition reaction was found to be pseudo-first order and the rate constant decreased as a function of increasing initial CA concentration. Changing the initial pH of the CA solution did not affect the reaction rate significantly. The decomposition reaction in the presence of the oxidizing sacrificial agent sodium persulfate showed an observed decomposition rate constant of 0.004 min{sup −1}, lower than that obtained for TiO{sub 2} P25 (0.040 min{sup −1}). The highest photocatalytic degradation rate constant was obtained combining both TiO{sub 2} P25 and S{sub 2}O{sub 8}{sup 2−} (0.071 min{sup −1}) showing a synergistic effect. No reactive intermediates were detected using LC–MS showing fast photocatalytic decomposition kinetics of CA.

  17. A low frequency assignment for infrared and Raman spectra of (-)-isobornyl acetate using related compounds and deuterated derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. B.; Hammaker, R. M.; Fateley, W. G.

    Nineteen fundamentals of (-)-isobornyl acetate and seven deuterium substituted modifications (2- d1;3,3- d2;2,3,3- d3; acetate- d3; 2- d1, acetate- d3; 3,3- d2 acetate- d3; 2,3,3- d3 acetate- d3) have been assigned between 200 and 900 cm -1. These fundamentals are: skeletal vibrations of the quaternary carbons, ring breathing and bending vibrations, and vibrations of the acetate group. Key model compounds used in this analysis are norbornane, neopentane, methyl acetate and cyclopentanol. A series of related compounds (norbornane, bornane, exo-norbornyl acetate, 1-methyl-exo-norbornyl acetate, apoisobornyl acetate and (-)-isobornyl acetate) is used to identify frequencies associated with the quaternary carbon and the acetate group. Raman spectra are more useful for the quaternary carbon frequencies and i.r. spectra are more useful for acetate group frequencies. Quaternary carbon skeletal stretching frequencies and ring breathing frequencies are responsible for prominent Raman bands between 580 and 670 cm -1 and between 780 and 940 cm -1, respectively.

  18. Genome-wide identification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes required for tolerance to acetic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Acetic acid is a byproduct of Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcoholic fermentation. Together with high concentrations of ethanol and other toxic metabolites, acetic acid may contribute to fermentation arrest and reduced ethanol productivity. This weak acid is also a present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, a highly interesting non-feedstock substrate in industrial biotechnology. Therefore, the better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying S. cerevisiae tolerance to acetic acid is essential for the rational selection of optimal fermentation conditions and the engineering of more robust industrial strains to be used in processes in which yeast is explored as cell factory. Results The yeast genes conferring protection against acetic acid were identified in this study at a genome-wide scale, based on the screening of the EUROSCARF haploid mutant collection for susceptibility phenotypes to this weak acid (concentrations in the range 70-110 mM, at pH 4.5). Approximately 650 determinants of tolerance to acetic acid were identified. Clustering of these acetic acid-resistance genes based on their biological function indicated an enrichment of genes involved in transcription, internal pH homeostasis, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall assembly, biogenesis of mitochondria, ribosome and vacuole, and in the sensing, signalling and uptake of various nutrients in particular iron, potassium, glucose and amino acids. A correlation between increased resistance to acetic acid and the level of potassium in the growth medium was found. The activation of the Snf1p signalling pathway, involved in yeast response to glucose starvation, is demonstrated to occur in response to acetic acid stress but no evidence was obtained supporting the acetic acid-induced inhibition of glucose uptake. Conclusions Approximately 490 of the 650 determinants of tolerance to acetic acid identified in this work are implicated, for the first time, in tolerance to this weak acid. These are

  19. Genome-wide identification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes required for tolerance to acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sá-Correia Isabel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acetic acid is a byproduct of Saccharomyces cerevisiae alcoholic fermentation. Together with high concentrations of ethanol and other toxic metabolites, acetic acid may contribute to fermentation arrest and reduced ethanol productivity. This weak acid is also a present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, a highly interesting non-feedstock substrate in industrial biotechnology. Therefore, the better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying S. cerevisiae tolerance to acetic acid is essential for the rational selection of optimal fermentation conditions and the engineering of more robust industrial strains to be used in processes in which yeast is explored as cell factory. Results The yeast genes conferring protection against acetic acid were identified in this study at a genome-wide scale, based on the screening of the EUROSCARF haploid mutant collection for susceptibility phenotypes to this weak acid (concentrations in the range 70-110 mM, at pH 4.5. Approximately 650 determinants of tolerance to acetic acid were identified. Clustering of these acetic acid-resistance genes based on their biological function indicated an enrichment of genes involved in transcription, internal pH homeostasis, carbohydrate metabolism, cell wall assembly, biogenesis of mitochondria, ribosome and vacuole, and in the sensing, signalling and uptake of various nutrients in particular iron, potassium, glucose and amino acids. A correlation between increased resistance to acetic acid and the level of potassium in the growth medium was found. The activation of the Snf1p signalling pathway, involved in yeast response to glucose starvation, is demonstrated to occur in response to acetic acid stress but no evidence was obtained supporting the acetic acid-induced inhibition of glucose uptake. Conclusions Approximately 490 of the 650 determinants of tolerance to acetic acid identified in this work are implicated, for the first time, in tolerance to

  20. Optimization of an acetate reduction pathway for producing cellulosic ethanol by engineered yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guo-Chang; Kong, In Iok; Wei, Na; Peng, Dairong; Turner, Timothy L; Sung, Bong Hyun; Sohn, Jung-Hoon; Jin, Yong-Su

    2016-12-01

    Xylose fermentation by engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing NADPH-linked xylose reductase (XR) and NAD + -linked xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) suffers from redox imbalance due to cofactor difference between XR and XDH, especially under anaerobic conditions. We have demonstrated that coupling of an NADH-dependent acetate reduction pathway with surplus NADH producing xylose metabolism enabled not only efficient xylose fermentation, but also in situ detoxification of acetate in cellulosic hydrolysate through simultaneous co-utilization of xylose and acetate. In this study, we report the highest ethanol yield from xylose (0.463 g ethanol/g xylose) by engineered yeast with XR and XDH through optimization of the acetate reduction pathway. Specifically, we constructed engineered yeast strains exhibiting various levels of the acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (AADH) and acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) activities. Engineered strains exhibiting higher activities of AADH and ACS consumed more acetate and produced more ethanol from a mixture of 20 g/L of glucose, 80 g/L of xylose, and 8 g/L of acetate. In addition, we performed environmental and genetic perturbations to further improve the acetate consumption. Glucose-pulse feeding to continuously provide ATPs under anaerobic conditions did not affect acetate consumption. Promoter truncation of GPD1 and gene deletion of GPD2 coding for glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase to produce surplus NADH also did not lead to improved acetate consumption. When a cellulosic hydrolysate was used, the optimized yeast strain (SR8A6S3) produced 18.4% more ethanol and 41.3% less glycerol and xylitol with consumption of 4.1 g/L of acetate than a control strain without the acetate reduction pathway. These results suggest that the major limiting factor for enhanced acetate reduction during the xylose fermentation might be the low activities of AADH and ACS, and that the redox imbalance problem of XR/XDH pathway can be exploited

  1. Successful Pregnancy after Treatment with Ulipristal Acetate for Uterine Fibroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Monleón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report presents a clinical pregnancy after ulipristal acetate (UA to decrease uterine fibroid size. A 37-year-old patient, gravida 1, abortus 1, with uterine fibroids was treated with 5 mg of UA daily for 13 weeks starting eight months after a multiple laparotomic myomectomy. Fibroid shrinkage and restoration of the morphology of endometrial cavity were evaluated in order to allow a subsequent pregnancy. A decrease of the uterine fibroids and a normal morphology of the endometrial cavity were noted by transvaginal ultrasound after treatment. An endometrial biopsy excluded histologic endometrial changes. Three months after the end of UA the patient reported amenorrhea for 5 weeks and a clinical pregnancy was confirmed with transvaginal ultrasound. She underwent a subsequent uneventful pregnancy. Thus, the spontaneous pregnancy after UA to reduce fibroid size may support the potential clinical utility of this selective progesterone receptor modulator in the management of women with pregnancy desire and uterine fibroids after a prior myomectomy. Patients who refuse a new surgical procedure and/or those who are going to undergo assisted reproductive techniques would benefit from UA. It effectively shrinks fibroids, avoids risks of a new surgical procedure, and allows an immediate attempt at conception after the end of treatment.

  2. Transition from oxcarbazepine to eslicarbazepine acetate: A single center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, Jussi; Rainesalo, Sirpa; Peltola, Jukka

    2017-03-01

    There is limited clinical evidence for comparison between oxcarbazepine (OXC) and eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) in terms of tolerability, or how to execute the change from OXC to ESL. We report the process of transitioning patients with focal epilepsy from previous OXC treatment to ESL due to tolerability problems. The rationale for change from OXC is reported, and the outcome with respective to this rationale is analyzed in terms of tolerability and efficacy. The subjects were transitioned overnight from OXC to ESL in a hospital inpatient setting. An evaluation of the effects of the transition was made after 1 and 3 months. All adverse events (AEs) were recorded following the transition period. Subjects were classified by outcome in terms of AEs. Twenty-three subjects were transitioned from OXC to ESL. Fifteen patients OXC-related AEs reduced significantly after transition. Particularly, most of (93%) the AEs presented in the morning resolved after transition to ESL. No patient had an increase in seizure frequency following the transition. The incidence of ESL-related AEs was 39% at 1 month and 13% at 3 month follow-up; however, all patients continued ESL throughout the study period. This study demonstrates that patients suffering from OXC-related AEs improve in terms of tolerability after a switch to ESL with maintaining seizure control. This improvement is more pronounced if the OXC-related AEs are most evident following morning dosing of OXC. Transition can be safely executed in an outpatient setting.

  3. [Eslicarbazepine acetate in clinical practice. Efficacy and safety results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Castro, Pedro J; Payán-Ortiz, Manuel; Cimadevilla, José M; Quiroga-Subirana, Pablo; Fernández-Pérez, Javier

    2013-03-16

    INTRODUCTION. Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a new antiepileptic drug (AED) licensed in Spain in February 2011 as an adjunctive therapy in adults with partial seizures with or without secondary generalization. Clinical trials with ESL have demonstrated acceptable efficacy and safety. AIM. To evaluate the results of ESL in our epilepsy unit during its first year of clinical experience with this AED. PATIENTS AND METHODS. We included all patients who started treatment with ESL at our epilepsy unit from March 2011 to May 2012. We collected the following variables: gender, aetiology of epilepsy, epileptogenic area, reason for switch to ESL, clinical response after initiation of ESL, adverse effects of ESL, refractoriness criteria and treatment discontinuation. A bivariate factor-to-factor correlation study was carried out to establish associations between the independent variables and the clinical response. RESULTS. We recruited 105 patients (51.4% male). 20,7% of patients remained seizure-free and 58.4% showed > 50% improvement after introduction of ESL. At 6 months, 18.1% had experienced some type of side effect, with cognitive disorders being the most common, and 11.5% had discontinued treatment. Combination with lacosamide proved to be significantly less effective in the control of seizures. Combination of ESL with the rest of sodium channel inhibitors was similar in efficacy to others combinations. CONCLUSIONS. ESL is a well-tolerated and effective AED when is used as adjunctive treatment with most of other AED in clinical practice.

  4. Eslicarbazepine acetate for the treatment of partial epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelano, Johan; Ben-Menachem, Elinor

    2016-06-01

    Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a third generation AED structurally related to carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine, but without several of the drawbacks associated with these compounds. ESL is completely metabolized to its eslicarbazpine, which selectively binds inactivated voltage-gated sodium channels and thus selectively reduces the activity of rapidly firing (epileptic) neurons. In addition, ESL has pharmacokinetic properties allowing once daily dosing. This review summarizes data from the initial phase I to III studies, which demonstrated efficacy of ESL as add-on treatment in partial onset epilepsy, and more recent studies that demonstrate efficacy of ESL as monotherapy. Real-life observational studies are also reviewed, and seem to confirm the notion of ESL as a well-tolerated AED. As a new AED, ESL needs to be subject to close monitoring regarding long-term adverse events. Future independent studies will most likely clarify the role of ESL in the management of partial onset seizures. The role of ESL in management of partial onset seizures is discussed, as is the need for close monitoring and evaluation for broad-spectrum pharmacodynamics properties. The characteristics of the molecule and efficacy and safety profiles seem, however, very promising.

  5. Successful Pregnancy after Treatment with Ulipristal Acetate for Uterine Fibroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monleón, Javier; Galliano, Daniela; Pellicer, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This case report presents a clinical pregnancy after ulipristal acetate (UA) to decrease uterine fibroid size. A 37-year-old patient, gravida 1, abortus 1, with uterine fibroids was treated with 5 mg of UA daily for 13 weeks starting eight months after a multiple laparotomic myomectomy. Fibroid shrinkage and restoration of the morphology of endometrial cavity were evaluated in order to allow a subsequent pregnancy. A decrease of the uterine fibroids and a normal morphology of the endometrial cavity were noted by transvaginal ultrasound after treatment. An endometrial biopsy excluded histologic endometrial changes. Three months after the end of UA the patient reported amenorrhea for 5 weeks and a clinical pregnancy was confirmed with transvaginal ultrasound. She underwent a subsequent uneventful pregnancy. Thus, the spontaneous pregnancy after UA to reduce fibroid size may support the potential clinical utility of this selective progesterone receptor modulator in the management of women with pregnancy desire and uterine fibroids after a prior myomectomy. Patients who refuse a new surgical procedure and/or those who are going to undergo assisted reproductive techniques would benefit from UA. It effectively shrinks fibroids, avoids risks of a new surgical procedure, and allows an immediate attempt at conception after the end of treatment. PMID:25143845

  6. Metabolic regulation of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry D. Cohen

    2009-11-01

    The phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA, auxin) is important for many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment yet the routes to is biosynthesis and mechanisms for regulation of IAA levels remain important research questions. A critical issue concerning the biosynthesis if IAA in plants is that redundant pathways for IAA biosynthesis exist in plants. We showed that these redundant pathways and their relative contribution to net IAA production are under both developmental and environmental control. We worked on three fundamental problems related to how plants get their IAA: 1) An in vitro biochemical approach was used to define the tryptophan dependent pathway to IAA using maize endosperm, where relatively large amounts of IAA are produced over a short developmental period. Both a stable isotope dilution and a protein MS approach were used to identify intermediates and enzymes in the reactions. 2) We developed an in vitro system for analysis of tryptophan-independent IAA biosynthesis in maize seedlings and we used a metabolite profiling approach to isolate intermediates in this reaction. 3) Arabidopsis contains a small family of genes that encode potential indolepyruvate decarboxylase enzymes. We cloned these genes and studied plants that are mutant in these genes and that over-express each member in the family in terms of the level and route of IAA biosynthesis. Together, these allowed further development of a comprehensive picture of the pathways and regulatory components that are involved in IAA homeostasis in higher plants.

  7. Dynamic modeling of the isoamyl acetate reactive distillation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Syed Sadiq

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The cost-effectiveness of reactive distillation (RD processes makes them highly attractive for industrial applications. However, their preliminary design and subsequent scale-up and operation are challenging. Specifically, the response of RD system during fluctuations in process parameters is of paramount importance to ensure the stability of the whole process. As a result of carrying out simulations using Aspen Plus, it is shown that the RD process for isoamyl acetate production was much more economical than conventional reactor distillation configuration under optimized process conditions due to lower utilities consumption, higher conversion and smaller sizes of condenser and reboiler. Rigorous dynamic modeling of RD system was performed to evaluate its sensitivity to disturbances in critical process parameters; the product flow was quite sensitive to disturbances. Even more sensitive was product composition when the disturbance in heat duties of condenser or reboiler led to a temperature decrease. However, positive disturbance in alcohol feed is of particular concern, which clearly made the system unstable.

  8. Low power gas sensor array on flexible acetate substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Samatha; Basu, Palash Kumar; Bhat, Navakanta

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach of fabricating a low-cost and low power gas sensor array on flexible acetate sheets for sensing CO, SO2, H2 and NO2 gases. The array has four sensor elements with an integrated microheater which can be individually controlled enabling the monitoring of four gases. The thermal properties of the microheater characterized by IR imaging are presented. The microheater with an active area of 15 µm  ×  5 µm reaches a temperature of 300 °C, consuming 2 mW power, the lowest reported on flexible substrates. A sensing electrode is patterned on top of the microheater, and a nanogap (100 nm) is created by an electromigration process. This nanogap is bridged by four sensing materials doped with platinum, deposited using a solution dispensing technique. The sensing material characterization is completed using energy dispersive x-ray analysis. The sensing characteristics of ZnO for CO, V2O5 for SO2, SnO2 for H2 and WO3 for NO2 gases are studied at different microheater voltages. The sensing characteristics of ZnO at different bending angles is also studied, which shows that the microheater and the sensing material are intact without any breaking upto a bending angle of 20°. The ZnO CO sensor shows sensitivity of 146.2% at 1 ppm with good selectivity.

  9. Emulsion polymerization of vinyl acetate initiated by intermittent. gamma. radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundardi, F.

