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Sample records for testosterone administration based

  1. Evaluation of testosterone metabolites/dehydroepiandrosterone as the indicators of testosterone administration in horse doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.Y.; Kim, S.J. [Korea Racing Association, Kyonggi (Korea); Kyong, J.B. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea); Choi, M.H.; Chung, B.C. [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea)

    1999-06-01

    The metabolism of testosterone (17{beta}-hydroxy-androst-4-en-3-one) was confirmed in horse after a single intramuscular administration of testosterone cypionate (750 mg). Solvent extracts of urine obtained with enzymatic hydrolysis and methanolysis were analyzed by GC/MS after oxime t-butyldimethylsilyl (oxime-TBDMS) derivatization. the structures of four urinary metabolite after testosterone administration in horse were determined based on EI mass spectra and 5{alpha}-androstane-3{beta}, 17{alpha}-diol and 5a-androstane-3{beta}-ol--17one as major was confirmed with authentic standard. Also the concentrations of 5{alpha}--androstane-3{beta}, 17{alpha}-diol, 5{alpha}-androstane-3{beta}, 17{beta}-diol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), 5{alpha}-androstane-3{beta}-ol-17-one and testosterone were determined in the urine of normal subjects and the urine after administration. The recovery and detection limit in the most drugs were 86.3{approx}94.7% and 1{approx}3 ppb, respectively. Correlation coefficients for calibration were in the range of 0.984{approx}0.999. Excretion profile of testosterone presents the rapid and large increasement up to maximum values as days 5 after administration and the slow regression. The relative ratios of testosterone, its metabolites over DHEA were determined for indication of testosterone administration in horse doping. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Short-term parenteral and peroral testosterone administration in men with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick; Dietrichson, O

    1981-01-01

    Serum concentrations of testosterone were measured in 24 male patients with alcoholic cirrhosis during testosterone administration. The purpose was to compare serum concentrations of testosterone during peroral with those during parenteral testosterone administration in these patients. Patients who...... were injected intramuscularly with a combination of short- and long-acting testosterone (Triolandren, 348 mg testosterone) had median peak values of serum testosterone of about 40 ng/ml, which fell to basal levels after a fortnight. During testosterone propionate injections (84 mg testosterone) every...... other day, rather constant serum concentrations with median values of about 30 ng/ml were reached after 4 days. Peroral testosterone administration (800 mg micronized free testosterone) each day also resulted in fairly constant serum concentrations after 4 days, and the median values were about 50 ng...

  3. The effect of orchidectomy and administration of testosterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of orchidectomy and administration of testosterone propionate or nandrolone phenylpropionate to orchidectomised rats on their growth and carcass composition. D.H. Hale. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  4. Effects of testosterone administration on liver structure and function in aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucci, Ricardo Aparecido Baptista; Teodoro, Ana Caroline de Souza; Krause Neto, Walter; Silva, Wellington de Assis; de Souza, Romeu Rodrigues; Anaruma, Carlos Alberto; Gama, Eliane Florencio

    2017-06-01

    Aging males have a decrease in testosterone levels, by which the testosterone treatment may influence in a negatively fashion the liver. This study aimed to analyze the effects of aging with or without testosterone administration on the liver components of animals. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: 20 months' group (G20), 24 months' group (G24), group treated with testosterone for 16 weeks (GT). All groups were sacrificed at 24 months except for G20 that was sacrificed at 20 months. Aging and testosterone treatment alters the body weight (BW), liver weight (LW) and relative liver weight. Besides, testosterone increased the mitogen capacity of hepatocytes. Nonetheless, we reinforce the negative effects of testosterone on old animals' liver as chronic hepatic congestion and/or cholestasis. In addition, we observed that testosterone plays an important role on hepatic glycogen stores. Our study showed many implications for the knowledge about the effects of aging with or without testosterone administration on old animals' liver.

  5. Testosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to evaluate signs of abnormal testosterone such as: Early or late puberty (in boys) Infertility, erectile dysfunction, low level of ... brain that control hormones Low thyroid function Delayed ... much body fat (obesity) Increased total testosterone level may be due to: ...

  6. Detection of testosterone administration based on the carbon isotope ratio profiling of endogenous steroids: international reference populations of professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahm, E; Emery, C; Saugy, M; Dvorak, J; Saudan, C

    2009-12-01

    The determination of the carbon isotope ratio in androgen metabolites has been previously shown to be a reliable, direct method to detect testosterone misuse in the context of antidoping testing. Here, the variability in the 13C/12C ratios in urinary steroids in a widely heterogeneous cohort of professional soccer players residing in different countries (Argentina, Italy, Japan, South Africa, Switzerland and Uganda) is examined. Carbon isotope ratios of selected androgens in urine specimens were determined using gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). Urinary steroids in Italian and Swiss populations were found to be enriched in 13C relative to other groups, reflecting higher consumption of C3 plants in these two countries. Importantly, detection criteria based on the difference in the carbon isotope ratio of androsterone and pregnanediol for each population were found to be well below the established threshold value for positive cases. The results obtained with the tested diet groups highlight the importance of adapting the criteria if one wishes to increase the sensitivity of exogenous testosterone detection. In addition, confirmatory tests might be rendered more efficient by combining isotope ratio mass spectrometry with refined interpretation criteria for positivity and subject-based profiling of steroids.

  7. Testosterone Administration Inhibits Hepcidin Transcription and is Associated with Increased Iron Incorporation into Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wen; Bachman, Eric; Li, Michelle; Roy, Cindy N.; Blusztajn, Jerzy; Wong, Siu; Chan, Stephen Y.; Serra, Carlo; Jasuja, Ravi; Travison, Thomas G.; Muckenthaler, Martina U.; Nemeth, Elizabeta; Bhasin, Shalender

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone administration increases hemoglobin levels and has been used to treat anemia of chronic disease. Erythrocytosis is the most frequent adverse event associated with testosterone therapy of hypogonadal men, especially older men. However, the mechanisms by which testosterone increases hemoglobin remain unknown. Testosterone administration in male and female mice was associated with a greater increase in hemoglobin and hematocrit, reticulocyte count, reticulocyte hemoglobin concentration, and serum iron and transferring saturation than placebo. Testosterone downregulated hepatic hepcidin mRNA expression, upregulated renal erythropoietin mRNA expression, and increased erythropoietin levels. Testosterone-induced suppression of hepcidin expression was independent of its effects on erythropoietin or hypoxia-sensing mechanisms. Transgenic mice with liver-specific constitutive hepcidin over-expression failed to exhibit the expected increase in hemoglobin in response to testosterone administration. Testosterone upregulated splenic ferroportin expression and reduced iron retention in spleen. After intravenous administration of transferrin-bound 58Fe, the amount of 58Fe incorporated into red blood cells was significantly greater in testosterone-treated mice than in placebo-treated mice. Serum from testosterone-treated mice stimulated hemoglobin synthesis in K562 erythroleukemia cells more than that from vehicle-treated mice. Testosterone administration promoted the association of androgen receptor (AR) with Smad1 and Smad4 to reduce their binding to BMP-response elements in hepcidin promoter in the liver. Ectopic expression of AR in hepatocytes suppressed hepcidin transcription; this effect was blocked dose-dependently by AR antagonist flutamide. Testosterone did not affect hepcidin mRNA stability. Conclusion: Testosterone inhibits hepcidin transcription through its interaction with BMP-Smad signaling. Testosterone administration is associated with increased iron

  8. The Effect of Castration and Testosterone Administration on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SOS

    2012-04-18

    Apr 18, 2012 ... To study the effect of castration and testosterone replacement on the testosterone level of the New. Zealand rabbit, 16 apparently ... After two weeks, the rabbits were castrated and the effect of castration and ... infiltration of the local anesthetic around the neck of scrotum (Hall,. 1979). Each testicle was then ...

  9. Oxytocin administration, salivary testosterone, and father-infant social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, Omri; Zagoory-Sharon, Orna; Feldman, Ruth

    2014-03-03

    The growing involvement of fathers in childcare is followed by an increased interest in the neurobiology of fatherhood; yet, experimental work on the neuroendocrine basis of paternal care in humans is limited. The steroid Testosterone (T) and the neuropeptide Oxytocin (OT) have each been implicated in complex social behavior including parenting. However, no study to date explored the interaction between these two hormones in the context of fathering. In the current study we first test the relationship between father's basal salivary T and father and infant's social behaviors during parent-child interaction. Second, we examine the effects of intranasal OT administration on father's T production, and, finally, address the relations between OT-induced change in father's T with father-infant social behavior. Thirty-five fathers and their infants participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject study. Father-infant interaction was micro-coded for paternal and infant social behavior and synchrony was measured as the coordination between their gaze, affect, and vocalizations. Father's salivary T levels were measured at baseline and three times after administration. Results indicate that lower baseline T correlated with more optimal father and infant's behaviors. OT administration altered T production in fathers, relative to the pattern of T in the placebo condition. Finally, OT-induced change in T levels correlated with parent-child social behaviors, including positive affect, social gaze, touch, and vocal synchrony. Findings support the view that neuroendocrine systems in human males evolved to support committed parenting and are the first to describe the dynamic interactions between OT and T within a bio-behavioral synchrony model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cognitive effects of testosterone and finasteride administration in older hypogonadal men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borst, Stephen E; Yarrow, Joshua F; Fernandez, Carmen; Conover, Christine F; Ye, Fan; Meuleman, John R; Morrow, Matthew; Zou, Baiming; Shuster, Jonathan J

    2014-01-01

    Serum concentrations of neuroactive androgens decline in older men and, in some studies, low testosterone is associated with decreased cognitive function and incidence of depression. Existing studies evaluating the effect of testosterone administration on cognition in older men have been largely inconclusive, with some studies reporting minor to moderate cognitive benefit, while others indicate no cognitive effect. Our objective was to assess the cognitive effects of treating older hypogonadal men for 1 year with a supraphysiological dose of testosterone, either alone or in combination with finasteride (a type II 5α-reductase inhibitor), in order to determine whether testosterone produces cognitive benefit and whether suppressed dihydrotestosterone influences cognition. Sixty men aged ≥ 60 years with a serum testosterone concentration of ≤ 300 ng/dL or bioavailable testosterone ≤ 70 ng/dL and no evidence of cognitive impairment received testosterone-enanthate (125 mg/week) versus vehicle, paired with finasteride (5 mg/day) versus placebo using a 2×2 factorial design. Testosterone caused a small decrease in depressive symptoms as assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale and a moderate increase in visuospatial memory as assessed by performance on a recall trial of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test. Finasteride caused a small increase in performance on the Benton Judgment of Line Orientation test. In total, major improvements in cognition were not observed either with testosterone or finasteride. Further studies are warranted to determine if testosterone replacement may improve cognition in other domains.

  11. Effects of Testosterone Administration on Strategic Gambling in Poker Play

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Honk, Jack|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/188602801; Will, Geert-Jan; Terburg, David|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/32304087X; Raub, Werner|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/07031764X; Eisenegger, Christoph; Buskens, Vincent|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/181299313

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone has been associated with economically egoistic and materialistic behaviors, but -defensibly driven by reputable status seeking- also with economically fair, generous and cooperative behaviors. Problematically, social status and economic resources are inextricably intertwined in humans,

  12. Uterine and ovarian changes during testosterone administration in young female-to-male transsexuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Loverro

    2016-10-01

    Conclusion: Our data suggest that long-term testosterone administration to female-to-male patients during reproductive age induces a low proliferative active endometrium, associated with some hypertrophic myometrial changes.

  13. Testosterone administration decreases generosity in the ultimatum game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J Zak

    Full Text Available How do human beings decide when to be selfish or selfless? In this study, we gave testosterone to 25 men to establish its impact on prosocial behaviors in a double-blind within-subjects design. We also confirmed participants' testosterone levels before and after treatment through blood draws. Using the Ultimatum Game from behavioral economics, we find that men with artificially raised T, compared to themselves on placebo, were 27% less generous towards strangers with money they controlled (95% CI placebo: (1.70, 2.72; 95% CI T: (.98, 2.30. This effect scales with a man's level of total-, free-, and dihydro-testosterone (DHT. Men in the lowest decile of DHT were 560% more generous than men in the highest decile of DHT. We also found that men with elevated testosterone were more likely to use their own money punish those who were ungenerous toward them. Our results continue to hold after controlling for altruism. We conclude that elevated testosterone causes men to behave antisocially.

  14. Androgens and oestrogens before and following oral testosterone administration in male patients with and without alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Dejgaard, A; Bennett, Patrick

    1987-01-01

    testosterone, serum concentrations of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and oestrone increased significantly (P less than 0.05) in both groups, cirrhotic patients reaching significantly (P less than 0.01) higher concentrations than controls. Further, in the cirrhotic group, the serum...... concentrations of oestrone sulphate, oestradiol, non-protein bound oestradiol, and non-SHBG bound oestradiol, and the urinary excretion of oestrogen increased significantly P less than 0.05). In conclusion, peroral testosterone administration decreases the serum oestradiol/testosterone ratio in patients...... than 0.05) lower concentrations of albumin and non-SHBG bound testosterone; no significant differences regarding concentrations of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, non-protein bound testosterone, oestrone sulphate, and SHBG bound oestradiol. Following oral administration of 400 mg of micronized...

  15. Testosterone administration related differences in brain activation during the Ultimatum Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni eKopsida

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A plethora of studies on the Ultimatum Game have shown that responders forfeit the rule of profit maximization and punish unfair proposers, by rejecting their offers. This behavior has been linked to increased amygdala, insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation. Studies have suggested a potential role of testosterone in the Ultimatum Game albeit with inconsistent findings. In the present study, we sought to further investigate the role of amygdala and testosterone in the Ultimatum Game, by conducting a double-blinded, single-administration study. 60mg of Tostrex was administered to male and female healthy volunteers, three hours prior to undergoing an fMRI session, during which they played a standard version of the Ultimatum Game. The behavioral analysis revealed a statistical trend, as participants in the testosterone group tended to accept a greater number of unfair offers than participants in the placebo group, irrespectively of gender. In terms of fMRI results, for the main contrast unfair>fair offers, the testosterone group displayed a greater activation in the right dlPFC compared to the placebo group. Increased testosterone levels were related to greater caudate activity. Our findings suggest a complex role of testosterone in social behavior and decision-making.

  16. Cognitive effects of testosterone and finasteride administration in older hypogonadal men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borst SE

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephen E Borst,1 Joshua F Yarrow,2 Carmen Fernandez,1 Christine F Conover,2 Fan Ye,2 John R Meuleman,1 Matthew Morrow,3 Baiming Zou,4 Jonathan J Shuster5 1Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Center, 2Research Service, 3Pharmacy Service, Malcom Randall VA Medical Center, Gainesville Florida; 4Department of Biostatistics, 5Department of Health Outcomes and Policy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Abstract: Serum concentrations of neuroactive androgens decline in older men and, in some ­studies, low testosterone is associated with decreased cognitive function and incidence of depression. Existing studies evaluating the effect of testosterone administration on cognition in older men have been largely inconclusive, with some studies reporting minor to moderate cognitive benefit, while others indicate no cognitive effect. Our objective was to assess the cognitive effects of treating older hypogonadal men for 1 year with a supraphysiological dose of testosterone, either alone or in combination with finasteride (a type II 5α-reductase inhibitor, in order to determine whether testosterone produces cognitive benefit and whether suppressed dihydrotestosterone influences cognition. Sixty men aged ≥60 years with a serum testosterone concentration of ≤300 ng/dL or bioavailable testosterone ≤70 ng/dL and no evidence of cognitive impairment received testosterone-enanthate (125 mg/week versus vehicle, paired with finasteride (5 mg/day versus placebo using a 2×2 factorial design. Testosterone caused a small decrease in depressive symptoms as assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale and a moderate increase in visuospatial memory as assessed by performance on a recall trial of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test. Finasteride caused a small increase in performance on the Benton Judgment of Line Orientation test. In total, major improvements in cognition were not observed either with testosterone or finasteride. Further studies

  17. Administration of testosterone increases functional connectivity in a cortico-cortical depression circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Peper, J.S.; Koppeschaar, H.P.F.; Kahn, R.S.; Honk, E.J. van

    2005-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the steroid hormone testosterone (T) enhances libido and decreases depression. Even a single administration of T (0.5 mg sublingually) in healthy young women is sufficient to enhance physiological sexual responsiveness. Such physiological evidence is not yet

  18. Muscles of the trunk and pelvis are responsive to testosterone administration: data from testosterone dose-response study in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper, J; Arver, S; Pencina, K M; Martling, A; Blomqvist, L; Buchli, C; Li, Z; Gagliano-Jucá, T; Travison, T G; Huang, G; Storer, T W; Bhasin, S; Basaria, S

    2018-01-01

    Testosterone dose-dependently increases appendicular muscle mass. However, the effects of testosterone administration on the core muscles of the trunk and the pelvis have not been evaluated. The present study evaluated the effects of testosterone administration on truncal and pelvic muscles in a dose-response trial. Participants were young healthy men aged 18-50 years participating in the 5α-Reductase (5aR) Trial. All participants received monthly injections of 7.5 mg leuprolide acetate to suppress endogenous testosterone production and weekly injections of 50, 125, 300, or 600 mg of testosterone enanthate and were randomized to receive either 2.5 mg dutasteride (5aR inhibitor) or placebo daily for 20 weeks. Muscles of the trunk and the pelvis were measured at baseline and the end of treatment using 1.5-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging. The dose effect of testosterone on changes in the psoas major muscle area was the primary outcome; secondary outcomes included changes in paraspinal, abdominal, pelvic floor, ischiocavernosus, and obturator internus muscles. The association between changes in testosterone levels and muscle area was also assessed. Testosterone dose-dependently increased areas of all truncal and pelvic muscles. The estimated change (95% confidence interval) of muscle area increase per 100 mg of testosterone enanthate dosage increase was 0.622 cm2 (0.394, 0.850) for psoas; 1.789 cm2 (1.317, 2.261) for paraspinal muscles, 2.530 cm2 (1.627, 3.434) for total abdominal muscles, 0.455 cm2 (0.233, 0.678) for obturator internus, and 0.082 cm2 (0.003, 0.045) for ischiocavernosus; the increase in these volumes was significantly associated with the changes in on-treatment total and free serum testosterone concentrations. In conclusion, core muscles of the trunk and pelvis are responsive to testosterone administration. Future trials should evaluate the potential role of testosterone administration in frail men who are predisposed to falls and men with

  19. Effect of Testosterone Administration on Liver Fat in Older Men With Mobility Limitation: Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background. Androgen receptor (AR) knockout male mice display hepatic steatosis, suggesting that AR signaling may regulate hepatic fat. However, the effects of testosterone replacement on hepatic fat in men are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of testosterone administration on hepatic fat in older men with mobility limitation and low testosterone levels who were participating in a randomized trial (the Testosterone in Older Men trial). Methods. Two hundred and nine men with mobility limitation and low total or free testosterone were randomized in the parent trial to either placebo or 10-g testosterone gel daily for 6 months. Hepatic fat was determined by magnetic resonance imaging in 73 men (36 in placebo and 37 in testosterone group) using the volumetric method. Insulin sensitivity (homeostatic model assessment–insulin resistance) was derived from fasting glucose and insulin. Results. Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups, including liver volumes (1583±363 in the testosterone group vs 1522±271mL in the placebo group, p = .42). Testosterone concentrations increased from 250±72 to 632±363ng/dL in testosterone group but did not change in placebo group. Changes in liver volume during intervention did not differ significantly between groups (p = .5) and were not related to on-treatment testosterone concentrations. The change in homeostatic model assessment–insulin resistance also did not differ significantly between groups and was not related to either baseline or change in liver fat. Conclusion. Testosterone administration in older men with mobility limitation and low testosterone levels was not associated with a reduction in hepatic fat. Larger trials are needed to determine whether testosterone replacement improves liver fat in men with nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis. PMID:23292288

  20. Combined administration of testosterone plus an ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor as a selective prostate-sparing anabolic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasuja, Ravi; Costello, James C; Singh, Rajan; Gupta, Vandana; Spina, Catherine S; Toraldo, Gianluca; Jang, Hyeran; Li, Hu; Serra, Carlo; Guo, Wen; Chauhan, Pratibha; Narula, Navjot S; Guarneri, Tyler; Ergun, Ayla; Travison, Thomas G; Collins, James J; Bhasin, Shalender

    2014-04-01

    Because of its anabolic effects on muscle, testosterone is being explored as a function-promoting anabolic therapy for functional limitations associated with aging; however, concerns about testosterone's adverse effects on prostate have inspired efforts to develop strategies that selectively increase muscle mass while sparing the prostate. Testosterone's promyogenic effects are mediated through upregulation of follistatin. We show here that the administration of recombinant follistatin (rFst) increased muscle mass in mice, but had no effect on prostate mass. Consistent with the results of rFst administration, follistatin transgenic mice with constitutively elevated follistatin levels displayed greater muscle mass than controls, but had similar prostate weights. To elucidate signaling pathways regulated differentially by testosterone and rFst in prostate and muscle, we performed microarray analysis of mRNAs from prostate and levator ani of castrated male mice treated with vehicle, testosterone, or rFst. Testosterone and rFst shared the regulation of many transcripts in levator ani; however, in prostate, 593 transcripts in several growth-promoting pathways were differentially expressed after testosterone treatment, while rFst showed a negligible effect with only 9 transcripts differentially expressed. Among pathways that were differentially responsive to testosterone in prostate, we identified ornithine decarboxylase (Odc1), an enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, as a testosterone-responsive gene that is unresponsive to rFst. Accordingly, we administered testosterone with and without α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an Odc1 inhibitor, to castrated mice. DFMO selectively blocked testosterone's effects on prostate, but did not affect testosterone's anabolic effects on muscle. Co-administration of testosterone and Odc1 inhibitor presents a novel therapeutic strategy for prostate-sparing anabolic therapy. © 2013 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical

  1. Improvement of the diabetic foot upon testosterone administration to hypogonadal men with peripheral arterial disease. Report of three cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemlyanoy Alexandr

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lower extremity complications (neuropathy, ulceration, infection, and peripheral arterial disease are common in diabetes mellitus. There is an inverse relation between plasma testosterone and insulin sensitivity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and HbA1c concentrations. Methods We report the beneficial effects of administration of testosterone to three men with a diabetic foot whose serum testosterone was subnormal. Results Upon normalization of serum testosterone there was an improvement of hyperglycemia, a decrease of leukocytes and of fibrinogen levels, an increase of antithrombin III activity and of tissue oxygen pressure. The wound showed granulation. Conclusion Beneficial effects of administration of testosterone to hypogonadal with a diabetic foot may be due to improved vascularization and to anti-inflammatory action.

  2. Influence of the single or combined administration of cocaine and testosterone in autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to acute restraint stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Fábio C; Engi, Sheila A; Leão, Rodrigo M; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C

    2012-10-01

    Abuse of cocaine and androgenic-anabolic steroids (AASs) has become a serious public health problem. Despite reports of an increase in the incidence of simultaneous abuse of these substances, potential toxic interactions between cocaine and AASs are poorly known. In the present study, we investigated the effects of either single or combined administration of testosterone and cocaine for one or 10 consecutive days on autonomic (arterial pressure, heart rate and tail cutaneous temperature) and neuroendocrine (plasma corticosterone) responses induced by acute restraint stress in rats. Combined administration of testosterone and cocaine for 10 days reduced the increase in heart rate and plasma corticosterone level, as well as the fall in tail skin temperature induced by restraint stress. Furthermore, repeated administration of cocaine inhibited the increase in arterial pressure observed during restraint, and this effect was not affected by coadministration of testosterone. Ten-day combined administration of testosterone and cocaine increased basal values of arterial pressure. Moreover, chronic administration of testosterone induced rest bradycardia and elevated basal level of plasma corticosterone. One-day single or combined administration of the drugs did not affect any parameter investigated. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that combined administration of testosterone and cocaine changed the autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to acute restraint stress. These findings suggest that interaction between AASs and cocaine may affect the ability to cope with stressful events.

  3. Musculoskeletal and prostate effects of combined testosterone and finasteride administration in older hypogonadal men: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borst, Stephen E; Yarrow, Joshua F; Conover, Christine F; Nseyo, Unyime; Meuleman, John R; Lipinska, Judyta A; Braith, Randy W; Beck, Darren T; Martin, Jeffrey S; Morrow, Matthew; Roessner, Shirley; Beggs, Luke A; McCoy, Sean C; Cannady, Darryl F; Shuster, Jonathan J

    2014-02-15

    Testosterone acts directly at androgen receptors and also exerts potent actions following 5α-reduction to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Finasteride (type II 5α-reductase inhibitor) lowers DHT and is used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia. However, it is unknown whether elevated DHT mediates either beneficial musculoskeletal effects or prostate enlargement resulting from higher-than-replacement doses of testosterone. Our purpose was to determine whether administration of testosterone plus finasteride to older hypogonadal men could produce musculoskeletal benefits without prostate enlargement. Sixty men aged ≥60 yr with a serum testosterone concentration of ≤300 ng/dl or bioavailable testosterone ≤70 ng/dl received 52 wk of treatment with testosterone enanthate (TE; 125 mg/wk) vs. vehicle, paired with finasteride (5 mg/day) vs. placebo using a 2 × 2 factorial design. Over the course of 12 mo, TE increased upper and lower body muscle strength by 8-14% (P = 0.015 to finasteride did not alter any of these effects. Over 12 mo, testosterone also increased prostate volume 11.4 cm(3) (P = 0.0051), an effect that was completely prevented by finasteride (P = 0.0027). We conclude that a higher-than-replacement TE combined with finasteride significantly increases muscle strength and BMD and reduces body fat without causing prostate enlargement. These results demonstrate that elevated DHT mediates testosterone-induced prostate enlargement but is not required for benefits in musculoskeletal or adipose tissue.

  4. Effect of the single or combined administration of cocaine and testosterone on cardiovascular function and baroreflex activity in unanesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engi, Sheila A; Cruz, Fábio C; Leão, Rodrigo M; Corrêa, Fernando M; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C

    2012-03-01

    Abuse of cocaine and androgenic-anabolic steroids has become a serious public health problem. Despite reports of an increase in the incidence of simultaneous illicit use of these substances, potential toxic interactions between cocaine and androgenic-anabolic steroids in the cardiovascular system are unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effect of single or combined administration of testosterone and cocaine for 1 or 10 consecutive days on basal cardiovascular parameters, baroreflex activity, and hemodynamic responses to vasoactive agents in unanesthetized rats. Ten-day combined administration of testosterone and cocaine increased baseline arterial pressure. Changes in arterial pressure were associated with altered baroreflex activity and impairment of both hypotensive response to intravenous sodium nitroprusside and pressor effect of intravenous phenylephrine. Chronic single administration of either testosterone or cocaine did not affect baseline arterial pressure. However, testosterone-treated animals presented rest bradycardia, cardiac hypertrophy, alterations in baroreflex activity, and enhanced response to sodium nitroprusside. Repeated administration of cocaine affected baroreflex activity and impaired vascular responsiveness to both sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine. One-day single or combined administration of the drugs did not affect any parameter investigated. In conclusion, the present results suggest a potential interaction between toxic effects of cocaine and testosterone on the cardiovascular activity. Changes in baseline arterial pressure after combined administration of these 2 drugs may result from alterations in baroreflex activity and impairment of vascular responsiveness to vasoactive agents.

  5. The effect of parenteral testosterone administration prior to hypospadias surgery: A prospective, randomized and controlled study.

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    Asgari, S A; Safarinejad, M R; Poorreza, F; Asl, A Safaei; Ghanaie, M Mansour; Shahab, E

    2015-06-01

    The goal of hypospadias surgery is to provide a functionally and cosmetically normal penis. Whether this goal will be to the patient's satisfaction depends largely on the original anatomy, surgical technique and surgeon's experience. It has been suggested that androgen administration is associated with better outcomes in hypospadias repair; however, few studies have included control groups and the issue is still controversial. To evaluate the effects of parenteral testosterone administration on the results of hypospadias repair in children with untreated hypospadias. A total of 182 children with midshaft or distal hypospadias and a mean age of 30 months (range 18-52 months) were enrolled in this study. Consecutive children were randomly allocated to the study group (testosterone administration) (Group 1, n = 91) or control group (Group 2, n = 91). Only children with a flat urethral plate were included in this study. The control group did not receive any pre-operative treatment. Children with a previous history of hypospadias repair and any proven endocrine disorder were excluded. The study children received 2 mg/kg testosterone enanthate monthly for two months before surgery. Tubularized incised plate (TIP) urethroplasty, with or without chordee correction, was performed for all children in both groups by the same urologist. Hypospadias repair was performed 4 weeks after the second dose of testosterone administration. Postoperative complications were recorded, including: urethrocutaneous fistulas, urethral diverticula, meatal stenosis, and glanular dehiscence. The mean stretched penile length and circumference were measured at baseline and at 1 month and 2 months post operation. All children were examined every month for any adverse affects to testosterone treatment, like pubic and axillary hair, and height acceleration, up to 3 months post operation. An increase in penile length (from 28.1 ± 2.2 mm to 38.5 ± 2.6 mm) (P = 0.001) and penile circumference (from 35

  6. Testosterone Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related Content View Sources Also Known As Total Testosterone Free Testosterone Bioavailable Testosterone Formal Name Testosterone This article ... small percent (less than 4%) circulates as free testosterone. Free testosterone plus the testosterone bound to albumin is ...

  7. Post-partum testosterone administration partially reverses the effects of perinatal cadmium exposure on sexual behavior in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Couto-Moraes, Renato; Felício, Luciano Freitas; Oliveira, Claudio Alvarenga de; Bernardi, Maria Martha

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of perinatal cadmium exposure on sexual behavior, organ weight, and testosterone levels in adult rats. We examined whether immediate postpartum testosterone administration is able to reverse the toxic effects of the metal. Forty pregnant Wistar rats were divided into three groups: 1) control, 2) 10 mg kg-1 cadmium chloride per day, and 3) 20 mg kg-1 cadmium chloride per day. These dams were treated on gestational days 18 and 21 and from lactation 1 to 7. Im...

  8. Functional Voice Testing Detects Early Changes in Vocal Pitch in Women During Testosterone Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Grace; Pencina, Karol M; Coady, Jeffry A; Beleva, Yusnie M; Bhasin, Shalender; Basaria, Shehzad

    2015-06-01

    To determine dose-dependent effects of T administration on voice changes in women with low T levels. Seventy-one women who have undergone a hysterectomy with or without oophorectomy with total T Voice handicap was measured by self-report using a validated voice handicap index questionnaire at baseline and 24 weeks after intervention. Functional voice testing was performed using the Kay Elemetrics-Computer Speech Lab to determine voice frequency, volume, and harmonics. Forty-six women with evaluable voice data at baseline and after intervention were included in the analysis. The five groups were similar at baseline. Mean on-treatment nadir total T concentrations were 13, 83, 106, 122, and 250 ng/dL in the placebo, 3-, 6.25-, 12.5-, and 25-mg groups, respectively. Analyses of acoustic voice parameters revealed significant lowering of average pitch in the 12.5- and 25-mg dose groups compared to placebo (P pitch were significantly related to increases in T concentrations. No significant dose- or concentration-dependent changes in self-reported voice handicap index scores were observed. Testosterone administration in women with low T levels over 24 weeks was associated with dose- and concentration-dependent decreases in average pitch in the higher dose groups. These changes were seen despite the lack of self-reported changes in voice.

  9. Functional Voice Testing Detects Early Changes in Vocal Pitch in Women During Testosterone Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pencina, Karol M.; Coady, Jeffry A.; Beleva, Yusnie M.; Bhasin, Shalender; Basaria, Shehzad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine dose-dependent effects of T administration on voice changes in women with low T levels. Methods: Seventy-one women who have undergone a hysterectomy with or without oophorectomy with total T Voice handicap was measured by self-report using a validated voice handicap index questionnaire at baseline and 24 weeks after intervention. Functional voice testing was performed using the Kay Elemetrics-Computer Speech Lab to determine voice frequency, volume, and harmonics. Results: Forty-six women with evaluable voice data at baseline and after intervention were included in the analysis. The five groups were similar at baseline. Mean on-treatment nadir total T concentrations were 13, 83, 106, 122, and 250 ng/dL in the placebo, 3-, 6.25-, 12.5-, and 25-mg groups, respectively. Analyses of acoustic voice parameters revealed significant lowering of average pitch in the 12.5- and 25-mg dose groups compared to placebo (P pitch were significantly related to increases in T concentrations. No significant dose- or concentration-dependent changes in self-reported voice handicap index scores were observed. Conclusion: Testosterone administration in women with low T levels over 24 weeks was associated with dose- and concentration-dependent decreases in average pitch in the higher dose groups. These changes were seen despite the lack of self-reported changes in voice. PMID:25875779

  10. Testosterone administration in women increases amygdala responses to fearful and happy faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, P.A.; Honk, J. van; Ramsey, N.F.; Stein, D.J.; Hermans, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    Data from both rodents and humans show that testosterone reduces fear. This effect is hypothesized to result from testosterone's down regulating effects on the amygdala, a key region in the detection of threat and instigator of fight-or-flight behavior. However, neuroimaging studies employing

  11. Sensitivity of doping biomarkers after administration of a single dose testosterone gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Jenny; Börjesson, Annica; Hopcraft, Oscar; Schulze, Jenny J; Ericsson, Magnus; Rane, Anders; Lehtihet, Mikael; Ekström, Lena

    2017-11-18

    Micro-doping with testosterone (T) is challenging to detect with the current doping tests. Today, the methods available to detect T are longitudinally monitoring of urine biomarkers in the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) and measuring the isotopic composition of excreted biomarkers to distinguish the origin of the molecule. In this study, we investigated the detectability of a single dose of 100 mg T gel in 8 healthy male subjects. We also studied which biomarkers were most sensitive to T gel administration, including blood biomarkers. The ABP successfully detected T gel administration in all 8 subjects. The most sensitive ratio was 5αAdiol/E, however, also T/E and 5αAdiol/5βAdiol showed atypical findings. IRMS was performed on 5 subjects and only two met all the criteria for a positive test according to the rules set by WADA. The other three showed inconclusive results. Other markers that were affected by T gel administration, not used for this detection today, were serum dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and T as well as reticulocyte count and percentage in whole blood. miRNA-122 was not significantly affected by the single T dose. A single dose of 100 mg T gel is possible to detect with today's doping tests. Since a single dose of T gel has an impact on some hematological biomarkers, access to both modules of the ABP when evaluating the athletes' profiles will increase the possibility to detect micro-doses of T. In addition, serum DHT and T may be a useful addition to the future endocrine module of the biological passport. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of chronic testosterone administration on body weight, food intake, and adipose tissue are changed by estrogen treatment in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Takeshi; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Yano, Kiyohito; Yanagihara, Rie; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Mayila, Yiliyasi; Kuwahara, Akira; Irahara, Minoru

    2017-07-01

    In females, estrogens play pivotal roles in preventing excess body weight (BW) gain. On the other hand, the roles of androgens in female BW, appetite, and energy metabolism have not been fully examined. We hypothesized that androgens' effects on food intake (FI) and BW regulation change according to the estrogens' levels. To evaluate this hypothesis, the effects of chronic testosterone administration in ovariectomized (OVX) female rats with or without estradiol supplementation were examined in this study. Chronic testosterone administration decreased BW, FI, white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, and adipocyte size in OVX rats, whereas it increased BW, WAT weight, and adipocyte size in OVX with estradiol-administered rats. In addition, chronic testosterone administration increased hypothalamic CYP19a1 mRNA levels in OVX rats, whereas it did not alter CYP19a1 mRNA levels in OVX with estradiol-administered rats, indicating that conversion of testosterone to estrogens in the hypothalamus may be activated in testosterone-administered OVX rats. Furthermore, chronic testosterone administration decreased hypothalamic TNF-α mRNA levels in OVX rats, whereas it increased hypothalamic IL-1β mRNA levels in OVX with estradiol-administered rats. On the other hand, IL-1β and TNF-α mRNA levels in visceral and subcutaneous WAT and liver were not changed by chronic testosterone administration in both groups. These data indicate that the effects of chronic testosterone administration on BW, FI, WAT weight, and adipocyte size were changed by estradiol treatment in female rats. Testosterone has facilitative effects on BW gain, FI, and adiposity under the estradiol-supplemented condition, whereas it has inhibitory effects in the non-supplemented condition. Differences in the responses of hypothalamic factors, such as aromatase and inflammatory cytokines, to testosterone might underlie these opposite effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Testosterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and testosterone pellet (Testopel) are forms of testosterone injection used to treat symptoms of low testosterone in ... are low before you begin to use testosterone injection. Testosterone enanthate (Delatestryl) and testosterone pellet (Testopel) are ...

  14. Post-partum testosterone administration does not reverse the effects of perinatal exposure to cadmium on rat offspring development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto-Moraes, R; Felicio, L F; Bernardi, M M

    2010-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of perinatal cadmium exposure on physical and reflexologic development of pup rats. It was examined if the immediate postpartum testosterone administration was able to reverse the toxic effects of the metal. Forty Wistar pregnant rats were divided into three groups: control and 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) per day of cadmium chloride. These dams were treated from gestational days 18 to 21, and until the 7th lactation day. Immediately after birth, half of the offspring from the experimental and control groups received 50 microL of testosterone 0.2% i.p. The maternal body weight gain, food and water consumption were measured during the treatment period. In pups, the body weight, body length, physical landmarks, reflex development and the general activity were assessed. Results showed that: only 20 mg kg(-1) cadmium induced maternal toxicity; pup body weight and body weight gain were reduced in all experimental groups; only the cadmium-exposed offspring not treated with testosterone treatment showed a reduction in body length and body length gain; cadmium highest dose reduced the anogenital index in pups and delayed physical and reflexes development; and cadmium effects on the offspring, except in body length gain, were not reversed by testosterone. The results indicate that perinatal maternal exposure to cadmium promoted changes in the development of male rat offspring, reprogramming the pup's development. Testosterone administration was not able to reverse the cadmium effects, even on those parameters more directly related to the androgenic system as the testis descent and anogenital distance delays. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Effects of long-term testosterone administration on cognition in older men with low or low-to-normal testosterone concentrations: a prespecified secondary analysis of data from the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled TEAAM trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Grace; Wharton, Whitney; Bhasin, Shalender; Harman, S Mitchell; Pencina, Karol M; Tsitouras, Panayiotis; Li, Zhuoying; Hally, Kathleen A; Asthana, Sanjay; Storer, Thomas W; Basaria, Shehzad

    2016-08-01

    The effects of testosterone on cognitive function in older men are incompletely understood. We aimed to establish the effects of long-term testosterone administration on multiple domains of cognitive function in older men with low or low-to-normal testosterone concentrations. We did the randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group TEAAM trial at three medical centres in Boston, Phoenix, and Los Angeles, USA. Men aged 60 years and older with low or low-to-normal testosterone concentrations (3·47-13·9 nmol/L, or free testosterone testosterone gel or placebo gel daily for 3 years. Randomisation was stratified by age (60-75 years vs >75 years) and study site. The testosterone dose was adjusted to achieve concentrations of 17·3-31·2 nmol/L. Participants and all study personnel were masked to treatment allocation. Multiple domains of cognitive function were assessed as prespecified secondary outcomes by use of standardised tests at baseline and months 6, 18, and 36. We did analyses by intention to treat (in men who had baseline assessments of cognitive function) and per protocol (restricted to participants who completed the study drug and had both baseline and 36 month assessments of cognitive function). The TEAAM trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00287586. Between Sept 1, 2004, and Feb 12, 2009, we randomly assigned 308 participants to receive either testosterone (n=156) or placebo (n=152). 280 men had baseline cognitive assessments (n=140 per group). Mean follow-up time was 29·0 months (SD 11·5) in the testosterone group and 31·1 months (9·5) in the placebo group. The last participant completed the study on May 11, 2012. In the testosterone group, mean concentrations of serum total testosterone increased from 10·6 nmol/L (SD 2·2) to 19·7 nmol/L (9·2) and free testosterone concentrations increased from 222 pmol/L (62) to 364 pmol/L (222). In the placebo group, mean concentrations of serum total testosterone were 10·7

  16. Accuracy-based proficiency testing for testosterone measurements with immunoassays and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhimin Tim; Botelho, Julianne Cook; Rej, Robert; Vesper, Hubert

    2017-06-01

    Accurate testosterone measurements are needed to correctly diagnose and treat patients. Proficiency Testing (PT) programs using modified specimens for testing can be limited because of matrix effects and usage of non-reference measurement procedure (RMP)-defined targets for evaluation. Accuracy-based PT can overcome such limitations; however, there is a lack of information on accuracy-based PT and feasibility of its implementation in evaluation for testosterone measurements. Unaltered, single-donor human serum from 2 male and 2 female adult donors were analyzed for testosterone by 142 NYSDH-certified clinical laboratories using 16 immunoassays and LC-MS/MS methods. Testosterone target values were determined using an RMP. The testosterone target concentrations for the 4 specimens were 15.5, 30.0, 402 and 498ng/dl. The biases ranged from -17.8% to 73.1%, 3.1% to 21.3%, -24.8% to 8.6%, and -22.1% to 6.8% for the 4 specimens, respectively. Using a total error target of ±25.1%, which was calculated using the minimum allowable bias and imprecision, 73% of participating laboratories had ≥3 of the 4 results within these limits. The variability in total testosterone measurements can affect clinical decisions. Accuracy-based PT can significantly contribute to improving testosterone testing by providing reliable data on accuracy in patient care to laboratories, assay manufacturers, and standardization programs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Effects of co-administration of clenbuterol and testosterone propionate on skeletal muscle in paraplegic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ung, Roth-Visal; Rouleau, Pascal; Guertin, Pierre A

    2010-06-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is generally associated with a rapid and significant decrease in muscle mass and corresponding changes in skeletal muscle properties. Although beta(2)-adrenergic and androgen receptor agonists are anabolic substances clearly shown to prevent or reverse muscle wasting in some pathological conditions, their effects in SCI patients remain largely unknown. Here we studied the effects of clenbuterol and testosterone propionate administered separately or in combination on skeletal muscle properties and adipose tissue in adult CD1 mice spinal-cord-transected (Tx) at the low-thoracic level (i.e., induced complete paraplegia). Administered shortly post-Tx, these substances were found to differentially reduce loss in body weight, muscle mass, and muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) values. Although all three treatments induced significant effects, testosterone-treated animals were generally less protected against Tx-related changes. However, none of the treatments prevented fat tissue loss or muscle fiber type conversion and functional loss generally found in Tx animals. These results provide evidence suggesting that clenbuterol alone or combined with testosterone may constitute better clinically-relevant treatments than testosterone alone to decrease muscle atrophy (mass and fiber CSA) in SCI subjects.

  18. Sexual desire in female-to-male transsexual persons: exploration of the role of testosterone administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierckx, Katrien; Elaut, Els; Van Caenegem, Eva; Van De Peer, Fleur; Dedecker, David; Van Houdenhove, Ellen; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2011-08-01

    To describe sexual desire in female-to-male transsexual persons post sex reassignment surgery (SRS). The associations between serum androgen levels and sexual desire are examined. Single center cross-sectional study. Forty-five female-to-male transsexual persons post SRS completed a standardized questionnaire assessing sexual desire (Sexual Desire Inventory). In addition, participants were asked questions on sexual desire before starting hormone treatment and having SRS. Serum levels of testosterone, LH and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured on fasting morning serum samples. In retrospect, 73.9% of the participants reported an increase in sexual desire after hormone treatment and SRS. Solitary sexual desire scores were significantly correlated with frequency of masturbation (r=0.835; Ptranssexual persons with elevated levels of LH, indicating suboptimal testosterone therapy, reported significantly lower solitary sexual desire levels (than those with low LH levels; P=0.007). Suppressed LH levels were also associated with having a higher need for sexual activities (P=0.009) and a higher frequency of excessive sexual desire (P=0.007). Most female-to-male transsexual persons report on a marked increase in sexual desire after testosterone treatment and SRS. No direct associations between levels of testosterone and solitary or dyadic sexual desire were found. However, measures of sexual desire were inversely associated with LH levels.

  19. Single dose testosterone administration alleviates gaze avoidance in women with Social Anxiety Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enter, D.; Terburg, D.; Harrewijn, A.; Spinhoven, P.; Roelofs, K.

    2016-01-01

    Gaze avoidance is one of the most characteristic and persistent social features in people with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). It signals social submissiveness and hampers adequate social interactions. Patients with SAD typically show reduced testosterone levels, a hormone that facilitates socially

  20. Single dose testosterone administration alleviates gaze avoidance in women with Social Anxiety Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enter, Dorien; Terburg, David; Harrewijn, Anita; Spinhoven, Philip; Roelofs, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Gaze avoidance is one of the most characteristic and persistent social features in people with Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD). It signals social submissiveness and hampers adequate social interactions. Patients with SAD typically show reduced testosterone levels, a hormone that facilitates socially

  1. Effects of testosterone administration on selective aspects of object-location memory in healthy young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, A; Tuiten, A; van Honk, J; Kessels, RPC; Thijssen, J

    Previous work has indicated that object-location memory is sensitive to sex differences as well as variations in the menstrual cycle. The goal of the present study was to further examine the hormonal basis of human spatial memory by assessing the effects of a single dose of exogenous testosterone in

  2. Testosterone for Poor Ovarian Responders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Davis, Susan R; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone, an androgen that directly binds to the androgen receptor, has been shown in previous small randomized controlled trials to increase the reproductive outcomes of poor ovarian responders. In most of these studies, transdermal testosterone in relatively high doses was administered before...... ovarian stimulation with a duration varying from 5 to 21 days. Nevertheless, the key question to be asked is whether, based on ovarian physiology and testosterone pharmacokinetics, a short course of testosterone administration of more than 10 mg could be expected to have any beneficial effect...... on reproductive outcome. The rationale for asking this question lies in the existing scientific evidence derived from basic research and animal studies regarding the action of androgens during folliculogenesis, showing that their main effect in follicular development is defined during the earlier developmental...

  3. Therapeutic testosterone administration preserves excitatory synaptic transmission in the hippocampus during autoimmune demyelinating disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziehn, Marina O; Avedisian, Andrea A; Dervin, Shannon M; Umeda, Elizabeth A; O'Dell, Thomas J; Voskuhl, Rhonda R

    2012-09-05

    Over 50% of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients experience cognitive deficits, and hippocampal-dependent memory impairment has been reported in >30% of these patients. While postmortem pathology studies and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging demonstrate that the hippocampus is targeted in MS, the neuropathology underlying hippocampal dysfunction remains unknown. Furthermore, there are no treatments available to date to effectively prevent neurodegeneration and associated cognitive dysfunction in MS. We have recently demonstrated that the hippocampus is also targeted in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the most widely used animal model of MS. The objective of this study was to assess whether a candidate treatment (testosterone) could prevent hippocampal synaptic dysfunction and underlying pathology when administered in either a preventative or a therapeutic (postdisease induction) manner. Electrophysiological studies revealed impairments in basal excitatory synaptic transmission that involved both AMPA receptor-mediated changes in synaptic currents, and faster decay rates of NMDA receptor-mediated currents in mice with EAE. Neuropathology revealed atrophy of the pyramidal and dendritic layers of hippocampal CA1, decreased presynaptic (Synapsin-1) and postsynaptic (postsynaptic density 95; PSD-95) staining, diffuse demyelination, and microglial activation. Testosterone treatment administered either before or after disease induction restores excitatory synaptic transmission as well as presynaptic and postsynaptic protein levels within the hippocampus. Furthermore, cross-modality correlations demonstrate that fluctuations in EPSPs are significantly correlated to changes in postsynaptic protein levels and suggest that PSD-95 is a neuropathological substrate to impaired synaptic transmission in the hippocampus during EAE. This is the first report demonstrating that testosterone is a viable therapeutic treatment option that can restore both hippocampal

  4. Effect of Urtica Dioica Extract on Histological and Histometrical Changes of Testis of Hamster after Testosteron Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Morovvati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperactivity of testosterone is one cause of infertility and its incorrect use can produces reproductive disorders. Nettle (Urtica dioica has antiandrogenic effect and may antagonized effect of testosterone. In present study structure of testes of golden hamster was evaluated after testosterone and extract. Materials and Methods: In this experimental and animal modeling study, twenty male mature hamsters were divided to 4 groups, group 1 was control, group 2 received testosterone at dose 3 mg/kg subcutaneously, group 3 received nettle extract dose 30 mg/kg orally and group 4 received testosterone and nettle for 30 days daily. The hamsters were euthanized and testes were removed and detected macroscopic parameters (weight, height, wide and volume and fixed with formalin. The samples were sectioned and colored with H & E. Results: The volume, weight, length and wide of testes was at least in testosterone group and statistically was lesser than control and testosterone -nettle group (p<0.05, but did not the height epithelium of seminifer tubules, compact of spermatogenic cells and number of serotolli cells in testosterone group was lesser than control group significantly (p<0.05.Conclusion: The nettle extract decreased histological changes of testes by testosterone and improved its structure.

  5. Use of parenteral testosterone in hypospadias cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Satav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim was to evaluate the effect of parenteral testosterone on penile length, preputial hood, vascularity of dartos pedicle in patients with hypospadias. Materials and Methods: A total of 42 patients with hypospadias were included in this study. Injection aquaviron (oily solution each ml containing testosterone propionate 25 mg was given deep intramuscularly in three doses with an interval of 3 weeks before reconstructive surgery at the dose of 2 mg/kg body weight. Preoperatively penile length, transverse preputial width and diameter at the base of the penis were measured. Basal testosterone levels were obtained before the institution of therapy and on the day of operation. Results: Following parenteral testosterone administration, the mean increase in penile length, transverse preputial width and diameter at the base of penis was 1.01 ± 0.25 cm (P < 0.001, 1.250 ± 0.52 cm and 0.61 ± 0.35 cm, respectively, (P < 0.001. Serum testosterone level after injection was well within normal range for that age. Conclusion: Parenteral testosterone increased phallus size, diameter and prepuce hypertrophy without any adverse effects. However, due to lack of a control group we cannot make any inferences. Controlled studies are required to establish the benefits of parenteral testosterone.

  6. Testosterone Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... growth, development, and functioning of the male sexual organs and typical male characteristics. Testosterone topical works by ... clean and completely dry. Open your testosterone topical container. If you are using a packet, fold the ...

  7. Karakteristik Semen dan Kadar Testosteron Berdasarkan Ukuran Lingkar Skrotum Kambing Kejobong Muda dan Dewasa (CHARACTERISTICS OF SEMEN AND TESTOSTERONE LEVELS BASED ON SCROTUM CIRCUMFERENCE SIZE IN YOUNG AND ADULT KEJOBONG BUCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono Syamyono

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to investigate the characteristics of semen and testosterone levels based onthe different scrotum circumference size in young and adult Kejobong bucks. The samples in the study usedwere 35 Kejobong bucks, consisted of 20 young bucks (8 months-0.05. Similarlythe characteristics of semen and testosterone levels in adult Kejobong bucks of D1 andD2 groups were alsonot significant (P>0.05. These can be concluded that different scrotal circumference size of young andadult Kejobong bucks had similarity characteristics of semen and testosterone levels.

  8. Exogenous testosterone, cardiovascular events, and cardiovascular risk factors in elderly men: a review of trial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Culley C; Rosano, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    Increasing interest in the use of supplemental testosterone has led to a heightened focus on the safety of testosterone in elderly males, with a particular emphasis on cardiovascular risk. To evaluate, based on available clinical trial data, whether exogenous testosterone administration in middle-aged to elderly men increases cardiovascular risk, and to assess whether these effects differ in hypogonadal vs. eugonadal subjects. MEDLINE search from 2004 to present of all meta-analyses and randomized, controlled clinical trials of testosterone administration in male subjects ≥ 45 years old that included measurements of cardiovascular outcomes or known cardiovascular risk factors before and after treatment with testosterone. The effects of testosterone treatment on cardiovascular events and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed. In clinical trials where testosterone has been used in patients with preexisting cardiovascular conditions, the effect on disease symptoms has typically been either neutral or beneficial. Based on clinical trial data, testosterone treatment has minimal effect on cardiovascular risk factors with the exception of an increase in hematocrit, which is consistently seen with testosterone treatment, and a decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which is an inconsistent response. Responses of hypogonadal and eugonadal men to testosterone treatment in terms of cardiovascular risk are generally similar. Testosterone treatment has not been reported to increase the incidence of cardiovascular events with the possible exception of one trial in frail elderly men. Available clinical trial data indicate that the use of testosterone in middle-aged to elderly men does not increase cardiovascular risk nor does it unfavorably modify cardiovascular risk profile. Prospective data from large, well-designed, long-term trials of testosterone treatment are lacking and will be required to verify the cardiovascular efficacy/safety of chronic treatment.

  9. A novel double-layer molecularly imprinted polymer film based surface plasmon resonance for determination of testosterone in aqueous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yuan; Jing, Lijing; Ding, Yonghong; Wei, Tianxin

    2015-07-01

    This work aimed to prepare a novel double-layer structure molecularly imprinted polymer film (MIF) on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor chips for detection of testosterone in aqueous media. The film was synthesized by in-situ UV photo polymerization. Firstly, the modification of gold surface of SPR chip was performed by 1-dodecanethiol. Then double-layer MIF was generated on the 1-dodecanethiol modified gold surface. The non-modified and imprinted surfaces were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. Analysis of SPR spectroscopy showed that the imprinted sensing film displayed good selectivity for testosterone compared to other analogues and the non-imprinted polymer film (NIF). Within the concentrations range of 1 × 10-12-1 × 10-8 mol/L, the coupling angle changes of SPR were linear with the negative logarithm of testosterone concentrations (R2 = 0.993). Based on a signal/noise ratio of three, the detection limit was estimated to be 10-12 mol/L. Finally, the developed MIF was successfully applied to the seawater detection of testosterone. The results in the experiments suggested that a combination of SPR sensing with MIF was a promising alternative method for detection of testosterone in aqueous media.

  10. The many faces of testosterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerald Bain

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Jerald BainDepartment of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Testosterone is more than a “male sex hormone”. It is an important contributor to the robust metabolic functioning of multiple bodily systems. The abuse of anabolic steroids by athletes over the years has been one of the major detractors from the investigation and treatment of clinical states that could be caused by or related to male hypogonadism. The unwarranted fear that testosterone therapy would induce prostate cancer has also deterred physicians form pursuing more aggressively the possibility of hypogonadism in symptomatic male patients. In addition to these two mythologies, many physicians believe that testosterone is bad for the male heart. The classical anabolic agents, 17-alkylated steroids, are, indeed, potentially harmful to the liver, to insulin action to lipid metabolism. These substances, however, are not testosterone, which has none of these adverse effects. The current evidence, in fact, strongly suggests that testosterone may be cardioprotective. There is virtually no evidence to implicate testosterone as a cause of prostate cancer. It may exacerbate an existing prostate cancer, although the evidence is flimsy, but it does not likely cause the cancer in the first place. Testosterone has stimulatory effects on bones, muscles, erythropoietin, libido, mood and cognition centres in the brain, penile erection. It is reduced in metabolic syndrome and diabetes and therapy with testosterone in these conditions may provide amelioration by lowering LDL cholesterol, blood sugar, glycated hemoglobin and insulin resistance. The best measure is bio-available testosterone which is the fraction of testosterone not bound to sex hormone binding globulin. Several forms of testosterone administration are available making compliance

  11. Administration of noradrenaline in the autonomic ganglia modifies the testosterone release from the testis using an ex vivo system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Zulema Y; Palmada, Miguel N; Fóscolo, Mabel R; Capani, Francisco; Conill, Alberto; Cavicchia, Juan Carlos

    2009-08-01

    The male gonad receives nerve fibres from the autonomic ganglionic system. These fibres converge on the testis along two pathways, the superior and the inferior spermatic nerves. The superior spermatic nerve runs from the superior mesenteric ganglion alongside the testicular artery, whereas the inferior spermatic nerve originates in inferior mesenteric ganglion, accompanies the vas deferens and penetrates the inferior pole of the testis. The aim of this work was to evaluate androgen release after the addition of noradrenaline or adrenoreceptor antagonists (propranolol or phentolamine) to the ganglionic compartment. An ex vivo system used in a previous work was incubated in two separate containers, one for the testis and the other for the ganglion. Both organs remain interconnected (as in vivo) by the respective spermatic nerve. When noradrenaline was added to the inferior mesenteric ganglion, testosterone release in the gonad container underwent a progressive and significant increment. Propranolol diminishes and phentolamine increases the androgen release. When using the superior mesenteric ganglion, no changes were observed. These results indicate that the ganglionic stimulation of the autonomic system clearly participates in testosterone release from the testis. This effect depends on the ganglion involved. These results make it evident that not only the classical and well-known hypothalamus-hypophysial axis, but also the peripheral nervous system, via the autonomic ganglia, are directly involved in the endocrine control of the testis.

  12. Prediction of Long-term Post-operative Testosterone Replacement Requirement Based on the Pre-operative Tumor Volume and Testosterone Level in Pituitary Macroadenoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Chi; Chen, Chung-Ming; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Pai, Ping-Ching; Toh, Cheng-Hong; Chuang, Chi-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFPAs) are the most prevalent pituitary macroadenomas. One common symptom of NFPA is hypogonadism, which may require long-term hormone replacement. This study was designed to clarify the association between the pre-operative tumor volume, pre-operative testosterone level, intraoperative resection status and the need of long-term post-operative testosterone replacement. Between 2004 and 2012, 45 male patients with NFPAs were enrolled in this prospective study. All patients underwent transsphenoidal surgery. Hypogonadism was defined as total serum testosterone levels of operative magnetic resonance images. We prescribed testosterone to patients with defined hypogonadism or clinical symptoms of hypogonadism. Hormone replacement for longer than 1 year was considered as long-term therapy. The need for long-term post-operative testosterone replacement was significantly associated with larger pre-operative tumor volume (p = 0.0067), and lower pre-operative testosterone level (p = 0.0101). There was no significant difference between the gross total tumor resection and subtotal resection groups (p = 0.1059). The pre-operative tumor volume and testosterone level impact post-operative hypogonadism. By measuring the tumor volume and the testosterone level and by performing adequate tumor resection, surgeons will be able to predict post-operative hypogonadism and the need for long-term hormone replacement. PMID:26537232

  13. Testosterone treatment can increase circulating carotenoids but does not affect yellow carotenoid-based plumage colour in blue tits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, A.; Roberts, M.L.; Kurvers, R.H.J.M.; Delhey, K.

    2012-01-01

    A number of mechanisms are responsible for producing the variation in natural colours, and these need not act in isolation. A recent hypothesis states that carotenoid-based coloration, in addition to carotenoid availability, is also enhanced by elevated levels of circulating testosterone (T). This

  14. Effect of acute DHEA administration on free testosterone in middle-aged and young men following high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Te-Chih; Lin, Che-Hung; Huang, Chih-Yang; Ivy, John L; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2013-07-01

    With advancing age, plasma testosterone levels decline, with free testosterone levels declining more significantly than total testosterone. This fall is thought to underlie the development of physical and mental weakness that occurs with advancing age. In addition, vigorous exercise can also lower total and free testosterone levels with the decline greatest in physically untrained men. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of oral DHEA supplementation, a testosterone precursor, on free testosterone in sedentary middle-aged men during recovery from a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) bout of exercise. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study was conducted for 8 middle-aged participants (aged 49.3 ± 2.4 years) and an additional 8 young control participants (aged 21.4 ± 0.3 years). Each participant received DHEA (50 mg) and placebo on separate occasions one night (12 h) before a 5-session, 2-min cycling exercise (100% VO₂max). While no significant age difference in total testosterone was found, middle-aged participants exhibited significantly lower free testosterone and greater luteinizing hormone (LH) levels than the young control group. Oral DHEA supplementation increased circulating DHEA-S and free testosterone levels well above baseline in the middle-aged group, with no significant effect on total testosterone levels. Total testosterone and DHEA-S dropped significantly until 24 h after HIIT for both age groups, while free testosterone of DHEA-supplemented middle-aged men remained unaffected. These results demonstrate acute oral DHEA supplementation can elevate free testosterone levels in middle-aged men and prevent it from declining during HIIT. Therefore, DHEA supplementation may have significant benefits related to HIIT adaptation.

  15. A novel double-layer molecularly imprinted polymer film based surface plasmon resonance for determination of testosterone in aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Yuan; Jing, Lijing; Ding, Yonghong; Wei, Tianxin, E-mail: txwei@bit.edu.cn

    2015-07-01

    Highlights: • The in-situ photo-grafting polymerization method was used to prepare the polymer film. • The synthesized MIF was layer stucture film. • The MIF exhibited good imprinting effect and highly selectivity. - Abstract: This work aimed to prepare a novel double-layer structure molecularly imprinted polymer film (MIF) on the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor chips for detection of testosterone in aqueous media. The film was synthesized by in-situ UV photo polymerization. Firstly, the modification of gold surface of SPR chip was performed by 1-dodecanethiol. Then double-layer MIF was generated on the 1-dodecanethiol modified gold surface. The non-modified and imprinted surfaces were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM), fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. Analysis of SPR spectroscopy showed that the imprinted sensing film displayed good selectivity for testosterone compared to other analogues and the non-imprinted polymer film (NIF). Within the concentrations range of 1 × 10{sup −12}–1 × 10{sup −8} mol/L, the coupling angle changes of SPR were linear with the negative logarithm of testosterone concentrations (R{sup 2} = 0.993). Based on a signal/noise ratio of three, the detection limit was estimated to be 10{sup −12} mol/L. Finally, the developed MIF was successfully applied to the seawater detection of testosterone. The results in the experiments suggested that a combination of SPR sensing with MIF was a promising alternative method for detection of testosterone in aqueous media.

  16. Serum Testosterone Levels and Symptom-Based Depression Subtypes in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Stephanie; grosse Holtforth, Martin; Hengartner, Michael P.; Müller, Mario; Aleksandrowicz, Aleksandra A.; Rössler, Wulf; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this preliminary study was to further clarify the association between testosterone (T) levels and depression by investigating symptom-based depression subtypes in a sample of 64 men. The data were taken from the ZInEP epidemiology survey. Gonadal hormones of a melancholic (n  = 25) and an atypical (n = 14) depression subtype, derived from latent class analysis, were compared with those of healthy controls (n  = 18). Serum T was assayed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay procedure. Analysis of variance, analysis of covariance, non-parametrical tests, and generalized linear regression models were performed to examine group differences. The atypical depressive subtype showed significantly lower T levels compared with the melancholic depressives. While accumulative evidence indicates that, beyond psychosocial characteristics, the melancholic and atypical depressive subtypes are also distinguishable by biological correlates, the current study expanded this knowledge to include gonadal hormones. Further longitudinal research is warranted to disclose causality by linking the multiple processes in pathogenesis of depression. PMID:25999864

  17. Communication Technologies Preferred by School Based Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the communication technologies preferred by school based administrators. This study surveyed and interviewed 96 school based administrators in a mid-sized suburban school system. The data show that individual emails, email lists, and cell phone technologies had the highest percentage effectiveness ratings…

  18. Exposure to urban stressors and free testosterone plasma values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancini, Angela; Tomei, Francesco; Tomei, Gianfranco; Ciarrocca, Manuela; Palermo, Paola; Gioffrè, Pier Agostino; Tasciotti, Zaira; Fiaschetti, Maria; Cetica, Carlotta; Caciari, Tiziana

    2011-08-01

    The chemical agents present in the environment, such as traffic pollutants, may affect male fertility. Traffic policemen are daily exposed to traffic pollutants. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether occupational exposure to urban stressors could cause alterations in free testosterone plasma values in male traffic policemen versus administrative staff of Municipal Police of a big Italian city. Both groups were divided into two subgroups based on age (first group: 30-40 years; second group: 41-50 years) to assess whether age could affect laboratory results of free testosterone plasma levels in traffic policemen versus controls. The characterization of exposure to urban pollutants for traffic policemen was assessed using the concentrations of pollutants monitored in fixed stations. A total of 220 subjects were studied: 110 traffic policemen and 110 controls, after excluding subjects with main confounding factors. Mean free testosterone values were significantly lower in traffic policemen than in controls (P testosterone values for classes of age (30-40 and 41-50 year) of workers (respectively P testosterone values in traffic policemen and in controls was significant (P free testosterone plasma levels could be used as an early biological marker, to be employed in occupational sets, valuable for the group, even before the onset of values out of range and of fertility disorders.

  19. Karakteristik Semen dan Kadar Testosteron Berdasarkan Ukuran Lingkar Skrotum Kambing Kejobong Muda dan Dewasa (CHARACTERISTICS OF SEMEN AND TESTOSTERONE LEVELS BASED ON SCROTUM CIRCUMFERENCE SIZE IN YOUNG AND ADULT KEJOBONG BUCKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono Syamyono

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to investigate the characteristics of semen and testosterone levels based onthe different scrotum circumference size in young and adult Kejobong bucks. The samples in the study usedwere 35 Kejobong bucks, consisted of 20 young bucks (8 months-<1 year; BW 32.52 ± 5.58 kg and 15 adultbucks (1-2 years; BW 37.83 ± 5.95 kg. The young bucks were divided into two group categories, i.e.: scrotalcircumference size of 19.1 to 22.0 cm (M1 and 22.1 to 25.0 cm (M2. The adult bucks were also divided intotwo group categories, scrotal circumference size of 21.1 to 24.0 cm (D1 and 24.1 to 27.0 cm (D2. Surveymethod was used and the samples were determined by using purposive sampling. Testosterone levelswere measured using the ELISA test. The data were analyzed descriptively and the scrotal circumferencesize comparison was analyzed with the t-test. The results showed that the characteristics of semen andtestosterone levels in young Kejobong bucks of M1 and M2 groups were not significant (P>0.05. Similarlythe characteristics of semen and testosterone levels in adult Kejobong bucks of D1 andD2 groups were alsonot significant (P>0.05. These can be concluded that different scrotal circumference size of young andadult Kejobong bucks had similarity characteristics of semen and testosterone levels.

