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  1. Testosterone administration reduces lying in men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Wibral

    Full Text Available Lying is a pervasive phenomenon with important social and economic implications. However, despite substantial interest in the prevalence and determinants of lying, little is known about its biological foundations. Here we study a potential hormonal influence, focusing on the steroid hormone testosterone, which has been shown to play an important role in social behavior. In a double-blind placebo-controlled study, 91 healthy men (24.32±2.73 years received a transdermal administration of 50 mg of testosterone (n=46 or a placebo (n=45. Subsequently, subjects participated in a simple task, in which their payoff depended on the self-reported outcome of a die-roll. Subjects could increase their payoff by lying without fear of being caught. Our results show that testosterone administration substantially decreases lying in men. Self-serving lying occurred in both groups, however, reported payoffs were significantly lower in the testosterone group (p<0.01. Our results contribute to the recent debate on the effect of testosterone on prosocial behavior and its underlying channels.

  2. Effects of Testosterone Administration on Strategic Gambling in Poker Play.

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    van Honk, Jack; Will, Geert-Jan; Terburg, David; Raub, Werner; Eisenegger, Christoph; Buskens, Vincent

    2016-01-04

    Testosterone has been associated with economically egoistic and materialistic behaviors, but -defensibly driven by reputable status seeking- also with economically fair, generous and cooperative behaviors. Problematically, social status and economic resources are inextricably intertwined in humans, thus testosterone's primal motives are concealed. We critically addressed this issue by performing a placebo-controlled single-dose testosterone administration in young women, who played a game of bluff poker wherein concerns for status and resources collide. The profit-maximizing strategy in this game is to mislead the other players by bluffing randomly (independent of strength of the hand), thus also when holding very poor cards (cold bluffing). The profit-maximizing strategy also dictates the players in this poker game to never call the other players' bluffs. For reputable-status seeking these materialistic strategies are disadvantageous; firstly, being caught cold bluffing damages one's reputation by revealing deceptive intent, and secondly, not calling the other players' bluffs signals submission in blindly tolerating deception. Here we show that testosterone administration in this game of bluff poker significantly reduces random bluffing, as well as cold bluffing, while significantly increasing calling. Our data suggest that testosterone in humans primarily motivates for reputable-status seeking, even when this elicits behaviors that are economically disadvantageous.

  3. Short-term parenteral and peroral testosterone administration in men with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick; Dietrichson, O

    1981-01-01

    other day, rather constant serum concentrations with median values of about 30 ng/ml were reached after 4 days. Peroral testosterone administration (800 mg micronized free testosterone) each day also resulted in fairly constant serum concentrations after 4 days, and the median values were about 50 ng......Serum concentrations of testosterone were measured in 24 male patients with alcoholic cirrhosis during testosterone administration. The purpose was to compare serum concentrations of testosterone during peroral with those during parenteral testosterone administration in these patients. Patients who...... were injected intramuscularly with a combination of short- and long-acting testosterone (Triolandren, 348 mg testosterone) had median peak values of serum testosterone of about 40 ng/ml, which fell to basal levels after a fortnight. During testosterone propionate injections (84 mg testosterone) every...

  4. Effects of Testosterone Administration on Strategic Gambling in Poker Play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Honk, Jack; Will, Geert-Jan; Terburg, David; Raub, Werner; Eisenegger, Christoph; Buskens, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone has been associated with economically egoistic and materialistic behaviors, but -defensibly driven by reputable status seeking- also with economically fair, generous and cooperative behaviors. Problematically, social status and economic resources are inextricably intertwined in humans,

  5. Uterine and ovarian changes during testosterone administration in young female-to-male transsexuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Loverro

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Our data suggest that long-term testosterone administration to female-to-male patients during reproductive age induces a low proliferative active endometrium, associated with some hypertrophic myometrial changes.

  6. Testosterone administration decreases generosity in the ultimatum game.

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    Zak, Paul J; Kurzban, Robert; Ahmadi, Sheila; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Park, Jang; Efremidze, Levan; Redwine, Karen; Morgan, Karla; Matzner, William

    2009-12-16

    How do human beings decide when to be selfish or selfless? In this study, we gave testosterone to 25 men to establish its impact on prosocial behaviors in a double-blind within-subjects design. We also confirmed participants' testosterone levels before and after treatment through blood draws. Using the Ultimatum Game from behavioral economics, we find that men with artificially raised T, compared to themselves on placebo, were 27% less generous towards strangers with money they controlled (95% CI placebo: (1.70, 2.72); 95% CI T: (.98, 2.30)). This effect scales with a man's level of total-, free-, and dihydro-testosterone (DHT). Men in the lowest decile of DHT were 560% more generous than men in the highest decile of DHT. We also found that men with elevated testosterone were more likely to use their own money punish those who were ungenerous toward them. Our results continue to hold after controlling for altruism. We conclude that elevated testosterone causes men to behave antisocially.

  7. Testosterone Administration Moderates Effect of Social Environment on Trust in Women Depending on Second-to-Fourth Digit Ratio.

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    Buskens, Vincent; Raub, Werner; van Miltenburg, Nynke; Montoya, Estrella R; van Honk, Jack

    2016-06-10

    Animal research has established that effects of hormones on social behaviour depend on characteristics of both individual and environment. Insight from research on humans into this interdependence is limited, though. Specifically, hardly any prior testosterone experiments in humans scrutinized the interdependency of testosterone with the social environment. Nonetheless, recent testosterone administration studies in humans repeatedly show that a proxy for individuals' prenatal testosterone-to-estradiol ratio, second-to-fourth digit-ratio (2D:4D ratio), influences effects of testosterone administration on human social behaviour. Here, we systematically vary the characteristics of the social environment and show that, depending on prenatal sex hormone priming, testosterone administration in women moderates the effect of the social environment on trust. We use the economic trust game and compare one-shot games modelling trust problems in relations between strangers with repeated games modelling trust problems in ongoing relations between partners. As expected, subjects are more trustful in repeated than in one-shot games. In subjects prenatally relatively highly primed by testosterone, however, this effect disappears after testosterone administration. We argue that impairments in cognitive empathy may reduce the repeated game effect on trust after testosterone administration in subjects with relatively high prenatal testosterone exposure and propose a neurobiological explanation for this effect.

  8. Effect of Testosterone Administration on Liver Fat in Older Men With Mobility Limitation: Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background. Androgen receptor (AR) knockout male mice display hepatic steatosis, suggesting that AR signaling may regulate hepatic fat. However, the effects of testosterone replacement on hepatic fat in men are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of testosterone administration on hepatic fat in older men with mobility limitation and low testosterone levels who were participating in a randomized trial (the Testosterone in Older Men trial). Methods. Two hundred and nine men with mobility limitation and low total or free testosterone were randomized in the parent trial to either placebo or 10-g testosterone gel daily for 6 months. Hepatic fat was determined by magnetic resonance imaging in 73 men (36 in placebo and 37 in testosterone group) using the volumetric method. Insulin sensitivity (homeostatic model assessment–insulin resistance) was derived from fasting glucose and insulin. Results. Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups, including liver volumes (1583±363 in the testosterone group vs 1522±271mL in the placebo group, p = .42). Testosterone concentrations increased from 250±72 to 632±363ng/dL in testosterone group but did not change in placebo group. Changes in liver volume during intervention did not differ significantly between groups (p = .5) and were not related to on-treatment testosterone concentrations. The change in homeostatic model assessment–insulin resistance also did not differ significantly between groups and was not related to either baseline or change in liver fat. Conclusion. Testosterone administration in older men with mobility limitation and low testosterone levels was not associated with a reduction in hepatic fat. Larger trials are needed to determine whether testosterone replacement improves liver fat in men with nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis. PMID:23292288

  9. An interlaboratory study of the pharmacokinetics of testosterone following intramuscular administration to Thoroughbred horses.

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    Moeller, B C; Sams, R A; Guinjab-Cagmat, J; Szabo, N J; Colahan, P; Stanley, S D

    2011-12-01

    Testosterone is an anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) that is endogenously produced by both male and female horses that also has the potential for abuse when administered exogenously to race horses. To recommend appropriate withdrawal guidelines so that veterinarians can discontinue therapeutic use prior to competition, the pharmacokinetics and elimination of testosterone were investigated. An aqueous testosterone suspension was administered intramuscularly in the neck of Thoroughbred horses (n = 20). The disposition of testosterone from this formulation was characterized by an initial, rapid absorption phase followed by a much more variable secondary absorption phase. The median terminal half-life was 39 h. A second focus of this study was to compare the testosterone concentrations determined by two different laboratories using a percentage similarity model with a coefficient of variation of 16.5% showing good agreement between the two laboratories results. Based on the results of this study, a withdrawal period of 30 days for aqueous testosterone administered IM is recommended. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Effect of testosterone administration to men with prostate cancer is unpredictable: a word of caution and suggestions for a registry.

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    Morales, Alvaro

    2011-05-01

    To assess the evidence for the concept that the androgen receptor of prostate cancer (PCa) cells becomes saturated when testosterone values exceed castrate levels, so that testosterone administration in hypogonadal men with untreated PCa does not stimulate tumour growth. To propose basic criteria for administration of testosterone to untreated patients with PCa and, as this is a rare clinical situation, to encourage the establishment of an international registry for these patients. Men with a diagnosis of PCa and symptomatic testosterone deficiency received testosterone therapy (TTh). Patients were assessed quarterly. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) velocity was used as the criterion to discontinue therapy and a return to nadir PSA levels allowed re-initiation of testosterone supplementation. The responses to testosterone supplementation were varied according to each individual and were unpredictable. While some men showed little change after years of treatment, others exhibited a rapid and significant increase in PSA levels. In others, the use of intermittent therapy resulted in synchronous changes in PSA levels. Interruption of TTh invariably translated into a decrease in PSA to pre-therapy levels. Available evidence regarding the effect of testosterone administration to hypogonadal men with untreated PCa is too limited to be considered reliable. In addition, the response to this treatment appears to be varied and unpredictable. Hypogonadism associated with untreated PCa is not common, therefore, we propose the establishment of an international registry as the quickest way to establish the basic parameters for consideration of TTh in this situation and recommendations for follow-up. Until credible evidence becomes available, the current restrictions regarding the administration of testosterone to men with PCa should remain in place. © 2011 THE AUTHOR. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  11. Effect of testosterone administration on lead induced zincprotoporphyrin in blood concentration in castrated male rabbits

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    Wibowo, A.A.E.; Zielhuis, R.L.

    1981-11-01

    The influence of testosterone propionate on the concentration of zincprotoporphyrin in blood (ZPP) of castrated lead treated rabbits was investigated. The experimental design allowed comparison of the relative ZPP increase (RZI) in testosterone treated and non testosterone treated rabbits. Testosterone was administered by subcutaneous injection of 3 mg/kg body weight/day for 7 consecutive days directly prior to the lead exposure, which was performed by subcutaneous injection of 0.50 mg lead acetate/kg body weight, three times a week for 7 weeks. No effect was found on the hemoglobin concentration (Hb) and hematocrit (Ht) and on the increase of body weight during the experiment. But the increase of RZI in the non testosterone treated rabbits was significantly steeper and earlier than in the testosterone treated group. The possible consequences of the findings had been further commented on.

  12. Testosterone administration in women increases amygdala responses to fearful and happy faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, P.A.; Honk, J. van; Ramsey, N.F.; Stein, D.J.; Hermans, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    Data from both rodents and humans show that testosterone reduces fear. This effect is hypothesized to result from testosterone's down regulating effects on the amygdala, a key region in the detection of threat and instigator of fight-or-flight behavior. However, neuroimaging studies employing

  13. Decline of plasma 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels upon testosterone administration to elderly men with subnormal plasma testosterone and high DHT levels.

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    Gooren, L J; Saad, F; Haide, A; Yassin, A

    2008-10-01

    The study was performed to measure the impact of testosterone (T) administration on circulating levels of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Group 1 (32 men; mean age 61 years; mean T 6.9 +/- 1.9 nmol l(-1)) were treated for 15 months with long-acting T undecanoate. Group 2 (23 men, mean age 60 years, mean T 7.6 +/- 2.0 nmol l(-1)) were treated for 9 months with T gel. Plasma T and DHT were measured before and after 9 months T administration. In the men treated with T undecanoate plasma T and DHT were also measured after 12 and 15 months. Before T administration, plasma DHT ranged from 0.39 to 1.76 nmol l(-1) (0.30-1.90 nmol l(-1)). Mean DHT declined upon T administration from 0.95 +/- 0.50 to 0.55 +/- 0.30 nmol l(-1) (P DHT > 0.60 nmol l(-1) had fallen from 1.29 +/- 0.50 to 0.70 +/- 0.60 nmol l(-1) (P DHT levels declined upon T administration when they were in the higher range of normal (>0.6 nmol l(-1)), with a profound shift of DHT/T ratios presumed to be an indicator of a reduced 5alpha-reductase activity. Below plasma DHT levels of 0.6 nmol l(-1), responses of plasma DHT to T administration varied.

  14. The Effect of Testosterone Administration and Digit Ratio (2D:4D on Implicit Preference for Status Goods in Healthy Males

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    Yin Wu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone has been linked to social status seeking in humans. The present study investigated the effects of testosterone administration on implicit and explicit preferences for status goods in healthy male participants (n = 64, using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, between-subjects design. We also investigated the interactive effect between second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D; i.e., a proximal index of prenatal testosterone and testosterone treatment on status preferences. Results showed that testosterone administration has no discernable influence on self-reported willingness-to-pay (i.e., the explicit measure or implicit attitudes towards status goods. Individuals with lower 2D:4D (i.e., more masculine had more positive attitudes for high-status goods on an Implicit Association Task, and this association was abolished with testosterone administration. These data suggest interactive effects of acute testosterone administration and prenatal testosterone exposure on human social status seeking, and highlight the utility of implicit methods for measuring status-related behavior.

  15. Testosterone for Poor Ovarian Responders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Davis, Susan R; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone, an androgen that directly binds to the androgen receptor, has been shown in previous small randomized controlled trials to increase the reproductive outcomes of poor ovarian responders. In most of these studies, transdermal testosterone in relatively high doses was administered before...... ovarian stimulation with a duration varying from 5 to 21 days. Nevertheless, the key question to be asked is whether, based on ovarian physiology and testosterone pharmacokinetics, a short course of testosterone administration of more than 10 mg could be expected to have any beneficial effect...... stages. In addition, extreme testosterone excess is not only likely to induce adverse events but has also the potential to be ineffective and even detrimental. Thus, evidence from clinical studies is not enough to either "reopen" or "close" the "androgen chapter" in poor responders, mainly because...

  16. Testosterone administration does not affect men's rejections of low ultimatum game offers or aggressive mood.

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    Cueva, Carlos; Roberts, R Edward; Spencer, Tom J; Rani, Nisha; Tempest, Michelle; Tobler, Philippe N; Herbert, Joe; Rustichini, Aldo

    2017-01-01

    Correlative evidence suggests that testosterone promotes dominance and aggression. However, causal evidence is scarce and offers mixed results. To investigate this relationship, we administered testosterone for 48h to 41 healthy young adult men in a within-subjects, double-blind placebo-controlled balanced crossover design. Subjects played the role of responders in an ultimatum game, where rejecting a low offer is costly, but serves to destroy the proposer's profit. Such action can hence be interpreted as non-physical aggression in response to social provocation. In addition, subjects completed a self-assessed mood questionnaire. As expected, self-reported aggressiveness was a key predictor of ultimatum game rejections. However, while testosterone affected subjective ratings of feeling energetic and interested, our evidence strongly suggests that testosterone had no effect on ultimatum game rejections or on aggressive mood. Our findings illustrate the importance of using causal interventions to assess correlative evidence. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Polyamine metabolism in the kidneys of castrated and testosterone-treated mice after administration of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone).

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    Henningsson, S; Persson, L; Rosengren, E

    1979-02-01

    The effects of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) on S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase (EC 4.1.1.50) activity were studied in the mouse kidney stimulated to growth by testosterone administration. The drug was found a potent inhibitor of the enzyme in vitrol Administration of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) in vivo resulted in a transient inhibition followed by a strong enhancement of the enzyme activity. Dialysis of the kidney extract, to remove remaining methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone), revealed a great and rapid increase in the activity of S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase. Injections of testosterone to castrated mice resulted in a marked increase in kidney weight and an accumulation of renal putrescine, spermidine and spermine. These effects of testosterone could not be blocked by simultaneous injections of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone). It appears that due to secondary effects by which the inhibition of methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) on S-adenosyl-L-methionine decarboxylase activity is circumvented the inhibitor seems to be of uncertain value in attempts to decrease selectively the in vivo levels of polyamines.

  18. Single dose testosterone administration alleviates gaze avoidance in women with Social Anxiety Disorder

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    Enter, Dorien; Terburg, David|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/32304087X; Harrewijn, Anita; Spinhoven, Philip; Roelofs, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Gaze avoidance is one of the most characteristic and persistent social features in people with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). It signals social submissiveness and hampers adequate social interactions. Patients with SAD typically show reduced testosterone levels, a hormone that facilitates socially

  19. Effects of testosterone administration on selective aspects of object-location memory in healthy young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, A; Tuiten, A; van Honk, J; Kessels, RPC; Thijssen, J

    Previous work has indicated that object-location memory is sensitive to sex differences as well as variations in the menstrual cycle. The goal of the present study was to further examine the hormonal basis of human spatial memory by assessing the effects of a single dose of exogenous testosterone in

  20. Investigating the binding behaviour of two avidin-based testosterone binders using molecular recognition force spectroscopy.

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    Rangl, Martina; Leitner, Michael; Riihimäki, Tiina; Lehtonen, Soili; Hytönen, Vesa P; Gruber, Hermann J; Kulomaa, Markku; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Ebner, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    Molecular recognition force spectroscopy, a biosensing atomic force microscopy technique allows to characterise the dissociation of ligand-receptor complexes at the molecular level. Here, we used molecular recognition force spectroscopy to study the binding capability of recently developed testosterone binders. The two avidin-based proteins called sbAvd-1 and sbAvd-2 are expected to bind both testosterone and biotin but differ in their binding behaviour towards these ligands. To explore the ligand binding and dissociation energy landscape of these proteins, we tethered biotin or testosterone to the atomic force microscopy probe while the testosterone-binding protein was immobilized on the surface. Repeated formation and rupture of the ligand-receptor complex at different pulling velocities allowed determination of the loading rate dependence of the complex-rupturing force. In this way, we obtained the molecular dissociation rate (k(off)) and energy landscape distances (x(β)) of the four possible complexes: sbAvd-1-biotin, sbAvd-1-testosterone, sbAvd-2-biotin and sbAvd-2-testosterone. It was found that the kinetic off-rates for both proteins and both ligands are similar. In contrast, the x(β) values, as well as the probability of complex formations, varied considerably. In addition, competitive binding experiments with biotin and testosterone in solution differ significantly for the two testosterone-binding proteins, implying a decreased cross-reactivity of sbAvd-2. Unravelling the binding behaviour of the investigated testosterone-binding proteins is expected to improve their usability for possible sensing applications. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Muscular responses to testosterone replacement vary by administration route: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Skinner, Jared W; Otzel, Dana M; Bowser, Andrew; Nargi, Daniel; Agarwal, Sanjay; Peterson, Mark D; Zou, Baiming; Borst, Stephen E; Yarrow, Joshua F

    2018-06-01

    Inconsistent fat-free mass (FFM) and muscle strength responses have been reported in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) administering testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) to middle-aged and older men. Our objective was to conduct a meta-analysis to determine whether TRT improves FFM and muscle strength in middle-aged and older men and whether the muscular responses vary by TRT administration route. Systematic literature searches of MEDLINE/PubMed and the Cochrane Library were conducted from inception through 31 March 2017 to identify double-blind RCTs that compared intramuscular or transdermal TRT vs. placebo and that reported assessments of FFM or upper-extremity or lower-extremity strength. Studies were identified, and data were extracted and validated by three investigators, with disagreement resolved by consensus. Using a random effects model, individual effect sizes (ESs) were determined from 31 RCTs reporting FFM (sample size: n = 1213 TRT, n = 1168 placebo) and 17 reporting upper-extremity or lower-extremity strength (n = 2572 TRT, n = 2523 placebo). Heterogeneity was examined, and sensitivity analyses were performed. When administration routes were collectively assessed, TRT was associated with increases in FFM [ES = 1.20 ± 0.15 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.49)], total body strength [ES = 0.90 ± 0.12 (0.67, 1.14)], lower-extremity strength [ES = 0.77 ± 0.16 (0.45, 1.08)], and upper-extremity strength [ES = 1.13 ± 0.18 (0.78, 1.47)] (P FFM [ES = 1.49 ± 0.18 (1.13, 1.84)] and 10-13% increases in total body strength [ES = 1.39 ± 0.12 (1.15, 1.63)], lower-extremity strength [ES = 1.39 ± 0.17 (1.07, 1.72)], and upper-extremity strength [ES = 1.37 ± 0.17 (1.03, 1.70)] (P FFM [ES = 0.98 ± 0.21 (0.58, 1.39)] and only 2-5% increases in total body [ES = 0.55 ± 0.17 (0.22, 0.88)] and upper-extremity strength [ES = 0.97 ± 0.24 (0.50, 1.45)] (P < 0.001). Interestingly, transdermal TRT produced no change in lower

  2. Muscular responses to testosterone replacement vary by administration route: a systematic review and meta‐analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Jared W.; Otzel, Dana M.; Bowser, Andrew; Nargi, Daniel; Agarwal, Sanjay; Peterson, Mark D.; Zou, Baiming; Borst, Stephen E.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Inconsistent fat‐free mass (FFM) and muscle strength responses have been reported in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) administering testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) to middle‐aged and older men. Our objective was to conduct a meta‐analysis to determine whether TRT improves FFM and muscle strength in middle‐aged and older men and whether the muscular responses vary by TRT administration route. Methods Systematic literature searches of MEDLINE/PubMed and the Cochrane Library were conducted from inception through 31 March 2017 to identify double‐blind RCTs that compared intramuscular or transdermal TRT vs. placebo and that reported assessments of FFM or upper‐extremity or lower‐extremity strength. Studies were identified, and data were extracted and validated by three investigators, with disagreement resolved by consensus. Using a random effects model, individual effect sizes (ESs) were determined from 31 RCTs reporting FFM (sample size: n = 1213 TRT, n = 1168 placebo) and 17 reporting upper‐extremity or lower‐extremity strength (n = 2572 TRT, n = 2523 placebo). Heterogeneity was examined, and sensitivity analyses were performed. Results When administration routes were collectively assessed, TRT was associated with increases in FFM [ES = 1.20 ± 0.15 (95% CI: 0.91, 1.49)], total body strength [ES = 0.90 ± 0.12 (0.67, 1.14)], lower‐extremity strength [ES = 0.77 ± 0.16 (0.45, 1.08)], and upper‐extremity strength [ES = 1.13 ± 0.18 (0.78, 1.47)] (P FFM [ES = 1.49 ± 0.18 (1.13, 1.84)] and 10–13% increases in total body strength [ES = 1.39 ± 0.12 (1.15, 1.63)], lower‐extremity strength [ES = 1.39 ± 0.17 (1.07, 1.72)], and upper‐extremity strength [ES = 1.37 ± 0.17 (1.03, 1.70)] (P FFM [ES = 0.98 ± 0.21 (0.58, 1.39)] and only 2–5% increases in total body [ES = 0.55 ± 0.17 (0.22, 0.88)] and upper‐extremity strength [ES = 0.97 ± 0.24 (0.50, 1.45)] (P < 0

  3. Cardiovascular risks and elevation of serum DHT vary by route of testosterone administration: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borst, Stephen E; Shuster, Jonathan J; Zou, Baiming; Ye, Fan; Jia, Huanguang; Wokhlu, Anita; Yarrow, Joshua F

    2014-11-27

    Potential cardiovascular (CV) risks of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) are currently a topic of intense interest. However, no studies have addressed CV risk as a function of the route of administration of TRT. Two meta-analyses were conducted, one of CV adverse events (AEs) in 35 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of TRT lasting 12 weeks or more, and one of 32 studies reporting the effect of TRT on serum testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT). CV risks of TRT: Of 2,313 studies identified, 35 were eligible and included 3,703 mostly older men who experienced 218 CV-related AEs. No significant risk for CV AEs was present when all TRT administration routes were grouped (relative risk (RR) = 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76 to 2.13, P = 0.34). When analyzed separately, oral TRT produced significant CV risk (RR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.45 to 3.55, P = 0.015), while neither intramuscular (RR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.28 to 1.56, P = 0.32) nor transdermal (gel or patch) TRT (RR = 1.27, 95% CI: 0.62 to 2.62, P = 0.48) significantly altered CV risk. Serum testosterone/DHT following TRT: Of 419 studies identified, 32 were eligible which included 1,152 men receiving TRT. No significant difference in the elevation of serum testosterone was present between intramuscular or transdermal TRT. However, transdermal TRT elevated serum DHT (5.46-fold, 95% CI: 4.51 to 6.60) to a greater magnitude than intramuscular TRT (2.20-fold, 95% CI: 1.74 to 2.77). Oral TRT produces significant CV risk. While no significant effects on CV risk were observed with either injected or transdermal TRT, the point estimates suggest that further research is needed to establish whether administration by these routes is protective or detrimental, respectively. Differences in the degree to which serum DHT is elevated may underlie the varying CV risk by TRT administration route, as elevated serum dihydrotestosterone has been shown to be associated with CV risk in observational studies.

  4. Testosterone Injection

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    ... typical male characteristics. Testosterone injection works by supplying synthetic testosterone to replace the testosterone that is normally ... as a pellet to be injected under the skin.Testosterone injection may control your symptoms but will ...

  5. Diazepam administration prevents testosterone decrease and lipofuscin accumulation in testis of mouse exposed to chronic noise stress.

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    Ruffoli, R; Carpi, A; Giambelluca, M A; Grasso, L; Scavuzzo, M C; Giannessi F, F

    2006-10-01

    Lipofuscin is an autofluorescent and undegradable material, which accumulates in tissues during ageing and under different types of stress. Among these, oxidative stress represents a major trigger for lipofuscin formation. However, prolonged noise exposure is also an effective stressful stimuli. Diazepam may inhibit lipofuscinogenesis in liver and prevent the noise-induced reduction of the steroidogenesis in the adrenal gland. The aim of the study was to ascertain whether chronic noise exposure causes lipofuscin accumulation in mouse testis, and to evaluate the effects of diazepam administration. Eight-week old mice were either exposed for 6 weeks (6 h day(-1)) to white-noise (group A), or received diazepam (3 mg kg(-1), i.p.) before noise exposures (group B), while a further group was used as control (group C). Light fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy revealed lipofuscin in large amounts in the Leydig cells in mice of group A, which concomitantly had low serum testosterone levels; pre-treatment with diazepam occluded both effects. The present study indicates that: (i) chronic noise exposure causes lipofuscin accumulation at the level of the Leydig cells and a decrease in testosterone; (ii) all these effects are suppressed by pre-treatment with diazepam. As the Leydig cells represent the only cellular type of the interstitial testicular tissue having peripheral benzodiazepine receptors, these results could be explained by the capacity of the peripheral benzodiazepine receptors to prevent reactive oxygen species damage and to increase the resistance of these cells to oxidative stress.

  6. Effect of Urtica Dioica Extract on Histological and Histometrical Changes of Testis of Hamster after Testosteron Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Morovvati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperactivity of testosterone is one cause of infertility and its incorrect use can produces reproductive disorders. Nettle (Urtica dioica has antiandrogenic effect and may antagonized effect of testosterone. In present study structure of testes of golden hamster was evaluated after testosterone and extract. Materials and Methods: In this experimental and animal modeling study, twenty male mature hamsters were divided to 4 groups, group 1 was control, group 2 received testosterone at dose 3 mg/kg subcutaneously, group 3 received nettle extract dose 30 mg/kg orally and group 4 received testosterone and nettle for 30 days daily. The hamsters were euthanized and testes were removed and detected macroscopic parameters (weight, height, wide and volume and fixed with formalin. The samples were sectioned and colored with H & E. Results: The volume, weight, length and wide of testes was at least in testosterone group and statistically was lesser than control and testosterone -nettle group (p<0.05, but did not the height epithelium of seminifer tubules, compact of spermatogenic cells and number of serotolli cells in testosterone group was lesser than control group significantly (p<0.05.Conclusion: The nettle extract decreased histological changes of testes by testosterone and improved its structure.

  7. Effect of Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate Administration on the Levels of Thyroid Hormones and Testosterone in the γ-Irradiated Rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Seifi, S.A.; Abou-Safi, H.M.; Abdel-Hamid, G.R.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate (DHEAS) is an adrenal hormone and is the most abundant circulatory steroid hormone in the body. This study intended to determine the role of exogenous DHEAS administration (20 mg/100 g b.wt.) and its possible protective and/or mitigating effect (s) against γ- irradiation (6 Gy) induced disorders in the irradiated rats. Five groups of male Albino rats were used. Samples were collected after one day, one week and two weeks post irradiation and/or DHEAS treatment. The levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), testosterone (T) and acid phosphatase (ACP) enzyme activity were measured in plasma, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) were estimated in testicular tissue. Obtained results showed that DHEAS administration pre-irradiation improved the disturbances induced by irradiation on the tested parameters: TSH, T3, T4, T and ACP. It also elevated reduced GSH level and decreased lipid peroxidation in the testicular tissue. DHEAS treatment pre-irradiation, rather than post-irradiation, exerts a prophylactic effect, by protecting the cellular vital components from ROS, generated by gamma radiation

  8. Use of parenteral testosterone in hypospadias cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Satav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim was to evaluate the effect of parenteral testosterone on penile length, preputial hood, vascularity of dartos pedicle in patients with hypospadias. Materials and Methods: A total of 42 patients with hypospadias were included in this study. Injection aquaviron (oily solution each ml containing testosterone propionate 25 mg was given deep intramuscularly in three doses with an interval of 3 weeks before reconstructive surgery at the dose of 2 mg/kg body weight. Preoperatively penile length, transverse preputial width and diameter at the base of the penis were measured. Basal testosterone levels were obtained before the institution of therapy and on the day of operation. Results: Following parenteral testosterone administration, the mean increase in penile length, transverse preputial width and diameter at the base of penis was 1.01 ± 0.25 cm (P < 0.001, 1.250 ± 0.52 cm and 0.61 ± 0.35 cm, respectively, (P < 0.001. Serum testosterone level after injection was well within normal range for that age. Conclusion: Parenteral testosterone increased phallus size, diameter and prepuce hypertrophy without any adverse effects. However, due to lack of a control group we cannot make any inferences. Controlled studies are required to establish the benefits of parenteral testosterone.

  9. Testosterone Administration Moderates Effect of Social Environment on Trust in Women Depending on Second-to-Fourth Digit Ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buskens, Vincent; Raub, Werner; van Miltenburg, Nynke; Montoya, Estrella R; van Honk, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Animal research has established that effects of hormones on social behaviour depend on characteristics of both individual and environment. Insight from research on humans into this interdependence is limited, though. Specifically, hardly any prior testosterone experiments in humans scrutinized the

  10. Increased sexual desire with exogenous testosterone administration in men with obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melehan, K L; Hoyos, C M; Yee, B J; Wong, K K; Buchanan, P R; Grunstein, R R; Liu, P Y

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone (T) deficiency, sexual dysfunction, obesity and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are common and often coexist. T prescriptions have increased worldwide during the last decade, including to those with undiagnosed or untreated OSA. The effect of T administration on sexual function, neurocognitive performance and quality of life in these men is poorly defined. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of T administration on sexual function, quality of life and neurocognitive performance in obese men with OSA. We also secondarily examined whether baseline T might modify the effects of T treatment by dichotomizing on baseline T levels pre-specified at 8, 11 and 13 nmol/L. This was a randomized placebo-controlled study in which 67 obese men with OSA (mean age 49 ± 1.3 years) were randomized to receive intramuscular injections of either 1000 mg T undecanoate or placebo at baseline, week 6 and week 12. All participants were concurrently enrolled in a weight loss program. General and sleep-related quality of life, neurocognitive performance and subjective sexual function were assessed before and 6, 12 and 18 weeks after therapy. T compared to placebo increased sexual desire (p = 0.004) in all men, irrespective of baseline T levels. There were no differences in erectile function, frequency of sexual attempts, orgasmic ability, general or sleep-related quality of life or neurocognitive function (all p = NS). In those with baseline T levels below 8 nmol/L, T increased vitality (p = 0.004), and reduced reports of feeling down (p = 0.002) and nervousness (p = 0.03). Our findings show that 18 weeks of T therapy increased sexual desire in obese men with OSA independently of baseline T levels whereas improvements in quality of life were evident only in those with T levels below 8 nmol/L. These small improvements would need to be balanced against potentially more serious adverse effects of T therapy on breathing. © 2015 American Society of Andrology and European

  11. Change in cytokine levels after administration of saikokaryuukotsuboreito or testosterone in patients with symptoms of late-onset hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Akira; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Okuda, Hidenobu; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Fukuhara, Shinichiro; Nakayama, Jiro; Takao, Tetsuya; Nonomura, Norio; Okuyama, Akihiko

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate plasma cytokine levels after treatment with saikokaryukotsuboreito (SKRBT), which is a herbal medicine, or androgen replacement treatment (ART), for patients with late-onset hypogonadism (LOH)-related symptoms. Thirty-one patients over 40 years of age with LOH-related symptoms were included in this study. SKRBT was given orally three times daily to a total of 7.5 g/day for 15 eugonadal patients and ART was give to 16 hypogonadal patients by intramuscular injection of testosterone enanthate at 125 mg each time every 2 weeks. Plasma levels of testosterone and 18 cytokines, as well as LOH-related symptoms scored according to the Aging Males' Symptoms (AMS) scale, were compared before and more than 2 months after treatment. In the ART group, the total AMS score was decreased and testosterone was increased significantly after treatment. No cytokine variables were altered significantly after the treatment. In the SKRBT group, although the total AMS score was significantly decreased, testosterone did not change. From the evaluation of cytokines, a significant increase was found in interleukin (IL)- 8, IL-13, interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha. We conclude that SKRBT might improve LOH-related symptoms in eugonadal patients through the beneficial effect of cytokines, a mechanism that is quite different from ART.

  12. The many faces of testosterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerald Bain

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Jerald BainDepartment of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Testosterone is more than a “male sex hormone”. It is an important contributor to the robust metabolic functioning of multiple bodily systems. The abuse of anabolic steroids by athletes over the years has been one of the major detractors from the investigation and treatment of clinical states that could be caused by or related to male hypogonadism. The unwarranted fear that testosterone therapy would induce prostate cancer has also deterred physicians form pursuing more aggressively the possibility of hypogonadism in symptomatic male patients. In addition to these two mythologies, many physicians believe that testosterone is bad for the male heart. The classical anabolic agents, 17-alkylated steroids, are, indeed, potentially harmful to the liver, to insulin action to lipid metabolism. These substances, however, are not testosterone, which has none of these adverse effects. The current evidence, in fact, strongly suggests that testosterone may be cardioprotective. There is virtually no evidence to implicate testosterone as a cause of prostate cancer. It may exacerbate an existing prostate cancer, although the evidence is flimsy, but it does not likely cause the cancer in the first place. Testosterone has stimulatory effects on bones, muscles, erythropoietin, libido, mood and cognition centres in the brain, penile erection. It is reduced in metabolic syndrome and diabetes and therapy with testosterone in these conditions may provide amelioration by lowering LDL cholesterol, blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin and insulin resistance. The best measure is bio-available testosterone which is the fraction of testosterone not bound to sex hormone binding globulin. Several forms of testosterone administration are available making compliance

  13. Testosterone Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not apply any testosterone topical products to your penis or scrotum or to skin that has sores, ... are severe or do not go away: breast enlargement and/or pain decreased sexual desire acne depression ...

  14. Association of Serum Testosterone and Sex Hormone Binding Globulin Levels in Females with Acne Based on its Severity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiayani, A. J.; Rehman, R. U.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Androgens are involved in the development of acne. The aim of this study was to find out if there was an association of serum testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) in females with acne based on its severity. Methods: It was a cross sectional study, conducted in Dermatology unit of Fauji Foundation Hospital (FFH), Rawalpindi. Duration of study was eight months. Adult females with acne were enrolled in the study. Patients were categorized into minor, mild, moderate groups. Blood samples were taken for serum testosterone and SHBG. Results: Five hundred and thirty-one adult female were enrolled into the study. The mean age was 21.49±4.73 years. Acne was graded as minor in 78 (14.7 percent) cases, mild in 248 (46.7 percent) and moderate in 205 (38.6 percent). There was no statistically significant relationship between the levels of serum testosterone (p=0.776) and SHBG (p=0.711) with acne severity. Conclusion: There was no association of serum testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels in females with acne based on its severity. (author)

  15. A novel double-layer molecularly imprinted polymer film based surface plasmon resonance for determination of testosterone in aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Yuan; Jing, Lijing; Ding, Yonghong; Wei, Tianxin, E-mail: txwei@bit.edu.cn

    2015-07-01

    Highlights: • The in-situ photo-grafting polymerization method was used to prepare the polymer film. • The synthesized MIF was layer stucture film. • The MIF exhibited good imprinting effect and highly selectivity. - Abstract: This work aimed to prepare a novel double-layer structure molecularly imprinted polymer film (MIF) on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor chips for detection of testosterone in aqueous media. The film was synthesized by in-situ UV photo polymerization. Firstly, the modification of gold surface of SPR chip was performed by 1-dodecanethiol. Then double-layer MIF was generated on the 1-dodecanethiol modified gold surface. The non-modified and imprinted surfaces were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. Analysis of SPR spectroscopy showed that the imprinted sensing film displayed good selectivity for testosterone compared to other analogues and the non-imprinted polymer film (NIF). Within the concentrations range of 1 × 10{sup −12}–1 × 10{sup −8} mol/L, the coupling angle changes of SPR were linear with the negative logarithm of testosterone concentrations (R{sup 2} = 0.993). Based on a signal/noise ratio of three, the detection limit was estimated to be 10{sup −12} mol/L. Finally, the developed MIF was successfully applied to the seawater detection of testosterone. The results in the experiments suggested that a combination of SPR sensing with MIF was a promising alternative method for detection of testosterone in aqueous media.

  16. A novel double-layer molecularly imprinted polymer film based surface plasmon resonance for determination of testosterone in aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Yuan; Jing, Lijing; Ding, Yonghong; Wei, Tianxin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The in-situ photo-grafting polymerization method was used to prepare the polymer film. • The synthesized MIF was layer stucture film. • The MIF exhibited good imprinting effect and highly selectivity. - Abstract: This work aimed to prepare a novel double-layer structure molecularly imprinted polymer film (MIF) on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor chips for detection of testosterone in aqueous media. The film was synthesized by in-situ UV photo polymerization. Firstly, the modification of gold surface of SPR chip was performed by 1-dodecanethiol. Then double-layer MIF was generated on the 1-dodecanethiol modified gold surface. The non-modified and imprinted surfaces were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. Analysis of SPR spectroscopy showed that the imprinted sensing film displayed good selectivity for testosterone compared to other analogues and the non-imprinted polymer film (NIF). Within the concentrations range of 1 × 10 −12 –1 × 10 −8 mol/L, the coupling angle changes of SPR were linear with the negative logarithm of testosterone concentrations (R 2 = 0.993). Based on a signal/noise ratio of three, the detection limit was estimated to be 10 −12 mol/L. Finally, the developed MIF was successfully applied to the seawater detection of testosterone. The results in the experiments suggested that a combination of SPR sensing with MIF was a promising alternative method for detection of testosterone in aqueous media

  17. Are testosterone levels and depression risk linked based on partnering and parenting? Evidence from a large population-representative study of U.S. men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettler, Lee T; Oka, Rahul C

    2016-08-01

    Partnered adults tend to have lower risks of depression than do single individuals, while parents are more commonly depressed than non-parents. Low testosterone men, and possibly women, are also at greater risk of depression. A large body of research has shown that partnered parents have lower testosterone than single non-parents in some cultural settings, including the U.S. Here, we drew on a large (n = 2438), U.S.-population representative cohort of reproductive aged adults (age: 38.1 years ± 11.1 SD) to test hypotheses regarding the intersections between partnering and parenting, testosterone, socio-demographic characteristics, and depression outcomes. Men and women's depression prevalence did not vary based on testosterone. Partnered fathers had lower testosterone than single (never married, divorced) non-fathers, but were less commonly depressed than those single non-fathers. Partnered mothers had reduced testosterone compared to never married and partnered non-mothers. Never married mothers had higher depression prevalence and elevated depressive symptomology compared to partnered mothers; these differences were largely accounted for by key health-related covariates (e.g. cigarette smoking, BMI). We found significant three-way-interactions between socioeconomic status (SES), testosterone, and parenting for adults' depression risks. High testosterone, high SES fathers had the lowest prevalence of mild depression, whereas low testosterone, low SES non-fathers had the highest. Compared to other mothers, low SES, low testosterone mothers had elevated prevalence of mild depression. Overall, low SES, high testosterone non-mothers had substantially elevated depression risks compared to other women. We suggest that psychobiological profiles (e.g. a male with low testosterone) can emerge through variable psychosomatic and psychosocial pathways and the net effect of those profiles for depression are influenced by the social (e.g. partnering and parenting status

  18. The relationship between total testosterone levels and prostate cancer: a review of the continuing controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klap, Julia; Schmid, Marianne; Loughlin, Kevin R

    2015-02-01

    For many years it was believed that higher total testosterone contributed to prostate cancer and caused rapid cancer growth. International guidelines consider that adequate data are not available to determine whether there is additional risk of prostate cancer from testosterone replacement. Numerous studies with multiple designs and contradictory conclusions have investigated the relationship between total testosterone and prostate cancer development. To establish current knowledge in this field we reviewed the literature on total testosterone and the subsequent risk of prostate cancer as well as the safety of exogenous testosterone administration in patients with a history of prostate cancer. We searched the literature to identify articles from 1994 to 2014 related to the relationship between total testosterone and prostate cancer. Emphasis was given to prospective studies, series with observational data and randomized, controlled trials. Case reports were excluded. Articles on testosterone replacement safety were selected by patient population (under active surveillance or with a prostate cancer history). We organized our results according to the relationship between total testosterone and prostate cancer, including 1) the possible link between low total testosterone and prostate cancer, 2) the effect of high levels and 3) the absence of any link. Finally, we summarized studies of the risk of exogenous testosterone administration in patients already diagnosed with prostate cancer, treated or on active surveillance. We selected 45 articles of the relationship between total testosterone and prostate cancer, of which 18 and 17 showed a relationship to low and high total testosterone, respectively, and 10 showed no relation. Total testosterone was defined according to the definition in each article. Contradictory findings have been reported, largely due to the disparate methodologies used in many studies. Most studies did not adhere to professional society guidelines

  19. Exogenous Testosterone Enhances the Reactivity to Social Provocation in Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Wagels

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone affects human social behavior in various ways. While testosterone effects are generally associated with muscular strength and aggressiveness, human studies also point towards enhanced status–seeking motives after testosterone administration. The current study tested the causal influence of exogenous testosterone on male behavior during a competitive provocation paradigm. In this double blind, randomized, placebo (PL-controlled study, 103 males were assigned to a PL or testosterone group receiving a colorless PL or testosterone gel. To induce provocation, males played a rigged reaction time game against an ostensible opponent. When participants lost, the opponent subtracted money from the participant who in return could subtract money from the ostensible opponent. Participants subjectively indicated anger and self-estimated treatment affiliation (testosterone or PL administration. A trial-by-trial analysis demonstrated that provocation and success during the repeated games had a stronger influence on participants’ choice to reduce money from the opponent if they had received testosterone. Participants who believed to be in the testosterone group were angrier after the experiment and increased monetary reductions during the task course. In line with theories about mechanisms of testosterone in humans, provocation is shown to be necessary for the agency of exogenous testosterone. Thus, testosterone reinforces the conditional adjustment of aggressive behavior but not aggressive behavior per se. In contrast undirected frustration is not increased by testosterone but probably interferes with cognitive appraisals about biological mechanisms of testosterone.

  20. Exogenous Testosterone Enhances the Reactivity to Social Provocation in Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagels, Lisa; Votinov, Mikhail; Kellermann, Thilo; Eisert, Albrecht; Beyer, Cordian; Habel, Ute

    2018-01-01

    Testosterone affects human social behavior in various ways. While testosterone effects are generally associated with muscular strength and aggressiveness, human studies also point towards enhanced status-seeking motives after testosterone administration. The current study tested the causal influence of exogenous testosterone on male behavior during a competitive provocation paradigm. In this double blind, randomized, placebo (PL)-controlled study, 103 males were assigned to a PL or testosterone group receiving a colorless PL or testosterone gel. To induce provocation, males played a rigged reaction time game against an ostensible opponent. When participants lost, the opponent subtracted money from the participant who in return could subtract money from the ostensible opponent. Participants subjectively indicated anger and self-estimated treatment affiliation (testosterone or PL administration). A trial-by-trial analysis demonstrated that provocation and success during the repeated games had a stronger influence on participants' choice to reduce money from the opponent if they had received testosterone. Participants who believed to be in the testosterone group were angrier after the experiment and increased monetary reductions during the task course. In line with theories about mechanisms of testosterone in humans, provocation is shown to be necessary for the agency of exogenous testosterone. Thus, testosterone reinforces the conditional adjustment of aggressive behavior but not aggressive behavior per se . In contrast undirected frustration is not increased by testosterone but probably interferes with cognitive appraisals about biological mechanisms of testosterone.

  1. Policy administration in tag-based authorization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etalle, Sandro; Hinrichs, Timothy L.; Lee, Adam J.; Trivellato, Daniel; Zannone, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    Tag-Based Authorization (TBA) is a hybrid access control model that combines the ease of use of extensional access control models with the expressivity of logic-based formalisms. The main limitation of TBA is that it lacks support for policy administration. More precisely, it does not allow

  2. Testosterone and metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn R Cunningham

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Controversies surround the usefulness of identifying patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS. Many of the components are accepted risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. Although the MetS as defined includes many men with insulin resistance, insulin resistance is not universal. The low total testosterone (TT and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG levels in these men are best explained by the hyperinsulinism and increased inflammatory cytokines that accompany obesity and increased waist circumference. It is informative that low SHBG levels predict future development of the MetS. Evidence is strong relating low TT levels to CVD in men with and without the MetS; however, the relationship may not be causal. The recommendations of the International Diabetes Federation for managing the MetS include cardiovascular risk assessment, lifestyle changes in diet, exercise, weight reduction and treatment of individual components of the MetS. Unfortunately, it is uncommon to see patients with the MetS lose and maintain a 10% weight loss. Recent reports showing testosterone treatment induced dramatic changes in weight, waist circumference, insulin sensitivity, hemoglobin A1c levels and improvements in each of the components of the MetS are intriguing. While some observational studies have reported that testosterone replacement therapy increases cardiovascular events, the Food and Drug Administration in the United States has reviewed these reports and found them to be seriously flawed. Large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are needed to provide more definitive data regarding the efficacy and safety of this treatment in middle and older men with the MetS and low TT levels.

  3. Postgame testosterone levels of individuals in team-based status games are affected by genetic makeup, gender, and winning versus losing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeke, W.J.M.I.; Belschak, F.D.; Bagozzi, R.P.; De Rijcke, Y. B.

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone, a steroid hormone, affects the ability of the prefrontal cortex to regulate the limbic system and therefore has been implicated in a wide range of social behaviors such as facing status challenges, aggression and dominance. Here we use a team-based status game to examine factors that

  4. Alternatives to testosterone replacement: testosterone restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McCullough

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The European Male Aging Study has demonstrated that the hypogonadism of male aging is predominantly secondary. Theoretically with appropriate stimulation from the pituitary, the aging testis should be able to produce eugonadal levels of testosterone. The strategies for the treatment of late onset hypogonadism (LOH have focused on replacement with exogenous testosterone versus restoration of endogenous production. The purpose of this article is to review existing peer-reviewed literature supporting the concept of restoration of endogenous testosterone in the treatment of LOH.

  5. Fetal gender prediction based on maternal plasma testosterone and insulin-like peptide 3 concentrations at midgestation and late gestation in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibushi, M; Kawate, N; Kaminogo, Y; Hannan, M A; Weerakoon, W W P N; Sakase, M; Fukushima, M; Seyama, T; Inaba, T; Tamada, H

    2016-10-15

    We compared maternal plasma testosterone and insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) concentrations between dams carrying a male versus female fetus from early to late gestation and examined the application of maternal hormonal concentrations to fetal gender prediction in dairy and beef cattle. Blood samples were collected from Holstein cows or heifers (N = 31) and Japanese Black beef cows (N = 33) at 1-month intervals at 2 to 8 months of gestation. Fetal gender was confirmed by visual observation of external genitalia of calves just after birth. Plasma testosterone and INSL3 concentrations were determined by enzyme-immunoassay. Fetal genders were judged based on cutoff values of maternal testosterone and INSL3 concentrations (male, if it was ≥ cutoff value; female, if dairy cattle (P cows (P dairy cattle (P cows (P dairy cattle at 5 and 7 months and for beef cows at 5 and 6 months, whereas those values by maternal INSL3 concentrations were 71.0% to 72.4% for the dairy cattle at 6 months and beef cows at 4 and 8 months. When multiple time points of testosterone and INSL3 concentrations at several midgestation and late gestation months were considered for fetal gender prediction, predictive values were 89.3% (5-7 months) and 85.7% to 88.0% (4-6, 8 months) for the dairy and beef breeds, respectively. Maternal testosterone and INSL3 concentrations in dams carrying a male fetus were higher than those carrying a female at midgestation and/or late gestation in Holstein and Japanese Black beef cattle. Nearly, 80% accuracy was obtained for fetal gender prediction by a single time point of maternal plasma testosterone concentrations at midgestation. Nearly 90% accuracy for the prediction was obtained when multiple time points of testosterone and INSL3 concentrations from midgestation to late gestation were considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Testosterone and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şükrü Kartalcı

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Androgens have various effects on human body and mood. Testosterone, a hormone mainly secreted from testes and adrenals, is one of the most potent androgens. Multiple studies have found that testosterone plays a role in regulating sexual activity, libido, social behaviors, aggression, cognitive functions, sleep control and well-being in men and women. Testosterone deficiency in hypogonadic or elderly men leads to neuropsychiatric problems, such as fatigue, loss of libido, irritability, insomnia and depressive mood. Testosterone replacement therapy consistently reverses these sequel in men. On the other hand, hyperandrogenic states in women are related to aggression and antisocial behavior, which might lead to depressive mood. Low testosterone levels may also result in depression among oophorectomized women. Because of such effects, a relationship between testosterone and depression has long been an issue of speculation, but yet very few studies have addressed this relation. Along with clinical studies, experimental and epidemiological studies show that testosterone is related to depression in men and women. But studies of testosterone concentrations in depression have yielded inconsistent results reporting low as well as high testosterone levels associated with depression. In this article, the physiological and psychological effects of testosterone and evidence regarding its relationship to depressive disorders and possible gender differences have been reviewed.

  7. Effects of velvet antler polypeptide on sexual behavior and testosterone synthesis in aging male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Zhi-Jun; Tang, Hong-Feng; Tuo, Ying; Xing, Wei-Jie; Ji, Su-Yun; Gao, Yong; Deng, Chun-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-four-month-old male C57BL/6 mice with low serum testosterone levels were used as a late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) animal model for examining the effects of velvet antler polypeptide (VAP) on sexual function and testosterone synthesis. These mice received VAP for 5 consecutive weeks by daily gavage at doses of 100, 200, or 300 mg kg-1 body weight per day (n = 10 mice per dose). Control animals (n = 10) received the same weight-based volume of vehicle. Sexual behavior and testosterone levels in serum and interstitial tissue of testis were measured after the last administration of VAP. Furthermore, to investigate the mechanisms of how VAP affects sexual behavior and testosterone synthesis in vivo, the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD) in Leydig cells was also measured by immunofluorescence staining and quantitative real-time PCR. As a result, VAP produced a significant improvement in the sexual function of these aging male mice. Serum testosterone level and intratesticular testosterone (ITT) concentration also increased in the VAP-treated groups. The expression of StAR, P450scc, and 3β-HSD was also found to be enhanced in the VAP-treated groups compared with the control group. Our results suggested that VAP was effective in improving sexual function in aging male mice. The effect of velvet antler on sexual function was due to the increased expression of several rate-limiting enzymes of testosterone synthesis (StAR, P450scc, and 3β-HSD) and the following promotion of testosterone synthesis in vivo.

  8. [Testosterone and psyche].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiber, C; Wetterauer, U; Berner, M

    2010-01-01

    Testosterone, like other steroid hormones, crosses the blood-brain barrier, and the androgen receptor is present in most parts of the human brain. Therefore, testosterone has many effects on the psyche, mainly in men but also in women. Most often discussed is its influence on sexuality, especially on desire and sexual fantasies, spontaneous nighttime erections, sexual activity, and the number of orgasms and ejaculations. Mood and energy are also testosterone related. Testosterone deficiency in male patients can lead to depressive disorders. In the past, elevated testosterone levels were seen as responsible for strongly aggressive behaviour. Some cognitive functions (spatial and mathematical sense, verbal skills) are, at least to a certain point, testosterone related. Due to the extremely complex functioning of the human brain, a scientifically exact statement regarding the true relationship between testosterone and human behaviour is not possible. On the one hand, the cause is definitively multifactorial, but on the other, testosterone is metabolised in the brain, and the metabolites act by themselves. Furthermore, a bidirectional relationship exists between hormones and human behaviour: Human behaviour is influenced by hormones, and human behaviour also has a direct influence on the levels of many hormones in the human body. Finally, much data in this field are derived from animal studies; studies on humans cannot be conducted because of ethical reasons or scientific and technical problems.

  9. Testosterone-Fatty Acid esterification: a unique target for the endocrine toxicity of tributyltin to gastropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, Gerald A; Gooding, Meredith P; Sternberg, Robin M

    2005-01-01

    Over the past thirty years, a global occurrence of sexual aberration has occurred whereby females among populations of prosobranch snails exhibit male sex characteristics. This condition, called imposex, has been causally associated with exposure to the biocide tributyltin. Tributyltin-exposed, imposex snails typically have elevated levels of testosterone which have led to the postulate that this endocrine dysfunction is responsible for imposex. This overview describes recent evidence that supports this postulate. Gastropods maintain circulating testosterone levels and administration of testosterone to females or castrates stimulates male sex differentiation in several snail species. Studies in the mud snail (Ilyanassa obsoleta) have shown that gastropods utilize a unique strategy for regulating free testosterone levels. Excess testosterone is converted to fatty acid esters by the action of a testosterone-inducible, high capacity/low affinity enzyme, acyl-CoA:testosterone acyl transferase, and stored within the organisms. Free testosterone levels are regulated during the reproductive cycle apparently due to changes in esterification/desterification suggesting that testosterone functions in the reproductive cycle of the organisms. Testosterone esterification provides a unique target in the testosterone regulatory machinery of snails that is altered by tributyltin. Indeed, imposex and free testosterone levels were elevated in field collected snails containing high tin levels, while testosterone-fatty acid ester pools were reduced in these organisms. These observations indicate that tributyltin elevates free testosterone by reducing the retention of testosterone as fatty acid-esters. This endocrine effect of tributyltin may be responsible for imposex.

  10. A novel mechanism regulating a sexual signal: the testosterone-based inhibition of female sex pheromone expression in garter snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M Rockwell; Mason, Robert T

    2014-08-01

    Vertebrates communicate their sex to conspecifics through the use of sexually dimorphic signals, such as ornaments, behaviors and scents. Furthermore, the physiological connection between hormones and secondary sexual signal expression is key to understanding their dimorphism, seasonality and evolution. The red-sided garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis) is the only reptile for which a described pheromone currently exists, and because garter snakes rely completely on the sexual attractiveness pheromone for species identification and mate choice, they constitute a unique model species for exploring the relationship between pheromones and the endocrine system. We recently demonstrated that estrogen can activate female pheromone production in male garter snakes. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism(s) acting to prevent female pheromone production in males. We found that castrated males (GX) are courted by wild males in the field and produce appreciable amounts of female sex pheromone. Furthermore, pheromone production is inhibited in castrates given testosterone implants (GX+T), suggesting that pheromone production is actively inhibited by the presence of testosterone. Lastly, testosterone supplementation alone (T) increased the production of several saturated methyl ketones in the pheromone but not the unsaturated ketones; this may indicate that saturated ketones are testosterone-activated components of the garter snake's skin lipid milieu. Collectively, our research has shown that pheromone expression in snakes results from two processes: activation by the feminizing steroid estradiol and inhibition by testosterone. We suggest that basal birds and garter snakes share common pathways of activation that modulate crucial intraspecific signals that originate from skin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Testosterone therapy in microphallic hypospadias: topical or parenteral?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalapathi, G; Rao, K L N; Chowdhary, S K; Narasimhan, K L; Samujh, Ram; Mahajan, J K

    2003-02-01

    Local or systemic application of testosterone is reported to stimulate penile growth. Intramuscular testosterone has been found to be effective in 50% of patients; however, variable results have been reported with topical testosterone. The current study is an attempt to compare the efficacy of intramuscular versus topical testosterone application. A total of 26 consecutive patients with hypospadias and small penis (enlargement was observed in 60% children in group A and 75% in group B. Although the desired therapeutic effect of testosterone was achieved in both the groups, this study failed to show any significant difference between the 2 routes of administration. However, in group A, (topical) serum testosterone crossed the normal range in 15% of patients and was associated with significant reversible side effects. Copyright 2003, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  12. Could you have low testosterone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by the testicles. It is important for a man's sex drive and physical appearance. Certain health conditions, medicines, or injury can lead to low testosterone (low-T). Testosterone level also naturally drops with age. Low testosterone can ... Testosterone makes a man look and feel like a man. In a ...

  13. Sexual Health: Testosterone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Low testosterone may contribute to a decrease in motivation or self-confidence. You may feel sad or ... vein (deep vein thrombosis), which could break loose, travel through your bloodstream and lodge in your lungs, ...

  14. PC based temporary shielding administrative procedure (TSAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.E.; Pederson, G.E.; Hamby, P.N.

    1995-01-01

    A completely new Administrative Procedure for temporary shielding was developed for use at Commonwealth Edison's six nuclear stations. This procedure promotes the use of shielding, and addresses industry requirements for the use and control of temporary shielding. The importance of an effective procedure has increased since more temporary shielding is being used as ALARA goals become more ambitious. To help implement the administrative procedure, a personal computer software program was written to incorporate the procedural requirements. This software incorporates the useability of a Windows graphical user interface with extensive help and database features. This combination of a comprehensive administrative procedure and user friendly software promotes the effective use and management of temporary shielding while ensuring that industry requirements are met

  15. PC based temporary shielding administrative procedure (TSAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.E.; Pederson, G.E. [Sargent & Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States); Hamby, P.N. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Downers Grove, IL (United States)

    1995-03-01

    A completely new Administrative Procedure for temporary shielding was developed for use at Commonwealth Edison`s six nuclear stations. This procedure promotes the use of shielding, and addresses industry requirements for the use and control of temporary shielding. The importance of an effective procedure has increased since more temporary shielding is being used as ALARA goals become more ambitious. To help implement the administrative procedure, a personal computer software program was written to incorporate the procedural requirements. This software incorporates the useability of a Windows graphical user interface with extensive help and database features. This combination of a comprehensive administrative procedure and user friendly software promotes the effective use and management of temporary shielding while ensuring that industry requirements are met.

  16. CENTRAL SEROUS CHORIORETINOPATHY IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN RECEIVING EXOGENOUS TESTOSTERONE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Mandi D; Noble, Jason A; Peyman, Gholam A

    2017-01-01

    Central serous chorioretinopathy (CSR) is a serous detachment of the neurosensory retina commonly associated with male sex, Type-A personality and corticosteroid use. Exogenous administration of androgens and development of CSR in men has been reported. Only one case of CSR in a postmenopausal woman receiving exogenous androgen therapy has been reported. The authors describe three cases of chronic CSR in postmenopausal women receiving exogenous testosterone therapy. Diagnosis was based on characteristic clinical, fluorescein angiographic, and optical coherence tomography findings. The three women were being treated with exogenous testosterone and progesterone therapy for symptoms of menopause and libido loss. Average age at presentation was 54.7 years (53-56 years), average duration of exogenous androgen use was 61 months (36-87 months), with average 19.7-month follow-up. Resolution of symptoms seemed correlated with cessation of androgen use despite treatment with oscillatory photodynamic therapy and intravitreal pharmacotherapy with antivascular endothelial growth factor agents. Exogenous testosterone is increasingly prescribed for menopausal symptoms and libido loss. Treatment with oscillatory photodynamic therapy, supplemental bevacizumab intravitreal pharmacotherapy, and cessation of exogenous androgen therapy was successful in three cases of chronic, therapy-resistant CSR. Ophthalmologists should inquire about androgen usage in patients who present with CSR, especially in the setting of therapy resistance.

  17. Circatrigintan cycle of testosterone in human male

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celec, P.; Kudela, M.; Bursky, P.; Ostatnikova, D.; Zdenek PUTZ, Z.

    2002-01-01

    In recent years the influence of testosterone on physical and mental well-being has become a focus of research attention. Testosterone is no more considered the m ale hormone . It was proved to influence woman's behaviour and mental functioning as well as that of a man. Cyclic changes throughout the menstrual cycle in women are known. To search for the infradian variations of human male testosterone levels in a follow up study, which was held in autumn 1999 (one month of continuous sampling) and in autumn 2000 (two and a half months of continuous sampling). Testosterone was determined in saliva, which contains biologically active fraction, unbound to proteins. In autumn 2000 sampling of 31 males (mean age 21.3 ± 1.3) collected saliva in the morning 30 minutes after waking-up every second day during one month and every third day during the following 6 weeks. Saliva was deeply frozen and analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Data of our preliminary study (based on samples collected in 1999) indicated circatrigintan variations of male salivary testosterone. By the use of two different methods (zones of minimum-moving averages and analysis of variance) circatrigintan and circavigintan cycles of salivary testosterone were found in the collected data of our subjects. The article considerates clinical applications of variation of hormonal levels. (authors)

  18. The marketing of testosterone treatments for age-related low testosterone or 'Low T'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzes, Barbara

    2018-06-01

    To summarize the research evidence on promotion of testosterone for 'Low T', or age-related hypogonadism. Marketing of testosterone for 'Low T' has relied on strategies that are inadequately regulated to prevent off-label promotion, such as unbranded 'disease-awareness' advertising campaigns targeting the general public, sponsored continuing medical education (CME) and ghostwriting. A recent US analysis of television advertising exposure levels versus insurance claims found that both unbranded 'disease-awareness' advertising and branded ads were associated with increased rates of testosterone testing, treatment initiation, and treatment without prior testing. Exposés of sponsored CME and ghostwriting indicate misrepresentation of the research evidence on the sequelae of untreated low testosterone and on treatment efficacy. In the United States, advertising to the general public ceased in 2014 after the Food and Drug Administration changed product labeling to clarify that testosterone is only indicated for pathological hypogonadism. Unbranded 'disease-awareness' advertising to the general public and 'Low T' messages for health professionals have continued elsewhere. The review of the experience of promotion of testosterone for 'Low T' and research evidence on effects of advertising targeting the public highlights the need for improved regulation of unbranded 'disease awareness' advertising to ensure adequate protection of public.

  19. Testosterone: action, deficiency, substitution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nieschlag, E; Nieschlag, S. (Susan); Behre, H. M. (Hermann M.)

    2004-01-01

    ... reviews applications in male contraception, the role of 5 -reductase inhibitors and the controversial use of DHEA. For this book the editors have assembled the world leaders in testosterone research and clinical andrology and endocrinology. A special feature of the book is the fact that its 24 chapters were submitted simultaneously to ens...

  20. The endocrine pharmacology of testosterone therapy in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oettel, Michael

    The review starts off by outlining the history of the discovery of the male sex hormone testosterone and the historical background to the various, often dubious, approaches to the treatment of age-related endocrine disorders in older men. A discussion of congenital androgen deficiency in young men is followed by methods of diagnosing hypogonadism in older men. Among therapeutic options, the alternatives to direct testosterone replacement are discussed, although none of them have proved to be particularly successful in clinical practice. For testosterone replacement itself, various routes of administration and pharmaceutical formulations are now available, facilitating good monitoring and individualized therapy.

  1. Testosterone Replacement Therapy and Polycythemia in HIV-infected Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorkas, Charles Kyriakos; Vaamonde, Carlos M.; Glesby, Marshall J.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a case-control study to assess testosterone use as a primary risk factor for polycythemia in 21 HIV-infected men. Any testosterone use within two months of first elevated hemoglobin was associated with polycythemia (matched odds ratio 6.55; 95% CI 1.83-23.4; P=0.004) and intramuscular administration demonstrated a stronger association than topical use. No adverse cardiovascular or thrombotic events were observed. HIV-infected patients taking testosterone should undergo routine hematologic monitoring with adjustment of therapy when appropriate. PMID:22008652

  2. Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogen handler om den praksis, vi kalder administration. Vi er i den offentlige sektor i Danmark hos kontorfolkene med deres sagsmapper, computere, telefoner,, lovsamlinger,, retningslinier og regneark. I bogen udfoldes en mangfoldighed af konkrete historier om det administrative arbejde fra...... forskellige områder i den offentlige sektor. Hensigten er at forstå den praksis og faglighed der knytter sig til det administrative arbejde...