    1979-08-15

    The reaction kinetics of emulsion polymerization of vinyl acetate (VAc) monomer have been studied by using intermittent ..gamma.. radiation. The purpose of this technique is to take advantage of the polymerization reaction which still continues after the radiation production has been stopped, as expected by the Smith-Ewart rate theory. Tween 20 (polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate), was used as the emulsifier. The polymer conversion was determined by using the dilatometric method. The polymerization rate R/sub p/ decreased with increase in emulsifier content. The Smith-Ewart rate theory cannot explain the experimental evidence satisfactorily. The average polymerization rate anti R/sub p/ between 20% and 80% conversion is a function of irradiation dose rate and can be written anti R/sub p/ = a/sub 1/I/sup a2/ where a/sub 1/ and a/sub 2/ is a constant in which the value depends on the emulsifier content in the emulsion and I is the irradiation dose rate.

  10. Investigation of polyvinylchloride and cellulose acetate blend membranes for desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gendi, Ayman; Abdallah, Heba; Amin, Ashraf; Amin, Shereen Kamel

    2017-10-01

    The pollution of water resources, severe climate changes, rapid population growth, increasing agricultural demands, and rapid industrialization insist the development of innovative technologies for generating potable water. Polyvinylchloride/cellulose acetate (PVC/CA) membranes were prepared using phase inversion technique for seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO). The membrane performance was investigated using Red Sea water (El-Ein El-Sokhna-Egypt). The membrane performance indicated that the prepared membranes were endowed to work under high pressure; increasing in feeding operating pressure led to increase permeate flux and rejection. Increasing feed operating pressure from zero to 40 bar led to increase in the salt rejection percent. Salt rejection percent reached to 99.99% at low feed concentration 5120 ppm and 99.95% for Red Sea water (38,528 ppm). The prepared membranes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrophotometry, and mechanical properties. SEM, FTIR and mechanical results were used to distinguish the best membrane for desalination. According to characterization results, one prepared membrane was selected to run performance test in desalination testing unit. The membrane (M3) showed excellent performance and stability under different operating conditions and during the durability test for 36 days.

  11. Metabolic response to glatiramer acetate therapy in multiple sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia De Riccardis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Glatiramer acetate (GA; Copaxone is a random copolymer of glutamic acid, lysine, alanine, and tyrosine used for the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS. Its mechanism of action has not been already fully elucidated, but it seems that GA has an immune-modulatory effect and neuro-protective properties. Lymphocyte mitochondrial dysfunction underlines the onset of several autoimmune disorders. In MS first diagnosis patients, CD4+, the main T cell subset involved in the pathogenesis of MS, undergo a metabolic reprogramming that consist in the up-regulation of glycolysis and in the down-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation. Currently, no works exist about CD4+ T cell metabolism in response to GA treatment. In order to provide novel insight into the potential use of GA in MS treatment, blood samples were collected from 20 healthy controls (HCs and from 20 RR MS patients prior and every 6 months during the 12 months of GA administration. GA treated patients' CD4+ T cells were compared with those from HCs analysing their mitochondrial activity through polarographic and enzymatic methods in association with their antioxidant status, through the analysis of SOD, GPx and CAT activities. Altogether, our findings suggest that GA is able to reduce CD4+ T lymphocytes' dysfunctions by increasing mitochondrial activity and their response to oxidative stress.

  12. Melengestrol acetate alters muscle cell proliferation in heifers and steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sissom, E K; Reinhardt, C D; Johnson, B J

    2006-11-01

    In vitro experiments were performed to investigate the effects of melengestrol acetate (MGA) or progesterone (P4) on bovine muscle satellite cells and C2C12 myoblasts. Addition of MGA at physiological and supraphysiological concentrations resulted in a dose-dependent decrease (P < 0.05) in DNA synthesis as measured by [3H]-thymidine incorporation (TI). Similarly, P4 addition (0.01 nM) reduced (P < 0.05) TI. Addition of MGA (10 nM) increased (P < 0.05) IGF-I mRNA abundance but did not affect myogenin mRNA. Progesterone addition (10 nM) increased myogenin mRNA abundance (P < 0.05). In C2C12 cultures, P4 addition resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in TI. The antiprogestin RU486, in combination with MGA or P4, also resulted in reduced (P < 0.05) TI. Treatment with RU486 alone had a negative effect (P < 0.05) on TI that was similar to the progestins. Treatment of C2C12 myoblasts with MGA (100 nM) resulted in an increase (P < 0.05) in myogenin mRNA. These studies suggest that progestins may reduce satellite cell proliferation, ultimately affecting carcass composition.

  13. Antimicrobial Lemongrass Essential Oil—Copper Ferrite Cellulose Acetate Nanocapsules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis L. Liakos

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose acetate (CA nanoparticles were combined with two antimicrobial agents, namely lemongrass (LG essential oil and Cu-ferrite nanoparticles. The preparation method of CA nanocapsules (NCs, with the two antimicrobial agents, was based on the nanoprecipitation method using the solvent/anti-solvent technique. Several physical and chemical analyses were performed to characterize the resulting NCs and to study their formation mechanism. The size of the combined antimicrobial NCs was found to be ca. 220 nm. The presence of Cu-ferrites enhanced the attachment of LG essential oil into the CA matrix. The magnetic properties of the combined construct were weak, due to the shielding of Cu-ferrites from the polymeric matrix, making them available for drug delivery applications where spontaneous magnetization effects should be avoided. The antimicrobial properties of the NCs were significantly enhanced with respect to CA/LG only. This work opens novel routes for the development of organic/inorganic nanoparticles with exceptional antimicrobial activities.

  14. The Cost-Effectiveness of Emergency Hormonal Contraception with Ulipristal Acetate versus Levonorgestrel for Minors in France: e0138990

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ramona Schmid

    2015-01-01

      Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of ulipristal acetate and levonorgestrel in minors in France, and analyze whether it is worthwhile to provide ulipristal acetate to minors free of charge...

  15. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2004-06-22

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  16. A low frequency assignment for infrared and Raman spectra of (+)-bornyl acetate using related compounds and deuterated derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S. B.; Hammaker, R. M.; Fateley, W. G.

    Twenty-one fundamentals of (+)-bornyl acetate and nine deuterium substituted modifications (2- d1; 3,3- d2; 2,3,3- d3; acetate- d3; 2- d1 acetate- d3; 3,3- d2 acetate- d3; 2,3,3- d3 acetate- d3; 10- d1; 10,10,10- d3) as well as (-)-isobornyl-1-10,10.10- d3 acetate have been assigned between 200 and 850cm -1. These results supplement the previous assignment of nineteen fundamentals of (-)-isobornyl acetate and seven deuterium substituted modifications (2- d1,; 3,3- d2; 2,3,3- d3; acetate- d3; 2- d1 acetate- d3; 3,3- d2 acetate- d3; 2,3,3- d3 acetate- d3) between 200 and 900cm -1 [8]. These fundamentals are: skeletal vibrations of the quaternary carbons, ring breathing, bending, and twisting vibrations, and vibrations of the acetate group. Key model compounds used in this analysis are norbornane, neopentane, methyl acetate, cyclopentanol, and the (-)-isobornyl acetate system. A series of related compounds (norbornane, bornane, endo-norbomyl acetate, 1-methyl-endo-norbornyl acetate, apobornyl acetate, and (+)-bornyl acetate) is used to identify frequencies associated with the quaternary carbon and the acetate group. Raman spectra are more useful for the quaternary carbon frequencies and i.r. spectra are more useful for acetate group frequencies. Four exo stereoisomer alcohols (1-methyl-exo-norborneol, 1-methy d3-exonorborneoI, apoisoborneol, (-)-isoborneol) and three endo stereoisomer alcohols (1-methyl-endo-norborneol, apoborneol, (+)-borneol) serve as model compounds for a modification of the earlier assignment [8] for the skeletal stretching of the quaternary carbons in the (-)-isobornyl acetate system and extension of this modified assignment to the (+)-bornyl acetate system. Quaternary carbon symmetric skeletal stretching is believed to be responsible for prominent Raman bands between 580 and 680cm -1 in the 36 bicyclic ring compounds investigated to date. Fermi resonance is proposed as the explanation for a number of unexpected intensity patterns observed in the

  17. The influence of surface oxygen and hydroxyl groups on the dehydrogenation of ethylene, acetic acid and hydrogenated vinyl acetate on pure Pd(1 0 0): A DFT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yanping [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, R& D Center for Petrochemical Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering, Tianjin 300072 (China); Dong, Xiuqin [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, R& D Center for Petrochemical Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Yu, Yingzhe, E-mail: yzhyu@tju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, R& D Center for Petrochemical Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China); Zhang, Minhua, E-mail: mhzhangtj@163.com [Key Laboratory for Green Chemical Technology of Ministry of Education, R& D Center for Petrochemical Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • All dehydrogenation reactions in vinyl acetate synthesis on Pd(1 0 0) were studied. • The energy barriers of the transition state of the three reactions were calculated. • The influence of surface Os and OHs on all dehydrogenation actions was discussed. - Abstract: On the basis of a Langmuir–Hinshelwood-type mechanism, the dehydrogenation of ethylene, acetic acid and hydrogenated vinyl acetate (VAH) on pure Pd(1 0 0) with surface oxygen atoms (Os) and hydroxyl groups (OHs) was studied with density functional theory (DFT) method. Our calculation results show that both Os and OHs can consistently reduce the activation energies of dehydrogenation of ethylene, acetic acid and VAH to some degree with only one exception that OHs somehow increase the activation energy of VAH. Based on Langmuir–Hinshelwood mechanism, the three dehydrogenation reactions in presence of surface Os and OHs are almost consistently favored, compared with the corresponding processes on clean Pd(1 0 0) surfaces, and thus a Langmuir–Hinshelwood-type mechanism may not be excluded beforehand when investigating the microscopic performance of the oxygen-assisted vinyl acetate synthesis on Pd(1 0 0) catalysts.

  18. Pb(II) and Zn(II) adsorption onto Na- and Ca-montmorillonites in acetic acid/acetate medium: experimental approach and geochemical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayaza, Mariem; Le Forestier, Lydie; Muller, Fabrice; Tournassat, Christophe; Beny, Jean-Michel

    2011-09-01

    Smectites are usually used as a clay barrier at the bottom of subsurface waste landfills due to their low permeability and their capacity to retain pollutants. The Na- and Ca-saturated SWy2 montmorillonites were interacted with initial Zn(NO(3))(2) or Pb(NO(3))(2) concentrations ranging from 10(-6) to 10(-2)M with a solid/liquid ratio of 10 g L(-1) and using acetic acid/acetate as buffer at pH 5 in order to reproduce a biodegradable leachate of a young landfill. These experiments revealed that Zn and Pb sorption onto Na-SWy2 is higher than that onto Ca-SWy2 in the whole range of concentrations. Metal retention into both montmorillonites increases with the decrease in acetic acid/acetate concentration. The two-site protolysis model with no electrostatic term (2SPNE model) was used to model these experiments. As the experimental data of Zn sorption were well fitted, this model was validated and has been improved by taking into account the metal-acetate complexation in solution. In order to validate the model for Pb sorption, new selectivity coefficients have been determined, namely logK(c)(PbNa)=0.5 for Na-montmorillonite and logK(c)(PbCa)=0.3 for Ca-montmorillonite. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Lipase of Aspergillus niger NCIM 1207: A Potential Biocatalyst for Synthesis of Isoamyl Acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhetras, Nutan; Patil, Sonal; Gokhale, Digambar

    2010-10-01

    Commercial lipase preparations and mycelium bound lipase from Aspergillus niger NCIM 1207 were used for esterification of acetic acid with isoamyl alcohol to obtain isoamyl acetate. The esterification reaction was carried out at 30°C in n-hexane with shaking at 120 rpm. Initial reaction rates, conversion efficiency and isoamyl acetate concentration obtained using Novozyme 435 were the highest. Mycelium bound lipase of A. niger NCIM 1207 produced maximal isoamyl acetate formation at an alcohol/acid ratio of 1.6. Acetic acid at higher concentrations than required for the critical alcohol/acid ratio lower than 1.3 and higher than 1.6 resulted in decreased yields of isoamyl acetate probably owing to lowering of micro-aqueous environmental pH around the enzyme leading to inhibition of enzyme activity. Mycelium bound A. niger lipase produced 80 g/l of isoamyl acetate within 96 h even though extremely less amount of enzyme activity was used for esterification. The presence of sodium sulphate during esterification reaction at higher substrate concentration resulted in increased conversion efficiency when we used mycelium bound enzyme preparations of A. niger NCIM 1207. This could be due to removal of excess water released during esterification reaction by sodium sulphate. High ester concentration (286.5 g/l) and conversion (73.5%) were obtained within 24 h using Novozyme 435 under these conditions.

  20. Kelp waste extracts combined with acetate enhances the biofuel characteristics of Chlorella sorokiniana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shiyan; He, Meilin; Sui, Yangsui; Gebreluel, Temesgen; Zou, Shanmei; Kemuma, Nyabuto Dorothy; Wang, Changhai

    2017-02-01

    To probe the effect of kelp waste extracts (KWE) combined with acetate on biochemical composition of Chlorella sorokiniana, the cultures were performed under independent/combined treatment of KWE and acetate. The results showed that high cell density and biomass were obtained by KWE combined with acetate treatments, whose biomass productivity increased by 79.69-102.57% and 20.04-35.32% compared with 3.0gL-1 acetate and KWE treatments respectively. The maximal neutral lipid per cell and lipid productivity were gained in KWE combined with 3.0gL-1 acetate treatment, which increased by 16.32% and 129.03% compared with 3.0gL-1 acetate, and 253.35% and 70.74% compared with KWE treatment. Meanwhile, C18:3n3 and C18:2n6c contents were reduced to 4.90% and 11.88%, whereas C16:0 and C18:1n9c were improved to 28.71% and 37.76%. Hence, supplementing appropriate acetate in KWE cultures is supposed to be a great potential method for large-scale cultivation of C. sorokiniana to generate biofuel. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Acetic Acid Acts as a Volatile Signal To Stimulate Bacterial Biofilm Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yun; Gozzi, Kevin; Yan, Fang

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Volatiles are small air-transmittable chemicals with diverse biological activities. In this study, we showed that volatiles produced by the bacterium Bacillus subtilis had a profound effect on biofilm formation of neighboring B. subtilis cells that grew in proximity but were physically separated. We further demonstrated that one such volatile, acetic acid, is particularly potent in stimulating biofilm formation. Multiple lines of genetic evidence based on B. subtilis mutants that are defective in either acetic acid production or transportation suggest that B. subtilis uses acetic acid as a metabolic signal to coordinate the timing of biofilm formation. Lastly, we investigated how B. subtilis cells sense and respond to acetic acid in regulating biofilm formation. We showed the possible involvement of three sets of genes (ywbHG, ysbAB, and yxaKC), all encoding putative holin-antiholin-like proteins, in cells responding to acetic acid and stimulating biofilm formation. All three sets of genes were induced by acetate. A mutant with a triple mutation of those genes showed a severe delay in biofilm formation, whereas a strain overexpressing ywbHG showed early and robust biofilm formation. Results of our studies suggest that B. subtilis and possibly other bacteria use acetic acid as a metabolic signal to regulate biofilm formation as well as a quorum-sensing-like airborne signal to coordinate the timing of biofilm formation by physically separated cells in the community. PMID:26060272

  2. [Physiological response to acetic acid stress of Acetobacter pasteuranus during vinegar fermentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Zhengliang; Yang, Hailin; Xia, Xiaole; Wang, Wu; Leng, Yunwei; Yu, Xiaobin; Quan, Wu

    2014-03-04

    The aim of the study is to propose a dynamic acetic acid resistance mechanism through analysis on response of cellular morphology, physiology and metabolism of A. pasteurianus CICIM B7003 during vinegar fermentation. Vinegar fermentation was carried out in a Frings 9 L acetator by strain B7003 and cultures were sampled at different cellular growth phases. Simultaneously, percentage of capsular polysaccharide versus dry cells weight, ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids, transcription of acetic acid resistance genes, activity of alcohol respiratory chain enzymes and ATPase were detected for these samples to assay the responses of bacterial morphology, physiology and metabolism. When acetic acid was existed, no obvious capsular polysaccharide was secreted by cells. As vinegar fermentation proceeding, percentage of capsular polysaccharide versus dry cells weight was reduced from 2.5% to 0.89%. Ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids was increased obviously which can improve membrane fluidity. Also transcription level of acetic acid resistance genes was promoted. Interestingly, activity of alcohol respiratory chain and ATPase was not inhibited but promoted obviously with acetic acid accumulation which could provide enough energy for acetic acid resistance mechanism. On the basis of the results obtained from the experiment, A. pasteurianus CICIM B7003 relies mainly on the cooperation of changes of extracellular capsular polysaccharide and membrane fatty acids, activation of acid resistance genes transcription, enhancement of activity of alcohol respiratory chain and rapid energy production to tolerate acidic environment.