  20. Further evidence that some male-based neurodevelopmental disorders are associated with high intrauterine testosterone concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, William H

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that reading disability (RD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share a measure of genetic overlap. They also share some epidemiological features, and have all been suspected of multifactorial (genetic and environmental) threshold origins. It has also been hypothesized that ASD, pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified, and ADHD are partially caused by high maternal intrauterine testosterone levels. Here I offer a new method of testing this latter hypothesis on some of these disorders (RD, ADHD, and ASD). All these disorders occur more commonly in males. If the intrauterine testosterone hypothesis was correct, then probands should have a statistically significant excess of brothers among their siblings. Data are adduced here to test this. When treated as individual disorders, the data are significant only in the case of RD. However, the data are highly significant when pooled as RD + ADHD or RD + ADHD + ASD. Taken alone, the data on ASD are not significant. These results suggest that: (1) taxonomically, RD and ADHD are moresimilar to one another than either is to ASD; and (2) probands in the pooled samples have a very highly significant excess of brothers. This result stands in need of explanation. Provisionally, the data may be interpreted as suggesting that RD may be caused by high intrauterine testosterone levels, and confirming the hypothesis that ADHD is partially caused by high intrauterine testosterone.

  1. Oral low-dose testosterone administration induces whole-body protein anabolism in postmenopausal women: a novel liver-targeted therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birzniece, Vita; Umpleby, Margot A; Poljak, Anne; Handelsman, David J; Ho, Ken K Y

    2013-09-01

    In hypopituitary men, oral delivery of unesterified testosterone in doses that result in a solely hepatic androgen effect enhances protein anabolism during GH treatment. In this study, we aimed to determine whether liver-targeted androgen supplementation induces protein anabolism in GH-replete normal women. Eight healthy postmenopausal women received 2-week treatment with oral testosterone at a dose of 40 mg/day (crystalline testosterone USP). This dose increases portal concentrations of testosterone, exerting androgenic effects on the liver without a spillover into the systemic circulation. The outcome measures were whole-body leucine turnover, from which leucine rate of appearance (LRa, an index of protein breakdown) and leucine oxidation (Lox, a measure of irreversible protein loss) were estimated, energy expenditure and substrate utilization. We measured the concentration of liver transaminases as well as of testosterone, SHBG and IGF1. Testosterone treatment significantly reduced LRa by 7.1 ± 2.5% and Lox by 14.6 ± 4.5% (Panabolism by reducing protein breakdown and oxidation without inducing systemic androgen excess in women. We conclude that a small oral dose of unesterified testosterone holds promise as a simple novel treatment of protein catabolism and muscle wasting.

  2. The relationship between total testosterone levels and prostate cancer: a review of the continuing controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klap, Julia; Schmid, Marianne; Loughlin, Kevin R

    2015-02-01

    For many years it was believed that higher total testosterone contributed to prostate cancer and caused rapid cancer growth. International guidelines consider that adequate data are not available to determine whether there is additional risk of prostate cancer from testosterone replacement. Numerous studies with multiple designs and contradictory conclusions have investigated the relationship between total testosterone and prostate cancer development. To establish current knowledge in this field we reviewed the literature on total testosterone and the subsequent risk of prostate cancer as well as the safety of exogenous testosterone administration in patients with a history of prostate cancer. We searched the literature to identify articles from 1994 to 2014 related to the relationship between total testosterone and prostate cancer. Emphasis was given to prospective studies, series with observational data and randomized, controlled trials. Case reports were excluded. Articles on testosterone replacement safety were selected by patient population (under active surveillance or with a prostate cancer history). We organized our results according to the relationship between total testosterone and prostate cancer, including 1) the possible link between low total testosterone and prostate cancer, 2) the effect of high levels and 3) the absence of any link. Finally, we summarized studies of the risk of exogenous testosterone administration in patients already diagnosed with prostate cancer, treated or on active surveillance. We selected 45 articles of the relationship between total testosterone and prostate cancer, of which 18 and 17 showed a relationship to low and high total testosterone, respectively, and 10 showed no relation. Total testosterone was defined according to the definition in each article. Contradictory findings have been reported, largely due to the disparate methodologies used in many studies. Most studies did not adhere to professional society guidelines

  3. Pharmacokinetics of testosterone cream applied to scrotal skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, R; Mok, S F; Savkovic, S; Turner, L; Fraser, G; Desai, R; Jayadev, V; Conway, A J; Handelsman, D J

    2017-07-01

    Scrotal skin is thin and has high steroid permeability, but the pharmacokinetics of testosterone via the scrotal skin route has not been studied in detail. The aim of this study was to define the pharmacokinetics of testosterone delivered via the scrotal skin route. The study was a single-center, three-phase cross-over pharmacokinetic study of three single doses (12.5, 25, 50 mg) of testosterone cream administered in random sequence on different days with at least 2 days between doses to healthy eugonadal volunteers with endogenous testosterone suppressed by administration of nandrolone decanoate. Serum testosterone, DHT and estradiol concentrations were measured by liquid chromatograpy, mass spectrometry in extracts of serum taken before and for 16 h after administration of each of the three doses of testosterone cream to the scrotal skin. Testosterone administration onto the scrotal skin produced a swift (peak 1.9-2.8 h), dose-dependent (p testosterone with the 25 mg dose maintaining physiological levels for 16 h. Serum DHT displayed a time- (p testosterone. There were no significant changes in serum estradiol over time after testosterone administration. We conclude that testosterone administration to scrotal skin is well tolerated and produces dose-dependent peak serum testosterone concentration with a much lower dose relative to the non-scrotal transdermal route. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  4. Testosterone Therapy: Review of Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petering, Ryan C; Brooks, Nathan A

    2017-10-01

    Testosterone therapy is increasingly common in the United States, and many of these prescriptions are written by primary care physicians. There is conflicting evidence on the benefit of male testosterone therapy for age-related declines in testosterone. Physicians should not measure testosterone levels unless a patient has signs and symptoms of hypogonadism, such as loss of body hair, sexual dysfunction, hot flashes, or gynecomastia. Depressed mood, fatigue, decreased strength, and a decreased sense of vitality are less specific to male hypogonadism. Testosterone therapy should be initiated only after two morning total serum testosterone measurements show decreased levels, and all patients should be counseled on the potential risks and benefits before starting therapy. Potential benefits of therapy include increased libido, improved sexual function, improved mood and well-being, and increased muscle mass and bone density; however, there is little or mixed evidence confirming clinically significant benefits. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration warns that testosterone therapy may increase the risk of cardiovascular complications. Other possible risks include rising prostate-specific antigen levels, worsening lower urinary tract symptoms, polycythemia, and increased risk of venous thromboembolism. Patients receiving testosterone therapy should be monitored to ensure testosterone levels rise appropriately, clinical improvement occurs, and no complications develop. Testosterone therapy may also be used to treat hypoactive sexual desire disorder in postmenopausal women and to produce physical male sex characteristics in female-to-male transgender patients.

  5. Circulating microRNA-122 as Potential Biomarker for Detection of Testosterone Abuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Salamin

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression and thus influence many cellular and physiological processes. miRNAs are also present in cell-free body fluids such as plasma or serum, and these circulating miRNAs are very stable, sensitive, and specific biomarkers of pathophysiological states. In this study, we investigated whether circulating miRNAs could serve as biomarkers of exogenous testosterone administration. Misuse of testosterone as a performance-enhancing drug is thought to be widespread in sports. Detection of testosterone through the urinary steroid profile of the Athlete Biological Passport faces several obstacles, indicating that new biomarkers are required. To this end, we analyzed plasma miRNA levels by high-throughput quantitative real-time PCR. Plasma samples were obtained before and at several time points after transdermal and oral testosterone administration. Screening identified three potential candidate miRNAs that were altered by both routes of testosterone administration. Longitudinal monitoring of these candidates revealed that variation in two of them (miR-150 and miR-342, relative to the corresponding levels in control samples, was testosterone-independent. However, levels of the liver-specific miR-122 increased 3.5-fold 1 day after drug intake. Given that testosterone is metabolized by the liver, this observation suggests that miR-122 in cell-free fluids may be used as a sensitive biomarker of testosterone misuse via multiple dosing routes and could therefore be integrated into a blood-based multiparametric follow-up.

  6. Testosterone treatment of hypogonadal men participating in competitive sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooren, L J; Behre, H M

    2008-06-01

    Testosterone has a steeply dose-dependent effect on muscle mass and strength irrespective of gonadal status. So, for reasons of fairness, people who engage in competitive sports should not administer exogenous testosterone raising their blood testosterone levels beyond the range of normal. There is a ban on exogenous androgens for men and women in sports, but an exception has been made for men with androgen deficiency due to pituitary or testicular disease. Men who receive testosterone administration for the indication hypogonadism have an interest in the use of testosterone preparations generating blood testosterone levels within the normal range of healthy, eugonadal men. On the grounds of a positive correlation between blood testosterone concentrations muscle and volume/strength, they are best served with a parenteral testosterone preparation, rather than transdermal testosterone, but they should not run the risk of being excluded from competition because of supraphysiological testosterone levels. The latter is a realistic risk with the traditional parenteral testosterone esters. The new parenteral testosterone undecanoate preparation offers much better perspectives. Its pharmacokinetics have been investigated in detail and there is a fair degree of predictability of resulting blood testosterone levels with use of this preparation.

  7. Postgame testosterone levels of individuals in team-based status games are affected by genetic makeup, gender, and winning versus losing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeke, W.J.M.I.; Belschak, F.D.; Bagozzi, R.P.; De Rijcke, Y. B.

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone, a steroid hormone, affects the ability of the prefrontal cortex to regulate the limbic system and therefore has been implicated in a wide range of social behaviors such as facing status challenges, aggression and dominance. Here we use a team-based status game to examine factors that

  8. Testosterone Deficiency, Cardiac Health, and Older Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Hackett

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low levels of testosterone are manifested by erectile dysfunction, reduced sexual desire, and loss of morning erections with increasing numbers of men are being diagnosed and require treatment. The prevalence rates of testosterone deficiency vary according to different studies but may be as high as 40% in populations of patients with type 2 diabetes. There is increasing evidence that testosterone deficiency is associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Screening for low testosterone is recommended in a number of high risk groups including those with type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. There are recent data to suggest that testosterone replacement therapy may reduce cardiovascular mortality as well as improving multiple surrogate markers for cardiovascular events. Specific clinical trials of testosterone replacement therapy are needed in selected populations but in the meantime we must treat patients based on the best current evidence.

  9. Provider and Site-Level Determinants of Testosterone Prescribing in the Veterans Healthcare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasuja, Guneet K; Bhasin, Shalender; Rose, Adam J; Reisman, Joel I; Hanlon, Joseph T; Miller, Donald R; Morreale, Anthony P; Pogach, Leonard M; Cunningham, Francesca E; Park, Angela; Wiener, Renda S; Gifford, Allen L; Berlowitz, Dan R

    2017-09-01

    Testosterone prescribing rates have increased substantially in the past decade. However, little is known about the context within which such prescriptions occur. We evaluated provider- and site-level determinants of receipt of testosterone and of guideline-concordant testosterone prescribing. This study was cross-sectional in design. This study was conducted at the Veterans Health Administration (VA). Study participants were a national cohort of male patients who had received at least one outpatient prescription within the VA during fiscal year (FY) 2008 to FY 2012. A total of 38,648 providers and 130 stations were associated with these patients. This study measured receipt of testosterone and guideline-concordant testosterone prescribing. Providers ranging in age from 31 to 60 years, with less experience in the VA [all adjusted odds ratio (AOR), testosterone compared with older providers, providers of longer VA tenure, and primary care providers, respectively. Sites located in the West compared with the Northeast [AOR, 1.75; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.45-2.11] and care received at a community-based outpatient clinic compared with a medical center (AOR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.20-1.24) also predicted testosterone use. Although they were more likely to prescribe testosterone, endocrinologists were also more likely to obtain an appropriate workup before prescribing compared with primary care providers (AOR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.54-2.97). Our results highlight the opportunity to intervene at both the provider and the site levels to improve testosterone prescribing. This study also provides a useful example of how to examine contributions to prescribing variation at different levels of the health care system.

  10. Blood Test: Testosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Voice in Health Care Decisions Blood Test: Testosterone KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Test: Testosterone Print A A A What's in this article? ... Análisis de sangre: testosterona What It Is A testosterone test measures the blood level of the male ...

  11. Ontology-Based Administration of Web Directories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Marko; Gledec, Gordan; Bogunović, Nikola

    Administration of a Web directory and maintenance of its content and the associated structure is a delicate and labor intensive task performed exclusively by human domain experts. Subsequently there is an imminent risk of a directory structures becoming unbalanced, uneven and difficult to use to all except for a few users proficient with the particular Web directory and its domain. These problems emphasize the need to establish two important issues: i) generic and objective measures of Web directories structure quality, and ii) mechanism for fully automated development of a Web directory's structure. In this paper we demonstrate how to formally and fully integrate Web directories with the Semantic Web vision. We propose a set of criteria for evaluation of a Web directory's structure quality. Some criterion functions are based on heuristics while others require the application of ontologies. We also suggest an ontology-based algorithm for construction of Web directories. By using ontologies to describe the semantics of Web resources and Web directories' categories it is possible to define algorithms that can build or rearrange the structure of a Web directory. Assessment procedures can provide feedback and help steer the ontology-based construction process. The issues raised in the article can be equally applied to new and existing Web directories.

  12. Testosterone shifts the balance between sensitivity for punishment and reward in healthy young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honk, E.J. van; Schutter, D.J.L.G.; Hermans, E.J.; Putman, P.L.J.; Tuiten, A.; Koppeschaar, H.P.F.

    2004-01-01

    Animal research has demonstrated reductions in punishment sensitivity and enhanced reward dependency after testosterone administration. In humans, elevated levels of testosterone have been associated with violent and antisocial behavior. Interestingly, extreme forms of violent and antisocial

  13. Testosterone ethosomes for enhanced transdermal delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainbinder, Denize; Touitou, Elka

    2005-01-01

    Physiological decrease in testosterone levels in men with age causes various changes with clinical significance. Recent testosterone replacement therapy is based mainly on transdermal nonpatch delivery systems. These products have the drawback of application on extremely large areas to achieve required hormone blood levels. The objective of the present study was to design and test a testosterone nonpatch formulation using ethosomes for enhanced transdermal absorption. The ethosomal formulation was characterized by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering for structure and size distribution and by ultracentrifugation for entrapment capacity. To evaluate the feasibility of this delivery system to enhance testosterone permeation through the skin, first the systemic absorption in rats was compared with a currently used gel (AndroGel). Further, theoretical estimation of testosterone blood concentration following ethosomal application in men was made. For this purpose, in vitro permeation experiments through human skin were performed to establish testosterone skin permeation values. In the design of these experiments, testosterone solubility in various solutions was measured and the effect of the receiver medium on the skin barrier function was assessed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Theoretical estimation shows that testosterone human plasma concentration value in the upper part of the physiological range could be achieved by application of the ethosomal formulation on an area of 40 cm(2). This area is about 10 times smaller than required with current nonpatch formulations. Our work shows that the ethosomal formulation could enhance testosterone systemic absorption and also be used for designing new products that could solve the weaknesses of the current testosterone replacement therapies.

  14. Comparison of testosterone fractions between Framingham Heart Study participants and Japanese participants

    OpenAIRE

    Taya, Masaki; Koh, Eitetsu; Izumi, Kouji; Iijima, Masashi; Maeda, Yuji; Matsushita, Tomohiko; Iwamoto, Teruaki; Namiki, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine testosterone fractions in Japanese men and to compare these values with those of Framingham Heart Study participants. Methods: We enrolled 498 healthy Japanese men. Total testosterone was assayed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, sex hormone-binding globulin was assayed by immunoassay and free testosterone was calculated by a laboratory at the Boston Medical Center. Analog-based free testosterone and immunoassay-based total testosterone were determine...

  15. PC based temporary shielding administrative procedure (TSAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.E.; Pederson, G.E. [Sargent & Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States); Hamby, P.N. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Downers Grove, IL (United States)

    1995-03-01

    A completely new Administrative Procedure for temporary shielding was developed for use at Commonwealth Edison`s six nuclear stations. This procedure promotes the use of shielding, and addresses industry requirements for the use and control of temporary shielding. The importance of an effective procedure has increased since more temporary shielding is being used as ALARA goals become more ambitious. To help implement the administrative procedure, a personal computer software program was written to incorporate the procedural requirements. This software incorporates the useability of a Windows graphical user interface with extensive help and database features. This combination of a comprehensive administrative procedure and user friendly software promotes the effective use and management of temporary shielding while ensuring that industry requirements are met.

  16. Ontology-Based Administration of Web Directories

    OpenAIRE

    Horvat, Marko; Gledec, Gordan; Bogunović, Nikola

    2013-01-01

    Administration of a Web directory and maintenance of its content and the associated structure is a delicate and labor intensive task performed exclusively by human domain experts. Subsequently there is an imminent risk of a directory structures becoming unbalanced, uneven and difficult to use to all except for a few users proficient with the particular Web directory and its domain. These problems emphasize the need to establish two important issues: i) generic and objective measures of Web di...

  17. Testosterone Deficiency and Nocturia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyoshi Shigehara

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nocturia causes lack of sleep and excessive daytime somnolence, reducing overall well-being, vitality, productivity, and mental health. Nocturia is significantly associated with testosterone deficiency, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS, and sleep disorders. The development of LUTS is commonly associated with testosterone deficiency in elderly men, and recent studies have suggested that testosterone has an ameliorative effect on nocturia. In hypogonadal men with nocturia, a negative feedback cycle can arise, in which testosterone deficiency leads to the development of nocturia, and nocturia contributes to the decline in testosterone levels. Therefore, patients with nocturia should receive appropriate treatment in order to improve their quality of life. Nocturia is generally treated by restricting nighttime water intake, as well as by the administration of medications, such as alpha-1 blockers, anticholinergic drugs, and desmopressin. Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT is used worldwide as a treatment for many hypogonadal conditions. TRT represents an alternative treatment option for nocturia in hypogonadal men. However, limited information is currently available regarding the effects of TRT on nocturia in hypogonadal men, and further studies are required to reach more definitive conclusions.

  18. Diagnosis and management of testosterone deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, James A; Carson, Culley C; Coward, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone supplementation therapy (TST) use has dramatically increased over the past decade, due to the availability of newer agents, aggressive marketing, and an increasing incidence of testosterone deficiency (TD). Despite the increase in TST, a degree of ambiguity remains as to the exact diagnostic criteria of TD, and administration and monitoring of TST. One explanation for this phenomenon is the complex role testosterone plays in multiple physiologic pathways. Numerous medical co-morbidities and medications can alter testosterone levels resulting in a wide range of nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms of TD. The diagnosis is also challenging due to the lack of a definitive serum total testosterone level that reliably correlates with symptoms. This observation is particularly true in the aging male and is exacerbated by inconsistencies between different laboratory assays. Several prominent medical societies have developed guideline statements to clarify the diagnosis, but they differ from each other and with expert opinion in several ways. Aside from diagnostic dilemmas, there are numerous subtle advantages and disadvantages of the various testosterone agents to appreciate. The available TST agents have changed significantly over the past decade similar to the trends in the diagnosis of TD. Therefore, as the usage of TST increases, clinicians will be challenged to maintain an up-to-date understanding of TD and TST. The purpose of this review is to provide a clear description of the current strategies for diagnosis and management of TD. PMID:25532575

  19. Testosterone Deficiency and Nocturia: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigehara, Kazuyoshi; Izumi, Koji; Mizokami, Atsushi; Namiki, Mikio

    2017-04-01

    Nocturia causes lack of sleep and excessive daytime somnolence, reducing overall well-being, vitality, productivity, and mental health. Nocturia is significantly associated with testosterone deficiency, lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and sleep disorders. The development of LUTS is commonly associated with testosterone deficiency in elderly men, and recent studies have suggested that testosterone has an ameliorative effect on nocturia. In hypogonadal men with nocturia, a negative feedback cycle can arise, in which testosterone deficiency leads to the development of nocturia, and nocturia contributes to the decline in testosterone levels. Therefore, patients with nocturia should receive appropriate treatment in order to improve their quality of life. Nocturia is generally treated by restricting nighttime water intake, as well as by the administration of medications, such as alpha-1 blockers, anticholinergic drugs, and desmopressin. Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is used worldwide as a treatment for many hypogonadal conditions. TRT represents an alternative treatment option for nocturia in hypogonadal men. However, limited information is currently available regarding the effects of TRT on nocturia in hypogonadal men, and further studies are required to reach more definitive conclusions. Copyright © 2017 Korean Society for Sexual Medicine and Andrology.

  20. Serum testosterone levels and symptom-based depression subtypes in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie eRodgers

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this preliminary study was to further clarify the association between T levels and depression by investigating symptom-based depression subtypes in a sample of 64 men. The data was taken from the ZInEP epidemiology survey. Gonadal hormones of a melancholic (n=25 and an atypical (n=14 depression subtype, derived from latent class analysis, were compared with those of healthy controls (n=18. Serum T was assayed using an ELISA procedure. Analysis of variance, analysis of covariance, non-parametrical tests and generalized linear regression models were performed to examine group differences. The atypical depressive subtype showed significantly lower T levels compared with the melancholic depressives. While accumulative evidence indicates that, beyond psychosocial characteristics, the melancholic and atypical depressive subtypes are also distinguishable by biological correlates, the current study expanded this knowledge to include gonadal hormones. Further longitudinal research is warranted to disclose causality by linking the multiple processes in pathogenesis of depression.

  1. Lipophagy Contributes to Testosterone Biosynthesis in Male Rat Leydig Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yi; Zhou, Yan; Zhu, Yin-Ci; Wang, Si-Qi; Ping, Ping; Chen, Xiang-Feng

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, autophagy was found to regulate lipid metabolism through a process termed lipophagy. Lipophagy modulates the degradation of cholesteryl esters to free cholesterol (FC), which is the substrate of testosterone biosynthesis. However, the role of lipophagy in testosterone production is unknown. To investigate this, primary rat Leydig cells and varicocele rat models were administered to inhibit or promote autophagy, and testosterone, lipid droplets (LDs), total cholesterol (TC), and FC were evaluated. The results demonstrated that inhibiting autophagy in primary rat Leydig cells reduced testosterone production. Further studies demonstrated that inhibiting autophagy increased the number and size of LDs and the level of TC, but decreased the level of FC. Furthermore, hypoxia promoted autophagy in Leydig cells. We found that short-term hypoxia stimulated testosterone secretion; however, the inhibition of autophagy abolished stimulated testosterone release. Hypoxia decreased the number and size of LDs in Leydig cells, but the changes could be largely rescued by blocking autophagy. In experimental varicocele rat models, the administration of autophagy inhibitors substantially reduced serum testosterone. These data demonstrate that autophagy contributes to testosterone biosynthesis at least partially through degrading intracellular LDs/TC. Our observations might reveal an autophagic regulatory mode regarding testosterone biosynthesis. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  2. Testosterone affects language areas of the adult human brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hahn, Andreas; Kranz, Georg S; Sladky, Ronald; Kaufmann, Ulrike; Ganger, Sebastian; Hummer, Allan; Seiger, Rene; Spies, Marie; Vanicek, Thomas; Winkler, Dietmar; Kasper, Siegfried; Windischberger, Christian; Swaab, Dick F; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2016-01-01

    Although the sex steroid hormone testosterone is integrally involved in the development of language processing, ethical considerations mostly limit investigations to single hormone administrations. To circumvent this issue we assessed the influence of continuous high-dose hormone application in

  3. NASA Administrative Data Base Management Systems, 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosevich, J. D. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Strategies for converting to a data base management system (DBMS) and the implementation of the software packages necessary are discussed. Experiences with DBMS at various NASA centers are related including Langley's ADABAS/NATURAL and the NEMS subsystem of the NASA metrology informaton system. The value of the integrated workstation with a personal computer is explored.

  4. Circulating testosterone and feather-gene expression of receptors and metabolic enzymes in relation to melanin-based colouration in the barn owl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béziers, Paul; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse; Simon, Céline; Roulin, Alexandre

    2017-09-01

    Knowledge of how and why secondary sexual characters are associated with sex hormones is important to understand their signalling function. Such a link can occur if i) testosterone participates in the elaboration of sex-traits, ii) the display of an ornament triggers behavioural response in conspecifics that induce a rise in testosterone, or iii) genes implicated in the elaboration of a sex-trait pleiotropically regulate testosterone physiology. To evaluate the origin of the co-variation between melanism and testosterone, we measured this hormone and the expression of enzymes involved in its metabolism in feathers of barn owl (Tyto alba) nestlings at the time of melanogenesis and in adults outside the period of melanogenesis. Male nestlings displaying smaller black feather spots had higher levels of circulating testosterone, potentially suggesting that testosterone could block the production of eumelanin pigments, or that genes involved in the production of small spots pleiotropically regulate testosterone production. In contrast, the enzyme 5α-reductase, that metabolizes testosterone to DHT, was more expressed in feathers of reddish-brown than light-reddish nestlings. This is consistent with the hypothesis that testosterone might be involved in the expression of reddish-brown pheomelanic pigments. In breeding adults, male barn owls displaying smaller black spots had higher levels of circulating testosterone, whereas in females the opposite result was detected during the rearing period, but not during incubation. The observed sex- and age-specific co-variations between black spottiness and testosterone in nestling and adult barn owls may not result from testosterone-dependent melanogenesis, but from melanogenic genes pleiotropically regulating testosterone, or from colour-specific life history strategies that influence testosterone levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogen handler om den praksis, vi kalder administration. Vi er i den offentlige sektor i Danmark hos kontorfolkene med deres sagsmapper, computere, telefoner,, lovsamlinger,, retningslinier og regneark. I bogen udfoldes en mangfoldighed af konkrete historier om det administrative arbejde fra...... forskellige områder i den offentlige sektor. Hensigten er at forstå den praksis og faglighed der knytter sig til det administrative arbejde...

  6. Modelling of web-based virtual university administration for Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This research work focused on development of a model of web based virtual University Administration for Nigerian universities. This is necessary as there is still a noticeable administrative constraint in our Universities, the establishment of many University Web portals notwithstanding. More efforts are therefore needed to ...

  7. Administral : une base de données de science administrative

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Chevallier

    2011-01-01

    I. ADMINISTRAL est le produit d’une longue histoire La création au début des années soixante-dix, à l’initiative du professeur Roland Drago et sous l’égide du Centre d’études et de recherches de science administrative (CERSA) qu’il dirigeait au sein de l’Université Panthéon-Assas (Paris 2), d’une base de données bibliographiques de science administrative francophone intitulée « Bibliographie internationale de science administrative » est indissociable de l’essor spectaculaire qu’a connu à par...

  8. Exogenous testosterone, finasteride and castration effects on testosterone, insulin, zinc and chromium in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousofvand, Namdar; Zarei, Fatemeh; Ghanbari, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Although effects of trace elements on secretion of sex steroids and insulin have been studied, the effects of these hormones on serum level of trace elements have been rarely investigated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of testosterone and finasteride administration and castration on serum levels of testosterone, insulin, zinc and chromium. Male adult rats (n = 32) were divided into 4 groups (n = 8). Group 1, control; Group 2, castration, castration was done at the first day of the study; Group 3, finasteride (20 mg/kg/day, dissolved in drinking water) and Group 4, testosterone (5 mg/kg/day, i.p.). At the end of the period of the study (35 days), serum testosterone, insulin, zinc and chromium levels were determined in the blood samples collected directly from the right atrium of the heart of the animals. The data indicated that the serum levels of testosterone, insulin and zinc were significantly increased (Pfinasteride groups, but the level of chromium was decreased in both groups (Pfinasteride increases insulin and zinc levels and decreases chromium levels in the serum of male adult rats. According to these data, it seems that testosterone may affect glucose cycle through effect on serum insulin levels and trace elements such as zinc and chromium.

  9. Interaction between testosterone and growth hormone on whole-body protein anabolism occurs in the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birzniece, Vita; Meinhardt, Udo J; Umpleby, Margot A; Handelsman, David J; Ho, Ken K Y

    2011-04-01

    GH and testosterone both exert protein-anabolic effects and may act synergistically. Liver and muscle are major sites of protein metabolism. Our objective was to determine whether the site of GH and testosterone interaction on protein metabolism is primarily hepatic or extrahepatic. In this open-label randomized crossover study, the impact on whole-body protein metabolism of oral (solely hepatic testosterone exposure) and transdermal (systemic testosterone exposure) testosterone replacement in the presence or absence of GH was compared. Eleven hypopituitary men with GH and testosterone deficiency were randomized to 2-wk treatments with transdermal testosterone (10 mg) or oral testosterone (40 mg), with or without GH replacement (0.6 mg/d). The dose of testosterone administered orally achieves physiological portal testosterone concentrations without spillover into the systemic circulation. Whole-body leucine turnover was measured, from which leucine rate of appearance (LRa), an index of protein breakdown, and leucine oxidation (Lox), a measure of irreversible protein loss, were estimated at the end of each treatment. In the absence of GH, neither transdermal nor oral testosterone affected LRa or Lox. GH therapy significantly increased LRa, an effect equally reduced by transdermal and oral testosterone administration. GH replacement alone did not significantly change Lox, whereas addition of testosterone treatment reduced Lox, with the effect not significantly different between transdermal and oral testosterone. In the doses used, testosterone stimulates protein anabolism by reducing protein breakdown and oxidation only in the presence of GH. Because the net effect on protein metabolism during GH therapy is not different between systemic and solely hepatic testosterone administration, we conclude that the liver is the primary site of this hormonal interaction.

  10. Effects of dutasteride on serum free-testosterone and clinical significance of testosterone changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enatsu, N; Miyake, H; Haraguchi, T; Chiba, K; Fujisawa, M

    2016-12-01

    Sixty-two patients with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) who were being treated with dutasteride participated in this study. Prostate volume, uroflowmetry, blood tests, the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) were determined before and 1, 3 and 12 months after the treatment with dutasteride. Patients were divided into two groups based on changes in serum testosterone after 1 month: Group A (>20% increase; n = 33) or Group B (free-testosterone levels were 20.4% higher after 1 month and remained constant thereafter. When Groups A and B were compared, baseline free-testosterone levels were significantly lower in Group A, IPSS QOL was significantly better in Group A at 3 and 12 months, and no significant differences were observed in uroflowmetry, prostate volume, IPSS or IIEF-5. A univariate analysis identified serum free-testosterone levels and the IPSS storage symptom subscore as significant factors influencing IPSS QOL at 12 months, and only the IPSS storage symptom subscore appeared to be independently related to IPSS QOL. These results indicate that dutasteride increases serum free-testosterone levels in BPH patients, particularly with low baseline free-testosterone levels, and the increase in free-testosterone may have further add-on impacts on their urinary tract symptoms. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Administration

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Cet imposant volume constitue un registre des cours magistraux tenus par l’auteur à l’École supérieure allemande des sciences administratives de Spire, enrichis des résultats de travaux scientifiques menés principalement à l'Institut Allemand de Recherche en Administration Publique (Deutsches Forschungsinstitut für öffentliche Verwaltung Speyer, FÖV). Il s’agit donc d’une entreprise au long cours, destinée à apporter un nouvel éclairage (quasi ?) exhaustif sur l’administration publique : son ...

  12. Comparison of testosterone fractions between Framingham Heart Study participants and Japanese participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taya, Masaki; Koh, Eitetsu; Izumi, Kouji; Iijima, Masashi; Maeda, Yuji; Matsushita, Tomohiko; Iwamoto, Teruaki; Namiki, Mikio

    2014-07-01

    To determine testosterone fractions in Japanese men and to compare these values with those of Framingham Heart Study participants. We enrolled 498 healthy Japanese men. Total testosterone was assayed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, sex hormone-binding globulin was assayed by immunoassay and free testosterone was calculated by a laboratory at the Boston Medical Center. Analog-based free testosterone and immunoassay-based total testosterone were determined by immunoassay. We compared mass spectrometry assay-based total testosterone and calculated free testosterone values in the Japanese participants with values in the American Framingham Heart Study third generation cohort. The mean serum mass spectrometry assay-based total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, and calculated free testosterone values were 439.4 ± 167 ng/dL, 65.34 ± 30.61 nmol/L, and 58.75 ± 20.0 pg/mL, respectively. The correlation coefficients with age for mass spectrometry assay-based total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, and calculated free testosterone were 0.0010, 0.5041, and -0.496, respectively. There were no age-related changes in mass spectrometry assay-based total testosterone values in healthy men (P = 0.981), whereas sex hormone-binding globulin and calculated free testosterone levels showed similar age-related changes (P free testosterone levels (8.24 ± 2.9 pg/mL) showed age-related changes (P testosterone levels (P = 0.828). Serum immunoassay-based total testosterone values (486.1 ± 162.5 ng/dL) correlated with serum mass spectrometry assay-based total testosterone values (r = 0.740, 95% confidence interval 0.6965-0.7781, P free testosterone and calculated free testosterone values showed a highly significant correlation (r = 0.706, 95% confidence interval 0.6587-0.7473, P free testosterone values were approximately 10% of the calculated free testosterone values. In contrast to the Framingham

  13. Could you have low testosterone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000722.htm Could you have low testosterone? To use the sharing features on ... Symptoms Some men with low testosterone do not have any symptoms. Others may have: Low sex drive ...

  14. Testosterone and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambo, Amos; Roshan, Mohsin H.K.; Pace, Nikolai P.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease [CVD] is a leading cause of mortality accounting for a global incidence of over 31%. Atherosclerosis is the primary pathophysiology underpinning most types of CVD. Historically, modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors were suggested to precipitate CVD. Recently, epidemiological studies have identified emerging risk factors including hypotestosteronaemia, which have been associated with CVD. Previously considered in the realms of reproductive biology, testosterone is now believed to play a critical role in the cardiovascular system in health and disease. The actions of testosterone as they relate to the cardiac vasculature and its implication in cardiovascular pathology is reviewed. PMID:27014372

  15. Exogenous testosterone decreases men's personal distance in a social threat context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagels, Lisa; Radke, Sina; Goerlich, Katharina Sophia; Habel, Ute; Votinov, Mikhail

    2017-04-01

    Testosterone can motivate human approach and avoidance behavior. Specifically, the conscious recognition of and implicit reaction to angry facial expressions is influenced by testosterone. The study tested whether exogenous testosterone modulates the personal distance (PD) humans prefer in a social threat context. 82 healthy male participants underwent either transdermal testosterone (testosterone group) or placebo application (placebo group). Each participant performed a computerized stop-distance task before (T1) and 3.5h after (T2) treatment, during which they indicated how closely they would approach a human, animal or virtual character with varying emotional expression. Men's PD towards humans and animals varied as a function of their emotional expression. In the testosterone group, a pre-post comparison indicated that the administration of 50mg testosterone was associated with a small but significant reduction of men's PD towards aggressive individuals. Men in the placebo group did not change the initially chosen PD after placebo application independent of the condition. However comparing the testosterone and placebo group after testosterone administration did not reveal significant differences. While the behavioral effect was small and only observed as within-group effect it was repeatedly and selectively shown for men's PD choices towards an angry woman, angry man and angry dog in the testosterone group. In line with the literature, our findings in young men support the influential role of exogenous testosterone on male's approach behavior during social confrontations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Testosterone Replacement Therapy and Polycythemia in HIV-infected Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorkas, Charles Kyriakos; Vaamonde, Carlos M.; Glesby, Marshall J.

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a case-control study to assess testosterone use as a primary risk factor for polycythemia in 21 HIV-infected men. Any testosterone use within two months of first elevated hemoglobin was associated with polycythemia (matched odds ratio 6.55; 95% CI 1.83-23.4; P=0.004) and intramuscular administration demonstrated a stronger association than topical use. No adverse cardiovascular or thrombotic events were observed. HIV-infected patients taking testosterone should undergo routine hematologic monitoring with adjustment of therapy when appropriate. PMID:22008652

  17. Testosterone: action, deficiency, substitution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nieschlag, E; Nieschlag, S. (Susan); Behre, H. M. (Hermann M.)

    2004-01-01

    ... reviews applications in male contraception, the role of 5 -reductase inhibitors and the controversial use of DHEA. For this book the editors have assembled the world leaders in testosterone research and clinical andrology and endocrinology. A special feature of the book is the fact that its 24 chapters were submitted simultaneously to ens...

  18. Testosterone Transdermal Patch

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... growth, development, and functioning of the male sexual organs and typical male characteristics. Testosterone transdermal patches work ... Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat ...

  19. Testosterone Nasal Gel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... growth, development, and functioning of the male sexual organs and typical male characteristics. Testosterone works by replacing ... Keep this medication in the container it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Store it at room temperature and away from excess heat ...

  20. Endogenous Testosterone and Exogenous Oxytocin Modulate Attentional Processing of Infant Faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtfrerich, Sarah K C; Schwarz, Katharina A; Sprenger, Christian; Reimers, Luise; Diekhof, Esther K

    2016-01-01

    Evidence indicates that hormones modulate the intensity of maternal care. Oxytocin is known for its positive influence on maternal behavior and its important role for childbirth. In contrast, testosterone promotes egocentric choices and reduces empathy. Further, testosterone decreases during parenthood which could be an adaptation to increased parental investment. The present study investigated the interaction between testosterone and oxytocin in attentional control and their influence on attention to baby schema in women. Higher endogenous testosterone was expected to decrease selective attention to child portraits in a face-in-the-crowd-paradigm, while oxytocin was expected to counteract this effect. As predicted, women with higher salivary testosterone were slower in orienting attention to infant targets in the context of adult distractors. Interestingly, reaction times to infant and adult stimuli decreased after oxytocin administration, but only in women with high endogenous testosterone. These results suggest that oxytocin may counteract the adverse effects of testosterone on a central aspect of social behavior and maternal caretaking.

  1. Oral testosterone load related to liver function in men with alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bahnsen, M; Bennett, P

    1983-01-01

    The relation between liver function and an oral testosterone load was examined in 42 consecutive patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Administration of an oral load of 400 mg micronized free testosterone increased the serum concentration of testosterone (range, 31.9-694.4 nmol/l; median, 140...... with wedged-to-free hepatic vein pressure (r = +0.54; P less than 0.01). The increase of testosterone after the load did not correlate significantly with sex hormone-binding globulin (r = +0.35; P greater than 0.05). It is concluded that the hepatic extraction of testosterone is significantly decreased.......8 nmol/l) in male patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis to significantly (P less than 0.01) higher levels than in male subjects without liver disease (range, 25.4-106.6 nmol/l; median, 61.5 nmol/l). The increase of testosterone after the load (log delta testosterone) in patients correlated inversely...

  2. Free testosterone: clinical utility and important analytical aspects of measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Jennifer L; Wong, Pui-Yuen; Chen, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Testosterone, the most abundant androgen in men, is a steroid hormone that is synthesized predominantly by the testes. In women, minor amounts are synthesized in the ovaries. Androgen precursors are also produced and secreted from the adrenal glands in both sexes, where they undergo peripheral conversion to testosterone. Circulating concentrations are approximately 15-25 times higher in adult men compared to women. Maintenance of these levels is necessary for development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics, libido, growth, prevention of osteoporosis, and most importantly in men, spermatogenesis. Most testosterone circulates tightly bound to sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) or weakly bound to albumin. A minor amount circulates as free testosterone, and it is believed that this is the metabolically active fraction. Measurement of free testosterone is important in the diagnosis of many diseases, most importantly disorders of androgen deficiency in men (i.e., hypogonadism) and androgen excess in women (i.e., polycystic ovary syndrome and hirsutism). Many methodologies are available for free testosterone measurement including the reference methods (equilibrium dialysis and ultrafiltration), analog immunoassay, and calculated free testosterone based on measurement of total testosterone, SHBG, and albumin. Moreover, measurement of bioavailable testosterone, a combination of albumin-bound and free testosterone, also has clinical utility and can be measured by selective protein precipitation or calculation. In this review, the advantages and limitations of each of these methods will be discussed in the context of clinical utility and implementation into a routine hospital laboratory. Furthermore, up and coming methodologies for free testosterone measurement, including liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, will also be discussed.

  3. Testosterone Administration Reduces Lying in Men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wibral, M.; Dohmen, T.J.; Klingmüller, Dietrich; Weber, Bernd; Falk, Armin

    2012-01-01

    Lying is a pervasive phenomenon with important social and economic implications. However, despite substantial interest in the prevalence and determinants of lying, little is known about its biological foundations. Here we study a potential hormonal influence, focusing on the steroid hormone

  4. Survival and cardiovascular events in men treated with testosterone replacement therapy: an intention-to-treat observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Christopher J D; Lo, Kirk; Lee, Yuna; Krakowsky, Yonah; Garbens, Alaina; Satkunasivam, Raj; Herschorn, Sender; Kodama, Ronald T; Cheung, Patrick; Narod, Steven A; Nam, Robert K

    2016-06-01

    Conflicting evidence exists for the association between testosterone replacement therapy and mortality and cardiovascular events. The US Food and Drug Administration recently cautioned that testosterone replacement therapy might increase risk of heart attack and stroke, based on evidence from studies with short treatment duration and follow-up. No previous study has assessed the effect of duration of testosterone treatment on these outcomes. We aimed to assess the association between long-term use of testosterone replacement therapy and mortality, cardiovascular events, and prostate cancer diagnoses, using a time-varying exposure analysis. We did a population-based matched cohort study of men aged 66 years or older newly treated with testosterone replacement therapy and controls matched for age, region of residence, comorbidity, diabetes status, and index year from 2007-12 in Ontario, Canada, using data from the Ontario Drug Benefit database, the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI) Discharge Abstract Database, the CIHI National Ambulatory Care Reporting System, the Ontario Health Insurance Plan database, the Ontario Myocardial Infarction Database, the Ontario Diabetes Database, the Ontario Cancer Registry, and the Registered Persons database. We assessed the association between cumulative testosterone replacement therapy exposure and mortality, cardiovascular events, and prostate cancer using marginal models with a time-varying testosterone exposure. We included 10 311 men treated with testosterone replacement therapy and 28 029 controls between Jan 1, 2007, and June 30, 2012. Over a median follow-up of 5·3 years (IQR 3·6-7·5) in the testosterone replacement therapy group and 5·1 years (3·4-7·4) in the control group, patients treated with testosterone replacement therapy had lower mortality than did controls (hazard ratio [HR] 0·88, 95% CI 0·84-0·93). Patients in the lowest tertile of testosterone exposure had increased risk of mortality

  5. Prenatal testosterone and stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Bleek, Benjamin; Breuer, Svenja; Prüss, Holger; Richardt, Kirsten; Cook, Susanne; Yaruss, J Scott; Reuter, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of stuttering is much higher in males compared to females. The biological underpinnings of this skewed sex-ratio is poorly understood, but it has often been speculated that sex hormones could play an important role. The present study investigated a potential link between prenatal testosterone and stuttering. Here, an indirect indicator of prenatal testosterone levels, the Digit Ratio (2D:4D) of the hand, was used. As numerous studies have shown, hands with more "male" characteristics (putatively representing greater prenatal testosterone levels) are characterized by a longer ring finger compared to the index finger (represented as a lower 2D:4D ratio) in the general population. We searched for differences in the 2D:4D ratios between 38 persons who stutter and 36 persons who do not stutter. In a second step, we investigated potential links between the 2D:4D ratio and the multifaceted symptomatology of stuttering, as measured by the Overall Assessment of the Speaker's Experience of Stuttering (OASES), in a larger sample of 44 adults who stutter. In the first step, no significant differences in the 2D:4D were observed between individuals who stutter and individuals who do not stutter. In the second step, 2D:4D correlated negatively with higher scores of the OASES (representing higher negative experiences due to stuttering), and this effect was more pronounced for female persons who stutter. The findings indicate for the first time that prenatal testosterone may influence individual differences in psychosocial impact of this speech disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of pineal gland on testosterone release in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrige, J F; Thieblot, P; Boucher, D

    1986-01-01

    We studied the effect of hCG, aminoglutethimide and pineal effluent on the basal testosterone secretion by superfused adult rat interstitial cells. The period used to determine the mean rates of release was 120-240 min. after the start of superfusion i.e. when basal secretory rate was stable. A 2 h administration of hCG (10 mUI/ml) induced a rapid increase in testosterone output while aminoglutethimide (100 microM) decreased it. Basal testosterone release was not modified when interstitial cells were superfused with effluent of a chamber containing 1, 2 or 4 pineal glands. These results suggest that pineal secretory products exert no direct acute action on testosterone biosynthesis by rat interstitial cells.

  7. Orientation of student entrepreneurial practices based on administrative techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Horacio Murcia Cabra

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the second phase of the research project «Application of a creativity model to update the teaching of the administration in Colombian agricultural entrepreneurial systems» it was decided to re-enforce student planning and execution of the students of the Agricultural business Administration Faculty of La Salle University. Those finishing their studies were given special attention. The plan of action was initiated in the second semester of 2003. It was initially defined as a model of entrepreneurial strengthening based on a coherent methodology that included the most recent administration and management techniques. Later, the applicability of this model was tested in some organizations of the agricultural sector that had asked for support in their planning processes. Through an investigation-action process the methodology was redefined in order to arrive at a final model that could be used by faculty students and graduates. The results obtained were applied to the teaching of Entrepreneurial Laboratory of ninth semester students with the hope of improving administrative support to agricultural enterprises. Following this procedure more than 100 students and 200 agricultural producers have applied this procedure between June 2003 and July 2005. The methodology used and the results obtained are presented in this article.

  8. Testosterone treatment in the aging male: myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Nicole; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2012-03-19

    The definition of late onset hypogonadism in the aging male is controversially debated, and according to the latest literature consists of at least three especially sexual symptoms such as loss of morning erection, low sexual desire and erectile dysfunction as well as a total testosterone <8-11 nmol/l. Testosterone replacement therapy in the aging male has been shown to have a beneficial effect on muscle and fat mass as well as on bone mineral density, with more conflicting effects observed on muscle strength, sexual function, mood and quality of life. The prescriptions for testosterone products for the aging male increased by over 170% in the previous five years. Furthermore, there is a lot of epidemiological data showing an inverse relationship between testosterone levels and obesity, insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, only few small randomised placebo-controlled studies have investigated the effect of testosterone replacement therapy on insulin resistance and HbA1c levels, with controversial results. Importantly, so far the long-term safety and efficacy of testosterone replacement therapy has not been established. Although until now no clear evidence has been found that testosterone replacement therapy has a causative role in prostate cancer or indeed in changes of the biology of the prostate, in a recent meta-analysis a 4-fold increased risk of prostate-associated event rates in testosterone treated elderly men sounds a note of caution. Also the risk for cardiovascular events is still not clear and caution is warranted especially in elderly men with cardiovascular disease and limited mobility. In summary, the actual available evidence of long-term risks and outcome of testosterone replacement therapy is still very limited and carefully designed placebo-controlled trials of testosterone administration to assess the risks and benefits of such a therapy are required. Until then, testosterone treatment in elderly men

  9. Computer-Based Simulation Games in Public Administration Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutergina Evgeniia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Computer simulation, an active learning technique, is now one of the advanced pedagogical technologies. Th e use of simulation games in the educational process allows students to gain a firsthand understanding of the processes of real life. Public- administration, public-policy and political-science courses increasingly adopt simulation games in universities worldwide. Besides person-to-person simulation games, there are computer-based simulations in public-administration education. Currently in Russia the use of computer-based simulation games in Master of Public Administration (MPA curricula is quite limited. Th is paper focuses on computer- based simulation games for students of MPA programmes. Our aim was to analyze outcomes of implementing such games in MPA curricula. We have done so by (1 developing three computer-based simulation games about allocating public finances, (2 testing the games in the learning process, and (3 conducting a posttest examination to evaluate the effect of simulation games on students’ knowledge of municipal finances. Th is study was conducted in the National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE and in the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA during the period of September to December 2015, in Saint Petersburg, Russia. Two groups of students were randomly selected in each university and then randomly allocated either to the experimental or the control group. In control groups (n=12 in HSE, n=13 in RANEPA students had traditional lectures. In experimental groups (n=12 in HSE, n=13 in RANEPA students played three simulation games apart from traditional lectures. Th is exploratory research shows that the use of computer-based simulation games in MPA curricula can improve students’ outcomes by 38 %. In general, the experimental groups had better performances on the post-test examination (Figure 2. Students in the HSE experimental group had 27.5 % better

  10. Factitious increases in serum testosterone concentrations related to phenylbutazone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzzan, Bernard; Dumont-Fischer, Dominique; Lahlou, Najiba; Bihan, Hélène; Boissier, Marie-Christophe; Alvarez, Jean-Claude; Perret, Gérard-Yves; Cohen, Régis

    2008-04-01

    We report 6 additional observations of a drug/hormone assay interaction between serum testosterone and phenylbutazone intake. This interaction had been described previously only once. We discuss its potential mechanisms, based upon our experimental findings, and its clinical implications.

  11. Progressive Improvement of T-Scores in Men with Osteoporosis and Subnormal Serum Testosterone Levels upon Treatment with Testosterone over Six Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Haider

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone deficiency leads to bone loss and testosterone treatment has a beneficial effect. This study investigated the effects of normalizing serum testosterone on bone mineral density in 45 men with osteoporosis, diagnosed with testosterone deficiency (serum testosterone levels <12.1 nmol/L, T-scores: (mean ± SD −3.12 ± 0.45, minimum: −4.10, and maximum: −2.60. In a cumulative, prospective, registry study of hypogonadal men (mean age: 53 ± 7 years they received parenteral testosterone undecanoate of 1000 mg/12 weeks for up to six years. After one year 44 men were included in the registry, after two years 36 men, after three years 32 men, after four years 25 men, after five years 10 men and after six years 4 men. The declining numbers do not reflect drop-out rates but are a result of the registry design. Over the 6 year period there was a significant and progressive improvement of the T-scores in these men. Normalizing of serum testosterone leads to an improvement of bone mineral density and this improvement was progressive with the time period of testosterone administration. In this study of 6-years many men with testosterone deficiency suffered from classical diagnoses (Klinefelter’s syndrome and testicular pathology hitherto undiagnosed.

  12. A microsphere-based duplex competitive immunoassay for the simultaneous measurements of aldosterone and testosterone in small sample volumes: validation in human and mouse plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Min; Manolopoulou, Jenny; Spyroglou, Ariadni; Beuschlein, Felix; Hantel, Constanze; Wu, Zida; Bielohuby, Maximilian; Hoeflich, Andreas; Liu, Chao; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2010-12-12

    The small blood volumes available in rodent studies often limit adequate quantification of all hormones of interest. We report here the development of two new assays combining an extraction step with multiplex immunoassay (MIA) technology for the simultaneous determination of aldosterone and testosterone in 50 μl sample volume. Following solvent extraction, aldosterone and testosterone competitive immunoassays are performed incorporating biotinylated tracers and antibody-coated beads each having a unique fluorescence. Quantification is via addition of streptavidin-R-phycoerythrin (SA-PE). The assays were validated and compared to established methods. Baseline hormone levels in mice from four different strains, and changes after ACTH and HCG stimulation in CD-1 mice are shown. The assays are sensitive (aldosterone 15 pg/ml, testosterone 12 pg/ml), reproducible (intra-/inter-assay imprecision aldosterone 5.1-15.6%/9.9-15.8% and testosterone 9.7-10.9%/7.7-11.4%) and correlate significantly to established assays (r=0.94-0.95). Baseline aldosterone levels varied between strains, but not between the genders. Testosterone was significantly higher in male of all strains except in C57BL/6 × NMRI mice. After ACTH injection, aldosterone (median, interquartile range) rose from 354 (261-396) pg/ml to 2008 (875-2467) in male and from 260 (210-576) to 1120 (734-1528) in female CD-1 mice. HCG injection in the same strain increased testosterone in male mice only (3.5 (0.4-8.3) ng/ml to 31.8 (30.4-33.9) ng/ml, P<0.01). We describe a MIA for the simultaneous measurement of aldosterone and testosterone in small volumes after extraction. In addition to presenting a new tool for steroid research in rodent models, our data show strain-dependent differences in steroid hormone metabolism in rodents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Testosterone prevents protein loss via the hepatic urea cycle in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Teresa; Poljak, Anne; McLean, Mark; Bahl, Neha; Ho, Ken K Y; Birzniece, Vita

    2017-04-01

    The urea cycle is a rate-limiting step for amino acid nitrogen elimination. The rate of urea synthesis is a true indicator of whole-body protein catabolism. Testosterone reduces protein and nitrogen loss. The effect of testosterone on hepatic urea synthesis in humans has not been studied. To determine whether testosterone reduces hepatic urea production. An open-label study. Eight hypogonadal men were studied at baseline, and after two weeks of transdermal testosterone replacement (Testogel, 100 mg/day). The rate of hepatic urea synthesis was measured by the urea turnover technique using stable isotope methodology, with 15 N 2 -urea as tracer. Whole-body leucine turnover was measured, from which leucine rate of appearance (LRa), an index of protein breakdown and leucine oxidation (Lox), a measure of irreversible protein loss, were calculated. Testosterone administration significantly reduced the rate of hepatic urea production (from 544.4 ± 71.8 to 431.7 ± 68.3 µmol/min; P  Testosterone treatment significantly reduced net protein loss, as measured by percent Lox/LRa, by 19.3 ± 5.8% ( P  testosterone administration ( r 2  = 0.59, P  Testosterone replacement reduces protein loss and hepatic urea synthesis. We conclude that testosterone regulates whole-body protein metabolism by suppressing the urea cycle. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  14. The Effects of Testosterone on Oxidative Stress Markers in Mice with Spinal Cord Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Choobineh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI causes infertility in male patients through erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction, semen and hormone abnormalities. Oxidative stress (OS is involved in poor semen quality and subsequent infertility in males with SCI. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of SCI on the level of testosterone hormone. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, we evaluated the effects of exogenous testosterone on the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx as well as the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and protein carbonylation (PCO, as markers of OS, in 10 groups of SCI mice. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC was determined using the 2,29-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulfonic acid (ABTS radical cation assay. Results: Exogenous testosterone administration in mice with SCI significantly reduced SOD and GPx enzyme activities and MDA level. There was no significant decrease in PCO content. In addition, TAC remarkably increased in the sham and SCI groups not treated with testosterone but remained unchanged in all other experimental groups. Exogenous testosterone also reduced serum testosterone levels in all groups except the positive control group. Conclusion: Our cumulative data indicated that SCI could cause sterility by disturbing the plasmatic testosterone balance. The normal level of endogenous testosterone was not completely restored by exogenous testosterone administration.

  15. NASIS data base management system: IBM 360 TSS implementation. Volume 8: Data base administrator user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The Data Base Administrator User's Guide for the NASA Aerospace Safety Information System is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) multi-terminal tasking, (2) data base executive, (3) utilities, (4) maintenance, (5) terminal support, and (6) retrieval subsystem.

  16. Exogenous Testosterone Stimulates Gluconeogenesis In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... source of energy for the mammalian brain. The mechanism of action of steroid hormones on target organ cells, and the role of testosterone as a performance enhancing drug are discussed. Keywords: Exogenous testosterone, Protein, Glucose, Gluconeogenesis, Hypoproteinemic rat. Animal Research International Vol.

  17. Two RFID-based solutions for secure inpatient medication administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Yi-Chung; Lo, Nai-Wei; Wu, Tzong-Chen

    2012-10-01

    Medication error can easily cause serious health damage to inpatients in hospital. Consequently, the whole society has to spend huge amount of extra resources for additional therapies and medication on those affected inpatients. In order to prevent medication errors, secure inpatient medication administration system is required in a hospital. Using RFID technology, such administration system provides automated medication verification for inpatient's medicine doses and generates corresponding medication evidence, which may be audited later for medical dispute. Recently, Peris-Lopez et al. (Int. J. Med. Inform., 2011) proposed an IS-RFID system to enhance inpatient medication safety. Nevertheless, IS-RFID system does not detect the denial of proof attack efficiently and the generated medication evidence cannot defend against counterfeit evidence generated from the hospital. That is, the hospital possesses enough privilege from the design of IS-RFID system to modify generated medication evidence whenever it is necessary. Hence, we design two lightweight RFID-based solutions for secure inpatient medication administration, one for online verification environment and the other for offline validation situation, to achieve system security on evidence generation and provide early detection on denial of proof attack.

  18. Consistent individual variation in day, night, and GnRH-induced testosterone concentrations in house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Katie B; Dochtermann, Ned A; Greives, Timothy J

    2017-05-15

    The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) initiating the endocrine cascade, regulates testosterone secretion. Testosterone, through its pleiotropic effects, plays a crucial role in coordinating morphology, physiology and behavior in a reproductive context. The concentration of circulating testosterone, however, varies over the course of the day and in response to other internal or external stimuli, potentially making it difficult to relate testosterone sampled at one time point with traits of interest. Many researchers now utilize the administration of exogenous GnRH to elicit a standardized stimulation of testosterone secretion. However, it has remained unclear if and how this exogenously stimulated activation of the HPG axis is related with endogenously regulated testosterone that is capable of influencing testosterone related traits. Repeated measures of a hormone can uncover consistent individual variation in hormonal differences at the HPG axis level, variation that potentially stems from underlying genetic variation in a population experiencing identical environmental cues. Thus, we asked, using the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), how daily endogenous variation in testosterone profiles relates to GnRH-induced testosterone secretion. Further, we explore the relationship between endogenous daily testosterone peaks and GnRH-induced testosterone with badge size, a morphological trait related with status within a social group. We found that GnRH-induced testosterone levels reflect a highly repeatable hormonal phenotype that is strongly correlated with nighttime testosterone levels. The results demonstrate the usefulness of GnRH-induced testosterone in studies aimed at understanding individual variation and selection on endogenously regulated testosterone levels and the potential importance of nighttime testosterone levels to physiology and behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Testosterone and the Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodale, Travis; Sadhu, Archana; Petak, Steven; Robbins, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Testosterone (T) has a number of important effects on the cardiovascular system. In men, T levels begin to decrease after age 40, and this decrease has been associated with an increase in all-cause mortality and cardiovascular (CV) risk. Low T levels in men may increase their risk of developing coronary artery disease (CAD), metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. Reduced T levels in men with congestive heart failure (CHF) portends a poor prognosis and is associated with increased mortality. Studies have reported a reduced CV risk with higher endogenous T concentration, improvement of known CV risk factors with T therapy, and reduced mortality in T-deficient men who underwent T replacement therapy versus untreated men. Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) has been shown to improve myocardial ischemia in men with CAD, improve exercise capacity in patients with CHF, and improve serum glucose levels, HbA1c, and insulin resistance in men with diabetes and prediabetes. There are no large long-term, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials to provide definitive conclusions about TRT and CV risk. However, there currently is no credible evidence that T therapy increases CV risk and substantial evidence that it does not. In fact, existing data suggests that T therapy may offer CV benefits to men.

  20. Testosterone Replacement Therapy and Mortality in Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, G I

    2016-02-01

    While US testosterone prescriptions have tripled in the last decade with lower trends in Europe, debate continues over the risks, benefits and appropriate use of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). Several authors blame advertising and the availability of more convenient formulations, whilst others have pointed out that the routine testing of men with erectile dysfunction (ED) (a significant marker of cardiovascular risk) and those with diabetes would inevitably increase the diagnosis of hypogonadism and lead to an increase in totally appropriate prescribing. They commented that this was merely an appropriate correction of previous under-diagnosis and under-treatment in line with evidence based guidelines. It is unlikely that persuasive advertising or convenient formulations could grow a market over such a sustained period if the treatment was not effective. Urologists and primary care physicians are the most frequent initiators of TRT usually for ED. Benefits are clearly established for sexual function, increase in lean muscle mass and strength, mood and cognitive function, with a possible reduction in frailty and osteoporosis. There remains no evidence that TRT is associated with increased risk of prostate cancer or symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia, yet the decision to initiate and continue therapy is often decided by urologists. The cardiovascular issues associated with TRT have been clarified by recent studies showing that therapy associated with clear increases in serum testosterone levels to the normal range is associated with reduced all-cause mortality. Studies reporting to show increased risk have been subject to flawed designs with inadequate baseline diagnosis and follow-up testing. Effectively, they have compared non-treated patients with under-treated or non-compliant subjects involving a range of different therapy regimes. Recent evidence suggests long-acting injections may be associated with decreased cardiovascular risk, but the

  1. Testosterone Treatment and Cognitive Function in Older Men With Low Testosterone and Age-Associated Memory Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Susan M; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Stephens-Shields, Alisa J; Ellenberg, Susan S; Gill, Thomas M; Shumaker, Sally A; Pleasants, Debbie D; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Bhasin, Shalender; Cauley, Jane A; Cella, David; Crandall, Jill P; Cunningham, Glenn R; Ensrud, Kristine E; Farrar, John T; Lewis, Cora E; Molitch, Mark E; Pahor, Marco; Swerdloff, Ronald S; Cifelli, Denise; Anton, Stephen; Basaria, Shehzad; Diem, Susan J; Wang, Christina; Hou, Xiaoling; Snyder, Peter J

    2017-02-21

    Most cognitive functions decline with age. Prior studies suggest that testosterone treatment may improve these functions. To determine if testosterone treatment compared with placebo is associated with improved verbal memory and other cognitive functions in older men with low testosterone and age-associated memory impairment (AAMI). The Testosterone Trials (TTrials) were 7 trials to assess the efficacy of testosterone treatment in older men with low testosterone levels. The Cognitive Function Trial evaluated cognitive function in all TTrials participants. In 12 US academic medical centers, 788 men who were 65 years or older with a serum testosterone level less than 275 ng/mL and impaired sexual function, physical function, or vitality were allocated to testosterone treatment (n = 394) or placebo (n = 394). A subgroup of 493 men met criteria for AAMI based on baseline subjective memory complaints and objective memory performance. Enrollment in the TTrials began June 24, 2010; the final participant completed treatment and assessment in June 2014. Testosterone gel (adjusted to maintain the testosterone level within the normal range for young men) or placebo gel for 1 year. The primary outcome was the mean change from baseline to 6 months and 12 months for delayed paragraph recall (score range, 0 to 50) among men with AAMI. Secondary outcomes were mean changes in visual memory (Benton Visual Retention Test; score range, 0 to -26), executive function (Trail-Making Test B minus A; range, -290 to 290), and spatial ability (Card Rotation Test; score range, -80 to 80) among men with AAMI. Tests were administered at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Among the 493 men with AAMI (mean age, 72.3 years [SD, 5.8]; mean baseline testosterone, 234 ng/dL [SD, 65.1]), 247 were assigned to receive testosterone and 246 to receive placebo. Of these groups, 247 men in the testosterone group and 245 men in the placebo completed the memory study. There was no significant mean

  2. Testosterone Treatment and Cognitive Function in Older Men With Low Testosterone and Age-Associated Memory Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Susan M.; Matsumoto, Alvin M.; Stephens-Shields, Alisa J.; Ellenberg, Susan S.; Gill, Thomas M.; Shumaker, Sally A.; Pleasants, Debbie D.; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Bhasin, Shalender; Cauley, Jane A.; Cella, David; Crandall, Jill P.; Cunningham, Glenn R.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Farrar, John T.; Lewis, Cora E.; Molitch, Mark E.; Pahor, Marco; Swerdloff, Ronald S.; Cifelli, Denise; Anton, Stephen; Basaria, Shehzad; Diem, Susan J.; Wang, Christina; Hou, Xiaoling; Snyder, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Most cognitive functions decline with age. Prior studies suggest that testosterone treatment may improve these functions. Objective To determine if testosterone treatment compared with placebo is associated with improved verbal memory and other cognitive functions in older men with low testosterone and age-associated memory impairment (AAMI). Design, Setting, and Participants The Testosterone Trials (TTrials) were 7 trials to assess the efficacy of testosterone treatment in older men with low testosterone levels. The Cognitive Function Trial evaluated cognitive function in all TTrials participants. In 12 US academic medical centers, 788 men who were 65 years or older with a serum testosterone level less than 275 ng/mL and impaired sexual function, physical function, or vitality were allocated to testosterone treatment (n = 394) or placebo (n = 394). A subgroup of 493 men met criteria for AAMI based on baseline subjective memory complaints and objective memory performance. Enrollment in the TTrials began June 24, 2010; the final participant completed treatment and assessment in June 2014. Interventions Testosterone gel (adjusted to maintain the testosterone level within the normal range for young men) or placebo gel for 1 year. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was the mean change from baseline to 6 months and 12 months for delayed paragraph recall (score range, 0 to 50) among men with AAMI. Secondary outcomes were mean changes in visual memory (Benton Visual Retention Test; score range, 0 to −26), executive function (Trail-Making Test B minus A; range, −290 to 290), and spatial ability (Card Rotation Test; score range, −80 to 80) among men with AAMI. Tests were administered at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Results Among the 493 men with AAMI (mean age, 72.3 years [SD, 5.8]; mean baseline testosterone, 234 ng/dL [SD, 65.1]), 247 were assigned to receive testosterone and 246 to receive placebo. Of these groups, 247 men in the

  3. Serum variations of anti-mullerian hormone and total testosterone with aging in healthy adult Iranian men: A population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani

    Full Text Available Literature proves anti-mullerian hormone (AMH and total testosterone (TT as two important reproductive hormones in male development, however evidence regarding age variations of these hormones is lacking.To estimate the normal serum AMH values and to assess the age-specific TT levels in men aged 30-70, we conducted the present population-based study.A total of 831 healthy eligible men, aged 30-70 years, were recruited from Tehran Lipid and Glucose study cohort. Centiles for AMH were estimated according to the exponential normal 3-parameter model. The parametric method of Royston available in general software was applied for the first time to estimate the age-specific AMH and TT percentiles of 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th.Mean AMH level was 6.93, ranging from 0.1 to 40.1 ng/ml. Serum AMH concentrations followed a steady reduction with increasing age. Mean TT level was 4.8, ranging from 0.44 to 11.4 ng/ml.A measurable serum concentrations of AMH in healthy males throughout lifespan with variations, based on age, confirming a slight age-related AMH decline. Fractional polynomial (FP regression models revealed that the mean and standard deviation (SD of the TT were not associated with age, so the percentiles estimated were not age-specific.We presented a nomogram of age-specific AMH values in a healthy cohort of Iranian men. This finding might have clinical importance in dealing hormonal disorders in men.