  3. Internet/Web-based administration of benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, J

    2001-09-01

    Most funds will face the challenge of deploying at least some Web-based functionality in the near future, if they have not already done so. Clear objectives and careful planning will help ensure success. Issues that must be considered include support requirements, security concerns, functional business objectives, and employer and member Web access.

  4. NASA Administrative Data Base Management Systems, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosevich, J. D. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Strategies for converting to a data base management system (DBMS) and the implementation of the software packages necessary are discussed. Experiences with DBMS at various NASA centers are related including Langley's ADABAS/NATURAL and the NEMS subsystem of the NASA metrology informaton system. The value of the integrated workstation with a personal computer is explored.

  5. Seasonal changes in plasma testosterone levels in the male South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-18

    Feb 18, 1991 ... It is also known that melatonin, B-endorphin and prolactin are important in the timing of reactivation of reproduction in the European hedgehog (Fowler 1988b). Although the present study, based upon total circulating testosterone levels illustrates a clear seasonal cycle in plasma testosterone in A. fronlalis,.

  6. The "trouble" with salivary testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Douglas A; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Booth, Alan; Kivlighan, Katie T; Schwartz, Eve B

    2004-11-01

    In a series of studies, we identify several specific issues that can limit the value of integrating salivary testosterone in biosocial research. Salivary testosterone measurements can be substantially influenced during the process of sample collection, are susceptible to interference effects caused by the leakage of blood (plasma) into saliva, and are sensitive to storage conditions when samples have been archived. There are gender differences in salivary testosterone levels and variance, the serum-saliva association, the relationship of salivary testosterone to age and pubertal development, and the stability of individual differences in salivary testosterone levels over time. The findings have important implications at several levels of analysis for research that aims to test biosocial models of testosterone--behavior relationships. Recommendations are provided to steer investigators around these "troubles" with salivary testosterone.

  7. Modelling of web-based virtual university administration for Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work focused on development of a model of web based virtual University Administration for Nigerian universities. This is necessary as there is still a noticeable administrative constraint in our Universities, the establishment of many University Web portals notwithstanding. More efforts are therefore needed to ...

  8. Validity of Serum Testosterone, Free Androgen Index, and Calculated Free Testosterone in Women with Suspected Hyperandrogenism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal K. Al Kindi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There are technical limitations for the currently available methods of measuring serum total and free testosteronein females. The study objectives were to evaluate the usefulness of serum total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, free androgen index (FAI, and calculated free testosterone (CFT in the assessment of androgen status in women investigated for suspected hyperandrogenism.Methods: This is a case control study that was conducted during the period from 1st May 2011 to 31st October 2011 on 122 patients aged (18-45 years whom were referred to the Clinical Biochemistry Laboratory from the Endocrinology and Gynecology Clinics, Royal Hospital, Oman. Women with no clinical feature or laboratory data indicative of hormonal dysfunction and with midluteal progesterone >30 nmol/L were selected as controls (group 1; n=18. The patients were divided into subgroups based on the clinical/laboratory diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS [group 2; n=19, hirsutism (group 3; n=18, menstrual disturbances (irregularities or infertility (group 4; n=49, as well as combination of PCOS or hirsutism and menstrual disturbances or infertility (group 5;n=18. Serum total testosterone and SHBG were measured, FAI was calculated as percentage ratio of total testosterone to SHBG values, and CFT was calculated according to Vermeulen equation.Results: There was a statistically significant difference in the mean levels of testosterone, FAI and CFT in each patient group compared with the control group. For diagnosing hyperandrogenism, each indicator was selected at the recommended cut-off: testosterone >3.0 nmol/L, SHBG 5%, and CFT >32 pmol/L. In group 2, 89.5% and 94.7% of the patients had increased FAI and CFT, respectively; compared with 36.4% for increased testosterone. In group 3, 88.9% and 88.9% of the patients had similarly increased FAI and CFT, respectively; compared with 66.7% for testosterone. In group 4, patients had 63.3% and 73

  9. Testosterone Administration Reduces Lying in Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wibral, M.; Dohmen, T.J.; Klingmüller, Dietrich; Weber, Bernd; Falk, Armin

    2012-01-01

    Lying is a pervasive phenomenon with important social and economic implications. However, despite substantial interest in the prevalence and determinants of lying, little is known about its biological foundations. Here we study a potential hormonal influence, focusing on the steroid hormone

  10. Prenatal testosterone and stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Bleek, Benjamin; Breuer, Svenja; Prüss, Holger; Richardt, Kirsten; Cook, Susanne; Yaruss, J Scott; Reuter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of stuttering is much higher in males compared to females. The biological underpinnings of this skewed sex-ratio is poorly understood, but it has often been speculated that sex hormones could play an important role. The present study investigated a potential link between prenatal testosterone and stuttering. Here, an indirect indicator of prenatal testosterone levels, the Digit Ratio (2D:4D) of the hand, was used. As numerous studies have shown, hands with more "male" characteristics (putatively representing greater prenatal testosterone levels) are characterized by a longer ring finger compared to the index finger (represented as a lower 2D:4D ratio) in the general population. We searched for differences in the 2D:4D ratios between 38 persons who stutter and 36 persons who do not stutter. In a second step, we investigated potential links between the 2D:4D ratio and the multifaceted symptomatology of stuttering, as measured by the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering (OASES), in a larger sample of 44 adults who stutter. In the first step, no significant differences in the 2D:4D were observed between individuals who stutter and individuals who do not stutter. In the second step, 2D:4D correlated negatively with higher scores of the OASES (representing higher negative experiences due to stuttering), and this effect was more pronounced for female persons who stutter. The findings indicate for the first time that prenatal testosterone may influence individual differences in psychosocial impact of this speech disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of the fast, simple and fully validated high performance liquid chromatographic method with diode array detector for quantification of testosterone esters in an oil-based injectable dosage form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlik, Petr; Tircova, Barbora

    2016-11-01

    Counterfeit steroids are available on the black market, ultimately to consumers who believe they are buying a legitimate pharmaceutical item from the labeled company. In many cases, counterfeit steroids can contain lower doses or some products can be overdosed. This can unwittingly expose users to a significant health risks. The mixture of testosterone propionate, phenylpropionate, isocaproate and decanoate in an oil-based injectable dosage form belongs to the one of the most misused illicit drugs by a variety of athletes. This study developed a new, fast, simple and reliable HPLC method combined with a simple sample preparation step to determine testosterone propionate, phenylpropionate, isocaproate and decanoate in an oil-based injectable dosage form without the use of sophisticated and expensive instrumentation. The developed analytical procedure provides high throughput of samples where LC analysis takes only 6min and sample preparation of oil matrix in one step takes approximately 10min with precision ranging from 1.03 to 3.38% (RSD), and accuracy (relative error %) within ±2.01%. This method was found to be precise, linear, accurate, sensitive, selective and robust for routine application in screening of commercial pharmaceutical products based on content of mentioned testosterone esters in their oil-based injectable dosage form for counterfeit drugs. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of nine samples of commercial testosterone mixtures purchased from various sources and will be further used as an effective screening method for determination of previously mentioned testosterone esters in samples confiscated by Institute of Forensic Science (Slovakia) during the illegal trade. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Computer-Based Simulation Games in Public Administration Education

    OpenAIRE

    Kutergina Evgeniia

    2017-01-01

    Computer simulation, an active learning technique, is now one of the advanced pedagogical technologies. Th e use of simulation games in the educational process allows students to gain a firsthand understanding of the processes of real life. Public- administration, public-policy and political-science courses increasingly adopt simulation games in universities worldwide. Besides person-to-person simulation games, there are computer-based simulations in public-administration education. Currently...

  13. Prenatal and pubertal testosterone affect brain lateralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beking, T; Geuze, R H; van Faassen, M; Kema, I P; Kreukels, B P C; Groothuis, T G G

    After decades of research, the influence of prenatal testosterone on brain lateralization is still elusive, whereas the influence of pubertal testosterone on functional brain lateralization has not been investigated, although there is increasing evidence that testosterone affects the brain in

  14. Testosterone replacement in male hypogonadism

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Sanjay; Agrawal, Navneet; Kumar, Satish; Sharma, Amit

    2010-01-01

    Sanjay Kalra1, Navneet Agrawal2, Satish Kumar3, Amit Sharma11Department of Endocrinology, Bharti Hospital, Karnal, India; 2Dept of Medicine, GR Medical College, Gwalior, India; 3Clinical Research, EXCEL Life Sciences, NOIDA, IndiaAbstract: This article contains a review of the clinical aspects of testosterone replacement in androgen deficiency of the aging male.Keywords: testosterone, supplementation, hypogonadism, ADAM

  15. Web-Based Administrative Supports for University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Robert J.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluates development and effectiveness of a Web-based administration support for business students at Liverpool John Moores University. Considers whether the strategic planning and individual school developments have influenced the development and usefulness of the campus-wide information system. Discusses action research findings on student…

  16. Interviewing Practicing Administrators: An Underutilized Field Based Instructional Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joachim, Pat; Klotz, Jack

    Reform of educational administrator preparation programs has received substantial attention from scholars over the past 15 years. Their works stress the importance of a strong knowledge base, problem-centered learning, and a renewed emphasis on affective development. A trend away from managerial, authoritarian leadership styles and toward…

  17. Oral testosterone load related to liver function in men with alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bahnsen, M; Bennett, P

    1983-01-01

    in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. This decrease seems to be due to decreased liver function, decreasing hepatic blood flow, and increased portosystemic shunting. Oral testosterone loading may therefore be of prognostic significance in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis.......The relation between liver function and an oral testosterone load was examined in 42 consecutive patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Administration of an oral load of 400 mg micronized free testosterone increased the serum concentration of testosterone (range, 31.9-694.4 nmol/l; median, 140.......8 nmol/l) in male patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis to significantly (P less than 0.01) higher levels than in male subjects without liver disease (range, 25.4-106.6 nmol/l; median, 61.5 nmol/l). The increase of testosterone after the load (log delta testosterone) in patients correlated inversely...

  18. The Effects of Testosterone on Oxidative Stress Markers in Mice with Spinal Cord Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Choobineh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI causes infertility in male patients through erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction, semen and hormone abnormalities. Oxidative stress (OS is involved in poor semen quality and subsequent infertility in males with SCI. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of SCI on the level of testosterone hormone. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we evaluated the effects of exogenous testosterone on the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx as well as the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and protein carbonylation (PCO, as markers of OS, in 10 groups of SCI mice. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC was determined using the 2,29-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical cation assay. Results: Exogenous testosterone administration in mice with SCI significantly reduced SOD and GPx enzyme activities and MDA level. There was no significant decrease in PCO content. In addition, TAC remarkably increased in the sham and SCI groups not treated with testosterone but remained unchanged in all other experimental groups. Exogenous testosterone also reduced serum testosterone levels in all groups except the positive control group. Conclusion: Our cumulative data indicated that SCI could cause sterility by disturbing the plasmatic testosterone balance. The normal level of endogenous testosterone was not completely restored by exogenous testosterone administration.

  19. The Effect of Testosterone Topical Solution in Hypogonadal Men With Suboptimal Response to a Topical Testosterone Gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Patrick R; Kim, Edward D; Ruff, Dustin D; Seftel, Allen D

    2018-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of axillary administration of a 2% testosterone solution (Axiron ® ) in hypogonadal (HGN) men who had had a suboptimal response to treatment with a commercially available topical testosterone gel. HGN men averaging 57 years old, with a mean body mass index of 31.9 kg/m 2 and median baseline testosterone level (T-level) of 185.2 ng/dL, who had failed to reach normal T-levels with a topical testosterone gel (Androgel 1.62%, Androgel, Testim, or Fortesta) were treated with a 2% testosterone solution until T-levels reached a normal range (from ≥300 to ≤1,050 ng/dL) or for up to 9 weeks. Outcomes included the cumulative percentage of men with a serum T-level in the normal range during treatment with Axiron and improvement in symptoms of low energy level and low sexual drive. During the study, 95% of HGN men (72/78) attained a T-level in the normal range. The median T-level at endpoint was 495.7 ng/dL, a threefold increase over baseline, p levels within the first 2 weeks of treatment. In a post hoc analysis, all subjects with baseline body mass indexes >35 kg/m 2 ( n = 19) achieved T-levels in the normal range. Prior to treatment, over 61% of subjects (48/78) reported impairment in either energy level or sexual drive. After treatment (or testosterone normalization), energy level improved in 75% of subjects and sexual drive improved in 70%. Topical 2% testosterone solution is a safe and effective treatment for HGN men who have had a suboptimal response to previous treatment with topical testosterone gels.

  20. Testosterone Treatment and Cognitive Function in Older Men With Low Testosterone and Age-Associated Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Susan M; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Stephens-Shields, Alisa J; Ellenberg, Susan S; Gill, Thomas M; Shumaker, Sally A; Pleasants, Debbie D; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Bhasin, Shalender; Cauley, Jane A; Cella, David; Crandall, Jill P; Cunningham, Glenn R; Ensrud, Kristine E; Farrar, John T; Lewis, Cora E; Molitch, Mark E; Pahor, Marco; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Cifelli, Denise; Anton, Stephen; Basaria, Shehzad; Diem, Susan J; Wang, Christina; Hou, Xiaoling; Snyder, Peter J

    2017-02-21

    Most cognitive functions decline with age. Prior studies suggest that testosterone treatment may improve these functions. To determine if testosterone treatment compared with placebo is associated with improved verbal memory and other cognitive functions in older men with low testosterone and age-associated memory impairment (AAMI). The Testosterone Trials (TTrials) were 7 trials to assess the efficacy of testosterone treatment in older men with low testosterone levels. The Cognitive Function Trial evaluated cognitive function in all TTrials participants. In 12 US academic medical centers, 788 men who were 65 years or older with a serum testosterone level less than 275 ng/mL and impaired sexual function, physical function, or vitality were allocated to testosterone treatment (n = 394) or placebo (n = 394). A subgroup of 493 men met criteria for AAMI based on baseline subjective memory complaints and objective memory performance. Enrollment in the TTrials began June 24, 2010; the final participant completed treatment and assessment in June 2014. Testosterone gel (adjusted to maintain the testosterone level within the normal range for young men) or placebo gel for 1 year. The primary outcome was the mean change from baseline to 6 months and 12 months for delayed paragraph recall (score range, 0 to 50) among men with AAMI. Secondary outcomes were mean changes in visual memory (Benton Visual Retention Test; score range, 0 to -26), executive function (Trail-Making Test B minus A; range, -290 to 290), and spatial ability (Card Rotation Test; score range, -80 to 80) among men with AAMI. Tests were administered at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Among the 493 men with AAMI (mean age, 72.3 years [SD, 5.8]; mean baseline testosterone, 234 ng/dL [SD, 65.1]), 247 were assigned to receive testosterone and 246 to receive placebo. Of these groups, 247 men in the testosterone group and 245 men in the placebo completed the memory study. There was no significant mean

  1. Orientation of student entrepreneurial practices based on administrative techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Horacio Murcia Cabra

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the second phase of the research project «Application of a creativity model to update the teaching of the administration in Colombian agricultural entrepreneurial systems» it was decided to re-enforce student planning and execution of the students of the Agricultural business Administration Faculty of La Salle University. Those finishing their studies were given special attention. The plan of action was initiated in the second semester of 2003. It was initially defined as a model of entrepreneurial strengthening based on a coherent methodology that included the most recent administration and management techniques. Later, the applicability of this model was tested in some organizations of the agricultural sector that had asked for support in their planning processes. Through an investigation-action process the methodology was redefined in order to arrive at a final model that could be used by faculty students and graduates. The results obtained were applied to the teaching of Entrepreneurial Laboratory of ninth semester students with the hope of improving administrative support to agricultural enterprises. Following this procedure more than 100 students and 200 agricultural producers have applied this procedure between June 2003 and July 2005. The methodology used and the results obtained are presented in this article.

  2. Dose addition models based on biologically-relevant reductions in fetal testosterone accurately predict postnatal reproductive tract alterations by a phthalate mixture in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challenges in cumulative risk assessment of anti-androgenic phthalate mixtures include a lack of data on all the individual phthalates and difficulty determining the biological relevance of reduction in fetal testosterone (T) on postnatal development. The objectives of the curren...

  3. Controversies in testosterone supplementation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Khera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone has now become one of the most widely used medications throughout the world. The rapid growth of the testosterone market in the past 10 years is due to many factors. We currently have a worldwide aging population. In the US, the number of men 65 years old or older is increasing 2-3 times faster than the number of men younger than 65 years. In addition, poor general health and certain medical conditions such as diabetes/metabolic syndrome (MetS, cardiovascular disease (CVD, and osteoporosis have been associated with low serum testosterone levels. [1],[2],[3] There are now fewer concerns regarding the development of prostate cancer (PCa after testosterone therapy, making it a more attractive treatment option. Finally, the introduction of different forms of testosterone supplementation therapy (TST with increased promotion, marketing, and direct-to-consumer advertising is also driving market growth. As the demand for TST continues to grow, it is becoming more important for clinicians to understand how to diagnose and treat patients with low testosterone.

  4. Computer-Based Simulation Games in Public Administration Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutergina Evgeniia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Computer simulation, an active learning technique, is now one of the advanced pedagogical technologies. Th e use of simulation games in the educational process allows students to gain a firsthand understanding of the processes of real life. Public- administration, public-policy and political-science courses increasingly adopt simulation games in universities worldwide. Besides person-to-person simulation games, there are computer-based simulations in public-administration education. Currently in Russia the use of computer-based simulation games in Master of Public Administration (MPA curricula is quite limited. Th is paper focuses on computer- based simulation games for students of MPA programmes. Our aim was to analyze outcomes of implementing such games in MPA curricula. We have done so by (1 developing three computer-based simulation games about allocating public finances, (2 testing the games in the learning process, and (3 conducting a posttest examination to evaluate the effect of simulation games on students’ knowledge of municipal finances. Th is study was conducted in the National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE and in the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA during the period of September to December 2015, in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Two groups of students were randomly selected in each university and then randomly allocated either to the experimental or the control group. In control groups (n=12 in HSE, n=13 in RANEPA students had traditional lectures. In experimental groups (n=12 in HSE, n=13 in RANEPA students played three simulation games apart from traditional lectures. Th is exploratory research shows that the use of computer-based simulation games in MPA curricula can improve students’ outcomes by 38 %. In general, the experimental groups had better performances on the post-test examination (Figure 2. Students in the HSE experimental group had 27.5 % better

  5. NASIS data base management system: IBM 360 TSS implementation. Volume 8: Data base administrator user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The Data Base Administrator User's Guide for the NASA Aerospace Safety Information System is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) multi-terminal tasking, (2) data base executive, (3) utilities, (4) maintenance, (5) terminal support, and (6) retrieval subsystem.

  6. Testosterone deficiency: a historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard Nieschlag

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The biological effects of the testes and testosterone are known since antiquity. Aristotle knew the effects of castration and his hypothesis on fertilization is one of the first scientific encounters in reproductive biology. Over centuries, castration has been performed as punishment and to produce obedient slaves, but also to preserve the soprano voices of prepubertal boys. The Chinese imperial (and other oriental courts employed castrates as overseers in harems who often obtained high-ranking political positions. The era of testis transplantation and organotherapy was initiated by John Hunter in London who transplanted testes into capons in 1786. The intention of his experiments was to prove the 'vital principle' as the basis for modern transplantation medicine, but Hunter did not consider endocrine aspects. Arnold Adolph Berthold postulated internal secretion from his testicular transplantation experiments in 1849 in Göttingen and is thus considered the father of endocrinology. Following his observations, testicular preparations were used for therapy, popularized by self-experiments by Charles-Edouard Brown-Séquard in Paris (1889, which can at best have placebo effects. In the 1920s Sergio Voronoff transplanted testes from animals to men, but their effectiveness was disproved. Today testicular transplantation is being refined by stem cell research and germ cell transplantation. Modern androgen therapy started in 1935 when Enrest Lacquer isolated testosterone from bull testes in Amsterdam. In the same year testosterone was chemically synthesized independently by Adolf Butenandt in Göttingen and Leopold Ruzicka in Basel. Since testosterone was ineffective orally it was either compressed into subcutaneous pellets or was used orally as 17α-methyl testosterone, now obsolete because of liver toxicity. The early phases of testosterone treatment coincide with the first description of the most prominent syndromes of hypogonadism by Klinefelter, by

  7. Testosterone and benign prostatic hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Jarvis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of testosterone to treat the symptoms of late-onset hypogonadal men has increased recently due to patient and physician awareness. However, concerns regarding the effect of testosterone on the prostate, in particular any possible effect on the risk of prostate cancer have prompted further research in this regard. Surprisingly, numerous retrospective or small, randomized trials have pointed to a possible improvement in male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS in patients treated with testosterone. The exact mechanism of this improvement is still debated but may have a close relationship to metabolic syndrome. For the clinician, the results of these studies are promising but do not constitute high levels of evidence. A thorough clinical examination (including history, examination and laboratory testing of testosterone should be undertaken before considering the diagnosis of late-onset hypogonadism or instigating treatment for it. Warnings still remain on the testosterone supplement product labels regarding the risk of urinary retention and worsening LUTS, and these should be explained to patients.

  8. Retrospective Analysis of Dose Titration and Serum Testosterone Level Assessments in Patients Treated With Topical Testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muram, David; Kaltenboeck, Anna; Boytsov, Natalie; Hayes-Larson, Eleanor; Ivanova, Jasmina; Birnbaum, Howard G; Swindle, Ralph

    2015-11-01

    Patterns of care following topical testosterone agent (TTA) initiation are poorly understood. This study aimed to characterize care following TTA initiation and compare results between patients with and without a serum testosterone (T) assay within 30 days before and including TTA initiation. Adult men (N=4,146) initiating TTAs from January 1, 2011, to March 31, 2012, were identified from a commercially insured database. Patients were included if they initiated at recommended starting dose (RSD) and had ≥12 and ≥6 months of continuous eligibility preinitiation (baseline) and postinitiation (study period), respectively. Patients were stratified by preinitiation T assay. Maintenance dose attainment month was determined using unadjusted generalized estimating equations regression to compare dose relative to RSD month by month. Outcomes included maintenance dose attainment month, time to stopping of index TTA refills or a claim for nonindex testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), and proportion of patients with study period T assay or diagnosis of hypogonadism (HG) or another low testosterone condition, and were compared using chi-square and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests for categorical and continuous variables, respectively. Maintenance dose was attained in Month 4 postinitiation, at 115.2% of RSD. Approximately 46% of patients had a preinitiation T assay; these men were more likely to receive a diagnosis of HG or another low testosterone condition, to have a follow-up T assay, to continue treatment by filling a nonindex TRT, and less likely to stop refilling treatment with their index TTA. Differences in care following TTA initiation suggest that preinitiation T assays (i.e., guideline-based care) may be helpful in ensuring treatment benefits. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Oxytocin, testosterone, and human social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Bernard J

    2016-05-01

    I describe an integrative social-evolutionary model for the adaptive significance of the human oxytocinergic system. The model is based on a role for this hormone in the generation and maintenance of social familiarity and affiliation across five homologous, functionally similar, and sequentially co-opted contexts: mothers with offspring, female and male mates, kin groups, individuals with reciprocity partners, and individuals within cooperating and competing social groups defined by culture. In each situation, oxytocin motivates, mediates and rewards the cognitive and behavioural processes that underlie the formation and dynamics of a more or less stable social group, and promotes a relationship between two or more individuals. Such relationships may be positive (eliciting neurological reward, reducing anxiety and thus indicating fitness-enhancing effects), or negative (increasing anxiety and distress, and thus motivating attempts to alleviate a problematic, fitness-reducing social situation). I also present evidence that testosterone exhibits opposite effects from oxytocin on diverse aspects of cognition and behaviour, most generally by favouring self-oriented, asocial and antisocial behaviours. I apply this model for effects of oxytocin and testosterone to understanding human psychological disorders centrally involving social behaviour. Reduced oxytocin and higher testosterone levels have been associated with under-developed social cognition, especially in autism. By contrast, some combination of oxytocin increased above normal levels, and lower testosterone, has been reported in a notable number of studies of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, and, in some cases, higher oxytocin involves maladaptively 'hyper-developed' social cognition in these conditions. This pattern of findings suggests that human social cognition and behaviour are structured, in part, by joint and opposing effects of oxytocin and testosterone, and that extremes of such joint

  10. Testosterone reduces amygdala-orbitofrontal cortex coupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wingen, Guido; Mattern, Claudia; Verkes, Robbert Jan; Buitelaar, Jan; Fernández, Guillén

    2010-01-01

    Testosterone influences various aspects of affective behavior, which is mediated by different brain regions within the emotion circuitry. Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that testosterone increases neural activity in the amygdala. To investigate whether this could be due to altered

  11. Stable carbon isotope ratio profiling of illicit testosterone preparations--domestic and international seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Lance; Cawley, Adam; Drury, Jason; Edey, Claire; Hasick, Nicole; Goebel, Catrin

    2014-10-01

    Gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) is now established as a robust and mature analytical technique for the doping control of endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids in human sport. It relies on the assumption that the carbon isotope ratios of naturally produced steroids are significantly different to synthetically manufactured testosterone or testosterone prohormones used in commercial medical or dietary supplement products. Recent publications in this journal have highlighted the existence of black market testosterone preparations with carbon isotope ratios within the range reported for endogenous steroids (i.e. δ(13) C ≥ -25.8 ‰). In this study, we set out to profile domestic and international law enforcement seizures of illicit testosterone products to monitor the prevalence of 'enriched' substrates--which if administered to human subjects would be considered problematic for the use of current GC-C-IRMS methodologies for the doping control of testosterone in sport. The distribution of δ(13) C values for this illicit testosterone sample population (n = 283) ranged from -23.4 ‰ to -32.9 ‰ with mean and median of -28.6 ‰--comparable to previous work. However, only 13 out of 283 testosterone samples (4.6 %) were found to display δ(13) C values ≥ -25.8 ‰, confirming that in the vast majority of cases of illicit testosterone administration, current GC-C-IRMS doping control procedures would be capable of confirming misuse. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Osteoprotegerin Levels Decrease During Testosterone Therapy in Aging Men and are Associated with Changed Distribution of Regional Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, L; Glintborg, D; Højlund, K

    2013-01-01

    The cardiovascular effects of testosterone treatment are debated. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is an independent marker of cardiovascular risk. We investigated the effect of testosterone therapy on OPG levels in aging men with low normal bioavailable testosterone levels. A randomized, double......-blinded, placebo-controlled study of 6 months testosterone therapy (gel) in 38 men aged 60-78 years with bioavailable testosterone 94 cm was performed. Clinical evaluation, OPG, and C-reactive protein (CRP) measurements were carried out. Lean body mass (LBM), total fat mass, and bone mineral density (BMD) were...... established by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Power calculation was based on an increase in LBM during testosterone therapy and responders were defined as testosterone treated patients with increased...

  13. Endogenous and exogenous testosterone and the risk of prostate cancer and increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Peter; Koechlin, Alice; Bota, Maria; d'Onofrio, Alberto; Zaridze, David G; Perrin, Paul; Fitzpatrick, John; Burnett, Arthur L; Boniol, Mathieu

    2016-11-01

    To review and quantify the association between endogenous and exogenous testosterone and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate cancer. Literature searches were performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Prospective cohort studies that reported data on the associations between endogenous testosterone and prostate cancer, and placebo-controlled randomized trials of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) that reported data on PSA and/or prostate cancer cases were retained. Meta-analyses were performed using random-effects models, with tests for publication bias and heterogeneity. Twenty estimates were included in a meta-analysis, which produced a summary relative risk (SRR) of prostate cancer for an increase of 5 nmol/L of testosterone of 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96, 1.02) without heterogeneity (I² = 0%). Based on 26 trials, the overall difference in PSA levels after onset of use of TRT was 0.10 ng/mL (-0.28, 0.48). Results were similar when conducting heterogeneity analyses by mode of administration, region, age at baseline, baseline testosterone, trial duration, type of patients and type of TRT. The SRR of prostate cancer as an adverse effect from 11 TRT trials was 0.87 (95% CI 0.30; 2.50). Results were consistent across studies. Prostate cancer appears to be unrelated to endogenous testosterone levels. TRT for symptomatic hypogonadism does not appear to increase PSA levels nor the risk of prostate cancer development. The current data are reassuring, although some caution is essential until multiple studies with longer follow-up are available. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Encapsulation of testosterone by chitosan nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanphai, P; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2017-05-01

    The loading of testosterone by chitosan nanoparticles was investigated, using multiple spectroscopic methods, thermodynamic analysis, TEM images and modeling. Thermodynamic parameters showed testosterone-chitosan bindings occur mainly via H-bonding and van der Waals contacts. As polymer size increased more stable steroid-chitosan conjugates formed and hydrophobic contact was also observed. The loading efficacy of testosterone-nanocarrier was 40-55% and increased as chitosan size increased. Testosterone encapsulation markedly alters chitosan morphology. Chitosan nanoparticles are capable of transporting testosterone in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Association between Use of Exogenous Testosterone Therapy and Risk of Venous Thrombotic Events among Exogenous Testosterone Treated and Untreated Men with Hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hu; Benoit, Karin; Wang, Wei; Motsko, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Limited information exists about whether exogenous testosterone therapy is associated with a risk of venous thrombotic events. We investigated via cohort and nested case-control analyses whether exogenous testosterone therapy is associated with the risk of venous thrombotic events in men with hypogonadism. Databases were reviewed to identify men prescribed exogenous testosterone therapy and/or men with a hypogonadism diagnosis. Propensity score 1:1 matching was used to select patients for cohort analysis. Cases (men with venous thrombotic events) were matched 1:4 with controls (men without venous thrombotic events) for the nested case-control analysis. Primary outcome was defined as incident idiopathic venous thrombotic events. Cox regression and conditional logistic regression were used to assess HRs and ORs, respectively. Sensitivity analyses were also performed. A total of 102,650 exogenous testosterone treated and 102,650 untreated patients were included in cohort analysis after matching, and 2,785 cases and 11,119 controls were included in case-control analysis. Cohort analysis revealed a HR of 1.08 for all testosterone treated patients (95% CI 0.91, 1.27, p = 0.378). Case-control analysis resulted in an OR of 1.02 (95% CI 0.92, 1.13, p = 0.702) for current exogenous testosterone therapy exposure and an OR of 0.92 (95% CI 0.82, 1.03, p = 0.145) for past exogenous testosterone therapy exposure. These results remained nonstatistically significant after stratifying by exogenous testosterone therapy administration route and age category. Most sensitivity analyses yielded consistent results. No significant association was found between exogenous testosterone therapy and incidents of idiopathic or overall venous thrombotic events in men with hypogonadism. However, some discrepant findings exist for the association between injectable formulations and the risk of overall venous thrombotic events. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research

  16. Primary testicular failure in Klinefelter's syndrome: the use of bivariate luteinizing hormone-testosterone reference charts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jørgensen, Niels

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis of androgen deficiency is based on clinical features and confirmatory low serum testosterone levels. In early primary testicular failure, a rise in serum LH levels suggests inadequate androgen action for the individual's physiological requirements despite a serum testosterone level ...

  17. Testosterone in women-the clinical significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Susan R; Jacobsen, Sarah Wåhlin

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone is an essential hormone for women, with physiological actions mediated directly or via aromatisation to oestradiol throughout the body. Despite the crucial role of testosterone and the high circulating concentrations of this hormone relative to oestradiol in women, studies of its...... action and the effects of testosterone deficiency and replacement in women are scarce. The primary indication for the prescription of testosterone for women is loss of sexual desire, which causes affected women substantial concern. That no formulation has been approved for this purpose has not impeded...... the widespread use of testosterone by women-either off-label or as compounded therapy. Observational studies indicate that testosterone has favourable cardiovascular effects measured by surrogate outcomes; however, associations between endogenous testosterone and the risk of cardiovascular disease and total...

  18. Neuroprotective effects of testosterone treatment in men with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Kurth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. While current medication reduces relapses and inflammatory activity, it has only a modest effect on long-term disability and gray matter atrophy. Here, we have characterized the potential neuroprotective effects of testosterone on cerebral gray matter in a pilot clinical trial. Ten men with relapsing–remitting MS were included in this open-label phase II trial. Subjects were observed without treatment for 6 months, followed by testosterone treatment for another 12 months. Focal gray matter loss as a marker for neurodegeneration was assessed using voxel-based morphometry. During the non-treatment phase, significant voxel-wise gray matter decreases were widespread (p≤ 0.05 corrected. However, during testosterone treatment, gray matter loss was no longer evident. In fact, a significant gray matter increase in the right frontal cortex was observed (p≤ 0.05 corrected. These observations support the potential of testosterone treatment to stall (and perhaps even reverse neurodegeneration associated with MS. Furthermore, they warrant the investigation of testosterone's neuroprotective effects in larger, placebo controlled MS trials as well as in other neurodegenerative diseases. This is the first report of gray matter increase as the result of treatment in MS.

  19. MEB 2013, Regulation for Administrator Assignment and Relocation Based On the Opinions of Administrators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner DOĞAN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study; it is aimed to determine the opinions of the institution managers concerning the Regulation for Administrator Assignment and Relocation dated February 28, 2013, the scoring criteria in the regulation and the disturbances experienced in the application process of the regulation. The study is carried out in accordance with the phenomenological pattern through qualitative research methods. The participants were determined with the criterion sampling method which is one of the purposeful sampling methods. The study group of the research is composed of the eight managers serving in a province. In the study, a semi-structured interview form was used as data collection tool. In the interpretation process of the interviews, the inductive descriptive analysis, the content analysis and the constant comparison technique were used. Three main themes have come out regarding the result of the data analysis process of assigning the administrators, the combining of the different types of institutions and the application of the forced relocation.

  20. AB19. Testosterone replacement therapy: how safe is it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Larry

    2014-01-01

    incorporated into urological dogma and is largely responsible for the US FDA’s continuing caution about the relationship between therapy and initiation or progression of prostate cancer. Recent international concern has arisen on the potential negative impact of TRT on the cardiovascular system, specifically MI and CVA. This is based on the results of a clinical trial and two observational studies. The first study to identify an association was the Testosterone in Older Men (TOM) trial designed to evaluate the effect of a T gel on muscle strength and functionality in an elderly population. The study did show an increase in upper and lower limb strength but was terminated prematurely due to an increased cardiovascular event rate in men receiving T. But because of the low event rate, the fact that many men reached supraphysiologic levels of serum T and the fact that the study was not designed with any specific cardiovascular endpoints in mind, it is difficult to conclude from this study that T therapy places men at increased risk of CVS disease. The next publication by Vigen et al. was a retrospective, non-randomized, observational analysis of 8,709 men, 61 to 64 years, who had undergone coronary angiography in the VA system with a low serum total testosterone (film industry) is resulting in a cacophony of opinions creating much confusion and detriment to patients and physicians alike. A properly funded and implemented longitudinal study, similar to the Women’s Health Initiative, is required before we can address the true prostate and cardiovascular safety of TRT in the hypogonadal man. Until then, the application of this therapy should be personalized to the needs of the individual.

  1. The growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor axis during testosterone replacement therapy in GH-treated hypopituitary males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Sidse; Nørrelund, Helene; Juul, A

    2001-01-01

    in relation to two testosterone injections. Mean baseline IGF-I levels were 352 +/- 135 microg/L, and they remained unaltered during the study period (analysis of variance (ANOVA), P = 0.88). Free IGF-I levels did not change either (ANOVA, P = 0.35). Serum IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and acid......-labile subunit decreased (ANOVA, P = 0.04 and P = 0.02 respectively) but post hoc analysis did not reveal a particular difference between days. IGFBP-1 increased following testosterone administration (ANOVA, P = 0.05), whereas GH binding protein levels tended to decrease following testosterone administration...... (ANOVA, P = 0.08). Prostate-specific antigen tended slightly to increase after each testosterone injection (ANOVA, P = 0.08, post hoc, NS). We conclude that major changes in total IGF-I are not induced during conventional intramuscular testosterone replacement in GH-treated hypopituitary males...

  2. CSF and plasma testosterone in attempted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Jon; Chatzittofis, Andreas; Nordström, Peter; Arver, Stefan; Åsberg, Marie; Jokinen, Jussi

    2016-12-01

    Very few studies have assessed testosterone levels in the cerebrospinal fluid in suicide attempters. Aggressiveness and impulsivity are common behavioural traits in suicide attempters. Dual-hormone serotonergic theory on human impulsive aggression implies high testosterone/cortisol ratio acting on the amygdala and low serotonin in the prefrontal cortex. Our aim was to examine the CSF and plasma testosterone levels in suicide attempters and in healthy volunteers. We also assessed the relationship between the testosterone/cortisol ratio, aggressiveness and impulsivity in suicide attempters. 28 medication-free suicide attempters and 19 healthy volunteers participated in the study. CSF and plasma testosterone sulfate and cortisol levels were assessed with specific radio-immunoassays. The Karolinska Scales of Personality was used to assess impulsivity and aggressiveness. All patients were followed up for cause of death. The mean follow-up period was 21 years. Male suicide attempters had higher CSF and plasma testosterone levels than age- matched male healthy volunteers. There were no significant differences in CSF testosterone levels in female suicide attempters and healthy female volunteers. Testosterone levels did not differ significantly in suicide victims compared to survivors. In male suicide attempters, the CSF testosterone/cortisol ratio showed a significant positive correlation with both impulsivity and aggressiveness. Higher CSF testosterone levels may be associated with attempted suicide in young men through association with both aggressiveness and impulsivity, a key endophenotype in young male suicide attempters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Exogenous testosterone in women enhances and inhibits competitive decision-making depending on victory-defeat experience and trait dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Pranjal H; van Son, Veerle; Welker, Keith M; Prasad, Smrithi; Sanfey, Alan G; Smidts, Ale; Roelofs, Karin

    2015-10-01

    The present experiment tested the causal impact of testosterone on human competitive decision-making. According to prevailing theories about testosterone's role in social behavior, testosterone should directly boost competitive decisions. But recent correlational evidence suggests that testosterone's behavioral effects may depend on specific aspects of the context and person relevant to social status (win-lose context and trait dominance). We tested the causal influence of testosterone on competitive decisions by combining hormone administration with measures of trait dominance and a newly developed social competition task in which the victory-defeat context was experimentally manipulated, in a sample of 54 female participants. Consistent with the hypothesis that testosterone has context- and person-dependent effects on competitive behavior, testosterone increased competitive decisions after victory only among high-dominant individuals but testosterone decreased competitive decisions after defeat across all participants. These results suggest that testosterone flexibly modulates competitive decision-making depending on prior social experience and dominance motivation in the service of enhancing social status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Behavioral cross-sensitization between testosterone and fenproporex in adolescent and adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Q. Conceição

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The abuse of psychoactive drugs is considered a global health problem. During the last years, a relevant number of studies have investigated the relationship between anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS and other psychoactive drugs. AAS, such as testosterone, can cause a dependence syndrome that shares many features with the classical dependence to psychoactive substances. Pre-clinical evidence shows that there are interactions between testosterone and psychoactive drugs, such as cocaine. However, few studies have been performed to investigate the effect of repeated testosterone treatment on behavioral effects of amphetamine derivatives, such as fenproporex. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of repeated testosterone administration on fenproporex-induced locomotor activity in adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent male Wistar rats were injected with testosterone (10 mg/kg sc for 10 days. After 3 days, animals received an acute injection of fenproporex (3.0 mg/kg ip and the locomotor activity was recorded during 40 min. Thirty days later, the same animals received the same treatment with testosterone followed by a fenproporex challenge injection as described above. Our results demonstrated that repeated testosterone induced behavioral sensitization to fenproporex in adolescent but not in adult rats. These findings suggest that repeated AAS treatment might increase the dependence vulnerability to amphetamine and its derivatives in adolescent rats.

  5. Testosterone supplementation, glucocorticoid milieu and bone homeostasis in the ageing male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajdžanović, Vladimir Z; Filipović, Branko R; Šošić Jurjević, Branka T; Milošević, Verica Lj

    2017-08-01

    Male ageing is entwined with a continuous fall in free testosterone levels, which contributes to the pathogenesis of bone loss. Glucocorticoid excess, either dependent on the ageing process or iatrogenically induced, was found to additionally impair the bone structure and metabolism. Cautious testosterone supplementation in this respect may positively affect the glucocorticoid milieu and bone homeostasis, while testosterone-induced changes in the glucocorticoid output could serve as a determinant of bone-related therapeutic outcome. Namely, bone mineral content/density, the parameters of trabecular bone structure as well as bone strength are enhanced, serum calcitonin levels tend to increase, while serum osteocalcin, serum parathyroid hormone and urinary calcium decrease, all upon testosterone administration to the ageing male. In parallel, testosterone application decreases glucocorticoid secretion in the animal models of male ageing, while clinical data in this field are still inconsistent. Importantly, a physiological link exists between testosterone-induced changes in glucocorticoid levels and the tendency of bone status improvement in the ageing male. We believe that the assessment of circulating adrenocorticotropic hormone concentrations together with glucocorticoid levels, reflecting the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis feedback loop operativeness during testosterone supplementation, represents a well-balanced bone-related therapeutic update. © 2017 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  6. Oral testosterone load related to liver function in men with alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bahnsen, M; Bennett, P

    1983-01-01

    The relation between liver function and an oral testosterone load was examined in 42 consecutive patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Administration of an oral load of 400 mg micronized free testosterone increased the serum concentration of testosterone (range, 31.9-694.4 nmol/l; median, 140.......8 nmol/l) in male patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis to significantly (P less than 0.01) higher levels than in male subjects without liver disease (range, 25.4-106.6 nmol/l; median, 61.5 nmol/l). The increase of testosterone after the load (log delta testosterone) in patients correlated inversely...... with wedged-to-free hepatic vein pressure (r = +0.54; P less than 0.01). The increase of testosterone after the load did not correlate significantly with sex hormone-binding globulin (r = +0.35; P greater than 0.05). It is concluded that the hepatic extraction of testosterone is significantly decreased...

  7. Behavioral cross-sensitization between testosterone and fenproporex in adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, C Q; Engi, S A; Cruz, F C; Planeta, C S

    2017-11-17

    The abuse of psychoactive drugs is considered a global health problem. During the last years, a relevant number of studies have investigated the relationship between anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and other psychoactive drugs. AAS, such as testosterone, can cause a dependence syndrome that shares many features with the classical dependence to psychoactive substances. Pre-clinical evidence shows that there are interactions between testosterone and psychoactive drugs, such as cocaine. However, few studies have been performed to investigate the effect of repeated testosterone treatment on behavioral effects of amphetamine derivatives, such as fenproporex. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of repeated testosterone administration on fenproporex-induced locomotor activity in adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent male Wistar rats were injected with testosterone (10 mg/kg sc for 10 days). After 3 days, animals received an acute injection of fenproporex (3.0 mg/kg ip) and the locomotor activity was recorded during 40 min. Thirty days later, the same animals received the same treatment with testosterone followed by a fenproporex challenge injection as described above. Our results demonstrated that repeated testosterone induced behavioral sensitization to fenproporex in adolescent but not in adult rats. These findings suggest that repeated AAS treatment might increase the dependence vulnerability to amphetamine and its derivatives in adolescent rats.

  8. Marketing and Testosterone Treatment in the USA: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandari, Jathin; Ayyash, Omar M; Emery, Sherry L; Wessel, Charles B; Davies, Benjamin J

    2017-10-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration only for classic hypogonadism, although off-label indications have resulted in a dramatic expansion in prescriptions in the USA. Marketing may significantly affect prescriber behavior. To systematically review all available evidence on marketing and TRT in the USA. PubMed, Embase, and Scopus were searched up to July 2017 for all relevant publications reporting on assessments of the TRT market size, economic costs associated with hypogonadism, trends in TRT prescriptions, drug discontinuation rates, and advertising and sales efforts in the USA. Twenty retrospective studies were included in the final analysis. The market size for hypogonadism constitutes 5.6-76.8% of men in the USA, with the lower end of the range representing the strictest criteria for diagnosis. Men with a diagnosis of hypogonadism consume $14 118 in direct and indirect costs to the payer. Over the last 2 decades, TRT prescriptions have increased between 1.8- and 4-fold. After 1 yr, 80-85% of men discontinue TRT. There is an association between direct-to-consumer advertising and testosterone testing, TRT prescriptions, and TRT without testosterone testing. There is a high prevalence of misinformation on Internet advertising. Off-label indications have driven the dramatic expansion of TRT prescriptions over the last 2 decades. Direct-to-consumer advertising poses a unique challenge in the USA. Overtreatment can be avoided by applying strict diagnostic criteria for hypogonadism, which limits the addressable market for TRT. In this report, we reviewed the relationship between marketing and testosterone therapy in the USA. We found that many patients are prescribed testosterone without an appropriate diagnosis of hypogonadism, which may be related to the marketing efforts for off-label prescribing. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Testing Differential Effects of Computer-Based, Web-Based and Paper-Based Administration of Questionnaire Research Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardre, Patricia L.; Crowson, H. Michael; Xie, Kui; Ly, Cong

    2007-01-01

    Translation of questionnaire instruments to digital administration systems, both self-contained and web-based, is widespread and increasing daily. However, the literature is lean on controlled empirical studies investigating the potential for differential effects of administrative methods. In this study, two university student samples were…

  10. Individual and seasonal variation in fecal testosterone and cortisol levels of wild male tufted capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella nigritus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Jessica W; Ziegler, Toni E; Strier, Karen B

    2002-05-01

    This study tested the "challenge hypothesis" and rank-based predictions for temporal steroid production in male tufted capuchin monkeys, Cebus apella. Fecal samples (n = 209) collected from six wild males were analyzed for testosterone and cortisol concentration by enzyme immunoassay. The temporal pattern in male steroid production was compared to female sexual activity and rates of male aggression. The top-ranking adult male did not differ from other adult males in testosterone or cortisol concentration. Mean adult testosterone was significantly higher than mean subadult testosterone throughout the year. There was a clear elevation of testosterone and cortisol in both adult and subadult males during the peak of adult female sexual activity after the birth season. In fact, the magnitude of increase in testosterone was higher than predicted for a species with low male-male aggression. However, there was no difference between nonbreeding baseline testosterone levels during the birth season, and the "breeding" baseline of testosterone in males found during asynchronous female sexual activity. Of all behavioral indices examined, the distribution of female-maintained consortships was the best predictor of mean adult male testosterone concentrations. Although in many species, elevated testosterone coincides with increased male-male aggression, in the present study, the sustained high-magnitude increase in steroids during the peak of adult female sexual activity was associated with a relatively low rate of male-male intragroup aggression. (c) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  11. METHODOLOGICAL BASES OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION OF PUBLIC DEVELOPMENT IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyrylo Ohdanskyi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An author in the article examines theoretical bases in the question of dynamics of community development. According to classic canons a dynamic process on any of levels of management hierarchy can be presented as a complex of changes of its ecological, economic and social components. For today, national politics in the field of realization of conception of community development does not take into account most theoretical works, which testify that in our country the mechanism of its effective adjusting is not yet created. In connection to this the author of the article accents the attention on the necessity of the use in modern Ukraine realities of the effective approaches to government control of community development. As the subject of research of the article the author chose the analysis of process of community development and methodological bases for the choice of variants for a management by this process. System approach is chosen by author as a research methodology. The aim. Analysis of theoretical bases and developing of the new approaches to the government administration of community development. An author divides the process of community development by constituents: social, economic and ecological components. From the indicated warning it is necessary to take into account the objective necessity of developing of the new conceptual approaches to the elaboration of tool of adjusting of community development. For the decision of this task the author of the article it is suggested to use the category “dynamics”. An author in the article does the analysis of different interpretations of term “dynamics”and offers his own interpretation in the context of community development. Our researches confirm that, mainly, it is methodologically possible to form the blocks of quantitative and quality factors of specific different information of ecological, economic and social character. Author’s researches confirm that it is methodologically

  12. Testosterone improves erectile function through inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation in castrated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone is overwhelmingly important in regulating erectile physiology. However, the associated molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects and mechanisms of testosterone in erectile dysfunction (ED in castrated rats. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four groups (control, sham-operated, castration and castration-with-testosterone-replacement. Reactive oxygen species (ROS production was measured by dihydroethidium (DHE staining. Erectile function was assessed by the recording of intracavernous pressure (ICP and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP. Protein expression levels were examined by western blotting. We found that castration reduced erectile function and that testosterone restored it. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS activity was decrease in the castrated rats, and testosterone administration attenuated this decrease (each p < 0.05. The testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP concentrations were lower in the castrated rats, and testosterone restored these levels (each p < 0.05. Furthermore, the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and prostacyclin synthase (PTGIS expression levels and phospho-endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS, Ser1177/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS ratio were reduced in the castrated rats compared with the controls (each p < 0.05. In addition, the p40phox and p67phox expression levels were increased in the castrated rats, and testosterone reversed these changes (each p < 0.05. Overall, our results demonstrate that testosterone ameliorates ED after castration by reducing ROS production and increasing the activity of the eNOS/cGMP and COX-2/PTGIS/cAMP signaling pathways.

  13. Effects of exogenous testosterone on the ventral striatal BOLD response during reward anticipation in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, Erno J; Bos, Peter A; Ossewaarde, Lindsey; Ramsey, Nick F; Fernández, Guillén; van Honk, Jack

    2010-08-01

    Correlational evidence in humans shows that levels of the androgen hormone testosterone are positively related to reinforcement sensitivity and competitive drive. Structurally similar anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are moreover widely abused, and animal studies show that rodents self-administer testosterone. These observations suggest that testosterone exerts activational effects on mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways involved in incentive processing and reinforcement regulation. However, there are no data on humans supporting this hypothesis. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the effects of testosterone administration on neural activity in terminal regions of the mesolimbic pathway. In a placebo-controlled double-blind crossover design, 12 healthy women received a single sublingual administration of .5 mg of testosterone. During MRI scanning, participants performed a monetary incentive delay task, which is known to elicit robust activation of the ventral striatum during reward anticipation. Results show a positive main effect of testosterone on the differential response in the ventral striatum to cues signaling potential reward versus nonreward. Notably, this effect interacted with levels self-reported intrinsic appetitive motivation: individuals with low intrinsic appetitive motivation exhibited larger testosterone-induced increases but had smaller differential responses after placebo. Thus, the present study lends support to the hypothesis that testosterone affects activity in terminal regions of the mesolimbic dopamine system but suggests that such effects may be specific to individuals with low intrinsic appetitive motivation. By showing a potential mechanism underlying central reinforcement of androgen use, the present findings may moreover have implications for our understanding of the pathophysiology of AAS dependency. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A comprehensive procedure based on gas chromatography–isotope ratio mass spectrometry following high performance liquid chromatography purification for the analysis of underivatized testosterone and its analogues in human urine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre, Xavier de la; Colamonici, Cristiana; Curcio, Davide; Molaioni, Francesco; Botrè, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Overall approach for urine samples purification by HPLC for subsequent GC/C/IRMS analysis in doping control. ► Detection of pseudo-endogenous androgenic steroids (i.e. testosterone, androstenedione) misuse in sports. ► Routine analysis of steroids by GC/C/IRMS in sports drug testing. - Abstract: The confirmation by GC/C/IRMS of the exogenous origin of pseudo-endogenous steroids from human urine samples requires extracts of adequate purity. A strategy based on HPLC sample purification prior to the GC/C/IRMS analysis of human urinary endogenous androgens (i.e. testosterone, androsterone and/or androstenediols), is presented. A method without any additional derivatization step is proposed, allowing to simplify the urine pretreatment procedure, leading to extracts free of interferences permitting precise and accurate IRMS analysis, without the need of correcting the measured delta values for the contribution of the derivatizing agent. The HPLC extracts were adequately combined to both reduce the number of GC/C/IRMS runs and to have appropriate endogenous reference compounds (ERC; i.e. pregnanediol, 11-keto-etiocholanolone) on each GC–IRMS run. The purity of the extracts was assessed by their parallel analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, with GC conditions identical to those of the GC/C/IRMS assay. The method has been validated according to ISO17025 requirements (within assay precision below 0.3 ‰ 13 C delta units and between assay precision below 0.6 ‰ 13 C delta units for most of the compounds investigated) fulfilling the World Anti-Doping Agency requirements.

  15. A comprehensive procedure based on gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry following high performance liquid chromatography purification for the analysis of underivatized testosterone and its analogues in human urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torre, Xavier de la, E-mail: xavier.delatorre@gmail.com [Laboratorio Antidoping, Federazione Medico Sportiva Italiana, Largo Giulio Onesti 1, 00197 Rome (Italy); Colamonici, Cristiana; Curcio, Davide; Molaioni, Francesco [Laboratorio Antidoping, Federazione Medico Sportiva Italiana, Largo Giulio Onesti 1, 00197 Rome (Italy); Botre, Francesco [Laboratorio Antidoping, Federazione Medico Sportiva Italiana, Largo Giulio Onesti 1, 00197 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Management, ' Sapienza' Universita di Roma, Via del Castro Laurenziano 9, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2012-12-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overall approach for urine samples purification by HPLC for subsequent GC/C/IRMS analysis in doping control. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detection of pseudo-endogenous androgenic steroids (i.e. testosterone, androstenedione) misuse in sports. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Routine analysis of steroids by GC/C/IRMS in sports drug testing. - Abstract: The confirmation by GC/C/IRMS of the exogenous origin of pseudo-endogenous steroids from human urine samples requires extracts of adequate purity. A strategy based on HPLC sample purification prior to the GC/C/IRMS analysis of human urinary endogenous androgens (i.e. testosterone, androsterone and/or androstenediols), is presented. A method without any additional derivatization step is proposed, allowing to simplify the urine pretreatment procedure, leading to extracts free of interferences permitting precise and accurate IRMS analysis, without the need of correcting the measured delta values for the contribution of the derivatizing agent. The HPLC extracts were adequately combined to both reduce the number of GC/C/IRMS runs and to have appropriate endogenous reference compounds (ERC; i.e. pregnanediol, 11-keto-etiocholanolone) on each GC-IRMS run. The purity of the extracts was assessed by their parallel analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, with GC conditions identical to those of the GC/C/IRMS assay. The method has been validated according to ISO17025 requirements (within assay precision below 0.3 Per-Mille-Sign {sup 13}C delta units and between assay precision below 0.6 Per-Mille-Sign {sup 13}C delta units for most of the compounds investigated) fulfilling the World Anti-Doping Agency requirements.

  16. Effects of In Vivo Testosterone Manipulation on Ovarian Morphology, Follicular Development, and Follicle Yolk Testosterone in the Homing Pigeon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goerlich, Vivian C.; Dijkstra, Cor; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2010-01-01

    To date, our understanding of the function of testosterone in female reproductive physiology is only marginal although there are indications that testosterone is involved in modulating follicular recruitment, growth, atresia, and ovulation. Studies elevating testosterone in breeding female birds

  17. Reduction in 24-Hour Plasma Testosterone Levels in Subjects Who Showered 15 or 30 Minutes After Application of Testosterone Gel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ronde, W.; Vogel, S.; Bui, H.N.; Heijboer, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objective. To investigate whether showering, to prevent the involuntary transfer of testosterone to others through skin contact, either 15 or 30 minutes after application of testosterone gel would significantly affect plasma testosterone levels. Design. Prospective 3-way crossover trial.

  18. Serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine- treated rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... The effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were studied on serum testosterone ... chloroquine are probably mediated via the generation of free radicals. ... Effects of ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol on serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine-treated rats. Groups.

  19. Testosterone, Marital Quality, and Role Overload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Alan; Johnson, David R.; Granger, Douglas A.

    2005-01-01

    In a sample of established working- and middle-class families with school-aged children (N= 307 wives and 307 husbands), neither husbands nor wives testosterone showed a direct connection with marital quality. In contrast, the association between husbands' testosterone and positive and negative marital quality (as evaluated by both spouses) was…

  20. Pengaruh Tepung Teripang Pasir (Holothuria Scabra Terhadap Perilaku Seksual dan Kadar Testosteron Darah Mencit (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarifah Nurjanah

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumber is generally believed as a natural material that can be used as a tonic food to increase man vitality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sandfish powder on sexual behavior and blood testosterone level of male mice. Method applied in the study was laboratory experimental method. Mature male mice were treated with administration of sandfish powder with three dosage rate of steroid content (10, 30 and 50 ìg/100 g body weight during 12 days, whereas for control treatment were without hormone administration and with the metil testosterone administration. Parameters that were investigated were kissing vagina and mounting for sexual behavior and the blood testosterone level of male mice. It was found that administration of sandfish powder significantly give effect on the number of kissing vagina and mounting compared to control. Administration of 10 ìg/100 g body weight on male mice showed the highest sexual behavior with 25 kissing vagina for and 6 mounting for 30 minutes. Moreover, administration of sandfish powder increased the testosterone level in the male mice blood. This may due to the steroid contained in sandfish powder and nutrition value that increase mice libido. The study proved that the sandfish powder has a potential as a nature aphrodisiac.

  1. Perioperative Testosterone Supplementation Increases Lean Mass in Healthy Men Undergoing Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Brian; Lorezanza, Dan; Badash, Ido; Berger, Max; Lane, Christianne; Sum, Jonathan C; Hatch, George F; Schroeder, E Todd

    2017-08-01

    Rehabilitation after repair of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is complicated by the loss of leg muscle mass and strength. Prior studies have shown that preoperative rehabilitation may improve muscle strength and postoperative outcomes. Testosterone supplementation may likewise counteract this muscle loss and potentially improve clinical outcomes. The purpose was to investigate the effect of perioperative testosterone administration on lean mass after ACL reconstruction in men and to examine the effects of testosterone on leg strength and clinical outcome scores. It was hypothesized that testosterone would increase lean mass and leg strength and improve clinical outcome scores relative to placebo. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. Male patients (N = 13) scheduled for ACL reconstruction were randomized into 2 groups: testosterone and placebo. Participants in the testosterone group received 200 mg of intramuscular testosterone weekly for 8 weeks beginning 2 weeks before surgery. Participants in the placebo group received saline following the same schedule. Both groups participated in a standard rehabilitation protocol. The primary outcome was the change in total lean body mass at 6 and 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes were extensor muscle strength, Tegner activity score, and Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score. There was an increase in lean mass of a mean 2.7 ± 1.7 kg at 6 weeks postoperatively in the testosterone group compared with a decrease of a mean 0.1 ± 1.5 kg in the placebo group ( P = .01). Extensor muscle strength of the uninjured leg also increased more from baseline in the testosterone group (+20.8 ± 25.6 Nm) compared with the placebo group (-21.4 ± 36.7 Nm) at 12 weeks ( P = .04). There were no significant between-group differences in injured leg strength or clinical outcome scores. There were no negative side effects of testosterone noted. Perioperative testosterone supplementation increased lean mass 6 weeks after ACL

  2. Free Testosterone During Androgen Deprivation Therapy Predicts Castration-Resistant Progression Better Than Total Testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, Lucas; Planas, Jacques; Carles, Joan; Maldonado, Xavier; Comas, Inma; Ferrer, Roser; Morote, Juan

    2017-01-01

    The optimal degree of testosterone suppression in patients with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy remains in question. Furthermore, serum free testosterone, which is the active form of testosterone, seems to correlate with intraprostatic testosterone. Here we compared free and total serum testosterone as predictors of survival free of castration resistance. Total testosterone (chemiluminescent assay, lower sensitivity 10 ng/dl) and free testosterone (analogue-ligand radioimmunoassay, lower sensitivity 0.05 pg/ml) were determined at 6 months of LHRH agonist treatment in a prospective cohort of 126 patients with prostate cancer. During a mean follow-up of 67 months (9-120), 75 (59.5%) events of castration-resistant progression were identified. Multivariate analysis and survival analysis according to total testosterone cutoffs of 50, 32, and 20 ng/dl, and free testosterone cutoffs of 1.7, 1.1, and 0.7 pg/ml were performed. Metastatic spread was the most powerful predictor of castration resistance, HR: 2.09 (95%CI: 1.18-3.72), P = 0.012. Gleason score, baseline PSA and PSA at 6 months were also independents predictors, but not free and total testosterone. Stratified analysis was conducted on the basis of the status of metastatic diseases and free testosterone was found to be an independent predictor of survival free of castration resistance in the subgroup of patients without metastasis, HR: 2.12 (95%CI: 1.16-3.85), P = 0.014. The lowest threshold of free testosterone which showed significant differences was 1.7 pg/ml, P = 0.003. Free testosterone at 6 months of LHRH agonist treatment seems to be a better surrogate than total testosterone to predict castration resistance in no metastatic prostate cancer patients. Prostate 77:114-120, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. "PRELIMINARY SCREENING FOR THE LEVELS OF TESTOSTERONE HORMONE IN THE MARKET MEAT IN TEHRAN "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Oveisi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Many xenobiotic and natural compounds such as testosterone have been used and sometime misused to improve the growth of cattle and other livestock animals. In order to control the testosterone hormone residues in meat and to ensure the safety of Iranian consumers, a monitoring system must be put in place to address the concerns. The present study was undertaken to detect and quantify the levels of testosterone residue in the market meat. Cattle meat samples were collected randomly from the market in Tehran. A total of 120 samples of cattle meat were analyzed for the level of testosterone by Enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA method. The average experimental value of testosterone in cattle meat was 810.9 ng/kg. The average value of cattle meat testosterone was significantly upper than FDA (Food and Drug Administration allowable level but was in agreement with the values proposed by JESFA (Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. So it seems that the present status of this anabolic hormone in market meat is not at risk but there is need to routinely monitor this chemical as a food quality control measure.

  4. Hostile Work Environment: What Communication Administrators and Educators Can Learn from Communication-based Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newburger, Craig

    2001-01-01

    Presents a consideration of sexual harassment laws that are intended to underscore the variety of heuristic possibilities offered by inquiry into communication-based laws, for both communication administrators and educators. Concludes that communication administration, communication education, and evolving communication-based legal standards and…

  5. Association of subcutaneous testosterone pellet therapy with developing secondary polycythemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotker, Katherine Lang; Alavian, Michael; Nelson, Bethany; Baird, Grayson L; Miner, Martin M; Sigman, Mark; Hwang, Kathleen

    2018-01-01

    A variety of methods for testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) exist, and the major potential risks of TRT have been well established. The risk of developing polycythemia secondary to exogenous testosterone (T) has been reported to range from 0.4% to 40%. Implantable T pellets have been used since 1972, and secondary polycythemia has been reported to be as low as 0.4% with this administration modality. However, our experience has suggested a higher rate. We conducted an institutional review board-approved, single-institution, retrospective chart review (2009–2013) to determine the rate of secondary polycythemia in 228 men treated with subcutaneously implanted testosterone pellets. Kaplan–Meyer failure curves were used to estimate time until the development of polycythemia (hematocrit >50%). The mean number of pellets administered was 12 (range: 6–16). The mean follow-up was 566 days. The median time to development of polycythemia whereby 50% of patients developed polycythemia was 50 months. The estimated rate of polycythemia at 6 months was 10.4%, 12 months was 17.3%, and 24 months was 30.2%. We concluded that the incidence of secondary polycythemia while on T pellet therapy may be higher than previously established. PMID:29205178

  6. Generation of Small Single Domain Nanobody Binders for Sensitive Detection of Testosterone by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanghui; Zhu, Min; Ma, Lu; Yan, Junrong; Lu, Xiaoling; Shen, Yanfei; Wan, Yakun

    2016-06-08

    A phage display library of variable domain of the heavy chain only antibody or nanobody (Nb) was constructed after immunizing a bactrian camel with testosterone. With the smaller molecular size (15 kDa), improved solubility, good stability, high affinity, specificity, and lower immunogenicity, Nbs are a promising tool in the next generation of diagnosis and medical applications. Testosterone is a reproductive hormone, playing an important role in normal cardiac function and being the highly predictive marker for many diseases. Herein, a simple and sensitive immunosensor based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Nbs was successfully developed for the determination of testosterone. We successfully isolated the antitestosterone Nbs from an immune phage display library. Moreover, one of the Nbs was biotinylated according to in vivo BirA system, which showed the highest production yield and the most stable case. Further, the EIS immunosensor was set up for testosterone detection by applying the biotinylated antitestosterone Nb. As a result, the biosensor exhibited a linear working range from 0.05 to 5 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.045 ng mL(-1). In addition, the proposed immunosensor was successfully applied in determining testosterone in serum samples. In conclusion, the proposed immunosensor revealed high specificity of testosterone detection and showed as a potential approach for sensitive and accurate diagnosis of testosterone.