  3. Acetic acid in aged vinegar affects molecular targets for thrombus disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Li; Yanyan, Zhang; Junfeng, Fan

    2015-08-01

    To elucidate the mechanism underlying the action of dietary vinegar on antithrombotic activity, acetic acid, the main acidic component of dietary vinegar, was used to determine antiplatelet and fibrinolytic activity. The results revealed that acetic acid significantly inhibits adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-, collagen-, thrombin-, and arachidonic acid (AA)-induced platelet aggregation. Acetic acid (2.00 mM) reduced AA-induced platelet aggregation to approximately 36.82 ± 1.31%, and vinegar (0.12 mL L(-1)) reduced the platelet aggregation induced by AA to 30.25 ± 1.34%. Further studies revealed that acetic acid exerts its effects by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-1 and the formation of thromboxane-A2. Organic acids including acetic acid, formic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, and malic acid also showed fibrinolytic activity; specifically, the fibrinolytic activity of acetic acid amounted to 1.866 IU urokinase per mL. Acetic acid exerted its fibrinolytic activity by activating plasminogen during fibrin crossing, thus leading to crosslinked fibrin degradation by the activated plasmin. These results suggest that organic acids in dietary vinegar play important roles in the prevention and cure of cardiovascular diseases.

  4. Comparison of acetic acid and ethanol sclerotherapy for simple renal cysts: clinical experience with 86 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young Jun; Shin, Ji Hoon

    2016-01-01

    To compare the efficacy and treatment session numbers of acetic acid to that of ethanol sclerotherapy for the treatment of simple renal cysts. Between February 2004 and June 2013, 86 patients with simple renal cysts underwent percutaneous aspiration and injection of 50 %-acetic-acid (42 cysts) and 95 %-ethanol (44 cysts). The patient demographics, volume reduction rate, number of treatment sessions, and complications were then analyzed. The volume reduction rate was 94.1 ± 7.6 % in the 50 %-acetic acid group and 94.7 ± 11.7 % in the 95 %-ethanol group, and without a statistical difference. The rates of complete remission, partial remission, and no response were 57.1, 42.9 and 0 %, respectively, for the acetic acid group, and 70.5, 25.0, and 4.5 %, respectively, for the ethanol group. No statistical difference was observed between the two groups. Compared to the acetic acid group, the ethanol group had a higher number of treatment sessions, i.e. 1.10 ± 0.30 in the acetic acid group and 1.80 ± 0.79 in the ethanol group. Mild flank pain was a minor complication that occurred in both groups. Acetic acid seems to have equivalent sclerosing effects on simple renal cysts compared with those of ethanol despites of fewer treatment sessions.

  5. Protective effects of piperine on lead acetate induced-nephrotoxicity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Agus Sudjarwo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: In this study, we investigated the protective effects of piperine on lead acetate-induced renal damage in rat kidney tissue. Materials and Methods: Forty male rats were divided into 5 groups: negative control (rats were given aquadest daily, positive control (rats were given lead acetate 30 mg/kg BW orally once a day for 60 days, and the treatment group (rats were given piperine 50 mg; 100 mg and 200 mg/kg BW orally once a day for 65 days, and on 5th day, were given lead acetate 30 mg/kg BW one hr after piperine administration for 60 days. On day 65 levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN, creatinine, malondialdehyde (MDA, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD, and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx were measured. Also, kidney samples were collected for histopathological studies. Results: The results revealed that lead acetate toxicity induced a significant increase in the levels of BUN, creatinine, and MDA; moreover, a significant decrease in SOD and GPx. Lead acetate also altered kidney histopathology (kidney damage, necrosis of tubules compared to the negative control. However, administration of piperine significantly improved the kidney histopathology, decreased the levels of BUN, creatinine, and MDA, and also significantly increased the SOD and GPx in the kidney of lead acetate-treated rats. Conclusion: From the results of this study it was concluded that piperine could be a potent natural herbal product exhibiting nephroprotective effect against lead acetate induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

  6. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of clove essential oil and eugenyl acetate produced by enzymatic esterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanin, Adriana B; Orlando, Tainara; Piazza, Suelen P; Puton, Bruna M S; Cansian, Rogério L; Oliveira, Debora; Paroul, Natalia

    2014-10-01

    This work reports the maximization of eugenyl acetate production by esterification of essential oil of clove in a solvent-free system using Novozym 435 as catalyst. The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of clove essential oil and eugenyl acetate produced were determined. The conditions that maximized eugenyl acetate production were 60 °C, essential oil of clove to acetic anhydride ratio of 1:5, 150 rpm, and 10 wt% of enzyme, with a conversion of 99.87 %. A kinetic study was performed to assess the influence of substrates' molar ratio, enzyme concentration, and temperature on product yield. Results show that an excess of anhydride, enzyme concentration of 5.5 wt%, 50 °C, and essential oil of clove to acetic anhydride ratio of 1:5 afforded nearly a complete conversion after 2 h of reaction. Comparing the antibacterial activity of the essential oil of clove before and after esterification, we observed a decrease in the antimicrobial activity of eugenyl acetate, particularly with regard to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Both eugenyl acetate and clove essential oil were most effective to the gram-negative than gram-positive bacteria group. The results showed a high antioxidant potential for essential oil before and particularly after the esterification reaction thus becoming an option for the formulation of new antioxidant products.

  7. Normal Uptake of 11C-Acetate in Pancreas, Liver, Spleen, and Suprarenal Gland in PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Malkowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. C11-Acetate is radiotracer being considered an alternative to 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose. Evaluation of C11-acetate biodistribution in human parenchymal organs is described. Methods and Materials. 60 consecutive patients referred to C11-acetate PET CT suspected of renal or prostate cancer relapse with negative results (no recurrent tumor were included in the study. Acquisition from the base of skull to upper thigh was made 20 min after i.v. injection of 720 MBq of C11-acetate. The distribution was evaluated by measuring the uptake in pancreas (uncinate process and body separately, liver, spleen, and left suprarenal gland. Clinical data of included patients showed no abnormalities in these organs. Results. Biodistributions of C11-acetate radiotracer were compared in different organs. Standardized uptake values of 11C-acetate were significantly higher in pancreatic parenchyma (SUV mean 6,4 than in liver (SUV mean 3,3, spleen (SUV mean 4,5, or suprarenal gland (SUV mean 2,7 tissues. No significant difference was found between pancreatic head (SUV mean 6,4 and body (SUV mean 5,9 uptake. In case of all aforementioned organs, there were no differences either between both sexes or between formerly diagnosed tumors (renal and prostate. Conclusions. Evaluation of C11-acetate uptake differences in parenchymal organs will allow establishing normal patterns of distribution. High pancreatic uptake may be used in quantitative assessment of organ function in diffuse nonneoplastic pathology.

  8. The anti-inflammatory effects of Caragana tangutica ethyl acetate extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiaofeng; Li, Yongmei; Li, Weifeng; Hu, Hua; Yao, Huan; Li, Huani; Mu, Qingli

    2014-02-27

    Caragana tangutica KOM has been used to treat arthritis, wounds, fever and other disease conditions in traditional Chinese medicine (TMC). To support the application of the plant in traditional Chinese medicine by investigating the anti-inflammatory effects of the ethyl acetate extract of Caragana tangutica. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by animal models including xylene-induced ear edema in mice, carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats, acetic acid induced writhing in mice and LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI). The anti-inflammatory mechanism was evaluated by detecting prostaglandin E2 and immunohistochemistry expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) using an EIA assay kit and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The results showed that the xylene-induced ear edema in mice was significantly reduced by the ethyl acetate extract at dosages of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg, and the carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats was monitored to be reduced by the ethyl acetate extract 3h after carrageenan injection. The ethyl acetate extract was also found to reduce the inflammation pain of acetic acid-induced writhing model in a dose-dependent manner and cause reduction of the ALI in mice through the inhibition of the release of PGE2 and the LPS-induced COX-2 expression in the lung. Our study demonstrates that the ethyl acetate extract of the plant can help to reduce inflammations by inhibiting the expression of COX-2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Acetate formation in the energy metabolism of parasitic helminths and protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tielens, Aloysius G M; van Grinsven, Koen W A; Henze, Katrin; van Hellemond, Jaap J; Martin, William

    2010-03-15

    Formation and excretion of acetate as a metabolic end product of energy metabolism occurs in many protist and helminth parasites, such as the parasitic helminths Fasciola hepatica, Haemonchus contortus and Ascaris suum, and the protist parasites, Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica, Trichomonas vaginalis as well as Trypanosoma and Leishmania spp. In all of these parasites acetate is a main end product of their energy metabolism, whereas acetate formation does not occur in their mammalian hosts. Acetate production might therefore harbour novel targets for the development of new anti-parasitic drugs. In parasites, acetate is produced from acetyl-CoA by two different reactions, both involving substrate level phosphorylation, that are catalysed by either a cytosolic acetyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) or an organellar acetate:succinate CoA-transferase (ASCT). The ACS reaction is directly coupled to ATP synthesis, whereas the ASCT reaction yields succinyl-CoA for ATP formation via succinyl-CoA synthetase (SCS). Based on recent work on the ASCTs of F. hepatica, T. vaginalis and Trypanosoma brucei we suggest the existence of three subfamilies of enzymes within the CoA-transferase family I. Enzymes of these three subfamilies catalyse the ASCT reaction in eukaryotes via the same mechanism, but the subfamilies share little sequence homology. The CoA-transferases of the three subfamilies are all present inside ATP-producing organelles of parasites, those of subfamily IA in the mitochondria of trypanosomatids, subfamily IB in the mitochondria of parasitic worms and subfamily IC in hydrogenosome-bearing parasites. Together with the recent characterisation among non-parasitic protists of yet a third route of acetate formation involving acetate kinase (ACK) and phosphotransacetylase (PTA) that was previously unknown among eukaryotes, these recent developments provide a good opportunity to have a closer look at eukaryotic acetate formation. (c) 2010 Australian Society for Parasitology

  10. Identification of Syntrophobacteraceae as major acetate-degrading sulfate reducing bacteria in Italian paddy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pengfei; Pommerenke, Bianca; Conrad, Ralf

    2018-01-01

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas and acetate is the most important intermediate (average 70%) of the carbon flow to CH4 in paddy fields. Sulfate (e.g., gypsum) application can reduce CH4 emissions up to 70%. However, the effect of gypsum application on acetate degradation and the microbial communities involved are unclear. Therefore, we studied acetate-dependent sulfate reduction in anoxic microcosms of Italian rice paddy soil, combining profiling of 16S rRNA and dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrB) genes and transcripts and rRNA based stable isotope probing (SIP) analysis. Methane production was completely inhibited by gypsum in the absence of exogenous acetate. Amended acetate (either 13 C labelled or non-labelled) was stoichiometrically coupled to sulfate reduction or CH4 production. With methyl fluoride in the presence of sulfate, added propionate and butyrate were incompletely oxidized to acetate, which transiently accumulated. After the depletion of propionate and butyrate the accumulated acetate was rapidly consumed. The relative abundance of dsrB and 16S rRNA genes and transcripts from Syntrophobacteraceae (Desulfovirga spp., Syntrophobacter spp. and unclassified Syntrophobacteraceae) increased upon addition of gypsum and acetate. Simultaneously, Syntrophobacteraceae affiliated species were significantly labelled with 13 C. In addition, minor groups like Desulforhabdus spp., Desulfobacca spp. and Desulfotomaculum spp. substantially incorporated 13 C into their nucleic acids. The relative abundance of Desulfovibrio spp. slightly increased upon gypsum amendments. However, 13 C labelling of Desulfovibrio spp. was only moderate. In summary, Syntrophobacteraceae affiliated species were identified as the major acetotrophic sulfate reducers (SRB) in Italian paddy soil. The identification of these SRB as dominant acetate degraders well explained the scenarios of competition between SRB and acetoclastic methanogens as observed in rice paddy soil. © 2017

  11. Coupling glucose fermentation and homoacetogenesis for elevated acetate production: Experimental and mathematical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Liu, He; Nie, Yan-Qiu; Zeng, Raymond J; Du, Guo-Cheng; Chen, Jian; Yu, Han-Qing

    2011-02-01

    Homoacetogenesis is an important potential hydrogen sink in acetogenesis, in which hydrogen is used to reduce carbon dioxide to acetate. So far the acetate production from homoacetogenesis, especially its kinetics, has not been given sufficient attention. In this work, enhanced production of acetate from anaerobic conversion of glucose through coupling glucose fermentation and homoacetogenesis is investigated with both experimental and mathematical approaches. Experiments are conducted to explore elevated acetate production in a coupled anaerobic system. Acetate production could be achieved by homoacetogenesis with a relative high acetate yield under mixed fermentation conditions. With the experimental observations, a kinetic model is formulated to describe such a homoacetogenic process. The maximum homoacetogenic rate (k(m,homo)) is estimated to be 28.5 ± 1.7 kg COD kg⁻¹ COD day⁻¹ with an uptake affinity constant of 3.7 × 10⁻⁵± 3.1 × 10⁻⁶kg COD m⁻³. The improved calculation of homoacetogenic kinetics by our approach could correct the underestimation of homoacetogenesis in anaerobic fermentation processes, as it often occurs in these systems supported by literature analysis. The model predictions match the experimental results in different cases well and provide insights into the dynamics of anaerobic glucose conversion and acetate production. Furthermore, acetate production via homoacetogenesis increases by about 40% through utilizing the fed-batch coupling system, attributed to a balance between the hydrogen production in the acetogenesis phase and the hydrogen consumption in the homoacetogenesis phase. This work provides an effective way for increased anaerobic acetate production, and gives us a better understanding about the homoacetogenic kinetics in the anaerobic fermentation process. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Synthesis of a wide range of thioethers by indium triiodide catalyzed direct coupling between alkyl acetates and thiosilanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimoto, Yoshihiro; Okita, Aya; Yasuda, Makoto; Baba, Akio

    2012-04-06

    An indium triiodide-catalyzed substitution of the acetoxy group in alkyl acetates with thiosilanes provides access to a variety of thioethers. The method is efficient for a wide scope of acetates such as primary alkyl, secondary alkyl, tertiary alkyl, allylic, benzylic, and propargylic acetates.

  13. Improved Acetic Acid Resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Overexpression of the WHI2 Gene Identified through Inverse Metabolic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yingying; Stabryla, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Development of acetic acid-resistant Saccharomyces cerevisiae is important for economically viable production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass, but the goal remains a critical challenge due to limited information on effective genetic perturbation targets for improving acetic acid resistance in the yeast. This study employed a genomic-library-based inverse metabolic engineering approach to successfully identify a novel gene target, WHI2 (encoding a cytoplasmatic globular scaffold protein), which elicited improved acetic acid resistance in S. cerevisiae. Overexpression of WHI2 significantly improved glucose and/or xylose fermentation under acetic acid stress in engineered yeast. The WHI2-overexpressing strain had 5-times-higher specific ethanol productivity than the control in glucose fermentation with acetic acid. Analysis of the expression of WHI2 gene products (including protein and transcript) determined that acetic acid induced endogenous expression of Whi2 in S. cerevisiae. Meanwhile, the whi2Δ mutant strain had substantially higher susceptibility to acetic acid than the wild type, suggesting the important role of Whi2 in the acetic acid response in S. cerevisiae. Additionally, overexpression of WHI2 and of a cognate phosphatase gene, PSR1, had a synergistic effect in improving acetic acid resistance, suggesting that Whi2 might function in combination with Psr1 to elicit the acetic acid resistance mechanism. These results improve our understanding of the yeast response to acetic acid stress and provide a new strategy to breed acetic acid-resistant yeast strains for renewable biofuel production. PMID:26826231

  14. 40 CFR 721.304 - Acetic acid, [(5-chloro-8-quinolinyl)oxy-], 1-methyl hexyl ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester... Substances § 721.304 Acetic acid, , 1-methyl hexyl ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as acetic acid, -, 1-methylhexyl ester (PMN P...

  15. Polygenic analysis and targeted improvement of the complex trait of high acetic acid tolerance in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijnen, Jean-Paul; Randazzo, Paola; Foulquié-Moreno, María R; van den Brink, Joost; Vandecruys, Paul; Stojiljkovic, Marija; Dumortier, Françoise; Zalar, Polona; Boekhout, Teun; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina; Kokošar, Janez; Štajdohar, Miha; Curk, Tomaž; Petrovič, Uroš; Thevelein, Johan M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acetic acid is one of the major inhibitors in lignocellulose hydrolysates used for the production of second-generation bioethanol. Although several genes have been identified in laboratory yeast strains that are required for tolerance to acetic acid, the genetic basis of the high acetic

  16. A new laboratory evolution approach to select for constitutive acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and identification of causal mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Gonz?lez-Ramos, Daniel; Gorter de Vries, Arthur R.; Grijseels, Sietske S.; van Berkum, Margo C.; Swinnen, Steve; van den Broek, Marcel; Nevoigt, Elke; Daran, Jean-Marc G.; Pronk, Jack T.; van Maris, Antonius J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acetic acid, released during hydrolysis of lignocellulosic feedstocks for second generation bioethanol production, inhibits yeast growth and alcoholic fermentation. Yeast biomass generated in a propagation step that precedes ethanol production should therefore express a high and constitutive level of acetic acid tolerance before introduction into lignocellulosic hydrolysates. However, earlier laboratory evolution strategies for increasing acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cere...

  17. Endometrial Effects of Prolonged Therapy with the Selective Progesterone Receptor Modulator Ulipristal Acetate: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Gary; Elkas, John; Armstrong, Alicia Y; Nieman, Lynnette K

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to a selective progesterone receptor modulator (ulipristal acetate) in a patient with benign metastasizing leiomyoma did not result in endometrial hyperplasia or neoplasia. A woman with history of benign metastasizing leiomyoma underwent medical treatment for 5 years with ulipristal acetate. Endometrial biopsies were performed at established intervals to monitor for intraepithelial neoplasia or progesterone receptor modulator-associated endometrial changes (PAECs). The patient tolerated UPA therapy well; there was no evidence of hyperplasia or proliferative changes associated with progesterone-associated endometrial changes. In this case prolonged exposure to ulipristal acetate did not result in premalignant or malignant endometrial pathology.