  4. Serum variations of anti-mullerian hormone and total testosterone with aging in healthy adult Iranian men: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Solaymani-Dodaran, Masoud; Minooee, Sonia; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-01-01

    Literature proves anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) and total testosterone (TT) as two important reproductive hormones in male development, however evidence regarding age variations of these hormones is lacking. To estimate the normal serum AMH values and to assess the age-specific TT levels in men aged 30-70, we conducted the present population-based study. A total of 831 healthy eligible men, aged 30-70 years, were recruited from Tehran Lipid and Glucose study cohort. Centiles for AMH were estimated according to the exponential normal 3-parameter model. The parametric method of Royston available in general software was applied for the first time to estimate the age-specific AMH and TT percentiles of 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th. Mean AMH level was 6.93, ranging from 0.1 to 40.1 ng/ml. Serum AMH concentrations followed a steady reduction with increasing age. Mean TT level was 4.8, ranging from 0.44 to 11.4 ng/ml. A measurable serum concentrations of AMH in healthy males throughout lifespan with variations, based on age, confirming a slight age-related AMH decline. Fractional polynomial (FP) regression models revealed that the mean and standard deviation (SD) of the TT were not associated with age, so the percentiles estimated were not age-specific. We presented a nomogram of age-specific AMH values in a healthy cohort of Iranian men. This finding might have clinical importance in dealing hormonal disorders in men.

  5. 21 CFR 556.710 - Testosterone propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testosterone propionate. 556.710 Section 556.710... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.710 Testosterone propionate. No residues of testosterone, resulting from the use of testosterone propionate, are permitted in excess of the following increments above...

  6. Effect of obestatin on morphometry of testes and testosterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to evaluate the effects of chronic intra peritoneal administration of obestatin on plasma testosterone concentrations and cellular morphometry of the testes in male Sprague Dawly rats. The treatment groups were injected with obestatin (1 nmol/100 μl saline i.p), while the control groups received ...

  7. Testosterone signaling and the regulation of spermatogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, William H

    2011-01-01

    Spermatogenesis and male fertility are dependent upon the presence of testosterone in the testis. In the absence of testosterone or the androgen receptor, spermatogenesis does not proceed beyond the meiosis stage. The major cellular target and translator of testosterone signals to developing germ cells is the Sertoli cell. In the Sertoli cell, testosterone signals can be translated directly to changes in gene expression (the classical pathway) or testosterone can activate kinases that may reg...

  8. A brief history of testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, E R; Bloom, D A; McGuire, E J

    2001-02-01

    We explore the history of testosterone in the context of medical and scientific developments. A review of the scientific and historical literature was conducted. The origins and effects of testosterone have been recognized throughout the history of humankind. Hunter performed testicular transplantation experiments in 1767 while studying tissue transplantation techniques, and almost a century later Berthold linked the physiological and behavioral changes of castration to a substance secreted by the testes. Brown-Séquard gave birth to the field of organotherapy in 1889 when he announced that his auto-injection of testicular extracts resulted in rejuvenated physical and mental abilities. Steinach and Niehans expanded upon Brown-Séquard's work with rejuvenation treatments involving vasoligation, tissue grafts and cellular injections. In 1935 David et al isolated the critical ingredient in organotherapeutic treatments, testosterone. The effects of the powerful hormone testosterone continue to inspire research and controversy 65 years later.

  9. Low Testosterone and Men's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... typical male characteristics, such as facial, pubic, and body hair as well as muscle. This hormone also helps ... low testosterone may cause a man to lose body hair, muscle bulk, and strength and to gain body ...

  10. Sociosexuality moderates the association between testosterone and relationship status in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, Robin S; Chopik, William J; Kean, Emily L

    2011-08-01

    Single individuals typically have higher testosterone compared to those who are partnered, suggesting that individual differences in testosterone are associated with mating effort, or people's motivation to find a sexual partner. However, there is less consistent evidence for links between testosterone and sociosexuality, or people's orientation toward uncommitted sexual activity. Based on Penke and Asendorpf's (2008) conceptualization, we propose that a more nuanced measure of sociosexuality may reveal more robust associations with testosterone. In the current study, we assessed relations between three components of sociosexuality--desire, behavior, and attitudes--and endogenous testosterone levels in men and women. We found that partnered status was indeed associated with lower testosterone in both men and women, but only among those who reported more restricted sociosexuality. Partnered men who reported greater desire for uncommitted sexual activity had testosterone levels that were comparable to those of single men; partnered women who reported more frequent uncommitted sexual behavior had testosterone levels that were comparable to those of single women. These findings provide new evidence that people's orientations toward sexual relationships, in combination with their relationship status, are associated with individual differences in testosterone. The current results are also among the first to demonstrate sociosexuality-testosterone associations in both men and women, and they reveal that the nature of these associations varies by gender. Together, these findings highlight the utility of a multifaceted conceptualization of sociosexuality and the implications of this conceptualization for neuroendocrine processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Biochemical Mechanisms and Microorganisms Involved in Anaerobic Testosterone Metabolism in Estuarine Sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Jen Shih

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Current knowledge on the biochemical mechanisms underlying microbial steroid metabolism in anaerobic ecosystems is extremely limited. Sulfate, nitrate, and iron [Fe (III] are common electron acceptors for anaerobes in estuarine sediments. Here, we investigated anaerobic testosterone metabolism in anaerobic sediments collected from the estuary of Tamsui River, Taiwan. The anaerobic sediment samples were spiked with testosterone (1 mM and individual electron acceptors (10 mM, including nitrate, Fe3+, and sulfate. The analysis of androgen metabolites indicated that testosterone biodegradation under denitrifying conditions proceeds through the 2,3-seco pathway, whereas testosterone biodegradation under iron-reducing conditions may proceed through an unidentified alternative pathway. Metagenomic analysis and PCR-based functional assays suggested that Thauera spp. were the major testosterone degraders in estuarine sediment samples incubated with testosterone and nitrate. Thauera sp. strain GDN1, a testosterone-degrading betaproteobacterium, was isolated from the denitrifying sediment sample. This strain tolerates a broad range of salinity (0–30 ppt. Although testosterone biodegradation did not occur under sulfate-reducing conditions, we observed the anaerobic biotransformation of testosterone to estrogens in some testosterone-spiked sediment samples. This is unprecedented since biotransformation of androgens to estrogens is known to occur only under oxic conditions. Our metagenomic analysis suggested that Clostridium spp. might play a role in this anaerobic biotransformation. These results expand our understanding of microbial metabolism of steroids under strictly anoxic conditions.

  12. Controversies in testosterone supplementation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Khera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone has now become one of the most widely used medications throughout the world. The rapid growth of the testosterone market in the past 10 years is due to many factors. We currently have a worldwide aging population. In the US, the number of men 65 years old or older is increasing 2-3 times faster than the number of men younger than 65 years. In addition, poor general health and certain medical conditions such as diabetes/metabolic syndrome (MetS, cardiovascular disease (CVD, and osteoporosis have been associated with low serum testosterone levels. [1],[2],[3] There are now fewer concerns regarding the development of prostate cancer (PCa after testosterone therapy, making it a more attractive treatment option. Finally, the introduction of different forms of testosterone supplementation therapy (TST with increased promotion, marketing, and direct-to-consumer advertising is also driving market growth. As the demand for TST continues to grow, it is becoming more important for clinicians to understand how to diagnose and treat patients with low testosterone.

  13. Effects of testosterone and estradiol on anxiety and depressive-like behavior via a non-genomic pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Filova, Barbora; Malinova, Maria; Babickova, Janka; Tothova, Lubomira; Ostatnikova, Daniela; Celec, Peter; Hodosy, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Besides their known slow genomic effects, testosterone and estradiol have rapid effects in the brain. However, their impact on mood-related behavior is not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the non-genomic pathway of testosterone and estradiol in the amygdala in relation to anxiety and depressive-like behavior. Sham-operated and gonadectomized male rats (GDX) supplemented with testosterone propionate, estradiol, or olive oil were used. Five minutes after administration, anxiety ...

  14. Testosterone Therapy in a Man with Intermediate-risk Prostate Cancer: Pro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgentaler, Abraham

    2017-10-05

    The original prohibition of testosterone therapy for men with prostate cancer was based on outdated concepts developed more than 70 yr ago. Current evidence, although limited, provides consistently reassuring results that testosterone therapy may be reasonably offered to many men with prostate cancer. These men may experience valuable benefits in quality of life if they suffer from symptoms of testosterone deficiency (hypogonadism). Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Testosterone Induces Erythrocytosis via Increased Erythropoietin and Suppressed Hepcidin: Evidence for a New Erythropoietin/Hemoglobin Set Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travison, Thomas G.; Basaria, Shehzad; Davda, Maithili N.; Guo, Wen; Li, Michelle; Connor Westfall, John; Bae, Harold; Gordeuk, Victor; Bhasin, Shalender

    2014-01-01

    Background. The mechanisms by which testosterone increases hemoglobin and hematocrit remain unclear. Methods. We assessed the hormonal and hematologic responses to testosterone administration in a clinical trial in which older men with mobility limitation were randomized to either placebo or testosterone gel daily for 6 months. Results. The 7%–10% increase in hemoglobin and hematocrit, respectively, with testosterone administration was associated with significantly increased erythropoietin (EPO) levels and decreased ferritin and hepcidin levels at 1 and 3 months. At 6 months, EPO and hepcidin levels returned toward baseline in spite of continued testosterone administration, but EPO levels remained nonsuppressed even though elevated hemoglobin and hematocrit higher than at baseline, suggesting a new set point. Consistent with increased iron utilization, soluble transferrin receptor (sTR) levels and ratio of sTR/log ferritin increased significantly in testosterone-treated men. Hormonal and hematologic responses were similar in anemic participants. The majority of testosterone-treated anemic participants increased their hemoglobin into normal range. Conclusions. Testosterone-induced increase in hemoglobin and hematocrit is associated with stimulation of EPO and reduced ferritin and hepcidin concentrations. We propose that testosterone stimulates erythropoiesis by stimulating EPO and recalibrating the set point of EPO in relation to hemoglobin and by increasing iron utilization for erythropoiesis. PMID:24158761

  16. Salivary testosterone change following monetary wins and losses predicts future financial risk-taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apicella, Coren L; Dreber, Anna; Mollerstrom, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    While baseline testosterone has recently been implicated in risk-taking in men, less is known about the effects of changing levels of testosterone on financial risk. Here we attempt to influence testosterone in men by having them win or lose money in a chance-based competition against another male opponent. We employ two treatments where we vary the amount of money at stake so that we can directly compare winners to losers who earn the same amount, thereby abstracting from income effects. We find that men who experience a greater increase in bioactive testosterone take on more risk, an association that remains when controlling for whether the participant won the competition. In fact, whether subjects won the competition did not predict future risk. These results suggest that testosterone change, and thus individual differences in testosterone reactivity, rather than the act of winning or losing, influence financial risk-taking. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Determination of testosterone esters in the hair of male greyhound dogs using liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Jayasree Leela; Zahra, Paul; Vine, John H; Whittem, Ted

    2017-06-28

    The doping of greyhound dogs with testosterone is done in an attempt to improve their athletic performance, but such doping cannot easily be confirmed, especially in male dogs owing to the natural presence of endogenous testosterone. As testosterone is usually administered as its esters, their direct detection in hair would provide confirmatory evidence of the administration of a pharmaceutical product. This article demonstrates that the use of a liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry method with heated electrospray ionisation (HESI) combined with the use of amino solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges for sample clean-up, is suitable for the sensitive determination of propionate, phenyl propionate, isocaproate, decanoate, and enanthate esters of testosterone in greyhound hair. The method is linear over the range, 0.1 μg/kg-10 μg/kg, for all the testosterone esters analysed. The limits of detection (LOD) are 0.05 μg/kg for testosterone phenyl propionate, isocaproate, and decanoate, 0.025 μg/kg for testosterone propionate, and 0.25 μg/kg for testosterone enanthate. This method was applied to hair samples collected from male greyhounds before and after a single administration of a product containing several testosterone esters, each of which could be detected up to 100 days post-administration. The study also demonstrates that tail hair is the specimen of choice for the analysis of testosterone in dog hair and that washing of dogs does not impact the analysis of testosterone esters in hair. This method may be useful in racing regulation for the detection of illegitimate use of testosterone in all species. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Activational action of testosterone on androgen receptors protects males preventing temporomandibular joint pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanton, L E; Macedo, C G; Torres-Chávez, K E; Fischer, L; Tambeli, C H

    2017-01-01

    Testosterone protects male rats from Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ) pain. This study investigated whether this protective effect is mediated by an organizational action of testosterone during nervous system development, by central estrogen and androgen receptors and by the 5α-reduced metabolite of testosterone, dihydrotestosterone. A pharmacological approach was used to assess the ability of the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide, the estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182 780 and the 5-α reductase inhibitor dutasteride to block the protective effect of testosterone, evaluated through the behavioral response induced by a TMJ injection of 0.5% formalin. Flutamide and ICI 182 780 were injected into the medullary subarachnoid space, and dutasteride and testosterone were systemically administered. The TMJ injection of 0.5% formalin induced a significant nociceptive behavioral response in gonadectomized male and naïve female, but not in sham gonadectomized male rats, confirming that endogenous testosterone prevents TMJ nociception in males. Testosterone administration prevented formalin-induced TMJ nociception in males gonadectomized either in the neonatal (at the day of birth) or adult period and in naïve female rats, suggesting that the protective effect of testosterone on TMJ nociception does not depend on its organizational actions during critical periods of development. The administration of flutamide and dutasteride but not of ICI 182 780 blocked the protective effect of testosterone. We conclude that the protective effect of testosterone on TMJ nociception depends on activational actions of dihydrotestosterone on androgen receptors rather than on organizational androgenic actions during central nervous system development or estrogenic actions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Testosterone deficiency: a historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard Nieschlag

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The biological effects of the testes and testosterone are known since antiquity. Aristotle knew the effects of castration and his hypothesis on fertilization is one of the first scientific encounters in reproductive biology. Over centuries, castration has been performed as punishment and to produce obedient slaves, but also to preserve the soprano voices of prepubertal boys. The Chinese imperial (and other oriental courts employed castrates as overseers in harems who often obtained high-ranking political positions. The era of testis transplantation and organotherapy was initiated by John Hunter in London who transplanted testes into capons in 1786. The intention of his experiments was to prove the 'vital principle' as the basis for modern transplantation medicine, but Hunter did not consider endocrine aspects. Arnold Adolph Berthold postulated internal secretion from his testicular transplantation experiments in 1849 in Göttingen and is thus considered the father of endocrinology. Following his observations, testicular preparations were used for therapy, popularized by self-experiments by Charles-Edouard Brown-Séquard in Paris (1889, which can at best have placebo effects. In the 1920s Sergio Voronoff transplanted testes from animals to men, but their effectiveness was disproved. Today testicular transplantation is being refined by stem cell research and germ cell transplantation. Modern androgen therapy started in 1935 when Enrest Lacquer isolated testosterone from bull testes in Amsterdam. In the same year testosterone was chemically synthesized independently by Adolf Butenandt in Göttingen and Leopold Ruzicka in Basel. Since testosterone was ineffective orally it was either compressed into subcutaneous pellets or was used orally as 17α-methyl testosterone, now obsolete because of liver toxicity. The early phases of testosterone treatment coincide with the first description of the most prominent syndromes of hypogonadism by Klinefelter, by

  20. Testosterone and weight loss: the evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traish, Abdulmaged M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of this article is to examine the contemporary data linking testosterone therapy in overweight and obese men with testosterone deficiency to increased lean body mass, decreased fat mass, improvement in overall body composition and sustained weight loss. This is of paramount importance because testosterone therapy in obese men with testosterone deficiency represents a novel and a timely therapeutic strategy for managing obesity in men with testosterone deficiency. Recent findings Long-term testosterone therapy in men with testosterone deficiency produces significant and sustained weight loss, marked reduction in waist circumference and BMI and improvement in body composition. Further, testosterone therapy ameliorates components of the metabolic syndrome. The aforementioned improvements are attributed to improved mitochondrial function, increased energy utilization, increased motivation and vigor resulting in improved cardio-metabolic function and enhanced physical activity. Summary The implication of testosterone therapy in management of obesity in men with testosterone deficiency is of paramount clinical significance, as it produces sustained weight loss without recidivism. On the contrary, alternative therapeutic approaches other than bariatric surgery failed to produce significant and sustained outcome and exhibit a high rate of recidivism. These findings represent strong foundations for testosterone therapy in obese men with testosterone deficiency and should spur clinical research for better understanding of usefulness of testosterone therapy in treatment of underlying pathophysiological conditions of obesity. PMID:25105998

  1. Medication wrong route administration: a poisons center-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Bloch-Teitelbaum, Alexandra; Lüde, Saskia; Rauber-Lüthy, Christine; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Russmann, Stefan; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A.; Ceschi, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe clinical effects, circumstances of occurrence, management and outcomes of cases of inadvertent administration of medications by an incorrect parenteral route. METHODS: Retrospective single-center consecutive review of parenteral route errors of medications, reported to our center between January 2006 and June 2010. We collected demographic data and information on medications, route and time of administration, severity of symptoms/signs, treatment, and outcome. RE...

  2. Medication wrong route administration: a poisons center-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch-Teitelbaum, Alexandra; Lüde, Saskia; Rauber-Lüthy, Christine; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Russmann, Stefan; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A; Ceschi, Alessandro

    2013-03-01

    To describe clinical effects, circumstances of occurrence, management and outcomes of cases of inadvertent administration of medications by an incorrect parenteral route. Retrospective single-center consecutive review of parenteral route errors of medications, reported to our center between January 2006 and June 2010. We collected demographic data and information on medications, route and time of administration, severity of symptoms/signs, treatment, and outcome. Seventy-eight cases (68 adults, 10 children) were available for analysis. The following wrong administration routes were recorded: paravenous (51%), intravenous (33%), subcutaneous (8%), and others (8%). Medications most frequently involved were iodinated x-ray contrast media (11%) and iron infusions (9%). Twenty-eight percent of the patients were asymptomatic and 54% showed mild symptoms; moderate and severe symptoms were observed in 9% and 7.7%, respectively, and were mostly due to intravenous administration errors. There was no fatal outcome. In most symptomatic cases local nonspecific treatment was performed. Enquiries concerning administration of medicines by an incorrect parenteral route were rare, and mainly involved iodinated x-ray contrast media and iron infusions. Most events occurred in adults and showed a benign clinical course. Although the majority of exposures concerned the paravenous route, the occasional severe cases were observed mainly after inadvertent intravenous administration.

  3. A clinical update on female androgen insufficiency--testosterone testing and treatment in women presenting with low sexual desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Henry G; Papalia, Mary-Anne

    2006-05-01

    The diagnosis of female androgen deficiency syndrome is suggested by complaints of a diminished sense of well being, persistent unexplained fatigue and decreased sexual desire, sexual receptivity and pleasure in a woman who is oestrogen-replete and in whom no other significant contributing factors can be identified. The diagnosis is supported by the finding of low circulating concentrations of free testosterone. Barriers to its recognition include the non-specificity of the symptoms and methodological problems due to insensitive testosterone assays. Barriers to its treatment include the unavailability of satisfactory forms of testosterone for administration to women and lack of data regarding long-term safety. Although several conditions lead to clear-cut androgen deficiency, such as hypopituitarism, adrenal and ovarian insufficiency, glucocorticoid therapy and use of oral contraceptives and oral oestrogens, it is important for clinicians to recognise that in normal women, androgen levels decline by 50% from the early 20s to the mid 40s, and hence age-related androgen insufficiency may occur in women in their late 30s and 40s, as well as postmenopausally. Satisfactory measurements of free testosterone requires a sensitive and reliable assay for total testosterone, and quantitation of sex hormone binding globulin, from which free testosterone is readily calculated. Adverse effects of testosterone treatment are few if replacement is monitored to achieve physiological circulating testosterone concentrations. Currently, available methods include testosterone implants and testosterone creams, and transdermal patches and sprays are in development.

  4. Oxytocin, testosterone, and human social cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Bernard J

    2016-05-01

    I describe an integrative social-evolutionary model for the adaptive significance of the human oxytocinergic system. The model is based on a role for this hormone in the generation and maintenance of social familiarity and affiliation across five homologous, functionally similar, and sequentially co-opted contexts: mothers with offspring, female and male mates, kin groups, individuals with reciprocity partners, and individuals within cooperating and competing social groups defined by culture. In each situation, oxytocin motivates, mediates and rewards the cognitive and behavioural processes that underlie the formation and dynamics of a more or less stable social group, and promotes a relationship between two or more individuals. Such relationships may be positive (eliciting neurological reward, reducing anxiety and thus indicating fitness-enhancing effects), or negative (increasing anxiety and distress, and thus motivating attempts to alleviate a problematic, fitness-reducing social situation). I also present evidence that testosterone exhibits opposite effects from oxytocin on diverse aspects of cognition and behaviour, most generally by favouring self-oriented, asocial and antisocial behaviours. I apply this model for effects of oxytocin and testosterone to understanding human psychological disorders centrally involving social behaviour. Reduced oxytocin and higher testosterone levels have been associated with under-developed social cognition, especially in autism. By contrast, some combination of oxytocin increased above normal levels, and lower testosterone, has been reported in a notable number of studies of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, and, in some cases, higher oxytocin involves maladaptively 'hyper-developed' social cognition in these conditions. This pattern of findings suggests that human social cognition and behaviour are structured, in part, by joint and opposing effects of oxytocin and testosterone, and that extremes of such joint

  5. Testosterone reduces amygdala-orbitofrontal cortex coupling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingen, G.A. van; Mattern, C.; Verkes, R.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2010-01-01

    Testosterone influences various aspects of affective behavior, which is mediated by different brain regions within the emotion circuitry. Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that testosterone increases neural activity in the amygdala. To investigate whether this could be due to altered

  6. Testosterone reduces amygdala-orbitofrontal cortex coupling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wingen, Guido; Mattern, Claudia; Verkes, Robbert Jan; Buitelaar, Jan; Fernández, Guillén

    2010-01-01

    Testosterone influences various aspects of affective behavior, which is mediated by different brain regions within the emotion circuitry. Previous neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that testosterone increases neural activity in the amygdala. To investigate whether this could be due to altered

  7. Testosterone and Jamaican Fathers : Exploring Links to Relationship Dynamics and Paternal Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Peter B; Reece, Jody; Coore-Desai, Charlene; Dinall, Twana; Pellington, Sydonnie; Samms-Vaughan, Maureen

    2017-06-01

    This paper investigates relationships between men's testosterone and family life in a sample of approximately 350 Jamaican fathers of children 18-24 months of age. The study recognizes the role of testosterone as a proximate mechanism coordinating and reflecting male life history allocations within specific family and cultural contexts. A sample of Jamaican fathers and/or father figures reported to an assessment center for an interview based on a standardized questionnaire and provided a saliva sample for measuring testosterone level. Outcomes measured include subject demographics such as age and relationship status as well as partnership quality and sexuality and paternal attitudes and behavior. The variation in these fathers' relationship status (e.g., married co-residential fathers, fathers in new non-residential relationships) was not associated with men's testosterone. Too few stepfathers participated to enable a direct test of the prediction that stepfathers would have higher testosterone than biological fathers, although fathers who reported living with partners' (but not his own) children did not have higher testosterone than fathers not reporting residing with a non-biological child. Fathers' relationship quality was negatively related to their testosterone. Measures of paternal attitudes and behavior were not related to fathers' testosterone. Consistent with previous ethnography, this sample of Jamaican fathers exhibited variable life history profiles, including residential status. We discuss why fathers' relationship quality was found to be negatively related to their testosterone level, but other predictions were not upheld.

  8. Osteoprotegerin Levels Decrease During Testosterone Therapy in Aging Men and are Associated with Changed Distribution of Regional Fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, L; Glintborg, D; Højlund, K

    2013-01-01

    The cardiovascular effects of testosterone treatment are debated. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is an independent marker of cardiovascular risk. We investigated the effect of testosterone therapy on OPG levels in aging men with low normal bioavailable testosterone levels. A randomized, double......-blinded, placebo-controlled study of 6 months testosterone therapy (gel) in 38 men aged 60-78 years with bioavailable testosterone 94 cm was performed. Clinical evaluation, OPG, and C-reactive protein (CRP) measurements were carried out. Lean body mass (LBM), total fat mass, and bone mineral density (BMD) were...... established by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Power calculation was based on an increase in LBM during testosterone therapy and responders were defined as testosterone treated patients with increased...

  9. Testing Differential Effects of Computer-Based, Web-Based and Paper-Based Administration of Questionnaire Research Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardre, Patricia L.; Crowson, H. Michael; Xie, Kui; Ly, Cong

    2007-01-01

    Translation of questionnaire instruments to digital administration systems, both self-contained and web-based, is widespread and increasing daily. However, the literature is lean on controlled empirical studies investigating the potential for differential effects of administrative methods. In this study, two university student samples were…

  10. Testosterone Deficiency - Establishing A Biochemical Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Krakowsky, Yonah; Grober, Ethan D.

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency is a common and often unrecognized disorder impacting the lives of many men. Symptoms related to low testosterone are relatively non-specific and clinicians must therefore ensure that a patients? symptomatology is supported by a biochemical profile suggestive of testosterone deficiency. There are many options available to determine a patient?s testosterone level and laboratories will vary in the type of biochemical assessment they provide. In assessing patients with su...

  11. METHODOLOGICAL BASES OF PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION OF PUBLIC DEVELOPMENT IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyrylo Ohdanskyi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An author in the article examines theoretical bases in the question of dynamics of community development. According to classic canons a dynamic process on any of levels of management hierarchy can be presented as a complex of changes of its ecological, economic and social components. For today, national politics in the field of realization of conception of community development does not take into account most theoretical works, which testify that in our country the mechanism of its effective adjusting is not yet created. In connection to this the author of the article accents the attention on the necessity of the use in modern Ukraine realities of the effective approaches to government control of community development. As the subject of research of the article the author chose the analysis of process of community development and methodological bases for the choice of variants for a management by this process. System approach is chosen by author as a research methodology. The aim. Analysis of theoretical bases and developing of the new approaches to the government administration of community development. An author divides the process of community development by constituents: social, economic and ecological components. From the indicated warning it is necessary to take into account the objective necessity of developing of the new conceptual approaches to the elaboration of tool of adjusting of community development. For the decision of this task the author of the article it is suggested to use the category “dynamics”. An author in the article does the analysis of different interpretations of term “dynamics”and offers his own interpretation in the context of community development. Our researches confirm that, mainly, it is methodologically possible to form the blocks of quantitative and quality factors of specific different information of ecological, economic and social character. Author’s researches confirm that it is methodologically

  12. Gender-Typed Play and Amniotic Testosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knickmeyer, Rebecca Christine; Wheelwright, Sally; Taylor, Kevin; Raggatt, Peter; Hackett, Gerald; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Sex differences in play are apparent in a number of mammalian species, including humans. Prenatal testosterone may contribute to these differences. The authors report the first attempt to correlate gender-typed play in a normative sample of humans with measurements of amniotic testosterone (aT). Testosterone was measured in the amniotic fluid of…

  13. Primary testicular failure in Klinefelter's syndrome: the use of bivariate luteinizing hormone-testosterone reference charts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Jørgensen, Niels

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis of androgen deficiency is based on clinical features and confirmatory low serum testosterone levels. In early primary testicular failure, a rise in serum LH levels suggests inadequate androgen action for the individual's physiological requirements despite a serum testosterone level ...

  14. Effects of transdermal testosterone gel or an aromatase inhibitor on serum concentration and pulsatility of growth hormone in older men with age-related low testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Jenny Pena; Veldhuis, Johannes D; Carlson, Olga; Shardell, Michelle; Chia, Chee W; Melvin, Denise; Egan, Josephine M; Basaria, Shehzad

    2017-04-01

    Growth hormone is the major regulator of growth and body composition. Pulsatile GH secretion declines exponentially with age. Testosterone replacement is being increasingly offered to older men with age-related low testosterone. Testosterone administration has been shown to stimulate GH secretion. However, little is known about the effect of testosterone aromatization to estradiol on GH pulsatility and its impact on IGF-1 in older men. This randomized controlled proof-of-concept trial investigated the relative effects of testosterone and estradiol on GH pulsatility and IGF-1 in older men with low testosterone. Thirty-seven men, ≥65years with total testosterone testosterone gel (TT), 1mg oral aromatase inhibitor (AI) or placebo daily for 12months. Primary outcome was deconvolution and approximate entropy analyses of pulsatile including basal and entropic modes of secretion performed at baseline and 3months. Secondary outcomes included IGF-1 evaluated at baseline, 3 and 6months. At 3months, mean GH and in IGF-1 were similar between the three groups. At 6months, IGF-1 significantly increased by Δ 15.3±10.3ng/ml in the TT-group compared to placebo (P=0.03). Both intervention groups significantly increased GH pulse frequency (TT-group, P=0.04; AI-group, P=0.05) compared to placebo. The GH secretory-burst mode (duration) significantly decreased in the TT-group (P=0.0018) compared to placebo while it remained unchanged in the AI-group (P=0.059). In older men, testosterone increases GH pulse frequency while the aromatization to estradiol is involved in the rise of IGF-1 levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Testosterone in biosociology: A memoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Allan

    2017-06-01

    A contribution to a special issue on Hormones and Human Competition. The author looks back at his four decades of research on testosterone in the context of biosociology - its accomplishments, pitfalls, outstanding questions, and future directions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Neuroprotective effects of testosterone treatment in men with multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Kurth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. While current medication reduces relapses and inflammatory activity, it has only a modest effect on long-term disability and gray matter atrophy. Here, we have characterized the potential neuroprotective effects of testosterone on cerebral gray matter in a pilot clinical trial. Ten men with relapsing–remitting MS were included in this open-label phase II trial. Subjects were observed without treatment for 6 months, followed by testosterone treatment for another 12 months. Focal gray matter loss as a marker for neurodegeneration was assessed using voxel-based morphometry. During the non-treatment phase, significant voxel-wise gray matter decreases were widespread (p≤ 0.05 corrected. However, during testosterone treatment, gray matter loss was no longer evident. In fact, a significant gray matter increase in the right frontal cortex was observed (p≤ 0.05 corrected. These observations support the potential of testosterone treatment to stall (and perhaps even reverse neurodegeneration associated with MS. Furthermore, they warrant the investigation of testosterone's neuroprotective effects in larger, placebo controlled MS trials as well as in other neurodegenerative diseases. This is the first report of gray matter increase as the result of treatment in MS.

  17. Encapsulation of testosterone by chitosan nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanphai, P; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2017-05-01

    The loading of testosterone by chitosan nanoparticles was investigated, using multiple spectroscopic methods, thermodynamic analysis, TEM images and modeling. Thermodynamic parameters showed testosterone-chitosan bindings occur mainly via H-bonding and van der Waals contacts. As polymer size increased more stable steroid-chitosan conjugates formed and hydrophobic contact was also observed. The loading efficacy of testosterone-nanocarrier was 40-55% and increased as chitosan size increased. Testosterone encapsulation markedly alters chitosan morphology. Chitosan nanoparticles are capable of transporting testosterone in vitro. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Testosterone in women-the clinical significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Susan R; Jacobsen, Sarah Wåhlin

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone is an essential hormone for women, with physiological actions mediated directly or via aromatisation to oestradiol throughout the body. Despite the crucial role of testosterone and the high circulating concentrations of this hormone relative to oestradiol in women, studies of its...... action and the effects of testosterone deficiency and replacement in women are scarce. The primary indication for the prescription of testosterone for women is loss of sexual desire, which causes affected women substantial concern. That no formulation has been approved for this purpose has not impeded...... the widespread use of testosterone by women-either off-label or as compounded therapy. Observational studies indicate that testosterone has favourable cardiovascular effects measured by surrogate outcomes; however, associations between endogenous testosterone and the risk of cardiovascular disease and total...

  19. Seasonal Variations and Correlations between Vitamin D and Total Testosterone Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Moo-Yeol; Kim, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Kwang-Min

    2017-09-01

    Some studies have provided evidence for a possible association between vitamin D and testosterone levels; however, the evidence from studies in Koreans is inconsistent. In addition, insufficient evidence is available to support an association between seasonal variations in vitamin D and testosterone levels in Koreans. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between vitamin D and testosterone levels, and between seasonal variations in these levels in Korean men. This cross-sectional study included 1,559 men, aged 25-86 years, who underwent a medical examination. We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and total testosterone levels, and compared other laboratory test results and patient lifestyle characteristics. On the basis of sample collection time, we categorized patients into four seasons, and analyzed seasonal variability in 25(OH)D and total testosterone levels. The average participant age (±standard deviation) was 53.3±8.8 years, and the average serum 25(OH)D and total testosterone levels were 15.9±7.0 ng/mL and 5.1±1.6 ng/mL, respectively. In the analysis of variance (ANOVA) model, no significant association was found between 25(OH)D and testosterone levels (P=0.51). ANOVA of the average 25(OH)D levels in season-based groups revealed significant seasonal variations in 25(OH)D levels (P-value for trend <0.001). No significant association was found between seasonal variations in total testosterone levels (P=0.06). However, after adjustment for confounding variables, total testosterone and 25(OH)D showed significant seasonal variability (P=0.007 and P<0.001, respectively). We found no significant correlation between serum 25(OH)D and total testosterone levels in Korean men. Moreover, serum 25(OH)D and total testosterone levels showed significant seasonal variations.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of 2 Novel Formulations of Modified-Release Oral Testosterone Alone and With Finasteride in Normal Men With Experimental Hypogonadism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Christin N.; Clark, Richard V.; Caricofe, Ralph B.; Bush, Mark A.; Roth, Mara Y.; Page, Stephanie T.; Bremner, William J.; Amory, John K.

    2011-01-01

    Oral administration of testosterone might be useful for the treatment of testosterone deficiency. However, current “immediate-release” formulations of oral testosterone exhibit suboptimal pharmacokinetics, with supraphysiologic peaks of testosterone and its metabolite, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), immediately after dosing. To dampen these peaks, we have developed 2 novel modified-release formulations of oral testosterone designed to slow absorption from the gut and improve hormone delivery. We studied these testosterone formulations in 16 normal young men enrolled in a 2-arm, open-label clinical trial. Three hundred-mg and 600-mg doses of immediate-release and modified fast-release or slow-release formulations were administered sequentially to 8 normal men rendered hypogonadal by the administration of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist acyline. Blood for measurement of serum testosterone, DHT, and estradiol was obtained before and 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hours after each dose. A second group of 8 men was studied with the coadministration of 1 mg of the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride daily throughout the treatment period. Serum testosterone was increased with all formulations of oral testosterone. The modified slow-release formulation significantly delayed the postdose peaks of serum testosterone and reduced peak concentrations of serum DHT compared with the immediate-release formulation. The addition of finasteride further increased serum testosterone and decreased serum DHT. We conclude that the oral modified slow-release testosterone formulation exhibits superior pharmacokinetics compared with immediate-release oral testosterone both alone and in combination with finasteride. This formulation might have efficacy for the treatment of testosterone deficiency. PMID:20378927

  1. Behavioral cross-sensitization between testosterone and fenproporex in adolescent and adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.Q. Conceição

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The abuse of psychoactive drugs is considered a global health problem. During the last years, a relevant number of studies have investigated the relationship between anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS and other psychoactive drugs. AAS, such as testosterone, can cause a dependence syndrome that shares many features with the classical dependence to psychoactive substances. Pre-clinical evidence shows that there are interactions between testosterone and psychoactive drugs, such as cocaine. However, few studies have been performed to investigate the effect of repeated testosterone treatment on behavioral effects of amphetamine derivatives, such as fenproporex. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of repeated testosterone administration on fenproporex-induced locomotor activity in adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent male Wistar rats were injected with testosterone (10 mg/kg sc for 10 days. After 3 days, animals received an acute injection of fenproporex (3.0 mg/kg ip and the locomotor activity was recorded during 40 min. Thirty days later, the same animals received the same treatment with testosterone followed by a fenproporex challenge injection as described above. Our results demonstrated that repeated testosterone induced behavioral sensitization to fenproporex in adolescent but not in adult rats. These findings suggest that repeated AAS treatment might increase the dependence vulnerability to amphetamine and its derivatives in adolescent rats.

  2. Effect of exogenous testosterone, finasteride, and castration on serum level of thyroxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarei, Fatemeh; Yousofvand, Namdar; Khazaei, Mozafar; Ghanbari, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The secretion of thyroxin (T4) as the main hormone of thyroid gland is regulated by androgens. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of testosterone and finasteride administration and castration on serum levels of T4 and to show the effect of this regulation on total body weight, weight of testis, and the weight of prostate. Male adult rats (n = 32) were divided into 4 groups (n = 8): Group 1 (control), Group 2 (castration), Group 3 (finasteride: 20 mg/kg/day) and Group 4 (testosterone: 5 mg/kg/day). At the end of the study (35 days), serum level of thyroxin, body weight, weight of testis, and prostate were determined. The data showed that the body weight increased in castrated (P = 0.04) and decreased in testosterone (P = 0.00) groups but did not differ in finasteride (P>0.05) group. There were not any differences in the weight of testis among control, finasteride, and testosterone groups but the weight of prostate increased in testosterone group (P = 0.00) and decreased in castrated (P = 0.03) and finasteride groups (P = 0.04). In addition, the serum level of T4 (nmo/ml) decreased in the three groups: finasteride (P = 0.03), testosterone (P = 0.04), and castrated (P = 0.00). Testosterone in both high and low levels decreased the amount of T4 with a time-dependent manner.

  3. Endogenous Testosterone and Exogenous Oxytocin Modulate Attentional Processing of Infant Faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K C Holtfrerich

    Full Text Available Evidence indicates that hormones modulate the intensity of maternal care. Oxytocin is known for its positive influence on maternal behavior and its important role for childbirth. In contrast, testosterone promotes egocentric choices and reduces empathy. Further, testosterone decreases during parenthood which could be an adaptation to increased parental investment. The present study investigated the interaction between testosterone and oxytocin in attentional control and their influence on attention to baby schema in women. Higher endogenous testosterone was expected to decrease selective attention to child portraits in a face-in-the-crowd-paradigm, while oxytocin was expected to counteract this effect. As predicted, women with higher salivary testosterone were slower in orienting attention to infant targets in the context of adult distractors. Interestingly, reaction times to infant and adult stimuli decreased after oxytocin administration, but only in women with high endogenous testosterone. These results suggest that oxytocin may counteract the adverse effects of testosterone on a central aspect of social behavior and maternal caretaking.

  4. Behavioral cross-sensitization between testosterone and fenproporex in adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, C Q; Engi, S A; Cruz, F C; Planeta, C S

    2017-11-17

    The abuse of psychoactive drugs is considered a global health problem. During the last years, a relevant number of studies have investigated the relationship between anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and other psychoactive drugs. AAS, such as testosterone, can cause a dependence syndrome that shares many features with the classical dependence to psychoactive substances. Pre-clinical evidence shows that there are interactions between testosterone and psychoactive drugs, such as cocaine. However, few studies have been performed to investigate the effect of repeated testosterone treatment on behavioral effects of amphetamine derivatives, such as fenproporex. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of repeated testosterone administration on fenproporex-induced locomotor activity in adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent male Wistar rats were injected with testosterone (10 mg/kg sc for 10 days). After 3 days, animals received an acute injection of fenproporex (3.0 mg/kg ip) and the locomotor activity was recorded during 40 min. Thirty days later, the same animals received the same treatment with testosterone followed by a fenproporex challenge injection as described above. Our results demonstrated that repeated testosterone induced behavioral sensitization to fenproporex in adolescent but not in adult rats. These findings suggest that repeated AAS treatment might increase the dependence vulnerability to amphetamine and its derivatives in adolescent rats.

  5. Oral testosterone load related to liver function in men with alcoholic liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bahnsen, M; Bennett, Patrick

    1983-01-01

    The relation between liver function and an oral testosterone load was examined in 42 consecutive patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis. Administration of an oral load of 400 mg micronized free testosterone increased the serum concentration of testosterone (range, 31.9-694.4 nmol/l; median, 140.......8 nmol/l) in male patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis to significantly (P less than 0.01) higher levels than in male subjects without liver disease (range, 25.4-106.6 nmol/l; median, 61.5 nmol/l). The increase of testosterone after the load (log delta testosterone) in patients correlated inversely...... with wedged-to-free hepatic vein pressure (r = +0.54; P less than 0.01). The increase of testosterone after the load did not correlate significantly with sex hormone-binding globulin (r = +0.35; P greater than 0.05). It is concluded that the hepatic extraction of testosterone is significantly decreased...

  6. Maximal testosterone suppression in prostate cancer--free vs total testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rove, Kyle O; Crawford, E David; Perachino, Massimo; Morote, Juan; Klotz, Laurence; Lange, Paul H; Andriole, Gerald L; Matsumoto, Alvin M; Taneja, Samir S; Eisenberger, Mario A; Reis, Leonardo O

    2014-06-01

    Testosterone remains a key target in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. The relationship of free testosterone to prostate cancer treatment and outcomes remains largely unexplored. A consensus of prostate cancer experts was convened in 2013 to review current knowledge surrounding relationship of total and free testosterone to prostate cancer, discuss the free hormone hypothesis, and highlight future avenues for therapeutics. Free testosterone may better reflect prostate cancer tissue androgen levels than serum total testosterone concentration. Free testosterone deserves more research regarding its relation to clinical outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of long-acting testosterone treatment on functional exercise capacity, skeletal muscle performance, insulin resistance, and baroreflex sensitivity in elderly patients with chronic heart failure a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caminiti, Giuseppe; Volterrani, Maurizio; Iellamo, Ferdinando; Marazzi, Giuseppe; Massaro, Rosalba; Miceli, Marco; Mammi, Caterina; Piepoli, Massimo; Fini, Massimo; Rosano, Giuseppe M C

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a 12-week long-acting testosterone administration on maximal exercise capacity, ventilatory efficiency, muscle strength, insulin resistance, and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS...

  8. Interaction of APOE genotype and testosterone on episodic memory in middle-aged men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizzon, Matthew S.; Hauger, Richard; Xian, Hong; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Spoon, Kelly M.; Mendoza, Sally P.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Rana, Brinda K.; McKenzie, Ruth; McCaffery, Jeanne M.; Lyons, Michael J.; Kremen, William S.; Franz, Carol E.

    2014-01-01

    Age-related changes in testosterone are believed to be a key component of the processes that contribute to cognitive aging in men. The APOE-ε4 allele may interact with testosterone and moderate the hormone’s association with cognition. The goals of the present study were to examine the degree to which free testosterone is associated with episodic memory in a community-based sample of middle-aged men, and examine the potential interaction between free testosterone and the APOE-ε4 allele. Data were utilized from 717 participants in the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA). Average age was 55.4 years (SD = 2.5). Significant positive associations were observed between free testosterone level and verbal episodic memory, as well as a significant interaction between free testosterone and APOE-ε4 status. In ε4 carriers free testosterone was positively associated with verbal episodic memory performance (story recall), whereas no association was observed in ε4 non-carriers. Results support the hypothesis that APOE-ε4 status increases susceptibility to other risk factors, such as low testosterone, which may ultimately contribute to cognitive decline or dementia. PMID:24444806

  9. Marketing and Testosterone Treatment in the USA: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandari, Jathin; Ayyash, Omar M; Emery, Sherry L; Wessel, Charles B; Davies, Benjamin J

    2017-10-01

    Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration only for classic hypogonadism, although off-label indications have resulted in a dramatic expansion in prescriptions in the USA. Marketing may significantly affect prescriber behavior. To systematically review all available evidence on marketing and TRT in the USA. PubMed, Embase, and Scopus were searched up to July 2017 for all relevant publications reporting on assessments of the TRT market size, economic costs associated with hypogonadism, trends in TRT prescriptions, drug discontinuation rates, and advertising and sales efforts in the USA. Twenty retrospective studies were included in the final analysis. The market size for hypogonadism constitutes 5.6-76.8% of men in the USA, with the lower end of the range representing the strictest criteria for diagnosis. Men with a diagnosis of hypogonadism consume $14 118 in direct and indirect costs to the payer. Over the last 2 decades, TRT prescriptions have increased between 1.8- and 4-fold. After 1 yr, 80-85% of men discontinue TRT. There is an association between direct-to-consumer advertising and testosterone testing, TRT prescriptions, and TRT without testosterone testing. There is a high prevalence of misinformation on Internet advertising. Off-label indications have driven the dramatic expansion of TRT prescriptions over the last 2 decades. Direct-to-consumer advertising poses a unique challenge in the USA. Overtreatment can be avoided by applying strict diagnostic criteria for hypogonadism, which limits the addressable market for TRT. In this report, we reviewed the relationship between marketing and testosterone therapy in the USA. We found that many patients are prescribed testosterone without an appropriate diagnosis of hypogonadism, which may be related to the marketing efforts for off-label prescribing. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The many faces of testosterone

    OpenAIRE

    Bain, Jerald

    2007-01-01

    Jerald BainDepartment of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Testosterone is more than a “male sex hormone”. It is an important contributor to the robust metabolic functioning of multiple bodily systems. The abuse of anabolic steroids by athletes over the years has been one of the major detractors from the investigation an...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1680 - Testosterone test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Testosterone test system. 862.1680 Section 862....1680 Testosterone test system. (a) Identification. A testosterone test system is a device intended to measure testosterone (a male sex hormone) in serum, plasma, and urine. Measurement of testosterone are...

  12. Testosterone improves erectile function through inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation in castrated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone is overwhelmingly important in regulating erectile physiology. However, the associated molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects and mechanisms of testosterone in erectile dysfunction (ED in castrated rats. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to four groups (control, sham-operated, castration and castration-with-testosterone-replacement. Reactive oxygen species (ROS production was measured by dihydroethidium (DHE staining. Erectile function was assessed by the recording of intracavernous pressure (ICP and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP. Protein expression levels were examined by western blotting. We found that castration reduced erectile function and that testosterone restored it. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS activity was decrease in the castrated rats, and testosterone administration attenuated this decrease (each p < 0.05. The testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP concentrations were lower in the castrated rats, and testosterone restored these levels (each p < 0.05. Furthermore, the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and prostacyclin synthase (PTGIS expression levels and phospho-endothelial nitric oxide synthase (p-eNOS, Ser1177/endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS ratio were reduced in the castrated rats compared with the controls (each p < 0.05. In addition, the p40phox and p67phox expression levels were increased in the castrated rats, and testosterone reversed these changes (each p < 0.05. Overall, our results demonstrate that testosterone ameliorates ED after castration by reducing ROS production and increasing the activity of the eNOS/cGMP and COX-2/PTGIS/cAMP signaling pathways.

  13. Testosterone therapy in women: myths and misconceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Rebecca; Dimitrakakis, Constantine

    2013-03-01

    Although testosterone therapy is being increasingly prescribed for men, there remain many questions and concerns about testosterone (T) and in particular, T therapy in women. A literature search was performed to elucidate the origin of, and scientific basis behind many of the concerns and assumptions about T and T therapy in women. This paper refutes 10 common myths and misconceptions, and provides evidence to support what is physiologically plausible and scientifically evident: T is the most abundant biologically active female hormone, T is essential for physical and mental health in women, T is not masculinizing, T does not cause hoarseness, T increases scalp hair growth, T is cardiac protective, parenteral T does not adversely affect the liver or increase clotting factors, T is mood stabilizing and does not increase aggression, T is breast protective, and the safety of T therapy in women is under research and being established. Abandoning myths, misconceptions and unfounded concerns about T and T therapy in women will enable physicians to provide evidenced based recommendations and appropriate therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Intravenous fluid administration and controversies in Acid-base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, D A

    1999-06-01

    To present an overview of acidosis following intravenous fluid infusion and to highlight the current controversy in acid-base physiology. Articles and reviews from peer reviewed journals and books on acid-base physiology and post infusion acidosis. Infusion of intravenous fluids can produce an acidosis particularly in the setting of large volume infusion. The explanation of this phenomenon has centred around dilution of plasma bicarbonate. An alternative explanation can be found in the work of Peter Stewart, which highlights the use of strong ion difference in assessing metabolic acidosis. The Stewart approach differs from the traditional Henderson-Hasselbalch approach to acid-base. Further study is required to determine which approach is correct. Solutions containing base anions such as lactate may attenuate such an infusion acidosis. Animal and clinical studies using Hartmann's solution and Plasmalyte 148 support this idea. There is controversy regarding mechanisms in acid-base physiology. The clinical significance of post infusion acidosis is unclear, however use of Hartmann's solution may minimize the acidosis.

  15. Register-based statistics statistical methods for administrative data

    CERN Document Server

    Wallgren, Anders

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive and up to date treatment of  theory and practical implementation in Register-based statistics. It begins by defining the area, before explaining how to structure such systems, as well as detailing alternative approaches. It explains how to create statistical registers, how to implement quality assurance, and the use of IT systems for register-based statistics. Further to this, clear details are given about the practicalities of implementing such statistical methods, such as protection of privacy and the coordination and coherence of such an undertaking. Thi

  16. Effects of Testosterone Supplementation for 3 Years on Muscle Performance and Physical Function in Older Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaria, Shehzad; Traustadottir, Tinna; Harman, S. Mitchell; Pencina, Karol; Li, Zhuoying; Travison, Thomas G.; Miciek, Renee; Tsitouras, Panayiotis; Hally, Kathleen; Huang, Grace; Bhasin, Shalender

    2017-01-01

    Context: Findings of studies of testosterone’s effects on muscle strength and physical function in older men have been inconsistent; its effects on muscle power and fatigability have not been studied. Objective: To determine the effects of testosterone administration for 3 years in older men on muscle strength, power, fatigability, and physical function. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of healthy men ≥60 years old with total testosterone levels of 100 to 400 ng/dL or free testosterone levels testosterone or placebo gel daily for 3 years. Outcome Measures: Loaded and unloaded stair-climbing power, muscle strength, power, and fatigability in leg press and chest press exercises, and lean mass at baseline, 6, 18, and 36 months. Results: The groups were similar at baseline. Testosterone administration for 3 years was associated with significantly greater performance in unloaded and loaded stair-climbing power than placebo (mean estimated between-group difference, 10.7 W [95% confidence interval (CI), −4.0 to 25.5], P = 0.026; and 22.4 W [95% CI, 4.6 to 40.3], P = 0.027), respectively. Changes in chest-press strength (estimated mean difference, 16.3 N; 95% CI, 5.5 to 27.1; P testosterone than in those randomized to placebo. Lean body mass significantly increased more in the testosterone group. Conclusion: Compared with placebo, testosterone replacement in older men for 3 years was associated with modest but significantly greater improvements in stair-climbing power, muscle mass, and power. Clinical meaningfulness of these treatment effects and their impact on disability in older adults with functional limitations remains to be studied. PMID:27754805

  17. Performance of total testosterone measurement to predict free testosterone for the biochemical evaluation of male hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anawalt, Bradley D; Hotaling, James M; Walsh, Thomas J; Matsumoto, Alvin M

    2012-04-01

    Guidelines recommend serum total testosterone measurement as the initial test to evaluate male hypogonadism, reserving free testosterone assessment for men with suspected sex hormone-binding globulin abnormalities or total testosterone near the lower limit of normal. We determined the performance of total testosterone measurement as a test to identify men with normal vs low free testosterone. We examined the electronic medical records of all 3,672 men evaluated for hypogonadism by a serum testosterone panel, including total testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, albumin and calculated free testosterone, from January 1, 1997 through December 31, 2007 in a network that serves veterans in Washington. The sensitivity and specificity of low total testosterone (less than 280 ng/dl) to rule out and predict low calculated free testosterone was 91.0% and 73.7%, respectively. At thresholds of less than 350 and less than 400 ng/dl the sensitivity of total testosterone for low calculated free testosterone increased to 96.8% and 98.2%, and at thresholds of less than 150 and less than 200 ng/dl specificity increased to 98.9% and 92.6%, respectively. Total testosterone between 280 and 350 ng/dl is not sensitive enough to reliably exclude hypogonadism. Total testosterone must exceed 350 to 400 ng/dl to reliably predict normal free testosterone. Except when levels are less than 150 ng/dl total testosterone measurement has low specificity for the biochemical diagnosis of hypogonadism. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Maximal Testosterone Suppression in Prostate Cancer—Free vs Total Testosterone

    OpenAIRE

    Rove, Kyle O.; Crawford, E. David; Perachino, Massimo; Morote, Juan; Klotz, Laurence; Lange, Paul H.; Andriole, Gerald L.; Matsumoto, Alvin M.; Taneja, Samir S.; Eisenberger, Mario A.; Reis, Leonardo O.

    2014-01-01

    Testosterone remains a key target in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. The relationship of free testosterone to prostate cancer treatment and outcomes remains largely unexplored. A consensus of prostate cancer experts was convened in 2013 to review current knowledge surrounding relationship of total and free testosterone to prostate cancer, discuss the free hormone hypothesis, and highlight future avenues for therapeutics. Free testosterone may better reflect prostate cancer tissue a...

  19. Testosterone Levels in Pre-Menopausal Women are Associated With Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Monika; Wellons, Melissa; Cedars, Marcelle I; VanWagner, Lisa; Gunderson, Erica P; Ajmera, Veeral; Torchen, Laura; Siscovick, David; Carr, J Jeffrey; Terry, James G; Rinella, Mary; Lewis, Cora E; Terrault, Norah

    2017-05-01

    Young women with hyperandrogenism have high risk of metabolic co-morbidities, including increased risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Whether testosterone (the predominant androgen) is associated with NAFLD independent of metabolic co-factors is unclear. Additionally, whether testosterone confers increased risk of NAFLD in women without hyperandrogenism is unknown. Among women in the prospective population-based multicenter Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, we assessed whether free testosterone levels measured at Year 2 (1987-1988) were associated with prevalent NAFLD at Year 25 (2010-2011) (n=1052). NAFLD was defined using noncontrast abdominal CT scan with liver attenuation≤40 Hounsfield units after excluding other causes of hepatic fat. The association of free testosterone with prevalent NAFLD was assessed by logistic regression. Increasing quintiles of free testosterone were associated with prevalent NAFLD at Year 25 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.50, P=0.015), independent of insulin resistance, body mass index, waist circumference, and serum lipids. Importantly, the association persisted among n=955 women without androgen excess (AOR 1.27, 95% CI 1.05-1.53, P=0.016). Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) volume partially mediated the association of free testosterone with NAFLD (mediating effect 41.0%, 95% CI 22-119%). Increasing free testosterone is associated with prevalent NAFLD in middle age, even in women without androgen excess. Visceral adiposity appears to play an important role in the relationship between testosterone and NAFLD in women. Testosterone may provide a potential novel target for NAFLD therapeutics, and future studies in pre-menopausal women should consider the importance of testosterone as a risk factor for NAFLD.

  20. Testosterone a female hormone : Testing the function and evolution of testosterone in female birds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Berber

    2013-01-01

    Hoewel testosteron vaak het mannelijk geslachtshormoon wordt genoemd produceren vrouwen van heel veel diersoorten ook testosteron, zij het veelal in mindere mate. Wat de functie van dit hormoon is in vrouwtjes is, in tegenstelling tot bij mannetjes, slecht onderzocht. Hebben vrouwtjes testosteron,

  1. NASIS data base management system - IBM 360/370 OS MVT implementation. 7: Data base administrator user's guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The Data Base Administrator User's Guide for the NASA Aerospace Safety information system is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) multi-terminal tasking, (2) data base executive, (3) utilities, (4) maintenance, and (5) update mode functions.

  2. Total testosterone levels are often more than three times elevated in patients with androgen-secreting tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Lambaa Altinok, Magda; Petersen, Kresten Rubeck

    2015-01-01

    surgery. Terminal hair growth on lip and chin gradually increases after menopause, which complicates distinction from normal physiological variation. Precise testosterone assays have just recently become available in the daily clinic. We present three women diagnosed with testosterone-producing tumours....... Gold standard techniques were used to measure testosterone levels. All tumours originated from the ovaries. Based on the present cases and the existing literature, we suggest that androgen-producing tumours should be suspected in patients with rapid progression of hyperandrogen symptoms, particularly...... when total testosterone levels are above three times the upper reference limit....

  3. Evidence-based decision-making 6: Utilization of administrative databases for health services research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Tanvir Turin; Hemmelgarn, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Health-care systems require reliable information on which to base health-care planning and make decisions, as well as to evaluate their policy impact. Administrative data provide important information about health services use, expenditures, clinical outcomes, and may be used to assess quality of care. With increased digitalization and accessibility of administrative databases, these data are more readily available for health service research purposes, aiding evidence-based decision-making. This chapter discusses the utility of administrative data for population-based studies of health and health care.

  4. A comprehensive procedure based on gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry following high performance liquid chromatography purification for the analysis of underivatized testosterone and its analogues in human urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torre, Xavier de la, E-mail: xavier.delatorre@gmail.com [Laboratorio Antidoping, Federazione Medico Sportiva Italiana, Largo Giulio Onesti 1, 00197 Rome (Italy); Colamonici, Cristiana; Curcio, Davide; Molaioni, Francesco [Laboratorio Antidoping, Federazione Medico Sportiva Italiana, Largo Giulio Onesti 1, 00197 Rome (Italy); Botre, Francesco [Laboratorio Antidoping, Federazione Medico Sportiva Italiana, Largo Giulio Onesti 1, 00197 Rome (Italy); Dipartimento di Management, ' Sapienza' Universita di Roma, Via del Castro Laurenziano 9, 00161 Rome (Italy)

    2012-12-05

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overall approach for urine samples purification by HPLC for subsequent GC/C/IRMS analysis in doping control. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Detection of pseudo-endogenous androgenic steroids (i.e. testosterone, androstenedione) misuse in sports. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Routine analysis of steroids by GC/C/IRMS in sports drug testing. - Abstract: The confirmation by GC/C/IRMS of the exogenous origin of pseudo-endogenous steroids from human urine samples requires extracts of adequate purity. A strategy based on HPLC sample purification prior to the GC/C/IRMS analysis of human urinary endogenous androgens (i.e. testosterone, androsterone and/or androstenediols), is presented. A method without any additional derivatization step is proposed, allowing to simplify the urine pretreatment procedure, leading to extracts free of interferences permitting precise and accurate IRMS analysis, without the need of correcting the measured delta values for the contribution of the derivatizing agent. The HPLC extracts were adequately combined to both reduce the number of GC/C/IRMS runs and to have appropriate endogenous reference compounds (ERC; i.e. pregnanediol, 11-keto-etiocholanolone) on each GC-IRMS run. The purity of the extracts was assessed by their parallel analysis by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, with GC conditions identical to those of the GC/C/IRMS assay. The method has been validated according to ISO17025 requirements (within assay precision below 0.3 Per-Mille-Sign {sup 13}C delta units and between assay precision below 0.6 Per-Mille-Sign {sup 13}C delta units for most of the compounds investigated) fulfilling the World Anti-Doping Agency requirements.

  5. The Knowledge Base in Education Administration: Did NCATE Open a Pandora's Box?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles, C. M.; DuVall, L.

    The controversial nature of the knowledge base of educational administration is discussed in this paper. Included are a definition of professionalism, a discussion of how to build and develop a knowledge base, and a review of the obstacles to knowledge base development. Elements of a consensual knowledge base include theory, practice, and other…

  6. Reduction in 24-Hour Plasma Testosterone Levels in Subjects Who Showered 15 or 30 Minutes After Application of Testosterone Gel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ronde, W.; Vogel, S.; Bui, H.N.; Heijboer, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objective. To investigate whether showering, to prevent the involuntary transfer of testosterone to others through skin contact, either 15 or 30 minutes after application of testosterone gel would significantly affect plasma testosterone levels. Design. Prospective 3-way crossover trial.

  7. Effects of In Vivo Testosterone Manipulation on Ovarian Morphology, Follicular Development, and Follicle Yolk Testosterone in the Homing Pigeon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goerlich, Vivian C.; Dijkstra, Cor; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2010-01-01

    To date, our understanding of the function of testosterone in female reproductive physiology is only marginal although there are indications that testosterone is involved in modulating follicular recruitment, growth, atresia, and ovulation. Studies elevating testosterone in breeding female birds

  8. Pengaruh Tepung Teripang Pasir (Holothuria Scabra Terhadap Perilaku Seksual dan Kadar Testosteron Darah Mencit (Mus musculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarifah Nurjanah

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sea cucumber is generally believed as a natural material that can be used as a tonic food to increase man vitality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of sandfish powder on sexual behavior and blood testosterone level of male mice. Method applied in the study was laboratory experimental method. Mature male mice were treated with administration of sandfish powder with three dosage rate of steroid content (10, 30 and 50 ìg/100 g body weight during 12 days, whereas for control treatment were without hormone administration and with the metil testosterone administration. Parameters that were investigated were kissing vagina and mounting for sexual behavior and the blood testosterone level of male mice. It was found that administration of sandfish powder significantly give effect on the number of kissing vagina and mounting compared to control. Administration of 10 ìg/100 g body weight on male mice showed the highest sexual behavior with 25 kissing vagina for and 6 mounting for 30 minutes. Moreover, administration of sandfish powder increased the testosterone level in the male mice blood. This may due to the steroid contained in sandfish powder and nutrition value that increase mice libido. The study proved that the sandfish powder has a potential as a nature aphrodisiac.

  9. Osteoporosis-related fracture case definitions for population-based administrative data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lix, Lisa M; Azimaee, Mahmoud; Osman, Beliz Acan; Caetano, Patricia; Morin, Suzanne; Metge, Colleen; Goltzman, David; Kreiger, Nancy; Prior, Jerilynn; Leslie, William D

    2012-01-01

    Population-based administrative data have been used to study osteoporosis-related fracture risk factors and outcomes, but there has been limited research about the validity of these data for ascertaining fracture cases...

  10. Establishing a Competency Field-Based Program of Reading Education: Essential Elements of Administrative Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Charles W.

    1979-01-01

    Identifies essential aspects of administrative planning that must be considered when moving from a traditional reading preservice education program to a competency, field-based model of instruction. (TJ)

  11. Comparison of Web-based and paper-based administration of ADHD questionnaires for adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Oliver; Hauschild, Franziska; Schmidt, Martin H; Baum, Erika; Christiansen, Hanna

    2013-03-21

    short form of the WURS-k could be replicated only in the Web-based sample. The Web-based sample had substantially higher total scores, and nearly 40% of the Web-based sample scored above the clinically relevant cut-off value. The three-factor structure of the ADHS-SB could be replicated in both samples, but factor loadings were different. Women in the Web-based sample had substantially higher total scores, and 30% of the Web-based sample scored above the clinically relevant cut-off value. Internal consistencies in all questionnaires were acceptable to high in both groups. Data from the Web-based administration of ADHD questionnaires for adults should not be used for the extraction of population norms. Separate norms should be established for ADHD online questionnaires. General psychometric properties of ADHD questionnaires (factor structure, internal consistency) were largely unaffected by sampling bias. Extended validity studies of existing ADHD questionnaires should be performed by including subjects with a diagnosis of ADHD and by randomizing them to Web- or paper-based administration.

  12. Risk adjustment using administrative data-based and survey-derived methods for explaining physician utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Lyn M; Moineddin, Rahim; Agha, Mohammad M; Glazier, Richard H

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate an administrative data-based risk adjustment method for predicting physician utilization and the contribution of survey-derived indicators of health status. The results of this study will support the use of administrative data for planning, reimbursement, and assessing equity of physician utilization. The Ontario portion of the 2000-2001 Canadian Community Health Survey was linked with administrative physician claims data from 2002-2003 and 2003-2004. Explanatory models of family physician (FP) and specialist physician (SP) utilization were run using demographic information and The Johns Hopkins University Adjusted Clinical Groups (ACG) Case-mix System. Survey-based measures of health status were then added to the models. The coefficient of determination, R, indicated the models' explanatory power. The study sample consisted of 25,558 individuals aged 20 to 79 years representing approximately 7.8 million people. Over the 2 years of study period, 82.5% of the study population had a FP visit with a median of 6 visits and 53.2% had a SP visit with a median of 1 visit. The R values based on administrative data alone were 33% and 21% for the frequency of FP and SP visits and 16% and 35% for having one or more visit to an FPs and SPs, respectively. The addition of the survey-based measures to the administrative data-based models produced less than a 2% increase in explanatory power for any outcome. Administrative data-based measures of morbidity burden are valid and useful indicators of future physician utilization. The survey-derived measures used in this study did not contribute significantly to models on the basis of administrative data-based measures. These findings support the future use of administrative data-based data and Adjusted Clinical Groups for planning, reimbursement, and research.