  7. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs do not influence the urinary testosterone/epitestosterone glucuronide ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas eLundmark

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The UDP Glucuronosyl Transferase (UGT enzymes are important in the pharmacokinetics, and conjugation, of a variety of drugs including nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs as well as anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS. Testosterone glucuronidation capacity is strongly associated with a deletion polymorphism in the UGT2B17 gene. As the use of high doses of NSAIDs has been observed in athletes there is a risk for a drug-drug interaction that may influence the doping tests for AAS. In-vitro studies show inhibitory potential on UGT2B7, 2B15 and 2B17 enzymes by NSAIDs. The aim of this study was to investigate if concomitant use of NSAIDs and a single dose of testosterone enanthate would affect the excretion rate of testosterone and epitestosterone glucuronide (TG and EG as well as the T/E ratio, thereby affecting the outcome of the testosterone doping test.The study was designed as an open, randomized, cross-over study with subjects being their own control. The 23 healthy male volunteers, with either two, one or no allele (ins/ins, ins/del or del/del of the UGT2B17 gene, received the maximum recommended dose of NSAID (Ibuprofen or Diclofenac for six days. On day three, 500 mg of testosterone enanthate was administered. Spot urine samples were collected for 17 days. After a wash out period of four months the volunteers received 500 mg testosterone enanthate only, with subsequent spot urine collection for 14 days. The glucuronides of testosterone and epitestosterone were quantified. NSAIDs did not affect the excretion of TG or EG before the administration of testosterone. The concomitant use of NSAIDs and testosterone slightly increased the TG excretion while the EG excretion was less suppressed compared to testosterone use only. The effects of the NSAIDs on the TG and EG excretion did not differ between the UGT2B17 genotype groups. In conclusion, the outcome of testosterone doping tests does not seem to be affected by the use of NSAIDs.

  8. Testosterone and reproductive effort in male primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Martin N

    2017-05-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that the steroid hormone testosterone mediates major life-history trade-offs in vertebrates, promoting mating effort at the expense of parenting effort or survival. Observations from a range of wild primates support the "Challenge Hypothesis," which posits that variation in male testosterone is more closely associated with aggressive mating competition than with reproductive physiology. In both seasonally and non-seasonally breeding species, males increase testosterone production primarily when competing for fecund females. In species where males compete to maintain long-term access to females, testosterone increases when males are threatened with losing access to females, rather than during mating periods. And when male status is linked to mating success, and dependent on aggression, high-ranking males normally maintain higher testosterone levels than subordinates, particularly when dominance hierarchies are unstable. Trade-offs between parenting effort and mating effort appear to be weak in most primates, because direct investment in the form of infant transport and provisioning is rare. Instead, infant protection is the primary form of paternal investment in the order. Testosterone does not inhibit this form of investment, which relies on male aggression. Testosterone has a wide range of effects in primates that plausibly function to support male competitive behavior. These include psychological effects related to dominance striving, analgesic effects, and effects on the development and maintenance of the armaments and adornments that males employ in mating competition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Register-based statistics statistical methods for administrative data

    CERN Document Server

    Wallgren, Anders

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive and up to date treatment of  theory and practical implementation in Register-based statistics. It begins by defining the area, before explaining how to structure such systems, as well as detailing alternative approaches. It explains how to create statistical registers, how to implement quality assurance, and the use of IT systems for register-based statistics. Further to this, clear details are given about the practicalities of implementing such statistical methods, such as protection of privacy and the coordination and coherence of such an undertaking. Thi

  10. Incorporating electronic-based and computer-based strategies: graduate nursing courses in administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graveley, E; Fullerton, J T

    1998-04-01

    The use of electronic technology allows faculty to improve their course offerings. Four graduate courses in nursing administration were contemporized to incorporate fundamental computer-based skills that would be expected of graduates in the work setting. Principles of adult learning offered a philosophical foundation that guided course development and revision. Course delivery strategies included computer-assisted instructional modules, e-mail interactive discussion groups, and use of the electronic classroom. Classroom seminar discussions and two-way interactive video conferencing focused on group resolution of problems derived from employment settings and assigned readings. Using these electronic technologies, a variety of courses can be revised to accommodate the learners' needs.

  11. Late-onset hypogonadism: beyond testosterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Foresta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Late-onset hypogonadism is defined as a combination of low testosterone (T levels and typical symptoms and signs. A major area of uncertainty is whether T concentrations are always really sufficient to fully reflect Leydig cell (dysfunction. Mild testicular alteration could be diagnosed only by additional biochemical markers, such as luteinizing hormone (LH and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. These markers help in identifying the so-called "subclinical" hypogonadism (normal T, high LH levels. Patients with hypogonadism have frequently low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D due to impairment of the hydroxylating enzyme CYP2R1 in the testis. However, no data have been published dealing with the best treatment option (cholecalciferol - the Vitamin D precursor, or calcidiol - 25-hydroxylated form of Vitamin D in these patients. We studied 66 patients with classic hypogonadism (total T [TT] <12 nmol l−1 , LH ≥ 8 IU l−1 (n = 26 and subclinical hypogonadism (TT ≥ 12 nmol l−1 , LH ≥ 8 IU l−1 (n = 40 and low 25-hydroxyvitamin D (<50 nmol l−1 . Subjects received cholecalciferol (5000 IU per week (n = 20 or calcidiol (4000 IU per week (n = 46, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D and parathyroid hormone (PTH were evaluated after 3 months of therapy. Supplementation with calcidiol significantly increased 25-hydroxyvitamin D and significantly decreased PTH levels in both groups of men with hypogonadism (primary, n = 16 and subclinical, n = 30, whereas supplementation with cholecalciferol did not modify their levels. This study shows for the first time that the administration of the 25-hydroxylated form of Vitamin D (calcidiol, and not the administration of the precursor cholecalciferol, restores 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in subjects with hypogonadism.

  12. Towards Comparative Educational Administration: Building the Case for a Cross-Cultural School-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimmock, Clive; Walker, Allan

    1998-01-01

    Advocates a stronger comparative emphasis in the study of educational administration and management while acknowledging comparative educational administration's weak knowledge base. Clarifies the potential import of a comparative, cross-cultural perspective embracing five societal/cultural dimensions: individualism versus collectivism, power…

  13. NASIS data base management system - IBM 360/370 OS MVT implementation. 7: Data base administrator user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The Data Base Administrator User's Guide for the NASA Aerospace Safety information system is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) multi-terminal tasking, (2) data base executive, (3) utilities, (4) maintenance, and (5) update mode functions.

  14. Direct radioimmunoassay (RIA) of salivary testosterone: correlation with free and total serium testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vittek, J.; L'Hommedieu, D.G.; Gordon, G.G.; Rappaport, S.C.; Southren, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    Simple and sensitive direct RIA for determination of salivary testosterone was developed by using RSL NOSOLVEX TM (125 1) kit produced by Radioassay System Laboratories (Carcon, California). In addition, a relationship between salivary and serum free and total testosterone concentrations was studied in randomly selected 45 healthy subjects, 5 females on oral contraceptive pills and 28 hypertensive patients on various treatment regimens. The lowest weight of testosterone detectable by the modified method was equivalent to 1 pg/ml of saliva, taking into account analytical variability. Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 5.09 +/- 2.7% and 8.2 +/- 5.9% respectively. Statistically significant correlations were found between salivary and serum free testosterone (r = 0.97) and salivary and serum total testosterone concentrations (r = 0.70 - 0.87). The exception to this was a group of hypertensive females in which no correlation (r = 0.14) between salivary and total serum testosterone was found. It is also of interest that, while salivary testosterone was significantly increased in subjects taking oral contraceptives and most of the hypertensive patients, the total serum testosterone concentration was in normal range. These findings suggest that the determination of salivary testosterone is a reliable method to detect changes in the concentration of available biologically active hormone in the circulation. 21 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  15. Testosterone and aging: clinical research directions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liverman, Catharyn T; Blazer, Dan G., II

    2004-01-01

    .... In particular there has been growing concern about an increase in the number of middle-aged and older men using testosterone and the lack of scientific data on the effect it may have on aging males...

  16. Testosterone Replacement, Muscle Strength, and Physical Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Seon Nam

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Muscle strength and physical function decrease in older men, as do testosterone levels. Nonetheless, the effects of testosterone replacement therapy on muscle strength and physical function remain inconclusive and equivocal. We conducted a rapid systematic review, the results of which showed that testosterone replacement does not affect muscle strength (measured by hand grip strength and leg muscle strength, although it may increase physical function (measured by the 6-minute walk test, Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly score, and other physical performance tests. However, most of the studies were conducted in the United States or Europe and did not include participants from Asian or other ethnic backgrounds; therefore, further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of testosterone replacement in a broader population.

  17. Endocrine Society of Australia position statement on male hypogonadism (part 1): assessment and indications for testosterone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap, Bu B; Grossmann, Mathis; McLachlan, Robert I; Handelsman, David J; Wittert, Gary A; Conway, Ann J; Stuckey, Bronwyn Ga; Lording, Douglas W; Allan, Carolyn A; Zajac, Jeffrey D; Burger, Henry G

    2016-08-15

    This article, Part 1 of the Endocrine Society of Australia's position statement on male hypogonadism, focuses on assessment of male hypogonadism, including the indications for testosterone therapy. (Part 2 will deal with treatment and therapeutic considerations.) Key points and recommendations are:Pathological hypogonadism arises due to diseases of the hypothalamus or pituitary gland (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) or testes (hypergonadotropic hypogonadism). It is a clinical diagnosis with a pathological basis, confirmed by hormone assays.Hormonal assessment is based on measurement of circulating testosterone, luteinising hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations. Measurement of sex hormone-binding globulin levels can be informative, but use of calculated free testosterone is not recommended for clinical decision making.Testosterone replacement therapy is warranted in men with pathological hypogonadism, regardless of age.Currently, there are limited data from high-quality randomised controlled trials with clinically meaningful outcomes to justify testosterone treatment in older men, usually with chronic disease, who have low circulating testosterone levels but without hypothalamic, pituitary or testicular disease.Obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes are associated with lowering of circulating testosterone level, but without elevation of LH and FSH levels. Whether these are non-specific consequences of non-reproductive disorders or a correctable deficiency state is unknown, but clear evidence for efficacy and safety of testosterone therapy in this setting is lacking.Glucocorticoid and opioid use is associated with possibly reversible reductions in circulating testosterone level, without elevation of LH and FSH levels. Where continuation of glucocorticoid or opioid therapy is necessary, review by an endocrinologist may be warranted.Changes in management as result of the position statement: Men with pathological hypogonadism should

  18. A Proposal for Romania’s Administrative Organization Based on Functional Relations in the Territory

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    Radu SĂGEATĂ

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Having in view the low absorption of European funds, it is extremely necessary to have a regional administrative system put in place. The present paper, based on a many-sided critical study of functional relations among human settlements, offers a viable alternative to current controversies concerning Romania’s administrative- territorial organization. Proceeding from regional, county and local polarization cores, a four-level type of regional administration has been devised, namely, the region, the county, the small rural district (Rom. plasă and the town/commune, among which clear-cut hierarchical relations of decentralization and concentration of services are to be established. What has emerged is a number of eleven administrative- territorial structures worth being vested with regional administrative status. These structures are based on the historical regions developed over time as homogeneous mental and functional spaces.

  19. Testosterone and breast cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, R; Dimitrakakis, C

    2015-11-01

    Testosterone (T) is the most abundant biologically active hormone in women. Androgen receptors (AR) are located throughout the body including the breast where T decreases tissue proliferation. However, T can be aromatized to estradiol (E2), which increases proliferation and hence, breast cancer (BCA) risk. Increased aromatase expression and an imbalance in the ratio of stimulatory estrogens to protective androgens impacts breast homeostasis. Recent clinical data supports a role for T in BCA prevention. Women with symptoms of hormone deficiency treated with pharmacological doses of T alone or in combination with anastrozole (A), delivered by subcutaneous implants, had a reduced incidence of BCA. In addition, T combined with A effectively treated symptoms of hormone deficiency in BCA survivors and was not associated with recurrent disease. Most notably, T+A implants placed in breast tissue surrounding malignant tumors significantly reduced BCA tumor size, further supporting T direct antiproliferative, protective and therapeutic effect. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Combining Behavioral Endocrinology and Experimental Economics: Testosterone and Social Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral endocrinological research in humans as well as in animals suggests that testosterone plays a key role in social interactions. Studies in rodents have shown a direct link between testosterone and aggressive behavior1 and folk wisdom adapts these findings to humans, suggesting that testosterone induces antisocial, egoistic or even aggressive behavior2. However, many researchers doubt a direct testosterone-aggression link in humans, arguing instead that testosterone is primarily involved in status-related behavior3,4. As a high status can also be achieved by aggressive and antisocial means it can be difficult to distinguish between anti-social and status seeking behavior. We therefore set up an experimental environment, in which status can only be achieved by prosocial means. In a double-blind and placebo-controlled experiment, we administered a single sublingual dose of 0.5 mg of testosterone (with a hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin carrier) to 121 women and investigated their social interaction behavior in an economic bargaining paradigm. Real monetary incentives are at stake in this paradigm; every player A receives a certain amount of money and has to make an offer to another player B on how to share the money. If B accepts, she gets what was offered and player A keeps the rest. If B refuses the offer, nobody gets anything. A status seeking player A is expected to avoid being rejected by behaving in a prosocial way, i.e. by making higher offers. The results show that if expectations about the hormone are controlled for, testosterone administration leads to a significant increase in fair bargaining offers compared to placebo. The role of expectations is reflected in the fact that subjects who report that they believe to have received testosterone make lower offers than those who say they believe that they were treated with a placebo. These findings suggest that the experimental economics approach is sensitive for detecting neurobiological effects as subtle

  1. A cross-sectional pilot study to determine the prevalence of testosterone deficiency syndrome in working population of Indian men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apul Goel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the prevalence of testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS in healthy Indian men employed in a hospital aged above 40 years. Materials and Methods: A general medical health check-up camp was organized for all male employees above 40 years age working in surgical departments. After clinical history and systemic inquiry, subjects were requested to fill the St. Louis University′s ADAM Questionnaire based on which the total and free-serum testosterone estimation was then done. Results: One hundred fifty seven healthy volunteers enrolled for the study (mean age 53.1 years; range 40-60. The androgen decline in the aging male (ADAM Questionnaire detected 106 men (67.5% to be symptomatic for TDS. Serum testosterone estimation in these subjects revealed 41/106 to have low free-serum testosterone levels and 32/106 to have low total-serum testosterone. In 11 and 6 cases, respectively, the serum free- and total-testosterone levels were found to be low although the subjects were asymptomatic for TDS. Conclusions: The prevalence of symptomatic biochemical hypogonadism was 26.1%. The higher prevalence of symptoms alone of TDS was unusual. It could be because of the nature of the questionnaire. Free-serum testosterone may be a better single test to diagnose symptomatic hypogonadism than total-serum testosterone.

  2. Data communication between data terminal equipment and the JPL administrative data base management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Approaches to enabling an installed base of mixed data terminal equipment to access a data base management system designed to work with a specific terminal are discussed. The approach taken by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is described. Background information on the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), its organization and a description of the Administrative Data Base Management System is included.

  3. The laboratory diagnosis of testosterone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paduch, Darius A; Brannigan, Robert E; Fuchs, Eugene F; Kim, Edward D; Marmar, Joel L; Sandlow, Jay I

    2014-05-01

    The evaluation and treatment of hypogonadal men has become an important part of urologic practice. Fatigue, loss of libido, and erectile dysfunction are commonly reported, but nonspecific symptoms and laboratory verification of low testosterone (T) are an important part of evaluation in addition to a detailed history and physical examination. Significant intraindividual fluctuations in serum T levels, biologic variation of T action on end organs, the wide range of T levels in human serum samples, and technical limitations of currently available assays have led to poor reliability of T measurements in the clinical laboratory setting. There is no universally accepted threshold of T concentration that distinguishes eugonadal from hypogonadal men; thus, laboratory results have to be interpreted in the appropriate clinical setting. This review focuses on clinical, biological, and technological challenges that affect serum T measurements to educate clinicians regarding technological advances and limitations of the currently available laboratory methods to diagnose hypogonadism. A collaborative effort led by the American Urological Association between practicing clinicians, patient advocacy groups, government regulatory agencies, industry, and professional societies is underway to provide optimized assay platforms and evidence-based normal assay ranges to guide clinical decision making. Until such standardization is commonplace in clinical laboratories, the decision to treat should be based on the presence of signs and symptoms in addition to serum T measurements. Rigid interpretation of T ranges should not dictate clinical decision making or define coverage of treatment by third party payers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Influence of water fluoride exposure on sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone in adult male].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tong; Yang, Rupu; Li, Shihong; Zheng, Guoqing; Xi, Yu; Cheng, Xuemin; Hou, Jiaxiang; Cui, Liuxin; Ba, Yue

    2013-03-01

    To explore the influence of water fluoride exposure on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and testosterone in adult male. Cross-sectional study was conducted in three villages of Tongxu county including high fluoride group (HFG), defluoridation project group (DFPG) and control group (CG) based on the fluoride concentration in drinking water. Adult male who were born and raised in the village and aged 18 - 50 years old were recruited using cluster sampling. Fasting blood and morning urine samples were collected. The fluoride levels in drinking water and urine were detected by fluoride-ion selective electrode method. Serum SHBG level was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The chemical luminescence immune analysis method was used to detect serum testosterone content. Serum SHBG level was 47.85 nmol/L in CG, 31.37 nmol/L in DFPG and 24.52 nmol/L in HFG respectively. There were significant difference among of three groups (P < 0.05). Serum testosterone level was 3.69 ng/ml in CG, 4.61 ng/ml in DFPG and 4.83 ng/ml in HFG respectively. Serum testosterone level in HFG was significantly higher than that in CG (P < 0.05). Serum SHBG level in HFG has positive correlation with serum testosterone (r = 0.230, P = 0.049), which has not been observed in DFPG and CG. Long-time fluorine exposure may affect serum SHBG and testosterone level in adult male.

  5. Testosterone in the brain: neuroimaging findings and the potential role for neuropsychopharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfer, Peter; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Kasper, Siegfried

    2013-02-01

    Testosterone plays a substantial role in a number of physiological processes in the brain. It is able to modulate the expression of certain genes by binding to androgen receptors. Acting via neurotransmitter receptors, testosterone shows the potential to mediate a non-genomic so-called "neuroactive effect". Various neurotransmitter systems are also influenced by the aromatized form of testosterone, estradiol. The following article summarizes the findings of preclinical and clinical neuroimaging studies including structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI/fMRI), voxel based morphometry (VBM), as well as pharmacological fMRI (phfMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) regarding the effects of testosterone on the human brain. The impact of testosterone on the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders and on sex-related prevalence differences have been supported by a wide range of clinical studies. An antidepressant effect of testosterone can be implicitly explained by its effects on the limbic system--especially amygdala, a major target in the treatment of depression--solidly demonstrated by a large body of neuroimaging findings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  6. Testosterone increases renal anti-aging klotho gene expression via the androgen receptor-mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shih-Che; Huang, Shih-Ming; Lin, Shih-Hua; Ka, Shuk-Man; Chen, Ann; Shih, Meng-Fu; Hsu, Yu-Juei

    2014-12-01

    Gender is known to be associated with longevity and oestrogen administration induced longevity-associated gene expression is one of the potential mechanisms underlying the benefits of oestrogen on lifespan, whereas the role of testosterone in the regulation of longevity-associated gene expressions remains largely unclear. The klotho gene, predominantly expressed in the kidney, has recently been discovered to be an aging suppressor gene. In the present study, we investigated the regulatory effects of testosterone on renal klotho gene expression in vivo and in vitro. In testosterone-administered mouse kidney and NRK-52E cells, increased klotho expression was accompanied by the up-regulation of the nuclear androgen receptor (AR). Overexpression of AR enhanced the expression of klotho mRNA and protein. Conversely, testosterone-induced klotho expression was attenuated in the presence of flutamide, an AR antagonist. A reporter assay and a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay demonstrated that AR directly binds to the klotho promoter via androgen response elements (AREs) which reconfirmed its importance for AR binding via the element mutation. In summary, our study demonstrates that testosterone up-regulates anti-aging klotho together with AR expression in the kidney in vivo and in vitro by recruiting AR on to the AREs of the klotho promoter.

  7. DDT increases hepatic testosterone metabolism in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra-Santoyo, Adolfo; Albores, Arnulfo; Cebrian, Mariano E. [Cinvestav-IPN, Seccion de Toxicologia, Mexico (Mexico); Hernandez, Manuel [Cinvestav-IPN, Departamento de Biologia Celular (Mexico)

    2005-01-01

    DDT and its metabolites are considered as endocrine disruptors able to promote hormone-dependent pathologies. We studied the effects of technical-grade DDT on hepatic testosterone metabolism and testosterone hydroxylase activity ratios in the rat. Male and female Wistar rats were treated by gavage with a single dose of technical-grade DDT (0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 mg/kg body weight) and killed 24 h later. Hepatic microsomes were incubated with [4-{sup 14}C]-testosterone and the metabolites were separated by thin-layer chromatography and quantified by radio scanning. DDT increased testosterone biotransformation and modified the profile of metabolites produced in a sex-dependent manner. Males treated with a representative dose (10 mg/kg) produced relatively less androstenedione (AD), 2{alpha}-hydroxytestosterone (OHT), and 16{alpha}-OHT but higher 6{beta}-OHT whereas treated females produced less 7{alpha}-OHT and AD but higher 6{beta}-OHT and 6{alpha}-OHT than their respective controls. In both sexes DDT decreased the relative proportion of AD and increased that of 6{beta}-OHT suggesting that the androgen-saving pathway was affected. The testosterone 6{alpha}-/15{alpha}-OHT ratio, a proposed indicator of demasculinization, was increased in treated males. This effect was in agreement with the demasculinizing ability proposed for DDT. The effects on 6{alpha}-/16{alpha}-OHT and 6-dehydrotestosterone/16{alpha}-OHT ratios followed a similar tendency, with the ratio 6{alpha}-/16{alpha}-OHT being the most sensitive marker. Interestingly, these ratios were reduced in treated females suggesting that technical-grade DDT shifted testosterone hydroxylations toward a more masculine pattern. Thus, technical-grade DDT altered the hepatic sexual dimorphism in testosterone metabolism and decreased the metabolic differences between male and female rats. (orig.)

  8. Management of testosterone therapy in adolescents and young men with hypogonadism: are we following adult clinical practice guidelines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, Leena; Yu, Richard N; Bhasin, Shalender; Cohen, Laurie E

    2015-05-01

    Male hypogonadism is a common disorder that is associated with low bone density, poor muscle mass, anemia, and sexual dysfunction. The Endocrine Society recently published a Clinical Practice Guideline for testosterone therapy in androgen-deficient men. Because treatment is frequently initiated in adolescence, the goal of this quality improvement initiative was to assess whether pediatric endocrinologists at a large tertiary care center follow these guidelines and to identify opportunities for improvement. We performed a retrospective chart review at Boston Children's Hospital. Inclusion criteria were as follows: current age ≥16 years, diagnosis of hypogonadism, and testosterone replacement therapy. Data were collected about current age, age at treatment initiation, diagnoses, pre- and on-treatment testosterone levels, route of testosterone administration and dose, bone density, hematocrit levels, and adherence with therapy. Fifty-nine patients were included. Fourteen (24%) were prescribed lower testosterone doses than those recommended in the Clinical Practice Guideline. Seven (12%) had no pre-treatment testosterone levels, and 10 (17%) had no on-treatment levels. In 49 patients with on-treatment testosterone levels, 36 had at least one value that was lower than the adult reference range. Ten (28%) of the 36 men with low testosterone levels had no dose adjustments. Thirty-seven (63%) of the 59 patients had no dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans, and 18 (31%) did not have hematocrit levels. Pediatric endocrinologists in this review did not consistently follow the Clinical Practice Guideline for testosterone therapy in hypogonadal adult males. Strategies that improve adherence to guidelines could help maximize the benefits of therapy and minimize treatment-associated risks.

  9. Testosterone replacement therapy and the heart: friend, foe or bystander?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, David S; Canfield, Steven; Wang, Run

    2016-12-01

    The role of testosterone therapy (TTh) in cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes is still controversial, and it seems will remain inconclusive for the moment. An extensive body of literature has investigated the association of endogenous testosterone and use of TTh with CVD events including several meta-analyses. In some instances, a number of studies reported beneficial effects of TTh on CVD events and in other instances the body of literature reported detrimental effects or no effects at all. Yet, no review article has scrutinized this body of literature using the magnitude of associations and statistical significance reported from this relationship. We critically reviewed the previous and emerging body of literature that investigated the association of endogenous testosterone and use of TTh with CVD events (only fatal and nonfatal). These studies were divided into three groups, "beneficial (friendly use)", "detrimental (foe)" and "no effects at all (bystander)", based on their magnitude of associations and statistical significance from original research studies and meta-analyses of epidemiological studies and of randomized controlled trials (RCT's). In this review article, the studies reporting a significant association of high levels of testosterone with a reduced risk of CVD events in original prospective studies and meta-analyses of cross-sectional and prospective studies seems to be more consistent. However, the number of meta-analyses of RCT's does not provide a clear picture after we divided it into the beneficial, detrimental or no effects all groups using their magnitudes of association and statistical significance. From this review, we suggest that we need a study or number of studies that have the adequate power, epidemiological, and clinical data to provide a definitive conclusion on whether the effect of TTh on the natural history of CVD is real or not.

  10. Transdermal testosterone replacement therapy in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ullah MI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available M Iftekhar Ullah,1 Daniel M Riche,1,2 Christian A Koch1,31Department of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, 2Department of Pharmacy Practice, The University of Mississippi, 3GV (Sonny Montgomery VA Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USAAbstract: Androgen deficiency syndrome in men is a frequently diagnosed condition associated with clinical symptoms including fatigue, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome. Serum testosterone concentrations decline steadily with age. The prevalence of androgen deficiency syndrome in men varies depending on the age group, known and unknown comorbidities, and the respective study group. Reported prevalence rates may be underestimated, as not every man with symptoms of androgen deficiency seeks treatment. Additionally, men reporting symptoms of androgen deficiency may not be correctly diagnosed due to the vagueness of the symptom quality. The treatment of androgen deficiency syndrome or male hypogonadism may sometimes be difficult due to various reasons. There is no consensus as to when to start treating a respective man or with regards to the best treatment option for an individual patient. There is also lack of familiarity with treatment options among general practitioners. The formulations currently available on the market are generally expensive and dose adjustment protocols for each differ. All these factors add to the complexity of testosterone replacement therapy. In this article we will discuss the general indications of transdermal testosterone replacement therapy, available formulations, dosage, application sites, and recommended titration schedule.Keywords: hypogonadism, transdermal, testosterone, sexual function, testosterone replacement therapy, estradiol

  11. Serum Testosterone Kinetics After Brachytherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taira, Al V.; Merrick, Gregory S.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Lief, Jonathan H.; Allen, Zachariah A.; Wallner, Kent E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate temporal changes in testosterone after prostate brachytherapy and investigate the potential impact of these changes on response to treatment. Methods and Materials: Between January 2008 and March 2009, 221 consecutive patients underwent Pd-103 brachytherapy without androgen deprivation for clinically localized prostate cancer. Prebrachytherapy prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and serum testosterone were obtained for each patient. Repeat levels were obtained 3 months after brachytherapy and at least every 6 months thereafter. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated to determine an association with temporal testosterone changes. In addition, analysis was conducted to determine if there was an association between testosterone changes and treatment outcomes or the occurrence of a PSA spike. Results: There was no significant difference in serum testosterone over time after implant (p = 0.57). 29% of men experienced an increase ≥25%, 23% of men experienced a decrease ≥25%, and the remaining 48% of men had no notable change in testosterone over time. There was no difference in testosterone trends between men who received external beam radiotherapy and those who did not (p = 0.12). On multivariate analysis, preimplant testosterone was the only variable that consistently predicted for changes in testosterone over time. Men with higher than average testosterone tended to experience drop in testosterone (p < 0.001), whereas men with average or below average baseline testosterone had no significant change. There was no association between men who experienced PSA spike and testosterone temporal trends (p = 0.50) nor between initial PSA response and testosterone trends (p = 0.21). Conclusion: Prostate brachytherapy does not appear to impact serum testosterone over time. Changes in serum testosterone do not appear to be associated with PSA spike phenomena nor with initial PSA response to treatment; therefore, PSA response

  12. Serum Testosterone Kinetics After Brachytherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taira, Al V. [Western Radiation Oncology, Mountain View, CA (United States); Merrick, Gregory S., E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.org [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Lief, Jonathan H.; Allen, Zachariah A. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Wallner, Kent E. [Puget Sound Healthcare Corporation Group Health Cooperative, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate temporal changes in testosterone after prostate brachytherapy and investigate the potential impact of these changes on response to treatment. Methods and Materials: Between January 2008 and March 2009, 221 consecutive patients underwent Pd-103 brachytherapy without androgen deprivation for clinically localized prostate cancer. Prebrachytherapy prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and serum testosterone were obtained for each patient. Repeat levels were obtained 3 months after brachytherapy and at least every 6 months thereafter. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated to determine an association with temporal testosterone changes. In addition, analysis was conducted to determine if there was an association between testosterone changes and treatment outcomes or the occurrence of a PSA spike. Results: There was no significant difference in serum testosterone over time after implant (p = 0.57). 29% of men experienced an increase {>=}25%, 23% of men experienced a decrease {>=}25%, and the remaining 48% of men had no notable change in testosterone over time. There was no difference in testosterone trends between men who received external beam radiotherapy and those who did not (p = 0.12). On multivariate analysis, preimplant testosterone was the only variable that consistently predicted for changes in testosterone over time. Men with higher than average testosterone tended to experience drop in testosterone (p < 0.001), whereas men with average or below average baseline testosterone had no significant change. There was no association between men who experienced PSA spike and testosterone temporal trends (p = 0.50) nor between initial PSA response and testosterone trends (p = 0.21). Conclusion: Prostate brachytherapy does not appear to impact serum testosterone over time. Changes in serum testosterone do not appear to be associated with PSA spike phenomena nor with initial PSA response to treatment; therefore, PSA response

  13. Site-Based Management: Teachers' Attitudes and Administrative Style. A Literary Review and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Charles Patrick; Karr-Kidwell, PJ

    Many kinds of educational reform, especially site-based management, have contributed to teacher empowerment. The success of these reforms, however, is contingent upon administrative leadership that is willing to share power. This paper describes the attitudes of teachers toward site-based management (SBM), with a focus on the effects of…

  14. Association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onasanya, Oluwadamilola; Iyer, Geetha; Lucas, Eleanor; Lin, Dora; Singh, Sonal; Alexander, G Caleb

    2016-11-01

    Given the conflicting evidence regarding the association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events, we systematically assessed published systematic reviews for evidence of the association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Collaboration Clinical Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the US Food and Drug Administration website for systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials published up to July 19, 2016. Two independent reviewers screened 954 full texts from 29 335 abstracts to identify systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials in which the cardiovascular effects of exogenous testosterone on men aged 18 years or older were examined. We extracted data for study characteristics, analytic methods, and key findings, and applied the AMSTAR (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews) checklist to assess methodological quality of each review. Our primary outcome measure was the direction and magnitude of association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events. We identified seven reviews and meta-analyses, which had substantial clinical heterogeneity, differing statistical methods, and variable methodological quality and quality of data abstraction. AMSTAR scores ranged from 3 to 9 out of 11. Six systematic reviews that each included a meta-analysis showed no significant association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events, with summary estimates ranging from 1·07 to 1·82 and imprecise confidence intervals. Two of these six meta-analyses showed increased risk in subgroup analyses of oral testosterone and men aged 65 years or older during their first treatment year. One meta-analysis showed a significant association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events, in men aged 18 years or older generally, with a summary estimate of 1·54 (95% CI 1·09-2·18). Our optimal information size analysis showed that any randomised controlled

  15. Testosterone Treatment and Sexual Function in Older Men With Low Testosterone Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Glenn R; Stephens-Shields, Alisa J; Rosen, Raymond C; Wang, Christina; Bhasin, Shalender; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Parsons, J Kellogg; Gill, Thomas M; Molitch, Mark E; Farrar, John T; Cella, David; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Cauley, Jane A; Cifelli, Denise; Crandall, Jill P; Ensrud, Kristine E; Gallagher, Laura; Zeldow, Bret; Lewis, Cora E; Pahor, Marco; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Hou, Xiaoling; Anton, Stephen; Basaria, Shehzad; Diem, Susan J; Tabatabaie, Vafa; Ellenberg, Susan S; Snyder, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    The Testosterone Trials are a coordinated set of seven trials to determine the efficacy of T in symptomatic men ≥65 years old with unequivocally low T levels. Initial results of the Sexual Function Trial showed that T improved sexual activity, sexual desire, and erectile function. To assess the responsiveness of specific sexual activities to T treatment; to relate hormone changes to changes in sexual function; and to determine predictive baseline characteristics and T threshold for sexual outcomes. A placebo-controlled trial. Twelve academic medical centers in the United States. A total of 470 men ≥65 years of age with low libido, average T sexual intercourse at least twice a month. Men were assigned to take T gel or placebo for 1 year. Sexual function was assessed by three questionnaires every 3 months: the Psychosexual Daily Questionnaire, the Derogatis Interview for Sexual Function, and the International Index of Erectile Function. Compared with placebo, T administration significantly improved 10 of 12 measures of sexual activity. Incremental increases in total and free T and estradiol levels were associated with improvements in sexual activity and desire, but not erectile function. No threshold T level was observed for any outcome, and none of the 27 baseline characteristics predicted responsiveness to T. In older men with low libido and low T levels, improvements in sexual desire and activity in response to T treatment were related to the magnitude of increases in T and estradiol levels, but there was no clear evidence of a threshold effect.

  16. Testosterone therapy decreases subcutaneous fat and adiponectin in aging men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, L.; Højlund, K.; Hougaard, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Testosterone therapy increases lean body mass and decreases total fat mass in aging men with low normal testosterone levels. The major challenge is, however, to determine whether the metabolic consequences of testosterone therapy are overall positive. We have previously reported that 6......-month testosterone therapy did not improve insulin sensitivity. We investigated the effect of testosterone therapy on regional body fat distribution and on the levels of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine, adiponectin, in aging men with low normal bioavailable testosterone levels. DESIGN: A randomized......, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study on 6-month testosterone treatment (gel) in 38 men, aged 60–78 years, with bioavailable testosterone 94 cm. METHODS: Central fat mass (CFM) and lower extremity fat mass (LEFM) were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT...

  17. Testosterone regulates keratin 33B expression in rat penis growth through androgen receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan-Min; Wu, Kai-Jie; Dang, Qiang; Shi, Qi; Gao, Yang; Guo, Peng; Xu, Shan; Wang, Xin-Yang; He, Da-Lin; Gong, Yong-Guang

    2014-01-01

    Androgen therapy is the mainstay of treatment for the hypogonadotropic hypogonadal micropenis because it obviously enhances penis growth in prepubescent microphallic patients. However, the molecular mechanisms of androgen treatment leading to penis growth are still largely unknown. To clarify this well-known phenomenon, we successfully generated a castrated male Sprague Dawley rat model at puberty followed by testosterone administration. Interestingly, compared with the control group, testosterone treatment stimulated a dose-dependent increase of penis weight, length, and width in castrated rats accompanied with a dramatic recovery of the pathological changes of the penis. Mechanistically, testosterone administration substantially increased the expression of androgen receptor (AR) protein. Increased AR protein in the penis could subsequently initiate transcription of its target genes, including keratin 33B (Krt33b). Importantly, we demonstrated that KRT33B is generally expressed in the rat penis and that most KRT33B expression is cytoplasmic. Furthermore, AR could directly modulate its expression by binding to a putative androgen response element sequence of the Krt33b promoter. Overall, this study reveals a novel mechanism facilitating penis growth after testosterone treatment in precastrated prepubescent animals, in which androgen enhances the expression of AR protein as well as its target genes, such as Krt33b.

  18. Testosterone regulates keratin 33B expression in rat penis growth through androgen receptor signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Min Ma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Androgen therapy is the mainstay of treatment for the hypogonadotropic hypogonadal micropenis because it obviously enhances penis growth in prepubescent microphallic patients. However, the molecular mechanisms of androgen treatment leading to penis growth are still largely unknown. To clarify this well-known phenomenon, we successfully generated a castrated male Sprague Dawley rat model at puberty followed by testosterone administration. Interestingly, compared with the control group, testosterone treatment stimulated a dose-dependent increase of penis weight, length, and width in castrated rats accompanied with a dramatic recovery of the pathological changes of the penis. Mechanistically, testosterone administration substantially increased the expression of androgen receptor (AR protein. Increased AR protein in the penis could subsequently initiate transcription of its target genes, including keratin 33B (Krt33b. Importantly, we demonstrated that KRT33B is generally expressed in the rat penis and that most KRT33B expression is cytoplasmic. Furthermore, AR could directly modulate its expression by binding to a putative androgen response element sequence of the Krt33b promoter. Overall, this study reveals a novel mechanism facilitating penis growth after testosterone treatment in precastrated prepubescent animals, in which androgen enhances the expression of AR protein as well as its target genes, such as Krt33b.

  19. Performance-based Reward Administration Enhancing Employees’ Feelings of Interactional Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Ismail

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The transformation in international business landscape has changed organizational management especially reward administration. This is done in order to maintain the organization’s competitiveness in global market place. In the field of reward administration, an emerging trend can be observed whereby most organizations are moving toward the application of psychological elements in administering organizational reward system. The ultimate objective of this study is to investigate the association between performance-based reward administration and interactional justice. The proposed model was empirically tested using a sample of 113 employees from fire and rescue agency in Peninsular Malaysia. This study found an evidence that performance-based reward administration (i.e., communication, participation and performance appraisal is positively and significantly associated with interactional justice. This findings proves that the ability of administrators to appropriately implement communication openness, inspire participative decision-making and organize fairness performance appraisal in administering performance-based reward have significantly evoked the feeling of interactional justice when employees perceived that they are being fairly treated in the reward system.

  20. Ageing male and testosterone: Current status and treatment guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S S Vasan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Because the decline in androgens is generally gradual and not a complete deficiency, clinical significance of this decline is still unclear, and there is controversy as to whether a specific syndrome of androgen deficiency or ′andropause′ exists. The term andropause or androgen deficiency in aging males (ADAM underwent revisions to, partial androgen deficiency in aging male (PADAM, late onset hypogonadism (LOH and now symptomatic late onset hypogonadism (SLOH, signifying, the evolving nature of this phenomenon. Since this happens at a time of life, when many men have associated comorbities, it′s difficult to assess the exact impact of androgen decline, due to which, the issues surrounding androgen replacement therapy in men with symptomatic late-onset hypogonadism have been marred in controversy. Although with age, a decline in testosterone levels will occur in virtually all men, there is no way of predicting, who, will experience andropausal symptoms of sufficient severity and also long-term safety data on testosterone administration in this setting, is lacking. This article will focus on the controversies and practices of androgen replacement.

  1. Measurement of serum testosterone during androgenic suppression in patients with prostate cancer: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morote, J; Regis, L; Celma, A; Planas, J

    2016-10-01

    Clinical practice guidelines recommend measuring serum testosterone (ST) during androgenic suppression (AS) to assess its efficacy and define castration resistance (CR). The objectives of this systematic review were to assess the level of scientific evidence that justify checking ST levels during AS, when to perform it and for what purpose. We performed a search in PubMed with the following mesh terms: androgen suppression, testosterone, and prostate cancer. The search was narrowed to original articles published in English. We found 8 publications that analysed the clinical impact of ST concentrations during AS. In all of the series, ST was measured using chemiluminescent assays. However, only indirect methods based on liquid or gas chromatography for its extraction and subsequent quantification using mass spectrometry are recommended, especially for measuring low levels. The endpoints were specific survival and CR-free survival. Six studies were retrospective. The series were not uniform in terms of clinical stage, types of AS and ST assessment methods. In general, low ST levels (<20ng/dL or <32ng/dL) were related to longer CR-free survival. The measurements were performed every 3 or 6 months. Four studies confirmed the beneficial effect of adding bicalutamide when detecting microelevations above 50ng/dL. The level of scientific evidence justifying the measurement of ST during AS is low, and the methods employed for quantifying ST levels are inadequate. However, we consider it useful to check ST levels during AS, and there appears to be an association between low ST levels and better disease outcomes. In the event of microelevations above 50ng/dL, we recommend the administration of bicalutamide. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Positive Correlation between Serum Osteocalcin and Testosterone in Male Hyperthyroidism Patients with High Bone Turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, N; Xu, B; Cui, R; Xu, M; Su, J; Zhang, Z; Liu, Y; Li, L; Sheng, C; Sheng, H; Qu, S

    2016-07-01

    Animal studies suggested that there is an independent bone-osteocalcin-gonadal axis, except of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Based on this hypothesis, the higher osteocalcin during the high bone turnover should be followed by higher testosterone formation. Yet such clinical evidence is limited. The patients with uncontrolled hyperthyroidism are proper model with high bone turnover. If this hypothesis is true, there should be high testosterone level in patients with uncontrolled hyperthyroidism. Therefore, Graves' disease patients were recruited to study the correlation between osteocalcin and testosterone. 50 male hyperthyroidism patients with Graves' disease and 50 health persons matched by age and gender were enrolled in our cross-section study. Serum markers for thyroid hormone, sex hormone and bone metabolic markers including free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and osteocalcin (OC), C-terminal telopeptide fragments of type I collagen (CTX) were examined. The demographic parameters such as duration of disease were also collected. All data was analyzed by SPSS 20.0. High testosterone and osteocalcin level was observed in the hyperthyroidism patients (T 36.35±10.72 nmol/l and OC 46.79±26.83 ng/ml). In simple Pearson correlation, testosterone was positively associated with OC (r=0.486, Phyperthyroidism patients, osteocalcin was positively correlated with serum testosterone, which indirectly supports the hypothesis that serum osteocalcin participates in the regulation of sex hormone. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Fourteen days oral administration of therapeutic dosage of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourteen days oral administration of therapeutic dosage of some antibiotics reduced serum testosterone in male rats. FO Awobajo, Y Raji, II Olatunji-Bello, FT Kunle-Alabi, AO Adesanya, TO Awobajo ...

  4. No Evidence for a Relationship Between Hair Testosterone Concentrations and 2D:4D Ratio or Risk Taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Ronay

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Using a recently developed alternative assay procedure to measure hormone levels from hair samples, we examined the relationships between testosterone, cortisol, 2D:4D ratio, overconfidence and risk taking. A total of 162 (53 male participants provided a 3 cm sample of hair, a scanned image of their right and left hands from which we determined 2D:4D ratios, and completed measures of overconfidence and behavioral risk taking. While our sample size for males was less than ideal, our results revealed no evidence for a relationship between hair testosterone concentrations, 2D:4D ratios and risk taking. No relationships with overconfidence emerged. Partially consistent with the Dual Hormone Hypothesis, we did find evidence for the interacting effect of testosterone and cortisol on risk taking but only in men. Hair testosterone concentrations were positively related to risk taking when levels of hair cortisol concentrations were low, in men. Our results lend support to the suggestion that endogenous testosterone and 2D:4D ratio are unrelated and might then exert diverging activating vs. organizing effects on behavior. Comparing our results to those reported in the existing literature we speculate that behavioral correlates of testosterone such as direct effects on risk taking may be more sensitive to state-based fluctuations than baseline levels of testosterone.

  5. Lansoprazole increases testosterone metabolism and clearance in male Sprague-Dawley rats: implications for leydig cell carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulson, Michelle; Gibson, G. Gordon; Plant, Nick; Hammond, Tim; Graham, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Leydig cell tumours (LCTs) are frequently observed during rodent carcinogenicity studies, however, the significance of this effect to humans remains a matter of debate. Many chemicals that produce LCTs also induce hepatic cytochromes P450 (CYPs), but it is unknown whether these two phenomena are causally related. Our aim was to investigate the existence of a liver-testis axis wherein microsomal enzyme inducers enhance testosterone metabolic clearance, resulting in a drop in circulating hormone levels and a consequent hypertrophic response from the hypothalamic-pituitary-testis axis. Lansoprazole was selected as the model compound as it induces hepatic CYPs and produces LCTs in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with lansoprazole (150 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 14 days. Lansoprazole treatment produced effects on the liver consistent with an enhanced metabolic capacity, including significant increases in relative liver weights, total microsomal CYP content, individual CYP protein levels, and enhanced CYP-dependent testosterone metabolism in vitro. Following intravenous administration of [ 14 C]testosterone, lansoprazole-treated rats exhibited a significantly smaller area under the curve and significantly higher plasma clearance. Significant reductions in plasma and testicular testosterone levels were observed, confirming the ability of this compound to perturb androgen homeostasis. No significant changes in plasma LH, FSH, or prolactin levels were detected under our experimental conditions. Lansoprazole treatment exerted no marked effects on testicular testosterone metabolism. In summary, lansoprazole treatment induced hepatic CYP-dependent testosterone metabolism in vitro and enhanced plasma clearance of radiolabelled testosterone in vivo. These effects may contribute to depletion of circulating testosterone levels and hence play a role in the mode of LCT induction in lansoprazole-treated rats

  6. Salivary testosterone and a trinucleotide (CAG) length polymorphism in the androgen receptor gene predict amygdala reactivity in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuck, Stephen B; Marsland, Anna L; Flory, Janine D; Gorka, Adam; Ferrell, Robert E; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2010-01-01

    In studies employing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), reactivity of the amygdala to threat-related sensory cues (viz., facial displays of negative emotion) has been found to correlate positively with interindividual variability in testosterone levels of women and young men and to increase on acute administration of exogenous testosterone. Many of the biological actions of testosterone are mediated by intracellular androgen receptors (ARs), which exert transcriptional control of androgen-dependent genes and are expressed in various regions of the brain, including the amygdala. Transactivation potential of the AR decreases (yielding relative androgen insensitivity) with expansion a polyglutamine stretch in the N-terminal domain of the AR protein, as encoded by a trinucleotide (CAG) repeat polymorphism in exon 1 of the X-chromosome AR gene. Here we examined whether amygdala reactivity to threat-related facial expressions (fear, anger) differs as a function of AR CAG length variation and endogenous (salivary) testosterone in a mid-life sample of 41 healthy men (mean age=45.6 years, range: 34-54 years; CAG repeats, range: 19-29). Testosterone correlated inversely with participant age (r=-0.39, p=0.012) and positively with number of CAG repeats (r=0.45, p=0.003). In partial correlations adjusted for testosterone level, reactivity in the ventral amygdala was lowest among men with largest number of CAG repeats. This inverse association was seen in both the right (r(p)=-0.34, pleft (r(p)=-0.32, pdifferences in salivary testosterone, also in right (r=0.40, pleft (r=0.32, pdifferences in salivary testosterone also predicted dorsal amygdala reactivity and did so independently of CAG repeats, it is suggested that androgenic influences within this anatomically distinct region may be mediated, in part, by non-genomic or AR-independent mechanisms.

  7. Testosterone and aging: clinical research directions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liverman, Catharyn T; Blazer, Dan G., II

    2004-01-01

    .... Viewed by some as an “antiaging tonic,†testosterone’s reputation and increased use by men of all ages in the United States have outpaced the scientific evidence about its potential benefits and risks...

  8. Testosterone inhibits trust, but promotes reciprocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boksem, M.A.S.; Mehta, P.H.; van den Bergh, B.; van Son, V.; Trautmann, S.T.; Roelofs, K.; Smids, A.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone has been associated with behavior intended to obtain or maintain high social status. Although such behavior is typically characterized as aggressive and competitive, it is clear that high social status is achieved and maintained not only through antisocial behavior

  9. Testosterone Inhibits Trust but Promotes Reciprocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boksem, M.A.S.; Mehta, P.H.; Bergh, B. van den; Son, V. van; Trautmann, S.T.; Roelofs, K.; Smidts, A.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone has been associated with behavior intended to obtain or maintain high social status. Although such behavior is typically characterized as aggressive and competitive, it is clear that high social status is achieved and maintained not only through antisocial behavior

  10. Testosterone inhibits trust but promotes reciprocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boksem, M.A.S.; Mehta, P.H.; Bergh, B. van den; Son, V. van; Trautmann, S.T.; Roelofs, K.; Smidts, A.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Although dominance behavior is typically characterized as aggressive and competitive, it is clear that high social status is achieved and maintained not only through antisocial behavior but also through prosocial behavior. In the present experiment, we investigated the impact of testosterone

  11. Oestrogen, testosterone, cytotoxin and cholinesterase inhibitor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oestrogen, testosterone, cytotoxin and cholinesterase inhibitor removal during reclamation of sewage to drinking water. ... Risks associated with sewage effluent and reclaimed sewage should be closely monitored; therefore water at the Gammams Sewage Treatment Plant (GSTP) inlet and outlet, as well as reclaimed water ...

  12. Progressive Improvement of T-Scores in Men with Osteoporosis and Subnormal Serum Testosterone Levels upon Treatment with Testosterone over Six Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haider, A.; Meergans, U.; Traish, A.; Saad, F.; Doros, G.; Lips, P.T.A.M.; Gooren, L.

    2014-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency leads to bone loss and testosterone treatment has a beneficial effect. This study investigated the effects of normalizing serum testosterone on bone mineral density in 45 men with osteoporosis, diagnosed with testosterone deficiency (serum testosterone levels <12.1 nmol/L,

  13. The Knowledge Base of Non-Native English-Speaking Teachers: Perspectives of Teachers and Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengjuan; Zhan, Ju

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the knowledge base of non-native English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) working in the Canadian English as a second language (ESL) context. By examining NNESTs' experiences in seeking employment and teaching ESL in Canada, and investigating ESL program administrators' perceptions and hiring practices in relation to NNESTs, it…

  14. A Study on Components of Internal Control-Based Administrative System in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montri, Paitoon; Sirisuth, Chaiyuth; Lammana, Preeda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the components of the internal control-based administrative system in secondary schools, and make a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to confirm the goodness of fit of empirical data and component model that resulted from the CFA. The study consisted of three steps: 1) studying of principles, ideas, and theories…

  15. Administrating Solr

    CERN Document Server

    Mohan, Surendra

    2013-01-01

    A fast-paced, example-based guide to learning how to administrate, monitor, and optimize Apache Solr.""Administrating Solr"" is for developers and Solr administrators who have a basic knowledge of Solr and who are looking for ways to keep their Solr server healthy and well maintained. A basic working knowledge of Apache Lucene is recommended, but this is not mandatory.

  16. Dapoxetine attenuates testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats by the regulation of inflammatory and apoptotic proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayed, Rabab H.; Saad, Muhammed A.; El-Sahar, Ayman E.

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin level plays a role in suppressing the pathological findings of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Thus a new selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, dapoxetine was used to test its ability to ameliorate the pathological changes in the rat prostate. A dose response curve was constructed between the dose of dapoxetine and prostate weight as well as relative prostate weight, then a 5 mg/kg dose was used as a representative dose for dapoxetine administration. Rats were divided into four groups; the control group that received the vehicle; the BPH-induced group received daily s.c injection of 3 mg/kg testosterone propionate dissolved in olive oil for four weeks; BPH-induced group treated with finasteride 5 mg/kg/day p.o and BPH-induced group treated with dapoxetine 5 mg/kg/day p.o. Injection of testosterone increased prostate weight and relative prostate weight which were both returned back to the normal value after treatment with dapoxetine as well as finasteride. Testosterone also upregulated androgen receptor (AR) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene expression. Furthermore, testosterone injection elevated cyclooxygenase-II (COX II), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl2) expression and tumor necrosis factor alpha content and reduced caspase-3 activity, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) expression and Bax/Bcl2 ratio. Dapoxetine and finasteride administration reverted most of the changes made by testosterone injection. In conclusion, the current study provides an evidence for the protective effects of dapoxetine against testosterone-induced BPH in rats. This can be attributed, at least in part, to decreasing AR expression, and the anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic activities of dapoxetine in BPH. - Highlights: • Dapoxetine attenuates testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats. • Dapoxetine decreased androgen receptor gene expression in rat prostate. • Dapoxetine possess anti

  17. Dapoxetine attenuates testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats by the regulation of inflammatory and apoptotic proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayed, Rabab H., E-mail: rabab.sayed@pharma.cu.edu.eg; Saad, Muhammed A.; El-Sahar, Ayman E.

    2016-11-15

    Serotonin level plays a role in suppressing the pathological findings of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Thus a new selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, dapoxetine was used to test its ability to ameliorate the pathological changes in the rat prostate. A dose response curve was constructed between the dose of dapoxetine and prostate weight as well as relative prostate weight, then a 5 mg/kg dose was used as a representative dose for dapoxetine administration. Rats were divided into four groups; the control group that received the vehicle; the BPH-induced group received daily s.c injection of 3 mg/kg testosterone propionate dissolved in olive oil for four weeks; BPH-induced group treated with finasteride 5 mg/kg/day p.o and BPH-induced group treated with dapoxetine 5 mg/kg/day p.o. Injection of testosterone increased prostate weight and relative prostate weight which were both returned back to the normal value after treatment with dapoxetine as well as finasteride. Testosterone also upregulated androgen receptor (AR) and proliferating cell nuclear antigen gene expression. Furthermore, testosterone injection elevated cyclooxygenase-II (COX II), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl2) expression and tumor necrosis factor alpha content and reduced caspase-3 activity, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) expression and Bax/Bcl2 ratio. Dapoxetine and finasteride administration reverted most of the changes made by testosterone injection. In conclusion, the current study provides an evidence for the protective effects of dapoxetine against testosterone-induced BPH in rats. This can be attributed, at least in part, to decreasing AR expression, and the anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic activities of dapoxetine in BPH. - Highlights: • Dapoxetine attenuates testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats. • Dapoxetine decreased androgen receptor gene expression in rat prostate. • Dapoxetine possess anti

  18. In vivo dentate nucleus MRI relaxometry correlates with previous administration of Gadolinium-based contrast agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedeschi, Enrico; Canna, Antonietta; Cocozza, Sirio; Russo, Carmela; Angelini, Valentina; Brunetti, Arturo [University ' ' Federico II' ' , Neuroradiology, Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Naples (Italy); Palma, Giuseppe; Quarantelli, Mario [National Research Council, Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, Naples (Italy); Borrelli, Pasquale; Salvatore, Marco [IRCCS SDN, Naples (Italy); Lanzillo, Roberta; Postiglione, Emanuela; Morra, Vincenzo Brescia [University ' ' Federico II' ' , Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, Naples (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    To evaluate changes in T1 and T2* relaxometry of dentate nuclei (DN) with respect to the number of previous administrations of Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCA). In 74 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) patients with variable disease duration (9.8±6.8 years) and severity (Expanded Disability Status Scale scores:3.1±0.9), the DN R1 (1/T1) and R2* (1/T2*) relaxation rates were measured using two unenhanced 3D Dual-Echo spoiled Gradient-Echo sequences with different flip angles. Correlations of the number of previous GBCA administrations with DN R1 and R2* relaxation rates were tested, including gender and age effect, in a multivariate regression analysis. The DN R1 (normalized by brainstem) significantly correlated with the number of GBCA administrations (p<0.001), maintaining the same significance even when including MS-related factors. Instead, the DN R2* values correlated only with age (p=0.003), and not with GBCA administrations (p=0.67). In a subgroup of 35 patients for whom the administered GBCA subtype was known, the effect of GBCA on DN R1 appeared mainly related to linear GBCA. In RR-MS patients, the number of previous GBCA administrations correlates with R1 relaxation rates of DN, while R2* values remain unaffected, suggesting that T1-shortening in these patients is related to the amount of Gadolinium given. (orig.)

  19. Testosterone is associated with self-employment among Australian men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Francis J; Han, Liang; Martin, Sean; Zhang, Song; Wittert, Gary

    2014-03-01

    Testosterone has pronounced effects on men's physiological development and smaller, more nuanced, impacts on their economic behavior. In this study of 1199 Australian adult males, we investigate the relationship between the self-employed and their serum testosterone levels. Because prior studies have identified that testosterone is a hormone that is responsive to external factors (e.g. competition, risk-taking), we explicitly control for omitted variable bias and reverse causality by using an instrumental variable approach. We use insulin as our primary instrument to account for endogeneity between testosterone and self-employment. This is because prior research has identified a relationship between insulin and testosterone but not between insulin and self-employment. Our results show that there is a positive association between total testosterone and self-employment. Robustness checks using bioavailable testosterone and another similar instrument (daily alcohol consumption) confirm this positive finding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Seasonal and social correlates of fecal testosterone and cortisol levels in wild male muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strier, K B; Ziegler, T E; Wittwer, D J

    1999-04-01

    Fecal testosterone and cortisol levels were analyzed from six wild male muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides) over a 19-month period at the Estação Biológica de Caratinga in Minas Gerais, Brazil, to investigate the hormonal correlates of seasonal sexual behavior and environmental conditions. Group mean testosterone levels based on weekly samples from the six males did not differ between copulatory and noncopulatory periods or between rainy and dry seasons. Cortisol levels did change with copulatory periods, and were significantly higher during the second dry season, when mating continued following an exceptionally heavy rainy season, than during the first dry season, when mating ceased. Males exhibited individual variation in the timing of their hormone shifts relative to their sexual activity, but neither hormone levels nor sexual activity were related to male age. Despite individual differences in the timing of testosterone fluctuations around the onset and offset of the copulatory season, all males exhibited elevated cortisol concentrations following a slight increase in testosterone at the beginning of the copulatory season. Both the lack of significant changes in testosterone levels with the onset of the rainy and copulatory season and the lack of prebreeding increases in cortisol may be related to the low levels of overt aggression displayed by male muriquis over access to mates. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  1. The impact of exogenic testosterone and nortestosterone-decanoate toxicological evaluation using a rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Teodor Cristina

    Full Text Available The impact of exogenic testosterone (T: 1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg.bw and 19-nortestosterone 17-decanoate (ND: 1.5 and 7.5 mg/kg.bw in castrated male rats was evaluated based on: (a weight increase of the androgen target tissues, respecting the Hershberger methodology; (b the 17α and β-testosterone, 17 α and β-estradiol and 17 α and β-nortestosterone levels using the GC-MS/MS technique; and (c observation of the serum free thyroxine levels (T4. Results revealed that T and ND significantly increased the weight of androgen target tissues as follows: ND was more influential on seminal vesicles, levator ani-bulbocavernosus muscle (LABC and Cowper's glands and T (at a dose of 3.0 mg/kg.bw influenced the weight of the ventral prostate and glans penis. Serum samples analyzed for steroid hormone levels showed the presence of 17β-testosterone, 17β-estradiol and 17β-nor-testosterone, in castrated male rats injected with testosterone and nortestosterone, but no significant differences were found between thyroid responses and thyroid hormone levels. The results of this research proved the disrupting activity of T and ND when administered in high doses and the useful application of the Hershberger bioassay in the case of ND.

  2. Validation of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) for web-based administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Catrina C; Fellner, Angela N; Pauls, Rachel N

    2015-02-01

    Web-based questionnaires are becoming increasingly valuable for clinical research. The Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) is the gold standard for evaluating female sexual function; yet, it has not been validated in this format. We sought to validate the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) for web-based administration. Subjects enrolled in a web-based research survey of sexual function from the general population were invited to participate in this validation study. The first 151 respondents were included. Validation participants completed the web-based version of the FSFI followed by a mailed paper-based version. Demographic data were collected for all subjects. Scores were compared using the paired t test and the intraclass correlation coefficient. One hundred fifty-one subjects completed both web- and paper-based versions of the FSFI. Those subjects participating in the validation study did not differ in demographics or FSFI scores from the remaining subjects in the general population study. Total web-based and paper-based FSFI scores were not significantly different (mean 20.31 and 20.29 respectively, p = 0.931). The six domains or subscales of the FSFI were similar when comparing web and paper scores. Finally, intraclass correlation analysis revealed a high degree of correlation between total and subscale scores, r = 0.848-0.943, p Web-based administration of the FSFI is a valid alternative to the paper-based version.

  3. Genetic determinants of serum testosterone concentrations in men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Ohlsson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone concentrations in men are associated with cardiovascular morbidity, osteoporosis, and mortality and are affected by age, smoking, and obesity. Because of serum testosterone's high heritability, we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data in 8,938 men from seven cohorts and followed up the genome-wide significant findings in one in silico (n = 871 and two de novo replication cohorts (n = 4,620 to identify genetic loci significantly associated with serum testosterone concentration in men. All these loci were also associated with low serum testosterone concentration defined as <300 ng/dl. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms at the sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG locus (17p13-p12 were identified as independently associated with serum testosterone concentration (rs12150660, p = 1.2×10(-41 and rs6258, p = 2.3×10(-22. Subjects with ≥ 3 risk alleles of these variants had 6.5-fold higher risk of having low serum testosterone than subjects with no risk allele. The rs5934505 polymorphism near FAM9B on the X chromosome was also associated with testosterone concentrations (p = 5.6×10(-16. The rs6258 polymorphism in exon 4 of SHBG affected SHBG's affinity for binding testosterone and the measured free testosterone fraction (p<0.01. Genetic variants in the SHBG locus and on the X chromosome are associated with a substantial variation in testosterone concentrations and increased risk of low testosterone. rs6258 is the first reported SHBG polymorphism, which affects testosterone binding to SHBG and the free testosterone fraction and could therefore influence the calculation of free testosterone using law-of-mass-action equation.

  4. Serum testosterone level and affecting factors in Syrian Awassi ram lambs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarkawi, M.

    2004-01-01

    Results showed that testosterone exists in the blood of ram lams as early as the first month of age with no significant difference between single and twin births. This level, however, increased gradually with advancing age of ram lambs, indicating that the gonads (testes) of these growing lambs were active in secreting testosterone hormone after birth, but the rate of secretion differed with age of the lambs. A sharp increase in testosterone level was recorded at age of 8 months in twin births (5.32 ± 20.99 nmol/l) and in single births (7.26 ± 3.29 nmol/l). Throughout the study period, mean testosterone serum level was 3.29 ± 2.73 and 2.54 ± 2.15 nmol/l for single and twin births, respectively, as compared with an overall mean of 3.00 ± 2.49 nmol/l. However, the monthly difference in testosterone level between single and twin births was not significant (P>0.05) throughout the study period (10 months). Results also indicated an increase in live weight of lambs with advancing age, and live weight in single births was higher, but not significantly, than in twin births throughout the study period. Results of the study showed a sharp increase in the mean live weight of single births at age of 8 months (48.5 ± 10.8 kg) as compared with an overall live weight of the lambs (35.8 ± 15.2 and 32.7 ± 15.4 kg for single and twin births, respectively). A positive and significant correlation (r= 0.95, P>0.0001) was found between serum testosterone level and lamb live weight during the first 10 months of their age. Finally and for the first time, normal serum testosterone levels in Syrian Awassi ram lambs were determined during early stages. It was concluded, based on both, testosterone level and lamb live weight, that puberty in Awassi ram lambs could be reached at 8 months of age with a mean live weight of around 47 kg. Type of birth, lamb birth weight or weaning weight had no significant effect on testosterone level. (author)

  5. Teeth, sex, and testosterone: aging in the world's smallest primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zohdy

    Full Text Available Mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp. are an exciting new primate model for understanding human aging and disease. In captivity, Microcebus murinus develops human-like ailments of old age after five years (e.g., neurodegeneration analogous to Alzheimer's disease but can live beyond 12 years. It is believed that wild Microcebus follow a similar pattern of senescence observed in captive animals, but that predation limits their lifespan to four years, thus preventing observance of these diseases in the wild. Testing whether this assumption is true is informative about both Microcebus natural history and environmental influences on senescence, leading to interpretation of findings for models of human aging. Additionally, the study of Microcebus longevity provides an opportunity to better understand mechanisms of sex-biased longevity. Longevity is often shorter in males of species with high male-male competition, such as Microcebus, but mouse lemurs are sexually monomorphic, suggesting similar lifespans. We collected individual-based observations of wild brown mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus from 2003-2010 to investigate sex-differences in survival and longevity. Fecal testosterone was measured as a potential mechanism of sex-based differences in survival. We used a combination of high-resolution tooth wear techniques, mark-recapture, and hormone enzyme immunoassays. We found no dental or physical signs of senescence in M. rufus as old as eight years (N = 189, ages 1-8, mean = 2.59 ± 1.63 SE, three years older than captive, senescent congeners (M. murinus. Unlike other polygynandrous vertebrates, we found no sex difference in age-dependent survival, nor sex or age differences in testosterone levels. While elevated male testosterone levels have been implicated in shorter lifespans in several species, this is one of the first studies to show equivalent testosterone levels accompanying equivalent lifespans. Future research on captive aged individuals can

  6. Osteoporosis-related fracture case definitions for population-based administrative data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lix Lisa M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population-based administrative data have been used to study osteoporosis-related fracture risk factors and outcomes, but there has been limited research about the validity of these data for ascertaining fracture cases. The objectives of this study were to: (a compare fracture incidence estimates from administrative data with estimates from population-based clinically-validated data, and (b test for differences in incidence estimates from multiple administrative data case definitions. Methods Thirty-five case definitions for incident fractures of the hip, wrist, humerus, and clinical vertebrae were constructed using diagnosis codes in hospital data and diagnosis and service codes in physician billing data from Manitoba, Canada. Clinically-validated fractures were identified from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos. Generalized linear models were used to test for differences in incidence estimates. Results For hip fracture, sex-specific differences were observed in the magnitude of under- and over-ascertainment of administrative data case definitions when compared with CaMos data. The length of the fracture-free period to ascertain incident cases had a variable effect on over-ascertainment across fracture sites, as did the use of imaging, fixation, or repair service codes. Case definitions based on hospital data resulted in under-ascertainment of incident clinical vertebral fractures. There were no significant differences in trend estimates for wrist, humerus, and clinical vertebral case definitions. Conclusions The validity of administrative data for estimating fracture incidence depends on the site and features of the case definition.