  18. Process for the preparation of protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal and derivatives thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, R.I.; Wang, G.

    2000-03-21

    This application describes a process for producing protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal, particularly in chiral forms, for use as an intermediate in the preparation of various 3-carbon compounds which are chiral. In particular, the present invention relates to the process for preparation of 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane isopropylidene acetal. The protected 3-amino-1,2-dihydroxypropane acetal is a key intermediate to the preparation of chiral 3-carbon compounds which in turn are intermediates to various pharmaceuticals.

  19. A NOVEL POLYACRYLAMIDE-BASED HYDROGEL CROSSLINKED WITH CELLULOSE ACETATE AND PREPARED BY PRECIPITATION POLYMERIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén O. Muñoz-García

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of polyacrylamide-cellulose acetate hydrogels by precipitation polymerization in acetone solution is reported herein. These hydrogels exhibit smaller swelling ratios and larger compression moduli than homo polyacrylamide hydrogels. For cellulose acetate concentrations above 20 wt.%, hydrogels with N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide as a crosslinker exhibit swelling ratios and compression moduli similar to those of the hydrogels without the crosslinker. A possible explanation for this behavior is that cellulose acetate crosslinks polyacrylamide via free-radical reaction. The hydrogels obtained without the N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide crosslinker exhibit compression moduli up to 1.7 MPa, making them suitable for tissue engineering applications such as cartilage replacement.

  20. Kinetics of acetic acid synthesis from ethanol over a Cu/SiO2 catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss, Bodil; Schjødt, Niels Christian; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk

    2011-01-01

    . The dehydrogenation experiments were carried out in a flow through lab scale tubular reactor. Based on 71 data sets a power law kinetic expression has been derived for the description of the dehydrogenation of acetaldehyde to acetic acid. The apparent reaction order was 0.89 with respect to water and 0......The dehydrogenation of ethanol via acetaldehyde for the synthesis of acetic acid over a Cu based catalyst in a new process is reported. Specifically, we have studied a Cu on SiO2 catalyst which has shown very high selectivity to acetic acid via acetaldehyde compared to competing condensation routes...

  1. Investigation of acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment on corn stover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Acetic acid (AA)-catalyzed liquid hot water (LHW) pretreatments on raw corn stover (RCS) were carried out at 195 °C at 15 min with the acetic acid concentrations between 0 and 400 g/kg RCS. After pretreatment, the liquor fractions and water-insoluble solids (WIS) were collected separately...... xylan recovery of 81.82% was observed by the pretreatment with 10 g AA/kg RCS. The toxic test on liquors showed that the inhibition effect happened to Baker's yeast when the acetic acid used in the pretreatment was higher than 100 g/kg RCS. The WIS obtained from the pretreatment with 15 g and 30 g...

  2. Hyperpolarized [1-13C]-acetate Renal Metabolic Clearance Rate Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Emmeli F R; Mariager, Christian Østergaard; Nørlinger, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    of furosemide, a loop diuretic known to alter both the hemodynamics and oxygen consumption in the kidney. The metabolic clearance rates (MCR) were estimated and compared between the two modalities experimentally in vivo and in simulations. There was a clear dependency on the mean transit time and MCR for both...... 13C-acetate and 11C-acetate following furosemide administration, while no dependencies on the apparent renal perfusion were observed. This study demonstrated that hyperpolarized 13C-acetate MRI is feasible for measurements of the intrarenal energetic demand via the MCR, and that the quantitative...

  3. Experimental investigations on heat content of supercooled sodium acetate trihydrate by a simple heat loss method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kong, Weiqiang; Dannemand, Mark; Johansen, Jakob Berg

    2016-01-01

    Sodium acetate trihydrate is a phase change material that can be used for long term heat storage in solar heating systems because of its relatively high heat of fusion, a melting temperature of 58 °C and its ability to supercool stable. In practical applications sodium acetate trihydrate tend to ......, 0.3–0.5 % (wt.%) Xanthan Gum or 1–2% (wt.%) of some solid or liquid polymers as additives had significantly higher heat contents compared to samples of sodium acetate trihydrate suffering from phase separation....

  4. Indole-3-acetic acid and gibberellic acid production in Aspergillus niger

    OpenAIRE

    BİLKAY, Işıl SEYİS; KARAKOÇ, Şafak; AKSÖZ, Nilüfer

    2010-01-01

    The effects of incubation time, temperature, pH, and agitation on indole-3- acetic acid and gibberellic acid production in Aspergillus niger were studied. For indole-3-acetic acid production, 6 days of incubation at 25 °C and pH 6.0 was found to be optimum. Optimum conditions for gibberellic acid production were 12 days of incubation at 30 °C and pH 5.0. Agitation increased both indole-3-acetic acid and gibberellic acid production.

  5. Eslicarbazepine acetate as adjunctive treatment in partial-onset epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzi, S; Cagnetti, C; Foschi, N; Lorusso, A; Provinciali, L; Silvestrini, M

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the clinical response to eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) as add-on therapy in adult patients with partial-onset epilepsy by means of the time-to-baseline seizure count method. We retrospectively identified consecutive patients with partial-onset seizures, with or without secondary generalization, prescribed to ESL add-on therapy. The primary endpoint was the time-to-baseline monthly seizure count. Subgroup analysis was performed according to carbamazepine (CBZ)/oxcarbazepine (OXC) status (prior vs never use). Secondary outcomes were the rate of treatment-related adverse events (AEs) and the AEs affecting ≥5% of patients. One-hundred and eighteen patients were included. The median time-to-baseline monthly seizure count was 46 (35-101) days in the overall study cohort. The number of concomitant anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) was associated with the time-to-endpoint (adjusted hazard ratio [adj HR]=2.22, 95% CI 1.18-4.14, P=.013 for two AEDs vs one; adj HR=3.65, 95% CI 1.66-8.06, P=.001 for three or more AEDs vs one). Groupwise, the median times-to-baseline seizure count were 47 (35-97) and 43 (34-103) in patients with prior and never exposure to CBZ/OXC, respectively (P for log-rank test=.807). Adverse events occurred in 53.4% (63 of 118) of patients; the most frequently reported were dizziness (13.6%), somnolence (11.9%), nausea (6.8%), and fatigue (5.1%). Add-on ESL improved seizure control and was overall well-tolerated in adult patients with partial-onset epilepsy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Overnight switching from oxcarbazepine to eslicarbazepine acetate: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, E; Kuchukhidze, G; Kirschner, M; Leitinger, M; Höfler, J; Rohracher, A; Kalss, G; Wendling, A-S; Steinhoff, B J; Trinka, E

    2017-04-01

    There are clinical situations where it might be appropriate to switch patients from immediate-release oxcarbazepine (OXC) to eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL). We investigated the effects of transitioning patients overnight from OXC to ESL. A retrospective, single-center study was conducted in which patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy on a stable dose of immediate-release OXC for at least 4 weeks were switched overnight to ESL. Patients were switched because they experienced persistent seizures with OXC but were unable to tolerate increased OXC dosing due to adverse events. Tolerability was assessed using the Adverse Events Profile (AEP), quality of life was assessed using the Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory 10 (QOLIE-10), and alertness was assessed as reaction time using a subtest of the Test Battery for Attention Performance version 2.3. Assessments were performed immediately prior to and 5 days after switching from OXC to ESL (days 0 and 5, respectively). The analysis included 21 patients (12 women, 9 men; mean age 36 years). After switching from OXC to ESL, there were significant improvements in mean scores for AEP (P<.001), QOLIE-10 (P=.001), and alertness (P<.05). Adverse Events Profile total scores improved for 21/21 (100.0%) patients, QOLIE-10 total scores improved for 17/21 (81.0%) patients, and alertness scores improved for 16/21 (76.2%) patients. In this short-term, single-center study, an overnight switch from twice-daily OXC to once-daily ESL in patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsies resulted in improvements in side effects, quality of life, and alertness. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Role of ethnicity in treating uterine fibroids with ulipristal acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murji, Ally; Crosier, Rebecca; Chow, Tiffany; Ye, Xiang Y; Shirreff, Lindsay

    2016-10-01

    To study differences in treatment effect between black and white premenopausal women prescribed ulipristal acetate (UPA) for symptomatic uterine fibroids. Prospective observational cohort study. Gynecology clinics. Premenopausal women aged 18-55 years, at least one symptomatic uterine fibroid, UPA-naïve, and no contraindications for UPA treatment. One 3-month course of UPA at 5 mg daily. Patients' ethnicity self-identification adapted from Statistics Canada National Household Survey. Change in fibroid symptoms according to Uterine Fibroid Symptoms Quality of Life Questionnaire symptom severity and health-related quality of life score. Bleeding symptoms and amenorrhea rates according to Aberdeen Bleeding Score. A total of 148 patients enrolled (45 black, 59 white, 44 other ethnicity). Black patients were younger (40.3 y vs. 44.5 y) with larger uteri (523 mL vs. 351 mL) than white counterparts. Baseline symptom severity was similar between groups. After 3 months of UPA treatment, both groups experienced similar improvements in symptom severity. White women had 52% greater improvement in bleeding score (-40.3 vs. -26.5) and were more likely to be amenorrheic at the end of treatment (66% vs. 41%). Both groups experienced adverse events at similar frequencies. Black women were more dissatisfied with UPA compared with white women (27.3% vs. 8%). Black women had greater fibroid burden at baseline. Both ethnicities had similar improvement in fibroid symptomatology following UPA treatment, but white women experienced higher amenorrhea rates. Black women were more dissatisfied with UPA treatment, which may be related to the lower amenorrhea rates. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Endometrial Histology of Depomedroxyprogesterone Acetate Users: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To obtain pilot data on the endometrial histology of Depomedroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera, DMPA users experiencing breakthrough bleeding (BTB versus users with amenorrhea. To compare the endometrial histology of patients who used DMPA continuously for 3–12 months versus those who used it for 13 months or more. Methods. Cross-sectional study. Endometrial biopsy was obtained from all consenting patients who used DMPA for at least 3 months. Patients were divided into those with BTB in the last 3 months versus those with amenorrhea for at least 3 months. Histology results and duration of therapy were compared. Results. The proportion of women with chronic endometritis, uterine polyps, atrophic, proliferative, or progesterone-dominant endometrium did not differ between those DMPA users with BTB versus those with amenorrhea. Duration of therapy did not correlate with symptoms of BTB or endometrial histology. Chronic endometritis was the most common histologic finding (10/40, 25% and occurred more often in women experiencing BTB (35% versus 15% (RR 1.62 CI 0.91–2.87. Moreover, 45% of women with BTB had received DMPA for more than 12 months. Conclusions. BTB was more common than previously reported in women using DMPA for more than 12 months. Chronic endometritis, which may indicate an underlying infectious or intracavitary anatomic etiology, has not been previously reported as a frequent finding in DMPA users, and may be related to ethnic or other sociodemographic characteristics of our patient population. Further study to elucidate the etiology of chronic endometritis in these patients is warranted.

  9. Acetic acid bacteria, newly emerging symbionts of insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crotti, Elena; Rizzi, Aurora; Chouaia, Bessem; Ricci, Irene; Favia, Guido; Alma, Alberto; Sacchi, Luciano; Bourtzis, Kostas; Mandrioli, Mauro; Cherif, Ameur; Bandi, Claudio; Daffonchio, Daniele

    2010-11-01

    Recent research in microbe-insect symbiosis has shown that acetic acid bacteria (AAB) establish symbiotic relationships with several insects of the orders Diptera, Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, and Homoptera, all relying on sugar-based diets, such as nectars, fruit sugars, or phloem sap. To date, the fruit flies Drosophila melanogaster and Bactrocera oleae, mosquitoes of the genera Anopheles and Aedes, the honey bee Apis mellifera, the leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus, and the mealybug Saccharicoccus sacchari have been found to be associated with the bacterial genera Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Gluconobacter, Asaia, and Saccharibacter and the novel genus Commensalibacter. AAB establish symbiotic associations with the insect midgut, a niche characterized by the availability of diet-derived carbohydrates and oxygen and by an acidic pH, selective factors that support AAB growth. AAB have been shown to actively colonize different insect tissues and organs, such as the epithelia of male and female reproductive organs, the Malpighian tubules, and the salivary glands. This complex topology of the symbiosis indicates that AAB possess the keys for passing through body barriers, allowing them to migrate to different organs of the host. Recently, AAB involvement in the regulation of innate immune system homeostasis of Drosophila has been shown, indicating a functional role in host survival. All of these lines of evidence indicate that AAB can play different roles in insect biology, not being restricted to the feeding habit of the host. The close association of AAB and their insect hosts has been confirmed by the demonstration of multiple modes of transmission between individuals and to their progeny that include vertical and horizontal transmission routes, comprising a venereal one. Taken together, the data indicate that AAB represent novel secondary symbionts of insects.

  10. Indole-3-acetic acid and 2-(indol-3-ylmethyl)indol-3-yl acetic acid in the thermophilic archaebacterium Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    OpenAIRE

    White, R H

    1987-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and 2-(indol-3-ylmethyl)indol-3-yl acetic acid were identified in lipid extracts of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius; they occurred at concentrations of 0.57 and 0.59 mumol/g (dry weight), respectively. The amount of IAA found in these cells is more than a thousand times greater than that found in a typical extract of a plant in which IAA serves as a plant growth hormone. Neither of these compounds was detected in the other archaebacteria that were analyzed; these included...

  11. Potential for Methanosarcina to contribute to uranium reduction during acetate-promoted groundwater bioremediation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmes, Dawn E; Orellana, Roberto; Giloteaux, Ludovic

    2017-01-01

    A (mcrA) transcripts during an acetate-injection field experiment demonstrated that acetoclastic methanogens from the genus Methanosarcina were enriched after 40 days of acetate amendment. The increased abundance of Methanosarcina corresponded with an accumulation of methane in the groundwater....... An enrichment culture dominated by a Methanosarcina species with the same Methanosarcina mcrA sequence that predominated in the field experiment could effectively convert acetate to methane. In order to determine whether Methanosarcina species could be participating in U(VI) reduction in the subsurface, cell...... suspensions of M. barkeri were incubated in the presence of U(VI) with acetate provided as the electron donor. U(VI) was reduced by metabolically active M. barkeri cells, however, no U(VI) reduction was observed in inactive controls. These results demonstrate that Methanosarcina species could play...

  12. EFFECT OF ESLICARBAZEPINE ACETATE ON THE STEADYSTATE PHARMACOKINETICS OF DIGOXIN IN HEALTHY SUBJECTS

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, Joana; Almeida, Luís; Vaz-da-Silva, Manuel; Soares, Eva; Tavares, Susana; Falcão, Amílcar; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2005-01-01

    AES Proceedings Annual Meeting of the American Epilepsy Society To investigate the effect of eslicarbazepine acetate, a new voltage-gated sodium channel blocker, on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of digoxin

  13. 75 FR 40736 - Acetic Acid; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... acetic acid is not mutagenic at levels less than or equal to 16 micromoles. The Agency has determined... Evaluation of Some Microbials, Antioxidants, Emulsifiers, Stabilizers, Flour-Treatment Agents, Acids and...

  14. A Complication after Intralesional Methylprednisolone Acetate Application to Oral Mucosa: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borahan Mehmet Oguz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this case report is to evaluate an abscess formation due to intralesional methylprednisolone acetate application to a patient with erosive oral lichen planus.

  15. Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) Catalysis for the Production of Acetic acid by Methanol Carbonylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanning, Christopher William

    The work presented here is focused on the development of a new reaction process. It applies Supported Ionic Liquid Phase (SILP) catalysis to a specific reaction. By reacting methanol and carbon monoxide over a rhodium catalyst, acetic acid can be formed. This reaction is important on a large scale...... industrially, with millions of tonnes of acetic acid being produced annually. Acetic acid is an important precursor for making adhesives, plastics and fabrics. By using the SILP concept we are able to carry out the reaction in a continuous system, allowing a steady production of acetic acid without having...... to stop and re-start the reaction. This sort of continuous flow reaction is a subject of great research effort in recent years as it is more sustainable (and in some cases financially viable) that the current method of carrying out chemical reactions in large size batch reactions The project started right...

  16. the value of 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid measurement in spot urine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    HYDROXY INDOLE ACETIC ACID MEASUREMENT IN SPOT URINE IN DIAGNOSIS OF ACUTE APPENDICITIS. M.T. Oruc, MD, B. Kulah, MD., MD., O. Ozozan, B. Kulah, MD., V. Ozer, B. Kulah, MD. 3rd Sugical Department, Ankara numune ...

  17. Methane production from bicarbonate and acetate in an anoxic marine sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crill, P. M.; Martens, C. S.

    1986-01-01

    Methane production from C-14 labeled bicarbonate and acetate was measured over the top 28 cm of anoxic Cape Lookout Bight sediments during the summer of 1983. The depth distribution and magnitude of summed radioisotopically determined rates compare well with previous measurements of total methane production and the sediment-water methane flux. Methane production from CO2 reduction and acetate fermentation accounts for greater than 80 percent of the total production rate and sediment-water flux. Methane production from bicarbonate was found to occur in all depth intervals sampled except those in the top 2 cm, whereas significant methane production from acetate only occurred at depths below 10 cm where sulfate was exhausted. Acetate provided 20 to 29 percent of the measured methane production integrated over the top 30 cm of the sediments.