  13. Cardiovascular complications following chronic treatment with cocaine and testosterone in adolescent rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila A Engi

    Full Text Available Concomitant use of anabolic androgenic steroids and cocaine has increased in the last years. However, the effects of chronic exposure to these substances during adolescence on cardiovascular function are unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of treatment for 10 consecutive days with testosterone and cocaine alone or in combination on basal cardiovascular parameters, baroreflex activity, hemodynamic responses to vasoactive agents, and cardiac morphology in adolescent rats. Administration of testosterone alone increased arterial pressure, reduced heart rate (HR, and exacerbated the tachycardiac baroreflex response. Cocaine-treated animals showed resting bradycardia without changes in arterial pressure and baroreflex activity. Combined treatment with testosterone and cocaine did not affect baseline arterial pressure and HR, but reduced baroreflex-mediated tachycardia. None of the treatments affected arterial pressure response to either vasoconstrictor or vasodilator agents. Also, heart to body ratio and left and right ventricular wall thickness were not modified by drug treatments. However, histological analysis of left ventricular sections of animals subjected to treatment with testosterone and cocaine alone and combined showed a greater spacing between cardiac muscle fibers, dilated blood vessels, and fibrosis. These data show important cardiovascular changes following treatment with testosterone in adolescent rats. However, the results suggest that exposure to cocaine alone or combined with testosterone during adolescence minimally affect cardiovascular function.

  14. Relationship between 22-kHz calls and testosterone in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Hideaki; Mori, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonic calls in rats induced by the presence of a predator, referred to as "22-kHz calls," are mainly emitted by socially dominant male rats. Testosterone levels are closely related to social dominance in male rats. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the emission of stress-induced 22-kHz calls and circulating testosterone levels in male rats, using a combination of surgery (castration or sham operation) and chronic steroid administration (testosterone or cholesterol) to modify circulating testosterone levels. We also assessed the effects of androgen and/or estrogen receptor antagonists on the emission of 22-kHz calls in male rats. An air puff stimulus, known to reliably induce 22-kHz calls in rats, was used as a stressor. Castrated rats with cholesterol implants exhibited significantly fewer 22-kHz calls than rats that had received a sham operation and cholesterol implants, and there was no significant difference between castrated rats with testosterone implants and rats that had received a sham operation and cholesterol implants. Only male rats pretreated with a binary mixture of androgen and estrogen antagonists exhibited significantly fewer 22-kHz calls than controls. These results show that testosterone in male rats has a positive effect on the emission of stress-induced 22-kHz calls, and the calls may be regulated by the activation of both androgen and estrogen receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. "PRELIMINARY SCREENING FOR THE LEVELS OF TESTOSTERONE HORMONE IN THE MARKET MEAT IN TEHRAN "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Oveisi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Many xenobiotic and natural compounds such as testosterone have been used and sometime misused to improve the growth of cattle and other livestock animals. In order to control the testosterone hormone residues in meat and to ensure the safety of Iranian consumers, a monitoring system must be put in place to address the concerns. The present study was undertaken to detect and quantify the levels of testosterone residue in the market meat. Cattle meat samples were collected randomly from the market in Tehran. A total of 120 samples of cattle meat were analyzed for the level of testosterone by Enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA method. The average experimental value of testosterone in cattle meat was 810.9 ng/kg. The average value of cattle meat testosterone was significantly upper than FDA (Food and Drug Administration allowable level but was in agreement with the values proposed by JESFA (Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives. So it seems that the present status of this anabolic hormone in market meat is not at risk but there is need to routinely monitor this chemical as a food quality control measure.

  16. Cardiovascular complications following chronic treatment with cocaine and testosterone in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engi, Sheila A; Cruz, Fábio C; Leão, Rodrigo M; Spolidorio, Luís C; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C

    2014-01-01

    Concomitant use of anabolic androgenic steroids and cocaine has increased in the last years. However, the effects of chronic exposure to these substances during adolescence on cardiovascular function are unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of treatment for 10 consecutive days with testosterone and cocaine alone or in combination on basal cardiovascular parameters, baroreflex activity, hemodynamic responses to vasoactive agents, and cardiac morphology in adolescent rats. Administration of testosterone alone increased arterial pressure, reduced heart rate (HR), and exacerbated the tachycardiac baroreflex response. Cocaine-treated animals showed resting bradycardia without changes in arterial pressure and baroreflex activity. Combined treatment with testosterone and cocaine did not affect baseline arterial pressure and HR, but reduced baroreflex-mediated tachycardia. None of the treatments affected arterial pressure response to either vasoconstrictor or vasodilator agents. Also, heart to body ratio and left and right ventricular wall thickness were not modified by drug treatments. However, histological analysis of left ventricular sections of animals subjected to treatment with testosterone and cocaine alone and combined showed a greater spacing between cardiac muscle fibers, dilated blood vessels, and fibrosis. These data show important cardiovascular changes following treatment with testosterone in adolescent rats. However, the results suggest that exposure to cocaine alone or combined with testosterone during adolescence minimally affect cardiovascular function.

  17. Review Article: Practical Aspects of Testosterone Deficiency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this review we describe the clinical manifestations associated with testosterone deficiency in aging men, termed the testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS). Since aging men suffer from multiple urological and andrological symptoms, TDS is an important medical condition to be suspected, recognized, clinically ...

  18. [Salivary testosterone and cognitive ability in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostatnikova, D; Dohnanyiova, M; Mataseje, A; Putz, Z; Laznibatova, J; Hajek, J

    2000-01-01

    There are suggestive data with indicate the link of testosterone levels with specific cognitive abilities in humans. As soon as during intrauterine development, testosterone is supposed to influence to organization of fetal specific brain structures. This influence is permanent and it is reflected in cognitive abilities during prepubetal period. In puberty, the testosterone level rapidly increases mainly in boys and it appears to influence the definitive development of cognitive functions. In this paper, results of the first four years of our logitudinal study are presented. Salivary testosterone levels in children were determined, and their effect on spatial ability was studied. Radioimmunoanalytical method of testosterone determination in saliva was developed, since saliva reflects free fraction of testosterone directly available for uptake by receptors in the central nervous system. The sampling of saliva is non-invasive and unstressful, which is important for relevant evaluation of cognitive performance. One hundred and forty-seven children (78 boys and 69 girls) at the ae of 8 to 12 were examined. The data received from intellectually gifted children attending the School for gifted children in Bratislava (100 measurements) were compared with the data received from age-matched children attending randomly chosen elementary schools (151 measurements). Lower salivary testosterone levels were found in intellectually gifted children of both sexes, and negative relationship between testosterone levels and cognitive abilities in preadolescent children was observed.

  19. Effects of testosterone and estradiol on anxiety and depressive-like behavior via a non-genomic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filova, Barbora; Malinova, Maria; Babickova, Janka; Tothova, Lubomira; Ostatnikova, Daniela; Celec, Peter; Hodosy, Julius

    2015-06-01

    Besides their known slow genomic effects, testosterone and estradiol have rapid effects in the brain. However, their impact on mood-related behavior is not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the non-genomic pathway of testosterone and estradiol in the amygdala in relation to anxiety and depressive-like behavior. Sham-operated and gonadectomized male rats (GDX) supplemented with testosterone propionate, estradiol, or olive oil were used. Five minutes after administration, anxiety and depression-like behavior were tested. Estradiol increased anxiolytic behavior in the open-field test compared to the GDX group, but administration of testosterone had no significant effect. Besides, c-Fos expression in the medial nucleus of the amygdala significantly increased after testosterone treatment compared to the GDX group, while no significant difference was observed in the central and the basolateral nuclei of the amygdala in the testosterone-treated group compared to the GDX group. In conclusion, estradiol had an anxiolytic effect via a rapid pathway, but no rapid effect of testosterone on anxiety was found. Further studies elucidating whether the rapid effect is mediated by a non-genomic pathway are needed.

  20. Free Testosterone During Androgen Deprivation Therapy Predicts Castration-Resistant Progression Better Than Total Testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, Lucas; Planas, Jacques; Carles, Joan; Maldonado, Xavier; Comas, Inma; Ferrer, Roser; Morote, Juan

    2017-01-01

    The optimal degree of testosterone suppression in patients with prostate cancer undergoing androgen deprivation therapy remains in question. Furthermore, serum free testosterone, which is the active form of testosterone, seems to correlate with intraprostatic testosterone. Here we compared free and total serum testosterone as predictors of survival free of castration resistance. Total testosterone (chemiluminescent assay, lower sensitivity 10 ng/dl) and free testosterone (analogue-ligand radioimmunoassay, lower sensitivity 0.05 pg/ml) were determined at 6 months of LHRH agonist treatment in a prospective cohort of 126 patients with prostate cancer. During a mean follow-up of 67 months (9-120), 75 (59.5%) events of castration-resistant progression were identified. Multivariate analysis and survival analysis according to total testosterone cutoffs of 50, 32, and 20 ng/dl, and free testosterone cutoffs of 1.7, 1.1, and 0.7 pg/ml were performed. Metastatic spread was the most powerful predictor of castration resistance, HR: 2.09 (95%CI: 1.18-3.72), P = 0.012. Gleason score, baseline PSA and PSA at 6 months were also independents predictors, but not free and total testosterone. Stratified analysis was conducted on the basis of the status of metastatic diseases and free testosterone was found to be an independent predictor of survival free of castration resistance in the subgroup of patients without metastasis, HR: 2.12 (95%CI: 1.16-3.85), P = 0.014. The lowest threshold of free testosterone which showed significant differences was 1.7 pg/ml, P = 0.003. Free testosterone at 6 months of LHRH agonist treatment seems to be a better surrogate than total testosterone to predict castration resistance in no metastatic prostate cancer patients. Prostate 77:114-120, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. [Testosterone therapy improves cardiac function of male rats with right heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zong-Bin; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ju-Xiang; Chen, Xun-Min; Jiang, Shi-Sen

    2009-11-01

    Clinical studies have shown decreased levels of sexual hormones, particularly testosterone deficiency, in men with chronic heart failure (CHF). The authors aimed to investigate the effect of testosterone on cardiac function and the possible mechanism of androgen protecting the heart in male rats. Forty-three male SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: right heart failure (RHF, n = 15), physiologic testosterone treatment (TT, n = 15) and control (n = 13). The RHF group was given intraperitoneal injection of monocrotaline at 60 mg/kg to make RHF models; the TT group was injected with testosterone at 5 mg/kg 3 days after monocrotaline administration; and the control group received equal volume of saline. The CD34+ cells in the peripheral blood of each rat were counted by flow cytometry. The levels of serum testosterone and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) were measured by chemiluminescence immunoassay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The hearts, lungs and livers of all the surviving rats were excised at 6 weeks for pathological and immunohistochemical examinations. The level of serum testosterone was gradually decreased, while that of TNF-alpha obviously increased in the RHF group. After testosterone treatment, the TT group showed a remarkable improvement of cardiac performance and a significant decrease in the level of serum TNF-alpha as compared with the RHF group. Statistically significant differences were observed neither in the CD34+ cell count in the peripheral blood nor in the CD34+ expression of the myocardial cells between the TT and RHF groups. Physiological supplementation of testosterone can improve the cardiac function of RHF male rats, probably through its inhibition of TNF-alpha rather than by autologous mobilization of bone marrow stem cells.

  2. Testosterone Replacement Therapy and the Cardiovascular System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Sahar

    2016-04-01

    As testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) has emerged as a commonly prescribed therapy for symptomatic low testosterone, conflicting data have been reported in terms of both its efficacy and potential adverse outcomes. One of the most controversial associations has been that of TRT and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This review briefly provides background on the history of TRT, the indications for TRT, and the data behind TRT for symptomatic low testosterone. It then specifically delves into the rather limited data for cardiovascular outcomes of those with low endogenous testosterone and those who receive TRT. The available body of literature strongly suggests that more work, by way of clinical trials, needs to be done to better understand the impact of testosterone and TRT on the cardiovascular system.

  3. [Testosterone deficiency, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Miró, Mercè; Chillarón, Juan J; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    2016-01-15

    Testosterone deficiency in adult age is associated with a decrease in libido, energy, hematocrit, muscle mass and bone mineral density, as well as with depression. More recently, testosterone deficiency has also been associated with various components of the metabolic syndrome, which in turn is associated with a five-fold increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease. Low testosterone levels are associated with increased insulin resistance, increase in fat mass, low HDL cholesterol, higher triglyceride levels and hypertension. Testosterone replacement therapy in patients with testosterone deficiency and type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or metabolic syndrome has shown reductions in insulin resistance, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides and improvement in glycemic control and anthropometric parameters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Data communication between data terminal equipment and the JPL administrative data base management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Approaches to enabling an installed base of mixed data terminal equipment to access a data base management system designed to work with a specific terminal are discussed. The approach taken by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory is described. Background information on the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), its organization and a description of the Administrative Data Base Management System is included.

  5. Comparison of pharmacy-based and diagnosis-based comorbidity measures from medical administrative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortaredona, Sébastien; Pambrun, Elodie; Verdoux, Hélène; Verger, Pierre

    2017-04-01

    Health status is sometimes quantified by chronic condition (CC) scores calculated from medical administrative data. We sought to modify two pharmacy-based comorbidity measures and compare their performance in predicting hospitalization and/or death. The reference was a diagnosis-based score. One of the two measures applied an updated approach linking specific ATC codes of dispensed drugs to 22 CCs; the other used a list of 37 drug categories, without linking them to specific CCs. Using logistic regressions that took repeated measures into account and hospitalization and/or death the following year as the outcome, we assigned weights to each CC/drug category. Comorbidity scores were calculated as the weighted sum of the 22 CCs/37 drug categories. We compared the performance of both measures in predicting hospitalization and/or death with that of a diagnosis-based score based on 30 groups of long-term illnesses (LTIs), a status granted in France to exempt beneficiaries with chronic diseases from copayments. We assessed the predictive performance of the scores with the quasi-likelihood under the independence model criterion (QIC), the c statistic and the Brier score. The two pharmacy-based scores performed better than the LTI score, with lower QIC and Brier scores and higher c statistics. Their predictive performance was very similar. While there is no clear consensus or recommendations about the optimal choice of comorbidity measure, both pharmacy-based scores may be useful for limiting confounding in observational studies among general populations of adults from health insurance databases. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Effect of testosterone on oxidative stress and cell damage induced by 3-nitropropionic acid in striatum of ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Túnez, Isaac; Feijóo, Montserrat; Collado, Juan A; Medina, Francisco J; Peña, José; Muñoz, María del C; Jimena, Ignacio; Franco, Francisco; Rueda, Ignacio; Muntané, Jordi; Montilla, Pedro

    2007-03-06

    This paper evaluates the effects of testosterone (0.5 mg/kg subcutaneously (s.c.) for 8 days) on oxidative stress and cell damage induced by 3-nitropropionic acid (20 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 4 days) in ovariectomized rats. Gonadectomy triggered oxidative damage and cell loss, evaluated by the detection of caspase-3, whereas 3-nitropropionic acid increased the levels of oxidative stress induced by ovariectomy and prompted cell damage characterized by enhanced levels of lactate dehydrogenase. These changes were blocked by testosterone administration. Our results support the following conclusions: i) ovariectomy triggers oxidative and cell damage via caspase-3 in the striatum; ii) 3-nitropropionic acid exacerbates oxidative stress induced by ovariectomy and leads to cell damage characterized by increased levels of lactate dehydrogenase; iii) testosterone administration decreases oxidative stress and cell damage. Additionally, these data support the hypothesis that testosterone might play an important role in the onset and development of neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. Influence of paradoxical sleep deprivation and sleep recovery on testosterone level in rats of different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Mi Mi; Kim, Jin Wook; Jin, Myeong Heon; Kim, Je Jong; Moon, Du Geon

    2012-03-01

    This study was performed to assess serum testosterone alterations induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) and to verify their attenuation during sleep recovery (SR) based on different durations and ages. Wistar male rats aged 12 weeks for the younger group and 20 weeks for the elder group were randomly distributed into one of the following groups: a control group (cage and platform), 3-day SD, 5-day SD, 7-day SD, 1-day SR, 3-day SR and 5-day SR groups. For PSD, the modified multiple platform method was used to specifically limit rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Differences in the testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels between the younger group and the elder group according to duration of PSD and SR recovery were analysed. Testosterone continued to fall during the sleep deprivation period in a time-dependent manner in both the younger (P=0.001, correlation coefficient r=-0.651) and elder groups (P=0.001, correlation coefficient r=-0.840). The elder group showed a significantly lower level of testosterone compared with the younger group after PSD. Upon SR after 3 days of PSD, the testosterone level continued to rise for 5 days after sleep recovery in the younger group (P=0.013), whereas testosterone concentrations failed to recover until day 5 in the elder group. PSD caused a more detrimental effect on serum testosterone in the elder group compared to the younger group with respect to decreases in luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. The replenishment of serum testosterone level was prohibited in the elder group suggesting that the effects of SD/SR may be age-dependent. The mechanism by which SD affects serum testosterone and how age may modify the process are still unclear.

  8. Is Free Testosterone Concentration a Prognostic Factor of Survival in Chronic Renal Failure (CRF)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemczyk, Stanislaw; Niemczyk, Longin; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Bartoszewicz, Zbigniew; Romejko-Ciepielewska, Katarzyna; Gomółka, Malgorzata; Saracyn, Marek; Matuszkiewicz-Rowińska, Joanna

    2015-11-07

    Lowered testosterone level in CRF patients is associated with elevated risk of death due to cardiovascular reasons, and is influenced by many factors, including acid-base balance disorders. evaluation of testoste-rone concentration (TT) and free testosterone concentration (fT) in pre-dialysis and dialysis patients; assessment of TT and fT relationships with biochemical parameters; evaluation of prognostic importance of TT and fT in predicting patient survival. 4 groups of men: 14 - on hemodialysis (HD), 13 - on peritoneal dialysis (PD), 9 - with chronic renal failure (CRF) and 8 - healthy (CG), aged 56±17, 53±15, 68±12, 43±10 years, respectively. TT and biochemical para-meters were measured; fT was calculated. The lowest TT and fT were observed in HD and CRF, the highest - in CG (p=0.035 for TT; p=0.007 for fT). fT in CRF and CG were different (p=0.031). TT and age was associated in HD (p=0.026). Age and fT was strongly associated in PD (pfree testosterone in decompensated acidosis was observed (ptrend=0.027). Such a trend was not seen for testosterone concentrations (ptrend=0.107). Total and free testosterone levels were lower in HD and pre-dialysis than in healthy patients. Free testost-erone level may predict long-term survival better than age. Total and free testosterone levels are lower in metabolic acidosis and total and free testosterone levels were positively associated with HCO3 level.

  9. Marital sex frequency and midcycle female testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, N M; Udry, J R; Khan-Dawood, F; Dawood, M Y

    1987-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to attempt to replicate a finding of Persky et al. (1978) that midcycle peak values of testosterone (T) in women predicted differences in frequency of intercourse among married couples. Luteinizing hormone (LH), total testosterone (TT), and free testosterone (FT) values from 10 to 14 daily midcycle blood samples donated by 43 volunteering wives were analyzed against sexual activity patterns reported by the couples over a longer period of time. All couples were contracepting by means other than exogenous hormones or the rhythm method. Each morning through three menstrual cycles husbands and wives recorded independently and on separate forms answers to a series of questions concerning sexual activity in the previous 24 hr. Wives also recorded basal body temperatures (BBT). We designated midcycle values of TT and FT according to several definitions of midcycle. Total testosterone levels at the day of the BBT nadir and the day before the nadir correlated significantly with average intercourse frequency. Correlations with FT were statistically significant regardless of which midcycle measure was used; the day before the BBT nadir gave the highest correlation, 0.618, p = 0.01. Mean testosterone (TT or FT) values were not significantly related. We conclude that female midcycle total testosterone or free testosterone is indexing some unobserved event that affects the frequency of intercourse of couples. We speculate that this event affects the motivation of females, which influences the set point of the compromise frequency characteristic of couples.

  10. Testosterone and cardiovascular disease in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Paul D; Channer, Kevin S

    2012-01-01

    Despite regional variations in the prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD), men are consistently more at risk of developing and dying from CAD than women, and the gender-specific effects of sex hormones are implicated in this inequality. This ‘Perspectives' article reviews the current evidence regarding the cardiovascular effects of testosterone in men including an examination of the age-related decline in testosterone, the relationship between testosterone levels and coronary disease, coronary risk factors and mortality. We also review the vaso-active effects of testosterone, and discuss how these have been used in men with heart failure and angina. We discuss the ‘cause' versus ‘effect' controversy, regarding low testosterone levels in men with coronary heart disease, as well as concerns over the use of testosterone replacement therapy in middle aged and elderly men. The article concludes with a discussion regarding the future direction for work in this interesting area, including the relative merits of screening for, and treating hypogonadism with testosterone replacement therapy in men with heart disease. PMID:22522504

  11. Testosterone and aggressive behavior in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batrinos, Menelaos L

    2012-01-01

    Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization. There is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behavior, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes. Several field studies have also shown that testosterone levels increase during the aggressive phases of sports games. In more sensitive laboratory paradigms, it has been observed that participant's testosterone rises in the winners of; competitions, dominance trials or in confrontations with factitious opponents. Aggressive behavior arises in the brain through interplay between subcortical structures in the amygdala and the hypothalamus in which emotions are born and the prefrontal cognitive centers where emotions are perceived and controlled. The action of testosterone on the brain begins in the embryonic stage. Earlier in development at the DNA level, the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene seems to play a role in the expression of aggressive behavior. Neuroimaging techniques in adult males have shown that testosterone activates the amygdala enhancing its emotional activity and its resistance to prefrontal restraining control. This effect is opposed by the action of cortisol which facilitates prefrontal area cognitive control on impulsive tendencies aroused in the subcortical structures. The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors, and with the intervention of this neurotransmitter the major agents of the neuroendocrine

  12. Restoring testosterone levels by adding dehydroepiandrosterone to a drospirenone containing combined oral contraceptive : II. Clinical effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmerman, Y.; Foidart, J. M.; Pintiaux, A.; Minon, J. M.; Fauser, B. C J M; Cobey, K.; Coelingh Bennink, H. J T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) decrease androgen levels, including testosterone (T), which may be associated with sexual dysfunction and mood complaints in some women. We have shown that 'co-administration' of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to a drospirenone (DRSP)-containing COC

  13. Restoring testosterone levels by adding dehydroepiandrosterone to a drospirenone containing combined oral contraceptive : I. Endocrine effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmerman, Y.; Foidart, J. M.; Pintiaux, A.; Minon, J. M.; Fauser, B. C J M; Cobey, K.; Coelingh Bennink, H. J T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) decrease testosterone (T) levels. This study investigated restoration of T and other androgen concentrations during COC use by 'co-administration' of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Study design In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

  14. Quantitative determination of testosterone levels with biolayer interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Wei; Luo, Hong; Xiong, Guangming; Yu, Yuanhua

    2017-10-01

    Natural and synthetic steroid hormones are widely spread in the environment and are considered as pollutants due to their endocrine activities, even at low concentrations, which are harmful to human health. To detect steroid hormones in the environment, a novel biosensor system was developed based on the principle of biolayer interferometry. Detection is based on changes in the interference pattern of white light reflected from the surface of an optical fiber with bound biomolecules. Monitoring interactions between molecules does not require radioactive, enzymatic, or fluorescent labels. Here, 2 double-stranded DNA fragments of operator 1 (OP1) and OP2 containing 10-bp palindromic sequences in chromosomal Comamonas testosteroni DNA (ATCC11996) were surface-immobilized to streptavidin sensors. Interference changes were detected when repressor protein RepA bound the DNA sequences. DNA-protein interactions were characterized and kinetic parameters were obtained. The dissociation constants between the OP1 and OP2 DNA sequences and RepA were 9.865 × 10-9 M and 2.750 × 10-8 M, respectively. The reactions showed high specifically and affinity. Because binding of the 10-bp palindromic sequence and RepA was affected by RepA-testosterone binding, the steroid could be quantitatively determined rapidly using the biosensor system. The mechanism of the binding assay was as follows. RepA could bind both OP1 and testosterone. RepA binding to testosterone changed the protein conformation, which influenced the binding between RepA and OP1. The percentage of the signal detected negative correlation with the testosterone concentration. A standard curve was obtained, and the correlation coefficient value was approximately 0.97. We could quantitatively determine testosterone levels between 2.13 and 136.63 ng/ml. Each sample could be quantitatively detected in 17 min. These results suggested that the specific interaction between double-stranded OP1 DNA and the RepA protein

  15. Non-classical actions of testosterone and spermatogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, William H.

    2010-01-01

    Testosterone is essential to maintain spermatogenesis and male fertility. In the absence of testosterone stimulation, spermatogenesis does not proceed beyond the meiosis stage. After withdrawal of testosterone, germ cells that have progressed beyond meiosis detach from supporting Sertoli cells and die, whereas mature sperm cannot be released from Sertoli cells resulting in infertility. The classical mechanism of testosterone action in which testosterone activates gene transcription by causing...

  16. Effect of Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Combined with Testosterone Treatment on Cardiovascular Function in Rats: Influence of Exercise Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engi, Sheila A; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of voluntary ethanol consumption combined with testosterone treatment on cardiovascular function in rats. Moreover, we investigated the influence of exercise training on these effects. To this end, male rats were submitted to low-intensity training on a treadmill or kept sedentary while concurrently being treated with ethanol for 6 weeks. For voluntary ethanol intake, rats were given access to two bottles, one containing ethanol and other containing water, three 24-hour sessions per week. In the last two weeks (weeks 5 and 6), animals underwent testosterone treatment concurrently with exercise training and exposure to ethanol. Ethanol consumption was not affected by either testosterone treatment or exercise training. Also, drug treatments did not influence the treadmill performance improvement evoked by training. However, testosterone alone, but not in combination with ethanol, reduced resting heart rate. Moreover, combined treatment with testosterone and ethanol reduced the pressor response to the selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Treatment with either testosterone or ethanol alone also affected baroreflex activity and enhanced depressor response to acetylcholine, but these effects were inhibited when drugs were coadministrated. Exercise training restored most cardiovascular effects evoked by drug treatments. Furthermore, both drugs administrated alone increased pressor response to phenylephrine in trained animals. Also, drug treatments inhibited the beneficial effects of training on baroreflex function. In conclusion, the present results suggest a potential interaction between toxic effects of testosterone and ethanol on cardiovascular function. Data also indicate that exercise training is an important factor influencing the effects of these substances.

  17. Testosterone Reduces Knee Passive Range of Motion and Expression of Relaxin Receptor Isoforms via 5α-Dihydrotestosterone and Androgen Receptor Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouzeh Dehghan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ovarian steroids such as estrogen and progesterone have been reported to influence knee laxity. The effect of testosterone, however, remains unknown. This study investigated the effect of testosterone on the knee range of motion (ROM and the molecular mechanisms that might involve changes in the expression of relaxin receptor isoforms, Rxfp1 and Rxfp2 in the patella tendon and lateral collateral ligament of the female rat knee. Ovariectomized adult female Wistar rats received three days treatment with peanut oil (control, testosterone (125 and 250 μg/kg and testosterone (125 and 250 μg/kg plus flutamide, an androgen receptor blocker or finasteride, a 5α-reductase inhibitor. Duplicate groups received similar treatment however in the presence of relaxin (25 ng/kg. A day after the last drug injection, knee passive ROM was measured by using a digital miniature goniometer. Both tendon and ligament were harvested and then analysed for protein and mRNA expression for Rxfp1 and Rxfp2 respectively. Knee passive ROM, Rxfp1 and Rxfp2 expression were significantly reduced following treatment with testosterone. Flutamide or finasteride administration antagonized the testosterone effect. Concomitant administration of testosterone and relaxin did not result in a significant change in knee ROM as compared to testosterone only treatment; however this was significantly increased following flutamide or finasteride addition. Testosterone effect on knee passive ROM is likely mediated via dihydro-testosterone (DHT, and involves downregulation of Rxfp1 and Rxfp2 expression, which may provide the mechanism underlying testosterone-induced decrease in female knee laxity.

  18. Kinetics of removal of intravenous testosterone pulses in normal men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhuis, Johannes D; Keenan, Daniel M; Liu, Peter Y; Takahashi, Paul Y

    2010-04-01

    Testosterone is secreted into the bloodstream episodically, putatively distributing into total, bioavailable (bio) nonsex hormone-binding globulin (nonSHBG-bound), and free testosterone moieties. The kinetics of total, bio, and free testosterone pulses are unknown. Design Adrenal and gonadal steroidogenesis was blocked pharmacologically, glucocorticoid was replaced, and testosterone was infused in pulses in four distinct doses in 14 healthy men under two different paradigms (a total of 220 testosterone pulses). Testosterone kinetics were assessed by deconvolution analysis of total, free, bioavailable, SHBG-bound, and albumin-bound testosterone concentration-time profiles. Independently of testosterone dose or paradigm, rapid-phase half-lives (min) of total, free, bioavailable, SHBG-bound, and albumin-bound testosterone were comparable at 1.4+/-0.22 min (grand mean+/-S.E.M. of geometric means). Slow-phase testosterone half-lives were highest for SHBG-bound testosterone (32 min) and total testosterone (27 min) with the former exceeding that of free testosterone (18 min), bioavailable testosterone (14 min), and albumin-bound testosterone (18 min; Pmimicry of physiological pulses, and deconvolution analysis may have utility in estimating the in vivo kinetics of other hormones, substrates, and metabolites.

  19. the effect of orchidectomy and administration of testosterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    20 g/day of Mouse Comproid meal (Rhomil, Ltd., Salis- bury) (Ration B) ... These differences were greater for rats fed Ration A than .... ly in excess (P < 0,00 I) of the level noted in control intact rats as regards mass of secondary sex organs. No difference in androgenic potency was detectable between the two steroids used.

  20. Performance-based Reward Administration Enhancing Employees’ Feelings of Interactional Justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Ismail

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The transformation in international business landscape has changed organizational management especially reward administration. This is done in order to maintain the organization’s competitiveness in global market place. In the field of reward administration, an emerging trend can be observed whereby most organizations are moving toward the application of psychological elements in administering organizational reward system. The ultimate objective of this study is to investigate the association between performance-based reward administration and interactional justice. The proposed model was empirically tested using a sample of 113 employees from fire and rescue agency in Peninsular Malaysia. This study found an evidence that performance-based reward administration (i.e., communication, participation and performance appraisal is positively and significantly associated with interactional justice. This findings proves that the ability of administrators to appropriately implement communication openness, inspire participative decision-making and organize fairness performance appraisal in administering performance-based reward have significantly evoked the feeling of interactional justice when employees perceived that they are being fairly treated in the reward system.

  1. Relationship between Testosterone, Oxidative Stress Biomarkers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypogonadism attributable to males with metabolic syndrome was also observed in automechanics occupationally exposed to mixed chemicals accompanied by oxidative stress (OS). We evaluated associations among testosterone, OS biomarkers, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in normal weight ...

  2. Testosterone and disinhibited personality in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluja, Anton; García, Luis F; García, Óscar; Blanco, Eduardo

    2016-10-01

    The relationship among testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT), bioavailable testosterone (BT) and personality were studied in a sample of 105 healthy males (26.71±9.68years old). The possible effects of age and other hormones, such as luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and albumin (ALB) were controlled. Personality was assessed by the novelty seeking scale of Cloninger's Temperament-Character Inventory (TCI), and a reduced version of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ). Main results show that there is a weak association among three measures of testosterone with novelty seeking, sociability and, to a lesser extent, with impulsive sensation seeking. Our data, as expected, confirmed previous results and also suggest that these relationships are strongly affected by the age variable. LH, FSH and SHBG hormones play no role in the reported relationships. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A cross-sectional pilot study to determine the prevalence of testosterone deficiency syndrome in working population of Indian men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apul Goel

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the prevalence of testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS in healthy Indian men employed in a hospital aged above 40 years. Materials and Methods: A general medical health check-up camp was organized for all male employees above 40 years age working in surgical departments. After clinical history and systemic inquiry, subjects were requested to fill the St. Louis University′s ADAM Questionnaire based on which the total and free-serum testosterone estimation was then done. Results: One hundred fifty seven healthy volunteers enrolled for the study (mean age 53.1 years; range 40-60. The androgen decline in the aging male (ADAM Questionnaire detected 106 men (67.5% to be symptomatic for TDS. Serum testosterone estimation in these subjects revealed 41/106 to have low free-serum testosterone levels and 32/106 to have low total-serum testosterone. In 11 and 6 cases, respectively, the serum free- and total-testosterone levels were found to be low although the subjects were asymptomatic for TDS. Conclusions: The prevalence of symptomatic biochemical hypogonadism was 26.1%. The higher prevalence of symptoms alone of TDS was unusual. It could be because of the nature of the questionnaire. Free-serum testosterone may be a better single test to diagnose symptomatic hypogonadism than total-serum testosterone.

  4. The Association of Serum Testosterone Levels and Urinary Incontinence in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Michelle M; Kreydin, Evgeniy I

    2017-08-26

    Pelvic floor integrity is an important predictor of stress urinary incontinence. Androgen receptors have been found in the pelvic floor musculature and fascia, and testosterone administration has been shown to increase levator ani hypertrophy and improve stress incontinence in a rodent model. We examined the relationship between serum total testosterone levels and self-reported urinary incontinence in women. We included women older than 20 years in the 2012 NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) cycle who underwent serum total testosterone measurement and answered self-reported urinary incontinence questions. A weighted, multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine the association between incontinence and serum testosterone levels after adjusting for age, body mass index, diabetes, race, parity, menopause and time of venipuncture. A total of 2,321 women were included in analysis, of whom 37.5% had stress incontinence, 29.8% had urge incontinence and 16.4% had mixed incontinence. Women in the lowest quartile of serum testosterone were more likely to complain of stress and mixed incontinence (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.03-2.12 and OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.23-2.22, respectively). No association was noted between serum testosterone levels and urge incontinence. Low serum testosterone is associated with an increased likelihood of stress and mixed incontinence in women. Given the role of pelvic musculature in maintaining urethral support and the anabolic effect of androgens on skeletal muscle, a physiological mechanism for this relationship can be proposed and further evaluated in prospective and translational studies. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Acne fulminans following high-dose testosterone treatment in tall boys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Mühlendahl, K E; Brämswig, J; Traupe, H; Happle, R

    1989-05-05

    In three boys, aged 12.5, 14 and 16 years, respectively, acne of the fulminans type developed after eight to twelve months' administration of 250 mg testosterone weekly or 500 mg every second week. Numerous deep and painful pustules grew, dominantly on the chest and back, in one of the boys also in the face. In addition fever and fatiguability set in, as well as bone and joint pains in some. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and leukocyte counts were raised. Testosterone was at once discontinued and isotretinoin, in one boy also antibiotics, administered, this treatment lasting for 8 to 13 months. All three boys were left with disfiguring scars. Before testosterone is given to arrest growth in tall boys both patient and parents should be told of these potentially severe side effects.

  6. [Influence of water fluoride exposure on sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone in adult male].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tong; Yang, Rupu; Li, Shihong; Zheng, Guoqing; Xi, Yu; Cheng, Xuemin; Hou, Jiaxiang; Cui, Liuxin; Ba, Yue

    2013-03-01

    To explore the influence of water fluoride exposure on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and testosterone in adult male. Cross-sectional study was conducted in three villages of Tongxu county including high fluoride group (HFG), defluoridation project group (DFPG) and control group (CG) based on the fluoride concentration in drinking water. Adult male who were born and raised in the village and aged 18 - 50 years old were recruited using cluster sampling. Fasting blood and morning urine samples were collected. The fluoride levels in drinking water and urine were detected by fluoride-ion selective electrode method. Serum SHBG level was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The chemical luminescence immune analysis method was used to detect serum testosterone content. Serum SHBG level was 47.85 nmol/L in CG, 31.37 nmol/L in DFPG and 24.52 nmol/L in HFG respectively. There were significant difference among of three groups (P < 0.05). Serum testosterone level was 3.69 ng/ml in CG, 4.61 ng/ml in DFPG and 4.83 ng/ml in HFG respectively. Serum testosterone level in HFG was significantly higher than that in CG (P < 0.05). Serum SHBG level in HFG has positive correlation with serum testosterone (r = 0.230, P = 0.049), which has not been observed in DFPG and CG. Long-time fluorine exposure may affect serum SHBG and testosterone level in adult male.

  7. Effect of Isopropyl Myristate on Transdermal Permeation of Testosterone From Carbopol Gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Ahmed S; Kamal, Nahid; Alayoubi, Alaadin; Seggel, Mark; Ibrahim, Sarah; Rahman, Ziyaur; Cruz, Celia N; Ashraf, Muhammad

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of isopropyl myristate (IPM) on the in vitro permeation of testosterone through human cadaver skin from carbopol gels. Six testosterone gel formulations were prepared using different IPM contents of 0%, 0.4%, 0.7%, 1%, 2%, and 3%. The gels were characterized for drug permeation, matrix morphology, pH, kinetics of ethanol evaporation, and viscosity. Mass balance studies were performed to estimate testosterone distribution among the compartments of diffusion cells. All formulations exhibited pH values of 5.1 and viscosities of 1.25-1.75 Pa.s depending on IPM contents. Under occlusive condition, testosterone flux was found to increase significantly (p testosterone flux. Mass balance analysis showed that testosterone was in a saturated state in the skin. Conducting permeation experiments under nonocclusive condition was nondiscriminating because of the evaporation of alcohol and consequent precipitation of drugs. Based on demonstrated effect of IPM on product performance, the final IPM concentration should be controlled with minimal variation during manufacturing and shelf life of drug product. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. The Knowledge Base of Non-Native English-Speaking Teachers: Perspectives of Teachers and Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengjuan; Zhan, Ju

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the knowledge base of non-native English-speaking teachers (NNESTs) working in the Canadian English as a second language (ESL) context. By examining NNESTs' experiences in seeking employment and teaching ESL in Canada, and investigating ESL program administrators' perceptions and hiring practices in relation to NNESTs, it…

  9. A Study on Components of Internal Control-Based Administrative System in Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montri, Paitoon; Sirisuth, Chaiyuth; Lammana, Preeda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to study the components of the internal control-based administrative system in secondary schools, and make a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) to confirm the goodness of fit of empirical data and component model that resulted from the CFA. The study consisted of three steps: 1) studying of principles, ideas, and theories…

  10. Testosterone increases renal anti-aging klotho gene expression via the androgen receptor-mediated pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shih-Che; Huang, Shih-Ming; Lin, Shih-Hua; Ka, Shuk-Man; Chen, Ann; Shih, Meng-Fu; Hsu, Yu-Juei

    2014-12-01

    Gender is known to be associated with longevity and oestrogen administration induced longevity-associated gene expression is one of the potential mechanisms underlying the benefits of oestrogen on lifespan, whereas the role of testosterone in the regulation of longevity-associated gene expressions remains largely unclear. The klotho gene, predominantly expressed in the kidney, has recently been discovered to be an aging suppressor gene. In the present study, we investigated the regulatory effects of testosterone on renal klotho gene expression in vivo and in vitro. In testosterone-administered mouse kidney and NRK-52E cells, increased klotho expression was accompanied by the up-regulation of the nuclear androgen receptor (AR). Overexpression of AR enhanced the expression of klotho mRNA and protein. Conversely, testosterone-induced klotho expression was attenuated in the presence of flutamide, an AR antagonist. A reporter assay and a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay demonstrated that AR directly binds to the klotho promoter via androgen response elements (AREs) which reconfirmed its importance for AR binding via the element mutation. In summary, our study demonstrates that testosterone up-regulates anti-aging klotho together with AR expression in the kidney in vivo and in vitro by recruiting AR on to the AREs of the klotho promoter.

  11. Cross-sensitization between testosterone and cocaine in adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engi, Sheila A; Cruz, Fabio C; Crestani, Carlos C; Planeta, Cleopatra S

    2015-11-01

    Cocaine and anabolic-androgenic steroids are substances commonly co-abused. The use of anabolic steroids and cocaine has increased among adolescents. However, few studies investigated the consequences of the interaction between anabolic-androgenic steroids in animals' model of adolescence. We examined the effects of acute and repeated testosterone administration on cocaine-induced locomotor activity in adult and adolescent rats. Rats received ten once-daily subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of testosterone (10mg/kg) or vehicle. Three days after the last testosterone or vehicle injections rats received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) challenge injection of either saline or cocaine (10mg/kg). A different subset of rats was treated with a single injection of testosterone (10mg/kg) or vehicle and three days later was challenged with cocaine (10mg/kg, i.p.) or saline. Immediately after cocaine or saline injections the locomotor activity was recorded during forty minutes. Our results demonstrated that repeated testosterone induced locomotor sensitization to cocaine in adolescent but not adult rats. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Effect of Testosterone on Carrageenone Induced Inflammation in Gonadectomized Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zarifkar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Different nociceptive and inflammatory responses to noxious stimuli in male and female animals imply that sex hormones may affect on inflammatory factors, induction and intensity of the inflammation. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of testosterone administration on carrageenone induced inflammation in gonadectomized male rats. Materials & methods: Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n=8. 1-The control rats without receiving any drug or surgical operation. 2-The sham – operated animals with surgical stress. 3-The gonadectomized rats, receiving 0.5 ml vehicle (olive oil i.p. 4-The gonadectomized rats, receiving testosterone enantate (6 mg/100 gr body weight in 0.5 ml vehicle i.p.. At the sixth day of gonadectomy operation, inflammation was induced by injection of 1% carrageenone in the right hind paw of rats. Edematous paw volume as an index of inflammation was determined by immersing it into the mercury container. Weight of paw in the mercury was measured and then the paw volume was calculated in relation to specific gravity of mercury (13.6gm/ml. Data were statistically analyzed by SPSS software using ANOVA. Results: The results showed that edematous paw volume significantly was reduced in testosterone enantate administrated gonadectomized rats compared to the control group (P<0.01. Conclusion: It can be concluded that high dose of testosterone causes attenuation of inflammatory response. The testosterone anti-inflammatory effect is probably due to inhibition of inflammatory factors (Interleukins production or decrease in receptors of inflammatory factors. Keywords: Testosterone, Carrageenone, Inflammation, Rats

  13. SB223412, a neurokinin-3 receptor-selective antagonist, suppresses testosterone secretion in male guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sho; Ito, Yoshiko; Yamamoto, Koki; Takahashi, Chudai; Dai, Mingdao; Tanahashi, Miyu; Uenoyama, Yoshihisa; Tsukamura, Hiroko; Oishi, Shinya; Maeda, Kei-Ichiro; Matsuda, Fuko

    2017-10-15

    Guinea pigs are important zoo animals and have been recommended for animal-assisted activities or therapy, however there are problems concerning testosterone inducing aggressive or sexual behaviors in male guinea pigs. Testicular testosterone secretion is regulated by pulsatile gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)/luteinizing hormone (LH) release in mammals. The mechanism generating GnRH/LH pulses is thought to be governed by kisspeptin neurons, which coexpress neurokinin B (NKB) and dynorphin A (Dyn), in the arcuate nucleus (ARC). Kisspeptin neurons in the ARC are frequently referred to as KNDy neurons. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the antagonization of NKB-neurokinin-3 receptor (NK3R) signaling can manipulate testosterone secretion in male guinea pigs. A single subcutaneous administration or 7 days of oral administration of an NK3R-selective antagonist, SB223412 (50 mg/body), significantly decreased plasma testosterone levels in male guinea pigs. In vitro binding assays confirmed that SB223412 has a high affinity to guinea pig NK3R. These results suggest that SB223412 could be used as an orally-available compound to suppress testosterone levels in male guinea pigs. Double labeling in situ hybridization of kisspeptin and either NKB or Dyn showed that kisspeptin-expressing neurons contained NKB (77.9%) or Dyn (62.3%) in the ARC, suggesting the presence of KNDy neurons in the ARC of guinea pigs. In conclusion, the present study shows that SB223412 could be a candidate compound to suppress testosterone secretion in male guinea pigs for controlling sexual and aggressive behaviors in the species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Total testosterone in young men is more closely associated than free testosterone with prostate cancer disparities

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado, Louis Calistro

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Early adulthood has been suggested as the most relevant time to determine the influence of testosterone on prostate carcinogenesis. For a more detailed assessment of this hypothesis, the present study examined whether serum total or free testosterone in young men was more closely associated with prostate cancer disparities.

  15. A testosterone specific competitive enzyme immunoassay for monitoring water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uraipong, Chatchaporn; Wong, Victor; Lee, Nanju Alice

    2013-05-01

    Testosterone, an androgen and a primary male sex hormone, migrates through the environment in ways which could pose a threat to water quality and, subsequently, environmental and human health. This paper describes the development of a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that is capable of measuring testosterone with high specificity. The testosterone ELISA displayed the IC20 (as the limit of detection) and IC50 values of 0.05 ± 0.01 μg L(-1) and 0.33 ± 0.18 μg L(-1), respectively. In addition, the assay showed metal ions, pH, and high humic acids, and sample clean-up to remove such interference was necessary before analysis. The analyses of 50 surface water samples collected in rural and urban areas in New South Wales, Australia showed that ELISA results correlated well with the androgenic activity measured by the recombinant yeast-based androgen screen assay.

  16. Developing a stroke severity index based on administrative data was feasible using data mining techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Sheng-Feng; Hsieh, Cheng-Yang; Kao Yang, Yea-Huei; Lin, Huey-Juan; Chen, Chih-Hung; Chen, Yu-Wei; Hu, Ya-Han

    2015-11-01

    Case-mix adjustment is difficult for stroke outcome studies using administrative data. However, relevant prescription, laboratory, procedure, and service claims might be surrogates for stroke severity. This study proposes a method for developing a stroke severity index (SSI) by using administrative data. We identified 3,577 patients with acute ischemic stroke from a hospital-based registry and analyzed claims data with plenty of features. Stroke severity was measured using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). We used two data mining methods and conventional multiple linear regression (MLR) to develop prediction models, comparing the model performance according to the Pearson correlation coefficient between the SSI and the NIHSS. We validated these models in four independent cohorts by using hospital-based registry data linked to a nationwide administrative database. We identified seven predictive features and developed three models. The k-nearest neighbor model (correlation coefficient, 0.743; 95% confidence interval: 0.737, 0.749) performed slightly better than the MLR model (0.742; 0.736, 0.747), followed by the regression tree model (0.737; 0.731, 0.742). In the validation cohorts, the correlation coefficients were between 0.677 and 0.725 for all three models. The claims-based SSI enables adjusting for disease severity in stroke studies using administrative data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Administrating Solr

    CERN Document Server

    Mohan, Surendra

    2013-01-01

    A fast-paced, example-based guide to learning how to administrate, monitor, and optimize Apache Solr.""Administrating Solr"" is for developers and Solr administrators who have a basic knowledge of Solr and who are looking for ways to keep their Solr server healthy and well maintained. A basic working knowledge of Apache Lucene is recommended, but this is not mandatory.

  18. Fourteen days oral administration of therapeutic dosage of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fourteen days oral administration of therapeutic dosage of some antibiotics reduced serum testosterone in male rats. FO Awobajo, Y Raji, II Olatunji-Bello, FT Kunle-Alabi, AO Adesanya, TO Awobajo ...

  19. Adult testosterone and calculated free testosterone reference ranges by tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, S M; Hocking, R; Biswas, M; Turkes, A; Rees, D; Rees, D A; Evans, C

    2013-03-01

    Testosterone is measured for the investigation of female hyperandrogenism and male hypogonadism. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (tandem MS) is becoming the method of choice but comprehensive reference ranges are lacking. Testosterone was measured by tandem MS on 90 healthy women, 67 young healthy men and pregnant women (59 first trimester and 60 second trimester). The male, male calculated free, first trimester and second trimester testosterone reference ranges (derived using the antilog of mean ± 1.96 SD of log transformed data) were 10.6-31.9, 0.23-0.63, 0.6-4.9 and 0.9-4.9 nmol/L, respectively. The female testosterone upper reference range limit, derived non-parametrically from the 97.5th centile, was testosterone reference ranges to support clinical services.

  20. In vivo dentate nucleus MRI relaxometry correlates with previous administration of Gadolinium-based contrast agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedeschi, Enrico; Canna, Antonietta; Cocozza, Sirio; Russo, Carmela; Angelini, Valentina; Brunetti, Arturo [University ' ' Federico II' ' , Neuroradiology, Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Naples (Italy); Palma, Giuseppe; Quarantelli, Mario [National Research Council, Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, Naples (Italy); Borrelli, Pasquale; Salvatore, Marco [IRCCS SDN, Naples (Italy); Lanzillo, Roberta; Postiglione, Emanuela; Morra, Vincenzo Brescia [University ' ' Federico II' ' , Department of Neurosciences, Reproductive and Odontostomatological Sciences, Naples (Italy)

    2016-12-15

    To evaluate changes in T1 and T2* relaxometry of dentate nuclei (DN) with respect to the number of previous administrations of Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCA). In 74 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS) patients with variable disease duration (9.8±6.8 years) and severity (Expanded Disability Status Scale scores:3.1±0.9), the DN R1 (1/T1) and R2* (1/T2*) relaxation rates were measured using two unenhanced 3D Dual-Echo spoiled Gradient-Echo sequences with different flip angles. Correlations of the number of previous GBCA administrations with DN R1 and R2* relaxation rates were tested, including gender and age effect, in a multivariate regression analysis. The DN R1 (normalized by brainstem) significantly correlated with the number of GBCA administrations (p<0.001), maintaining the same significance even when including MS-related factors. Instead, the DN R2* values correlated only with age (p=0.003), and not with GBCA administrations (p=0.67). In a subgroup of 35 patients for whom the administered GBCA subtype was known, the effect of GBCA on DN R1 appeared mainly related to linear GBCA. In RR-MS patients, the number of previous GBCA administrations correlates with R1 relaxation rates of DN, while R2* values remain unaffected, suggesting that T1-shortening in these patients is related to the amount of Gadolinium given. (orig.)

  1. DDT increases hepatic testosterone metabolism in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra-Santoyo, Adolfo; Albores, Arnulfo; Cebrian, Mariano E. [Cinvestav-IPN, Seccion de Toxicologia, Mexico (Mexico); Hernandez, Manuel [Cinvestav-IPN, Departamento de Biologia Celular (Mexico)

    2005-01-01

    DDT and its metabolites are considered as endocrine disruptors able to promote hormone-dependent pathologies. We studied the effects of technical-grade DDT on hepatic testosterone metabolism and testosterone hydroxylase activity ratios in the rat. Male and female Wistar rats were treated by gavage with a single dose of technical-grade DDT (0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 mg/kg body weight) and killed 24 h later. Hepatic microsomes were incubated with [4-{sup 14}C]-testosterone and the metabolites were separated by thin-layer chromatography and quantified by radio scanning. DDT increased testosterone biotransformation and modified the profile of metabolites produced in a sex-dependent manner. Males treated with a representative dose (10 mg/kg) produced relatively less androstenedione (AD), 2{alpha}-hydroxytestosterone (OHT), and 16{alpha}-OHT but higher 6{beta}-OHT whereas treated females produced less 7{alpha}-OHT and AD but higher 6{beta}-OHT and 6{alpha}-OHT than their respective controls. In both sexes DDT decreased the relative proportion of AD and increased that of 6{beta}-OHT suggesting that the androgen-saving pathway was affected. The testosterone 6{alpha}-/15{alpha}-OHT ratio, a proposed indicator of demasculinization, was increased in treated males. This effect was in agreement with the demasculinizing ability proposed for DDT. The effects on 6{alpha}-/16{alpha}-OHT and 6-dehydrotestosterone/16{alpha}-OHT ratios followed a similar tendency, with the ratio 6{alpha}-/16{alpha}-OHT being the most sensitive marker. Interestingly, these ratios were reduced in treated females suggesting that technical-grade DDT shifted testosterone hydroxylations toward a more masculine pattern. Thus, technical-grade DDT altered the hepatic sexual dimorphism in testosterone metabolism and decreased the metabolic differences between male and female rats. (orig.)

  2. A novel testosterone catabolic pathway in bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, Yann-Lii; Wang, Po-Hsiang; Shiao, Ming-Shi; Ismail, Wael; Chiang, Yin-Ru

    2011-09-01

    Forty years ago, Coulter and Talalay (A. W. Coulter and P. Talalay, J. Biol. Chem. 243:3238-3247, 1968) established the oxygenase-dependent pathway for the degradation of testosterone by aerobes. The oxic testosterone catabolic pathway involves several oxygen-dependent reactions and is not available for anaerobes. Since then, a variety of anaerobic bacteria have been described for the ability to degrade testosterone in the absence of oxygen. Here, a novel, oxygenase-independent testosterone catabolic pathway in such organisms is described. Steroidobacter denitrificans DSMZ18526 was shown to be capable of degrading testosterone in the absence of oxygen and was selected as the model organism in this study. In a previous investigation, we identified the initial intermediates involved in an anoxic testosterone catabolic pathway, most of which are identical to those of the oxic pathway demonstrated in Comamonas testosteroni. In this study, five additional intermediates of the anoxic pathway were identified. We demonstrated that subsequent steps of the anoxic pathway greatly differ from those of the established oxic pathway, which suggests that a novel pathway for testosterone catabolism is present. In the proposed anoxic pathway, a reduction reaction occurs at C-4 and C-5 of androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione, the last common intermediate of both the oxic and anoxic pathways. After that, a novel hydration reaction occurs and a hydroxyl group is thus introduced to the C-1α position of C(19)steroid substrates. To our knowledge, an enzymatic hydration reaction occurring at the A ring of steroid compounds has not been reported before.

  3. Association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onasanya, Oluwadamilola; Iyer, Geetha; Lucas, Eleanor; Lin, Dora; Singh, Sonal; Alexander, G Caleb

    2016-11-01

    Given the conflicting evidence regarding the association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events, we systematically assessed published systematic reviews for evidence of the association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events. We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Collaboration Clinical Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the US Food and Drug Administration website for systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials published up to July 19, 2016. Two independent reviewers screened 954 full texts from 29 335 abstracts to identify systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials in which the cardiovascular effects of exogenous testosterone on men aged 18 years or older were examined. We extracted data for study characteristics, analytic methods, and key findings, and applied the AMSTAR (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews) checklist to assess methodological quality of each review. Our primary outcome measure was the direction and magnitude of association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events. We identified seven reviews and meta-analyses, which had substantial clinical heterogeneity, differing statistical methods, and variable methodological quality and quality of data abstraction. AMSTAR scores ranged from 3 to 9 out of 11. Six systematic reviews that each included a meta-analysis showed no significant association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events, with summary estimates ranging from 1·07 to 1·82 and imprecise confidence intervals. Two of these six meta-analyses showed increased risk in subgroup analyses of oral testosterone and men aged 65 years or older during their first treatment year. One meta-analysis showed a significant association between exogenous testosterone and cardiovascular events, in men aged 18 years or older generally, with a summary estimate of 1·54 (95% CI 1·09-2·18). Our optimal information size analysis showed that any randomised controlled

  4. Alternative model for administration and analysis of research-based assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bethany R. Wilcox

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Research-based assessments represent a valuable tool for both instructors and researchers interested in improving undergraduate physics education. However, the historical model for disseminating and propagating conceptual and attitudinal assessments developed by the physics education research (PER community has not resulted in widespread adoption of these assessments within the broader community of physics instructors. Within this historical model, assessment developers create high quality, validated assessments, make them available for a wide range of instructors to use, and provide minimal (if any support to assist with administration or analysis of the results. Here, we present and discuss an alternative model for assessment dissemination, which is characterized by centralized data collection and analysis. This model provides a greater degree of support for both researchers and instructors in order to more explicitly support adoption of research-based assessments. Specifically, we describe our experiences developing a centralized, automated system for an attitudinal assessment we previously created to examine students’ epistemologies and expectations about experimental physics. This system provides a proof of concept that we use to discuss the advantages associated with centralized administration and data collection for research-based assessments in PER. We also discuss the challenges that we encountered while developing, maintaining, and automating this system. Ultimately, we argue that centralized administration and data collection for standardized assessments is a viable and potentially advantageous alternative to the default model characterized by decentralized administration and analysis. Moreover, with the help of online administration and automation, this model can support the long-term sustainability of centralized assessment systems.

  5. Serum Testosterone Kinetics After Brachytherapy for Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taira, Al V. [Western Radiation Oncology, Mountain View, CA (United States); Merrick, Gregory S., E-mail: gmerrick@urologicresearchinstitute.org [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Lief, Jonathan H.; Allen, Zachariah A. [Schiffler Cancer Center, Wheeling Jesuit University, Wheeling, WV (United States); Wallner, Kent E. [Puget Sound Healthcare Corporation Group Health Cooperative, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate temporal changes in testosterone after prostate brachytherapy and investigate the potential impact of these changes on response to treatment. Methods and Materials: Between January 2008 and March 2009, 221 consecutive patients underwent Pd-103 brachytherapy without androgen deprivation for clinically localized prostate cancer. Prebrachytherapy prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and serum testosterone were obtained for each patient. Repeat levels were obtained 3 months after brachytherapy and at least every 6 months thereafter. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated to determine an association with temporal testosterone changes. In addition, analysis was conducted to determine if there was an association between testosterone changes and treatment outcomes or the occurrence of a PSA spike. Results: There was no significant difference in serum testosterone over time after implant (p = 0.57). 29% of men experienced an increase {>=}25%, 23% of men experienced a decrease {>=}25%, and the remaining 48% of men had no notable change in testosterone over time. There was no difference in testosterone trends between men who received external beam radiotherapy and those who did not (p = 0.12). On multivariate analysis, preimplant testosterone was the only variable that consistently predicted for changes in testosterone over time. Men with higher than average testosterone tended to experience drop in testosterone (p < 0.001), whereas men with average or below average baseline testosterone had no significant change. There was no association between men who experienced PSA spike and testosterone temporal trends (p = 0.50) nor between initial PSA response and testosterone trends (p = 0.21). Conclusion: Prostate brachytherapy does not appear to impact serum testosterone over time. Changes in serum testosterone do not appear to be associated with PSA spike phenomena nor with initial PSA response to treatment; therefore, PSA response

  6. Genetic Determinants of Serum Testosterone Concentrations in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Marcello; Coviello, Andrea D.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Heier, Margit; Hofman, Albert; Holliday, Kate L.; Jansson, John-Olov; Kähönen, Mika; Karasik, David; Karlsson, Magnus K.; Kiel, Douglas P.; Liu, Yongmei; Ljunggren, Östen; Lorentzon, Mattias; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Meitinger, Thomas; Mellström, Dan; Melzer, David; Miljkovic, Iva; Nauck, Matthias; Nilsson, Maria; Penninx, Brenda; Pye, Stephen R.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Reincke, Martin; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Tajar, Abdelouahid; Teumer, Alexander; Uitterlinden, André G.; Ulloor, Jagadish; Viikari, Jorma; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Wichmann, H. Erich; Wu, Tsung-Sheng; Zhuang, Wei Vivian; Ziv, Elad; Wu, Frederick C. W.; Raitakari, Olli; Eriksson, Anna; Bidlingmaier, Martin; Harris, Tamara B.; Murray, Anna; de Jong, Frank H.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Bhasin, Shalender; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Haring, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Testosterone concentrations in men are associated with cardiovascular morbidity, osteoporosis, and mortality and are affected by age, smoking, and obesity. Because of serum testosterone's high heritability, we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data in 8,938 men from seven cohorts and followed up the genome-wide significant findings in one in silico (n = 871) and two de novo replication cohorts (n = 4,620) to identify genetic loci significantly associated with serum testosterone concentration in men. All these loci were also associated with low serum testosterone concentration defined as testosterone concentration (rs12150660, p = 1.2×10−41 and rs6258, p = 2.3×10−22). Subjects with ≥3 risk alleles of these variants had 6.5-fold higher risk of having low serum testosterone than subjects with no risk allele. The rs5934505 polymorphism near FAM9B on the X chromosome was also associated with testosterone concentrations (p = 5.6×10−16). The rs6258 polymorphism in exon 4 of SHBG affected SHBG's affinity for binding testosterone and the measured free testosterone fraction (ptestosterone concentrations and increased risk of low testosterone. rs6258 is the first reported SHBG polymorphism, which affects testosterone binding to SHBG and the free testosterone fraction and could therefore influence the calculation of free testosterone using law-of-mass-action equation. PMID:21998597

  7. Prenatal Testosterone and Preschool Disruptive Behavior Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Bethan A; Martel, Michelle M

    2013-11-01

    Disruptive Behaviors Disorders (DBD), including Oppositional-Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are fairly common and highly impairing childhood behavior disorders that can be diagnosed as early as preschool. Prenatal exposure to testosterone may be particularly relevant to these early-emerging DBDs that exhibit a sex-biased prevalence rate favoring males. The current study examined associations between preschool DBD symptom domains and prenatal exposure to testosterone measured indirectly via right 2D:4D finger-length ratios. The study sample consisted of 109 preschool-age children between ages 3 and 6 (64% males;72% with DBD) and their primary caregivers. Primary caregivers completed a semi-structured interview (i.e., Kiddie Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule), as well as symptom questionnaires (i.e., Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, Peer Conflict Scale); teachers and/or daycare providers completed symptom questionnaires and children provided measures of prenatal testosterone exposure, measured indirectly via finger-length ratios (i.e., right 2D:4D). Study results indicated a significant association of high prenatal testosterone (i.e., smaller right 2D:4D) with high hyperactive-impulsive ADHD symptoms in girls but not boys, suggesting that the effect may be driven by, or might only exist in, girls. The present study suggests that prenatal exposure to testosterone may increase risk for early ADHD, particularly hyperactivity-impulsivity, in preschool girls.

  8. Testosterone regulates keratin 33B expression in rat penis growth through androgen receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan-Min; Wu, Kai-Jie; Dang, Qiang; Shi, Qi; Gao, Yang; Guo, Peng; Xu, Shan; Wang, Xin-Yang; He, Da-Lin; Gong, Yong-Guang

    2014-01-01

    Androgen therapy is the mainstay of treatment for the hypogonadotropic hypogonadal micropenis because it obviously enhances penis growth in prepubescent microphallic patients. However, the molecular mechanisms of androgen treatment leading to penis growth are still largely unknown. To clarify this well-known phenomenon, we successfully generated a castrated male Sprague Dawley rat model at puberty followed by testosterone administration. Interestingly, compared with the control group, testosterone treatment stimulated a dose-dependent increase of penis weight, length, and width in castrated rats accompanied with a dramatic recovery of the pathological changes of the penis. Mechanistically, testosterone administration substantially increased the expression of androgen receptor (AR) protein. Increased AR protein in the penis could subsequently initiate transcription of its target genes, including keratin 33B (Krt33b). Importantly, we demonstrated that KRT33B is generally expressed in the rat penis and that most KRT33B expression is cytoplasmic. Furthermore, AR could directly modulate its expression by binding to a putative androgen response element sequence of the Krt33b promoter. Overall, this study reveals a novel mechanism facilitating penis growth after testosterone treatment in precastrated prepubescent animals, in which androgen enhances the expression of AR protein as well as its target genes, such as Krt33b.

  9. [Evaluation of Web-based software applications for administrating and organising an ophthalmological clinical trial site].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortüm, K; Reznicek, L; Leicht, S; Ulbig, M; Wolf, A

    2013-07-01

    The importance and complexity of clinical trials is continuously increasing, especially in innovative specialties like ophthalmology. Therefore an efficient clinical trial site organisational structure is essential. In modern internet times, this can be accomplished by web-based applications. In total, 3 software applications (Vibe on Prem, Sharepoint and open source software) were evaluated in a clinical trial site in ophthalmology. Assessment criteria were set; they were: reliability, easiness of administration, usability, scheduling, task list, knowledge management, operating costs and worldwide availability. Vibe on Prem customised by the local university met the assessment criteria best. Other applications were not as strong. By introducing a web-based application for administrating and organising an ophthalmological trial site, studies can be conducted in a more efficient and reliable manner. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Using problem-based learning to redesign nursing administration masters programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, C M

    2000-01-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is offered as an appropriate pedagogy to prepare nurse managers for the uncertainties of future administrative practice. It is a student-centered, experiential learning strategy aimed at developing clinical reasoning, structuring knowledge in real-life contexts, motivating learning, and developing self-learning skills. Health professions and business schools report positive feedback from their stakeholders after adopting this new learning paradigm.

  11. [Epidemiological studies based on medical and administrative databases : a potential strength in France].

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Marcel; Coeuret-Pellicer, Mireille; Ribet, Céline; Zins, Marie

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Population-based epidemiological cohorts may include nowadays hundreds of thousands of subjects, followed-up during decades. France has a major potential strength: nationwide medical and social databases set up for administrative purposes. The main databases useful for epidemiology are the social security database which contains individual medical data from different sources, and the retirement fund database on employment and social benefits. These databases have sever...