  7. Prenatal testosterone treatment alters LH and testosterone responsiveness to GnRH agonist in male sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERGIO E RECABARREN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although evidence is accumulating that prenatal testosterone (T compromises reproductive function in the female, the effects of excess T in utero on the postnatal development of male reproductive function has not been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of prenatal T excess on age-related changes in pituitary and gonadal responsiveness to GnRH in the male sheep. We used the GnRH agonist, leuprolide (10 µg/kg, as a pharmacologic challenge at 5, 10, 20 and 30 weeks of age. These time points correspond to early and late juvenile periods and the prepubertal and postpubertal periods of sexual development, respectively. LH and T were measured in blood samples collected before and after GnRH agonist administration. The area under the response curve (AUC of LH increased progressively in both controls and prenatal T-treated males from 5 to 20 weeks of age (P<0.01. The LH responses in prenatal T-treated males were lower at 20 and 30 weeks of age compared to controls (P<0.05. AUC-T increased progressively in control males from 5 through 30 weeks of age and prenatal T-treated males from 5 to 20 weeks of age. The T response in prenatal T-treated males was higher at 20 weeks compared to controls of same age but similar to controls and prenatal T-treated males at 30 weeks of age (P <0.05. Our findings suggest that prenatal T treatment advances the developmental trajectory of gonadal responsiveness to GnRH in male offspring

  8. Testosterone regulates keratin 33B expression in rat penis growth through androgen receptor signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Yan-Min Ma; Kai-Jie Wu; Qiang Dang; Qi Shi; Yang Gao; Peng Guo; Shan Xu; Xin-Yang Wang; Da-Lin He; Yong-Guang Gong

    2014-01-01

    Androgen therapy is the mainstay of treatment for the hypogonadotropic hypogonadal micropenis because it obviously enhances penis growth in prepubescent microphallic patients. However, the molecular mechanisms of androgen treatment leading to penis growth are still largely unknown. To clarify this well-known phenomenon, we successfully generated a castrated male Sprague Dawley rat model at puberty followed by testosterone administration. Interestingly, compared with the control group, testost...

  9. [Evaluation of Web-based software applications for administrating and organising an ophthalmological clinical trial site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortüm, K; Reznicek, L; Leicht, S; Ulbig, M; Wolf, A

    2013-07-01

    The importance and complexity of clinical trials is continuously increasing, especially in innovative specialties like ophthalmology. Therefore an efficient clinical trial site organisational structure is essential. In modern internet times, this can be accomplished by web-based applications. In total, 3 software applications (Vibe on Prem, Sharepoint and open source software) were evaluated in a clinical trial site in ophthalmology. Assessment criteria were set; they were: reliability, easiness of administration, usability, scheduling, task list, knowledge management, operating costs and worldwide availability. Vibe on Prem customised by the local university met the assessment criteria best. Other applications were not as strong. By introducing a web-based application for administrating and organising an ophthalmological trial site, studies can be conducted in a more efficient and reliable manner. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Light induced degradation of testosterone in waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vulliet, Emmanuelle, E-mail: e.vulliet@sca.cnrs.fr [Service Central d' Analyse du CNRS - USR59, Chemin du Canal, F-69360 Solaize (France); Falletta, Marine; Marote, Pedro [Laboratoire des Sciences Analytiques - UMR 5180, Universite Claude Bernard, 43 bd du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Lomberget, Thierry [Laboratoire de Chimie Therapeutique, Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Faculte de Pharmacie-ISPB, EA 4443 Biomolecules, Cancer et Chimioresistances, INSERM U863 Hormones steroides et proteines de liaison, IFR 62, 8 avenue Rockefeller, F-69373, Lyon Cedex 08 (France); Paisse, Jean-Olivier; Grenier-Loustalot, Marie-Florence [Service Central d' Analyse du CNRS - USR59, Chemin du Canal, F-69360 Solaize (France)

    2010-08-01

    The degradation of testosterone under simulated irradiations was studied in phosphate buffers and in natural waters at various excitation wavelengths. The quantum yield of photolysis was significantly lower at 313 nm (2.4 x 10{sup -3}) than at 254 nm (0.225). The formation of several photoproducts was observed, some of them being rapidly transformed in turn while others show higher stability towards subsequent irradiations. The nature of the main products was tentatively identified, both deduced from their spectral and spectrometric data and by comparison with synthesised standard compounds. Among the obtained photoproducts, the main one is possibly a spiro-compound, hydroxylated derivative of testosterone originating from the photohydratation of the enone group. The photodegradation pathway includes also photorearrangements. One of them leads to (1,5,10)-cyclopropyl-17{beta}-hydroxyandrostane-2-one. The pH of the water does not seem to affect the rate of phototransformation and the nature of the by-products.

  11. Effects of gendered behavior on testosterone in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Anders, Sari M; Steiger, Jeffrey; Goldey, Katherine L

    2015-11-10

    Testosterone is typically understood to contribute to maleness and masculinity, although it also responds to behaviors such as competition. Competition is crucial to evolution and may increase testosterone but also is selectively discouraged for women and encouraged for men via gender norms. We conducted an experiment to test how gender norms might modulate testosterone as mediated by two possible gender→testosterone pathways. Using a novel experimental design, participants (trained actors) performed a specific type of competition (wielding power) in stereotypically masculine vs. feminine ways. We hypothesized in H1 (stereotyped behavior) that wielding power increases testosterone regardless of how it is performed, vs. H2 (stereotyped performance), that wielding power performed in masculine but not feminine ways increases testosterone. We found that wielding power increased testosterone in women compared with a control, regardless of whether it was performed in gender-stereotyped masculine or feminine ways. Results supported H1 over H2: stereotyped behavior but not performance modulated testosterone. These results also supported theory that competition modulates testosterone over masculinity. Our findings thus support a gender→testosterone pathway mediated by competitive behavior. Accordingly, cultural pushes for men to wield power and women to avoid doing so may partially explain, in addition to heritable factors, why testosterone levels tend to be higher in men than in women: A lifetime of gender socialization could contribute to "sex differences" in testosterone. Our experiment opens up new questions of gender→testosterone pathways, highlighting the potential of examining nature/nurture interactions and effects of socialization on human biology.

  12. Testosterone depot injection in male hypogonadism: a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksam A Yassin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aksam A Yassin1, Mohamed Haffejee21Clinic of Urology/Andrology, Segeberger Kliniken, Norderstedt-Hamburg, Germany and Department of Urology, Gulf Medical College School of Medicine, Ajman-UAE 2Urology Division at the University of Witwaterstrand & Johannesburg Hospital, Johannesburg, South AfricaAbstract: Testosterone compounds have been available for almost 70 years, but the pharmaceutical formulations have been less than ideal. Traditionally, injectable testosterone esters have been used for treatment, but they generate supranormal testosterone levels shortly after the 2- to 3-weekly injection interval and then testosterone levels decline very rapidly, becoming subnormal in the days before the next injection. The rapid fluctuations in plasma testosterone are subjectively experienced as disagreeable. Testosterone undecanoate is a new injectable testosterone preparation with a considerably better pharmacokinetic profile. After 2 initial injections with a 6-week interval, the following intervals between two injections are almost always 12-weeks, amounting eventually to a total of 4 injections per year. Plasma testosterone levels with this preparation are nearly always in the range of normal men, so are its metabolic products estradiol and dihydrotestosterone. The “roller coaster” effects of traditional parenteral testosterone injections are not apparent. It reverses the effects of hypogonadism on bone and muscle and metabolic parameters and on sexual functions. Its safety profile is excellent due to the continuous normalcy of plasma testosterone levels. No polycythemia has been observed, and no adverse effects on lipid profiles. Prostate safety parameters are well within reference limits. There was no impairment of uroflow. Testosterone undecanoate is a valuable contribution to the treatment options of androgen deficiency.Keywords: testosterone treatment, testosterone undecanoate, pharmacokinetic profile, clinical efficacy, side effects

  13. Transdermal testosterone replacement therapy in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, M Iftekhar; Riche, Daniel M; Koch, Christian A

    2014-01-01

    Androgen deficiency syndrome in men is a frequently diagnosed condition associated with clinical symptoms including fatigue, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome. Serum testosterone concentrations decline steadily with age. The prevalence of androgen deficiency syndrome in men varies depending on the age group, known and unknown comorbidities, and the respective study group. Reported prevalence rates may be underestimated, as not every man with symptoms of androgen deficiency seeks treatment. Additionally, men reporting symptoms of androgen deficiency may not be correctly diagnosed due to the vagueness of the symptom quality. The treatment of androgen deficiency syndrome or male hypogonadism may sometimes be difficult due to various reasons. There is no consensus as to when to start treating a respective man or with regards to the best treatment option for an individual patient. There is also lack of familiarity with treatment options among general practitioners. The formulations currently available on the market are generally expensive and dose adjustment protocols for each differ. All these factors add to the complexity of testosterone replacement therapy. In this article we will discuss the general indications of transdermal testosterone replacement therapy, available formulations, dosage, application sites, and recommended titration schedule. PMID:24470750

  14. Clinical practice patterns in the assessment and management of low testosterone in men: an international survey of endocrinologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Mathis; Anawalt, Bradley D; Wu, Frederick C W

    2015-02-01

    To document current practices in the approach to low testosterone in older men. Given that recommendations are based on low-level evidence, we hypothesized that there would be a wide variability in clinical practice patterns. Members of all major endocrine and andrological societies were invited to participate in a Web-based survey of the diagnostic work-up and management of a hypothetical index case of a 61-year old overweight man presenting with symptoms suggestive of androgen deficiency, without evidence of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPT) axis disease. Nine hundred and forty-three respondents (91·2% adult endocrinologists) from Northern America (63·7%), Europe (12·7%), Oceania (8·2%), Latin America and Caribbean (7·6%), and the Middle East, Asia, or Africa (7·8%) completed the survey. Response rates among participating societies ranged from 4·1-20·0%. There was a wide variability in clinical practice patterns, especially regarding biochemical diagnosis of androgen deficiency, exclusion of HPT axis pathology, and monitoring for prostate cancer. In a man with suggestive symptoms, 42·4% of participants would offer testosterone treatment below a serum total testosterone of 10·4 nmol/l (300 ng/dl). A total of 46·0% of participants were, over the last five years, 'less inclined' to prescribe testosterone to men with nonspecific symptoms and borderline testosterone levels, compared to 'no change' (29·3%) or 'more inclined' (24·7%), P management of lowered testosterone in older men, with deviations from current clinical practice guidelines, and a temporal trend towards increasing reluctance to prescribe testosterone to men without classical hypogonadism. These findings highlight the need for better evidence to guide clinicians regarding testosterone therapy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Effect of Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Combined with Testosterone Treatment on Cardiovascular Function in Rats: Influence of Exercise Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila A Engi

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of voluntary ethanol consumption combined with testosterone treatment on cardiovascular function in rats. Moreover, we investigated the influence of exercise training on these effects. To this end, male rats were submitted to low-intensity training on a treadmill or kept sedentary while concurrently being treated with ethanol for 6 weeks. For voluntary ethanol intake, rats were given access to two bottles, one containing ethanol and other containing water, three 24-hour sessions per week. In the last two weeks (weeks 5 and 6, animals underwent testosterone treatment concurrently with exercise training and exposure to ethanol. Ethanol consumption was not affected by either testosterone treatment or exercise training. Also, drug treatments did not influence the treadmill performance improvement evoked by training. However, testosterone alone, but not in combination with ethanol, reduced resting heart rate. Moreover, combined treatment with testosterone and ethanol reduced the pressor response to the selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Treatment with either testosterone or ethanol alone also affected baroreflex activity and enhanced depressor response to acetylcholine, but these effects were inhibited when drugs were coadministrated. Exercise training restored most cardiovascular effects evoked by drug treatments. Furthermore, both drugs administrated alone increased pressor response to phenylephrine in trained animals. Also, drug treatments inhibited the beneficial effects of training on baroreflex function. In conclusion, the present results suggest a potential interaction between toxic effects of testosterone and ethanol on cardiovascular function. Data also indicate that exercise training is an important factor influencing the effects of these substances.

  16. Interactive effects of dehydroepiandrosterone and testosterone on cortical thickness during early brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; McCracken, James T; Ducharme, Simon; Cropp, Brett F; Botteron, Kelly N; Evans, Alan C; Karama, Sherif

    2013-06-26

    Humans and the great apes are the only species demonstrated to exhibit adrenarche, a key endocrine event associated with prepubertal increases in the adrenal production of androgens, most significantly dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and to a certain degree testosterone. Adrenarche also coincides with the emergence of the prosocial and neurobehavioral skills of middle childhood and may therefore represent a human-specific stage of development. Both DHEA and testosterone have been reported in animal and in vitro studies to enhance neuronal survival and programmed cell death depending on the timing, dose, and hormonal context involved, and to potentially compete for the same signaling pathways. Yet no extant brain-hormone studies have examined the interaction between DHEA- and testosterone-related cortical maturation in humans. Here, we used linear mixed models to examine changes in cortical thickness associated with salivary DHEA and testosterone levels in a longitudinal sample of developmentally healthy children and adolescents 4-22 years old. DHEA levels were associated with increases in cortical thickness of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right temporoparietal junction, right premotor and right entorhinal cortex between the ages of 4-13 years, a period marked by the androgenic changes of adrenarche. There was also an interaction between DHEA and testosterone on cortical thickness of the right cingulate cortex and occipital pole that was most significant in prepubertal subjects. DHEA and testosterone appear to interact and modulate the complex process of cortical maturation during middle childhood, consistent with evidence at the molecular level of fast/nongenomic and slow/genomic or conversion-based mechanisms underlying androgen-related brain development.

  17. Means of determining the condition of insanity in administrative proceedings based on the court practice

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    Tatyana Mikhailovna Sekretareva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective in the absence in the Russian administrative legislation of the provisions on the procedure and the ways to detect the condition of insanity of a physical person who has committed an administrative wrongful act there is a variety of lawenforcement acts for the resolution of these issues. In order to further systematize the enforcement acts for the resolution of these issues we consider it necessary to assess the practical application of the provisions of Article 2.8 quotInsanityquot of the Administrative Code by the courts in different Russian regions. Methods the methodological basis of research is the general scientific dialectic method of cognition the author used methods such as analysis synthesis description explanation. Results the author has conducted an analysis of practice of application of the provisions of Article 2.8 quotInsanityquot of the Administrative Code by courts of the Russian Federation. On the basis of this analysis it is found that courts use different methods of establishing the state of insanity of the person who committed the violation of the legislation on administrative offences. This is due to the fact that the courts base on a variety of actual data when establishing the state of insanity in the resolution of specific cases. These actual data were combined into 4 groups. Each method for establishing the state of insanity was evaluated which allowed to conclude about the need to organize the actions of individuals considering the cases on administrative offences aimed at defining the state of insanity of the offender and to offer one of the possible options for resolving the identified problems. Scientific novelty for the first time the analysis of practice of application of Article 2.8 quotInsanityquot of the Administrative Code was made and the author39s assessment of its provisions is given. Practical value the results of the study can be used for the generalization of judicial practice at the level of

  18. Differential effects of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and estradiol on carotenoid deposition in an avian sexually selected signal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casagrande, Stefania; Dijkstra, Cor; Tagliavini, James; Goerlich, Vivian C.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    Recent studies have demonstrated that carotenoid-based traits are under the control of testosterone (T) by up-regulation of carotenoid carriers (lipoproteins) and/or tissue-specific uptake of carotenoids. T can be converted to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and estradiol (E2), and variation in conversion

  19. Pattern recognition of estradiol, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in children's saliva samples using stochastic microsensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefan-van Staden, R.I.; Gugoaşă, L.A.; Calenic, B.; Legler, J.

    2014-01-01

    Stochastic microsensors based on diamond paste and three types of electroactive materials (maltodextrin (MD), α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) and 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H porphyrin (P)) were developed for the assay of estradiol (E2), testosterone (T2) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in children's saliva.

  20. Current Practices of Measuring and Reference Range Reporting of Free and Total Testosterone in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Margaret; Flores, David; May, Danica; Gourley, Eric; Nangia, Ajay K

    2016-05-01

    The evaluation and management of male hypogonadism should be based on symptoms and on serum testosterone levels. Diagnostically this relies on accurate testing and reference values. Our objective was to define the distribution of reference values and assays for free and total testosterone by clinical laboratories in the United States. Upper and lower reference values, assay methodology and source of published reference ranges were obtained from laboratories across the country. A standardized survey was reviewed with laboratory staff via telephone. Descriptive statistics were used to tabulate results. We surveyed a total of 120 laboratories in 47 states. Total testosterone was measured in house at 73% of laboratories. At the remaining laboratories studies were sent to larger centralized reference facilities. The mean ± SD lower reference value of total testosterone was 231 ± 46 ng/dl (range 160 to 300) and the mean upper limit was 850 ± 141 ng/dl (range 726 to 1,130). Only 9% of laboratories where in-house total testosterone testing was performed created a reference range unique to their region. Others validated the instrument recommended reference values in a small number of internal test samples. For free testosterone 82% of laboratories sent testing to larger centralized reference laboratories where equilibrium dialysis and/or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry was done. The remaining laboratories used published algorithms to calculate serum free testosterone. Reference ranges for testosterone assays vary significantly among laboratories. The ranges are predominantly defined by limited population studies of men with unknown medical and reproductive histories. These poorly defined and variable reference values, especially the lower limit, affect how clinicians determine treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nocturnal polyuria and decreased serum testosterone: is there an association in men with lower urinary tract symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Wook; Oh, Mi Mi; Yoon, Cheol Yong; Bae, Jae Hyun; Kim, Je Jong; Moon, Du Geon

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the putative association between nocturia and decreased serum testosterone in men with lower urinary tract symptoms. Frequency volume charts and serum testosterone levels of patients visiting the outpatient clinic for lower urinary tract symptoms were collected and analyzed. Age, prostate volume, body mass index and the presence of comorbidities were accounted for. Frequency volume charts were analyzed for pathophysiological components of nocturnal polyuria, global polyuria, decreased nocturnal bladder capacity and increased frequency to identify associated risks. Frequency volume charts were also used to chart 8-h changes of volume, frequency and capacity to identify time diurnal interactions with risk factors based on serum testosterone levels. A total of 2180 patients were enrolled in the study. Multivariate analysis showed testosterone decreased 0.142 ng/mL for every increase in nocturia, independent of other factors. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant difference between pathophysiological components. Decreased testosterone was shown to carry a significant independent risk for overall nocturia (odds ratio 1.60, 95% confidence interval 1.013-2.527, P = 0.044), and particularly nocturnal polyuria (odds ratio 1.934, 95% confidence interval 1.001-3.737, P = 0.027). Repeated measurement models showed patients with serum testosterone below 2.50 ng/mL to have a paradoxical increase in nocturnal urine volume at night. Nocturia, especially nocturnal polyuria, is associated with decreased serum testosterone. Patients with low serum testosterone show increased nocturnal urine output. © 2013 The Japanese Urological Association.

  2. Protective role of ginger on lead induced derangement in plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels of male sprague dawley rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riaz, F.; Ayub, M.; Shaukat, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lead is one of the most serious environmental threats to human health especially in developing countries. It damages multiple body systems including the reproductive system. Ginger's antioxidant and androgenic activity is reported in multiple animal studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the ameliorative effect of Zingiber officinale (ginger) on lead induced derangement in plasma testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels of male rats. Methods: Sixty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were used in this study in four groups. Group A served as normal control, Group B received 0.3% lead acetate in drinking water, Group C and group D received supplementary 0.5 and 1 gm/Kg bodyweight of ginger respectively along with lead acetate in drinking water. Five rats from each group were sacrificed at the end of 2nd, 4th and 6th weeks. Serum testosterone and LH levels were analysed using ELISA technique. Results: After co administration with different doses of ginger, serum testosterone level which was significantly decreased in lead treated group, showed a significant rise as compared to lead treated group. LH levels which had exhibited no significant change by lead treatment, after co administration with different doses of ginger, again showed no significant change. Conclusion: Oral administration of ginger ameliorated lead induced testicular toxicity in male rats by increasing serum testosterone level at all durations which might be a product of both its androgenic and antioxidant properties. (author)

  3. The relationship between sleep disorders and testosterone in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Wittert

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Plasma testosterone levels display circadian variation, peaking during sleep, and reaching a nadir in the late afternoon, with a superimposed ultradian rhythm with pulses every 90 min reflecting the underlying rhythm of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH secretion. The increase in testosterone is sleep, rather than circadian rhythm, dependent and requires at least 3 h of sleep with a normal architecture. Various disorders of sleep including abnormalities of sleep quality, duration, circadian rhythm disruption, and sleep-disordered breathing may result in a reduction in testosterone levels. The evidence, to support a direct effect of sleep restriction or circadian rhythm disruption on testosterone independent of an effect on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, or the presence of comorbid conditions, is equivocal and on balance seems tenuous. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA appears to have no direct effect on testosterone, after adjusting for age and obesity. However, a possible indirect causal process may exist mediated by the effect of OSA on obesity. Treatment of moderate to severe OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP does not reliably increase testosterone levels in most studies. In contrast, a reduction in weight does so predictably and linearly in proportion to the amount of weight lost. Apart from a very transient deleterious effect, testosterone treatment does not adversely affect OSA. The data on the effect of sleep quality on testosterone may depend on whether testosterone is given as replacement, in supratherapeutic doses, or in the context abuse. Experimental data suggest that testosterone may modulate individual vulnerability to subjective symptoms of sleep restriction. Low testosterone may affect overall sleep quality which is improved by replacement doses. Large doses of exogenous testosterone and anabolic/androgenic steroid abuse are associated with abnormalities of sleep duration and architecture.

  4. KAJIAN TERAPI AKUPUNKTUR TERHADAP KADAR HORMON TESTOSTERON PRIA USIA LANJUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wasito Tjipto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Testosterone was the most important androgen secreted into the blood in males. It was responsible for development of secondary male sex characteristics and its measurements are helpful in evaluating the hypogonadal states. Decreasing of testosterone in males started in middle age, about 45–59 years old. It is responsible of decreasing muscle mass and strength, increasing of body fat especially abdominal fat and gynecomastia, less of libido and sexual intercourse frequency, increase of erectile dysfunction. Objective: The objective of this study was conducted stimulation on acupuncture reproduction point to increase testosterone hormone level in elder’s men. Methods: The study used non randomized experiment pre- post test without control group design, the samples was 40 older men, about 50 – more than 70 years old. The stimulation on acupuncture point CV-4, Sp-6, LV-3, and ST-36, on older men were given five times per week, for ten treatments, before treatment each patient was determined the concentration of testosterone hormone and after ten times acupuncture treatment. Results: 15 old men, have increased testosterone level, 20 old men have decreased testosterone level, and 16 old men have no changes in libido after ten times acupuncture treatment. Not all responder after therapy acupuncture ten times at reproduction point have increased of hormone testosterone. Most of 50–69 year men have increased testosterone level. Men above 70 year have no changes testosterone level. There were 24 old men have changes in libido without increased testosterone level. Conclusion: acupuncture may used as alternative therapy to increased testosterone level and libido for elderly men. Key words: Acupuncture, testosterone hormone, old men

  5. Metabolism in vitro 3H-testosterone in testis, epididymis and sex accessories of the rhesus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arora-Dinkar, Renu; Dinakar, N.; Prasad, M.R.N.

    1977-01-01

    Metabolism of 3 H-testosterone in the reproductive organs of intact, castrated and cyproterone acetate treated rhesus monkeys was studied in vitro. The main androgen metabolite in the epididymis, ductus deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate and bulb-urethral glands of the intact monkeys was 5-α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Testosterone was not metabolized in slices of the testis, indicating very little 5-α-reductase activity in this organ. Bilateral castration caused a decrease in the metabolism of 3 H-testosterone in all tissues studied. The decrease was greater in the caput than in the corpus and cauda epididymides. Treatment with cyproterone acetate did not affect the formation of DHT in the ductus deferens and accessory glands. Azoospermia, following administration of cyproterone acetate, had little effect on the metabolism of 3 H-testosterone in the corpus and cauda epididymides; however, in the caput region the extent of formation of DHT was markedly reduced. These results are discussed in relation to the influence of spermatozoa, testicular fluid and testicular and peripheral androgens on the metabolism of 3 H-testosterone in epididymis of the monkey. (author)

  6. Long-term testosterone treatment during pregnancy does not alter insulin or glucose profile in a sheep model of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recabarren, Monica; Carrasco, Albert; Sandoval, Daniel; Diaz, Felipe; Sir-Petermann, Teresa; Recabarren, Sergio E

    2017-09-07

    The administration of testosterone to pregnant sheep to resemble fetal programming of the polycystic ovary syndrome could alter other hormones/factors of maternal origin with known effects on fetal growth. Hence, we studied the weekly profile of insulin, progesterone and glucose during a treatment with testosterone propionate given biweekly from weeks 5 to 17 of pregnancy (term at 21 weeks) and checked the outcome of their fetuses at 17 weeks of gestation after C-section. Control dams were only exposed to the vehicle of the hormone. The testosterone administration did not cause any significant change in the maternal weekly profile of insulin, progesterone or glucose concentration, although the plasma levels of testosterone in the treated dams were inversely correlated to the levels of progesterone. Testosterone treatment also induced an inverse correlation between mean maternal insulin levels and fetal insulin levels; however, the fetal zoometric parameters, body weight, or insulin levels did not differ between exposed and not exposed fetuses. Therefore, treatment with testosterone during pregnancy does not cause significant impact on insulin levels in the mother, leading to less effect on the programming of fetal growth.

  7. Delayed Ejaculation and Associated Complaints: Relationship to Ejaculation Times and Serum Testosterone Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgentaler, Abraham; Polzer, Paula; Althof, Stanley; Bolyakov, Alexander; Donatucci, Craig; Ni, Xiao; Patel, Ankur B; Basaria, Shehzad

    2017-09-01

    Although delayed ejaculation (DE) is typically characterized as a persistently longer than anticipated or desired time to ejaculation (or orgasm) during sexual activity, a timing-based definition of DE and its association with serum testosterone has not been established in a large cohort. To examine in an observational study estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and masturbatory ejaculation latency time (MELT) in men self-reporting DE, assess the association of IELT and MELT with serum testosterone levels, and determine whether correlation with demographic and sexual parameters exist. Men who resided in the United States, Canada, and Mexico were enrolled from 2011 to 2013. Self-estimated IELT and MELT were captured using an Ejaculatory Function Screening Questionnaire in a sample of 988 men screened for possible inclusion in a randomized clinical trial assessing testosterone replacement therapy for ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD) and who self-reported the presence or absence of DE and symptoms of hypogonadism. Additional comorbid EjDs (ie, anejaculation, perceived decrease in ejaculate volume, and decreased force of ejaculation) were recorded. Men with premature ejaculation were excluded from this analysis. IELT and MELT were compared between men self-reporting DE and men without DE. The associations of IELT and MELT with serum testosterone were measured. IELT, MELT, and total testosterone levels. Sixty-two percent of screened men self-reported DE with or without comorbid EjDs; 38% did not report DE but did report at least one of the other EjDs. Estimated median IELTs were 20.0 minutes for DE vs 15 minutes for no DE (P IELTs and MELTs. Estimated ejaculation times during vaginal intercourse and/or masturbation were not associated with serum testosterone levels in this study; thus, routine androgen evaluation is not indicated in these men. This large systematic analysis attempted to objectively assess the ejaculation latency in men with self

  8. Treatment of Men for "Low Testosterone": A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Huo

    Full Text Available Testosterone products are recommended by some prescribers in response to a diagnosis or presumption of "low testosterone" (low-T for cardiovascular health, sexual function, muscle weakness or wasting, mood and behavior, and cognition. We performed a systematic review of 156 eligible randomized controlled trials in which testosterone was compared to placebo for one or more of these conditions. We included studies in bibliographic databases between January 1, 1950 and April 9, 2016, and excluded studies involving bodybuilding, contraceptive effectiveness, or treatment of any condition in women or children. Studies with multiple relevant endpoints were included in all relevant tables. Testosterone supplementation did not show consistent benefit for cardiovascular risk, sexual function, mood and behavior, or cognition. Studies that examined clinical cardiovascular endpoints have not favored testosterone therapy over placebo. Testosterone is ineffective in treating erectile dysfunction and controlled trials did not show a consistent effect on libido. Testosterone supplementation consistently increased muscle strength but did not have beneficial effects on physical function. Most studies on mood-related endpoints found no beneficial effect of testosterone treatment on personality, psychological well-being, or mood. The prescription of testosterone supplementation for low-T for cardiovascular health, sexual function, physical function, mood, or cognitive function is without support from randomized clinical trials.

  9. The Relation Between Metabolic Syndrome and Testosterone Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel Prashant

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that increases the risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The most important pathogenic factors for metabolic syndrome are insulin resistance and obesity. The clinical presentation of this syndrome results from its influence on glucose and fat metabolism. Testosterone deficiency has a prevalence of up to 50% in men with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. A low level of testosterone is a factor for cardiovascular diseases and predictor of metabolic syndrome and, on the other hand, the components of metabolic syndrome can lead to low testosterone. This article reveals the bidirectional link between low testosterone level or hypogonadism and metabolic syndrome.

  10. Ameliorative effects of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

    2012-05-01

    The present study investigated the effects of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) (UD) on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone. In vitro studies were conducted to assess the 5α-reductase inhibitory potential of UD. Two biochemical markers viz., β-sitosterol and scopoletin, were isolated and characterised in the extracts utilising High-performance thin layer chromatographic, FTIR, NMR and overlain UV spectral studies. Hyperplasia was induced in rats by subcutaneous administration of testosterone (3 mg kg(-1) s.c.) for 28 days in all the groups except the vehicle-treated group. Simultaneous administration of petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts (10, 20 and 50 mg kg(-1) p.o.) and isolated β-sitosterol (10 and 20 mg kg(-1) p.o.) was undertaken. Finasteride was used as a positive control (1 mg kg(-1) p.o.). Measurement of prostate/body weight ratio, weekly urine output and serum testosterone levels, prostate-specific antigen levels (on day 28) and histological examinations carried out on prostates from each group led us to conclude that UD can be used as an effective drug for the management of BPH. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Protection against dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy is related to modulation by testosterone of FOXO1 and PGC-1{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Weiping, E-mail: weiping.qin@mssm.edu [Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States); Pan, Jiangping; Wu, Yong [Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Bauman, William A. [Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States); Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States); Cardozo, Christopher, E-mail: Chris.Cardozo@mssm.edu [Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States); Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States)

    2010-12-17

    Research highlights: {yields} In rat gastrocnemius muscle, dexamethasone reduced PGC-1{alpha} cellular and nuclear levels without altering mRNA levels for this factor. {yields} Dexamethasone reduced phosphorylating of p38 MAPK, which stabilizes PGC-1{alpha} and promotes its nuclear entry. {yields} Co-administration of testosterone with dexamethasone increased cellular and nuclear levels of PGC-1{alpha} protein without changing its mRNA levels. {yields} Co-administration of testosterone restored p38 MAPK levels to those of controls. -- Abstract: Glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy results from muscle protein catabolism and reduced protein synthesis, associated with increased expression of two muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases (MAFbx and MuRF1), and of two inhibitors of protein synthesis, REDD1 and 4EBP1. MAFbx, MuRF1, REDD1 and 4EBP1 are up-regulated by the transcription factors FOXO1 and FOXO3A. The transcriptional co-activator PGC-1{alpha} has been shown to attenuate many forms of muscle atrophy and to repress FOXO3A-mediated transcription of atrophy-specific genes. Dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy can be prevented by testosterone, which blocks up-regulation by dexamethasone of FOXO1. Here, an animal model of dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy was used to further characterize effects of testosterone to abrogate adverse actions of dexamethasone on FOXO1 levels and nuclear localization, and to determine how these agents affect PGC-1{alpha}, and its upstream activators, p38 MAPK and AMPK. In rat gastrocnemius muscle, testosterone blunted the dexamethasone-mediated increase in levels of FOXO1 mRNA, and FOXO1 total and nuclear protein. Dexamethasone reduced total and nuclear PGC-1{alpha} protein levels in the gastrocnemius; co-administration of testosterone with dexamethasone increased total and nuclear PGC-1{alpha} levels above those present in untreated controls. Testosterone blocked dexamethasone-induced decreases in activity of p38 MAPK in the gastrocnemius

  12. Ivermectin disposition kinetics after subcutaneous and intramuscular administration of an oil-based formulation to cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifschitz, A; Virkel, G; Pis, A; Imperiale, F; Sanchez, S; Alvarez, L; Kujanek, R; Lanusse, C

    1999-10-01

    Slight differences in formulation may change the plasma kinetics and ecto-endoparasiticide activity of endectocide compounds. This work reports on the disposition kinetics and plasma availability of ivermectin (IVM) after subcutaneous (SC) and intramuscular (IM) administration as an oil-based formulation to cattle. Parasite-free Aberdeen Angus calves (n = 24; 240-280 kg) were divided into three groups (n = 8) and treated (200 microg/kg) with either an IVM oil-based pharmaceutical preparation (IVM-TEST formulation) (Bayer Argentina S.A.) given by subcutaneous (Group A) and intramuscular (Group B) injections or the IVM-CONTROL (non-aqueous formulation) (Ivomec, MSD Agvet) subcutaneously administered (Group C). Blood samples were taken over 35 days post-treatment and the recovered plasma was extracted and analyzed by HPLC using fluorescence detection. IVM was detected in plasma between 12 h and 35 days post-administration of IVM-TEST (SC and IM injections) and IVM-CONTROL formulations. Prolonged IVM absorption half-life (p oil-based formulation examined in this trial, compared to the standard preparation, may positively impact on its strategic use in cattle.

  13. Bare-part color in female budgerigars changes from brown to structural blue following testosterone treatment but is not strongly masculinized.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie E P Lahaye

    Full Text Available Whereas several studies have shown that experimentally increased levels of the androgenic steroid testosterone can affect female behavior, fewer studies have focused on the activational effects of exogenous testosterone on female morphology. With respect to colorful displays in birds, almost exclusively the effects of testosterone manipulation on female carotenoid-based colorations have been studied. Other color types such as structural colors (i.e. UV, blue and violet colors that result from differential light reflection in the nanostructures of the tissue remain largely unstudied. Here, we investigated the short- and long-term effects of exogenous testosterone on the expression of structural bare-part coloration in female budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus. In this parrot species, bare-part coloration is expressed in the cere, a structure over the beak which is brown in females and structural blue in males. We experimentally increased plasma testosterone levels in testosterone-treated females (T-females compared to controls (C-females and we performed weekly spectrophotometric measurements of the cere for five weeks after implantation and one measurement after ten weeks. We also estimated the extent to which testosterone masculinized female cere color by comparing the experimental females with untreated males. We found significant effects of testosterone on cere color from week four after implantation onwards. T-females expressed significantly bluer ceres than C-females with higher values for brightness and UV reflectance. T-female cere color, however, remained significantly less blue than in males, while values for brightness and UV reflectance were significantly higher in T-females than in males. Our quantitative results show that exogenous testosterone induces the expression of structural blue color in females but does not strongly masculinize female cere coloration. We provide several potential pathways for the action of testosterone on

  14. Reliability of salivary testosterone measurements in diagnosis of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omnia Youssef

    2010-07-01

    Conclusion: Determination of salivary testosterone is a reliable method to detect changes in the concentration of available biologically active testosterone in the serum. Salivary testosterone provides a sensitive, simple, reliable, non-invasive and uncomplicated diagnostic approach for PCOS.

  15. Metabolic fate of poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-based curcumin nanoparticles following oral administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harigae, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Miyazawa, Taiki; Inoue, Nao; Kimura, Fumiko; Ikeda, Ikuo; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin (CUR), the main polyphenol in turmeric, is poorly absorbed and rapidly metabolized following oral administration, which severely curtails its bioavailability. Poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-based CUR nanoparticles (CUR-NP) have recently been suggested to improve CUR bioavailability, but this has not been fully verified. Specifically, no data are available about curcumin glucuronide (CURG), the major metabolite of CUR found in the plasma following oral administration of CUR-NP. Herein, we investigated the absorption and metabolism of CUR-NP and evaluated whether CUR-NP improves CUR bioavailability. Following oral administration of CUR-NP in rats, we analyzed the plasma and organ distribution of CUR and its metabolites using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. To elucidate the mechanism of increased intestinal absorption of CUR-NP, we prepared mixed micelles comprised of phosphatidylcholine and bile salts and examined the micellar solubility of CUR-NP. Additionally, we investigated the cellular incorporation of the resultant micelles into differentiated Caco-2 human intestinal cells. Following in vivo administration of CUR-NP, CUR was effectively absorbed and present mainly as CURG in the plasma which contained significant amounts of the metabolite compared with other organs. Thus, CUR-NP increased intestinal absorption of CUR rather than decreasing metabolic degradation and conversion to other metabolites. In vitro, CUR encapsulated in CUR-NP was solubilized in mixed micelles; however, whether the micelles contained CUR or CUR-NP had little influence on cellular uptake efficiency. Therefore, we suggest that the high solubilization capacity of CUR-NP in mixed micelles, rather than cellular uptake efficiency, explains the high intestinal absorption of CUR-NP in vivo. These findings provide a better understanding of the bioavailability of CUR and CUR-NP following oral administration. To improve the bioavailability of CUR, future

  16. Metabolic fate of poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid-based curcumin nanoparticles following oral administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harigae T

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Takahiro Harigae,1 Kiyotaka Nakagawa,1 Taiki Miyazawa,2 Nao Inoue,3 Fumiko Kimura,1 Ikuo Ikeda,3 Teruo Miyazawa4,5 1Food and Biodynamic Chemistry Laboratory, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan; 2Vascular Biology Laboratory, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, MA, USA; 3Laboratory of Food and Biomolecular Science, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, 4Food and Biotechnology Innovation Project, New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, 5Food and Health Science Research Unit, Graduate School of Agricultural Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan Purpose: Curcumin (CUR, the main polyphenol in turmeric, is poorly absorbed and rapidly metabolized following oral administration, which severely curtails its bioavailability. Poly-(lactic-co-glycolic acid-based CUR nanoparticles (CUR-NP have recently been suggested to improve CUR bioavailability, but this has not been fully verified. Specifically, no data are available about curcumin glucuronide (CURG, the major metabolite of CUR found in the plasma following oral administration of CUR-NP. Herein, we investigated the absorption and metabolism of CUR-NP and evaluated whether CUR-NP improves CUR bioavailability.Methods: Following oral administration of CUR-NP in rats, we analyzed the plasma and organ distribution of CUR and its metabolites using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. To elucidate the mechanism of increased intestinal absorption of CUR-NP, we prepared mixed micelles comprised of phosphatidylcholine and bile salts and examined the micellar solubility of CUR-NP. Additionally, we investigated the cellular incorporation of the resultant micelles into differentiated Caco-2 human intestinal cells.Results: Following in vivo administration of CUR-NP, CUR was effectively absorbed and present mainly as CURG in the plasma which contained significant amounts of the metabolite compared with

  17. Promoting Sustainability Transparency in European Local Governments: An Empirical Analysis Based on Administrative Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Navarro-Galera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the transparency of governments with respect to the sustainability of public services is a very interesting issue for stakeholders and academics. It has led to previous research and international organisations (EU, IMF, OECD, United Nations, IFAC, G-20, World Bank to recommend promotion of the online dissemination of economic, social and environmental information. Based on previous studies about e-government and the influence of administrative cultures on governmental accountability, this paper seeks to identify political actions useful to improve the practices of transparency on economic, social and environmental sustainability in European local governments. We perform a comparative analysis of sustainability information published on the websites of 72 local governments in 10 European countries grouped into main three cultural contexts (Anglo-Saxon, Southern European and Nordic. Using international sustainability reporting guidelines, our results reveal significant differences in local government transparency in each context. The most transparent local governments are the Anglo-Saxon ones, followed by Southern European and Nordic governments. Based on individualized empirical results for each administrative style, our conclusions propose useful policy interventions to enhance sustainability transparency within each cultural tradition, such as development of legal rules on transparency and sustainability, tools to motivate local managers for online diffusion of sustainability information and analysis of information needs of stakeholders.

  18. Preliminary study on the effect of castration and testosterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the effect of castration and testosterone replacement on the testosterone level of the New Zealand rabbit, 16 apparently healthy adult male rabbits were used. The animals were divided into four groups with each group having four rabbits. The first group served as the control group. The rabbits in the second group ...

  19. An improved ultrafiltration method for determining free testosterone in serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahos, I.; MacMahon, W.; Sgoutas, D.; Bowers, W.; Thompson, J.; Trawick, W.

    1982-01-01

    In this method, we use the Amicon MPS-1 centrifugal ultrafiltration device and the YMB membrane in measuring free testosterone in serum. Two independent assays are combined: total testosterone and the ultrafiltrable fraction of added [ 3 H]testosterone. The unbound fraction is determined in 0.15-0.5 mL ultrafiltrates of 0.6 to 1 mL of variably diluted serum that has been equilibrated with [ 3 H]testosterone at 37 degrees C. The assay is rapid (less than 1 h), practicable (requires 0.6 mL of serum), and reproducible (CV 3.2% within assay, 3.9% between assays). Accuracy was evaluated as the fraction of free testosterone in the ultrafiltrate of dialyzed serum vs that in a prior dialysate; they were the same confirming the validity of the free testosterone measurement. Samples from ostensibly healthy men and women and from hirsute and pregnant women gave results that agreed with those obtained by equilibrium dialysis. Total testosterone concentrations for normal and hirsute women showed considerable overlap, but data on free testosterone concentrations in these populations were better resolved

  20. Testosterone and BMD in elite male lightweight rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, A; Kanstrup, I-L; Christiansen, E

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate if a relationship between BMD and testosterone levels could be identified in elite male lightweight rowers. Thirteen male lightweight national team rowers had their BMD measured in a DEXA scanner. Plasma concentrations of total testosterone (TT)...

  1. A cohort effect on serum testosterone levels in Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perheentupa, A; Mäkinen, J; Laatikainen, T

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether a population-level decline in serum testosterone exists in Finnish men. In comparison with other European populations, Finnish men have compared well in the studies of reproductive health (i.e. semen quality, incidence of cryptorchidism and testicular cancer); thus, we...... expected no significant cohort-dependent decrease in serum testosterone....

  2. Testosterone for the aging male; current evidence and recommended practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger D Stanworth

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Roger D Stanworth, T Hugh JonesCentre of Diabetes and Endocrinology, Barnsley Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Barnsley, South Yorkshire, United Kingdom; Academic Unit of Diabetes, Endocrinology and Metabolism, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, South Yorkshire, United KingdomAbstract: An international consensus document was recently published and provides guidance on the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH in men. The diagnosis of LOH requires biochemical and clinical components. Controversy in defining the clinical syndrome continues due to the high prevalence of hypogonadal symptoms in the aging male population and the non-specific nature of these symptoms. Further controversy surrounds setting a lower limit of normal testosterone, the limitations of the commonly available total testosterone result in assessing some patients and the unavailability of reliable measures of bioavailable or free testosterone for general clinical use. As with any clinical intervention testosterone treatment should be judged on a balance of risk versus benefit. The traditional benefits of testosterone on sexual function, mood, strength and quality of life remain the primary goals of treatment but possible beneficial effects on other parameters such as bone density, obesity, insulin resistance and angina are emerging and will be reviewed. Potential concerns regarding the effects of testosterone on prostate disease, aggression and polycythaemia will also be addressed. The options available for treatment have increased in recent years with the availability of a number of testosterone preparations which can reliably produce physiological serum concentrations.Keywords: review, testosterone, male, aging

  3. Lowered testosterone in male obesity: Mechanisms, morbidity and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ng Tang Fui

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With increasing modernization and urbanization of Asia, much of the future focus of the obesity epidemic will be in the Asian region. Low testosterone levels are frequently encountered in obese men who do not otherwise have a recognizable hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT axis pathology. Moderate obesity predominantly decreases total testosterone due to insulin resistance-associated reductions in sex hormone binding globulin. More severe obesity is additionally associated with reductions in free testosterone levels due to suppression of the HPT axis. Low testosterone by itself leads to increasing adiposity, creating a self-perpetuating cycle of metabolic complications. Obesity-associated hypotestosteronemia is a functional, non-permanent state, which can be reversible, but this requires substantial weight loss. While testosterone treatment can lead to moderate reductions in fat mass, obesity by itself, in the absence of symptomatic androgen defi ciency, is not an established indication for testosterone therapy. Testosterone therapy may lead to a worsening of untreated sleep apnea and compromise fertility. Whether testosterone therapy augments diet- and exercise-induced weight loss requires evaluation in adequately designed randomized controlled clinical trials.

  4. Vitamin D supplementation and testosterone concentrations in male human subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Oosterwerff, Mirjam; Schroten, Nicolas F.; Eekhoff, Elisabeth M. W.; Chel, Victor G. M.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Blankenstein, Marinus A.; Lips, Paul

    ObjectiveA possible association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and testosterone levels has been reported; however, contradictory results have emerged. DesignTo investigate a causal link between vitamin D and testosterone status, we studied the effect of vitamin D supplementation on serum

  5. 21 CFR 862.1680 - Testosterone test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... measure testosterone (a male sex hormone) in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurement of testosterone are used in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders involving the male sex hormones (androgens), including primary and secondary hypogonadism, delayed or precocious puberty, impotence in males and, in females...

  6. Plasma testosterone levels in Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, M S; DeLong, M R; Hanfelt, J; Gearing, M; Levey, A

    2004-02-10

    Testosterone deficiency, a treatable condition commonly seen in aging men, has been linked to Parkinson disease (PD) and Alzheimer disease (AD). In normal subjects, low testosterone levels are associated with cognitive and neuropsychiatric symptoms, yet the relationship between testosterone levels and cognitive function in PD and AD remains unclear. To examine the relationship of testosterone levels to age and cognitive function in PD and AD. Plasma testosterone levels were determined in men enrolled in a clinical registry of subjects with PD and AD, and neuropsychological testing was performed on subjects who consented. Testosterone levels in men with PD were compared with those in men with AD. In both groups, the relationship between testosterone levels and neuropsychological test scores was analyzed, adjusting for age and education. Linear regression analysis revealed that testosterone levels decreased with age in male PD patients (p frontal lobe dysfunction in normal aged men, together with these results, suggest that the hormonal deficiency may act as a "second hit" to impair cognitive function in neurodegenerative disease.

  7. Aluminum-induced testosterone decrease results in physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, there has been much controversy on the role of testosterone on social and aggression behaviors. This work aimed to determine the effect of testosterone decrease, induced by aluminum exposure on the level of aggression. Male Swiss-Webster strain mice were classified into three groups. The first (control group) ...

  8. Substantial advantage of a combined Bayesian and genotyping approach in testosterone doping tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Jenny Jakobsson; Lundmark, Jonas; Garle, Mats; Ekström, Lena; Sottas, Pierre-Edouard; Rane, Anders

    2009-03-01

    Testosterone abuse is conventionally assessed by the urinary testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio, levels above 4.0 being considered suspicious. A deletion polymorphism in the gene coding for UGT2B17 is strongly associated with reduced testosterone glucuronide (TG) levels in urine. Many of the individuals devoid of the gene would not reach a T/E ratio of 4.0 after testosterone intake. Future test programs will most likely shift from population based- to individual-based T/E cut-off ratios using Bayesian inference. A longitudinal analysis is dependent on an individual's true negative baseline T/E ratio. The aim was to investigate whether it is possible to increase the sensitivity and specificity of the T/E test by addition of UGT2B17 genotype information in a Bayesian framework. A single intramuscular dose of 500mg testosterone enanthate was given to 55 healthy male volunteers with either two, one or no allele (ins/ins, ins/del or del/del) of the UGT2B17 gene. Urinary excretion of TG and the T/E ratio was measured during 15 days. The Bayesian analysis was conducted to calculate the individual T/E cut-off ratio. When adding the genotype information, the program returned lower individual cut-off ratios in all del/del subjects increasing the sensitivity of the test considerably. It will be difficult, if not impossible, to discriminate between a true negative baseline T/E value and a false negative one without knowledge of the UGT2B17 genotype. UGT2B17 genotype information is crucial, both to decide which initial cut-off ratio to use for an individual, and for increasing the sensitivity of the Bayesian analysis.

  9. Testosterone potentiates the hypoxic ventilatory response of adult male rats subjected to neonatal stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Sébastien; Gulemetova, Roumiana; Joseph, Vincent; Kinkead, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Neonatal stress disrupts development of homeostatic systems. During adulthood, male rats subjected to neonatal maternal separation (NMS) are hypertensive and show a larger hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR), with greater respiratory instability during sleep. Neonatal stress also affects sex hormone secretion; hypoxia increases circulating testosterone of NMS (but not control) male rats. Given that these effects of NMS are not observed in females, we tested the hypothesis that testosterone elevation is necessary for the stress-related increase of the HVR in adult male rats. Pups subjected to NMS were placed in an incubator for 3 h per day from postnatal day 3 to 12. Control pups remained undisturbed. Rats were reared until adulthood, and the HVR was measured by plethysmography (fractional inspired O2 = 0.12, for 20 min). We used gonadectomy to evaluate the effects of reducing testosterone on the HVR. Gonadectomy had no effect on the HVR of control animals but reduced that of NMS animals below control levels. Immunohistochemistry was used to quantify androgen receptors in brainstem areas involved in the HVR. Androgen receptor expression was generally greater in NMS rats than in control rats; the most significant increase was noted in the caudal region of the nucleus tractus solitarii. We conclude that the abnormal regulation of testosterone is important in stress-related augmentation of the HVR. The greater number of androgen receptors within the brainstem may explain why NMS rats are more sensitive to testosterone withdrawal. Based on the similarities of the cardiorespiratory phenotype of NMS rats and patients suffering from sleep-disordered breathing, these results provide new insight into its pathophysiology, especially sex-based differences in its prevalence. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  10. Differential response of early and late phases of skeletal muscle regeneration to exogenous supply of testosterone and insulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qazi, I.; Riaz, S.

    2005-01-01

    Effect of insulin and testosterone, separately and in combination on the regeneration of skeletal fibres within intact extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle grafts was studied in mice. It was found that intraperitoneal supply of 2 mg/100 g body weight/day of testosterone accelerated skeletal muscle regeneration within ten days of grafting. The regenerated muscle fibres in such grafts attained significantly higher % recovery of average cross-sectional area (ACSA) than in the controls grafts. Later on, provision of the hormone did not further promote growth of the regenerated muscle fibres. In the insulin-supplemented animals (2 units/100 g body weight/day) the grafts showed hyperplasia and atrophy of the regenerating muscle fibres during the first and the last study periods, respectively. Histological and morphometric analysis of 20-day old EDL muscle regenerates that were supplied with either insulin or testosterone during the first 10-days of transplantation followed by hormone administration in reverse sequence revealed valuable differences. Supply of testosterone and then insulin escalated the process of regeneration and growth so that the ACSA of the regenerated muscle fibres in such grafts turned out to be significantly higher that in the corresponding stages of control, or when only insulin and only testosterone were administered. Reverse sequence of the administration of the hormones exerted negative effects and the regenerated muscle fibres showed various levels of atrophy. These results indicate the importance of identification of particular phases of the process of skeletal muscle regeneration that may be more responsive to anabolic agents. Proper sequence of administration of the hormones to promote the regeneration of skeletal muscle fibres in whole EDL muscle autotransplants is also explained. (author)

  11. High-testosterone men reject low ultimatum game offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, Terence C

    2007-09-22

    The ultimatum game is a simple negotiation with the interesting property that people frequently reject offers of 'free' money. These rejections contradict the standard view of economic rationality. This divergence between economic theory and human behaviour is important and has no broadly accepted cause. This study examines the relationship between ultimatum game rejections and testosterone. In a variety of species, testosterone is associated with male seeking dominance. If low ultimatum game offers are interpreted as challenges, then high-testosterone men may be more likely to reject such offers. In this experiment, men who reject low offers ($5 out of $40) have significantly higher testosterone levels than those who accept. In addition, high testosterone levels are associated with higher ultimatum game offers, but this second finding is not statistically significant.

  12. Serum testosterone concentrations in men with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C

    1987-01-01

    Median serum testosterone concentration of men with alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 216) did not differ significantly from normal controls (n = 51), but serum testosterone concentrations varied by a factor 43.9 in patients compared to 3.2 in controls (P less than .001). Nineteen percent of the patients...... had serum testosterone concentrations above 30 nmol/L. Serum concentrations of sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were significantly (P less than .001) raised, and serum concentrations of calculated nonprotein-bound and non-SHBG-bound testosterone were significantly (P less than .001) decreased...... in patients compared to normal control values. A number of background variables were analyzed with reference to serum testosterone concentrations by means of multiple regression techniques after having divided the patients into groups (A, B, C) with decreasing liver function by a modification of the Child...

  13. Correlation Between Personality Traits and Testosterone Concentrations in Healthy Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima-Pozo, Kazuhiro; Bayón, Camila; Díaz-Marsá, Marina; Carrasco, Jose Luis

    2015-01-01

    High plasma testosterone levels have been associated with aggression, sexual behaviour and social status. The aim of this paper was to study the correlation between basal plasma testosterone levels and personality variables in healthy participants. Fifty-four participants were randomly enrolled into this study. Basal plasma testosterone levels were measured between 8:30 am and 10 am. After 24 hours of blood drawing, each subject completed personality questionnaires. Positive correlation between basal plasma testosterone levels and anti-social personality traits in both genders was observed (r = 0.336 and P traits (r = 0. 376, P trait (r = 0. 544, P trait (r = 0. 485, P trait (r = 0.632, P traits, substance abuse and hypomania. Women with higher basal testosterone levels showed higher scores on personality self-direction traits.

  14. Effects of Testosterone Level on Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, E David; Poage, Wendy; Nyhuis, Allen; Price, David A; Dowsett, Sherie A; Muram, David

    2016-09-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common in older men and are frequently associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The relationship between BPH and endogenous total testosterone (TT) levels has been widely studied. The aim of this post hoc analysis was to determine the association between LUTS and endogenous TT levels in a subset of men participating in the 2013 Prostate Cancer Awareness Week, a U.S. community-based prostate cancer screening program. Men completed the International Prostate Symptom Score (I-PSS) questionnaire, prostate size was estimated by a digital rectal examination, and serum TT and prostate-specific antigen levels were measured. Mean TT levels (ng/dl) did not significantly correlate with prostate size category (r = +.03, p = .69): normal, 419.2 (n = 106); enlarged, 394.7 (n = 71); abnormal, 416.4 (n = 7); and abnormal/suspicious, 515.2 (n = 19). Mean TT levels (ng/dl) did not significantly correlate with I-PSS category (r = -.06, p = .40): none, 468.5 (n = 15); mild, 414.0 (n = 138); moderate, 397.4 (n = 66); and severe, 437.9 (n = 7). Mean TT levels (ng/dl) did not significantly correlate with I-PSS quality of life rating (r = -.13, p = .055): delighted, 474.5 (n = 43); pleased, 424.6 (n = 65); mostly satisfied, 361.2 (n = 63); mixed, 448.2 (n = 29); mostly dissatisfied, 337.2 (n = 17); and unhappy, 435.8 (n = 6). Adjustment for prostate size or prostate-specific antigen levels yielded similar findings. In conclusion, endogenous TT levels did not correlate with LUTS or prostate size, and these findings support the saturation theory in which TT is not able to induce further androgen-stimulated prostate tissue growth due to receptor saturation. Any worsening of LUTS following testosterone replacement therapy in hypogonadal men may be related to stimulation of prostatic cells previously deprived of testosterone. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Systemic Administration of Interleukin 2 Enhances the Therapeutic Efficacy of Dendritic Cell-Based Tumor Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, K.; Fields, R. C.; Giedlin, M.; Mule, J. J.

    1999-03-01

    We have reported previously that murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (DC) pulsed with whole tumor lysates can mediate potent antitumor immune responses both in vitro and in vivo. Because successful therapy was dependent on host immune T cells, we have now evaluated whether the systemic administration of the T cell stimulatory/growth promoting cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) could enhance tumor lysate-pulsed DC-based immunizations to further promote protective immunity toward, and therapeutic rejection of, syngeneic murine tumors. In three separate approaches using a weakly immunogenic sarcoma (MCA-207), the systemic administration of non-toxic doses of recombinant IL-2 (20,000 and 40,000 IU/dose) was capable of mediating significant increases in the potency of DC-based immunizations. IL-2 could augment the efficacy of tumor lysate-pulsed DC to induce protective immunity to lethal tumor challenge as well as enhance splenic cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity and interferon-γ production in these treated mice. Moreover, treatment with the combination of tumor lysate-pulsed DC and IL-2 could also mediate regressions of established pulmonary 3-day micrometastases and 7-day macrometastases as well as established 14- and 28-day s.c. tumors, leading to either significant cure rates or prolongation in overall survival. Collectively, these findings show that nontoxic doses of recombinant IL-2 can potentiate the antitumor effects of tumor lysate-pulsed DC in vivo and provide preclinical rationale for the use of IL-2 in DC-based vaccine strategies in patients with advanced cancer.

  16. Using web-based group support systems to enhance procedural fairness in administrative decision making in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Twinomurinzi, H

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors are investigating whether Web-based Group Support System (GSS) tools can support and enhance procedural fairness in administrative decision making in South Africa. They report here on work that emanates from a masters dissertation...

  17. Testosterone, free testosterone, and free androgen index in women: Reference intervals, biological variation, and diagnostic value in polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, H.N.; Sluss, P.M.; Hayes, F.J.; Blincko, S.; Knol, D.L.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Heijboer, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of our study was to determine reference intervals and biologic variation for testosterone (T), free testosterone (fT), and free androgen index (FAI) in women with accurate methods and to test the discriminative value of these parameters in a polycystic ovary syndrome

  18. Effects of short-term testosterone replacement on areal bone mineral density and bone turnover in young hypogonadal males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasun Deb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Effect of parenteral testosterone esters administration on bone-mineral density (BMD and bone turnover in young age onset male hypogonadism is not studied in Indian subjects. Aims: To prospectively study the effect of short-term (6 months replacement therapy with parenteral testosterone enanthate-propionate combination on BMD and bone turnover markers in hypogonadal adult patients. Settings and Design: Prospective, tertiary care academic center. Materials and Methods: Thirteen young, otherwise healthy hypogonadal males (age 25.5 ± 4.9 yrs, serum testosterone 2.56 ± 4.29 nmol/l were subjected to BMD measurements (DXA and estimation of urinary Crosslaps™ and serum osteocalcin at baseline. Twelve healthy age and BMI-matched males served as controls for BMD measurements. The hypogonadal patients were administered parenteral testosterone esters (as mixed enanthate and propionate 250 mg i.m. every 2-3 weeks, and prospectively followed for 6 months. BMD and bone markers were studied at the end of 6 months. Statistical Analysis Used: Mann-Whitney nonparametric test, paired t-test and Pearson′s test of two-tail significance. Results: At baseline, BMD was significantly lower in hypogonadal males as compared to that in controls. With testosterone replacement, there was significant improvement in BMD, both at trabecular and cortical sites, There was a decline in bone turnover with treatment (Ur Crosslaps™:creatinine ratio: pretreatment 72.8 ± 40.4, post-treatment 35.5 ± 23.8 μg/mmol, P = 0.098; serum osteocalcin: pre-treatment 41.0 ± 16.8, post-treatment 31.7 ± 2.1 ng/ml, P = 0.393. Conclusions: Short-term parenteral testosterone replacement significantly improves BMD at the hip, lumbar spine and forearm in hypogonadal young males.

  19. Sustained Administration of Hormones Exploiting Nanoconfined Diffusion through Nanochannel Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Geninatti

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Implantable devices may provide a superior means for hormone delivery through maintaining serum levels within target therapeutic windows. Zero-order administration has been shown to reach an equilibrium with metabolic clearance, resulting in a constant serum concentration and bioavailability of released hormones. By exploiting surface-to-molecule interaction within nanochannel membranes, it is possible to achieve a long-term, constant diffusive release of agents from implantable reservoirs. In this study, we sought to demonstrate the controlled release of model hormones from a novel nanochannel system. We investigated the delivery of hormones through our nanochannel membrane over a period of 40 days. Levothyroxine, osteocalcin and testosterone were selected as representative hormones based on their different molecular properties and structures. The release mechanisms and transport behaviors of these hormones within 3, 5 and 40 nm channels were characterized. Results further supported the suitability of the nanochannels for sustained administration from implantable platforms.

  20. Comparison of methods for determination of testosterone and non-protein bound testosterone in men with alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    The serum concentrations of testosterone and of non-protein bound testosterone were determined in 28 men with alcoholic liver disease having normal to decreased serum albumin concentrations and normal to raised SHBG concentrations. Serum testosterone concentrations determined with two...... radioimmunoassays using different purification procedures and antibody batches did not differ significantly and correlated significantly (r=0.91; p less than 0.001). The median serum concentration of non-protein bound testosterone was 0.265 nmol/l (range 0.068-0.495 nmol/l) when determined by equilibrium dialysis...... and 0.232 nmol/l (range 0.042-0.610 nmol/l) when calculated according to the law of mass action. This difference is insignificant. The concentrations of non-protein bound testosterone determined by the two methods correlated significantly (r=0.83; p less than 0.001). In the calculation of non...

  1. Geospatial Based Information System Development in Public Administration for Sustainable Development and Planning in Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouziokas, Georgios N.

    2016-09-01

    It is generally agreed that the governmental authorities should actively encourage the development of an efficient framework of information and communication technology initiatives so as to advance and promote sustainable development and planning strategies. This paper presents a prototype Information System for public administration which was designed to facilitate public management and decision making for sustainable development and planning. The system was developed by using several programming languages and programming tools and also a Database Management System (DBMS) for storing and managing urban data of many kinds. Furthermore, geographic information systems were incorporated into the system in order to make possible to the authorities to deal with issues of spatial nature such as spatial planning. The developed system provides a technology based management of geospatial information, environmental and crime data of urban environment aiming at improving public decision making and also at contributing to a more efficient sustainable development and planning.

  2. Baseline strength can influence the ability of salivary free testosterone to predict squat and sprinting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewther, Blair T; Cook, Christian J; Gaviglio, Chris M; Kilduff, Liam P; Drawer, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if salivary free testosterone can predict an athlete's performance during back squats and sprints over time and the influence baseline strength on this relationship. Ten weight-trained male athletes were divided into 2 groups based on their 1 repetition maximum (1RM) squats, good squatters (1RM > 2.0 × body weight, n = 5) and average squatters (1RM squat 1RM and 10-m sprint times on 10 separate occasions over a 40-day period. A saliva sample was collected before testing and assayed for free testosterone and cortisol. The pooled testosterone correlations were strong and significant in the good squatters (r = 0.92 for squats, r = -0.87 for sprints, p squats, r = -0.18 for sprints). Cortisol showed no significant correlations with 1RM squat and 10-m sprint performance, and no differences were identified between the 2 squatting groups. In summary, these results suggest that free testosterone is a strong individual predictor of squat and sprinting performance in individuals with relatively high strength levels but a poor predictor in less strong individuals. This information can assist coaches, trainers, and performance scientists working with stronger weight-trained athletes, for example, the preworkout measurement of free testosterone could indicate likely training outcomes or a readiness to train at a certain intensity level, especially if real-time measurements are made. Our results also highlight the need to separate group and individual hormonal data during the repeated testing of athletes with variable strength levels.