  18. Pretreatment and fermentation strategies to overcome the toxicity of acetic acid in hemicellulosic hydrolysates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussatto, Solange I.

    Acetic acid is one of the most important toxic compounds present in hemicellulosic hydrolysates. In order to overcome this problem, several strategies were studied for both biomass pretreatment and fermentation steps. Biomass deacetylation by mild alkaline pretreatment or using high pressure CO2...... were considered interesting strategies to selectively remove acetic acid from biomass structure. In addition, the selective removal of acetic acid from biomass as a first step in the whole biomass conversion chain, contribute for the development and implementation of competitive biorefinery platforms...... where acetic acid can also be integrated as a valuable final product. For the fermentation step, it is well known that hemicellulosic hydrolysates usually need to be detoxified prior use as fermentation medium in order to improve the performance of the microorganism to convert sugars in the product...

  19. Microsomal metabolism of trenbolone acetate metabolites: Transformation product formation and bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenbolone acetate (TBA) is a synthetic growth promoter widely used in animal agriculture, and its metabolites are suspected endocrine disrupting compounds in agriculturally impacted receiving waters. However, beyond the three widely recognized TBA metabolites (17-trenbo...

  20. Determinants of the acetate recovery factor: implications for estimation of 13C substrate oxidation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Schrauwen; E.E. Blaak; A.J.M. Wagenmakers; dr. Lars B. Borghouts; D.P.C. van Aggel-Leijssen

    2000-01-01

    The data of this study indicate that the acetate recovery factor, used in stable isotope research, needs to be deteremined in every subject, under similar conditions as used for the tracer-derived determination of substrate oxidation.

  1. Conductivity of Cellulose Acetate Membranes from Pandan Duri Leaves (Pandanus tectorius for Li-ion Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laksono Endang W.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to know the influence of lithium chloride composition on membrane conductivity. Cellulose was extracted from pandan duri leaves (P. tectorius by dilute alkaline and bleaching with 0.5% NaOCl followed by synthesis of cellulose acetate using acetic anhydride as acetylating agent, acetic acid as solvent and sulfuric acid as catalyst. The membranes were prepared by casting polymer solution method and the composition of CA/LiCl were 60/40, 65/35, 70/30, 75/25, 80/20 and 100/0. Structural analysis was carried out by FTIR and X-ray diffraction. The conductivity was measured using Elkahfi 100. The highest conductivity of cellulose acetate membrane was 2.20 × 10-4 S cm-1 that measured at room temperature for 65/35 composition

  2. Isolation and Characterization Compounds From Hexane and Ethyl Acetate Fractions of Peperomia pellucida L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hartati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Peperomia pellucida was used traditionally in Indonesia for health treatment: wounds, boils, pimples, abscesses, abdominal pain, colic, gout, kidney, rheumatic pain, fatigue headache, furuncles, conjunctivitis and anti dermatogenic and also for dengue treatment. The isolation compounds from hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of Peperomia pellucida L. are conducted by maceration of the dry herbs sample with methanol and partition with hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol and water. The hexane and ethyl acetate fractions were fractionated by gravitation column chromatography and eluted successively with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol by the gradient. The structure was elucidated base on spectroscopy data of NMR proton and carbon for one and two dimension, LCMS and FT-IR. The isolation founded three compounds are stigmasterol, analogue of pheophytin and β-sitosterol-D-glucopyranoside.

  3. Acetic acid production from marine algae. Progress report No. 2, September 30 to December 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanderson, J E; Wise, D L

    1978-03-10

    Preliminary results on the production of acetic acid from marine algae by anaerobic fermentation indicates that the rate is quite fast. First order rate constants of 0.77 day/sup -1/ have been observed. This rate constant gives a half-life of less than one day. In other words, with a properly designed product removal system a five day retention time would yield 98% of theoretical conversion. Determination of the theoretical conversion of marine algae to acetic acid is the subject of much experimentation. The production of one acetic acid molecule (or equivalent in higher organic acids) for each three carbon atoms in the substrate has been achieved; but it is possible that with a mixed culture more than one acetic acid molecule may be produced for each three carbons in the substrate.

  4. Tsuji-Trost N-allylation with allylic acetates using cellulose-Pd catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allylic amines are synthesized using heterogeneous cellulose-Pd catalyst via N-allylation of amines; aliphatic and benzyl amines undergo facile reaction with substituted and unsubstituted allyl acetates in high yields.

  5. Detoxification of ammonium to Nannochloropsis oculata and enhancement of lipid production by mixotrophic growth with acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Weitie; Li, Pengfei; Liao, Zipeng; Luo, Jianfei

    2017-03-01

    In this study, the toxicity of ammonium was removed in the microalga Nannochloropsis oculata by using acetate as a carbon source. Algal biomass and lipid production were significantly enhanced when N. oculata was grew on 0.5-50mM of ammonium and 16-64mM of acetate in mixotrophic conditions. When grown mixotrophically on 1mM of ammonium and 32mM of acetate, the biomass and lipid production reached 543mg/L and 279mg/L respectively, which were 1.5 and 9.4times higher than the levels generated when grown autotrophically on nitrate. This suggests that mixotrophic growth with acetate can be a useful method to enhance microalgal lipid production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Biofiltration of ethyl acetate by Pseudomonas putida immobilized on walnut shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zare, Hossein; Najafpour, Ghasem; Rahimnejad, Mostafa; Tardast, Ali; Gilani, Saeedeh

    2012-11-01

    A biofilter packed with walnut shells was used to eliminate ethyl acetate from an air stream. The shells treated with NaOH were used as medium for immobilization of Pseudomonas putida PTCC 1694. At an empty bed residence time (EBRT) of 60s, a removal efficiency of 99% was achieved at inlet concentrations lower than 430ppm of ethyl acetate. The removal efficiency decreased below 80% with an increase in inlet concentration of ethyl acetate. When the EBRT was increased to 75 s, the removal efficiency remained above 80% even though the inlet loading rate was increased to 421g/m(3)h. Michaelis-Menten type and zero-order diffusion limited models were employed and the predicted data perfectly matched the experimental data. Thus P. putida immobilized on walnut shell has potential for the removal of ethyl acetate from air streams. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibition of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines by Ethyl Acetate Extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    inflammatory production by macrophages. Methods: Mouse peritoneal macrophages were cultured in solvent either alone or with 2 ìg/ml lipopolysaccaride (LPS) with/without different doses of ethyl acetate extract of S. striata. Production of ...

  8. THE EFFECTS OF ANIMAL AGE AND ACETIC ACID CONCENTRATION ON PIGSKIN GELATIN CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Pranoto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study the influence of animal age and concentration of the acetic acid solution on physical and chemical properties of pigskin gelatin. The experiment used Completely Randomized Design (CRD with two factors. The first factor was animal age consisted of 3 levels (5, 7 and 9 months. The second factor was concentration of acetic acid solution consisted of 3 levels (2, 4 and 6 percents. The result showed that animal age had significant effect (P0.05 on the yields, gel strength, viscosity, protein content and pH value. It was concluded that pigskin gelatin from ages of 5, 7 and 9 months and acetic acid concentration of 2, 4 and 6% had similar characteristics to the commercial gelatin, but the optimum production of gelatin was combination of pigskin gelatin from 7 months and of 2% acetic acid.

  9. Differential toxic effects of lactate and acetate on the metabolism of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, J; Hamilton, I R

    1996-12-01

    Experiments were conducted with Streptococcus mutans NCTC 10449 and Streptococcus sanguis ATCC 10556 to determine whether the acid end-products, lactate and acetate, were involved in the regulation of cellular growth and metabolism. The growth rate and culture biomass of both organisms was inhibited by the addition of lactate and acetate at concentrations as high as 200 mM to the cultures, although the final pH values of the lactate and acetate cultures were similar. In addition, the metabolic conversion of glucose to lactate was decreased by external lactate but stimulated by acetate. In spite of this, calculation of the yield of cell biomass per mole of ATP (YATP) showed that the yield of both organisms actually increased in the presence of added lactate, but decreased with acetate. This indicates that the two acids interacted with the cells of the organisms by different mechanisms. For both organisms, the final external undissociated lactic acid was relatively constant at concentrations between 0 and 200 mM added lactate, 24.9-32.5 mM for S. mutans and 8.0-11.5 mM for S. sanguis. On the other hand, the final concentration of undissociated acetic acid in the S. mutans cultures increased from 2.9 to 83.7 mM as the medium acetate concentration increased, and from 1.0 to 36.0 mM with the S. sanguis cultures. Counterflow experiments provided evidence for a lactate carrier in both S. mutans and S. sanguis, but an acetate carrier in these organisms could not be demonstrated. [14C]-lactate and [14C]-acetate were taken up into de-energized, chemostatgrown cells of S. mutans and S. sanguis in response to an artificially generated pH gradient but not by an imposed electrical gradient. Thus, under these conditions lactate uptake occurred via a symport process with only one proton. Growth of both organisms in the presence of increasing concentrations of acetate resulted in a small reduction (27%) in the transmembrane pH gradient (delta pH) as measured by the permeant acid

  10. Comparison of Cultivable Acetic Acid Bacterial Microbiota in Organic and Conventional Apple Cider Vinegar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aleksandra Stornik; Barbara Skok; Janja Trcek

    2016-01-01

      The authors compared the cultivable acetic acid bacterial microbiota in the production of organic and conventional apple cider vinegars from a smoothly running oxidation cycle of a submerged industrial process...

  11. Engineering Escherichia coli to convert acetic acid to β-caryophyllene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianming; Nie, Qingjuan

    2016-05-05

    Under aerobic conditions, acetic acid is the major byproduct produced by E. coli during the fermentation. And acetic acid is detrimental to cell growth as it destroys transmembrane pH gradients. Hence, how to reduce the production of acetic acid and how to utilize it as a feedstock are of intriguing interest. In this study, we provided an evidence to produce β-caryophyllene by the engineered E. coli using acetic acid as the only carbon source. Firstly, to construct the robust acetate-utilizing strain, acetyl-CoA synthases from three different sources were introduced and screened in the E. coli. Secondly, to establish the engineered strains converting acetic acid to β-caryophyllene, acetyl-CoA synthase (ACS), β-caryophyllene synthase (QHS1) and geranyl diphosphate synthase (GPPS2) were co-expressed in the E. coli cells. Thirdly, to further enhance β-caryophyllene production from acetic acid, the heterologous MVA pathway was introduced into the cells. What's more, acetoacetyl-CoA synthase (AACS) was also expressed in the cells to increase the precursor acetoacetyl-CoA and accordingly resulted in the increase of β-caryophyllene. The final genetically modified strain, YJM67, could accumulate the production of biomass and β-caryophyllene up to 12.6 and 1.05 g/L during 72 h, respectively, with a specific productivity of 1.15 mg h(-1) g(-1) dry cells, and the conversion efficiency of acetic acid to β-caryophyllene (gram to gram) reached 2.1%. The yield of β-caryophyllene on acetic acid of this strain also reached approximately 5.6% of the theoretical yield. In the present study, a novel biosynthetic pathway for β-caryophyllene has been investigated by means of conversion of acetic acid to β-caryophyllene using an engineered Escherichia coli. This was the first successful attempt in β-caryophyllene production by E. coli using acetic acid as the only carbon source. Therefore, we have provided a new metabolic engineering tool for β-caryophyllene synthesis.

  12. A NOVEL POLYACRYLAMIDE-BASED HYDROGEL CROSSLINKED WITH CELLULOSE ACETATE AND PREPARED BY PRECIPITATION POLYMERIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    Muñoz-García, Rubén O.; Hernández, María E.; Ortiz, Genaro G.; Víctor V. A. Fernández; Arellano,Martín R.; Sánchez-Díaz,Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of polyacrylamide-cellulose acetate hydrogels by precipitation polymerization in acetone solution is reported herein. These hydrogels exhibit smaller swelling ratios and larger compression moduli than homo polyacrylamide hydrogels. For cellulose acetate concentrations above 20 wt.%, hydrogels with N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide as a crosslinker exhibit swelling ratios and compression moduli similar to those of the hydrogels without the crosslinker. A possible explanation for this b...

  13. TCA cycle-independent acetate metabolism via the glyoxylate cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Joo; Jang, Jin Won; Kim, Kyung Jin; Maeng, Pil Jae

    2011-02-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the accepted theory is that due to TCA cycle dysfunction, the Δcit1 mutant lacking the mitochondrial enzyme citrate synthase (Cit1) cannot grow on acetate, regardless of the presence of the peroxisomal isoenzyme (Cit2). In this study, we re-evaluated the roles of Cit1 and Cit2 in acetate utilization and examined the pathway of acetate metabolism by analysing mutants defective in TCA or glyoxylate cycle enzymes. Although Δcit1 cells showed significantly reduced growth on rich acetate medium (YPA), they exhibited growth similar to Δcit2 and the wild-type cells on minimal acetate medium (YNBA). Impaired acetate utilization by Δcit1Δcit2 cells on YNBA was restored by ectopic expression of either Cit2 or its cytoplasmically localized variants. Deletion of any of the genes for the enzymes solely involved in the TCA cycle (IDH1, KGD1 and LSC1), except for SDH1, caused little defect in acetate utilization on YNBA but resulted in significant growth impairment on YPA. In contrast, cells lacking any of the genes involved in the glyoxylate cycle (ACO1, FUM1, MLS1, ICL1 and MDH2) did not grow on either YNBA or YPA. Deletion of SFC1 encoding the succinate-fumarate carrier also caused similar growth defects on YNBA. Our results suggest that in S. cerevisiae the glyoxylate cycle functions as a competent metabolic pathway for acetate utilization on YNBA, while both the TCA and glyoxylate cycles are essential for growth on YPA. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Zymomonas with improved ethanol production in medium containing concentrated sugars and acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimi, Perry G [Kennett Square, PA; Chou, Yat-Chen [Lakewood, CO; Franden, Mary Ann [Centennial, CO; Knoke, Kyle [Newark, DE; Tao, Luan [Havertown, PA; Viitanen, Paul V [West Chester, PA; Zhang, Min [Lakewood, CO; Zhang, Yuying [New Hope, PA

    2011-03-01

    Through screening of a Zymomonas mutant library the himA gene was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of acetate on Zymomonas performance. Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas strains further engineered to reduce activity of the himA gene were found to have increased ethanol production in comparison to a parental strain, when cultured in mixed-sugars medium comprising xylose, and, in particular, in the presence of acetate.

  15. Mechanistic Insights Underlying Tolerance to Acetic Acid Stress in Vaginal Candida glabrata Clinical Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Diana V; Salazar, Sara B; Lopes, Maria M; Mira, Nuno P

    2017-01-01

    During colonization of the vaginal tract Candida glabrata cells are challenged with the presence of acetic acid at a low pH, specially when dysbiosis occurs. To avoid exclusion from this niche C. glabrata cells are expected to evolve efficient adaptive responses to cope with this stress; however, these responses remain largely uncharacterized, especially in vaginal strains. In this work a cohort of 18 vaginal strains and 2 laboratory strains (CBS138 and KUE100) were phenotyped for their tolerance against inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid at pH 4. Despite some heterogeneity has been observed among the vaginal strains tested, in general these strains were considerably more tolerant to acetic acid than the laboratory strains. To tackle the mechanistic insights behind this differential level of tolerance observed, a set of vaginal strains differently tolerant to acetic acid (VG281∼VG49 acetic acid the more tolerant vaginal strains exhibited a higher activity of the plasma membrane proton pump CgPma1 and a reduced internal accumulation of the acid, these being two essential features to maximize tolerance. Based on the higher level of resistance exhibited by the vaginal strains against the action of a β-1,3-glucanase, it is hypothesized that the reduced internal accumulation of acetic acid inside these strains may originate from them having a different cell wall structure resulting in a reduced porosity to undissociated acetic acid molecules. Both the vaginal and the two laboratory strains were found to consume acetic acid in the presence of glucose indicating that metabolization of the acid is used by C. glabrata species as a detoxification mechanism. The results gathered in this study advance the current knowledge on the mechanisms underlying the increased competitiveness of C. glabrata in the vaginal tract, a knowledge that can be used to guide more suitable strategies to treat infections caused by this pathogenic yeast.

  16. Multilayer Perceptron prediction for the Production of Methyl Acetate via Reactive Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih A. Rushdi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it was given a profile for the design of reactive distillation to produce methyl acetate from acetic acid and methanol in the presence of sulfuric acid as catalyst. The conversion of the reaction was studied as function to time, reflux ratio and feed mole ratio and predicted using Multilayer Perceptron through SPSS software 21. The result shows that using ANN will reduce the Squares Error to 0.262 and the Relative Error to 12.1%.

  17. Multilayer Perceptron prediction for the Production of Methyl Acetate via Reactive Distillation

    OpenAIRE

    Salih A. Rushdi; Taha Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, it was given a profile for the design of reactive distillation to produce methyl acetate from acetic acid and methanol in the presence of sulfuric acid as catalyst. The conversion of the reaction was studied as function to time, reflux ratio and feed mole ratio and predicted using Multilayer Perceptron through SPSS software 21. The result shows that using ANN will reduce the Squares Error to 0.262 and the Relative Error to 12.1%.