  12. Measurement of serum testosterone during androgenic suppression in patients with prostate cancer: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morote, J; Regis, L; Celma, A; Planas, J

    2016-10-01

    Clinical practice guidelines recommend measuring serum testosterone (ST) during androgenic suppression (AS) to assess its efficacy and define castration resistance (CR). The objectives of this systematic review were to assess the level of scientific evidence that justify checking ST levels during AS, when to perform it and for what purpose. We performed a search in PubMed with the following mesh terms: androgen suppression, testosterone, and prostate cancer. The search was narrowed to original articles published in English. We found 8 publications that analysed the clinical impact of ST concentrations during AS. In all of the series, ST was measured using chemiluminescent assays. However, only indirect methods based on liquid or gas chromatography for its extraction and subsequent quantification using mass spectrometry are recommended, especially for measuring low levels. The endpoints were specific survival and CR-free survival. Six studies were retrospective. The series were not uniform in terms of clinical stage, types of AS and ST assessment methods. In general, low ST levels (<20ng/dL or <32ng/dL) were related to longer CR-free survival. The measurements were performed every 3 or 6 months. Four studies confirmed the beneficial effect of adding bicalutamide when detecting microelevations above 50ng/dL. The level of scientific evidence justifying the measurement of ST during AS is low, and the methods employed for quantifying ST levels are inadequate. However, we consider it useful to check ST levels during AS, and there appears to be an association between low ST levels and better disease outcomes. In the event of microelevations above 50ng/dL, we recommend the administration of bicalutamide. Copyright © 2016 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Testosterone and modifiable risk factors associated with diabetes in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atlantis, Evan; Lange, Kylie; Martin, Sean; Haren, Matthew T; Taylor, Anne; O'Loughlin, Peter D; Marshall, Villis; Wittert, Gary A

    2011-03-01

    The role of endogenous testosterone in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus remains vague. We investigated whether associations between endogenous testosterone and diabetes prevalence in men could be partially explained by modifiable risk factors. A random population-based cross-sectional study of 1195 men aged 35-80 years living in the north-west regions of Adelaide, Australia. Data collections occurred between 2002 and 2005, and response rate was 45.1%. Diabetes (non-specific) was classified by either: (1) self-report for doctor diagnosis of diabetes; (2) prescription medication for diabetes; (3) fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7 mmol/L; or (4) glycosylated haemoglobin ≥ 6.2%. Logistic regressions were used to estimate odds ratios (OR [with 95% confidence intervals]) for diabetes, with stepwise adjustments for demographic, lifestyle, and clinical factors. Diabetes prevalence was positively associated with age groups 45-54 years (2.8 [1.4, 5.8]), 55-64 years (3.9 [1.9, 8.3]) and ≥ 65 years (4.0 [1.8, 8.9]), lowest income group (1.8 [1.0, 3.4]), ex-smoker (1.8 [1.2, 2.9]), lowest (3.2 [1.9, 5.5]) and middle (1.9 [1.1, 3.4]) alcohol tertiles, cardiovascular disease (1.9 [1.2, 2.8]), metabolic syndrome (4.0 [2.6, 6.1]), and lowest plasma total testosterone tertile (1.8 [1.1, 3.0]), but negatively associated with middle (0.5 [0.3, 0.8]) and highest (0.4 [0.3, 0.7]) sugar intake tertiles, arthritis (0.6 [0.3, 1.0]), and elevated LDL cholesterol (0.5 [0.3, 0.8]); ORs showed an inverted 'U' shape for middle and highest voiding lower urinary tract symptoms tertiles. Body composition, muscle strength, and cardio-metabolic factors partially explained the association between low plasma total testosterone and diabetes. Plasma total testosterone was inversely and independently associated with diabetes prevalence, that might have been partially explained by several modifiable risk factors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Fathers' decline in testosterone and synchrony with partner testosterone during pregnancy predicts greater postpartum relationship investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxbe, Darby E; Edelstein, Robin S; Lyden, Hannah M; Wardecker, Britney M; Chopik, William J; Moors, Amy C

    2017-04-01

    The transition to parenthood has been associated with declines in testosterone among partnered fathers, which may reflect males' motivation to invest in the family. Moreover, preliminary evidence has found that couples show correlations in hormone levels across pregnancy that may also be linked to fathers' preparation for parenthood. The current study used repeated-measures sampling of testosterone across pregnancy to explore whether fathers' change in T, and correlations with mothers' T, were associated with fathers' and mothers' postpartum investment. In a sample of 27 couples (54 individuals) expecting their first child, both parents' salivary testosterone was measured multiple times across pregnancy. At approximately 3.5months postpartum, participants rated their investment, commitment, and satisfaction with their partner. A multilevel model was used to measure change in testosterone over time and associations between mother and father testosterone. Fathers who showed stronger declines in T across pregnancy, and stronger correlations with mothers' testosterone, reported higher postpartum investment, commitment, and satisfaction. Mothers reported more postpartum investment and satisfaction if fathers showed greater prenatal declines in T. These results held even after controlling for paternal investment, commitment, and satisfaction measured prenatally at study entry. Our results suggest that changes in paternal testosterone across pregnancy, and hormonal linkage with the pregnant partner, may underlie fathers' dedication to the partner relationship across the transition to parenthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Testosterone therapy decreases subcutaneous fat and adiponectin in aging men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, L.; Højlund, K.; Hougaard, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Testosterone therapy increases lean body mass and decreases total fat mass in aging men with low normal testosterone levels. The major challenge is, however, to determine whether the metabolic consequences of testosterone therapy are overall positive. We have previously reported that 6......-month testosterone therapy did not improve insulin sensitivity. We investigated the effect of testosterone therapy on regional body fat distribution and on the levels of the insulin-sensitizing adipokine, adiponectin, in aging men with low normal bioavailable testosterone levels. DESIGN: A randomized......, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study on 6-month testosterone treatment (gel) in 38 men, aged 60–78 years, with bioavailable testosterone 94 cm. METHODS: Central fat mass (CFM) and lower extremity fat mass (LEFM) were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT...

  16. Wirkung von Testosteron auf Haut und Haare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopera D

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Testosteron – das wichtigste Androgen – wird ab der Adrenarche bei beiden Geschlechtern in mehr oder weniger großen Mengen gebildet. Die Bildung erfolgt bei Männern in den Hoden, bei Frauen in den Ovarien und bei beiden Geschlechtern in geringen Mengen in den Nebennieren. Im Blut zirkuliert es einerseits SHBG-gebunden, andererseits als wirksames und freies Testosteron, das auf die verschiedenen Organe eine unterschiedlich starke Wirkung ausübt. Es beeinflusst die Ausbildung des männlichen Phänotyps, den Aufbau der Muskelmasse, die Knochendichte sowie den Fett- und Zuckerstoffwechsel. Auf Haut und Hautanhangsgebilde hat Testosteron eine besondere Wirkung: Es stimuliert die Talgdrüsen (führt zu Seborrhö und reguliert das Haarwachstum.

  17. Wirkung von Testosteron auf Haut und Haare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopera D

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Testosteron – das wichtigste Androgen – wird ab der Adrenarche bei beiden Geschlechtern in mehr oder weniger großen Mengen gebildet. Die Bildung erfolgt bei Männern in den Hoden, bei Frauen in den Ovarien und bei beiden Geschlechtern in geringen Mengen in den Nebennieren. Im Blut zirkuliert es einerseits SHBG-gebunden, andererseits als wirksames und freies Testosteron, das auf die verschiedenen Organe eine unterschiedlich starke Wirkung ausübt. Es beeinflusst die Ausbildung des männlichen Phänotyps, den Aufbau der Muskelmasse, die Knochendichte sowie den Fett- und Zuckerstoffwechsel. Auf Haut und Hautanhangsgebilde hat Testosteron eine besondere Wirkung: Es stimuliert die Talgdrüsen (führt zu Seborrhö und reguliert das Haarwachstum.

  18. Adiposity, CVD risk factors and testosterone: Variation by partnering status and residence with children in US men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gettler, Lee T; Sarma, Mallika S; Gengo, Rieti G; Oka, Rahul C; McKenna, James J

    2017-01-01

    Background and objectives: In many settings, partnered, invested fathers have lower testosterone than single men or fathers who are not involved in caregiving. Reduced testosterone has been identified as a risk factor for multiple chronic diseases, and men's health also commonly varies by life history status. There have been few tests of whether variation in testosterone based on partnering and parenting has implications for men's health. Methodology: We analysed data from a US population-representative sample (NHANES) of young-to-middle aged US men (n = 875; mean age: 29.8 years ± 6.0 [SD]). We tested for life history status differences in testosterone, adiposity levels and biomarkers of cardiovascular disease (CVD)-risk (HDL cholesterol; triglycerides; white blood cell count [WBC]). Results: Partnered men residing with children (RC) had lower testosterone and elevated abdominal adiposity compared to never married men not residing with children. While they did not significantly differ for WBC or triglycerides, partnered RC men also had comparatively lower HDL. Partnered RC males' lower testosterone accounted for their relatively elevated adiposity, but testosterone, adiposity, and health-related covariates did not explain their relatively reduced HDL. Conclusions and implications: Our results linking life history status-based differences in testosterone and adiposity, alongside our complementary HDL findings, indicate that testosterone-related psychobiology might have implications for partnered RC men's CVD risk in the US and other similar societal settings. These types of socially contextualized observations of men's health and physiological function particularly merit incorporation in clinical discussions of fatherhood as a component of men's health.

  19. Effect of Testosterone on Hepcidin, Ferroportin, Ferritin and Iron Binding Capacity in Patients with Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism and Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    DHINDSA, SANDEEP; GHANIM, HUSAM; BATRA, MANAV; KUHADIYA, NITESH D.; ABUAYSHEH, SANAA; GREEN, KELLY; MAKDISSI, ANTOINE; CHAUDHURI, AJAY; DANDONA, PARESH

    2016-01-01

    Context Since the syndrome of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) is associated with anemia and the administration of testosterone restores hematocrit to normal, we investigated the potential underlying mechanisms. Design Randomized, double blind, placebo controlled trial Methods We measured basal serum concentrations of erythropoietin, iron, iron binding capacity, transferrin (saturated and unsaturated), ferritin and hepcidin and the expression of ferroportin and transferrin receptor (TR) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (MNC) of 94 men with type 2 diabetes. 44 men had HH (defined as subnormal free testosterone along with low or normal LH concentrations) while 50 were eugonadal. Men with HH were randomized to testosterone or placebo treatment every 2 weeks for 15 weeks. Blood samples were collected at baseline, 3 and 15 weeks after starting treatment. 20 men in testosterone group and 14 men in placebo group completed the study. Results Hematocrit levels were lower in men with HH (41.1±3.9% vs. 43.8±3.4%, p=0.001). There were no differences in plasma concentrations of hepcidin, ferritin, erythropoietin, transferrin or iron, or in the expression of ferroportin or TR in MNC among HH and eugonadal men. Hematocrit increased to 45.3±4.5%, hepcidin decreased by 28±7% and erythropoietin increased by 21±7% after testosterone therapy (ptestosterone therapy. Conclusions The increase in hematocrit following testosterone therapy is associated with an increase in erythropoietin, the suppression of hepcidin, and an increase in the expression of ferroportin and transferrin receptor. PMID:27292585

  20. A Novel Testosterone Catabolic Pathway in Bacteria ▿ ‡

    OpenAIRE

    Leu, Yann-Lii; Wang, Po-Hsiang; Shiao, Ming-Shi; Ismail, Wael; Chiang, Yin-Ru

    2011-01-01

    Forty years ago, Coulter and Talalay (A. W. Coulter and P. Talalay, J. Biol. Chem. 243:3238–3247, 1968) established the oxygenase-dependent pathway for the degradation of testosterone by aerobes. The oxic testosterone catabolic pathway involves several oxygen-dependent reactions and is not available for anaerobes. Since then, a variety of anaerobic bacteria have been described for the ability to degrade testosterone in the absence of oxygen. Here, a novel, oxygenase-independent testosterone c...

  1. Experimental Manipulation of Corticosterone Does Not Influence the Clearance Rate of Plasma Testosterone in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deviche, Pierre; Desaivre, Stève; Giraudeau, Mathieu

    In vertebrates, exposure to acute stressors stimulates the secretion of adrenal glucocorticoids such as corticosterone, and in some situations this hormone plays an important role in orchestrating the trade-off that exists between reproduction and self-maintenance. Stressful conditions often lead to a decrease in plasma levels of sex steroids such as testosterone in males, and it has been hypothesized that corticosterone contributes to this decrease. Generally supporting this proposition, glucocorticoids can inhibit the reproductive axis activity at multiple levels, including direct effects on testicular endocrine function. Here we tested for the first time the additional hypothesis that stress-induced glucocorticoids are associated with an increased clearance rate of circulating testosterone. To test this hypothesis, we performed two experiments comparing changes in plasma testosterone as a function of time (6-60 min) after a single injection of this hormone into captive male house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus) that either were intact (controls) or were pharmacologically adrenalectomized by administration of the glucocorticoid synthesis inhibitor mitotane. Control finches rapidly elevated their plasma corticosterone in response to handling, whereas mitotane treatment abolished this response by approximately 95%. Contrary to our prediction, we found no clear evidence that control birds eliminated exogenous testosterone from circulation at a different rate than pharmacologically adrenalectomized finches. These findings do not support the hypothesis that, during acute stress, elevated plasma glucocorticoids stimulate the clearance rate of testosterone. The rapid inhibitory effect of stress on plasma testosterone may rather result from direct actions of glucocorticoids on the gonadal production of the androgen or involve a glucocorticoid-independent mechanism.

  2. Effects of Oxidative Stress and Testosterone on Pro-Inflammatory Signaling in a Female Rat Dopaminergic Neuronal Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Shaletha; Singh, Meharvan; Su, Chang

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is associated with oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. These pathological markers can contribute to the loss of dopamine neurons in the midbrain. Interestingly, men have a 2-fold increased incidence for Parkinson's disease than women. Although the mechanisms underlying this sex difference remain elusive, we propose that the primary male sex hormone, testosterone, is involved. Our previous studies show that testosterone, through a putative membrane androgen receptor, can increase oxidative stress–induced neurotoxicity in dopamine neurons. Based on these results, this study examines the role of nuclear factor κ B (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), and apoptosis in the deleterious effects of androgens in an oxidative stress environment. We hypothesize, under oxidative stress environment, testosterone via a putative membrane androgen receptor will exacerbate oxidative stress–induced NF-κB/COX2 signaling in N27 dopaminergic neurons, leading to apoptosis. Our data show that testosterone increased the expression of COX2 and apoptosis in dopamine neurons. Inhibiting the NF-κB and COX2 pathway with CAPE and ibuprofen, respectively, blocked testosterone's negative effects on cell viability, indicating that NF-κB/COX2 cascade plays a role in the negative interaction between testosterone and oxidative stress on neuroinflammation. These data further support the role of testosterone mediating the loss of dopamine neurons under oxidative stress conditions, which may be a key mechanism contributing to the increased incidence of Parkinson's disease in men compared with women. PMID:27167771

  3. Effects of Oxidative Stress and Testosterone on Pro-Inflammatory Signaling in a Female Rat Dopaminergic Neuronal Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Shaletha; Singh, Meharvan; Su, Chang; Cunningham, Rebecca L

    2016-07-01

    Parkinson's disease, a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, is associated with oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. These pathological markers can contribute to the loss of dopamine neurons in the midbrain. Interestingly, men have a 2-fold increased incidence for Parkinson's disease than women. Although the mechanisms underlying this sex difference remain elusive, we propose that the primary male sex hormone, testosterone, is involved. Our previous studies show that testosterone, through a putative membrane androgen receptor, can increase oxidative stress-induced neurotoxicity in dopamine neurons. Based on these results, this study examines the role of nuclear factor κ B (NF-κB), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), and apoptosis in the deleterious effects of androgens in an oxidative stress environment. We hypothesize, under oxidative stress environment, testosterone via a putative membrane androgen receptor will exacerbate oxidative stress-induced NF-κB/COX2 signaling in N27 dopaminergic neurons, leading to apoptosis. Our data show that testosterone increased the expression of COX2 and apoptosis in dopamine neurons. Inhibiting the NF-κB and COX2 pathway with CAPE and ibuprofen, respectively, blocked testosterone's negative effects on cell viability, indicating that NF-κB/COX2 cascade plays a role in the negative interaction between testosterone and oxidative stress on neuroinflammation. These data further support the role of testosterone mediating the loss of dopamine neurons under oxidative stress conditions, which may be a key mechanism contributing to the increased incidence of Parkinson's disease in men compared with women.

  4. Tablets based on compressed zein microspheres for sustained oral administration: design, pharmacokinetics, and clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Sheng-Ju; Sun, Shi-Xuan; Sun, Qing-Shen; Wang, Jin-Ye; Liu, Xin-Ming; Liu, Guo-Yan

    2011-08-01

    In our previous study, we reported a novel tablet based on compressed zein microspheres as a universal drug delivery system using the hydrophobic protein zein, which shows zero-order release in the presence of pepsin. However, this formulation had difficulty with disintegration under physiological conditions within 48 h, and thus could not be used directly for oral administration. In the present study, a formulation of ivermectin (IVM) tablets based on compressed zein microspheres was improved as a new dosage form. The plasma disposition pharmacokinetics of IVM tablets based on compressed zein microspheres after oral administration was studied over a 7-day period with six dogs (Canis familiaris), using a commercial IVM tablet (5 mg/piece, Yilijia(®) ) as a control. Clinical efficacy was tested using 270 dogs presented as veterinary patients for the treatment of demodicidosis. A formulation with disintegration time within 15 min could be obtained. The acquired C( max), T(max), and AUC were 9.89 ± 0.34 ng/mL, 11.33 ± 2.63 h, and 883.87 ng h/mL for IVM tablets based on compressed zein microspheres and 9.64 ± 1.05 ng/mL, 7.26 ± 2.09 h, and 666.30 ng h/mL for Yilijia(®), respectively. The bioavailability of the tablets based on compressed zein microspheres was 132.65% that of Yilijia( ®). Efficacy for the dogs in all the IVM tablets based on compressed zein microspheres-treated groups reached 100% at 7, 14, and 21 days post administration.

  5. Positive Correlation between Serum Osteocalcin and Testosterone in Male Hyperthyroidism Patients with High Bone Turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, N; Xu, B; Cui, R; Xu, M; Su, J; Zhang, Z; Liu, Y; Li, L; Sheng, C; Sheng, H; Qu, S

    2016-07-01

    Animal studies suggested that there is an independent bone-osteocalcin-gonadal axis, except of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Based on this hypothesis, the higher osteocalcin during the high bone turnover should be followed by higher testosterone formation. Yet such clinical evidence is limited. The patients with uncontrolled hyperthyroidism are proper model with high bone turnover. If this hypothesis is true, there should be high testosterone level in patients with uncontrolled hyperthyroidism. Therefore, Graves' disease patients were recruited to study the correlation between osteocalcin and testosterone. 50 male hyperthyroidism patients with Graves' disease and 50 health persons matched by age and gender were enrolled in our cross-section study. Serum markers for thyroid hormone, sex hormone and bone metabolic markers including free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and osteocalcin (OC), C-terminal telopeptide fragments of type I collagen (CTX) were examined. The demographic parameters such as duration of disease were also collected. All data was analyzed by SPSS 20.0. High testosterone and osteocalcin level was observed in the hyperthyroidism patients (T 36.35±10.72 nmol/l and OC 46.79±26.83 ng/ml). In simple Pearson correlation, testosterone was positively associated with OC (r=0.486, Phyperthyroidism patients, osteocalcin was positively correlated with serum testosterone, which indirectly supports the hypothesis that serum osteocalcin participates in the regulation of sex hormone. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Association between low serum free testosterone and adverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. The association of serum free testosterone (FT) with prostate cancer is not fully understood. Studies on the results of the relationship between serum testosterone level and prostate cancer are conflicting. However, there is a reported association between lower serum testosterone levels and high-grade prostate ...

  7. 21 CFR 522.842 - Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate... ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.842 Estradiol benzoate and testosterone propionate. (a) Sponsors. See sponsors in... testosterone propionate (one implant consisting of 8 pellets, each pellet containing 2.5 mg estradiol benzoate...

  8. Means of determining the condition of insanity in administrative proceedings based on the court practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Mikhailovna Sekretareva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective in the absence in the Russian administrative legislation of the provisions on the procedure and the ways to detect the condition of insanity of a physical person who has committed an administrative wrongful act there is a variety of lawenforcement acts for the resolution of these issues. In order to further systematize the enforcement acts for the resolution of these issues we consider it necessary to assess the practical application of the provisions of Article 2.8 quotInsanityquot of the Administrative Code by the courts in different Russian regions. Methods the methodological basis of research is the general scientific dialectic method of cognition the author used methods such as analysis synthesis description explanation. Results the author has conducted an analysis of practice of application of the provisions of Article 2.8 quotInsanityquot of the Administrative Code by courts of the Russian Federation. On the basis of this analysis it is found that courts use different methods of establishing the state of insanity of the person who committed the violation of the legislation on administrative offences. This is due to the fact that the courts base on a variety of actual data when establishing the state of insanity in the resolution of specific cases. These actual data were combined into 4 groups. Each method for establishing the state of insanity was evaluated which allowed to conclude about the need to organize the actions of individuals considering the cases on administrative offences aimed at defining the state of insanity of the offender and to offer one of the possible options for resolving the identified problems. Scientific novelty for the first time the analysis of practice of application of Article 2.8 quotInsanityquot of the Administrative Code was made and the author39s assessment of its provisions is given. Practical value the results of the study can be used for the generalization of judicial practice at the level of

  9. Methods for the design and administration of web-based surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleyer, T K; Forrest, J L

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the design, development, and administration of a Web-based survey to determine the use of the Internet in clinical practice by 450 dental professionals. The survey blended principles of a controlled mail survey with data collection through a Web-based database application. The survey was implemented as a series of simple HTML pages and tested with a wide variety of operating environments. The response rate was 74.2 percent. Eighty-four percent of the participants completed the Web-based survey, and 16 percent used e-mail or fax. Problems identified during survey administration included incompatibilities/technical problems, usability problems, and a programming error. The cost of the Web-based survey was 38 percent less than that of an equivalent mail survey. A general formula for calculating breakeven points between electronic and hardcopy surveys is presented. Web-based surveys can significantly reduce turnaround time and cost compared with mail surveys and may enhance survey item completion rates.

  10. Progressive Improvement of T-Scores in Men with Osteoporosis and Subnormal Serum Testosterone Levels upon Treatment with Testosterone over Six Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haider, A.; Meergans, U.; Traish, A.; Saad, F.; Doros, G.; Lips, P.T.A.M.; Gooren, L.

    2014-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency leads to bone loss and testosterone treatment has a beneficial effect. This study investigated the effects of normalizing serum testosterone on bone mineral density in 45 men with osteoporosis, diagnosed with testosterone deficiency (serum testosterone levels <12.1 nmol/L,

  11. Genetic and Environmental Influences of Daily and Intra-individual Variation in Testosterone Levels in Middle-Aged Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panizzon, Matthew S.; Hauger, Richard; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Eaves, Lindon J.; York, Timothy P.; Prom-Wormley, Elizabeth; Grant, Michael D.; Lyons, Michael J.; McKenzie, Ruth; Mendoza, Sally P.; Xian, Hong; Franz, Carol E.; Kremen, William S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Testosterone regulates numerous physiological processes, and evidence suggests that it plays a critical role in male aging. It has yet to be determined whether the heritability of testosterone varies in accordance with its diurnal rhythm. Similarly, it is unclear whether changes in testosterone level throughout the day are genetically influenced. The aim of the present study was to determine the degree to which genetic and environmental factors contribute to individual differences in testosterone throughout the day in middle-aged men. Methods Saliva-based measures of free testosterone, sampled at multiple time-points both at-home and in-lab, were collected from 783 male twins (193 monozygotic pairs, 196 dizygotic pairs, 5 unpaired twins) as part of the Vietnam Era Twin Study of Aging (VETSA). The average age of participants was 55.9 years (SD=2.6). Results Testosterone levels declined substantially over the course of the day, with 32%–39% of the change occurring in the first 30 minutes after waking. Heritability estimates for specific time-points ranged from .02 to .39. The heritability of the average at-home and in-lab testosterone values were notably higher (.42 and .47 respectively). Daily rates of change showed some evidence of genetic influence, with heritability estimates ranging from .15 to .29, whereas there were no observable genetic influences on coefficients of variation. Conclusions Genetic influences account for a significant proportion of the variance in average testosterone levels, while environmental factors account for the majority of intra-individual variability. These results highlight the need to explore both genetic and individual-specific environmental factors as determinants of free testosterone levels in aging men. PMID:23639251

  12. Effects of different doses of testosterone on gonadotropins, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, and blood lipids in healthy men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gårevik N

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nina Gårevik, Anders Rane, Linda Björkhem-Bergman, Lena Ekström Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden Aims: To study the effect and time profile of different doses of testosterone enanthate on the blood lipid profile and gonadotropins. Experimental design: Twenty-five healthy male volunteers aged 27–43 years were given 500 mg, 250 mg, and 125 mg of testosterone enanthate as single intramuscular doses of Testoviron® Depot. Luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, blood lipid profile (total cholesterol, plasma [p-] low-density lipoprotein, p-high-density lipoprotein [HDL], p-apolipoprotein A1 [ApoA1], p-apolipoprotein B, p-triglycerides, p-lipoprotein(a, serum [s-] testosterone, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 were analyzed prior to, and 4 and 14 days after dosing. Testosterone and epitestosterone in urine (testosterone/epitestosterone ratio were analyzed prior to each dose after a washout period of 6–8 weeks. Results and discussion: All doses investigated suppressed the LH and FSH concentrations in serum. LH remained suppressed 6 weeks after the 500 mg dose. These results indicate that testosterone has a more profound endocrine effect on the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis than was previously thought. There was no alteration in 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels after testosterone administration compared to baseline levels. The 250 and 500 mg doses induced decreased concentrations of ApoA1 and HDL, whereas the lowest dose (125 mg did not have any effect on the lipid profile. Conclusion: The single doses of testosterone produced a dose-dependent increase in serum testosterone concentrations together with suppression of s-LH and s-FSH. Alterations in ApoA1 and HDL were observed after the two highest single doses. It is possible that long-time abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids will lead to alteration in vitamin D status

  13. Testosterone treatment is immunosuppressive in superb fairy-wrens, yet free-living males with high testosterone are more immunocompetent.

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, A

    2000-01-01

    The immunocompetence handicap hypothesis proposes that the immunosuppressive effect of testosterone enforces honesty of sexual signalling via a physiological trade-off between signal intensity and immunocompetence. However, evidence that testosterone is immunosuppressive is scant, particularly in birds. I studied the correlation between immunocompetence and testosterone in superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus), a species with intense intersexual selection. Males are seasonally dichromatic and ...

  14. Comparison of methods for determination of testosterone and non-protein bound testosterone in men with alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    The serum concentrations of testosterone and of non-protein bound testosterone were determined in 28 men with alcoholic liver disease having normal to decreased serum albumin concentrations and normal to raised SHBG concentrations. Serum testosterone concentrations determined with two radioimmuno...

  15. Longitudinal monitoring of endogenous steroids in human serum by UHPLC-MS/MS as a tool to detect testosterone abuse in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzetto, Federico; Mehl, Florence; Boccard, Julien; Baume, Norbert; Rudaz, Serge; Saugy, Martial; Nicoli, Raul

    2016-01-01

    The detection of testosterone abuse in sports is routinely achieved through the 'steroidal module' of the Athlete Biological Passport by GC-MS(/MS) quantification of selected endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids (EAAS) from athletes' urines. To overcome some limitations of the "urinary steroid profile" such as the presence of confounding factors (ethnicity, enzyme polymorphism, bacterial contamination, and ethanol), ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) measurements of blood concentrations of testosterone, its major metabolites, and precursors could represent an interesting and complementary strategy. In this work, two UHPLC-MS/MS methods were developed for the quantification of testosterone and related compounds in human serum, including major progestogens, corticoids, and estrogens. The validated methods were then used for the analyses of serum samples collected from 19 healthy male volunteers after oral and transdermal testosterone administration. Results from unsupervised multiway analysis allowed variations of target analytes to be assessed simultaneously over a 96-h time period. Except for alteration of concentration values due to the circadian rhythm, which concerns mainly corticosteroids, DHEA, and progesterone, significant variations linked to the oral and transdermal testosterone administration were observed for testosterone, DHT, and androstenedione. As a second step of analysis, the longitudinal monitoring of these biomarkers using intra-individual thresholds showed, in comparison to urine, significant improvements in the detection of testosterone administration, especially for volunteers with del/del genotype for phase II UGT2B17 enzyme, not sensitive to the main urinary marker, T/E ratio. A substantial extension of the detection window after transdermal testosterone administration was also observed in serum matrix. The longitudinal follow-up proposed in this study represents a first example of 'blood steroid profile' in doping control

  16. Role of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in cardiovascular changes following chronic treatment with cocaine and testosterone: a role beyond drug seeking in addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, F C; Alves, F H F; Leão, R M; Planeta, C S; Crestani, C C

    2013-12-03

    Neural plasticity has been observed in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) following exposure to both cocaine and androgenic-anabolic steroids. Here we investigated the involvement of the BNST on changes in cardiovascular function and baroreflex activity following either single or combined administration of cocaine and testosterone for 10 consecutive days in rats. Single administration of testosterone increased values of arterial pressure, evoked rest bradycardia and reduced baroreflex-mediated bradycardia. These effects of testosterone were not affected by BNST inactivation caused by local bilateral microinjections of the nonselective synaptic blocker CoCl2. The single administration of cocaine as well as the combined treatment with testosterone and cocaine increased both bradycardiac and tachycardiac responses of the baroreflex. Cocaine-evoked baroreflex changes were totally reversed after BNST inactivation. However, BNST inhibition in animals subjected to combined treatment with cocaine and testosterone reversed only the increase in reflex tachycardia, whereas facilitation of reflex bradycardia was not affected by local BNST treatment with CoCl2. In conclusion, the present study provides the first direct evidence that the BNST play a role in cardiovascular changes associated with drug abuse. Our findings suggest that alterations in cardiovascular function following subchronic exposure to cocaine are mediated by neural plasticity in the BNST. The single treatment with cocaine and the combined administration of testosterone and cocaine had similar effects on baroreflex activity, however the association with testosterone inhibited cocaine-induced changes in the BNST control of reflex bradycardia. Testosterone-induced cardiovascular changes seem to be independent of the BNST. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Testosterone Inhibits Trust but Promotes Reciprocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boksem, M.A.S.; Mehta, P.H.; Bergh, B. van den; Son, V. van; Trautmann, S.T.; Roelofs, K.; Smidts, A.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone has been associated with behavior intended to obtain or maintain high social status. Although such behavior is typically characterized as aggressive and competitive, it is clear that high social status is achieved and maintained not only through antisocial behavior

  18. Testosterone inhibits trust, but promotes reciprocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boksem, M.A.S.; Mehta, P.H.; van den Bergh, B.; van Son, V.; Trautmann, S.T.; Roelofs, K.; Smids, A.; Sanfey, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    The steroid hormone testosterone has been associated with behavior intended to obtain or maintain high social status. Although such behavior is typically characterized as aggressive and competitive, it is clear that high social status is achieved and maintained not only through antisocial behavior

  19. Postnatal Testosterone Concentrations and Male Social Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerianne M Alexander

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Converging evidence from over 40 years of behavioral research indicates that higher testicular androgens in prenatal life and at puberty contribute to the masculinization of human behavior. However, the behavioral significance of the transient activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis in early postnatal life remains largely unknown. Although early research on nonhuman primates indicated suppression of the postnatal surge in testicular androgens had no measurable effects on the later expression of the male behavioral phenotype, recent research from our laboratory suggests that postnatal testosterone concentrations influence male infant preferences for larger social groups and temperament characteristics associated with the later development of aggression. In later assessment of gender-linked behavior in the second year of life, concentrations of testosterone at 3-4 months of age were unrelated to toy choices and activity levels during toy play. However, higher concentrations of testosterone predicted less vocalization in toddlers and higher parental ratings on an established screening measure for autism spectrum disorder. These findings suggest a role of the transient activation of the HPG axis in the development of typical and atypical male social relations and suggest that it may be useful in future research on the exaggerated rise in testosterone secretion in preterm infants or exposure to hormone disruptors in early postnatal life to include assessment of gender-relevant behavioral outcomes, including childhood disorders with sex-biased prevalence rates.

  20. Serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine- treated rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Jul 5, 2010 ... The effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were studied on serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine-treated rats. Thirty five (35) adult male rats weighing 160 - 200 g were divided into seven groups of five (5) rats each. Group I rats served as the control and received 2.

  1. Body weight, scrotal circumference and testosterone concentration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to compare testosterone concentration, body weight, scrotal circumference and age to penis detachment from days 30 to 240 in young Boer goat males (n = 22) born during the dry (n = 11) and the rainy (n = 11) seasons. In the dry season the parameters varied as follows: body weight from 3.7 ± 1.1 ...

  2. Serum testosterone concentration in chloroquinetreated rats: effects ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) were studied on serum testosterone concentration in chloroquine-treated rats. Thirty five (35) adult male rats weighing 160 - 200 g were divided into seven groups of five (5) rats each. Group I rats served as the control and received 2 ml/kg of normal ...

  3. Baseline strength can influence the ability of salivary free testosterone to predict squat and sprinting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewther, Blair T; Cook, Christian J; Gaviglio, Chris M; Kilduff, Liam P; Drawer, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if salivary free testosterone can predict an athlete's performance during back squats and sprints over time and the influence baseline strength on this relationship. Ten weight-trained male athletes were divided into 2 groups based on their 1 repetition maximum (1RM) squats, good squatters (1RM > 2.0 × body weight, n = 5) and average squatters (1RM free testosterone and cortisol. The pooled testosterone correlations were strong and significant in the good squatters (r = 0.92 for squats, r = -0.87 for sprints, p free testosterone is a strong individual predictor of squat and sprinting performance in individuals with relatively high strength levels but a poor predictor in less strong individuals. This information can assist coaches, trainers, and performance scientists working with stronger weight-trained athletes, for example, the preworkout measurement of free testosterone could indicate likely training outcomes or a readiness to train at a certain intensity level, especially if real-time measurements are made. Our results also highlight the need to separate group and individual hormonal data during the repeated testing of athletes with variable strength levels.

  4. Testosterone acts as a prohormone to stimulate male copulatory behavior in male deer mice (peromyscus maniculatus bairdi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, L G; Pomerantz, S M

    1982-02-01

    In order to determine the importance of reduced and aromatized metabolites of testosterone for male sexual behavior in Peromyscus maniculatus bairdi, castrated males were treated with 5 alpha-reductase and aromatase inhibitors. In the first experiment, testosterone propionate (TP) activation of male copulatory behavior was blocked by the administration of the 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor 4-androsten-3-one-17-beta carboxylic acid (17 beta C). These treatments also prevented TP stimulation of seminal vesicles and ventral prostate gland weight. The inhibitory effects of 17 beta C were specific to testosterone, since 17 beta C did not prevent dihydrotestosterone propionate (DHTP) induction of male sexual behavior or seminal vesicles and ventral prostate gland weight increases. In the second experiment, TP activation of male copulatory behavior was prevented by the administration of the aromatase inhibitor 1,4,6-androstatriene-3,17-dione (ATD). The ATD did not interfere with DHTP activation of male reproductive behavior. Also, TP and DHTP stimulation of accessory sex organ weight was not blocked by ATD. On the basis of these data, it is suggested that metabolism of testosterone to both 5 alpha-reduced androgens and estrogens is obligatory for testosterone to reliably stimulate male sexual behavior in castrated male deer mice.

  5. Association of Free Testosterone With Hypogonadal Symptoms in Men With Near-normal Total Testosterone Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Ranjith; Golan, Ron; Wilken, Nathan; Scovell, Jason M; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the association between hypogonadal symptoms and free testosterone (FT) levels in men with near-normal total testosterone (T) levels (250-350 ng/dL) and to determine whether a discriminatory threshold for FT exists below which hypogonadal symptoms become more prevalent. We reviewed the charts of 3167 men who presented to an outpatient men's health clinic. Two hundred thirty-one men had symptoms of "low testosterone" and serum testosterone levels between 250 and 350 ng/dL. We evaluated hypogonadal symptoms using the Androgen Deficiency in the Adult Male (ADAM) and quantitative ADAM (qADAM) questionnaires. Serum levels of T and sex hormone-binding globulin were collected on the same day that men completed their questionnaires. We used linear regression to determine whether a threshold of FT exists for hypogonadal symptoms. We performed univariate and multivariable analyses to evaluate factors that predicted a low FT level. The median age was 43.5 years, and the median testosterone and FT levels were 303 ng/dL and 6.3 ng/dL, respectively. Prevalence and severity of hypogonadal symptoms (ADAM and qADAM) were similar between men with low (testosterone levels. Symptom-specific FT thresholds could not be defined, as age remains an important confounder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Imbalance in the diurnal salivary testosterone/cortisol ratio in men with severe obstructive sleep apnea: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Ghiciuc, Cristina Mihaela; Dima-Cozma, Lucia Corina; Bercea, Raluca Mihaela; Lupusoru, Catalina Elena; Mihaescu, Traian; Cozma, Sebastian; Patacchioli, Francesca Romana

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The complex relationship between sleep disorders and hormones could lead to alterations in the production of cortisol and testosterone in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the diurnal trajectories of salivary free-testosterone, free-cortisol and their ratio (T/C). METHODS: Ten subjects newly diagnosed with OSA, based on nocturnal polysomnography evaluation and excessive daytime sleepiness, and seven matched ...

  7. Toward the Development of a Marine Administration System Based on International Standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Athanasiou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The interests, responsibilities and opportunities of states to provide infrastructure and resource management are not limited to their land territory but extend to marine areas as well. So far, although the theoretical structure of a Marine Administration System (MAS is based on the management needs of the various countries, the marine terms have not been clearly defined. In order to define an MAS that meets the spatial marine requirements, the specific characteristics of the marine environment have to be identified and integrated in a management system. Most publications that address the Marine Cadastre (MC concept acknowledge the three-dimensional (3D character of marine spaces and support the need for MC to function as a multipurpose instrument. The Land Administration Domain Model (LADM conceptual standard ISO 19152 has been referenced in scholarly and professional works to have explicit relevance to 3D cadastres in exposed land and built environments. However, to date, very little has been done in any of those works to explicitly and comprehensively apply LADM to specific jurisdictional MAS or MC, although the standard purports to be applicable to those areas. Since so far the most comprehensive MC modeling approach is the S-121 Maritime Limits and Boundaries (MLB Standard, which refers to LADM, this paper proposes several modifications including, among others, the introduction of class marine resources into the model, the integration of data on legal spaces and physical features through external classes, as well as the division of law and administrative sources. Within this context, this paper distinctly presents both appropriate modifications and applications of the IHO S-121 standard to the particular marine and maritime administrative needs of both Greece and the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago.

  8. Protection against vanadium-induced testicular toxicity by testosterone propionate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Amar K; Ghosh, Rituparna; Chatterjee, Aparajita; Sarkar, Mahitosh

    2010-07-01

    Vanadium is a well recognized industrial hazard known to adversely affect male reproductive functions. The intricate mechanistic aspects of this metal and the role of oxidative stress in the deterioration of testicular functions are investigated in the current study. The experiment also focused on the effects of testosterone propionate in testicular and sperm functions in the rat intoxicated with vanadate. Vanadium exposure resulted in a more prominent spermatogenic arrest and consistently abolished the conversion of round to mature spermatids along with decreased epididymal sperm number and increased percentage of abnormal sperm. This is followed by a precipitous decline in the level of serum testosterone and gonadotropins and consequently the testicular steroidogenic and antioxidant enzymes were inhibited. Vanadium induces degeneration in the genital organs of rats and exhibits high indices of lipid oxidative damage. In response to exogenous testosterone propionate (TP) administration, spermatogonial cell populations remained suppressed, while the spermatogenesis was restored quantitatively. In contrast, the hormone treatment had no effect on the dramatically decreased serum FSH level after vanadate treatment. Moreover, TP could ameliorate the toxicity, as indicated by decreased testicular lipid peroxidation with marginal but significant increase in the activities of all the measured enzymes following vanadate-treatment. Taken together all these studies establish that vanadium is a testicular toxicant that perturbs the male reproductive system adversely. However, hormone replacement therapy by testosterone propionate may provide partial protection. The results suggest the feasibility of using endocrine regimens to impede deleterious effects of vanadium on the male reproductive system.

  9. Genetic determinants of serum testosterone concentrations in men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Ohlsson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone concentrations in men are associated with cardiovascular morbidity, osteoporosis, and mortality and are affected by age, smoking, and obesity. Because of serum testosterone's high heritability, we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data in 8,938 men from seven cohorts and followed up the genome-wide significant findings in one in silico (n = 871 and two de novo replication cohorts (n = 4,620 to identify genetic loci significantly associated with serum testosterone concentration in men. All these loci were also associated with low serum testosterone concentration defined as <300 ng/dl. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms at the sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG locus (17p13-p12 were identified as independently associated with serum testosterone concentration (rs12150660, p = 1.2×10(-41 and rs6258, p = 2.3×10(-22. Subjects with ≥ 3 risk alleles of these variants had 6.5-fold higher risk of having low serum testosterone than subjects with no risk allele. The rs5934505 polymorphism near FAM9B on the X chromosome was also associated with testosterone concentrations (p = 5.6×10(-16. The rs6258 polymorphism in exon 4 of SHBG affected SHBG's affinity for binding testosterone and the measured free testosterone fraction (p<0.01. Genetic variants in the SHBG locus and on the X chromosome are associated with a substantial variation in testosterone concentrations and increased risk of low testosterone. rs6258 is the first reported SHBG polymorphism, which affects testosterone binding to SHBG and the free testosterone fraction and could therefore influence the calculation of free testosterone using law-of-mass-action equation.

  10. Teeth, Sex, and Testosterone: Aging in the World's Smallest Primate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zohdy, Sarah; Gerber, Brian D.; Tecot, Stacey; Blanco, Marina B.; Winchester, Julia M.; Wright, Patricia C.; Jernvall, Jukka

    2014-01-01

    Mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp.) are an exciting new primate model for understanding human aging and disease. In captivity, Microcebus murinus develops human-like ailments of old age after five years (e.g., neurodegeneration analogous to Alzheimer's disease) but can live beyond 12 years. It is believed that wild Microcebus follow a similar pattern of senescence observed in captive animals, but that predation limits their lifespan to four years, thus preventing observance of these diseases in the wild. Testing whether this assumption is true is informative about both Microcebus natural history and environmental influences on senescence, leading to interpretation of findings for models of human aging. Additionally, the study of Microcebus longevity provides an opportunity to better understand mechanisms of sex-biased longevity. Longevity is often shorter in males of species with high male-male competition, such as Microcebus, but mouse lemurs are sexually monomorphic, suggesting similar lifespans. We collected individual-based observations of wild brown mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus) from 2003–2010 to investigate sex-differences in survival and longevity. Fecal testosterone was measured as a potential mechanism of sex-based differences in survival. We used a combination of high-resolution tooth wear techniques, mark-recapture, and hormone enzyme immunoassays. We found no dental or physical signs of senescence in M. rufus as old as eight years (N = 189, ages 1–8, mean = 2.59±1.63 SE), three years older than captive, senescent congeners (M. murinus). Unlike other polygynandrous vertebrates, we found no sex difference in age-dependent survival, nor sex or age differences in testosterone levels. While elevated male testosterone levels have been implicated in shorter lifespans in several species, this is one of the first studies to show equivalent testosterone levels accompanying equivalent lifespans. Future research on captive aged individuals can determine

  11. Teeth, sex, and testosterone: aging in the world's smallest primate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Zohdy

    Full Text Available Mouse lemurs (Microcebus spp. are an exciting new primate model for understanding human aging and disease. In captivity, Microcebus murinus develops human-like ailments of old age after five years (e.g., neurodegeneration analogous to Alzheimer's disease but can live beyond 12 years. It is believed that wild Microcebus follow a similar pattern of senescence observed in captive animals, but that predation limits their lifespan to four years, thus preventing observance of these diseases in the wild. Testing whether this assumption is true is informative about both Microcebus natural history and environmental influences on senescence, leading to interpretation of findings for models of human aging. Additionally, the study of Microcebus longevity provides an opportunity to better understand mechanisms of sex-biased longevity. Longevity is often shorter in males of species with high male-male competition, such as Microcebus, but mouse lemurs are sexually monomorphic, suggesting similar lifespans. We collected individual-based observations of wild brown mouse lemurs (Microcebus rufus from 2003-2010 to investigate sex-differences in survival and longevity. Fecal testosterone was measured as a potential mechanism of sex-based differences in survival. We used a combination of high-resolution tooth wear techniques, mark-recapture, and hormone enzyme immunoassays. We found no dental or physical signs of senescence in M. rufus as old as eight years (N = 189, ages 1-8, mean = 2.59 ± 1.63 SE, three years older than captive, senescent congeners (M. murinus. Unlike other polygynandrous vertebrates, we found no sex difference in age-dependent survival, nor sex or age differences in testosterone levels. While elevated male testosterone levels have been implicated in shorter lifespans in several species, this is one of the first studies to show equivalent testosterone levels accompanying equivalent lifespans. Future research on captive aged individuals can

  12. Model-based methods for case definitions from administrative health data: application to rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeker, Kristine; Widdifield, Jessica; Muthukumarana, Saman; Jiang, Depeng; Lix, Lisa M

    2017-06-23

    This research proposes a model-based method to facilitate the selection of disease case definitions from validation studies for administrative health data. The method is demonstrated for a rheumatoid arthritis (RA) validation study. Data were from 148 definitions to ascertain cases of RA in hospital, physician and prescription medication administrative data. We considered: (A) separate univariate models for sensitivity and specificity, (B) univariate model for Youden's summary index and (C) bivariate (ie, joint) mixed-effects model for sensitivity and specificity. Model covariates included the number of diagnoses in physician, hospital and emergency department records, physician diagnosis observation time, duration of time between physician diagnoses and number of RA-related prescription medication records. The most common case definition attributes were: 1+ hospital diagnosis (65%), 2+ physician diagnoses (43%), 1+ specialist physician diagnosis (51%) and 2+ years of physician diagnosis observation time (27%). Statistically significant improvements in sensitivity and/or specificity for separate univariate models were associated with (all p values model produced similar results. Youden's index was associated with these same case definition criteria, except for the length of the physician diagnosis observation time. A model-based method provides valuable empirical evidence to aid in selecting a definition(s) for ascertaining diagnosed disease cases from administrative health data. The choice between univariate and bivariate models depends on the goals of the validation study and number of case definitions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Modeling of testosterone regulation by pulse-modulated feedback: An experimental data study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattsson, Per; Medvedev, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    The continuous part of a hybrid (pulse-modulated) model of testosterone feedback regulation is extended with infinite-dimensional and nonlinear dynamics, to better explain the testosterone concentration profiles observed in clinical data. A linear least-squares based optimization algorithm is developed for the purpose of detecting impulses of gonadotropin-realsing hormone from measured concentration of luteinizing hormone. The parameters in the model are estimated from hormone concentration measured in human males, and simulation results from the full closed-loop system are provided.

  14. The testosterone metabolism of the estuarine invertebrate Neomysis integer (Crustacea: Mysidacea): Identification of testosterone metabolites and endogenous vertebrate-type steroids

    OpenAIRE

    Verslycke, T.; De Wasch, K.; De Brabander, H.F.; Janssen, C.R.

    2002-01-01

    Testosterone metabolism by Neomysis integer (Crustacea; Mysidacea) was assessed to obtain initial data on its metabolic capacity. N. integer were exposed to both testosterone and [14]testosterone. Identification of testosterone metabolites and endogenous steroids was performed using thin-layer chromatography and liquid chromatography with multiple mass spectrometry. Endogenous production of testosterone in mysids was detected for the first time. N. integer were exposed to testosterone and met...

  15. Promoting Sustainability Transparency in European Local Governments: An Empirical Analysis Based on Administrative Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Navarro-Galera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the transparency of governments with respect to the sustainability of public services is a very interesting issue for stakeholders and academics. It has led to previous research and international organisations (EU, IMF, OECD, United Nations, IFAC, G-20, World Bank to recommend promotion of the online dissemination of economic, social and environmental information. Based on previous studies about e-government and the influence of administrative cultures on governmental accountability, this paper seeks to identify political actions useful to improve the practices of transparency on economic, social and environmental sustainability in European local governments. We perform a comparative analysis of sustainability information published on the websites of 72 local governments in 10 European countries grouped into main three cultural contexts (Anglo-Saxon, Southern European and Nordic. Using international sustainability reporting guidelines, our results reveal significant differences in local government transparency in each context. The most transparent local governments are the Anglo-Saxon ones, followed by Southern European and Nordic governments. Based on individualized empirical results for each administrative style, our conclusions propose useful policy interventions to enhance sustainability transparency within each cultural tradition, such as development of legal rules on transparency and sustainability, tools to motivate local managers for online diffusion of sustainability information and analysis of information needs of stakeholders.

  16. The acute effect of dexamethasone on plasma leptin concentrations and the relationships between fasting leptin, the IGF-I/IGFBP system, dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione and testosterone in an elderly population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, JAMJL; Huizenga, NATM; Stolk, RP; Grobbee, DE; Pols, HAP; de Jong, FH; Attanasio, AMF; Blum, WF; Lamberts, SWJ

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the acute effect of dexamethasone administration on serum leptin levels and the relationships between dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEAS), androstenedione, testosterone and the IGF-I/IGFBP system and leptin levels in healthy elderly humans. METHODS In 209 healthy elderly

  17. Low free and bioavailable testosterone levels may predict pathologically-proven high-risk prostate cancer: a prospective, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayar, Göksel; Şirin, Hakan; Aydın, Mustafa; Özağarı, Ayşim; Tanrıverdi, Orhan; Kadıhasanoğlu, Mustafa; Kendirci, Muammer

    2017-09-01

    To determine the predictive value of free and bioavailable testosterone levels on the detection of high-grade prostate cancer proven by histopathological examination of transrectal prostate biopsy specimens. A total of 405 patients who underwent transrectal prostate biopsy due to high prostatic specific antigen (PSA) (>2.5 ng/mL) and/or abnormal findings at digital rectal examination were included in this study. Blood free and bioavailable testosterone levels were calculated by the formula recommended by International Society for the Study of the Aging Male (ISSAM). The patients were stratified according to the D'Amico classification based on PSA levels and histological outcomes of prostate biopsies as benign, low, intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer. Patients were also divided into five groups according to the percentage of cancerous cores. Prostate cancer was detected in 160 of 405 (39.5%) patients. Total, free and bioavailable testosterone levels did not differ significantly between the patients with benign or malign histology. However, mean free (6.2 vs. 5.2 ng/dL, p=0.02) and bioavailable (151 vs. 125 ng/dL, p=0.001) testosterone levels were found to be significantly different in men with low-intermediate and high-risk prostate cancer. Moreover, a significant correlation was found between free, and bioavailable testosterone levels and percentage of cores with cancer (p=0.002 for free and p=0.016 for bioavailable testosterone, respectively). This prospective clinical study demonstrates that reduced levels of calculated blood free and bioavailable testosterone levels are associated with an increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer. Based on these findings blood free and bioavailable testosterone levels may be be thought to be an adjunctive factor in the prediction of high-risk prostate cancer.

  18. Low serum total testosterone level as a predictor of upstaging and upgrading in low-risk prostate cancer patients meeting the inclusion criteria for active surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Matteo; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Bruzzese, Dario; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Perdonà, Sisto; Autorino, Riccardo; Cantiello, Francesco; La Rocca, Roberto; Busetto, Gian Maria; Cimmino, Amelia; Buonerba, Carlo; Battaglia, Michele; Damiano, Rocco; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Mirone, Vincenzo; Terracciano, Daniela

    2017-03-14

    Active surveillance (AS) is currently a widely accepted treatment option for men with clinically localized prostate cancer (PCa). Several reports have highlighted the association of low serum testosterone levels with high-grade, high-stage PCa. However, the impact of serum testosterone as a predictor of progression in men with low-risk PCa has been little assessed.In this study, we evaluated the association of circulating testosterone concentrations with a staging/grading reclassification in a cohort of low-risk PCa patients meeting the inclusion criteria for the AS protocol but opting for radical prostatectomy.Radical prostatectomy (RP) was performed in 338 patients, eligible for AS according to the following criteria: clinical stage T2a or less, PSApT2) and upgrading (GS≥7; primary Gleason pattern 4) disease. Unfavorable disease was defined as the occurrence of pathological stage>pT2 and predominant Gleason score 4. Total testosterone was measured before surgery.Low serum testosterone levels (testosterone to a base model, including age, PSA, PSA density, clinical stage and positive cancer involvement in cores, showed a significant independent influence of this variable on upstaging, upgrading and unfavorable disease.In conclusion, our results support the idea that total testosterone should be a selection criterion for inclusion of low-risk PCa patients in AS programs and suggest that testosterone level less than 300 ng/dL should be considered a discouraging factor when a close AS program is considered as treatment option.

  19. Serum testosterone as a biomarker for second prostatic biopsy in men with negative first biopsy for prostatic cancer and PSA>4ng/mL, or with PIN biopsy result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiamegos, Alexandros; Varkarakis, John; Kontraros, Michael; Karagiannis, Andreas; Chrisofos, Michael; Barbalias, Dimitrios; Deliveliotis, Charalampos

    2016-01-01

    Data from animal, clinical and prevention studies support the role of androgens in prostate cancer growth, proliferation and progression. Results of serum based epidemiologic studies in humans, however, have been inconclusive. The present study aims to define whether serum testosterone can be used as a predictor of a posi¬tive second biopsy in males considered for re-biopsy. The study included 320 men who underwent a prostatic biopsy in our department from October 2011 until June 2012. Total testosterone, free testos¬terone, bioavailable testosterone and prostate pathology were evaluated in all cases. Patients undergoing a second biopsy were identified and biopsy results were statistically analyzed. Forty men (12.5%) were assessed with a second biopsy. The diagnosis of the second biopsy was High Grade Intraepithelial Neoplasia in 14 patients (35%) and Prostate Cancer in 12 patients (30%). The comparison of prostatic volume, total testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin, free testosterone, bioavailable testosterone and albumin showed that patients with cancer of the prostate had significantly greater levels of free testosterone (p=0.043) and bioavailable T (p=0.049). In our study, higher free testosterone and bioavailable testosterone levels were associated with a cancer diagnosis at re-biopsy. Our results indicate a possible role for free and bioavailable testosterone in predicting the presence of prostate cancer in patients considered for re-biopsy. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  20. The TRPM8 Protein Is a Testosterone Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Demirkhanyan, Lusine; Sun, Xiaohui; Elustondo, Pia A.; Krishnan, Vivek; Baskaran, Padmamalini; Velpula, Kiran Kumar; Thyagarajan, Baskaran; Pavlov, Evgeny V.; Zakharian, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone is a key steroid hormone in the development of male reproductive tissues and the regulation of the central nervous system. The rapid signaling mechanism induced by testosterone affects numerous behavioral traits, including sexual drive, aggressiveness, and fear conditioning. However, the currently identified testosterone receptor(s) is not believed to underlie the fast signaling, suggesting an orphan pathway. Here we report that an ion channel from the transient receptor potential family, TRPM8, commonly known as the cold and menthol receptor is the major component of testosterone-induced rapid actions. Using cultured and primary cell lines along with the purified TRPM8 protein, we demonstrate that testosterone directly activates TRPM8 channel at low picomolar range. Specifically, testosterone induced TRPM8 responses in primary human prostate cells, PC3 prostate cancer cells, dorsal root ganglion neurons, and hippocampal neurons. Picomolar concentrations of testosterone resulted in full openings of the purified TRPM8 channel in planar lipid bilayers. Furthermore, acute applications of testosterone on human skin elicited a cooling sensation. Our data conclusively demonstrate that testosterone is an endogenous and highly potent agonist of TRPM8, suggesting a role of TRPM8 channels well beyond their well established function in somatosensory neurons. This discovery may further imply TRPM8 channel function in testosterone-dependent behavioral traits. PMID:25480785

  1. Testosterone-Related Cortical Maturation Across Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; McCracken, James; Ducharme, Simon; Botteron, Kelly N.; Mahabir, Megan; Johnson, Wendy; Israel, Mimi; Evans, Alan C.; Karama, Sherif

    2013-01-01

    Neuroendocrine theories of brain development hold testosterone as the predominant factor mediating sex-specific cortical growth and the ensuing lateralization of hemispheric function. However, studies to date have focussed on prenatal testosterone rather than pubertal changes in testosterone. Yet, animal studies have shown a high density of androgen-sensitive receptors in multiple key cortical areas, and puberty is known to coincide with both a significant rise in testosterone and the emergence of behavioral sex differences, suggesting peripubertal influences of testosterone on brain development. Here, we used linear mixed models to examine sex-specific cortical maturation associated with changes in testosterone levels in a longitudinal sample of developmentally healthy children and adolescents. A significant “sex by age by testosterone” interaction on cortical thickness (CTh) involving widespread areas of the developing brain was found. Testosterone levels were associated with CTh changes in regions of the left hemisphere in males and of the right hemisphere in females. In both sexes, the relationship between testosterone and CTh varied across the age span. These findings show the association between testosterone and CTh to be complex, highly dynamic, and to vary, depending on sex and age; they also suggest sex-related hemispheric lateralization effects of testosterone in humans. PMID:22617851

  2. Physiological levels of testosterone kill salmonid leukocytes in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, C.H.; Schreck, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    Adult spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) elaborate high plasma concentrations of testosterone during sexual maturation, and these levels of testosterone have been shown to reduce the salmonid immune response in vitro. Our search for the mechanism of testosterone's immunosuppressive action has led to the characterization of an androgen receptor in salmonid leukocytes. In the present study we examined the specific effects that testosterone had on salmonid leukocytes. Direct counts of viable leukocytes after incubation with and without physiological levels of testosterone demonstrate a significant loss of leukocytes in cultures exposed to testosterone. At least 5 days of contact with testosterone was required to produce significant immunosuppression and addition of a 'conditioned media' (supernatant from proliferating lymphocytes not exposed to testosterone) did not reverse the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone. These data lead us to conclude that testosterone may exert its immunosuppressive effects by direct action on salmonid leukocytes, through the androgen receptor described, and that this action leads to the death of a significant number of these leukocytes.

  3. Effect of a single injection of testosterone enanthate on 17β estradiol and bone turnover markers in hypogonadal male patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camozzi, V; Bonanni, G; Frigo, A; Piccolo, M; Ferasin, S; Zaninotto, M; Boscaro, M; Luisetto, G

    2015-04-01

    Several clinical studies testify the critical role played by estrogens in male bone metabolism. The aim of our study is to assess the effect of a single injection of testosterone enanthate in a group of hypogonadal men on 17β estradiol serum levels and some bone metabolic parameters. Twenty-one hypogonadal males were given one testosterone enanthate injection (250 mg). Blood samples were drawn before the injection and after 1, 2 and 3 weeks. The following variables were measured: Total testosterone (TT), 17β estradiol (17β E2), Sex hormone binding globulin, total alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and C-telopeptide of type I collagen (CTx). After testosterone injection, both TT and 17β E2 increased, peaking 1 week after the injection. Individual observation of the response of 17β E2 to testosterone showed that a subgroup (n = 9) failed to respond with any increase in 17β E2 at any of the weekly tests (group E2-), while the remainder (n = 12) showed a significant increase in 17β E2, which reached a mean value three times higher than at baseline (group E2+). The E2- patients reached a TT peak lower than that observed in the E+ group. CTx serum levels declined progressively in the E2+ group, reaching the significance (p = 0.03) at the end of the study, while it did not change in E- group. This study suggests that a single injection of testosterone might have different effects on the production of endogenous estrogens, and a significant reduction of bone resorption parameters takes place only in the patients who show a significant increase of 17ß estradiol in response to testosterone administration.

  4. Effect of Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Combined with Testosterone Treatment on Cardiovascular Function in Rats: Influence of Exercise Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila A Engi

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of voluntary ethanol consumption combined with testosterone treatment on cardiovascular function in rats. Moreover, we investigated the influence of exercise training on these effects. To this end, male rats were submitted to low-intensity training on a treadmill or kept sedentary while concurrently being treated with ethanol for 6 weeks. For voluntary ethanol intake, rats were given access to two bottles, one containing ethanol and other containing water, three 24-hour sessions per week. In the last two weeks (weeks 5 and 6, animals underwent testosterone treatment concurrently with exercise training and exposure to ethanol. Ethanol consumption was not affected by either testosterone treatment or exercise training. Also, drug treatments did not influence the treadmill performance improvement evoked by training. However, testosterone alone, but not in combination with ethanol, reduced resting heart rate. Moreover, combined treatment with testosterone and ethanol reduced the pressor response to the selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Treatment with either testosterone or ethanol alone also affected baroreflex activity and enhanced depressor response to acetylcholine, but these effects were inhibited when drugs were coadministrated. Exercise training restored most cardiovascular effects evoked by drug treatments. Furthermore, both drugs administrated alone increased pressor response to phenylephrine in trained animals. Also, drug treatments inhibited the beneficial effects of training on baroreflex function. In conclusion, the present results suggest a potential interaction between toxic effects of testosterone and ethanol on cardiovascular function. Data also indicate that exercise training is an important factor influencing the effects of these substances.

  5. Effects of gendered behavior on testosterone in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Anders, Sari M; Steiger, Jeffrey; Goldey, Katherine L

    2015-11-10

    Testosterone is typically understood to contribute to maleness and masculinity, although it also responds to behaviors such as competition. Competition is crucial to evolution and may increase testosterone but also is selectively discouraged for women and encouraged for men via gender norms. We conducted an experiment to test how gender norms might modulate testosterone as mediated by two possible gender→testosterone pathways. Using a novel experimental design, participants (trained actors) performed a specific type of competition (wielding power) in stereotypically masculine vs. feminine ways. We hypothesized in H1 (stereotyped behavior) that wielding power increases testosterone regardless of how it is performed, vs. H2 (stereotyped performance), that wielding power performed in masculine but not feminine ways increases testosterone. We found that wielding power increased testosterone in women compared with a control, regardless of whether it was performed in gender-stereotyped masculine or feminine ways. Results supported H1 over H2: stereotyped behavior but not performance modulated testosterone. These results also supported theory that competition modulates testosterone over masculinity. Our findings thus support a gender→testosterone pathway mediated by competitive behavior. Accordingly, cultural pushes for men to wield power and women to avoid doing so may partially explain, in addition to heritable factors, why testosterone levels tend to be higher in men than in women: A lifetime of gender socialization could contribute to "sex differences" in testosterone. Our experiment opens up new questions of gender→testosterone pathways, highlighting the potential of examining nature/nurture interactions and effects of socialization on human biology.

  6. Interactive Effects of Dehydroepiandrosterone and Testosterone on Cortical Thickness during Early Brain Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; McCracken, James T.; Ducharme, Simon; Cropp, Brett F.; Botteron, Kelly N.; Evans, Alan C.

    2013-01-01

    Humans and the great apes are the only species demonstrated to exhibit adrenarche, a key endocrine event associated with prepubertal increases in the adrenal production of androgens, most significantly dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and to a certain degree testosterone. Adrenarche also coincides with the emergence of the prosocial and neurobehavioral skills of middle childhood and may therefore represent a human-specific stage of development. Both DHEA and testosterone have been reported in animal and in vitro studies to enhance neuronal survival and programmed cell death depending on the timing, dose, and hormonal context involved, and to potentially compete for the same signaling pathways. Yet no extant brain-hormone studies have examined the interaction between DHEA- and testosterone-related cortical maturation in humans. Here, we used linear mixed models to examine changes in cortical thickness associated with salivary DHEA and testosterone levels in a longitudinal sample of developmentally healthy children and adolescents 4–22 years old. DHEA levels were associated with increases in cortical thickness of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right temporoparietal junction, right premotor and right entorhinal cortex between the ages of 4–13 years, a period marked by the androgenic changes of adrenarche. There was also an interaction between DHEA and testosterone on cortical thickness of the right cingulate cortex and occipital pole that was most significant in prepubertal subjects. DHEA and testosterone appear to interact and modulate the complex process of cortical maturation during middle childhood, consistent with evidence at the molecular level of fast/nongenomic and slow/genomic or conversion-based mechanisms underlying androgen-related brain development. PMID:23804104

  7. Impact of obesity on outcomes of paediatric acute pancreatitis based on a national administrative database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, A; Ohtani, M; Muramatsu, K; Kobori, S; Tomioka, S; Matsuda, S

    2016-06-01

    Insufficient information is available on the relationship between obesity and outcome of paediatric patients with acute pancreatitis. This study aimed to investigate the effect of obesity on outcomes of paediatric patients with acute pancreatitis based on a national administrative database. A total of 500 cases in 416 paediatric patients with acute pancreatitis (aged 5-17 years) were referred from 260 hospitals between 2010 and 2012 in Japan. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence of obesity: with obesity (n = 65) and without obesity (n = 435). Patient data were collected from the administrative database to compare the prevalence of severe acute pancreatitis, in-hospital mortality, length of stay (LOS) and medical costs between the groups. Both prevalence of severe acute pancreatitis and in-hospital mortality were significantly higher in paediatric patients with obesity than those without (36.9% vs. 16.3% and 3.1% vs. 0.0%; P < 0.001, respectively). Longer LOS and higher medical costs were also observed in paediatric patients with obesity (25.7 vs. 15.2 days, P < 0.001 and 14 169.5 vs. 7457.7 US dollars, P < 0.001, respectively). This study demonstrated that obesity significantly influenced the outcomes of paediatric acute pancreatitis. © 2015 World Obesity.