  3. Decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at puberty in boys with delayed adolescence: correlation with plasma testosterone levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkland, R.T.; Keenan, B.S.; Probstfield, J.L.; Patsch, W.; Lin, T.L.; Clayton, G.W.; Insull, W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A three-phase study tested the hypothesis that the decrease in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level observed in boys at puberty is related to an increase in the plasma testosterone concentration. In phase I, 57 boys aged 10 to 17 years were categorized into four pubertal stages based on clinical parameters and plasma testosterone levels. These four groups showed increasing plasma testosterone values and decreasing HDL-C levels. In phase II, 14 boys with delayed adolescence were treated with testosterone enanthate. Plasma testosterone levels during therapy were in the adult male range. Levels of HDL-C decreased by a mean of 7.4 mg/dL (0.20 mmol/L) and 13.7 mg/dL (0.35 mmol/L), respectively, after the first two doses. In phase III, 13 boys with delayed adolescence demonstrated increasing plasma testosterone levels and decreasing HDL-C levels during spontaneous puberty. Levels of HDL-C and apolipoprotein A-1 were correlated during induced and spontaneous puberty. Testosterone should be considered a significant determinant of plasma HDL-C levels during pubertal development

  4. Surface plasmon resonance sensor for femtomolar detection of testosterone with water-compatible macroporous molecularly imprinted film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingwen; Jing, Lijing; Zhang, Jinling; Ren, Yamin; Wang, Yang; Wang, Yi; Wei, Tianxin; Liedberg, Bo

    2014-10-15

    A novel water-compatible macroporous molecularly imprinted film (MIF) has been developed for rapid, sensitive, and label-free detection of small molecule testosterone in urine. The MIF was synthesized by photo copolymerization of monomers (methacrylic acid [MAA] and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate [HEMA]), cross-linker (ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, EGDMA), and polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) in combination with template testosterone molecules. The PS NPs and template molecules were subsequently removed to form an MIF with macroporous structures and the specific recognition sites of testosterone. Incubation of artificial urine and human urine on the MIF and the non-imprinted film (NIF), respectively, indicated undetectable nonspecific adsorption. Accordingly, the MIF was applied on a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor for the detection of testosterone in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and artificial urine with a limit of detection (LOD) down to 10(-15)g/ml. To the best of our knowledge, the LOD is considered as one of the lowest among the SPR sensors for the detection of small molecules. The control experiments performed with analogue molecules such as progesterone and estradiol demonstrated the good selectivity of this MIF for sensing testosterone. Furthermore, this MIF-based SPR sensor shows high stability and reproducibility over 8months of storage at room temperature, which is more robust than protein-based biosensors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Impact of Injector-Based Contrast Agent Administration on Bolus Shape and Magnetic Resonance Angiography Image Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Gregor; Endrikat, Jan; Pietsch, Hubertus

    2017-01-01

    To compare injector-based contrast agent (CA) administration with hand injection in magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Gadobutrol was administered in 6 minipigs with 3 protocols: (a) hand injection (one senior technician), (b) hand injection (6 less-experienced technicians), and (c) power injector administration. The arterial bolus shape was quantified by test bolus measurements. A head and neck MRA was performed for quantitative and qualitative comparison of signal enhancement. A significantly shorter time to peak was observed for protocol C, whereas no significant differences between protocols were found for peak height and bolus width. However, for protocol C, these parameters showed a much lower variation. The MRA revealed a significantly higher signal-to-noise ratio for injector-based administration. A superimposed strong contrast of the jugular vein was found in 50% of the hand injections. Injector-based CA administration results in a more standardized bolus shape, a higher vascular contrast, and a more robust visualization of target vessels.

  6. Analysis of the development trend of China’s business administration based on time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Rui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On the general direction of the economic system, China is in a crucial period of the establishment of the modern enterprise system and reform of the macroeconomic system, and a lot of high-quality business administration talents are required to make China’s economy be stably developed. This paper carries out time series analysis of the development situation of China’s business administration major: on the whole, the society currently presents an upward trend on the demand for the business administration talents. With the gradually increasing demand for the business administration talents, various colleges and universities also set up the business administration major to train a large number of administration talents, thus leading to an upward trend for the academic focus on business administration.

  7. Castration and testosterone induced changes in the pinealocytes of roseringed parakeet, Psittacula krameri, during different phases of the annual testicular cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, S K; Dey, M

    1994-08-01

    The pinealocytes in male roseringed parakeets (Psittacula krameri) were studied following bilateral castration and/or therapeutic administration of testosterone during the preparatory (June-July), progressive (Nov.-Dec.), pre-breeding (Jan.-Feb.) and breeding (March-April) phases of the annual testicular cycle. The responses of the pineal to either treatment were found to be almost identical throughout the investigation. In each reproductive phase, the pineal appeared to be hypertrophied following castration and the effect was reversed by therapeutic administration of testosterone, while hormonal treatment to the intact parakeets induced regressive changes in the pinealocytes. Collectively, the results of the current study support the hypothesis that the testis through its hormone testosterone exerts inhibitory influences on the activity of pineal, and may thus be considered as being involved in the determination of an inverse relationship between the pineal and the testis during the annual cycle of free-living parakeets.

  8. A Citation-Based Ranking of German-Speaking Researchers in Business Administration with Data of Google Scholar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilger, Alexander; Müller, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Rankings of academics can be constructed in two different ways, either based on journal rankings or based on citations. Although citation-based rankings promise some fundamental advantages they are still not common in German-speaking business administration. However, the choice of the underlying database is crucial. This article argues that for…

  9. Clinical practice experience with testosterone treatment in men with testosterone deficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Drew; Siemens, D Robert; Izard, Jason; Black, Angela; Morales, Alvaro

    2008-11-01

    To report on a clinical practice series of testosterone-replacement therapy (TRT) in men with testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS), examining clinical efficacy, biochemical parameters and effects on prostate health over a 2-year period. A retrospective review of 85 patients with symptoms of TDS and at least a 3-month trial of TRT was performed in this single-centre, clinical practice setting. Three domains of symptomatology were evaluated: libido, erectile function and energy levels. Symptoms were assessed by a combination of patient reporting, physician's assessment and validated symptom assessment scores. Total testosterone (TT), calculated bio-available testosterone (BT) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were continuously measured and effects on prostate health were examined. Only 38 (45%) patients in this cohort remained on TRT for >2 years. The most common reason for discontinuing treatment was lack of clinical response but those remaining on TRT had continued improvement in libido, erectile function and energy levels. During treatment, the average TT and calculated BT values significantly increased compared with the baseline values at most of the evaluated time points, with no significant change in average PSA values. In all, 15% of this cohort had some degree of progression of lower urinary tract symptoms. Seven patients had eight 'for-cause' prostate biopsies either during supplementation or at any date after completion, with an only three positive for cancer. Only 45% of men on TRT remained on treatment for >2 years in this clinical practice experience of men with TDS. Those remaining showed persistent improvement in their symptoms. The average TT and BT values increased significantly with no significant change in PSA levels.

  10. Testosterone Replacement and Bone Mineral Density in Male Pituitary Tumor Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jeong Lee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHypopituitarism is associated with osteoporosis and osteopenia especially when hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is present. Despite hypopituitarism being an important cause of secondary osteoporosis, osteoporosis in patients receiving surgery for pituitary tumors in Korea has not been studied. In this study, we evaluated the effects of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT on bone mineral density (BMD in postoperative hypogonadal patients with pituitary tumors.MethodsTo examine the effect of TRT on BMD, we performed a retrospective observational study in 21 postoperative male patients who underwent pituitary tumor surgery between 2003 and 2012 at the Ajou University Hospital. Testosterone was replaced in postoperative hypogonadal patients by regular intramuscular injection, daily oral medication, or application of transdermal gel. BMD (g/cm2 measurements of central skeletal sites (lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total femur were obtained using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (GE Lunar. For lumbar spine BMD, L1 to L4 values were chosen for analysis. Femur neck and total femur were also analyzed.ResultsDuring the follow-up period (mean, 56 months; range, 12 to 99 months serum testosterone levels increased with the administration of TRT (P=0.007. There was significant improvement (4.56%±9.81% in the lumbar spine BMD compared to baseline BMD. There were no significant changes in the femur neck BMD or total femur BMD. We did not find any statistically significant relationships between changes in testosterone levels and BMD using Spearman correlation analysis.ConclusionOur results indicated that TRT used in the postoperative period for hypogonadal pituitary tumor surgery patients may have beneficial effects on the BMD of the spine.

  11. Plasmatic testosterone values in 105 Klinefelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboch, J; Neuwirth, J; Starka, L

    1975-01-01

    Clinical, spermiologic and karyologic examinations and determinations of plasmatic testosterone were performed in a group of 105 chromatin-positive patients aged 16 to 45 years. A comparison with a control group of 108 somatosexually well developed and fertile men at the age of 21 to 55 years has established that in the Klinefelter's syndrome the male sex hormone level in the blood was highly significantly lower. Whereas in the control group the male sex hormone values in the blood were dependent on age, it was not possible to prove any dynamic changes in the process of ageing between 21 and 45 years in chromatin-positive patients. A comparison of some phenotypical and laboratory findings in the various chromosomal variants of Klinefelter's syndrome shows that comparatively the least changes were found in patients with a mosaic of 46,XY/47,XXY.

  12. Testosterone, Cortisol and Financial Risk-Taking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Herbert

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Both testosterone and cortisol have major actions on financial decision-making closely related to their primary biological functions, reproductive success and response to stress, respectively. Financial risk-taking represents a particular example of strategic decisions made in the context of choice under conditions of uncertainty. Such decisions have multiple components, and this article considers how much we know of how either hormone affects risk-appetite, reward value, information processing and estimation of the costs and benefits of potential success or failure, both personal and social. It also considers how far we can map these actions on neural mechanisms underlying risk appetite and decision-making, with particular reference to areas of the brain concerned in either cognitive or emotional functions.

  13. Measurement of dihydro testosterone by radioimmunoassay after celite column chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lando, V.S.

    1992-01-01

    A method for measuring dihydro testosterone after celite column chromatography is developed. One milliliter of serum containing 1000 cpm of tritiated dihydro testosterone was extracted with hexane: ethyl acetate (2:3): dried, diluted with non saturated iso octane and injected in the column previously washed with 3.5 ml of pure iso octane. The serum was eluted from the column with pure iso octane (3.5 ml) followed by 5% ethyl acetate in iso octane. The quantity of tritiated dihydro testosterone which was recovered ranged from 50% to 80% in all assays. The sensitivity of the method was 4 ng/d l. The intra-assay variation was less than 9% and the inter-assay variation was less than 9,7%. It was measured dihydro testosterone, testosterone and testosterone/dihydro testosterone ratio in the following groups: Group 1- forty-one normal adult subjects in basal conditions, Group 2 - six normal adult subjects, evaluated in basal conditions and after stimulus with 6000 International Unity of human Chorionic Gonadotropin; Group 3- six pre-puberal children with unilateral cryptochidism. Group 4- eight patients with male pseudo hermaphroditism due to 5-alpha-reductase deficiency in basal conditions and after HCG. (author)

  14. Testosterone regulates granzyme K expression in rat testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutta Dibyendu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Testosterone depletion induces increased germ cell apoptosis in testes. However, limited studies exist on genes that regulate the germ cell apoptosis. Granzymes (GZM are serine proteases that induce apoptosis in various tissues. Multiple granzymes, including GZMA, GZMB and GZMN, are present in testes. Th us, we investigated which granzyme may be testosterone responsive and possibly may have a role in germ cell apoptosis aft er testosterone depletion. Methods. Ethylene dimethane sulfonate (EDS, a toxicant that selectively ablates the Leydig cells, was injected into rats to withdraw the testosterone. The testosterone depletion effects after 7 days post-EDS were verified by replacing the testosterone exogenously into EDS-treated rats. Serum or testicular testosterone was measured by radioimmunoassay. Using qPCR, mRNAs of granzyme variants in testes were quantified. The germ cell apoptosis was identified by TUNEL assay and the localization of GZMK was by immunohistochemistry. Results. EDS treatment eliminated the Leydig cells and depleted serum and testicular testosterone. At 7 days post-EDS, testis weights were reduced 18% with increased germ cell apoptosis plus elevation GZMK expression. GZMK was not associated with TUNEL-positive cells, but was localized to stripped cytoplasm of spermatids. In addition, apoptotic round spermatids were observed in the caput epididymis. Conclusions. GZMK expression in testes is testosterone dependent. GZMK is located adjacent to germ cells in seminiferous tubules and the presence of apoptotic round spermatids in the epididymis suggest its role in the degradation of microtubules in ectoplasmic specializations. Thus, overexpression of GZMK may indirectly regulate germ cell apoptosis by premature release of round spermatids from seminiferous tubule lumen.

  15. Mulberry Leaf Extract Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Testosterone Depletion in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hajizadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been proposed that oxidative stress may contribute to the development of testicular abnormalities in diabetes. Morus alba leaf extract (MAE has hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties. We, therefore, explored the impact of the administration of MAE on steroidogenesis in diabetic rats. Methods: To address this hypothesis, we measured the serum level of glucose, insulin, and free testosterone (Ts as well as oxidative stress parameters (including glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde in the testis of control, untreated and MAE-treated (1 g/day/kg diabetic rats. In order to determine the likely mechanism of MAE action on Ts levels, we analyzed the quantitative mRNA expression level of the two key steroidogenic proteins, namely steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR and P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, by real-time PCR. Results: The MAE-treated diabetic rats had significantly decreased glucose levels and on the other hand increased insulin and free Ts levels than the untreated diabetic rats. In addition, the administration of MAE to the diabetic rats restored the oxidative stress parameters toward control. Induction of diabetes decreased testicular StAR mRNA expression by 66% and MAE treatment enhanced mRNA expression to the same level of the control group. However, the expression of P540scc was not significantly decreased in the diabetic group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that MAE significantly increased Ts production in the diabetic rats, probably through the induction of StAR mRNA expression levels. Administration of MAE to experimental models of diabetes can effectively attenuate oxidative stress-mediated testosterone depletion. Please cite this article as: Hajizadeh MR, Eftekhar E, Zal F, Jaffarian A, Mostafavi-Pour Z. Mulberry Leaf Extract Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Testosterone Depletion in

  16. Use of evidence-based management in healthcare administration decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ruiling; Berkshire, Steven D; Fulton, Lawrence V; Hermanson, Patrick M

    2017-07-03

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine whether healthcare leaders use evidence-based management (EBMgt) when facing major decisions and what types of evidence healthcare administrators consult during their decision-making. This study also intends to identify any relationship that might exist among adoption of EBMgt in healthcare management, attitudes towards EBMgt, demographic characteristics and organizational characteristics. Design/methodology/approach A cross-sectional study was conducted among US healthcare leaders. Spearman's correlation and logistic regression were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 23.0. Findings One hundred and fifty-four healthcare leaders completed the survey. The study results indicated that 90 per cent of the participants self-reported having used an EBMgt approach for decision-making. Professional experiences (87 per cent), organizational data (84 per cent) and stakeholders' values (63 per cent) were the top three types of evidence consulted daily and weekly for decision-making. Case study (75 per cent) and scientific research findings (75 per cent) were the top two types of evidence consulted monthly or less than once a month. An exploratory, stepwise logistic regression model correctly classified 75.3 per cent of all observations for a dichotomous "use of EBMgt" response variable using three independent variables: attitude towards EBMgt, number of employees in the organization and the job position. Spearman's correlation indicated statistically significant relationships between healthcare leaders' use of EBMgt and healthcare organization bed size ( r s = 0.217, n = 152, p employees ( r s = 0.195, n = 152, p = 0.016). Originality/value This study generated new research findings on the practice of EBMgt in US healthcare administration decision-making.

  17. Sex Difference in Testosterone Response to a Video Game Contest

    OpenAIRE

    Mazur, Allan; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Edelbrock, Sandy

    1997-01-01

    Testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) were assayed from saliva samples given by young men (n = 28) and women (n = 32) before, during, and after competing with a same-sex partner in a video game. The T response to the competition is different in each sex; the C response is the same. Male results confirm prior reports of a pre-contest rise in testosterone. Male results did not confirm previous findings that after a contest, the testosterone of winners is higher than that of losers, perhaps because ...

  18. Core/shell cellulose-based microspheres for oral administration of Ketoprofen Lysinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Vincenzo; Caputo, Tania; Calcagnile, Paola; Altobelli, Rosaria; Demitri, Christian; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2018-01-26

    Herein, we propose the fabrication of a new carrier with core/shell structure-inner core of cellulose acetate (CA) coated by a micrometric layer of chitosan (CS)-fabricated through an integrated process, which combines Electro Dynamic Atomization (EDA) and layer-by-layer (LbL) technique. We demonstrate that CA based microspheres possess a unique capability to relevantly retain the drugs-that is, Ketoprofen Lysinate (KL)-along the gastric tract, while providing a massive release along the intestine. CS shell slightly influences the morphology and water retention under different pH conditions, improving drug encapsulation without compromising drug release kinetics. In vitro studies in simulated gastric and intestine fluids (SGF, SIF) with physiological enzymes, show a moderate release of LSK during the first 2 h (ca. 20% at pH 2), followed by a sustained release during the next 6 h (ca. 80% at pH 7). The obtained results demonstrate that CA-based microspheres hold strong potential to be used as carriers for a delayed oral administration of anti-inflammatory drugs. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Evidence based administration of risperidone and paliperidone for the treating conduct disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghanizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluates the evidence-based administration of risperidone and paliperidone for the treating children and adolescents with conduct disorder (CD. Materials and Methods: A review of the current literature from clinical trials that investigated the efficacy of risperidone and paliperidone on CD considering the inclusion criteria and search strategies was performed by a search of PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Results: Out of 53 titles, 31 were irrelevant. The abstract of 22 potentially related articles were studied. Only six articles reported the results of clinical trial. However, one of them reported the effect of risperidone on conduct behaviors in autistic disorders. One study was a re-analysis of two previous studies, one study reported the effects of maintenance versus withdrawal of risperidone treatment and two studies included children with sub-average intelligence. Headache, somnolence and increased appetite are among the most common reported adverse effects. No study examined the effect of paliperidone on CD was found. Conclusion: Current literature suggests that risperidone could be effective for treating some conduct behaviors in children and adolescents. The effect of risperidone on CD is not a well-researched area. There is no well-controlled evidence based reports about the safety and efficacy of risperidone for the treatment of CD. Further trials should examine the efficacy of these medications on CD rather than conduct behaviors or disruptive behavior disorders.

  20. Testosterone Responders to Continuous Androgen Deprivation Therapy Show Considerable Variations in Testosterone Levels on Followup: Implications for Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayyid, Rashid K; Sayyid, Abdallah K; Klaassen, Zachary; Fadaak, Kamel; Goldberg, Hanan; Chandrasekar, Thenappan; Ahmad, Ardalanejaz; Leao, Ricardo; Perlis, Nathan; Chadwick, Karen; Hamilton, Robert J; Kulkarni, Girish S; Finelli, Antonio; Zlotta, Alexandre R; Fleshner, Neil E

    2018-01-01

    We determined whether men on continuous androgen deprivation therapy who achieve testosterone less than 0.7 nmol/l demonstrate subsequent testosterone elevations during followup and whether such events predict worse oncologic outcomes. We evaluated a random, retrospective sample of 514 patients with prostate cancer treated with continuous androgen deprivation therapy in whom serum testosterone was less than 0.7 nmol/l at University Health Network between 2007 and 2016. Patients were followed from the date of the first testosterone measurement of less than 0.7 nmol/l to progression to castrate resistance, death or study period end. Study outcomes were the development of testosterone elevations greater than 0.7, greater than 1.1 and greater than 1.7 nmol/l, and progression to a castrate resistant state. Survival curves were constructed to determine the rate of testosterone elevations. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was done to assess whether elevations predicted progression to castrate resistance. Median patient age was 74 years and median followup was 20.3 months. Within 5 years of followup 82%, 45% and 18% of patients had subsequent testosterone levels greater than 0.7, greater than 1.1 and greater than 1.7 nmol/l, respectively. In 96% to 100% of these patients levels less than 0.7 nmol/l were subsequently reestablished within 5 years. No patient baseline characteristic was associated with elevations and elevations were not a significant predictor of progression to a castrate resistant state. Men on continuous androgen deprivation therapy in whom initial testosterone is less than 0.7 nmol/l frequently show subsequent elevations in serum testosterone. Such a development should not trigger an immediate response from physicians as these events are prognostically insignificant with regard to oncologic outcomes. Levels are eventually reestablished at less than 0.7 nmol/l. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by

  1. Gender differences in financial risk aversion and career choices are affected by testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, Paola; Zingales, Luigi; Maestripieri, Dario

    2009-09-08

    Women are generally more risk averse than men. We investigated whether between- and within-gender variation in financial risk aversion was accounted for by variation in salivary concentrations of testosterone and in markers of prenatal testosterone exposure in a sample of >500 MBA students. Higher levels of circulating testosterone were associated with lower risk aversion among women, but not among men. At comparably low concentrations of salivary testosterone, however, the gender difference in risk aversion disappeared, suggesting that testosterone has nonlinear effects on risk aversion regardless of gender. A similar relationship between risk aversion and testosterone was also found using markers of prenatal testosterone exposure. Finally, both testosterone levels and risk aversion predicted career choices after graduation: Individuals high in testosterone and low in risk aversion were more likely to choose risky careers in finance. These results suggest that testosterone has both organizational and activational effects on risk-sensitive financial decisions and long-term career choices.

  2. Perceived Value of University-Based Continuing Education Leadership Development Programs for Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Geri L.; Major, Claire H.

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative study, which involved development of a Value Creation Survey, examined the perceived value of leadership development programs (LDPs) provided by continuing higher education for administrators in colleges and universities. Participants were administrators at Association for Continuing Higher Education (ACHE) member institutions.…

  3. Oral enclomiphene citrate stimulates the endogenous production of testosterone and sperm counts in men with low testosterone: comparison with testosterone gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminetsky, Jed; Werner, Michael; Fontenot, Greg; Wiehle, Ronald D

    2013-06-01

    Clomiphene citrate is employed off-label in men who have low testosterone and for the restoration of sperm counts in men who have used exogenous testosterone. Clomiphene is a mixture of two diastereoisomers: zuclomiphene and enclomiphene. We evaluated enclomiphene citrate in men with secondary hypogonadism. Our aim was to compare oral enclomiphene citrate as an alternative to topical testosterone. Blood levels of total testosterone (TT), estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), sex hormone binding globulin, thyroid stimulation hormone, prolactin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 IGF-1 were measured at certain times after treatment with each agent. Sperm parameters were determined at the same visits. Free testosterone (FT) was calculated. This was a proof-of-principle, randomized, open-label, fixed dose, active-control, two-center phase IIB study in 12 men with secondary hypogonadism treated previously with topical testosterone. After discontinuation of topical testosterone, morning TT values averaged 165 ± 66 pg/dL. After 3 months, there was a significant rise in men receiving enclomiphene citrate and gel that was sustained for 3 months. At 6 months, TT levels were 545 ± 268 and 525 ± 256 pg/dL for groups receiving the gel and enclomiphene citrate, respectively. Only men in the enclomiphene citrate group demonstrated increased LH and FSH. TT decreased one month posttreatment to pretreatment values. Enclomiphene citrate elevated sperm counts in seven out of seven men at 3 months and six out of six men at 6 months with sperm concentrations in the 75-334 × 10(6) /mL range. The gel was ineffective in raising sperm counts above 20 × 10(6) /mL for all five men at 3 months and raised counts in only two or five men at 6 months. At follow-up, only enclomiphene citrate treatment was associated with elevated sperm counts. Enclomiphene citrate increased testosterone and sperm counts. Concomitant changes in LH and FSH suggest normalization

  4. Implementing a Web-Based Registration and Administration System for Credit-by-Examination: Graduate Education Course Test Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lih-Ching Chen

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the problems and successes encountered in implementing a Web-based registration and administration system for credit-by-examination in a required graduate course, detailing the ways in which this system improves upon its paper-based predecessor. (EV)

  5. Adaptation from Paper-Pencil to Web-Based Administration of a Parent-Completed Developmental Questionnaire for Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yovanoff, Paul; Squires, Jane; McManus, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    Adapting traditional paper-pencil instruments to computer-based environments has received considerable attention from the research community due to the possible administration mode effects on obtained measures. When differences due to mode of completion (i.e., paper-pencil, computer-based) are present, threats to measurement validity are posed. In…

  6. On the effects of testosterone on brain behavioral functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eCelec

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone influences the brain via organizational and activational effects. Numerous relevant studies on rodents and a few on humans focusing on specific behavioral and cognitive parameters have been published. The results are, unfortunately, controversial and puzzling. Dosing, timing, even the application route seem to considerably affect the outcomes. In addition, the methods used for the assessment of psychometric parameters are a bit less than ideal regarding their validity and reproducibility. Metabolism of testosterone contributes to the complexity of its actions. Reduction to dihydrotestosterone by 5-alpha reductase increases the androgen activity; conversion to estradiol by aromatase converts the androgen to estrogen activity. Recently, the non-genomic effects of testosterone on behavior bypassing the nuclear receptors have attracted the interest of researchers. This review tries to summarize the current understanding of the complexity of the effects of testosterone on brain with special focus on their role in the known sex differences.

  7. Serum testosterone in Arabian stallions during breeding and non ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... serum testosterone concentration during the non-breeding season is lower than that of the breeding season. .... confirm no impact of the stressful environmental conditions on the reproductive function of Arabian stallions.

  8. Testosterone correlates with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection in macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koterski James

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Here we briefly report testosterone and cytokine responses to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV in macaques which were used as part of a larger study conducted by the Department of Defense to better characterize pathological responses to aerosolized VEEV in non-human primates. Serial samples were collected and analyzed for testosterone and cytokines prior to and during infection in 8 captive male macaques. Infected animals exhibited a febrile response with few significant changes in cytokine levels. Baseline testosterone levels were positively associated with viremia following exposure and were significantly higher than levels obtained during infection. Such findings suggest that disease-induced androgen suppression is a reasonable area for future study. Decreased androgen levels during physiological perturbations may function, in part, to prevent immunosuppression by high testosterone levels and to prevent the use of energetic resources for metabolically-expensive anabolic functions.

  9. Fluconazole and testosterone: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanger, D P; Jevons, S; Shaw, J T

    1988-05-01

    Fluconazole (UK-49,858), a novel bis-triazole antifungal agent, was given orally to groups of 10 male volunteers at doses of 25 and 50 mg/day for 28 days. Blood samples for testosterone estimation were taken from these and from a placebo group at several time points on days 1, 14, and 28 of the study, and the assay results demonstrated that the compound had no significant effect on circulating testosterone levels. Similarly, in studies with rat Leydig cells in vitro, fluconazole at concentrations up to 10 micrograms/ml was found to be only a weak inhibitor of testosterone production, whereas ketoconazole caused more than 50% inhibition at 0.1 microgram/ml. It is concluded that fluconazole, in contrast to ketoconazole, has little effect on the biosynthesis of testosterone by mammalian cells.

  10. Testosterone and estrogen impact social evaluations and vicarious emotions: A double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Andreas; Kopsida, Eleni; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Savic, Ivanka

    2016-06-01

    The abilities to "read" other peoples' intentions and emotions, and to learn from their experiences, are critical to survival. Previous studies have highlighted the role of sex hormones, notably testosterone and estrogen, in these processes. Yet it is unclear how these hormones affect social cognition and emotion using acute hormonal administration. In the present double-blind placebo-controlled study, we administered an acute exogenous dose of testosterone or estrogen to healthy female and male volunteers, respectively, with the aim of investigating the effects of these steroids on social-cognitive and emotional processes. Following hormonal and placebo treatment, participants made (a) facial dominance judgments, (b) mental state inferences (Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test), and (c) learned aversive associations through watching others' emotional responses (observational fear learning [OFL]). Our results showed that testosterone administration to females enhanced ratings of facial dominance but diminished their accuracy in inferring mental states. In men, estrogen administration resulted in an increase in emotional (vicarious) reactivity when watching a distressed other during the OFL task. Taken together, these results suggest that sex hormones affect social-cognitive and emotional functions at several levels, linking our results to neuropsychiatric disorders in which these functions are impaired. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Effect of testosterone on antler growth in yearling male reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Ryg

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available 1. The effect of exogenous testosterone on ander growth in yearling male reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus was tested. 2. Testosterone (33 mg/kg inhibited antler growth, and in one animal induced cleaning and subsequent casting of the antlers. This animal grew a new set of antlers, which were cleaned at the normal time. 3. During treatment, there was an inverse relationship between peak testosterone levels and antler growth rate. 4. There was no effect of treatment on body weight or food intake. 5. It is concluded that the effects of testosterone on antler growth are qualitatively the same in reindeer as in other deer. However, because high testosterone doses were necessary to produce effects, it is questionable whether this hormone normally is responsible for the cessation of antler growth in reindeer.Virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst hos ettårige reinbukker.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: 1. Virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst hos ett-årige reinbukker (Rangifer tarandus tarandus ble undersøkt. 2. Testosteron (33 mg/kg hemmet gevirveksten, og hos ett dyr førte behandlingen til at geviret ble feiet og deretter felt. Deretter vokste det ut ett nytt gevir, som ble feiet til vanlig tid. 3. Det var en negativ korrelasjon mellom maksimale testosteronnivåer og gevirvekst under behandlingen. 4. Det var ingen effekt på forinntak eller vektutvikling. 5. Det blir konkludert med at virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst er kvalitativt den samme hos rein som hos andre hjortedyr. Det er likevel tvilsomt om testosteron normalt er ansvarlig for avslutningen av gevirvekst hos rein, fordi store testosterondoser måtte til for å få noen virkning.Testosteronin vaikutus vuodenikåisten urosporojen sarvien kasvuun.Abstract in Finnish / Tiivistelmä: 1. Tutkimuksessa seurattiin ruiskeena annetun testosteronin vaikutusta vuodenikåisten urosporojen (Rangifer tarandus tarandus sarvien kasvuun. 2. Testosteron! (33 mg/kg hidasti sarvien

  12. Burden of diabetes mellitus estimated with a longitudinal population-based study using administrative databases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Scalone

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the epidemiologic and economic burden of diabetes mellitus (DM from a longitudinal population-based study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Lombardy Region includes 9.9 million individuals. Its DM population was identified through a data warehouse (DENALI, which matches with a probabilistic linkage demographic, clinical and economic data of different Healthcare Administrative databases. All individuals, who, during the year 2000 had an hospital discharge with a IDC-9 CM code 250.XX, and/or two consecutive prescriptions of drugs for diabetes (ATC code A10XXXX within one year, and/or an exemption from co-payment healthcare costs specific for DM, were selected and followed up to 9 years. We calculated prevalence, mortality and healthcare costs (hospitalizations, drugs and outpatient examinations/visits from the National Health Service's perspective. RESULTS: We identified 312,223 eligible subjects. The study population (51% male had a mean age of 66 (from 0.03 to 105.12 years at the index date. Prevalence ranged from 0.4% among subjects aged ≤45 years to 10.1% among those >85 years old. Overall 43.4 deaths per 1,000 patients per year were estimated, significantly (p<0.001 higher in men than women. Overall, 3,315€/patient-year were spent on average: hospitalizations were the cost driver (54.2% of total cost. Drugs contributed to 31.5%, outpatient claims represented 14.3% of total costs. Thirty-five percent of hospital costs were attributable to cerebro-/cardiovascular reasons, 6% to other complications of DM, and 4% to DM as a main diagnosis. Cardiovascular drugs contributed to 33.5% of total drug costs, 21.8% was attributable to class A (16.7% to class A10 and 4.3% to class B (2.4% to class B01 drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Merging different administrative databases can provide with many data from large populations observed for long time periods. DENALI shows to be an efficient instrument to obtain accurate estimates of burden of

  13. Testosterone determination in amniotic fluid for sec diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroa C, M.M.

    1985-11-01

    This study was carried on 50 samples of amniotic fluid obtained from pregnant patients with gestation old of 38 to 40 weeks; diagnosis of the foetus sex was made by measuring the testosterone levels by radioimmunoassay technique. It was found that 94% of the cases were correctly diagnosed. The testosterone levels found in the amniotic fluid of male and female foetus were significantly different (L<0.01) these confirm the efficacy of the method. (author)

  14. High-testosterone men reject low ultimatum game offers

    OpenAIRE

    Burnham, Terence C

    2007-01-01

    The ultimatum game is a simple negotiation with the interesting property that people frequently reject offers of ‘free’ money. These rejections contradict the standard view of economic rationality. This divergence between economic theory and human behaviour is important and has no broadly accepted cause. This study examines the relationship between ultimatum game rejections and testosterone. In a variety of species, testosterone is associated with male seeking dominance. If low ultimatum game...

  15. Mechanism of testosterone deficiency in the transgenic sickle cell mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Musicki

    Full Text Available Testosterone deficiency is associated with sickle cell disease (SCD, but its underlying mechanism is not known. We investigated the possible occurrence and mechanism of testosterone deficiency in a mouse model of human SCD. Transgenic sickle male mice (Sickle exhibited decreased serum and intratesticular testosterone and increased luteinizing hormone (LH levels compared with wild type (WT mice, indicating primary hypogonadism in Sickle mice. LH-, dbcAMP-, and pregnenolone- (but not 22-hydroxycholesterol- stimulated testosterone production by Leydig cells isolated from the Sickle mouse testis was decreased compared to that of WT mice, implying defective Leydig cell steroidogenesis. There also was reduced protein expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR, but not cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, in the Sickle mouse testis. These data suggest that the capacity of P450scc to support testosterone production may be limited by the supply of cholesterol to the mitochondria in Sickle mice. The sickle mouse testis exhibited upregulated NADPH oxidase subunit gp91phox and increased oxidative stress, measured as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, and unchanged protein expression of an antioxidant glutathione peroxidase-1. Mice heterozygous for the human sickle globin (Hemi exhibited intermediate hypogonadal changes between those of WT and Sickle mice. These results demonstrate that testosterone deficiency occurs in Sickle mice, mimicking the human condition. The defects in the Leydig cell steroidogenic pathway in Sickle mice, mainly due to reduced availability of cholesterol for testosterone production, may be related to NADPH oxidase-derived oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that targeting testicular oxidative stress or steroidogenesis mechanisms in SCD offers a potential treatment for improving phenotypic changes associated with testosterone deficiency in this disease.

  16. Neural activation-based sexual orientation and its correlation with free testosterone level in postoperative female-to-male transsexuals: preliminary study with 3.0-T fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gwang-Won; Kim, Seok-Kwun; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the brain activation pattern associated with sexual orientation and its correlation with the level of the free testosterone (free T) in postoperative female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals using a 3.0-Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Eleven postoperative FtM transsexuals with sex reassignment surgery underwent fMRI on a 3.0-T MR scanner. Brain activity was measured while viewing erotic male and female nude pictures. The average level of free T in the FtM transsexuals was in the normal range of heterosexual men. The brain areas with predominant activities during viewing female nude pictures in contrast to male pictures included the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus, putamen, amygdala, hypothalamus, and insula (p < 0.005). The free T levels were positively correlated with the BOLD signal changes in the parahippocampal gyrus (Spearman's rho = 0.91, p < 0.001), hippocampus (rho = 0.90, p < 0.001), insula (rho = 0.68, p < 0.05), putamen (rho = 0.66, p < 0.05), and amygdala (rho = 0.64, p < 0.05). Compared to FtM transsexuals with deficient level of free T, the FtM transsexuals with normal range of free T showed significantly higher activities in the parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, insula, putamen, and amygdala during viewing female nude pictures (p < 0.005). This study revealed the specific brain activation pattern associated with sexual orientation and its correlation with free T in the postoperative FtM transsexuals. These findings are applicable in understanding the neural mechanism on sexual arousal in FtM transsexuals and their sexual orientation in connection with the free T levels.

  17. Efek ekstrak akar ginseng Jawa dan Korea terhadap libido mencit jantan pada prakondisi testosteron rendah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Winarni

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was designed to compare the potency and duration effect of Java ginseng and Korean ginseng root extract administration on sexual behavior of male mice. It was done experimentally on male mice (strain BALB, aged 8–10 weeks, weighed 25–35 g. Thirty eight mice were grouped to 4 (four groups: First group was treated with solvent (as positive control, 2nd group was treated ethynilestradiol (EE2 (as negative control, 3rd group was treated with Java ginseng root extract, and 4th group was treated with Korean ginseng root extract. All groups were administered with EE2 0.56 mg/20 g bw/day for 9 days as pretreatment to decrease the testosteron level. After pretreatment, each group divided to 3 subgroups (each would receive treatment for 9, 18, and 27 days. Ethynilestradiol 0.56 mg/20 g bw/day was administered along treatment to keep testosterone level low, except to positive control group. Java ginseng and Korean ginseng root extract (equal with 1.4 mg ginseng root powder/ 20 g bw/day and EE2 were administered orally. The level of testosterone after pretreatment was measured by RIA (radioimmuoassay and changes in libido were determined by libido test. After the last treatment, 1 male mouse kept singly in individual cage. Libido test was carried out for 20 minutes. All of these activities during test recorded by handycam. The mice were observed for time from the introduction of female into the cage of male upto the first mount (mounting latency/ ML and for the number of mounts (mounting frequency/MF. The results indicated that at low testosterone level, Java ginseng root extract administration at the dose equal with 1.4 mg ginseng root powder/20 g bw/day shortened mounting latency and increased mounting frequency but Korean ginseng extract root at the same dose gave negative effects. Duration of administration of both Java and Korean ginseng root extract didn’t give effect on libido.

  18. Stress-induced suppression of testosterone secretion in male alligators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, V A; Elsey, R M

    1986-08-01

    In order to test the effect of acute stress on gonadal hormone secretion in reptiles, six mature male alligators were captured, and a blood sample was taken within 5 min of capture. Additional blood samples were taken at timed intervals for up to 41 hr, and plasma testosterone and corticosterone were measured by radioimmunoassay. Plasma testosterone declined to 50% of the initial value by 4 hr and dropped to less than 10% of initial by 24 hr. Plasma corticosterone increased during the first 12 hr, declined at 24 hr, and rose again at 40 hr. Blood samples from male alligators collected in North and South Carolina, south Florida, and in south Louisiana in two consecutive breeding seasons were also assayed for testosterone and corticosterone. In these populations there were significant differences in mean plasma testosterone and corticosterone levels. Elevated corticosterone levels were consistently seen in alligators caught in traps and from which a blood sample was taken several hours later. Plasma testosterone, although consistently lower in trapped alligators, did not show a negative correlation with plasma corticosterone. Farm-reared alligators bled once, released, and bled again at 24 hr also showed a highly significant suppression of testosterone secretion. These results demonstrate that stress has a rapid and dramatic effect on testicular steroid secretion in both farm-reared and wild alligators.

  19. Tritium labelling of testosteron by selective hydrogenation of dihydrotestosteron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postolache, Cristian; Matei, Lidia; Simion, Elena; Barna, Catalina; Condac, Eduard

    2002-01-01

    Elemental tritium is obtained during the decontamination process of the moderator from Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant. It might be stocked for use in controlled fusion, in a relatively far future, or, it might be immediately used as raw material in the synthesis of labelled compounds with important economic value. Labelling of testosteron with tritium was necessary for the carrying out of radiometric and molecular biology studies concerning androgen dependent diseases. Testosteron was labelled by selective hydrogenation of 1,2 dihydrotestosteron acetate. The forerunner was synthesized in two steps: 1) esterification of testosteron using acetic anhydride, and 2) selective dehydrogenation with 2,6-dichloro-3,5-dicyan-1,4 quinone (DDQ) of the ester formed in the first step. Testosteron acetate was synthesized and purified with yields of 73%, and 80%, respectively. The dehydrogenation process was characterized by yields of 82% for synthesis and 33% for purification. The tritium labelled hormone was obtained in two steps: 1) selective hydrogenation of Δ 1 - testosteron acetate in the presence of T 2 gas, at low pressure, and 2) hydrolysis of the ester at basic pH. The raw product obtained was purified by preparative thin layer chromatography. The physical and chemical characterization of labelled testosteron reveals a radiochemical purity higher than 98% and a specific activity of 53.4 Ci/mmol. (authors)

  20. Synthesis of steroids {sup 14}C-4: acetates of 19-nor-testosterone and testosterone; Syntheses de steroides {sup 14}C-4: acetates de 19-nor-testosterone et de testosterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floch, H

    1962-07-01

    The acetates of 19-nor-testosterone 4-{sup 14}C and testosterone 4-{sup 11}C have been prepared from ICH{sub 3}H{sub 8} {sup 14}C with respective yields of 32 percents and 56 percents in report of ICH{sub 3}-{sup 14}C. The cyclization in acid medium has given correct yields in opposition with the cyclization in alkaline medium that gives low yields for the testosterone and negative yields for the 19-nor-testosterone. [French] Les acetates de 19-nortestosterone 4-{sup 14}C et de testosterone 4-{sup 11}C ont ete prepares a partir de l'ICH{sub 3}H{sub 8} {sup 14}C avec des rendements respectifs de 32 pour cent et de 56 pour cent par rapport a l'ICH{sub 3}-{sup 14}C. La cyclisation en milieu acide nous a donne de bons rendements contrairement a la cyclisation en milieu alcalin qui donne des rendements faibles pour la testosterone et negatifs pour la 19-nortestosterone. (auteur)

  1. Modulation of AKR1C2 by curcumin decreases testosterone production in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Hisamitsu; Lu, Yan; Noguchi, Takahiro; Muto, Satoru; Okada, Hiroshi; Kawato, Suguru; Horie, Shigeo

    2018-04-01

    Intratumoral androgen biosynthesis has been recognized as an essential factor of castration-resistant prostate cancer. The present study investigated the effects of curcumin on the inhibition of intracrine androgen synthesis in prostate cancer. Human prostate cancer cell lines, LNCaP and 22Rv1 cells were incubated with or without curcumin after which cell proliferation was measured at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours, respectively. Prostate tissues from the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model were obtained after 1-month oral administration of 200 mg/kg/d curcumin. Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone concentrations in LNCaP prostate cancer cells were determined through LC-MS/MS assay. Curcumin inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of prostate cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Curcumin decreased the expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory proteins, CYP11A1 and HSD3B2 in prostate cancer cell lines, supporting the decrease of testosterone production. After 1-month oral administration of curcumin, Aldo-Keto reductase 1C2 (AKR1C2) expression was elevated. Simultaneously, decreased testosterone levels in the prostate tissues were observed in the TRAMP mice. Meanwhile, curcumin treatments considerably increased the expression of AKR1C2 in prostate cancer cell lines, supporting the decrease of dihydrotestosterone. Taken together, these results suggest that curcumin's natural bioactive compounds could have potent anticancer properties due to suppression of androgen production, and this could have therapeutic effects on prostate cancer. © 2018 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  2. Mechanical muscle function and lean body mass during supervised strength training and testosterone therapy in aging men with low-normal testosterone levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvorning, Thue; Christensen, Louise L; Madsen, Klavs

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effect of strength training and testosterone therapy on mechanical muscle function and lean body mass (LBM) in aging men with low-normal testosterone levels in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 24-week study.......To examine the effect of strength training and testosterone therapy on mechanical muscle function and lean body mass (LBM) in aging men with low-normal testosterone levels in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 24-week study....

  3. Synthesis of testosteron-1,2-T and its metabolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postolache, Cristian; Matei, Lidia; Barna, Catalina; Condac, Eduard

    2002-01-01

    The androgen dependent diseases appear due to some blocking in different steps of the sexual hormone synthesis (testosterone, dehydrotestosterone) or to some changes in the communication system through the androgen receptor. In the diagnosis of these diseases, the hormonal dosage in plasma plays a major role. The molecules of interest labelled with tritium can be easily identified in multi-component and very complex systems. In the studies conducted in the field of molecular biology, tritium must be introduced in the biological stable positions of the compounds. In the particular case of the testosterone, the positions 1, 2, or 7 of the steroid structure are recommended to be labelled. The labelled testosterone was obtained by selective hydrogenation of D1- testosterone acetate. The former was synthesized starting with testosterone, in two steps: (1) protection of the hydroxyl group by esterification of testosterone using acetic anhydride, and (2) selective oxidative dehydrogenation with 2,6-dichloro-3,5-dicyan-1,4 quinone (DDQ) of the ester formed in the first step. Testosterone acetate was synthesized and purified with yields of 73%, and 80%, respectively. The oxidative process was characterized by yields of 82 % for synthesis and 33% for purification. The products were analyzed by TLC, melting point determination and GC MS. The tritium labelled hormone was obtained by selective catalytic hydrogenation of D1- testosterone acetate in the presence of T 2 gas, at low pressure, and hydrolysis of the ester at basic pH, followed by neutralization of residual NaOH with HCl. The steric and thermodynamic parameters of the hydrogenation reaction were analyzed using computational chemistry methods (Hyperchem 7 and CS Chem Office). Labelled crude product obtained was purified by preparative thin layer chromatography. TLC - radiochromatograms of labelled compounds obtained by tritiation of 1,2 dehydrotestosterone acetate are shown. The physical and chemical characterization

  4. Personnel Administrators' Preferences for Resume Content: A Survey and Review of Empirically Based Conclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Kevin L.

    1984-01-01

    Reports results of a survey of Fortune 500 personnel administrators' preferences for the content of resumes submitted by college students entering the job market. Concludes that textbooks, teachers, and applicants should not only include but stress this preferred content. (PD)

  5. Differential effects of testosterone metabolites oestradiol and dihydrotestosterone on oxidative stress and carotenoid-dependent colour expression in a bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casagrande, S.; Costantini, D.; Dell'Omo, G.; Tagliavini, J.; Groothuis, T. G. G.; Omo, G. Dell’; Graves, J.A.

    Despite extensive research, the potential costs that keep secondary sexual traits honest and evolutionary stable remain somewhat elusive. Many carotenoid-based signals are regulated by testosterone (T), which has been suggested to impose a cost to the signaller by suppression of the immune system or

  6. Testosterone increases circulating dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in the male rhesus macaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystina eSorwell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and its sulfate (DHEAS are two of the most abundant hormones in the human circulation. Furthermore, they are released in a circadian pattern and show a marked age-associated decline. Adult levels of DHEA and DHEAS are significantly higher in males than in females, but the reason for this sexual dimorphism is unclear. In the present study, we administered supplementary androgens (DHEA, testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone [DHT] to aged male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. While this paradigm increased circulating DHEAS immediately after DHEA administration, an increase was also observed following either testosterone or DHT administration, resulting in hormonal profile resembling levels observed in young males in terms of both amplitude and circadian pattern. This stimulatory effect was limited to DHEAS, as an increase in circulating cortisol was not observed. Taken together, these data demonstrate an influence of the hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular axis on adrenal function in males, possibly by sensitizing the zona reticularis to the stimulating action of adrenocorticopic hormone. This represents a plausible mechanism to explain sex differences in circulating DHEA and DHEAS levels, and may have important implications in the development of hormone therapies designed for elderly men and women.

  7. Protective effect of royal jelly on the sperm parameters and testosterone level and lipid peroxidation in adult mice treated with oxymetholone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensieh Zahmatkesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate protective effect of royal jelly on sperm parameters, testosterone level, and malondialdehyde (MDA production in mice. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two adult male NMRI mice weighing 30±2 g were used. All the animals were divided into 4 groups. Control group: received saline 0.1 ml/mouse/day orally for 30 days. Royal Jelly group (RJ: received royal jelly at dose of 100 mg/kg daily for 30 days orally. Oxymetholone group: the received Oxymetholone (OX at dose of 5 mg/kg daily for 30 days orally. Royal Jelly+Oxymetholone group: received royal jelly at dose of 100 mg/kg/day orally concomitant with OX administration. Sperm count, sperm motility, viability, maturity, and DNA integrity were analyzed. Furthermore, serum testosterone and MDA concentrations were determined. Results: In Oxymetholone group, sperm count, motility as well as testosterone concentration reduced significantly (p

  8. Safety and efficacy of testosterone gel in the treatment of male hypogonadism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore M Lakshman

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Kishore M Lakshman, Shehzad BasariaSection of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Nutrition. Boston University School of Medicine, Boston Medical Center, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: Transdermal testosterone gels were first introduced in the US in 2000. Since then, they have emerged as a favorable mode of testosterone substitution. Serum testosterone levels reach a steady-state in the first 24 hours of application and remain in the normal range for the duration of the application. This pharmacokinetic profile is comparable to that of testosterone patch but superior to injectable testosterone esters that are associated with peaks and troughs with each dose. Testosterone gels are as efficacious as patches and injectable forms in their effects on sexual function and mood. Anticipated increases in prostate-specific antigen with testosterone therapy are not significantly different with testosterone gels, and the risk of polycythemia is lower than injectable modalities. Application site reactions, a major drawback of testosterone patches, occur less frequently with testosterone gels. However, inter-personal transfer is a concern if appropriate precautions are not taken. Superior tolerability and dose flexibility make testosterone gel highly desirable over other modalities of testosterone replacement. Androgel and Testim, the two currently available testosterone gel products in the US, have certain brandspecific properties that clinicians may consider prior to prescribing.Keywords: testosterone gel, Androgel, Testim, hypogonadism

  9. PC_Eyewitness and the sequential superiority effect: computer-based lineup administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLin, Otto H; Zimmerman, Laura A; Malpass, Roy S

    2005-06-01

    Computer technology has become an increasingly important tool for conducting eyewitness identifications. In the area of lineup identifications, computerized administration offers several advantages for researchers and law enforcement. PC_Eyewitness is designed specifically to administer lineups. To assess this new lineup technology, two studies were conducted in order to replicate the results of previous studies comparing simultaneous and sequential lineups. One hundred twenty university students participated in each experiment. Experiment 1 used traditional paper-and-pencil lineup administration methods to compare simultaneous to sequential lineups. Experiment 2 used PC_Eyewitness to administer simultaneous and sequential lineups. The results of these studies were compared to the meta-analytic results reported by N. Steblay, J. Dysart, S. Fulero, and R. C. L. Lindsay (2001). No differences were found between paper-and-pencil and PC_Eyewitness lineup administration methods. The core findings of the N. Steblay et al. (2001) meta-analysis were replicated by both administration procedures. These results show that computerized lineup administration using PC_Eyewitness is an effective means for gathering eyewitness identification data.

  10. Influence of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea, testosterone, and N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-all-trans-retinamide on prostate cancer induction in Wistar-Unilever rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, D L; Rao, K V; Dooley, L; Steele, V E; Lubet, R A; Kelloff, G J; Bosland, M C

    1998-08-01

    The influence of chemical carcinogen, hormonal stimulation, and chronic dietary administration of the synthetic retinoid, N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-all-trans-retinamide (4-HPR), on the induction of prostate cancer in male Wistar-Unilever rats was determined. Three different tumor induction regimens were used: (a) a single i.v. dose of 50 mg of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) per kg body weight, followed by chronic androgen stimulation via s.c. implantation of two silastic capsules containing 40 mg testosterone each; (b) a single i.v. dose of 50 mg of MNU per kg body weight (no testosterone treatment); and (c) chronic androgen stimulation with implanted testosterone capsules (no MNU treatment). In a fourth series of animals, the incidence of spontaneous prostate tumors was determined in groups of rats receiving neither carcinogen nor hormone stimulation. Within each series, parallel groups of animals were fed a control (vehicle-supplemented) diet or control diet supplemented with 4-HPR beginning 1 day after carcinogen administration; retinoid administration was continuous until termination of the study at 450 days. The incidence of accessory sex gland cancer in rats treated sequentially with MNU + testosterone was >60%, in comparison with cancer incidences of Unilever rats.

  11. Effect of testosterone replacement on the alteration of steroid metabolism in the hypothalamic-preoptic area of male hamsters treated with melatonin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterborg, L J; West, D A; Rudeen, P K; Ganjam, V K

    1991-11-01

    Adult male hamsters were maintained under 14 hours of light per day and randomly assigned to groups that received daily afternoon melatonin (25 micrograms) or vehicle injections. Animals from both groups were killed following 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment. By 12 weeks, the melatonin-treated hamsters had significant reductions in the weights of the testes and seminal vesicles, serum testosterone levels, and activities did not differ between groups. In a second experiment, hamsters were hypothalamic-preoptic area (HPOA) aromatase activities. Hypothalamic-preoptic area 5 alpha-reductase activities did not differ between groups. In a second experiment, hamsters were again treated with melatonin or vehicle for 12 weeks prior to being killed. After 10 weeks of treatment, groups of melatonin-treated animals received subcutaneous silastic capsules (5, 10, or 20 mm) filled with testosterone. Animals in two other groups were given blank implants or no implants at all. Two weeks later, at autopsy, reproductive organ weights, serum testosterone levels, and HPOA aromatase activities were significantly suppressed by melatonin administration. 5 alpha-Reductase activity in the HPOA was not affected. Hamsters that had been given the 10- and 20-mm testosterone implants exhibited normal seminal vesicle weights and HPOA aromatase activities. These results suggest that melatonin-induced reduction of HPOA aromatase activity is mediated by decreased circulating levels of testosterone.

  12. The benefits and risks of testosterone replacement therapy: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazem Bassil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Nazem Bassil1, Saad Alkaade2, John E Morley1,31Division of Geriatric Medicine; 2Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University Health Sciences Center, St. Louis, Missouri, USA; 3GRECC, VA Medical Center, St. Louis, Missouri, USAAbstract: Increased longevity and population aging will increase the number of men with late onset hypogonadism. It is a common condition, but often underdiagnosed and undertreated. The indication of testosterone-replacement therapy (TRT treatment requires the presence of low testosterone level, and symptoms and signs of hypogonadism. Although controversy remains regarding indications for testosterone supplementation in aging men due to lack of large-scale, long-term studies assessing the benefits and risks of testosterone-replacement therapy in men, reports indicate that TRT may produce a wide range of benefits for men with hypogonadism that include improvement in libido and sexual function, bone density, muscle mass, body composition, mood, erythropoiesis, cognition, quality of life and cardiovascular disease. Perhaps the most controversial area is the issue of risk, especially possible stimulation of prostate cancer by testosterone, even though no evidence to support this risk exists. Other possible risks include worsening symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy, liver toxicity, hyperviscosity, erythrocytosis, worsening untreated sleep apnea or severe heart failure. Despite this controversy, testosterone supplementation in the United States has increased substantially over the past several years. The physician should discuss with the patient the potential benefits and risks of TRT. The purpose of this review is to discuss what is known and not known regarding the benefits and risks of TRT.Keywords: hypogonadism, testosterone replacement therapy, erectile dysfunction, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease

  13. Testosterone influences spatial strategy preferences among adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spritzer, Mark D; Fox, Elliott C; Larsen, Gregory D; Batson, Christopher G; Wagner, Benjamin A; Maher, Jack

    2013-05-01

    Males outperform females on some spatial tasks, and this may be partially due to the effects of sex steroids on spatial strategy preferences. Previous work with rodents indicates that low estradiol levels bias females toward a striatum-dependent response strategy, whereas high estradiol levels bias them toward a hippocampus-dependent place strategy. We tested whether testosterone influenced the strategy preferences in male rats. All subjects were castrated and assigned to one of three daily injection doses of testosterone (0.125, 0.250, or 0.500 mg/rat) or a control group that received daily injections of the drug vehicle. Three different maze protocols were used to determine rats' strategy preferences. A low dose of testosterone (0.125 mg) biased males toward a motor-response strategy on a T-maze task. In a water maze task in which the platform itself could be used intermittently as a visual cue, a low testosterone dose (0.125 mg) caused a significant increase in the use of a cued-response strategy relative to control males. Results from this second experiment also indicated that males receiving a high dose of testosterone (0.500 mg) were biased toward a place strategy. A third experiment indicated that testosterone dose did not have a strong influence on the ability of rats to use a nearby visual cue (floating ball) in the water maze. For this experiment, all groups seemed to use a combination of place and cued-response strategies. Overall, the results indicate that the effects of testosterone on spatial strategy preference are dose dependent and task dependent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate associated with insulin resistance and lower testosterone levels in a young population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Ying; Hwang, Jing-Shiang; Sung, Fung-Chang; Lin, Chien-Yu; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Chen, Pau-Chung; Su, Ta-Chen

    2017-06-01

    Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers and are reported to associate with testicular dysfunction or insulin resistance in different studies, but the concurrent relationship between phthalate exposure, testosterone levels, and insulin resistance in the young population is not well understood. We recruited 786 subjects aged 12-30 years from a population-based sample of Taiwanese adolescents and young adults from 2006 to 2008. Generalized additive models were used to evaluate glucose homeostasis and testicular function in relation to seven urinary phthalate metabolites among adolescents (aged 12-20) and young adults (aged 20-30) in Taiwan. We observed a trend toward a decrease in male testosterone and an increase in urinary mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) levels across four quartiles of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). After adjusting for potential covariates, generalized additive models further showed that log-transformed insulin and HOMA-IR were raised by 0.055 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.027-0.082] and 0.056 (95% CI, 0.027-0.084), respectively, with a one-unit increase in log-transformed MEHP in young adults. In male adults (aged 22-30), the log-testosterone levels were reduced by 0.018 (95% CI, 0.001-0.036), with a one-unit of increase in log-transformed MEHP. Such relationships were not observed in adolescents. In conclusion, this study demonstrated age-related associations of urinary MEHP metabolites with impaired metabolic homeostasis of glucose that were only observed in young adults. In addition, MEHP exposure was concurrently associated with lower testosterone levels in young, male adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Serum testosterone levels in males are not associated with entrepreneurial behavior in two independent observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Loos, Matthijs J H M; Haring, Robin; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Groenen, Patrick J F; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Frank H; Koellinger, Philipp D; Kohlmann, Thomas; Nauck, Matthias A; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G; van Rooij, Frank J A; Wallaschofski, Henri; Thurik, A Roy

    2013-07-02

    Previous research has suggested a positive association between testosterone (T) and entrepreneurial behavior in males. However, this evidence was found in a study with a small sample size and has not been replicated. In the present study, we aimed to verify this association using two large, independent, population-based samples of males. We tested the association of T with entrepreneurial behavior, operationalized as self-employment, using data from the Rotterdam Study (N=587) and the Study of Health in Pomerania (N=1697). Total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in the serum. Free testosterone (FT), non-SHBG-bound T (non-SHBG-T), and the TT/SHBG ratio were calculated and used as measures of bioactive serum T, in addition to TT adjusted for SHBG. Using logistic regression models, we found no significant associations between any of the serum T measures and self-employment in either of the samples. To our knowledge, this is the first large-scale study on the relationship between serum T and entrepreneurial behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Content Analysis of Testosterone Websites: Sex, Muscle, and Male Age-Related Thematic Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Nicholas; Vuong, Jimmy; Gray, Peter B

    2018-03-01

    Male testosterone supplementation is a large and growing industry. How is testosterone marketed to male consumers online? The present exploratory study entailed a content coding analysis of the home pages of 49 websites focused on testosterone supplementation for men in the United States. Four hypotheses concerning anticipated age-related differences in content coding were also tested: more frequent longevity content toward older men, and more frequent social dominance/physical formidability, muscle, and sex content toward younger men. Codes were created based on inductive observations and drawing upon the medical, life history, and human behavioral endocrinology literatures. Approximately half ( n = 24) of websites were oriented toward younger men (estimated audience of men 40 years of age or younger) and half ( n = 25) toward older men (estimated audience over 40 years of age). Results indicated that the most frequent content codes concerned online sales (e.g., product and purchasing information). Apart from sales information, the most frequent codes concerned, in order, muscle, sex/sexual functioning, low T, energy, fat, strength, aging, and well-being, with all four hypotheses also supported. These findings are interpreted in the light of medical, evolutionary life history, and human behavioral endocrinology approaches.

  17. Postnatal penile length and growth rate correlate to serum testosterone levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Boisen, Kirsten A; Virtanen, Helena E

    2006-01-01

    in Denmark and at 0, 3 and 18 months in Finland with blood samples taken at 3 months (n = 630). Penile length and growth were registered and reproductive hormones (testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, oestradiol) were analysed. RESULTS: Penile length increased from birth (3.49+/-0.4 cm) to 3 years...... and growth. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal population-based study taking place at two large primary obstetric centres at the University Hospitals of Copenhagen, Denmark, and Turku, Finland. METHODS: Infant boys, 728 Danish and 1234 Finnish, underwent clinical examinations at 0, 3, 18 and 36 months...... of age (4.53+/-0.51 cm) with the highest growth velocity from birth to 3 months (1.0 mm/month). Penile length and growth were significantly, positively correlated to serum testosterone (r = 0.31 and 0.076, P = 0.006 and 0.001 respectively) and to free testosterone index (r = 0.385 and 0.094, P = 0...

  18. Salivary testosterone and immunoglobulin A were increased by resistance training in adults with Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Fornieles

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the influence of resistance training on salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA levels and hormone profile in sedentary adults with Down syndrome (DS. A total of 40 male adults with DS were recruited for the trial through different community support groups for people with intellectual disabilities. All participants had medical approval for participation in physical activity. Twenty-four adults were randomly assigned to perform resistance training in a circuit with six stations, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Training intensity was based on functioning in the eight-repetition maximum (8RM test for each exercise. The control group included 16 age-, gender-, and BMI-matched adults with DS. Salivary IgA, testosterone, and cortisol levels were measured by ELISA. Work task performance was assessed using the repetitive weighted-box-stacking test. Resistance training significantly increased salivary IgA concentration (P=0.0120; d=0.94 and testosterone levels (P=0.0088; d=1.57 in the exercising group. Furthermore, it also improved work task performance. No changes were seen in the controls who had not exercised. In conclusion, a short-term resistance training protocol improved mucosal immunity response as well as salivary testosterone levels in sedentary adults with DS.

  19. Analysis of the development trend of China’s business administration based on time series

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang Rui

    2016-01-01

    On the general direction of the economic system, China is in a crucial period of the establishment of the modern enterprise system and reform of the macroeconomic system, and a lot of high-quality business administration talents are required to make China’s economy be stably developed. This paper carries out time series analysis of the development situation of China’s business administration major: on the whole, the society currently presents an upward trend on the demand for the business adm...

  20. Fatherhood, pairbonding and testosterone in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzawa, Christopher W; Gettler, Lee T; Muller, Martin N; McDade, Thomas W; Feranil, Alan B

    2009-10-01

    In species with a high level of paternal care, including humans, testosterone (T) is believed to help mediate the trade-off between parenting and mating effort. This hypothesis is supported by the observation of lower T in pairbonded men or fathers compared to single, non-fathers; however, prior work has highlighted population variation in the association between T and pairbonding or fatherhood status. Here we evaluate this hypothesis in a large (n=890), representative birth cohort of young men (age range 20.5-22.5 years) living in Cebu City, the Philippines. Bioavailable T was measured in saliva collected prior to bed and immediately upon waking the following morning. Plasma T and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured in morning plasma samples. In this sample, 20% of men were pairbonded, defined as living with a partner or married, 13% were fathers, and roughly half of fathers reported involvement in childcare. Pairbonded men had significantly lower T at both times of day. Unlike in other populations, this relationship was accounted for entirely by fatherhood status: among the large sub-sample of non-fathers, mean T was nearly identical among pairbonded and single men. There was a strong association between self-reported involvement in childcare and lower evening T, supporting the idea that the evening nadir in T is related to social interactions across the day. Similar relationships were found for total plasma T and LH, suggesting that these relationships are coordinated by centrally-mediated changes in LH secretion. The relatively modest T difference in relation to fatherhood at Cebu, in comparison to other studies, may reflect a lower level of paternal involvement in childcare activities in this population. Our findings using a large, well-characterized birth cohort support the hypothesized role of T as a mediator of mating and parenting effort in humans, while contributing evidence for cultural variation in the relative importance of pairbonding and fathering

  1. [Severity assessment strategies based on administrative data using stroke as an example].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Ingrid; Hammer, Antje; Köster, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    Information on disease severity is relevant for many studies with claims data in health service research, but only limited information is available in routine data. Stroke serves as an example to analyse whether the combination of different information in claims data can provide insight into the severity of a disease. As a first step, a literature search was conducted. Strategies to assess the severity of a disease by means of routine data were examined with regard to approval and applicability to German sickness fund data. In order to apply and extend the identified procedures, the statutory health insurance sample AOK Hessen/KV Hessen (VSH) served as data source. It is an 18.75 % random sample of persons insured by the AOK Hessen, with 2013 being the most recent year. Stroke patients were identified by the ICD-10 GM code I63 and I64. Patients with said diagnoses being coded as a hospital discharge diagnosis in 2012 were included due to an acute event in 2012 (n=944). The follow-up time was one year. Ten studies covering seven different methods to assess stroke severity were identified. Codes for coma (4.2 % of stroke patients in the SHI sample) as well as coma and/or the application of a PEG tube (9.8 % of the stroke patients) were applied as a proxy for disease severity of acute cases. Taking age, sex and comorbidity into consideration, patients in a coma show a significantly increased risk of mortality compared to those without coma. Three operationalisations were chosen as possible proxies for disease severity of stroke in the further course of disease: i) sequelae (hemiplegia, neurological neglect), ii) duration of the index inpatient stay, and iii) nursing care/ care level 3 for the first time after stroke. The latter proxy has the highest explanatory value for SHI costs. The studies identified use many variables mainly based on hospital information in order to describe disease severity. With the exception of coma, these proxies were neither validated nor

  2. Evaluation of an interactive web-based nursing course with streaming videos for medication administration skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowan, Azizeh K; Idhail, Jamila Abu

    2014-08-01

    Nursing students should exhibit competence in nursing skills in order to provide safe and quality patient care. This study describes the design and students' response to an interactive web-based course using streaming video technology tailored to students' needs and the course objectives of the fundamentals of nursing skills clinical course. A mixed-methodology design was used to describe the experience of 102 first-year undergraduate nursing students at a school of nursing in Jordan who were enrolled in the course. A virtual course with streaming videos was designed to demonstrate medication administration fundamental skills. The videos recorded the ideal lab demonstration of the skills, and real-world practice performed by registered nurses for patients in a hospital setting. After course completion, students completed a 30-item satisfaction questionnaire, 8 self-efficacy scales, and a 4-item scale solicited their preferences of using the virtual course as a substitute or a replacement of the lab demonstration. Students' grades in the skill examination of the procedures were measured. Relationships between the main variables and predictors of satisfaction and self-efficacy were examined. Students were satisfied with the virtual course (3.9 ± 0.56, out of a 5-point scale) with a high-perceived overall self-efficacy (4.38 ± 0.42, out of a 5-point scale). Data showed a significant correlation between student satisfaction, self-efficacy and achievement in the virtual course (r = 0.45-0.49, p students accessed the course from home and some faced technical difficulties. Significant predictors of satisfaction were ease of access the course and gender (B = 0.35, 0.25, CI = 0.12-0.57, 0.02-0.48 respectively). The mean achievement score of students in the virtual class (7.5 ± 0.34) was significantly higher than that of a previous comparable cohort who was taught in the traditional method (6.0 ± 0.23) (p students believed that the virtual course is a sufficient

  3. Late administration of Mn porphyrin-based SOD mimic enhances diabetic complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana K. Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mn(III N-alkylpyridylporphyrins (MnPs have demonstrated protection in various conditions where increased production of reactive oxygen/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS, is a key pathological factors. MnPs can produce both pro-oxidative and antioxidative effects depending upon the cellular redox environment that they encounter. Previously we reported (Free Radic. Res. 39: 81–8, 2005 that when the treatment started at the onset of diabetes, Mn(III meso-tetrakis(N-methylpyridinium-2-ylporphyrin, MnTM-2-PyP5+ suppressed diabetes-induced oxidative stress. Diabetes, however, is rarely diagnosed at its onset. The aim of this study was to investigate if MnTM-2-PyP5+ can suppress oxidative damage and prevent diabetic complications when administered more than a week after the onset of diabetes. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin. The MnP-based treatment started 8 days after the onset of diabetes and continued for 2 months. The effect of the treatment on activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and glyoxalases I and II as well as malondialdehyde and GSH/GSSG ratio were determined in kidneys. Kidney function was assessed by measuring lysozyme and total protein in urine and blood urea nitrogen. Vascular damage was evaluated by assessing vascular reactivity. Our data showed that delayed administration of MnTM-2-PyP5+ did not protect against oxidative damage and did not prevent diabetic complications. Moreover, MnTM-2-PyP5+ contributed to the kidney damage, which seems to be a consequence of its pro-oxidative action. Such outcome can be explained by advanced oxidative damage which already existed at the moment the therapy with MnP started. The data support the concept that the overall biological effect of a redox-active MnP is determined by (i the relative concentrations of oxidants and reductants, i.e. the cellular redox

  4. The Impact of Injector-Based Contrast Agent Administration on Bolus Shape and Magnetic Resonance Angiography Image Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Jost

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare injector-based contrast agent (CA administration with hand injection in magnetic resonance angiography (MRA. Methods: Gadobutrol was administered in 6 minipigs with 3 protocols: (a hand injection (one senior technician, (b hand injection (6 less-experienced technicians, and (c power injector administration. The arterial bolus shape was quantified by test bolus measurements. A head and neck MRA was performed for quantitative and qualitative comparison of signal enhancement. Results: A significantly shorter time to peak was observed for protocol C, whereas no significant differences between protocols were found for peak height and bolus width. However, for protocol C, these parameters showed a much lower variation. The MRA revealed a significantly higher signal-to-noise ratio for injector-based administration. A superimposed strong contrast of the jugular vein was found in 50% of the hand injections. Conclusions: Injector-based CA administration results in a more standardized bolus shape, a higher vascular contrast, and a more robust visualization of target vessels.