  18. Intensive Therapy of Patients with Acetic Acid Poisoning Complicated by Shock

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Stopnitsky; R. N. Akalaev

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of the elaborated intensive therapy policy for acute acetic acid poisoning complicated by exotoxic shock.Subjects and methods. The results of treatment were analyzed in 72 patients admitted in 2008—2012 with severe acute acetic acid poisoning complicated by exotoxic shock. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1) combination therapy added by an improved intensive therapy complex; 2) conventional therapy. All the patients underwent comprehensive clinica...

  19. 11C-acetate PET imaging in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazushiro Takata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Activation of glial cells is a cardinal feature in multiple sclerosis (MS pathology, and acetate has been reported to be selectively uptaken by astrocytes in the CNS. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of PET with (11C-acetate for MS diagnosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six patients with relapsing-remitting MS and 6 healthy volunteers (HV were enrolled. The (11C-acetate brain uptake on PET was measured in patients with MS and HV. Volume-of-interest analysis of cerebral gray and white matter based on the segmentation technique for co-registered MRI and voxel-based statistical parametric analysis were performed. Correlation between 11C-acetate uptake and the lesion number in T1- and T2- weighted MR images were also assessed. RESULTS: The standardized uptake value (SUV of 11C-acetate was increased in both white and gray matter in MS patients compared to HV. Voxel-based statistical analysis revealed a significantly increased SUV relative to that in the bilateral thalami (SUVt in a broad area of white matter, particularly in the subcortical white matter of MS patients. The numbers of T2 lesions and T1 black holes were significantly correlated with SUV of (11C-acetate in white and gray matter. CONCLUSIONS: The 11C-acetate uptake significantly increased in MS patients and correlated to the number of MRI lesions. These preliminary data suggest that (11C-acetate PET can be a useful clinical examination for MS patients.

  20. Development of an Acetate-Fed or Sugar-Fed Microbial Power Generator for Military Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    bacteria to consume sucrose and convert it into volatile fatty acids (VFAs) that are easily consumed by ARB (Figure 4). This culture produces mainly... synthesis (Ha et al, 2008), and should be considered as a readily utilized substrate when homo-acetogenesis is not limiting. Lactate. acetate, and...Sucrose • Acetate Propionate • Hydrogen gas • Lactate • Formate • !so-butyrate Unknown fbiomass -’-soluble products) KM. 80 60 I" 20 DavO

  1. Isolation and Characterization Compounds From Hexane and Ethyl Acetate Fractions of Peperomia Pellucida L.

    OpenAIRE

    Hartati, Sri; Angelina, Marissa; Dewiyanti, Indah; Meilawati, Lia

    2015-01-01

    Peperomia pellucida was used traditionally in Indonesia for health treatment: wounds, boils, pimples, abscesses, abdominal pain, colic, gout, kidney, rheumatic pain, fatigue headache, furuncles, conjunctivitis and anti dermatogenic and also for dengue treatment. The isolation compounds from hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of Peperomia pellucida L. are conducted by maceration of the dry herbs sample with methanol and partition with hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol and water.The hexane and et...

  2. KINETIC OF ESTERIFICATION OF ETHYL ALCOHOL BY ACETIC ACID ON A CATALYTIC RESIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol İNCE

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The conversion kinetics of diluted acetic acid to ethyl acetate by ethanol esterification in a batch reactor in liquid phase with an acidic polymer catalyst (lewatit series was studied. The intrinsic rate constants have been correlated with the reaction temperature, concentration of catalyst, initial ratios of reactants and initial water concentrations. The kinetic analysis was restricted to the system at hand in which a liquid and vapor phase are at equilibrium.

  3. Determination of Bioactive Components of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Punica granatum Rind Extract

    OpenAIRE

    J. Sangeetha; K. Vijayalakshmi

    2011-01-01

    Punica granatum belongs to a Punicaceae family. The Punica granatum is valued as a powerful medicinal plant and used in folk medicines. Hence the present investigation was carried out to determine the possible chemical components from ethyl acetate fraction of Punica granatum rind extract by GC-MS Technique. This analysis revealed that ethyl acetate fraction of Punica granatum rind extract contain Pyrogallol (41.88%), 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (14.10%), D-Allose (9.17%), 2-Methoxy-1, 4-Benzened...

  4. Laboratory Test of a Cylindrical Heat Storage Module with Water and Sodium Acetate Trihydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Kong, Weiqiang; Johansen, Jakob Berg

    2016-01-01

    phase change material was reduced over 17 test cycles. The heat released after solidification of the supercooled sodium acetate trihydrate with thickening agent and graphite was stable over the test cycles. Stable supercooling was obtained in 7 out of 17 test cycles with the module with sodium acetate...... trihydrate with extra water and in 6 out of 35 test cycles for the module with thickening agent....

  5. Water promoted allylic nucleophilic substitution reactions of (E)-1,3 diphenylallyl acetate

    KAUST Repository

    Ghorpade, Seema Arun

    2017-11-30

    Transition metal free, water based, greener protocol for allylic alkylation, allylic amination, O-allylation of (E)-1,3-diphenylallyl acetate is described. The developed methodology is applicable for a wide range of nucleophiles furnishing excellent yields of corresponding products up to 87% under mild reaction conditions. A Distinct effect of water and base is explored for allylic nucleophilic substitution reactions of (E)-1,3-diphenylallyl acetate.

  6. Growing and laying performance of Japanese quail fed diet supplemented with different concentrations of acetic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef A. Attia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of acetic acid on growing and laying performance of Japanese Quail (JQ, 180 15-day-old JQ were divided into 4 groups. During the growing (15-42 days of age and laying (43-84 days of age periods, the groups fed the same basal diets supplemented with 0, 1.5, 3 and 6% of acetic acid. Each diet was fed to five replicates of 9 JQ (3 males:6 females during the growing period. During the laying period, 128 birds were housed in 32 cages (4 birds per cage, 1 male and 3 females, 8 replicates per treatment. Birds were housed in wire cages (46L×43W×20H cm in an open room. Acetic acid supplementation at 3% in the diets significantly increased the growth and laying rate and the Haugh unit score. The liver percentage significantly decreased with acetic acid at 6%. Acetic acid at 3% significantly increased hemoglobin concentrations at 6 weeks of age and increased weight of day old chicks hatched. Acetic acid affected the immune system as manifested by an excess of cellular reactions in the intestine as well as lymphoid hyperplasia in the spleen tissue. Degenerative changes in the covering epithelium of the intestinal villi were noted at the 6% concentration of acetic acid. Hepatocyte vacuolation and fatty changes were also observed at this concentration of treatment. In conclusion, 3% acetic acid may be used as a feed supplement for JQ during the growing and laying period to improve the productive performance.

  7. Exogenous Ghrelin Accelerates the Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksandra Matuszyk; Piotr Ceranowicz; Zygmunt Warzecha; Jakub Cieszkowski; Dagmara Ceranowicz; Krystyna Gałązka; Joanna Bonior; Jolanta Jaworek; Krzysztof Bartuś; Krzysztof Gil; Rafał Olszanecki; Artur Dembiński

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that ghrelin reduces colonic inflammation induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and dextran sodium sulfate. In the present study we determined the effect of treatment with ghrelin on the course of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Rectal administration of 3% acetic acid solution led to induction of colitis in all animals. Damage of the colonic wall was accompanied by an increase in mucosal concentration of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and tumor nec...

  8. Comparison of Cultivable Acetic Acid Bacterial Microbiota in Organic and Conventional Apple Cider Vinegar

    OpenAIRE

    Štornik, Aleksandra; Skok, Barbara; Trček, Janja

    2016-01-01

    Organic apple cider vinegar is produced from apples that go through very restricted treatment in orchard. During the first stage of the process, the sugars from apples are fermented by yeasts to cider. The produced ethanol is used as a substrate by acetic acid bacteria in a second separated bioprocess. In both, the organic and conventional apple cider vinegars the ethanol oxidation to acetic acid is initiated by native microbiota that survived alcohol fermentation. We compared the cultivable ...

  9. Acetate ester production by Chinese yellow rice wine yeast overexpressing the alcohol acetyltransferase-encoding gene ATF2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Zhang, C; Qi, Y; Dai, L; Ma, H; Guo, X; Xiao, D

    2014-11-27

    Acetate ester, which are produced by fermenting yeast cells in an enzyme-catalyzed intracellular reaction, are responsible for the fruity character of fermented alcoholic beverages such as Chinese yellow rice wine. Alcohol acetyltransferase (AATase) is currently believed to be the key enzyme responsible for the production of acetate ester. In order to determine the precise role of the ATF2 gene in acetate ester production, an ATF2 gene encoding a type of AATase was overexpressed and the ability of the mutant to form acetate esters (including ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, and isobutyl acetate) was investigated. The results showed that after 5 days of fermentation, the concentrations of ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, and isobutyl acetate in yellow rice wines fermented with EY2 (pUC-PIA2K) increased to 137.79 mg/L (an approximate 4.9-fold increase relative to the parent cell RY1), 26.68 mg/L, and 7.60 mg/L, respectively. This study confirms that the ATF2 gene plays an important role in the production of acetate ester production during Chinese yellow rice wine fermentation, thereby offering prospects for the development of yellow rice wine yeast starter strains with optimized ester-producing capabilities.

  10. Effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of eslicarbazepine acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, J; Almeida, L; Falcão, A; Soares, E; Mota, F; Potgieter, M A; Potgieter, J H; Soares-da-Silva, P

    2008-03-01

    Antiepileptic drugs are often used in patients with some degree of renal impairment. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of renal function on the pharmacokinetics of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL, formerly known as BIA 2-093), a new antiepileptic drug under clinical development. ESL pharmacokinetics following 800 mg single dose was characterized in subjects with normal renal function (n=8, control group), and in patients with mild renal impairment (n=8), moderate renal impairment (n=8), severe renal impairment (n=8), and end-stage renal disease requiring hemodialysis (n=8). ESL suffered extensive first-pass hydrolysis to eslicarbazepine (S-licarbazepine), the main active metabolite. While eslicarbazepine Cmax did not significantly differ between the different groups, the extent of systemic exposure, assessed by AUC, increased when renal function decreased. Eslicarbazepine CL/F and CLR were, respectively, 3.40 l/h and 1.04 l/h (17.3 ml/min) in the control group, and 2.10 l/h (35.0 ml/min) and 0.61 l/h (10.2 ml/min) in the mild, 1.60 l/h (26.7 ml/min) and 0.22 l/h (3.7 ml/min) in the moderate, and 1.33 l/h (21.2 ml/min) and 0.09 l/h (1.5 ml/min) in the severe renal impairment groups. Although the total amount of eslicarbazepine recovered in urine until 72 h post-dose was similar in the control and mild renal impairment groups, a decrease was found in the moderate and severe renal impairment groups. Major metabolites recovered in urine were eslicarbazepine and its glucuronide form. Clearance of minor metabolites (R-licarbazepine, oxcarbazepine and their glucuronides) was also dependent on renal function. In patients with end-stage renal disease, dialysis was effective in removing the ESL metabolites from the circulation. ESL metabolites are excreted primarily by renal route and their clearance is dependent on renal function. ESL dosage adjustment may be necessary in patients with a creatinine clearance <60 ml/min.

  11. Ulipristal acetate resembles mifepristone in modulating human fallopian tube function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hang Wun Raymond; Liao, Su-Bin; Yeung, William Shu-Biu; Ng, Ernest Hung-Yu; O, Wai-Sum; Ho, Pak-Chung

    2014-10-10

    Do ulipristal acetate (UPA) and mifepristone have an effect on ciliary beat frequency and muscular contractions in the human Fallopian tube? UPA, in resemblance to mifepristone, inhibits ciliary beat and muscular contraction of the human Fallopian tube, probably through an agonistic effect on the tubal progesterone receptor. UPA, like mifepristone, acts as an emergency contraceptive mainly by inhibiting ovulation. Little is known about its effects on tubal function. This was an in vitro experimental study using Fallopian tube samples collected from 11 women undergoing hysterectomy for benign non-tubal gynaecological conditions. The tubal epithelium and longitudinal smooth muscle fibres were isolated, cultured and treated with UPA at graded concentrations of 0, 20, 200 and 2000 ng/ml, and mifepristone at graded concentrations of 0, 300, 3000 and 30 000 ng/ml, respectively. After treatment, ciliary beat frequency was determined using a photometric method. Basal tone, amplitude and frequency of muscular contraction were recorded through a force transducer. The mRNA expression of progesterone receptor (total and PR-B isoform), glycodelin and adrenomedullin were determined by real-time quantitative PCR. There was an overall dose-dependent suppressive effect on ciliary beat frequency (P < 0.0001) after treatment with UPA at all concentrations and with mifepristone at 3000 ng/ml or above. The basal tone, amplitude and frequency of muscular contractions were significantly reduced (P < 0.05) after treatment with UPA at 200 ng/ml or above, and with mifepristone at 3000 ng/ml or above. UPA treatment at 200 ng/ml or above significantly up-regulated the mRNA expression of progesterone receptor and glycodelin and down-regulated the mRNA expression of adrenomedullin in Fallopian tube tissue (P < 0.05). Whether or not the tubal effect may translate into additional mechanisms for contraceptive action in vivo is uncertain. The clinical relevance of UPA with regard to contraceptive

  12. Efficacy and safety of repeated use of ulipristal acetate in uterine fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnez, Jacques; Hudecek, Robert; Donnez, Olivier; Matule, Dace; Arhendt, Hans-Joachim; Zatik, Janos; Kasilovskiene, Zaneta; Dumitrascu, Mihai Cristian; Fernandez, Hervé; Barlow, David H; Bouchard, Philippe; Fauser, Bart C J M; Bestel, Elke; Terrill, Paul; Osterloh, Ian; Loumaye, Ernest

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of repeated 12-week courses of 5 or 10 mg daily of ulipristal acetate for intermittent treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids. Double-blind, randomized administration of two 12-week courses of ulipristal acetate. Gynecology centers. A total of 451 patients with symptomatic uterine fibroid(s) and heavy bleeding. Two repeated 12-week treatment courses of daily 5 or 10 mg of ulipristal acetate. Amenorrhea, controlled bleeding, fibroid volume, quality of life (QoL), pain. In the 5- and 10-mg treatment groups (62% and 73% of patients, respectively) achieved amenorrhea during both treatment courses. Proportions of patients achieving controlled bleeding during two treatment courses were >80%. Menstruation resumed after each treatment course and was diminished compared with baseline. After the second treatment course, median reductions from baseline in fibroid volume were 54% and 58% for the patients receiving 5 and 10 mg of ulipristal acetate, respectively. Pain and QoL improved in both groups. Ulipristal acetate was well tolerated with less than 5% of patients discontinuing treatment due to adverse events. Repeated 12-week courses of daily oral ulipristal acetate (5 and 10 mg) effectively control bleeding and pain, reduce fibroid volume, and restore QoL in patients with symptomatic fibroids. NCT01629563 (PEARL IV). Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. PVP/PEG/Carrageenan/Silver acetate hydrogels by {gamma}-ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Youn Mook; Youn, Young; Gwon, Hui Jeong; Park, Jong Seok; Nho, Young Chang [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    In recent day, there is much interest in the biocidal activity of silver since silver is known to be safe and effective as disinifectant and biocidal material against coliforms and viruses. In this study, hydrogels containing silver acetate as antibacterial agent have been prepared using gamma rays irradiation. The hydrogels are composed of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP), poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), carrageenan and silver acetate. The concentration of solution was 9 wt%. The ratio of PVP: PEG: carrageenan was 6:1:2. The concentration of the silver acetate were 0,0.01, 0.03, 0.05 and 0.07% and Gamma irradiation dose was 25 kGy. The Gamma irradiation dose in hydrogels with 0.01% silver acetate were 20 kGy, 35 kGy, 50 kGy, 65 kGy, and 80 kGy. The results showed that 0.01% silver acetate concentration of hydrogels by 25 kGy irradiation dose showed the highest antibacterial activity against E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, antibacterial activity of various Gamma irradiation dose in hydrogels treated 0.01% silver acetate showed highest 35 kGy irradiation dose against Staphylococcus aureus.