  8. Pattern recognition of estradiol, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone in children's saliva samples using stochastic microsensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stefan-van Staden, R.I.; Gugoaşă, L.A.; Calenic, B.; Legler, J.

    2014-01-01

    Stochastic microsensors based on diamond paste and three types of electroactive materials (maltodextrin (MD), α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) and 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H porphyrin (P)) were developed for the assay of estradiol (E2), testosterone (T2) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in children's saliva.

  9. Light induced degradation of testosterone in waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vulliet, Emmanuelle, E-mail: e.vulliet@sca.cnrs.fr [Service Central d' Analyse du CNRS - USR59, Chemin du Canal, F-69360 Solaize (France); Falletta, Marine; Marote, Pedro [Laboratoire des Sciences Analytiques - UMR 5180, Universite Claude Bernard, 43 bd du 11 Novembre 1918, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Lomberget, Thierry [Laboratoire de Chimie Therapeutique, Universite de Lyon, Universite Lyon 1, Faculte de Pharmacie-ISPB, EA 4443 Biomolecules, Cancer et Chimioresistances, INSERM U863 Hormones steroides et proteines de liaison, IFR 62, 8 avenue Rockefeller, F-69373, Lyon Cedex 08 (France); Paisse, Jean-Olivier; Grenier-Loustalot, Marie-Florence [Service Central d' Analyse du CNRS - USR59, Chemin du Canal, F-69360 Solaize (France)

    2010-08-01

    The degradation of testosterone under simulated irradiations was studied in phosphate buffers and in natural waters at various excitation wavelengths. The quantum yield of photolysis was significantly lower at 313 nm (2.4 x 10{sup -3}) than at 254 nm (0.225). The formation of several photoproducts was observed, some of them being rapidly transformed in turn while others show higher stability towards subsequent irradiations. The nature of the main products was tentatively identified, both deduced from their spectral and spectrometric data and by comparison with synthesised standard compounds. Among the obtained photoproducts, the main one is possibly a spiro-compound, hydroxylated derivative of testosterone originating from the photohydratation of the enone group. The photodegradation pathway includes also photorearrangements. One of them leads to (1,5,10)-cyclopropyl-17{beta}-hydroxyandrostane-2-one. The pH of the water does not seem to affect the rate of phototransformation and the nature of the by-products.

  10. Decreased prevalence of left-handedness among females with male co-twins: evidence suggesting prenatal testosterone transfer in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuoksimaa, Eero; Eriksson, C J Peter; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2010-11-01

    Studies of singletons suggest that right-handed individuals may have higher levels of testosterone than do left-handed individuals. Prenatal testosterone levels are hypothesised to be especially related to handedness formation. In humans, female members from opposite-sex twin pairs may experience elevated level of prenatal exposure to testosterone in their intrauterine environment shared with a male. We tested for differences in rates of left-handedness/right-handedness in female twins from same-sex and opposite-sex twin pairs. Our sample consisted of 4736 subjects, about 70% of all Finnish twins born in 1983-1987, with information on measured pregnancy and birth related factors. Circulating testosterone and estradiol levels at age 14 were available on 771 and 744 of these twins, respectively. We found significantly (p=.006) lower prevalence of left-handedness in females from opposite-sex pairs (5.3%) compared to females from same-sex pairs (8.6%). The circulating levels of neither testosterone nor estradiol related to handedness in either females or males. Nor were there differences in circulating testosterone or estradiol levels between females from opposite-sex and same-sex twin pairs. Birth and pregnancy related factors for which we had information were unrelated to handedness. Our results are difficult to fully explain by postnatal factors, but they offer support to theory that relates testosterone to formation of handedness, and in a population-based sample, are suggestive of effects of prenatal testosterone transfer. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Current Practices of Measuring and Reference Range Reporting of Free and Total Testosterone in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Margaret; Flores, David; May, Danica; Gourley, Eric; Nangia, Ajay K

    2016-05-01

    The evaluation and management of male hypogonadism should be based on symptoms and on serum testosterone levels. Diagnostically this relies on accurate testing and reference values. Our objective was to define the distribution of reference values and assays for free and total testosterone by clinical laboratories in the United States. Upper and lower reference values, assay methodology and source of published reference ranges were obtained from laboratories across the country. A standardized survey was reviewed with laboratory staff via telephone. Descriptive statistics were used to tabulate results. We surveyed a total of 120 laboratories in 47 states. Total testosterone was measured in house at 73% of laboratories. At the remaining laboratories studies were sent to larger centralized reference facilities. The mean ± SD lower reference value of total testosterone was 231 ± 46 ng/dl (range 160 to 300) and the mean upper limit was 850 ± 141 ng/dl (range 726 to 1,130). Only 9% of laboratories where in-house total testosterone testing was performed created a reference range unique to their region. Others validated the instrument recommended reference values in a small number of internal test samples. For free testosterone 82% of laboratories sent testing to larger centralized reference laboratories where equilibrium dialysis and/or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry was done. The remaining laboratories used published algorithms to calculate serum free testosterone. Reference ranges for testosterone assays vary significantly among laboratories. The ranges are predominantly defined by limited population studies of men with unknown medical and reproductive histories. These poorly defined and variable reference values, especially the lower limit, affect how clinicians determine treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Low free testosterone predicts mortality from cardiovascular disease but not other causes: the Health in Men Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Zoë; Norman, Paul E; Flicker, Leon; Hankey, Graeme J; Almeida, Osvaldo P; McCaul, Kieran A; Chubb, S A Paul; Yeap, Bu B

    2012-01-01

    Low testosterone is associated with all-cause mortality, but the relationship with cause-specific mortality is uncertain. Our objective was to explore associations between testosterone and its related hormones and cause-specific mortality. This was a population-based cohort study. Demographic and clinical predictors of mortality, and testosterone, SHBG, and LH were measured from 2001-2004 in 3637 community-dwelling men aged 70-88 yr (mean, 77 yr). Cause of death was obtained via electronic record linkage until December 31, 2008. During a mean follow-up period of 5.1 yr, there were 605 deaths. Of these, 207 [34.2%; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 30.4-38.1%] were due to cardiovascular disease (CVD), 231 to cancer (38.2%; 95% CI = 34.3-42.1%), 130 to respiratory diseases (21.5%; 95% CI = 18.2-24.8%), and 76 to other causes (12.6%; 95% CI = 9.9-15.2%). There were 39 deaths attributable to both cancer and respiratory diseases. Lower free testosterone (hazard ratio = 1.62; 95% CI = 1.20-2.19, for 100 vs. 280 pmol/liter), and higher SHBG and LH levels were associated with all-cause mortality. In cause-specific analyses, lower free testosterone (sub-hazard ratio = 1.71; 95% CI = 1.12-2.62, for 100 vs. 280 pmol/liter) and higher LH predicted CVD mortality, while higher SHBG predicted non-CVD mortality. Higher total testosterone and free testosterone levels (sub-hazard ratio = 1.96; 95% CI = 1.14-3.36, for 400 vs. 280 pmol/liter) were associated with mortality from lung cancer. Low testosterone predicts mortality from CVD but is not associated with death from other causes. Prevention of androgen deficiency might improve cardiovascular outcomes but is unlikely to affect longevity otherwise.

  13. Testosterone and metabolic syndrome: The link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranabir Salam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS or "Syndrome X" which is a constellation of insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and increased very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL and triglyceride (TG levels. It is one of the main threats for public health in the 21st century with its associated risk of cardiovascular disease. This condition affects a major chunk of mankind. International Diabetes Federation (IDF estimated that around 20-25% of the adult population of the world has MetS. Several definitions have been put forward by different expert bodies leading to confusion. To overcome this, joint new statement of many expert group have been issued. Serum testosterone (T has been shown to be associated with MetS. Several studies have shown a higher prevalence of MetS in subjects with low testosterone. There are also several studies showing a significant difference in serum T between those with MetS and those without. Serum T has also been shown to be associated with components of MetS and testosterone replacement therapy (TRT improves various metabolic and anthropometric parameters in MetS. Patients with androgen deprivation for treatment of various cancers have also been reported to have higher prevalence of MetS. But the evidence of association is not sufficient evidence for the causation of MetS by low testosterone and long-term studies are needed to confirm whether T deficiency is the cause or is a feature of MetS.

  14. Prenatal Testosterone and Preschool Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Bethan A.; Martel, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    Disruptive Behaviors Disorders (DBD), including Oppositional-Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are fairly common and highly impairing childhood behavior disorders that can be diagnosed as early as preschool. Prenatal exposure to testosterone may be particularly relevant to these early-emerging DBDs that exhibit a sex-biased prevalence rate favoring males. The current study examined associations between preschool DBD symptom domains and prenatal exposu...

  15. Effects of three different testosterone formulations in female-to-male transsexual persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelusi, Carla; Costantino, Antonietta; Martelli, Valentina; Lambertini, Martina; Bazzocchi, Alberto; Ponti, Federico; Battista, Giuseppe; Venturoli, Stefano; Meriggiola, Maria C

    2014-12-01

    Gender dysphoria is characterized by a strong discomfort with the gender assigned at birth and the urge to live as a member of the opposite gender. The acquisition of phenotypic features of the desired gender requires the use of cross-sex hormones. Female-to-male (FtM) transsexual persons are treated with testosterone to induce virilization. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of three different testosterone formulations on body weight and composition and metabolic and bone parameters. Forty-five FtM transsexuals were randomly assigned to receive testoviron depot (i.m.: 100 mg/10 days; n = 15), testosterone gel (50 mg/die; n = 15), and testosterone undecanoate (i.m.: 1,000 mg every 6 weeks for the first 6 weeks and then every 12 weeks, n = 15). FtM individuals were studied before, at week 30, and at week 54 of testosterone treatment. Anthropometric, metabolic, bone, hematological, and biochemical parameters were evaluated at baseline and after 12 months of treatment. Lean body mass significantly increased and fat mass decreased in all groups. No modifications were reported in fasting insulin and insulin sensitivity index. High-density plasma lipoprotein levels declined significantly and low-density lipoprotein concentrations increased significantly in the three groups. The activated partial thromboplastin time and factor I did not change while prothrombin time significantly increased in all groups. At week 54, all subjects were amenorrheic and time to amenorrhea did not differ between the three groups. Current general life satisfaction was increased in all subjects after 1 year of treatment. One-year testosterone administration in FtM transsexuals appears to be very safe with no differences among the testosterone formulations used. Our study is preliminary, and the detection of subtle or long-term differences in the effects of the three formulations may require further larger and longer term studies in this and other populations.

  16. Transdermal testosterone replacement therapy in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, M Iftekhar; Riche, Daniel M; Koch, Christian A

    2014-01-01

    Androgen deficiency syndrome in men is a frequently diagnosed condition associated with clinical symptoms including fatigue, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, and metabolic syndrome. Serum testosterone concentrations decline steadily with age. The prevalence of androgen deficiency syndrome in men varies depending on the age group, known and unknown comorbidities, and the respective study group. Reported prevalence rates may be underestimated, as not every man with symptoms of androgen deficiency seeks treatment. Additionally, men reporting symptoms of androgen deficiency may not be correctly diagnosed due to the vagueness of the symptom quality. The treatment of androgen deficiency syndrome or male hypogonadism may sometimes be difficult due to various reasons. There is no consensus as to when to start treating a respective man or with regards to the best treatment option for an individual patient. There is also lack of familiarity with treatment options among general practitioners. The formulations currently available on the market are generally expensive and dose adjustment protocols for each differ. All these factors add to the complexity of testosterone replacement therapy. In this article we will discuss the general indications of transdermal testosterone replacement therapy, available formulations, dosage, application sites, and recommended titration schedule. PMID:24470750

  17. Geospatial Based Information System Development in Public Administration for Sustainable Development and Planning in Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouziokas, Georgios N.

    2016-09-01

    It is generally agreed that the governmental authorities should actively encourage the development of an efficient framework of information and communication technology initiatives so as to advance and promote sustainable development and planning strategies. This paper presents a prototype Information System for public administration which was designed to facilitate public management and decision making for sustainable development and planning. The system was developed by using several programming languages and programming tools and also a Database Management System (DBMS) for storing and managing urban data of many kinds. Furthermore, geographic information systems were incorporated into the system in order to make possible to the authorities to deal with issues of spatial nature such as spatial planning. The developed system provides a technology based management of geospatial information, environmental and crime data of urban environment aiming at improving public decision making and also at contributing to a more efficient sustainable development and planning.

  18. The TRPM8 protein is a testosterone receptor: II. Functional evidence for an ionotropic effect of testosterone on TRPM8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Demirkhanyan, Lusine; Sun, Xiaohui; Elustondo, Pia A; Krishnan, Vivek; Baskaran, Padmamalini; Velpula, Kiran Kumar; Thyagarajan, Baskaran; Pavlov, Evgeny V; Zakharian, Eleonora

    2015-01-30

    Testosterone is a key steroid hormone in the development of male reproductive tissues and the regulation of the central nervous system. The rapid signaling mechanism induced by testosterone affects numerous behavioral traits, including sexual drive, aggressiveness, and fear conditioning. However, the currently identified testosterone receptor(s) is not believed to underlie the fast signaling, suggesting an orphan pathway. Here we report that an ion channel from the transient receptor potential family, TRPM8, commonly known as the cold and menthol receptor is the major component of testosterone-induced rapid actions. Using cultured and primary cell lines along with the purified TRPM8 protein, we demonstrate that testosterone directly activates TRPM8 channel at low picomolar range. Specifically, testosterone induced TRPM8 responses in primary human prostate cells, PC3 prostate cancer cells, dorsal root ganglion neurons, and hippocampal neurons. Picomolar concentrations of testosterone resulted in full openings of the purified TRPM8 channel in planar lipid bilayers. Furthermore, acute applications of testosterone on human skin elicited a cooling sensation. Our data conclusively demonstrate that testosterone is an endogenous and highly potent agonist of TRPM8, suggesting a role of TRPM8 channels well beyond their well established function in somatosensory neurons. This discovery may further imply TRPM8 channel function in testosterone-dependent behavioral traits. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Testosterone and prostate cancer: an historical perspective on a modern myth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgentaler, Abraham

    2006-11-01

    To review the historical origins and current evidence for the belief that testosterone (T) causes prostate cancer (pCA) growth. Review of the historical literature regarding T administration and pCA, as well as more recent studies investigating the relationship of T and pCA. In 1941 Huggins and Hodges reported that marked reductions in T by castration or estrogen treatment caused metastatic pCA to regress, and administration of exogenous T caused pCA to grow. Remarkably, this latter conclusion was based on results from only one patient. Multiple subsequent reports revealed no pCA progression with T administration, and some men even experienced subjective improvement, such as resolution of bone pain. More recent data have shown no apparent increase in pCA rates in clinical trials of T supplementation in normal men or men at increased risk for pCA, no relationship of pCA risk with serum T levels in multiple longitudinal studies, and no reduced risk of pCA in men with low T. The apparent paradox in which castration causes pCA to regress yet higher T fails to cause pCA to grow is resolved by a saturation model, in which maximal stimulation of pCA is reached at relatively low levels of T. This historical perspective reveals that there is not now-nor has there ever been-a scientific basis for the belief that T causes pCA to grow. Discarding this modern myth will allow exploration of alternative hypotheses regarding the relationship of T and pCA that may be clinically and scientifically rewarding.

  20. Protection of male reproductive toxicity in rats exposed to di-n-butyl phthalate during embryonic development by testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribabu, Nelli; Reddy, Pamanji Sreenivasula

    2017-03-01

    Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) widely spread industrial chemical that made drastic alteration in male reproductive system. The present study elucidates the protective role of testosterone on reproductive toxicity in prenatal DBP exposed adult male rats. Pregnant rats were injected with corn oil or 100 and 500mg/kg body weight of DBP on gestation day (GD) 1, 7 and 14. F1 male rats were weaned, injected with either testosterone or vehicle. On postnatal day (PND) 100 F1 adult male rats were cohabited with untreated female rats. Then rats were sacrificed and analyzed for other reproductive end points. Prenatal DBP exposed male rat testes, seminal vesicle weight, sperm count, motility, viability and HOS tail coiled sperm were significantly decreased with increased sperm morphological abnormalities. The levels of testicular 3β, 17βHSD, serum testosterone were significantly decreased with increased FSH, LH levels in experimental rats. The fertility studies revealed that increased pre, post-implantation losses and resorptions in normal females cohabited with experimental rats. Higher testicular LPO with lower SOD, CAT and GPx activity levels in experimental rats. Administration of testosterone to prenatal DBP treated male rats showed significant protection in above all parameters. In conclusions, testosterone deteriorates prenatal DBP induced reproductive and fertility toxicity by decreased oxidative stress and increased testicular antioxidant enzymes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. Delayed Ejaculation and Associated Complaints: Relationship to Ejaculation Times and Serum Testosterone Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgentaler, Abraham; Polzer, Paula; Althof, Stanley; Bolyakov, Alexander; Donatucci, Craig; Ni, Xiao; Patel, Ankur B; Basaria, Shehzad

    2017-09-01

    Although delayed ejaculation (DE) is typically characterized as a persistently longer than anticipated or desired time to ejaculation (or orgasm) during sexual activity, a timing-based definition of DE and its association with serum testosterone has not been established in a large cohort. To examine in an observational study estimated intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and masturbatory ejaculation latency time (MELT) in men self-reporting DE, assess the association of IELT and MELT with serum testosterone levels, and determine whether correlation with demographic and sexual parameters exist. Men who resided in the United States, Canada, and Mexico were enrolled from 2011 to 2013. Self-estimated IELT and MELT were captured using an Ejaculatory Function Screening Questionnaire in a sample of 988 men screened for possible inclusion in a randomized clinical trial assessing testosterone replacement therapy for ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD) and who self-reported the presence or absence of DE and symptoms of hypogonadism. Additional comorbid EjDs (ie, anejaculation, perceived decrease in ejaculate volume, and decreased force of ejaculation) were recorded. Men with premature ejaculation were excluded from this analysis. IELT and MELT were compared between men self-reporting DE and men without DE. The associations of IELT and MELT with serum testosterone were measured. IELT, MELT, and total testosterone levels. Sixty-two percent of screened men self-reported DE with or without comorbid EjDs; 38% did not report DE but did report at least one of the other EjDs. Estimated median IELTs were 20.0 minutes for DE vs 15 minutes for no DE (P IELTs and MELTs. Estimated ejaculation times during vaginal intercourse and/or masturbation were not associated with serum testosterone levels in this study; thus, routine androgen evaluation is not indicated in these men. This large systematic analysis attempted to objectively assess the ejaculation latency in men with self

  2. Protection against dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy is related to modulation by testosterone of FOXO1 and PGC-1{alpha}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, Weiping, E-mail: weiping.qin@mssm.edu [Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States); Pan, Jiangping; Wu, Yong [Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Bauman, William A. [Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States); Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States); Cardozo, Christopher, E-mail: Chris.Cardozo@mssm.edu [Center of Excellence for the Medical Consequences of Spinal Cord Injury, James J. Peters VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States); Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States); Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States)

    2010-12-17

    Research highlights: {yields} In rat gastrocnemius muscle, dexamethasone reduced PGC-1{alpha} cellular and nuclear levels without altering mRNA levels for this factor. {yields} Dexamethasone reduced phosphorylating of p38 MAPK, which stabilizes PGC-1{alpha} and promotes its nuclear entry. {yields} Co-administration of testosterone with dexamethasone increased cellular and nuclear levels of PGC-1{alpha} protein without changing its mRNA levels. {yields} Co-administration of testosterone restored p38 MAPK levels to those of controls. -- Abstract: Glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy results from muscle protein catabolism and reduced protein synthesis, associated with increased expression of two muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases (MAFbx and MuRF1), and of two inhibitors of protein synthesis, REDD1 and 4EBP1. MAFbx, MuRF1, REDD1 and 4EBP1 are up-regulated by the transcription factors FOXO1 and FOXO3A. The transcriptional co-activator PGC-1{alpha} has been shown to attenuate many forms of muscle atrophy and to repress FOXO3A-mediated transcription of atrophy-specific genes. Dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy can be prevented by testosterone, which blocks up-regulation by dexamethasone of FOXO1. Here, an animal model of dexamethasone-induced muscle atrophy was used to further characterize effects of testosterone to abrogate adverse actions of dexamethasone on FOXO1 levels and nuclear localization, and to determine how these agents affect PGC-1{alpha}, and its upstream activators, p38 MAPK and AMPK. In rat gastrocnemius muscle, testosterone blunted the dexamethasone-mediated increase in levels of FOXO1 mRNA, and FOXO1 total and nuclear protein. Dexamethasone reduced total and nuclear PGC-1{alpha} protein levels in the gastrocnemius; co-administration of testosterone with dexamethasone increased total and nuclear PGC-1{alpha} levels above those present in untreated controls. Testosterone blocked dexamethasone-induced decreases in activity of p38 MAPK in the gastrocnemius

  3. A Citation-Based Ranking of German-Speaking Researchers in Business Administration with Data of Google Scholar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilger, Alexander; Müller, Harry

    2013-01-01

    Rankings of academics can be constructed in two different ways, either based on journal rankings or based on citations. Although citation-based rankings promise some fundamental advantages they are still not common in German-speaking business administration. However, the choice of the underlying database is crucial. This article argues that for…

  4. Role of testosterone and photoperiod on seasonal changes in horn growth and sperm variables in the Iberian ibex: a model for polygynous wild bovids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago-Moreno, J; Gómez-Brunet, A; Toledano-Díaz, A; Salas-Vega, R; Gómez-Guillamón, F; López-Sebastián, A

    2012-08-01

    This work examines the effect of testosterone secretion and photoperiod on seasonal changes in horn growth and sperm variables in the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica), here used as a model for polygynous wild bovids. The hypothesis that high levels of testosterone provide an endocrine signal that inhibits horn growth in autumn was tested by assessing the effect of cyproterone acetate (CA), an anti-androgen, administered in October - coinciding with the period of natural increases in plasma testosterone concentrations - under different photoperiodic conditions (natural photoperiod and artificial long days). The persistence of horn growth during autumn in all ibexes held under the long-day photoperiodic conditions clearly shows that horn growth regulation in the mating season is primarily modulated by day length and not by a fall in testosterone concentration. A retrospectively designed second experiment involving testosterone propionate (TP) administration in April (when horns are growing) was then undertaken to confirm that high levels of testosterone do not inhibit horn growth. Overall, the results strongly suggest that the rise in testosterone secretion during the autumn mating season does not act as an endocrine signal for the arrest of horn growth, although the rate of horn growth before the mating season may be related to springtime testosterone levels. A direct relationship was seen between the rate of horn growth and the incidence of sperm abnormalities. Neither CA treatment in October nor TP administration in April affected the studied sperm variables. By contrast, CA treatment plus artificial long days in autumn had a negative effect on sperm motility and sperm morphology.

  5. Ameliorative effects of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) on testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, A; Dixit, V K

    2012-05-01

    The present study investigated the effects of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) (UD) on benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone. In vitro studies were conducted to assess the 5α-reductase inhibitory potential of UD. Two biochemical markers viz., β-sitosterol and scopoletin, were isolated and characterised in the extracts utilising High-performance thin layer chromatographic, FTIR, NMR and overlain UV spectral studies. Hyperplasia was induced in rats by subcutaneous administration of testosterone (3 mg kg(-1) s.c.) for 28 days in all the groups except the vehicle-treated group. Simultaneous administration of petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts (10, 20 and 50 mg kg(-1) p.o.) and isolated β-sitosterol (10 and 20 mg kg(-1) p.o.) was undertaken. Finasteride was used as a positive control (1 mg kg(-1) p.o.). Measurement of prostate/body weight ratio, weekly urine output and serum testosterone levels, prostate-specific antigen levels (on day 28) and histological examinations carried out on prostates from each group led us to conclude that UD can be used as an effective drug for the management of BPH. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Testosterone Regulates Tight Junction Proteins and Influences Prostatic Autoimmune Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Meng, Jing; Mostaghel, Elahe A.; Vakar-Lopez, Funda; Montgomery, Bruce; True, Larry; Nelson, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    Testosterone and inflammation have been linked to the development of common age-associated diseases affecting the prostate gland including prostate cancer, prostatitis, and benign prostatic hypertrophy. We hypothesized that testosterone regulates components of prostate tight junctions which serve as a barrier to inflammation, thus providing a connection between age- and treatment-associated testosterone declines and prostatic pathology. We examined the expression and distribution of tight jun...

  7. The relationship between sleep disorders and testosterone in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittert, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Plasma testosterone levels display circadian variation, peaking during sleep, and reaching a nadir in the late afternoon, with a superimposed ultradian rhythm with pulses every 90 min reflecting the underlying rhythm of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion. The increase in testosterone is sleep, rather than circadian rhythm, dependent and requires at least 3 h of sleep with a normal architecture. Various disorders of sleep including abnormalities of sleep quality, duration, circadian rhythm disruption, and sleep-disordered breathing may result in a reduction in testosterone levels. The evidence, to support a direct effect of sleep restriction or circadian rhythm disruption on testosterone independent of an effect on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), or the presence of comorbid conditions, is equivocal and on balance seems tenuous. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) appears to have no direct effect on testosterone, after adjusting for age and obesity. However, a possible indirect causal process may exist mediated by the effect of OSA on obesity. Treatment of moderate to severe OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) does not reliably increase testosterone levels in most studies. In contrast, a reduction in weight does so predictably and linearly in proportion to the amount of weight lost. Apart from a very transient deleterious effect, testosterone treatment does not adversely affect OSA. The data on the effect of sleep quality on testosterone may depend on whether testosterone is given as replacement, in supratherapeutic doses, or in the context abuse. Experimental data suggest that testosterone may modulate individual vulnerability to subjective symptoms of sleep restriction. Low testosterone may affect overall sleep quality which is improved by replacement doses. Large doses of exogenous testosterone and anabolic/androgenic steroid abuse are associated with abnormalities of sleep duration and architecture.

  8. The relationship between sleep disorders and testosterone in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Wittert

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Plasma testosterone levels display circadian variation, peaking during sleep, and reaching a nadir in the late afternoon, with a superimposed ultradian rhythm with pulses every 90 min reflecting the underlying rhythm of pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH secretion. The increase in testosterone is sleep, rather than circadian rhythm, dependent and requires at least 3 h of sleep with a normal architecture. Various disorders of sleep including abnormalities of sleep quality, duration, circadian rhythm disruption, and sleep-disordered breathing may result in a reduction in testosterone levels. The evidence, to support a direct effect of sleep restriction or circadian rhythm disruption on testosterone independent of an effect on sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, or the presence of comorbid conditions, is equivocal and on balance seems tenuous. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA appears to have no direct effect on testosterone, after adjusting for age and obesity. However, a possible indirect causal process may exist mediated by the effect of OSA on obesity. Treatment of moderate to severe OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP does not reliably increase testosterone levels in most studies. In contrast, a reduction in weight does so predictably and linearly in proportion to the amount of weight lost. Apart from a very transient deleterious effect, testosterone treatment does not adversely affect OSA. The data on the effect of sleep quality on testosterone may depend on whether testosterone is given as replacement, in supratherapeutic doses, or in the context abuse. Experimental data suggest that testosterone may modulate individual vulnerability to subjective symptoms of sleep restriction. Low testosterone may affect overall sleep quality which is improved by replacement doses. Large doses of exogenous testosterone and anabolic/androgenic steroid abuse are associated with abnormalities of sleep duration and architecture.

  9. KAJIAN TERAPI AKUPUNKTUR TERHADAP KADAR HORMON TESTOSTERON PRIA USIA LANJUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wasito Tjipto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Testosterone was the most important androgen secreted into the blood in males. It was responsible for development of secondary male sex characteristics and its measurements are helpful in evaluating the hypogonadal states. Decreasing of testosterone in males started in middle age, about 45–59 years old. It is responsible of decreasing muscle mass and strength, increasing of body fat especially abdominal fat and gynecomastia, less of libido and sexual intercourse frequency, increase of erectile dysfunction. Objective: The objective of this study was conducted stimulation on acupuncture reproduction point to increase testosterone hormone level in elder’s men. Methods: The study used non randomized experiment pre- post test without control group design, the samples was 40 older men, about 50 – more than 70 years old. The stimulation on acupuncture point CV-4, Sp-6, LV-3, and ST-36, on older men were given five times per week, for ten treatments, before treatment each patient was determined the concentration of testosterone hormone and after ten times acupuncture treatment. Results: 15 old men, have increased testosterone level, 20 old men have decreased testosterone level, and 16 old men have no changes in libido after ten times acupuncture treatment. Not all responder after therapy acupuncture ten times at reproduction point have increased of hormone testosterone. Most of 50–69 year men have increased testosterone level. Men above 70 year have no changes testosterone level. There were 24 old men have changes in libido without increased testosterone level. Conclusion: acupuncture may used as alternative therapy to increased testosterone level and libido for elderly men. Key words: Acupuncture, testosterone hormone, old men

  10. Bare-part color in female budgerigars changes from brown to structural blue following testosterone treatment but is not strongly masculinized.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie E P Lahaye

    Full Text Available Whereas several studies have shown that experimentally increased levels of the androgenic steroid testosterone can affect female behavior, fewer studies have focused on the activational effects of exogenous testosterone on female morphology. With respect to colorful displays in birds, almost exclusively the effects of testosterone manipulation on female carotenoid-based colorations have been studied. Other color types such as structural colors (i.e. UV, blue and violet colors that result from differential light reflection in the nanostructures of the tissue remain largely unstudied. Here, we investigated the short- and long-term effects of exogenous testosterone on the expression of structural bare-part coloration in female budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus. In this parrot species, bare-part coloration is expressed in the cere, a structure over the beak which is brown in females and structural blue in males. We experimentally increased plasma testosterone levels in testosterone-treated females (T-females compared to controls (C-females and we performed weekly spectrophotometric measurements of the cere for five weeks after implantation and one measurement after ten weeks. We also estimated the extent to which testosterone masculinized female cere color by comparing the experimental females with untreated males. We found significant effects of testosterone on cere color from week four after implantation onwards. T-females expressed significantly bluer ceres than C-females with higher values for brightness and UV reflectance. T-female cere color, however, remained significantly less blue than in males, while values for brightness and UV reflectance were significantly higher in T-females than in males. Our quantitative results show that exogenous testosterone induces the expression of structural blue color in females but does not strongly masculinize female cere coloration. We provide several potential pathways for the action of testosterone on

  11. Treatment of Men for "Low Testosterone": A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Huo

    Full Text Available Testosterone products are recommended by some prescribers in response to a diagnosis or presumption of "low testosterone" (low-T for cardiovascular health, sexual function, muscle weakness or wasting, mood and behavior, and cognition. We performed a systematic review of 156 eligible randomized controlled trials in which testosterone was compared to placebo for one or more of these conditions. We included studies in bibliographic databases between January 1, 1950 and April 9, 2016, and excluded studies involving bodybuilding, contraceptive effectiveness, or treatment of any condition in women or children. Studies with multiple relevant endpoints were included in all relevant tables. Testosterone supplementation did not show consistent benefit for cardiovascular risk, sexual function, mood and behavior, or cognition. Studies that examined clinical cardiovascular endpoints have not favored testosterone therapy over placebo. Testosterone is ineffective in treating erectile dysfunction and controlled trials did not show a consistent effect on libido. Testosterone supplementation consistently increased muscle strength but did not have beneficial effects on physical function. Most studies on mood-related endpoints found no beneficial effect of testosterone treatment on personality, psychological well-being, or mood. The prescription of testosterone supplementation for low-T for cardiovascular health, sexual function, physical function, mood, or cognitive function is without support from randomized clinical trials.

  12. Procedure-based severity index for inpatients: development and validation using administrative database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamana, Hayato; Matsui, Hiroki; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Yasunaga, Hideo

    2015-07-08

    Risk adjustment is important in studies using administrative databases. Although utilization of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures can represent patient severity, the usability of procedure records in risk adjustment is not well-documented. Therefore, we aimed to develop and validate a severity index calculable from procedure records. Using the Japanese nationwide Diagnosis Procedure Combination database of acute-care hospitals, we identified patients discharged between 1 April 2012 and 31 March 2013 with an admission-precipitating diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, acute cerebrovascular disease, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, pneumonia, or septicemia. Subjects were randomly assigned to the derivation cohort or the validation cohort. In the derivation cohort, we used multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify procedures performed on admission day which were significantly associated with in-hospital death, and a point corresponding to regression coefficient was assigned to each procedure. An index was then calculated in the validation cohort as sum of points for performed procedures, and performance of mortality-predicting model using the index and other patient characteristics was evaluated. Of the 539 385 hospitalizations included, 270 054 and 269 331 were assigned to the derivation and validation cohorts, respectively. Nineteen significant procedures were identified from the derivation cohort with points ranging from -3 to 23, producing a severity index with possible range of -13 to 69. In the validation cohort, c-statistic of mortality-predicting model was 0.767 (95 % confidence interval: 0.764-0.770). The ω-statistic representing contribution of the index relative to other variables was 1.09 (95 % confidence interval: 1.03-1.17). Procedure-based severity index predicted mortality well, suggesting that procedure records in administrative database are useful for risk adjustment.

  13. Evidence based administration of risperidone and paliperidone for the treating conduct disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ghanizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluates the evidence-based administration of risperidone and paliperidone for the treating children and adolescents with conduct disorder (CD. Materials and Methods: A review of the current literature from clinical trials that investigated the efficacy of risperidone and paliperidone on CD considering the inclusion criteria and search strategies was performed by a search of PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Results: Out of 53 titles, 31 were irrelevant. The abstract of 22 potentially related articles were studied. Only six articles reported the results of clinical trial. However, one of them reported the effect of risperidone on conduct behaviors in autistic disorders. One study was a re-analysis of two previous studies, one study reported the effects of maintenance versus withdrawal of risperidone treatment and two studies included children with sub-average intelligence. Headache, somnolence and increased appetite are among the most common reported adverse effects. No study examined the effect of paliperidone on CD was found. Conclusion: Current literature suggests that risperidone could be effective for treating some conduct behaviors in children and adolescents. The effect of risperidone on CD is not a well-researched area. There is no well-controlled evidence based reports about the safety and efficacy of risperidone for the treatment of CD. Further trials should examine the efficacy of these medications on CD rather than conduct behaviors or disruptive behavior disorders.

  14. Technical aspects of MRI signal change quantification after gadolinium-based contrast agents' administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Joana; Ramalho, Miguel; AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Semelka, Richard C

    2016-12-01

    Over the last 2years several studies have been published regarding gadolinium deposition in brain structures in patients with normal renal function after repeated administrations of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). Most of the publications are magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based retrospective studies, where gadolinium deposition may be indirectly measured by evaluating changes in T1 signal intensity (SI) in brain tissue, particularly in the dentate nucleus (DN) and/or globus pallidi (GP). The direct correlation between T1 signal changes and gadolinium deposition was validated by human pathology studies. However, the variability of the MR equipment and parameters used across different publications, along with the inherent limitations of MRI to assess gadolinium in human tissues should be acknowledged when interpreting those studies. Nevertheless, MRI studies remain essential regarding gadolinium bio-distribution knowledge. The aim of this paper is to overview current knowledge of technical aspects of T1 signal intensity evaluation by MRI and describe confounding factors, with the intention to achieve higher accuracy and maximize reproducibility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Serum testosterone levels in non-dosed females after secondary exposure to 1.62% testosterone gel: effects of clothing barrier on testosterone absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahlman, Jodi; Britto, Margaret; Fitzpatrick, Sherahe; McWhirter, Cecilia; Testino, Samuel A; Brennan, John J; Zumbrunnen, Troy L

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate secondary exposure of testosterone transferred to females from a male partner, dosed with 1.62% testosterone gel after direct skin-to-skin contact with the application site, and to investigate the effect of wearing a t-shirt on testosterone transfer. Across three studies, a total of 72 healthy males applied 5.0 g 1.62% testosterone gel to their abdomen alone, upper arms/shoulders alone, or a combination of their upper arms/shoulders and abdomen (single dose or once daily for 7 days). Male-female contact occurred 2 or 12 hours after testosterone gel application, with males either wearing or not wearing a t-shirt. There were 15 minutes of supervised contact with the application site between the male and his female partner. Blood samples were collected over a 24 hour period in females for assessment of serum testosterone levels at baseline and after contact. Pharmacokinetic parameters included C(max) (maximum serum concentration), AUC(0-24) (area under the serum concentration-time curve from 0-24 hours), and C(av) (time-averaged concentration over the 24-hour period post-contact). Subjects were monitored for adverse events. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NCT NUMBERS: Study 1 was not registered (first subject enrolled 8 March 2007); Study 2: 00998933; Study 3, 01130298. Testosterone levels (C(av) and C(max)) in females increased 86-185% from baseline after direct abdominal skin contact, although C(av) levels remained within female eugonadal range. Testosterone concentrations returned to baseline within 48 hours after last skin contact. A t-shirt barrier reduced testosterone transfer by approximately 40-48% when 5.0 g of testosterone gel was applied to the abdomen alone. A t-shirt barrier prevented transfer when 5.0 g of testosterone gel was applied to the upper arms and shoulders or to a combination of the upper arms and shoulders and the abdomen (C(max) and C(av) increased by approximately 5-11%). No major safety events were observed during the studies

  16. Testosterone, Plumage Colouration and Extra-Pair Paternity in Male North-American Barn Swallows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikenaar, Cas; Whitham, Megan; Komdeur, Jan; van der Velde, Marco; Moore, Ignacio T.; McGraw, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    In most monogamous bird species, circulating testosterone concentration in males is elevated around the social female's fertile period. Variation in elevated testosterone concentrations among males may have a considerable impact on fitness. For example, testosterone implants enhance behaviours

  17. NIH-Supported Trials Test Hormonal Therapy in Older Men with Low Testosterone Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... test hormonal therapy in older men with low testosterone levels Testosterone treatment improved sexual function, had smaller effect on walking, vitality. A preliminary study of testosterone therapy in older men with low levels of ...

  18. Who Gets Testosterone? Patient Characteristics Associated with Testosterone Prescribing in the Veteran Affairs System: a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasuja, Guneet K; Bhasin, Shalender; Reisman, Joel I; Hanlon, Joseph T; Miller, Donald R; Morreale, Anthony P; Pogach, Leonard M; Cunningham, Francesca E; Park, Angela; Berlowitz, Dan R; Rose, Adam J

    2017-03-01

    There has been concern about the growing off-label use of testosterone. Understanding the context within which testosterone is prescribed may contribute to interventions to improve prescribing. To evaluate patient characteristics associated with receipt of testosterone. Cross-sectional. A national cohort of male patients, who had received at least one outpatient prescription within the Veterans Affairs (VA) system during Fiscal Year 2008- Fiscal Year 2012. The study sample consisted of 682,915 non-HIV male patients, of whom 132,764 had received testosterone and a random 10% sample, 550,151, had not. Conditions and medications associated with testosterone prescription. Only 6.3% of men who received testosterone from the VA during the study period had a disorder of the testis, pituitary or hypothalamus associated with male hypogonadism. Among patients without a diagnosed disorder of hypogonadism, the use of opioids and obesity were the strongest predictors of testosterone prescription. Patients receiving >100 mg/equivalents of oral morphine daily (adjusted odds ratio = 5.75, p 40 kg/m2 (adjusted odds ratio = 3.01, p testosterone than non-opioid users and men with BMI testosterone receipt, all with an adjusted odds ratio less than 2 (p testosterone did not have a diagnosed condition of the testes, pituitary, or hypothalamus. The strongest predictors of testosterone receipt (e.g., obesity, receipt of opioids), which though are associated with unapproved, off-label use, may be valid reasons for therapy. Interventions should aim to increase the proportion of testosterone recipients who have a valid indication.

  19. Hubungan Obesitas dengan Hormon Testosteron pada Mahasiswa STIKes Indonesia Padang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim ,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Obesitas menjadi epidemik seluruh dunia dan dua pertiga penduduk negara berkembang menderita obesitas. Pada pria obesitas terdapat lebih banyak sel lemak melepaskan enzim aromatase yang mengkatalisis testosteron menjadi estradiol. Bertambahnya berat badan akan mempercepat penurunan hormon testosteron. Tujuan penelitian iniadalah menentukan hubungan obesitas dengan hormon testosteron. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain observasional dengan pendekatan cross sectional.  Total sampling berjumlah 32 orang. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dari  Oktober 2013 sampai Januari 2015 di STIKes Indonesia dan Laboratorium Biokimia FK Unand. Analisa data diolah secara komputerisasi dengan uji statistik korelasi dan regresi linier sederhana dengan derajat penolakan 5”%”, p=0,05. Hasil penelitian menunjukan hubungan yang lemah dan berpola negatif lemah artinya semakin meningkat berat badan maka semakin rendah hormon testosteron. Kesimpulan penelitian ini tidak ada hubungan yang bermakna antara obesitas dengan hormon testosteron. Penelitian ini memberikan informasi dan pengetahuan tentang terjadinya infertilitas akibatterganggunya hormon testosteron pada pria yang menderita obesitas.Kata kunci: obesitas, testosteron, adiponektin, enzim aromatase Abstract Obesity is becoming a worldwide epidemic and two-thirds of people developing countries suffer obesity. Obese men have fat cells that release the enzyme aromatase which catalyse testosterone to estradiol. Weight gain, the faster decline in testosterone. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship of obesity to testosterone. The design of this study was observational, cross-sectional approach to sampling amounted 32 people. The research was conducted from October 2013 January 2015 in STIKes Indonesia and Biochemistry Laboratory Faculty of Medicine, University of Andalas. Data analysis was processed by a computerized with statistical tests correlation and simple linear regression and the

  20. Environmental and genetic contributors to salivary testosterone levels in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eXia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Transient activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in early infancy plays an important role in male genital development and sexual differentiation of the brain, but factors contributing to individual variation in testosterone levels during this period are poorly understood. We measured salivary testosterone levels in 222 infants (119 males, 103 females, 108 singletons, 114 twins between 2.70 and 4.80 months of age. We tested 16 major demographic and medical history variables for effects on inter-individual variation in salivary testosterone. Using the subset of twins, we estimated genetic and environmental contributions to salivary testosterone levels. Finally, we tested single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within ± 5kb of genes involved in testosterone synthesis, transport, signaling, and metabolism for associations with salivary testosterone using univariate tests and random forest (RF analysis. We report an association between 5 minute APGAR scores and salivary testosterone levels in males. Twin modelling indicated that individual variability in testosterone levels was primarily explained by environmental factors. Regarding genetic variation, univariate tests did not reveal any variants significantly associated with salivary testosterone after adjusting for false discovery rate. The top hit in males was rs10923844, a SNP of unknown function located downstream of HSD3B1 and HSD3B2. The top hits in females were two SNPs located upstream of ESR1 (rs3407085 and rs2295190. RF analysis, which reflects joint and conditional effects of multiple variants, indicated that genes involved in regulation of reproductive function, particularly LHCGR, are related to salivary testosterone levels in male infants, as are genes involved in cholesterol production, transport, and removal, while genes involved in estrogen signaling are related to salivary testosterone levels in female infants.

  1. 77 FR 52322 - McClellan Air Force Base Superfund Site Proposed Notice of Administrative Order on Consent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... AGENCY McClellan Air Force Base Superfund Site Proposed Notice of Administrative Order on Consent AGENCY... Base Superfund Site (``Site'') in McClellan, California has been negotiated by the Agency and the..., San Francisco, California 94105, and should reference ``FOSET 2 Privatization, McClellan Superfund...

  2. Perceived Value of University-Based Continuing Education Leadership Development Programs for Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Geri L.; Major, Claire H.

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative study, which involved development of a Value Creation Survey, examined the perceived value of leadership development programs (LDPs) provided by continuing higher education for administrators in colleges and universities. Participants were administrators at Association for Continuing Higher Education (ACHE) member institutions.…

  3. The Stimulative Effect of Yangjing Capsule on Testosterone Synthesis through Nur77 Pathway in Leydig Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalong Gu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Yangjing Capsule (YC, an innovative Chinese medicine based on traditional prescription, promotes testosterone synthesis by upregulating the expression of steroidogenic enzymes. Nur77 as a nuclear receptor is known to regulate the expression of many steroid synthetases. This study aimed to explore the potential mechanisms by which YC regulates testosterone synthesis in Leydig cells. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were employed to assess the expressions of steroidogenic enzymes and Nur77 after treating MLTC-1 cells with YC. The luciferase reporter gene assay was performed to detect the activity of Nur77 gene promoter. Also, the expressions of steroid synthases were detected after Nur77 gene was knocked down. YC significantly stimulated Nur77 production and upregulated StAR and HSD3B expression, and this agrees with the activity of Nur77 gene promoter that was significantly enhanced by YC. Interestingly, knockdown of Nur77 blocked the above YC’s effects and consequently inhibited testosterone synthesis in MLTC-1 cells. YC promotes StAR and HSD3B expression and upregulates testosterone synthesis in Leydig cells, which is mediated by Nur77 pathway.

  4. Use of evidence-based management in healthcare administration decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ruiling; Berkshire, Steven D; Fulton, Lawrence V; Hermanson, Patrick M

    2017-07-03

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine whether healthcare leaders use evidence-based management (EBMgt) when facing major decisions and what types of evidence healthcare administrators consult during their decision-making. This study also intends to identify any relationship that might exist among adoption of EBMgt in healthcare management, attitudes towards EBMgt, demographic characteristics and organizational characteristics. Design/methodology/approach A cross-sectional study was conducted among US healthcare leaders. Spearman's correlation and logistic regression were performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 23.0. Findings One hundred and fifty-four healthcare leaders completed the survey. The study results indicated that 90 per cent of the participants self-reported having used an EBMgt approach for decision-making. Professional experiences (87 per cent), organizational data (84 per cent) and stakeholders' values (63 per cent) were the top three types of evidence consulted daily and weekly for decision-making. Case study (75 per cent) and scientific research findings (75 per cent) were the top two types of evidence consulted monthly or less than once a month. An exploratory, stepwise logistic regression model correctly classified 75.3 per cent of all observations for a dichotomous "use of EBMgt" response variable using three independent variables: attitude towards EBMgt, number of employees in the organization and the job position. Spearman's correlation indicated statistically significant relationships between healthcare leaders' use of EBMgt and healthcare organization bed size ( rs = 0.217, n = 152, p making.

  5. The assessment of testosterone and radioisotopic index of bone metabolism and bone mineral density in men with testosterone deficiency after one year of testosterone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryniszewski, Wieslaw; Kamiński, Grzegorz; Maziarz, Zbigniew; Nowak, Michal; Gadzicki, Mariusz; Radek, Maciej

    2018-01-10

    Testosterone deficiency in men is characterized by typical symptoms of hypogonadism and negative influence on the preservation of bone mass. In this study, we analysed the relationship between testosterone concentration and bone metabolism. Moreover, we assessed the impact of one-year compensation of testosterone deficiency in elderly men on bone metabolism and bone mineral density. Radioisotopic methods of bone metabolism assessment provide new research opportunities. Men with total testosterone concentration (TT) ≤ 3 ng/ml were included into this study. Patients with disorders or injuries of bone system, elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA), enlarged prostate, disorders of thyroid and liver, diabetes mellitus or a history of chemotherapy as well as those treated for a long time with antibiotics were excluded from this study. The results of 50 men aged 57.52 ± 6.71 years obtained before the treatment (I test) and after one year of oral testosterone supplementation (test II) were analysed in this study. The following examinations and analyses were performed: interview and physical examination, orthopaedic, neurological and urological consultations, blood biochemistry, determination of hormones levels, assessment of Testosterone Deficiency Syndrome (TDS), densitometric and radioisotope assessment of bone metabolism. Moreover, radioisotopic index of bone metabolism was calculated. Testosterone therapy with oral preparation Undestor Testo Caps (Organon) containing 40 mg of testosterone lasted for 12 months. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica 12 and Excel 2010 programs. Correlations between results before and after treatment were analysed. After 12 months of treatment, testosterone concentration increased by mean 78% and the level of luteinizing hormone (LH) decreased by 62%. TDS index increased from 0.53 ± 0.21 (in test I) to 1.91 ± 0.60 (in test II). After the therapy this index was significantly higher in all men (p Metabolism). We observed

  6. Substantial advantage of a combined Bayesian and genotyping approach in testosterone doping tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Jenny Jakobsson; Lundmark, Jonas; Garle, Mats; Ekström, Lena; Sottas, Pierre-Edouard; Rane, Anders

    2009-03-01

    Testosterone abuse is conventionally assessed by the urinary testosterone/epitestosterone (T/E) ratio, levels above 4.0 being considered suspicious. A deletion polymorphism in the gene coding for UGT2B17 is strongly associated with reduced testosterone glucuronide (TG) levels in urine. Many of the individuals devoid of the gene would not reach a T/E ratio of 4.0 after testosterone intake. Future test programs will most likely shift from population based- to individual-based T/E cut-off ratios using Bayesian inference. A longitudinal analysis is dependent on an individual's true negative baseline T/E ratio. The aim was to investigate whether it is possible to increase the sensitivity and specificity of the T/E test by addition of UGT2B17 genotype information in a Bayesian framework. A single intramuscular dose of 500mg testosterone enanthate was given to 55 healthy male volunteers with either two, one or no allele (ins/ins, ins/del or del/del) of the UGT2B17 gene. Urinary excretion of TG and the T/E ratio was measured during 15 days. The Bayesian analysis was conducted to calculate the individual T/E cut-off ratio. When adding the genotype information, the program returned lower individual cut-off ratios in all del/del subjects increasing the sensitivity of the test considerably. It will be difficult, if not impossible, to discriminate between a true negative baseline T/E value and a false negative one without knowledge of the UGT2B17 genotype. UGT2B17 genotype information is crucial, both to decide which initial cut-off ratio to use for an individual, and for increasing the sensitivity of the Bayesian analysis.

  7. Burden of diabetes mellitus estimated with a longitudinal population-based study using administrative databases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Scalone

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the epidemiologic and economic burden of diabetes mellitus (DM from a longitudinal population-based study. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Lombardy Region includes 9.9 million individuals. Its DM population was identified through a data warehouse (DENALI, which matches with a probabilistic linkage demographic, clinical and economic data of different Healthcare Administrative databases. All individuals, who, during the year 2000 had an hospital discharge with a IDC-9 CM code 250.XX, and/or two consecutive prescriptions of drugs for diabetes (ATC code A10XXXX within one year, and/or an exemption from co-payment healthcare costs specific for DM, were selected and followed up to 9 years. We calculated prevalence, mortality and healthcare costs (hospitalizations, drugs and outpatient examinations/visits from the National Health Service's perspective. RESULTS: We identified 312,223 eligible subjects. The study population (51% male had a mean age of 66 (from 0.03 to 105.12 years at the index date. Prevalence ranged from 0.4% among subjects aged ≤45 years to 10.1% among those >85 years old. Overall 43.4 deaths per 1,000 patients per year were estimated, significantly (p<0.001 higher in men than women. Overall, 3,315€/patient-year were spent on average: hospitalizations were the cost driver (54.2% of total cost. Drugs contributed to 31.5%, outpatient claims represented 14.3% of total costs. Thirty-five percent of hospital costs were attributable to cerebro-/cardiovascular reasons, 6% to other complications of DM, and 4% to DM as a main diagnosis. Cardiovascular drugs contributed to 33.5% of total drug costs, 21.8% was attributable to class A (16.7% to class A10 and 4.3% to class B (2.4% to class B01 drugs. CONCLUSIONS: Merging different administrative databases can provide with many data from large populations observed for long time periods. DENALI shows to be an efficient instrument to obtain accurate estimates of burden of

  8. Association between low serum free testosterone and adverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of aging in normal men on bioavailable testosterone and luteinizing hormone secretion: response to clomiphene citrate. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1987;65:1118-1226. 22. Mitchell R, Hollis S, Rothwell C, et al. Age-related changes in the pituitary-testicular axis in normal men: lower serum testosterone results from ...

  9. Relationship between Serum Testosterone Levels and Features of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There are increasing reports on the association between the testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) and increased risk of development of the metabolic syndrome – a well recognized cardiovascular risk factor in men with diabetes mellitus. Objective: To determine the relationship between serum testosterone ...

  10. Testosterone Regulates Tight Junction Proteins and Influences Prostatic Autoimmune Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jing; Mostaghel, Elahe A.; Vakar-Lopez, Funda; Montgomery, Bruce; True, Larry; Nelson, Peter S.

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone and inflammation have been linked to the development of common age-associated diseases affecting the prostate gland including prostate cancer, prostatitis, and benign prostatic hypertrophy. We hypothesized that testosterone regulates components of prostate tight junctions which serve as a barrier to inflammation, thus providing a connection between age- and treatment-associated testosterone declines and prostatic pathology. We examined the expression and distribution of tight junction proteins in prostate biospecimens from mouse models and a clinical study of chemical castration, using transcript profiling, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. We determined that low serum testosterone is associated with reduced transcript and protein levels of Claudin 4 and Claudin 8, resulting in defective tight junction ultrastructure in benign prostate glands. Expression of Claudin 4 and Claudin 8 was negatively correlated with the mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate caused by testosterone deprivation. Testosterone suppression also induced an auto-immune humoral response directed toward prostatic proteins. Testosterone supplementation in castrate mice resulted in re-expression of tight junction components in prostate epithelium and significantly reduced prostate inflammatory cell numbers. These data demonstrate that tight junction architecture in the prostate is related to changes in serum testosterone levels, and identify an androgen-regulated mechanism that potentially contributes to the development of prostate inflammation and consequent pathology. PMID:21761342

  11. Preliminary study on the effect of castration and testosterone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the effect of castration and testosterone replacement on the testosterone level of the New Zealand rabbit, 16 apparently healthy adult male rabbits were used. The animals were divided into four groups with each group having four rabbits. The first group served as the control group. The rabbits in the second group ...

  12. Lowered testosterone in male obesity: mechanisms, morbidity and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fui, Mark Ng Tang; Dupuis, Philippe; Grossmann, Mathis

    2014-01-01

    With increasing modernization and urbanization of Asia, much of the future focus of the obesity epidemic will be in the Asian region. Low testosterone levels are frequently encountered in obese men who do not otherwise have a recognizable hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis pathology. Moderate obesity predominantly decreases total testosterone due to insulin resistance-associated reductions in sex hormone binding globulin. More severe obesity is additionally associated with reductions in free testosterone levels due to suppression of the HPT axis. Low testosterone by itself leads to increasing adiposity, creating a self-perpetuating cycle of metabolic complications. Obesity-associated hypotestosteronemia is a functional, non-permanent state, which can be reversible, but this requires substantial weight loss. While testosterone treatment can lead to moderate reductions in fat mass, obesity by itself, in the absence of symptomatic androgen deficiency, is not an established indication for testosterone therapy. Testosterone therapy may lead to a worsening of untreated sleep apnea and compromise fertility. Whether testosterone therapy augments diet- and exercise-induced weight loss requires evaluation in adequately designed randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:24407187

  13. Testosterone and glucose metabolism in men: current concepts and controversies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, Mathis

    2014-03-01

    A wealth of observational studies show that low testosterone is associated with insulin resistance and with an increased risk of diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Experimental studies have identified potential mechanisms by which low testosterone may lead to insulin resistance. Visceral adipose tissue is an important intermediate in this relationship. Actions of testosterone or its metabolite oestradiol on other tissues such as muscle, liver, bone or the brain, and body composition-independent effects may also play a role. However, definitive evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to clarify whether the association of low testosterone with disordered glucose metabolism is causative is currently lacking. It therefore remains possible that this association is due to reverse causation, or simply originates by association with common health and lifestyle factors. RCTs of testosterone therapy in men with or without diabetes consistently show modest metabolically favourable changes in body composition. Despite this, testosterone effects on glucose metabolism have been inconsistent. Recent evidence suggests that the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis suppression in the majority of obese men with metabolic disorders is functional, and may be, at least in part, reversible with weight loss. Until further evidence is available, lifestyle measures with emphasis on weight reduction, treatment of comorbidities and optimisation of diabetic control should remain the first-line treatment in these men. Such measures, if successful, may be sufficient to normalise testosterone levels in men with metabolic disorders, who typically have only modest reductions in circulating testosterone levels.

  14. Association of testosterone levels with socio-demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... a sample of Ugandan men with socio-demographic characteristics, and compare the testosterone levels of Ugandan men ... Conclusion: Testosterone levels were lower in association with several socio-demographic characteristics including ..... Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism; 2000, 88.

  15. Seasonal changes in plasma testosterone levels in the male South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-18

    Feb 18, 1991 ... Saboureau & Boissin (1983b) showed that the peripheral metabolism of testosterone and its metabolic clearance rate may also change seasonally. For this reason the additional factors involved in the seasonal patterns of testosterone recorded await further investigation. Acknowledgements. The antiserum ...

  16. Lowered testosterone in male obesity: Mechanisms, morbidity and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Ng Tang Fui

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available With increasing modernization and urbanization of Asia, much of the future focus of the obesity epidemic will be in the Asian region. Low testosterone levels are frequently encountered in obese men who do not otherwise have a recognizable hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT axis pathology. Moderate obesity predominantly decreases total testosterone due to insulin resistance-associated reductions in sex hormone binding globulin. More severe obesity is additionally associated with reductions in free testosterone levels due to suppression of the HPT axis. Low testosterone by itself leads to increasing adiposity, creating a self-perpetuating cycle of metabolic complications. Obesity-associated hypotestosteronemia is a functional, non-permanent state, which can be reversible, but this requires substantial weight loss. While testosterone treatment can lead to moderate reductions in fat mass, obesity by itself, in the absence of symptomatic androgen defi ciency, is not an established indication for testosterone therapy. Testosterone therapy may lead to a worsening of untreated sleep apnea and compromise fertility. Whether testosterone therapy augments diet- and exercise-induced weight loss requires evaluation in adequately designed randomized controlled clinical trials.

  17. Lowered testosterone in male obesity: mechanisms, morbidity and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fui, Mark Ng Tang; Dupuis, Philippe; Grossmann, Mathis

    2014-01-01

    With increasing modernization and urbanization of Asia, much of the future focus of the obesity epidemic will be in the Asian region. Low testosterone levels are frequently encountered in obese men who do not otherwise have a recognizable hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis pathology. Moderate obesity predominantly decreases total testosterone due to insulin resistance-associated reductions in sex hormone binding globulin. More severe obesity is additionally associated with reductions in free testosterone levels due to suppression of the HPT axis. Low testosterone by itself leads to increasing adiposity, creating a self-perpetuating cycle of metabolic complications. Obesity-associated hypotestosteronemia is a functional, non-permanent state, which can be reversible, but this requires substantial weight loss. While testosterone treatment can lead to moderate reductions in fat mass, obesity by itself, in the absence of symptomatic androgen defi ciency, is not an established indication for testosterone therapy. Testosterone therapy may lead to a worsening of untreated sleep apnea and compromise fertility. Whether testosterone therapy augments diet- and exercise-induced weight loss requires evaluation in adequately designed randomized controlled clinical trials.

  18. Evaluation of Serum Testosterone Levels as Immuno-Enhancer in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This thus showed that the observed increase in the serum free testosterone level in women with anti TPO antibody was significant and may vary with different physiological conditions in women. Keywords: Testosterone, Pregnancy, Secondary Infertility and Anti-microsomal antibodies. Nigerian Journal of Health and ...

  19. Combined usage of testosterone and nandrolone may cause heart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of combined application of testosterone and nandrolone on male rabbits during adolescence period for biochemical values which are indicators of damage to heart, liver and kidney. Seven male New Zealand white rabbits, 60-days old, were used in this study. Testosterone (10 ...

  20. Aluminum-induced testosterone decrease results in physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-01-10

    Jan 10, 2011 ... Recently, there has been much controversy on the role of testosterone on social and aggression behaviors. This work aimed to determine the effect of testosterone decrease, induced by aluminum exposure on the level of aggression. Male Swiss-Webster strain mice were classified into three groups.

  1. Causal relationship between obesity and serum testosterone status in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Joel; Haring, Robin; Grarup, Niels

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT: Obesity in men is associated with low serum testosterone and both are associated with several diseases and increased mortality. OBJECTIVES: Examine the direction and causality of the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and serum testosterone. DESIGN: Bi-directional Mendelian...

  2. Association of testosterone levels with socio-demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Testosterone, a male reproductive hormone, affects several physiological processes, such as sperm production, energy, strength, sexual behavior, sleep and the general well being of men. Normal levels of testosterone are necessary to effect these physiological processes. The objective of this study was to ...

  3. Hypogonadism and testosterone replacement theraphy: the controversy and the evidence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    ... with energy loss; impaired cognition; decreased bone density, muscle mass, and strength; and sexual dysfunction. (2) In addition, low serum testosterone levels have been linked with an adverse metabolic profile and increased mortality of all causes (3,4) Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) is available in several formulations that are approved by ...

  4. A cohort effect on serum testosterone levels in Finnish men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perheentupa, A; Mäkinen, J; Laatikainen, T

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether a population-level decline in serum testosterone exists in Finnish men. In comparison with other European populations, Finnish men have compared well in the studies of reproductive health (i.e. semen quality, incidence of cryptorchidism and testicular cancer); thus, we...... expected no significant cohort-dependent decrease in serum testosterone....

  5. A Study of Serum Testosterone and Luteinizing Hormone Levels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Low libido is considered to be the most prominent symptomatic reflection of low serum testosterone and it is unclear how frequent an individual who reported to the clinic with low libido indicates low serum testosterone levels. Objective: This study seeks to know how many of the self reported patients with low ...

  6. Fetal Testosterone, Socio-Emotional Engagement and Language Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrant, Brad M.; Mattes, Eugen; Keelan, Jeff A.; Hickey, Martha; Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the relations among fetal testosterone, child socio-emotional engagement and language development in a sample of 467 children (235 boys) from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study. Bioavailable testosterone concentration measured in umbilical cord blood taken at birth was found to be significantly…

  7. Effects of short-term testosterone replacement on areal bone mineral density and bone turnover in young hypogonadal males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasun Deb

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Effect of parenteral testosterone esters administration on bone-mineral density (BMD and bone turnover in young age onset male hypogonadism is not studied in Indian subjects. Aims: To prospectively study the effect of short-term (6 months replacement therapy with parenteral testosterone enanthate-propionate combination on BMD and bone turnover markers in hypogonadal adult patients. Settings and Design: Prospective, tertiary care academic center. Materials and Methods: Thirteen young, otherwise healthy hypogonadal males (age 25.5 ± 4.9 yrs, serum testosterone 2.56 ± 4.29 nmol/l were subjected to BMD measurements (DXA and estimation of urinary Crosslaps™ and serum osteocalcin at baseline. Twelve healthy age and BMI-matched males served as controls for BMD measurements. The hypogonadal patients were administered parenteral testosterone esters (as mixed enanthate and propionate 250 mg i.m. every 2-3 weeks, and prospectively followed for 6 months. BMD and bone markers were studied at the end of 6 months. Statistical Analysis Used: Mann-Whitney nonparametric test, paired t-test and Pearson′s test of two-tail significance. Results: At baseline, BMD was significantly lower in hypogonadal males as compared to that in controls. With testosterone replacement, there was significant improvement in BMD, both at trabecular and cortical sites, There was a decline in bone turnover with treatment (Ur Crosslaps™:creatinine ratio: pretreatment 72.8 ± 40.4, post-treatment 35.5 ± 23.8 μg/mmol, P = 0.098; serum osteocalcin: pre-treatment 41.0 ± 16.8, post-treatment 31.7 ± 2.1 ng/ml, P = 0.393. Conclusions: Short-term parenteral testosterone replacement significantly improves BMD at the hip, lumbar spine and forearm in hypogonadal young males.

  8. Serum testosterone concentrations in men with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C

    1987-01-01

    Median serum testosterone concentration of men with alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 216) did not differ significantly from normal controls (n = 51), but serum testosterone concentrations varied by a factor 43.9 in patients compared to 3.2 in controls (P less than .001). Nineteen percent of the patients...... had serum testosterone concentrations above 30 nmol/L. Serum concentrations of sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were significantly (P less than .001) raised, and serum concentrations of calculated nonprotein-bound and non-SHBG-bound testosterone were significantly (P less than .001) decreased...... in patients compared to normal control values. A number of background variables were analyzed with reference to serum testosterone concentrations by means of multiple regression techniques after having divided the patients into groups (A, B, C) with decreasing liver function by a modification of the Child...

  9. Testosterone and BMD in Elite Male Lightweight Rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, A.; Christiansen, E.; Ekdahl, C.

    2008-01-01

    ), free testosterone (IFT), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and additional parameters related to bone metabolism were measured. Plasma concentrations of TT, FT and DHT were in the lower part of the normal range, while BMD was close to or above normal. BMD of total body......The purpose of the present study was to investigate if a relationship between BMD and testosterone levels could be identified in elite male lightweight rowers. Thirteen male lightweight national team rowers had their BMD measured in a DEXA scanner. Plasma concentrations of total testosterone (TT...... a significant correlation between L2-L4 BMD and TT (r(s): 0.61, p testosterone levels and years of training in elite male lightweight rowers. The relatively high BMD and low testosterone levels indicate that the mechanical loading induced by rowing is more important...