  5. School-Based Administration of ADHD Drugs Decline, along with Diversion, Theft, and Misuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, Robert L.; Bucher, Richard H.; Wilford, Bonnie B.; Coleman, John J.

    2007-01-01

    Since 2000 researchers have reported a decline in the administration of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications given by school nurses, although no decline has been noted in the incidence of ADHD in school-age populations. Government data for the same period show reduced levels of methylphenidate abuse as measured by its…

  6. Treating networks seriously: Practical and research-based agendas in public administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Toole, Laurence J.

    1997-01-01

    How well equipped are today's public administrators to face the challenges they confront from the involvement of businesses, not-for-profits, other units of government, and even clients in complex patterns of program operations? Not very well, if judged by the extent to which practitioners and

  7. Supporting Fiscal Aspect of Land Administration through an LADM-based Valuation Information Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kara, A.; Çağdaş, V.; Lemmen, C.H.J.; Işıkdağ, Ü.; van Oosterom, P.J.M.; Stubkjær, E.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents an information system artifact for the fiscal aspect of land administration, a valuation information model for the specification of inventories or databases used in valuation for recurrently levied immovable property taxes. The information model is designed as an extension module

  8. Application of Model-Based Diagnosis to Multi-Agent Systems Representing Public Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; van Engers, T.

    2012-01-01

    In public administration, legal knowledge in the form of critical incidents and, for want of a better word, noncompliance storylines is important for monitoring and enforcement, but has no natural place in traditional forms of legal knowledge representation such as normative rules or legal argument

  9. Analysis of aluminium in rat following administration of allergen immunotherapy using either aluminium or microcrystalline-tyrosine-based adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Stuart A; Heath, Matthew D; Kramer, Matthias F; Skinner, Murray A

    2016-03-01

    Investigation into the absorption, distribution and elimination of aluminium in rat after subcutaneous aluminium adjuvant formulation administration using ICP-MS is described. Assays were verified under the principles of a tiered approach. There was no evidence of systemic exposure of aluminium, in brain or in kidney. Extensive and persistent retention of aluminium at the dose site was observed for at least 180 days after administration. This is the first published work that has quantified aluminium adjuvant retention based on the quantity of aluminium delivered in a typical allergy immunotherapy course. The results indicate that the repeated administration of aluminium-containing adjuvants will likely contribute directly and significantly to an individual's body burden of aluminium.

  10. Testosterone Replacement Therapy: Long-Term Safety and Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Corona

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent position statements and guidelines have raised the distinction between a true and false, age-related hypogonadism (HG or late-onset hypogonadism (LOH. The former is the consequence of congenital or acquired “organic” damage of the brain centers or of the testis. The latter is mainly secondary to age-related comorbidities and does not require testosterone (T therapy (TTh. In addition, concerns related to cardiovascular (CV safety have further increased the scepticism related to TTh. In this paper, we reviewed the available evidence supporting the efficacy of TTh in non-organic HG and its long term safety. A large amount of evidence has documented that sexual symptoms are the most specific correlates of T deficiency. TTh is able to improve all aspects of sexual function independent of the pathogenetic origin of the disease supporting the scientific demonstration that LOH does exist according to an “ex-juvantibus” criterion. Although the presence of metabolic derangements could mitigate the efficacy of TTh on erectile dysfunction, the positive effect of TTh on body composition and insulin sensitivity might counterbalance the lower efficacy. CV safety concerns related to TTh are essentially based on a limited number of observational and randomized controlled trials which present important methodological flaws. When HG is properly diagnosed and TTh correctly performed no CV and prostate risk have been documented.

  11. Effect of red maca (Lepidium meyenii) on prostate zinc levels in rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, C; Leiva-Revilla, J; Rubio, J; Gasco, M; Gonzales, G F

    2012-05-01

    Lepidium meyenii (maca) is a plant that grows exclusively above 4000 m in the Peruvian central Andes. Red maca (RM) extract significantly reduced prostate size in rats with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone enanthate (TE). Zinc is an important regulator of prostate function. This study aimed to determine the effect of RM on prostate zinc levels in rats with BPH induced by TE. Also, the study attempted to determine the best marker for the effect of RM on sex accessory glands. Rats treated with RM extract from day 1 to day 14 reversed the effect of TE administration on prostate weight and zinc levels. However, RM administered from day 7 to day 14 did not reduce the effect of TE on all studied variables. Finasteride (FN) reduced prostate, seminal vesicle and preputial gland weights in rats treated with TE. Although RM and FN reduced prostate zinc levels, the greatest effect was observed in TE-treated rats with RM from day 1 to day 14. In addition, prostate weight and zinc levels showed the higher diagnosis values than preputial and seminal vesicle weights. In conclusion, RM administered from day 1 to day 14 reduced prostate size and zinc levels in rats where prostatic hyperplasia was induced with TE. Also, this experimental model could be used as accurately assay to determine the effect of maca obtained under different conditions and/or the effect of different products based on maca. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Testosterone-secreting adrenal adenoma in a peripubertal girl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamilaris, T.C.; DeBold, C.R.; Manolas, K.J.; Hoursanidis, A.; Panageas, S.; Yiannatos, J.

    1987-01-01

    A 15-year-old girl who presented with primary amenorrhea and virilization had an adrenocortical adenoma that secreted predominantly testosterone. To the authors' knowledge, she is the first peripubertal and second youngest patient with a testosterone-secreting adrenal tumor described. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and urinary 17-ketosteroid an 17-hydroxycorticosteroid levels were normal. A tumor was located by a computed tomographic (CT) scan and by uptake of 6-β-[ 75 Se] selenomethylnorcholesterol. Microscopic examination of the tumor showed typical features of an adrenocortical adenoma with no histologic features characteristic of Leydig cells. Postoperatively, her hirsutism regressed, she rapidly went through puberty, and regular monthly menstruation started four months later. Finding the source of testosterone in a virilized patient can be difficult. Eleven of the 14 previously described patients with testosterone-secreting adrenal tumors initially underwent misdirected surgery on the ovaries. Review of these cases revealed that results of hormone stimulation and suppression tests are unreliable and that these tumors are usually large. Therefore, CT scanning of the adrenal glands is recommended in all patients suspected of having a testosterone-secreting tumor

  13. Testosterone and paternal care in East African foragers and pastoralists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Martin N.; Marlowe, Frank W.; Bugumba, Revocatus; Ellison, Peter T.

    2008-01-01

    The ‘challenge hypothesis’ posits that testosterone facilitates reproductive effort (investment in male–male competition and mate-seeking) at the expense of parenting effort (investment in offspring and mates). Multiple studies, primarily in North America, have shown that men in committed relationships, fathers, or both maintain lower levels of testosterone than unpaired men. Data from non-western populations, however, show inconsistent results. We hypothesized that much of this cross-cultural variation can be attributed to differential investment in mating versus parenting effort, even among married fathers. Here, we directly test this idea by comparing two neighbouring Tanzanian groups that exhibit divergent styles of paternal involvement: Hadza foragers and Datoga pastoralists. We predicted that high levels of paternal care by Hadza fathers would be associated with decreased testosterone in comparison with non-fathers, and that no such difference between fathers and non-fathers would be evident in Datoga men, who provide minimal direct paternal care. Twenty-seven Hadza men and 80 Datoga men between the ages of 17 and 60 provided morning and afternoon saliva samples from which testosterone was assayed. Measurements in both populations confirmed these predictions, adding further support to the hypothesis that paternal care is associated with decreased testosterone production in men. PMID:18826936

  14. Anaerobic testosterone degradation in Steroidobacter denitrificans - Identification of transformation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahrbach, Michael; Krauss, Martin; Preiss, Alfred; Kohler, Hans-Peter E.; Hollender, Juliane

    2010-01-01

    The transformation of the androgenic steroid testosterone by gammaproteobacterium Steroidobacter denitrificans was studied under denitrifying conditions. For the first time, growth experiments showed that testosterone was mineralized under consumption of nitrate and concurrent biomass production. Experiments with cell suspensions using [4- 14 C]-testosterone revealed the intermediate production of several transformation products (TPs). Characterisation of ten TPs was carried out by means of HPLC coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization as well as 1 H and 13 C NMR spectroscopy. 3β-hydroxy-5α-androstan-17-one (trans-androsterone) was formed in the highest amount followed by 5α-androstan-3,17-dione. The data suggests that several dehydrogenation and hydrogenation processes take place concurrently in ring A and D because no consistent time-resolved pattern of TP peaks was observed and assays using 2 TPs as substrates resulted in essentially the same TPs. The further transformation of testosterone in S. denitrificans seems to be very efficient and fast without formation of detectable intermediates. - Testosterone is completely mineralized by Steroidobacter denitrificans under denitrifying conditions with initial formation of several reduced and oxidized transformation products.

  15. Anaerobic testosterone degradation in Steroidobacter denitrificans - Identification of transformation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahrbach, Michael, E-mail: michael.fahrbach@web.d [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Krauss, Martin, E-mail: martin.krauss@eawag.c [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Preiss, Alfred, E-mail: alfred.preiss@item.fraunhofer.d [Fraunhofer Institute of Toxicology and Experimental Medicine (ITEM), Nikolai-Fuchs-Strasse 1, D-30625 Hannover (Germany); Kohler, Hans-Peter E., E-mail: hkohler@eawag.c [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Hollender, Juliane, E-mail: juliane.hollender@eawag.c [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2010-08-15

    The transformation of the androgenic steroid testosterone by gammaproteobacterium Steroidobacter denitrificans was studied under denitrifying conditions. For the first time, growth experiments showed that testosterone was mineralized under consumption of nitrate and concurrent biomass production. Experiments with cell suspensions using [4-{sup 14}C]-testosterone revealed the intermediate production of several transformation products (TPs). Characterisation of ten TPs was carried out by means of HPLC coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization as well as {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. 3{beta}-hydroxy-5{alpha}-androstan-17-one (trans-androsterone) was formed in the highest amount followed by 5{alpha}-androstan-3,17-dione. The data suggests that several dehydrogenation and hydrogenation processes take place concurrently in ring A and D because no consistent time-resolved pattern of TP peaks was observed and assays using 2 TPs as substrates resulted in essentially the same TPs. The further transformation of testosterone in S. denitrificans seems to be very efficient and fast without formation of detectable intermediates. - Testosterone is completely mineralized by Steroidobacter denitrificans under denitrifying conditions with initial formation of several reduced and oxidized transformation products.

  16. Testosterone-secreting adrenal adenoma in a peripubertal girl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamilaris, T.C.; DeBold, C.R.; Manolas, K.J.; Hoursanidis, A.; Panageas, S.; Yiannatos, J.

    1987-11-13

    A 15-year-old girl who presented with primary amenorrhea and virilization had an adrenocortical adenoma that secreted predominantly testosterone. To the authors' knowledge, she is the first peripubertal and second youngest patient with a testosterone-secreting adrenal tumor described. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and urinary 17-ketosteroid an 17-hydroxycorticosteroid levels were normal. A tumor was located by a computed tomographic (CT) scan and by uptake of 6-..beta..-(/sup 75/Se) selenomethylnorcholesterol. Microscopic examination of the tumor showed typical features of an adrenocortical adenoma with no histologic features characteristic of Leydig cells. Postoperatively, her hirsutism regressed, she rapidly went through puberty, and regular monthly menstruation started four months later. Finding the source of testosterone in a virilized patient can be difficult. Eleven of the 14 previously described patients with testosterone-secreting adrenal tumors initially underwent misdirected surgery on the ovaries. Review of these cases revealed that results of hormone stimulation and suppression tests are unreliable and that these tumors are usually large. Therefore, CT scanning of the adrenal glands is recommended in all patients suspected of having a testosterone-secreting tumor.

  17. Support for school-based obesity prevention efforts: attitudes among administrators at nationally representative samples of US elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lindsey; Slater, Sandy J; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-08-01

    With the continued threat of childhood obesity, many public health intervention efforts focus on school settings. The current study sought to document administrator attitudes regarding obesity and interest in improving relevant school practices (i.e., nutrition and physical activity) in elementary schools. Mail-back surveys were used to gather data from public and private elementary schools during the 2006-2007, 2007-2008, 2008-2009, and 2010-2011 school years. In each year, a different set of items pertaining to administrator attitudes was included. Numbers of responding schools annually ranged from 259 to 336 private schools, and from 578 to 748 public schools. The vast majority of elementary school administrators (>90%) agreed that schools can play a role in addressing childhood obesity, physical education improves a variety of academic outcomes, and they were interested in improving practices at their school. Concern about childhood obesity and perceiving that schools can play a role in addressing obesity were both associated with more interest in improving school practices. However, only one-third of administrators agreed that parents were interested in participating in improving nutrition and physical activity practices, suggesting opportunities for efforts to improve collaboration. Administrators are generally very supportive of school-based efforts to improve nutrition and physical activity practices and see the value in doing so. Given the amount of time children spend in school, schools are an essential venue for efforts to address childhood obesity.

  18. Nanostructured lipid carriers-based flurbiprofen gel after topical administration: acute skin irritation, pharmacodynamics, and percutaneous absorption mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Aihua; Su, Zhen; Li, Sanming; Han, Fei

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the preliminary safety and effectiveness of nanostructured lipid carriers-based flurbiprofen gel (FP NLC-gel), the acute irritation test, in vivo pharmacodynamics evaluation and pharmacokinetic study were investigated after topical application. No dropsy and erythema were observed after continuous dosing 7 d of FP NLC-gel on the rabbit skin, and the xylene-induced ear drossy could be inhibited by FP NLC-gel at different dosages. The maximum concentration of FP in rats muscle was 2.03 μg/g and 1.55 μg/g after oral and topical administration, respectively. While the peak concentration in untreated muscle after topical administration was only 0.37 μg/mL. And at any time, following topical administration the mean muscle-plasma concentration ratio Cmuscle/CPlasma was obviously higher than that following oral administration. Results indicated that FP could directly penetrate into the subcutaneous muscle tissue from the administration site. Thus, the developed FP NLC-gel could be a safe and effective vehicle for topical delivery of FP.

  19. Protective effect of Urtica dioica L against nicotine-induced damage on sperm parameters, testosterone and testis tissue in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Cyrus; Salahshoor, Mohammad Reza; Naseri, Ali

    2014-06-01

    Nicotine consumption can decrease fertility drive in males by inducing oxidative stress and DNA damage. Urtica dioica L (U.dioica) is a multipurpose herb in traditional medicine for which some anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties have been identified. The main goal is to investigate whether the U.dioica could inhibit nicotine adverse effects on sperm cells viability, count, motility, and testis histology and testosterone hormone. In this study, hydro-alcoholic extract of U.dioica was prepared and various doses of U.dioica (0, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) and U.dioica plus nicotine (0, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally to 56 male mice for 28 consequent days. These mice were randomly assigned to 8 groups (n=7) and sperm parameters (sperm cells viability, count, motility, and morphology), testis and prostate weight, testis histology and testosterone hormone were analyzed and compared. The results indicated that nicotine administration (0.5 mg/kg) significantly decreased testosterone level, count and motility of sperm cells, and testis weight compared to control group (p=0.00). However, increasing the dose of U.dioica significantly boosted motility, count, normal morphology of sperm cells, seminiferous tubules diameter, and testosterone in all groups compared to control (p=0.00) and testis weight in 20 and 50 mg/kg doses in comparison with control group (p=0.00). It seems that U.dioica hydro-alcoholic extract administration could increase the quality of spermatozoa and inhibits nicotine-induced adverse effects on sperm parameters.

  20. Probiotic microbes sustain youthful serum testosterone levels and testicular size in aging mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theofilos Poutahidis

    Full Text Available The decline of circulating testosterone levels in aging men is associated with adverse health effects. During studies of probiotic bacteria and obesity, we discovered that male mice routinely consuming purified lactic acid bacteria originally isolated from human milk had larger testicles and increased serum testosterone levels compared to their age-matched controls. Further investigation using microscopy-assisted histomorphometry of testicular tissue showed that mice consuming Lactobacillus reuteri in their drinking water had significantly increased seminiferous tubule cross-sectional profiles and increased spermatogenesis and Leydig cell numbers per testis when compared with matched diet counterparts This showed that criteria of gonadal aging were reduced after routinely consuming a purified microbe such as L. reuteri. We tested whether these features typical of sustained reproductive fitness may be due to anti-inflammatory properties of L. reuteri, and found that testicular mass and other indicators typical of old age were similarly restored to youthful levels using systemic administration of antibodies blocking pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-17A. This indicated that uncontrolled host inflammatory responses contributed to the testicular atrophy phenotype in aged mice. Reduced circulating testosterone levels have been implicated in many adverse effects; dietary L. reuteri or other probiotic supplementation may provide a viable natural approach to prevention of male hypogonadism, absent the controversy and side-effects of traditional therapies, and yield practical options for management of disorders typically associated with normal aging. These novel findings suggest a potential high impact for microbe therapy in public health by imparting hormonal and gonad features of reproductive fitness typical of much younger healthy individuals.

  1. Local Preparation and Evaluation of Double - antibody Liquid Phase Radioimmunoassay System for Detection of Human Testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafik, H.M.; Sallam, Kh.M.; Ebeid, N.H.; Elshaer, M.R.; Elshae, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    Preparation, evaluation and optimization of testosterone radioimmunoassay (RIA) system using liquid phase double antibody is considered to be the main objective. Three primary components were prepared and characterized to obtain valid and accurate system. These components were polyclonal testosterone antibody, the "1"2"5I-testosterone tracer and set of testosterone standards. The production of polyclonal testosterone antibody was undertaken by immunizing two groups of females white New-Zealand rabbits with testosterone-3-(O-carboxy methyloxime): BSA as immunogen through primary immunization and five boosters. Both R 1 and R 4 gave anti-serum has a high immuno reactivity. The preparation of "1"2"5I-testosterone tracer was carried out using three different conjugates (testosterone-3-TME, testosterone-3-histamine and testosterone-3-BSA) by electrophilic substitution mechanism using chloramine-T as oxidizing agent. Tracers were characterized in terms of radiochemical yield %, radiochemical purity %, specific activity and immuno reactivity. A set of testosterone standards were prepared using highly purified testosterone antigen. Optimization and validation tests of the local liquid phase RIA system were carried out. In conclusion, the results showed that, the local testosterone RIA system is sensitive, specific and accurate with significant cost reduction in comparison with commertial kit and extended use of the method for routine investigation of variety of diseases especially hypogonadism and associated male infertility

  2. The formation of management culture of local fiscal service administrative staff (based on customs house data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Lipovskaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with management culture of administrative staff working at the local bodies of the State Fiscal Service of Ukraine, whose performance is considered to depend on the level of management culture. It is shown that economic activity, which is a cultural and historic phenomenon, determines the role of Customs House services and contributes to the originality of the management culture itself. Customs personnel is viewed in terms of social and cultural domains.

  3. Geospatial Based Information System Development in Public Administration for Sustainable Development and Planning in Urban Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Georgios N. Kouziokas

    2016-01-01

    It is generally agreed that the governmental authorities should actively encourage the development of an efficient framework of information and communication technology initiatives so as to advance and promote sustainable development and planning strategies. This paper presents a prototype Information System for public administration which was designed to facilitate public management and decision making for sustainable development and planning. The system was developed by using several progra...

  4. Evaluation of biocompatibility and administration site reactogenicity of polyanhydride-particle-based platform for vaccine delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntimer, Lucas; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E; Petersen, Latrisha K; Ross, Kathleen A; Walz, Katherine A; Wang, Chong; Hostetter, Jesse; Narasimhan, Balaji; Wannemuehler, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Efficacy, purity, safety, and potency are important attributes of vaccines. Polyanhydride particles represent a novel class of vaccine adjuvants and delivery platforms that have demonstrated the ability to enhance the stability of protein antigens as well as elicit protective immunity against bacterial pathogens. This work aims to elucidate the biocompatibility, inflammatory reactions, and particle effects on mice injected with a 5 mg dose of polyanhydride nanoparticles via common parenteral routes (subcutaneous and intramuscular). Independent of polymer chemistry, nanoparticles more effectively disseminated away from the injection site as compared to microparticles, which exhibited a depot effect. Using fluorescent probes, the in vivo distribution of three formulations of nanoparticles, following subcutaneous administration, indicated migration away from the injection site. Less inflammation was observed at the injection sites of mice-administered nanoparticles as compared to Alum and incomplete Freund's adjuvant. Furthermore, histological evaluation revealed minimal adverse injection site reactions and minimal toxicological effects associated with the administration of nanoparticles at 30 days post-administration. Collectively, these results demonstrate that polyanhydride nanoparticles do not induce inflammation as a cumulative effect of particle persistence or degradation and are, therefore, a viable candidate for a vaccine delivery platform. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Electron-microscopic autoradiography of tritiated testosterone in rat testis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederik, P.M.; Molen, H.J. van der; Galjaard, H.; Klepper, D.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of a technique for autoradiography of diffusible substances has been further tested by analysing the localization of steroids in rats testes with the light- and electron-microscope. Testes of rats were perfused with tritiated testosterone (3 min) followed by 15-min perfusion with buffer containing a 100-fold excess of unlabelled testosterone. Tissue samples were frozen, freeze dried, fixed in osmium vapour and embedded in Epon. To exclude extraction of steroids, contact with water and other solvents was prevented during cutting of thin sections on an ultracryotome and further treatment for autoradiography. Light- and electron-microscopic observations indicated that the highest concentration of labelled testosterone was present within the basal parts of the Sertoli cell cytoplasm and in lipid inclusions of Sertoli cells within the seminiferous tubules. This is the first account of autoradiography of steroids at the electron-microscope level. (author)

  6. Testosterone biotransformation by the isolated perfused canine pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-del Castillo, C.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Varela-Fascinetto, G.; Altamirano, A.; Odor-Morales, A.; Lopez-Medrano, R.M.; Robles-Diaz, G.

    1991-01-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that the pancreas is under the influence of sex steroid hormones, and that it may even participate in their biosynthesis and metabolism. In the present study, [3H]testosterone was perfused into the isolated canine pancreas, and measured in the effluent with several of its metabolites (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and estradiol). Results show that testosterone is readily transformed by the canine pancreas. The main product found in the effluent is androstenedione. The testis and spleen were also perfused with [3H]testosterone and used as controls. In both cases, this hormone appeared mostly unchanged in the effluent as compared to the pancreatic perfusion (p less than 0.0001). From our data, we conclude that the canine pancreas has the capacity to transform sex steroid hormones, and could be considered an extragonadal site of sex steroid biosynthesis

  7. Partial Androgen Deficiency, Depression, and Testosterone Supplementation in Aging Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Amore

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to summarize current knowledge on the correlation between depressive symptoms with a syndrome called partial androgen deficiency of the aging male (PADAM and on the potential benefits of testosterone (T treatment on mood. Despite, the causative nature of the relationship between low T levels and depression is uncertain, many hypogonadal men suffer from depression and vice versa several depressed patients are affected by hypogonadism. Supplementation with testosterone failed to show sound evidence of effectiveness in the treatment of depression. Nevertheless, testosterone supplementation has proved to be effective on some domains significant for the quality of life of aged patients with PADAM (sexual function and cognitive functions, muscular strengths.

  8. Testosterone biotransformation by the isolated perfused canine pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-del Castillo, C.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Varela-Fascinetto, G.; Altamirano, A.; Odor-Morales, A.; Lopez-Medrano, R.M.; Robles-Diaz, G. (Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Mexico City (Mexico))

    1991-01-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that the pancreas is under the influence of sex steroid hormones, and that it may even participate in their biosynthesis and metabolism. In the present study, (3H)testosterone was perfused into the isolated canine pancreas, and measured in the effluent with several of its metabolites (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and estradiol). Results show that testosterone is readily transformed by the canine pancreas. The main product found in the effluent is androstenedione. The testis and spleen were also perfused with (3H)testosterone and used as controls. In both cases, this hormone appeared mostly unchanged in the effluent as compared to the pancreatic perfusion (p less than 0.0001). From our data, we conclude that the canine pancreas has the capacity to transform sex steroid hormones, and could be considered an extragonadal site of sex steroid biosynthesis.

  9. Plasma and faecal testosterone and estradiol in chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekchay, S.; Apichartsrungkoon, T.; Pongpiachan, P.

    1996-01-01

    Identification of sex in some kind of fowls can not be done by using their external appearances. Sex steroid hormone levels may be used as an indicator of sexual dimorphism in birds. The objective of this investigation was to measure plasma and faecal testosterone and estradiol concentrations in 8 male and 15 female chickens by using radioimmunoassay (RIA) technique. The relationship between plasma and faecal testosterone, and plasma and faecal estradiol are positively correlated. The correlation coefficients (r 2 ) between plasma and faecal steroids concentration were 0.621 (p<0.05) for testosterone and 0.692 (p<0.05) for estradiol. The average plasma and faecal sex steroid concentrations in male and female chickens were 10.05 ± 1.97 ng/ml and 511.50 ± 95.89 ng/g (for male testosterone), 24.85 ± 1.60 pg/ml and 49.65 ± 6.01 ng/g (for male estradiol), 0.79 ± 0.05 ng/ml and 134.20 ± 14.70 ng/ml (for female testosterone), 129.91 ± 19.30 pg/ml and 334.80 ± 15.62 ng/g (for female estradiol), respectively. Plasma and faecal testosterone and estradiol levels in male and female chickens are significant difference (p<0.01, p<0.01, p<0.001 and p<0.001 respectively). The results of this investigation suggested that plasma or faecal sex steroid concentrations can be used to discriminate sex of chicken which is show the possibility to use the plasma or faecal sex steroids for identification of sex in other bird species

  10. Comparing administrative and survey data for ascertaining cases of irritable bowel syndrome: a population-based investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Targownick Laura E

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Administrative and survey data are two key data sources for population-based research about chronic disease. The objectives of this methodological paper are to: (1 estimate agreement between the two data sources for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and compare the results to those for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; (2 compare the frequency of IBS-related diagnoses in administrative data for survey respondents with and without self-reported IBS, and (3 estimate IBS prevalence from both sources. Methods This retrospective cohort study used linked administrative and health survey data for 5,134 adults from the province of Manitoba, Canada. Diagnoses in hospital and physician administrative data were investigated for respondents with self-reported IBS, IBD, and no bowel disorder. Agreement between survey and administrative data was estimated using the κ statistic. The χ2 statistic tested the association between the frequency of IBS-related diagnoses and self-reported IBS. Crude, sex-specific, and age-specific IBS prevalence estimates were calculated from both sources. Results Overall, 3.0% of the cohort had self-reported IBS, 0.8% had self-reported IBD, and 95.3% reported no bowel disorder. Agreement was poor to fair for IBS and substantially higher for IBD. The most frequent IBS-related diagnoses among the cohort were anxiety disorders (34.4%, symptoms of the abdomen and pelvis (26.9%, and diverticulitis of the intestine (10.6%. Crude IBS prevalence estimates from both sources were lower than those reported previously. Conclusions Poor agreement between administrative and survey data for IBS may account for differences in the results of health services and outcomes research using these sources. Further research is needed to identify the optimal method(s to ascertain IBS cases in both data sources.

  11. Influence of marital status on testosterone levels-A ten year follow-up of 1113 men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmboe, Stine A; Priskorn, Lærke; Jørgensen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Based on a large population of 1113 men aged 30-60 at baseline (mean: 44.1 years, standard deviation: 10.5), we investigated whether intra-individual changes in testosterone (T) and related reproductive hormones during a ten year period were dependent of marital status at baseline and follow...... in testosterone was observed. However, independent of age and lifestyle, we observed that men who went from unmarried to married (n=81) during the study period experienced an accelerated age-related decline in testosterone (-6.6nmol/L) whereas men who went from married to unmarried (n=67) experienced...... an attenuated age-related decline (-2.3nmol/L). Men who were either married or unmarried at both time points (n=167, n=798, respectively) had a testosterone decline in between (-3.7nmol/L and -4.6nmol/L, respectively). Changes in T/LH ratio did not differ according to marital status indicating that the lowered...

  12. Determination of Testosterone Level During Different Reproductive Stages and Affecting Factors in Syrian Awassi Male Lambs Throughout the Year

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salhab, S.; Zarkawi, M.; Al-Masri, M. R.; Wardeh, M. F.; Kassem, R.

    2004-01-01

    Fifty-six Awassi ram lambs, aged between 5.0-5.5 months, represented two types of birth (single and twin) and two production lines (milk and meat) were used. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein once a week for a period of 2 months and then twice a month for the following 10 months. Plasma was prepared and stored frozen at -20 deg. C until analysed for testosterone using radioimmunoassay (RIA). The effect of weight and age of lambs, type of birth and production line on testosterone level were studied. Results showed that there was only a significant effect (P -1 . This level was higher in the lambs of the milk than those of meat line (5.6 ± 0.7 vs. 3.9 ± 0.7 nmol l -1 ), and in the single than in twin births (5.8 ± 0.9 vs. 4.2 ± 0.6 nmol l -1 ), and the first peak occurred at 9 months of age. It was concluded that the level of testosterone in Awassi ram lambs increased with age. It was also concluded that the attainment of puberty in Awassi ram lambs based on the level of testosterone in the blood was at the age of 9 months. (authors)

  13. Low- and high-testosterone individuals exhibit decreased aversion to economic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Steven J; Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A; McLaurin, R Edward; Kuhn, Cynthia M; LaBar, Kevin S; Platt, Michael L; Huettel, Scott A

    2011-04-01

    Testosterone is positively associated with risk-taking behavior in social domains (e.g., crime, physical aggression). However, the scant research linking testosterone to economic risk preferences presents inconsistent findings. We examined the relationship between endogenous testosterone and individuals' economic preferences (i.e., risk preference, ambiguity preference, and loss aversion) in a large sample (N = 298) of men and women. We found that endogenous testosterone levels have a significant U-shaped association with individuals' risk and ambiguity preferences, but not loss aversion. Specifically, individuals with low or high levels of testosterone (more than 1.5 SD from the mean for their gender) were risk and ambiguity neutral, whereas individuals with intermediate levels of testosterone were risk and ambiguity averse. This relationship was highly similar in men and women. In contrast to received wisdom regarding testosterone and risk, the present data provide the first robust evidence for a nonlinear association between economic preferences and levels of endogenous testosterone.

  14. The effect of sex and time of day on testosterone concentrations in equine saliva and serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Munk; Jensen, R.B.; Palme, R.

    2016-01-01

    In terms of exercise, testosterone is important for the growth and maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. Sampling saliva could be a non-invasive alternative to blood sampling for the quantification of testosterone levels in horses. The objective of this study was to compare testosterone concentrat......In terms of exercise, testosterone is important for the growth and maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. Sampling saliva could be a non-invasive alternative to blood sampling for the quantification of testosterone levels in horses. The objective of this study was to compare testosterone......:00-08:00), at midday (11:00-13:00) and in the evening (17:00-19:00). The results demonstrated a weak correlation between saliva and serum testosterone concentrations (rs=0.25, P=0.04). Stallions had higher serum testosterone concentrations than mares and geldings (Peffect of sex...

  15. Shaped and Balanced by Hormones : cortisol, testosterone and the psychoneuroendocrinology of human socio-emotional behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, E.R.

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormones testosterone and cortisol can be considered hormones for environmental challenges; they are involved in adaptive neural and behavioral responses towards emotional stimuli. A key challenge of human psychoneuroendocrinology is to unravel the neural mechanisms by which testosterone

  16. Prolonged exposure to acetaminophen reduces testosterone production by the human fetal testis in a xenograft model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Driesche, Sander; Macdonald, Joni; Anderson, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    Most common male reproductive disorders are linked to lower testosterone exposure in fetal life, although the factors responsible for suppressing fetal testosterone remain largely unknown. Protracted use of acetaminophen during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of cryptorchidism in sons...

  17. Strength training and testosterone treatment have opposing effects on migration inhibitor factor levels in ageing men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, D.; Christensen, L. L.; Kvorning, T.

    2013-01-01

    Strength Training and Testosterone Treatment Have Opposing Effects on Migration Inhibitor Factor Levels in Ageing Men......Strength Training and Testosterone Treatment Have Opposing Effects on Migration Inhibitor Factor Levels in Ageing Men...

  18. Association between plasma testosterone and work-related neck and shoulder disorders among female workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaergaard, A; Hansen, Åse Marie; Rasmussen, K

    2000-01-01

    The aims were to study the association between anabolic hormone testosterone in plasma and the presence of musculoskeletal disorders among female workers and to study the association between changes in testosterone and changes in musculoskeletal complaints....

  19. Phthalate-Induced Pathology in the Foetal Testis Involves More Than Decreased Testosterone Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foetal exposure to phthalates is known to adversely impact male reproductive development and function. Developmental anomalies of reproductive tract have been attributed to impaired testosterone synthesis. However, species differences in the ability to produce testosterone have...

  20. Effects of Oral Administration of Nicotine on Organ Weight, Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of oral administration of nicotine on body and reproductive organ weight, serum testosterone level and testicular histology in adult male rats. Forty male rats divided into five groups and treated for a period of 30 days with 0.5mg/kg (low dose) and 1.0mg/kg (high dose) body weight of ...

  1. AN ANIMAL MODEL OF SCHIZOPHRENIA BASED ON CHRONIC LSD ADMINISTRATION: OLD IDEA, NEW RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marona-Lewicka, Danuta; Nichols, Charles D.; Nichols, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Many people who take LSD experience a second temporal phase of LSD intoxication that is qualitatively different, and was described by Daniel Freedman as “clearly a paranoid state.” We have previously shown that the discriminative stimulus effects of LSD in rats also occur in two temporal phases, with initial effects mediated by activation of 5-HT2A receptors (LSD30), and the later temporal phase mediated by dopamine D2-like receptors (LSD90). Surprisingly, we have now found that non-competitive NMDA antagonists produced full substitution in LSD90 rats, but only in older animals, whereas in LSD30, or in younger animals, these drugs did not mimic LSD. Chronic administration of low doses of LSD (>3 months, 0.16 mg/kg every other day) induces a behavioral state characterized by hyperactivity and hyperirritability, increased locomotor activity, anhedonia, and impairment in social interaction that persists at the same magnitude for at least three months after cessation of LSD treatment. These behaviors, which closely resemble those associated with psychosis in humans, are not induced by withdrawal from LSD; rather, they are the result of neuroadaptive changes occurring in the brain during the chronic administration of LSD. These persistent behaviors are transiently reversed by haloperidol and olanzapine, but are insensitive to MDL-100907. Gene expression analysis data show that chronic LSD treatment produced significant changes in multiple neurotransmitter system-related genes, including those for serotonin and dopamine. Thus, we propose that chronic treatment of rats with low doses of LSD can serve as a new animal model of psychosis that may mimic the development and progression of schizophrenia, as well as model the established disease better than current acute drug administration models utilizing amphetamine or NMDA antagonists such as PCP. PMID:21352832

  2. An animal model of schizophrenia based on chronic LSD administration: old idea, new results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marona-Lewicka, Danuta; Nichols, Charles D; Nichols, David E

    2011-09-01

    Many people who take LSD experience a second temporal phase of LSD intoxication that is qualitatively different, and was described by Daniel Freedman as "clearly a paranoid state." We have previously shown that the discriminative stimulus effects of LSD in rats also occur in two temporal phases, with initial effects mediated by activation of 5-HT(2A) receptors (LSD30), and the later temporal phase mediated by dopamine D2-like receptors (LSD90). Surprisingly, we have now found that non-competitive NMDA antagonists produced full substitution in LSD90 rats, but only in older animals, whereas in LSD30, or in younger animals, these drugs did not mimic LSD. Chronic administration of low doses of LSD (>3 months, 0.16 mg/kg every other day) induces a behavioral state characterized by hyperactivity and hyperirritability, increased locomotor activity, anhedonia, and impairment in social interaction that persists at the same magnitude for at least three months after cessation of LSD treatment. These behaviors, which closely resemble those associated with psychosis in humans, are not induced by withdrawal from LSD; rather, they are the result of neuroadaptive changes occurring in the brain during the chronic administration of LSD. These persistent behaviors are transiently reversed by haloperidol and olanzapine, but are insensitive to MDL-100907. Gene expression analysis data show that chronic LSD treatment produced significant changes in multiple neurotransmitter system-related genes, including those for serotonin and dopamine. Thus, we propose that chronic treatment of rats with low doses of LSD can serve as a new animal model of psychosis that may mimic the development and progression of schizophrenia, as well as model the established disease better than current acute drug administration models utilizing amphetamine or NMDA antagonists such as PCP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of baseline testosterone on the efficacy of degarelix and leuprolide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damber, Jan-Erik; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Iversen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of baseline testosterone on testosterone control and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) suppression using data from a phase III trial (CS21) comparing degarelix and leuprolide in prostate cancer.......To investigate the effects of baseline testosterone on testosterone control and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) suppression using data from a phase III trial (CS21) comparing degarelix and leuprolide in prostate cancer....

  4. Design of security scheme of the radiotherapy planning administration system based on the hospital information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Yongzhi; Zhao Jinzao

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To design a security scheme of radiotherapy planning administration system. Methods: Power Builder 9i language was used to program the system through the model of client-server machine. Oracle 9i was used as the database server. Results In this system, user registration management, user login management, application-level functions of control, database access control, and audit trail were designed to provide system security. Conclusions: As a prototype for the security analysis and protection of this scheme provides security of the system, application system, important data and message, which ensures the system work normally. (authors)

  5. Solid phase radioimmunoassay for plasma testosterone using a plastic microtiter tray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosogi, Hidemi

    1975-01-01

    In order to simplify radioimmunoassay for plasma testosterone and to measure many samples at the same time, a method of solid phase radioimmunoassay utilizing a plastic disposable microtiter tray (DMT) by which chromatography can be omitted was investigated. Other steroids except for 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) had a low degree of cross reactivity with the antiserum. Five α-DHT which could be measured together with testosterone in this assay was not a problem clinically because of its strong androgenic activity. The best standard curve was obtained when the antiserum was diluted to 1:1000. The sensitivity of this assay was 10 pg-tube. The maximal adsorption of antibody to plastic DMT was observed when the pH of the antiserum was within the range of 6.5-9.5 and the precoating time was 24 hr at room temperature. The best pH of the incubation buffer was 0.8, and the antigen-antibody reaction became a plateau when the incubation exceeded 6 hrs. The water blank in this assay was 4.6 +- 2.1 pg/tube. The recovery of testosterone (50, 100, 200 pg) when added to 0.1 ml female plasma was 99 +- 6.8%. Coefficients of variation within assay and between assays were below 11.2% and 20.0%, respectively. Correlation between this method and the dextran-coated charcoal method was fairly good (r=0.938). Plasma testosterone levels in 10 normal males and 12 normal females were 616 +- 202 (mean +- SD) ng/dl and 66 +- 29 (mean +- SD) ng/dl, respectively. The levels were low in patients with hypopituitarism, hypogonadism and acromegaly. They were normal in patients with Cushing's syndrome due to adrenal hyperplasia and adenoma, but they were high in a patient with adrenal carcinoma. In a patient with testicular feminization, the level was 632 ng/dl. This increased after the administration of HCG, and decreased to 127.5 ng/dl after castration. (auth.)

  6. Testosterone deficiency in dialysis patients: Differences according to the dialysis techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Secundino Cigarrán

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Circulating testosterone levels in men on dialysis were independently associated with HD technique. It can be concluded that a new factor—namely the dialysis technique—may be associated with falling testosterone levels and the associated loss of muscle mass and inflammation. Further studies are needed to establish whether the dialysis technique itself triggers testosterone elimination.

  7. Serum testosterone as a prognostic factor in patients with advanced prostatic carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, P; Rasmussen, F; Christensen, I J

    1994-01-01

    In 245 patients with previously untreated advanced carcinoma of the prostate, serum concentrations of testosterone have been measured before androgen deprivation therapy, and patients were divided in quartiles according to their serum concentration. Pretreatment level of serum testosterone...... parameters suggest that low serum testosterone merely is a consequence of the advanced malignancy rather than a causative factor in the pathogenesis of prostatic cancer....

  8. Variation in circulating testosterone during mating predicts reproductive success in a wild songbird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate Apfelbeck

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone is an important sex hormone and mediates reproduction in male vertebrates. There is ample evidence that testosterone coordinates the expression of physiological, morphological and behavioural traits during reproduction and many of these traits are under sexual selection. However, only few studies so far have examined if individual variation in testosterone is correlated with reproductive success. Because socially monogamous bird species pass through different phases within a breeding cycle and each of these phases requires the expression of different behaviours, the relation between testosterone and reproductive success could vary with breeding stage. Here we investigate the link between reproductive success and testosterone in European stonechats – a socially monogamous songbird with biparental care. Previous studies found that territorial aggression in breeding stonechats depends on testosterone and that testosterone levels peak during the mating phase. Thus, high testosterone levels during mating may influence reproductive success by promoting territorial aggression and mate guarding. We found that males with two breeding attempts produced a similar number of fledglings as males with three breeding attempts. However, males with two breeding attempts expressed higher levels of testosterone than males with just one or those with three breeding attempts, regardless of whether testosterone was measured during the mating or the parental phase of the first brood. Furthermore, testosterone levels during mating, but not during parenting correlated with the total annual number of fledglings. Thus, individual variation in levels of plasma testosterone predicted reproductive success in stonechats.

  9. Plasma testosterone in the general population, cancer prognosis and cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orsted, D D; Nordestgaard, B G; Bojesen, S E

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Testosterone is an important anabolic hormone in humans and in vitro testosterone stimulates growth of lung and colon cancer cells. We tested the hypothesis that plasma testosterone associate with increased risk of cancer and with increased risk of early death after cancer. MATERIALS...

  10. Transdermal testosterone pretreatment in poor responders undergoing ICSI: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosdou, J K; Venetis, C A; Dafopoulos, K; Zepiridis, L; Chatzimeletiou, K; Anifandis, G; Mitsoli, A; Makedos, A; Messinis, I E; Tarlatzis, B C; Kolibianakis, E M

    2016-05-01

    Does pretreatment with transdermal testosterone increase the number of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) retrieved by more than 1.5 in poor responders undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), using recombinant follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and gonadotrophin releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa)? Testosterone pretreatment failed to increase the number of COCs by more than 1.5 as compared with no pretreatment in poor responders undergoing ICSI (difference between medians: 0.0, 95% CI: -1.0 to +1.0). Androgens are thought to play an important role in early follicular development by enhancing ovarian sensitivity to FSH. In a recent meta-analysis, testosterone pretreatment resulted in an increase of 1.5 COCs as compared with no pretreatment. However, this effect was based on the analysis of only two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) including 163 patients. Evidently, there is a need for additional RCTs that will allow firmer conclusions to be drawn. The present RCT was designed to detect a difference of 1.5 COCs (sample size required = 48 patients). From 02/2014 until 04/2015, 50 poor responders fulfilling the Bologna criteria have been randomized (using a randomization list) to either testosterone pretreatment for 21 days ( ITALIC! n = 26) or no pretreatment ( ITALIC! n = 24). All patients underwent a long follicular GnRHa protocol. Recombinant FSH stimulation was started on Day 22 following GnRHa initiation. In the testosterone pretreatment group, a daily dose of 10 mg of testosterone gel was applied transdermally for 21 days starting from GnRHa initiation. Results are expressed as median (interquartile range). No differences in baseline characteristics were observed between the two groups compared. Testosterone levels [median (interquartile range)] were significantly higher in the testosterone pretreatment on the day of initiation of FSH stimulation [114 (99.5) ng/dl versus 20 (20) ng/dl, respectively, ITALIC! P interquartile range)] was similar between

  11. IRMS detection of testosterone manipulated with 13C labeled standards in human urine by removing the labeled 13C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jingzhu; Yang, Rui; Yang, Wenning; Liu, Xin; Xing, Yanyi; Xu, Youxuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 13 C labeled testosterone can be used to adjust the isotope ratio of testosterone. • The novel testosterone cannot be detected by the regular IRMS method in doping test. • A method was explored to remove the labeled 13 C. • The established method can be used to detect the manipulated testosterone. - Abstract: Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) is applied to confirm testosterone (T) abuse by determining the carbon isotope ratios (δ 13 C value). However, 13 C labeled standards can be used to control the δ 13 C value and produce manipulated T which cannot be detected by the current method. A method was explored to remove the 13 C labeled atom at C-3 from the molecule of androsterone (Andro), the metabolite of T in urine, to produce the resultant (A-nor-5α-androstane-2,17-dione, ANAD). The difference in δ 13 C values between Andro and ANAD (Δδ 13 C Andro–ANAD , ‰) would change significantly in case manipulated T is abused. Twenty-one volunteers administered T manipulated with different 13 C labeled standards. The collected urine samples were analyzed with the established method, and the maximum value of Δδ 13 C Andro–ANAD post ingestion ranged from 3.0‰ to 8.8‰. Based on the population reference, the cut-off value of Δδ 13 C Andro–ANAD for positive result was suggested as 1.2‰. The developed method could be used to detect T manipulated with 3- 13 C labeled standards

  12. Imbalance in the diurnal salivary testosterone/cortisol ratio in men with severe obstructive sleep apnea: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiciuc, Cristina Mihaela; Dima-Cozma, Lucia Corina; Bercea, Raluca Mihaela; Lupusoru, Catalina Elena; Mihaescu, Traian; Cozma, Sebastian; Patacchioli, Francesca Romana

    2016-01-01

    The complex relationship between sleep disorders and hormones could lead to alterations in the production of cortisol and testosterone in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the diurnal trajectories of salivary free-testosterone, free-cortisol and their ratio (T/C). Ten subjects newly diagnosed with OSA, based on nocturnal polysomnography evaluation and excessive daytime sleepiness, and seven matched controls were consecutively recruited. Cortisol and testosterone were measured in salivary samples collected upon awakening, at noon and in the evening. The psychometric evaluation of anxiety/depression and referred sexual function disturbances was performed to evaluate the presence of neuropsychological comorbidities. The main finding was that OSA subjects displayed hypocortisolism upon awakening and a significant reduction in testosterone concentration in the evening in comparison with the control group, which has maintained the physiological testosterone and cortisol diurnal fluctuation, with higher hormone concentrations in the morning and lower concentrations in the evening. The use of data from multiple diurnal measurements rather than a single point allowed the detection of T/C ratio changes of opposite signs at the beginning and end of the day: the OSA subjects had a higher T/C ratio than the controls in the morning, while their T/C ratio was significantly lower than that of the controls in the evening. The imbalances in the anabolic-catabolic diurnal equilibrium suggest that OSA is associated with a dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axes, potentially an underlying cause of some of the neuropsychological comorbidities observed in OSA patients. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effects of Trifluralin on LH, FSH and Testosterone Hormone Levels and Testis Histological Changes in Adult Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Shariati

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trifluralin is a herbicide and used in agriculture widely. It enters plants throughdeveloping roots and stops plant cells from division and elongation (meristemic inhibitor.Extensive application of trifluralin to control annual grasses and broadleaf weeds in agriculture,horticulture and horn garden, leads to environmental pollution and its entrance into the food chaincould have determined effects on human and other species. In this research the effects of trifluralinon reproductive parameters of the male rats including serum luteinizing hormone (LH, folliclestimulatinghormone (FSH, testosterone levels, and changes in testicular tissue and body weightwere investigated.Materials and Methods: For this purpose male rats were randomly divided in 5 groups, to includecontrol, sham (received normal saline as a solvent, and three experimental groups which received500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg oral trifluralin respectively. After 16 days, body and testis weight weremeasured and blood samples were taken from heart and used for measurement of LH, FSH andtestosterone levels. To evaluate histological changes, testes were removed and weighed and, afterobtaining tissue section, stained by HE.Results: Serum testosterone, FSH, and LH levels showed significant decrease in experimentalgroups (p<0.05. There was significant decrease in the number of germinal and somatic cells intestis in experimental groups. There was also a significant decrease in body and testis weight inexperimental groups.Conclusion: It can be concluded that oral administration of trifluralin could decrease gonadotropinsand testosterone hormone levels and also this herbicide could have hazardous effects on testistissue.

  14. Individual testosterone decline and future mortality risk in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmboe, Stine Agergaard; Skakkebaek, Niels E.; Juul, Anders

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Male aging is characterized by a decline in testosterone (T) levels with a substantial variability between subjects. However, it is unclear whether differences in age-related changes in T are associated with general health. We investigated associations between mortality and intra...

  15. Causal relationship between obesity and serum testosterone status in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Joel; Haring, Robin; Grarup, Niels

    2017-01-01

    randomization (MR) analysis on prospective cohorts. SETTING: Five cohorts from Denmark, Germany and Sweden (Inter99, SHIP, SHIP Trend, GOOD and MrOS Sweden). PARTICIPANTS: 7446 Caucasian men, genotyped for 97 BMI-associated SNPs and three testosterone-associated SNPs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: BMI and serum...

  16. Testosterone and BMD in Elite Male Lightweight Rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, A.; Christiansen, E.; Ekdahl, C.

    2008-01-01

    ), free testosterone (IFT), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and additional parameters related to bone metabolism were measured. Plasma concentrations of TT, FT and DHT were in the lower part of the normal range, while BMD was close to or above normal. BMD of total body...

  17. [Hemoglobin and testosterone: importance on high altitude acclimatization and adaptation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2011-03-01

    The different types of response mechanisms that the organism uses when exposed to hypoxia include accommodation, acclimatization and adaptation. Accommodation is the initial response to acute exposure to high altitude hypoxia and is characterized by an increase in ventilation and heart rate. Acclimatization is observed in individuals temporarily exposed to high altitude, and to some extent, it enables them to tolerate the high altitudes. In this phase, erythropoiesis is increased, resulting in higher hemoglobin and hematocrit levels to improve oxygen delivery capacity. Adaptation is the process of natural acclimatization where genetical variations and acclimatization play a role in allowing subjects to live without any difficulties at high altitudes. Testosterone is a hormone that regulates erythropoiesis and ventilation and could be associated to the processes of acclimatization and adaptation to high altitude. Excessive erythrocytosis, which leads to chronic mountain sickness, is caused by low arterial oxygen saturation, ventilatory inefficiency and reduced ventilatory response to hypoxia. Testosterone increases during acute exposure to high altitude and also in natives at high altitude with excessive erythrocytosis. Results of current research allow us to conclude that increase in serum testosterone and hemoglobin is adequate for acclimatization, as they improve oxygen transport, but not for high altitude adaptation, since high serum testosterone levels are associated to excessive erythrocytosis.

  18. Comparison of the pre-treatment testosterone levels in benign ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    D.E. Orakwe

    2017-01-26

    Jan 26, 2017 ... Abstract. Objectives: To compare serum testosterone and prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels of patients diagnosed of prostate cancer to those with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Subjects and methods: One hundred and thirteen male patients with or without LUTS who had indica- tion(s) for prostate ...

  19. Testosterone levels and the genetic variation of sex hormone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lillian

    1Physiology and Hormones Department, Animal Health Research Institute, ... hormone-binging globulin (SHBG) that is the major transporter protein of sex ... genotypes, one of which is likely to be associated with low testosterone ..... sex steroid hormones in men from the NCI-Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium.

  20. Testosterone and estrogen in multiple sclerosis: from pathophysiology to therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collongues, Nicolas; Patte-Mensah, Christine; De Seze, Jérôme; Mensah-Nyagan, Ayikoe-Guy; Derfuss, Tobias

    2018-06-01

    Neuroprotection and remyelination are two unmet needs in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). Therapeutic potential has been identified with sexual hormones, supported in women by a decrease in MS activity during the pregnancy, in men by a greater severity of symptoms and a faster progression than in women. Areas covered: The therapeutic effect of testosterone and estrogens is reviewed. Both hormones have demonstrated an anti-inflammatory effect. Testosterone has an effect in protecting neurons in culture against glutamate-induced toxicity and oxidative stress, and stimulates myelin formation and regeneration mediated through the neural androgen receptor. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model, estrogens significantly decrease inflammation in the central nervous system via ERα, while its action on ERβ leads to myelin and axon reparation. Estriol therapy in two phase 2 trials showed a decrease in clinical disease activity and inflammatory parameters in MRI. However, evidence of a therapeutic effect of testosterone is scarce. Expert commentary: Phase 3 trials with estriol as an add-on supplementation are now mandatory. Testosterone is another candidate to be tested in phase 2 trials. These hormones should be considered as an adjunctive therapy. New validated tools are needed to assess their effect on neuroprotection and remyelination.

  1. Testicular descent: INSL3, testosterone, genes and the intrauterine milieu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Katrine; Main, Katharina M; Toppari, Jorma

    2011-01-01

    Complete testicular descent is a sign of, and a prerequisite for, normal testicular function in adult life. The process of testis descent is dependent on gubernacular growth and reorganization, which is regulated by the Leydig cell hormones insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) and testosterone. Investi...

  2. Effects of Cigarette Smoking on Urinary Testosterone Excretion in Men

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cigarette smoking is a major public health problem that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. This study was designed to investigate the relationship between cigarette smoking and concentration of testosterone in the urine. Forty young men age between 23 to 31 years were used for this study. The subjects were ...

  3. Serum testosterone levels in Nigerian male marijuana and cigarette ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of marijuana and cigarette use on serum levels of testosterone, the principal androgen in man has been a matter of serious controversy; and there is a paucity of reports on the subject in Nigeria in West Africa south of Sahara. We therefore investigated the effects of the use of these substances on serum levels of ...

  4. Testosterone suppression of CRH-stimulated cortisol in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinow, David R; Roca, Catherine A; Schmidt, Peter J; Danaceau, Merry A; Putnam, Karen; Cizza, Giovanni; Chrousos, George; Nieman, Lynnette

    2005-10-01

    Despite observations of age-dependent sexual dimorphisms in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, the role of androgens in the regulation of HPA axis activity in men has not been examined. We assessed this role by performing CRH stimulation tests in 10 men (ages 18-45 years) during gonadal suppression with leuprolide acetate and during testosterone addition to leuprolide. CRH-stimulated cortisol levels as well as peak cortisol and greatest cortisol excursion were significantly lower (pcortisol area under the curve was lower at a trend level (pcortisol : ACTH ratio, a measure of adrenal sensitivity, was lower during testosterone replacement (pcortisol. These data demonstrate that testosterone regulates CRH-stimulated HPA axis activity in men, with the divergent effects on ACTH and cortisol suggesting a peripheral (adrenal) locus for the suppressive effects on cortisol. Our results further demonstrate that the enhanced stimulated HPA axis activity previously described in young men compared with young women cannot be ascribed to an activational upregulation of the axis by testosterone.

  5. Association of testosterone levels with socio-demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... Zimbabwean men11 , American men,7,8,12 and Japanese ..... total and free testosterone levels in healthy men. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. ... bee D.E., Louis J.G. Goorey, Huibert A.P. Sex-hormone.

  6. Association of testosterone levels with socio-demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Self-administered questionnaires were used to obtain socio-demographic characteristics of the subjects. Biometric measurements including weight, height and waist circumference were also recorded. Results: Serum testosterone levels of Ugandan men were within the normal physiological ranges. Married participants and ...

  7. Testosterone supplementation restores vasopressin innervation in the senescent rat brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudsmit, E.; Fliers, E.; Swaab, D. F.

    1988-01-01

    The vasopressin (AVP) innervation in the male rat brain is decreased in senescence. This decrease is particularly pronounced in brain regions where AVP fiber density is dependent on plasma levels of sex steroids. Since plasma testosterone levels decrease progressively with age in the rat, the

  8. A longitudinal analysis of women's salivary testosterone and intrasexual competitiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Amanda C; Fisher, Claire I; Cobey, Kelly D; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2016-02-01

    Research on within-subject changes in women's intrasexual competitiveness has generally focused on possible relationships between women's intrasexual competitiveness and estimates of their fertility. While this approach is useful for testing hypotheses about the adaptive function of changes in women's intrasexual competitiveness, it offers little insight into the proximate mechanisms through which such changes might occur. To investigate this issue, we carried out a longitudinal study of the hormonal correlates of changes in intrasexual competitiveness in a large sample of heterosexual women (N=136). Each woman provided saliva samples and completed an intrasexual competitiveness questionnaire in five weekly test sessions. Multilevel modeling of these data revealed a significant, positive within-subject effect of testosterone on intrasexual competitiveness, indicating that women reported greater intrasexual competitiveness when testosterone was high. By contrast, there were no significant effects of estradiol, progesterone, estradiol-to-progesterone ratio, or cortisol and no significant effects of any hormones on reported relationship jealousy. This is the first study to demonstrate correlated changes in measured testosterone levels and women's reported intrasexual competitiveness, implicating testosterone in the regulation of women's intrasexual competitiveness. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Medial Amygdala and Aggressive Behavior : Interaction Between Testosterone and Vasopressin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolhaas, J.M.; Roozendaal, B.; Boorsma, F.; Van Den Brink, T.H.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper considers the functional significance of the testosterone-dependent vasopressinergic neurons of the medial amygdala (Ame) in intermale aggressive behavior of rats. Local microinfusion of vasopressin into the medial amygdala causes an increase in offensive behavior both in gonadally intact

  10. Testosterone levels and the genetic variation of sex hormone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samy Naeem

    2018-03-15

    Mar 15, 2018 ... 1Physiology and Hormones Department, Animal Health Research Institute, Agricultural ... Firstly, this study aimed to determine the levels of testosterone in different-age ..... reduction in steroid-binding affinity due to impairment .... gene influence serum SHBG levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  11. the effect of intramuscular implantation of testosterone on growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experimental design was factorial (2 x 2 with four replicates). There were two nutritional treatments ... The crystalline implant of testosterone was placed in the gluteal muscle by means of a trocar and cannula. Animals were weighed (± 0,5 kg at 0700) at inter- vals of two weeks. Feed and water were withdrawn at.

  12. Polycystic Ovary Induction in Mouse by Testosterone Enanthate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Kalhori

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background &Objective: Polycystic ovary is the most common cause of infertility in Women. Animal models are required for understanding the pathogenesis of polycystic ovary. The objective of this study then was to develop an animal model for inducing the polycystic ovaries using testosterone enanthate.Materials & Methods: In this study, for inducing the polycystic ovary phenotype, female rats about12-14 days-old were injected daily with testosterone enanthate for 2 and 4 weeks (experiment groups: 1 and 2, while the control groups (1 and 2 were injected only with vehicle.The ovaries from both groups were fixed and then were used for histological studies.Results: Testosterone enanthate treatment causes the histological changes in mouse ovary and significantly increased the percentage of preantral and cystic follicles and decreased the percentage of antral follicles in the experiment group, comparing with the control group (P<0.05.Conclusion: It concluded that testosterone enanthate can induces polycystic ovary in mouse.

  13. Attenuation of the Disruptive Effect induced by the Insecticide Fenvalerate on Total Monoamine Content and Testosterone Level in Adult Male Albino Rats Using Salvia aegyptiaca Extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Kader, S.M.; Aly, M.A.S.

    2008-01-01

    Administration of fenvalerate (90 mg/kg) to rats resulted in a significant decrease in dopamine (OA) content in most of brain areas under investigation. Its content in pons + medulla oblongata was the most affected recording - 62.98 %, on day 7, compared to control. Furthermore, norepinephrine (NE) content gradually decreased in different brain areas showing its maximal decrease in cerebellum with percentage change -64.89% on day 7. Serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) showed maximal significant decrease, in the cortex with percentage differences -78.33 and -72.61%, respectively. Similarly, fen valerate resulted in a gradual decrease in serum testosterone level recording its maximal effect (-46. 58 %) at the end of the experimental period. On the other hand, administration of Salvia aegyptiaca (2 g/kg) caused a significant increase in monoamine contents (DA, NE, 5-HT and 5- HlAA) in most of the brain areas under investigation, throughout the experimental period. Moreover, Salvia extract administration resulted in a significant elevation in serum testosterone level, one day after administration, recording its maximal effect (55.75%) on day 7. Animals that received the combined treatment (Salvia extract one hour after fen valerate administration) showed that monoamine contents in most of the brain areas were more or less near to the control values. Furthermore, no significant change was noticed in serum testosterone level throughout the experiment in the combined treatment. From the present study, it can be concluded that Salvia aegyptiaca extract seems to be potentially promising for attenuating the disruption that occurred in monoamine and testosterone levels. This could highly recommend Salvia aegyptiaca to be a potential herb for further studies in the future for extracting compounds of medical use

  14. Individual testosterone decline and future mortality risk in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmboe, Stine A; Skakkebæk, Niels E; Juul, Anders; Scheike, Thomas; Jensen, Tina K; Linneberg, Allan; Thuesen, Betina H; Andersson, Anna-Maria

    2018-01-01

    Male aging is characterized by a decline in testosterone (TS) levels with a substantial variability between subjects. However, it is unclear whether differences in age-related changes in TS are associated with general health. We investigated associations between mortality and intra-individual changes in serum levels of total TS, SHBG, free TS and LH during a ten-year period with up to 18 years of registry follow-up. 1167 men aged 30-60 years participating in the Danish Monitoring Trends and Determinants of Cardiovascular Disease (MONICA1) study and who had a follow-up examination ten years later (MONICA10) were included. From MONICA10, the men were followed up to 18 years (mean: 15.2 years) based on the information from national mortality registries via their unique personal ID numbers. Cox proportional hazard models were used to investigate the association between intra-individual hormone changes and all-cause, CVD and cancer mortalities. A total of 421 men (36.1%) died during the follow-up period. Men with most pronounced decline in total TS (mortality risk compared to men within the 10th to 90th percentile (hazard ratio (HR): 1.60; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-2.36). No consistent associations were seen in cause-specific mortality analyses. Our study showed that higher mortality rates were seen among the men who had the most pronounced age-related decline in TS, independent of their baseline TS levels. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.