  14. Photorespiration participates in the assimilation of acetate in Chlorella sorokiniana under high light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiujun; Huang, Aiyou; Gu, Wenhui; Zang, Zhengrong; Pan, Guanghua; Gao, Shan; He, Linwen; Zhang, Baoyu; Niu, Jianfeng; Lin, Apeng; Wang, Guangce

    2016-02-01

    The development of microalgae on an industrial scale largely depends on the economic feasibility of mass production. High light induces productive suspensions during cultivation in a tubular photobioreactor. Herein, we report that high light, which inhibited the growth of Chlorella sorokiniana under autotrophic conditions, enhanced the growth of this alga in the presence of acetate. We compared pigments, proteomics and the metabolic flux ratio in C. sorokiniana cultivated under high light (HL) and under low light (LL) in the presence of acetate. Our results showed that high light induced the synthesis of xanthophyll and suppressed the synthesis of chlorophylls. Acetate in the medium was exhausted much more rapidly in HL than in LL. The data obtained from LC-MS/MS indicated that high light enhanced photorespiration, the Calvin cycle and the glyoxylate cycle of mixotrophic C. sorokiniana. The results of metabolic flux ratio analysis showed that the majority of the assimilated carbon derived from supplemented acetate, and photorespiratory glyoxylate could enter the glyoxylate cycle. Based on these data, we conclude that photorespiration provides glyoxylate to speed up the glyoxylate cycle, and releases acetate-derived CO2 for the Calvin cycle. Thus, photorespiration connects the glyoxylate cycle and the Calvin cycle, and participates in the assimilation of supplemented acetate in C. sorokiniana under high light. © 2015 Institute of Oceanography, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IOCAS). New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Leuprolide acetate induces structural and functional recovery of injured spinal cord in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Galindo, Carmen; Gómez-González, Beatriz; Salinas, Eva; Calderón-Vallejo, Denisse; Hernández-Jasso, Irma; Bautista, Eduardo; Quintanar, J Luis

    2015-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and its synthetic analog leuprolide acetate, a GnRH agonist, have neurotrophic properties. This study was designed to determine whether administration of leuprolide acetate can improve locomotor behavior, gait, micturition reflex, spinal cord morphology and the amount of microglia in the lesion epicenter after spinal cord injury in rats. Rats with spinal cord compression injury were administered leuprolide acetate or saline solution for 5 weeks. At the 5th week, leuprolide acetate-treated rats showed locomotor activity recovery by 38%, had improvement in kinematic gait and exhibited voiding reflex recovery by 60%, as compared with the 1st week. By contrast, saline solution-treated rats showed locomotor activity recovery only by 7%, but voiding reflex did not recover. More importantly, leuprolide acetate treatment reduced microglial immunological reaction and induced a trend towards greater area of white and gray matter in the spinal cord. Therefore, leuprolide acetate has great potential to repair spinal cord injury. PMID:26807118

  16. Clomazone selectivity in cotton seeds treated with dietholate and zinc acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Hiroko Inoue

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study objective was to evaluate the selectivity of pre-emergence applications the herbicide clomazone cotton seeds treated with dietholate and zinc acetate. The 4 x 2 factorial arrangement was adopted (4 seed treatment methods and 2 clomazone dosages, distributed in a randomized block design with 4 repetitions. In treatments where dietholate and zinc acetate were applied, rates of 0.4 kg ha-1 and 8 ml per kg of seeds were used respectively. The clomazone rates used refer to 0.8 and 1.0 kg ha- 1. The cotton cultivar used was the Fiber Max 966 LL. Independent of treatment, all seeds were treated with tiametoxam insecticide and fludioxonil + metalaxyl-M fungicide at rates of 2.24 and 0.08 + 0.03 g per kg of seed, respectively, to control pests early and limit losses caused by pathogens in germination and seedling emergence. Dietholate and zinc acetate treatment had greater initial effect on cotton plants at 21, 30 and 45 days after application. In phytointoxication symptoms were observed for treatment with dietholate and zinc acetate during the evaluation periods. Seeds treated with dietholate, dietholate and zinc acetate or zinc acetate alone provided a higher number of bolls and seed cotton production compared to the control.

  17. Insights into the mechanism of acetic acid hydrogenation to ethanol on Cu(111) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Minhua; Yao, Rui; Jiang, Haoxi; Li, Guiming; Chen, Yifei

    2017-08-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations were employed to theoretically explain the reaction mechanism of acetic acid hydrogenation to ethanol on Cu catalyst. The activation barriers of key elementary steps and the adsorption configurations of key intermediates involved in acetic acid hydrogenation on Cu(111) surface were investigated. The results indicated that the direct dissociation of acetic acid to acetyl (CH3COOH → CH3CO + OH) is the rate-determined step. The activation barrier of acetic acid scission to acetyl and the adsorption energy of acetic acid are two descriptors which could determine the conversion of acetic acid. The descriptors might have effects on the ethanol selectivity including: the adsorption energy of acetaldehyde and the activation barriers for Osbnd H bond formation of C2-oxygenates (CH3CO + H → CH3COH, CH3CHO + H → CH3CHOH and CH3CH2O + H → CH3CH2OH). These proposed descriptors could be used as references to design new Cu-based catalysts that have excellent catalytic performance.

  18. Tolerance to acetic acid is improved by mutations of the TATA-binding protein gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jieun; Kwon, Hyeji; Kim, Eunjung; Lee, Young Mi; Ko, Hyeok Jin; Park, Hongjae; Choi, In-Geol; Kim, Sooah; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Kim, Wankee; Choi, Wonja

    2015-03-01

    Screening a library of overexpressing mutant alleles of the TATA-binding gene SPT15 yielded two Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (MRRC 3252 and 3253) with enhanced tolerance to acetic acid. They were also tolerant to propionic acid and hydrogen peroxide. Transcriptome profile analysis identified 58 upregulated genes and 106 downregulated genes in MRRC 3252. Stress- and protein synthesis-related transcription factors were predominantly enriched in the upregulated and downregulated genes respectively. Eight deletion mutants for some of the highly downregulated genes were acetic acid-tolerant. The level of intracellular reactive oxygen species was considerably lessened in MRRC 3252 and 3253 upon exposure to acetic acid. Metabolome profile analysis revealed that intracellular concentrations of 5 and 102 metabolites were increased and decreased, respectively, in MRRC 3252, featuring a large increase of urea and a significant decrease of amino acids. The dur1/2Δmutant, in which the urea degradation gene DUR1/2 is deleted, displayed enhanced tolerance to acetic acid. Enhanced tolerance to acetic acid was also observed on the medium containing a low concentration of amino acids. Taken together, this study identified two SPT15 alleles, nine gene deletions and low concentration of amino acids in the medium that confer enhanced tolerance to acetic acid. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Chitosan Acetate Bandage as a Topical Antimicrobial Dressing for Infected Burns▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Tianhong; Tegos, George P.; Burkatovskaya, Marina; Castano, Ana P.; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    An engineered chitosan acetate bandage preparation (HemCon) is used as a hemostatic dressing, and its chemical structure suggests that it should also be antimicrobial. We previously showed that when a chitosan acetate bandage was applied to full-thickness excisional wounds in mice that had been infected with pathogenic bioluminescent bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus aureus), it was able to rapidly kill the bacteria and save the mice from developing fatal infections. Wound healing was also stimulated. In the present study, we asked whether a chitosan acetate bandage could act as a topical antimicrobial dressing when it was applied to third-degree burns in mice contaminated with two of these bacterial species (P. aeruginosa and P. mirabilis). Preliminary experiments established the length of burn time and the number of bacteria needed to produce fatal infections in untreated mice and established that the chitosan acetate bandage could adhere to the infected burn for up to 21 days. In the case of P. aeruginosa infections, the survival rate of mice treated with the chitosan acetate bandage was 73.3% (whereas the survival rate of mice treated with a nanocrystalline silver dressing was 27.3% [P = 0.0055] and that of untreated mice was 13.3% [P burn and prevented the development of systemic sepsis, as shown by blood culture. These data suggest that chitosan acetate bandage is efficacious in preventing fatal burn infections. PMID:19015341

  20. Inflammatory myopathy and severe rhabdomyolysis induced by leuprolide acetate therapy for prostate cancer: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohacek Martin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Leuprolide acetate is a synthetic analog of gonadotropin-releasing hormone used for the treatment of prostate cancer. Its side effects are hot flashes, nausea, and fatigue. We report a case of a patient with proximal inflammatory myopathy accompanied by severe rhabdomyolysis and renal failure following the second application of leuprolide acetate. Drug withdrawal and steroid therapy resulted in remission within six weeks of the diagnosis. To the best of our knowledge, our case report describes the second case of leuprolide acetate-induced inflammatory myopathy and the first case of severe leuprolide acetate-induced rhabdomyolysis and renal failure in the literature. Case presentation A 64-year-old Swiss Caucasian man was admitted to the hospital because of progressive proximal muscle weakness, dyspnea, and oliguria. He had been treated twice with leuprolide acetate in monthly doses. We performed a muscle biopsy, which excluded other causes of myopathy. The patient's renal failure and rhabdomyolysis were treated with rehydration and steroid therapy. Conclusion The aim of our case report is to highlight the rare but severe side effects associated with leuprolide acetate therapy used to treat patients with inflammatory myopathy: severe rhabdomyolysis and renal failure.

  1. Buffering action of acetate on hydrogen production by Ethanoligenens harbinense B49

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    Ji-Fei Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The buffering effect of acetate on hydrogen production during glucose fermentation by Ethanoligenens harbinense B49 was investigated compared to phosphate, a widely used fermentative hydrogen production buffer. Specific concentrations of sodium acetate or phosphate were added to batch cultures, and the effects on hydrogen production were comparatively analyzed using a modified Gompertz model. Adding 50 mM acetate or phosphate suppressed the hydrogen production peak and slightly extended the lag phase. However, the overall hydrogen yields were 113.5 and 108.5 mmol/L, respectively, and the final pH was effectively controlled. Acetate buffered against hydrogen production more effectively than did phosphate, promoting cell growth and preventing decreased pH. At buffer concentrations 100–250 mM, the maximum hydrogen production was barely suppressed, and the lag phase extended past 7 h. Therefore, although acetate inhibits hydrogen production, using acetate as a buffer (like phosphate effectively prevented pH drops and increased substrate consumption, enhancing hydrogen production.

  2. An ethyl acetate sensor utilizing cataluminescence on Y₂O₃ nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaoan; Tao, Ying; Li, Liling; Liu, Yonghui; Peng, Yan; Li, Jinwen

    2011-01-01

    A cataluminescence (CTL) sensor using Y₂O₃ nanoparticles as the sensing materials was proposed for the determination of ethyl acetate. This ethyl acetate sensor showed high sensitivity and specificity at the optimal temperature of 264°C. Quantitative analysis was performed at a wavelength of 425 nm. The linear ranges of CTL intensity vs ethyl acetate concentrations were 2.0-250 ppm (r = 0.9965) and 250-6500 ppm (r = 0.9997) with a detection limit (3σ) of 0.5 ppm. There was no response or weak response when foreign substances such as formic acid, n-hexane, toluene, acetic acid, benzene, and formaldehyde passing through the surface of Y₂O₃ nanoparticles. The sensor had a long lifetime more than 80 h with 3600 ppm ethyl acetate. It had been applied successfully to determine ethyl acetate in artificial air samples. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Simulation of Pressure-swing Distillation for Separation of Ethyl Acetate-Ethanol-Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Zhou, Menglin; Wang, Yujie; Zhang, Xi; Wu, Gang

    2017-12-01

    In the light of the azeotrope of ethyl acetate-ethanol-water, a process of pressure-swing distillation is proposed. The separation process is simulated by Aspen Plus, and the effects of theoretical stage number, reflux ratio and feed stage about the pressure-swing distillation are optimized. Some better process parameters are as follows: for ethyl acetate refining tower, the pressure is 500.0 kPa, theoretical stage number is 16, reflux ratio is 0.6, feed stage is 5; for crude ethanol tower, the pressure is 101.3 kPa, theoretical stage number is 15, reflux ratio is 0.3, feed stage is 4; for ethanol tower, the pressure is 101.3 kPa, theoretical stage number is 25, reflux ratio is 1.2, feed stage is 10. The mass fraction of ethyl acetate in the bottom of the ethyl acetate refining tower reaches 0.9990, the mass fraction of ethanol in the top of the ethanol tower tower reaches 0.9017, the mass fraction of water in the bottom of the ethanol tower tower reaches 0.9622, and there is also no ethyl acetate in the bottom of the ethanol tower. With laboratory tests, experimental results are in good agreement with the simulation results, which indicates that the separation of ethyl acetate ethanol water can be realized by the pressure-swing distillation separation process. Moreover, it has certain practical significance to industrial practice.

  4. Screening of Methanol Extract and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Abies webbiana Lindl. for Neuropharmacological Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkash, O; Kumar, D; Kumar, S

    2015-01-01

    Despite a long traditional of use of Abies webbiana Lindl. (Talispatra; family-Pinaceae) in the treatment of mental disorders, the plant has not been investigated systematically to validate its traditional claims. Thus, the present investigation was undertaken with an objective to investigate neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of Abies webbiana aerial parts and its ethyl acetate fraction. Properly identified aerial parts were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with methanol in a Soxhlet apparatus. Ethyl acetate fraction was prepared by partitioning methanol extract with ethyl acetate using standard procedure. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed in animals after oral administration of 2 g/kg dose of methanol extract. The methanol extract (200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and ethyl acetate fraction (25 or 50 mg/kg, p.o.) were evaluated for antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities using well established models. The methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts exhibited significant antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities with respect to control. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed presence of flavonoids in bioactive ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts. It is finally concluded that flavonoids are the bioactive constituents responsible for most of neuropharmacological activities of Abies webbiana.

  5. Formation of ethyl acetate by Kluyveromyces marxianus on whey: studies of the ester stripping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urit, Thanet; Löser, Christian; Wunderlich, Martin; Bley, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Kluyveromyces marxianus is capable of converting lactose into ethyl acetate offering a chance for an economical reuse of whey. The microbial formation of ethyl acetate as a bulk product calls for an aerobic process and, thus, the highly volatile ethyl acetate is discharged from the aerated bioreactor. This stripping process was modeled and investigated experimentally. The stripping rate was proportional to the gas flow and nearly independent of the stirring rate since the stripping was governed by the absorption capacity of the exhaust gas rather than the phase transfer. Cooling the exhaust gas did not noticeably influence the stripping. One batch experiment is presented in detail to demonstrate the formation of ethyl acetate by K. maxianus DSM 5422 on whey. Further batch experiments showed that a substantial formation of ethyl acetate only occurred when the yeast growth was limited by a lack of trace elements. The highest product yield observed was 0.25 g ethyl acetate per g lactose which is nearly 50% of the theoretical maximum.

  6. Theoretical study of the infrared frequencies of crystalline methyl acetate under interstellar medium conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Radhika; Inomata, Kensuke; Gopakumar, Geetha; Sivaraman, Bhalamurugan; Zempo, Yasunari; Hada, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Identification of methyl acetate in the interstellar medium (ISM) and its spectroscopic studies have prompted us to investigate the structure of crystalline methyl acetate using numerical calculations. Here, we present a theoretical study of the structure of crystalline methyl acetate and its isotopologues and compare the calculated infrared (IR) spectra with the available experimental data. The optimized structure and vibrational properties were calculated using SIESTA software at 0 K. In the optimization process, the Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof functional and conjugate gradient methods were used with double zeta polarization basis functions. After optimization of the periodic structure, the vibrational frequencies and normal modes were calculated within the harmonic approximation. Using the calculated results, we refine the mode assignments of experimental work on crystalline methyl acetate and determine the low frequency modes (below 650 cm- 1). To investigate the accuracy of the pseudopotential and confirm the IR frequencies, we performed molecular calculations using a periodic model of methyl acetate and its isotopologues using SIESTA and compared them with results obtained from Gaussian 09 (all electron method) calculations. Finally, we assigned the vibrational modes of crystalline CD3-COO-CH3 and CH3-COO-CD3, for which experimental data are not available in the crystalline phase under ISM conditions. For all of the calculation methods, the IR vibrational modes of molecular and crystalline methyl acetate and its isotopologues were in good agreement with the available experimental data and predict the unavailable values.

  7. Continuous Ethanol Production with a Membrane Bioreactor at High Acetic Acid Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Päivi Ylitervo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The release of inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid from lignocellulosic raw materials during hydrolysis is one of the main concerns for 2nd generation ethanol production. The undissociated form of acetic acid can enter the cell by diffusion through the plasma membrane and trigger several toxic effects, such as uncoupling and lowered intracellular pH. The effect of acetic acid on the ethanol production was investigated in continuous cultivations by adding medium containing 2.5 to 20.0 g·L−1 acetic acid at pH 5.0, at a dilution rate of 0.5 h−1. The cultivations were performed at both high (~25 g·L−1 and very high (100–200 g·L−1 yeast concentration by retaining the yeast cells inside the reactor by a cross-flow membrane in a membrane bioreactor. The yeast was able to steadily produce ethanol from 25 g·L−1 sucrose, at volumetric rates of 5–6 g·L−1·h−1 at acetic acid concentrations up to 15.0 g·L−1. However, the yeast continued to produce ethanol also at a concentration of 20 g·L−1 acetic acid but at a declining rate. The study thereby demonstrates the great potential of the membrane bioreactor for improving the robustness of the ethanol production based on lignocellulosic raw materials.

  8. Preventive effect of taraxasteryl acetate from Inula britannica subsp. japonica on experimental hepatitis in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, K; Kiyohara, H; Tanaka, M; Matsumoto, T; Cyong, J C; Yamada, H

    1995-02-01

    The survival rate for acute hepatic failure induced by Propionibacterium acnes and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was increased when a hot water extract from the flowers of Inula britannica L. subsp. japonica Kitam. was injected into the experimental hepatitis mice, and anti-hepatitis substances could be extracted with CHCl3. The CHCl3 extract from I.britannica was fractionated and anti-hepatitis fractions IB-3-2 and IB-3-3 were obtained. IB-3-3 had the most potent anti-hepatitis activity among the fractions but further purification of the active compound was not achieved because of the low yield. IB-3-2 contained only one substance which was identified to be taraxasteryl acetate by 1H- and 13C-NMR and MS. Taraxasteryl acetate showed potent preventive activity against acute hepatic failure induced by P.acnes and LPS in a dose-dependent manner, however deacetylation and modification of the olefinic bonds significantly decreased the anti-hepatitis activity of taraxasteryl acetate. Taraxasteryl acetate also inhibited the increment of plasma transaminase on acute hepatic failure induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) or D-galactosamine. From a histological study it appeared that degeneration and necrosis, which were observed in the liver from CCl4 mice, were not found in the liver cells from taraxasteryl acetate treated mice. These results indicates that taraxasteryl acetate shows preventive effects on experimental hepatitis caused by either immunologically induced injuries or hepatotoxic chemicals.