  10. Testosterone and BMD in elite male lightweight rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, A; Kanstrup, I-L; Christiansen, E

    2008-01-01

    ), free testosterone (FT), dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and additional parameters related to bone metabolism were measured. Plasma concentrations of TT, FT and DHT were in the lower part of the normal range, while BMD was close to or above normal. BMD of total body......The purpose of the present study was to investigate if a relationship between BMD and testosterone levels could be identified in elite male lightweight rowers. Thirteen male lightweight national team rowers had their BMD measured in a DEXA scanner. Plasma concentrations of total testosterone (TT...... a significant correlation between L2 - L4 BMD and TT (r (s): 0.61, p testosterone levels and years of training in elite male lightweight rowers. The relatively high BMD and low testosterone levels indicate that the mechanical loading induced by rowing is more...

  11. Causal relationship between obesity and serum testosterone status in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Joel; Haring, Robin; Grarup, Niels

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT: Obesity in men is associated with low serum testosterone and both are associated with several diseases and increased mortality. OBJECTIVES: Examine the direction and causality of the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and serum testosterone. DESIGN: Bi-directional Mendelian...... randomization (MR) analysis on prospective cohorts. SETTING: Five cohorts from Denmark, Germany and Sweden (Inter99, SHIP, SHIP Trend, GOOD and MrOS Sweden). PARTICIPANTS: 7446 Caucasian men, genotyped for 97 BMI-associated SNPs and three testosterone-associated SNPs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: BMI and serum...... testosterone adjusted for age, smoking, time of blood sampling and site. RESULTS: 1 SD genetically instrumented increase in BMI was associated with a 0.25 SD decrease in serum testosterone (IV ratio: -0.25, 95% CI: -0.42--0.09, p = 2.8*10-3). For a body weight reduction altering the BMI from 30 to 25 kg/m2...

  12. Umbilical cord blood testosterone and childhood internalizing and externalizing behavior: a prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Robinson

    Full Text Available Antenatal testosterone exposure influences fetal neurodevelopment and gender-role behavior in postnatal life and may contribute to differences in developmental psychopathology during childhood. We prospectively measured the associations between umbilical cord blood testosterone levels at birth and childhood behavioral development in both males and females from a large population based sample. The study comprised 430 females and 429 males from the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine Study where umbilical cord blood had been collected. Total testosterone concentrations were determined by mass spectrometry and bioavailable testosterone (BioT levels were calculated. At two, five, eight and ten years of age, the participants completed the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL. Linear regression models were used to analyse the relationship between BioT concentrations (in quartiles and CBCL scores (total, internalizing, externalizing and selected syndrome. Boys had higher mean CBCL T-scores than girls across all ages of follow-up. There was no significant relationship between cord blood BioT quartiles and CBCL total, internalizing and externalizing T-scores at age two or five to ten combined. In the syndrome score analyses, higher BioT quartiles were associated with significantly lower scores for attention problems for boys at age five, eight and ten, and greater withdrawal symptoms in pre-school girls (age five. We did not identify a consistent relationship between antenatal testosterone exposure and total, internalizing or externalizing behavioral difficulties in childhood. Higher umbilical cord BioT levels were associated with lower scores for attention problems in boys up to 10 years and more withdrawn behavior in 5-year-old girls; however, these findings were not consistent across ages and require further investigation in a larger sample.

  13. Testosterone deficiency in dialysis patients: Difference between dialysis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cigarrán, Secundino; Coronel, Francisco; Florit, Enrique; Calviño, Jesús; Villa, Juan; Gonzalez Tabares, Lourdes; Herrero, José Antonio; Carrero, Juan Jesús

    Testosterone deficiency is a prevalent condition in male patients with chronic kidney disease. However, it is not known whether the type of renal replacement therapy has an impact on testosterone deficiency that accompanies loss of renal function. The cross-sectional study enrolled 79 prevalent male patients on dialysis; 43 on haemodialysis (HD) and 36 on peritoneal dialysis (PD). The median age was 69 years and 31.6% were diabetics. Endogenous testosterone levels were measured by immunoluminescence assay (normal range 3-10.5ng/ml), while nutritional/inflammatory markers, bone and mineral metabolism markers, anaemia, type of dialysis technique and time on dialysis were also assessed. Body composition was evaluated by bioimpedance vector analysis and bioimpedance spectroscopy. Testosterone deficiency was defined as levels below 3ng/ml. Mean testosterone levels were 8.81±6.61ng/ml. Testosterone deficiency affected 39.5% of HD patients and only 5.6% of PD patients. In the univariate analysis, testosterone levels were directly correlated with type of dialysis technique (HD) (Rho Spearman 0.366; P<.001) and time on dialysis (Rho -0.412; P=.036) and only with the HD technique in the multivariate analysis. No other significant correlations were found. Circulating testosterone levels in men on dialysis were independently associated with HD technique. It can be concluded that a new factor -namely the dialysis technique- may be associated with falling testosterone levels and the associated loss of muscle mass and inflammation. Further studies are needed to establish whether the dialysis technique itself triggers testosterone elimination. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Testosterone, free testosterone, and free androgen index in women: Reference intervals, biological variation, and diagnostic value in polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, H.N.; Sluss, P.M.; Hayes, F.J.; Blincko, S.; Knol, D.L.; Blankenstein, M.A.; Heijboer, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of our study was to determine reference intervals and biologic variation for testosterone (T), free testosterone (fT), and free androgen index (FAI) in women with accurate methods and to test the discriminative value of these parameters in a polycystic ovary syndrome

  15. Testosterone, free testosterone, and free androgen index in women: Reference intervals, biological variation, and diagnostic value in polycystic ovary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui, H. N.; Sluss, P. M.; Hayes, F. J.; Blincko, S.; Knol, D. L.; Blankenstein, M. A.; Heijboer, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of our study was to determine reference intervals and biologic variation for testosterone (T), free testosterone (fT), and free androgen index (FAI) in women with accurate methods and to test the discriminative value of these parameters in a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-population.

  16. Ethanol exposure during development reduces resident aggression and testosterone in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, Joaquin N.; Marino, Melissa D.; Gass, Justin T.; Wilson, Marlene A.; Kelly, Sandra J.

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol exposure during development has been shown to alter social behaviors in people, but the range of deficits is not clear. Using an animal model of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders, inter-male aggression and testosterone levels were examined in adult rats. Rats were exposed to ethanol during the entire prenatal period and from postnatal day 2 through 10. Ethanol was administered via intragastric intubation. Two other groups consisted of a nontreated control and an intubated control group that was exposed to the administration procedures but not ethanol. Both offensive and defensive aggression were examined in experimental residents and intruders under three different housing conditions for the resident males: (1) with another male, (2) with a pregnant female, and (3) with a female and litter fathered by the experimental animal. When housed with a female and litter, ethanol-exposed rats displayed reduced offensive aggression compared to control groups under the same condition. Defensive aggression in the non-experimental intruders was reduced in this same condition. There were no differences in duration of non-aggressive social behaviors among the groups in any of the housing conditions. Testosterone levels were reduced in ethanol-exposed rats compared to controls. In summary, ethanol exposure over the combined prenatal and postnatal periods reduces aggressive behavior in a condition where aggressive behavior is normally seen. This reduction may be related to lower testosterone levels. PMID:16336982

  17. Evaluation of an interactive web-based nursing course with streaming videos for medication administration skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowan, Azizeh K; Idhail, Jamila Abu

    2014-08-01

    Nursing students should exhibit competence in nursing skills in order to provide safe and quality patient care. This study describes the design and students' response to an interactive web-based course using streaming video technology tailored to students' needs and the course objectives of the fundamentals of nursing skills clinical course. A mixed-methodology design was used to describe the experience of 102 first-year undergraduate nursing students at a school of nursing in Jordan who were enrolled in the course. A virtual course with streaming videos was designed to demonstrate medication administration fundamental skills. The videos recorded the ideal lab demonstration of the skills, and real-world practice performed by registered nurses for patients in a hospital setting. After course completion, students completed a 30-item satisfaction questionnaire, 8 self-efficacy scales, and a 4-item scale solicited their preferences of using the virtual course as a substitute or a replacement of the lab demonstration. Students' grades in the skill examination of the procedures were measured. Relationships between the main variables and predictors of satisfaction and self-efficacy were examined. Students were satisfied with the virtual course (3.9 ± 0.56, out of a 5-point scale) with a high-perceived overall self-efficacy (4.38 ± 0.42, out of a 5-point scale). Data showed a significant correlation between student satisfaction, self-efficacy and achievement in the virtual course (r = 0.45-0.49, p streaming videos for clinical courses is a complex process that should be carefully designed to positively influence the learning experience. However, the learning benefits gained from such pedagogical approach are worth faculty, institution and students' efforts. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Comparison of methods for determination of testosterone and non-protein bound testosterone in men with alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Bennett, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    The serum concentrations of testosterone and of non-protein bound testosterone were determined in 28 men with alcoholic liver disease having normal to decreased serum albumin concentrations and normal to raised SHBG concentrations. Serum testosterone concentrations determined with two...... radioimmunoassays using different purification procedures and antibody batches did not differ significantly and correlated significantly (r=0.91; p less than 0.001). The median serum concentration of non-protein bound testosterone was 0.265 nmol/l (range 0.068-0.495 nmol/l) when determined by equilibrium dialysis...... and 0.232 nmol/l (range 0.042-0.610 nmol/l) when calculated according to the law of mass action. This difference is insignificant. The concentrations of non-protein bound testosterone determined by the two methods correlated significantly (r=0.83; p less than 0.001). In the calculation of non...

  19. Testosterone, free testosterone, and free androgen index in women: Reference intervals, biological variation, and diagnostic value in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, H N; Sluss, P M; Hayes, F J; Blincko, S; Knol, D L; Blankenstein, M A; Heijboer, A C

    2015-10-23

    The objective of our study was to determine reference intervals and biologic variation for testosterone (T), free testosterone (fT), and free androgen index (FAI) in women with accurate methods and to test the discriminative value of these parameters in a polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)-population. Serum was obtained daily during a normal menstrual cycle from 25 healthy women (677 data-points). A single serum sample was obtained from 44 PCOS-patients. T was measured by LC–MS/MS and by Architect® 2nd generation T Immunoassay. Sex hormone-binding globulin was measured to calculate fT and FAI. Results: Reference intervals which were established in healthy women with an ovulatory menstrual cycle were T = 0.3-1.6 nmol/L and 0.5-2.0 nmol/L, fT = 5.2-26 pmol/L and 7.2-33 pmol/L, and FAI = 0.4-2.9 and 0.6-4.4, by LC-MS/MS and immunoassay, respectively. T, fT and FAI were higher in PCOS patients than in controls (p b 0.0001). The areas under the curve of receiver operator characteristic (ROC) plots were not different for T, fT, or FAI when T was measured by LC–MS/MS versus immunoassay based on prediction of PCOS. FAI and fT were the strongest predictors of PCOS. When based upon the appropriate reference intervals and ROC analysis, LC-MS/MS and second generation immunoassay have equivalent clinical utility for the diagnosis of PCOS.

  20. Testosterone Replacement and Bone Mineral Density in Male Pituitary Tumor Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jeong Lee

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundHypopituitarism is associated with osteoporosis and osteopenia especially when hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is present. Despite hypopituitarism being an important cause of secondary osteoporosis, osteoporosis in patients receiving surgery for pituitary tumors in Korea has not been studied. In this study, we evaluated the effects of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT on bone mineral density (BMD in postoperative hypogonadal patients with pituitary tumors.MethodsTo examine the effect of TRT on BMD, we performed a retrospective observational study in 21 postoperative male patients who underwent pituitary tumor surgery between 2003 and 2012 at the Ajou University Hospital. Testosterone was replaced in postoperative hypogonadal patients by regular intramuscular injection, daily oral medication, or application of transdermal gel. BMD (g/cm2 measurements of central skeletal sites (lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total femur were obtained using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (GE Lunar. For lumbar spine BMD, L1 to L4 values were chosen for analysis. Femur neck and total femur were also analyzed.ResultsDuring the follow-up period (mean, 56 months; range, 12 to 99 months serum testosterone levels increased with the administration of TRT (P=0.007. There was significant improvement (4.56%±9.81% in the lumbar spine BMD compared to baseline BMD. There were no significant changes in the femur neck BMD or total femur BMD. We did not find any statistically significant relationships between changes in testosterone levels and BMD using Spearman correlation analysis.ConclusionOur results indicated that TRT used in the postoperative period for hypogonadal pituitary tumor surgery patients may have beneficial effects on the BMD of the spine.

  1. Mental comorbidity and multiple sclerosis: validating administrative data to support population-based surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrie, Ruth Ann; Fisk, John D; Yu, Bo Nancy; Leung, Stella; Elliott, Lawrence; Caetano, Patricia; Warren, Sharon; Evans, Charity; Wolfson, Christina; Svenson, Lawrence W; Tremlett, Helen; Blanchard, James F; Patten, Scott B

    2013-02-06

    While mental comorbidity is considered common in multiple sclerosis (MS), its impact is poorly defined; methods are needed to support studies of mental comorbidity. We validated and applied administrative case definitions for any mental comorbidities in MS. Using administrative health data we identified persons with MS and a matched general population cohort. Administrative case definitions for any mental comorbidity, any mood disorder, depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia were developed and validated against medical records using a a kappa statistic (k). Using these definitions we estimated the prevalence of these comorbidities in the study populations. Compared to medical records, administrative definitions showed moderate agreement for any mental comorbidity, mood disorders and depression (all k ≥ 0.49), fair agreement for anxiety (k = 0.23) and bipolar disorder (k = 0.30), and near perfect agreement for schizophrenia (k = 1.0). The age-standardized prevalence of all mental comorbidities was higher in the MS than in the general populations: depression (31.7% vs. 20.5%), anxiety (35.6% vs. 29.6%), and bipolar disorder (5.83% vs. 3.45%), except for schizophrenia (0.93% vs. 0.93%). Administrative data are a valid means of surveillance of mental comorbidity in MS. The prevalence of mental comorbidities, except schizophrenia, is increased in MS compared to the general population.

  2. Webb Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Prahl, Hampus

    2005-01-01

    I’ve built an Internet based administration front-end for the company Allt I Brand in Jamjö. Allt I Brand’s main goals are maintenance and sale of fire preventive equipment. This front-end is programmed mostly in PHP, connected to a MySQL database. Because both Allt I Brand’s main page and my administration front-end use the same database and the database is designed to virtually fit any type of company, the result is both dynamic and powerful. The front-end design is made to make it easy to ...

  3. A Case Study of Two Regional State Universities Qualifying as Learning Organizations Based on Administration and Staff Viewpoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Tammy Morrison

    2011-01-01

    This case study of 2 state universities qualifying as learning organizations, based on administration and staff viewpoints, was completed using a qualitative methodology. The idea of what a learning organization is can be different depending on who or what is being analyzed. For this study, the work of theorists including W. Edwards Deming,…

  4. 75 FR 36511 - Revisions to the Export Administration Regulations Based Upon a Systematic Review of the Commerce...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... the Export Administration Regulations Based Upon a Systematic Review of the Commerce Control List: Additional Changes AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule...

  5. Behavior of total and free serum testosterone as a predictor for the risk of prostate cancer and its aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis, L; Planas, J; Celma, A; de Torres, I M; Ferrer, R; Morote, J

    2015-11-01

    Serum testosterone is mostly bound to the sex hormone-binding globulin and albumin. A small metabolically active part is present in the form of free testosterone (FT). The relationship between serum total testosterone (TT) levels and prostate carcinogenesis is debated. Our hypothesis is that the serum FT concentration is more closely associated with the risk of prostate cancer (PC) and its aggressiveness than TT. To analyze the scientific evidence that relates serum TT and/or FT levels with the diagnosis of PC and its aggressiveness. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed up to January 2015 using the following mesh terms: prostate cancer, sex hormone, androgen, testosterone and free testosterone. We found 460 publications, 124 of which were reviewed to analyze the evidence. The relationship between serum TT levels and the diagnosis of PC and its aggressiveness is highly heterogeneous. The variability in the design of the studies, the quantification methods and other variables could explain this heterogeneity. In a number of studies that evaluated the estimated or measured FT, the evidence remains equally conflicting. Based on the current evidence, we cannot recommend the measurement of serum TT and/or TL levels for the diagnosis of PC or for assessing its aggressiveness. Copyright © 2015 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Mulberry Leaf Extract Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Testosterone Depletion in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Hajizadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: It has been proposed that oxidative stress may contribute to the development of testicular abnormalities in diabetes. Morus alba leaf extract (MAE has hypoglycemic and antioxidant properties. We, therefore, explored the impact of the administration of MAE on steroidogenesis in diabetic rats. Methods: To address this hypothesis, we measured the serum level of glucose, insulin, and free testosterone (Ts as well as oxidative stress parameters (including glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, total antioxidant capacity, and malondialdehyde in the testis of control, untreated and MAE-treated (1 g/day/kg diabetic rats. In order to determine the likely mechanism of MAE action on Ts levels, we analyzed the quantitative mRNA expression level of the two key steroidogenic proteins, namely steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR and P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, by real-time PCR. Results: The MAE-treated diabetic rats had significantly decreased glucose levels and on the other hand increased insulin and free Ts levels than the untreated diabetic rats. In addition, the administration of MAE to the diabetic rats restored the oxidative stress parameters toward control. Induction of diabetes decreased testicular StAR mRNA expression by 66% and MAE treatment enhanced mRNA expression to the same level of the control group. However, the expression of P540scc was not significantly decreased in the diabetic group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that MAE significantly increased Ts production in the diabetic rats, probably through the induction of StAR mRNA expression levels. Administration of MAE to experimental models of diabetes can effectively attenuate oxidative stress-mediated testosterone depletion. Please cite this article as: Hajizadeh MR, Eftekhar E, Zal F, Jaffarian A, Mostafavi-Pour Z. Mulberry Leaf Extract Attenuates Oxidative Stress-Mediated Testosterone Depletion in

  7. Reference ranges of 17-hydroxyprogesterone, DHEA, DHEAS, androstenedione, total and free testosterone determined by TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS and associations to health markers in 304 men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.S.; Johannsen, T H; Holmboe, Stine Agergaard

    2016-01-01

    We report reference ranges based on LC-MS/MS for testosterone (T), free testosterone (FT) and its precursors, i.e. 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA-sulfate (DHEAS) and androstenedione (Adione), in relation to different health markers and lifestyle factors...... of health markers in healthy men provides age-related reference ranges, and furthermore evaluates the impact of lifestyle factors and metabolic syndrome on androgen metabolite levels....

  8. Use of statins is associated with lower serum total and non-sex hormone-binding globulin-bound testosterone levels in male participants of the Rotterdam Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Keyser, Catherine E; de Lima, Filipe Valerio; de Jong, Frank H; Hofman, Albert; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Uitterlinden, André G; Visser, Loes E; Stricker, Bruno H

    2015-08-01

    Statins, or HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, decrease cholesterol production. Because cholesterol is a precursor of the testosterone biosynthesis pathway, there is some concern that statins might lower serum testosterone levels. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association between the use of statins and serum testosterone levels in men. Cross-sectional study within the prospective population-based Rotterdam Study. We included 4166 men with available data on total testosterone, non-sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)-bound testosterone, and medication use. Multivariable linear regression analysis was used to compare the differences in serum testosterone levels (nmol/l) between current, past, and never statin users. We considered dose and duration of use. Analyses were adjusted for age, BMI, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and estradiol levels. We identified 577 current (mean age 64.1 years), 148 past (mean age 64.6 years), and 3441 never (mean age 64.6 years) statin users. Adjusted for all covariables, current statin use of 1-≤ 6 months or >6 months was significantly associated with lower total testosterone levels as compared to non-users (β -1.24, 95% CI -2.17, -0.31, and β -1.14, 95% CI -2.07, -0.20 respectively). Current use of 1-≤ 6 months was also associated with significantly lower non-SHBG-bound testosterone levels (β -0.42, 95% CI -0.82, -0.02). There was a trend toward lower testosterone levels at higher statin doses both for total (P(trend) 2.9 × 10(-5)) and non-SHBG-bound (P(trend) 2.0 × 10(-4)) testosterone. No association between past statin use and testosterone levels was found. We showed that current use of statins was associated with significantly lower serum total and non-SHBG-bound testosterone levels. The clinical relevance of this association should be further investigated. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  9. Serum testosterone and depressive symptoms in severe OSA patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercea, R M; Patacchioli, F R; Ghiciuc, C M; Cojocaru, E; Mihaescu, T

    2013-10-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), also characterised by hypoxia-related sleep- fragmentation, has been studied in relation to depression and serum testosterone deficit. In middle-aged men, it has been reported the association between depressive mood and low serum testosterone level; however, no data are available about this association in OSA patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate in adult obese males, affected by severe OSA, the relationship between serum testosterone concentration and depressive symptoms, in order to identify among all measured parameters (serum testosterone morning concentration, polysomnography parameters, body mass index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale) those predictors for OSA-related depression. Forty patients diagnosed with severe OSA and forty subjects for the control-matched group were enroled in the study. The results indicated that the serum testosterone in OSA group was significantly lower than in controls. In addition, the OSA group presented a level of depression although moderate, yet significantly higher than controls. Furthermore, a statistically significant inverse correlation has been found between serum testosterone level and depressive symptoms. Among all variables, serum testosterone level was shown to be the only independent variable significantly predictor for depression in OSA patients. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Reactive oxygen species: players in the cardiovascular effects of testosterone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Fernando S.; Carvalho, Maria Helena C.; Reckelhoff, Jane F.

    2015-01-01

    Androgens are essential for the development and maintenance of male reproductive tissues and sexual function and for overall health and well being. Testosterone, the predominant and most important androgen, not only affects the male reproductive system, but also influences the activity of many other organs. In the cardiovascular system, the actions of testosterone are still controversial, its effects ranging from protective to deleterious. While early studies showed that testosterone replacement therapy exerted beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease, some recent safety studies point to a positive association between endogenous and supraphysiological levels of androgens/testosterone and cardiovascular disease risk. Among the possible mechanisms involved in the actions of testosterone on the cardiovascular system, indirect actions (changes in the lipid profile, insulin sensitivity, and hemostatic mechanisms, modulation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system), as well as direct actions (modulatory effects on proinflammatory enzymes, on the generation of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide bioavailability, and on vasoconstrictor signaling pathways) have been reported. This mini-review focuses on evidence indicating that testosterone has prooxidative actions that may contribute to its deleterious actions in the cardiovascular system. The controversial effects of testosterone on ROS generation and oxidant status, both prooxidant and antioxidant, in the cardiovascular system and in cells and tissues of other systems are reviewed. PMID:26538238

  11. Late administration of Mn porphyrin-based SOD mimic enhances diabetic complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana K. Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mn(III N-alkylpyridylporphyrins (MnPs have demonstrated protection in various conditions where increased production of reactive oxygen/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS, is a key pathological factors. MnPs can produce both pro-oxidative and antioxidative effects depending upon the cellular redox environment that they encounter. Previously we reported (Free Radic. Res. 39: 81–8, 2005 that when the treatment started at the onset of diabetes, Mn(III meso-tetrakis(N-methylpyridinium-2-ylporphyrin, MnTM-2-PyP5+ suppressed diabetes-induced oxidative stress. Diabetes, however, is rarely diagnosed at its onset. The aim of this study was to investigate if MnTM-2-PyP5+ can suppress oxidative damage and prevent diabetic complications when administered more than a week after the onset of diabetes. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin. The MnP-based treatment started 8 days after the onset of diabetes and continued for 2 months. The effect of the treatment on activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and glyoxalases I and II as well as malondialdehyde and GSH/GSSG ratio were determined in kidneys. Kidney function was assessed by measuring lysozyme and total protein in urine and blood urea nitrogen. Vascular damage was evaluated by assessing vascular reactivity. Our data showed that delayed administration of MnTM-2-PyP5+ did not protect against oxidative damage and did not prevent diabetic complications. Moreover, MnTM-2-PyP5+ contributed to the kidney damage, which seems to be a consequence of its pro-oxidative action. Such outcome can be explained by advanced oxidative damage which already existed at the moment the therapy with MnP started. The data support the concept that the overall biological effect of a redox-active MnP is determined by (i the relative concentrations of oxidants and reductants, i.e. the cellular redox

  12. Isolated rectal cancer surgery: a 2007-2014 population study based on a large administrative database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saia, Mario; Buja, Alessandra; Mantoan, Domenico; Sartor, Gino; Agresta, Ferdinando; Baldo, Vincenzo

    2017-04-13

    Rectal resection is technically one of the most demanding laparoscopic procedures, requiring additional training and expertise of both surgeons and institutions. The literature has shown that laparoscopic procedures can be appropriate for the treatment of rectal cancer (RC), in terms of safety, outcome and efficiency, but results may not always be directly transferable to the general population. This study aimed to investigate the use of laparoscopic rectal cancer resections in a north-eastern Italian region (the Veneto) and to see how the characteristics of patients and hospitals are associated with the use of laparoscopy. This was a retrospective cohort study based on administrative data collected from 2007 to 2014 in the Veneto region (north-east Italy). In the period considered (2007-2014), 4953 rectal resections were performed for RC in Veneto hospitals, accounting for 35% of the total 14,243 surgical procedures involving the rectum, and resulting in 76,739 days in hospital [mean length of stay-post-operative (MLOS) 15.5 ± 11.1 days]. Patients were a mean 67.9 ± 11.7 years old (68 ± 12.7 for women, 67.9 ± 11 for men), while the subgroup of patients undergoing laparoscopic procedures was on average 2 years younger (66.5 ± 11.8 vs 68.8 ± 11.5; p < 0.05). The four main findings of this study are: (1) the increasing rates of laparoscopic procedures for RC resection at all the hospitals in our geographical area, rising up to 52% in 2014. This is probably related to not only to availability of better equipment but surely to a growing expertise of surgeons; (2) the esteem of proportion of laparoscopically treated RC; (3) the significant difference between the laparoscopic and open surgical approach in terms of mean length of hospital stay after RC resection, making the laparoscopic approach cost-effective generally speaking; and (4) the disparities in hospitals' use of laparoscopy by patients' age group: Laparoscopic surgery is safe also in

  13. [Correlation analysis between serum free testosterone and total testosterone in Chengdu females].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tingting; Xu, Liangzhi; Liu, Ying; Liu, Xiaofang; Kang, Deying; Qiu, Dongsheng; Han, Daiwen

    2013-04-01

    This paper is aimed to analyze the correlation between serum free testosterone (FT) and total testosterone (TT) to acquire a cutoff about using total testosterone to diagnose hyperandrogenism in Chengdu females. We investigated 1854 women by cluster sampling method, detected their serum FT levels and TT levels, scored relative items, analyzed the correlation and made the ROC curve to get a cutoff of TT levels. Serum FT had a linear correlation with serum TT (r = 0.597, r2 = 0.356, P < 0.001). The cutoff value was 0.635 ng/mL. The specificity and sensitivity were 76.3% and 77.24%, respectively. No correlation found between serum FT and Ferriman-Gallway Score (P = 0.392). Positive correlations were seen between serum FT and Plewig-Kligman Score (r = 0.137, P < 0.001), serum TT and Ferriman-Gallway Score (r = 0.069, P = 0.003) and serum TT and Plewig-Kligman Score (r = 0.092, P < 0.001). There is a linear correlation between serum FT and TT. We can diagnose hyperandrogenism according to the serum TT cutoff value (0.635 ng/mL). Its clinical symptoms are not paralleled with the biochemical test results.

  14. Mouse Spermatogenesis Requires Classical and Nonclassical Testosterone Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toocheck, Corey; Clister, Terri; Shupe, John; Crum, Chelsea; Ravindranathan, Preethi; Lee, Tae-Kyung; Ahn, Jung-Mo; Raj, Ganesh V; Sukhwani, Meena; Orwig, Kyle E; Walker, William H

    2016-01-01

    Testosterone acts though the androgen receptor in Sertoli cells to support germ cell development (spermatogenesis) and male fertility, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms by which testosterone acts are not well understood. Previously, we found that in addition to acting through androgen receptor to directly regulate gene expression (classical testosterone signaling pathway), testosterone acts through a nonclassical pathway via the androgen receptor to rapidly activate kinases that are known to regulate spermatogenesis. In this study, we provide the first evidence that nonclassical testosterone signaling occurs in vivo as the MAP kinase cascade is rapidly activated in Sertoli cells within the testis by increasing testosterone levels in the rat. We find that either classical or nonclassical signaling regulates testosterone-mediated Rhox5 gene expression in Sertoli cells within testis explants. The selective activation of classical or nonclassical signaling pathways in Sertoli cells within testis explants also resulted in the differential activation of the Zbtb16 and c-Kit genes in adjacent spermatogonia germ cells. Delivery of an inhibitor of either pathway to Sertoli cells of mouse testes disrupted the blood-testis barrier that is essential for spermatogenesis. Furthermore, an inhibitor of nonclassical testosterone signaling blocked meiosis in pubertal mice and caused the loss of meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells in adult mouse testes. An inhibitor of the classical pathway caused the premature release of immature germ cells. Collectively, these observations indicate that classical and nonclassical testosterone signaling regulate overlapping and distinct functions that are required for the maintenance of spermatogenesis and male fertility. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  15. Neural activation-based sexual orientation and its correlation with free testosterone level in postoperative female-to-male transsexuals: preliminary study with 3.0-T fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gwang-Won; Kim, Seok-Kwun; Jeong, Gwang-Woo

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the brain activation pattern associated with sexual orientation and its correlation with the level of the free testosterone (free T) in postoperative female-to-male (FtM) transsexuals using a 3.0-Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Eleven postoperative FtM transsexuals with sex reassignment surgery underwent fMRI on a 3.0-T MR scanner. Brain activity was measured while viewing erotic male and female nude pictures. The average level of free T in the FtM transsexuals was in the normal range of heterosexual men. The brain areas with predominant activities during viewing female nude pictures in contrast to male pictures included the hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, anterior cingulate gyrus, putamen, amygdala, hypothalamus, and insula (p free T levels were positively correlated with the BOLD signal changes in the parahippocampal gyrus (Spearman's rho = 0.91, p free T, the FtM transsexuals with normal range of free T showed significantly higher activities in the parahippocampal gyrus, hippocampus, insula, putamen, and amygdala during viewing female nude pictures (p free T in the postoperative FtM transsexuals. These findings are applicable in understanding the neural mechanism on sexual arousal in FtM transsexuals and their sexual orientation in connection with the free T levels.

  16. Treating networks seriously: Practical and research-based agendas in public administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Toole, Laurence J.

    1997-01-01

    How well equipped are today's public administrators to face the challenges they confront from the involvement of businesses, not-for-profits, other units of government, and even clients in complex patterns of program operations? Not very well, if judged by the extent to which practitioners and

  17. Application of Model-Based Diagnosis to Multi-Agent Systems Representing Public Administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; van Engers, T.

    2012-01-01

    In public administration, legal knowledge in the form of critical incidents and, for want of a better word, noncompliance storylines is important for monitoring and enforcement, but has no natural place in traditional forms of legal knowledge representation such as normative rules or legal argument

  18. Analysis of aluminium in rat following administration of allergen immunotherapy using either aluminium or microcrystalline-tyrosine-based adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Stuart A; Heath, Matthew D; Kramer, Matthias F; Skinner, Murray A

    2016-03-01

    Investigation into the absorption, distribution and elimination of aluminium in rat after subcutaneous aluminium adjuvant formulation administration using ICP-MS is described. Assays were verified under the principles of a tiered approach. There was no evidence of systemic exposure of aluminium, in brain or in kidney. Extensive and persistent retention of aluminium at the dose site was observed for at least 180 days after administration. This is the first published work that has quantified aluminium adjuvant retention based on the quantity of aluminium delivered in a typical allergy immunotherapy course. The results indicate that the repeated administration of aluminium-containing adjuvants will likely contribute directly and significantly to an individual's body burden of aluminium.

  19. Support for school-based obesity prevention efforts: attitudes among administrators at nationally representative samples of US elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lindsey; Slater, Sandy J; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-08-01

    With the continued threat of childhood obesity, many public health intervention efforts focus on school settings. The current study sought to document administrator attitudes regarding obesity and interest in improving relevant school practices (i.e., nutrition and physical activity) in elementary schools. Mail-back surveys were used to gather data from public and private elementary schools during the 2006-2007, 2007-2008, 2008-2009, and 2010-2011 school years. In each year, a different set of items pertaining to administrator attitudes was included. Numbers of responding schools annually ranged from 259 to 336 private schools, and from 578 to 748 public schools. The vast majority of elementary school administrators (>90%) agreed that schools can play a role in addressing childhood obesity, physical education improves a variety of academic outcomes, and they were interested in improving practices at their school. Concern about childhood obesity and perceiving that schools can play a role in addressing obesity were both associated with more interest in improving school practices. However, only one-third of administrators agreed that parents were interested in participating in improving nutrition and physical activity practices, suggesting opportunities for efforts to improve collaboration. Administrators are generally very supportive of school-based efforts to improve nutrition and physical activity practices and see the value in doing so. Given the amount of time children spend in school, schools are an essential venue for efforts to address childhood obesity.

  20. Testosterone and estrogen impact social evaluations and vicarious emotions: A double-blind placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Andreas; Kopsida, Eleni; Sorjonen, Kimmo; Savic, Ivanka

    2016-06-01

    The abilities to "read" other peoples' intentions and emotions, and to learn from their experiences, are critical to survival. Previous studies have highlighted the role of sex hormones, notably testosterone and estrogen, in these processes. Yet it is unclear how these hormones affect social cognition and emotion using acute hormonal administration. In the present double-blind placebo-controlled study, we administered an acute exogenous dose of testosterone or estrogen to healthy female and male volunteers, respectively, with the aim of investigating the effects of these steroids on social-cognitive and emotional processes. Following hormonal and placebo treatment, participants made (a) facial dominance judgments, (b) mental state inferences (Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test), and (c) learned aversive associations through watching others' emotional responses (observational fear learning [OFL]). Our results showed that testosterone administration to females enhanced ratings of facial dominance but diminished their accuracy in inferring mental states. In men, estrogen administration resulted in an increase in emotional (vicarious) reactivity when watching a distressed other during the OFL task. Taken together, these results suggest that sex hormones affect social-cognitive and emotional functions at several levels, linking our results to neuropsychiatric disorders in which these functions are impaired. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Testosterone therapy increased muscle mass and lipid oxidation in aging men

    OpenAIRE

    Frederiksen, Louise; Højlund, Kurt; Hougaard, David M.; Brixen, Kim; Andersen, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    The indication for testosterone therapy in aging hypogonadal men without hypothalamic, pituitary, or testicular disease remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of testosterone therapy on insulin sensitivity, substrate metabolism, body composition, and lipids in aging men with low normal bioavailable testosterone levels using a predefined cutoff level for bioavailable testosterone. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study of testosterone trea...

  2. Comparison of the Values of Free Testosterone with Free Androgen Index

    OpenAIRE

    1, Mehmet TOSUN; 2, Emin Savaş KILAVIZ; 3, Ahmet Rıza URAS

    2015-01-01

    Background: Testosterone is primarily responsible for the development of male primary and secondary sex characters. However, like many biochemical parameters, biologically active portion of testosterone is the free one. Free androgen index is the ratio of the total testosterone to sex hormone-binding globulin. In this study, we aimed to investigate possibility of using free androgen index instead of the free testosterone when the free testosterone can not be measured routine laboratory. Mater...

  3. Geospatial Based Information System Development in Public Administration for Sustainable Development and Planning in Urban Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Georgios N. Kouziokas

    2016-01-01

    It is generally agreed that the governmental authorities should actively encourage the development of an efficient framework of information and communication technology initiatives so as to advance and promote sustainable development and planning strategies. This paper presents a prototype Information System for public administration which was designed to facilitate public management and decision making for sustainable development and planning. The system was developed by using several progra...

  4. Testosterone correlates with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection in macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koterski James

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Here we briefly report testosterone and cytokine responses to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV in macaques which were used as part of a larger study conducted by the Department of Defense to better characterize pathological responses to aerosolized VEEV in non-human primates. Serial samples were collected and analyzed for testosterone and cytokines prior to and during infection in 8 captive male macaques. Infected animals exhibited a febrile response with few significant changes in cytokine levels. Baseline testosterone levels were positively associated with viremia following exposure and were significantly higher than levels obtained during infection. Such findings suggest that disease-induced androgen suppression is a reasonable area for future study. Decreased androgen levels during physiological perturbations may function, in part, to prevent immunosuppression by high testosterone levels and to prevent the use of energetic resources for metabolically-expensive anabolic functions.

  5. On the effects of testosterone on brain behavioral functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eCelec

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone influences the brain via organizational and activational effects. Numerous relevant studies on rodents and a few on humans focusing on specific behavioral and cognitive parameters have been published. The results are, unfortunately, controversial and puzzling. Dosing, timing, even the application route seem to considerably affect the outcomes. In addition, the methods used for the assessment of psychometric parameters are a bit less than ideal regarding their validity and reproducibility. Metabolism of testosterone contributes to the complexity of its actions. Reduction to dihydrotestosterone by 5-alpha reductase increases the androgen activity; conversion to estradiol by aromatase converts the androgen to estrogen activity. Recently, the non-genomic effects of testosterone on behavior bypassing the nuclear receptors have attracted the interest of researchers. This review tries to summarize the current understanding of the complexity of the effects of testosterone on brain with special focus on their role in the known sex differences.

  6. Genetic polymorphisms related to testosterone metabolism in intellectually gifted boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celec, Peter; Tretinárová, Denisa; Minárik, Gabriel; Ficek, Andrej; Szemes, Tomáš; Lakatošová, Silvia; Schmidtová, Eva; Turňa, Ján; Kádaši, Ľudevít; Ostatníková, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Prepubertal testosterone levels are lower in intellectually gifted boys. The aim of this pilot study was to analyze potential genetic factors related to testosterone metabolism in control and gifted boys. Intellectually gifted (IQ>130; n = 95) and control (n = 67) boys were genotyped. Polymorphisms of interests were chosen in genes including androgen and estrogen receptors, 5-alpha reductase, aromatase and sex hormone binding globulin. Significant differences between control and gifted boys in genotype distributions were found for ESR2 (rs928554) and SHBG (rs1799941). A significantly lower number of CAG repeats in the AR gene were found in gifted boys. Our results support the role of genetic factors related to testosterone metabolism in intellectual giftedness. Increased androgen signaling might explain previous results of lower testosterone levels in intellectually gifted boys and add to the understanding of variability in cognitive abilities.

  7. Bepaling van testosteron, testosteronacetaat, testosteronpropionaat en testosteronbenzoaat in toedieningsplaatsen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijerink, H.; Ruig, de W.G.

    1984-01-01

    Doel van het onderzoek was het ontwikkelen van een analysemethode voor de bepaling van testosteron, testosteronacetaat, testosteronpropionaat en testosteronbenzoaat in toedieningsplaatsen door middel van HPLC-UV en driedimensionale HPLC-HPTLC.

  8. Comparing administrative and survey data for ascertaining cases of irritable bowel syndrome: a population-based investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Targownick Laura E

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Administrative and survey data are two key data sources for population-based research about chronic disease. The objectives of this methodological paper are to: (1 estimate agreement between the two data sources for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and compare the results to those for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD; (2 compare the frequency of IBS-related diagnoses in administrative data for survey respondents with and without self-reported IBS, and (3 estimate IBS prevalence from both sources. Methods This retrospective cohort study used linked administrative and health survey data for 5,134 adults from the province of Manitoba, Canada. Diagnoses in hospital and physician administrative data were investigated for respondents with self-reported IBS, IBD, and no bowel disorder. Agreement between survey and administrative data was estimated using the κ statistic. The χ2 statistic tested the association between the frequency of IBS-related diagnoses and self-reported IBS. Crude, sex-specific, and age-specific IBS prevalence estimates were calculated from both sources. Results Overall, 3.0% of the cohort had self-reported IBS, 0.8% had self-reported IBD, and 95.3% reported no bowel disorder. Agreement was poor to fair for IBS and substantially higher for IBD. The most frequent IBS-related diagnoses among the cohort were anxiety disorders (34.4%, symptoms of the abdomen and pelvis (26.9%, and diverticulitis of the intestine (10.6%. Crude IBS prevalence estimates from both sources were lower than those reported previously. Conclusions Poor agreement between administrative and survey data for IBS may account for differences in the results of health services and outcomes research using these sources. Further research is needed to identify the optimal method(s to ascertain IBS cases in both data sources.

  9. Efek ekstrak akar ginseng Jawa dan Korea terhadap libido mencit jantan pada prakondisi testosteron rendah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Winarni

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was designed to compare the potency and duration effect of Java ginseng and Korean ginseng root extract administration on sexual behavior of male mice. It was done experimentally on male mice (strain BALB, aged 8–10 weeks, weighed 25–35 g. Thirty eight mice were grouped to 4 (four groups: First group was treated with solvent (as positive control, 2nd group was treated ethynilestradiol (EE2 (as negative control, 3rd group was treated with Java ginseng root extract, and 4th group was treated with Korean ginseng root extract. All groups were administered with EE2 0.56 mg/20 g bw/day for 9 days as pretreatment to decrease the testosteron level. After pretreatment, each group divided to 3 subgroups (each would receive treatment for 9, 18, and 27 days. Ethynilestradiol 0.56 mg/20 g bw/day was administered along treatment to keep testosterone level low, except to positive control group. Java ginseng and Korean ginseng root extract (equal with 1.4 mg ginseng root powder/ 20 g bw/day and EE2 were administered orally. The level of testosterone after pretreatment was measured by RIA (radioimmuoassay and changes in libido were determined by libido test. After the last treatment, 1 male mouse kept singly in individual cage. Libido test was carried out for 20 minutes. All of these activities during test recorded by handycam. The mice were observed for time from the introduction of female into the cage of male upto the first mount (mounting latency/ ML and for the number of mounts (mounting frequency/MF. The results indicated that at low testosterone level, Java ginseng root extract administration at the dose equal with 1.4 mg ginseng root powder/20 g bw/day shortened mounting latency and increased mounting frequency but Korean ginseng extract root at the same dose gave negative effects. Duration of administration of both Java and Korean ginseng root extract didn’t give effect on libido.

  10. Effect of testosterone on antler growth in yearling male reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Ryg

    1983-05-01

    Full Text Available 1. The effect of exogenous testosterone on ander growth in yearling male reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus was tested. 2. Testosterone (33 mg/kg inhibited antler growth, and in one animal induced cleaning and subsequent casting of the antlers. This animal grew a new set of antlers, which were cleaned at the normal time. 3. During treatment, there was an inverse relationship between peak testosterone levels and antler growth rate. 4. There was no effect of treatment on body weight or food intake. 5. It is concluded that the effects of testosterone on antler growth are qualitatively the same in reindeer as in other deer. However, because high testosterone doses were necessary to produce effects, it is questionable whether this hormone normally is responsible for the cessation of antler growth in reindeer.Virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst hos ettårige reinbukker.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: 1. Virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst hos ett-årige reinbukker (Rangifer tarandus tarandus ble undersøkt. 2. Testosteron (33 mg/kg hemmet gevirveksten, og hos ett dyr førte behandlingen til at geviret ble feiet og deretter felt. Deretter vokste det ut ett nytt gevir, som ble feiet til vanlig tid. 3. Det var en negativ korrelasjon mellom maksimale testosteronnivåer og gevirvekst under behandlingen. 4. Det var ingen effekt på forinntak eller vektutvikling. 5. Det blir konkludert med at virkningen av testosteron på gevirvekst er kvalitativt den samme hos rein som hos andre hjortedyr. Det er likevel tvilsomt om testosteron normalt er ansvarlig for avslutningen av gevirvekst hos rein, fordi store testosterondoser måtte til for å få noen virkning.Testosteronin vaikutus vuodenikåisten urosporojen sarvien kasvuun.Abstract in Finnish / Tiivistelmä: 1. Tutkimuksessa seurattiin ruiskeena annetun testosteronin vaikutusta vuodenikåisten urosporojen (Rangifer tarandus tarandus sarvien kasvuun. 2. Testosteron! (33 mg/kg hidasti sarvien

  11. Ultrasensitive Detection of Testosterone Using Microring Resonator with Molecularly Imprinted Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangqing Chen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report ultrasensitive and highly selective detection of testosterone based on microring resonance sensor using molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP. A silicon-on-insulator (SOI micoring resonator was modified by MIP films (MIPs on a surface. The MIPs was synthesized by thermopolymerization using methacrylic acid as functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as crosslinking agent. The concentration of detected testosterone varies from 0.05 ng/mL to 10 ng/mL. The detection limit reaches 48.7 pg/mL. Ultrahigh sensitivity, good specificity and reproducibility have been demonstrated, indicating the great potential of making a cost effective and easy to operate lab-on-Chip and down scaling micro-fluidics devices in biosensing.

  12. Peningkatan Konsentrasi Testosteron pada Tikus Akibat Paparan Ekstrak Air Biji Pinang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muslim Akmal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Areca catechu which is known in Indonesia as pinang, contains alkaloids such as arecoline, arecaine,arecaidine, arecolidine, guvacine, guvacoline, and isoguvasine. Arecoline has an ability to change gonadmorfofunction, including shape abnormality of sperm. The aim of this research was to find out the prospectof extract betel nut of A.catechu as male anti fertility agents based on its activity to increase the testosteroneconcentration. Animal models used consisted of 5 groups of 2-3 months male rats (Rattus norvegicus,Wistar strain and induced for 1 week by water extract of betel nut at the dose of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 gram/200gram body weight. Testosterone concentration was determined by ELISA technique. The result showedthat extract betel nut of A. catechu is potential source of natural and beneficial male anti fertility agentsas it can increase the testosterone concentration.

  13. Testosterone undecanoate and depo medroxyprogesterone acetate induced azoospermia through increased expression of spermatogenic cell caspase 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nukman Moeloek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The administration of a combination of testosterone undecanoate (TU, a long-acting androgen and depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA were investigated in term of suppression of rat sperm concentration in vivo to azoospermia through increasing activity of spermatogenic cell caspase 3. Adult Sprague Dawley rats received TU and DMPA of 2.5 mg and 1.25 mg, respectively, a regimen known to rapidly reduce intra testicular testosterone and to produce azoospermia within 12 weeks. Caspase 3 positive sperm cells increased compared with control levels during 6 weeks post-injection and increased further through 60 weeks. Immunohistochemistry for caspase 3 revealed that spermatocytes represented the predominant caspase 3 positive germ cells. Modest immunoreactivity for caspase-3 was localized to nuclear region of the germ cells of control and treated testes. Immunohistochemistry study revealed significantly increased caspase-3 expression in nuclei of germ cells during administration of TU+DMPA to rats. Additionally, the caspase 3 content was significantly increased in germ cells during rats were administered TU+DMPA (453.90±84.88 cells/200 seminiferous tubules and caspase 3 significant increase in immunoreactivity was localized to the nuclei of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, and spermatids. Taken together, these results indicated that azoospermia due to reduced intratesticular testosterone concentration was caspase-3 activation dependent and suggested that the increase in active caspase-3 in the nucleus may be involved in the induction of decreased sperm production. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 149-56Keywords: TU, DMPA, sperm concentration, germ cells

  14. Mechanism of testosterone deficiency in the transgenic sickle cell mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musicki, Biljana; Zhang, Yuxi; Chen, Haolin; Brown, Terry R; Zirkin, Barry R; Burnett, Arthur L

    2015-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency is associated with sickle cell disease (SCD), but its underlying mechanism is not known. We investigated the possible occurrence and mechanism of testosterone deficiency in a mouse model of human SCD. Transgenic sickle male mice (Sickle) exhibited decreased serum and intratesticular testosterone and increased luteinizing hormone (LH) levels compared with wild type (WT) mice, indicating primary hypogonadism in Sickle mice. LH-, dbcAMP-, and pregnenolone- (but not 22-hydroxycholesterol)- stimulated testosterone production by Leydig cells isolated from the Sickle mouse testis was decreased compared to that of WT mice, implying defective Leydig cell steroidogenesis. There also was reduced protein expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR), but not cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), in the Sickle mouse testis. These data suggest that the capacity of P450scc to support testosterone production may be limited by the supply of cholesterol to the mitochondria in Sickle mice. The sickle mouse testis exhibited upregulated NADPH oxidase subunit gp91phox and increased oxidative stress, measured as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, and unchanged protein expression of an antioxidant glutathione peroxidase-1. Mice heterozygous for the human sickle globin (Hemi) exhibited intermediate hypogonadal changes between those of WT and Sickle mice. These results demonstrate that testosterone deficiency occurs in Sickle mice, mimicking the human condition. The defects in the Leydig cell steroidogenic pathway in Sickle mice, mainly due to reduced availability of cholesterol for testosterone production, may be related to NADPH oxidase-derived oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that targeting testicular oxidative stress or steroidogenesis mechanisms in SCD offers a potential treatment for improving phenotypic changes associated with testosterone deficiency in this disease.

  15. Mechanism of testosterone deficiency in the transgenic sickle cell mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Musicki

    Full Text Available Testosterone deficiency is associated with sickle cell disease (SCD, but its underlying mechanism is not known. We investigated the possible occurrence and mechanism of testosterone deficiency in a mouse model of human SCD. Transgenic sickle male mice (Sickle exhibited decreased serum and intratesticular testosterone and increased luteinizing hormone (LH levels compared with wild type (WT mice, indicating primary hypogonadism in Sickle mice. LH-, dbcAMP-, and pregnenolone- (but not 22-hydroxycholesterol- stimulated testosterone production by Leydig cells isolated from the Sickle mouse testis was decreased compared to that of WT mice, implying defective Leydig cell steroidogenesis. There also was reduced protein expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR, but not cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, in the Sickle mouse testis. These data suggest that the capacity of P450scc to support testosterone production may be limited by the supply of cholesterol to the mitochondria in Sickle mice. The sickle mouse testis exhibited upregulated NADPH oxidase subunit gp91phox and increased oxidative stress, measured as 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, and unchanged protein expression of an antioxidant glutathione peroxidase-1. Mice heterozygous for the human sickle globin (Hemi exhibited intermediate hypogonadal changes between those of WT and Sickle mice. These results demonstrate that testosterone deficiency occurs in Sickle mice, mimicking the human condition. The defects in the Leydig cell steroidogenic pathway in Sickle mice, mainly due to reduced availability of cholesterol for testosterone production, may be related to NADPH oxidase-derived oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that targeting testicular oxidative stress or steroidogenesis mechanisms in SCD offers a potential treatment for improving phenotypic changes associated with testosterone deficiency in this disease.

  16. Supra-physiological dose of testosterone induces pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirompol, Prapawadee; Teekabut, Vassana; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana; Bupha-Intr, Tepmanas; Wattanapermpool, Jonggonnee

    2016-04-01

    Testosterone and androgenic anabolic steroids have been misused for enhancement of physical performance despite many reports on cardiac sudden death. Although physiological level of testosterone provided many regulatory benefits to human health, including the cardiovascular function, supra-physiological levels of the hormone induce hypertrophy of the heart with unclear contractile activation. In this study, dose- and time-dependent effects of high-testosterone treatment on cardiac structure and function were evaluated. Adult male rats were divided into four groups of testosterone treatment for 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg BW for 4, 8, or 12 weeks. Increases in both percentage heart:body weight ratio and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area in representing hypertrophy of the heart were significantly shown in all testosterone-treated groups to the same degree. In 4-week-treated rats, physiological cardiac hypertrophy was apparent with an upregulation of α-MHC without any change in myofilament contractile activation. In contrast, pathological cardiac hypertrophy was observed in 8- and 12-week testosterone-treated groups, as indicated by suppression of myofilament activation and myocardial collagen deposition without transition of MHC isoforms. Only in 12-week testosterone-treated group, eccentric cardiac hypertrophy was demonstrated with unaltered myocardial stiffness, but significant reductions in the phosphorylation signals of ERK1/2 and mTOR. Results of our study suggest that the outcome of testosterone-induced cardiac hypertrophy is not dose dependent but is rather relied on the factor of exposure to duration in inducing maladaptive responses of the heart. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  17. Mechanical muscle function and lean body mass during supervised strength training and testosterone therapy in aging men with low-normal testosterone levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvorning, Thue; Christensen, Louise L; Madsen, Klavs

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effect of strength training and testosterone therapy on mechanical muscle function and lean body mass (LBM) in aging men with low-normal testosterone levels in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 24-week study.......To examine the effect of strength training and testosterone therapy on mechanical muscle function and lean body mass (LBM) in aging men with low-normal testosterone levels in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 24-week study....

  18. An animal model of schizophrenia based on chronic LSD administration: old idea, new results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marona-Lewicka, Danuta; Nichols, Charles D; Nichols, David E

    2011-09-01

    Many people who take LSD experience a second temporal phase of LSD intoxication that is qualitatively different, and was described by Daniel Freedman as "clearly a paranoid state." We have previously shown that the discriminative stimulus effects of LSD in rats also occur in two temporal phases, with initial effects mediated by activation of 5-HT(2A) receptors (LSD30), and the later temporal phase mediated by dopamine D2-like receptors (LSD90). Surprisingly, we have now found that non-competitive NMDA antagonists produced full substitution in LSD90 rats, but only in older animals, whereas in LSD30, or in younger animals, these drugs did not mimic LSD. Chronic administration of low doses of LSD (>3 months, 0.16 mg/kg every other day) induces a behavioral state characterized by hyperactivity and hyperirritability, increased locomotor activity, anhedonia, and impairment in social interaction that persists at the same magnitude for at least three months after cessation of LSD treatment. These behaviors, which closely resemble those associated with psychosis in humans, are not induced by withdrawal from LSD; rather, they are the result of neuroadaptive changes occurring in the brain during the chronic administration of LSD. These persistent behaviors are transiently reversed by haloperidol and olanzapine, but are insensitive to MDL-100907. Gene expression analysis data show that chronic LSD treatment produced significant changes in multiple neurotransmitter system-related genes, including those for serotonin and dopamine. Thus, we propose that chronic treatment of rats with low doses of LSD can serve as a new animal model of psychosis that may mimic the development and progression of schizophrenia, as well as model the established disease better than current acute drug administration models utilizing amphetamine or NMDA antagonists such as PCP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Design of Lipid-Based Formulations for Oral Administration of Poorly Water-Soluble Drug Fenofibrate: Effects of Digestion

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsin, Kazi

    2012-01-01

    Lipid-based drug carriers are likely to have influence on bioavailability through enhanced solubilization of the drug in the gastrointestinal tract. The study was designed to investigate the lipid formulation digestibility in the simulated gastro intestinal media. Fenofibrate was formulated in representative Type II, IIIA, IIIB and IV self-emulsifying/microemulsifying lipid delivery systems (SEDDS and SMEDDS designed for oral administration) using various medium-chain glyceride components, no...

  20. Testosterone levels in benign prostatic hypertrophy and prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearini, Luigi; Costantini, Elisabetta; Zucchi, Alessandro; Mearini, Ettore; Bini, Vittorio; Cottini, Emanuele; Porena, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    Although hormones play fundamental roles in prostate growth, their clinical significance is not completely clear. In the present study we assessed whether serum hormone levels are markers of prostate disease. In 128 patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy or prostate cancer, testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and prolactin levels were correlated with disease. In patients with prostate cancer, the hormone levels were also correlated with prognostic factors. Predictive values were assessed for prostate-specific antigen and testosterone levels only, using multiple logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic curves. The testosterone concentrations were significantly lower in patients with prostate cancer than in those with benign prostatic hypertrophy and were also significantly lower in patients with advanced-stage disease than in patients with organ-confined disease. Testosterone appears to be an independent predictor of disease and enhances the predictive accuracy for benign prostatic hypertrophy and prostate cancer. This study supports experimental findings that prostate cancer is frequently associated with low testosterone concentrations. In the diagnostic workup for prostate cancer, associating prostate-specific antigen and testosterone levels may improve the predictive accuracy of prostate disease tests.

  1. Acute Testosterone Deficiency Alters Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosa, Sylvia; Bush, Nikki C; Jensen, Michael D

    2017-08-01

    Although the long-term effects of testosterone on adipose tissue lipid metabolism in men have been defined, the short-term regulation of these effects is not well understood. We examined the effects of acute testosterone withdrawal on subcutaneous abdominal and femoral adipose tissue fatty acid (FA) storage and cellular mechanisms. This was a prospective, randomized trial. Mayo Clinic Clinical Research Unit. Thirty-two male volunteers ages 18 to 50 participated in these studies. Volunteers were randomized to receive (1) no treatment (control), (2) injections (7.5 mg) of Lupron®, or (3) Lupron and testosterone (L+T) replacement for 49 days, resulting in 4 weeks of sex steroid suppression in the Lupron group. We measured body composition, fat cell size, adipose tissue meal FA and direct free FA storage, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), acyl coenzyme A synthetase (ACS), diacylglycerol acyltransferase activities, and CD36 content. Compared with control and L+T groups, acute testosterone deficiency resulted in greater femoral adipose tissue meal FA storage rates, fasting and fed LPL activity, and ACS activity. These results suggest that in men, testosterone plays a tonic role in restraining FA storage in femoral adipose tissue via suppression of LPL and ACS activities. FA storage mechanisms in men appear sensitive to short-term changes in testosterone concentrations.

  2. Inhibitors of testosterone biosynthetic and metabolic activation enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Leping; Su, Zhi-Jian; Ge, Ren-Shan

    2011-12-02

    The Leydig cells of the testis have the capacity to biosynthesize testosterone from cholesterol. Testosterone and its metabolically activated product dihydrotestosterone are critical for the development of male reproductive system and spermatogenesis. At least four steroidogenic enzymes are involved in testosterone biosynthesis: Cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1) for the conversion of cholesterol into pregnenolone within the mitochondria, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B), for the conversion of pregnenolone into progesterone, 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1) for the conversion of progesterone into androstenedione and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD17B3) for the formation of testosterone from androstenedione. Testosterone is also metabolically activated into more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone by two isoforms 5α-reductase 1 (SRD5A1) and 2 (SRD5A2) in Leydig cells and peripheral tissues. Many endocrine disruptors act as antiandrogens via directly inhibiting one or more enzymes for testosterone biosynthesis and metabolic activation. These chemicals include industrial materials (perfluoroalkyl compounds, phthalates, bisphenol A and benzophenone) and pesticides/biocides (methoxychlor, organotins, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane and prochloraz) and plant constituents (genistein and gossypol). This paper reviews these endocrine disruptors targeting steroidogenic enzymes.

  3. Correlation between serum testosterone levels and peripartal mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohlagschwandtner, M; Husslein, P; Klier, C; Ulm, B

    2001-04-01

    We conducted a prospective study at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital of Vienna to investigate associations between serum testosterone levels and maternal peripartal mood states. Two hundred and fifty-two pregnant women at term (38 to 40 weeks' gestation) took part in the study. Blood samples for plasma testosterone levels and other biochemicals were obtained prepartum, and on the 1st and 3rd day postpartum. Mood was assessed with the McNair Profile of Mood States (POMS) at term pregnancy and daily from the first day after delivery until discharge from the hospital. The final study population consisted of 193 women. Serum testosterone levels correlated significantly with maternal depression scores, both pre- and post partum (at term r=0.148, p=0.04; 1st day postpartum r=0.156, p=0.03; and 2nd day postpartum r=0.186, p=0.02, respectively). Testosterone concentrations also correlated with anger prepartum (r=0.164, p=0.02) and on the third day after delivery (r=0.188, p=0.02). No significant correlation between testosterone concentration and fatigue and vigor both pre- and post partum, respectively were found. Serum testosterone levels correlate with depression and anger in the first postpartum days.

  4. Inhibitors of Testosterone Biosynthetic and Metabolic Activation Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leping Ye

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Leydig cells of the testis have the capacity to biosynthesize testosterone from cholesterol. Testosterone and its metabolically activated product dihydrotestosterone are critical for the development of male reproductive system and spermatogenesis. At least four steroidogenic enzymes are involved in testosterone biosynthesis: Cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (CYP11A1 for the conversion of cholesterol into pregnenolone within the mitochondria, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B, for the conversion of pregnenolone into progesterone, 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase (CYP17A1 for the conversion of progesterone into androstenedione and 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD17B3 for the formation of testosterone from androstenedione. Testosterone is also metabolically activated into more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone by two isoforms 5α-reductase 1 (SRD5A1 and 2 (SRD5A2 in Leydig cells and peripheral tissues. Many endocrine disruptors act as antiandrogens via directly inhibiting one or more enzymes for testosterone biosynthesis and metabolic activation. These chemicals include industrial materials (perfluoroalkyl compounds, phthalates, bisphenol A and benzophenone and pesticides/biocides (methoxychlor, organotins, 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane and prochloraz and plant constituents (genistein and gossypol. This paper reviews these endocrine disruptors targeting steroidogenic enzymes.

  5. Testosterone replacement therapy in the climacteric: benefits beyond sexuality.

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    Maia, Hugo; Casoy, Julio; Valente, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Testosterone therapy during menopause has a wide range of benefits that reach beyond the realm of human sexuality. This is a consequence not only of the widespread distribution of androgen receptors in various extragonadal tissues but also of the conversion of androgens to estrogens in the tissues in which aromatase expression is present. For this reason, testosterone therapy during the climacteric years will not only supply androgens but will also stimulate estrogen production in tissues that express aromatase. Furthermore, the bioavailability of androgens to the tissues depends not only on the rate of their production by the postmenopausal ovaries and adrenals but also on the circulating levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Tibolone inhibits SHBG production in the liver, thus increasing free testosterone levels. The association of tibolone with testosterone as a form of androgen replacement therapy during the climacteric is discussed, as is the use of low-dose testosterone, tibolone or the association of both in perimenopausal patients with signs of androgen deficiency. Testosterone treatment has a boosting effect not only on human sexuality but also on the sensation of well-being, a stimulatory effect conferred by the increase in beta-endorphins.

  6. Protective effect of royal jelly on the sperm parameters and testosterone level and lipid peroxidation in adult mice treated with oxymetholone

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    Ensieh Zahmatkesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate protective effect of royal jelly on sperm parameters, testosterone level, and malondialdehyde (MDA production in mice. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two adult male NMRI mice weighing 30±2 g were used. All the animals were divided into 4 groups. Control group: received saline 0.1 ml/mouse/day orally for 30 days. Royal Jelly group (RJ: received royal jelly at dose of 100 mg/kg daily for 30 days orally. Oxymetholone group: the received Oxymetholone (OX at dose of 5 mg/kg daily for 30 days orally. Royal Jelly+Oxymetholone group: received royal jelly at dose of 100 mg/kg/day orally concomitant with OX administration. Sperm count, sperm motility, viability, maturity, and DNA integrity were analyzed. Furthermore, serum testosterone and MDA concentrations were determined. Results: In Oxymetholone group, sperm count, motility as well as testosterone concentration reduced significantly (p

  7. [Patient with testosterone deficit syndrome and dyslipemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola Galarza, Ignacio; López López, Borja; Llorente Abarca, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    erectile dysfunction due to endothelial dysfunction, but also it generally appears years before the cardiovascular event. On the other hand, and in relation to the hypogonadotropic hypogonadism of patients with MS, we urologists may contributein greatly to the detection of patients with MS whose only symptom is erectile dysfunction or diminished libido, but specially we may play a key role in the improvement of these patients, since it is known that testosterone replacement therapy has a major potential to diminish or stop the progression of MS or its cardiovascular effects. Testosterone treatment not only improves the lipid profile, hypertension, insulin resistance, or reduces the abdominal circumference, but also it may help to get a better adherence to diet and exercise, so contributing to change unhealthy lifestyle habits whch are the origin of the problem.

  8. Chronic Testosterone Replacement Exerts Cardioprotection against Cardiac Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury by Attenuating Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Testosterone-Deprived Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongkan, Wanpitak; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C.; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2015-01-01

    Background Although testosterone deficiency is associated with increased risks of heart disease, the benefits of testosterone therapy are controversial. Moreover, current understanding on the cardiac effect of testosterone during cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) periods is unclear. We tested the hypothesis that testosterone replacement attenuates the impairment of left ventricular (LV) function and heart rate variability (HRV), and reduces the infarct size and arrhythmias caused by I/R injury in orchiectomized (ORX) rats. Methodology ORX or sham-operated male Wistar rats (n = 24) were randomly divided and received either testosterone (2 mg/kg, subcutaneously administered) or the vehicle for 8 weeks. The ejection fraction (EF) and HRV were determined at baseline and the 4th and 8th week. I/R was performed by left anterior descending coronary artery ligation for 30 minutes, followed by a 120-minute reperfusion. LV pressure, arrhythmia scores, infarct size and cardiac mitochondrial function were determined. Results Prior to I/R, EF and HRV were impaired in the ORX group, but were restored in the testosterone-treated group. During I/R, arrhythmia scores and the infarct size were greater, and cardiac mitochondrial function was impaired, whereas the time to 1st VT/VF onset and the LV end-systolic pressure were decreased in the ORX group when compared to the sham group. Testosterone replacement attenuated the impairment of these parameters in ORX rats during I/R injury, but did not show any benefit or adverse effect in non-ORX rats. Conclusions Testosterone replacement restores cardiac function and autonomic regulation, and exerts cardioprotective effects during the I/R period via mitochondrial protection in ORX rats. PMID:25822979

  9. Testosterone increases circulating dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels in the male rhesus macaque

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    Krystina eSorwell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The adrenal steroid dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA and its sulfate (DHEAS are two of the most abundant hormones in the human circulation. Furthermore, they are released in a circadian pattern and show a marked age-associated decline. Adult levels of DHEA and DHEAS are significantly higher in males than in females, but the reason for this sexual dimorphism is unclear. In the present study, we administered supplementary androgens (DHEA, testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone [DHT] to aged male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. While this paradigm increased circulating DHEAS immediately after DHEA administration, an increase was also observed following either testosterone or DHT administration, resulting in hormonal profile resembling levels observed in young males in terms of both amplitude and circadian pattern. This stimulatory effect was limited to DHEAS, as an increase in circulating cortisol was not observed. Taken together, these data demonstrate an influence of the hypothalamo-pituitary-testicular axis on adrenal function in males, possibly by sensitizing the zona reticularis to the stimulating action of adrenocorticopic hormone. This represents a plausible mechanism to explain sex differences in circulating DHEA and DHEAS levels, and may have important implications in the development of hormone therapies designed for elderly men and women.