  15. Former Abusers of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Exhibit Decreased Testosterone Levels and Hypogonadal Symptoms Years after Cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon Jarløv; Selmer, Christian; Østergren, Peter Busch

    2016-01-01

    training. Reproductive hormones (FSH, LH, testosterone, inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)) were measured using morning blood samples. Symptoms of hypogonadism (depressive symptoms, fatigue, decreased libido and erectile dysfunction) were recorded systematically. RESULTS: Former AAS abusers...... exhibited significantly lower median (25th -75th percentiles) total and free testosterone levels than control participants (total testosterone: 14.4 (11.9-17.7) nmol/l vs. 18.8 (16.6-22.0) nmol/l) (P testosterone levels below...... the lower reference limit (12.1 nmol/l) whereas no control participants exhibited testosterone below this limit (P

  16. 48 CFR 32.1007 - Administration and payment of performance-based payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... contractor's experience, performance record, reliability, financial strength, and the adequacy of controls... of performance-based payments. 32.1007 Section 32.1007 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Performance-Based Payments 32.1007...

  17. Salivary testosterone in female-to-male transgender adolescents during treatment with intra-muscular injectable testosterone esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, H.N.; Schagen, S.E.; Klink, D.T.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H.A.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Heijboer, A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In our hospital, female-To-male (FtM) transgender adolescents from the age of 16 are treated with two- or four-weekly intra-muscular injections of testosterone-esters. Some patients treated with four-weekly injections have complaints of fatigue and experience mood swings towards the

  18. Use of 6α- and 6β-carboxymethyl testosterone-bovine serum albumin conjugates in radioimmunoassay for testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, C.D.; Mason, N.R.

    1975-01-01

    The synthesis of 6α- and 6β-testosterone-bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugates is described. 6β-Carboxymethyl-4-androstene-3,17-dione was prepared by a route analogous to that described earlier for 6β-carboxymethyl progesterone. Sodium borohydride reduction of the 3 and 17 keto groups and subsequent selective oxidation of the resulting 3β,17β-diol using MnO 2 provided 6β-carboxymethyl testosterone. Further acid catalyzed epimerization of the C-6 center gave the isomeric 6α-carboxymethyl testosterone. The 6α- and 6β-testosterone derivatives were attached to BSA via a mixed anhydride coupling employing tributylamine and i-butylchlorocarbonate. For each molecule of BSA, the 6α- and 6β-conjugates contained an average of 23 and 20 steroid residues, respectively. Antisera to the conjugates exhibited similar high specificities toward various steroids, the only incidence of serious cross-reaction being the expected case of dihydrotestosterone. (U.S.)

  19. Interrelationships of serum testosterone and free testosterone index with FFM and strength in aging men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tracey Ann; Blackman, Marc R; Harman, S Mitchell; Tobin, Jordan D; Schrager, Matthew; Metter, E Jeffery

    2002-08-01

    Muscle mass and strength losses during aging may be associated with declining levels of serum testosterone (T) in men. Few studies have shown a direct relationship between T and muscle mass and strength. Subjects were 262 men, aged 24-90 yr, from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, who had T and sex hormone-binding globulin sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) measurements, from which the free T index (FTI) was calculated (T/SHBG) from serum samples collected longitudinally since 1963, total body fat mass and arm and leg fat-free mass (FFM) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and arm and leg strength by dynanomometry. Mixed-effects models estimated T and FTI at the time of mass and strength measurements. Age, total body fat, arm and leg FFM, T, and FTI were significantly associated with concentric and eccentric strength. FTI, not T, was modestly, but directly, related to arm and leg strength after fat, arm and leg FFM, height, and age were accounted for and indirectly through body mass. FTI is a better predictor of arm and leg strength than T in aging men.

  20. Geospatial Database for Strata Objects Based on Land Administration Domain Model (ladm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasorudin, N. N.; Hassan, M. I.; Zulkifli, N. A.; Rahman, A. Abdul

    2016-09-01

    Recently in our country, the construction of buildings become more complex and it seems that strata objects database becomes more important in registering the real world as people now own and use multilevel of spaces. Furthermore, strata title was increasingly important and need to be well-managed. LADM is a standard model for land administration and it allows integrated 2D and 3D representation of spatial units. LADM also known as ISO 19152. The aim of this paper is to develop a strata objects database using LADM. This paper discusses the current 2D geospatial database and needs for 3D geospatial database in future. This paper also attempts to develop a strata objects database using a standard data model (LADM) and to analyze the developed strata objects database using LADM data model. The current cadastre system in Malaysia includes the strata title is discussed in this paper. The problems in the 2D geospatial database were listed and the needs for 3D geospatial database in future also is discussed. The processes to design a strata objects database are conceptual, logical and physical database design. The strata objects database will allow us to find the information on both non-spatial and spatial strata title information thus shows the location of the strata unit. This development of strata objects database may help to handle the strata title and information.

  1. Anoctamin 1 (TMEM16A) is essential for testosterone-induced prostate hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Joo Young; Wee, Jungwon; Jung, Jooyoung; Jang, Yongwoo; Lee, Byeongjun; Hong, Gyu-Sang; Chang, Beom Chul; Choi, Yoon-La; Shin, Young Kee; Min, Hye-Young; Lee, Ho-Young; Na, Tae-Young; Lee, Mi-Ock; Oh, Uhtaek

    2015-08-04

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is characterized by an enlargement of the prostate, causing lower urinary tract symptoms in elderly men worldwide. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of BPH is unclear. Anoctamin1 (ANO1) encodes a Ca(2+)-activated chloride channel (CaCC) that mediates various physiological functions. Here, we demonstrate that it is essential for testosterone-induced BPH. ANO1 was highly amplified in dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-treated prostate epithelial cells, whereas the selective knockdown of ANO1 inhibited DHT-induced cell proliferation. Three androgen-response elements were found in the ANO1 promoter region, which is relevant for the DHT-dependent induction of ANO1. Administration of the ANO1 blocker or Ano1 small interfering RNA, inhibited prostate enlargement and reduced histological abnormalities in vivo. We therefore concluded that ANO1 is essential for the development of prostate hyperplasia and is a potential target for the treatment of BPH.

  2. Gadolinium deposition within the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus after repeated administrations of gadolinium-based contrast agents - current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanov, Dragan [University of Nis, Faculty of Medicine, Nis (Serbia); Center for Radiology, Nis (Serbia); Aracki-Trenkic, Aleksandra [Center for Radiology, Nis (Serbia); Benedeto-Stojanov, Daniela [University of Nis, Faculty of Medicine, Nis (Serbia)

    2016-05-15

    Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) have been used clinically since 1988 for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI). Generally, GBCAs are considered to have an excellent safety profile. However, GBCA administration has been associated with increased occurrence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in patients with severely compromised renal function, and several studies have shown evidence of gadolinium deposition in specific brain structures, the globus pallidus and dentate nucleus, in patients with normal renal function. Gadolinium deposition in the brain following repeated CE-MRI scans has been demonstrated in patients using T1-weighted unenhanced MRI and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Additionally, rodent studies with controlled GBCA administration also resulted in neural gadolinium deposits. Repeated GBCA use is associated with gadolinium deposition in the brain. This is especially true with the use of less-stable, linear GBCAs. In spite of increasing evidence of gadolinium deposits in the brains of patients after multiple GBCA administrations, the clinical significance of these deposits continues to be unclear. Here, we discuss the current state of scientific evidence surrounding gadolinium deposition in the brain following GBCA use, and the potential clinical significance of gadolinium deposition. There is considerable need for further research, both to understand the mechanism by which gadolinium deposition in the brain occurs and how it affects the patients in which it occurs. (orig.)

  3. Testosterone affects hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) activity and lipid metabolism in the left ventricle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langfort, Jozef; Jagsz, Slawomir; Dobrzyn, Pawel

    2010-01-01

    tissue suggests that testosterone regulates HSL activity. To test whether this is also true in the heart, we measured HSL activity in the left ventricle of sedentary male rats that had been treated with testosterone supplementation or orchidectomy with or without testosterone substitution. Left ventricle...... HSL activity against TG was significantly elevated in intact rats supplemented with testosterone. HSL activity against both TG and diacylglyceride was reduced by orchidectomy, whereas testosterone replacement fully reversed this effect. Moreover, testosterone increased left ventricle free fatty acid...... levels, caused an inhibitory effect on carbohydrate metabolism in the heart, and elevated left ventricular phosphocreatine and ATP levels as compared to control rats. These data indicate that testosterone is involved in cardiac HSL activity regulation which, in turn, may affect cardiac lipid...

  4. Effect of testosterone supplementation on sexual functioning in aging men: a 6-month randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmelot-Vonk, M H; Verhaar, H J J; Nakhai-Pour, H R; Grobbee, D E; van der Schouw, Y T

    2009-01-01

    Serum testosterone levels decline significantly with aging and this has been associated with reduced sexual function. We have conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the effect of testosterone supplementation on sexual function in 237 elderly men with a testosterone level sexual function between the groups. Subanalysis showed that although a baseline testosterone level in the lowest tertile was associated with significantly lower scores for sexual fantasies, desire of sexual contact and frequency of sexual contact, supplementation of testosterone did not result in improvement on any of these items in this group. In conclusion, the findings do not support the view that testosterone undecanoate supplementation for 6 months to elderly men with low-normal testosterone concentrations favorably affects sexual function.

  5. Testosterone receptor blockade after trauma-hemorrhage improves cardiac and hepatic functions in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmers, D E; Wang, P; Cioffi, W G; Bland, K I; Chaudry, I H

    1997-12-01

    Although studies have shown that testosterone receptor blockade with flutamide after hemorrhage restores the depressed immune function, it remains unknown whether administration of flutamide following trauma and hemorrhage and resuscitation has any salutary effects on the depressed cardiovascular and hepatocellular functions. To study this, male rats underwent a laparotomy (representing trauma) and were then bled and maintained at a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 40 mmHg until the animals could not maintain this pressure. Ringer lactate was given to maintain a MAP of 40 mmHg until 40% of the maximal shed blood volume was returned in the form of Ringer lactate. The rats were then resuscitated with four times the shed blood volume in the form of Ringer lactate over 60 min. Flutamide (25 mg/kg) or an equal volume of the vehicle propanediol was injected subcutaneously 15 min before the end of resuscitation. Various in vivo heart performance parameters (e.g., maximal rate of the pressure increase or decrease), cardiac output, and hepatocellular function (i.e., the maximum velocity and the overall efficiency of indocyanine green clearance) were determined at 20 h after resuscitation. Additionally, hepatic microvascular blood flow (HMBF) was determined using a laser Doppler flowmeter. The results indicate that left ventricular performance, cardiac output, HMBF, and hepatocellular function decreased significantly at 20 h after the completion of trauma, hemorrhage, and resuscitation. Administration of the testosterone receptor blocker flutamide, however, significantly improved cardiac performance, HMBF, and hepatocellular function. Thus flutamide appears to be a novel and useful adjunct for improving cardiovascular and hepatocellular functions in males following trauma and hemorrhagic shock.

  6. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Manned Spacecraft Center data base requirements study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the types of data that the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) should automate in order to make available essential management and technical information to support MSC's various functions and missions. In addition, the software and hardware capabilities to best handle the storage and retrieval of this data were analyzed. Based on the results of this study, recommendations are presented for a unified data base that provides a cost effective solution to MSC's data automation requirements. The recommendations are projected through a time frame that includes the earth orbit space station.

  7. Review on the administration and effectiveness of team-based learning in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Yera; Cho, A Ra; Kim, Sun

    2013-12-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) is an active learning approach. In recent years, medical educators have been increasingly using TBL in their classes. We reviewed the concepts of TBL and discuss examples of international cases. Two types of TBL are administered: classic TBL and adapted TBL. Combining TBL and problem-based learning (PBL) might be a useful strategy for medical schools. TBL is an attainable and efficient educational approach in preparing large classes with regard to PBL. TBL improves student performance, team communication skills, leadership skills, problem solving skills, and cognitive conceptual structures and increases student engagement and satisfaction. This study suggests recommendations for administering TBL effectively in medical education.

  8. Supplementation of Eurycoma longifolia Jack Extract for 6 Weeks Does Not Affect Urinary Testosterone: Epitestosterone Ratio, Liver and Renal Functions in Male Recreational Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chee Keong Chen

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Supplementation of ElJ i.e. Physta ® at a dosage of 400 mg/day for 6 weeks did not affect the urinary T:E ratio and hence will not breach any doping policies of the International Olympic Committee for administration of exogenous testosterone or its precursor. In addition, the supplementation of ElJ at this dosage and duration was safe as it did adversely affect the liver and renal functions.

  9. An agent-based legal knowledge acquisition methodology for agile public administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; van Engers, T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a knowledge elicitation method based on serious gaming for theory construction about the effects of the law on the behaviours of agents. These games provide input to simulations of business process and product design alternatives. For knowledge representation, we have combined

  10. Lessons Learned from the Administration of a Web-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertler, Craig A.

    This paper describes the methodology used in a research study involving the collection of data through a Web-based survey, focusing on the advantages and limitations of the methodology. The Teacher motivation and Job Satisfaction Survey was administered to K-12 teachers. Many of the difficulties occurred during the planning phase, as opposed to…

  11. The use of legal knowledge-based systems in public administration: what can go wrong?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Hugo; Prakken, Henry; Svensson, Jorgen S.; Bench-Capon, Trevor J.M.; Daskalopulu, Aspassia; Winkels, Radboud

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, practical applications of legal knowledge-based systems have become increasingly common. This raises the issue of their functioning in practice and their actual influence on the quality of decisions. In this paper we investigate to what extent incorrect decisions may be caused by

  12. Cardiovascular and Metabolic Consequences of Testosterone Supplements in Young and Old Male Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats: Implications for Testosterone Supplements in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmasso, Carolina; Patil, Chetan N; Yanes Cardozo, Licy L; Romero, Damian G; Maranon, Rodrigo O

    2017-10-17

    The safety of testosterone supplements in men remains unclear. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that in young and old male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), long-term testosterone supplements increase blood pressure and that the mechanism is mediated in part by activation of the renin-angiotensin system. In untreated males, serum testosterone exhibited a sustained decrease after 5 months of age, reaching a nadir by 18 to 22 months of age. The reductions in serum testosterone were accompanied by an increase in body weight until very old age (18 months). Testosterone supplements were given for 6 weeks to young (12 weeks-YMSHR) and old (21-22 months-OMSHR) male SHR that increased serum testosterone by 2-fold in young males and by 4-fold in old males. Testosterone supplements decreased body weight, fat mass, lean mass, and plasma leptin, and increased plasma estradiol in YMSHR but had no effect in OMSHR. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was significantly higher in OMSHR than in YMSHR and testosterone supplements decreased MAP in OMSHR, but significantly increased MAP in YMSHR. Enalapril, the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, reduced MAP in both control and testosterone-supplemented YMSHR, but had a greater effect on MAP in testosterone-treated rats, suggesting the mechanism responsible for the increase in MAP in YMSHR is mediated at least in part by activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Taken together with previous studies, these data suggest that testosterone supplements may have differential effects on men depending on age, cardiovascular and metabolic status, and dose and whether given long-term or short-term. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  13. Negative Effect of Zinc on Testes, Testosterone and Gonadotrophins Levels in Adult Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Sohrabi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesThe toxic effects of zinc leading to sebaceous gland closure, skin eczema and blister have been previously demonstrated in other studies. The aim of this study is to determine the chronic effects of zinc chloride (ZnCl2 on testicular tissues, testosterone and gonadotrophins in adult male Wistar rats.Methods Twenty four Adult male Wistar rats were divided in to two groups of study and control with each group consisting of 12 rats. Study group rats received 10 mg/kg interaperitoneal Zinc chloride in normal saline (N.S every other day for 30 days. Control group rats received N.S during this time. Blood sample for hormonal evaluation were collected from hearts of these rats. The rats were destroyed and their testes were removed and fixed in a 10% formaldehyde and glutaraldehyde solution.ResultsThe results of this study showed a significant decrease in the level of LH and testosterone hormone among the rats in the study group compared to the control group with p< 0.001 and p< 0.01 respectively. Study of fine structure of testicular cells and tissues in the study group rats revealed swelling of mitochondria, increase in smooth endoplasmic reticulum vacuolization and lysosomic granules (Autophagic vacuoles in cytosol of their germinal cells.ConclusionBased on the results of this study consumption of large amount of compounds which contain zinc should be controlled and limited among men. There is a need for further studies to evaluate and determine the reversibility of most hormonal and physiological changes due to usage of zinc containing compounds.Keywords: Zinc Chloride; Testis; Testosterone; Gonadotrophins

  14. Disruption of model-based behavior and learning by cocaine self-administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wied, Heather M; Jones, Joshua L; Cooch, Nisha K; Berg, Benjamin A; Schoenbaum, Geoffrey

    2013-10-01

    Addiction is characterized by maladaptive decision-making, in which individuals seem unable to use adverse outcomes to modify their behavior. Adverse outcomes are often infrequent, delayed, and even rare events, especially when compared to the reliable rewarding drug-associated outcomes. As a result, recognizing and using information about their occurrence put a premium on the operation of so-called model-based systems of behavioral control, which allow one to mentally simulate outcomes of different courses of action based on knowledge of the underlying associative structure of the environment. This suggests that addiction may reflect, in part, drug-induced dysfunction in these systems. Here, we tested this hypothesis. This study aimed to test whether cocaine causes deficits in model-based behavior and learning independent of requirements for response inhibition or perception of costs or punishment. We trained rats to self-administer sucrose or cocaine for 2 weeks. Four weeks later, the rats began training on a sensory preconditioning and inferred value blocking task. Like devaluation, normal performance on this task requires representations of the underlying task structure; however, unlike devaluation, it does not require either response inhibition or adapting behavior to reflect aversive outcomes. Rats trained to self-administer cocaine failed to show conditioned responding or blocking to the preconditioned cue. These deficits were not observed in sucrose-trained rats nor did they reflect any changes in responding to cues paired directly with reward. These results imply that cocaine disrupts the operation of neural circuits that mediate model-based behavioral control.

  15. Phthalates might interfere with testicular function by reducing testosterone and insulin-like factor 3 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Hsiang; Li, Sih-Syuan; Wu, Meng-Hsing; Pan, Hsien-An; Lee, Ching-Chang

    2015-11-01

    Do phthalates create a male reproductive hormone imbalance by down-regulating the secretion of testosterone and insulin-like factor 3 (INSL3)? Our study suggests that exposure to phthalates is related to a reduction in the secretion of testosterone and INSL3 in adult males. There is evidence that exposure to phthalates, an abundant group of industrial plasticizers, negatively affects testosterone biosynthesis, but little is known about the mechanism in men. The hypothesis that exposure to phthalates reduces the levels of testosterone and INSL3, a marker of Leydig cell function, is underexplored. This case-control study of 176 men ran from 2010 to 2012. Infertile men were recruited through infertility clinics in Taiwan, fertile men were recruited from childbirth preparation classes and all were categorized based on the World Health Organization definition of infertility and by the diagnoses of obstetricians. Urinary concentrations of 11 phthalate metabolites were measured, along with serum levels of FSH, LH, total testosterone (TT), estradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin and Inhibin B. Androgen status indices including free testosterone (fT) and the free androgen index (FAI) were calculated. The circulating INSL3 level was evaluated using a radioimmunoassay. Non-parametric analyses, trend tests and linear regression models were used. Urinary mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP) and mono-2-ethyl-5-carboxypentyl phthalate were significantly higher in infertile than in fertile men. Serum Inhibin B, the Inhibin B : FSH ratio, the TT : LH ratio and INSL3 were significantly lower in infertile men. In multiple regression models controlled for potential confounders, there is an inverse association between urinary levels of mono-methyl phthalate (MMP), mono-iso-butyl phthalate (MiBP), MEHP, MEHP% and serum TT (P = 0.001, 0.007, 0.042 and 0.012, respectively). The inverse associations were also found between urinary levels of MiBP, monobenzyl

  16. Potentiating antimicrobial efficacy of propolis through niosomal-based system for administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jay; Ketkar, Sameer; Patil, Sharvil; Fearnley, James; Mahadik, Kakasaheb R; Paradkar, Anant R

    2015-06-01

    Propolis is a multicomponent active, complex resinous substance collected by honeybees ( Apis mellifera ) from a variety of plant sources. This study was designed to improve the antimicrobial efficacy of propolis by engineering a niosomal-based system for topical application. Propolis was extracted in ethanol and screened for total polyphenol content. Propolis-loaded niosomes (PLNs) were prepared with varying concentrations of Span 60 and cholesterol. The PLNs were evaluated for physicochemical parameters, namely, vesicle size, entrapment efficiency, zeta potential, surface topography and shape, and stability, followed by screening for in vitro antimicrobial activity. The PLNs were formulated into propolis niosomal gel (PNG) using Carbopol P934 base and subjected to ex vivo skin deposition study. The ethanolic extract of propolis had high polyphenolic content (270 ± 9.2 mg GAE/g). The prepared PLNs showed vesicle size between 294 nm and 427 nm, and the percent entrapment in the range of 50.62-71.29% with a significant enhancement in antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans . Enhanced antimicrobial activity of PLNs was attributed to the ability of niosomes to directly interact with the bacterial cell envelop thereby facilitating the diffusion of propolis constituents across the cell wall. The formulated PNG exhibited a twofold better skin deposition due to improved retention of niosomes in the skin. The findings indicate that the engineering of a niosomal-based system for propolis enhanced its antimicrobial potential through topical application.

  17. Benefits and risks of testosterone treatment for hypoactive sexual desire disorder in women: a critical review of studies published in the decades preceding and succeeding the advent of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Léa Bonfim Reis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With advancing age, there is an increase in the complaints of a lack of a libido in women and erectile dysfunction in men. The efficacy of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, together with their minimal side effects and ease of administration, revolutionized the treatment of erectile dysfunction. For women, testosterone administration is the principal treatment for hypoactive sexual desire disorder. We sought to evaluate the use of androgens in the treatment of a lack of libido in women, comparing two periods, i.e., before and after the advent of the phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors. We also analyzed the risks and benefits of androgen administration. We searched the Latin-American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, Cochrane Library, Excerpta Medica, Scientific Electronic Library Online, and Medline (PubMed databases using the search terms disfunção sexual feminina/female sexual dysfunction, desejo sexual hipoativo/female hypoactive sexual desire disorder, testosterona/testosterone, terapia androgênica em mulheres/androgen therapy in women, and sexualidade/sexuality as well as combinations thereof. We selected articles written in English, Portuguese, or Spanish. After the advent of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, there was a significant increase in the number of studies aimed at evaluating the use of testosterone in women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder. However, the risks and benefits of testosterone administration have yet to be clarified.

  18. Toward Personalized Sexual Medicine (Part 2) : Testosterone Combined with a PDE5 Inhibitor Increases Sexual Satisfaction in Women with HSDD and FSAD, and a Low Sensitive System for Sexual Cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poels, S.; Bloemers, J.; van Rooij, K.; Goldstein, I.; Gerritsen, J.; van Ham, D.; van Mameren, F.; Chivers, M.; Everaerd, W.; Koppeschaar, H.; Olivier, B.; Tuiten, A.

    INTRODUCTION: Low sexual desire in women may result from a relative insensitivity of the brain for sexual cues. Administration of sublingual 0.5 mg testosterone (T) increases the sensitivity of the brain to sexual cues. Sexual stimulation in the brain is necessary for phosphodiesterase type 5

  19. Effect of co-administration of probiotics with polysaccharide based colon targeted delivery systems to optimize site specific drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudhviraj, G; Vaidya, Yogyata; Singh, Sachin Kumar; Yadav, Ankit Kumar; Kaur, Puneet; Gulati, Monica; Gowthamarajan, K

    2015-11-01

    Significant clinical success of colon targeted dosage forms has been limited by their inappropriate release profile at the target site. Their failure to release the drug completely in the colon may be attributed to changes in the colonic milieu because of pathological state, drug effect and psychological stress accompanying the diseased state or, a combination of these. Alteration in normal colonic pH and bacterial picture leads to incomplete release of drug from the designed delivery system. We report the effectiveness of a targeted delivery system wherein the constant replenishment of the colonic microbiota is achieved by concomitant administration of probiotics along with the polysaccharide based drug delivery system. Guar gum coated spheroids of sulfasalazine were prepared. In the dissolution studies, these spheroids showed markedly higher release in the simulated colonic fluid. In vivo experiments conducted in rats clearly demonstrated the therapeutic advantage of co-administration of probiotics with guar gum coated spheroids. Our results suggest that concomitant use of probiotics along with the polysaccharide based delivery systems can be a simple strategy to achieve satisfactory colon targeting of drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Nutrition Education Resources in North Carolina-Based Head Start Preschool Programs: Administrator and Teacher Perceptions of Availability and Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisson, Sarah; Goodell, L Suzanne; Dev, Dipti; Wilkerson, Kristi; Hegde, Archana V; Stage, Virginia C

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide new insight into common barriers to the availability and use of nutrition education (NE) resources in Head Start preschool programs based on administrator and teacher perceptions. In-depth, semistructured phone interviews (n = 63) were conducted with administrators (n = 31) and teachers (n = 32) from North Carolina-based Head Start programs. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed qualitatively using content analysis to identify common themes. Five emergent themes were identified within the areas of NE resource availability and use and barriers to NE resource availability and use. Participants expressed desire for greater organization of existing NE material resources, increased community support, and professional development opportunities for teachers specific to NE. Funding and time constraints were reported as affecting NE resources. Creative strategies for addressing NE resource availability and use and barriers (eg, NE integration with educational standards) in Head Start are needed. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Security Administration Reports Application

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Contains SSA Security Reports that allow Information Security Officers (ISOs) to access, review and take appropriate action based on the information contained in the...

  2. Lipid-based formulations for oral administration of poorly water-soluble drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Holm, René; Müllertz, Anette

    2013-01-01

    Lipid-based drug delivery systems have shown great potentials in oral delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs, primarily for lipophilic drugs, with several successfully marketed products. Pre-dissolving drugs in lipids, surfactants, or mixtures of lipids and surfactants omits the dissolving....../dissolution step, which is a potential rate limiting factor for oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs. Lipids not only vary in structures and physiochemical properties, but also in their digestibility and absorption pathway; therefore selection of lipid excipients and dosage form has a pronounced effect...

  3. No Robust Association between Static Markers of Testosterone and Facets of Socio-Economic Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Laura; Mikac, Una; Buško, Vesna; Hildebrandt, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Digit ratio (2D:4D) and facial width-to-height ratio (WHR) are supposedly static indicators of testosterone exposition during prenatal and pubertal lifetime, respectively. Both measures have been linked to aggressive and assertive behavior in laboratory economic games, as well as in real world scenarios. Most of the research—often limited to male subjects—considers the associations between these behaviors, traits, and hormonal markers separately for 2D:4D and WHR. Reported associations are weak and volatile. In the present study we had independent raters assess 2D:4D and WHR in a sample of N = 175 participants who played the ultimatum game (UG). Respondent behavior in UG captures the tendency to reject unfair offers (negative reciprocity). If unfair UG offers are seen as provocations, then individuals with stronger testosterone exposition may be more prone to reject such offers. Economists argue that negative reciprocity reflects altruistic punishment, since the rejecting individual is sacrificing own resources. However, recent studies suggest that self-interest, in terms of status defense plays a substantial role in decisions to reject unfair offers. We also assessed social preferences by social value orientation and assertiveness via self-report. By applying structural equation modeling we estimated the latent level association of 2D:4D and WHR with negative reciprocity, assertiveness and prosociality in both sexes. Results revealed no robust association between any of the trait measures and hormonal markers. The measures of 2D:4D and WHR were not related with each other. Multigroup models based on sex suggested invariance of factor loadings allowing to compare hormone-behavior relationships of females and males. Only when collapsing across sex greater WHR was weakly associated with assertiveness, suggesting that individuals with wider faces tend to express greater status defense. Only the right hand 2D:4D was weakly associated with prosocial behavior

  4. No Robust Association between Static Markers of Testosterone and Facets of Socio-Economic Decision Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Kaltwasser

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Digit ratio (2D:4D and facial width-to-height ratio (WHR are supposedly static indicators of testosterone exposition during prenatal and pubertal lifetime, respectively. Both measures have been linked to aggressive and assertive behavior in laboratory economic games, as well as in real world scenarios. Most of the research—often limited to male subjects—considers the associations between these behaviors, traits, and hormonal markers separately for 2D:4D and WHR. Reported associations are weak and volatile. In the present study we had independent raters assess 2D:4D and WHR in a sample of N = 175 participants who played the ultimatum game (UG. Respondent behavior in UG captures the tendency to reject unfair offers (negative reciprocity. If unfair UG offers are seen as provocations, then individuals with stronger testosterone exposition may be more prone to reject such offers. Economists argue that negative reciprocity reflects altruistic punishment, since the rejecting individual is sacrificing own resources. However, recent studies suggest that self-interest, in terms of status defense plays a substantial role in decisions to reject unfair offers. We also assessed social preferences by social value orientation and assertiveness via self-report. By applying structural equation modeling we estimated the latent level association of 2D:4D and WHR with negative reciprocity, assertiveness and prosociality in both sexes. Results revealed no robust association between any of the trait measures and hormonal markers. The measures of 2D:4D and WHR were not related with each other. Multigroup models based on sex suggested invariance of factor loadings allowing to compare hormone-behavior relationships of females and males. Only when collapsing across sex greater WHR was weakly associated with assertiveness, suggesting that individuals with wider faces tend to express greater status defense. Only the right hand 2D:4D was weakly associated with prosocial

  5. No Robust Association between Static Markers of Testosterone and Facets of Socio-Economic Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltwasser, Laura; Mikac, Una; Buško, Vesna; Hildebrandt, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Digit ratio (2D:4D) and facial width-to-height ratio (WHR) are supposedly static indicators of testosterone exposition during prenatal and pubertal lifetime, respectively. Both measures have been linked to aggressive and assertive behavior in laboratory economic games, as well as in real world scenarios. Most of the research-often limited to male subjects-considers the associations between these behaviors, traits, and hormonal markers separately for 2D:4D and WHR. Reported associations are weak and volatile. In the present study we had independent raters assess 2D:4D and WHR in a sample of N = 175 participants who played the ultimatum game (UG). Respondent behavior in UG captures the tendency to reject unfair offers (negative reciprocity). If unfair UG offers are seen as provocations, then individuals with stronger testosterone exposition may be more prone to reject such offers. Economists argue that negative reciprocity reflects altruistic punishment, since the rejecting individual is sacrificing own resources. However, recent studies suggest that self-interest, in terms of status defense plays a substantial role in decisions to reject unfair offers. We also assessed social preferences by social value orientation and assertiveness via self-report. By applying structural equation modeling we estimated the latent level association of 2D:4D and WHR with negative reciprocity, assertiveness and prosociality in both sexes. Results revealed no robust association between any of the trait measures and hormonal markers. The measures of 2D:4D and WHR were not related with each other. Multigroup models based on sex suggested invariance of factor loadings allowing to compare hormone-behavior relationships of females and males. Only when collapsing across sex greater WHR was weakly associated with assertiveness, suggesting that individuals with wider faces tend to express greater status defense. Only the right hand 2D:4D was weakly associated with prosocial behavior, indicating

  6. Designing and Developing Web-Based Administrative Tools for Program Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutensohn, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The task assigned for this internship was to develop a new tool for tracking projects, their subsystems, the leads, backups, and other employees assigned to them, as well as all the relevant information related to the employee (WBS (time charge) codes, time distribution, certifications, and assignments). Currently, this data is tracked manually using a number of different spreadsheets and other tools simultaneously by a number of different people; some of these documents are then merged into one large document. This often leads to inconsistencies and loss in data due to human error. By simplifying the process of tracking this data and aggregating it into a single tool, it is possible to significantly decrease the potential for human error and time spent collecting and checking this information. II. Objective The main objective of this internship is to develop a web-based tool using Ruby on Rails to serve as a method of easily tracking projects, subsystems, and points of contact, along with employees, their assignments, time distribution, certifications, and contact information. Additionally, this tool must be capable of generating a number of different reports based on the data collected. It was important that this tool deliver all of this information using a readable and intuitive interface.

  7. Does testosterone affect lateralization of brain and behaviour? A meta-analysis in humans and other animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfannkuche, Kristina A; Bouma, Anke; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2009-04-12

    Lateralization of brain and behaviour has been the topic of research for many years in neuropsychology, but the factors guiding its development remain elusive. Based on sex differences in human lateralization, four hypotheses have been postulated that suggest a role for androgens, specifically testosterone. With the discovery that lateralization is a fundamental principle in the organization of brain and behaviour among vertebrates, it has now become possible to experimentally test such hypotheses in animal models. The use of different taxa, humans, other mammalian species and birds (with oestradiol and not testosterone involved in sexual differentiation in birds) facilitates to differentiate between the hypotheses. We used meta-analyses for analysing papers that provided sufficient information, and a semi-quantitative approach based on all relevant studies that we extracted from the literature. We tested the predictions of these hypotheses regarding strength and direction of lateralization for motor output, language and visuospatial cognition in these three taxa. We tested for sex differences and early organizational effects of testosterone (both correlative and experimental studies). We found sex differences in the direction of lateralization for non-human mammals (motor biases similar to humans) and in direction and strength in birds (visual cognitive tasks). However, the prediction that prenatal testosterone exposure affects the direction of lateralization was not supported for humans. In birds and non-human mammals, opposite trends were found, with the effect in non-human mammals being opposite to the expectation based on sex differences. None of the four hypotheses was sufficiently supported and more studies, testing a wider array of functions in different taxa while reporting the data more completely are needed.

  8. Use of Exogenous Testosterone for the Treatment of Male Factor Infertility: A Survey of Nigerian Doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omisanjo, Olufunmilade Akinfolarin; Ikuerowo, Stephen Odunayo; Abdulsalam, Moruf Adekunle; Ajenifuja, Sheriff Olabode; Shittu, Khadijah Adebisi

    2017-01-01

    Though exogenous testosterone is known for its contraceptive effects in men, it is sometimes prescribed by medical practitioners for the treatment of male factor infertility in the mistaken belief that exogenous testosterone improves sperm count. The aim of this study was to evaluate the scope of testosterone use in the treatment of male factor infertility by medical practitioners in Lagos, Nigeria. A survey using a structured questionnaire was carried out amongst doctors attending a regular Continuing Medical Education (CME) programme in Lagos, Nigeria. There were 225 respondents. Most of the respondents (69.8%, n = 157) indicated that exogenous testosterone increases sperm count. Only 22 respondents (9.8%) indicated (correctly) that exogenous testosterone decreases sperm count. Seventy-seven respondents (34.2%) had prescribed some form of exogenous testosterone in the treatment of male factor infertility. The vast majority of respondents who had prescribed testosterone (81.8%, n = 63) thought exogenous testosterone increases sperm count. There was no statistically significant difference in the pattern of prescription across the respondents' specialty ( p = 0.859) or practice type ( p = 0.747). The misuse of exogenous testosterone for the treatment of male infertility was common amongst the respondents, with most of them wrongly believing that exogenous testosterone increases sperm count.

  9. Testosterone Suppression of CRH-stimulated Cortisol in Men

    OpenAIRE

    Rubinow, David R.; Roca, Catherine A.; Schmidt, Peter J.; Danaceau, Merry A.; Putnam, Karen; Cizza, Giovanni; Chrousos, George; Nieman, Lynnette

    2005-01-01

    Despite observations of age-dependent sexual dimorphisms in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, the role of androgens in the regulation of HPA axis activity in men has not been examined. We assessed this role by performing CRH stimulation tests in ten men (ages 18–45) during gonadal suppression with leuprolide acetate and during testosterone addition to leuprolide. CRH-stimulated cortisol levels as well as peak cortisol and greatest cortisol excursion were significantly lower ...

  10. Choosing Fighting Competitors Among Men: Testosterone, Personality, and Motivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borráz-León, Javier I; Cerda-Molina, Ana Lilia; Rantala, Markus J; Mayagoitia-Novales, Lilian

    2018-01-01

    Higher testosterone levels have been positively related to a variety of social behaviors and personality traits associated with intrasexual competition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of testosterone levels and personality traits such as aggressiveness, competitiveness, and self-esteem on the task of choosing a fighting competitor (a rival) with or without a motivation to fight. In Study 1, a group of 119 men participated in a task for choosing a rival through pictures of men with high-dominant masculinity versus low-dominant masculinity. Participants completed three personality questionnaires and donated two saliva samples (pre-test and post-test sample) to quantify their testosterone levels. We found that the probability of choosing high-dominant masculine men as rivals increased with higher aggressiveness scores. In Study 2, the task of choosing rivals was accompanied by motivations to fight (pictures of women with high or low waist-to-hip ratio [WHR]). In this context, we observed that the probability of choosing dominant masculine men as rivals depended on the WHR of the women. Overall, average levels of post-test testosterone, aggressiveness, and high self-esteem increased the probability to fight for women with low WHR independently of the dominance masculinity of the rivals. Our results indicate that human decisions, in the context of intrasexual competition and mate choice, are regulated by physiological and psychological mechanisms allowing men to increase their biological fitness. We discuss our results in the light of the plasticity of human behavior according to biological and environmental forces.

  11. Administrative Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Kimberly Kappler; Weckstein, Daniel K.

    2012-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to overcome in creating and sustaining an administrative professional learning community (PLC) is time. Administrators are constantly deluged by the tyranny of the urgent. It is a Herculean task to carve out time for PLCs, but it is imperative to do so. In this article, the authors describe how an administrative PLC…

  12. The perinatal effects of maternal caffeine intake on fetal and neonatal brain levels of testosterone, estradiol, and dihydrotestosterone in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaismailoglu, S; Tuncer, M; Bayrak, S; Erdogan, G; Ergun, E L; Erdem, A

    2017-08-01

    Testosterone, estradiol, and dihydrotestosterone are the main sex steroid hormones responsible for the organization and sexual differentiation of brain structures during early development. The hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, adrenal cells, and gonads play a key role in the production of sex steroids and express adenosine receptors. Caffeine is a non-selective adenosine antagonist; therefore, it can modulate metabolic pathways in these tissues. Besides, the proportion of pregnant women that consume caffeine is ∼60%. That is why the relationship between maternal caffeine consumption and fetal development is important. Therefore, we aimed to investigate this modulatory effect of maternal caffeine consumption on sex steroids in the fetal and neonatal brain tissues. Pregnant rats were treated with a low (0.3 g/L) or high (0.8 g/L) dose of caffeine in their drinking water during pregnancy and lactation. The testosterone, estradiol, and dihydrotestosterone levels in the frontal cortex and hypothalamus were measured using radioimmunoassay at embryonic day 19 (E19), birth (PN0), and postnatal day 4 (PN4). The administration of low-dose caffeine increased the body weight in PN4 male and female rats and anogenital index in PN4 males. The administration of high-dose caffeine decreased the adrenal weight in E19 male rats and increased testosterone levels in the frontal cortex of E19 female rats and the hypothalamus of PN0 male rats. Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy affects sex steroid levels in the frontal cortex and hypothalamus of the offspring. This concentration changes of the sex steroids in the brain may influence behavioral and neuroendocrine functions at some point in adult life.

  13. Retrospective investigation of testosterone undecanoate depot for the long-term treatment of male hypogonadism in clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conaglen, Helen M; Paul, Ryan G; Yarndley, Tania; Kamp, Jozef; Elston, Marianne S; Conaglen, John V

    2014-02-01

    Testosterone undecanoate depot (TUD) administered intramuscularly is an effective form of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) for male hypogonadism. Because of the ease of administration, TUD therapy may be preferable to subcutaneously implanted extended release T pellet implants (TI). The primary objective was to retrospectively assess the efficacy and safety of long-term (≥ 2 years therapy) TUD therapy in the clinical setting. The secondary objective was to retrospectively compare TUD with TI therapy. Retrospective data were collected from the Waikato Hospital Endocrine Database for 179 hypogonadal men treated with TUD for ≥ 2 years from 1998-2011, with 124 of these men receiving previous TI therapy. The main outcome measure for efficacy was serum trough total testosterone (TT), and for safety an increase in hemoglobin (Hb) and/or hematocrit (Hct), rise in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and/or prostatic biopsy and alteration in body mass index and lipid profile. Additional outcome measures were changes in the dosing and/or interval regimens for TUD therapy. Overall, 72% of trough TT levels were in the normal range for TUD therapy compared with 53% of trough TT levels during TI therapy. TUD therapy was well tolerated with 162 men (90.5%) completing 2 years of treatment, and only seven men (3.9%) stopping TUD because of adverse effects. A rise in Hb and/or Hct occurred in 25 men (14%), and a significant rise in PSA in 20 men (13%) at some stage during TUD therapy. At 2 years, 91% of men received the standard 1,000 mg TUD dose with 66% at the standard dosing interval of 10-14 weekly. TUD is an efficacious, safe, and well tolerated form of TRT, and individual optimisation of the dose and/or interval is only required in the minority of men. Particularly given the ease of administration, TUD was the preferred TRT for both patients and clinicians. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  14. The effects of prenatal testosterone on wages: Evidence from Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, John V C; Bryukhanov, Maksym; Kochergina, Ekaterina; Orel, Ekaterina; Polyachenko, Sergiy; Yudkevich, Maria

    2017-02-01

    Is in utero exposure to testosterone correlated with earnings? The question matters for understanding determinants of wage differences that have attracted so much attention among economists in the past decade. Evidence indicates that markers for early testosterone exposure are correlated with traits like risk-taking and aggressiveness. But it is not at all clear how such findings might map into labor market success. We combine unique data from the Russian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey with measured markers (2D:4D ratios) for testosterone exposure and find that lower digit ratios (higher T) correlate with higher wages for women and for men, when controlling for age, education and occupation. There is also some evidence of a potential non-linear, inverse U-effect of digit ratios on wages but this is sensitive to choice of specification. These findings are consistent with earlier work on prenatal T and success in careers (Coates et al., 2009) but inconsistent with the work of Gielen et al. (2016) who find differing effects for men and women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. ENDOCRINE EVALUATION OF ATHLETE FOR TESTOSTERONE OR ITS ANALOGUES ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joško Osredkar

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Doping involves the use of substances and methods prohibited by international and national sports institutions. The use of certain substances and methods is harmful to the human organism, so all sports organisations are trying to protect athletes from the harmful side effects of such substances and methods.Methods. The article deals with special protocol, which is used in the case, when the testosterone/epitestosterone ratio in urine is higher than 6 and less then 10. When establishing the use of testosterone or analogues, ketoconazol is used. If after the application the presence of a testosterone (T to epitestosterone (E ratio is greater than six (6 to one (1, there is an evidence of doping offence.Conclusions. In the case of T/E greater than 6, it is mandatory that the relevant medical authority conducts an investigation before the sample is declared positive. A full report should be written and should include a review of previous tests, subsequent tests and any results of endocrine investigations.

  16. U.S. Army-Baylor University Health Care Administration Program: evidenced-based outcomes in the military health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangelsdorff, A David; Rogers, Jody; Finstuen, Kenn; Pryor, Rene

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to assess the impact of an educational program on the Military Health System on some of the evidence-based educational outcomes for the Individual (student) and the Society (all Army Medical Treatment Facilities). The U.S. Army-Baylor University HCA program provides a unique opportunity to assess the impact of an educational program on the Military Health System (MHS). Since the majority of the graduate students are military officers who serve in military medical treatment facilities (MTFs), tracking their career progression allows assessing the value added of the U.S. Army-Baylor University HCA experience from 1951 to 2001 (n = 2234). The context of Society outcomes includes all the Army MTFs where U.S. Army-Baylor University HCA graduates execute their leadership skills. During the time from 1994 to 2001, all of the Army MTFs in the MHS (n = 38) were examined by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO). In a similar but shorter time frame (1997-2001), DoD patient satisfaction assessments were conducted. The Individual outcomes (career advancement, increase in status, higher professional association membership) demonstrate that the selection criteria used for program admission appear to be successful. The Society outcomes showed higher JCAHO scores and satisfied consumers in Army facilities with Baylor graduates as the Deputy Commander for Administration (DCA). Continued internal program assessments (curriculum reviews) and external reviews (Accrediting Commission on Education for Health Services Administration accreditations of 5 years in 1987, 8 years in 1993 and 7 years in 2001, and 7 ACHE student chapter awards) attest to the strengths of the U.S. Army-Baylor University HCA program. Educating the MHS shareholders (patients, beneficiaries, professional and support staff, senior leaders) and leveraging technology to. share best practices for all administrators (including non-Baylor graduates) will

  17. Identifying potentially eligible subjects for research: paper-based logs versus the hospital administrative database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, L A; Massey, K; von Dadelszen, P; Fazio, M; Payne, B; Liston, R

    2011-12-01

    The Canadian Perinatal Network (CPN) is a national database focused on threatened very pre-term birth. Women with one or more conditions most commonly associated with very pre-term birth are included if admitted to a participating tertiary perinatal unit at 22 weeks and 0 days to 28 weeks and 6 days. At BC Women's Hospital and Health Centre, we compared traditional paper-based ward logs and a search of the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) electronic database of inpatient discharges to identify patients. The study identified 244 women potentially eligible for inclusion in the CPN admitted between April and December 2007. Of the 155 eligible women entered into the CPN database, each method identified a similar number of unique records (142 and 147) not ascertained by the other: 10 (6.4%) by CIHI search and 5 (3.2%) by ward log review. However, CIHI search achieved these results after reviewing fewer records (206 vs. 223) in less time (0.67 vs. 13.6 hours for ward logs). Either method is appropriate for identification of potential research subjects using gestational age criteria. Although electronic methods are less time-consuming, they cannot be performed until after the patient is discharged and records and charts are reviewed. Each method's advantages and disadvantages will dictate use for a specific project.

  18. Characterization and optimization of GMO-based gels with long term release for intraarticular administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Réeff, J; Gaignaux, A; Goole, J; Siepmann, J; Siepmann, F; Jerome, C; Thomassin, J M; De Vriese, C; Amighi, K

    2013-07-15

    Osteoarthritis is characterized by slow degenerative processes in the articular cartilage within synovial joints. It could be interesting to develop a sustained-release formulation that could be effective on both pain/inflammation and restoration of mechanical integrity of the joint. Recently, an injectable system based on glycerol monooleate (GMO), containing clonidine as a model hydrophilic analgesic/anti-inflammatory drug and hyaluronic acid as a viscoelastic scaffold, showed promising potential as a biodegradable and biocompatible preparation to sustain the drug activity. However, drug release from the system is relatively fast (complete within 1 week) and the underlying drug release mechanisms not fully understood. The aims of this study were: (i) to significantly improve this type of local controlled drug delivery system by further sustaining clonidine release, and (ii) to elucidate the underlying mass transport mechanisms. The addition of FDA-approved inactive ingredients such as sodium oleate or purified soybean oil was found to be highly effective. The release rate could be substantially reduced (e.g., 50% release after 10 days), due to the increased hydrophobicity of the systems, resulting in slower and reduced water uptake and reduced drug mobility. Interestingly, Fick's second law of diffusion could be used to quantitatively describe drug release. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Long-term retention of gadolinium in the skin of rodents following the administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, Hubertus; Jost, Gregor; Frenzel, Thomas; Huetter, Joachim; Sieber, Martin A.; Lengsfeld, Philipp

    2009-01-01

    Several publications suggest a potential association between the administration of Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) and the onset of a rare but serious disease, Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis (NSF). The aim of this study was to determine the elimination time-course of Gadolinium (Gd) from skin tissue after application of GBCAs in rats. Seven different marketed GBCAs were injected on five consecutive days at a dose of 2.5 mmol/kg bodyweight into the tail vein of Han-Wistar rats and the Gd concentrations were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) in skin biopsies taken at various time-points up to a year after the last injection. Most of the administered Gd was eliminated from the skin within a time-period of about 2 months. However, the repeated administration of linear GBCAs resulted in long-term retention of a small portion of the administered Gd in the skin tissue of rats, with substantially higher values observed in animals treated with non-ionic linear agents than in those that received ionic linear GBCAs. Following treatment with macrocyclic GBCAs, Gd values in the skin were in the same range as observed in the controls from day 24 post-injection onwards. In summary, we observed a correlation between the complex stability of GBCAs and the amount of residual Gd in the skin up to a year after application of GBCAs. (orig.)

  20. A Qualitative Evaluation of Web-Based Cancer Care Quality Improvement Toolkit Use in the Veterans Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Candice; Luck, Jeff; Gale, Randall C; Smith, Nina; York, Laura S; Asch, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Disease severity, complexity, and patient burden highlight cancer care as a target for quality improvement (QI) interventions. The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) implemented a series of disease-specific online cancer care QI toolkits. To describe characteristics of the toolkits, target users, and VHA cancer care facilities that influenced toolkit access and use and assess whether such resources were beneficial for users. Deductive content analysis of detailed notes from 94 telephone interviews with individuals from 48 VHA facilities. We evaluated toolkit access and use across cancer types, participation in learning collaboratives, and affiliation with VHA cancer care facilities. The presence of champions was identified as a strong facilitator of toolkit use, and learning collaboratives were important for spreading information about toolkit availability. Identified barriers included lack of personnel and financial resources and complicated approval processes to support tool use. Online cancer care toolkits are well received across cancer specialties and provider types. Clinicians, administrators, and QI staff may benefit from the availability of toolkits as they become more reliant on rapid access to strategies that support comprehensive delivery of evidence-based care. Toolkits should be considered as a complement to other QI approaches.

  1. Effect of dementia on outcomes of elderly patients with hemorrhagic peptic ulcer disease based on a national administrative database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Atsuhiko; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Muramatsu, Keiji; Ohtani, Makoto; Matsuda, Shinya

    2015-10-01

    Little information is available on the effect of dementia on outcomes of elderly patients with hemorrhagic peptic ulcer disease at the population level. This study aimed to investigate the effect of dementia on outcomes of elderly patients with hemorrhagic peptic ulcer based on a national administrative database. A total of 14,569 elderly patients (≥80 years) who were treated by endoscopic hemostasis for hemorrhagic peptic ulcer were referred to 1073 hospitals between 2010 and 2012 in Japan. We collected patients' data from the administrative database to compare clinical and medical economic outcomes of elderly patients with hemorrhagic peptic ulcers. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of dementia: patients with dementia (n = 695) and those without dementia (n = 13,874). There were no significant differences in in-hospital mortality within 30 days and overall mortality between the groups (odds ratio; OR 1.00, 95 % confidence interval; CI 0.68-1.46, p = 0.986 and OR 1.02, 95 % CI 0.74-1.41, p = 0.877). However, the length of stay (LOS) and medical costs during hospitalization were significantly higher in patients with dementia compared with those without dementia. The unstandardized coefficient for LOS was 3.12 days (95 % CI 1.58-4.67 days, p peptic ulcer disease.

  2. Long-term retention of gadolinium in the skin of rodents following the administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietsch, Hubertus; Jost, Gregor; Frenzel, Thomas; Huetter, Joachim; Sieber, Martin A. [Media Research, Bayer Schering Pharma AG Contrast, Berlin (Germany); Lengsfeld, Philipp [Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Global Medical Affairs Diagnostic Imaging, Berlin (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Several publications suggest a potential association between the administration of Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) and the onset of a rare but serious disease, Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis (NSF). The aim of this study was to determine the elimination time-course of Gadolinium (Gd) from skin tissue after application of GBCAs in rats. Seven different marketed GBCAs were injected on five consecutive days at a dose of 2.5 mmol/kg bodyweight into the tail vein of Han-Wistar rats and the Gd concentrations were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) in skin biopsies taken at various time-points up to a year after the last injection. Most of the administered Gd was eliminated from the skin within a time-period of about 2 months. However, the repeated administration of linear GBCAs resulted in long-term retention of a small portion of the administered Gd in the skin tissue of rats, with substantially higher values observed in animals treated with non-ionic linear agents than in those that received ionic linear GBCAs. Following treatment with macrocyclic GBCAs, Gd values in the skin were in the same range as observed in the controls from day 24 post-injection onwards. In summary, we observed a correlation between the complex stability of GBCAs and the amount of residual Gd in the skin up to a year after application of GBCAs. (orig.)

  3. Administrative Circulars

    CERN Document Server

    Département des Ressources humaines

    2004-01-01

    Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 2) - May 2004 Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period of staff members This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 2 (Rev. 1) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 3) - May 2004 Staff members contracts This circular has been revised. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular N° 9 (Rev. 2) - March 2000. Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 4) - May 2004 Procedure governing the career evolution of staff members This circular has also been revised. It Administrative Circulars Administrative Circular N° 26 (Rev. 3) - December 2001 and brings up to date the French version (Rev. 4) published on the HR Department Web site in January 2004. Operational Circular N° 7 - May 2004 Work from home This circular has been drawn up. Operational Circular N° 8 - May 2004 Dealing with alcohol-related problems...

  4. The Association of Free Testosterone Levels in Men and Lifestyle Factors and Chronic Disease Status: A North Texas Healthy Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardarelli, Roberto; Singh, Meharvan; Meyer, Jason; Balyakina, Elizabeth; Perez, Oscar; King, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Hypogonadism is highly prevalent in men older than 45 years and is associated with an increased risk of chronic diseases, including obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to determine whether lifestyle factors such as smoking, diet, and exercise are associated with reduced testosterone levels. In this cross-sectional study, 147 men older than 44 years were recruited from a collaborative network of primary care clinics in the Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas, metropolitan area. Free testosterone levels were measured in plasma samples via an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay-based method, and analyzed by simple and multiple linear regression in relationship to age, race/ethnicity, smoking, diet, exercise, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. The participants had a mean free testosterone level of 3.1 ng/mL (standard deviation [SD] = 1.5) and mean age of 56.8 years (SD = 7.9). In simple regression analysis, free testosterone levels were associated with increased age (β = -0.04; P = .02), diet (β = -0.49; P = .05), diabetes (β = -0.9; P = .003), and hypertension (β = -0.55; P = .03) but not with race/ethnicity, smoking, exercise, obesity, or dyslipidemia. In multiple regression analysis, free testosterone values were significantly associated only with age (β = -0.05; P = .01) and diet (β = -0.72; P = .01). This study implicates diet, in addition to advanced age as a possible risk factor in the development of reduced testosterone levels. © The Author(s) 2014.

  5. Comparison of serum testosterone and estradiol measurements in 3174 European men using platform immunoassay and mass spectrometry; relevance for the diagnostics in aging men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Tajar, Abdelouahid; Lee, David M; O'Neill, Terence W; Finn, Joseph D; Bartfai, György; Boonen, Steven; Casanueva, Felipe F; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S; Kula, Krzysztof; Labrie, Fernand; Lean, Michael E J; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Silman, Alan J; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Forti, Gianni; Wu, Frederick C W

    2012-06-01

    The limitations of serum testosterone and estradiol (E(2)) measurements using non-extraction platform immunoassays (IAs) are widely recognized. Switching to more specific mass spectrometry (MS)-based methods has been advocated, but directly comparative data on the two methods are scarce. We compared serum testosterone and E(2) measurements in a large sample of middle-aged/elderly men using a common platform IA and a gas chromatography (GC)-MS method, in order to assess their limitations and advantages, and to diagnose male hypogonadism. Of subjects from the European Male Aging Study (n=3174; age 40-79 years), peripheral serum testosterone and E(2) were analyzed using established commercial platform IAs (Roche Diagnostics E170) and in-house GC-MS methods. Over a broad concentration range, serum testosterone concentration measured by IA and MS showed high correlation (R=0.93, PIA/MS correlation was weaker in E(2) measurements (R=0.32, P40.8 pmol/l, and R=0.74, P40.8 pmol/l). Using MS as the comparator method, IA ascertained low testosterone compatible with hypogonadism (IA for the detection of low E(2) (40.7 pmol/l) were 13.3 and 99.3%, and for high E(2) (>120 pmol/l) 88.4 and 88.6%. A validated platform IA is sufficient to detect subnormal testosterone concentrations in the diagnosis of male hypogonadism. The IA used for E(2) measurements showed poor correlation with MS and may only be suitable for the detection of high E(2) in men.

  6. Dose-dependent testosterone sensitivity of the steroidal passport and GC-C-IRMS analysis in relation to the UGT2B17 deletion polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahm, Emmanuel; Mullen, Jenny E; Gårevik, Nina; Ericsson, Magnus; Schulze, Jenny J; Rane, Anders; Ekström, Lena

    2015-01-01

    The newly implemented Steroid Module of the Athlete Biological Passport has improved doping tests for steroids. A biomarker included in this passport is the urinary testosterone glucuronide to epitestosterone glucuronide (T/E) ratio, a ratio greatly affected by a deletion polymorphism in UGT2B17. Suspect urine doping tests are further analyzed with gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) to determine the origin of the androgen. In this study, we investigated the sensitivity of the steroidal module and the IRMS analysis, in subjects administered with three doses of testosterone enanthate (500, 250, and 125 mg), in relation to the UGT2B17 polymorphism. All subjects carrying the UGT2B17 enzyme reached the traditionally used threshold, a T/E ratio of 4, after all three administered doses, whereas none of the subjects devoid of this enzyme reached a T/E of 4. On the other hand, using the athlete biological passport and IRMS analysis, all three doses could be detected to a high degree of sensitivity. The concentrations of all steroids included in the steroidal module were dose dependently increased, except for epitestosterone which decreased independent of dose. The decrease in epitestosterone was significantly associated with circulatory levels of testosterone post dose (rs =0.60 and p=0.007). In conclusion, these results demonstrate that administration of a single dose of 125-500 mg testosterone enanthate could be detected using the athlete biological passport, together with IRMS. Since IRMS is sensitive to testosterone doping independent of UGT2B17 genotype, also very small changes in the steroidal passport should be investigated with IRMS. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of testosterone deficiency (hypogonadism in male patients with diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan I. Dedov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypogonadism in men, defined as a reduction in serum testosterone in combination with characteristic symptoms and/or signs (described in detail later, is common in diabetes mellitus (DM. These recommendations do not cover the whole range of pathologies that cause the development of testosterone deficiency (hypogonadism, but focus on its clinical variants and characteristic for men with diabetes. The recommendations provide data on the prevalence of hypogonadism in diabetes, its etiology. In the section "diagnostics" the features of anamnesis of patients with hypogonadism with diabetes, the necessary methods of physical and laboratory examination are presented in detail. The risk factors and clinical consequences of hypogonadism are separately examined. In the section "choice of treatment methods", there are possible treatment options for such patients using various androgenic therapies, taking into account the needs of the man, maintaining his reproductive function and risk factors. Particular attention is paid to indications, contraindications and risk factors for androgen therapy in men with diabetes, especially in old age. With this in mind, principles for monitoring the treatment are developed. Based on a large number of studies, favorable effects of androgen replacement therapy in men with hypogonadism and diabetes have been demonstrated.

  8. Androgens (dehydroepiandrosterone or testosterone) for women undergoing assisted reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagels, Helen E; Rishworth, Josephine R; Siristatidis, Charalampos S; Kroon, Ben

    2015-11-26

    Infertility is a condition affecting 10% to 15% of couples of reproductive age. It is generally defined as "the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse". The treatment of infertility may involve manipulation of gametes or of the embryos themselves. These techniques are together known as assisted reproductive technology (ART). Practitioners are constantly seeking alternative or adjunct treatments, or both, in the hope that they may improve the outcome of assisted reproductive techniques. This Cochrane review focusses on the adjunct use of synthetic versions of two naturally-produced hormones, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone (T), in assisted reproduction.DHEA and its derivative testosterone are steroid hormones proposed to increase conception rates by positively affecting follicular response to gonadotrophin stimulation, leading to greater oocyte yields and, in turn, increased chance of pregnancy. To assess the effectiveness and safety of DHEA and testosterone as pre- or co-treatments in subfertile women undergoing assisted reproduction. We searched the following electronic databases, trial registers and websites up to 12 March 2015: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), the Menstrual Disorders and Subfertility Group (MDSG) Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, electronic trial registers for ongoing and registered trials, citation indexes, conference abstracts in the Web of Science, PubMed and OpenSIGLE. We also carried out handsearches. There were no language restrictions. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing DHEA or testosterone as an adjunct treatment to any other active intervention, placebo, or no treatment in women undergoing assisted reproduction. Two review authors independently selected studies, extracted relevant data and assessed them for risk of bias. We pooled studies using fixed-effect models. We calculated

  9. Testosterone therapy increased muscle mass and lipid oxidation in aging men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Louise; Højlund, Kurt; Hougaard, David M

    2011-01-01

    The indication for testosterone therapy in aging hypogonadal men without hypothalamic, pituitary, or testicular disease remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of testosterone therapy on insulin sensitivity, substrate metabolism, body composition, and lipids...... lipid oxidation (b = 5.65 mg/min/m(2), p = 0.045) increased and basal glucose oxidation (b = -9.71 mg/min/m(2), p = 0.046) decreased in response to testosterone therapy even when corrected for changes in LBM. No significant changes in insulin-stimulated Rd was observed (b = -0.01mg/min/m(2), p = 0.......92). Testosterone therapy increased muscle mass and lipid oxidation in aging men with low normal bioavailable testosterone levels; however, our data did not support an effect of testosterone on whole-body insulin sensitivity using the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique....

  10. Factors influencing annual fecal testosterone metabolite profiles in captive male polar bears (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, E; Roth, T L; MacKinnon, K M; Stoops, M A

    2012-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of season, breeding activity, age and latitude on fecal testosterone metabolite concentrations in captive, adult male polar bears (Ursus maritimus). Fourteen polar bears from 13 North American zoos were monitored for 12-36 months, producing 25-year-long testosterone profiles. Results indicated that testosterone was significantly higher during the breeding season (early January through the end of May) compared with the non-breeding season with the highest concentrations excreted from early January through late March. Variations in excretion patterns were observed among individuals and also between years within an individual, with testosterone peaks closely associated with breeding activity. Results indicate that fecal testosterone concentrations are influenced by season, breeding activity and age, but not by latitude. This is the first report describing longitudinal fecal testosterone metabolite concentrations in individual adult male polar bears. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Anger and agression in women: influence of sports choice and testosterone administration.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goozen, S.H.M.; Frijda, N.H.; van de Poll, N.E.

    1994-01-01

    Conducted a role-playing study on anger to identify the influence of sex hormones on individual and gender differences in irritation, anger arousal, and aggression. 10 female-to-male (FMTs; mean age 27 yrs) and 6 male-to-female transsexuals (MFTs; mean age 29 yrs) were studied after 3 mo of

  12. Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and class labeling of gadolinium-based contrast agents by the Food and Drug Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lucie; Krefting, Ira; Gorovets, Alex; Marzella, Louis; Kaiser, James; Boucher, Robert; Rieves, Dwaine

    2012-10-01

    In 2007, the Food and Drug Administration requested that manufacturers of all approved gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs), drugs widely used in magnetic resonance imaging, use nearly identical text in their product labeling to describe the risk of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF). Accumulating information about NSF risks led to revision of the labeling text for all of these drugs in 2010. The present report summarizes the basis and purpose of this class-labeling approach and describes some of the related challenges, given the evolutionary nature of the NSF risk evidence. The class-labeling approach for presentation of product risk is designed to decrease the occurrence of NSF and to enhance the safe use of GBCAs in radiologic practice. © RSNA, 2012.

  13. Field experience with the FAA's Web-based medical certification system "AMCS/DIWS". Federal Aviation Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelici, Arnold A; Mohler, Stanley R

    2002-04-01

    The October 1, 1999, introduction in the U.S. of a Web-based medical certification process for civil aircrew opened a new era within civil aviation. The Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Aeromedical Certification System/Document Imaging Workflow System (AMCS/DIWS) has imposed certain new requirements on the designated Aviation Medical Examiners (AMEs), including the use of Internet systems and procedures. A number of AMEs elected to discontinue their work as the classic medical certification processes were replaced. The authors document their personal experience with respect to the new system, and cite the overall advantages that modernized medical certification procedures bring. These advantages include far fewer "mistakes of omission" by AMEs, more timely receipt by the FAA of aircrew certification data, and a developing master aircrew database for analytic studies.