  9. In-house development of an optimized synthetic module for routine [11C]acetate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hwa Youn; Kwon, Seong Young; Pyo, Ayoung; Hur, Min Goo; Kim, Sang Wook; Park, Jeong-Hoon; Kim, Hee-Jung; Yang, Seung Dae; Lee, Sunwoo; Kim, Dong-Yeon; Min, Jung-Joon

    2015-01-01

    [11C]Acetate, a radiotracer for PET imaging, is a promising radiopharmaceutical for overcoming the limitation of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose in a number of cancers. Here, the optimized automatic synthesis of [11C]acetate using an in-house-developed module under different conditions has been reported for routine production. [11C]CO2 was produced in a 16.4 MeV PETtrace cyclotron, and methyl magnesium chloride was used for synthesis. For product purification, ion-exchange solid-phase extraction cartridges were used, connected in series. High-performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography were used to measure radiochemical and chemical purity. The Limulus amebocyte lysate test and the fluid thioglycollate medium test were performed for quality control of [11C]acetate. The total reaction time of [11C]acetate was within 15 min, and the overall decay-corrected radiochemical yield was 84.33±8.85%. Radiochemical purity was greater than 98% when evaluated on an analytical high-performance liquid chromatography system. No endotoxins or anaerobic bacteria were seen on quality control checks. Optimized production of [11C]acetate was achieved by the in-house module. Radiochemical and biological properties of the [11C]acetate produced were appropriate for clinical PET study.

  10. Acetate metabolism of Saccharomyces cerevisiae at different temperatures during lychee wine fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-hui Shang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain 2137 involved in lychee wine production was used to investigate acetate metabolism at different temperatures during lychee wine fermentation. Fermentation tests were conducted using lychee juice supplemented with acetic acid. The ability of yeast cells to metabolize acetic acid was stronger at 20 °C than at 25 °C or 30 °C. The addition of acetic acid suppressed the yeast cell growth at the tested temperatures. The viability was higher and the reactive oxygen species concentration was lower at 20 °C than at 30 °C; this result indicated that acid stress adaptation protects S. cerevisiae from acetic-acid-mediated programmed cell death. The acetic acid enhanced the thermal death of yeast at high temperatures. The fermentation temperature modified the metabolism of the yeasts and the activity of related enzymes during deacidification, because less acetaldehyde, less glycerol, more ethanol, more succinic acid and more malic acid were produced, with higher level of acetyl–CoA synthetase and isocitrate lyase activity, at 20 °C.

  11. Probing the Methyl Torsional Barriers of the E and Z Isomers of Butadienyl Acetate by Microwave Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabri, Atef; Nguyen, Ha Vinh Lam; Kleiner, Isabelle; Van, Vinh; Stahl, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    The Fourier transform microwave spectra of the E and the Z isomer of butadienyl acetate have been measured in the frequency range from 2 to 26.5 GHz under molecular beam conditions. The most stable conformer of each isomer, in which all heavy atoms are located in a symmetry plane, was identified after analyzing the spectrum by comparison with results from quantum chemical calculations. The barrier to internal rotation of the acetyl methyl group was found to be 149.1822(20) cm-1 and 150.2128(48) cm-1 for the E and the Z isomer, respectively, which are similar to that of vinyl acetate. A comparison between two theoretical approaches treating internal rotations, the rho axis method (using the program BELGI-Cs) and combined axis method (using the program XIAM), is also performed. Since several years we study the barriers to internal rotation of the acetyl methyl group in acetates, CH3-COOR. Currently, we assume that all acetates can be divided into three classes. Class I contains α,β saturated acetates, where the torsional barrier is always close to 100 cm-1. Examples are a series of alkyl acetates such as methyl acetate and ethyl acetate. Class II contains α,β-unsaturated acetates where the C=C double bond is located in the COO plane. This is the case of vinyl acetate and butadienyl acetate. Finally, in class III with isopropenyl acetate and phenyl acetate as two representatives, α,β-unsaturated acetates, in which the double bond is not located in the COO plane, are collected. There, we observed a barrier height around 135 cm-1. This observation will be discussed in details. B. Velino, A. Maris, S. Melandri, W. Caminati, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 2009, 256, 228 H. V. L. Nguyen, A. Jabri, V. Van, and W. Stahl, J. Phys. Chem. A, 2014, 118, 12130.

  12. Liquid-liquid equilibrium constant for acetic acid in an olive oil-epoxidized olive oil-acetic acid-hydrogen peroxide-water system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Milovan R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The liquid-liquid equilibrium constant for acetic acid in a quinary system olive oil-epoxidized olive oil-acetic acid-hydrogen peroxide-water was experimentally determined for temperatures and component ratios relevant for in situ epoxidation of plant oils. The values has the constant range from 1.52 to 2.73. To predict the equilibrium constant for acetic acid, the experimental data were correlated with UNIQUAC (universal quasi chemical and NRTL (non-random two liquid activity coefficient models. For simplified calculation of the phase equilibrium the insolubility of olive oil and epoxidized olive oil in the water, as well as insolubility of water and hydrogen peroxide in the olive oil and epoxidized olive oil, was assumed. The root mean square deviation (RMSD of the experimental and calculated values of the liquid-liquid equilibrium constant for acetic acid is 0.1910 for the UNIQUAC model and 0.1815 for the NRTL model. For rigorous flash calculation, when the partitioning of all components between the phases was assumed, the RMSD for the NRTL model is 0.1749. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 45022

  13. LANGMUIR-BLODGETT-FILMS OF AMYLOSE ACETATE/DYE MIXTURES .2. LANGMUIR-BLODGETT MULTILAYERS OF MIXTURES OF AMYLOSE ACETATE AND A CHIRAL PARA-NITROAZOBIS[BENZENE] DYE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHOONDORP, MA; SCHOUTEN, AJ; HULSHOF, JBE; FERINGA, BL

    The structure of multilayers of a mixture of amylose acetate and a chiral nonlinear optical dye, a monoester of palmitic acid and 4-nitro-4'-[(3R)-hydroxypyrrolidino]-1,1'-azobis[benzene] (KMES16) has been studied. The monolayers of the mixed systems, consisting of domains of the dye in a matrix of

  14. Langmuir-Blodgett Films of Amylose Acetate/Dye Mixtures. 2. Langmuir-Blodgett Multilayers of Mixtures of Amylose Acetate and a Chiral p-Nitroazobis[benzene] Dye

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoondorp, Monique A.; Schouten, Arend Jan; Hulshof, Johannes; Feringa, Ben L.

    1992-01-01

    The structure of multilayers of a mixture of amylose acetate and a chiral nonlinear optical dye, a monoester of palmitic acid and 4-nitro-4’-[(3R)-hydroxypyrrolidino]-1,1’-azobis[benzene] (KMES16) has been studied. The monolayers of the mixed systems, consisting of domains of the dye in a matrix of

  15. Synthesis of Highly Polymerized Water-soluble Cellulose Acetate by the Side Reaction in Carboxylate Ionic Liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium Acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Jinhui; Liu, Xin; Yang, Jun; Lu, Fachuang; Wang, Bo; Xu, Feng; Ma, Mingguo; Zhang, Xueming

    2016-09-20

    In the present study, we describe a novel one-step method to prepare water-soluble cellulose acetate (WSCA) with higher degree of polymerization values (DP = 650-680) by in situ activation of carboxyl group in ionic liquid. First of all, cellulose was dissolved in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EmimAc) and reacted with dichloroacetyl chloride (Cl2AcCl) in order to make cellulose dichloroacetate. Under various conditions, a series of water soluble products were produced. Elemental analysis and NMR results confirmed that they were cellulose acetate with DS (degree of substitution) values in the range from 0.30 to 0.63. NMR studies demonstrated that Cl2AcCl reacted with acetate anion of EmimAc producing a mixed anhydride that acetylated cellulose. Other acylating reagents such as benzoyl chloride, chloroacetyl chloride can also work similarly. 2D NMR characterization suggested that 6-mono-O-acetyl moiety, 3,6-di-O-acetylcellulose and 2,6-di-O-acetyl cellulose were all synthesized and the reactivity of hydroxyl groups in anhydro-glucose units was in the order C-6>C-3>C-2. This work provides an alternative way to make WSCA, meanwhile, also services as a reminder that the activity of EmimAc toward carbohydrate as acylating reagents could be a problem, because the expected acylated products may not be resulted and recycling of this ionic liquid could also be difficult.

  16. The fraction of cells that resume growth after acetic acid addition is a strain-dependent parameter of acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnen, Steve; Fernández-Niño, Miguel; González-Ramos, Daniel; van Maris, Antonius J A; Nevoigt, Elke

    2014-06-01

    High acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a relevant phenotype in industrial biotechnology when using lignocellulosic hydrolysates as feedstock. A screening of 38 S. cerevisiae strains for tolerance to acetic acid revealed considerable differences, particularly with regard to the duration of the latency phase. To understand how this phenotype is quantitatively manifested, four strains exhibiting significant differences were studied in more detail. Our data show that the duration of the latency phase is primarily determined by the fraction of cells within the population that resume growth. Only this fraction contributed to the exponential growth observed after the latency phase, while all other cells persisted in a viable but non-proliferating state. A remarkable variation in the size of the fraction was observed among the tested strains differing by several orders of magnitude. In fact, only 11 out of 10(7)  cells of the industrial bioethanol production strain Ethanol Red resumed growth after exposure to 157 mM acetic acid at pH 4.5, while this fraction was 3.6 × 10(6) (out of 10(7)  cells) in the highly acetic acid tolerant isolate ATCC 96581. These strain-specific differences are genetically determined and represent a valuable starting point to identify genetic targets for future strain improvement. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sodium acetate infusion in critically ill trauma patients for hyperchloremic acidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong David T

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Sodium acetate has been shown to cause hemodynamic instability when used as a hemodialysis buffer. The pattern of hemodynamic response to injury will be evaluated between those who received sodium acetate and those who did not. The primary purpose of the study is to analyze the effect of sodium acetate on hemodynamic parameters. Secondarily we looked at the effects on prevention and treatment of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Methods The study arm was comprised of patients who had received sodium acetate infusions in place of normal saline between March 2005 and December 2009. A control arm was created based on matching three pre-treatment variables: injury severity score (ISS, pH (+/- 0.03 and base deficit (+/- 3. A retrospective chart review was performed for patients in both arms. Blood pressure, arterial blood gas data and chemistry values were recorded for the time points of -6, -1, 0, 1, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours from start of sodium acetate infusion. Patients were excluded based on the following criteria: patients who were given sodium bicarbonate within 48 hours of starting sodium acetate, those given sodium acetate as a bolus, non-trauma patients, burn patients, patients who expired within 24 hours of arrival to the ICU, patients diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis and patients whose medical record could not be obtained. Results A total of 78 patients were included in the study, 39 in the study arm and 39 in the control arm. There were no statistically significant drops in blood pressure within either group. The median pH between the two groups at the start of infusion was equal. Both groups trended towards normal pH with the study arm improving faster than the control arm. The median serum bicarbonate at start of sodium acetate infusion was 19 mmol/L and 20 mmol/L at time zero for the study and control arms respectively with both trending upward during the study period. Chloride trended up initially in both groups

  18. Performance of dairy cows fed high levels of acetic acid or ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, J L P; Amaral, R C; Sá Neto, A; Cabezas-Garcia, E H; Bispo, A W; Zopollatto, M; Cardoso, T L; Spoto, M H F; Santos, F A P; Nussio, L G

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol and acetic acid are common end products from silages. The main objective of this study was to determine whether high concentrations of ethanol or acetic acid in total mixed ration would affect performance in dairy cows. Thirty mid-lactation Holstein cows were grouped in 10 blocks and fed one of the following diets for 7 wk: (1) control (33% Bermuda hay + 67% concentrates), (2) ethanol [control diet + 5% ethanol, dry matter (DM) basis], or (3) acetic acid (control diet + 5% acetic acid, DM basis). Ethanol and acetic acid were diluted in water (1:2) and sprayed onto total mixed rations twice daily before feeding. An equal amount of water was mixed with the control ration. To adapt animals to these treatments, cows were fed only half of the treatment dose during the first week of study. Cows fed ethanol yielded more milk (37.9 kg/d) than those fed the control (35.8 kg/d) or acetic acid (35.3 kg/d) diets, mainly due to the higher DM intake (DMI; 23.7, 22.2, and 21.6 kg/d, respectively). The significant diet × week interaction for DMI, mainly during wk 2 and 3 (when acetic acid reached the full dose), was related to the decrease in DMI observed for the acetic acid treatment. There was a diet × week interaction in excretion of milk energy per DMI during wk 2 and 3, due to cows fed acetic acid sustained milk yield despite lower DMI. Energy efficiency was similar across diets. Blood metabolites (glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids, ethanol, and γ-glutamyl transferase activity) and sensory characteristics of milk were not affected by these treatments. Animal performance suggested similar energy value for the diet containing ethanol compared with other diets. Rumen conversion of ethanol to acetate and a concomitant increase in methane production might be a plausible explanation for the deviation of the predicted energy value based on the heat of combustion. Therefore, the loss of volatile compounds during the drying process in the laboratory should be

  19. Anaerobic conversion of carbon dioxide to methane, acetate and propionate on washed rice roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad; Klose

    1999-10-01

    Washed excised roots of rice (Oryza sativa) produced H(2), CH(4), acetate, propionate and butyrate when incubated under anoxic conditions. Acetate production was most pronounced with a maximum rate (mean+/-standard error; four different root preparations) of 3.4+/-0.6 µmol h(-1) g-dry weight(-1) roots, compared to 0.45+/-0.13, 0.06+/-0.03, and 0.04+/-0.01 µmol h(-1) g-dw(-1) for propionate, butyrate and CH(4)1 kPa after one day of incubation. Then it decreased and reached more or less constant concentrations of about 50-80 Pa after about 7-8 days. Hydrogen partial pressures were always high enough to allow exergonic methanogenesis (DeltaG=-67 to -98 kJ mol(-1) CH(4)) and exergonic homoacetogenesis (DeltaG=-18 to -48 kJ mol(-1) acetate) from H(2) plus CO(2). Radioactive bicarbonate/CO(2) was incorporated into CH(4), acetate and propionate. The specific radioactivities of the products indicated that CH(4) was exclusively produced from H(2)/CO(2) confirming a previous study. The contribution of CO(2) to the production of acetate and propionate was 32-39% and 42-61%, respectively, assuming that each carbon atom was equally labeled. Propionate also became radioactively labeled, when the roots were incubated with either [1-(14)C]acetate or [2-(14)C]acetate accounting for 60-76% of total propionate production. Reductive formation of propionate was thermodynamically favorable both from H(2) plus acetate plus CO(2) (DeltaG=-15 to -38 kJ mol(-1) propionate) and from H(2) plus CO(2) (DeltaG=-34 to -85 kJ mol(-1) propionate). A substantial fraction of propionate was apparently reductively formed from acetate and/or CO(2). In conclusion, our results demonstrate an intensive anaerobic dark metabolism of CO(2) on washed rice roots with reduction of CO(2) contributing significantly to the production of acetate, propionate and CH(4). The CO(2) reduction seemed to be driven by decay and fermentation of root material.

  20. Effects of methyl prednisolone acetate, fibrin glue and combination of methyl prednisolone acetate and fibrin glue in prevention of epidural fibrosis in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cekinmez, Melih; Sen, Orhan; Atalay, Basar; Erdogan, Bulent; Bavbek, Murad; Caner, Hakan; Ozen, Ozlem; Altinors, Nur

    2010-09-01

    Epidural fibrosis, which develops during the post-operative period in 6-20% of the patients who undergo lumbar spinal surgery, can cause persistent low-back pain and signs of root compression. Conservative treatment protocols or repeat operations performed for the symptoms of epidural fibrosis are long-term and costly treatments and impairs the patient's quality of life. In this experimental study, we applied methyl prednisolone acetate mixed with fibrin glue to the surgical field and examined the effects on epidural fibrosis in the surgical field by delaying the absorption of methyl prednisolone acetate. One hundred Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups, and animals underwent total laminectomy of L4 and L5. We applied 0.05 ml/kg fibrin glue, 0.05 ml/kg methyl prednisolone acetate, 0.05 ml/kg fibrin glue + methyl prednisolone acetate and 0.10 ml/kg fibrin glue + methyl prednisolone acetate topically to the operative sites. Normal saline was applied in the control group. Following the surgery, animals were killed at weeks 1, 2, 4 and 6, and laminectomy sites were examined histopathologically for fibrosis, acute inflammation, necrosis and abscess formation. None of the options had a statistically significant transcendence over others in terms of preventing epidural fibrosis. Many biological and non-biological materials have been tried in a quest to prevent epidural fibrosis. However, inducing least amount of injury to the anatomy of the tissues and a very good hemostasis seem to be the most effective methods in the prevention of epidural fibrosis.