  10. Testosterone Trajectories and Reference Ranges in a Large Longitudinal Sample of Male Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairullah, Ammar; Cousino Klein, Laura; Ingle, Suzanne M.; May, Margaret T.; Whetzel, Courtney A.; Susman, Elizabeth J.; Paus, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Pubertal dynamics plays an important role in physical and psychological development of children and adolescents. We aim to provide reference ranges of plasma testosterone in a large longitudinal sample. Furthermore, we describe a measure of testosterone trajectories during adolescence that can be used in future investigations of development. Methods We carried out longitudinal measurements of plasma testosterone in 2,216 samples obtained from 513 males (9 to 17 years of age) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. We used integration of a model fitted to each participant’s testosterone trajectory to calculate a measure of average exposure to testosterone over adolescence. We pooled these data with corresponding values reported in the literature to provide a reference range of testosterone levels in males between the ages of 6 and 19 years. Results The average values of total testosterone in the ALSPAC sample range from 0.82 nmol/L (Standard Deviation [SD]: 0.09) at 9 years of age to 16.5 (SD: 2.65) nmol/L at 17 years of age; these values are congruent with other reports in the literature. The average exposure to testosterone is associated with different features of testosterone trajectories such as Peak Testosterone Change, Age at Peak Testosterone Change, and Testosterone at 17 years of age as well as the timing of the growth spurt during puberty. Conclusions The average exposure to testosterone is a useful measure for future investigations using testosterone trajectories to examine pubertal dynamics. PMID:25268961

  11. MODERN PRINCIPLES OF VITAMIN-BASED PREVENTION AND VITAMIN THERAPY ADMINISTRATION IN CHILDREN AGE

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    V.F. Lapshin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Outcomes of the studies of Picovit (KRKA, Slovenia vitamin and mineral preparation series' efficiency in the prevention of hypo and avitaminoses in apparently healthy children and in children administered therapy and rehabilitation measures for reasons of chronic somatic pathology are described. Picovit polyvitamin and vitamin & mineral complexes have been specifically designed for children of various ages and contain all necessary vitamins and minerals in safe RDA approved quantities; they are manufactured under a special micro capsulation technology. It has been proved that Picovit series medications are highly efficient, safe, convenient for administration and use, and have high organoleptic characteristics which allows recommending them for an ample use in paediatrics.Key words: vitamin prevention, vitamin therapy, polyvitamin complexes, Picovit series vitamin & mineral preparations.

  12. Effects of Oral Administration of Nicotine on Organ Weight, Serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of oral administration of nicotine on body and reproductive organ weight, serum testosterone level and testicular histology in adult male rats. Forty male rats divided into five groups and treated for a period of 30 days with 0.5mg/kg (low dose) and 1.0mg/kg (high dose) body weight of ...

  13. The Effect of Testosterone Hormone and Age on Muscle Development of Kacang Doe

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    D Rudiono

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A total of 40 Kacang does with average initial body weight (BW of 10.2 kg were used in factorial experiment (4x2 based on completely randomized design (CRD to determine muscle development. The first factor was the doses of testosterone consisted of four levels, i.e.: control (t0; 0.77 (t1; 1.54 (t2; and 2.31 (t3 mg/kg BW. The second factor was the age of does, i.e.: 7-8 month (u1 and 9-12 month (u2. So that there were eight combinations of treatments, each was replicated five times. Animals in treatment group were injected with testosterone propionate (TP weekly for 90 days. They were fed on ration to gain 50 g/day. Variables observed were the number of fibril in longissimus dorsi and rectus femoris (pc/100m, the weight of longissimus dorsi and rectus femoris muscles, and Loin Eye Area (cm2. There was significant interaction between doses and age on the fibril number of longissimus dorsi and rectus femoris muscle, and also Loin Eye Area. The best result was showed by the combination treatment of t1 and u1. Testosterone propionate injection did not significantly affect the weight of longissimus dorsi and rectus femoris muscles. Meanwhile, age significantly influenced weight of longissimus dorsi muscle only. In conclusion, injection of 0.77 mg/kg BW/day TP to does with 7-8 month of age showed the best result on muscle mass. (Animal Production 9(2: 59-66 (2007 Key Words : Kacang doe, testosterone hormone, chronological age, muscle development

  14. The Effect of Testosterone Hormone and Age on Muscle Development of Kacang Doe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Rudiono

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A total of 40 Kacang does with average initial body weight (BW of 10.2 kg were used in factorial experiment (4x2 based on completely randomized design (CRD to determine muscle development. The first factor was the doses of testosterone consisted of four levels, i.e.: control (t0;  0.77 (t1;  1.54 (t2; and 2.31 (t3 mg/kg BW.  The second factor was the age of does, i.e.: 7-8 month (u1 and  9-12 month (u2.  So that there were eight combinations of treatments, each was replicated five times.  Animals in treatment group were injected with testosterone propionate (TP weekly for 90 days. They were fed on ration to gain 50 g/day. Variables observed were the number of fibril in longissimus dorsi and rectus femoris (pc/100m, the weight of longissimus dorsi and rectus femoris muscles, and Loin Eye Area (cm2. There was significant interaction between doses and age on the fibril number of longissimus dorsi and rectus femoris muscle, and also Loin Eye Area.  The best result was showed by the combination treatment of t1 andu1. Testosterone propionate injection did not significantly affect the weight of longissimus dorsi and rectus femoris muscles. Meanwhile, age significantly influenced weight of longissimus dorsi muscle only. In conclusion, injection of 0.77 mg/kg BW/day TP to does with 7-8 month of age showed the best result on muscle mass. (Animal Production 9(2: 59-66 (2007Key Words : Kacang doe, testosterone hormone, chronological age, muscle development

  15. Mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate associated with insulin resistance and lower testosterone levels in a young population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Ying; Hwang, Jing-Shiang; Sung, Fung-Chang; Lin, Chien-Yu; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Chen, Pau-Chung; Su, Ta-Chen

    2017-06-01

    Phthalates are commonly used as plasticizers and are reported to associate with testicular dysfunction or insulin resistance in different studies, but the concurrent relationship between phthalate exposure, testosterone levels, and insulin resistance in the young population is not well understood. We recruited 786 subjects aged 12-30 years from a population-based sample of Taiwanese adolescents and young adults from 2006 to 2008. Generalized additive models were used to evaluate glucose homeostasis and testicular function in relation to seven urinary phthalate metabolites among adolescents (aged 12-20) and young adults (aged 20-30) in Taiwan. We observed a trend toward a decrease in male testosterone and an increase in urinary mono-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP) levels across four quartiles of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). After adjusting for potential covariates, generalized additive models further showed that log-transformed insulin and HOMA-IR were raised by 0.055 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.027-0.082] and 0.056 (95% CI, 0.027-0.084), respectively, with a one-unit increase in log-transformed MEHP in young adults. In male adults (aged 22-30), the log-testosterone levels were reduced by 0.018 (95% CI, 0.001-0.036), with a one-unit of increase in log-transformed MEHP. Such relationships were not observed in adolescents. In conclusion, this study demonstrated age-related associations of urinary MEHP metabolites with impaired metabolic homeostasis of glucose that were only observed in young adults. In addition, MEHP exposure was concurrently associated with lower testosterone levels in young, male adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Serum testosterone levels in males are not associated with entrepreneurial behavior in two independent observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Loos, Matthijs J H M; Haring, Robin; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Groenen, Patrick J F; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Frank H; Koellinger, Philipp D; Kohlmann, Thomas; Nauck, Matthias A; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G; van Rooij, Frank J A; Wallaschofski, Henri; Thurik, A Roy

    2013-07-02

    Previous research has suggested a positive association between testosterone (T) and entrepreneurial behavior in males. However, this evidence was found in a study with a small sample size and has not been replicated. In the present study, we aimed to verify this association using two large, independent, population-based samples of males. We tested the association of T with entrepreneurial behavior, operationalized as self-employment, using data from the Rotterdam Study (N=587) and the Study of Health in Pomerania (N=1697). Total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) were measured in the serum. Free testosterone (FT), non-SHBG-bound T (non-SHBG-T), and the TT/SHBG ratio were calculated and used as measures of bioactive serum T, in addition to TT adjusted for SHBG. Using logistic regression models, we found no significant associations between any of the serum T measures and self-employment in either of the samples. To our knowledge, this is the first large-scale study on the relationship between serum T and entrepreneurial behavior. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Salivary testosterone and immunoglobulin A were increased by resistance training in adults with Down syndrome

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    G. Fornieles

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to assess the influence of resistance training on salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA levels and hormone profile in sedentary adults with Down syndrome (DS. A total of 40 male adults with DS were recruited for the trial through different community support groups for people with intellectual disabilities. All participants had medical approval for participation in physical activity. Twenty-four adults were randomly assigned to perform resistance training in a circuit with six stations, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Training intensity was based on functioning in the eight-repetition maximum (8RM test for each exercise. The control group included 16 age-, gender-, and BMI-matched adults with DS. Salivary IgA, testosterone, and cortisol levels were measured by ELISA. Work task performance was assessed using the repetitive weighted-box-stacking test. Resistance training significantly increased salivary IgA concentration (P=0.0120; d=0.94 and testosterone levels (P=0.0088; d=1.57 in the exercising group. Furthermore, it also improved work task performance. No changes were seen in the controls who had not exercised. In conclusion, a short-term resistance training protocol improved mucosal immunity response as well as salivary testosterone levels in sedentary adults with DS.

  18. Bioavailable testosterone is independently associated with Fatty Liver Index in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klisic, Aleksandra; Kavaric, Nebojsa; Jovanovic, Milovan; Soldatovic, Ivan; Gligorovic-Barhanovic, Najdana; Kotur-Stevuljevic, Jelena

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have examined the correlation between hyperandrogenemia and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in women and showed contradictory results. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between testosterone level and Fatty Liver Index (FLI), as a surrogate marker for NAFLD, in a cohort of postmenopausal women. A total of 150 postmenopausal women were included in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters, as well as blood pressure, were obtained. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is assessed by FLI, an algorithm based on body mass index, waist circumference, triglycerides and γ-glutamyl transferase, as a simple and accurate predictor of hepatic steatosis. Women were divided into three groups (FLI < 30, n = 80; 30 ≤ FLI < 60, n = 44; FLI ≥ 60, n = 26). Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) as a surrogate marker of insulin resistance was calculated. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the best model consisted of 4 parameters (e.g., bioavailable testosterone (β = 0.288, p = 0.001), log HOMA-IR (β = 0.227, p = 0.005), log high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (β = 0.322, p < 0.001), and retinol-binding protein 4 (β = 0.226, p < 0.001)). Adjusted R(2) for the best model was 0.550, which means that as much as 55.0% of variation in FLI could be explained with this model. Bioavailable testosterone is independently associated with FLI in postmenopausal women.

  19. Prolactin-related testosterone secretion in normal adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, R T; Poland, R E; Tower, B B

    1976-01-01

    The sleep-related increase of plasma testosterone (T) in adult men appears to be related not only to plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) levels but to prolactin (PRL) levels as well, suggesting that PRL may have a stimulatory influence on Leydig cell function. To further investigate the influence of PRL on T secretion, five young adult men were studied on three separate days one week apart. Blood samples were taken every 20 min between 0900 and 1800. At 1000 on each of the three days they received an intramuscular injection of saline, haloperidol 0.25 mg or haloperidol 0.50 mg, in a double-blind design. The blood samples were analyzed for LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), PRL and T. It was hypothesized that there would be a dose-related increase in both PRL and T following drug administration. Mean PRL levels rose promptly and significantly in a dose-related manner in response to the haloperidol, which has strong dopamine blocking effects. By 1600, PRL had returned to control values. In contrast to the PRL response, neither LH nor FSH levels were affected by haloperidol. On the saline control day mean T levels showed the normal decline during daytime hours. After 0.25 mg haloperidol, mean T levels were maintained for several hours, and after 0.50 mg haloperidol, T levels were increased for several hours. These alterations in the normal diurnal pattern of T were statistically significant. They began about 60 min after the corresponding drug-induced increases in PRL levels. This delay between increased PRL and increased T is consistent with the similar delay between the increases of these two hormones that occur at night during sleep. The results of this study lend further support to the hypothesis that PRL is another pituitary hormone that stimulates T secretion in adult men.

  20. Effect of red maca (Lepidium meyenii) on prostate zinc levels in rats with testosterone-induced prostatic hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, C; Leiva-Revilla, J; Rubio, J; Gasco, M; Gonzales, G F

    2012-05-01

    Lepidium meyenii (maca) is a plant that grows exclusively above 4000 m in the Peruvian central Andes. Red maca (RM) extract significantly reduced prostate size in rats with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) induced by testosterone enanthate (TE). Zinc is an important regulator of prostate function. This study aimed to determine the effect of RM on prostate zinc levels in rats with BPH induced by TE. Also, the study attempted to determine the best marker for the effect of RM on sex accessory glands. Rats treated with RM extract from day 1 to day 14 reversed the effect of TE administration on prostate weight and zinc levels. However, RM administered from day 7 to day 14 did not reduce the effect of TE on all studied variables. Finasteride (FN) reduced prostate, seminal vesicle and preputial gland weights in rats treated with TE. Although RM and FN reduced prostate zinc levels, the greatest effect was observed in TE-treated rats with RM from day 1 to day 14. In addition, prostate weight and zinc levels showed the higher diagnosis values than preputial and seminal vesicle weights. In conclusion, RM administered from day 1 to day 14 reduced prostate size and zinc levels in rats where prostatic hyperplasia was induced with TE. Also, this experimental model could be used as accurately assay to determine the effect of maca obtained under different conditions and/or the effect of different products based on maca. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Yolk testosterone, postnatal growth and song in male canaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Wendt; Vergauwen, Jonas; Eens, Marcel

    2008-06-01

    Avian eggs contain substantial amounts of maternal yolk androgens, which have been shown to modulate offspring phenotype. The first studies on the functional consequences of maternal yolk androgens have focused on early life stages and their role in sibling competition. However, recent longitudinal studies reported long-lasting effects of maternal yolk androgens on offspring phenotype, mostly concerning traits that are sensitive to androgens. This suggests that maternal yolk androgens could play an important role in sexual selection, since the expression of many male sexual characters is testosterone-dependent. Using male canaries as a model, we examined the consequences of an experimental elevation of yolk testosterone concentrations on early development as well as long-lasting effects particularly on song, which is one of the most important sexual characters in male songbirds. Elevated yolk testosterone concentrations inhibited male growth, possibly in interaction with an existent ectoparasite exposure. Males hatched from testosterone-treated eggs (T-males) did not have enhanced competitive skills, in contrast to previous studies. The elevation of yolk testosterone concentrations delayed song development but did not affect adult song phenotype. This is intriguing, as yolk testosterone possibly induced developmental stress, which is known to reduce song quality. We hypothesize that yolk testosterone has either no direct effect on adult song phenotype, or that positive effects are merged by the negative effects of developmental stress. Finally, females mated with T-males invested more in their clutch indicating that females either assess T-males as more attractive (differential allocation hypothesis) or compensated for lower offspring viability (compensation hypothesis).

  2. Testosterone Antagonizes Doxorubicin-Induced Senescence of Cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altieri, Paola; Barisione, Chiara; Lazzarini, Edoardo; Garuti, Anna; Bezante, Gian Paolo; Canepa, Marco; Spallarossa, Paolo; Tocchetti, Carlo Gabriele; Bollini, Sveva; Brunelli, Claudio; Ameri, Pietro

    2016-01-08

    Chronic cardiotoxicity is less common in male than in female patients receiving doxorubicin and other anthracyclines at puberty and adolescence. We hypothesized that this sex difference might be secondary to distinct activities of sex hormones on cardiomyocyte senescence, which is thought to be central to the development of long-term anthracycline cardiomyopathy. H9c2 cells and neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes were exposed to doxorubicin with or without prior incubation with testosterone or 17β-estradiol, the main androgen and estrogen, respectively. Testosterone, but not 17β-estradiol, counteracted doxorubicin-elicited senescence. Downregulation of telomere binding factor 2, which has been pinpointed previously as being pivotal to doxorubicin-induced senescence, was also prevented by testosterone, as were p53 phosphorylation and accumulation. Pretreatment with the androgen receptor antagonist flutamide, the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase inhibitor LY294002, and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester abrogated the reduction in senescence and the normalization of telomere binding factor 2 levels attained by testosterone. Consistently, testosterone enhanced the phosphorylation of AKT and nitric oxide synthase 3. In H9c2 cells, doxorubicin-stimulated senescence was still observed up to 21 days after treatment and increased further when cells were rechallenged with doxorubicin 14 days after the first exposure to mimic the schedule of anthracycline-containing chemotherapy. Remarkably, these effects were also inhibited by testosterone. Testosterone protects cardiomyocytes against senescence caused by doxorubicin at least in part by modulating telomere binding factor 2 via a pathway involving the androgen receptor, phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase, AKT, and nitric oxide synthase 3. This is a potential mechanism by which pubescent and adolescent boys are less prone to chronic anthracycline cardiotoxicity than girls. © 2016 The Authors. Published on

  3. The benefits and risks of testosterone replacement therapy: a review

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    Nazem Bassil

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Nazem Bassil1, Saad Alkaade2, John E Morley1,31Division of Geriatric Medicine; 2Internal Medicine, Saint Louis University Health Sciences Center, St. Louis, Missouri, USA; 3GRECC, VA Medical Center, St. Louis, Missouri, USAAbstract: Increased longevity and population aging will increase the number of men with late onset hypogonadism. It is a common condition, but often underdiagnosed and undertreated. The indication of testosterone-replacement therapy (TRT treatment requires the presence of low testosterone level, and symptoms and signs of hypogonadism. Although controversy remains regarding indications for testosterone supplementation in aging men due to lack of large-scale, long-term studies assessing the benefits and risks of testosterone-replacement therapy in men, reports indicate that TRT may produce a wide range of benefits for men with hypogonadism that include improvement in libido and sexual function, bone density, muscle mass, body composition, mood, erythropoiesis, cognition, quality of life and cardiovascular disease. Perhaps the most controversial area is the issue of risk, especially possible stimulation of prostate cancer by testosterone, even though no evidence to support this risk exists. Other possible risks include worsening symptoms of benign prostatic hypertrophy, liver toxicity, hyperviscosity, erythrocytosis, worsening untreated sleep apnea or severe heart failure. Despite this controversy, testosterone supplementation in the United States has increased substantially over the past several years. The physician should discuss with the patient the potential benefits and risks of TRT. The purpose of this review is to discuss what is known and not known regarding the benefits and risks of TRT.Keywords: hypogonadism, testosterone replacement therapy, erectile dysfunction, osteoporosis, cardiovascular disease

  4. Association of Serum Testosterone with Acne Vulgaris in Women

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    Md. Moksedur Rahman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Androgens enhance the sebum production and follicular keratosis that plays the key role in the aetiology of acne. Objective: To find out the association between serum testosterone and acne vulgaris. Methods: A case control study was carried out for a period of two years in the outpatient department of Dermatology and Venereology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Female patients having acne vulgaris were selected as case. Healthy control (age and sex matched were enrolled from the community. Results: The study showed that the mean age of the cases was 22.43 with standard deviation 5.2 years and the mean age of the control was 23.23 with standard deviation 5.9 years. The mean duration of disease was 62.6 months ranging from 12 months to 300 months. All the patients had presented with comedones (blackheads and whiteheads followed by 94.3% had papules and 58.6% had pustules. Considering the site of lesion, all the patients had acne in the face. Data analysis revealed that the percentage of serum testosterone above normal was found to be high among the cases with acne (10% whereas below normal level of serum testosterone was found among the control and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.001. Conclusion:The study found a significant association between serum testosterone and acne vulgaris. As serum testosterone is associated with acne vulgaris, testosterone levels should be measured in patients presenting with acne vulgaris especially in treatment resistant cases and anti-androgen treatment may be indicated in cases with elevated testosterone level.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/bsmmuj.v5i1.10980 BSMMU J 2012; 5(1:1-5 

  5. Intelligence and salivary testosterone levels in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostatníková, Daniela; Celec, Peter; Putz, Zdenĕk; Hodosy, Július; Schmidt, Filip; Laznibatová, Jolana; Kúdela, Matús

    2007-04-08

    Hormones are one of the regulatory systems influencing brain-cognition interactions and subsequent emotions and behavior in humans and animals. Sex hormones have been found to influence brain structures prenatally, so as to prepare targeted neuronal circuits for activation during and after puberty. Testosterone is believed to affect cognition and thinking in humans as well as between-sex differences in cognitive abilities. The aim of this paper was to investigate associations between testosterone and different levels of intelligence in young prepubertal children of both sexes. Two hundred and eighty four prepubertal children of both sexes between 6 and 9 years of age provided saliva samples. Of these, 107 were intellectually gifted (IQ above 130), 100 children of average intelligence--randomly chosen from general population (IQ between 70 and 130), and 77 children mentally challenged (IQ less than 70). Our results have revealed the differences in salivary testosterone levels in boys grouped according to IQ, intellectually gifted and mentally challenged boys having lower salivary testosterone levels than their peers characterized by average intelligence proposing the common biological characteristic of minority IQ groups on both ends of the Gauss curve. In girls, no differences in salivary testosterone levels were found among IQ groups. Our findings are the first that present the relationship between testosterone and the broad range of general IQ in childhood. The boys of average intelligence had significantly higher testosterone levels than both mentally challenged and intellectually gifted boys, with the latter two groups showing no significant difference between each other. The functional implications of the brain-cognition interactions remain to be fully explored with regard to the internal milieu influencing neural substrate.

  6. Basic study on measurement of serum free testosterone concentration using DPC free testosterone RIA kit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togashi, Kazuyoshi; Umeda, Seiji; Ochiai, Takeshi; Toriumi, Kazuhiro; Sudo, Yoshimasa; Kihira, Kouji

    1987-07-01

    A commercial 'analogue' radioimmunoassay (RIA) kit, a DPC kit, is capable of directly measuring plasma free testosterone (FT) in the evaluation of gonadal activity and androgenicity. Basic study for this kit yielded the following findings. 1) An incubation of four hours was enough to measure FT. 2) Reproducibility of the assay encouraged the use of this kit for the clinical purpose. 3) Binding to albumin, commonly observed in the ''analogue tracer'' assay, was not encountered. 4) Plasma FT concentrations were significantly increased in all three samples treated with ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, compared with the other serum and heparin-treated samples. 5) There was a significantly positive correlation between FT concentrations and total testosterone (TT)/sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). 6) Plasma FT concentrations lay within the normal range in patients with Graves' disease who had normal gonadal activity and high levels of TT and SHBG. This seemed to reflext gonadal activity without any effect of SHBG. 7) For pregnant women, plasma FT concentrations were slightly higher in the third trimester, although the levels in the second trimester were similar to those in the nonpregnant state. (Namekawa, K.).

  7. GEOSPATIAL DATABASE FOR STRATA OBJECTS BASED ON LAND ADMINISTRATION DOMAIN MODEL (LADM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Nasorudin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently in our country, the construction of buildings become more complex and it seems that strata objects database becomes more important in registering the real world as people now own and use multilevel of spaces. Furthermore, strata title was increasingly important and need to be well-managed. LADM is a standard model for land administration and it allows integrated 2D and 3D representation of spatial units. LADM also known as ISO 19152. The aim of this paper is to develop a strata objects database using LADM. This paper discusses the current 2D geospatial database and needs for 3D geospatial database in future. This paper also attempts to develop a strata objects database using a standard data model (LADM and to analyze the developed strata objects database using LADM data model. The current cadastre system in Malaysia includes the strata title is discussed in this paper. The problems in the 2D geospatial database were listed and the needs for 3D geospatial database in future also is discussed. The processes to design a strata objects database are conceptual, logical and physical database design. The strata objects database will allow us to find the information on both non-spatial and spatial strata title information thus shows the location of the strata unit. This development of strata objects database may help to handle the strata title and information.

  8. Geospatial Database for Strata Objects Based on Land Administration Domain Model (ladm)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasorudin, N. N.; Hassan, M. I.; Zulkifli, N. A.; Rahman, A. Abdul

    2016-09-01

    Recently in our country, the construction of buildings become more complex and it seems that strata objects database becomes more important in registering the real world as people now own and use multilevel of spaces. Furthermore, strata title was increasingly important and need to be well-managed. LADM is a standard model for land administration and it allows integrated 2D and 3D representation of spatial units. LADM also known as ISO 19152. The aim of this paper is to develop a strata objects database using LADM. This paper discusses the current 2D geospatial database and needs for 3D geospatial database in future. This paper also attempts to develop a strata objects database using a standard data model (LADM) and to analyze the developed strata objects database using LADM data model. The current cadastre system in Malaysia includes the strata title is discussed in this paper. The problems in the 2D geospatial database were listed and the needs for 3D geospatial database in future also is discussed. The processes to design a strata objects database are conceptual, logical and physical database design. The strata objects database will allow us to find the information on both non-spatial and spatial strata title information thus shows the location of the strata unit. This development of strata objects database may help to handle the strata title and information.

  9. Exogenous testosterone in women enhances and inhibits competitive decision-making depending on victory-defeat experience and trait dominanc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehta, P.H.; Son, V. van; Welker, K.M.; Prasad, S.; Sanfey, A.G.; Smidts, A.; Roelofs, K.

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment tested the causal impact of testosterone on human competitive decision-making. According to prevailing theories about testosterone's role in social behavior, testosterone should directly boost competitive decisions. But recent correlational evidence suggests that

  10. Protective effect of Urtica dioica L against nicotine-induced damage on sperm parameters, testosterone and testis tissue in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalili, Cyrus; Salahshoor, Mohammad Reza; Naseri, Ali

    2014-06-01

    Nicotine consumption can decrease fertility drive in males by inducing oxidative stress and DNA damage. Urtica dioica L (U.dioica) is a multipurpose herb in traditional medicine for which some anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory properties have been identified. The main goal is to investigate whether the U.dioica could inhibit nicotine adverse effects on sperm cells viability, count, motility, and testis histology and testosterone hormone. In this study, hydro-alcoholic extract of U.dioica was prepared and various doses of U.dioica (0, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) and U.dioica plus nicotine (0, 10, 20, and 50 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally to 56 male mice for 28 consequent days. These mice were randomly assigned to 8 groups (n=7) and sperm parameters (sperm cells viability, count, motility, and morphology), testis and prostate weight, testis histology and testosterone hormone were analyzed and compared. The results indicated that nicotine administration (0.5 mg/kg) significantly decreased testosterone level, count and motility of sperm cells, and testis weight compared to control group (p=0.00). However, increasing the dose of U.dioica significantly boosted motility, count, normal morphology of sperm cells, seminiferous tubules diameter, and testosterone in all groups compared to control (p=0.00) and testis weight in 20 and 50 mg/kg doses in comparison with control group (p=0.00). It seems that U.dioica hydro-alcoholic extract administration could increase the quality of spermatozoa and inhibits nicotine-induced adverse effects on sperm parameters.

  11. Gadolinium deposition within the dentate nucleus and globus pallidus after repeated administrations of gadolinium-based contrast agents - current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stojanov, Dragan [University of Nis, Faculty of Medicine, Nis (Serbia); Center for Radiology, Nis (Serbia); Aracki-Trenkic, Aleksandra [Center for Radiology, Nis (Serbia); Benedeto-Stojanov, Daniela [University of Nis, Faculty of Medicine, Nis (Serbia)

    2016-05-15

    Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) have been used clinically since 1988 for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI). Generally, GBCAs are considered to have an excellent safety profile. However, GBCA administration has been associated with increased occurrence of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in patients with severely compromised renal function, and several studies have shown evidence of gadolinium deposition in specific brain structures, the globus pallidus and dentate nucleus, in patients with normal renal function. Gadolinium deposition in the brain following repeated CE-MRI scans has been demonstrated in patients using T1-weighted unenhanced MRI and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Additionally, rodent studies with controlled GBCA administration also resulted in neural gadolinium deposits. Repeated GBCA use is associated with gadolinium deposition in the brain. This is especially true with the use of less-stable, linear GBCAs. In spite of increasing evidence of gadolinium deposits in the brains of patients after multiple GBCA administrations, the clinical significance of these deposits continues to be unclear. Here, we discuss the current state of scientific evidence surrounding gadolinium deposition in the brain following GBCA use, and the potential clinical significance of gadolinium deposition. There is considerable need for further research, both to understand the mechanism by which gadolinium deposition in the brain occurs and how it affects the patients in which it occurs. (orig.)

  12. Early pregnancy testosterone after ovarian stimulation and pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustin, Stephanie L F; Mukherjee, Gourab; Baker, Valerie L; Westphal, Lynn M; Milki, Amin A; Lathi, Ruth B

    2012-01-01

    To examine early pregnancy (EP) testosterone (T) after ovarian stimulation and its effect on singleton pregnancy outcomes. Prospective cohort study. University-based tertiary care center. Subfertile women who conceived with or without fertility treatment. Ovarian stimulation for assisted reproduction, collection of serum total T levels in early pregnancy, and pregnancy follow-up. Rate of preterm delivery, low birth weight (LBW) (stimulation compared with nonstimulated control subjects. In patients undergoing IVF, T levels in EP were linearly correlated with the number of oocytes retrieved. When pregnancy outcomes in women with normal T were compared with women with elevated T (>90th percentile), we did not see an increased risk for preterm delivery, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, LBW infants, or cesarean delivery (odds ratio ratios 1.43, 0.38, 1.39, and 0.85, respectively). Elevations in EP T are associated with ovarian stimulation but do not appear to be associated with adverse pregnancy outcome. Further investigation to determine the etiology of increased maternal and neonatal morbidity among subfertile women is warranted. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Testosterone Replacement Therapy: Long-Term Safety and Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Corona

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent position statements and guidelines have raised the distinction between a true and false, age-related hypogonadism (HG or late-onset hypogonadism (LOH. The former is the consequence of congenital or acquired “organic” damage of the brain centers or of the testis. The latter is mainly secondary to age-related comorbidities and does not require testosterone (T therapy (TTh. In addition, concerns related to cardiovascular (CV safety have further increased the scepticism related to TTh. In this paper, we reviewed the available evidence supporting the efficacy of TTh in non-organic HG and its long term safety. A large amount of evidence has documented that sexual symptoms are the most specific correlates of T deficiency. TTh is able to improve all aspects of sexual function independent of the pathogenetic origin of the disease supporting the scientific demonstration that LOH does exist according to an “ex-juvantibus” criterion. Although the presence of metabolic derangements could mitigate the efficacy of TTh on erectile dysfunction, the positive effect of TTh on body composition and insulin sensitivity might counterbalance the lower efficacy. CV safety concerns related to TTh are essentially based on a limited number of observational and randomized controlled trials which present important methodological flaws. When HG is properly diagnosed and TTh correctly performed no CV and prostate risk have been documented.

  14. Testosterone replacement therapy for treatment refractory cluster headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Mark J

    2006-06-01

    To describe the clinical characteristics and laboratory findings of cluster headache patients whose headaches responded to testosterone replacement therapy. Current evidence points to hypothalamic dysfunction, with increased metabolic hyperactivity in the region of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, as being important in the genesis of cluster headaches. This is clinically borne out in the circadian and diurnal behavior of these headaches. For years it has been recognized that male cluster headache patients appear overmasculinized. Recent neuroendocrine and sleep studies now point to an association between gonadotropin and corticotropin levels and hypothalamically entrained pineal secretion of melatonin. Seven male and 2 female patients, seen between July 2004 and February 2005, and between the ages of 32 and 56, are reported with histories of treatment resistant cluster headaches accompanied by borderline low or low serum testosterone levels. The patients failed to respond to individually tailored medical regimens, including melatonin doses of 12 mg a day or higher, high flow oxygen, maximally tolerated verapamil, antiepileptic agents, and parenteral serotonin agonists. Seven of the 9 patients met 2004 International Classification for the Diagnosis of Headache criteria for chronic cluster headaches; the other 2 patients had episodic cluster headaches of several months duration. After neurological and physical examination all patients had laboratory investigations including fasting lipid panel, PSA (where indicated), LH, FSH, and testosterone levels (both free and total). All 9 patients demonstrated either abnormally low or low, normal testosterone levels. After supplementation with either pure testosterone in 5 of 7 male patients or combination testosterone/estrogen therapy in both female patients, the patients achieved cluster headache freedom for the first 24 hours. Four male chronic cluster patients, all with abnormally low testosterone levels, achieved remission

  15. [Administrative-based outreach activities in Gunma Prefecture: preventative crisis intervention via a "compulsory transfer center"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashina, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Part of the Gunma Mental Health Center (a mental health welfare center), the Gunma Psychiatric Emergency Information Center (IC) is a de facto compulsory transfer center that centrally handles the compulsory transfer to medical examinations and hospitals of people with psychiatric issues who are detained by the police within Gunma Prefecture and conducts outreach activities for people with various social difficulties. The dichotomy in compulsory transfer is the conflict between the medical benefit to the patient and the demand for safety by the family and local residents. A triage system focusing on both the degree of risk to others and the necessity of treatment was thus implemented by Gunma Prefecture in the late 1990s, with the IC established as a compulsory transfer center. IC outreach activities commenced due to requests from healthcare centers and local authorities. For those patients deemed by the IC as requiring treatment, voluntary psychiatric examination is promoted where possible. However, the potential for and methods of crisis intervention through involuntary treatment via compulsory transfer are also explained to patients, families and local residents. Support for relapse prevention can also be provided following involuntary hospitalization via compulsory transfer. In this way, the IC, which is in charge of compulsory transfer and conducts outreach activities in cooperation with healthcare centers and local authorities, considers the demand for safety by the local community while respecting the medical benefit to the patient. Furthermore, as the IC is an administrative body rather than a hospital, a treatment contract with the patient is not always necessary and involvement can continue even in the face of patient resistance. We present herein the case of a patient who, together with his family, strongly rejected medical and welfare involvement. The changing situation surrounding the patient and family was appropriately handled through continued

  16. Testosterone conversion blockade increases breathing stability in healthy men during NREM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhuri, Susmita; Bascom, Amy; Mohan, David; Diamond, Michael P; Badr, M Safwan

    2013-12-01

    Gender differences in the prevalence of sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome may be mediated via male sex hormones. Our objective was to determine the exact pathway for a testosterone-mediated increased propensity for central sleep apnea via blockade of the 5α-reductase pathway of testosterone conversion by finasteride. Randomization to oral finasteride vs. sham, single-center study. Sleep research laboratory. Fourteen healthy young males without sleep apnea. Hypocapnia was induced via brief nasal noninvasive positive pressure ventilation during stable NREM sleep. Cessation of mechanical ventilation resulted in hypocapnic central apnea or hypopnea. The apnea threshold (AT) was defined as the end-tidal CO₂(P(ET)CO₂) that demarcated the central apnea closest to the eupneic P(ET)CO₂. The CO₂ reserve was defined as the difference in P(ET)CO₂ between eupnea and AT. The apneic threshold and CO₂ reserve were measured at baseline and repeated after at a minimum of 1 month. Administration of finasteride resulted in decreased serum dihydrotestosterone. In the finasteride group, the eupneic ventilatory parameters were unchanged; however, the AT was decreased (38.9 ± 0.6 mm Hg vs.37.7 ± 0.9 mm Hg, P = 0.02) and the CO₂ reserve was increased (-2.5 ± 0.3 mm Hg vs. -3.8 ± 0.5 mm Hg, P = 0.003) at follow-up, with a significantly lower hypocapnic ventilatory response, thus indicating increased breathing stability during sleep. No significant changes were noted in the sham group on follow-up study. Inhibition of testosterone action via the 5α-reductase pathway may be effective in alleviating breathing instability during sleep, presenting an opportunity for novel therapy for central sleep apnea in selected populations.

  17. Probiotic microbes sustain youthful serum testosterone levels and testicular size in aging mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theofilos Poutahidis

    Full Text Available The decline of circulating testosterone levels in aging men is associated with adverse health effects. During studies of probiotic bacteria and obesity, we discovered that male mice routinely consuming purified lactic acid bacteria originally isolated from human milk had larger testicles and increased serum testosterone levels compared to their age-matched controls. Further investigation using microscopy-assisted histomorphometry of testicular tissue showed that mice consuming Lactobacillus reuteri in their drinking water had significantly increased seminiferous tubule cross-sectional profiles and increased spermatogenesis and Leydig cell numbers per testis when compared with matched diet counterparts This showed that criteria of gonadal aging were reduced after routinely consuming a purified microbe such as L. reuteri. We tested whether these features typical of sustained reproductive fitness may be due to anti-inflammatory properties of L. reuteri, and found that testicular mass and other indicators typical of old age were similarly restored to youthful levels using systemic administration of antibodies blocking pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-17A. This indicated that uncontrolled host inflammatory responses contributed to the testicular atrophy phenotype in aged mice. Reduced circulating testosterone levels have been implicated in many adverse effects; dietary L. reuteri or other probiotic supplementation may provide a viable natural approach to prevention of male hypogonadism, absent the controversy and side-effects of traditional therapies, and yield practical options for management of disorders typically associated with normal aging. These novel findings suggest a potential high impact for microbe therapy in public health by imparting hormonal and gonad features of reproductive fitness typical of much younger healthy individuals.

  18. Assessment of testicular testosterone production and Leydig cell structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, L L; Zirkin, B R; Chubb, C

    1981-01-01

    Advances in two techniques have made the problem of assessing the acute and/or chronic effects of toxic agents on Leydig cell structure and testosterone synthesis and secretion amenable to study. First, in vitro testicular perfusion has been perfected to a point where it closely resembles in situ testosterone secretion. Second, now it is possible to quantify the proportion of Leydig cell cytoplasm occupied by the cellular organelles which contain steroidogenic enzymes. Herein, we report that inhibition of Leydig cell steroidogenic enzymes is reflected by reduced testosterone secretion by in vitro perfused rat and rabbit testes. Moreover, the activity of specific steroidogenic reactions can be monitored by measuring the secretion of reaction substrate(s) and product(s) from in vitro perfused testes. Testosterone secretion by in vitro perfused testes from five species is highly and positively correlated with the volume density of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in Leydig cell cytoplasm. Exploitation of these findings will allow toxicologists to quantitatively assess the effect of toxicants on Leydig cell testosterone biosynthesis and secretion, to identify the specific steroidogenic enzymes affected, to assess whether the membranous environment of the steroidogenic enzymes is compromised, and perhaps even to predict the deleterious effect of a toxic agent on Leydig cell steroidogenic function from a stereological assessment of Leydig cell ultrastructure. PMID:7238445

  19. Sphaeranthus indicus attenuates testosterone induced prostatic hypertrophy in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahata, Alok; Dixit, Vinod Kumar

    2011-12-01

    The present study reports the attenuating effect of Sphaeranthus indicus extracts (SI) on prostatic hyperplasia induced by testosterone in albino rats. In vitro studies were conducted to assess the 5α-reductase inhibitory potential of the petroleum ether, ethanolic and aqueous extracts of SI. A biochemical marker, β-sitosterol, was isolated and extracts were characterized utilizing HPTLC. Testosterone (3 mg/kg s.c.) was administered to the rats along with the test extracts and isolated β-sitosterol for a period of 28 days. The weight of the rats, the urine output, serum testosterone concentrations and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were recorded. The prostate/body weight ratio (P/BW) was calculated and histological studies were performed to observe the changes in the histoarchitecture of the prostate. Finasteride was used as a positive control (1 mg/kg p.o.). Sphaeranthus indicus extracts attenuated the increase in the P/BW ratio induced by testosterone in the treated groups. The petroleum ether extract exhibited the best activity, although the ethanol and aqueous extracts also exhibited significant activity. Urine output was also improved significantly, demonstrating the clinical implications of the study. Histological studies, testosterone levels which were measured weekly and PSA levels measured at the end of the study also support claims for the potential use of Sphaeranthus indicus in the treatment of prostatic hyperplasia. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Women's estradiol predicts preference for facial cues of men's testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roney, James R; Simmons, Zachary L

    2008-01-01

    A growing body of research has shown that women express stronger attraction to more masculine traits when they are tested near ovulation than when tested during other times in the menstrual cycle. Although these effects have been interpreted as increased preferences for markers of elevated testosterone during times in the cycle when conception is most likely, no previous studies have directly demonstrated that women express stronger attraction to higher testosterone men at different times in the cycle. In addition, little research has addressed which hormonal or other physiological mechanisms may regulate temporal shifts in women's attractiveness judgments. In this research, we demonstrate that women with higher estradiol concentrations exhibit stronger preferences for the faces of men with higher testosterone concentrations, and that women's testosterone preference and estradiol curves track one another across days of the cycle. The findings are the first direct demonstration in humans that hormone concentrations in one sex are associated with attraction to cues of hormonal status in the opposite sex. The results support a functional role for estradiol in calibrating women's mating psychology to indices of their current fertility, analogous to similar processes that have been documented in nonhuman species. A strong correlation between estradiol and testosterone preference specifically during the luteal phase further suggests that women's mate preferences may track their fertility between different cycles in addition to being calibrated to the timing of ovulation within individual cycles.

  1. The roles of testosterone and cortisol in friendship formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketay, Sarah; Welker, Keith M; Slatcher, Richard B

    2017-02-01

    Although research has investigated the neuroendocrine correlates of romantic relationships, the neuroendocrine correlates of friendship formation are largely unexplored. In two conditions, participants' salivary testosterone and cortisol were measured before and after a high versus low closeness activity with another same-sex participant. In the high closeness task, participants took turns answering questions that fostered increases in self-disclosure. The low closeness task fostered low levels of self-disclosure. Dyadic multilevel models indicated that lower basal testosterone and decreases in testosterone were associated with increased closeness between recently acquainted strangers. Our results suggest that people high in testosterone felt less close to others and desired less closeness. Further, lower basal cortisol and dynamic cortisol decreases were associated with greater closeness and desired closeness in the high closeness condition. Finally, we found that the partners of those who had lower cortisol desired more closeness. These findings suggest that lower testosterone and cortisol are linked to the facilitation of initial social bonds and that these social bonds may, in turn, be associated with changes in these hormones. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hypothalamic control of the male neonatal testosterone surge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkson, Jenny; Herbison, Allan E.

    2016-01-01

    Sex differences in brain neuroanatomy and neurophysiology underpin considerable physiological and behavioural differences between females and males. Sexual differentiation of the brain is regulated by testosterone secreted by the testes predominantly during embryogenesis in humans and the neonatal period in rodents. Despite huge advances in understanding how testosterone, and its metabolite oestradiol, sexually differentiate the brain, little is known about the mechanism that actually generates the male-specific neonatal testosterone surge. This review examines the evidence for the role of the hypothalamus, and particularly the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, in generating the neonatal testosterone surge in rodents and primates. Kisspeptin–GPR54 signalling is well established as a potent and critical regulator of GnRH neuron activity during puberty and adulthood, and we argue here for an equally important role at birth in driving the male-specific neonatal testosterone surge in rodents. The presence of a male-specific population of preoptic area kisspeptin neurons that appear transiently in the perinatal period provide one possible source of kisspeptin drive to neonatal GnRH neurons in the mouse. PMID:26833836

  3. Testosterone-secreting adrenal adenoma in a peripubertal girl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamilaris, T.C.; DeBold, C.R.; Manolas, K.J.; Hoursanidis, A.; Panageas, S.; Yiannatos, J.

    1987-11-13

    A 15-year-old girl who presented with primary amenorrhea and virilization had an adrenocortical adenoma that secreted predominantly testosterone. To the authors' knowledge, she is the first peripubertal and second youngest patient with a testosterone-secreting adrenal tumor described. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and urinary 17-ketosteroid an 17-hydroxycorticosteroid levels were normal. A tumor was located by a computed tomographic (CT) scan and by uptake of 6-..beta..-(/sup 75/Se) selenomethylnorcholesterol. Microscopic examination of the tumor showed typical features of an adrenocortical adenoma with no histologic features characteristic of Leydig cells. Postoperatively, her hirsutism regressed, she rapidly went through puberty, and regular monthly menstruation started four months later. Finding the source of testosterone in a virilized patient can be difficult. Eleven of the 14 previously described patients with testosterone-secreting adrenal tumors initially underwent misdirected surgery on the ovaries. Review of these cases revealed that results of hormone stimulation and suppression tests are unreliable and that these tumors are usually large. Therefore, CT scanning of the adrenal glands is recommended in all patients suspected of having a testosterone-secreting tumor.

  4. Anaerobic testosterone degradation in Steroidobacter denitrificans - Identification of transformation products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahrbach, Michael, E-mail: michael.fahrbach@web.d [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Krauss, Martin, E-mail: martin.krauss@eawag.c [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Preiss, Alfred, E-mail: alfred.preiss@item.fraunhofer.d [Fraunhofer Institute of Toxicology and Experimental Medicine (ITEM), Nikolai-Fuchs-Strasse 1, D-30625 Hannover (Germany); Kohler, Hans-Peter E., E-mail: hkohler@eawag.c [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Hollender, Juliane, E-mail: juliane.hollender@eawag.c [Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Uberlandstrasse 133, P.O. Box 611, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2010-08-15

    The transformation of the androgenic steroid testosterone by gammaproteobacterium Steroidobacter denitrificans was studied under denitrifying conditions. For the first time, growth experiments showed that testosterone was mineralized under consumption of nitrate and concurrent biomass production. Experiments with cell suspensions using [4-{sup 14}C]-testosterone revealed the intermediate production of several transformation products (TPs). Characterisation of ten TPs was carried out by means of HPLC coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization as well as {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. 3{beta}-hydroxy-5{alpha}-androstan-17-one (trans-androsterone) was formed in the highest amount followed by 5{alpha}-androstan-3,17-dione. The data suggests that several dehydrogenation and hydrogenation processes take place concurrently in ring A and D because no consistent time-resolved pattern of TP peaks was observed and assays using 2 TPs as substrates resulted in essentially the same TPs. The further transformation of testosterone in S. denitrificans seems to be very efficient and fast without formation of detectable intermediates. - Testosterone is completely mineralized by Steroidobacter denitrificans under denitrifying conditions with initial formation of several reduced and oxidized transformation products.

  5. [Do nursing homes with higher quality ratings provide a better quality of care? : Empirical study based on administrative data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przylog, Adam; Stroka, Magdalena A; Engel, Susanne; Linder, Roland

    2016-06-01

    In 2009 a new system for the objective evaluation of nursing homes was introduced in Germany. The so-called nursing transparency agreement (Pflege-Transparenzvereinbarungen) was introduced to provide a reliable tool for an objective comparison of inpatient (PTVS) and outpatient (PTVA) care; however, the new regulations have been the subject of a broad discussion regarding reliability, efficiency and objectivity. To overcome the lack of objective health outcomes, this study used administrative data from Germany's largest health insurance fund, the Techniker Krankenkasse, in order to analyze the association between the quality ratings and objective quality measures on an individual level. This is the first study that provides empirical evidence on this topic using administrative data. The administrative dataset contained information on several individual characteristics as well as data on injuries, poisoning and other extrinsic effects on care-dependent individuals over the age of 64 years who were living in a nursing home in 2009. Based on these data an objective measure was constructed to test whether higher quality ratings of nursing homes led to a better quality of care of the respective patients using non-linear regression models. The results of the estimated models showed no significant evidence of such a relationship, neither considering the probability nor the number of injuries, poisoning and other extrinsic effects. Significant effects were only observed for gender and specific diseases. The results of this study support the argument that the current rating procedure for nursing homes has to be refined. Using quality indicators in combination with the administrative data could possibly contribute to such an enhancement.

  6. The use of legal knowledge-based systems in public administration: what can go wrong?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, Hugo; Prakken, Henry; Svensson, Jorgen S.; Bench-Capon, Trevor J.M.; Daskalopulu, Aspassia; Winkels, Radboud

    2002-01-01

    In recent years, practical applications of legal knowledge-based systems have become increasingly common. This raises the issue of their functioning in practice and their actual influence on the quality of decisions. In this paper we investigate to what extent incorrect decisions may be caused by

  7. An agent-based legal knowledge acquisition methodology for agile public administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; van Engers, T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a knowledge elicitation method based on serious gaming for theory construction about the effects of the law on the behaviours of agents. These games provide input to simulations of business process and product design alternatives. For knowledge representation, we have combined

  8. Alternative Model for Administration and Analysis of Research-Based Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Zwickl, Benjamin M.; Hobbs, Robert D.; Aiken, John M.; Welch, Nathan M.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Research-based assessments represent a valuable tool for both instructors and researchers interested in improving undergraduate physics education. However, the historical model for disseminating and propagating conceptual and attitudinal assessments developed by the physics education research (PER) community has not resulted in widespread adoption…

  9. Inquiry-Based Learning in Higher Education: Administrators' Perspectives on Integrating Inquiry Pedagogy into the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Christopher; Rice, James; Roy, Dale; Hudspith, Bob; Jenkins, Herb

    2009-01-01

    Inquiry-based learning is one approach to improving the quality of undergraduate education by moving toward more student-directed, interactive methods of learning while focusing on learning how to learn. This paper deals with a missing component in the inquiry-related literature--the extra-pedagogical challenges of introducing and maintaining…

  10. Insolvency administrator

    OpenAIRE

    Marková, Jana

    2014-01-01

    This thesis analyses the role of an insolvency administrator in insolvency proceedings. It focuses not only on general duties of insolvency administrators in insolvency proceedings, but it also deals with prerequisites necessary to meet in order to be eligible for the function of an insolvency administrator. The thesis presents various types of insolvency administrators, the appointment procedure and changes to the appointment of an insolvency administrator, the possibility to recall, expel a...

  11. Influence of marital status on testosterone levels-A ten year follow-up of 1113 men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmboe, Stine A; Priskorn, Lærke; Jørgensen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Based on a large population of 1113 men aged 30-60 at baseline (mean: 44.1 years, standard deviation: 10.5), we investigated whether intra-individual changes in testosterone (T) and related reproductive hormones during a ten year period were dependent of marital status at baseline and follow...... in testosterone was observed. However, independent of age and lifestyle, we observed that men who went from unmarried to married (n=81) during the study period experienced an accelerated age-related decline in testosterone (-6.6nmol/L) whereas men who went from married to unmarried (n=67) experienced...... an attenuated age-related decline (-2.3nmol/L). Men who were either married or unmarried at both time points (n=167, n=798, respectively) had a testosterone decline in between (-3.7nmol/L and -4.6nmol/L, respectively). Changes in T/LH ratio did not differ according to marital status indicating that the lowered...

  12. Testosterone plus low-intensity physical training in late life improves functional performance, skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis, and mitochondrial quality control in male mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Guo

    Full Text Available Testosterone supplementation increases muscle mass in older men but has not been shown to consistently improve physical function and activity. It has been hypothesized that physical exercise is required to induce the adaptations necessary for translation of testosterone-induced muscle mass gain into functional improvements. However, the effects of testosterone plus low intensity physical exercise training (T/PT on functional performance and bioenergetics are unknown. In this pilot study, we tested the hypothesis that combined administration of T/PT would improve functional performance and bioenergetics in male mice late in life more than low-intensity physical training alone. 28-month old male mice were randomized to receive T/PT or vehicle plus physical training (V/PT for 2 months. Compare to V/PT control, administration of T/PT was associated with improvements in muscle mass, grip strength, spontaneous physical movements, and respiratory activity. These changes were correlated with increased mitochondrial DNA copy number and expression of markers for mitochondrial biogenesis. Mice receiving T/PT also displayed increased expression of key elements for mitochondrial quality control, including markers for mitochondrial fission-and-fusion and mitophagy. Concurrently, mice receiving T/PT also displayed increased expression of markers for reduced tissue oxidative damage and improved muscle quality.Testosterone administered with low-intensity physical training improves grip strength, spontaneous movements, and respiratory activity. These functional improvements were associated with increased muscle mitochondrial biogenesis and improved mitochondrial quality control.

  13. Priority-based assessment of food additives database of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.

    OpenAIRE

    Benz, R D; Irausquin, H

    1991-01-01

    The priority-based assessment of food additives (PAFA) is a database maintained by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. PAFA contains extensive administrative, chemical, and toxicological information on 1685 regulated direct food additives. The database also has limited administrative and chemical information on an additional 1236 direct additives. The total 2921 substances represent everything added to food in the United States. PAFA conta...

  14. Shaped and Balanced by Hormones : cortisol, testosterone and the psychoneuroendocrinology of human socio-emotional behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, E.R.

    2015-01-01

    The steroid hormones testosterone and cortisol can be considered hormones for environmental challenges; they are involved in adaptive neural and behavioral responses towards emotional stimuli. A key challenge of human psychoneuroendocrinology is to unravel the neural mechanisms by which testosterone

  15. Strength training and testosterone treatment have opposing effects on migration inhibitor factor levels in ageing men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, D.; Christensen, L. L.; Kvorning, T.

    2013-01-01

    Strength Training and Testosterone Treatment Have Opposing Effects on Migration Inhibitor Factor Levels in Ageing Men......Strength Training and Testosterone Treatment Have Opposing Effects on Migration Inhibitor Factor Levels in Ageing Men...

  16. Testosterone Stimulates Duox1 Activity through GPRC6A in Skin Keratinocytes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eunbi; Choi, Hyun; Kim, Borim; Kim, Minsun; Park, Kkot-Nara; Bae, Il-Hong; Sung, Young Kwan; Lee, Tae Ryong; Shin, Dong Wook; Bae, Yun Soo

    2014-01-01

    Testosterone is an endocrine hormone with functions in reproductive organs, anabolic events, and skin homeostasis. We report here that GPRC6A serves as a sensor and mediator of the rapid action of testosterone in epidermal keratinocytes. The silencing of GPRC6A inhibited testosterone-induced intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) mobilization and H2O2 generation. These results indicated that a testosterone-GPRC6A complex is required for activation of Gq protein, IP3 generation, and [Ca2+]i mobilization, leading to Duox1 activation. H2O2 generation by testosterone stimulated the apoptosis of keratinocytes through the activation of caspase-3. The application of testosterone into three-dimensional skin equivalents increased the apoptosis of keratinocytes between the granular and stratified corneum layers. These results support an understanding of the molecular mechanism of testosterone-dependent apoptosis in which testosterone stimulates H2O2 generation through the activation of Duox1. PMID:25164816

  17. Phthalate-Induced Pathology in the Foetal Testis Involves More Than Decreased Testosterone Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foetal exposure to phthalates is known to adversely impact male reproductive development and function. Developmental anomalies of reproductive tract have been attributed to impaired testosterone synthesis. However, species differences in the ability to produce testosterone have...

  18. Testosterone biotransformation by the isolated perfused canine pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-del Castillo, C.; Diaz-Sanchez, V.; Varela-Fascinetto, G.; Altamirano, A.; Odor-Morales, A.; Lopez-Medrano, R.M.; Robles-Diaz, G. (Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Mexico City (Mexico))

    1991-01-01

    There is strong evidence indicating that the pancreas is under the influence of sex steroid hormones, and that it may even participate in their biosynthesis and metabolism. In the present study, (3H)testosterone was perfused into the isolated canine pancreas, and measured in the effluent with several of its metabolites (5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone, androstenedione, and estradiol). Results show that testosterone is readily transformed by the canine pancreas. The main product found in the effluent is androstenedione. The testis and spleen were also perfused with (3H)testosterone and used as controls. In both cases, this hormone appeared mostly unchanged in the effluent as compared to the pancreatic perfusion (p less than 0.0001). From our data, we conclude that the canine pancreas has the capacity to transform sex steroid hormones, and could be considered an extragonadal site of sex steroid biosynthesis.

  19. Lipid-based formulations for oral administration of poorly water-soluble drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Holm, René; Müllertz, Anette

    2013-01-01

    /dissolution step, which is a potential rate limiting factor for oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs. Lipids not only vary in structures and physiochemical properties, but also in their digestibility and absorption pathway; therefore selection of lipid excipients and dosage form has a pronounced effect...... on the biopharmaceutical aspects of drug absorption and distribution both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the different lipid-based dosage forms from a biopharmaceutical point of view and to describe effects of lipid dosage forms and lipid excipients on drug solubility, absorption...

  20. Testosterone Induces Molecular Changes in Dopamine Signaling Pathway Molecules in the Adolescent Male Rat Nigrostriatal Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Purves-Tyson, Tertia D.; Owens, Samantha J.; Double, Kay L.; Desai, Reena; Handelsman, David J.; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent males have an increased risk of developing schizophrenia, implicating testosterone in the precipitation of dopamine-related psychopathology. Evidence from adult rodent brain indicates that testosterone can modulate nigrostriatal dopamine. However, studies are required to understand the role testosterone plays in maturation of dopamine pathways during adolescence and to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) by which testosterone exerts its effects. We hypothesized that molecular indi...

  1. Testosterone and nonverbal intelligence in right-handed men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, U

    1990-10-01

    The relationship between serum testosterone level and nonverbal intelligence was studied in right-handed young adults. Hand preference was assessed by the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory. Serum testosterone level was determined using tritium-marked-radioimmunoassay. Only in men, nonverbal intelligence (Cattell's Culture Fair Intelligence Test) was found to be significantly and directly related to serum testosterone levels. It was concluded that the serum testosterone in young adults is associated with nonverbal intelligence exhibiting fundamental differences between men and women.

  2. Association between plasma testosterone and work-related neck and shoulder disorders among female workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaergaard, A; Hansen, Åse Marie; Rasmussen, K

    2000-01-01

    The aims were to study the association between anabolic hormone testosterone in plasma and the presence of musculoskeletal disorders among female workers and to study the association between changes in testosterone and changes in musculoskeletal complaints.......The aims were to study the association between anabolic hormone testosterone in plasma and the presence of musculoskeletal disorders among female workers and to study the association between changes in testosterone and changes in musculoskeletal complaints....

  3. The effect of baseline testosterone on the efficacy of degarelix and leuprolide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damber, Jan-Erik; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Iversen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of baseline testosterone on testosterone control and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) suppression using data from a phase III trial (CS21) comparing degarelix and leuprolide in prostate cancer.......To investigate the effects of baseline testosterone on testosterone control and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) suppression using data from a phase III trial (CS21) comparing degarelix and leuprolide in prostate cancer....

  4. Designing and Developing Web-Based Administrative Tools for Program Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutensohn, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The task assigned for this internship was to develop a new tool for tracking projects, their subsystems, the leads, backups, and other employees assigned to them, as well as all the relevant information related to the employee (WBS (time charge) codes, time distribution, certifications, and assignments). Currently, this data is tracked manually using a number of different spreadsheets and other tools simultaneously by a number of different people; some of these documents are then merged into one large document. This often leads to inconsistencies and loss in data due to human error. By simplifying the process of tracking this data and aggregating it into a single tool, it is possible to significantly decrease the potential for human error and time spent collecting and checking this information. II. Objective The main objective of this internship is to develop a web-based tool using Ruby on Rails to serve as a method of easily tracking projects, subsystems, and points of contact, along with employees, their assignments, time distribution, certifications, and contact information. Additionally, this tool must be capable of generating a number of different reports based on the data collected. It was important that this tool deliver all of this information using a readable and intuitive interface.

  5. Testosterone and bioavailable testosterone help to distinguish between mild Cushing's syndrome and polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pall, M E; Lao, M C; Patel, S S; Lee, M L; Ghods, D E; Chandler, D W; Friedman, T C

    2008-11-01

    Women with Cushing's syndrome (CS) and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) may present with similar symptoms. Subjects with mild CS lack clinical stigmata of classical CS and often have normal laboratory tests measuring hypercortisolism. Thus, distinguishing mild CS from PCOS may be difficult. We hypothesized that either total testosterone (TT) or bioavailable testosterone (BT) levels or the calculation of the free androgen index (FAI) would be low in patients with mild CS and elevated in patients with PCOS, and could help differentiate the two conditions. TT, BT, and FAI were measured in a group of 20 patients of reproductive age with mild CS and 20 PCOS patients matched for age and BMI. We used receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves to assess the sensitivity and specificity of these measurements for the diagnosis of CS. TT (pBT (p=0.02), and FAI (p=0.003) were significantly elevated in PCOS patients compared to mild CS patients. Sex hormone-binding globulin was similar in both groups. The optimal cut-point for TT was 1.39 nmol/L, yielding a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 70%. The cut-point for BT was 0.24 nmol/L, resulting in a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 80%. The cut-point for FAI was 5.7, with a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 60%. We conclude that TT levels may be useful to discriminate between mild CS and PCOS. In patients with signs and symptoms consistent with CS and PCOS, a TT level of <1.39 nmol/L warrants a workup for CS.

  6. Testosterone alters iron metabolism and stimulates red blood cell production independently of dihydrotestosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beggs, Luke A; Yarrow, Joshua F; Conover, Christine F; Meuleman, John R; Beck, Darren T; Morrow, Matthew; Zou, Baiming; Shuster, Jonathan J; Borst, Stephen E

    2014-09-01

    Testosterone (T) stimulates erythropoiesis and regulates iron homeostasis. However, it remains unknown whether the (type II) 5α-reduction of T to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) mediates these androgenic effects, as it does in some other tissues. Our purpose was to determine whether inhibition of type II 5α-reductase (via finasteride) alters red blood cell (RBC) production and serum markers of iron homeostasis subsequent to testosterone-enanthate (TE) administration in older hypogonadal men. Sixty men aged ≥60 yr with serum T <300 ng/dl or bioavailable T <70 ng/dl received treatment with TE (125 mg/wk) vs. vehicle paired with finasteride (5 mg/day) vs. placebo using a 2 × 2 factorial design. Over the course of 12 mo, TE increased RBC count 9%, hematocrit 4%, and hemoglobin 8% while suppressing serum hepcidin 57% (P < 0.001 for all measurements). Most of the aforementioned changes occurred in the first 3 mo of treatment, and finasteride coadministration did not significantly alter any of these effects. TE also reduced serum ferritin 32% (P = 0.002) within 3 mo of treatment initiation without altering iron, transferrin, or transferrin saturation. We conclude that TE stimulates erythropoiesis and alters iron homeostasis independently of the type II 5α-reductase enzyme. These results demonstrate that elevated DHT is not required for androgen-mediated erythropoiesis or for alterations in iron homeostasis that would appear to support iron incorporation into RBCs.

  7. Changes of plasma concentrations of insulin-like peptide 3 and testosterone, and their association with scrotal circumference during pubertal development in male goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannan, M A; Kawate, N; Fukami, Y; Weerakoon, W W P N; Büllesbach, E E; Inaba, T; Tamada, H

    2017-04-01

    Insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) has been used as a testis-specific biomarker for puberty in several species, but the secretory profile of INSL3 during pubertal development in small ruminants is unknown. Here we sought to determine the age-related changes in the plasma concentrations of INSL3 and testosterone and their association with scrotal circumference during pubertal development in five male Shiba goats. Blood samples and scrotal circumference measurement were taken every 2 weeks from week 10 to week 52 of each goat's lifespan. Based on the changes in scrotal circumference, data were grouped into early pubertal (10-22 weeks), late pubertal (22-34 weeks) and post-pubertal (34-52 weeks) categories. The plasma concentrations of testosterone and luteinizing hormone (LH) were measured by enzyme-immunoassays (EIAs), and we used a time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA) to measure plasma INSL3. The biweekly sampling showed that the plasma INSL3 secretions maintained a moderate increase during and after puberty, whereas the plasma testosterone secretions fluctuated over the same period. The comparison of the three age categories revealed a significant increase (p testosterone concentrations between the early and late pubertal periods, but a significant increase (p testosterone (0.162; p testosterone secretions were fluctuated. The scrotal circumference was more highly correlated with the INSL3 concentrations than with testosterone, implying that INSL3 is superior as a biomarker of testicular total Leydig cell volume. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Growth hormone and testosterone: anabolic effects on muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Randall J

    2011-01-01

    The loss of skeletal muscle mass that occurs with aging, chronic disease or acute injury is clinically important in the health of humans. The mechanisms relating to the synthesis and breakdown of skeletal muscle are now being intensely investigated. Current studies and possible mechanisms for skeletal muscle protein synthesis and degradation will be reviewed with a specific focus on growth hormone and testosterone. Investigation of the mechanisms of action of growth hormone and testosterone in skeletal muscle will likely lead to new therapies to prevent skeletal muscle loss and new awareness of the importance of skeletal muscle in health and disease. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.