  14. Behavioral and Physiological Responses to Nicotine Patch Administration Among Nonsmokers Based on Acute and Chronic Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoli, Chizimuzo; Kodet, Jonathan; Robertson, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large amount that is known about the physical health effects of secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure, little is known about the behavioral health effects. Nicotine, the principle psychoactive substance in SHS, elicits subjective mood and physiological responses in nonsmokers. However, no studies have examined the subjective mood or physiological responses to nicotine in nonsmokers while accounting for prior chronic or acute SHS exposure. A 7-mg nicotine patch was administered to 17 adult nonsmokers for 2 hr. Main outcome measures obtained at ½ hr, 1 hr, and 2 hr were subjective behavioral drug effects (based on eleven 10-cm Visual Analog Scales [VASs]) and the physiological measures of heart rate, blood pressure, and serum nicotine levels. Analysis of outcome data was based on participants' chronic (using hair nicotine) or acute (using saliva cotinine) SHS exposure. Greater chronic SHS exposure was negatively associated with pleasurable responses to nicotine administration ("drug feels good" score at 2-hr time point, Spearman's ρ = -.65, p < .004), whereas greater acute SHS exposure was associated with positive responses ("like feeling of drug" score at 2-hr time point, Spearman's ρ = .63, p < .01). There were no associations between chronic or acute exposure and physiological changes in response to nicotine administration. The findings of this study may be useful in providing preliminary empirical data for future explorations of the mechanism whereby SHS exposure can influence behavioral outcomes in nonsmokers. Such studies can inform future interventions to reduce the physical and behavioral health risks associated with SHS exposure. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Growing Up Or Growing Old? Cellular Aging Linked With Testosterone Reactivity To Stress In Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Stacy S.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Shachet, Andrew; Phan, Jenny; Mabile, Emily; Brett, Zoë H.; Wren, Michael; Esteves, Kyle; Theall, Katherine P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Given the established relation between testosterone and aging in older adults, we tested whether buccal telomere length (TL), an established cellular biomarker of aging, was associated with testosterone levels in youth. Methods Children, mean age 10.2 years, were recruited from the greater New Orleans area and salivary testosterone was measured during both an acute stressor and diurnally. Buccal TL was measured using monochrome multiplex quantitative real-time PCR (MMQ-PCR). Testosterone and telomere length data was available on 77 individuals. The association between buccal TL and testosterone was tested using multivariate Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) to account for clustering of children within families. Results Greater peak testosterone levels (β=-0.87, p < 0.01) and slower recovery (β=-0.56, p < 0.01) and reactivity (β = -1.22, p < 0.01) following a social stressor were significantly associated with shorter buccal TL after controlling for parental age at conception, child age, sex, sociodemographic factors and puberty. No association was initially present between diurnal measurements of testosterone or morning basal testosterone levels and buccal TL. Sex significantly moderated the relation between testosterone reactivity and buccal TL. Conclusions The association between testosterone and buccal TL supports gonadal maturation as a developmentally sensitive biomarker of aging within youth. As stress levels of testosterone were significantly associated with buccal TL, these findings are consistent with the growing literature linking stress exposure and accelerated maturation. The lack of association of diurnal testosterone or morning basal levels with buccal TL bolsters the notion of a shared stress-related maturational mechanism between cellular stress and the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis. These data provide novel evidence supporting the interaction of aging, physiologic stress and cellular processes as an underlying

  16. Variations of serum testosterone levels in prostate cancer patients under LH-releasing hormone therapy: an open question.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Leonardo Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    The hypothesis 'the lower the better when achieving castration levels of testosterone' is based on the data from second-line hormonal manipulation and its molecular basis, and on better oncological results reported for lower castration levels in prostate cancer (PCa) patients, including those achieved with maximal androgen blockade. In this regard, the equivalence of surgical and different pharmacological castrations has been controversial. The modified amino acid structure that makes LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) analogs more potent than LHRH, and the method of delivering the analogs impacts on bioavailibility and potentially causes differences in androgen levels and in its final oncological efficacy. In addition to this, there is a myriad of circumstances, such as those related to ethnic variations and co-morbidities, which uniquely impact on the pharmacological approach in a highly heterogeneous population of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. Ineffective testosterone suppression through hormonal escape is currently poorly recognized and may result in increased PCa mortality. Until now, the optimal serum testosterone level in patients under castration, and the impact of its variations in patients under LHRH therapy, remain open questions and have been merged to a broad spectra of patients who are highly heterogeneous. This heterogeneity relates to a number of mechanisms regarding response to treatment, which influences the biology of the relapsing tumor and the sensitivity to subsequent therapies in the individual patient. The rationale to achieve testosterone levels below 20-50 ng/dl warrant further investigation as these levels have recently rescued CRPC patients. In the last few years and months, important advancements in prostate cancer treatment have been achieved. Nevertheless, these advances are measured in a few months of additional survival and under high costs, not available to most of the world population, compared with the benefits

  17. Administrative Reform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Maja

    Through the example of a Danish reform of educational plans in early childhood education, the paper critically addresses administrative educational reforms promoting accountability, visibility and documentation. Drawing on Foucaultian perspectives, the relation between knowledge and governing...... of administrative technology, tracing how the humanistic values of education embed and are embedded within ‘the professional nursery teacher' as an object and subject of administrative practice. Rather than undermining the humanistic potential of education, it is argued that the technology of accounting...

  18. [Boundaries of the autonomy of local health administration: innovation, creativity and evidence-based decision-making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Silvio Fernandes da; Souza, Nathan Mendes; Barreto, Jorge Otávio Maia

    2014-11-01

    The scope of this article was to identify the boundaries of the autonomy of local administration in the context of the federal pact in the Brazilian Unified Health System and the importance and potential for promoting innovation, creativity and evidence-based decision-making by local governments. The methodology used was to ask questions that favored dialogue with the specific literature to identify the influence of centrally-formulated policies in spaces of local autonomy and then to identify strategies to foster innovation, creativity and the systematic use of evidence-based research in health policy implementation. A gradual reduction in municipal decision-making autonomy was detected due to increased financial commitment of the municipalities resulting from responsibilities assumed, albeit with the possibility of reverting this trend in the more recent context. Some determinants and challenges for the dissemination of innovative practices were analyzed and some relevant national and international experiences in this respect were presented. The conclusion drawn is that it is possible to make local decision-making more effective provided that initiatives are consolidated to promote this culture and the formulation and implementation of evidence-based health policies.

  19. Effects of chronic acetazolamide administration on gas exchange and acid-base control in pulmonary circulation in exercising horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengust, M; Stämpfli, H; De Moraes, A N; Teixeiro-Neto, F; Viel, L; Heigenhauser, G

    2010-11-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) catalyses the hydration/dehydration reaction of CO(2) and increases the rate of Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-) exchange between the erythrocytes and plasma. Therefore, chronic inhibition of CA has a potential to attenuate CO(2) output and induce greater metabolic and respiratory acidosis in exercising horses. To determine the effects of Carbonic anhydrase inhibition on CO(2) output and ionic exchange between erythrocytes and plasma and their influence on acid-base balance in the pulmonary circulation (across the lung) in exercising horses with and without CA inhibition. Six horses were exercised to exhaustion on a treadmill without (Con) and with CA inhibition (AczTr). CA inhibition was achieved with administration of acetazolamide (10 mg/kg bwt t.i.d. for 3 days and 30 mg/kg bwt before exercise). Arterial, mixed venous blood and CO(2) output were sampled at rest and during exercise. An integrated physicochemical systems approach was used to describe acid base changes. AczTr decreased the duration of exercise by 45% (P changes across the lung with exception of lactate. CO(2) and chloride changes in erythrocytes across the lung seem to be the major contributors to acid-base and ions balance in pulmonary circulation in exercising horses. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  20. An interlaboratory comparison between similar methods for determination of melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Aarrebo; Mortier, Leen; Koh, Eitetsu

    2014-01-01

    /L for melatonin, 0.56 and 6.72 nmol/L for cortisol and 11.9 and 73.8 pmol/L for testosterone. This indicates a large interlaboratory variation. The present study emphasizes the importance of external quality control for the analysis of melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva.......An interlaboratory comparison study for melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in saliva in which five laboratories participated is reported in this study. Each laboratory blindly measured eight samples prepared from natural saliva spiked with melatonin, cortisol and testosterone in the range 0...

  1. Interspecific variation in egg testosterone levels: implications for the evolution of bird song.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garamszegi, L Z; Biard, C; Eens, M; Møller, A P; Saino, N

    2007-05-01

    Although interspecific variation in maternal effects via testosterone levels can be mediated by natural selection, little is known about the evolutionary consequences of egg testosterone for sexual selection. However, two nonexclusive evolutionary hypotheses predict an interspecific relationship between egg testosterone levels and the elaboration of sexual traits. First, maternal investment may be particularly enhanced in sexually selected species, which should generate a positive relationship. Secondly, high prenatal testosterone levels may constrain the development of sexual characters, which should result in a negative relationship. Here we investigated these hypotheses by exploring the relationship between yolk testosterone levels and features of song in a phylogenetic study of 36 passerine species. We found that song duration and syllable repertoire size were significantly negatively related to testosterone levels in the egg, even if potentially confounding factors were held constant. These relationships imply that high testosterone levels during early development of songs may be detrimental, thus supporting the developmental constraints hypothesis. By contrast, we found significant evidence that song-post exposure relative to the height of the vegetation is positively related to egg testosterone levels. These results support the hypothesis that high levels of maternal testosterone have evolved in species with intense sexual selection acting on the location of song-posts. We found nonsignificant effects for intersong interval and song type repertoire size, which may suggest that none of the above hypothesis apply to these traits, or they act simultaneously and have opposing effects.

  2. Testosterone, plumage colouration and extra-pair paternity in male North-American barn swallows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cas Eikenaar

    Full Text Available In most monogamous bird species, circulating testosterone concentration in males is elevated around the social female's fertile period. Variation in elevated testosterone concentrations among males may have a considerable impact on fitness. For example, testosterone implants enhance behaviours important for social and extra-pair mate choice. However, little is known about the relationship between natural male testosterone concentration and sexual selection. To investigate this relationship we measured testosterone concentration and sexual signals (ventral plumage colour and tail length, and determined within and extra-pair fertilization success in male North American barn swallows (Hirundo rustica erythrogaster. Dark rusty coloured males had higher testosterone concentrations than drab males. Extra-pair paternity was common (42% and 31% of young in 2009 and 2010, respectively, but neither within- nor extra-pair fertilization success was related to male testosterone concentration. Dark rusty males were less often cuckolded, but did not have higher extra-pair or total fertilization success than drab males. Tail length did not affect within- or extra-pair fertilization success. Our findings suggest that, in North American barn swallows, male testosterone concentration does not play a significant direct role in female mate choice and sexual selection. Possibly plumage colour co-varies with a male behavioural trait, such as aggressiveness, that reduces the chance of cuckoldry. This could also explain why dark males have higher testosterone concentrations than drab males.

  3. Prenatal sex determination by radioimmunoassay of testosterone with and without chromatography of the amniotic fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distler, W.; Boniver-Ollmann, U.; Tigges, J.; Terinde, R.; Claussen, U.

    1979-01-01

    Amniotic fluid testosterone measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) without chromatography (immunoreactive testosterone) seems not to be a definitive test for prenatal sex determination in all cases. In this study testosterone (T) levels measured by RIA with chromatography of the amniotic fluid samples were compared with immunoreactive testosterone (iT) values, to determine the predictive accuracy of the two methods. In 111 amniotic fluid samples between 15 and 19 weeks of gestation iT and T were measured parallelly. There are significant differences between iT- and T-means of both sexes (p [de

  4. The effects of testosterone on immune function in quail selected for divergent plasma corticosterone response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Mark L; Buchanan, Katherine L; Evans, Matthew R; Marin, Raul H; Satterlee, Daniel G

    2009-10-01

    The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH) suggests that the male sex hormone testosterone has a dual effect; it controls the development and expression of male sexually selected signals, and it suppresses the immune system. Therefore only high quality males are able to fully express secondary sexual traits because only they can tolerate the immunosuppressive qualities of testosterone. A modified version of the ICHH suggests that testosterone causes immunosuppression indirectly by increasing the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT). Lines of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) selected for divergent responses in levels of plasma CORT were used to test these hypotheses. Within each CORT response line (as well as in a control stock) we manipulated levels of testosterone in castrated quail by treatment with zero (sham), low or high testosterone implants, before testing the birds' humoral immunity and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-induced immune response, as well as body condition. The PHA-induced response was not significantly affected by CORT selected line, testosterone treatment or their interaction. There was, however, a significant effect of CORT line on humoral immunity in that the control birds exhibited the greatest antibody production, but there was no significant effect of testosterone manipulation on humoral immunity. The males in the sham implant treatment group had significantly greater mass than the males in the high testosterone group, suggesting a negative effect of high testosterone on general body condition. We discuss these results in the context of current hypotheses in the field of sexual selection.

  5. Effects of testosterone on blood leukocytes in plasmodium berghei-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, A B; Ibrahim, J B

    1989-01-01

    Gonadectomized male mice aged 5 weeks were given 5 mg testosterone propionate daily for 14 days. The treatment significantly decreased the number of blood leukocytes. The number of all individual types of leukocytes except basophils in vehicle-treated gonadectomized mice was increased. Testosterone-treated mice consistently had a lower number of leukocytes after being infected with Plasmodium berghei than did vehicle-treated mice. The results suggest that testosterone suppresses the production of leukocytes and that testosterone-treated mice become more susceptible to parasite infection.

  6. Relation of cigarette smoking in males of different ages to sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Nabarawy, F.S.

    2002-01-01

    The relationship of cigarette smoking, age, total testosterone free testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were examined by solid phase radioimmunoassay in 90 randomly chosen healthy males of different ages. The serum levels of these hormones were investigated for smokers compared with non-smokers, of the same ages in 3 groups (adolescent males, middle aged males, and old aged males). Results indicated that cigarette smokers showed increased serum levels of testosterone (60.0% higher, P> 0.05), free testosterone (51.0 higher, P > 0.005) in young adolescent males group, testosterone (27.8% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (21.3% higher, P > 0.001) in middle aged males group, and testosterone (21.0% higher, P > 0.001), free testosterone (16.8% higher, P > 0.4) in old ages males group. SHBG was calculated as a mean of free and total testosterone in each group. smokers showed higher mean values of SHBG than non-smokers. Age was positively associated with serum SHBG, it was found that SHBG increased by 17.2% from the youngest (> 18 years) to the oldest age (> 65 years)

  7. Work engagement and psychological capital in the Italian public administration: A new resource-based intervention programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arianna Costantini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Organisations need energetic and dedicated employees to enhance the quality of their services and products continuously. According to the Conservation of Resources Theory, it is possible to increase work engagement of employees by improving their personal resources. Research purpose: The main aim of this study was to examine the extent to which an improvement in psychological capital, as a personal resource, might enhance work engagement of employees in the public sector. Motivation for the study: This study was developed to investigate how and to what extent interventions aiming at fostering higher work engagement through the enhancement of psychological capital were certainly effective. Research design, approach and method: To improve psychological capital, a new resource-based intervention programme (FAMILY intervention was developed and applied, in which six dimensions – namely framing, attitudes, meaningfulness, identity, leading self and yoked together – were improved. A semi-experimental research design (pre-test and post-test was used to conduct this study. Participants were 54 employees working in an Italian public health administration. In the pre-test and post-test stages, data were collected by using the psychological capital and work engagement scales. Main findings: Results showed that there is a positive relationship between psychological capital and work engagement in the pre-test and post-test stages, considered separately. In addition, comparing pre-test and post-test results revealed that the intervention programme significantly improved both psychological capital and work engagement. This shows that an improvement in psychological capital is consistent with an increase in work engagement. Conclusion: Together, these findings prove that psychological capital can be considered as a set of personal resources which lead to increased work engagement. Contribution/value-add: This study bridged the gap found in the

  8. UGT2B17 genotype and the pharmacokinetic serum profile of testosterone during substitution therapy with testosterone undecanoate. A retrospective experience from 207 men with hypogonadism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Anne Kirstine; Jørgensen, Niels; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    Background: Testosterone (T) is mainly excreted in the urine as testosterone glucuronide (TG). This glucuronidation is partly dependent on the UGT2B17 genotype, and TG excretion is therefore lower in men having the UGT2B17 deletion. However, the possible influence of UGT2B17 genotype on serum T...... during androgen therapy is unknown. We retrospectively investigated the possible association between the UGT2B17 gene polymorphism and serum T levels in hypogonadal men during Testosterone undecanoate (TU) substitution therapy. Subjects and Methods: Two hundred and seven patients treated with TU (Nebido...

  9. Melatonin and its correlation with testosterone in polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS is considered to be the most common endocrine disorder affecting women. Melatonin, a small lipophilic indoleamine, and reproductive hormones may be interrelated. Melatonin influences sex steroid production at different stages of ovarian follicular maturation as melatonin receptors have been demonstrated at multiple sites in ovary and in intrafollicular fluid. It plays role as an antioxidant and free radical scavanger which protects follicles from oxidative stress, rescuing them from atresia, leading to complete follicular maturation and ovulation. Aims: To study the role of melatonin in PCOS and to investigate its correlation with testosterone in patients suffering from PCOS. Settings and Design: A total of 50 women with PCOS (Rotterdam criteria, 2003 and 50 age and weight matched healthy controls were selected and serum melatonin estimation was done in both the groups and correlated with serum total testosterone levels. Materials and Methods: In a case-control study, detailed history, clinical examination and hormonal evaluation [basal levels of leutinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, prolactin, insulin, total testosterone, progesterone and melatonin] were carried out in all the participants including both cases and controls. For melatonin estimation, blood samples were collected between 12:00 am and 04:00 am on day 2 nd of menstrual cycle and analyzed by using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Statistical Analysis: Student′s t-test was used to compare the significant difference in mean values between cases and control groups. Chi-square test was used to test the significant association between the qualitative variables. Linear correlation coefficient and regression analysis were done to see the amount and direction of relationship between quantitative variables. Results: The mean melatonin level was observed to be significantly

  10. The effect of a knowledge-based ergonomic intervention amongst administrators at Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanyonyi, Nancy; Frantz, Jose; Saidi, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) and neck pain are part of the common work-related musculoskeletal disorders with a large impact on the affected person. Despite having a multifactorial aetiology, ergonomic factors play a major role thus necessitating workers' education. To determine the prevalence of ergonomic-related LBP and neck pain, and describe the effect of a knowledge-based ergonomic intervention amongst administrators in Aga Khan University Hospital, Nairobi. This study applied a mixed method design utilizing a survey and two focus group discussions (FGD). A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 208 participants through systematic sampling. A one hour knowledge-based ergonomic session founded on the survey results was thereafter administered to interested participants, followed by two FGDs a month later with purposive selection of eight participants to explore their experience of the ergonomic intervention. Quantitative data was captured and analyzed using SPSS by means of descriptive and inferential statistics, whereas thematic content analysis was used for qualitative data. Most participants were knowledgeable about ergonomic-related LBP and neck pain with a twelve month prevalence of 75.5% and 67.8% respectively. Continual ergonomic education is necessary for adherence to health-related behaviours that will preventwork-related LBP and neck pain.

  11. [Algorithms based on medico-administrative data in the field of endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases, especially diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse-Edorh, S; Rigou, A; Morin, S; Fezeu, L; Mandereau-Bruno, L; Fagot-Campagna, A

    2017-10-01

    Medico-administrative databases represent a very interesting source of information in the field of endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases. The objective of this article is to describe the early works of the Redsiam working group in this field. Algorithms developed in France in the field of diabetes, the treatment of dyslipidemia, precocious puberty, and bariatric surgery based on the National Inter-schema Information System on Health Insurance (SNIIRAM) data were identified and described. Three algorithms for identifying people with diabetes are available in France. These algorithms are based either on full insurance coverage for diabetes or on claims of diabetes treatments, or on the combination of these two methods associated with hospitalizations related to diabetes. Each of these algorithms has a different purpose, and the choice should depend on the goal of the study. Algorithms for identifying people treated for dyslipidemia or precocious puberty or who underwent bariatric surgery are also available. Early work from the Redsiam working group in the field of endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases produced an inventory of existing algorithms in France, linked with their goals, together with a presentation of their limitations and advantages, providing useful information for the scientific community. This work will continue with discussions about algorithms on the incidence of diabetes in children, thyroidectomy for thyroid nodules, hypothyroidism, hypoparathyroidism, and amyloidosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamics of serum testosterone during the menstrual cycle evaluated by daily measurements with an ID-LC-MS/MS method and a 2nd generation automated immunoassay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, Hong N.; Sluss, Patrick M.; Blincko, Stuart; Knol, Dirk L.; Blankenstein, Marinus A.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone concentrations in normally cycling women are assumed to be elevated around the time of ovulation. The clinical relevance of changing testosterone concentrations during the menstrual cycle, however, is unclear. Poor performance of current direct immunoassays for testosterone at low

  13. Unsuspected Clenbuterol Toxicity in a Patient Using Intramuscular Testosterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew K. Griswold

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Clenbuterol is a beta-agonist that has been abused by fitness-oriented individuals for muscle growth and weight loss. We report a case of a 46-year-old man who presented tachycardic, hypokalemic, and hyperglycemic after injecting testosterone obtained from Brazil. He developed refractory hypotension and was started on an esmolol infusion for suspected beta-agonist toxicity. Laboratory analysis showed a detectable clenbuterol serum concentration. Analysis of an unopened ampule contained boldenone undecylenate, clenbuterol, and vitamin E. This case illustrates a novel exposure that caused beta-agonist toxicity and was treated successfully with rapid-onset beta blocker.

  14. Testosterone induces molecular changes in dopamine signaling pathway molecules in the adolescent male rat nigrostriatal pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tertia D Purves-Tyson

    Full Text Available Adolescent males have an increased risk of developing schizophrenia, implicating testosterone in the precipitation of dopamine-related psychopathology. Evidence from adult rodent brain indicates that testosterone can modulate nigrostriatal dopamine. However, studies are required to understand the role testosterone plays in maturation of dopamine pathways during adolescence and to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s by which testosterone exerts its effects. We hypothesized that molecular indices of dopamine neurotransmission [synthesis (tyrosine hydroxylase, breakdown (catechol-O-methyl transferase; monoamine oxygenase, transport [vesicular monoamine transporter (VMAT, dopamine transporter (DAT] and receptors (DRD1-D5] would be changed by testosterone or its metabolites, dihydrotestosterone and 17β-estradiol, in the nigrostriatal pathway of adolescent male rats. We found that testosterone and dihydrotestosterone increased DAT and VMAT mRNAs in the substantia nigra and that testosterone increased DAT protein at the region of the cell bodies, but not in target regions in the striatum. Dopamine receptor D2 mRNA was increased and D3 mRNA was decreased in substantia nigra and/or striatum by androgens. These data suggest that increased testosterone at adolescence may change dopamine responsivity of the nigrostriatal pathway by modulating, at a molecular level, the capacity of neurons to transport and respond to dopamine. Further, dopamine turnover was increased in the dorsal striatum following gonadectomy and this was prevented by testosterone replacement. Gene expression changes in the dopaminergic cell body region may serve to modulate both dendritic dopamine feedback inhibition and reuptake in the dopaminergic somatodendritic field as well as dopamine release and re-uptake dynamics at the presynaptic terminals in the striatum. These testosterone-induced changes of molecular indices of dopamine neurotransmission in males are primarily androgen

  15. Prediabetes Is Associated with an Increased Risk of Testosterone Deficiency, Independent of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chen-Hsun; Yu, Hong-Jeng; Wang, Chih-Yuan; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Hsieh, Ju-Ton; Liao, Wan-Chung; Pu, Yeong-Shiau; Liu, Shih-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Objective The association between type 2 diabetes and low testosterone has been well recognized. However, testosterone levels in men with prediabetes have been rarely reported. We aimed to investigate whether prediabetes was associated with an increased risk of testosterone deficiency. Methods This study included 1,306 men whose sex hormones was measured during a medical examination. Serum total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured; free and bioavailable testosterone concentrations were calculated by Vermeulen’s formula. Prediabetes was defined by impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired postprandial glucose (IPG), or glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) 5.7%-6.4%. Logistic regression was performed to obtain the odds ratios (OR) for subnormal total testosterone (prediabetic and diabetic men compared with normoglycemic individuals, while adjusting for age, BMI, waist circumference, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). Results Normoglycemia, prediabetes, and diabetes were diagnosed in 577 (44.2%), 543 (41.6%), and 186 (14.2%) men, respectively. Prediabetes was associated with an increased risk of subnormal total testosterone compared to normoglycemic individuals (age-adjusted OR=1.87; 95%CI=1.38-2.54). The risk remained significant in all multivariate analyses. After adjusting for MetS, the OR in prediabetic men equals that of diabetic patients (1.49 versus 1.50). IFG, IPG, and HbA1c 5.7%-6.4% were all associated with an increased risk of testosterone deficiency, with different levels of significance in multivariate analyses. However, neither prediabetes nor diabetes was associated with subnormal free testosterone in multivariate analyses. Conclusions Prediabetes is associated with an increased risk of testosterone deficiency, independent of obesity and MetS. After adjusting for MetS, the risk equals that of diabetes. Our data suggest that testosterone should be measured routinely in men with prediabetes. PMID:24069277

  16. Model-based drug administration : current status of target-controlled infusion and closed-loop control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuizenga, Merel H.; Vereecke, Hugo E. M.; Struys, Michel M. R. F.

    Purpose of review Drug administration might be optimized by incorporating pharmacokinetic-dynamic (PK/PD) principles and control engineering theories. This review gives an update of the actual status of target-controlled infusion (TCI) and closed-loop computer-controlled drug administration and the

  17. 77 FR 52322 - McClellan Air Force Base Superfund Site Proposed Notice of Administrative Order on Consent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... limited liability company. The proposed administrative order on consent concerns cleanup of portions of...; request for public comment. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that a proposed administrative order on... of Suitability for Early Transfer (``FOSET''), which has been subject to a public comment period. The...

  18. Does hierarchy stability influence testosterone and cortisol levels of bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus) adult males? A comparison between two wild groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonça-Furtado, Olívia; Edaes, Mariana; Palme, Rupert; Rodrigues, Agatha; Siqueira, José; Izar, Patrícia

    2014-11-01

    Testosterone and cortisol are hormones expected to play a major role in competitive behaviours (i.e. aggression), and are related to rank and hierarchical stability. Through a non-invasive technique, we analyzed faecal testosterone (FTM(1)) and cortisol (FCM(2)) metabolites of dominant and subordinate males from two wild groups of bearded capuchin monkeys. One group had a stable dominance hierarchy while the other had an unstable hierarchy, with a marked conflict period related to a male take-over. In the unstable hierarchy group (1) the dominant male had higher FTM peaks than subordinates, and (2) basal FTM levels were higher than in the stable group. These findings are in accordance with the Challenge Hypothesis and rank-based predictions, and confirm that in Sapajus libidinosus hierarchy stability, social status, aggression rates and testosterone are closely related. Dominants of both groups had higher basal and peak FCM levels, suggesting that in S. libidinosus the dominant male has a higher allostatic load than subordinates, related to his role in protection against predators, intragroup appeasement, and control of food sources. Finally, we suggest that males of S. libidinosus are resistant to testosterone suppression by cortisol, because in the unstable group in spite of an increase in FCM there was also an increase in FTM during the conflict period. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Cardiac hypertrophy and IGF-1 response to testosterone propionate treatment in trained male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żebrowska Aleksandra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have suggested that testosterone exerts a growth-promoting effect in the heart. Limited data are available regarding interactions between possible endocrine/paracrine effects in response to exercise training. Therefore, we examined supraphysiological testosterone-induced heart hypertrophy and cardiac insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 content in sedentary and exercise-trained rats.

  20. Effect of Increasing Yolk Testosterone Levels on Early Behaviour in Japanese Quail Hatchlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Okuliarová

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to investigate effects of increased testosterone content in egg yolk on early behaviour of 1- and 2-day-old Japanese quail. Three different doses of testosterone (0.25; 2.5 and 25 ng, not exceeding a physiological range, were examined in three separate experiments. Testosterone propionate dissolved in 20 μl olive oil was injected into the yolk before the onset of incubation. Behaviour of newly hatched chicks was recorded in response to both a novel environment in the open-field test and manual restraining in the test of tonic immobility (TI. Behavioural consequences of embryonic exposure to elevated testosterone were observed in the open-field test in all three experiments which indicated inhibition of behavioural responses in hatchlings. Birds treated with testosterone in ovo displayed longer latency to leave the start square, decreased locomotor activity, enhanced defecation and lower number of distress calls as compared to control birds. In TI test, the influence of treatment was manifested at the highest concentration only. Hatchlings from testosterone treated eggs expressed longer duration of TI and required less attempts to induce TI in comparison with the control group. Our results demonstrated increased fearfulness of Japanese quail chicks hatched from eggs with experimentally elevated testosterone content. The effect is specific for a short period after hatching since previous studies reported stimulatory effect of yolk testosterone on behaviour of Japanese quail later in ontogeny.

  1. A review on the relationship between testosterone and life-course persistent antisocial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, B.O.; Derksen, J.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Life-course persistent antisocial behavior is 10 to 14 times more prevalent in males and it has been suggested that testosterone levels could account for this gender bias. Preliminary studies with measures of fetal testosterone find inconsistent associations with antisocial behavior, especially

  2. Effect of anticonvulsants on plasma testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragry, J M; Makin, H L; Trafford, D J; Scott, D F

    1978-01-01

    Plasma sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and testosterone levels were measured in 29 patients with epilepsy (16 men and 13 women), most of them on chronic therapy with anticonvulsant drugs. Sex hormone binding globulin concentrations were increased in both sexes and testosterone levels in male patients. It is postulated that anticonvulsants may induce hepatic synthesis of SHBG. PMID:569688

  3. Testosterone increases amygdala reactivity in middle-aged women to a young adulthood level.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingen, G.A. van; Zylicz, S.A.; Pieters, S.; Mattern, C.; Verkes, R.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2009-01-01

    Testosterone modulates mood and sexual function in women. However, androgen levels decline with age, which may relate to the age-associated change in sexual functioning and the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders. These effects of testosterone are potentially mediated by the amygdala. In the

  4. Association of testosterone and BDNF serum levels with craving during alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberlein, Annemarie; Lenz, Bernd; Opfermann, Birgitt; Gröschl, Michael; Janke, Eva; Stange, Katrin; Groh, Adrian; Kornhuber, Johannes; Frieling, Helge; Bleich, Stefan; Hillemacher, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies show associations between testosterone and brain-derived neurotrophic growth factor (BDNF) serum levels. BDNF and testosterone have been independently reported to influence alcohol consumption. Therefore, we aimed to investigate a possible interplay of testosterone and BDNF contributing to alcohol dependence. Regarding possible interplay of testosterone and BDNF and the activity of the hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA), we included cortisol serum levels in our research. We investigated testosterone and BDNF serum levels in a sample of 99 male alcohol-dependent patients during alcohol withdrawal (day 1, 7, and 14) and compared them to a healthy male control group (n = 17). The testosterone serum levels were significantly (p BDNF serum levels (day 1: p = 0.008). In a subgroup of patients showing high cortisol serum levels (putatively mirroring high HPA activity), we found a significant association of BDNF and testosterone as well as with alcohol craving measured by the Obsessive and Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS). Our data suggest a possible association of BDNF and testosterone serum levels, which may be relevant for the symptomatology of alcohol dependence. Further studies are needed to clarify our results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. STUDIES ON WILD HOUSE MICE .4. ON THE HEREDITY OF TESTOSTERONE AND READINESS TO ATTACK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANOORTMERSSEN, GA; BENUS, RF; SLUYTER, F

    1992-01-01

    An attempt was made to determine the role of the Y chromosome in the development of aggression in wild house mice. The aggression-eliciting property of testosterone depends not only on circulating adult testosterone, but also on perinatal sensitization of the central nervous system to this steroid.

  6. Endogenous testosterone is not associated with the trade-off between paternal and mating effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikenaar, Cas; Whitham, Megan; Komdeur, Jan; van der Velde, Marco; Moore, Ignacio T.

    2011-01-01

    Males may face a trade-off between caring for offspring and pursuing additional matings. In birds, the androgen testosterone has been suggested to be a key proximate mediator in this trade-off for several reasons. At the population level, high testosterone is typically associated with the period of

  7. Exogenous testosterone enhances responsiveness to social threat in the neural circuitry of social aggression in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, E.J.; Ramsey, N.F.; Honk, J. van

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a range of species, the androgen steroid testosterone is known to potentiate neural circuits involved in intraspecific aggression. Disorders of impulsive aggression in humans have likewise been associated with high testosterone levels, but human evidence for the link between

  8. Testosterone increases amygdala reactivity in middle-aged women to a young adulthood level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wingen, Guido A.; Zylicz, Staś A.; Pieters, Sara; Mattern, Claudia; Verkes, Robbert Jan; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Fernández, Guillén

    2009-01-01

    Testosterone modulates mood and sexual function in women. However, androgen levels decline with age, which may relate to the age-associated change in sexual functioning and the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders. These effects of testosterone are potentially mediated by the amygdala. In the

  9. Translational Perspective on the Role of Testosterone in Sexual Function and Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlasek, Carol A; Mulhall, John; Davies, Kelvin; Wingard, Christopher J; Hannan, Johanna L; Bivalacqua, Trinity J; Musicki, Biljana; Khera, Mohit; González-Cadavid, Nestor F; Burnett, Arthur L

    2016-08-01

    The biological importance of testosterone is generally accepted by the medical community; however, controversy focuses on its relevance to sexual function and the sexual response, and our understanding of the extent of its role in this area is evolving. To provide scientific evidence examining the role of testosterone at the cellular and molecular levels as it pertains to normal erectile physiology and the development of erectile dysfunction and to assist in guiding successful therapeutic interventions for androgen-dependent sexual dysfunction. In this White Paper, the Basic Science Committee of the Sexual Medicine Society of North America assessed the current basic science literature examining the role of testosterone in sexual function and dysfunction. Testosterone plays an important role in sexual function through multiple processes: physiologic (stimulates activity of nitric oxide synthase), developmental (establishes and maintains the structural and functional integrity of the penis), neural (development, maintenance, function, and plasticity of the cavernous nerve and pelvic ganglia), therapeutically for dysfunctional regulation (beneficial effect on aging, diabetes, and prostatectomy), and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibition (testosterone supplement to counteract phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor resistance). Despite controversies concerning testosterone with regard to sexual function, basic science studies provide incontrovertible evidence for a significant role of testosterone in sexual function and suggest that properly administered testosterone therapy is potentially advantageous for treating male sexual dysfunction. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Effect of pinealectomy and prolonged melatonin administration on circadian testicular function in food restricted rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrowska, Z.; Zwirska-Korczala, K.; Kajdaniuk, D.; Gorski, J.; Buntner, B.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of pinealectomy and exogenous melatonin on the circadian testosterone variations was investigated (using the radioimmunoassay method) after 3 weeks of 50% food restriction in sexually mature male Wistar rats at 3-h intervals under 12:12 light-dark cycle. The circadian periodicity of testosterone secretion was maintained after caloric deprivation, however its mean 24-h concentration was lower and rhythm disturbances appeared in the form of acrophase shifts from 18.00 to 0.50 h. In pinealectomized animals the mean 24-h testosterone level and amplitude values were significantly increased without the rhythm disturbances. As compared to the control animals, underfed pinealectomized rats had a partial recovery of reduced testosterone levels during the 24-h cycle and showed a normalization of the rhythm acrophase. Melatonin administration was found to inhibit the testosterone mesor value in pinealectomized rats with acrophase shifts from 16.58 to 14.51 h. In comparison with the pinealectomized ones the underfed pinealectomized rats had a greater reduction of the mesor and amplitude values after the melatonin administration. These findings indicate that long-term food restriction sensitizes the circadian testicular axis to antigonadotropic action of the pineal gland. (author). 42 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  11. Testosterone sorption and desorption: Effects of soil particle size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Yong, E-mail: yqi01@unomaha.edu [Civil Engineering Dept., University of Nebraska-Lincoln at Omaha Campus, Omaha, NE 68182 (United States); Zhang, Tian C. [Civil Engineering Dept., University of Nebraska-Lincoln at Omaha Campus, Omaha, NE 68182 (United States); Ren, Yongzheng [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Smaller soil particles have higher sorption and lower desorption rates. • The sorption capacity ranks as clay > silt > sand. • Small particles like clays have less potential for desorption. • Colloids (clays) have high potential to facilitate the transport of hormones in soil–water environments. - Abstract: Soils contain a wide range of particles of different diameters with different mobility during rainfall events. Effects of soil particles on sorption and desorption behaviors of steroid hormones have not been investigated. In this study, wet sieve washing and repeated sedimentation methods were used to fractionate the soils into five ranges. The sorption and desorption properties and related mechanisms of testosterone in batch reactors filled with fractionated soil particles were evaluated. Results of sorption and desorption kinetics indicate that small soil particles have higher sorption and lower desorption rates than that of big ones. Thermodynamic results show the sorption processes are spontaneous and exothermal. The sorption capacity ranks as clay > silt > sand, depending mainly on specific surface area and surface functional groups. The urea control test shows that hydrogen bonding contributes to testosterone sorption onto clay and silt but not on sand. Desorption tests indicate sorption is 36–65% irreversible from clay to sand. Clays have highest desorption hysteresis among these five soil fractions, indicating small particles like clays have less potential for desorption. The results provide indirect evidence on the colloid (clay)-facilitated transport of hormones (micro-pollutants) in soil environments.

  12. Exercise training improves free testosterone in lifelong sedentary aging men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Lawrence D; Herbert, Peter; Sculthorpe, Nicholas F; Grace, Fergal M

    2017-07-01

    As the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on systemic hormones in aging men is unstudied to date, we investigated whether total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free testosterone (free-T) and cortisol (all in serum) were altered following HIIT in a cohort of 22 lifelong sedentary (62 ± 2 years) older men. As HIIT requires preconditioning exercise in sedentary cohorts, participants were tested at three phases, each separated by six-week training; baseline (phase A), following conditioning exercise (phase B) and post-HIIT (phase C). Each measurement phase used identical methods. TT was significantly increased following HIIT (~17%; P  HIIT compared to baseline (~4.5%; P  = 0.023). Cortisol remained unchanged from A to C ( P  = 0.138). The present data indicate a combination of preconditioning, and HIIT increases TT and SHBG in sedentary older males, with the HIIT stimulus accounting for a small but statistically significant increase in free-T. Further study is required to determine the biological importance of small improvements in free-T in aging men. © 2017 The authors.

  13. Offentlig administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elof Nellemann; Rehr, Preben René

    En undervisningsbog der henvender sig til administrationsbacheloruddannelsen. Kapitlerne er inddelt efter modulerne på uddannelsen og indeholder derfor elementer af administration, forvaltning, økonomistyring, innovation, samfundsvidenskabelige metoder og politisk styrede organisationer.......En undervisningsbog der henvender sig til administrationsbacheloruddannelsen. Kapitlerne er inddelt efter modulerne på uddannelsen og indeholder derfor elementer af administration, forvaltning, økonomistyring, innovation, samfundsvidenskabelige metoder og politisk styrede organisationer....

  14. SAT administrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havas, A.

    1998-01-01

    SAT Administrator is the Information System for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training Program Design. It supports the design of training programs in the following phases: job analysis; task analysis; competency analysis; task competency association; definition of learning objectives to competencies; training program design; definition of test items. The general structure of the database and management software supports application of the SAT Administrator in any nuclear power installation

  15. The Effect of Special Operations Training on Testosterone, Lean Body Mass, and Strength and the Potential for Therapeutic Testosterone Replacement: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    low bone mass, and physical frailty. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010; 58(6):1134-1143. 22. Hildreth KL, Barry DW, Moreau KL, Vande Griend J, Meacham RB, et...88PA, Case # 2016-0120, 15 Jan 2016. 14. ABSTRACT Special Operations Forces (SOF) are routinely exposed to physically demanding missions that...deprivation, and decreased testosterone. A secondary purpose is to summarize the effects of exogenous testosterone therapy in healthy males as well as to

  16. Biases in detection of apparent "weekend effect" on outcome with administrative coding data: population based study of stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linxin; Rothwell, Peter M

    2016-05-16

     To determine the accuracy of coding of admissions for stroke on weekdays versus weekends and any impact on apparent outcome.  Prospective population based stroke incidence study and a scoping review of previous studies of weekend effects in stroke.  Primary and secondary care of all individuals registered with nine general practices in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom (OXVASC, the Oxford Vascular Study).  All patients with clinically confirmed acute stroke in OXVASC identified with multiple overlapping methods of ascertainment in 2002-14 versus all acute stroke admissions identified by hospital diagnostic and mortality coding alone during the same period.  Accuracy of administrative coding data for all patients with confirmed stroke admitted to hospital in OXVASC. Difference between rates of "false positive" or "false negative" coding for weekday and weekend admissions. Impact of inaccurate coding on apparent case fatality at 30 days in weekday versus weekend admissions. Weekend effects on outcomes in patients with confirmed stroke admitted to hospital in OXVASC and impacts of other potential biases compared with those in the scoping review.  Among 92 728 study population, 2373 episodes of acute stroke were ascertained in OXVASC, of which 826 (34.8%) mainly minor events were managed without hospital admission, 60 (2.5%) occurred out of the area or abroad, and 195 (8.2%) occurred in hospital during an admission for a different reason. Of 1292 local hospital admissions for acute stroke, 973 (75.3%) were correctly identified by administrative coding. There was no bias in distribution of weekend versus weekday admission of the 319 strokes missed by coding. Of 1693 admissions for stroke identified by coding, 1055 (62.3%) were confirmed to be acute strokes after case adjudication. Among the 638 false positive coded cases, patients were more likely to be admitted on weekdays than at weekends (536 (41.0%) v 102 (26.5%); Pcoded acute stroke admissions and false positive

  17. Biases in detection of apparent “weekend effect” on outcome with administrative coding data: population based study of stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linxin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the accuracy of coding of admissions for stroke on weekdays versus weekends and any impact on apparent outcome. Design Prospective population based stroke incidence study and a scoping review of previous studies of weekend effects in stroke. Setting Primary and secondary care of all individuals registered with nine general practices in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom (OXVASC, the Oxford Vascular Study). Participants All patients with clinically confirmed acute stroke in OXVASC identified with multiple overlapping methods of ascertainment in 2002-14 versus all acute stroke admissions identified by hospital diagnostic and mortality coding alone during the same period. Main outcomes measures Accuracy of administrative coding data for all patients with confirmed stroke admitted to hospital in OXVASC. Difference between rates of “false positive” or “false negative” coding for weekday and weekend admissions. Impact of inaccurate coding on apparent case fatality at 30 days in weekday versus weekend admissions. Weekend effects on outcomes in patients with confirmed stroke admitted to hospital in OXVASC and impacts of other potential biases compared with those in the scoping review. Results Among 92 728 study population, 2373 episodes of acute stroke were ascertained in OXVASC, of which 826 (34.8%) mainly minor events were managed without hospital admission, 60 (2.5%) occurred out of the area or abroad, and 195 (8.2%) occurred in hospital during an admission for a different reason. Of 1292 local hospital admissions for acute stroke, 973 (75.3%) were correctly identified by administrative coding. There was no bias in distribution of weekend versus weekday admission of the 319 strokes missed by coding. Of 1693 admissions for stroke identified by coding, 1055 (62.3%) were confirmed to be acute strokes after case adjudication. Among the 638 false positive coded cases, patients were more likely to be admitted on weekdays than at weekends (536

  18. Impact of Impaired Renal Function on Gadolinium Retention After Administration of Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartamihardja, A Adhipatria P; Nakajima, Takahito; Kameo, Satomi; Koyama, Hiroshi; Tsushima, Yoshito

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of impaired renal function on gadolinium (Gd) retention in various organs after Gd-based contrast agent injection. After local animal care and review committee approval, 23 normal mice and 26 with renal failure were divided into 4 treatment groups (Gd-DTPA-BMA, 5 mmol/kg; Gd-DOTA, 5 mmol/kg; GdCl3, 0.02 mmol/kg; and saline, 250 μL). Each agent was intravenously administered on weekdays for 4 weeks. Samples were collected on days 3 (short-term) and 45 (long-term) after the last injection. Gadolinium concentrations were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Three mice with renal failure and 2 normal mice in the GdCl3 group and 1 mouse with renal failure in the Gd-DTPA-BMA group died. In the Gd-DTPA-BMA group, impaired renal function increased short-term Gd retention in the liver, bone, spleen, skin, and kidney (P DTPA-BMA showed higher Gd retention than Gd-DOTA. Although Gd retention in the Gd-DOTA group was generally low, impaired renal function increased only long-term hepatic Gd retention. Hepatic and splenic Gd retentions were significantly higher than other organs' Gd retention in the GdCl3 group (P DTPA-BMA administration, long-term Gd retention for Gd-based contrast agents was almost unaffected by renal function, suggesting that the chemical structures of retained Gd may not be consistent and some Gd is slowly eliminated after initially being retained.

  19. Developmental Programming: Impact of Excess Prenatal Testosterone on Intrauterine Fetal Endocrine Milieu and Growth in Sheep1

    OpenAIRE

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Steckler, Teresa L.; Abbott, David H.; Welch, Kathleen B.; MohanKumar, Puliyur S.; Phillips, David J.; Refsal, Kent; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2010-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess in sheep leads to reproductive and metabolic disruptions that mimic those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Comparison of prenatal testosterone-treated sheep with prenatal dihydrotestosterone-treated sheep suggests facilitation of defects by androgenic as well as androgen-independent effects of testosterone. We hypothesized that the disruptive impact of prenatal testosterone on adult pathology may partially depend on its conversion to estrogen and cons...

  20. Testosterone secretion during gubernacular development and testicular descent in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumans, V; Dieleman, S J; Wouterse, H S; van Tol, L; Dijkstra, G; Wensing, C J

    1985-01-01

    Serum testosterone concentrations ranged from 0.24 to 1.45 nmol/l between Day 53 post coitum (p.c.) until Day 40 post partum (p.p.) and did not show variations that could be correlated with the process of testicular descent. The intratesticular androgen appeared to be mainly testosterone, its concentration being about 5000-fold higher than that in serum whereas 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone could not be demonstrated. The intratesticular testosterone concentration at the initiation of gubernacular regression (Day 0) was apparently, but not significantly, higher than at Day 49 p.c. and at Day 40 p.p. The ability of the neonatal canine testis to synthesize testosterone was indicated by increased serum testosterone concentrations after hCG stimulation.

  1. No effect of oral testosterone treatment on sexual dysfunction in alcoholic cirrhotic men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Wantzin, P; Eriksen, J

    1988-01-01

    -binding globulin-bound testosterone concentrations disappeared, however, when age, ethanol consumption, and severity of liver disease were included as covariates in the analysis. During follow-up (median 30 mo, range 1-48 mo) sexual dysfunction improved significantly (p less than 0.05) at 6, 12, and 24 mo......The prevalence and course of sexual dysfunction was evaluated in 221 alcoholic cirrhotic men participating in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study on the effect of oral testosterone treatment on liver disease. At entry, 67% (95% confidence limits, 61%-74%) complained of sexual dysfunction....... Sexual dysfunction was significantly (p less than 0.05) associated with lower serum concentrations of testosterone, non-protein-bound testosterone, and non-sex hormone-binding globulin-bound testosterone. The significant associations between sexual dysfunction and non-protein-bound and non-sex hormone...

  2. Women's Preference for Attractive Makeup Tracks Changes in Their Salivary Testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Claire I; Hahn, Amanda C; DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C

    2015-12-01

    Previous research suggests that women's motivation to appear attractive is increased around the time of ovulation. However, the specific hormonal correlates of within-woman changes in motivation to appear attractive have not been investigated. To address this issue, we used a longitudinal design and a data-driven visual preference task. We found that women's preference for attractive makeup increases when their salivary testosterone levels are high. The relationship between testosterone level and preference for attractive makeup was independent of estradiol level, progesterone level, and estradiol-to-progesterone ratio. These results suggest that testosterone may contribute to changes in women's motivation to wear attractive makeup and, potentially, their motivation to appear attractive in general. Our results are also consistent with recent models of the role of testosterone in social behavior, according to which testosterone increases the probability of behaviors that could function to support the acquisition of mates and competition for resources. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. The hormone level of both the testosterone and the gonadotropin. Chapter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Concentration of testosterone and gonadotropin hormones in blood serum was studied at 120 examined sick persons. It is shown that the statistically reliable (P<0.5) decrease of testosterone level is exhibiting under influence of radiation doses over 0.25 Gy. During radiation doses action increasing the legible tendency to of testosterone level reduction is noted. Results of pituitary gland-gonad system study in dependence of sexual dysfunctions are presented. Data evident that sexual dysfunction does not depend from suppression of hormone activity of gonads. It is revealed, that common testosterone level in sicks suffered from low radiation action was reduced. Differences in testosterone content at sicks with sexual dysfunction and without its have not been revealed

  4. Erythrocytosis Secondary to Testosterone Therapy in a Male with Cryptorchidism: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efthymia Vlachaki

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Hypogonadism is association with aging (andropause can now be recognized earlier and treated with testosterone, thus resulting in the relief of symptoms and better quality of life. However, any patients that are treated with testosterone must be closely monitored in order to avoid the development of sleep apnea, cardiovascular diseases, hepatic dysfunction, plasma lipid disorders, or erythrocytosis, all of which are potential side effects of treatment. Herein, we present a case of erythrocytosis secondary to testosterone treatment in a patient with cryptorchidism. Hemoglobin levels returned to normal soon after phlebotomy and discontinuation of testosterone therapy. Physicians should be aware of the side effects of testosterone replacement therapy and cautiously monitor patients in order to avoid these side effects and cumbersome and expensive laboratory tests.

  5. Influence of sexual behavior of Dorper rams treated with glutamate and/or testosterone on reproductive performance of anovulatory ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Leyva, Guadalupe; Meza-Herrera, Cesar A; Rodriguez-Martinez, Rafael; Angel-García, Oscar; Rivas-Muñoz, Raymundo; Delgado-Bermejo, Juan V; Véliz-Deras, Francisco G

    2018-01-15

    The aim of this study was to determine if exogenous administration of glutamate and (or) testosterone to male rams during the season of reproductive arrest is able to re-activate male sexual behavior and, later on, to promote through the male effect, both sexual and reproductive competence of anovulatory nulliparous ewes. Therefore, an experiment was performed under long-day photoperiods (spring; photo-reproductive arrest, 26°N). Dorper rams were randomly divided into four homogeneous experimental groups (n = 5 males each) regarding live weight (LW), body condition score (BCS), scrotal circumference (SC) and odor intensity (OI). Then, groups were treated with: i) GG (7 mg kg -1  LW of glutamate, every 4d × 30d, im.), ii) GGT (7 mg kg -1  LW of glutamate every 4d × 30d im + 25 mg of testosterone propionate, every 3d × 15d, im.), iii) GT (25 mg of testosterone propionate every 3d × 15d, im, and iv) GC (1 mL of saline, every 4d × 30d, im.). Thereafter, Dorper rams, (n = 4 per group) were selected and exposed to Dorper anovulatory-nulliparous ewes divided in four groups (n = 14 ewes each), and all the appetitive (ASB) and consummatory (CSB) sexual behaviors and indicators of sexual rest (ISR) were registered during the first 48 h of this male-to-females contact. Thereafter, males continued the male-to-female contact for another 8 d, in order to quantify the ewe's sexual and reproductive response through the male effect. During the sexual behavior tests, the GGT rams showed the highest ASB + CSB frequencies (P ewes exposed to treated rams, the glutamate + testosterone treated males induced not only an increased (P ewes. To conclude, whereas the GG and GGT treatments generated encouraging sexual and reproductive outcomes, our results are also thought-provoking from a comparative sexual behavior perspective while may embrace potential applications to other animal industries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Testosterone is associated with cooperation during intergroup competition by enhancing parochial altruism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luise eReimers

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The steroid hormone testosterone is widely associated with negative behavioral effects, such as aggression or dominance. However, recent studies applying economic exchange tasks revealed conflicting results. While some point to a prosocial effect of testosterone by increasing altruistic behavior, others report that testosterone promotes antisocial tendencies. Taking into account additional factors such as parochial altruism (i.e., ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility might help to explain this contradiction. First evidence for a link between testosterone and parochial altruism comes from recently reported data of male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game. In this study high levels of endogenous testosterone predicted increased altruistic punishment during outgroup interactions and at the same time heightened ingroup generosity. Here, we report findings of another experimental task, the prisoner’s dilemma, applied in the same context to examine the role of testosterone on parochial tendencies in terms of cooperation. In this task, fifty male soccer fans were asked to decide whether or not they wanted to cooperate with partners marked as either fans of the subject’s own favorite team (ingroup or fans of other teams (outgroups. Our results show that high testosterone levels were associated with increased ingroup cooperation during intergroup competition. In addition, subjects displaying a high degree of parochialism during intergroup competition had significantly higher levels of testosterone than subjects who did not differentiate much between the different groups. In sum, the present data demonstrate that the behavioral effects of testosterone are not limited to aggressive and selfish tendencies but may imply prosocial aspects depending on the context. By this means, our results support the previously reported findings on testosterone-dependent intergroup bias and indicate that this social hormone might be an important factor driving

  7. Testosterone is associated with cooperation during intergroup competition by enhancing parochial altruism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimers, Luise; Diekhof, Esther K

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone is widely associated with negative behavioral effects, such as aggression or dominance. However, recent studies applying economic exchange tasks revealed conflicting results. While some point to a prosocial effect of testosterone by increasing altruistic behavior, others report that testosterone promotes antisocial tendencies. Taking into account additional factors such as parochial altruism (i.e., ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility) might help to explain this contradiction. First evidence for a link between testosterone and parochial altruism comes from recently reported data of male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game. In this study high levels of endogenous testosterone predicted increased altruistic punishment during outgroup interactions and at the same time heightened ingroup generosity. Here, we report findings of another experimental task, the prisoner's dilemma, applied in the same context to examine the role of testosterone on parochial tendencies in terms of cooperation. In this task, 50 male soccer fans were asked to decide whether or not they wanted to cooperate with partners marked as either fans of the subject's own favorite team (ingroup) or fans of other teams (outgroups). Our results show that high testosterone levels were associated with increased ingroup cooperation during intergroup competition. In addition, subjects displaying a high degree of parochialism during intergroup competition had significantly higher levels of testosterone than subjects who did not differentiate much between the different groups. In sum, the present data demonstrate that the behavioral effects of testosterone are not limited to aggressive and selfish tendencies but may imply prosocial aspects depending on the context. By this means, our results support the previously reported findings on testosterone-dependent intergroup bias and indicate that this social hormone might be an important factor driving parochial altruism.

  8. Developmental programming: impact of excess prenatal testosterone on intrauterine fetal endocrine milieu and growth in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Lopez, Almudena; Steckler, Teresa L; Abbott, David H; Welch, Kathleen B; MohanKumar, Puliyur S; Phillips, David J; Refsal, Kent; Padmanabhan, Vasantha

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal testosterone excess in sheep leads to reproductive and metabolic disruptions that mimic those seen in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. Comparison of prenatal testosterone-treated sheep with prenatal dihydrotestosterone-treated sheep suggests facilitation of defects by androgenic as well as androgen-independent effects of testosterone. We hypothesized that the disruptive impact of prenatal testosterone on adult pathology may partially depend on its conversion to estrogen and consequent changes in maternal and fetal endocrine environments. Pregnant Suffolk sheep were administered either cottonseed oil (control) or testosterone propionate in cottonseed oil (100 mg, i.m. twice weekly), from Day 30 to Day 90 of gestation (term is ~147 d). Maternal (uterine) and fetal (umbilical) arterial samples were collected at Days 64-66, 87-90, and 139-140 (range; referred to as D65, D90, and D140, respectively) of gestation. Concentrations of gonadal and metabolic hormones, as well as differentiation factors, were measured using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometer, radioimmunoassay, or ELISA. Findings indicate that testosterone treatment produced maternal and fetal testosterone levels comparable to adult males and D65 control male fetuses, respectively. Testosterone treatment increased fetal estradiol and estrone levels during the treatment period in both sexes, supportive of placental aromatization of testosterone. These steroidal changes were followed by a reduction in maternal estradiol levels at term, a reduction in activin A availability, and induction of intrauterine growth restriction in D140 female fetuses. Overall, our findings provide the first direct evidence in support of the potential for both androgenic as well as estrogenic contribution in the development of adult reproductive and metabolic pathology in prenatal testosterone-treated sheep.

  9. Total testosterone levels are often more than three times elevated in patients with androgen-secreting tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Lambaa Altinok, Magda; Petersen, Kresten Rubeck

    2015-01-01

    surgery. Terminal hair growth on lip and chin gradually increases after menopause, which complicates distinction from normal physiological variation. Precise testosterone assays have just recently become available in the daily clinic. We present three women diagnosed with testosterone-producing tumours...... when total testosterone levels are above three times the upper reference limit....

  10. Administration of Anesthesia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OMSs) are trained in all aspects of anesthesia administration. Following dental school, they complete at least four years of training in a hospital-based surgical residency program alongside medical residents in ...

  11. Doping test results dependent on genotype of uridine diphospho-glucuronosyl transferase 2B17, the major enzyme for testosterone glucuronidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Jenny Jakobsson; Lundmark, Jonas; Garle, Mats; Skilving, Ilona; Ekström, Lena; Rane, Anders

    2008-07-01

    Testosterone abuse is conventionally assessed by the urinary testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio, levels above 4.0 being considered suspicious. The large variation in testosterone glucuronide (TG) excretion and its strong association with a deletion polymorphism in the uridine diphospho-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) 2B17 gene challenge the accuracy of the T/E ratio test. Our objective was to investigate whether genotype-based cutoff values will improve the sensitivity and specificity of the test. This was an open three-armed comparative study. A total of 55 healthy male volunteers with either two, one, or no allele [insertion/insertion, insertion/deletion, or deletion/deletion (del/del)] of the UGT2B17 gene was included in the study. A single im dose of 500 mg testosterone enanthate was administered. Urinary excretion of TG after dose and the T/E ratio during 15 d were calculated. The degree and rate of increase in the TG excretion rate were highly dependent on the UGT2B17 genotype with a 20-fold higher average maximum increase in the insertion/insertion group compared with the del/del group. Of the del/del subjects, 40% never reached the T/E ratio of 4.0 on any of the 15 d after the dose. When differentiated cutoff levels for the del/del (1.0) and the other genotypes (6.0) were applied, the sensitivity increased substantially for the del/del group, and false positives in the other genotypes were eliminated. Consideration of the genetic variation in disposition of androgens will improve the sensitivity and specificity of the testosterone doping test. This is of interest not only for combating androgen doping in sports, but also for detecting and preventing androgen abuse in society.

  12. IRMS detection of testosterone manipulated with {sup 13}C labeled standards in human urine by removing the labeled {sup 13}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jingzhu, E-mail: wangjingzhu@chinada.cn [National Anti-Doping Laboratory, China Anti-Doping Agency, Beijing (China); Yang, Rui [Sport Science College, Beijing Sport University Beijing, Beijing (China); Yang, Wenning [School of Pharmacy, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing (China); Liu, Xin; Xing, Yanyi; Xu, Youxuan [National Anti-Doping Laboratory, China Anti-Doping Agency, Beijing (China)

    2014-12-10

    Highlights: • {sup 13}C labeled testosterone can be used to adjust the isotope ratio of testosterone. • The novel testosterone cannot be detected by the regular IRMS method in doping test. • A method was explored to remove the labeled {sup 13}C. • The established method can be used to detect the manipulated testosterone. - Abstract: Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) is applied to confirm testosterone (T) abuse by determining the carbon isotope ratios (δ{sup 13}C value). However, {sup 13}C labeled standards can be used to control the δ{sup 13}C value and produce manipulated T which cannot be detected by the current method. A method was explored to remove the {sup 13}C labeled atom at C-3 from the molecule of androsterone (Andro), the metabolite of T in urine, to produce the resultant (A-nor-5α-androstane-2,17-dione, ANAD). The difference in δ{sup 13}C values between Andro and ANAD (Δδ{sup 13}C{sub Andro–ANAD}, ‰) would change significantly in case manipulated T is abused. Twenty-one volunteers administered T manipulated with different {sup 13}C labeled standards. The collected urine samples were analyzed with the established method, and the maximum value of Δδ{sup 13}C{sub Andro–ANAD} post ingestion ranged from 3.0‰ to 8.8‰. Based on the population reference, the cut-off value of Δδ{sup 13}C{sub Andro–ANAD} for positive result was suggested as 1.2‰. The developed method could be used to detect T manipulated with 3-{sup 13}C labeled standards.

  13. Repeated intravenous administration of gadobutrol does not lead to increased signal intensity on unenhanced T1-weighted images - a voxel-based whole brain analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langner, Soenke; Kromrey, Marie-Luise [University Medicine Greifswald, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany); Kuehn, Jens-Peter [University Medicine Greifswald, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany); University Hospital, Carl Gustav Carus University Dresden, Institute for Radiology, Dresden (Germany); Grothe, Matthias [University Medicine Greifswald, Department of Neurology, Greifswald (Germany); Domin, Martin [University Medicine Greifswald, Functional Imaging Unit, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology and Neuroradiology, Greifswald (Germany)

    2017-09-15

    To identify a possible association between repeated intravenous administration of gadobutrol and increased signal intensity in the grey and white matter using voxel-based whole-brain analysis. In this retrospective single-centre study, 217 patients with a clinically isolated syndrome underwent baseline brain magnetic resonance imaging and at least one annual follow-up examination with intravenous administration of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight of gadobutrol. Using the ''Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration using Exponentiated Lie algebra'' (DARTEL) normalisation process, tissue templates for grey matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were calculated, as were GM-CSF and WM-CSF ratios. Voxel-based whole-brain analysis was used to calculate the signal intensity for each voxel in each data set. Paired t-test was applied to test differences to baseline MRI for significance. Voxel-based whole-brain analysis demonstrated no significant changes in signal intensity of grey and white matter after up to five gadobutrol administrations. There was no significant change in GM-CSF and grey WM-CSF ratios. Voxel-based whole-brain analysis did not demonstrate increased signal intensity of GM and WM on unenhanced T1-weighted images after repeated gadobutrol administration. The molecular structure of gadolinium-based contrast agent preparations may be an essential factor causing SI increase on unenhanced T1-weighted images. (orig.)

  14. Validation of key behaviourally based mental health diagnoses in administrative data: suicide attempt, alcohol abuse, illicit drug abuse and tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Smith, Eric G; Stano, Claire M; Ganoczy, Dara; Zivin, Kara; Walters, Heather; Valenstein, Marcia

    2012-01-23

    Observational research frequently uses administrative codes for mental health or substance use diagnoses and for important behaviours such as suicide attempts. We sought to validate codes (International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition, clinical modification diagnostic and E-codes) entered in Veterans Health Administration administrative data for patients with depression versus a gold standard of electronic medical record text ("chart notation"). Three random samples of patients were selected, each stratified by geographic region, gender, and year of cohort entry, from a VHA depression treatment cohort from April 1, 1999 to September 30, 2004. The first sample was selected from patients who died by suicide, the second from patients who remained alive on the date of death of suicide cases, and the third from patients with a new start of a commonly used antidepressant medication. Four variables were assessed using administrative codes in the year prior to the index date: suicide attempt, alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/dependence and tobacco use. Specificity was high (≥ 90%) for all four administrative codes, regardless of the sample. Sensitivity was ≤75% and was particularly low for suicide attempt (≤ 17%). Positive predictive values for alcohol dependence/abuse and tobacco use were high, but barely better than flipping a coin for illicit drug abuse/dependence. Sensitivity differed across the three samples, but was highest in the suicide death sample. Administrative data-based diagnoses among VHA records have high specificity, but low sensitivity. The accuracy level varies by different diagnosis and by different patient subgroup.

  15. GSK-3β/NFAT Signaling Is Involved in Testosterone-Induced Cardiac Myocyte Hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Duran

    Full Text Available Testosterone induces cardiac hypertrophy through a mechanism that involves a concerted crosstalk between cytosolic and nuclear signaling pathways. Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT is associated with the promotion of cardiac hypertrophy, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β is considered to function as a negative regulator, mainly by modulating NFAT activity. However, the role played by calcineurin-NFAT and GSK-3β signaling in testosterone-induced cardiac hypertrophy has remained unknown. Here, we determined that testosterone stimulates cardiac myocyte hypertrophy through NFAT activation and GSK-3β inhibition. Testosterone increased the activity of NFAT-luciferase (NFAT-Luc in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with the activity peaking after 24 h of stimulation with 100 nM testosterone. NFAT-Luc activity induced by testosterone was blocked by the calcineurin inhibitors FK506 and cyclosporine A and by 11R-VIVIT, a specific peptide inhibitor of NFAT. Conversely, testosterone inhibited GSK-3β activity as determined by increased GSK-3β phosphorylation at Ser9 and β-catenin protein accumulation, and also by reduction in β-catenin phosphorylation at residues Ser33, Ser37, and Thr41. GSK-3β inhibition with 1-azakenpaullone or a GSK-3β-targeting siRNA increased NFAT-Luc activity, whereas overexpression of a constitutively active GSK-3β mutant (GSK-3βS9A inhibited NFAT-Luc activation mediated by testosterone. Testosterone-induced cardiac myocyte hypertrophy was established by increased cardiac myocyte size and [3H]-leucine incorporation (as a measurement of cellular protein synthesis. Calcineurin-NFAT inhibition abolished and GSK-3β inhibition promoted the hypertrophy stimulated by testosterone. GSK-3β activation by GSK-3βS9A blocked the increase of hypertrophic markers induced by testosterone. Moreover, inhibition of intracellular androgen receptor prevented testosterone-induced NFAT-Luc activation. Collectively, these results

  16. Testosterone-dependent sex differences in red blood cell hemolysis in storage, stress, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanias, Tamir; Sinchar, Derek; Osei-Hwedieh, David; Baust, Jeffrey J; Jordan, Andrew; Zimring, James C; Waterman, Hayley R; de Wolski, Karen S; Acker, Jason P; Gladwin, Mark T

    2016-10-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) hemolysis represents an intrinsic mechanism for human vascular disease. Intravascular hemolysis releases hemoglobin and other metabolites that inhibit nitric oxide signaling and drive oxidative and inflammatory stress. Although these pathways are important in disease pathogenesis, genetic and population modifiers of hemolysis, including sex, have not been established. We studied